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The meaning of career change in relation to family roles Chusid, Hanna S. 1987

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THE MEANING OF CAREER  CHANGE IN RELATION TO FAMILY by HANNA S. CHUSID  B.S., S o u t h e r n I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y , 1976 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1977  A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF "  EDUCATION  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department  We  of C o u n s e l l i n g  accept'this to  Psychology)  t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g  the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January  ©  1987  Hanna S. C h u s i d ,  1987  ROLES  In  presenting  degree  at  this  the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  British Columbia, I agree  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  of  department publication  this or of  thesis for by  his  or  her  representatives.  requirements that the  for  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without  permission.  Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6(3/81)  the  head of copying  my or  my written  ABSTRACT An  intensive  integrating subject from an  data  case  from  study  the  application  informal  network of  Ten  Q-sorted  46  items  personalities  drawn  Vocation. a  Q-sort  results  correlation  or  indications suggested subject  of  dramas.  f o r each  the  the v o c a t i o n a l thesis  family  vocational  to  portraits  that  developed principal  to  identify  role  enactments findings  as and  s u b j e c t to s t i m u l a t e qualitative  pointing  role  previous  data  t o t h e meaning  research  enactments  arena.  from  that  were of  suggests  family-of-origin  T h i s study a l s o p r o v i d e s  t h e phenomenon of  vocational  contexts.  and  to a  empirical  to each  Self,  subject.  support  displace  The  Q u a n t i t a t i v e and  to develop  change  and  of  identified  were  analyzed  themes  through  Subjects  Figures  submitted  were  change  (1966) t y p o l o g y  subject  then  of  elaboration.  individuals  the  f o r each  Results  lived-out  women).  Role  and  as d i v e r s e  enactment: F a m i l y ,  maintenance  Results  for  Salient  matrix,  4  Holland's  themes were p r e s e n t e d  synthesized career  of Q - t e c h n i q u e  were s e l e c t e d  men,  from  f o r 19 t o 23  components a n a l y s i s .  onto  (6  t h r e e domains of d r a m a t i c  shifts  utilized,  subjects, identified  referrals,  e x a m p l e s of c a r e e r c h a n g e r s  into  was  i n t e r v i e w s , t o examine t h e meaning of c a r e e r  a family perspective.  from  design  arenas  Additionally,  role  displacement  occurs across while  support  the  from  differing  meaning  of  career appears  change as r e f l e c t e d idiosyncratic,  family-of-origin define change  the  individual's regularity  the s h i f t s  to vocational  subject's  itself.  i n p a t t e r n s of d r a m a t i c  Thus, life  as  sense  in role  arena of  when v i e w e d  enactment  displacement  appear  to  virtually  t h e meaning of t h e in  the  context  career of  i t i s l i v e d out, there appears  i n t h e meaning of c a r e e r  from  the t o be  change.  Larry Cochran, Ph.D. Research Supervisor  i v  TABLE OF CONTENTS  L I S T OF TABLES CHAPTER I :  viii  INTRODUCTION  1  DEFINITION OF TERMS CHAPTER I I :  5  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Trait  C o r r e l a t i o n s and T y p o l o g i e s  Decision  Criteria  Meaning of C a r e e r Family  Change  17  Change  17  Perspective  23  Displacement  24  S i n g l e Case S t u d i e s CHAPTER I I I :  26  METHODOLOGY  31  Overview of Procedures  32  Case S u b j e c t s  35  Q-Technique  39  ANALYSIS OF PROTOCOLS Analysis Meaning  46  of Q-sorts  46  Interview  50  Case P o r t r a i t s Case P o r t r a i t CHAPTER I V :  11 14  Frequency of Career  Role  7  54 Reviews  56  QUANTITATIVE RESULTS  59  C o r r e l a t i o n s Among Q - S o r t s Roles Principal  Components  According to 59 64  V  CHAPTER V:  QUALITATIVE RESULTS:  CASE STUDIES  CASE STUDY A Background Family Experience Vocation 1 Vocation 2 Vocational Transition  ....  65 68 68 68 70 71 72  CASE STUDY B Background Family Experience Vocation 1 Vocation 2 Vocational Transition  74 74 75 77 78 80  CASE STUDY C Background Family Experience Vocation 1 Vocation 2 Vocational Transition  82 82 83 86 87 89  CASE STUDY D Background Family Experience Vocation 1 Vocation 2 Vocational Transition  91 91 92 94 95 97  CASE STUDY E Background Family Experience Vocation 1 Vocation 2 Vocational Transition  99 99 100 101 102 104  CASE STUDY F Background Family Experience Vocation 1 Vocation 2 Vocational Transition  106 106 106 109 110 111  CASE STUDY G , Background Family Experience Vocation 1 Vocation 2 Vocational Transition  115 115 115 117 119 122  vi  CHAPTER V I :  CASE STUDY H Background Family Experience Vocation 1 Vocation 2 Vocational Transition  124 124 125 127 129 130  CASE STUDY J Background Family Experience Vocation 1 Vocation 2 Vocational Transition  132 132 132 135 136 139  CASE STUDY K Background Family Experience Vocation 1 Vocation 2 Vocational Transition  142 142 143 145 146 148  Subject Self-Review A Self-Review B Self-Review C Self-Review D Self-Review E Self-Review F Self-Review G Self-Review H Self-Review J Self-Review K Self-Review  150 150 151 151 152 152 152 153 154 154 154  I n d e p e n d e n t Case R e v i e w s A B C D E F G H J K  155 155 155 155 156 157 158 159 159 159 160  DISCUSSION Theoretical  161 Implications  Implications for Counselling Practice: B l u r r i n g o f V o c a t i o n a l and F a m i l y Counselling Practice  161  173  vii  Delimitations  and L i m i t a t i o n s  of the  Study Future Research  177 Implications  Conclusion REFERENCES APPENDIX A.  APPENDIX  B.  APPENDIX C.  178 181 185  CORRESPONDENCES OF ±.30 BETWEEN CO-WORKERS AND SELF-REFERRANT ROLES, IDEAL VOCATIONAL ROLES, AND/OR FAMILY FIGURE ROLES ±.30 CORRESPONDENCES OF SELF-AS-VOCATIONAL ROLES (1 AND 2) TO OTHER VARIANTS OF SELF AND VOCATIONAL IDEALS FOR 10 CASE SUBJECTS ±.30 CORRESPONDENCES OF SELF-AS-VOCATIONAL ROLES (1 AND 2) TO ROLE FIGURES FROM EARLY FAMILY (INCLUDING SELF-REFERRANT ROLES) FOR 10 CASE SUBJECTS  193  198  200  viii  L I S T OF  TABLE  1.  TABLE 2.  TABLE 3.  TABLES  TRAITS USED IN THE Q-SORT OF THE STUDY  44  CASE A: CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS SALIENT ROLE FIGURES # 1-10  47  FOR  FIGURES ASSOCIATED WITH UNROTATED F I R S T COMPONENT AT ±.50 LEVEL OR GREATER, CASE C  .  49  1  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  This  study  perspective, analytical the  using  interactions.  out.  The  productively  by  philosophers (Harre  and  where f a m i l y  1973;  r e f e r s to  the  has  and  1986).  here  out  and  life  to  career  as  it  is  applied  Simmons,  1978),  psychologists  In p a r t i c u l a r , represent  g r o u p of  as  social  been  1979), and  primary  lived  individual's  h i s or her  (Harre,  used  are  an  encompasses  experience  (McCall  family  "drama" a s  model  model  Cochran,  model was  an  of  prototypes arena.  proposition  that  f a m i l y drama  adult  the  McGregor's study  the  "family"  the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  metaphor  family  was  f o r examining c a r e e r .  It  f a m i l y dramas p r o v i d e  vocational  examined  with  evocative  assumed t h a t  source  the  of  a  childhood.  used here as  the  web  of  that  the  dramaturgical  Consistent  was  the  science  Secord,  values  words,  sociologists  of  dramaturgical  early  other  from  concept  individual's  i s viewed w i t h i n  lived  the  symbolic  of an In  change  This dramaturgical  and  dynamic p a t t e r n s  career  throughout  framework.  perceptions  change  examined  for  dramatic  (1983),  the  individual  enactments  W h i l e McGregor p r o v i d e d  i n d i v i d u a l s appear i n the  v o c a t i o n a l arena,  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  individual  has  this  shifted  finding  in  support  to re-enact the  with  a  the  for  the  aspects  of  present  study  in instances  where  vocational  arenas.  2  The c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n e x p l o r e d i n t h i s study i s : what i s the meaning of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a r e e r change i n terms family roles?  The importance  is  through  suggested  change (see Chapter is  implicitly  of  of t h i s as a r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n  a review of t h e l i t e r a t u r e on c a r e e r  I I ) . Much of the r e s e a r c h i n t h i s  concerned  with  the  area  r e l a t i o n s h i p of c a r e e r  change t o the meaning s t r u c t u r e s of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  life.  More than one study d i r e c t l y s u g g e s t s t h a t c a r e e r change and shifts  in  tapestry;  meaning  yet  structure  until  now,  are  there  threads has  of  been  the no  same direct  e x a m i n a t i o n of c a r e e r change i n r e l a t i o n t o the i n d i v i d u a l ' s meaning s t r u c t u r e s . within  the  In p r o v i d i n g a p i c t u r e of c a r e e r change  context  of  the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e ,  the p r e s e n t  e n q u i r y opens up a w e a l t h of m a t e r i a l f o r f u r t h e r  study.  Secondly, g i v e n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s appear t o aspects  of  their  family  drama  in  the  v o c a t i o n a l arena  (McGregor, 1983), what does a  shift  indicate  s t r u c t u r e of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  life,  about  i n terms  literature  the of  review  meaning the  in  re-enact  prototypical  i n Chapter  vocational  family  arenas  dramas?  II i s structured to highlight  the t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e t h a t u n d e r l i e s t h i s q u e s t i o n and serves body  as of  the  broader  research  undercurrent  of  on  c o n t e x t f o r the s t u d y . career  debate  The  change,  there  that  W i t h i n the exists  an  as t o whether a d u l t c a r e e r changes  r e f l e c t a d i s c o n t i n u i t y of the  meaning  structures  i n the  3  individual's  life,  e x p a n d e d meaning The provides change  or  a  continuity  framework  as  it  discontinuity  of  model  framework  relates  meaning  has encompassed  dramaturgical  a broader  of  to  meaning  the in  in  of  the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e .  inherent  i n t h e d i s c o n t i n u i t y / c o n t i n u i t y o f meaning  study  that  discontinuities structures both in  and  encompass  career  utilizing  polarities debate.  may  reflect  c o n t i n u i t i e s o f meaning, where  examining  scope  of  and  of c a r e e r  model, t h i s  enquiry  into  this both  meaning  multi-leveled.  t h e meaning  the d r a m a t u r g i c a l  the  the  and This  among t h e o r i s t s ,  changes  a r e v i e w e d a s complex  in directly  broaden  to  to the e x i s t i n g d i v i s i o n  suggests  career  continuity  perspective  contrast  study  which to address  issue  an  one.  this  broader  In  seems  the e a r l i e r  applied  within  where  Thus,  c h a n g e , and  study attempts to  the  career  change  phenomenon. Thirdly, depth  and  t h e use of  unity  lacking  in  effect,  employing  common  more  of  idiosyncratic lived-out  enquiry  narrowly family  intensive  perspective  that  delimited  seems t o p r o v i d e  meaning a c r o s s  observation.  Thus,  Furthermore, grounding  rather  In a  multiple apparently  be a t t r i b u t e d t o than  the current  i n d i v i d u a l ' s prototypical family  a  often  investigations.  a s a metaphor  differences  adds  i s otherwise  f i n d i n g s c a n more r e a s o n a b l y  individual  differences. the  the  family  frame and l a n g u a g e t o c l a r i f y  instances  in  to  a  drama  semantic exploration  suggests the  4  contextual  complexity  providing  an  adoption  avenue  of a  career  for  to  integration  exploring  practical  practice.  contributes  change w h i l e  family perspective  have p a r t i c u l a r l y counselling  of  a  towards c a r e e r  usefulness  research  base  supporting  theme of  present  Given career with  the  limits of is  the  of  to the  and  that  individual's The III  and  self, in  study  do  IV)  is  not  on  allow  e s t a b l i s h i n g that f a m i l y and regularity  change when v i e w e d  of  that  V)  a  role  re-enacted  meaning  of  of  f o r an Rather,  role  in  this  inherent  examination this  study  displacement career  the  arenas,  meaning  in this study  does  of  The  (see  was  qualitative intended  each s u b j e c t  and,  be  Chapters among  clarified  level to  by  an  light.  to e s t a b l i s h r e g u l a r i t i e s  subjects.  more d e t a i l e d p o r t r a i t  short,  The  v o c a t i o n a l r o l e s that could  C h a p t e r s I I I and  In  the  multiple  career  intended  practice,  are  phenomenon.  is  was  and  made t o e s t a b l i s h c a u s a l i t y  displacement.  quantitative level  study  arenas.  there  f a m i l y , and  (see  was  change  role  between  d i s c u s s i o n with  study  here  attempt  current  with  to occur  focus  of  increased  indication  drama  vocational  career  mechanisms of  concerned  appear  the  no  an  practice.  i s the  family  across  that  change,  regard  study  and  context present  family c o u n s e l l i n g theory  key  from  the  The  change m i g h t  the  regard,  v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g theory  idiosyncratically  in  this  and  patterns  phenomenon.  In  between  the  the  simultaneously  of  this  provide  v i r t u e of  a the  5  sensitivity illuminate  of  this  aspect  t h e meaning o f  quantitative  the  of  the  r e s e a r c h , t o expand  c a r e e r change s u g g e s t e d  by  or the  results.  DEFINITION OF E x p l a n a t i o n s o f terms l i s t e d usage i n t h i s s t u d y .  here  TERMS refer  to t h e i r  particular  Arena: Refers to the t h r e e d i s t i n c t l i f e c o n t e x t s i n which the subject was or is currently meaningfully a b s o r b e d , and w h i c h were examined i n t h i s s t u d y . For each subject the three life c o n t e x t s , or arenas, e x a m i n e d were: 1) f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n , 2) p a r t i c u l a r employment context viewed by the s u b j e c t as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of V o c a t i o n 1, and 3) p a r t i c u l a r employment context viewed by the s u b j e c t as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of V o c a t i o n 2. E a c h of t h e s e d i s t i n c t l i f e c o n t e x t s may be v i e w e d a s d i f f e r e n t " a r e n a s " of a c t i v i t y and e x p r e s s i o n f o r t h e subject. Domain: R e f e r s t o t h e p o o l of salient figures and/or role identities sampled as objects-of-judgement for Q-sorting. In t h i s s t u d y t h e t h r e e domains sampled were: 1) S e l f : both those roles e n a c t e d by t h e s u b j e c t , s u c h as son and employee, and those which the subject utilizes as self-referents, such as " a c t u a l " or " i d e a l " s e l f ; 2) P r i m a r y O b j e c t s : F a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n f i g u r e s ; 3) S e c o n d a r y O b j e c t s : F i g u r e s from V o c a t i o n a l Arenas 1 and 2. Drama: A complete experience; an individual's lived-out s e n s e b a s e d on a synthesis of the environmental, historical, social, and psychological (perceptual,  6  a t t i t u d i n a l , e m o t i o n a l ) d i m e n s i o n s of a given life context. For example, i n t h i s s t u d y an i n s t a n c e of the "mother-son drama" refers to the subject's lived-out sense of t h e s y n t h e s i s o f t h e h i s t o r y of the interactive pattern between mother and himself-as-son, in the c o n t e x t of t h e t o t a l web of f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a s i n f l u e n c e d and c o l o u r e d by t h e l a r g e r s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c , and p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t of t h e t i m e s , and as p e r c e i v e d , j u d g e d , and attributed w i t h meaning by the s u b j e c t .  Dramaturgical: A model for examining and understanding life u t i l i z i n g t e r m s and c o n c e p t s b o r r o w e d from t h e world of t h e a t r e , as a m e t a p h o r . The key c o n c e p t s of t h i s model ( M c C a l l and Simmons, 1978) a r e c h a r a c t e r , r o l e , and a u d i e n c e . H e r e , " c h a r a c t e r " and "audience" are implicit b a c k g r o u n d phenomena o n l y , and c o n s i d e r a b l e focus i s given to " r o l e . " R o l e i s u n d e r s t o o d as the individual's thematically unified enactment in a g i v e n s o c i a l drama.  Family  and  Family-of-Origin:  Here " f a m i l y " r e f e r s to the primary s o c i a l matrix of the subject f o r most o f h i s or h e r c h i l d h o o d y e a r s , and is not limited exclusively to biological r e l a t i o n s or n u c l e a r f a m i l y . Meaning  Interview: This refers t o a s p e c i f i c p r o c e d u r e i n the r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y of t h i s s t u d y . After thorough analysis of the data o b t a i n e d from the Q - s o r t i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d by e a c h s u b j e c t , the researcher "fed back" these results to each s u b j e c t i n laymen's t e r m s and i n a way that stimulated the subject to explore and e l a b o r a t e on the meaning of t h e f i n d i n g s as he or she v i e w e d them.  Subjects-of-Judgement: This term refers to a l l of t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s and r o l e s t h a t were the f o c u s o f evaluative description in the Q-sorting a c c o m p l i s h e d by e a c h s u b j e c t ; t h e t e r m i n c l u d e s what a r e r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s study as "salient f i g u r e s " from the family and v o c a t i o n a l d o m a i n s , as w e l l as r o l e s f r o m the self-domain.  7  CHAPTER I I  REVIEW OF THE  The aim o f t h i s relevant  to  change. the  chapter  question  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  need  for  understand Much o f  of  s t u d i e s may  of c a r e e r  the  on  change  f o r the i n d i v i d u a l  sufficiently response study  broad  to t h i s is  role  context  gap  career  identity  issues they  theoretical  the  given  held  position  nearly  a l l of  of the c a r e e r  of the change.  to  of  the  In  present  exploring  and  aspects  viewed i n the l a r g e r  f o r the  individual.  types  of  and  career  on  describe  seek s u p p o r t change.  career  studies  which i n d i r e c t l y  which i n d i r e c t l y  on t h e meaning  appeared  behavioural  be  two  on  aspects  o r i e n t a t i o n s to career  Second,  out.  focused  literature,  the  could  to  specific  t h e meaning  approach  change a r e r e v i e w e d : t h o s e  phenomenon and t h o s e  has  in  t h e meaning  an  i n order  c h a n g e r , y e t none  c h a n g e where  change a r e d i s c u s s e d . career  career  as  indicate  a s s o c i a t e d phenomena;  issue  i n the r e s e a r c h  o f t h e meaning First,  change or  with  to c l a r i f y  of c a r e e r  to  in context  for identifying  a concern  intended  understanding and  is  literature  change a s i t i s l i v e d  An u n d e r l y i n g  studies  i s intended  person  transition  these  the  i s t h e meaning  career  be v a l u e d  change.  of what  of c a r e e r  research  aspects  i s t o review  the review  studying  t h e meaning  the  specific these  the  LITERATURE  for a  Thirdly,  8  the  work of  as  this  family  Roe  (1956) and  research  (Baas and  role  displacement  they  provide  assumptions for  of  particular,  the  are  Brown, are  One  of  in  Weiner  to  the  literature.  ( 1 9 7 7 ) , and  Holland's nature  a  individual's  subject's field  studies defined had  identity  of  the  change as  individual,  fields may  be  of  (e.g., i n one  an  Finally, '  change"  "career."  Yet,  regarding  this  number  of  (1977), V a i t e n a s  and  (1983,  thus  instances  a  in  familial  "career  of v o c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y .  career  1983),  discussed.  1984), r e l i e d  classification  to  identify  focusing  on  Typically, where t h e  appear to c o n s i d e r  w h i c h may  the these  subject  vocational  the  remain c o n s t a n t  individual  whose r o l e  category  to role  across  i s that  when  on the  vocational classification  T h i s approach d i d not  vocational teacher  Perosa  vocation,  c h a n g e d p o s i t i o n s from one  another.  a  P e r o s a and  since  paradigm  that  instance,  of G o t t f r e d s o n  a  domain.  consistency For  (1973) o c c u p a t i o n a l  of  concept  little  i n c l u d i n g those  premise  of  two  theoretical  offering  Q-methodology a r e  definitions  be  detail,  the  vocational  a  concerning  (McGregor,  f o r the  assume a p a r t i c u l a r  appeared  studies,  studies  d i s p l a c e d o n t o the and  for  w e l l as  Next,  1983)  in greater  support  support  study  phenomena.  McGregor,  as  discussed  rationale for u t i l i z i n g  discussed  these  Operational  concept  1973;  study,  provides  necessarily  (1982) i s t h e n  in examining career  this  s i n g l e case  there  t o the  empirical  research.  roles  points  perspective  studies  Bratcher  in  of the  9  field  of  public  re-classified identity staff  education  when he  to teaching  trainer On  in  or she  in  the  school  transfers  i n the b u s i n e s s  these  system,  skills  world,  and  perhaps  and role as  a  banking).  the  other  end  of  the  range  of  conceptual  frameworks, L o u i s  (1980) d e f i n e d c a r e e r as  "an  of  role  experiences  T h i s view  assumes  the  individual's  consistently  across  life  related  arenas,  across  fields  Krause  The  both  one  rather  as  than  reflected and  here  is  referring  (1980)  leaving  pervasive  nine-to-five limited  path"  and be  various  single career along  career no  Similarly,  o f c a r e e r change  Miller-Tiedeman the  that v i r t u a l l y  a  of  "life  their  (1985)  develop  put  forth  holistic  holds  synonymous.  to  In  one  " c a r e e r c h a n g e " as  unique  viewed  activities.  occupations.  expressions  their  Krause  orientation,  study  as  vein,  life  of c a r e e r r e f l e c t s  orientation  framework t h e r e can individuals'  Louis,  more e x t r e m e v i e w t h a n  Their definition  "life  his  "upper-stratum"  but  of  a  related  occupational hierarchy."  to  a  phenomenological  i n the  a  or  of c a r e e r l o s e s i t s  like  work Tiedeman and  Louis.  In  that,  theoretical similar  o u t s i d e t h e work c o n t e x t ,  "the concept  goes downward  a s e t of  Neopolitan people  inside  maintained  implication  "career"  is  time."  of v o c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y .  (1971)  meaning a s  career  over  accumulation  the  and  notion  Within  such.  by  this  Rather,  purpose c o n s t i t u t e path."  a  10  Thus, research of  "career"  and  activity,  upon  in  literature.  work  establishing  developmental  in  purposes  arena,  or  role identities life  path.  This  appears throughout  meaningful  career  of  comparisons  to  the  counselling,  the  i n the research  nature of the research  phenomenon o f a d u l t  present  fields and  the  issue  being  career  review,  examined.  change a n d ,  classification 1971;  of  (Hiestand,  Thomas  e t a l , 1976; G o t t f r e d s o n ,  Thomas,  idiographic earlier  broad  The  between  smaller  1983,  larger  thrust  point  personality,  of the  instances,  phenomena Clopton,  or  1972;  1977; V a i t e n a s a n d W e i n e r , Howard,  a n d M i l l e r , 1981;  1984).  orientation.  to  some  1971;  1981; H i l l  i n the l i t e r a t u r e adopted a Anne  t h e o r i s t s and r e s e a r c h e r s  psychology  of  adult  two  1977; S n y d e r , Hammer a n d  1980; A r m s t r o n g ,  P e r o s a and P e r o s a ,  in  associated  Sheppard,  Weiner and V a i t e n a s ,  The  of  were i d e n t i f i e d i n t e r m s o f t h e  traits,  1978;  the  between  i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e was an i n d i r e c t d e s c r i p t i o n  involved  the  counselling.  orientations  1977;  and  applications  guidance,  For  defined  l i m i t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the purposes  practical  vocational  goals  inconsistency  Consequently,  is fairly  thrust  personal  the  fundamental conceptual  studies  variously  t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e as r e f e r r i n g t o f i e l d s  vocational  acted  has been  Roe  more  (1956) was one o f t h e  i n the area of  vocational  out the importance of the r e l a t i o n s h i p as  influenced  by  family,  and  11  occupational  choice.  those  that  studies  within  examined  the t o t a l i t y  studies  implicitly  as  an e x p r e s s i o n  et  a l , 1978; Thomas,  Thomas  Trait  1980;  and  in  which  personality of  traits,  "career  her  address career,  1977 and  suggested  engaged  in  career  "incongruity." assumption  in  Vaitenas they  by  that  (1977;  1977)  than  1978; 1980;  with  may  study  examined  that  i n d i v i d u a l s who  However,  i n t o account, the be  individuals  was  an  i n d i v i d u a l s who do  stable"  are c h a r a c t e r i z e d  there  so.  In  represent  by  implicit express the actuality,  expressed  do change  of  changers"  "incongruity."  i n d i v i d u a l s who may  "career  taken  two  testing,  "vocationally  that  in fact,  which  measures  standardized  actually  counselling  conducted  multiple  through  it  studies  population  al,  1983).  personality  these  careers,  et  (Robbins  1980; N e o p o l i t a n ,  compared  obtained  t o change c a r e e r s ,  change  meaning,  Typologies  desire  to  change,  1978; L a w r e n c e ,  Additionally, this  career  and hence c a r e e r  of personal  when t h e sample s e l e c t i o n method was findings  and  to  These  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t  characterized  given  structure.  1979; L e v i n s o n  changers,"  individuals.  life  P e r o s a and P e r s o s a ,  Weiner studies  are  of h i s or  C o r r e l a t i o n s and  was  the i n d i v i d u a l person  or r e f l e c t i o n  and Robbins,  Osherson,  However, h e r e a t t e n t i o n  a  careers.  the i n t e n t different  12  This Sheppard  latter  (1971) as w e l l .  c a n d i d a t e " drew on thoughts actual  problem  about  a  career  suggested  that  achievement and  lower  and  difference endurance  yet  measures  in  their  three groups:  those  those  had  adult  who  had  in  attempted  to  developmental  of  present  theory  through  complexity  of t h e d e s i g n  in this  of  not  found  on  typically  statistically  researchers measures  quantitative  of  compared identity  and  the  those  careers  research  achievement  in  the  status  noted and  and as  Perosa  and with  design  that  data.  The  richness area  comparisons.  groups  of  but  theory  qualitative  trait  no and  a r e t u r n to school,  in studies in this  three  of  i n d i v i d u a l s composed  regard afforded a  derived  on  discrepancy,  occupations.  a  results  higher  i n t e g r a t e c a r e e r development  both  only  134  The  (1984) f o u n d  changed c a r e e r s ,  utilized  results  candidates"  achievement,  a d e s i r e t o change  their  interviews,  conception  Perosa  autonomy,  c a r e e r s through  expressed  persisted  of  and  to  "non-candidates."  Sheppard's  sample  of changing  who  Perosa  with  than  subjects'  rate  aspiration-achievement  candidates, Perosa  on  210  by  career  relationship  variables.  candidates"  on a u t o n o m y - o n - t h e - j o b ,  career-change  that  of  study  "second  "second-career  three  "second-career  Consistent  process  In h i s a n a l y s i s  using  values  assumption:  between  i n the  of a  change have a c l e a r  career behaviour.  "non-candidates"  inherent  His d e f i n i t i o n  similar  Sheppard d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and  was  above  based The on  vocational  13  maturity.  A d d i t i o n a l l y , they  personality  traits  s u c h as  compared m e a s u r e s  needs  endurance, nurturance,  order,  structured  were  subjects' current that  interviews early identity  rating.  individuals  scored  in  significant  achievement those  who  been  identity-achieved  This in  had  finding  adult  life  changes  non-changers studies. "types"  differences general  (1976) was  or  Rather, of  appropriate  youths  on  not  on  T h e r e was,  however,  between  identity  indicated that  more l i k e l y  than the  identity  group  groups  but  evidence  were n o t  to  other  formation  trait-based  not  based  "persisters" through  career  is  in motivation  and  that  among a g r o u p to the  pilot  typology  on as  a in  interviews  changers  conclusion,  orientations  that  The  her  observation  other  correlation  as  or  have  groups. on-going  stages.  Thomas's career  the  self-esteem).  changed c a r e e r s  suggested  his  changed c a r e e r s '  affiliation,  self-concept.  Finally,  a means t o e s t a b l i s h  in a d d i t i o n to  than  and  positive  and  as  'already  higher  ( i n t e r m s of  affiliation.  used  several  achievement,  f i n d i n g s i n c l u d e d the  the  achievement  self-concept  and  status  major  significantly  identity  a  The  f o r autonomy,  on  were  of  nature  comparison the  previously  with  ten  identified,  behavioural  there  is  the  men,,  cited four  The  individual  drop-outs,"  study.  with  reflecting  strategy.  variety in  "corporate of  of m i d - l i f e  was  14  Decision  Criteria In  reasons in  this  group  studies,  for changing careers,  influencing  dichotomy assumed  career  appeared or  to  intrinsic  addressed  the  Hiestand frequently were  These  studies  of  like  and  first  decision  (1981)  defined  s t u d y as  an  those  traits,  influence  criteria career The  respect  to  "success  i n c r e a t i n g a new  typology  of  career  typology  of  between  intrinsic  behaviour. changers, personal  career  and  identified  who  responded  four both  that  the  as  a  most  because change. intrinsic  Like  Hiestand, return  to  decision-making  was  viewed  along  developed a  influences  on  motivations external  with  situation."  postulating  to  are  both  career  formed  later  extrinsic  He  goals.  was  changers,  those  career  subjects'  interviewing,  (1980)  which  criteria  possibly  of  change  through  Thomas  and  factors.  approach, determined  dimensions.  underlying  decision  t o examine a d u l t  changers  factors  studies  (1972)  in t h i s area,  adult.  or  factors.  Clopton  acknowledged the  extrinsic  An  factors,  extrinsic  researchers  among the  full-time  between  that,  (1971)  cited  they  Armstrong  exist  central  behaviour.  motivational  impact  decision c r i t e r i a ,  were seen as  change  concluded  represent  and  of  or  these yet  A two  another  relationship career  change  "types"  of  pressures  and  15  A  more  suggested  that  intrinsic the  methodologically career  factors,  role.  The r e s e a r c h e r s  teaching/research data  obtained  professors  had  other  hand,  Howard, and Hammer, were  teaching/research  did  with not  no  value  t o the perception  of  leaving  administrators.  who  intended  that  t o become, o f power a n d  role.  intention power  Analyses  suggested  i n the a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s  professors  The  or  of  and an a l t e r n a t e  were a t t r a c t e d by t h e p e r c e p t i o n  a u t h o r i t y vested  roles.  career  o f p r o f e s s o r s who  become,  formal  attracted  and o f t h e p e r c e p t i o n  (Snyder,  r o l e s t o become  study  a f u n c t i o n both of  from s c a l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  who  administrators  be  one's p r e s e n t  1978) s t u d i e d t h e m o t i v a t i o n  of  may  such as v a l u e s ,  p o t e n t i a l s of both  career  change  sophisticated  of  On t h e leaving  h i g h l y ; they  autonomy  in  their  two g r o u p s were n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  were  present  along  other  dimensions. The alternate  influence career  Miller  (1981).  survey  data,  influencing included  individuals'  role  was  Drawing  from  they  career  further an  identified change.  perceptions  responsibility, professional  of  of  recognition,  development.  perceptions examined  analysis  of  by H i l l  an and  Likert-scale  "career-oriented"  Summarized,  these  opportunity  for  promotion  of  factors factors increased  potential,  and  16  In (1983)  a  more r e c e n t  examined  themselves"  subjects'  their  change  perception  in  t e r m s of  i s s u e s were c o n c e i v e d change c a r e e r s . those of  who  "persisters" changing sought the  present of this  a  discussed  in  Of  who  of  of  three  a  career  risk"  later  of of  observed  that  risks  134,  those  studies  change.  that  they  there  were  in  their  t o have  to  to  "no  hope of  explore  the  understand  the  changers. this  or of  s e c o n d major p a r t  grieving  of  63%  if  remained  interviews  section  of  in process)  to themselves  The  midst but  sample of  i f they  career  groups,  changed c a r e e r s ,  c h a n g e d and  position."  experience a  had  to  t o change  p e r s i s t e r s i n d i c a t e d that  model  of  These  were i n t h e  psychological  a total  structured  career  frames.  researchers  the  had  to  to  influencing decisions  t h o s e who  the  Perosa  viability  time  P e r s i s t e r s a l s o tended  with other  meaning of  and  t h a n t h o s e who  better  of  psychological  relation  comparison  to themselves  utilized  usefulness  together  54%  occupation.  study  factors  psychological  risks  finding  the  options  to assess  (those  while  serious  realistic  careers,  greater  "serious  remained,  of  a  t o change c a r e e r s .  foresaw  not  tended  changers  in  and  "threat  those,who e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e  first  as  of  risk)  changed c a r e e r s ,  c h a n g i n g , and in  as  B a s e d on  had  persisted  of  study, Perosa  perception  (psychological  c h a n g e , and career  two-part  This  literature  more d i r e c t l y  will  be  review,  address  the  17  Frequency  of C a r e e r  Change  Gottfredson's frequency  of change  clearest  examples  classification career  of  for  i n b o t h of  categorical  with  age.  Meaning of C a r e e r  otherwise  radical 1977;  1965  and  in the  Holland's years  or  and  Perosa,  expansion  of 1979;  Perosa  U.S.  minor  Bureau  compared,  only  the  categorical  structure.  of  using  Of  adults  about  10-14%  stability  were career  Levinson  career  increased  found.  f o r the  represents  1979;  Perosa,  Lawrence, 1983).  represents  contrasting  al,  The  a  1978; 1980;  two  position a  (Thomas,  Osherson,  change  Thomas,  One  individual  The  et  that  meaning,  change  1984).  (Robbins  assumed  personal  e t a l , 1978;  meaning  and  implicitly  expresses  significant  1977;  that  the  categorical  positions  Levinson,  Robbins,  of  occupational  the  were  sampled,  s t u d i e s which  reflects  that  suggested  of  from  1970  d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n meaning  Perosa  one  and  Change  distinct  suggested  is  Holland's  extent  drawn  shifts;  Among t h o s e change  the  data  titles  made  career  population  stability  s y s t e m t o d i s t i n g u i s h between m a j o r and  Census r e c o r d s  employed  a  studies using  Essentially,  occupational  (1977) of c a r e e r  within  c h a n g e s b a s e d upon  shift.  1980;  study  1980;  position continual Thomas  and  Neopolitan,  i s s u e here  is  the  18  motivation, The  purpose, or goal  underlying  individuals'  debate  meaning  inconsistent  In  the  person/meaning that  movement  life  continuity  patterns.  By  a  qualitative  discontinuity  was  the nature  related change  to career  most  (Sheehy,  1975;  suggested  that  resolution  contrast,  and  of  from,  perception  significant  the  of  change  the e x i s t i n g  life  continuity  or  f u n d a m e n t a l t o t h e two  i n the  literature,  o f meaning d i r e c t l y in  directional  different  that  of  assumption i s a  the  regarding  career a  (1977)  general,  and  perspective  1978)  change  draws  among  upon  reflects  developmental  was  nowhere  examined a s i t adult  career  the  on c a r e e r  change  research  which  an a c t u a l o r a t t e m p t e d  crisis  of  first  to  self-definition. make  overt  o f a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c a r e e r  "lifestyle  distinguished  popularized  Krantz,  of  identification and  relatively  discontinuity  inherent  appeared  movement  whether  in particular. The  Thomas  as  represents  discussed  or source  on  consistent  where  extension  meaning  perspectives  or  structurally  assumptions of  hinge  viewed  the  change and  While  research  perceived,  from,  behaviour.  context.  position,  personal  change  to  are  o f p e r s o n / m e a n i n g assumes  represents pattern.  t i m e and  was  away  previous  appears  discontinuous,  first  significant  career  structures  and  continuous, across  of  change."  between  In  a  theoretical  i n d i v i d u a l s who change  the  change  paper,  he  i n response  to  19  external  factors  and  those  who  change  to  work-related  roles with  a  values  goals,  t h e m e a n i n g s t h e s e have  and  and  identity  and  values.  change  is  itself  alterations  i n the  40  case  In e f f e c t , only  Levinson  developmental  studies.  Each  renewed c r i s i s  of  thus  transition  equated  career  change  lifestyle  in  of  life  i n terms of that  career  deeper  level  (1978) p r o p o s e d  s t a g e , he  with  upon  and  evidence  findings  direction. he  indicating  in accordance  However, B r i m  adults  have from  postulated, represents a  crisis,  "marker e v e n t "  that  (1975) has  concluded  that  identity  and  w i t h new  values  and  that  as  p o i n t e d out  for sequential  Having  development  stages  characterized  career  mid-life. Like  L e v i n s o n ' s group,  change a s n e c e s s a r i l y self,  parallel  to  a  model  under t h e t i t l e  Osherson  made  phenomenon a s this  an  effort  an of  experience grieving.  H o l d i n g On  i s appropriate to with  sampling  virtually  all  other  literature.  Additionally,  of  and  In  case  studies  Osherson on  the  in  Go  (1980), the  approach; in contrast  the  included  of  h i s study  study  case  loss  i n s t a n c e s of  extremes stands out  case  elaboration  the  of  or L e t t i n g  t o sample extreme  concern  validation  Osherson  involving  published  to  indicator  s t a g e s , based  reconstruction  t h e r e i s no  broader  suggested  self-definition  is a  aspirations. yet,  an  he  of  their  individual's psycho-social patterns.  Similarly, age-related  reorientation  align  related  a rich  study  source  data  by  20  reporting  on  analysis  the  subjects'  differentiated  reflected  actual,  reflecting  attempted,  responses to d e b r i e f i n g .  between  "sculpted,"  career  crisis  "foreclosed,"  changes  Data which  r e s o l u t i o n , and  those  resolution:  In f o r e c l o s e d r e s o l u t i o n s , t h e c a r e e r change came about in response to, but without making use of, new i n f o r m a t i o n about s e l f . That i s , people essentially foreclosed g r i e v i n g t h r o u g h a c a r e e r change i n o r d e r t o a v o i d deeper uncertainty and ambivalence about self ... t h e transition avoids and suppresses conflict ... a r o u s e d by t h e d i s c r e p a n t e x p e r i e n c e s and that of underlying a m b i v a l e n t l y h e l d a s p e c t s of s e l f . . . . I f we t a k e as our measure of h e a l t h some s e n s e of the degree to which conflict is a c c e s s i b l e to consciousness for r a t i o n a l c h o i c e and d e c i s i o n making, t h e n we can label career changes emerging from s c u l p t e d r e s o l u t i o n s as adaptive career changes, since the loss has been a c k n o w l e d g e d and u s e d ( c o n f r o n t e d ) r a t h e r t h a n a v o i d e d . One might speculate that this results in a more ' r e a l i s t i c ' p e r s o n a l l y g r a t i f y i n g match of o n e s e l f with the work s i t u a t i o n .... ( p . 154-155)  To identity  accept  reconstruction,  assume t h e r e career  has  change  identity and  been  career real  change  or  i s an  attempted,  i d e n t i t y breakdown.  transition  as  reflective  Osherson  studies,  Several specific increased person  suggesting  the  c o n g l o m e r a t e of seen  as  been  first  assumption  of in  crisis the  of  level  Levinson  critically  studies, discussed that  person/situation of  not  must  of  examined  means.  other  in  has  indicator  one The  breakdown, a t h e o r e t i c a l p r e m i s e  through e m p i r i c a l  was  that  career  seeking  career  congruence. changer,  personality to  traits  below, change  In  other  construed or as  maintain  or  were  a  indicates words,  either  set expand  more  of  the as  a  values,  h i s or  her  21  identity  by s i t u a t i n g  consistent  with  himself  and  or h e r s e l f i n  supportive  of  his  a  career  or  her  more  meaning  framework. Two measures  studies obtained  questionnaires  analyzed  traits  through  scales,  as they  related  and  second  based  Titles  ( R o b b i n s e t a l , 1978; Thomas  1979).  These  congruence  studies  of  researchers  trait/vocation  of  these  b a s e d upon H o l l a n d ' s sensitive other  interviews nature  a  suggested  that  trait/vocation Thomas  was  interviewing reflected  reported noted  The  careers  Robbins, increased  careers.  The  t h e D.O.T., w h i c h i s  is  an  insufficiently of change.  used  subjective  second  on  congruence values  of  The  73  basis results  reflect  One  semi-structured to e s t a b l i s h the of  this  an  study  increase  rather  men  most  broader  of  i n second c a r e e r s . than  revealed  the seeking  was t h e s e e k i n g  that  1980)  change.  and  (1979) a l s o e x a m i n e d t h e n o t i o n  at least  congruence.  suggest  career  Occupational  demonstrate second  and  in  congruence.  person/situation however,  of  t o i n d i c a t e the nature  more  of the c a r e e r  in  studies  (Neopolitan, and  to  (1973) t y p o l o g y ,  instrument  study  Dictionary  failed  multiple  inventories,  to f i r s t  the  on  classifications (D.O.T.),  on  based  His focus,  traits. that  of increased  frequent  increased  reason  second  value  shifts  careers  value/situation f o r career  o f "more m e a n i n g f u l work."  societal  Intensive  may  change Thomas  contribute to  22  the  individual's  impetus t o change c a r e e r s .  major e a r l y e x p l o r a t o r y  study,  "lack  was  of  meaning"  dissatisfaction,  and  change.  possible  It  is  framework u s e d  observed was  a  experience  110  of  transition  process.  selection  of  a  rejection  of  elements  valued  suggested  that  expanded  meaning.  limited  past, in  the  first" change  study  of  important  study  alternative  referring  crisis,  there  analysis  and  framework. expression to  his  also  of  change  new  the  to the  or  her  total  included  continuous  but  1980)  though  indication s u b j e c t s , may  notion  of  of  change a s  "personal and  of be  career  articulation  pervasive  "the  study  Lawrence viewed c a r e e r individual's  a  the  Thus, the  no ten  in  that  career  (Lawrence,  for i t s e x p l i c i t  of an  process.  represent  was  Thomas,  stage  note  reflects  f o r i t s unique c h a l l e n g e  as  example o r  or  as  the  f o r meaning"  earlier  not  on  meaninglessness"  (p. 7 6 ) .  note  career  like  "search  and  f r e q u e n t l y the  career  final  focused  career  researchers did  for  c h a n g e s , and  the  career  work-related  kind.  s u b j e c t s a t an  The  new  this  depression  methodologically,  intensive  change  the  their  of  that  f a s h i o n d i c t a t e s the  subjects,  in  "self-doubt,  described  of  in a  noted  reason  (1983)  134  experience  a  social  of c a r e e r  from among  common  One  that  Perosa  (1975)  element  consequently,  and  that,  Furthermore,  an  for self-reports  Perosa psychological  Roberts  Similarly,  an one  theme," dynamic  23  decision-making career  pattern  was  throughout  viewed  continuously  as  evolving  operative perspective  reflecting  but  throughout  Here, an  consistent  the  appears to  life.  rich  second  expansion  meaning  individual's  offer  the  of  a  framework,  life.  This  for  further  potential  research. Family  Perspective Roe  the  (1956)  was  one o f t h e e a r l i e s t  field  of  vocational  influences  in  an  particular,  h e r work f o c u s e d  and  the  more  (1982)  examination utilized  of  in  theory  interrelation behavior. systems  a  familial  behavior.  In  interaction  attitudes  than  any o t h e r  family  on  early  selection.  serves  was  to  to  his  of  explore  family  that  understanding  theory,  Bratcher  patterned,  key  identified repetitive,  elements  family and  he  issues  theory  of  in  family of  o f many f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g i n d i v i d u a l of  the  systematically  contention  broaden  to  Specifically,  Bratcher  f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n It  researcher,  perspective  perspective  In h i s e x p l i c a t i o n  reciprocal,  to  on t h e p a r e n t - c h i l d  directly  systems  counselling.  systems  vocational  parental  applied  career  developed a case career  point  c a r e e r - r e l a t e d phenomena.  a family  involved  of  to  choices.  Perhaps Bratcher  individual's  influence  occupational  theory  researchers i n  the  career family  r e l a t i o n s h i p s as circular.  These  24  relationships, lives  i n an  the  ongoing  Bratcher propositions issue,  the  family,  has  of  then  examined  career  extent  of  this  the  stated,  continue  to  implications  counselling the  as  family  the  a  on  of  the  shape  premise  identified  individual's  separation  key  factor  career  choice.  i s that  i n d i v i d u a l s as  behavior  based  reciprocal, family  our  family  adults  upon  patterned,  and  the  so  assessing  The  current  as  the  study  Bratcher.  their  assumption circular  prototypes  an  from  in  influence  similar  serve  as  r e l a t i o n s h i p s continue  r e p e t i t i v e and  relationships  these  and  moved i n a somewhat d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n f r o m  Here,  shape  manner.  for  seeing  influence  theory  career  that  the  dynamics in  to  of  vocational  arenas.  Role  Displacement Two  premise of  that  origin  Brown's  studies  are  the  o n t o an  intensive  f i g u r e s " can of  domains.  A  principal  rotation  on  the  family,  self,  early  be  displacement  46  empirical  r e p e r t o i r e of  displaced  (1973)  "political  provided  life  Q-sort and  support  roles experienced external  single  as  study  political  sorted  analysis  self  domains,  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among f i g u r e s i n t h e s e t h r e e  family and  showed  that  and  with  to d e s c r i b e  the  Baas  examples  f i g u r e s from t h e  components  in  domain.  case  understood  items,  for  of  family varimax  figures  identified domains.  the  in  strong  25  Of  direct  conducted  ten  proposition for and  o f work.  a  role  Type  The  data  studies  study  C  as  p r o v i d e s both the  idiosyncratic articulated  typology,  universe  sample  of  from  the  in  research  t h r e e domains of s e l f ,  results  matrix  and  submitted  rotation.  terms,  were  validated  the data  elaboration  on  First,  vocational  family  drama.  quantitative  by  to  case  direct  t h e meaning of  Mcgregor's reasons.  statistical  submitted  and  study  i t provides role  the  Secondly, qualitative  typology  is  on  results,  salient  figures  and  work.  correlation'  expressed  subjects.  role  support  The  with  in lay  subjects  response  and  by  least  two  correlations. for  for  at  the  i n v o l v e s the  the  career  components a n a l y s i s  important  enactment  the  to obtain a  emotional  is  provides a  family-of-origin,  to a p r i n c i p a l  The  on  upon  from  literature  Q-sorts  were i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d  varimax  a  the  (1970).  based  which  this  roles  consistent  adjectives  types;  Subjects conducted  Q-sort  that  descriptive  possible  well-established development.  of  was  that  of  Herbst  Holland's  comprehensive  premise  by  item Q-sort  personality  the  quantitative  manner,  M c G r e g o r ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n of a 46 (1966)  explore  involves displacement  i n an  law  to  (1983)  s e r v e s a s a metaphor  supporting  enactment  f a m i l y of o r i g i n  with  case  s t u d y , McGregor  one's f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n  qualitative  occupational from  intensive  that  the world  relevance to t h i s  integrated  proposition  re-enactment use  of  of both  data p r o v i d e s a paradigm f o r  26  systematic  intensive  enactment,  and,  by  case  s t u d i e s examining  extension, for direct  meaning o f c h a n g e s i n v o c a t i o n a l  Single  use  methodological Kazdin  studies  of  their  typically  it  not p o s s i b l e for  omit  the  difficulty  in  generalize  about  data  increase  generality.  intensive  who case  While  who  a  the  the  observational characterized observed,  t h e major  to rule  i n a number o f  limitation  to  out  phenomena  findings.  that  may  cited  limit  Fisher  smaller  to develop  (1935) has  a single  since  case  controls,  This  the a b i l i t y Kazdin  an  noted  necessarily  example  numbers  been c r e d i t e d  of  study,  of  as  of  i t was  the  intensive  standpoints.  The  extensive  and  first  research  Laswell  between  (1938)  extensive  design  by a c u r s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p between o b s e r v e r involving  a  different  successful  distinction  usually  to  concepts.  principles case  as  causal  observed.  However,  Freud  case  explanations to  l a r g e number of c a s e s d o e s n o t He  of  establish  alternative  interpretation  studies  overall  e x p e r i m e n t a l or s t a t i s t i c a l  e x e m p l i f y contemporary  made  the  study  he m a i n t a i n e d  accumulated  utilizing  as  this  inability  the  that  researcher  that  behavioural  further  design  of  enactment.  study  limited  Specifically,  studies  account  case  (1980) s a i d  is  is  the  structure  relationships.  to  examination  role  Case S t u d i e s The  ways.  role  vocational  is and  a l a r g e number o f s u b j e c t s from  27  which  i n f e r e n c e s a r e drawn, b a s e d  contrast,  the  relatively small  responses  ( B a s s and  Brown,  The  heterogeneous  (Chassan,  logical  by  this  specificity  the  the  suggested  the  of  sample.  of  However, m u l t i p l e  individual Furthermore,  a  are  and drawn  person, i t has  be or  a  basis  for  individual  case  study,  observed  can  case  of drawing  generalized  and  study  Brown  (1973)  perceived incorrectly  that  of  "single (1941) on  a  i n a group that  with  pointed  out,  probability  in a population  behaviour,  patterns  which  and  the  allow  for  the boundaries  (Baas  and  as a  case"  the  behaviour  within  of  argument a g a i n s t t h e  Baas  cases of  been n o t e d  model  intensive  i s based  behavioural may  in  Lundberg  behaviour  instances  predictability,  and  averaging  particular  typical  notions As  on  single  limitation  the  persons.  of  The  i s usually  equating  inference  any  single case.  issue  observing  a  of the r e s e a r c h s u b j e c t ,  population  beyond t h e  social  on  intensive  specification  inferences  of  by  of t h e e x t e n s i v e  provide  effect  The  addresses  individual  portraits  based  not  difficulty.  of  of  findings  the a c t u a l  characterized  the o b s e r v e r  individual  difficulty  does  1979).  prediction  characterized  By  p r o v i d e more c o m p r e h e n s i v e  from w h i c h  groups  understanding  result  who  significant  analysis  is  averages.  1973).  major  that  overcome  design  group  l e n g t h y r e l a t i o n s h i p between  number o f s u b j e c t s ,  complex  is  intensive  on  Brown,  statistical  of  an  1973).  procedures  28  and  a n a l y s e s a r e most u s e f u l  applied  (Herbst,  research  issue.  "specific  Herbst  type  representation  1970)  of  when t h e t y p e o f  scientific  law  i s a p p r o p r i a t e to the nature of  the  defined  a  invariance  o f a phenomenon," and  scientific in  the  identified  law  as  a  conceptual three  such  laws: 1)  Type A law a p p l i e s where b o t h f u n c t i o n s and p a r a m e t e r s are constant. A v e r a g i n g of o b s e r v a t i o n s a c r o s s a group is not problematic, since units of a n a l y s i s behave r e l a t i v e l y homogeneously. T h i s law i s most useful in the study of i n e r t m a t t e r . Baas and Brown (1973) c i t e as an example B o y l e ' s Law: pv/t=R. The parameter R r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t b e c a u s e of t h e f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between temperature ( t ) , volume (v) and p r e s s u r e ( p ) . S i n c e g a s e s a c t 'homogeneously, one may use averaging techniques. These types of laws are found i n the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s , but o n l y r a r e l y .  2)  Type B law applies where the functional form of a relationship of f a c t o r s i s c o n s t a n t , but t h e p a r a m e t e r s are specific. Analysis of phenomena fitting these conditions requires initial single case study, i . e . , c a s e s where t h e v a l u e of t h e p a r a m e t e r s i s t h e same may be averaged together. B a a s and Brown (1973) g i v e t h e example: "Y=\X" m i g h t be t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between heat (X) and l e n g t h o f r o d (Y) where (X) i s t h e h e a t s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i f i c to each metal. In order to correctly analyze t h e phenomena, one w o u l d have t o use s i n g l e case a n a l y s i s since averaging a l l metals together would mask t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t y p e B laws. Only those metals with the same h e a t s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (X) c o u l d be a v e r a g e d t o g e t h e r . Baas and Brown s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s t y p e o f law i s f o u n d infrequently in the social sciences.  3)  Type C law i s most a p p l i c a b l e i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e s where phenomena f r e q u e n t l y d e m o n s t r a t e a different level of invariance. Here, both functional r e l a t i o n s h i p s and p a r a m e t e r s a r e s p e c i f i c , but the generating rules of possible functional relationships are constant. A generating rule is universally but idiosyncratically applicable. Research attempting to reveal the generating rules for a specific type of social behaviour, for i n s t a n c e , must use an i n d i v i d u a l c a s e approach. By way o f example h e r e , L a s w e l l (1938) s t a t e d i n h i s f o r m u l a f o r p o l i t i c a l man that private motives  29  (p) become d i s p l a c e d (d) o n t o t h e p u b l i c a r e n a , t h r o u g h a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s (£) and a r e r a t i o n a l i z e d ( r ) i n t e r m s of t h e common good. In this case, averaging procedures should not be used since p r i v a t e motives v a r y , d i s p l a c e m e n t s a r e i d i o s y n c r a t i c and t h e r e may be many r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s , however p£d£r may be u n i v e r s a l l y applicable idiosyncratically. Accordingly, to  this  to apply  individuals,  required  f o r Type A law.  t o o complex  relationship  While  be  of  the  to this  Type  an  the  of  a  of as  linear  Similarly, change  is  the too  relationship.  career  change  generating  functional  is  rule  may  relationships  of  t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f Type C  (1983)  of from  Type the  subjects  study C  law  family  of r o l e  to  the to  displacement  issue  of  the  the role  vocational  had been  averaged  ( a s i n phenomena where T y p e s A o r B law  operativeness  studies  demonstrated  domain  of  a Type C law would n o t have  become a p p a r e n t , a s p a t t e r n s o f r o l e 10 c a s e  of  invariant  suggesting  If instances  across case  terms  career  t h e meaning  the u n i t  change phenomena  B Law.  of  laws  study.  applicability displacement  in  B  homogeneously  i n terms of a l i n e a r  idiosyncratic,  McGregor's  apply),  by  meaning  that  variables,  behave  described  the n a t u r e of p o s s i b l e  relevant  domain.  not  Firstly,  Secondly, career  required  i t i s expected  reveal  does  t o be d e s c r i b e d  necessarily  law  to  as  identification complex  Type A o r Type  s t u d y would be i n a p p r o p r i a t e .  analysis,  are  either  were h i g h l y  displacement  idiosyncratic.  among  the  30  The meaningful shifts  specific reveal  i n terms  in  repertoire  present  study of  vocational  assumes  family role  of  these  to  appropriately  be  operative,  utilized  here.  career In  i n family  Given  change i s  other  correspond of  correspondences  idiosyncratic patterns.  expected  dramas.  enactment  of r o l e s experienced nature  that  that  intensive  words, to  origin. i s expected  Type case  C  the The to  law  is  study  is  31  CHAPTER I I I  METHODOLOGY  Type C law ( H e r b s t , for  a  given  phenomenon where  parameters  of  generating  values  study  such  1970) c a n be  variables  phenomena,  neccessarily  utilize  approach  has  provide  the research  (1973)  maintained  of  the  an  relatively  study.  Q-sorts,  be u s e d ways,  both  several  particularly  data  subjective  case approach. and  an  i s useful and  related Q-sorts,  Here,  individual  Kerlinger  functioning  to  of  Furthermore, intensive  case  t o o l of Q-methodology, can two  f o rthe quantitative  judgements.  must  i n the study  variables.  suited  To  Q-methodology t o  from an i n d i v i d u a l i n  of which a l l o w  several  and  the foundation  to obtain  otherwise given  is  one  and t e c h n i q u e s .  interrelation,  where  are constant.  utilizing  Q-methodology  areas  but  Herbst,  operative,  orientation  unknown  Q-methodology  to  individual  been a p p l i e d  that  identity,  relationships  operative  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and  idiosyncratic,  according  Type C law h a s been assumed case  functional  are  of these  assumed  The  a n a l y s i s of  individual  or a structured  different  can  be  sort  b a s e d on  C law  regulated  variables. Additionally,  phenomena  is  generating  rules  the  concerned  study  with  of  Type  attempting  f o r a s p e c i f i c phenomenon.  to  reveal  Consistent  the with  32  this  aim,  affinity  a  primary  to theory.  selection  of  empirically, revealing of  thus  variables  utilize  Ten  obtained  through  contacts  Subjects  the  two  from  the  The  Q-sort  (1983)  extent item  and  Holland's  referrals.  Subject  domains  in this  arenas  occurred  Q-sorting  and  reasonable  change  through  to  interviewed  three  conducted  to three hours. for  and  were  the  distinct  Q-sorting  career  research to  behavior,  their  an  informal  profiles  were  selection  as  change.  included  Subjects  relationships  areas,  identified  interviewing prior  of c a r e e r  vocation;  In  assumed o p e r a t i v e .  s u b j e c t s were  of  figures  the  Procedures  network  cases  requires  theory.  i t appeared  to study  its  and  for  unknown  is  logically  for functional  Thus,  Q-methodology h e r e  O v e r v i e w of  basis  relatively  extends theory.  was  relate  a  rules  Q-methodology  of a Q - s o r t  that  providing  within  of  building  generating  where Type C law  test  The  variables  the  effectively  strength  of  The  on  to four  family,  and  1 each  and  Vocation  salient  2.  figure.  sessions, lasting  one  sorts  reflection was  used  subjects  from  from d i f f e r e n c e s i n numbers of  46  between  from  time  sample  (1966) t h e o r y  self,  salient  in  of s u b j e c t  includes  identify  domain were f i g u r e s  Vocation  variability  resulted  of  latter  Q-sorts i n one  to  f o l l o w i n g each previously  adjectives  or  by  traits  of p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s .  Q-sort. McGregor  drawn  from  33  For figure  was  each  subject,  correlated  figure  in  the  salient  figures,  patterns.  The  resultant a varimax  data  emerging  from  subject  information  was  an  meaning;  this  Interview. partially and  and  used  similarity  salient  matrix of  to a  the  UBC-FACTO  program.  then  correlation  apparent  were  principal The  submitted to  matrix  and  the  by  the  examined  p a t t e r n s and  of  Q-sort  submitted  solutions  to  procedure Audio  the  implicit  analysis,  on  reasons.  The  themes  as  each  presentation  of  this  from  each  elicit  a clarification  the Meaning  the  of  Meaning  I n t e r v i e w s were  reviewed  to  further  identify  view  t h e meaning  of c a r e e r  of as  implicit  repetitions  implicit  occurred  were p r e s e n t e d t o  t o h e r e as  understood  revealed  by  t h e d a t a and  from  and  suggested  and  is referred  subject's  understood  themes  stimulate  tapes  language  and  terms.  elaboration  procedure  logistical  salient  then  the  cluster  P a t t e r n s were  m e a n i n g was  their  patterns  transcribed  subject's  This  Both  laymen's  subject  each  a correlation  components m a t r i x was  apparent  in  for  the d a t a .  correspondences  change.  were  to i d e n t i f y  The  themes  upon  components  researcher  obtain  utilizing  rotation.  principal  to  based  principal  Q-sorts  w i t h t h e Q - s o r t of e v e r y o t h e r  slate,  components a n a l y s i s  the  over  or p a r a l l e l s ,  in patterns a  one  where  year  or  the and  themes.  period  for  34  PROCEDURAL FLOW CHART  1. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p o s s i b l e subject screening interview.  2.  Interview  3. S u b j e c t figure.  4. P r i n c i p a l  with  subjects  V subject to identify  Q-sorting  V 46  with  V components a n a l y s i s  salient  item  sort  of Q-sort  V 5. A n a l y s i s o f d a t a t o i d e n t i f y a p p a r e n t probes f o r Meaning I n t e r v i e w .  6.  Meaning  7. Review, transcription, audiotapes.  V 8. S y n t h e s i s o f Q - s o r t d a t a and M e a n i n g d e v e l o p and w r i t e - u p case p o r t r a i t .  10.  preliminary  figures.  on e a c h  salient  data.  themes and  develop  V Interview  V and a n a l y s i s  V (One y e a r from t h e c o m p l e t i o n of S t e p 6) 9 ( a ) S u b j e c t S e l f - c a s e Review  and  o f Meaning  Interview  Interview  data  to  V  9(b)  I n d e p e n d e n t Case  V I n c l u s i o n of s u b j e c t s e l f - r e v i e w and i n d e p e n d e n t review i n a n a l y s i s and r e p o r t s of r e s u l t s .  Review  case  35  The  analysis  components  case  to  and  base of the  Case  integrated  The  was  portrait  to  the  specified  in a  t o n i n e of t e n s u b j e c t s  the case  " I n d e p e n d e n t - R e v i e w " on both  I n t e r v i e w was  subject pointing  assistants  by  principal  Simultaneously,  I n t e r v i e w s and  research  matrix,  of e a c h  presented  "Self-Review."  provided  Meaning  c a r e e r change.  format  Meaning  correlation  and  a case p o r t r a i t  of  written  the  solutions,  to develop meaning  of  each  audiotapes  write-ups  who  were  served  case.  t y p e s of r e v i e w s  for of  a the  distributed  to  provide  The  critical  was  i n c l u d e d i n the  an  commentary data  study.  Subjects In c o n t r a s t t o e x t e n s i v e d e s i g n s where h e t e r o g e n e i t y  of  subjects represents a limitation  in  intensive  which  maximizes  phenomenon study  case  of  single  elucidation  individual the  diversity under  major  instances  of  study  change t h a t  cases  case  1973; is  concerned,  patterns  (Chassan, study  but  1979).  using  1980).  i s of concern  i s the  a  1983).  The  with  the  in  the  diverse  particularly,  Q-methodology the  Here the dimension symbolic  given  rather with  More  of  sample  a  not  represented  s u b j e c t s a l o n g the dimensions (Boldt,  of  McGregor,  differences,  validity,  to s e l e c t  viewpoints  Brown,  individual of  intensive  different  and test  of  understanding  s t u d i e s i t i s important the  (Baas  to i n f e r e n t i a l  value  requires phenomenon of c a r e e r of  career  36  shifts;  this  individual's implicit  also  be  u n d e r s t o o d as t h e s h i f t  psychological context  i n , the broader  change.  It  reflect  can  follows,  diversity  social then,  that  context  that  i n the nature,  parallels,  i n the or  is  of h i s or her c a r e e r  subjects pace,  were s e l e c t e d t o  and  style  of  the  transit ion. In concept that  this  of " c a r e e r "  "the  downward career  study,  Krause's  was u t i l i z e d  concept  of  career  i n the occupational implies  more  associated  with  to  social  include  economic  this,  change  refers particularly  unskilled general had  to  this  to instances  "career"  The raised  a  theoretical  identification  and  words,  among  of career  Thus,  as i t  than  relative  number and  of  is  to  t o the  subjects  a l l were  in  roles.  o f p u r e examples o f c a r e e r  conceptual  empirical  overall.  h e r e has more  workers  education,  level  symbolic  professionals  as d i s c u s s e d of  rather,  and  instances  disproportionate  o r management  challenging  a s one goes  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  population  received university level  professional  notion  other  contexts  and s e m i - s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r s . population,  In  of i n d i v i d u a l  executives  the concept  applicability  meaning  the  i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e  the d i v e r s i t y  level  in  needs and e x t e n d s ,  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  Given  assumed t h a t  loses  hierarchy."  survival  o f work a c t i v i t i e s  management  as i m p l i e d  than a s e t of n i n e - t o - f i v e a c t i v i t i e s  values  and  (1971) o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e  issues.  literature  change  Throughout  there  is  the  little  37  uniformity "career  of  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of  transition"  "career"  is  (Louis,  used  "occupation."  At  1980).  synonymously issue here role,  world  work.  Additionally,  multiple  linear,  encourages transition A  (Louis, few  selection was  one  to  career field  change.  a  enters  maintain  a  1977;  of a c t i v i t y  systems  of  progressions, career  paths,  of  career  who  1983, and  leaves  constant  a  self-identity  "category"  and  has  illustrate sample  career or  relied  change training  Where  upon  and of  Weiner,  1977;  Robbins  Robbins,  1979;  Thomas,  role  field  the  an  shifted.  distinction  i s obscured.  of p u b l i c  textbook as  between  a categorical shift  1984),  social the  to  i s obscured.  were  Thomas and  p r i v a t e s e c t o r as  occupational  acceptance  distinction  identity  Vaitenas  Perosa,  the  the  educational  o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d as  and  teacher  r e l a t e d to  appropriate  Where  the  in  1979;  field  as  and of  intended an  of  1971),  Thomas,  Perosa  instance,  terms  classification  a l , 1978;  between  his  career  shift  (Gottfredson,  1980;  and  locating  in  and  c h a n g e was  term  field  definitions  in  (Heistand,  occupational  et  has  research  specialization  of a  spiral  examples here a r e  operationalized  activities  and  the  and  1980).  brief  dilemma  equating  "normal" c a r e e r  operational  "career"  "vocation"  increasing  steady-state,  multiple  "job,"  self-identity  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of  incuding  the  and  i s the  social  of  Frequently,  with  activity, of  notions  For  education  salesman,  educator, Conversely,  may  although if  a  38  physician  shifts  diseases  this  self-concept In  this  career  may  while  study,  reflect the f i e l d  the notion  noted  in  the representation  recruited,  transition.  of  of  in this  appeared  months,  others  years.  a  Others  within K).  productive  of  case  (H)  social  Initially,  career  experience  change in  of c a r e e r  in  and s t y l e  allowing  change.  subjects  role  the subjects  the  nature  and  of the v o c a t i o n a l  A, D, G) w i t h i n  shifted  to dramatically  longer  some  transitional in  similar  time  (cases to  a  shift  fields matter  different of  retraining  B, C, F ) . I n shift  f i e l d s of a c t i v i t y  represented  a  some  period  extensive  appeared  roles  (cases E,  from a n o n - p a i d ,  (as housewife) t o a p a i d p r o f e s s i o n a l  subjects  were  if  formal  their  were  i n t e r m s o f p a c e o f change,  (cases  of  i n age from 30 t o 61,  a diversity  engaged  change,  t h e same o r v e r y One  role.  of  thus  As d i s c u s s e d ,  and/or v o c a t i o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n over terms of s t y l e  t o any  variety  to s h i f t to dramatically different  of a c t i v i t y over  several  the  10  constant.  refers  review,  contacts,  process,  suddenly  while  i n g o a l s and  remains a  of  types  study.  For instance,  a c t i v i t y quite  fields  one  of d i v e r s e  of t h e t r a n s i t i o n  subjects  any  change  transition  the l i t e r a t u r e  were s e l e c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t  of  of medicine  4 women and 6 men, r a n g i n g  participation  pace  patients to researching  radical  of c a r e e r  T h r o u g h a network  for  a  movement e n c o m p a s s i n g  definitions for  r o l e s from t r e a t i n g  the  Vocation  i d e n t i f i e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e preparation 1  f o r , and/or  had no d i r e c t  or obvious  39  relevance, Vocation was  from t h e  2.  probed  their  T h r o u g h an f o r both  career  provide  subject's  an  unstructured  f a c t u a l data  history.  These  informal,  sharing,  and  subjects.  Interview  thus  length  p u r p o s e of  each  subject  s e l e c t e d had  career the  researcher  of  each  the  b o t h an in t h i s  hour v a r i a t i o n i n  differences  in  subjects'  researcher's  to  opportunity  study  four  above  of  by  hours.  to e s t a b l i s h that  the  an  objective  example  interview  the  time  exploring  of  enabled  career  in t h i s  interview  style  to  as  of  for  participation  e x p e r i e n t i a l and  style  subject  were u n s t r u c t u r e d  was  Secondly,  discussed  each  on  from one  interview  demands of  reflections  maximum  varied  to a s c e r t a i n the as  personal  interviews  phenomenon.  subject,  one-to-four  to the  included  change  interview,  and  encouraged  primary  for being  to the  non-threatening  The  basis  perspective,  change  section. was  The  due  to  and  responding  approach  involving  probes.  Q-Technique Q-technique Q-sort are  and  referred the  principal  treated  observations  as  researcher  Holland's  as  the  procedural  components a n a l y s i s  variables  (Boldt,  to  examination.  is  1980).  salient  and  In  items this  are  study  the  r o l e f i g u r e s , persons  subject  Forty-six  t h e s i s of  and  i n which  as  relevent  descriptive  s i x major  to the  persons  treated variables  are  identified focus  of  a d j e c t i v e s drawn  personality  as  types  by  this from  (Holland,  40  1966)  were  selected  Q-technique,  items  rank-ordering  by  are  into  first  given  The  the matrix using p r i n c i p a l  items.  subject as  data  through  feelings  items  for that  person.  This  t o make complex c o m p a r i s o n s  t h e d a t a o f one particularly  individual.  matrix,  to  and  analysis.  a p p r o p r i a t e to case  S u b j e c t s of Judgement in  figures  McGregor's  study  were sampled  primary  secondary  objects objects  domain  case  (Salient  subject:  (vocational  (Vocation subject  1  and  Vocation  at d i f f e r e n t  domains sampled enactment:  two  distinct 2)  historical  reflect  the  Vocation  s e t of  i n by  Thus,  major the  salient arenas the  the  arenas  the  of  vocational  t h r e e more p a r t i c u l a r  family-of-origin,  A  expansion  participated points.  and  arena).  o b j e c t s domain t o i n c l u d e a sample of  in  salient  the s e l f - d o m a i n ,  secondary  each  is  Figures).  (family-of-origin),  lay  within  t h r e e domains o f  in  from  study  enables  measures  difference  figures  this  a l l  reason, Q-technique  f o r Q-Sorts  domain  a  studies.  (1983),  f o r each  how of  i p s a t i v e measure  this  then  establish  of s e t s of  For  and  from Q - s o r t i n g i s  components  seeks  In  a systematic  subjective  1953).  Q-technique  as  i t e m o f a g i v e n p e r s o n d e v i a t e s from t h e mean  other  the  the  categories,  subjects'  (Stephanson,  Typically,  As  by  h a n d l e d by d e v e l o p i n g a c o r r e l a t i o n  analyzing  one  researcher  sorted  weighted  means of g a t h e r i n g t h e judgements  the  case three  of  1, and V o c a t i o n  role 2.  41  Secondly,  t h e sample  range  each  the  domains  of  three  M c G r e g o r ' s s t u d y , and In routinely (2)  the s e l f  self;  Additionally, peer  In  in this  or  objects  included  as  One  as  grandparents,  typically  the  to four  secondary  included  as  (1) b a s i c (son  were  domain,  subjects other aunts  objects  domain,  ideal  of v o c a t i o n a l  role  #1  (4) i d e a l  of v o c a t i o n a l  role  #2  vocational instance. elicited vocational  role An from  i d e a l s , and  so  a d d i t i o n a l two each  arenas,  "colleagues,"  f i g u r e was  change d i d not  case  involve was  or 4  not  the  "father" for  subjects  relevant  salient each  f i g u r e s such as  " s u b o r d i n a t e s , " " p e e r s , " and  such  were  T h e s e were:  included  for  -  the  peers.  a distinct  not  t o seven  subject  including  where  judgement  subjects-of-judgement.  salient  self;  daughter).  "mother" and  or u n c l e s ,  #2  E, a s t h e c a r e e r  or  f i g u r e s were i n c l u d e d  (2) s e l f - a s - v o c a t i o n a l r o l e  fourth  or a c t u a l  included  of  #1  This  were  f o r the i n d i v i d u a l .  (1) s e l f - a s - v o c a t i o n a l r o l e  (3)  in  s e l f - a s - s u r r o g a t e - s i b l i n g , as  grandchild  Q-sorting.  In  study:  r o l e s were s a l i e n t  were r o u t i n e l y  than  subjects-of-judgement  self-as-child  the primary  siblings,  3  self-as-sibling,  complementary  somewhat b r o a d e r  from  i s s p e c i f i e d below.  (3)  (friend)  subjects-of-judgement was  domain,  included  ideal  of  i n Case  change i n in  that  f i g u r e s were of  the  two  "superiors,"  "mentors."  42  To  elicit  salient  arenas,  case  meetings  r a n g i n g from  were you  guided (in  in  figures  one  and  hours.  student,  the  asked  figure  one  was  the  was  Where role  colleague,  to s e l e c t  over  Elicited  subject.  or  the  These  q u e s t i o n : "Who  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a s i m i l a r  client,  of  figure  three to  important figures  when t h e r e  multiple  and  salient  were e l i c i t e d ,  most  to  were  relevant  case  two  interviews  subjects-of-judgement  assurance case  each  interviewed  why?"  sample as  the  from  to four  the c e n t r a l  the  to  typically that  were  arena)  reasonable  important  as  by  each  included was  subjects  figures  such  subjects  were  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  role. In  sum,  f o r each  subjects-of-judgment representing  three  of  ten  case  subjects,  Q-sorting  for domains  and  19  were  three  to  23  sampled,  arenas  of  role  enactment.  Q-Sort  Items.  upon M c G r e g o r ' s  The  present  (1983) s t u d y  s t u d y was  in that  both  symbolic  dimensions  contexts  of  these  metaphor  to  examine t h e phenomenon.  m e t h o d o l o g y was appears  to  of c a r e e r - r e l a t e d roles,  used  in  have p r o d u c e d  theoretical,  clinical,  Furthermore,  results  and  using  both  that  studies  examine  and  the  family-of-origin  meaningful  suggested  directly  roles  Furthermore,  studies.  future  built  research the  as  with  a  parallel  McGregor's  results  social  study  important  implications.  i t e m sample u s e d  was  43  sufficiently analysis. sample, related the  Based listed  study  of  by  basis  personality can  unambiguous  be  on in  these Table  McGregor.  of  Holland's  types.  Holland  described  personality  types:  comprehensive  associated  with  sorted  The  sample was (1966)  The  subjects  cards  for  46  each  salient  through  was  on  card  a small  s o r t i n g were as  item  from  and  upon  work  permutations six  ideal  artistic, sample  the  types,  is a  traits  translated terms.  in Table 1  sessions.  Subjects  role  figure Each  in sorting.  that  was  adjective  Instructions  follows:  1) Take t h e deck o f c a r d s , r e a d e a c h card separately put i t down on t h e t a b l e i n f r o n t of y o u . Spread t h e c a r d s and t r y t o form a g e n e r a l impression of a t t r i b u t e s s t a t e d on t h e c a r d s . 2)  Now p i c k up t h e i n the d e c k .  on  individuals  item of  the  r e f e r r e d to  interviewing.  f o r use  all  understandable  Q-sorting  during  46  investigative, The  data  constructed  w i t h e a c h of  adjectives  previously  for  combinations  personality  identified typed  that  representation six  the  theoretical  suggested  i n t o more common and  Q-Sorting.  meaningful  drawn d i r e c t l y  conventional.  reasonably  were u s e d by  was  realistic,  these  for  1,  associated  e n t e r p r i s i n g and  where u s e f u l  allow  considerations,  i n t e r m s of  characteristic traits  social,  to  cards,  make a deck and  s h u f f l e the  and out the  cards  44  Table  1: T r a i t s Used  i n the  Item  Q - S o r t of  the  Study  Sample  practical  hard  realistic  intellectual  introverted  conventional  rational  intelligent  blunt  ambitious  precise  responsible  extroverted  act ive  persistent  self-controlled  pleasure  soc i a b l e  conforming  artistic  idealistic  orderly  creative  trustworthy  status-oriented  expressive  mature  flexible  emotional  caring  dominant  imaginative  affectionate  enthusiastic  sensitive  understanding  appealing  self-insightful  helpful  adventurous  competitive  moral  persuasive  deliberate  spontaneous  headed  independent  seeking  45  3) Now ( f o r example), sort these c a r d s t o d e s c r i b e your mother, r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y , a c c o r d i n g to your recall of your mother i n the f a m i l y d u r i n g your c h i l d h o o d y e a r s , r a n g i n g from t h o s e t h a t a r e most like your mother to those t h a t are l e a s t l i k e your mother. 4) P l a c e the cards into roughly three f o l l o w s : most l i k e ; d o u b t f u l l y l i k e ; and 5) S o r t t h e c a r d s as 6)  follows: 2 3 5 8  a  Start  with p i l e  b  Place  the  two  c  Place last.  the  t h r e e next  d  Place  the  next  e  Place the next last three.  f)  Repeat  g)  R e p e a t t h e same p r o c e s s , towards the c e n t r e , w i t h Place  (NOTE: middle  "most l i k e "  five  cards  "most  far  left.  cards  next  to  c a r d s next  e i g h t "most l i k e "  cards  structure  specified  Evaluative Criteria:  Frequency  g o i n g from your " l e a s t cards  Q-Score  to i t . next  your like"  to  the  (10)  far right judgments.  i n the  i t i s p o s s i b l e t o draw c a r d s  of  the Q - s o r t  i n the diagram p r o v i d e d  Most D e s c r i p t i v e of S a l i e n t F i g u r e V 2  the  three.  7) Check t h e s o r t i n g and make any changes r e t a i n r e q u i r e d number i n e a c h c a t e g o r y .  is  as  8 5 3 2  to your  like"  "most l i k e "  "doubtfully like"  If necessary, pile.)  The  piles like.  one.  with p i l e  the  10  equal least  utilized  5  8  8  7  6  V 10  from  the  wish,  but  in this  study  below:  N e u t r a l or Undecided  3  you  middle.  Least D e s c r i p t i v e of S a l i e n t F i g u r e  8  5  3  4  3  2  V 2  46  ANALYSIS OF PROTOCOLS Analysis  of Q-sorts Q-sort  correlations For  data  and then  each s u b j e c t ,  figure other  salient  figure  with  patterns  the  figures  in  i n the s l a t e .  between  for  statistically  A.  attention  a figure  sorted  a  dramatic  Additionally, coefficients and  the  Thirdly,  of  role every  revealing  provides  an  coefficients  the f i r s t  ten s a l i e n t  c o e f f i c i e n t s o f ±.30 were  was  given  involved  on, a n d t h i s enactment  attention between  analytic contrasts  was  figures framework and  to  identifying  c o e f f i c i e n t between a F a m i l y  from e i t h e r  figures  dimensions common  2  of c o r r e l a t i o n  Vocation  Such a c o r r e s p o n d e n c e was i n t e r p r e t e d particular  subject  Table  f o r only  i n s t a n c e s o f a ±.30 c o r r e l a t i o n and  analysis.  s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l .  Particular  figure  of  salient  patterns  each  Correlation  use  T h i s produced a t a b l e of  figures;  correspondences Case  the  of every  Q-sort  showing a p a r t i a l t a b l e  includes  through  t h r o u g h p r i n c i p a l components  coefficients  correspondences example,  examined  the Q-sort  was c o r r e l a t e d  correlation  that  were  1 or Vocation  to indicate  were  similar,  2.  that  the  along  the  s i m i l a r i t y was s u g g e s t i v e  of  o r theme i n t h e two a r e n a s . given  to  ±.30  from V o c a t i o n outlined  commonalities  correlation  1 and V o c a t i o n  2,  above was o b s e r v e d . in  the  significant  T a b l e 2: Case A: C o r r e l a t i o n  Actual Sel f #1 tt 1 tt 2  # 3 # 4 tt 5 # 6 # 7 # 8 # 9 #10  1 .00 .09 . 10 .08 .06 .08 - . 18 - .25 - .06 - . 12  Ideal Self tt2  1 .00 .44 .50 . 55 . 34 - . 28 - .24 .28 - .37  Self-as-Voc. Role 1 #3  1 .00 .31 .56 . 23 .04 - .07 . 55 -.20  Self-as-Voc. Role 2 #4  1 .00 .32 .45 .04 -.28 . 19 - .07  Coefficients  Ideal Voc. Role 1 #5  1 .00 . 36 - . 27 -.24 .39 -.29  for Salient  Ideal Voc. Role 2 06  1 .00 .09 .01 .24 - .03  Role F i g u r e s tt  1-10  Mother  Father  Self-as-Daughter  S i ster  til  #8  #9  #10  1.00 .28 .28  1 .00 .04  1 .00  1 .00 - .02 - .02 .39  -J  48  correspondences  of F a m i l y  Family  to  figures  Lastly,  Vocation  correspondences  f i g u r e s and v o c a t i o n a l elucidate  in  the  o b s e r v a t i o n s were themes The principal vaimax  figures  suggested  analysis.  The in  rotated  principal  identify  component  in  the extent  coefficient  of  particular  one  A  ±.50  negative as  a and  That  reveal  i s , figures  linear  were  Since  solution  the  accounts  combination, i t The  was  of s a l i e n t  accepted  not  first  examined figures  to with  by  t h a t component.  A  as  indicative  a  of  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of the h y p o t h e t i c a l coefficient  suggestive  type.  to  unrotated  did  solution  represented was  relationship  hypothetical  to  data.  component.  other  of a s s o c i a t i o n  figure's  understood inverse  any  unrotated  type  various  synthesis  the  of the u n r o t a t e d  than  each  hypothetical  type.  The  t o be most amenable t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  component  themes  submitted  solution  a l lten cases.  first  variance  were  Both  further  were d e r i v e d and were examined f o r  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h more t h a n  more  to  or suggested  overall  matrices  often  the  examined  by t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l  correlation components  an  examined.  self-referrent  transition.  integrated into  structure  appeared  were  1 f i g u r e s and  were  any of t h e  vocational  interpretability.  for  figures,  between  rotated solutions  simple  2  to Vocation  p o s s i b l e p a t t e r n s i n the data,  implicit  identify  figures  of  between  at an  the  .50  equally that  level  meaningful  figure  and  was but the  49  The extent  first  1, and V o c a t i o n  Table  3 provides  from  different  C a s e C.  an i l l u s t r a t i o n  examined t o i d e n t i f y three  A totally  mixed f i r s t  areas  of  the f i r s t  component, i n  that  3: F i g u r e s A s s o c i a t e d W i t h U n r o t a t e d a t ±.50 L e v e l o r G r e a t e r , Case C  First  Actual Self Ideal Self Self-as-Vocational Self-as-Son Self-as-Brother  Family Vocation 1 2  figures  Numerical I d e n t i t y of Salient Figures  is,  Coefficient  .75 .71 .83 .63 .50  Nanny Sister  10 12  .66 .59  Colleague 1 Employee 1 Supervisor 2 Supervisor 2 Colleague 2  15 16 19 20 22  -.64 .61 .57 .51 .79  a s an i n d i c a t i o n three The  domains were  of the  represented,  psychological  was  viewed  interrelatedness  of  domains. analyses  components  for  Role  where  Component  1 2 2 4 9 14  from a l l t h r e e  principal  type.  o f t h e breakdown o f f i g u r e s  component,  Self  the  Family,  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the  domains r e p r e s e n t i n g  Salient Figure A s s o c i a t e d With F i r s t Component ( a t ±.50)  probes  the  2 were  Domain  these  was  t o w h i c h f i g u r e s from  Vocation  Table  component  the  of  the  matrix  correlation were  Meaning I n t e r v i e w ,  matrix  synthesized  to  discussed  below.  and t h e develop Thus,  50  Q-sort for  results  were u t i l i z e d  s t r u c t u r i n g subject  Meaning  term  process  refers  to  subjects  "Meaning  with  a  them  to  subject's  transition.  correlations of  order  the  career  told  that  form  of  the  these  results  up  Q-results.  language  and  researcher  to explore  transition. provided  was  The  meaning of  researcher  i n d i c a t i o n s of  the  his  or  apparently  central  the  case  subject's  subjects  and  themes, of  the  family each  was  a  the  meaning drama. subject  summarized  also told  a common g r o u n d the  the  subject's  web  By  and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  for  stated that  through  responses.  to share  to provide  frame-of-reference the  regarding  their  subject  then to  Interview,  Each used  in  case  order  understanding  going  and  identified  with  i n t e r m s of  researcher  it  providing  reflective  the Meaning  were b e i n g  the  correlations  subjects'  general,  elaborate  e l a b o r a t i o n on,  Q-sort  the  Q-results,  themes,  focused  transition  the  and  were s h a r e d  subjects'  setting  the  Specifically,  stimulate  the  of  dramatic  elicited  In was  basis  a p p l i e d to In  researcher  s e n s e of meaning  Q-sorts,  central  researcher their  the to  encouraging  of  and  was  section.  the  explore  her  analysis  of  synthesis  the  career  Interview"  in this  process  illuminate  of,  empirical  interviews.  described  the  encouraging  in  an  Interview  The entire  to provide  the of  subject  of and  career  Q-results role  that  only  enactments  51  in  relation  vocation that was  to  salient  arenas.  The  n e i t h e r agreement being  sought.  understanding  of  was  identified  hence  elaboration  indicated  by  In data  1) t h e  s u b j e c t ' s own  the  key  p a t t e r n s of  parallels  with  the  an  itself,  exploration  role  enactments  each  and  other  each  a  of as  Interview  with  to  the  dramas. Subject  or  For A,  both  correlations  career  transition:  as  they  parallels  the were  between:  figures  vocational  integrative which  related  themes  to  arenas  and  statement  was  the  relate  on,  during  to  and the  apparent  family-of-origin the  f o l l o w i n g statements  subject's reflections  Q-sort  to focus  correspondences  example,  the  statistical  domains  fourth  subject,  the  of  family-of-origin  emergent v o c a t i o n a l dramas (prototype)  from  three types  subject, involving  Additionally, with  drawn  subject in order  other role figures in family-of-origin figures.  elicit  data  that  the v o c a t i o n a l t r a n s i t i o n  Specifically,  self-domain  shared  the Q-sort  s u b j e c t s were t o l d  the  2) v o c a t i o n a l r o l e s and 3)  two  to each s u b j e c t  with  from  on  shared  with  and  the Q - r e s u l t s .  exploration. shared  family  specified  disagreement  with  each case,  were  nor  the  t h e meaning a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a c h v o c a t i o n a l  and  and  in  researcher  Furthermore,  context, t o be  figures  Meaning were made  analysis  of,  the  meaning  of  the  52  1) The Q-results indicated a significant correlation between e a c h of y o u r c a r e e r r o l e s and your Q-sort of your p e r s o n a l i d e a l . C o n v e r s e l y , n e i t h e r of the Q - s o r t s of y o u r c a r e e r r o l e s c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y w i t h t h e s o r t on your "Actual Self." In sum then, neither as an architect nor as a s t o c k b r o k e r ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a r e you v e r y much l i k e y o u r a c t u a l self, but i n both career r o l e s you approach your p e r s o n a l i d e a l s e l f . 2) The Q-sort on "self-as-an-architect" correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e s o r t on " s e l f - a s - d a u g h t e r . " The Q-sort on your second career role of s t o c k b r o k e r ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , however, c o r r e l a t e d significantly with the s o r t on " s e l f - a s - s i s t e r . " This suggests then, that as an a r c h i t e c t you were l i k e y o u r s e l f as a d a u g h t e r and as a s t o c k b r o k e r ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e you a r e l i k e yourself as a s i s t e r . 3) You sorted more than one co-worker from the f i r s t v o c a t i o n a l arena of a r c h i t e c t v e r y s i m i l a r l y t o the way i n w h i c h you s o r t e d t h e r o l e of "mother" f r o m y o u r e a r l y family, and very d i s s i m i l a r l y t o t h e way i n w h i c h you s o r t e d f o r " s e l f - a s - s i s t e r , " and "aunt." However, in your second vocational arena as a stockbroker's representative, more than one co-worker was sorted similarly to your sorts on " s i s t e r " and " a u n t , " and o p p o s i t e t o your s o r t on "self-as-daughter." A l l of this suggests that your co-workers i n your a r c h i t e c t ' s job, g e n e r a l l y a r e most l i k e y o u r mom and opposite to yourself as sister, and aunt. In c o n t r a s t , your co-workers as a stockbroker's representative are generally most like y o u r s i s t e r and a u n t and o p p o s i t e yourself-as-daughter. 4) On t h e whole i n y o u r first career you seem to have recreated a d a u g h t e r - m o t h e r drama, and now you seem t o be r e c r e a t i n g more o f a s i s t e r l y drama.  Elaboration  upon  the  encouraged  typically  reflections  of  subject's statements,  subject's  t h r o u g h t h e use o f  subject's  non-verbal (5) d i r e c t  initial  statements,  cues,  response  (1) p a r r o t i n g ,  (3)  (4) s u m m a r i z i n g  reflections and  was (2) on  clarifying  open-ended p r o b i n g f o r e l a b o r a t i o n  of  53  meaning. that of (1)  S u b j e c t s were a l s o  no p a r t i c u l a r  these  response  reminded,  where  was f a v o u r e d .  appropriate,(6)  Examples of  each  follows:  A: "... s h e ' s a powerful always those f e e l i n g s u n t i l Interviewer:  "What s o r t  A:  "They're  feelings  I:  '"Oh s h i t ! ' ?  you w i t h ,  of f e e l i n g s ? "  o f , um,  That's  woman so i t l e f t t h e next t i m e . "  -oh s h i t ! "  the f e e l i n g ? "  A: "I know, I'm j u s t t r y i n g t o g r a b i t . It's a feeling of p u l l i n g t h i n g s o u t o f m y s e l f , r e a l l y b u s t i n g y o u r g u t on an u n d e r s t a n d i n g l e v e l , on a g i v i n g l e v e l . " (2)  E : "I d o n ' t t h i n k t h e s e a r e t h e s o r t s o f t h i n g s y o u c a n a r t i c u l a t e .... I t ' s s o m e t h i n g t h a t I know d e e p within my h e a r t a n d b e i n g and s o u l ... and I c a n ' t p u t i t i n t o words ... Can't do i t . C a n ' t . " I : "You're t a l k i n g about a sense of purpose."  knowing  i n your h e a r t - o f - h e a r t s  E : "Uh huh. A s e n s e o f b e i n g g u i d e d ... I know i t ' s there and I know I'm r e s p o n d i n g t o i t ..." ( l e a d i n g up to d i r e c t statement r e g a r d i n g h i s c a r e e r s h i f t ) . (3)  I : "What a r e y o u f e e l i n g hand on y o u r throat." there."  r i g h t now, I mean, I and "There's that  see your big grin  A: "That s a y s 'wouldn't that be n i c e , then there's nobody a t a l l ' ... l i k e t h e r e ' s no b e e f , now I would be moving one more s t e p , b e c a u s e I want t h e income ... a t the same t i m e I_ c a n h i r e p e o p l e and I c a n g e t a c u t o f t h e i r p a y . And t h a t ' s k i n d o f g o i n g f u l l c i r c l e ! " (4) A: "The o n l y t h i n g t h a t comes t o mind was t h a t maybe on some strange level I h a d a f e e l i n g t h a t i f I went and worked a t i t , a l t h o u g h I d i d n ' t r e a l l y know what i t was about, was t h a t I would g e t more c o n t r o l a n d t h a t t h a t was c o m f o r t a b l e ..." I : " S o m e t h i n g l e d y o u t o i t ... d e s p i t e t h e f a c t you d i d n ' t g e t a l o t o f s u p p o r t from f r i e n d s . "  that  54  A: "Oh, quite the opposite ... I had s o m e t h i n g t h a t l o o k e d c o o l , f e l t c o o l , and ( f r i e n d s ) l o o k e d up t o , but i n r e t u r n I was s o m e t h i n g r e a l f o r me, r e a l - e r . " AND ... I: "That y o u r mom, A:  would be a d e s c r i p t i o n of how i s t h a t what you a r e s a y i n g ? "  "Yeah, t h a t  was  the  * oh  t o l e t go of that people going to get  you  dealt  with  god!'"  (5)  "Can you t e l l me s o m e t h i n g more a b o u t what you you s a y you've been t r y i n g t o move away from yucky s t u f f ? "  (6)  "I'm not l o o k i n g f o r a l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n of what came f i r s t , t h e c h i c k e n or t h e egg, but s i m p l y f o r what s e n s e y o u ' v e made of t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s . At  the  conclusion  invited  to  share  career  change  any in  relation  that  saturated.  Typically,  career Case  family  the on  roles,  subject his  was  or  her  w h i c h may  not  already.  the  s u b j e c t s had statement  i n t e r m s of  only  once  there  research provided  about  the  with  each  was  i s s u e had at  an been  least  one  meaning of  their  subject  was  family.  Portraits The  Meaning  audiotaped, the  to  e x p l o r a t i o n of  interpretive change  interview,  were t e r m i n a t e d  indication  direct  each  additional reflections  have been a r t i c u l a t e d Interviews  of  mean when all this  both to allow  interview  intensive  Interview  process  analysis.  the  itself After  researcher  and  to attend  to provide  completion  a data of  each  fully base  to for  Meaning  55  Interview, intently  t y p i c a l l y one to  each  researcher  this  time  subject's attended in  structure  listened  language,  repetition  some r o l e vocational  figures  from e a r l y  A shift  identified  where d i f f e r e n t  family  shift  and  the r o l e  and  first  was  each  career  and  implicit  of  identified  at  at  or  least  least  figures. as  i n the  reflected  of r o l e  figures,  one  and  The  quantitative  One  full  reasons rather  year  in descriptions  in  of r o l e  portrait  to and  the  of  career central  re-enactment family  role  qualitative  to develop a p o r t r a i t  time  was  in descriptions  implicit  year elapsed  one  in subject's  meaning o f t h e  for  between b e g i n n i n g d a t a  t h e c o m p l e t i o n of w r i t t e n This  repetitive  re-enactment  used  i n the p a t t e r n  were u s e d c o n j u n c t i v e l y  subjects.  logistical  use  particularly  was  from  c o n t e x t , as t h e s e r e l a t e d  The  subject.  collection  and  l a n g u a g e was  identified  the v o c a t i o n a l  portraits  specific  tape,  used p a r a l l e l language  family  i n the p a t t e r n  or c o n s i s t e n c i e s  patterns.  The  re-enactments  second c a r e e r  itself  shifts  response.  time t o each  re-enactment  assumed t o be  language.  all  a second  overall  arena.  of  family  subject's  and m e t a p h o r s was  of r o l e  dimension  of  listened  o f words and p h r a s e s t o d e s c r i b e  M e a n i n g was  in  the  t h o s e i n s t a n c e s where s u b j e c t s  precise  the r e s e a r c h e r  portions.  affect,  A pattern  of  closely  transcribing  to.  long,  a u d i o t a p e , f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  themes, c o n t e n t and The  hour  case p o r t r a i t s lapse  for  occurred  for  than f o r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l ones;  the  56  procedural and  case  types  s t e p s of  Interview t r a n s c r i p t i o n ,  w r i t e - u p took  of  case  a year  reviews  to complete.  are  data  analysis,  R e s u l t s of  r e p o r t e d i n Chapter  both  V of  this  to  lend  year  after  following  the  study. Case P o r t r a i t Two further the  t y p e s of  case  credibility  Meaning  completion reviewed  to each  Interviews of  review  prolonged  were  portrait  illness  reviewed  and  cases  their  A,  to p a r t i c i p a t e  and  so  in this  subsequent provided  review travel.  verbal  t o the s u b j e c t s e l f - r e v i e w s  Meaning  of e a c h  procedure  for  each  verbal type of  following  was  case  I n t e r v i e w , and  provided  informal,  then  feedback review  read  to the  (Subject Subject K  process The  due  A was to  nine subjects  feedback  open-ended  to  the  interview.  occurring,  implemented.  listened  ten subjects  case  forth).  Simultaneous  reviewer  an  own  through  review  One  conducted,  researcher  case  employed  t h e c a s e w r i t e - u p s , n i n e of t h e  case  unavailable  were  case a n a l y s i s .  t h e c a s e w r i t e - u p on  reviewed  who  Reviews  An  a  second  independent  to the a u d i o t a p e s of  the  the  and  case  researcher.  write-up The  parameters  a r e d e s c r i b e d i n more d e t a i l  in  the  sections.  Subject Interviews,  each  Self-Review. s u b j e c t was  One  year  c o n t a c t e d by  after the  the Meaning  r e s e a r c h e r and  57  given  the case  year  portrait  between  Self-Review  the  was  methodological  a  and  case  stated  part  subjects  expressed  of  the  (Subject and  a  It  may  that the  10  subjects  full  after  through  often highly  willingness  doing  were  researcher  asked with  clearly  was  All  write-up  a  ten and  self-review.  extended her  not  from  travel following  to provide a findings  review.) to  note  t h e Q - s o r t i n g and e x p l o r i n g  Meaning write-up  Interviews,  a l l  nine  t o be a t l e a s t p e r s o n a l l y  personally illuminating.  Once s u b j e c t s a g r e e d they  to  of the o v e r a l l  the  the case  due  elapsed  I t was  the  a  analyzed,  study.  a b l e t o do  which prevented  interest  and  i n r e a d i n g the case  were  illness  than  p e r i o d that  the  one  Subject  rather  synthesized.  in  of  the  the Subject Self-Review  interest  year  found  and  and  participation  expressed  to the  results  the time  lapse  and  decision  scheduling c o n f l i c t s  w i t h her add  that  actually  K had  one  valid,  of  p e r i o d of  through  prepared  subjects  required  9  time  Interview  logistical T h i s was  The  I n t e r v i e w s were t r a n s c r i b e d  write-ups to  Meaning  one.  w h i l e the Meaning  write-up.  to review  their  case  write-up,  t o read w i t h a view towards p r o v i d i n g the verbal  feedback  on  the  following  three  questions: 1) D i d the r e s e a r c h e r a c c u r a t e l y p o r t r a y your Does t h e p o r t r a i t " r i n g t r u e " f o r you? 2)  I s t h e p o r t r a y a l p l a u s i b l e , even t h o u g h or d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e f o r you?  experience?  i t may  be a  new  58  3)  Did the importance  Subject  researcher leave t o the p i c t u r e ?  comments a r e  given  to  graduate Eight  Interview  independent  reviewer.  training  reviewers  reviewed  two  Each case  of t h e M e a n i n g  an  level  anything  r e p o r t e d i n Chapter  Independent Reviews. the a u d i o t a p e  out  in  reviewed  cases.  one  of  o n l y one  Each  V of  the  was  study.  with  case,  was  reviewer  had  social  case;  central  together  that  Each  the  reviewer  this  study, for  of  sciences.  ninth  reviewer  instructed  as  follows: 1)  F i r s t l i s t e n t o t h e a u d i o t a p e d i n t e r v i e w . A t t e n d t o and note instances of leading questions, inappropriate r e f l e c t i o n by t h e i n t e r v i e w e r , or any o t h e r t y p e of the i n t e r v i e w e r i n f l u e n c e on t h e s u b j e c t ' s r e s p o n s e .  2) W h i l e you of what intending 3)  l i s t e n , f o r m u l a t e an i m p r e s s i o n of t h e e s s e n c e the research subject, the interviewee, is t o communicate.  A f t e r you have a s s e s s e d t h e audiotape for interviewer objectivity, and formulated your own p o r t r a i t of t h e s u b j e c t , r e a d t h e Case P o r t r a i t w r i t e - u p w i t h a view to a d d r e s s i n g these q u e s t i o n s : Does t h e Case P o r t r a i t w r i t e - u p a c c u r a t e l y p o r t r a y what t h e s u b j e c t i n t e n d e d t o communicate? Has a n y t h i n g Case S u b j e c t  4)  As  of i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of been o m i t t e d o r i n any way d i s t o r t e d ?  Feel free to give your v e r b a l l y or i n w r i t i n g . with  the  independent  subject reviews  assessment  self-reviews, are  reported  the  to the  findings  i n Chapter  V.  the  researcher from  the  59  CHAPTER  IV  QUANTITATIVE RESULTS  Given  that  people  vocational  arena,  transition  f r o m the be  re-enact  what point  question  can  explored  present  data.  from two  overlapping  is  the  of v i e w of in  a  was A  correspondence  statistically ±.30.  On  population  at  the  .05  between  basis  transformation, of  it ±.30  level  When figures,  four  attended  to:  if  ways  This  with  were  the  examined  two  testing  the  higher  is  (Glass & Stanley,  was  role.  accepted  correlation  hypothesis using that  a  that  Fisher's  as of the Z  correlation significant  c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e  types  correspondences  f a m i l y members, self,  role  1970).  the  c o - w o r k e r s t o v a r i a n t of  salient  statistically  examining of  a  i s 0,  concluded  salient  other  roles was  coefficient  Roles  f o r each  there  was  or  to  of every  any  of  1) c o - w o r k e r s t o s a l i e n t 2)  of  the  vocational  f a m i l y drama?  group r e s u l t s  Q-sort  the Q - s o r t  correlation  coefficient  the  significant  the  of  in  angles.  each s u b j e c t ,  c o r r e l a t e d with  the  variety  In t h i s c h a p t e r ,  roles  meaning  C o r r e l a t i o n s Among Q - S o r t s A c c o r d i n g For  family  were  salient  particularly  60  3) s e l f - i n - v o c a t i o n a l  role(s)  4) s e l f - i n - v o c a t i o n a l members. The  role(s)  findings regarding  their  general  discussed  these  relevance  the  salient  Vocation  Of t h e s e ,  2.  co-workers  correspondences,  research  figure  and  to  .83);  the  to  44  and  question,  2  latter  were  corresponded  ranged  c o - w o r k e r was a v i r t u a l  are  when  instance,  correspondences  compared w i t h  It  that  construed  as  the  variants  those  For both  an  Also,  correspondences  i t  Vocation 1  strong  that the  shifted  i n both  from t h e V o c a t i o n  1 arena  of  appeared and  (.30  family  a prior  of co-workers  one  early  co-workers  2 arena. could  be  f a m i l y member, and t h a t  o b s e r v a t i o n h e l d across v o c a t i o n a l arenas  individual.  1 and 33  i t appeared of  for  least  from t h e V o c a t i o n  majority of  at  from m i l d t o v e r y  re-embodiment  were d i r e c t l y appeared  figures  elicited  to  The s t r e n g t h o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s  directions  salient  from V o c a t i o n  from t h e f a m i l y a r e n a .  2, c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s in  1  35 c o - w o r k e r s  from V o c a t i o n  and  across  family  F o r t h e t e n s u b j e c t s , 39 c o - w o r k e r s  for Vocation  this  different  to  were e l i c i t e d  figure.  other  do c o - w o r k e r s c o r r e s p o n d  the f a m i l y arena?  salient  to  v a r i a n t s of s e l f ,  below.  First, from  t o other  that family  for a  the  given  pattern  figures  of  shifted  vocational contexts. Second,  oneself?  In  do other  objectifications  co-workers words,  of s e l f ?  correspond do  t o a v a r i a n t of  co-workers  Of t h e 39 c o - w o r k e r s  serve  as  i n Vocation  61  1,  16 c o r r e l a t e d  from one  the other  roles).  early  Of  and  oneself.  of s e l f  (basic,  correlated  to  (Refer  a s p e c t s of s e l f  (basic  enactment other  for  each  enactment  self  of  shift  the  significant  20  self  early  family  variant  as v a r i a n t a  of of  a s p e c t s of  tendency  Vocation  1  to  towards  Vocation  of  the  ideal,  two  role correspond  self-as-son  self-as-childhood  roles,  other  roles  vocational  2.  Does  the p a r t i a l  self  in instances vocational  roles  Does  into  of v o c a t i o n a l self  roles  t h e one n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n  self-as-vocational roles  (basic,  role  1  self  the  roles  apparent  a vocational  role  transition?  In  rated,  here.  corresponded  ideal,  the  enactment  p a r t i c u l a r l y those other with vocation?  other  daughter,  peer)?  include  arenas  with  or  c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h a t l e a s t one o t h e r  Case G p r o v i d e d G,  self,  a r e not a s s o c i a t e d  of  correlated  one o t h e r  t h e r e was  from  of v o c a t i o n a l  integration  19  17  t o Appendix A ) .  self-as-sibling,  that  to at least  1 and 2, t h e m a j o r i t y  be c o n s t r u e d  e x a m i n e d , does s e l f - a s - v o c a t i o n a l  of  self-role  numbers o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s between c o - w o r k e r s and  Third,  selves  2,  from t h e  to at least  In 9 o f t h e 10 c a s e s ,  variant  one  self-in-vocational  in Vocation  f o r both Vocations  appeared  least  ideal,  t o a t l e a s t one f i g u r e  Thus,  increased  at  drama, and 26 c o r r e l a t e d  t h e 44 c o - w o r k e r s  37  co-workers self.  family  variant  significantly drama  s i g n i f i c a n t l y to  t h e r e was a self For  role. subject  to three  self-as-son)  other while  62  self-as-vocational self  roles.  This  role  This  role  i n the role  notion  was  supported  subject  vocational  with  other  choice.  role  and o t h e r  enactments;  vocational  and to  self-as-son only  a role  may Case  role,  while  early  family  G  t h e r e appeared  related that  1  partially drama? the  this  vocational  t o be a  shift  self-as-vocational  example,  in  corresponded  figures?  with  daughter,  as grandchild,  the r e p e r t o i r e  i t appears  suggests of  t o the  across  Case  B,  to s e l f - a s - s i b l i n g role  2 corresponded  ( r e f e r t o Appendix B ) .  associated  in  subject  intimately  self-as-vocational  family  i s one a l s o  Thus  i n the s t a b i l i t y  For  role  self-as-son,  salient  1.  be  F o u r t h , does s e l f - a s - v o c a t i o n a l early  from t h e f a m i l y  r o l e s , when t h e d a t a was e x a m i n e d  contexts.  self-as-vocational  life.  of correspondences  o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s between self  in  data c o l l e c t i o n ,  with Vocation  For a l l ten subjects,  the pattern  early  G,  i t was n o t  among t h e t e n who had r e t u r n e d  r e l a t i o n s h i p may p l a y  in  experienced  by t h e l a c k  r o l e enactment  role  f o r subject  r o l e and any f i g u r e s  enactment a s s o c i a t e d  that  that,  t o any o t h e r  2 was a l i e n t o him, t h a t  F u r t h e r m o r e , one y e a r a f t e r  G was t h e s o l e role  suggested  repertoire  between t h i s v o c a t i o n a l arena.  d i d not correspond  comparison  self-as-vocational anchored  2  of e a r l y  enacting When  early  In  the  family  correspond  enacting a  self-roles  from that  (self-as-son  a s p e e r ) were  family  figures,  to  vocational  a r o l e model  drama  as s i b l i n g , salient  role  the were or  included then  18  63  of  the  least  20  one  self-as-vocational  role associated  exception, exception  Case here  G,  is  discussed  The  finding is consistent  as  "a  i n the  self-made  subject's  his Vocation When  the  of  considered,  the  lack  then  is elucidated  13  of  the  appears  that  necessarily figures that  include  i n the  the  re-enactment  of  at  repertoire  the  early  modelling  of  role  partial  enactment least  family.  in a vocational  was  complementary  For  example,  i n Case A  self-as-vocational  there  roles  nature  f i g u r e of  family  from  the was  the was  correspondences figures.  complementary  a  family  and  self-as-sister  i s the  correspondence  complement complement  apparent that  between  However,  early self  i s the  no  role  re-enacted.  an  self-as-daughter  full  were no  to  the  self-role  r o l e e n a c t m e n t and  s e e n as  family however,  role  a  not  included  Where t h e r e  family  figure.  of  I t does appear,  the  be  in  not  did  re-enactment  arenas there  can  were  family  both v o c a t i o n a l vocational  this  Interview.  enactment  role  was  himself  father,  family  and  V).  of  Meaning  early  r o l e enactment,  to another  v i e w of  typically one  (Chapter  self-as-vocational roles  s e n s e of m o d e l l i n g .  vocational  here  the  l e a s t one  vocational  correspondences  i n the  20  One other  the  within  at  The  subject's  to the  drama.  above.  Interview  Furthermore,  examined c o r r e s p o n d e d w i t h a t It  of  w i t h the  self-roles  family  discussed  relatedness  2 role,  early  been  corresponded with  early  Case D Meaning  man."  sense  w i t h the  has  i s Case D;  roles  for  between  role,  which  figure  (e.g.,  of mother a n d / o r  father;  of  sister).  64  Principal  Components  For was  data,  figures of  on  the  i n order  solutions  component  was most  accounted  for  totally  to organize  is  vocational  level  element viewed  with  This  a  1,  and  range  component  across first  of  of  2 for  the  variance  the ten cases component  at  are  a  level  psychologically  the p r o p o s i t i o n  family  drama  continuity  i n t e r m s of f a m i l y  with the f i r s t  suggesting  within drama.  a  that  career  of  the arenas of  A d d i t i o n a l l y , f i g u r e s from both  2 were a s s o c i a t e d  was  f i g u r e s from a l l t h r e e  t h e component  support  re-enactment arena.  first principal  The  Vocation  o f ±.50 or g r e a t e r , of  the unrotated  salient  from t h e  Examination  f i n d i n g suggests that  providing  1 and V o c a t i o n a  that  the f i r s t  greater.  analysis  s e t by c l u s t e r i n g  t y p e s or components.  meaning t h a t  Family, Vocation  there  the data  interpretable.  domains were a s s o c i a t e d  interrelated,  components  In a l l t e n c a s e s t h e  mixed,  or  principal  c o r r e l a t i o n matrix derived  showed  by  56% t o 86%.  ±.50  a  into hypothetical  the  was  each s u b j e c t ,  conducted  Q-sort  Analysis  that  in  the  Vocation  component a t there  is  transition,  an  when  65  CHAPTER V  QUALITATIVE RESULTS: CASE  The chapter the  quantitative  provided  drama  of  data  support their  family  t h e phenomenon  the  drama t e n d e d  The  data  suggested  reflected  a shift  selected  for  general,  and more  important  to  particularly  presented  that  in their  previous re-enact  of  aspects  of  to hold across v o c a t i o n a l arenas. i n s t a n c e s of v o c a t i o n a l t r a n s i t i o n  re-enactment. specific  the  the  vocational setting.  of re-enactment  i n the f a m i l i a l  provide  in  f o r the n o t i o n that people  Furthermore, familial  STUDIES  role  However,  portraits  further  meaning  patterns these  were  data  were  of i n d i v i d u a l s  support,  of  that  and  would  to  be  examine  the v o c a t i o n a l t r a n s i t i o n i n  t e r m s of t h e f a m i l y drama. The synthesis  f o l l o w i n g case  of Q - s o r t  study  results  in  an  o f one h o u r , d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e  Q-sort  analysis  subject. researcher  to  identified  differing  of e a c h  identify  where  language used  I I I , each  s u b j e c t was  were s t r u c t u r e d a n d u s e d  The c o n t e n t  were  by t h e s u b j e c t  arenas.  For  to  when  As  interviewed for  draw  of the  out  the  reviewed  by t h e  Themes  were  themes.  parallels  upon a  Interview.  the r e s u l t s  i n t e r v i e w was  pervasive  there  were b a s e d  and t h e M e a n i n g  discussed average  Chapter  portraits  in  discussing  example, where s i m i l a r  descriptive dramas  from  language or  66  phrasing the  was  used  Mother-Daughter  reported  The abstracted original  verbatim  and  After write-up  intention  and  interview  as  true."  importance  may  presented  here  comments  and  subjects'  They  Self-Review  to  due  r e v i e w e r s each  reviewer audiotapes  to  The  by  a draft  or  asked  Subjects not  to  The  the  Subject the  was  subjects'  travels  and  not  level  training  establish  whether  critical the  only  the  i n the  one  not  Case  reviewer. social  case;  reviewers assessed or  for  illness).  graduate  The  not  what of  available  independent  cases.  each were  of  I n t e r v i e w and  reviewed  the  Self-Reviews  t o an  two  the  overall  identify  representative K  of  interview, to  presented  had  both  t o them, whether o r  of t h e M e a n i n g  most r e v i e w e r s  reviewed  interview.  sought.  as  (Subject  w r i t e - u p was  s c i e n c e s and  were  to extended  were the  full  the  whether  selected  Each a u d i o t a p e  The  was  were a b s t r a c t e d from  feedback.  the  maintaining  written,  after  have been o m i t t e d .  were  and  shift.  interviews  reviewed  was  p r e s e n t a t i o n "made s e n s e "  "rang  Portrait  a year  comment  probed  and  reviewer.  Case P o r t r a i t  critical  specifically  was  of  the c a r e e r  of  the  identified  dimension  while  of  portraits  presented,  was  as one  brevity  independent  each  was  subject,  an  theme  r e p r e s e n t e d by  and  of t h e s e c a s e by  a  transcriptions  for c l a r i t y  and  B o s s - E m p l o y e e dynamic  study p o r t r a i t  i n meaning  sense  accuracy subject  dynamic,  i n the case  meaning o r s h i f t  it  t o d e s c r i b e the  one the  interviewing  67  techniques write-ups  had  to  reflected  Case  the  This  whether material  a b s t r a c t e d f o r the  chapter  presents  s e l f - r e v i e w s , and  the  Case  the  interview  not  the  write-ups  or on  the e x c e p t i o n  "leading."  with  the  Reviews r e p o r t e d here  comments w i t h  Review F w h i c h was  and/or  in conjunction  establish  accurately  Independent  subject  open-ended  were a s s e s s e d  audiotapes  reviewers  been  are  of  tapes. the  the case independent  totality  Independent  sake of study case  The of  Case  brevity. portraits, reviews.  the  68  CASE STUDY A Background  living  A was  a 36  alone  in  required two  years  (Vocation of  year,  she  worked  Family  Dutch-born,  fashionable  1) as  began  work  level  woman,  Following  education,  a Master's  and  divorced  apartment.  post-secondary  A worked  architect.  a for  After  retraining lasting  approximately  (Vocation  a  representative;  at  in t h i s p o s i t i o n for  2)  the  as  t i m e of  six  registered  this  study,  she  years.  Experience A's  early  oppression  and  life  was  characterized  struggle,  particularly  dominant  negative  Holland  w i t h mother,  senior; ... and for  father  was  figure.  f a t h e r , and  a contractor  v i e w e d as  family"  "resentfully victim."  mother  by  an  in  Subject one  and  sister  experience relation  A  grew  eight  mother was  a  the  and, and  often  one  who  "wielded  paradoxically, negatively,  the  did  to  maliciously  a in  years  her  housewife: weak fight  most power so  of  up  as a c h i l d I s u p p o s e a p a r t of me was s o r t of under the thumb and r e p r e s s e d and h a v i n g t o s p a c e and a i r t o b r e a t h e my own ...  M o t h e r was the  old,  exploration  stockbroker's had  a  s i x y e a r s of  a period one  year  by ...  in  acting as  a  69  A's  major  mother t h r o u g h  role  was  one  of  s u p p o r t i n g and p l e a s i n g  performing:  I ' d a l w a y s be t h e one who'd m o t i v a t e h e r , and 'oh you can do i t - y o u ' r e w o n d e r f u l ' , t o g e t h e r t o g e t h e r a c t together ... t o be more p o s i t i v e ... t h e o t h e r t h i n g I d i d w i t h my mother was, i n o r d e r t o a p p e a s e t h e gods her was to be s o r t of s u c k y and u n t h r e a t e n i n g and undemanding and c o m p r o m i s i n g ... a l w a y s p u t t i n g out The  mother-daughter  experienced separately  as from  particularly her  sister,  dynamic  may  intense  virtually  since as an  have A  only  was  been raised  child:  She ( s i s t e r ) b e i n g 8 years older, we grew up very separately. My mother had a one-to-one r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h me and did very little or nothing to foster anything between the two of us ... she was j u s t t h a t o t h e r p e r s o n - we d i d n ' t r e a l l y r e l a t e . When r e l a t i n g  as a dyad, A  storybook-like"  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  and  -  positive"  o v e r s h a d o w e d by, A's  t h o u g h he  mother's s t r o n g  experience  relationship  was  of mother  to a maternal  experienced  an  father - "close, seen  "almost pleasant,  as d e f e r e n t i a l  to,  and  control. was  contrasted  with  her  aunt:  Being w i t h my a u n t was j u s t a d e l i g h t . I t was l i k e t h e bonus you got f o r s t r u g g l i n g a l l year ... I ' d get a little spoiled and patted on t h e head and t o l d I was c u t e ... A's with  "all-year  mother  demonstrate her  and  s t r u g g l e " was, more  w o r t h and  as  particularly, elicit  noted, with  associated working  to  approval:  ... I t ' s a f e e l i n g of p u l l i n g t h i n g s o u t of m y s e l f ... t h e word that comes to mind ... ' i t ' s not good enough. Keep t r y i n g h a r d e r and h a r d e r . ' F o r e v e r p u t t i n g  70  out. I f a p h r a s e came to mind i t would be busting your gut' on an emotional level, u n d e r s t a n d i n g l e v e l , on a g i v i n g l e v e l .  'really on an  Vocation 1 As an a r c h i t e c t , drama  of  herself  n e g a t i v e mother supported in  this  by  mother  The first  daughter  role  (.55),  (.43  and  was  to  be  re-enacting  in relation  The  indicating  re-creation  vocation  seemed  figures.  her a r c h i t e c t  were l i k e  as  A  Q-sort  A was and  like  t o dominant  correlation her  the and  matrix  self-as-daughter  b o t h h e r b o s s and  colleague  .35). of  this  further  interchangeable descriptions  early  suggested o f t h e two  life by  drama i n A's  her  somewhat  arenas:  ... [ b e i n g an architect] required a p u l l i n g out of y o u r s e l f t o put i t on paper ... p a r t of the whole creative p r o c e s s , but i n a n i c e , p o s i t i v e way . . . It was v e r y , v e r y f r u s t r a t i n g . I t was on your shoulders and i t was l i k e an a l b a t r o s s . At t h e same t i m e i t hung a r o u n d you a l l t h e t i m e , i t wouldn't l e t go ... I remember just working 36 hours straight ... I redesigned e i g h t t i m e s , each time for different r e a s o n s s o m e t h i n g had t o c h a n g e . W i t h my mom, no m a t t e r how h a r d you t r i e d i t was n e v e r good enough. T h e r e was j u s t n e v e r a p o i n t where y o u were g o i n g to get (sigh) oh, a l l t h a t s u p p o r t o r l o v e ... you needed as a c h i l d . The more you gave, t h e more she demanded - i t was a l w a y s 'more, more'. I s u p p o s e t h e r e was t h a t s i m i l a r i t y . More between  particularly,  other role  figures  A  drew  i n her  direct  arena  as  correspondences architect  and  mother: ... I think that project [ i n a r c h i t e c t u r e ] was v e r y b l a c k and w h i t e ... between p e o p l e who were g e t t i n g u s e d and t h o s e t h a t were h a n d i n g i t out, and I'd say my  71  mother also belongs on the other side ... p e o p l e who were n o n s u p p o r t e r s , t a k e r s , In experience elaborated  response  to  in  vocational  on  this  a  direct  the re-enactment  query  of t h a t d i t c h and no h e a r t .  regarding  her  arena, A again v e r i f i e d  of her e a r l y  and  mother-daughter  drama: Oh j u s t e n d l e s s l y g i v i n g , n e v e r good enough, more, more, more, ... and d e f i n i t e l y f e e l i n g under t h e power of t h e p e o p l e who were demanding ... t h e y were i n c o n t r o l o f me and what I had t o put o u t , j u s t l i k e m o t h e r . "  Vocation  2 By c o n t r a s t ,  seemed  t o be  others.  As  as a  relatively  stockbroker's disengaged  representative,  from e f f o r t s  at  A  pleasing  she e x p l a i n e d i t :  I'm s e l f - e m p l o y e d t o a d e g r e e ... nobody t e l l s me what to do ... i t ' s r e a l l y up t o me, j u s t a s l o n g as I p l a y f a i r ... so now I've got c o n t r o l ! ... I have control over me. Nobody p u s h e s me a r o u n d . I d o n ' t have t o do a n y t h i n g o u t of ' n i c e n e s s ' .  As  a  stockbroker's  re-created s e n s e of  more  role,  Additionally, a  a sisterly  A  influence  was  like  everyone  figure  (.39)  and  (.327) and a u n t  seemed  to  by t h e o t h e r .  her  have  In  self-as-sister  in  or an a u n t aunt  A  drama o f e q u a l s t a t u s and  from  virtually  sister  self-as-sister sister  of  independence  vocational  either  representative,  this figure:  (.40);  arena  colleague  (.419); s u p p o r t s t a f f  was  this  (.41).  was  client  a  like  was was  like  like like  sister  72  (.459) and aunt  aunt  (.74); and  (.339).  "sisterly" following  When  drama was  mentor was  the  on  the  sister  researcher's  shared with A  elaboration  like  she  n a t u r e of  (.448)  impression  responded her  and  of  with  a the  self-as-sister:  I'm the l o g i c a l one. I make s m a r t , r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s and I'm v e r b a l l y h a n d i n g them out t o her i n as c o v e r t a way as p o s s i b l e ... a c t u a l l y I'm t h e l i t t l e s i s t e r , but I k i n d of f e e l bad a b o u t t h e way her l i f e i s going and every once in a w h i l e we s i t down and say ' w e l l , you c o u l d do t h i s and t h i s , you c o u l d do that and that.' It's not the same s o r t of g u t - p u l l i n g t y p e of s t u f f as w i t h mother a t a l l . We j u s t s i t , we talk, we discuss ... and I'm s o r t of t h e " a d v i c e " p e r s o n ... I d o n ' t come across that way but I f e e l t h a t way i n s i d e . So t h a t would t e n d t o be s i m i l a r t o t h e r o l e I play at work, which i s : I get a l l t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , I o r g a n i z e i t and I s p i t i t back out ... i t is something that can be learned and i t ' s something t h a t ' s i n t u i t i v e and o v e r t i m e you s o r t of s y n t h e s i z e t h e two.  Vocational  Transition  In  switching  representative, the  seemed  architect  of  sister.  Her  enactment striving the  greater with a  accepted role of  in  an  to please  latter  niece the  shifted  relating  more  stockbroker's  aunt  on  re-enacting  positively and  mother-daughter  ungiving,  drama she  stature,  to  inadequate, an  to  t o have s h i f t e d from  m o t h e r - d a u g h t e r drama, t o t h e  dramas  In  A  from  powerless  connoted  distantly caring drama figure  demanding a u t h o r i t y to  a  role  of  more d i s t a n t but  was  an  forever figure.  relatively equal  terms  loving figure.  I f t h e r e ' s a n y t h i n g t h a t I wanted, i t was to dump a l l t h a t mother s h i t and i f t h e r e ' s a n y t h i n g t h a t I d i d want is something that to me, means more n e u t r a l . Where,  73  w e l l one: a s e n s e t h a t I'm more i n c o n t r o l o f i t where it's not p u l l i n g myself away and, o r g r a s p i n g upward where t h e r e ' s t h a t s e n s e o f d o m i n a t i o n c o m i n g down a t me where I d o n ' t h a v e c o n t r o l - where i t ' s - okay, how do you c a l l i t ? - t h e r e ' s a word f o r t h a t , t h a t j u s t does i t - a s e n s e o f , urn, where I_ r e a c t a s I_ c h o o s e , where I don't - where I a c t and n o t r e a c t , where I_ m o t i v a t e me t o go i n w h a t e v e r d i r e c t i o n I_ c h o o s e . Whereas I'm n o t as much o f a p u p p e t , where I'm n o t a s much l e f t a t t h e whims o f o t h e r s , where I don't feel as manipulated, whereas I d o n ' t f e e l a s p u s h e d a r o u n d by c i r c u m s t a n c e . And t h a t ' s a l l h a v i n g t o w i t h people like sister and aunt. ... I n e v e r f e l t t h a t she ( s i s t e r ) e v e r had any s a y o v e r me. I was n e v e r i n r e a c t i o n t o h e r , l i k e , I was f o r e v e r r e a c t i n g t o my mother - a l w a y s , b u t a s t o my s i s t e r - no reaction, t o my d a d , v e r y l i t t l e and t o my a u n t - she d i d n ' t make t h a t y o u had t o r e a c t , y o u c o u l d j u s t be and you. c o u l d f e e l k i n d o f good a b o u t who y o u were ... The against the  family  authority  career  drama themes o f o p p r e s s i o n versus  themes o f  self-employed  freedom  being  in  and  reacting  from c o n t r o l , p a r a l l e l e d  service  to  others  versus  and i n c o n t r o l :  I felt t h a t ... a s an a r c h i t e c t y o u were i n s e r v i c e t o someone who was i n s e r v i c e . I t was l i k e t o o f a r removed down t h e p i k e ... y o u ' r e t w i c e a s removed from any s e n s e of seeing the daylight at a l l ... and here [stockbroker's representative] I'm only i n service to a l l of those t h i n g s t h a t a d e v e l o p e r a l s o has t o worry about ... b u t I c a n even m a n i p u l a t e t h o s e b e t t e r t h a n a d e v e l o p e r ... I n f a c t r e c e n t l y I've come up w i t h some i d e a s t h a t i n a b o u t two o r t h r e e y e a r s I c a n open my own firm ... I_ c a n h i r e p e o p l e and I c a n g e t a c u t o f t h e i r pay, and t h a t ' s k i n d o f g o i n g f u l l c i r c l e ...  74  CASE STUDY B Background B was a 46 y e a r nearly  ten  marriage  years;  lived  sporadic  neighbourhood, naturalistic  him and In  forest  with c o l o u r f u l  undertook  year  his  production, variety  of  a  flexible  and class  t o have c u l t i v a t e d yard;  an a r t i s t ' s  work  in  Three years  later  in  inside, country  several years  counselling  B.A. i n  a  their haven,  engineering,  particle he  physics  switched  Urban P l a n n i n g .  in theatre arts,  and  of  from h i s f i r s t  an u p p e r - m i d d l e  to their  of being  Masters  of t r a i n i n g  on  marriage  p a i n t i n g s and o b j e c t s of n a t u r e .  Masters  completed  appeared  look  second  daughters  of  o b t a i n i n g an h o n o u r s  thermodynamics.  a  wife  midst  B and h i s w i f e wild  After  his  the  home gave t h e i m p r e s s i o n filled  in  two a d o l e s c e n t  with  basis.  o l d man  one y e a r  training  and  and and  B a l s o had one  of nonacademic  approaches  fields  B  in  film  training  in a  psychological  theories. His  first  environmental;  vocation  his  second  was  as  a  planner,  vocation  was  u r b a n and as  an  artist/therapist. Adopted  at  age two, B grew up a s t h e o n l y c h i l d o f  Canadian parents  i n western Canada.  adopted  at  status  Having  learned  a b o u t age 10, he knew no o t h e r  of h i s family.  75  Both maternal upbringing,  and p a t e r n a l g r a n d p a r e n t s and  close ties  family  i n the r e g i o n .  Family  Experience B's  experience  early of  family  distinction  life  purposive  l o v e d and n u r t u r e d .  B  were kept  was  belonging explained  i n terms of h i s adopted  were a c t i v e  in his  with a large  extended  characterized and  his  of being sense  an  uniquely  of  status with  by  positive  the family:  ... I was a d o p t e d y o u s e e ... I t h i n k , b e c a u s e o f t h a t , when y o u ' r e a d o p t e d y o u have a s t r o n g s e n s e o f 'Karmic' c o n n e c t i o n w i t h y o u r p a r e n t s - t h e a d o p t e d p a r e n t s ... I have a very, v e r y s t r o n g s e n s e t h a t was an o m n i p o t e n t a s p e c t o f my own p a r e n t s [ a d o p t i v e ] t r u t h they loved t h a t ... b e i n g p a r e n t s .  On  this  parents  visited  little  girl,  approaching of  being  theme,  B  related  t h a t when h i s a d o p t i v e  the orphanage, o s t e n s i b l y B,  age  two,  actively  h e r and " v i c e - g r i p p i n g "  specially  loved  was  to  chose  her l e g .  reflected  in  "shop"  for a  h i s mother by B's  experience  the  following  comments: I  a l w a y s f e l t v e r y l o v e d , b u t I f e l t l o v e d a c e r t a i n way that I was a c t u a l l y p r o v i d i n g ( l a u g h ) . L i k e I was s e r v i n g by b e i n g l o v e d ... I t was almost like being g r o u n d e d : my p a r e n t s l o v e d me, and I l o v e d t h e w o r l d and t h a t ' s how I s t i l l b a s i c a l l y f e e l . Further was h i s s t o r y a  picture  gathered  exemplifying  of the annual  B's  sense  of h i s role-as-son  family gathering.  He  presented  o f a young boy whose r a t h e r l a r g e e x t e n d e d  annually f o r a day-long  celebration  in  family  honour  of  76  his the  birthday, f a m i l y by  out  of t h e i r  love  f o r him;  p r o v i d i n g them w i t h  a  he  focus  in turn for  served  an  annual  reunion. B's  primary  peer  relationship  n e i g h b o u r h o o d b o y f r i e n d , a l s o an important  contrast  relationship  B  equivalent  of  characterized physical,"  had my  B's  to  N  early ,  brother,"  by  coupled  in  "pure  only  as child,  life  whom prior  B  a child  provided  experience. described  to  with  school  competitiveness,  a an  The  as  "the  age,  often  was very  with m i s t r u s t :  ... I never t r u s t e d because N was t h e k i n d of p e r s o n who, you know, you c o u l d o n l y go so f a r but then he'd turn and around and s t a b you ... t h a t ' s j u s t N---.. I d o n ' t t h i n k I'm making that up, that's the kind of person he was. He wasn't nasty, i t ' s j u s t ... he h i m s e l f was d r i v e n w i t h s u c h a c o m p e t i t i v e q u a l i t y that that would o v e r r u l e any s e n s e of l o y a l t y or c o m p a s s i o n or r e a l l o v i n g t h i n g . The  physically  competitiveness classroom  as  with  N  combative shifted  expression in  the c o n t e x t  of of  the  B saw i t :  I was a l w a y s p u s h i n g l i m i t s and I was d o i n g i t i n a way on behalf of a l o t of t h e o t h e r k i d s who d i d n ' t have t h a t b e n t ... t o q u e s t i o n so d e e p l y and so p e r v a s i v e l y . And i t was not out o f a s e n s e of competition with the teacher or a power p l a y , but a g a i n , t h a t g r a p p l i n g w i t h t h e f r o n t i e r l e v e l - 'gosh, our u n d e r s t a n d i n g c a n ' t s t o p h e r e ...' ( l a u g h ) I t ' s a l w a y s k i n d of driven me in a way, automatically. So I d e f i n i t e l y moved away f r o m t h a t p e r s o n a l l e v e l of c o m p e t i t i o n with N to this o t h e r k i n d of r o l e ... i t ' s r e a l l y s i m i l a r t o how I f e e l now.  77  Vocation 1 B's  vocation  in  the f i e l d  of planning,  and  environmental,  spanned a t h i r t e e n  age  26 t o 39 y e a r s  of age.  this  period  environmental  he  was  During  a  period  the l a s t  partner  consulting firm  year  in  in  a  a  four  both  urban  from  about  years  relatively  'hands-on'  of  large  management  role. As  manager  in  an e n v i r o n m e n t a l  seemed t o be r e - e n a c t i n g experienced  in early  While  B was  t h e drama of b r o t h e r l y  like  s e l f - a s - s o n and mother i n b o t h h i s  and s e c o n d v o c a t i o n a l r o l e s ,  also  like  self-as-brother  around  him  were  like  observations  response to the p a r a l l e l vocational the  arena,  his  (Family  These  Experience)  Also,  in this  "surrograte  between h i s c o l l e a g u e s  were  he  arena,  brother"  brother,  i n the B  and m i s t r u s t w i t h both  in relation  was  not s u r p r i s e B a t a l l .  and h i s s u r r o g a t e  themes  i n the f i r s t  .379).  did  themes o f c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s  arena.  only  (.465).  (colleague a:.637/client-lawyer: These  competition  life.  first  those  consulting firm, B  referred  to  t o B's s u r r o g a t e  In  first  associated this  career  previously brother:  ... t h a t competitive role and that competitive r e l a t i o n s h i p and b e i n g i n t h a t b u s i n e s s i t ' s how I viewed and held them, and t h e r e ' s no q u e s t i o n t h a t I l e a r n e d about t h a t w i t h N and however I created i t there [with surrogate brother] I created i t [ i n the b u s i n e s s ] ... t h a t ' s t h e way I h e l d t h o s e p e o p l e i n t h e firm, a b i t M a c h i a v e l l i a n i n a way ... I d i d n o t e n j o y  78  a t a l l t h e more ' d i s h o n e s t ' f o r m s of competition that went on i n the f i r m - l i t t l e power p l a y s , m a n i p u l a t i o n s , withholding information ... c e r t a i n l y , there's a competitiveness that I had in my role with N [brother] that was definitely present f u n c t i o n i n g in t h a t f i r m [ V o c a t i o n 1] - a k i n d of c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s that I no l o n g e r have any s e n s e of i n my l i f e ... o n e - u p p i n g e a c h o t h e r , b e i n g b e t t e r t h a n , k i n d of a whole striving t h i n g b a s e d on b e a t i n g t h e o t h e r guy out - i n a way .... With N i t was j u s t a p u r e , p u r e c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s , and very physical often. In t h e f i r m ... i t was a b i t of a dilemma. One p a r t of me w o u l d compete and want to do well in those terms, in t e r m s of my p e r f o r m a n c e and where I was i n t h e f i r m , how p o w e r f u l . I was, and there was another p a r t of me t h a t wanted t o be more t r u t h f u l t o who I r e a l l y was.  T h e r e was  a l s o a p o s i t i v e l y connoted p a r a l l e l  vocational role  enactment  s u p p o r t e d by  this  and  B's  between  early brotherly  this  competitive  description:  ... I j u s t l o v e d p l a y i n g t h a t game ( l a u g h ) . All those lawyers, the s o r t o f r e p a r t e e , I was p l a y i n g w i t h c o u r t t e s t i m o n y ... a g a i n t h a t competitive game, trying to ' g e t ' you and t h e n you come and g e t back t o them ( l a u g h ) ... I played a lot of s p o r t s when I was young and I e n j o y e d the c o m p e t i t i v e element i n t h a t sense. I think t h e o t h e r t h i n g I r e a l l y l i k e d a b o u t the c o u r t s i t u a t i o n was i t was a lot like s p o r t s - t h e r u l e s were r e a l clear. I t i s , w a s , a r e a l p u r e c o m p e t i t i v e game and you could play i t and you d i d n ' t have t o be s l e a z y ... i t was an h o n e s t f i g h t ... and I l o v e d t h a t .  2  Vocation  In d i s c u s s i o n  with B  i t was  "artist-therapist"  would s e r v e  vocation.  While  his actual  included  painting,  counselling  here  and  that  the  to describe  his  r a n g e of v o c a t i o n a l  producing  individuals  agreed  theatrical groups,  he  title  present  activities  events, viewed  of  all  and his  79  vocational  activities  activities  of  termed  consultant,  both  therapeutic  "creative After  as  value,  spent  four  years  participating  i n , and  roles  in,  variety  a  wide  workshops o r i e n t e d  to  creative  and  expression an  self-as-brother corresponded  both  l e a v i n g h i s p o s i t i o n as B  expressions i n v o l v i n g what  and he  dialogue."  period,  As  artistic  manager/environmental  in  an  sometimes a s s u m i n g of  activities,  self-development  no  in  longer  most t o mother  leadership groups,  the  the  present.  areas  (.5)  again,  and  parallel  self-as-artist/therapist  meaningful  t o B and  significance  of h i s c a r e e r  change  this  to s e l f - a s - s o n  were,  particularly  element  In  These o b s e r v a t i o n s between  training  and of  self-awareness.  artist-therapist, was  informal  unsurprising  prompted him in t h i s  to  to to  of  role  B  (.36). B.  The  mother  was  share  the  light:  I have a v e r y s t r o n g s e n s e of t h e w o r l d moving i n t o a more f e m i n i n e mode, t o t a l l y . And I have a very strong sense ... t h a t my changing careers i s very r e l a t e d to t h a t ... h a v i n g a c a r e e r and p l a y i n g those competitive games t h a t have s u s t a i n e d a g r e a t number of men's s e n s e of p u r p o s e ... the whole m y t h o l o g y of b u s i n e s s and all that that's about and now ... h a v i n g t o ... c r e a t e a ... m y t h o l o g y of p u r p o s e o u t s i d e of t h a t r e a l m , i n t e r m s o f a r e a l m of j u s t l i v i n g - w h i c h women have more done in any event just b e c a u s e of t h e r o l e t h a t t h e y p l a y ... t h a t ' s a much l e s s s t r u c t u r e d game t h a n men can p l a y ... I think the artist's ... mode is a very good training ground for men - for a l l people right now. B e c a u s e ... i t g i v e s a h i s t o r i c a l l e g i t i m a c y and basis f o r e v o l v i n g l i f e i n a d i f f e r e n t mode ... what an a r t i s t always has ... been the person that e v o l v e d o u t of t h e m s e l v e s t h e i r own meaning and p u r p o s e , not o u t of a structure ... and t h a t ' s v e r y much what happened t o me when I went from t h i s game of b u s i n e s s and c o n s u l t i n g e t c e t e r a t o t h i s ...  80  Vocational  Transition  In c h a n g i n g  r o l e s from V o c a t i o n  appeared  to  principle  to another;  their  have  parallel  shifted  in  B  his  early  identified  from  important  because of  their  may  be  specific  associated.  he  of  one  2,  life  experience. life  symbolic or  having  The  were v i e w e d by  meaning,  B  symbolic  b o t h p r i n c i p l e s as  early  behavioural As  enactment  identified  patterns  b e c a u s e of  from  1 to Vocation  rather  interactive patterns  role B  as  than that  explained i t :  In terms of p r i n c i p l e s not i n t e r m s of r o l e s a t a l l ... i t ' s t h e r i g h t b r a i n t a k i n g t h e l e a d and the left brain following r a t h e r t h a n the r e v e r s e ... I t ' s very much t h e r e a l s e n s e o f what the shift was for me rather than an environmental da-da-da to an a r t i s t / t h e r a p i s t - t h a t ' s i n a way m i s l e a d i n g ... i t was r e a l l y a s h i f t from t h e male p r i n c i p l e to the female, really, but also a much g r e a t e r move t o what I would c a l l my i n n a t e p u r p o s e i n l i f e ... It  could  a l s o be  reflected  a  paralleled  i n B's  his  move  role-as-son  as  away  said  that  from  the  early brotherly "special"  the  vocational  competitive  role,  channel  shift  striving,  as  to a  re-enactment  of  for  nurturance  and  love: I think i n t i m e I moved f r o m b e i n g c e n t r a l t o t h e f i r m t o b e i n g a k i n d of ' s p e c i a l c a s e ' - w h i c h has its own k i n d of power ... i n t h a t s e n s e I t h i n k I moved more and more to my natural role, the one t h a t f e l t t h e b e s t ... i n a v e r y i n t u i t i v e way. I think I was making a c h o i c e t o go ... t o where my h e a r t t o o k me, really.  81  In family  present  as a s p e c i a l  expanded within  his  to  v o c a t i o n , B's e a r l y  channel  for  experiencing  the g l o b a l  human  love  and  r o l e w i t h i n the nurturance  h i m s e l f as i n a s p e c i a l  had  position  community:  I a c t u a l l y sense t h i s t h i n g o f t a k i n g t h e n e x t s t e p t h a t the s p e c i e s has t o t a k e . I n a s e n s e , I'm d o i n g a kind of g l o b a l shamanism t r i p r e a l l y , i n t e r m s o f v i s i o n and knowledge ... I have a v e r y strong sense about that ... t h a t i n v o l v e s a much h i g h e r l e v e l o f c r e a t i v i t y and e x p l o r a t i o n r e a l l y t h a n t h e o t h e r forms o f competition, t h e more p e r s o n a l o n e s .  B role  later  p l a c e d t h e s c o p e o f h i s expanded  on a g r a n d e r  "satellite  s c a l e drawing  tuning s t a t i o n "  fulfilled  purpose  in  ... c o n s t a n t l y t u n i n g the  t h e metaphor o f h i m s e l f a s a  with his  "channel"  a role  sense  of  as  "Cosmic  i n on what's a c t u a l l y  special  going  and  Detective on  ... i n  cosmos." In  enacting  summation, B's t r a n s i t i o n  t h e male p r i n c i p l e  power-striving  to  enacting  a shift  from  of p e r s o n a l c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s  and  the  expanded e x p l o r a t i o n and c h a n n e l i n g  reflected  female  principle  of  an  of l o v e :  I g u e s s f o r me i n t h e end i t ' s a b o u t making connections ... and one way of making connections i s really competing with somebody ... t h e r e ' s that sense of really, really g r a p p l i n g , coming into combat with somebody and t h a t ' s t e r r i f i c and s o r t o f locking horns and being right there and c h r r r - very powerful, passionate thing. But I do that now much with my exploration i n t o t h e cosmos - l i k e I'm p l a y i n g w i t h t h e whole i d e a o f m o r p h o g e n e t i c fields a l o t now i n my painting and I'm making r e a l c o n n e c t i o n s t h e r e and i t ' s t h e same f e e l i n g a s c o m p e t i n g only I'm not competing with anything ... T h e r e ' s t h e same c o m b a t i v e s t r u g g l e t o p l a y i n g on t h e edge o f knowledge and understanding and o f t a k i n g t h e n e x t s t e p a n d p o p p i n g t h a t one open.  82  CASE STUDY C  Background C school-age housing  was  a  37  children  year  lived  old  divorced  w i t h him i n an  male;  urban  cooperative  Vocation  1  was  in  the  field  of  automotive  m e c h a n i c s ; h i s 13-year c a r e e r  included a four-year  and  apprenticeship  C s  this  field  period.  " h a n d s - o n " work.  During  entrepreneur,  of  social  services,  He  obtained  services,  and a t t h e t i m e  completion  of h i s  a  junior  s e p a r a t e l y from  physician;  mother  Irish-Catholic  he  study  related  of  2, i n t h e f i e l d  in  social  was w o r k i n g  towards  area,  with  a  i n an u p p e r m i d d l e - c l a s s  the  was  he was b r o t h e r  in his sibling  was  nanny  teacher  certification  One o f f o u r c h i l d r e n ,  when  and  view  work i n t h e f u t u r e .  C grew up i n E n g l a n d  teenagers  part-time  to Vocation  of t h i s  B.A. i n  towards d o c t o r a l l e v e l  his  staff  w o r k i n g a s a "human s e r v i c e s w o r k e r . "  paraprofessional  years  position in  supervising  and  A t age 34, C s h i f t e d  household.  full-time  training  the subsequent nine y e a r s , C  mechanics.  quite  last  was a s a s e n i o r m e c h a n i c ,  was a s u c c e s s f u l  three  two  development. Cs  doing  his  two a  a played  older  small  subset;  siblings,  child.  housewife. a  to a  central  role  sister  he grew up who  Father A  Jewish  were was  a  working-class in h i s early  83  years;  she  was  present  either  parent,  Family  Experience  and  Several that  he  was  and  relatively  C experienced  elements  disconnected more  of  his  chauffeur,  and  boyhood  With  Though  firstborn two  an  and  h i s own  friend to  his  only c h i l d  he  was  the  o n l y male  were s e v e r a l y e a r s  and  daily  a s an  early  life  important  experience  family unit  with  working-class,  respect  experientially  i n C's from  his  this  affiliated  comprised  life.  more o f t e n i n  a  than bond.  suggested of  birth,  "surrogate family,"  Irish-Catholic  Nanny,  his family.  own  sibling  group,  f o r the e a r l i e s t third  male  in his sibling  part  child,  sub-set,  he  as  C  was  of  his  was  the  the  first  his senior:  T h e r e ' s a s c h i s m i n my f a m i l y between my two siblings who grew up through adolescence with a f a m i l y , and m y s e l f and [ y o u n g e r ] s i b l i n g who grew up m o s t l y with a nanny. Of their  his  sibling,  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e f o r e C was  experience on,  younger  he  of  experienced  relationship deep, and intimacy death.  the  with  death a his  11,  of t h e i r warm,  no  when  recollection  they  father.  supportive,  sister.  well-established loving t h e y have s h a r e d  C had  shared  s i n c e the  time  of  the  From t h a t p o i n t and  loving  C b e l i e v e d t h a t an bond p a v e d  of  t h e way their  early, f o r the  father's  84  As until  with  after his  sister,  C had  father's  no  r e c o l l e c t i o n of  h i s mother  death:  M o t h e r i s h a r d l y i n the p i c t u r e . The f i r s t image I have i s h e r h y s t e r i a and i n a b i l i t y t o f u n c t i o n after father died. C e r t a i n l y not of i m p o r t a n c e . Cs extended For  early  t o h i s e x p e r i e n c e and  most  of  exclusively being  s e n s e of d i s c o n n e c t i o n  his  adult  focused  on  concerned  with  performance experience  work and  of  his  father that  brotherliness  i n t o h i s own  of  was  only  his  early  perspective ideals  within  of  group,  his  service  to  the  of  affiliation chauffeur,  unit. and and  year, C  experience  father  was  point  of  father  as  indirect  more  positively  father interacting C admired  himself  supportive  as  a  brother.  reported,  that  a  provided  him  with  motivated  by  and  review the  humanitarian  mankind. and  of  his  a c h i e v e m e n t , C was family  past  age  remoteness  rejection  own  the  of  as  academic  generously  concept  father  Cs  uncles).  as  family father.  Cs  However,  (Cs  saw  life  that  Given  he  to  observed h i s  with h i s brothers  the  his  considerably  he  what  to  remembered relation  his  his  achievement  in  was  integrated  It  viewed  achievement.  C stated  deal  C  C  solely  and  connoted. a great  C  r e c o l l e c t i o n s of  life,  "sado-masochistic."  from h i s own  gender  mother  in  father's  virtually C  every  among h i s sense,  single-minded outsider  family  belonging  f r i e n d and  his  with  family.  sibling  and  Cs  focus  on  in relation  d i d , however, d e v e l o p an  s e n s e of boyhood  an  gap  to  his  alternative his  nanny,  85  In hours with  addition this  to spending  surrogate  elements  of  developed  in relation  own  self  a vastly  f a m i l y than  were e x p e r i e n c e d , to surrogate  g r e a t e r number  with  his  allowed  own,  many  expression,  family figures.  of  and  In  C's  words: [Chauffeur] t r e a t e d me v e r y e q u a l l y . He gave me some s o r t of c o g n i t i o n . He h e l p e d me make things. My dad never did that, i t was a l l a b o u t a c a d e m i c s and g r a d e s and s u c h ...  (This  latter  v o i c e and  r e f e r e n c e t o f a t h e r was  accusatory  Similarly, Contact  with  boyhood  friend  C and  in  a  tightened  tone.)  in relation  his  circumstantial;  said  t o Nanny, C  "surrogate frequently  family"  sought  h i s f a m i l y , he  felt  "respected."  was  this  more  out.  than  Of  his  said:  We were close friends; he was w o r k i n g c l a s s . These p e o p l e were p o o r compared t o my f a m i l y , but t h e r e seemed t o be a l o t more warmth than my own family. It was easier f o r me t o r e l a x t h e r e , not so a n t i s e p t i c . Even a f t e r I went away t o boarding school, when I'd come home, I c o u l d n ' t w a i t t o g e t out of my own home and go over t h e r e . 'Gran' was on the porch i n her shawl. There wasn't t h e a i r of ' p r o p e r n e s s ' l i k e t h e r e was i n my own home, i t wasn't spic and span. There were smells. T h e r e was a l w a y s t e a on t h e t a b l e . In associated highly  s h o r t , C's with  experience  the European,  combined elements  Irish-Catholic  working c l a s s  d e l i n e a t e d s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g , emphasis  developing interpersonal with  early  manual style  European,  competencies - together  Jewish,  with  and  an  earthy,  elements  upper-middle  on  class  he  he -  males relaxed  associated  - emphasis  on  86  development based  on  of c o n c e p t u a l rigid  s k i l l s , and  observation  of  an  interpersonal  codes  of  style  propriety  and  to h i s a c t u a l  or  etiquette. Vocation  1 As  ideal  a m e c h a n i c , C was  selves  (.25/.37),  home' i n t h i s C essential  not  very  suggesting  close he  was  not  fully  'at  from  his  role.  suggested that  he  nature  role:  in this  was  somehow a l i e n a t e d  In p e r s o n a l i t y I'm v e r y s i m i l a r t o him ( f a t h e r ) . I t o o k on h i s r o l e m o d e l , i n t e r m s o f my p s y c h o l o g i c a l make-up, and I i n v a l i d a t e d a l o t of t h a t by becoming a m e c h a n i c . In  a  later  repetitive expression essential In  elaboration  aspect of  his When  concluded  that  role  son-to-his  the  being  this a  theme, C e x p l a i n e d  mechanic  creativity  he  did  not  v i e w e d as  that  allow  c e n t r a l to  the for his  nature.  (.44).  his  of  on  as  r o l e as this the  mechanic, observation  Q-sort  profile  self-as-surrogate  C was of son  was  like  shared  self-as-son with  self-as-son  C,  he  revealed  t o Nanny, r a t h e r  than  parents:  ... a l a r g e m a j o r i t y of my e a r l y c h i l d h o o d was s p e n t in the company of my Nanny, who was working class. D e f i n i t e l y , my i n t i m a t e c o n t a c t i n my f o r m a t i v e y e a r s what, 1-5? were with my Nanny ... I s u s p e c t she p r o j e c t e d ... her n e e d s o n t o me, as a son ... 'Nanny's son' was somebody who was v e r y p r a g m a t i c , who c o u l d f i x t h i n g s and who c o u l d look after Nanny in many ways ... who would come up to the standards or the e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h e male s t e r e o t y p e ... That role was not s t e r e o t y p e d from my J e w i s h f a m i l y .  87  In  this  to  arena,  sister  roles  bosses  (-.40/-.48/-.43).  seen  openness  c o l l e a g u e s and  as  contrary  experienced  environment  of  to  "constant  In o t h e r the  with  corresponded  warm  sister.  negatively  words, t h e y bond  and  enacted  emotional  C described this  as  an  competition":  ... T h a t competition exhibited itself in a real unwillingness to share information and a real unwillingness for people to support each other in a c c o m p l i s h m e n t of t h e i r g o a l s . The g o a l s may c o n s i s t of finishing an engine ... and the f a c t o r s a r e , maybe, l e n d i n g t o o l s ... T h e r e was v e r y l i t t l e w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o o p e r a t e between t h e men. It  appeared  that  t h e drama o f ' h i s son  in his f i r s t surrogate  of a working c l a s s  himself  in a social  vocational role,  family, re-creating  Irish-Catholic  structure/arena  C the  "mother" and consistent  re-enacted role  of a  situating with  this  role. Vocation  2 As  Nanny and his role  (.31), and brother  actual  like  himself  (.36;.37).  and  (.56;.66).  s e l v e s was this  a human s e r v i c e s w o r k e r , C was  ideal  in his early  In t h i s  s e l v e s than  This correlation  c o r r o b o r a t e d by  the  like  role in  he  life was  the  with  fullness  sister  both  r o l e s as  a l s o more  first actual  of C's  (.48), son like  vocational and  ideal  experience  in  vocational context: It feels fulfilling. It's satisfying, i t ' s f u l f i l l i n g ... and i t f e e l s t o some e x t e n t t h a t I've arrived, it feels integrated ... t h i s i s where I b e l o n g . When I'm w o r k i n g I'm engaged i n my work, I'm not preoccupied ... I'm engaged i n what I'm a c t u a l l y d o i n g .  88  It enacted actual  seemed  aspects self,  that,  as  a  human  services  worker, C  o f Nanny w h i c h were more c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s  and  identified  more  with  figures  from  his  family-of-birth. C role, in  drew  a line  o f c o n t i n u i t y between h i s v o c a t i o n a l  s e l f - a s - b r o t h e r , Nanny, and h i s s i s t e r  the s o c i a l  service field  a l l of her a d u l t  (who has worked life):  ... a s a b r o t h e r t o my s i s t e r ... i t was a supportive role, a v e r y c a r i n g r o l e ... n u r t u r i n g r o l e , p r o t e c t i v e role. A g a i n , Nanny was a nurturer, a developer, an empathist ... and a l l o f t h o s e were p a r t s o f Nanny t h a t I i n t e g r a t e d i n t o my p e r s o n a l i t y . ... one o f t h e t h i n g s I'm realizing about my present positon which I find so d e s i r a b l e i s , t h e r e ' s a r e a l warm f e e l i n g between my coordinator and myself ... I call i t a ' b r o t h e r l y ' f e e l i n g but i t ' s not r e a l l y the f e e l i n g I had f o r any o f my b r o t h e r s ... t h i s i s a very much 'sisterly' feeling, or m e - a s - b r o t h e r - t o - a - s i s t e r ... t h e r e ' s a s t r o n g e l e m e n t o f m u t u a l reciprocity and caring ... I t takes work out of the realm of being e f f o r t f u l i n t o the realm of being a labour of l o v e , or almost worship. Cs  experience  observations colleagues  in  that,  Vocation  i n comparison  tended  towards  .17).  In h i s V o c a t i o n  drama  of  enactment  was  being  2, C seemed  involved cooperation, paralleling  consistent  to Vocation like to  self-as-brother-to-sister.  availability life.  2  The  receptivity  the s a l i e n t  female  C d e s c r i b e d t h e theme a s " i n t e g r a t i n g  female p e r s o n a l i t i e s  i n my  background  1, h i s  sisters be  with  the  present  (.52; .22;  re-enacting essence  the  of t h i s  and  emotional  figures  in early  the outstanding  89  Vocational Transition In human  switching  services  identifying  of  adopted  and  supervisor  seemed  to  re-enacting  drama, t o r e - e n a c t i n g  the f i r s t ,  he was  i n mechanics t o a  be  switching  the  from  surrogate-family  the c e n t r a l - s i b l i n g  re-enacting  drama o f h i s s u r r o g a t e  h i s rejection  instance,  of h i s  there  valuing  of  academic  family,  He came f u l l  conceptual  the  drama  In  t h e gap the  or left  second  of the f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n  circle  development  borrowed  filling  family-of-origin.  was a r e - e m b r a c i n g  f i g u r e s a n d drama.  on  C  a  his family-of-origin. In  by  worker,  with  parent-child  from  t o embrace  implicit  father's  i n t h e emphasis  achievement:  With mechanics i t ' s a l l t h e r e . I t ' s a p r o c e s s t h a t I've l e a r n t a l r e a d y ... i t ' s v e r y c o n c r e t e ... a n d d e a l i n g i n an intangible environment rather than a tangible e n v i r o n m e n t ... i t ' s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between a wrench and a therapeutic tool. A wrench you c a n g r a b a h o l d o f i t and a therapeutic tool i s conceptual ... i t ' s a pre-requisite to me to create, t o be a b l e to conceptualize. It Cs  will  sibling  modelling  be r e c a l l e d  drama  here that  was h i s i n d i r e c t  of, father,  specifically  the  integrated His  drama"  of  father-as-brother.  conscious  association  of  In  to re-enacting the  brother-to-sister  the female as a p r i n c i p l e  behind  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h , and  t e r m s o f meaning a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e s w i t c h "sisterly  "ground"  suggested  into h i s role  supportive  and  C  had  patterns. nurturing  90  behaviours may  w i t h o n l y the s a l i e n t female f i g u r e s i n h i s  r e f l e c t both h i s p r e s e n t p e r c e p t i o n  pervasive  cultural  e x c l u s i v e l y with T h i s was  mythology  of  father  associating  life  and  the  the  feminine  females. borne out  meaning of h i s v o c a t i o n a l  i n C's  own  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  the  shift:  ... i t has to do w i t h the whole concept of power - of women's power - which i s c o r r e l a t e d i n my mind and e x p e r i e n c e t o n o n - s u p p r e s s i o n of emotions [and] the whole d i s t o r t e d myth of the source of power i n the w o r l d which r e l a t e s t o ... the whole concept of God as a man or woman ... In process,  C  summation  of  the  entire  concluded  by  sharing  research  a  folktale  interview with  the  f o l l o w i n g moral: ... i f you asks of you,  spend your l i f e d o i n g what everybody e l s e you may l o s e your 'ass.'  He ended w i t h a p r i v a t e could  indicated  he  not a r t i c u l a t e the meaning of the s t o r y or m o r a l ,  but  s a i d t h a t i t was  p e r f e c t l y apt  chuckle  and  i n terms of h i s l i f e  story.  P e r h a p s , out of a s u r v i v a l i n s t i n c t not t o l o s e 'ass,'  or  sense-of-self  i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l terms, C's  a d o p t i o n o f , and  later re-creation  drama,  him  allowed  to  of  re-discover  a  surrogate  and  father,  expectations  rather  than  capitulating  at an e a r l i e r v o c a t i o n a l  early family  more c o n s c i o u s l y  choose t o r e - e n a c t the s i b l i n g drama a s s o c i a t e d w i t h and  his  to strong  stage.  sister parental  91  CASE STUDY D  Background D was a 36 y e a r in  o l d m a l e ; he worked o u t o f an  h i s h o u s e , where he l i v e d  w i t h h i s w i f e and  office  two  teenage  daughters. His  Vocation  period  o f more  early  teens  sought  work  in  years.  had  worker  field,  government primarily  jobs.  on work w i t h  group that  homes. the  work  a  Without  in his D  later  academic  of e x p e r i e n c e i n  within  provincial professional  re-classification in  adolescents,  social  street  the f i e l d  presented  skills,"  "promoted" t o a  positions  He l e f t  "people  position  during  D's  recognizing  D faked years  He was soon  position  w o r k e r and spanned a  services.  t o o b t a i n an e n t r y - l e v e l  social  First  strong  social  the  services.  sense  he  in  social  in  seven  that  credentials order  than  1 was a s a s o c i a l  work  youth  of  focused  and  those  a b r u p t l y , prompted by a  an  increasing  amount  of  potential violence. After  a  couple  of  years  of i n t e r i m  managing h i s own company, a w h o l e s a l e items doing  (Vocation 2). this  At the time  work f o r f i v e  s a l e s m e n a n d he c l a i m e d goal  of being a  years,  distributor  of t h i s  study,  h i s business  t o be w i t h i n s i g h t  millionaire.  work, D began of n o v e l t y  he had  been  employed  forty  of a c h i e v i n g  his  92  D family  grew  as  up  in  t h e o l d e r of  Montreal identical  s a l e s manager; h i s mother was  Family  a  twins.  His  middle  father  class was  a  housewife.  Experience Being  peer  in a Jewish,  an  nearly  indicated, brother,  identical  always in  a  at  t w i n meant t h a t t h e r e was hand  in  metaphorical  that having  a twin  the  family  description  enhanced h i s  a close  context.  of  his  D  twin  self-development:  He was an o n g o i n g m i r r o r of t h e o t h e r s i d e of me. I got t o see a s p e c t s of m y s e l f t h a t I m i g h t not o t h e r w i s e have acknowledged so completely, e v e r y day, a l l t h e t i m e . B e i n g a t w i n was c e n t r a l t o e v e r y t h i n g about my early life. In as an  other  ever-present  recognizable  words, D's peer,  source  of  Furthermore, experience by  having  task-focus distant,  p r o v i d e d him  feedback being  of h i s mother. to deal with  experience  As  twin  of d o m e s t i c  c o l o u r e d by h e r  on  twin  he  saw  duties. fear  with  almost  brother constant  self.  a  boys,  of h i s twin  was i t , she  and  was  retreated  Interaction  of the  central  to  D's  overwhelmed into  w i t h mother  the was  twins:  ... My mother was a l w a y s a f r a i d of us from about three to four months. We were a l w a y s t o o much t o h a n d l e , being a twin. And h a v i n g two i n f a n t s a t once was a l o t f o r her to handle.  93  Father D  worked l o n g  speculated  that  were t h e b a s i s own." it,  father's  a b s e n c e and m o t h e r ' s  f o r h i s concluding  Ironically  as t h i s  h o u r s a n d was " n o t a r o u n d a l o t . "  "... I g o t t a  t h e n , when f a t h e r  created  conflict  was p r e s e n t  remoteness  make  i t on my  D  with h i s "go-it-alone"  resented survival  method. Boyhood well. and  When q u e r i e d  focused  described further  as on  "Superman largely  his affiliation  of e i t h e r p a r e n t . "invulnerable." the  life,  role  of  D  Superman  a s a needed p r o j e c t i o n  flushed,  to h i s heroes,  was u n a b l e  than  stating hero."  o f an a s p e c t  to articulate simply  that  I f heroes of s e l f ,  figure t h e n an  o f i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y was c e n t r a l t o D's e a r l y  was c o r r o b o r a t e d  as  I n p a r t i c u l a r , Superman was  i s Superman, t h e u l t i m a t e  experience  i n D's e a r l y  D was n o t i c a b l y more a n i m a t e d ,  in recalling  when s p e a k i n g  This  h e r o e s were i m p o r t a n t  by an i n s t a n c e  life.  D related:  I d i d whatever I wanted most o f t h e t i m e , and she [ m o t h e r ] t o l d me once t h a t from t h e age o f 3 o r 4 she could never force me t o do a n y t h i n g , t h o s e were h e r words. In r e s p o n s e t o my q u e s t i o n s ... 'why d i d n ' t you force me t o go to Yiddish school so I c o u l d l e a r n Y i d d i s h ? ' she s a i d 'who c o u l d f o r c e yo t o do anything? From t h e age o f s i x I c o u l d n e v e r f o r c e y o u t o do a n y t h i n g . ' Those were h e r words, b u t I know i t started much e a r l i e r . And  further  to this  point:  ... I grew up w i t h a p a r e n t f i g u r e who was i n t i m i d a t e d by me - a n o t h e r r e a s o n t o j u s t i f y b e i n g Superman ... I must have been i f my p a r e n t s - t h e s e b i g , o l d p e o p l e who knew what went on i n l i f e ... i f t h e y were a f r a i d o f me, I must be s o m e t h i n g p o w e r f u l .  94  More  broadly,  D's  parents,  and p a r t i c u l a r l y  socially  responsible, v i t a l  indirect  of  father,  experience was  that  of  his  they  were  people:  "My p a r e n t s were p r o g r e s s i v e l y minded p e o p l e . They were left-wing politically, a c t i v e - s o c i a l l y , and they c a r e d for people. They p a r t i c i p a t e d i n l i f e - t h e y had some 'yes-man' i n them, b u t i t wasn't p r e d o m i n a n t . This observation peripheral  dimension of  his  was  experienced  parents'  t o the f a m i l y  social  largely  life  through  and  D's  activities  unit.  Vocation 1  As a s o c i a l his his were  c h i l d h o o d hero, actual  self  w o r k e r , D was Superman,  in this  shared with  D  role  he  like  h i s father  (.379).  (.43).  confirmed  (.356) and  He was a l s o c l o s e t o  When t h e s e them  observations  definitively,  and  elaborated: That's true, that fits. My father's whole l i f e i s d e d i c a t e d t o t a k i n g c a r e of h i s c h i l d r e n - m a k i n g sure, in h i s words get t h i s , i n h i s words, making s u r e h i s c h i l d r e n 'never go h u n g r y and have a roof over their heads' - as the b a s i c t h i n g s a s o c i a l worker does i s p r o v i d e f o o d , c l o t h i n g , and s h e l t e r ... and, Superman! Of course! The i d e a l s o c i a l w o r k e r , a good S a m a r i t a n d o e s n ' t even s t o p t o e a t o r p e e , t o h e l p p e o p l e ... t h e fatherly man of steel, that's how I was a s a s o c i a l w o r k e r ... t h e r o l e t h a t I a c t e d o u t , t h e game I was playing was be t h e v e r y s t r o n g f a t h e r , s a v i n g t h e d a y , not r e a l l y l e t t i n g them do i t f o r t h e m s e l v e s .  D's p e r s p e c t i v e s on s o c i a l  work  observations  figures  were a l s o  like  that  other  father,  were  or opposite  consistent  in this to  with  vocational  hero,  the  the arena  adequate  95  saving (like  the inadequate father:  or the inept  .31/.33;  opposite  serving  the inadequate,  hero:  -.57/-.40).  D  explained: Those were the people I was working with - total f u c k - u p s , o u t - i n t e g r i t y , yes-men, i n c o m p e t e n t , p a r a n o i d , insecure people ... The o t h e r people were sincere p e o p l e , warm p e o p l e who were t h e r e d o i n g t h e j o b more o r l e s s as best they c o u l d .  In  this  fatherly  role,  dramas o f  protecting Vocation  the  powerful  in  his  as  an  first  career,  caretaking  observation  "self-made  man."  being  self-made  "a  D remained  entrepreneur  however, he was n o t s i m i l a r  personal  adequate  and  2  self,  latter  t o be r e - e n a c t i n g t h e h e r o i c and  dependents.  As actual  D appeared  (.45).  t o any e a r l y  prompted  him  related  In  life  to h i s  this  role,  figures.  This  t o d e s c r i b e h i m s e l f as a  D's e q u a t i n g b e i n g man"  close  an  entrepreneur  to l i v i n g  with  out a sense of  destiny:  I've a l w a y s had some l i t t l e entrepreneurial streak in me. So b e i n g i n t h i s i t ' s n o t l i k e i t ' s t o t a l l y new ... a n d I ' v e a l w a y s s e e n m y s e l f a s v e r y connected with my r o o t s , human r o o t s t h r o u g h o u t h i s t o r y ... I i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e f i r s t t r a d e r s who c r e a t e d r o a d s between c i t i e s , who f o r w a r d e d c i v i l i z a t i o n ...  A l t h o u g h D d i d not appear the Q-sort in  correlations,  forwarding  father:  t o be s i m i l a r h i s sense  civilization  to father  based  on  of having a p e r s o n a l part  appeared  t o be c o n n e c t e d  with  96  My dad i s an e n t r e p r e n e u r t o o . I'm basically doing a similar type of activity that he was i n most of h i s life. He was a s e l f - m a d e man. I t ' s almost like ... I have a k a r m i c d e s t i n y t o r e p e a t h i s p a t t e r n and c o m p l e t e i t ... I'm t a k i n g t h e same r o u t e t o d o i n g t h i n g s t h a t he did but he d i d n ' t have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f a n y t h i n g else, I did. I c o u l d have done t h i n g s d i f f e r e n t l y . I'm r e p e a t i n g some of t h e t h i n g s - s t a r t i n g a s m a l l b u s i n e s s i s s o m e t h i n g he d i d ; I'm d o i n g i t ... he u s e d t o go to gift shows, I go t o g i f t shows ... s t r o n g c o i n c i d e n c e : once a week he would t a k e t h i s t r i p t o s e r v i c e some of his accounts i n t h e i n t e r i o r of Quebec. Once a week I go down t o B e l l i n g h a m . Strong s i m i l a r i t i e s ... I'm in the process of s e l l i n g my A m e r i c a n b u s i n e s s now - he's been w a n t i n g t o s e l l h i s b u s i n e s s for years ... I'm very c l o s e t o c l o s i n g a d e a l now. When I do t h a t , t h a t w i l l c o m p l e t e f o r me, h i s i n c o m p l e t i o n i n t h a t a r e a .  In  this  like  arena,  his  o t h e r s a r o u n d D were l i k e  twin  working arena,  brother  (.31).  h i s hero  In t a l k i n g  t o one  more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,  resulting  where o t h e r s a r e i n more  or  about h i s p r e s e n t  D d e s c r i b e d h i m s e l f as h a v i n g  a p a t r o n i z i n g stance  (.45)  moved away  from  credited  with  egalitarianism:  ... I t ' s not l i k e I'm w o r k i n g w i t h c l i e n t s . I'm w o r k i n g w i t h p e e r s on a l e v e l . People are out t h e r e r e s p o n s i b l e for what they're doing ... I'm p l a y i n g w i t h b i g g e r p e o p l e ... And what's d r o p p e d - t h e r e ' s p a r t o f b e i n g a p a r e n t , what I d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g p a t r o n i z i n g that's suckhold-y i n a way ... t h e r e ' s p a r t of b e i n g a p a r e n t t h a t assumes t h a t t h e c h i l d i s n o t o k a y , i s not f u l l , i s not c a p a b l e , i s n o t w h o l e , and so I am not relating to t h a t a s p e c t of p e o p l e .  Additionally, himself  with  D  described  "winners"  his  r a t h e r than  situation "losers."  as  surrounding  97  Vocational Transition In worker  to  enacting of  terms  of  family,  entrepreneur  one a s p e c t  father.  the  appeared  transition to r e f l e c t  of f a t h e r t o e n a c t i n g  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  father-as-father  to  from  social  a shift  from D  a different  aspect  enacting  enacting  from  the  the  role  role  of of  father-as-entrepreneur. It the  was a s i f D h a d i n i t i a l l y  adult world  with  parenting  into h i s vocational focus. adult  t a s k s , and i n c o r p o r a t e d  In h i s l a t e r ,  p e r f o r m a n c e was e q u a t e d w i t h  which,  for  him, meant  work o f t h e p r e c e d i n g  equated performance  living  more m a t u r e d out one's  this view,  destiny  f u r t h e r i n g h u m a n i t y by e x t e n d i n g  generation.  D  concurred  in  with  the this  analysis: ... b e f o r e I was t r y i n g t o be a p a t t e r n . I was e i t h e r a big father f i g u r e or a hero f i g u r e or a brother f i g u r e ... I ' v e been a b l e t o a l l o w my a c t u a l s e l f t o show up ... so that's been a r e a l s h i f t f o r me, n o t p u t t i n g so much e n e r g y i n t o t r y i n g t o be a c e r t a i n way, r a t h e r j u s t b e i n g t h e way I am ...  D  put  this  "personality"  in  terms  versus  of  being  imitating  imitative  of  father's  his "activities":  (In social work) I was l i k e h i s p e r s o n a l i t y and h e r e I show up l i k e what he d o e s - t h a t was t h e d o - e r and this is the deed. In my o t h e r j o b I was ' b e i n g ' l i k e he was ' b e i n g ' - how he was. I n t h i s j o b I am ' d o i n g ' what he d i d , p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e same a c t i v i t i e s .  98  Without left  the  with  filter only  entrepreneurial  of the  role;  imitating  f a t h e r ' s way  expression he  put  this  of b e i n g ,  of h i s a c t u a l s e l f in  terms  of  D  was  in his  increased  "responsibility": I'm taking full g o i n g on r i g h t now  responsibility for everything and I n e v e r d i d b e f o r e .  that's  99  CASE STUDY E Background E was a d i v o r c e d alone core  with  his  man  p e t dogs  in h i s early  i n a plush  of a Western Canadian c i t y .  place  in this  equally  apartment;  plush  country  was s e p a r a t i n g over a  there  home.  clinical  Two r e s e a r c h  was a n o t h e r  from t h e woman he h a d  a Ph.D. i n p s y c h o l o g y ,  psychologist  functioning  took  in his  research  with  for  lecturing.  He was among t h e f i r s t  field  i n Western  Though shifted  E  just  counselling  private  o n e - t o - o n e and  private practitioners  in  Canada. the  field  of  psychology, E  h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l focus  from  that  of  a  and  remaining  clinical  transpersonal  studied  to  specialization professional  psychologist,  psychologist  and background  referred  entailed  1 was a s a  in  conventional  worked  work  E's V o c a t i o n  in a conventional  The  life  meetings  meeting  lived  lived  i n the urban  At the time o f t h i s  practice.  skills  apartment  he  year. With  his  fifties;  many " h e a l e r s "  from thought  as " p s y c h i c . " within shift  domains  More t h a n  the o r i g i n a l was  2).  (Vocation  with  to  one  re-orientation, according  In  t o E.  that  of  this  role,  who d e r i v e d and  simply  vocational  facet  relatively  he  towards  domain,  of a d r a m a t i c  E  their  systems  a move  a  the  pervasive  In h i s own words,  the  100  new  v o c a t i o n a l focus evolved  which  s h a t t e r e d [ h i s ] v i e w of  central  Canada  European  immigrant  parents Family  as  owned and  the  "traumatic  the world."  youngest  parents,  of  during  worked t o g e t h e r  early  drudgery." either  the  sense.  He  life was  a  was  He  experience  grew  up  in  f o u r sons t o E a s t e r n The  Depression.  His  i n a c o n f e c t i o n a r y shop.  o p p o r t u n i t y or  On  t h e c o n t r a r y , he  exclusive  focus  f a m i l y domain. their  relationship  on He  working t h a t was  M o t h e r and time  relation  and  resented h i s  no  service  attention  in  in  "an  Old  Man,  seemingly the  family  shop,  a  harmonious."  "hard  this  frivolous  with h i s brothers  the  to s e l f l e s s l y  E provided  the  lacking  to others outside  association  very  "joyless  parents'  " t a s k - f o c u s e d and both  of  serious c h i l d , "  i n h i s view,  relationship  father,  to father,  experience  for play  was,  work and  recalled  an  somber,  spirit  of o t h e r s , " who  outside  largely  "very  untrusting  In  of a  Experience E's  their  out  w o r k e r s , " gave of  serve people  i n need.  example:  I can remember d u r i n g t h e D e p r e s s i o n , g e t t i n g bags of f o o d and he'd go out t o p e o p l e ' s houses that he knew were poor and starving, leave the bag on t h e d o o r , knock, and run away - he d i d n ' t want them t o know who he was. E  related  similar  about  instance,  she  "visited  the  throughout  h i s g r o w i n g up y e a r s and  into  her  gave  of  While  both  regularly  stories  parents  purposefully  mother:  sick"  for  in hospital later  life.  themselves  in  101  charitable person This  ways, mother s t o o d a p a r t  i n E's r e c o l l e c t i o n  of tremendous e f f e r v e s c e n c e and g e n e r o s i t y of was  demonstrated  apparently customers  to  "magnetic" came  into  expressed  retrospect, something viewed loving  E  She  gave  each  about  as  through  people.  her  Typically,  t o see h e r , s i m p l y  each  an  spirit.  customer  honoured  personal  visitor,  and  h i s or her p e r s o n a l w e l l - b e i n g .  viewed  more b a s i c  her  on  t h e shop s p e c i f i c a l l y  treated concern  indirectly,  effect  t o be i n h e r p r e s e n c e . attention,  him,  as a  h i s mother's a c t i o n s  than  good  a s m o t i v a t e d by  salesmanship.  manner a s i n d i c a t i v e  In  Rather,  of her h u m i l i t y  he  and o p e n l y  warmth a s a p e r s o n .  Vocation 1 As mother  a  clinical  (.339)  and  self-as-brother  the  related having  food  Additionally,  (.34),  E frequently of  his  practice  to "scratch"  providing  similar  role  limits  this  father  E  was but  somewhat was  like  most  like  (.48).  In t h i s beyond  psychologist  professional  to  gave  the  poor  that  one b r o t h e r  that  out i n c a r i n g  ways  obligation.  He  b o t h p a r e n t s who,  out a l i v i n g ,  he n o t e d  orientation  to  reached  and  their visiting (figure  despite their resources the 10)  sick. "has  a  way":  We've both given money and taken c o u l d n ' t a f f o r d t o do c e r t a i n t h i n g s , for people.  c a r e o f p e o p l e who a n d we've p r o v i d e d  102  Consistent  with  the Q-sort  described  his  own  conventional  notions  parallel  to  self-as-brother,  professional  generosity  of " b r o t h e r l y  love":  in  terms  E of  ... why do I do i t ? I d o n ' t know. You t a l k about I'm more like a brother ... t h e r e ' s s o r t of a b r o t h e r l y quality. I see ' b r o t h e r s , ' t h a t we a r e each others' 'brother's keepers,' t h a t ' s what I s e e , and I've a l w a y s a b i d e d by t h a t .  Similarly, (.41).  E's c o l l e a g u e  This p a r a l l e l  generous nature  in  Vocation  1  was  prompted a r e i t e r a t i o n  like  father  of the l o v i n g ,  of h i s f a t h e r :  ( C o l l e a g u e ) I s e e him v e r y much like my father, very s p i r i t u a l k i n d o f guy, v e r y g i v i n g , v e r y v e r y g i v i n g .  (Colleague's) had  outside  going  "beyond t h e c a l l  who deem i t " u n p r o f e s s i o n a l "  specific In  re-enacting "brotherly Vocation  and n a r r o w l y  summary, the  in  fatherly  defined  Vocation  of duty"  h i s own p r o f e s s i o n to provide  services  parameters.  1,  E  appeared  drama o f l i v i n g  to  be  out p r i n c i p l e s of  love."  2 As  a transpersonal  multi-dimensional,  self-as-brother but  of  even e a r n e d him some n o t o r i e t y w i t h i n  among t h o s e  more  practice  also  taking  (.41) a s i n h i s  taking after  self-as-friend  psychologist, E  (.333).  mother  after previous  appeared  father  be  (.316), and  vocational  (.47), s e l f - a s - s o n  to  role,  (.327) and  103  Consistent vocational to e a r l y  with  this  arena provided  family  a more c o m p l e t e a r r a y  A  and  'Role  (.47/.436); C l i e n t s A and like  childhood (.33); A was  self-as-son  multiple  parallels  psychologist experience  and  of  like  in  of  this  parallels  were and  at  increased  was  Brother  all  least  between  early  A  B  like  Colleague  Mentor  like  mother  was  B  like  self-as-friend  (.32); and  Role  Model  (.36).  nearly  paralleled  A'  R o l e Model A  Client  B was  short,  B,  Model  (.34/.32/.48/.35);  (.40);  Colleague  In arena  father  peer  like  others  figures.  Client  were  observation,  role  figures one  E's  in  early role  this  family as  a  vocational figure.  transpersonal  f i g u r e s were c o n s i s t e n t  vocational  role  The  with  E's  complexity:  I think my r o l e d i v e r s i t y now i s f a r w i d e r t h a n i t was e a r l y i n my c a r e e r or i n my childhood. Early in my career I was C l i n i c a l c l i n i c a l , and now I'm - t h e r o l e d i v e r s i t y i s enormous and w i t h e a c h k i n d o f , c o r e role, there's a whole orbit of different friends and a s s o c i a t e s and a s s o c i a t i o n s . . . yeah, i t ' s richer and more f u n now.  Thus,  E's  associated  own as  experienced at  present well the  with  " r o l e d i v e r s i t y " seemed t o be the  t i m e of  "broader the  s p e c t r u m of  interview.  clearly  friends"  he  104  Vocational In clinical  Transition shifting  psychology  transpersonal transition,  from  psychology,  or "created the  responsible  charity,  E  theme  seemed  a bridge"  relatively  the  traditional  practice  of  to a v a r i e t y of p r o f e s s i o n a l p u r s u i t s i n  re-enacting  re-enacting  the  as  to  he  limited  characteristic  have  made  a  termed  i t , from  early  drama  of  of  father,  to  of l o v i n g o p e n n e s s c h a r a c t e r i z e d  by  mother: (I'm) g o i n g from u n i d i m e n s i o n a l to multidimensional, and the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l i t y i n c l u d e s t h e added d i m e n s i o n of s p i r i t u a l i t y , h i g h e r s e n s e o f p u r p o s e , ... i t j u s t means an e n r i c h i n g . ( o f f t a p e ) : I f I were t o p u t one word t o i t , i t w o u l d be ' l o v i n g , ' more l o v i n g . '  For in  E, t h i s movement t o w a r d s b e i n g his vocational  r o l e was  sense of p e r s o n a l  destiny:  associated  My shift from e a r l y c a r e e r was n o t h i n g f o r c e d o r d r i v e n Almost as i f (chuckle) t h e r e i t a l l ...  In  re-enacting  deeper  associated  level with  t r u s t i n g and l o v i n g with  living  out  behaviorally  after father,  Rather,  he  was  like  1i t  without  i n t e g r a t i o n of a l o v i n g o r i e n t a t i o n charity.  a  t o now seems n a t u r a l , t h e r e about i t i t unfolded. was some k i n d o f p u r p o s e i n  a f a t h e r l y / b r o t h e r l y drama i n V o c a t i o n  seems E m o d e l l e d h i m s e l f the  more  often father  105  behaviourally, It was  seemed h i s g i v i n g not a s s o c i a t e d  re-enactment and  yet repeated h i s e a r l y "beyond  w i t h the joy of g i v i n g ,  of the e a r l y  drama of b e i n g  transition  distrust.  in Vocation 1  but  rather  'super'  to Vocation 2 p a r a l l e l e d  p r e s e n c e of m o t h e r l y f i g u r e s increased drama.  of  of d u t y "  of  was  a  responsible  task-oriented. The  was  the c a l l  enactment  an  emphasis  i n h i s own  Though t h e f i e l d expanded  greater  in h i s l i f e ,  re-enactment  o f work  sense of purpose  " f u n " and  vitality  as  into  remained reflected task  an  increased  well  as  the  of the m o t h e r l y constant, by t h e  performance.  there  infusion  1 06  CASE STUDY F  Background F was study son,  she and  work.  32  had  was  She  middle  a  year  been m a r r i e d  i n the  and  class  o l d female.  her  last  At  13 y e a r s ,  the  had  time  residential  leave  in a comfortable  community  the  a s e v e n month o l d  month of a p r e g n a n c y  family l i v e d  of  from  home  of a w e s t e r n  her  in  a  Canadian  city. F's four-year in  a  first  vocation  training  Vocation  retrain  as  a social  to obtain a Bachelor's  government  years.  was  social 2,  formally;  as  degree,  service position  a practicing  she  worker;  had  been  she  required  field  of  a  worked  f o r more t h a n  lawyer, i n the  after  F  law  six to  for 5  years. F grew up youngest Jewish  and  a a  only  family.  mother was  43  Family  of  the  small  girl to  western  of  3  Canadian  siblings  "older parents"  t i m e o f F's  mother was  a  her  in a  city,  there  the  middle-class  ( f a t h e r was  birth),  between h e r s e l f and  furrier;  was  brothers.  50  and  more  than  Father  was  housewife.  Experience F's  was  Born at  2 0 - y e a r gap retail  in a  an  predominant experience atmosphere  of  of her  vitality,  early family  warmth,  and  life loving  107  playfulness. and  She r e c a l l e d  frequently  were o p e n l y when F was  at  the  affectionate  that  g u e s t s were welcomed  family table,  and t h a t  w i t h one a n o t h e r .  11, was e x p e r i e n c e d a s " q u i e t e r ,  ... and  playful,"  focused  on  in  material  comparison success  as  to  her parents  F a t h e r , who d i e d more  mother;  much  openly  as  sensitive he on  was n o t human  relationships: (re: dad) In a q u i e t e r , more g e n t l e way b u t t h e same s o r t o f q u a l i t i e s ... my f a t h e r was a h u m a n i s t i c f u r r i e r (laughs). He was dumb enough n o t t o go a n d g e t h i s insurance policies o u t o f h i s b u s i n e s s and go p u t them where t h e y b e l o n g and t h e y b u r n t up i n a f i r e ... and he l o s t , l i k e 100 g r a n d ... a n d s t a r t e d o v e r a g a i n . - just a c r a z y guy - c r a z y n i c e . But v e r y human. Even though he was i n b u s i n e s s he wasn't l i k e t h e b u s i n e s s m e n I s e e - so a s a r e s u l t he wasn't p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l ... He used t o do t h i n g s l i k e : I remember once c r y i n g and b e i n g r e a l l y c r a b b y - j u s t t e r r i b l e a n d he was g o i n g to give me a s t r a p ... I'm r u n n i n g up t h e s t a i r s and h e ' s t r y i n g t o f o l l o w me a t t h e same t i m e t a k e s t h e s t r a p o f f h i s p a n t s and h i s p a n t s s t a r t f a l l i n g o f f and he starts l a u g h i n g , and so d i d I ... we b o t h s a t down on t h e s t e p s and s t a r t e d l a u g h i n g ... o r h i m k i s s i n g my mother a t t h e fence when he went o f f t o s h u l F r i d a y n i g h t . She u s e d t o have t o d r a g him home from t h e s h u l b e c a u s e he used to s i t t h e r e and t e l l s t o r i e s ... h e ' d s i t and draw and make poems up f o r me and s i n g t o me ...  Similar  to father,  b r o t h e r A a l s o d i e d when F was a c h i l d :  He d i e d when I was 6. He was a v e r y s t r o n g r o l e model, but m o s t l y from what p e o p l e t o l d me a b o u t him - I n e v e r knew him - i n t e r m s of h i s a l l c a r i n g and a l l g i v i n g nature ... He d i e d from l i v i n g - D i a b e t e s - i n s u l i n he j u s t d i d n ' t t a k e c a r e o f h i m s e l f .  108  Again,  as w i t h  lived-out grounded  father,  b r o t h e r A was  humanitarian i n the fact  speculated mythology  his early in relation  ideals.  that  thought  to  Although  this  b r o t h e r A was a s o c i a l  death  contributed to a  exemplify image worker,  was F  larger-than-life  to h i s humanitarianism:  ... t h e r e ' s a myth surrounding my b r o t h e r A, ... i n t e r m s o f t h e k i n d o f p e r s o n he was. Maybe not a myth but lots of p e o p l e knew him and I l o o k e d a l o t l i k e him, and I hung a r o u n d places where he was. People t a l k e d a b o u t him - a l o t . And he was a r e a l p a r t o f our family. So t h e r e was an i n t e n s e model a v a i l a b l e t o me  By c o n t r a s t , b r o t h e r B was her  early  life  a relatively  distant  and o n l y became more c e n t r a l  figure  in  i n adulthood:  A's image was c l e a r e r t o me t h e n , t h a n who B was a s a p e r s o n , e a r l y on. 'Cause I n e v e r r e a l l y knew B was o u t , he was a t e e n a g e r ... I n e v e r r e a l l y knew him ... I d o n ' t t h i n k I r e a l l y t a l k e d t o him s e r i o u s l y u n t i l I was a b o u t 19, 20, 21  Once  she d i d b e g i n  immense  a d m i r a t i o n and r e s p e c t f o r h i s s e n s e  professional cited  that  remaining earlier with  t o engage w i t h B d i r e c t l y ,  effectiveness,  as a lawyer.  he m a i n t a i n e d  high professional  excited  about  comment, F n o t e d  integrity  F developed  an  of e t h i c s ,  and  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  she  standards  while  h i s work a f t e r  twenty y e a r s .  I n an  that  B  [law]  brother  "practises  and y e t has n o t f o r s a k e n h i s own  life."  109  Vocation  1 As  mother and not  a  father  close  close  social  t o her  to  worker,  (.59/.54) and  her  ideal  actual  or  of a s o c i a l  F  seemed  brother ideal  A  self  to take  after  her  (.51).  She  was  in this  role,  nor  worker.  ... In s o c i a l work you c a n ' t g e t facts down on paper ... you have to be around o f t e n t o see what r e s u l t s happen ... you a l w a y s have a l l t h i s e f f o r t g o i n g o u t and sometimes you d o n ' t see what h a p p e n s , and that use to drive me c r a z y , sometimes ( l a u g h s ) . I l i k e t o s o r t of know, what am I_ d o i n g , a l o n g w i t h a l l t h e o t h e r f o r c e s . I take p l e a s u r e i n s e e i n g the f i n a l p r o d u c t ... I l i k e t o see t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l t h i n g s o r t o f narrow i t s e l f down into something one can t o u c h o r f e e l or - y e a h that's i t .  That  F's  vivid her  social  experience  observation  work r o l e  represented  of p e r s o n a l on  social  power was  a limitation  t o a more  f u r t h e r suggested  by  workers as g e n e r a l i s t s :  When you're standing i n F a m i l y C o u r t and y o u ' r e g o i n g ... 'In my o p i n i o n t h e k i d was d y s l e x i c ' well they don't listen to your opinions on whether he was dyslexic. They hire an expert! ... You may be aggressive as a s o c i a l w o r k e r , but i t d o e s n ' t g e t you a l l t h a t f a r , i n terms of c r e d i b i l i t y . . .  The  observation  worker, this  and  that F  was  l i k e brother  like B as  a  brother  A  lawyer evoked  as  a  social  laughter  and  confirmation: T h a t ' s good ( l a u g h ) , b r o t h e r A was t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r and b r o t h e r B was t h e l a w y e r ( l a u g h t e r ) so that's (laugh) ... t h a t ' s c a l l e d m o d e l l i n g ! (laughs)  1 10  Similarly, arena  to the  were  unequivocal  observation  like  brother  that  A and  the  other  figures in  father, F again  this  provided  an  confirmation:  W e l l , yeah! T h a t ' s who t h e y I mean that's social work! ... He [A] u s e d t o b r i n g p e o p l e home f r o m o f f the s t r e e t . P a s s o v e r a t our house we'd have my mother and I, my brother and f a t h e r and 35 h o o k e r s from t h e c o r n e r downtown ... my b r o t h e r w o u l d a d o p t from o f f the street or h i s c l i e n t s came home f o r s u p p e r - t h a t k i n d of p e r s o n ... j u d g i n g by t h e number o f p e o p l e he knew he must have been e x t r e m e l y warm, f r i e n d l y , open ... so I a s s o c i a t e t h o s e q u a l i t i e s w i t h s o c i a l work.  F  at  one  point described  "ambitious" to  money.  that of  This provided  reveal a  obviously Vocation  on  in l i f e ,  but  worker was  not  f o r the  person  who  in  l i k e f a t h e r , as  fun-loving  financial  people  are  relation  observation her  who  stories was  not  success.  2  (.626) and  a  lawyer,  her  ideal  lawyer.  This  suggesting  differentiate  F was  self  a s a l a w y e r F was  comment  w o r k e r s as  f u r t h e r support  playful,  focused  As  a  pleasure  self-as-social  him  that  regarding  social  (.62).  I t has  l i k e brother  latter her  much more l i k e h e r  B  (.47), who  correlation  v i e w of b r o t h e r  already  was B  been was  supported  does  h i s r o l e - a s - b r o t h e r , from h i s  actual  not  self noted  himself by  F's  clearly  role-as-lawyer:  He's famous f o r what he d o e s ; he's a f a i r l y w e l l known l a w y e r i n Canada r i g h t now so t h e e x p e r i e n c e f o r him of being a lawyer i s q u i t e i n t e n s e . He's a l a w y e r a l l t h e t i m e ... i t ' s a p a r t o f him.  111  T h i s was have a  a l s o c o n s i s t e n t w i t h F's  "real  which time  were  c o n v e r s a t i o n " w i t h him  brother  The  comment  B was  confirmation  of her  brother  B,  and  explanation:  this  until  she  did  "about age  not  19,"  at  a l r e a d y a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d lawyer.  o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t two  like  that  (.54/.43),  three  law  colleagues  a  gratified  elicited  B r o t h e r B i s much more l a i d back. I don't think my b r o t h e r owns a w h i t e s h i r t anymore ... h e ' s much more t o the l e f t t h a n t h e y a r e ... l i b e r a l and e a s y - g o i n g , l e s s c o n s e r v a t i v e than they a r e . In terms of integrity and honesty, yeah - t h e r e ' s s i m i l a r i t y t h e r e - but i n terms o f how he comes a c r o s s ... he's l i k e 360° d i f f e r e n t t h a n them ... t h e y a r e l i k e b r o t h e r B i n t h e s e n s e t h a t they have honesty and integrity and t h e y ' r e a m b i t i o u s and w h a t e v e r , but warmth and s e n s i t i v i t y - t h e y ' r e not like him. H's (brother) more l i k e t h e i d e a l l a w y e r t o me t h a n t h e y a r e ....  The B  third  c o l l e a g u e , who  (-.10)  and  to  corresponded a l l  the  negligibly early  (-.5/-.14/-.27/-.25/-.17/-.4/-.2), was were an  alien  figure  i n her  to  brother  role  v i e w e d by  figures  F as  if  he  world:  He's just [ l a u g h t e r ] yuck! ... he's one of those m i s p l a c e d human b e i n g s . His s o c i a l s k i l l s are about a four-and-a-half out of sixty-two [laughter]. He's a n i t - p i c k y human b e i n g . He w o r r i e s a b o u t form and not content ... j u s t a s i l l y p e r s o n sometimes ... and he's pompous and a r r o g a n t ... I d o n ' t t r u s t him and I'm not s u r e I l i k e him a l l t h a t much.  Vocational As congruent vocation.  Transition noted, w i t h her This  F's actual was  second and  career  ideal  consistent  seemed  selves with  than F's  to  be  her  more first  repeated  1 12  observations needs  for  greater  t h a t her  current  recognition  extent  and  than her  vocational for being  first  context  met  her  " i n c o n t r o l " to a far  vocation:  I l i k e t o be ... i n c o n t r o l . I l i k e t o g i v e the party rather t h a n have t h e p a r t y be g i v e n t o me ... Although I a p p r e c i a t e the new and u n e x p e c t e d ... i t ' s c o m f o r t a b l e to know what's going to happen ... I thought as a lawyer, I'd have more c o n t r o l . I t ' s more d e f i n i t e and a l s o I ' l l be a b l e t o c o n t r o l things more. The thing that bothered me a b o u t t h e s o c i a l work ... i s t h a t i t a l l d e p e n d s on the ebb and flow of the government ... [ i n law] i t was more d e f i n i t e what I was d o i n g so t h a t i f I a c c o m p l i s h e d s o m e t h i n g i t would be t o a great degree my own a c c o m p l i s h m e n t and t h a t was i m p o r t a n t . I wanted t o be a b l e t o see accomplishments in my life, concrete ones ... I g u e s s I wanted t o be more t h e s t a r and t o g e t more c r e d i t f o r what I was d o i n g than as a s o c i a l worker.  Of  Vocation  2,  however, F  stated:  [Now] I can distance myself from the situation ... [ p e o p l e ] a r e more r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e m s e l v e s t h a n I use t o g i v e them c r e d i t f o r . I use t o t h i n k I ' d have t o be t h e r e a l l t h e way t h r o u g h and was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t a l l and I u s e d t o put m y s e l f t h r o u g h m o t i o n s , emotional motions and gymnastics, t o w o r r y a b o u t what t h e y were d o i n g o r not d o i n g and now I'm a little more distant from that. I can d i s t a n c e m y s e l f from i t so I d o n ' t have to get an ulcer every time somebody has an e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e ... I'm not so a n x i o u s . It transition re-enacting self-less a  appeared  that  i n terms o f an  the  the  e x t r e m e d e g r e e of  of a  and  self-containment  also  be  connoted  s t a t e d more b r o a d l y  as  a  by  shift  a  vocational shift  from  vulnerability  represented  represented  the  was  emotional  positively as  of  f a m i l y drama  giving, particularly  re-enactment  meaning  by  brother  A,  and to  self-centeredness  brother from  B.  This  intense  can and  1 13  high-risk  living  safety.  The  was  as  seen  intensity life  noted  ("Family  "died  from  the  to  associated  of  more m o d e r a t i o n  of  living  and  a s s o c i a t e d with  t h r e a t e n i n g by F,  in a l i t e r a l  relative  social  work  sense.  As  E x p e r i e n c e " ) , F d e s c r i b e d b r o t h e r A as  living."  blurring  one  This intensity  between p e r s o n a l and  with Vocation  was  having  in part reflected  professional  roles  that  in F  1:  ... i n s o c i a l work ... y o u r e m o t i o n a l self is getting tested a l l day, you d o n ' t s h u t o f f c o m p l e t e l y when you go home ... After a day of being a social worker ... t h e r e ' s nothing left f o r me t o g i v e , or t o g e t , whatever - I e x p e r i e n c e d a l i f e t i m e d u r i n g a day ... I thought, ' T h i s i s e x h a u s t i n g . ' And I want more h o m e l i f e  By  c o n t r a s t , F noted  "practiced Later  with  comments  differentiation of  relative  ("Family  integrity by  F  and  Experience") d i d not  suggested  that  brother  f o r s a k e h i s own  that  the  a s s o c i a t e d with Vocation  B  life."  increased role  2 provided a  sense  safety:  ... T h e r e ' s a s a f e t y i n not e x p o s i n g y o u r h u m a n i t y as a lawyer. You know, you o n l y have t o t a k e responsibility then for the law, not f o r y o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h y o u r c l i e n t ... I'm l e s s s a t i s f i e d w i t h w o r k i n g that hard. I'm satisfied with working to a c e r t a i n d e g r e e and having a l i f e to c e r t a i n degree.  Thus f a r , meaning has the  contrasts  familial were seen extreme  been  between  parallels.  the  F o r F,  a s p a r t of t h e vulnerability  discussed  through  vocational  and  their  though, these c o n t r a s t i n g  dramas  same c o n t i n u u m ; to  highlighting  insensitivity  dramas  not but  from rather a  one  of  matter  11 4  of  degree  vocational  or  intensity  of  humanity  manifest  in  the  arena:  B r o t h e r A d i e d when he was 27. B r o t h e r B's 46. P a r t of t h e i n t e n s i t y , t h e e x u b e r a n c e - i f you want t o c a l l i t of the ideal s o c i a l worker. I t ' s a more g i v i n g up of o n e s e l f t o o t h e r p e o p l e , t h a n the l a w y e r k i n d of t h i n g . And t h a t i n t e r e s t e d me and I see i t as a c o n t i n u u m , t h a t I s t a r t e d from a v e r y i n t e n s e human l e v e l and drifting now to a m i d d l e - k i n d of t h i n g where I want t o be human and I want t o be b u s i n e s s - l i k e . B o t h of them a p p e a l to me. So now I'm t r y i n g t o c o n s o l i d a t e ... when I l o o k e d a t law I wanted to do something that would involve working with people but not as i n t e n s e l y as a s o c i a l w o r k e r ... I d o n ' t t h i n k I'm totally one way or the other. The social worker draws out of me t h e more h u m a n i s t i c b r o t h e r A k i n d s of mother, sort of father things. Brother B's in business. He's more b u s i n e s s - l i k e t h a n t h e y a r e and l e s s emotionally based ... and so I'm more l i k e t h a t now. But i t i s n ' t a n d / o r , it i s n ' t e i t h e r / o r ... see, b r o t h e r B i s a c o n t i n u u m of my mother and f a t h e r and b r o t h e r A. He's one of the more h u m a n i s t i c l a w y e r s and not so b u s i n e s s - l i k e . Thus,  it  switching expanded the  appeared vocational  that arenas  for  available  the  i n terms of  r o l e w h i c h more f u l l y  role patterns  F  e s s e n t i a l meaning  of  e a r l y dramas, was  an  incorporated  i n F's  and  integrated  family-of-origin.  11 5  CASE STUDY G Background G this  was  study  he  a  30  year  shared a  house  these q u a r t e r s doubled G's director.  in  aspiration  His  Canadian coach  became a  G  theatrical  a  one  director.  worked as an  a  life-long  had  this  to  position  career goals. brother  four  years  officer  athletics  H i s mother, a housewife,  actress prior  years. marketing  non-commissioned  who  years  and  thus viewed  p e r s o n a l and  of  space.  for three  entrepreneur  industry.  was  military,  in  trainer  trained  and  marriage.  Experience Father  his  an  long-range  to cadets.  worked as an Family  as  father  as a  time  partner;  factory  trained  i n e a s t e r n Canada, G had  junior.  the  f o r a p e r i o d of n e a r l y t e n  fashion  with  and  soon a f t e r  t o be a b u s i n e s s m a n and  Born  and  field  2 was  the  as c o n s i s t e n t  the  office  At  business  in theatre arts  s c h o o l , and  in this  Vocation  his  1 was  male.  his  F o l l o w i n g h i g h s c h o o l , he  remained  manager  with  as t h e i r  Vocation  in a theatre a r t s G  old single  first  difference contrasts  was  a  language. in  English  in their  style  Catholic Mother  French was  language and  Canadian;  English  French  born.  fluency accentuated  influence  i n the f a m i l y .  was  Their other  116  As  a  experience highly  first-born was  as  available  a  on  primarily  in a  essentially  supportive,  trusted  son  a daily her  encouragements.  and  basis,  She  power w i t h her  was  capable  of  conflicts,  the  typically with  anything  family  in  all  an  This  between  at  this  age  "cut 11;  guided  him  of  confidence  belief  he  that  wanted.  "sided" topical  G In  with  G.  discussions  sons a r g u i n g  on  one  side,  in his p o s i t i o n .  father since  minimal  listener  so  that  G  as  discouraging  s t r a i n e d that  out"  for nearly six  by  achievement  of  his  occassion twenty  G recalled  life  communication  years,  months  t o one  loved,"  able,  almost  year  with  a  prior  to  study.  its  r o l e as  basis  frequently  played  youths,  activities; top  times,  G  open p o s i t i v e  stated  that  experienced  approximately  G's  As  and  actively  r e l a t i o n s h i p was  them was  turn-about  had  were  i n c i d e n t when he  entirely  alone  and  a  whom  a  u n c o m p r o m i s i n g demands f o r h i g h  pursuits  censure.  mother  i n mother and  standing  Father's  life  gathering  resulted  father  in  was  sense  frequently  early  listener  coached  in G a  G's  M o t h e r was  She  acceptance  instilled  personal  During  positive.  advisor.  who  implicit  and  father-son  very  family,  available, non-critical  confidante  by  loving  both G  " a d o r e d and  in  early  and  boyhood  explored  trained  typically  was  i n d i v i d u a l competitor.  and  the  when  brother  two  brothers  the  neighbourhood  competed  captain  older  and  in  together.  many  athletic  s t a r team p l a y e r  and  1 17  The  competency g a p i n c r e a s e d between  h i s younger b r o t h e r problems;  his  came t o  brother  from e a r l y a d o l e s c e n c e top a t h l e t e . him  [brother]  protection. continued time; which  as  on, w h i l e  this  up,"  relate  shook  having  was o b e s e and h e a v i l y G continued  and  saw  his  to  performing  brother person  initiating  "holding  in  need  his  the  A  "great  potential"  maternal  great  uncle,  twice  over,"  both  for  commanded g r e a t  path.  his  accomplishment  and  G was  i n him.  a "self-made  familial  this  confrontation  out of a s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e  to seeing  of  brother  t h a t h i s " p r o t e c t i v e n e s s " towards h i s b r o t h e r  response  as a  as  i n any m e a n i n g f u l way d u r i n g with  h i s brother  emotional  drug-involved  p e r i o d , G saw h i m s e l f  he c r e d i t e d h i m s e l f  generous  seen  G b e l i e v e d he was t h e o n l y to  explained a  During  be  the b r o t h e r s as  millionaire  and community  respect  f o r h i s k i n d l y and v e r y  nature.  Vocation 1 As maternal and role  a director,  great  brother  (.448) a n d  (.37/.379).  (-.39).  observation  uncle  G was most  G  l i k e mother somewhat  He was o p p o s i t e  unequivocally  (.67) and l i k e  like  self-as-son  to father  confirmed  in this  this  last  when he s t a t e d :  My father is t h e a t r e means.  the  antithesis  o f what t h e a t r e  i s , what  118  In  his elaboration  that  father's  more  intuitive  valuing  on  this  logical  theme,  it  was  apparent  thinking contrasted with  G's  style:  ... when I'm d i r e c t i n g i t ' s n o t an e f f o r t - a t a l l - i t j u s t comes f o r me, what I'm t h i n k i n g , what I want t o do, what I want t o c r e a t e ... i t s p r i n g s from me t h e same way a c t i n g does ... t h e emotional charge I get from directing i s when t h e p l a y ' s p u t on and t h e n I see i t i t ' s l i k e t h e t y p i c a l t h i n g of h a v i n g a baby ... i t ' s not working with facts ... i t ' s v i s u a l ... i t ' s a l l image, image and sound ...  Furthermore, appeared mother and  to  the  style  contrast  and  skills  with  he  father's  used  as  style,  a  and  director paralleled  greatuncle:  He ( f a t h e r ) was s u c h an a u t h o r i t a r i a n . . . I'm not an authoritarian a s a d i r e c t o r ... I s u p p o s e i t has t o do w i t h my c o n c e p t o f 'power' ... b e i n g i n a p o s i t i o n of power and y e t h a n d l i n g t h a t w i t h r e s p e c t t o the people you're dominating ... I o b v i o u s l y use t h e s k i l l s my mother gave me. My mother has good c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s and t h a t ' s how I would g e t someone t o do what I want them t o do - I would p e r s u a d e them, or show them o r t e l l them why I wanted i t ... my u n c l e was a v e r y k i n d man ... p e o p l e r e s p e c t e d him, t h e y t o o k his advice ... he was i n a p o s i t i o n of power ... he had a way w i t h p e o p l e .  Additionally, dimension  of  G's  supportive  this vocational  brotherly  role  was  clearly  a  role:  ... you s u p p o r t y o u r a c t o r s , and demand from them, as I demand a l o t from my b r o t h e r , and t h e n you have t o be there to support them ... As a brother and as a director you have t o see p o t e n t i a l s . I mean, you have t h e c o n c e p t , you have t h e i d e a l image of t h e c h a r a c t e r . Now you have t o t a k e a r e a l human b e i n g and somehow get him t o y o u r i d e a l ... I see p o t e n t i a l i n my b r o t h e r and I try to support him in achieving his goals and p o s s i b i l i t i e s ... w h a t e v e r he was d o i n g .  119  Other  figures  mother and The  brother,  leading  figure and  and  man,  brother  leading  example  arena  t o be  lady,  like  father  opposite  mother  was  lady  the  provided  these p a r a l l e l s .  G's  brother, need  she  of  girlfriend was  Her  she  'protectiveness' In was  leading  perhaps  support  and  and  and  competent.  other  characterized  adoring  others  Vocation  who  and  peer  the  clearest  cult  leading  member  years  actress.  termination  Like  and of  where  of  in  their  brotherly  institutionalized.  role,  where t h e  i n the  arena  figure-of-father emerged  t o have r e - e n a c t e d alliance  collectively  five  problems  G experienced himself  by  admiration  with  as the  as  like  powerful early  uncritical  exclude a c r i t i c a l  and life  and/or  figure.  2 As  figures. this  a  figures  appeared  drama,  as  the  e x t r e m e and  brother, He  well  upon  became was  audience  lady  for  having emotional  this vocational  absent  mother  seen as  as  protection;  relationship,  father.  (.419/.597/.385/.678)  s i m i l a r t o h i s m o t h e r ' s , were s u c h t h a t  she  to  (-.50/-.505).  leading  of  similarly paralleled  c l o s e s t p e e r and  (.586/.43/.47/.44);  The  his  tended  were a l l seen as  were o p p o s i t e  G,  in this vocational  role. great  a manager G was Neither His uncle  was  ideal  he of  (.568).  not like  similar  to  his actual  any or  early  ideal  a manager, however, was  role  selves most  in  like  120  These  correspondences  away from  his previous  developed  a meaningful  G him,  and  early new  initially stated  life.  dimension  the dimension in  this  he had  vocational role  for  was  role  that  G had  and  had  no  "role  not  shifted not  yet  himself-as-manager.  d e s c r i b e d managing as  Upon e l a b o r a t i o n here  suggested  models" though,  "new  for  ground"  this  i t appeared  t h e management r o l e  of s h a r i n g a l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n  in  his  that  the  itself, with  for  but  another,  instance, h i s business partner:  ... r i g h t now t h a t ' s one o f t h e r e a s o n s t h i s work i s h a r d , b e c a u s e when y o u ' v e g o t two p a r t n e r s each has a different style. I cannot operate i n my s t y l e w i t h [ p a r t n e r ] ... when I was young, I managed t w e n t y people and i t was n e v e r a c o n f l i c t ... [now] somewhere e v e r y d a y it'll come up, our d i f f e r e n t ways o f o p e r a t i n g and l i k e I s a y , i t ' s f r u s t r a t i n g t o b o t h o f us ... our s t y l e s a r e d i f f e r e n t , so i n t h a t s e n s e t h a t ' s new ground, working w i t h someone who t h i n k s d i f f e r e n t l y t h a n I do.  G  noted  role." team  that Even  previously  he  in his early  captain  or  'star'  was  "always  in a sole  y e a r s as an a t h l e t e , player,  o r competed  he in  leadership was  the  individual  sports. A central sharing in  G's  of the early  a s p e c t o f G's  spotlight;  life  this  role drama  as  manager  was  i s unparalleled  or h i s p r e v i o u s v o c a t i o n a l  the  either  role:  ... I h a v e n ' t r e a l l y been i n a p a r t n e r t y p e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e f o r e ... so b o t h o f u s , have done and been in charge of our own t h i n g f o r the l a s t ten y e a r s . So now i t ' s l i k e b o t h o f us being thrust into that position of having to deal with each other, and b e i n g the top p e r s o n , i t ' s a d i f f e r e n t dynamic ... t h e only thing I c a n r e l a t e i t t o was a t t h e t i m e we were b o t h i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e same woman ( l a u g h ) ... whomever i t meant t h e most to, the o t h e r would a c q u i e s c e ... t h e r e has t o be t h a t g i v e and t a k e sometimes ...  121  The be  most  salient  t h a t of G's  G's  figure  partner,  commentary c o n f i r m e d  in this  v o c a t i o n a l arena  who  similar  was  this  to  statistical  appeared  brother  to  (.41).  observation:  The b i g g e s t p a r t of [ p a r t n e r ] and I i s c o m m u n i c a t i o n and c r e a t i v i t y and t h e b u s i n e s s . I t i s more l i k e my b r o t h e r t h e r e ' s t h e c o n f l i c t , my b r o t h e r and I have c o n f l i c t , but t h e r e ' s a l o t of l o v e and my b r o t h e r and I a l s o get inspired by t h e same t h i n g s as [ p a r t n e r ] ) and I do - so the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s d e f i n i t e l y a b r o t h e r l y thing, just so h a p p e n s he has a few t r a i t s l i k e my f a t h e r ( l a u g h s ) .  At  first  glance  might  suggest  that  G's  Vocation  the  vocational  in  this  of  G  of  this the  represented  complementary  did  role  of  stated that h i s  a supportive  vocational  experience  2  of  to  correspondences  arena.  re-enactment  presence  a contradiction  However, Q - s o r t enacted  the  context,  breaking  "new  parallel initial  an not  brother  observation  unfamiliar indicate  drama. that  self-as-brother in shift  brotherly role yet  to  another  away was  from  G  this the  deliberate  aspect  of  his  ground."  [Partner] needs a lot of s u p p o r t ... and I'm a b l e t o g i v e a l o t of s u p p o r t . W i t h [ p a r t n e r ] I've r e a l i z e d t h e c o s t of b e i n g i n a t o t a l l y s u p p o r t i v e s i t u a t i o n and so now I'm not s u p p o r t i v e w i t h him ... i n s u c h a c o m p l e t e way. T h e r e was an a c t u a l t i m e I s a i d 'I'm not g o i n g to support you anymore.' T h e r e ' s a l s o a c o s t i n even s t i l l w o r k i n g w i t h him, my own sense of, my own way of working. Basically ... I feel I'm making more a d j u s t m e n t s to f i t h i s s t y l e than the o t h e r way around ... I'm not being t o t a l l y happy b e c a u s e I'm not d o i n g t h i n g s t h e way I want t o do them and u s u a l l y I do ... a way t h a t was n a t u r a l f o r me ...  1 22  Vocational  Transition  In  shifting  from t h e a t r i c a l  a business partnership,  G shifted  of  drama  his  early  confronting represented  life  interpersonal by  d i r e c t o r t o a manager i n  away from t h e r e - e n a c t m e n t  and  was  more  engaged  and  conflict  differences  with as  father:  I t ' s l i k e that part that I can't deal with ( i n p a r t n e r ) , that's the part that always becomes a source of conflict. L i k e , I d i d n ' t want to deal with what he ( f a t h e r ) r e p r e s e n t e d t h e n , so I c u t him o u t , and so when it comes up now, i t ' s n o t s o m e t h i n g e a s y t o d e a l w i t h , i t ' s ... a r e a l b l o c k i n g p o i n t . In o t h e r words ... when [ p a r t n e r ] a c t s t h a t way ... I'm n o t q u i t e s u r e how much is my reacting t o what he r e p r e s e n t s as o p p o s e d t o r e a c t i n g t o what h e ' s r e a l l y d o i n g . A f t e r looking at i t l o n g and hard I think that what he's d o i n g is a pain-in-the-ass ( l a u g h s ) b u t t h e way I'm r e a c t i n g t o i t [ t h e r e ' s ] d e f i n i t e l y something e l s e t o i t as well ... We [father and self] never 'worked i t o u t ' - e v e r ! ( l a u g h ) ... The b u s i n e s s , a n d 'working i t out' with [partner], we have a common g o a l , t h e b u s i n e s s . It'sa r e a l growth e x p e r i e n c e , but i t ' s not easy a l l the time i t c a n be p a i n f u l a t t i m e s .  It and  was a s i f p r e v i o u s l y , competence  relied  G's e x p e r i e n c e on-  a  or  shift  willingness  confront business  or n e e d f u l  appeared t o represent to  criticism, partners.  allow as  personal  drama c h a r a c t e r i z e d  where he was a s t a r among s u p p o r t i v e vocational  of  represented  by  conflict both  by e a s e ,  others.  an i n c r e a s e d  interpersonal  power  The  ability and  father  to and  1 23  Interestingly, into Vocation  2  "effectively"  with  as  G the  identified time  when  the he  p o i n t of began  s i x months to  relate  his father.  In a s e n s e t h i s i s one of t h e r e a s o n s I c a n r e l a t e t o my father a b i t more. I can see how he t h i n k s now, and I can even see t h e v a l u e of t h a t - I mean t h e r e i s a v a l u e there. At one time f o r me t h e r e wasn't ... A t one t i m e I wouldn't look at a machine, maybe for what it represented. T h e r e i s a b i g t i e - i n f o r m a c h i n e s and my f a t h e r b e c a u s e he wanted me t o u n d e r s t a n d them. He had me s t a n d f o r h o u r s w a t c h i n g him t a k e a p a r t a m a c h i n e ; I j u s t went 'whoosh!'; I was not t h e r e . Then he gave me s o m e t h i n g t o do and I c o u l d n ' t do i t and he'd n e v e r even let me t r y i t a g a i n but I s t i l l had t o s t a n d t h e r e and watch i t . So i t s o r t of built up this incompetent feeling in dealing with machinery and what it r e p r e s e n t e d - w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d my f a t h e r . Whereas now I can ... w i t h i n t h e l a s t y e a r , I d o n ' t remember i f I f i x e d a m a c h i n e or t o l d him how t o do i t and he just k i n d o f went - l o o k a t me - s h o c k ( l a u g h ) ! ... like  It g i v e s me my f a t h e r but  more an a c c e p t a n c e o f him. I may n o t a t l e a s t I a c c e p t him f o r what he i s .  124  CASE STUDY H  Background H was a 61 y e a r time, 25  she h a d two a d u l t d a u g h t e r s  years  arrival  and a t t h e time  worked  as  a  customer  one-and-a-half  dismissed  her,  t h e next entire  being  process  businessman 'corporate  marriage of  was a n t i c i p a t i n g t h e  and t r a i n i n g  and  the  in sales,  travel  received  policy  f o r women  life  As  an a s p e c t  the  supporting activities  and wife  she  organization  who  married.  a n d mother was  vocational o f an  role  ambitious  o f h e r r o l e was t h a t o f t h e and  by  contributing  being  a  to her  frequent  model  r e t u r n e d t o s c h o o l a s a mature s t u d e n t a n d  Masters  in social  was a p u r p o s e f u l move away  housewife.  the  When  companion a n d p e r s o n a l s e c r e t a r y .  later  her  same.  H  program f o r  relocate.  later,  w i t h h e r home  wife,'  She  and p s y c h o l o g y ,  17 y e a r s w o r k i n g a s a h o u s e w i f e  husband's b u s i n e s s hostess,  years  a s was t h e i r  world,  one  school  second  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r a major  j o b r e q u i r e d t h a t she t e m p o r a r i l y  For  for a  her f i r s t  of the study  service  The s e l e c t i o n  married  her  from  o b t a i n i n g a B.A. i n e n g l i s h  corporation.  her  married  of a g r a n d c h i l d . After  the  o l d woman;  work. from  She e v e n t u a l l y s w i t c h e d  marital role,  and d e v o t e d  F o r H, t h e r e t u r n t o the f u l l - t i m e  r o l e of  her focus e n t i r e l y  herself  to a full-time  from social  125  work c a r e e r .  At  the time  profile  administrative  Canadian  urban  level  of  i n western  Scottish  Her  upbringing  as w e l l ;  retail  business.  Family  Experience The  highly  implicit others'  predominant demanding  Her  parental  demand  a  in  high  a major  an  of  a  managerial  a housewife  and  a  volunteer  critical  n e e d s , p r e f e r e n c e s , and  child  was  artist  for  only  father  was  a key  and  figure  managed  e x p e r i e n c e of H's  and  held  position  Canada, as t h e  grandmother  she was  had  12 y e a r s .  descent.  maternal  she  work  e x e c u t i v e ; h e r mother was  nurse.  a  social  c e n t r e f o r the  H grew up parents  of t h e s t u d y  early  world.  a  life  There  c o n f o r m i t y and  in  H's  family  was was  deference  of an to  decisions.  I t h i n k t h a t I would be a v e r y t a k e - c h a r g e p e r s o n e x c e p t t h a t I was not a l l o w e d t o be when I was a kid. I was severely punished and lectured when I s t e p p e d o u t of l i n e i n any way and made d e c i s i o n s f o r myself ... I'd been t r a i n e d n e v e r t o speak out - b l u n t l y - t o p e o p l e . T h a t was e a r l y and v i g o r o u s l y e n f o r c e d t r a i n i n g ... t h e message was a g a i n t h a t you a l w a y s have t o g e t a p p r o v a l b e f o r e you move and i f o t h e r p e o p l e d o n ' t l i k e it then you don't do i t . And so t h a t ' s t h e way I've l i v e d my l i f e , on t h e w h o l e .  An  important  a s p e c t of  the n o t i o n of s i l e n t l y  familial  standards of  propriety  was  e n d u r i n g p e r s o n a l d i s c o m f o r t o r unmet  needs: ... T h a t ' s their number one r u l e , l i k e i t ' s p a s t e d up t h e r e on y o u r f o r e h e a d . 'Get on w i t h i t . Don't make a fuss and get on w i t h i t . ' Those were t h e two c a r d i n a l  126  r u l e s ... i f I was u p s e t a b o u t s o m e t h i n g ... a s simple a s 'I d o n ' t want t o s t a n d any l o n g e r on t h e s t r e e t w h i l e you' - t o my mom 'while you t a l k t o your f r i e n d ' ... t o s o m e t h i n g v e r y s e r i o u s l i k e t h e d e a t h o f a d e a r l y b e l o v e d p e t c a t - 'Don't make a f u s s . Don't e v e r make a fuss.'  According  t o H, s t o i c i s m  well  preached.  as  everyone  I t appeared  d i d what was The  was p r a c t i s e d  one s t r i k i n g  contrast  maternal  grandmother.  the  family,  managing t h e i r  way,  her  to her that  to this  clearly  as  nearly  She was t h e retail  store,  was e x e m p l i f i e d by  business  person  of  a n d she made a d e e p  on H when she a s s e r t e d h e r s e l f  to a shocking  parents,  expected.  H's  impression  by  i n an  independent  degree:  She walked o u t on h e r u n f a i t h f u l husband in the b e g i n n i n g o f ... t h e 2 0 t h C e n t u r y ... a n d g o t a d i v o r c e . T h a t ' s k i n d o f a b e a c o n i n my l i f e ... t h e f a c t t h a t she had t a k e n t h a t a c t i o n , i t j u s t blew me away, ... I g u e s s I was i n my t e e n s when I l e a r n e d t h a t . The  experience  consistent marriage, ethic  of  boldness  grandmother and c o u r a g e .  she t o o resumed a c t i n g  of s i l e n t  submission  was,  however,  n o t one o f  After  grandmother's  second  i n accord with the family's  to l i f e :  ... a f t e r ... she k n u c k l e d under and was totally submissive ... I g u e s s she f i g u r e d y o u d o n ' t g e t more t h a n two c h a n c e s . Her s e c o n d husband was c o n s t a n t l y unfaithful, a n d f l a g r a n t l y s o , a n d p u b l i c l y so ... She j u s t c a r r i e d on a n d r a n h i s b u s i n e s s . . . H d e s c r i b e d h e r own r o l e being  "captive  uncomplaining characterized  -  a  coping this  role.  i n the  early  happy with  family  isolate." a  drama The  repressive  as  ethic  a of  situation  1 27  H for  experienced  ritualistic  concomitant point the  she  an  referred  expression  to the  these  "adjustment" as  a demand  expectations,  often  to  unexpressed  to allow  of  drama of  conformity  with  angers"  the  response  of a n g e r .  n e c e s s i t y of a l w a y s  the  " g e t t i n g on  a n g e r s was  central  with  At  one  "beating  it."  t o the  The  back covert  drama:  Y o u ' r e o f t e n aware of t h e c o p i n g mechanisms t h a t you a r e u s i n g and sometimes t h e y f a i l and you g e t pretty upset and quite desperate a t t i m e s - t h e i d e a of s u i c i d e i s v e r y v e r y a p p e a l i n g ... and so sometimes you literally have t o t h i n k 'OK ... how c a n I g e t m y s e l f back on t r a c k and g e t moving a g a i n ? ' ... and s o m e t h i n g a l w a y s t u r n s up • • •  Vocation  1 As  mother  the  (.425). salient  vocational her of  housewife  roles  role  parallels  paralleled marriage  her  an  f o c u s was  viewed as  to  of  a  lesser  life  and  only  and  " m e a s u r i n g up"  little and  ruler":  and  She  pattern family. captive  viewed  almost  housewife  s e n s e of  pleasing  no  early  isolate  Her  first  somewhat c l o s e t o  h u s b a n d ) a s an  endure.  extent,  her  t h e r e was  arena  stoic,  into  as a h o u s e w i f e .  with  a "total  role  to  (.54),  integrated v i r t u a l l y a l l  was  in t h i s  alcoholic  ritually on  role  had  self-as-daughter  early She  in this  experience  w h i c h she  performed  enactment.  early  (to  words she  from h e r  (.37)  like  (.48), and  between o t h e r s  H's  she  In o t h e r  actual self  ordeal  H was  (.517), g r a n d m o t h e r  father of  a  horrific role  spontaneity;  her  her  husband  was the whom  128  ... sometimes when I was most unhappy t h e ' r e a l ' was a k i n d of dream w o r l d I r e t r e a t e d i n t o - I j u s t kept d o i n g a l l t h e t h i n g s I had t o do. My r e a l w o r l d was my dream world ... t h i n k i n g a b o u t t h i n g s I wanted t o t h i n k a b o u t even w h i l e I was t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e t h i n g s I was e x p e c t e d t o t a l k a b o u t ... g o i n g t h r o u g h the motions while my mind was somewhere e l s e . When  the  h o u s e w i f e as  one  interviewer of  "basic  summarized  H's  role  as  s u r v i v a l , " H concurred with  a  great  expressiveness: Yes! Exactly. Exactly. It intimidates me to think about i t . It's so large, t h e i m m e n s i t y of i t i s so o v e r w h e l m i n g 'What i f I had not done that [changed careers]?' that my mind l i t e r a l l y c l o s e s . I can o n l y t e n t a t i v e l y say - god knows, I would have become an alcoholic I can't imagine what I w o u l d have done really. And t h e n my mind j u s t c l o s e s o f f .  The  several  family  parallels  between H's  f i g u r e s suggested  within  H's  own  1  further  suggested  patterns  of  seemed daughter  arena by  parallels  figures,  re-enactment  of  In  other  to  have in  internalized.  early  r o l e performance,  in. t h i s V o c a t i o n  early  the  family  between o t h e r s  dutiful words,  lived-out ritualistic  in  her  to  her  vocation childhood  other  drama was the  of  in this  but  enacted  and  early  a  early  embodied  other  superfluous.  combination  her  role  rendering  somewhat  the  and  response  housewife  actors  This  lack  is  of  clear  a r e n a and  with  experience  of  the  living. as role role  housewife, of  H  dutiful  figures  she  1 29  Vocation  2  As early  a  family  emphasis  social role  (.50)  to  (.36). actual  Again,  in t h i s  the  early  self  again  the  more  somewhat  t o her  g u i d e d by  with  being  and  self-as-daughter similar  figures  shifted  grandmother  w o r k e r , H was  difference  like  father  In  this  role  or  ideal  self.  "Cardinal  that  mother  less like  second v o c a t i o n a l  family  s i m i l a r to a l l the  H  was  role,  the  (.56)  and  (.367)  and  not  at a l l  enactment  is  Rules":  ... I phrase it 'I do what has t o be done and t h e n I have my h y s t e r i c s l a t e r ' and of c o u r s e by t h e t i m e l a t e r comes, you d o n ' t need t o have h y s t e r i c s . As a social worker, I use that a l o t . I was t o t a l l y s t a r t l e d t o f i n d s o c i a l workers g e t t i n g upset about something that was happening i n t h e i r c a s e l o a d ... i t was t h e a f f e c t , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y were s o r t of c a r r y i n g on, and that's v e r y bad manners ...  The  apparent  social  worker  choice  of  parallel was  a new  between H's  consistent  vocational  with  r o l e as H's  h o u s e w i f e and  explanation  of  as her  focus:  This was an e s c a p e as w e l l as a means of p r e p a r i n g f o r t h e f u t u r e ... g o i n g i n t o s o c i a l work p a r t l y t o keep my own sanity and partly to achieve some i n d e p e n d e n c e ... t h a t was a f i e l d t h a t I r e a l l y cared about so it r e a l l y f i t ... I c o u l d s o r t o f t a k e t h e module o f m y s e l f and f i t i t r i g h t i n t o t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d f i e l d .  Furthermore, herself  as  housewife,  as very  or  a  social different  from her  early  worker, from family  H her  did  not  previous  experience:  experience role  as  130  I don't feel v e r y p r o f e s s i o n a l ... I'm d e a d l y s e r i o u s a b o u t t h e aims and g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s of s o c i a l work, but ... I don't take myself very seriously as a " p r o f e s s i o n a l " ... I'm j u s t a p e r s o n who happens to be d o i n g t h i s j o b ... when s o m e t h i n g ' s t o be done, you j u s t g e t on and do i t , you d o n ' t s t o p and t h i n k 'now how d o e s this look i n t h e e y e s of t h e w o r l d ' ... you j u s t do i t ... r e g a r d l e s s of w h e t h e r y o u ' r e a t home or i n an o f f i c e somewhere ... i n my u p b r i n g i n g t h e r e was 'no fuss or muss', one j u s t d i d what needed t o be done.  It  appeared  her  early  demands and  t h a t as  a social  w o r k e r , H was  family  dynamic  of  coping  again  and  re-enacting  meeting  external  expectations.  Vocational Transition In and  out  professional  enactment tasks  of  and  context act  living  of  from t h e  the  social  two  vocational  than  by  expectations. role  roles,  worker, H e s s e n t i a l l y  drama of c o p i n g  exernal  rather  her  retreat The  or  housewife  repeated escape  the into  shift  was  one  p e r f o r m a n c e s o r drama.  For  H  changing  vocations  r e q u i r e d o n l y a temporary  pervasive  drama of a c c e p t a n c e  of  the  status  of the  break  quo:  ... i n o r d e r t o become a s o c i a l w o r k e r I had t o t a k e an u n t y p i c a l c o u r s e of a c t i o n . T h a t was, t o s t r i k e out and get myself registered (for university) make the d e c i s i o n and go a h e a d and c a r r y t h a t o u t . To register ... I had to screw up an enormous amount of c o u r a g e ... I d i d n ' t e v e r d i s c u s s i t w i t h my husband, He knew nothing a b o u t i t u n t i l I t o l d him . . . i n May. And t h a t was when my h a y f e v e r c l e a r e d up the next week after twenty-odd years oh god! so that was an enormous release ... d o i n g something on my own ... u s u a l l y I'm d o i n g what I t h i n k I s h o u l d ...  131  It  is  noteworthy  isolated  instance  maternal first  that  p e r c e p t o n of her a c t i o n  of c o u r a g e p a r a l l e l e d  grandmother,  husband  this  was  her  whose s e l f - a s s e r t i o n  also  viewed  as  an  as an  perception  of  upon l e a v i n g  her  atypical,  isolated  i n s t a n c e of a c t i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y : ... ... and guts  i n the 7 years before the end of my m a r r i a g e from t i m e t o t i m e , I w o u l d t h i n k o f my grandmother I would often say t o m y s e l f , 'You d o n ' t have t h e t h a t y o u r grandmother had.' The  of  theme of t h i s  continuity  of  this  o f t h e drama of t h e e a r l y  drama was  p o w e r l e s s n e s s by  performances  role  performance of  were w i t h e l d . "measuring independence  of  or  was others,  to  a  escaping  meaning the  of  image  grandmother.  and into  demands.  ritualistic  fostering the of  change  family.  with a p o s i t i o n  t o meet e x t e r n a l  The  up"  coping  retreating  task  expectations  case of v o c a t i o n a l  was  The  one  essence  e x p e r i e n c e of "dreams" The  resultant  fulfilling  concomitant angers career strength,  or  change  of which  was  courage  a and  132  CASE STUDY J  Background J four  was a 52 y e a r  sons,  two i n a d o l e s c e n c e  His Vocation representative. remained  there  throughout  for  Vocation  he  has  was  middle-class  twenty  was  after  years,  and  had  adults.  manufacturer's  h i g h s c h o o l and working  i n e d u c a t i o n , a s an  worked  closely  nearly eight  Jewish  the  elementary  required  university  as a t e a c h e r ; a t t h e t i m e  the family  of the  years.  second in  of  two  urban  years h i s senior.  f o r a toy manufacturer;  sons  western  Father  a  Canada; h i s  worked  mother was a  in  in  sales  housewife.  Experience J's  isolation  early  experience  self-reliance  simultaneously creativity  life  was  and a l o n e n e s s .  double-edged of  as a toy  field  obtaining  raised  b r o t h e r was e i g h t management  2  Since  J had taught J  Family  in sales,  nearly  married  a n d two o l d e r young  J entered t h i s  teacher.  education study  1 was  was  with h i s father.  J's school  o l d m a l e ; he  and  characterized  His  role  of encouraging and  inhibiting  as  his inclinations J believed  a sense of  "loner"  the e a r l y  independent  sociability.  a  by  a  development  thinking, to  was  while  playfulness,  the loner r o l e  was  133  not as rather early  "natural" that  this  by  as h i s p l a y f u l  role  circumstances.  identified (1)  t o him  was Four  J, with  extended  distancing  him  from  creative  learned in response of  these  illustrative  frequent  and  t o a s e t of  circumstances  were  comments:  periods ongoing  side;  of  illness  as  a  child  peer c o n t a c t :  ... I was s o r t o f a s i c k l y l i t t l e k i d and d i d not have all the social g r a c e s t h a t would e n d e a r m y s e l f t o t h e p e o p l e a r o u n d me. I f I d i d , o r I knew how t o use them or I knew how to acquire them, then I might be a d i f f e r e n t s o r t o f p e r s o n ... I u s e d t o get sick every winter for 6, 8, 10 weeks ... and I g u e s s t h a t s o r t o f p u l l e d me out o f t h e m a i n s t r e a m and made me p e r c e i v e t h e w o r l d i n w h a t e v e r way ... I would not be a loner if I had the s o c i a l g r a c e s t o i n t e r a c t w i t h p e o p l e ... i f I were more interacting I would maybe be less ... i n h i b i t e d , yet by nature I am n o t an i n h i b i t e d p e r s o n ... but maybe e v e n t s c o n s p i r e d t o make me that way . . .  (2) J ' s years  position junior  exclusivity  in  the  family  to h i s s i b l i n g of  an  as t h e s e c o n d allowed  only c h i l d  him  without  child, the  eight  parental  the p r e s s u r e s or  expectat ions: ... t o move from one j o b t o a n o t h e r I sometimes t h i n k i s the advantage of b e i n g a second child ... I think in many ways with a first child, parents put a l l e x p e c t a t i o n s and h o p e s , i t ' s t h e f i r s t k i d you want to do e v e r y t h i n g " r i g h t . " By t h e t i m e t h e s e c o n d k i d comes along, you're not so u p t i g h t . So t h e s e c o n d k i d h a s , u s u a l l y , I t h i n k , has more l a t i t u d e t o do a whole bunch of things ... so as a r e s u l t I have t h a t l a t i t u d e . I had t h a t l a t i t u d e . I t ' s probably b u i l t i n t o the psyches of our f a m i l y l i f e ...  (3) B e i n g J e w i s h therefore  in  a  non-Jewish  "different":  social  environment  and  134  ... i t [ b e i n g a loner] may even have s o m e t h i n g t o do w i t h b e i n g J e w i s h i n a n o n - J e w i s h e n v i r o n m e n t , where I really didn't have a n y t h i n g i n t h e way o f r e a l s t r o n g e t h n i c i d e n t i t y a t home t h a t w o u l d back that, what I would consider 'rapport' w i t h one's e t h n i c i t y ... any f e e l i n g I have t o w a r d s my e t h n i c i t y h a s come later on and h a s come more o u t o f an i n t e l l e c t u a l b a s i s r a t h e r t h a n o u t o f an e m o t i o n a l b a s i s . And that also could have s o m e t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e way I p e r c e i v e m y s e l f a s b e i n g somewhat i s o l a t e d . When q u e s t i o n e d , friends.  I n s t e a d , he r e l a t e d  a neighbour (4) B e i n g  boy, o s t e n s i b l y  raised  unavailable her  J had d i f f i c u l t y  being  primarily  a story  f o r being by m o t h e r ,  to J i n emotional  self-centered  in recalling  any  of being  boyhood  beaten  up by  Jewish. who  was  essentially  t e r m s , a s J saw i t , due t o  and n e e d y :  The relationship a t home ... my mother I c o n s i d e r a s a m i n o r f i g u r e i n t h e house ... I d o n ' t p e r c e i v e my mother a s b e i n g an i m p o r t a n t o r i n f l u e n t i a l p e r s o n i n my life ... b e i n g t h a t somewhat i s o l a t e d b e i n g , I h a d t o r e l y on my own r e s o u r c e s ... i t i s n ' t t h a t [ a s i f ] she s a t down and t a l k e d t o me o r r e a d me s t o r i e s o r a n y t h i n g . When I was s i c k , I was s i c k i n bed by m y s e l f . My mother wasn't a s t r o n g p e r s o n . I t wasn't t h a t , my father was a d o m i n a t i n g p e r s o n , b u t my mother wasn't a s t r o n g p e r s o n b o t h p h y s i c a l l y a n d ... When my brother left home and when I was on t h e v e r g e o f manhood, she went t h r o u g h some o f t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t women go through at that stage o f l i f e - t h e y have a n e r v o u s breakdown ... s h e wasn't a f o r c e f u l p e r s o n , e a s i l y u p s e t ...  After  this  whether responded logic  comment,  mother  when  had been a model  affirmatively:  to i t . "  the  interviewer  probed  as  to  f o r learned cowardliness, J  "Yeah, t h a t h a s a c e r t a i n  ring  of  1 35  J's experience, "loner." the  was t h e o t h e r  early  central figure  though hot a s s o c i a t e d  J described  family,  their  father  h i s father  in his early  w i t h h i s sense of being  both as the "pragmatist"  and a s a model o f d e m o c r a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p as q u i t e  values;  he  a of  viewed  close:  ... my f a t h e r was n o t an a u t o c r a t ... t h e e g a l i t a r i a n i s m of the North American s o c i e t y b r u s h e d my f a t h e r a s a second-generation Canadian with some of those "democratizing" principles. You know, my father vacuumed a r o u n d t h e h o u s e , washed t h e d i s h e s ... i t was s o r t o f a n a t u r a l t y p e o f t h i n g t o do.  J  believed  relationship roots  that  socialist-based  organization.  with  his  with  aspect  household  of  this  and f a t h e r  had i t s  participation  father's  socialist  The  activities  centered  of  i t , and J was v e r y  activity. around much  was  The f a m i l y ' s  this  in this  in  a  were  family's a  social  group and other  included  the  s t o r i e s of  friends  ideals.  s o c i a l i s t - b a s e d group  and  beyond  J related several  humanitarian  association  working  extended  a c t i v e and v i s i b l e  and  harmonious  bonding.  social-mindedness  to include  how h i s f a t h e r  and  a s an a d u l t  loving early  Father's  concerned  close  between h i m s e l f  in a close,  household  the  central circle members  type of f a m i l y  activity.  Vocation  1 In  his  first  as-a-son,  (.58).  This  made t h i s  comment:  vocation, parallel  J  was  most  like  self  seemed s e l f - e v i d e n t t o J who  1 36  I was c l o s e r t o b e i n g a son when I s t a r t e d [ i n V o c a t i o n 1]. I n f a c t , I was a son l i v i n g a t home with my parents. So i t would o n l y seem n a t u r a l t h a t i t was t h e same b a l l o f wax - w o r k i n g w i t h my father, l i v i n g at home ... I l i v e d a t home u n t i l t h e t i m e I was 24, when I got married, a n d I was w o r k i n g w i t h my f a t h e r from t h e t i m e I was 19, 20 ... [ u n t i l ] 42, 43.  In t h e d a i l y a  duo w i t h  working  h i s father;  geographically indirectly  arena  viewed  result  of  wholesalers. t o be  As  recreating  father-son constancy  team of t h i s  t h e r e was l i t t l e family  J i n fact  key f i g u r e s  of  miles  worked c l o s e l y in this  away,  arena  present  as were only  "Telex." was  J's  salient  paralleled  J the  only  but other  also  other  thousands  through  Not father,  situation,  father-as-colleague  figures  father  (owner, manager)  common  of others  role  a manufacturer's the with  early  tasks  this  i n t h i s arena as as  managerial  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , J seemed  family  a virtually  dynamic  in  (.57/.327/.425).  the s i m i l a r i t y their  similar to  dynamic  non-present  of  close  mother.  i n the v o c a t i o n a l arena  differentiation  a  between h i s r o l e  The  suggested within the  drama and h i s v o c a t i o n a l r o l e .  Vocation 2 As but the  also  a teacher  like  mother  self-as-son role  J was a g a i n (.35).  like  Others  (.367/.35).  himself-as-son  in this  arena  (.396),  paralleled  J's childhood role  of the  1 37  resourceful vocational unique  "loner" role.  among  description  his  of  orientation,  His  the  and  appeared  to  be  professional  in  o r i e n t a t i o n was  colleagues.  e s s e n c e of  recreated  He  teaching  gave and  then e x c l u d e d h i m s e l f  this  virtually  this most  general teachers'  from i t :  Teaching b a s i c a l l y f o r most of t h e c o l l e a g u e s and most of t h e p e o p l e I know i s a fairly structured type of thing, and I have d i f f i c u l t y many t i m e s d e a l i n g w i t h things that are structured and sequential in nature ... I imagine t h e r e ' s ... a m e s h i n g of how I have f e l t and my a c a d e m i c e x p l o r a t i o n s a r e s u c h t h a t things that are sequential are ... t h i n g s that interfere with creativity and with ... quantum leaps that people ... must make i f t h e y a r e t o ... go beyond t h e t y p e of l e a r n i n g we p r e s e n t l y g e t .  The  aspect  relate  to  of  self-as-teacher  lack  of  perhaps s i m i l a r to mother's l a c k  of  reference  J's  to  perceived  that  this  dimension  of  paralleled assertion  mother in this  "forcefulness." the  vocational  may role, With  drama J  stated: ... I w o u l d l i k e t o be a b l e t o e l o q u e n t l y s t a t e my case in such a way I can c o n v i n c e p e o p l e t h a t what I t h i n k and what I f e e l i s of v a l u e i n the s e n s e t h a t they too could partake and be part of it t h e way I v i e w l e a r n i n g ... I g u e s s ... my r e l u c t a n c e t o be outspoken i s - f o r l a c k of a b e t t e r word - c o w a r d l i n e s s on my p a r t  Additionally,  mother  c r e a t i v e mode t h a t  J  ... I i m a g i n e my and my mother family]  was  associated  identified father might  w i t h the  w i t h h i s r o l e as  m i g h t be more t h e be more 'right  non-linear, teacher:  'left brain'  brain' [ i n the  1 38  In h i s t e a c h i n g  role J  The  parallels  between  well  as w i t h other  elaboration  encouraged self-as-son  figures  in  of " c r e a t i v i t y "  from the f a m i l y  individual  creativity.  and s e l f - a s - t e a c h e r ,  this  arena,  stimulated  a s a theme p r o v i d i n g  to vocational  as an  continuity  dramas:  T h e r e ' s a c e r t a i n c h i l d - l i k e a f f i n i t y between t h e three of us (self-as-teacher, c o l l e a g u e , s t u d e n t ) ... t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ... t h a t I p r o b a b l y e n j o y e d a s a child or w o u l d l i k e t o see a s b e i n g p a r t of m y s e l f , were t h o s e things t h a t were c r e a t i v e . And w i t h i n t h e s e two p e o p l e I d e t e c t e d t h a t c r e a t i v i t y t h a t I had a s a child, and that I feel I am a l s o somewhat c r e a t i v e ... I i m a g i n e t h a t w o u l d be t h e common core of ... ' a f f i n i t y - n e s s ' that exists between (colleague) and myself and (student).  J's  re-enactment  self-as-son expression mother's  a  of t h i s  these  recreation  of  a  Specifically,  was  apparent  His  personal  larger,  was  devoted  organization. role-as-teacher  more  fundamental that  seemed  social  style  the  pervasive  orientation  idealism  J  methods however,  family  a  daily  within  reformer,  and  manifested  I t appeared,  with  to p a r a l l e l  mother  in  lived-out  of a s o c i a l  involvement The  expressed  were  of  while h i s teaching  playfulness.  roles  his  role-as-teacher  social  teacher  his childlike of  father  figures  role.  both  father's  the  lack-of-forthrightness,  manifested that  as  of  the  drama. to  his  parallelling  socialist-based brought  the s o c i a l  to  idealism  his that  through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a s o c i a l i s t - b a s e d  and e d u c a t i o n a l  network.  139  As mother's and  a teacher  "cowardliness,"  J  shifting  elementary  living-out  a social  in  self-isolation,  have  father-son  drama  to  living-out  The of  represented  an  extent  to  which  the  of  first the  and  greater  themes  idealism  vocational  of  context.  and  simultaneous  increased  vulnerabilities,  w h i c h he  social  ideals  do  J ' s movement away  both  not out from  a move t o w a r d s a c t u a l  personal awareness  referred  a  isolate,  f a t h e r - s o n drama p l a y e d  suggested  self-reliance  pervaded  drama r e p r e s e n t e d  f a m i l y drama; s e l f - r e l i a n t  expression  enactment  social  vocational  themes where t h e  familiar  more  shift  emerge as  the  a  from  The  and  overt  shifted  drama.  cowardliness,  extension  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e to  to  'cowardliness,'  this  creativity,  seemed  the  dramas.  in  re-enacting  J  peer-based  alteration  daily  be  reformer.  from a m a n u f a c t u r e r ' s  teacher,  a  egalitarian  virtual  to  Transition  In  these  appeared  his self-as-son playful  h i s f a t h e r ' s i d e a l i s m as  Vocational  an  then,  t o as  strength of  and  a  personal  "cowardliness."  I do have t h a t s t r e a k o f c o w a r d l i n e s s t h a t r u n s through me, t h a t does not a l l o w me t o speak out w e l l w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e a b o u t how I p e r c e i v e t h i n g s . Now, t h a t may have something to do with the f a c t t h a t I d i d go i n t o my f i r s t c a r e e r ... w i t h my f a t h e r ... The f a c t t h a t I've been a b l e t o overcome some of t h a t ... may v e r y w e l l be why I went i n t o a s e c o n d c a r e e r ... i f t h a t be t h e case it would seem logical that I do not now feel u n c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h p e o p l e who a r e l e s s l i k e those that p r e c e d e d them i n a n o t h e r work e n v i r o n m e n t ...  140  I'm suggesting I have more c o n f i d e n c e out of w h a t e v e r r e a s o n s and t h a t now I do not have as much difficulty standing as a person who may have ... o p i n i o n s or t h o u g h t s or i d e a s d i f f e r e n t t h a n other people ... I'm more confident i n my r o l e a s a l o n e r and s t r a n g e as i t may seem, t h a t c o n f i d e n c e of now knowing t h a t t h a t ' s not s u c h a d i f f i c u l t t h i n g t o be makes i t e a s i e r f o r me to i n t e r a c t with people...  Additionally, father-son father's by  J,  the  enactment a p p e a r e d r o l e i n the  reformer  affiliating enacted  that  found  others  social  father  isolation  within  re-enacted  in Vocation  the  i t required  words,  alienation drama  an  in shifting  recreating  was  involve  the and  with  the  career  more so  sense  careers,  J  to have.  that  J  shifted  to a  which  however,  organizational Thus,  in  stance.  from  the and  Vocation In  other  continuing  included  re-enactment  of by  experienced,  self-isolating J  role  belonging  inclined;  appeared  of  witnessed  the  had  of  a  or  sense  the  of  family  h i s e s s e n t i a l r o l e as  loner  accepted. s u p p o r t e d by  c l o s e r to h i s (.31/.34), and  i n h i s second  as  enacted of  daily  integration  the  drama,  seemed t o be  self  the  r o l e without  difference that  r o l e s J was  to h i s a c t u a l  active  and  the  became much more o v e r t  discomfort,  more i n t e g r a t e d This  1,  from  family,  Father  a  family  family  the  similarly  reformer  his  away  world outside  and  with  the  support  as  to  father-as-social-reformer.  social  2  move  ideal the  the self fact  fact  that  in  (.59/.79) that  this  both than  i s even  vocation:  ... I f you l o o k a t y o u r s e l f and t h e r e a r e t h i n g s t h a t do not please you a b o u t y o u r s e l f , you would l i k e t o , i n a s e n s e , r e a c h f o r s o m e t h i n g b e t t e r or beyond that ... I  141  have the feeling that there a r e c e r t a i n t h i n g s I've a l w a y s l i v e d w i t h and I p r e f e r t o be f u r t h e r away from them ... maybe I w o u l d l i k e t o p e r c e i v e m y s e l f a s b e i n g more f o r c e f u l or a g g r e s s i v e ...  To summarize, change  was  i n terms of e a r l y f a m i l y reflected  in  'self-as-son-to-father'  a  to  shift  roles, from  J's v o c a t i o n a l  the  i n c l u d e t h e drama  drama of mother  of and  o f a more e x p a n d e d v i e w and r e - e n a c t m e n t o f f a t h e r .  The meaning  of t h i s  self-acceptance allowing overt,  of  change the  was  increased  role  of  t h e theme of " c o w a r d l i n e s s "  and a l l o w i n g  for  ideals within a vocational  the  daily  context.  "confidence"  self-reliant to s h i f t  isolate,  from c o v e r t  expression  or  of  to  social  1 42  CASE STUDY K  Background K lesbian  a  44 y e a r  o l d woman; she was  r e l a t i o n s h i p and d e s c r i b e d  through home  was  and t h r o u g h . " R's  with  h e r s e l f as  K and h e r p a r t n e r  four  teenage  i n a committed  children  a  "feminist,  lived  in their  own  from  a  previous  as a  pre-school  marriage. Her supervisor,  preparation required  simultaneous with she  worked  to obtain for  raising  2,  four  in  taking  the  Throughout  this  period  night  of  while  the  taking  in  ministry  f o r one y e a r  full-time  of  short,  career Masters worked At been  i n the m i n i s t r y level  the time of the i n t e r v i e w , f r u s t r a t e d by h e r  this  church's  a  for a  more  than  psychology  and  towards o r d i n a t i o n .  latter  policy  was  to prepare  in counselling  f o r more t h a n two y e a r s  working  this  as a c o u n s e l l o r , K o b t a i n e d  qualifications  in total  In  degree,  i n theology  i n the m i n i s t r y ; study.  a  psychology.  towards o r d i n a t i o n course  as  academic  a bachelors  counselling  she t o o k c o u r s e s  courses  Preparation  a double-barrelled to obtain  school  Once l i c e n s e d ,  Certificate."  undertaking  K went on t o r e c e i v e a M a s t e r s  of  toddlers.  field  two y e a r s  1,  years  supervisor  Childhood  involved  After  Vocation  her four  as a p r e - s c h o o l  Vocation  track.  nearly  her " E a r l y  counsellor,  for  goal of  had thus f a r  not  ordaining  143  declared changes  homosexuals. in this  studies.  pastoral  since  this  her  she  began  barrier  c o u n s e l l o r f o r four  children  years;  had been a c t i v e l y  to  K had worked a t t h e t i m e  Raised five  policy  Despite  credentials,  She  i n England  her  theological  obtaining  of  the  full  study  as  a  years.  until  and t h e o n l y g i r l three  lobbying for  brothers  age 11, K was t h e e l d e s t o f among h e r  were b o r n  siblings  for  within five  17  years of  her. Family  Experience K grew up i n a m a t r i a r c h a l w o r k i n g - c l a s s  England  in  the  '40's.  grandmother p r i m a r i l y ; indirectly  was r a i s e d  through  as d o m i n e e r i n g ,  in  by h e r mother and  her r e l a t i o n s h i p with her f a t h e r  experienced  M o t h e r was seen  She  family  mother u n t i l demanding a n d  was  adolescence. critical:  She's v e r y c o n t r o l l i n g and v e r y much wants power and she w o u l d n o t be c o n t e n t t o be a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n b o s s .  K had a s t r o n g sense her  early  thinking  life,  such  price a  i n order  individual.  performance and  and  of f a m i l i a l way  that  invalidating  K's  to  fight  t o be seen  Mother's high  conformity  mother's p r e s e n c e . and  of h a v i n g  throughout  and a c k n o w l e d g e d a s a  standards  for  were t h e o v e r r i d i n g  acceptance.  K's  mother  This  experience  Typically,  of  theme self  mother was seen  self-expression:  dutiful  expectation pervaded  in  was c l o u d e d by as  rejecting  1 44  Anytime I expressed anything o f who I was ... I was n e v e r seen a s me, i t was a l w a y s seen only as somebody else a c t i n g t h r o u g h me, o r me m i m i c k i n g ... " m i m i c k i n g " was t h e word t h a t was u s e d a l o t i n my l i f e . My mother would a l w a y s s a y , 'Why do y o u a l w a y s m i m i c ? '  Similarly, typically  she  recalled  qualified  mother's  by c r i t i c a l  expression  of  love as  evaluation:  The t h i n g t h a t I g o t f r o m my Mom a l w a y s was 'I r e a l l y do l o v e y o u a n d I r e a l l y do l i k e y o u , b u t ... ' o r 'I do a p p r e c i a t e ... ' t h a t k i n d o f t h i n g , 'but ...  As  the  expected in  eldest  child,  to carry  relation  as p a r a d o x i c a l ; mother's expected for  an  o u t a good d e a l  to  "responsibility"  and o n l y  her  siblings.  girl  ( f o r 17 y e a r s ) ,  of the As  w i t h no "autonomy."  K was  "mothering"  K  put  She  tasks  i t , she  experienced  had this  on t h e one hand K was e x p e c t e d t o c o n f o r m t o  i d e a s o f who she was, and on t h e o t h e r hand she was to  be i n d e p e n d e n t  important  role  enough t o assume  in  'mothering'  responsibility and  household  management: ... somehow o r o t h e r she [ m o t h e r ] wants t o c o n t r o l b u t t h e n i f she c a n she d o e s n ' t a p p r e c i a t e i t . It's like, i f she c o u l d c o n t r o l me, t h e n I wasn't s t r o n g enough. Grandmother m o t h e r ' s many definite  personal  periods  contrasting  more p l a y f u l  was of  head-of-the-household illness,  and  e x p e r i e n c e f o r K.  this  provided  a  G r a n d m o t h e r , a much  p e r s o n than mother, a l l o w e d K g r e a t e r  e x p r e s s i o n ; she f e l t  during  a c c e p t e d by "Granny."  room  for  145  I see myself as a daughter as being much more r e s p o n s i b l e than a s a g r a n d c h i l d . [As a grandchild] I had no responsibility whatsoever. I could j u s t be c r e a t i v e and be who I was. When she [ m o t h e r ] i s l e s s i n t h e p i c t u r e I have more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , b u t I have more autonomy ... when she was a r o u n d and I was r e s p o n s i b l e I had t o do i t h e r way  Mother's c o n t r o l l i n g her  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  i n f l u e n c e extended  t o K's e x p e r i e n c e  of  her f a t h e r as w e l l :  My r e l a t i o n s h i p t o my father was u s u a l l y t h r o u g h my mother ... I had t o p u s h Mom o u t t o be a b l e to relate directly t o my d a d . I had t o s o r t o f b l o c k o u t Mom o r p u s h h e r away.  The  prevalent  this  comment  s e n s e o f i n v a l i d a t i o n by mother was e v i d e n t i n by K a s w e l l :  I a l s o t h i n k , when my f a t h e r ' s i n t h e p i c t u r e and my m o t h e r ' s l e s s i n t h e p i c t u r e t h e n I have a c l e a r e r s e n s e of m y s e l f a s a d a u g h t e r ... b e c a u s e when my m o t h e r ' s i n t h e p i c t u r e , I'm n o t r e a l l y s u r e who I am.  Vocation  1 As  (.75),  a pre-school  supervisor,  self-as-grandaughter  identified  a commonality  (.49),  among t h e s e  K was and four  like  grandmother  father  (.48).  K  roles:  The one t h i n g t h a t a l l o f t h o s e have i n common f o r me i s the a b i l i t y t o p l a y . My g r a n d m o t h e r knew how to play, my father knows how t o p l a y , as a g r a n d c h i l d I c o u l d p l a y and p r e - s c h o o l I c o u l d p l a y .  Again,  others  in this  v o c a t i o n a l arena p a r a l l e l e d the  early  f i g u r e s noted above: the f i g u r e of p r o f e s s o r  was  three like  146  grandmother the  (.666)/father  figure  of  (.54)/self-as-grandaughter  student  (.57)/self-as-grandaughter K's in  suggestion this  who  that  arena.  was  was  (.689).  These  mother  (.477).  This  w i t h K's e a r l y  repeatedly  d e s c r i b e d i n terms of b e i n g  early  as  a  experience  mother  grandmother  figure  was  autonomy a n d r e b e l l i o u s  grandmother embodied  was  present,  More p a r t i c u l a r l y ,  she  to  supported  last  of  of  parallel  mother,  like  boss,  a  whom  was she  boss.  pre-school s u p e r v i s o r K re-enacted the  f a m i l y drama c h a r a c t e r i z e d  when 'the  findings  i s the f i g u r e  consistent  Thus,  grandmother  t h e theme o f p l a y f u l n e s s was p e r v a s i v e  One c o n t r a s t o f n o t e  like  like  (.436);  her  by p l a y f u l n e s s and autonomy  absent  and  young  the  characterized  resistence was  from  like  when mother her  scene  and  by t h r e a t e n e d was p r e s e n t .  playful,  nurturing  self-as-grandchild,  perhaps  i n t h e c h i l d r e n / s t u d e n t s she c a r e d f o r .  Vocation 2 As a p a s t o r a l three  early  .69/father: addition figure  vocational (-.35).  figures  as  in  K was s i m i l a r Vocation  .528/(self-as-grandaughter:  of being  of "boss"  likeness  counsellor,  was  like  role  as  was l i k e  .51)  mother  with  negatively  to  the  Again, the though  s t r o n g a s p r e v i o u s l y (.32).  corresponded  same  (grandmother:  s e l f - a s - d a u g h t e r (.505).  i n t h i s arena  not  1  to the  the  Her own  mother  here  147  K  related  increased  sense  lack-of-playfulness  the  addition  of  responsibility  in this  of  self-as-daughter to and  the  associated  v o c a t i o n a l arena:  ... as a daughter I had a l o t more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y b e c a u s e I was t h e o n l y d a u g h t e r , I was t h e e l d e s t c h i l d , my mother was i l l a l o t ... t h e t h i n g that c o u n s e l l i n g lacks f o r me i s t h a t e l e m e n t o f p l a y i n g i n some k i n d of a - not i r r e s p o n s i b l e way, but non-responsible ... I'm talking about s o m e t h i n g where r e s p o n s i b l i t y i s n ' t p a r t of t h e p i c t u r e , d o e s n ' t need t o be.  An  example of what K e x p e r i e n c e d  arena  appeared  t o be  as  "responsibility"  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a sense  of  in  this  threatened  autonomy: ... we had t o keep c o p i o u s n o t e s , w h i c h were an a b s o l u t e bore to me and that was a r e a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ... I d o n ' t d i s a g r e e w i t h b e i n g a c c o u n t a b l e t o somebody. What I d i s a g r e e w i t h i s what was valued ... I mean I'm a feminist through and through ... and my t h e o l o g y i s f e m i n i s t t h e o l o g y ... what I o f t e n f i n d i s men in the system ... t h e y don't understand my c o n c e p t s ... my framework ... t h e v e r y t h i n g t h e y a p p r e c i a t e a b o u t me, I c o n t i n u e to get s l a p p e d w i t h . 'I'm t o o s t r o n g . I'm t o o this. I'm t o o t h a t . '  K  related  her  her  boss's  mother's tendency  criticism to  of h e r  t h e o l o g y and  style  criticize:  The t h i n g I got from my Mom a l w a y s was 'I r e a l l y do you, but' Boss 2 i s a p r i m e example o f t h a t . d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d my f e m i n i s t t h e o l o g y so what t h e y me to do i s g i v e them ... a bunch of t h e o l o g i e s I've l e a r n e d o u t o f a book ... i t was almost the k i n d o f t h i n g w i t h Mom ...  Again,  it  university  is  to  noteworthy  s t u d i e s to prepare  that  with  her  for Vocation  2,  love They want that same  entrance  into  K ceased  daily  148  contact  with  decision father  her mother.  at that  She  recalled  time t o " g i v e  more s p a c e  making  ... Mom  less  a  power  conscious and  (give)  in [her] l i f e . "  ... i t was Dad and s t i l l i s - t h a t w i l l t a l k t o me a b o u t ... t h e t h i n g s I'm s t u d y i n g ... so i t gave me more c o n t a c t w i t h my dad, and i t gave me l e s s c o n t a c t w i t h my mother.  Vocational Transition K's  transition  from  pre-school  pastoral  counsellor  suggested  drama.  In  dramas  both  grandmother-grand-daughter she  re-enacted  expression Vocation mother  in  i n more d i r e c t  analysis  shifting  ideal  i f Vocation  the  second v o c a t i o n a l on  how  1 was  she  community  and t h u s ,  her  career  ideal  Vocation  1  she  a  appeared  took  re-enacting  slightly  for self-definition figure.  she a c t e d  was  to  1 (.58/.74;  had  a  include  to overt.  .60/.75).  within  on h e r p r o s p e c t s  against  It  the stakes  of b e c o m i n g an o r d a i n e d action  This that  b o t h h e r a c t u a l and  potentially  perceived  in  more i n o p p o s i t i o n  from c o v e r t  more l i k e  and  However,  t o be i n t e n s i f i e d  p r a c t i c e f o r 2, where arena  the  i n both  the c o r r e l a t i o n s suggesting  a bearing  goal  was  mother  conflict;  in Vocation  as  impact  to  the c o n f l i c t  2, K was  s e l v e s than  she  to  o f t h e same  theme o f p l a y f u l n e s s , and  i s c o n s i s t e n t with  Vocation  re-enactment  of s t r u g g l e  relation  2, t h e drama  t o mother,  in  t h e drama  a  supervisor  the  was rose;  important pastoral  for achieving minister.  t h e mother  In  figure's  1 49  authority scene.  and viewpoint  By c o n t r a s t ,  stances  contrary  theological different  to present  from mother  supported  mother  figures.  at t h i s point  vocational  point  shift  by K's o b s e r v a t i o n  mother's d e f i n i t i o n  f i g u r e was a b s e n t 2 she r e p e a t e d l y  striving  t o be an u n s t a b l e  subsequent  her  i n Vocation  position),  was n o t r e s o l v e d likely  when t h i s  figures to  Since  the dramatic  i s probable.  open  herself  2,  i t  i n her v o c a t i o n a l  that  took  ( i n terms of her  define  i n Vocation  from t h e  This  as  conflict appeared  history; a  analysis  was  she was n o t a s enmeshed i n  of h e r as p r e v i o u s l y :  There's my m o t h e r ' s p i c t u r e o f who I am a n d t h e r e ' s own s e n s e o f who I am and t h e y get a l l mixed sometimes - n o t so much anymore.  my up  150  SUBJECT SELF-REVIEW  One  year  were a s k e d pertaining  to  the  ten  case.  Most  "ring  true,"  own  critically  took  presentation,  provided  read  written  in  while  them w i t h  here  the the  greater The  through  tenor  Case  on  were  agreement  at  the  notes  s u b j e c t s found  Interview,  to provide  subjects  and  experience.  related  the Meaning  t o t h e m s e l v e s and  researcher general,  after  same  write-up  v e r b a l feedback;  the  comments.  supportive  content  subjects  Study  these  with  the  the  case  the  a n a l y s i s of  their  to  be  time  of  In  familiar,  expressing  sense of c l a r i t y  regarding  to  that i t their  of e a c h s u b j e c t ' s s e l f - r e v i e w i s  brief  quotes  from  the  follow-up  contact. A  Self-Review  I read i t and I t h o u g h t i t was g r e a t ! I t was really ' a p p r o p o . ' What you s a i d , I t h o u g h t about i t . I had said something about g o i n g f u l l c i r c l e w i t h i n a c o u p l e o f y e a r s , w e l l , i t ' s even c l o s e r ... What I want i s to get as far away from b e i n g c o n t r o l l e d and as c l o s e a s p o s s i b l e t o c a l l i n g my own s h o t s ... I'm s o r r y , t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g I would change [ i n t h e w r i t e - u p ] . I looked for flaws or t h i n g s t o change ... You h i t t h e n a i l on t h e head i n what you s a i d a b o u t my m o t h e r , a u n t , and s i s t e r , and a l l t h a t .  151  B  Self-Review Subject  write-up. re-enacted  In  relation  on  specific  a n a l y s i s of  Yeah.  the  elements  t o t h e a n a l y s i s of V o c a t i o n  drama of b r o t h e r l y c o m p e t i t i o n ,  Interesting.  The  B commented  T h i s seems v e r y  transition  brought  he  of  the  1 as  a  commented:  'on.'  a similar  response:  Yeah. T h i s makes a l o t of s e n s e . I t seems r e a l l y 'on'. The c o m b a t i v e male q u a l i t i e s r e a l l y a r e in service to the feminine, but they still exist. I use t h e same qualities of drive and thrust and examining and preoccupation with the t r u t h and i n t e g r i t y . It's a l l v e r y male i n a way, but t h e y ' r e u s e d i n s e r v i c e t o the female concerns o f l o v e and n u r t u r a n c e . I t ' s l i k e the boss changed.  C  Self-Review  An o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n was t h a t i t f i t s ... It really helped me to g e t back t o my r o o t s and t o r e a l i z e t h a t some of t h e t h i n g s from my p a s t p l a y a r o l e i n who I am now. I t ' s h e l p e d t o add some c l a r i t y i n t o why I d i d t h e things I d i d , i n t e r m s of c a r e e r c h o i c e s . And b e s i d e s t h a t , i t added some meaning t o i t . I t f e e l s r i g h t , on a v e r y gut l e v e l . Yeah, t h i s i s t h e reason I became a mechanic, and these are t h e r e a s o n s I became a human services worker. Yeah, some of my values did crystallize as t h e r e s u l t of b o n d i n g w i t h my nanny. It a l s o e x p l a i n s my a l m o s t d o m i n a n t attraction to Celtic women. I r e a l l y g o t a h a n d l e on t h a t one. The a s p e c t of my f a t h e r as b r o t h e r a l s o r e a l l y r i n g s t r u e f o r me. My father was v e r y much a f a m i l y p e r s o n and t h a t meant t a k i n g c a r e of h i s b r o t h e r s and sisters ... e x t e n d i n g into h i s work; a h i g h d e g r e e of c o m p a s s i o n and humanism ... So I see m y s e l f i n t e g r a t i n g many of my father's values. This paper gave me an i n t e l l e c t u a l framework t h a t c o n f i r m s t h a t i n a more c o n c r e t e way.  1 52  D  Self-Review  You p u t i t t o g e t h e r p r e t t y good. You seemed t o h a v e a specific base from w h i c h y o u were coming ... I d i d n ' t f e e l y o u d i s t o r t e d a n y t h i n g ... Y e s , y o u p o r t r a y e d what I was s a y i n g , even more accurately. You skillfully extracted t h e e s s e n c e o f my b e l a b o u r e d t h o u g h t s ... I had my wife read i t . She found it almost ... f a c i n a t i n g . None o f t h e m a t e r i a l was new t o h e r b u t the way i t was put t o g e t h e r threw more l i g h t on t h e whole t h i n g .  E  Self-Review  I t h o u g h t i t was s u p e r ... T h a t ' s r e a l l y a l l I c a n a b o u t i t . You s y n t h e s i z e d t h e m a t e r i a l c l e a r l y .  F  say  Self-Review  ... T h e r e was n o t h i n g t h a t sounded u n f a m i l i a r a t a l l . I t sounded a l o t c l e a r e r t h a n what I t h o u g h t I s a i d ... The way i t came a c r o s s , i t sounds like my perceptions were t h a t t h e law m i l i e u was more my k i n d o f p e o p l e t h a n s o c i a l work. In t e r m s o f t h e p e o p l e , t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r s are more s i m i l a r t o me t h a n t h e l a w y e r t y p e s . . . . I do l i k e t o t h i n k o f m y s e l f a s l i k e b r o t h e r B [a l a w y e r ] , i n some ways ... b u t i n t e r m s o f h i s humanness, not h i s lawyer-ness. I just think t h a t ' s who he is_, w h e t h e r he's a l a w y e r o r n o t ... y e s i t ' s t r u e , I o n l y g o t c l o s e t o him a s an a d u l t , and h i s l a w y e r - n e s s i s , I g u e s s you could say, i n s e p a r a b l e from h i s humanness. Your p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e o p l e a r e r i g h t on. Your c o n c l u s i o n s a r e o f f a b i t , j u s t i n t e r m s o f what I said a b o u t b r o t h e r B and a l l t h a t .  Upon c a r e f u l to  be  a  refutation  r e a d i n g of t h i s . c r i t i q u e , of  the  what  appeared  c a s e w r i t e - u p was a c t u a l l y  a  153  confirmation F  of the a c c u r a c y of the s y n t h e s i s .  understood  the study t o suggest  actually  i t suggested  that  a  she was l i k e  b r o t h e r B.  lawyer  that  brother  humanistic G  B,  than  who  lawyers  It  himself  lawyers  is a  also  when  r o l e as  pointed  lawyer,  out  was  i n F's v o c a t i o n a l  more  arena.  Self-Review  G made s p e c i f i c copy  in  comments  the case write-up.  under V o c a t i o n brother" G  related  In r e s p o n s e  1 of h i s l e a d i n g  directly  to  the  to the d e s c r i p t i o n  actress/girlfriend  as  "like  said:  ... V e r y good o b s e r v a t i o n . h e r own o l d e r b r o t h e r t o o . In r e s p o n s e as  she was l i k e  i n her c u r r e n t v o c a t i o n a l  was  the other  Apparently,  "characterized  collectively  I t ' s f u n n y , she r e a l l y l i k e d She was v e r y c l o s e t o h i m .  t o t h e summation o f t h e V o c a t i o n  by a l l i a n c e  exclude c r i t i c a l  with u n c r i t i c a l figures"  1 drama  ... o t h e r s  who  G comments:  I find this l a s t s t a t e m e n t t o be t r u e a n d now, a y e a r l a t e r , s e e i t more i n my way of r e l a t i n g to others' situations. A y e a r ago I was n o t c o g n i z a n t o f t h e way I r e l a t e d as c l e a r l y . The  discussion  of h i s v o c a t i o n a l  simply: T h i s makes a l o t o f s e n s e  t o me.  transition  evoked  154  H  Self-Review  I t comes t h r o u g h so s t r o n g l y t h a t i t k i n d o f blew me away. I was t r u l y a s t o n i s h e d a t how s t r o n g t h e p a t t e r n i s ... What y o u s a i d i s true. Absolutely true. I never saw i t like this before. Just seeing things juxtaposed in this way. There's nothing distorted though. I t t r u l y a s t o n i s h e d me ... Thank y o u f o r d o i n g t h a t f o r me. I l e a r n e d a l o t about m y s e l f .  J  Self-Review  ... I n e v e r t h o u g h t o f i t , i n terms o f mother o r f a t h e r . It's something I have d i f f i c u l t y a p p r e c i a t i n g ... I s o r t o f m u l l e d i t o v e r and s a i d , 'No t h a t i s n ' t me, and t h e n t h o u g h t w e l l y e s , words c a n have d i f f e r e n t m e a n i n g s and I c a n s e e how t h a t r e l a t e s t o me'. Cowardice, f o r example, i t has d i f f e r e n t c o n n o t a t i o n s . I guess i n t h a t context, i t ' s 'fear of o f f e n d i n g ' . And then i t makes sense, yes ... My extra-curricular type of t h i n g s , f r i e n d s and a c t i v i t i e s , p r e c e d e d me i n d o i n g some o f t h e t y p e s o f t h i n g s I d i d l a t e r on ... I r e c o g n i z e d myself there. That's me.... I s t i l l f e e l u n c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h what I c o n s i d e r t o be a F r e u d i a n t y p e o f a p p r o a c h . My approach i s less psychoanalytic and more a p e r s o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r c u l t u r e , f r o m an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p o i n t of v i e w . I f e e l uncomfortable with the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l p o i n t of view. I think that d i s t o r t s the p i c t u r e of a person by taking him o u t o f h i s c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . My cultural context is left-wing Jewish. My organizational, extracurricular a c t i v i t i e s , friends a l l r e f l e c t t h a t , so t h e c h a n c e s o f me g o i n g into banking, f o r example, a r e p r e t t y r e m o t e .  K  Self-Review Subject  travel.  was u n a v a i l a b l e  due t o e x t e n d e d  i l l n e s s and  155  INDEPENDENT CASE REVIEWS A  Independent  Review  The a n a l y s i s makes s e n s e t o me and t h e p a p e r and tape correspond as f a r as I can t e l l . I f o u n d a whole l i s t of l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s t h o u g h , a t l e a s t what i s c o n s i d e r e d a leading question in a court o f law, maybe t h e standards are d i f f e r e n t i n psychology.  When t h e " l i s t the of  researcher, typical  seeking  o f l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s " was r e v i e w e d  i t appeared  questions  that they  fell  of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,  into  by  the category  or probing  questions  e l a b o r a t i o n , e.g.,  So when (sister),  you t h i n k of your a d v i c e - g i v i n g r o l e t h a t was a s a d u l t s ?  There's a l s o the dimension  that you're not speaking.  So y o u ' r e s a y i n g i t ' s a s h i f t i n how y o u ' r e p e o p l e and i t ' s r e f l e c t e d i n y o u r c a r e e r ?  B Independent  with her  relating  Review  You d i d n ' t a s k l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s . Your t r a n s c r i p t w i t h t h e t a p e s , and i t makes s e n s e t o me.  C Independent  to  jibes  Review  The paper d i d r e f l e c t the tape w e l l . You p o r t r a y e d him q u i t e c l e a r l y ... u s e d good summary and clarification techniques.  156  This more the  reviewer  points  of  reviewer  felt  should  be  possible  the r o l e  elaborated  source  upon t h e theme "powerful"  of b i a s  t h a t may a r i s e  and  the  procedure  i n repeatedly  inviting any  agreement was n o t v a l u e d noted  that  that  throughout  this  there  with  The  and h i s f a t h e r ;  in  this  This concern  reviewer  followed  rapport process,  is  based  did  judgment confirm,  a l l appropriate  the subject  fewer p r o m p t s t h a n  noted a  i n f l u e n c e d by  "I f e a r y o u r  above r e f u t a t i o n .  the research  portrayal  the reviewer  to  way, a n d i n c l e a r l y  was s u f f i c i e n t  finding  from t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  h i s statement,  interviewer  in  was now  drama o f b e i n g  name]."  that  correlations  Also,  and i n t e r v i e w e r .  interviewer's  forthcoming  of t h e f a t h e r  i n the subject's  women  the subject  between h i m s e l f  on more.  however,  the  that  connection  between t h e s u b j e c t  [female  noted  respond stating  to that  I t m i g h t a l s o be  with  this  subject  he was more v e r b a l l y  any  other  subject  in  study.  D Independent  Review  You used n o n - b i a s e d l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s , m o s t l y c l a r i f y i n g s t a t e m e n t s ... He [ t h e s u b j e c t ] was a b i t e v a s i v e . You picked out a l l the good quotes, the most illustrative.... Your a n a l y s i s made s e n s e t o me. One c o n t r a d i c t i o n : he t a l k e d a b o u t h i s dad n o t b e i n g home often a n d t h a t he d i d n ' t have much t i m e f o r f a m i l y a n d he [ s u b j e c t ] t a l k e d a b o u t w a n t i n g t o make enough money, to be a b l e t o s t a y home. A t l e a s t I'm a s s u m i n g t h a t ' s what h e ' d want t o make a pile o f money f o r , so he wouldn't have t o work a n d c o u l d be f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d , a n d t h i s seems t o c o n t r a d i c t t h e theme of r e p e a t i n g h i s f a t h e r ' s way.  1 57  The assumption exchange  apparent on t h e p a r t  with  the  that D associated earning work  money w i t h that  was  contradiction of  the  subject  reviewer.  h i s desire  i n the informal  i t was  revealed  n o t t o have t o c o n c e n t r a t e t o be more i n v o l v e d  necessarily  income  nevertheless,  o f s e r v i c e t o t h e community.  E  Review  Independent  lay  During  ( n o t on t a p e ) ,  h i s ambition  not  here  on  in  other  producing  but,  You d i d n ' t a s k l e a d i n g questions. You gave a broad sense of o p t i o n s . It felt like y o u had a d e f i n i t e i n t e n t i o n i n y o u r i n t e r v i e w , and y o u l e f t room f o r an individual response.... He [ s u b j e c t ] seemed i n t e r e s t e d in r e f l e c t i n g i n h i s s p i r i t u a l l i f e , the unexplainable, magic, exciting part of l i f e , b u t n o t on h i s c a r e e r life. He kept t r y i n g t o p i n y o u down. He couldn't answer t h e q u e s t i o n s b u t I t h i n k t h a t was a f u n c t i o n o f him, n o t o f t h e p r o c e s s . He wasn't willing to enter into the process and and t h e r e f o r e he found your questions directive and c o u l d n ' t answer them... I believe he was i n an u n c o n s c i o u s p r o c e s s . I t h i n k he was t r y i n g , and j u s t c o u l d n ' t g e t i t . . . I ' v e g o t lots of speculations and I was i m p r e s s e d w i t h t h e l a c k o f s p e c u l a t i o n s i n your paper. Your p a p e r seemed t o be a reporting, a clean reporting. It felt pretty true.... I was i m p r e s s e d w i t h h i s s e n s e o f t h e l a c k o f impact of the people in his l i f e . . . I was s u r p r i s e d a t t h e l a c k of an i n t e l l e c t u a l m e n t o r . . . . I can understand where the motivation t o be driven came from, but I c a n ' t u n d e r s t a n d where t h e m o t i v a t i o n t o be a c a d e m i c came from... In t h e paper, you mentioned h i s v o i c e changed and h i s f a c e l i t up a t one p o i n t ; w e l l I c o u l d h e a r t h a t in the tape.  The in  favour  career His  resistance to talking  of s p i r i t u a l  life  focus,  apparent  life  about c a r e e r  was n o n - p r o b l e m a t i c  was t h e v e h i c l e f o r h i s " s p i r i t u a l " in this  interview,  for  E;  life his  development.  was so much an i n n e r  one, t h a t  158  he  had  difficulty  externalization  thinking  of inner  life,  that  social  dynamics,  w o u l d have much r e l e v a n c e  an to  him. F  Independent  Review  I don't t h i n k you're a s k i n g l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s . I think your s t y l e i s r e l a t i v e l y unbiased. Sometimes I get a s e n s e when y o u ' r e on t h e t a p e t h a t she was g e t t i n g ahead of y o u somewhat. P e r h a p s t h e framework t h a t y o u were t r y i n g t o put her responses into, in r e l a t i o n s h i p to your s t u d y , she was ... t r y i n g t o jump a h e a d o f t h a t o r jump o u t o f t h a t and y o u were t r y i n g t o b r i n g h e r back to some sense o f form that y o u were using as a structure. I think ... t h e r o l e models that you've given ... you've put c e r t a i n limitations ... on t h e o v e r v i e w o f what she c o n s c i o u s l y or unconsciously has c h o s e n t o do w i t h h e r l i f e ... I'm g u e s s i n g t h a t you've consciously chosen t o do t h a t b e c a u s e o f t h e n a t u r e o f the study and t h e n e c e s s i t y t o keep i t in some r e l a t i v e l y concrete format. ... On page one [ o f the w r i t e - u p ] the time q u a n t i t i e s y o u ' v e g i v e n p l a c e h e r a t age 16 when she s t a r t e d h e r s o c i a l work c a r e e r ; i s t h a t p o s s i b l e ? ... I'm w o n d e r i n g a l i t t l e b i t , why y o u c h o s e t o i n c o r p o r a t e o n l y t h e male r o l e m o d e l s ... t h e r e was no i n d e p t h q u e s t i o n i n g on t h e r o l e model o f t h e mother ... You s a y a s a s o c i a l worker she i s like h e r mother, f a t h e r , and b r o t h e r ; I d i d n ' t get a sense from the tape that she was taking her mother's p l a c e a s a r o l e model ... i n t h e same c a t e g o r y o r r e f e r e n c e p o i n t a s f a t h e r o r b r o t h e r A. ... A l l t h r o u g h i t I s e e s o r t o f a b l e n d , [ o f t h e two vocational r o l e s ] and I t h i n k t h a t was c o n f i r m e d by h e r d e s c r i p t i o n ... she s a i d when she was a social worker ... t h a t was correct f o r c r e a t i v e development a t t h a t t i m e a n d now s h e ' s a l a w y e r a n d t h a t was c o r r e c t f o r h e r t o be where she i s now. T h a t seemed q u i t e a reasonable and accurate self-observation on h e r p a r t . And ... r e a d i n g between t h e l i n e s she s e e s t h a t she needs t o incorporate or integrate both of these aspects of herself b e f o r e she c a n come t o terms w i t h an o c c u p a t i o n w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e s h e r maximal self-growth. ... As a l a w y e r s h e ' s more l i k e h e r a c t u a l and i d e a l s e l f and h e r brother being a l a w y e r and b e i n g a l a w y e r a l l t h e t i m e and b e i n g famous f o r what he does ... I d o n ' t get the  159  feeling t h a t she s e e s t h a t i n t e n s i t y t h a t she v i e w s him as e x p e r i e n c i n g a s a l a w y e r a s something ... t h a t she wants t o be i n v o l v e d i n because t h a t ' s a throwback t o b r o t h e r A, t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r . ... I t h i n k that your scenario is fairly correct. A g a i n I'm n o t c l e a r t h e m o t h e r ' s r o l e ... and f o r a c o m p l e t e p i c t u r e t h a t needs t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d ... I have a h a r d t i m e s e e i n g a c l e a r cut distinction between Vocation 1 and V o c a t i o n 2 although you s o r t of s t a t e d that by saying "The c o n t r o l l i n g drama i s seen a s p a r t o f a c o n t i n u u m ..."  G Independent  Review  Your q u e s t i o n s were n o t l e a d i n g ... t h e t r a n s c r i p t j i b e s with the tape. I u n d e r s t o o d where e v e r y t h i n g came f r o m . I often arrived a t a c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n , and t h e n y o u w o u l d t a l k ' about t h a t i n y o u r n e x t p a r a g r a p h .  H Independent  Review  The t y p e d m a t e r i a l and t h e t a p e c o r r e s p o n d ; no s u r p r i s e s between t h e t a p e and w r i t t e n material. Does one a c t according to childhood restraints, "no fuss," necessarily? Someone e l s e m i g h t n o t r e - e n a c t t h i s a s an a d u l t g i v e n t h a t same e l e m e n t o f r e s t r a i n t . Facinating stuff!  J  Independent  Review  You d i d n ' t a s k l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s ... when y o u s t a t e d one of h i s r e a s o n s f o r b e i n g i s o l a t e d was h i s b e i n g " J e w i s h i n a n o n - J e w i s h e n v i r o n m e n t , and b e i n g b e a t e n up," w e l l , I d i d n ' t h e a r t h i s on t h e t a p e . Also, you s t a t e h i s mother was u n a v a i l a b l e due t o b e i n g s e l f - p r e o c c u p i e d and needy. Those weren't h i s words; he t a l k e d a b o u t h e r b e i n g a weak p e r s o n , and i l l , b u t he didn't use those words exactly. Otherwise the paper r e f l e c t s the tape w e l l and y o u r a n a l y s i s o v e r a l l makes s e n s e .  160  K  Independent  Review  You a s k c l a r i f y i n g q u e s t i o n s ... I d i d n ' t h e a r any leading questions ... The t a p e a n d t h e p a p e r j i b e , a n d y o u r a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t i t , o r y o u r comments a b o u t i t [ i n t h e p a p e r ] j i b e w i t h t h e g e n e r a l [ g i s t o f what she s a i d ] ... When I t h i n k o f i t , t h e g o i n g back t o s c h o o l i s t h e second vocation ... d i d she go t o s c h o o l b e c a u s e she wanted t o make a c a r e e r change o r d i d she j u s t want t o be i n t h e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t ; t h a t seemed so i m p o r t a n t t o h e r ... i n t e r m s o f h e r p e r c e p t i o n o f h e r b o s s e s a n d her perception o f h e r mother a s a c o n t r o l l i n g , b o s s y woman, t h a t was f a i r l y c l e a r [ i n y o u r p a p e r ] ... i t was in the second v o c a t i o n a f t e r h a v i n g made h e r i d e n t i t y commitment [ a s a l e s b i a n ] t h a t she began t o c h a f e a t how she r e l a t e s t o h e r mother, "I l i k e y o u b u t The early experience had l e s s c o n f l i c t f o r h e r a p p a r e n t l y t h a n t h e l a t e r one ... t h e c o n f l i c t between h e r mother and grandmother figure, as responsible and un-responsible, this became a harsher conflict [in Vocation 2 ] ... The " d r i v e r " f o r h e r , t o o v e r s i m p l i f y , m i g h t w e l l be i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h t h e mother a n d t h e need to control, and then t h e c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e grandmother f i g u r e and wanting t o p l a y .  161  CHAPTER VI  DISCUSSION  The  results  indicate  among f i g u r e s f r o m t h e s e l f , Of  particular  across  importance  Additionally,  as r e f l e c t e d  re-enacted  role  idiosyncratically  there  patterns, for  i n the context  each  can  be u n d e r s t o o d  to  and vary  t h e whole, when  lived-out  experience,  i n career  change.  t h e meaning o f t h e c a r e e r and/or  i n the v o c a t i o n a l  the  regards.  perspective  suggest a refinement  implicit  findings  held  vocational  displacements  On  o f meaning  f i n d i n g s have r e l e v a n c e  on  continuity  the  appeared  i n terms of the s h i f t s  i n two d i f f e r e n t  findings  finding  change  maintenance  arena.  Implications  The  focusing,  also  domains.  i n each of the t e n  role  subject.  f a m i l y dramas r e - e n a c t e d  Theoretical  this  of  of the s u b j e c t s '  i s , i n a l l ten cases,  the  nature  a p p e a r s t o be r e g u l a r i t y  theory  study,  in shifting  That  in  to this  the  transition,  interrelations  f a m i l y , and v o c a t i o n a l  t h e two v o c a t i o n a l a r e n a s examined  cases.  viewed  substantial  debate w i t h i n  versus support  of  t o v o c a t i o n a l and c a r e e r Firstly, the  of c a r e e r  the e x i s t i n g  career theory  explicitly changer, the  that  literature  d i s c o n t i n u i t y of meaning. existing  by  v o c a t i o n a l theory  resolves regarding  Secondly, that  the  advocates  162  the  utilization  career  of  a  family  perspective  existing largely  this  examining  phenomena.  Continuity/Discontinuity  career  when  research implicit,  change. study,  on  career  theoretical  As i d e n t i f i e d  of Meaning. change  has  guided  1. M e a n i n g  i s continuous  includes  the  continuously  research  view  presented  p o s i t i o n s on  the  and d i s c u s s e d  i n Chapter  the dichotomous t h e o r e t i c a l  previously  The p r e v i o u s l y  in this  area  evolving,  meaning  but  is  meaning  p o s i t i o n s that  of  II of have  are that:  f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . that  two,  may  This be  position  dynamic  nonetheless  and  essentially  consistent. 2. M e a n i n g  is  position  of  f o r an  individual. change  results  of the present  study  by s u g g e s t i n g  dichotomous views.  By this  viewing study  offers debate  meaning provides  That  directly  the  a  while  other  contribute  an a l t e r n a t i v e t o e i t h e r  i s , i n instances  e l e m e n t s may be  of c a r e e r structure continuous.  s t r u c t u r e s a s complex and m u l t i - l e v e l e d , an i n t e g r a t e d t h e o r e t i c a l  a useful a l t e r n a t i v e p o s i t i o n outside within  reflects  o f t h e meaning  c h a n g e , some e l e m e n t s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s meaning may be d i c o n t i n u o u s ,  This  individual.  v o c a t i o n a l theory these  the  i n the c o n t i n u i t y or c o n s i s t a n c y  structures  to  for  i n c l u d e s t h e view t h a t c a r e e r  breakdown  The  discontinuous  literature.  position  that  of the inherent  Furthermore, although  this  163  study  i n d i c a t e s that  meaning  structures  individual  in  examined  occurs  career  in  lived-out  the  appears  neglect  created  fruitless  versus  discontinuity  it  relates  of  to  As  the  of  the  that  noted  of  of  change  suggests that  subject's  pattern  For  the  i t  i s the  that  has  continuity  example,  resultant  work  II  of  premise  this  identifying studies  from  a brief as  overlooking  the  s i x ideal  vocational  (1979) theory  nature  of  of constancy  external  environment,  meaning.  While  change. of  the  have  study  suggested  sensitive  The p r e s e n t D.O.T. a r i s e s  study from  of t r a i t s and  than a t the l e v e l  supports  in  (The D i c t i o n a r y o f  e x i s t i n g at the l e v e l rather  change  of vocation t o  o r D.O.T.) i s i n s u f f i c i e n t l y  the i n s e n s i t i v i t y  this  Holland's  from one " t y p e "  (1978) a n d Thomas  Titles,  study,  examining career  t o o l b a s e d on H o l l a n d ' s  illuminate  of  pervasive  perspective regarding  is  c o n t i n u i t y / d i s c o n t i n u i t y of  the confusion  i n Chapter  Robbins  suggests that its  f o r the  t h e l a r g e r , more  meaning.  categorical shifts  Occupational to  the  of  of the s u b j e c t s .  theoretical  another.  as  career  roles,  subject's  issue  t y p e s has l e d t o s e v e r a l terms  of  levels  individual  theoretical conflict  reveal  perspective  (1966)  the  continuity  o f a p p l i c a t i o n s o f H o l l a n d ' s t h e o r e t i c a l work  meaning w i l l the  when  words, t h e e v i d e n c e  general  discussion  of  terms  and  different  transition  in  meaning  In o t h e r  at  context  experience  continuous one.  both d i s c o n t i n u i t y  Holland's  of personal underlying  1 64  premise  t h a t t h e r e appears t o be some phenomena t h a t endure  throughout the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a r e e r , that  n e g l e c t i n g the p e r s o n a l  i t is  perspective  suggested  here  of a c a r e e r  change  v e i l s the n a t u r e of the c o n t i n u i t y i n c a r e e r . On the o t h e r hand, those personal  meaning  is  who  suggested  that  c e n t r a l t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c a r e e r  change (Thomas, 1979; R o b e r t s , 1975; not  have  Lawrence,  1980)  have  d e v e l o p e d the n o t i o n s u f f i c i e n t l y t o a l l o w f o r a d i r e c t  e x a m i n a t i o n of i t through t h e i r own work.  The p r e s e n t study  f u r t h e r s these  their  tentative  works  suggestion  by  substantiating  of  personal  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c a r e e r change  relatively  meaning as c e n t r a l t o an  behavior.  When a more comprehensive e x a m i n a t i o n was undertaken t h a t f o c u s e d on u n d e r s t a n d i n g c a r e e r change i n of  the s u b j e c t ' s l i v e d - o u t e x p e r i e n c e ,  be  mutually  e x c l u s i v e phenomena.  of  level  in  meaning  may  D i s c o n t i n u i t y a t one  l e v e l may c o i n c i d e w i t h c o n t i n u i t y and an another  context  as i n t h i s study, i t  appeared t h a t d i s c o n t i n u i t y and c o n t i n u i t y not  the  the  expanded  framework  at  structure.  S e v e r a l case examples w i l l serve  meaning  individual's to  life  illustrate  this point. In  several  respects,  been r e f e r r e d t o as a " c o r p o r a t e research  literature.  e n t r e p r e n e u r and shift  to  subject  drop-out" i n  Previously  professional  "artist/therapist"  B t y p i f i e d what has  a  the  highly  consultant,  his  existing successful vocational  i n v o l v e d a s u b s t a n t i a l income  165  reduction  and  external  life  vocational  shift  goals  "new-age" a  reflected  in  and  first  and  virtually  to  a  bigger  was seen  this  of  and  analysis  i n B's l i f e , When  role  both  together, enactments  i t by  of the arena  in this  seen  with  to  elevating  i n w h i c h he was  structure  Rather, by  B  of h i s  t h e element  as expanded t o  additional familiar  i n t h i s more g r a n d l y i t was a s  B  i n t h e b r o t h e r l y drama o f  context.  was  fish-pond  as a  counter-culture  were e x a m i n e d  and extended  w h i c h was embodied  From B's own v i e w p o i n t ,  role  f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n prototypes,  h i s perception  included  marital  specialist,  changes.  data  pattern  competition  a  B abandoned t h e  here,  at the l e v e l  cosmic p r o p o r t i o n s ,  re-enactments  nature  that  technical  structural  that  he e n a c t e d  brotherly  was t h a t t h e  with  He d i d n o t abandon t h e meaning  vocation,  effect,  this  vocational  h i s vocational  Left  qualitative  hisearlier  competition of  of  the  d i s c o n t i n u i t y o f meaning  external  enlarging  engaged.  in  ideals.  relationship  maintained or  of  i t appeared  their  beyond  i t appeared  and  of h i s  a s h i s network o f p e r s o n a l  approximately  implicit  radical  quantitative  elements  i s commonly r e f e r r e d t o a s a set  suggested  many  example  coincided  entrepreneur  what  however,  obvious  values  competitive embraced  such  Superficially,  and  in  his activities  most  separation.  or  and  The  change  structure,  affiliations, arena.  broader  s c a l e d drama.  i f Vocation play  i n a broader context  as  role  2  was,  in  i n ; h i s competitive he  pitted  himself  1 66  against  cosmological  f r i e n d s and  self-concept  as  p u r p o s e was  to  was  the shake  up  the  group,  while  Vocation  B,  shift  not  the  Vocation a fringe  an  vocational  transition  separation.  impose any  Unlike  significant  clinical  psychologist  to  transpersonal  likely  commonly v i e w e d as  abandon t h e generously additional mother.  an  push  this  role  of  the  virtually  a  contrary,  career  B.  approximately B though,  the  or  the  related  shift  from  psychologist  would  specialization  not  major a l t e r a t i o n i n one's meaning  framework.  again  quantitative  an  q u a l i t a t i v e data  reflected  whose  t o Case  financial  the  Here  and  and  member  was  To  any  1  interesting contrast  alterations.  and  than  stance  same r o l e enactment  lifestyle  involving  his  perceptions  In of  in  even u n i q u e p l a y e r ,  people's  status  with a marital  did  be  rather  2.  E's  coincident  and  limits.  Case E p r o v i d e d Like  forces,  consistent  unusual,  e a r n e d him  managerial defined  he  perceptual  enactment  and  colleagues.  Similarly,  people's  concepts  suggested  expansion  aspect  of  giving prototype  examination  of  the  that  both the E's  h i s meaning  "joie  vocational  framework; he  drama b a s e d on  father, of  of  the  shift did  not  prototype  of  but  rather  integrated  the  de  vivre"  exemplified  by  167  In argument  contrast  that  of  meaning  the  subject.  within  expansion were  was  find to  as  any  the  enacted  the  a  E  of a r t i c u l a t i n g  the  shift  was  i t . and  individual's  case  usefulness  of  of  the  an  frustrated import  of  that  he  by  the  the  shift.  could  experience  instance  of  not  adequate apparently  framework;  yet  the  of d i s c o n t i n u i t y .  raised  yet  f u r t h e r doubt as  here  that  of H's  to  level  a shift  vocational  the  A  paid professional role  educational in  the  meaning  r a d i c a l , d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n meaning.  to a h i g h - s t a t u s  graduate suggest  one  suggested a  from h o u s e w i f e  initially  experience.  continuity/discontinuity  reflected  entailing  was  meaning  was H  Appearances  transition  then,  framework  previous was  full  by  subjectively  from p r e v i o u s  expanded  experience  The  debate.  Here,  experienced  drama was  so p r o f o u n d  language borrowed  continuous  from  the  continuity  conceptual  familiar  break  support  framework and  expanded  interview,  i f the  express  shift  E,  he  impossibility  Case E d i d n o t  of meaning  as a r a d i c a l  Throughout  It  C a s e B,  n e c e s s a r i l y c o i n c i d e n t , as  For  which  experienced  to  preparation  individual's  might  goals  and  self-image. The shift two  was  an  her  suggested,  instance  distinct  continuous; of  data  of  arenas.  only  the  personal  re-enacting The  context and  however, t h a t the  drama and was  same  implicit  altered.  professional  this  H's  vocational  patterns  in  meaning were articulation  frustrations  further  168  indicated an of  that  expanded or increased  framework  vocational  positively  of  which  nurturer.  In  of  and  resolution  of  meaning  within  key  inverse.  to  career  may  to  or  Furthermore,  from  revealing  the  it  as  can  and well  be  an  extreme  continuity  seen  is  not  that  rich  or  for  the  the that  implicit  continuity  i n t e g r a t i o n and  importance perspective of  supporter  insufficient  d i s c o n t i n u i t y of meaning  subject's  as i t s  despair.  literature  the  of  when o n e ' s p r o t o t y p i c a l  challenge  meaning  of  a  of  state  suggests  examining  the  i s s u g g e s t e d as in  instances  a of  change.  Family Perspective. findings study,  anomie  opportunities  with personal that  meaning  helpful  framework  research  and  the  perception  H's  thinking,  be  provide  conflict  the  the  with  in i t s negatively  of  H,  of m e n t a l h e a l t h ,  i s associated  phenomena  of  illustrations  of m e n t a l h e a l t h , the  being  case  meaning  inner  These assumption  the  enough  coincident  with  contexts,  suicidal  s u b s e q u e n t meaning  open-ended  not  or  experience  evoked  conceptualization pattern  an  c o n n o t e d a s p e c t s of  continuity  was  for self-expression.  continuous across  aspects  desperation  shift  altered self-concept,  opportunity  was  connoted  and  the  (1983), which served suggested  vocational  arena.  that The  Anne as  family present  a  McGregor's basis  dramas a r e study  for  empirical the  present  re-enacted  both  supports  in  the this  169  finding  and  suggests the  career  change.  family  dramas  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  Specifically, are  re-enacted  this  i t in instances  study  across  suggests  multiple  of  that  vocational  arenas. As (1956)  noted  and  in Chapter  more  theoreticians  who  II o f  recently  have a d v o c a t e d  from a p e r s p e c t i v e  of  on  In influence well  as  that  the  career  of  early  supported  by  phenomena  this  d y n a m i c s , as  the  be  value  of  the  in this  otherwise  phenomena.  as  The  using  among of  acknowledges the  theorized  the  career  influence  the  selections.  prototypes The  of  s t u d y , added a i n an  family  behavior,  dynamics of  depth  and  intensive  follow  perspective  will to  family  arenas  career  early  as  suggestion  in vocational  perspective  lacking  continued  His  e x a m i n a t i o n of  examples t h a t  a  Roe  behavior.  career  study.  from  examination  repetitive, circular  serve  are  relationship in adult  initial  patterned,  that  (page 2 0 ) ,  (1982)  the  Bratcher  family  in early,  relationships  would  related  particular,  study  Bratcher  phenomena family  this  was  change  family  role  unity  that  observation highlight examine  of the  career  phenomena. Subject mechanic transition  who  C,  i t will  later  became  entailed a shift  work, from c o n c r e t e male-dominated  to a  be  recalled, a  an  automotive  human s e r v i c e s w o r k e r .  from b l u e  to conceptual  was  collar  to white  problem-solving,  f e m a l e - d o m i n a t e d work w o r l d , and  The  collar from from  a a  170  supervisory shift  a l s o i n v o l v e d an  comfort  to  style.  many a r e a s  C's  appear  initial of  this  appear  career  bootstraps"  work, a r e j e c t i o n  of h i s b l u e  and l i v i n g  an  inadequacy capacities.  orientation,  with  a  mid-life  Alternately,  status  collar  to "pull  i t might  himself  (though lower  past  affiliations  T h e s e and any number o f o t h e r  explanations  might  suggest  career  a C's  mistake,  i n a p p r o p r i a t e , o r i n some way  self-identity,  discontinuity of his  t h a t one o r t h e o t h e r  and  therefore  of meaning.  Without  two-dimensional underdeveloped  context  aspects  That of  the  which  choice  was  i n c o n s i s t e n t with  reflective  of C i n  renders  figure.  and  of  a  the i n t e g r a t i n g backdrop  the family p e r s p e c t i v e , observation vocational  up  paying)  identity. serve  and  be an i n s t a n c e o f  choice  situation.  to higher  as to  t o be an i n s t a n c e o f a t t e m p t i n g  the  material  and e x p e r i e n c e d  and r e l a t i o n s h i p  might  The  required C to recognize  of p e r c e i v e d  shift  "inappropriate"  by  the s h i f t  relative  income l e v e l  the family p e r s p e c t i v e  vocational  rectification  from  reduced  terms o f h i s own c o n c e p t u a l Without  a trainee capacity.  adjustment  a substantially  Additionally,  overcome in  capacity to, i n i t i a l l y ,  him  would  relation  a  relatively  overlook  individual  to  latent  and unexpressed  d i m e n s i o n s o f p r o t o t y p i c a l dramas. Within be  seen  re-enact  that  the context in  distinctly  each  of a f a m i l y p e r s p e c t i v e , vocational  different  aspects  arena, of  his  C  i t can  appeared to early  family  171  drama,  as  figure,  Nanny, and  with  embodied most v i v i d l y  humanitarian  aspects  of  the  integrated internal  re-enacted  not  family-of-birth, values  and  respect,  embodied by  he  to  admiration  the  within to  the  this,  suggested, financial  i f , in re-enacting with  at  a  data  suggest  C  patterns actively with h i s  C  sense  of  (male  for  him.  more  fully  from  his  integrating  family  h i s new-found c a r e e r  drama.  identity  increased  t h o s e a s p e c t s of  the  1,  conflict  a positive force  a w a r e n e s s of of  Vocation  dramatic  seemed t o be  I f the  domain  An  needs and  a  is  and  recognition,  the  family  world,  be  desires.  be  drama  from  social  perspective e x t e n d e d no  seen t h a t  f r o m one in status  obvious  seen as  shift  family  i t could  no  F's  observation  upward s h i f t  there might  subject  from  white c o l l a r  where  the  examining  depth.  career  another.  held  father  father.  lawyer  considerable than  also  associated  his  professional  arrived  relationship  Similarly, worker  and  inherent  did  with a recent and  i s as  attributes associated  clearly  direction  It  longer  only  the  status  drama  the  h e r e ) no 2,  h i s w o r k i n g - c l a s s mother  drama a s s o c i a t e d  first  completion;  In V o c a t i o n  C quite  higher  ideals.  family  the  competition  the  his  by  the  service and  radical  motivated only  added further  shift  was,  profession  income s u c h  as  discontinuity by  material  or  172  The  family perspective  considerably. was  The  data  here  f l e s h e d out  the  picture  i n d i c a t e d t h a t e a c h of  two  brothers  c h a r a c t e r i z e d , r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n terms p a r a l l e l  of  F's  two  provided his  her  own  vocational with  choices,  e a r l y m o d e l s of  respective  career.  and  these  Given  more s u b t l e and  complex  aspects  f a m i l y drama a p p e a r e d  at  of her  different J  stages  was  transition  i n her  yet  can  be  seen  I f the  were  on  rely  would a g a i n  more  a  f o r c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g why the  the  nature  The family  direction  why  than banking." provided  a  to teaching, change  served  agent,  recreated  patterns  of a  of  there  family  transition  domain a l o n e ,  those they  vocational  vocational  analysis  external  and/or  would s t i l l  particular  d i d , no  be  to  no  factors  explanation  operated  prototypes  again  to  allow  role  indicate,  the  for seeing he  were d e r i v e d as  of or  assumed  rooted  family how as  J's a  particular  in h i s personal  also  approach  critic  mythology  J  "rather  perspective  social  from  Subject  became h i s s e c o n d v o c a t i o n  Furthermore,  was  assumed  different  whose  that  teaching  framework the  in  external/internal influences.  assumption  experience  suggested,  of  of  such a case,  what p r o t o t y p i c a l p e r c e p t u a l direct  of  in light  collection  framework  in  shift  t o have been  career  factors.  J  F's  images  fully  internal  influenced  In  each  vocational roles  subject  from the  upon  furthermore,  this,  the  each  career.  examination  data  rest  as  another  perspective. to  tones,  to  and  and was  173  an  integrated  he  was  not  pioneer  aspect  travelling  or  relatively  as  embracing  J,  of  it  he  indication  i n the  of  and/or  creativity  an  appeared  aspects  his child-like  artsy"  a  self-concept,  For  undeveloped  specifically,  figure.  his  uncharted waters  madman.  r e p r e s e n t e d an  brain  of  spirit that  himself  humanitarian  appeared  i d e a l s and  were v a l u e s m o d e l l e d  to  the  In  addition  framework, t h e  use  of  to a  relationship  family  dynamics.  fruitful greater  to  "right  associated  with  the  mother  an  active social  f i g u r e of  father.  or  perspective  career  findings and  t h a n has  in counselling  issues,  in  counselling research  and  phenomena i n i m p o r t a n t  this in  practice  issues  a  unifying  t o examine  and  career  glimpse  far.  career  at  concurrent it  may  r e l a t i o n s h i p to  either thus  which  the  be a  research  The  d i s t i n c t i o n s between  counselling ways.  and  that  of  of  phenomena and  address  occurred  reform  useful  suggested  emerged h e r e s u g g e s t s t h a t  relationship  the  The  depth  identity  expression  for  a potentially  between  examine  extent  literature that  previously; the  providing  change phenomena p r o v i d e d  were  and  be  family  a  playfulness,  Implications for Counselling Practice; Blurring V o c a t i o n a l and F a m i l y C o u n s e l l i n g P r a c t i c e  the  that  unexpressed  concerns  by  of  teaching  A d d i t i o n a l l y , h i s p a r t i c u l a r a p p r o a c h and teacher  that  picture family  counselling  p r a c t i c e , may  distort  174  In a t examined  in  least  three  this  study,  which s y m b o l i c a l l y his in  or h e r the  apparent  the  ten  cases  ( C a s e s A,  subject's  simultaneous  subject  the  actual  family-of-origin.  subject's  change w i t h i n  reporting  in  shift,  active  shifts  these  without  any  in  three  coincidence  f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n d y n a m i c s and  change emerged s p o n t a n e o u s l y ,  to  enactment  In e a c h of the  K)  relation  role  of  G,  vocational  e a r l y f a m i l y drama, c o i n c i d e d w i t h  to t h e i r  instances,  the  r e - o r i e n t e d the  subject's  relation  of  probing  of  career  in  this  direction. For  Subject  re-enactment that  her  of  the  break to  in  time.  had  increasingly  sister.  re-enacting distant  in  this the  G's  to  Much o f G's  appeared  same  t h a t G's by  Vocation  in person  and  period,  appeared  2 arena  a  noted  mother;  in recent  A  be  "A"  confidante  the  she since  years  advisor  to to  sisterly  a  drama  she her be of  clients.  vocational activity shifts  to the  G as  an  in  father-son  mother had  1,  her  phone o r that  to  1 c o i n c i d e d with  with  by  noted  as  parallel  a shift  seen  she  Vocation  Subject  recalled was  contact  acted  t o her  particularly  and  no  advisor  similarly  be  communications  Furthermore,  During  1  away from V o c a t i o n  have had  that  Vocation  e a r l y m o t h e r - d a u g h t e r drama.  transition  complete claimed  A,  ally  a brief and  in theatre,  and  identity  family  seemed  dynamics,  relationship. career  fan w i t h i n appeared  It  may  in  theatre,  the  family.  to  re-create  175  t h e m o t h e r - s o n dynamic recalled  actively  Additionally, and  pursued  a s an  G's  It  may  than  ever  valuing and  his  before.  for  G saw  this  G  was  seen  made by  G  vocational shift  to  greater  sense  history  of  of  not  directly  schism knee  as  now  between him  connectedness injuries. w i t h G's  descriptions  of  his  father.  more  seeking  and  to h i s f a t h e r ' s venturing.  to  and  bridge  the  his father;  provided  to  major  experienced previously  seeking  injury  a  spoken t o g e t h e r  related  was  as  several occasions  entrepreneurial  apparently  to c o n f l i c t  paralleled  father  with  on  recently  extent  own  recent  knee  relationship  his  as  experienced  that h i s  day  f a t h e r had  G's  Additionally,  references  t h a t G's  i n t e r v i e w , G noted  h i s o p i n i o n s t o an  previously  G  adolescence.  t o a t t e n d t h e a t r e s c h o o l was  noteworthy  of t h e  and  respect  2  be  in h i s present  explained  noted  decision  father in early  c o i n c i d e d w i t h what G e x p e r i e n c e d  In t h e c o u r s e he  rejecting  father;  rebellion.  entrepreneur  that  i n c l u d e d e x c l u s i o n of  a g a i n s t f a t h e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s and  a c t of  turnaround  which  him  his father,  he  with who  a  had  a  Throughout  the  interviews,  business  partner  in Vocation  ongoing  conflict  with  G's  father. At  the p o i n t  resumed  his  in  world  the  positively  of  earlier of  connoted  the  one  year  vocational role  theatre,  while  follow-up,  enactment, as  G  director  maintaining  contacts with h i s father.  had  I t was  ongoing as i f  176  G  utilized  resolve,  the vocational  the longstanding Subject  shift,  in  an a c t u a l  mentioned,  towards V o c a t i o n daily  noted  findings  her,  in  It contact  family  while  she r e t u r n e d  in  t o school  father,  that  drama,  family  Vocation  and t h a t  of as  also  be  with her a c t u a l  arena  A d d i t i o n a l l y , she to  talk  i n f a c t her i n t e r a c t i o n closely  paralleled  t r a n s i t i o n represented to  and  integration  noteworthy  mother,  i n Vocation  2.  from h e r m o t h e r ' s a c t u a l  independance that  of  her  that  as K l i m i t e d her  i t appeared  she  confronted onto the  I t was a s i f , i n s e p a r a t i n g presence,  she m a i n t a i n e d  she t o o k a s t a n c e  i n the vocational  arena  well.  Together, counselling of  phone  as a s t e p  more d i r e c t l y t h e m o t h e r - d a u g h t e r dynamic d i s p l a c e d  herself  1 as a  to stop the p r a c t i c e  A l l of t h i s  embracing  K  aspect. may  vocational  which  drama.  gave h e r " s o m e t h i n g  K's v o c a t i o n a l  an  vocational  to university  w i t h her mother.  increased.  part,  "masculine"  the  2, she made a d e c i s i o n  her  with her father the  When  her return  with  example o f a  i n the current that  ultimately  with h i s father.  clear of  and  she spoke t o h e r mother on t h e  phone c o n t a c t  that  about"  change  supervisor,  a daily basis.  of  terms  incidentally,  pre-school  to confront,  conflict  K i s the t h i r d  described  paralleled  on  arena  family  the  practice  and c a r e e r  examples might  theory  cited  benefit  from  above  suggest  further  and c o u n s e l l i n g  that  integration  tools.  177  Delimitations  and  Limitations  Correlations revealing family are  the  also  (Glass the  and  here are  various  drama a r e  of  in  Stanley,  1970).  their  The  quantitative  support  to  the  assertion  (Herbst,  1970)  providing  an  patterns. detail the  varieties  vocation, in  light  and of  individual limited. true Thus,  Chassan  while  the  t o engage  the  study  meaning in  in f a m i l i a l  regularity  of  data provided  the  the  of  by  identifying the  individual portraits, between  family  and  changes  displacement.  to hold  each  further  for  utilized  of  lent  basis  generalization  is likely  data  It  the  to  diverse a  the  true  what  is  f o r some  career ten  intensive  population  (1979) n o t e d , however, t h a t  person  idiosyncratically, appeared  this  i t establish  meaning of v o c a t i o n a l role  they  C regularity exists  n a t u r e of  through  the  phenomenon of  that  did  of  displacement  suggest  studies,  f o r one  reveal,  role  to  the  Given  of  to  the  illuminate  change phenomena.  systematic  from  arenas;  not  nor  Type  qualitative portion  subtlety  did  portion  i n t o the  initial  The  and  career  enquiry  study  that  in  to e s t a b l i s h c a u s a l i t y  displacement  causality.  this  vocational  ability  This  role  within  subtlety  ways i n w h i c h r o l e p a t t e r n s  limited  of  Study  l i m i t e d in t h e i r  re-enacted across  mechanisms  directed  the  change cases  drama r e - e n a c t m e n t  is found  others. varied subjects  i n both  of  178  the  two  vocational  individual  cases  findings w i l l  1) To  the  own  that  from  the  pattern  subsequent is  be a u s e f u l  shift  to  than of  family  role  her  established  to the v o c a t i o n a l  c o n t e x t s , how  of  denial  case  raises  dynamics  create  connoted  role  E  that  does  similar  a positively  to f o s t e r  i n both  and  that  role  arena  does  awareness  of  influence  This  question  information,  o f her the  own  drama.  may  dutiful  vocational  a  positively  Though H f o u n d  exciting,  and  i n the  her  positive  re-enactment  nurturer,  to  the  needs f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n .  question,  sufficient  displacement  connoted  or r e f l e c t  she e n g a g e d  connoted  a  'What  elements  condition  and  and  for positively  re-enactment  in  the  arena?'  suggested  re-enactment  similar  w h e t h e r t h e r e s e a r c h method  providing  enactment  first,  vocational  of  for personal transformation.  negatively  extent  3) Case  is  v o c a t i o n more r e w a r d i n g ,  the  This  tool  is insufficient  second  it  uncovering  suggested  connoted  that  of d i s p l a c e m e n t / r e - e n a c t m e n t  u s e d h e r e , or a n o t h e r  H  likely  a d a p t a t i o n t o t h e work a r e n a ?  critical  2) Case  is  the d i v e r s i t y  Implications  occur a c r o s s v o c a t i o n a l one's  it  Given  across a broader p o p u l a t i o n .  extent  displacement  examined.  examined,  hold  Future Research  arenas  that  changes  i n the v o c a t i o n a l  in role  displacement  and  a r e n a can  occur within  the  179  context  of  the  structure,  without  vocational support  same  arena  a  shift.  new  observation  further  exploration  instances  of  concerns  such  expense.  What e l e m e n t s and d y n a m i c s c r e a t e  "job as  for  vocational It  is  suggested  family  perceived  mind  re-enactment  that  warrant for  a  time  and  sufficient shifts  within  symbolic  What  role displacement  a  in given  career  c h a n g e , t h r o u g h an  be is  coincident the  with  relationship  o n t o t h e work a r e n a change?  though s t i l l  In  married,  and  Case H, t h e i n the  back  h e r move t o seek a p r o f e s s i o n a l c r e d e n t i a l by h e r a w a r e n e s s o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  ending  and This  of  her  "having  to  i s s u e may be i m p o r t a n t  shifting  to voluntary  The i n d i c a t i o n h e r e the v o c a t i o n a l  career  i s that  arena  away  from  a  of her become  f o r career  i n e s t a b l i s h i n g whether o r n o t t h e r e  client's  involuntary  in  to  organizational  connoted  framework, may  indicated that  counselling the  training  turnover,  change.  self-supporting."  in  staff  involuntary  was s t i m u l a t e d marriage  tasks)  i t s relevance and  here  career  her  in  role/structure?  voluntary  of  of  and  change  may  dissatisfaction"  and  i n meaning  subject  terms  positively  expansion  between  in  This  role  radical  (new j o b , new e m p l o y e r ,  role-displacement  5)  vocational  requiring  the symbolic  condition  4)  apparent  i s value  perception  of  change.  re-enactment  of family  i s so i n t e g r a l t o o u r  dramas  experience  180  that  this  different  phenomenon age/stages  contexts.  Is  there need  mechanism of  familial  To  the  an  that role  extent  alternative  developed meet  this  re-enact and  need?  friends), from r o l e  and  Where  6 ) Are  in  displacement and  family is  and  and  a  the  this  t o , unemployed  the  particular  vehicles  way,  are  that  are  individuals  individuals arena  of  their  systems  to  simply primary  (family  and  different psychologically  the  i n the v o c a t i o n a l socially  need  isolated  f o r re-enactment  differences in this  re-enactment  work?  v a l u e d and  with  America  accustomed  to  of,  a  due  the  Where t h e  to experience  coincident North  or  leave  of  perceptions  positively  likely  in  re-enactment  this  through  of  drama?  there c u l t u r a l  to,  there  need met  is this  terms  met  is  if  does  psychological/  that  support  and  vocational  i n the v o c a t i o n a l  social so,  at  re-enactment  unemployed  displacement  individual family  Do  repeatedly  across  being  f a m i l y dramas w i t h i n t h e  secondary  arena?  and  mechanisms  f o r , or a v a i l a b l e  occur  identifiable is  psychological/developmental there  to  vocationally  developmental  arena?  appears  from a l e s s multiple  function of  expected,  c a r e e r change? mobile  of  role  to v a r y i n g o r i e n t a t i o n s  notion  positive  pattern  and  vocational are  d o e s an society,  generations  of  change  i n d i v i d u a l s more  expansion How  purpose  working  of  meaning  immigrant  to  who  be  may  i n the  same  181  field,  experience  family  drama  career  in  the  change?  Is  work s e t t i n g  an  re-enacting  the  i s s u e f o r such  an  individual? 7) What  mechanisms  individual's patterns shift  to  in  selection the  that  apparent re-enact  arena of  role  are  choice  i n the of a  of  has  been  in  the and,  i n a way  an role  Does in  Is  a the  criteria  for  i t reflective  a developmental c y c l e ,  p u r p o s e becomes o p e r a t i v e , Maslow's needs  arena?  the  to re-enact?  fulfilled  of  re-enactment  p s y c h o l o g i c a l p u r p o s e of  re-enactment  in  selection  vocational  shift  patterns  operative  or  dramatic  reflect  completion  the  dynamics  selection  vocational  of  and  indicating  earlier  dramatic  in effect, perhaps  a  higher  similar  to  heirarchy?  Conclusion The change  present  in r e l a t i o n  dramas.  It  dramas a p p e a r the  study  study to  confirms t o be  found  that  McGregor's  the  drama  displacement  Type  C  law  regularity  finding  d i s p l a c e d onto the  idiosyncratically  contexts  the  family-of-origin  varies  vocational  examined  and  particular but  the  i n t h e meaning of  career  (1983) t h a t  phenomenon  family  of  change family across  in accordance  suggests that  change a t  the  or  Further,  appears to occur  This  career  patterns  work a r e n a .  individual,  1970).  role  meaning o f c a r e e r  re-enactment  f o r each  (Herbst,  that  meaning of  with  there level  is of  182  family 2 the  drama r e - e n a c t m e n t ; f a m i l y appears Ten  age  from  for  t o 61,  experience seven  involvement one  in  identified  or  more  identified significant  the  years  years  where t h e shift  orientation  and  through  study.  of  had  v o c a t i o n ranged  in  and/or  his b)  in  from  her  and  time  developing  network  t o adapt  vocational context.  career  change,  specialization  to  represent  such  as  required  retraining An  adoption  single  i n t e g r a t e d Q-methodology and subject  was  asked  family-of-origin, Q-sort theory  item  diverse  o f new  and  sample  of p e r s o n a l i t y  two  case  on  distinct  effort,  vocational  and/or  (H),  (A, F,  traits  types  (1966) and  to  that  K, J ) . used  interviews. figures  which Each  from  self,  arenas.  The  drawn from utilized  of  apparent (E and,  was  vocational  46  social  identities  design  salient  and  r a n g e of t y p e s  role  used  was  a personally  or v o c a t i o n a l r o l e  structured  to Q-sort  of  Participants  work  or advanced e d u c a t i o n  intensive  involvement  lifestyle  unpaid-to-paid  within a f i e l d  some e x t e n t , K ) , and  a  1;  a new  h i s or her  selected  Vocation  and  and/or c) a l t e r e d  were  had  vocational/personal  context  t o a new  a subjective  experienced  invested  sometimes money, i n c r e a t i n g  sampling  A v o c a t i o n a l change  a)  or  in  A l l subjects  involvement  individual  drama.  referral  All  in duration.  Vocation  f o u r women, r a n g i n g  as a c a r e e r c h a n g e .  in a later  to seventeen  s i x men  were i d e n t i f i e d  participation  1 and  t o s e r v e as a p r o t o t y p e  individuals,  30  f o r both V o c a t i o n  by  Holland's McGregor  183  (1983) work  in  a f o u n d a t i o n a l study  participant's  intercorrelated w h i c h was t h e n data  from  apparent with and  the  to  submitted  correlation  use  of  parallels  response  subject  in  when  from  components  analysis.  to  identify  S u b j e c t s were subject  apparent  presented  elaboration  language  individuals  contexts.  The  A portrait  developed  in  synthesizing  and and  statistically  of the i n d i v i d u a l  t o t h e meaning o f c a r e e r change  In  attended to  as a b a s i s f o r d e v e l o p i n g probes  interviews.  was  readily  patterns.  descriptive  describing  varied  d a t a were u s e d  dramas  of r o l e s ,  to e l i c i t  o f t h e meaning o f  were  matrix  themes, t h e r e s e a r c h e r p a r t i c u l a r l y  relationships  regard  results  to a principal  patterns identified  emotional  derived  a  themes and p a t t e r n s .  illumination  subjects'  obtain  Q-sort  a l l s o u r c e s was e x a m i n e d  major  identifying  in  i n the  arena. Each  The  on r o l e d i s p l a c e m e n t  terms  Q-data  of and  used with  family Meaning  Interviews. The  results  indicate  among r o l e s  between  f a m i l y and t h e v o c a t i o n a l  vocational  contexts.  statistical  data  indirect re-enactment contexts. coincident  The  confirmed  emotional of f a m i l y With  a substantial  one  with a s h i f t  subjects' through  response, dramas  arenas  response  direct  and  occurred  exception,  interrelationship across to  affirmation,  elaboration across  meaning  that  vocational  ( H ) , t h e c a r e e r change  i n the s u b j e c t ' s  the  was  framework  184  in  terms of f a m i l y  F),  the s h i f t  meaning  drama.  In a t l e a s t  i n meaning was a  frameworks  shift  remained  four in  cases  scope;  consistent  that  but  drama.  intensive  t h e meaning  study  suggested that  change c a n be u n d e r s t o o d 1970)  when  specific  i n terms of  Type  viewed i n terms of f a m i l y  nature  idiosyncratic,  and but  meaning in  each  of  dramas.  the  case  family  as  metaphor  served  reflect  i n t e r m s o f dramas,  o r e x p r e s s an e x p a n d e d  expected, of c a r e e r  law  (Herbst,  That  displacement  change  sense of meaning.  the was  of f a m i l y  arenas,  of the subject's  career  is,  change  and  t o r e v e a l meaning.  w h o l e , when v i e w e d i n t h e c o n t e x t experience  As  career  dramas a p p e a r e d t o o c c u r a c r o s s v o c a t i o n a l of  C  is,  expanding,  e n c o m p a s s i n g more f a c e t s o f t h e f a m i l y case  (B, C, E ,  use  On t h e  lived-out  appeared  to  185  REFERENCES Abelson, R. 1977. 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The s e l f - c o n c e p t : a r e v i e w o f m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and measurement instruments. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.  APPENDIX A  CORRESPONDENCES OF ±.30 BETWEEN CO-WORKERS AND SELF-REFERRANT ROLES, IDEAL VOCATIONAL ROLES, AND/OR FAMILY FIGURE ROLES  Appendix A  Correspondences of ±.30 Between Co--Workers and S e l f - R e f e r r a n t Roles, Bas 1 c Self  Ideal Self  Self in Voc. 1 Rol e  Case A: V o c a t i o n 1 Boss Col 1eague Manager Peer  Case B: V o c a t i o n 2 CIient Peer Mentor Case C: V o c a t i o n 1 Boss Subordinate Peer Foreman Case C: V o c a t i o n 2 Supervi sor Col 1eague a CIient Col 1eague b  Voc. 1 Ideal  -.34 -.34 - .50  -.47 - .34 - .65  - .40  - .44  - . 33  .42  .34  .37  . 37 .60 .57  .48 .68 .45  . 36 .55 .49  -.52 . 34  -.35  .39 . 32 .61  .49  - . 34  .48 .59  .63  - .43 .40/-.47 - .48  . 34 - . 39  - .56  .33 . 56  Self-referrant Roles i n Fami1y  .39 - .49  - .44  -.54 .48 .30  Voc. 2 Ideal  . 45  .40  Case A: V o c a t i o n 2 CIient Boss Col 1eague Staff Mentor Case B: V o c a t i o n 1 Col league Col 1eague CIient Subordi nate  S e l f In Voc. 2 Role  Ideal Vocat i ona1 Roles, and/or Family F i g u r e Roles  - . 34 . 34  .47 . 46  .41 .40  . 76  •57  Roles  .43/-.31 .35/.37/-.40 - .44 -.31/.34  .47/-.50 .32 .36/.46/.31 .45  . 37  .38 .37/-.32  .40 .51 .37  . 30 .34 .48/.43/-.34  - .47 - . 53/- . 47  - . 36  Family  -.32/.64  . 39 - .43  .41 .48  Other  - .40 .47/.36/.37/.47 - .48 -.44  .31 .36/.30  .32/-.47 .53  Appendix A continued Bas i c Sel f  Ideal Self  Case D: V o c a t i o n 1 Client Col 1eague Superv i sor Boss Case D: V o c a t i o n Mentor Client Sa1esman Case E: V o c a t i o n 1 Colleague Client Mentor Case E: V o c a t i o n 2 Client a Client b Model a Model b Col 1eague Teacher  Self in Voc. 1 Role  Self in Voc. 2 Rol e  . 33  Voc. 1 Ideal  Voc. 2 Ideal  Self-referrant Roles i n Family  .45  .42 .32  .32 .36  .56  Roles  .45  .51  .31 .41  .66  .46  Family  -.57 .51/.32/.53 - .40 .34  .55 .31  .50 .47  Other  .39/.40  .34  .66 .51 .62 .31 .38 .37  Case F: Vocat ion 1 Superv1sor Col 1eague Cllent a Client b Peer  . 32  Case F: V o c a t i o n 2 Partner Partner Col 1eague  .31 .44  .50 .51 . 45  .41 .39 .52  .37  .38  .31 . 37  .44  .68 .67 .69 .32 . 35 .39  . 36  .40 .40 . 74  .31 .31 .43  .47/.34 .32 .44/.48 .36/.32  . 35  .41  .31  . 34  .72  .68/.70 . 32 .34  .37/.40/.51 .39/.37/.43/.34/. 39 .59/.47/.44/.32 .36/.31/.41 .31/.55 • .40/-.51/-.39 .43  Appendix A continued Bas i c Self Case G: V o c a t i o n 1 Lead Man Lead Lady Peer Aud i ence Case G: V o c a t i o n 2 Buyer Partner Subord i nate Case H: V o c a t i o n 1 Col 1eague a Peer Col 1eague b Case H: V o c a t i o n 2 Superv i sor Mentor a Mentor b Col 1eague a Col 1eague b Peer Case J : V o c a t i o n 1 Manager Owner Customer Col league Case J : V o c a t i o n 2 Boss Col 1eague a Col 1eague b Student Col 1eague c Mentor  Ideal Self  Self in Voc. 1 Role  .33  . 39  .71  .37  .40  .58  .31 . 33 .36  .42  .55  .43  Voc. 1 Ideal  Voc. 2 Ideal  Self-referrant Roles i n Fami1y  . 32  - . 40 .32  . 36  .47  .30  .66 .41 . 36  .39 .45 .36  .31  .45  .47 .53 . 35  .40  .33 .43 .57 .57  . 38  . 37  . 55 .56  .31 - .31  .35 .35 .49/.39  . 32 . 37  Family  .45/.33 .41 . 34  . 44  . 52 . 36  Other  .42/.59 .60/-.50/.43 .39/-.51/.47 .68/-.45/.44  .48  . 33  .47  .61  Self in Voc. 2 Rol e  .56  .47 .36  . 35  . 33  Roles  Appendix A continued  Case K: V o c a t i o n 1 Peer Professor Boss Student Case K: V o c a t i o n 2 Supervisor a Boss Supervisor b CIient Mentor  Bas i c Self  Ideal Self  Self in Voc. 1 Rol e  S e l f in Voc. 2 Role  .51  .66 - .45  .83 -.54 .56  .76 -.51 .49  .49  .55  .49 .40 .48  .55 .43  .59 . 33 .59 . 34 .47  Self-referrant Roles i n Family  Voc. 1 Ideal  Voc. 2 Ideal  .74 - . 57 .45  . 74 -.66 .52  .34/.44 - . 55 .69  .49  .52  .54  .37/.30  .49 .61 . 56  .52 .49 .44  .54 .53 .41  .30 . 35 .32  Other Family  Roles  -.35/.54/.67 .48/-.56/-.52 .40/.57 .39/.40 . 32 .39/.37/.40 .41 .37/.40  198  APPENDIX B  ±.30 CORRESPONDENCES OF SELF-AS-VOCATIONAL ROLES (1 AND TO OTHER VARIANTS OF SELF AND VOCATIONAL IDEALS FOR 10 CASE SUBJECTS  2)  Appendix B  +.30  Self  Correspondences of S e l f - a s - V o c a t i o n a l Roles (1 and 2) to Other V a r i a n t s of S e l f and V o c a t i o n a l  as Voc. Role:  I Basic Self 1 2  Case A Case B  . 77  Case C Case D  .43  II Ideal S e l f 1 2 .44  .50  . 78  .59  .68  . 57  . 37  .66  .45  Case E  .56  .63  IV Voc. Ideal 2 1 2  1  V S e l f - R o l e s From Fami1y  .45  .55 (daughter)  .41 ( s i s t e r )  .52  . 87  . 59 (son) .47 ( b r o t h e r )  .37 (son)  .63  .45 (son)  .36 (son) .37 ( b r o t h e r )  .41 ( b r o t h e r ) / . 3 3 (son) . 34 ( s e l f - a s - f r i e n d )  .39  .49  .60  .68  .67  Only One Voc. Ideal  .48 ( b r o t h e r )  .62  .41  .40  .69  .83  .39 (daughter) .32 ( f r i e n d )  .68  .40  . 34  .37 (son)  Case G  . 37  Case H  . 37  Case J  .31  .34  .60  .80  Case K  . 58  .61  .74  .75  .43  . 52  .83  2  .32  .41 .71  Case F  III Voc. Ideal 1 1 2  Ideals  .87  .54 (daughter)  .37 (daughter)  .48  .60  .54 (son)  .40 (son)  .75  .80  .51 (grand-daughter)  .49 (daughter)  200  APPENDIX C  ±.30 CORRESPONDENCES OF SELF-AS-VOCATIONAL ROLES (1 AND 2) TO ROLE FIGURES FROM EARLY FAMILY (INCLUDING SELF-REFERRANT ROLES) FOR 10 CASE SUBJECTS  Appendix C  ±.30 Correspondences of S e l f - a s - V o c a t i o n a l  Roles (1 and 2) to Role Figures from E a r l y Family ( I n c l u d i n g S e l f - R e f e r r a n t R o l e s )  S e l f - R e f f e r e n t s From Family S e l f as V o c a t i o n a l  Role:  Other Family Role Figures  1  Case A  .55 (daughter)  Case B  .59 (son) .47 (brother)  .37 (son)  Case C  .45 (son)  .36 (son) .37 (brother)  .41 (s i s t e r )  Case D  .40 (mother)  .50 (mother) .32 .48  (nanny) (sister)  .36 ( f a t h e r ) .38 (hero)  Case E  .48  (brother)  Case F  .39 (daughter) .32 ( f r i e n d )  .41 (brother) .33 (son) .34 ( f r i e n d )  Case G  .37 (son)  Case H  .54 (daughter)  .37 (daughter)  Case J  .54 (son)  .40 (son)  Case K  .51 (grand-daughter)  .34 (mother) .34 ( f a t h e r )  .47 (mother) .32 ( f a t h e r )  .59 (mother) .54 ( f a t h e r ) .51 (brother a) .32 (brother b)  .34 (mother) .47 ( b r o t h e r  b)  .67 (mother) .45 (great u n c l e ) .38 ( b r o t h e r ) .39 ( f a t h e r )  .49 (daughter)  .52 (mother) .48 (grandmother) .43 ( f a t h e r )  .56 (mother) .50 (grandmother) .36 ( f a t h e r ) .35 (mother)  .75 (grandmother) .48 ( f a t h e r )  .70 (grandmother) .53 ( f a t h e r ) .35 (mother)  

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