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The meaning of career change in relation to family roles Chusid, Hanna S. 1987

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THE MEANING OF CAREER CHANGE IN RELATION TO FAMILY ROLES by HANNA S. CHUSID B.S., Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y , 1976 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION " i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology) We a c c e p t ' t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January 1987 © Hanna S. Chusid, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada Department V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) ABSTRACT An i n t e n s i v e case study design was u t i l i z e d , i n t e g r a t i n g data from the a p p l i c a t i o n of Q-technique and su b j e c t i n t e r v i e w s , to examine the meaning of career change from a f a m i l y p e r s p e c t i v e . Ten s u b j e c t s , i d e n t i f i e d through an i n f o r m a l network of r e f e r r a l s , were s e l e c t e d as d i v e r s e examples of c a r e e r changers (6 men, 4 women). Subjec t s Q-sorted 46 items drawn from Holland's (1966) typology of p e r s o n a l i t i e s f o r 19 to 23 S a l i e n t Role F i g u r e s i d e n t i f i e d from three domains of dramatic enactment: Family, S e l f , and V o c a t i o n . Q-sort r e s u l t s f o r each s u b j e c t were developed i n t o a c o r r e l a t i o n matrix, then submitted to a p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s . R e s u l t s were analyzed to i d e n t i f y s h i f t s or maintenance of themes and r o l e enactments as i n d i c a t i o n s of l i v e d - o u t dramas. The e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s and suggested themes were presented to each s u b j e c t to s t i m u l a t e su b j e c t e l a b o r a t i o n . Q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e data were s y n t h e s i z e d to develop p o r t r a i t s p o i n t i n g to the meaning of ca r e e r change f o r each s u b j e c t . R e s u l t s support p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h that suggests i n d i v i d u a l s d i s p l a c e r o l e enactments from f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n onto the v o c a t i o n a l arena. T h i s study a l s o p r o v i d e s support for the t h e s i s that the phenomenon of r o l e displacement from the f a m i l y to v o c a t i o n a l arenas occurs a c r o s s d i f f e r i n g v o c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , while the meaning of c a r e e r change as r e f l e c t e d i n p a t t e r n s of dramatic enactment appears i d i o s y n c r a t i c , the s h i f t s i n r o l e displacement from f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n to v o c a t i o n a l arena appear to v i r t u a l l y d e f i n e the s u b j e c t ' s sense of the meaning of the ca r e e r change i t s e l f . Thus, when viewed i n the context of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e as i t i s l i v e d out, there appears to be r e g u l a r i t y i n the meaning of c a r e e r change. L a r r y Cochran, Ph.D. Research S u p e r v i s o r i v TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES v i i i CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1 DEFINITION OF TERMS 5 CHAPTER I I : REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 7 T r a i t C o r r e l a t i o n s and T y p o l o g i e s 11 D e c i s i o n C r i t e r i a 14 Frequency of Career Change 17 Meaning of Career Change 17 Family P e r s p e c t i v e 23 Role Displacement 24 S i n g l e Case S t u d i e s 26 CHAPTER I I I : METHODOLOGY 31 Overview of Procedures 32 Case Subje c t s 35 Q-Technique 39 ANALYSIS OF PROTOCOLS 46 A n a l y s i s of Q-sorts 46 Meaning Interview 50 Case P o r t r a i t s 54 Case P o r t r a i t Reviews 56 CHAPTER IV: QUANTITATIVE RESULTS 59 C o r r e l a t i o n s Among Q-Sorts According to Roles 59 P r i n c i p a l Components 64 V CHAPTER V: QUALITATIVE RESULTS: CASE STUDIES 65 CASE STUDY A . . . . 68 Background 68 Family Experience 68 Vocati o n 1 70 Voc a t i o n 2 71 V o c a t i o n a l T r a n s i t i o n 72 CASE STUDY B 74 Background 74 Family Experience 75 Vocati o n 1 77 Vocati o n 2 78 V o c a t i o n a l T r a n s i t i o n 80 CASE STUDY C 82 Background 82 Family Experience 83 Vocati o n 1 86 Voc a t i o n 2 87 V o c a t i o n a l T r a n s i t i o n 89 CASE STUDY D 91 Background 91 Family Experience 92 Voc a t i o n 1 94 Vocati o n 2 95 V o c a t i o n a l T r a n s i t i o n 97 CASE STUDY E 99 Background 99 Family Experience 100 Vo c a t i o n 1 101 Vocati o n 2 102 V o c a t i o n a l T r a n s i t i o n 104 CASE STUDY F 106 Background 106 Family Experience 106 Vocati o n 1 109 Vocati o n 2 110 V o c a t i o n a l T r a n s i t i o n 111 CASE STUDY G , 115 Background 115 Family Experience 115 Voc a t i o n 1 117 Vocati o n 2 119 V o c a t i o n a l T r a n s i t i o n 122 v i CASE STUDY H 124 Background 124 Family Experience 125 Vo c a t i o n 1 127 Vocati o n 2 129 V o c a t i o n a l T r a n s i t i o n 130 CASE STUDY J 132 Background 132 Family Experience 132 Vocati o n 1 135 Vocati o n 2 136 V o c a t i o n a l T r a n s i t i o n 139 CASE STUDY K 142 Background 142 Family Experience 143 Vocati o n 1 145 Vocati o n 2 146 V o c a t i o n a l T r a n s i t i o n 148 Subject Self-Review 150 A Self-Review 150 B Self-Review 151 C Self-Review 151 D Self-Review 152 E Self-Review 152 F Self-Review 152 G Self-Review 153 H Self-Review 154 J Self-Review 154 K Self-Review 154 Independent Case Reviews 155 A 155 B 155 C 155 D 156 E 157 F 158 G 159 H 159 J 159 K 160 CHAPTER VI: DISCUSSION 161 T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 161 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C o u n s e l l i n g P r a c t i c e : B l u r r i n g of V o c a t i o n a l and Family C o u n s e l l i n g P r a c t i c e 173 v i i D e l i m i t a t i o n s and L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 177 Future Research I m p l i c a t i o n s 178 Conclusion 181 REFERENCES 185 APPENDIX A. CORRESPONDENCES OF ±.30 BETWEEN CO-WORKERS AND SELF-REFERRANT ROLES, IDEAL VOCATIONAL ROLES, AND/OR FAMILY FIGURE ROLES 193 APPENDIX B. ±.30 CORRESPONDENCES OF SELF-AS-VOCATIONAL ROLES (1 AND 2) TO OTHER VARIANTS OF SELF AND VOCATIONAL IDEALS FOR 10 CASE SUBJECTS 198 APPENDIX C. ±.30 CORRESPONDENCES OF SELF-AS-VOCATIONAL ROLES (1 AND 2) TO ROLE FIGURES FROM EARLY FAMILY (INCLUDING SELF-REFERRANT ROLES) FOR 10 CASE SUBJECTS 200 v i i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. TRAITS USED IN THE Q-SORT OF THE STUDY 44 TABLE 2. CASE A: CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR SALIENT ROLE FIGURES # 1-10 47 TABLE 3. FIGURES ASSOCIATED WITH UNROTATED FIRST COMPONENT AT ±.50 LEVEL OR GREATER, CASE C . 49 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION T h i s study examined c a r e e r change from a f a m i l y p e r s p e c t i v e , using throughout the concept of "drama" as an a n a l y t i c a l framework. T h i s d r a m a t u r g i c a l model encompasses the p e r c e p t i o n s and symbolic values that are l i v e d out as dynamic p a t t e r n s of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s experience and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . In other words, the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a r e e r change i s viewed w i t h i n the web of h i s or her l i f e as i t i s l i v e d out. The d r a m a t u r g i c a l model has been a p p l i e d p r o d u c t i v e l y by s o c i o l o g i s t s (McCall and Simmons, 1978), p h i l o s o p h e r s of s c i e n c e (Harre, 1979), and p s y c h o l o g i s t s (Harre and Secord, 1973; Cochran, 1986). In p a r t i c u l a r , the d r a m a t u r g i c a l model was used here to represent " f a m i l y " where f a m i l y r e f e r s to the primary group of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . C o n s i s t e n t with McGregor's study (1983), f a m i l y was used here as an e v o c a t i v e metaphor f o r examining c a r e e r . I t was assumed that f a m i l y dramas provide the i n d i v i d u a l with a source of prototypes f o r dramatic enactments in the v o c a t i o n a l arena. While McGregor p r o v i d e d support f o r the p r o p o s i t i o n that i n d i v i d u a l s appear to re-enact aspects of the f a m i l y drama in the v o c a t i o n a l arena, the present study examined the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s f i n d i n g i n i n s t a n c e s where the a d u l t i n d i v i d u a l has s h i f t e d v o c a t i o n a l arenas. 2 The c e n t r a l question explored i n t h i s study i s : what i s the meaning of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s career change i n terms of fami l y r o l e s ? The importance of t h i s as a research question i s suggested through a review of the l i t e r a t u r e on career change (see Chapter I I ) . Much of the research i n t h i s area i s i m p l i c i t l y concerned with the r e l a t i o n s h i p of career change to the meaning s t r u c t u r e s of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e . More than one study d i r e c t l y suggests that career change and s h i f t s i n meaning s t r u c t u r e are threads of the same t a p e s t r y ; yet u n t i l now, there has been no d i r e c t examination of career change i n r e l a t i o n to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s meaning s t r u c t u r e s . In p r o v i d i n g a p i c t u r e of career change w i t h i n the context of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e , the present enquiry opens up a wealth of m a t e r i a l for f u r t h e r study. Secondly, given that i n d i v i d u a l s appear to re-enact aspects of t h e i r f amily drama i n the v o c a t i o n a l arena (McGregor, 1983), what does a s h i f t in v o c a t i o n a l arenas i n d i c a t e about the meaning s t r u c t u r e of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e , i n terms of the p r o t o t y p i c a l family dramas? The l i t e r a t u r e review i n Chapter II i s s t r u c t u r e d to h i g h l i g h t the t h e o r e t i c a l issue that u n d e r l i e s t h i s question and that serves as the broader context f o r the study. Within the body of research on career change, there e x i s t s an undercurrent of debate as to whether adult career changes r e f l e c t a d i s c o n t i n u i t y of the meaning s t r u c t u r e s in the 3 i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e , or a c o n t i n u i t y of meaning where an expanded meaning framework has encompassed the e a r l i e r one. The d r a m a t u r g i c a l model a p p l i e d i n t h i s study p r o v i d e s a broader framework w i t h i n which to address c a r e e r change as i t r e l a t e s to the i s s u e of c o n t i n u i t y and d i s c o n t i n u i t y of meaning i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e . T h i s broader p e r s p e c t i v e seems to encompass the p o l a r i t i e s inherent i n the d i s c o n t i n u i t y / c o n t i n u i t y of meaning debate. In c o n t r a s t to the e x i s t i n g d i v i s i o n among t h e o r i s t s , t h i s study suggests that c a r e e r changes may r e f l e c t both d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s and c o n t i n u i t i e s of meaning, where meaning s t r u c t u r e s are viewed as complex and m u l t i - l e v e l e d . Thus, both i n d i r e c t l y examining the meaning of career change, and in u t i l i z i n g the d r a m a t u r g i c a l model, t h i s study attempts to broaden the scope of enquiry i n t o the c a r e e r change phenomenon. T h i r d l y , the use of a f a m i l y p e r s p e c t i v e adds a depth and u n i t y to the enquiry that i s otherwise o f t e n l a c k i n g i n more narrowly d e l i m i t e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . In e f f e c t , employing f a m i l y as a metaphor seems to pr o v i d e a common frame and language to c l a r i f y meaning a c r o s s m u l t i p l e i n s t a n c e s of i n t e n s i v e o b s e r v a t i o n . Thus, a p p a r e n t l y i d i o s y n c r a t i c f i n d i n g s can more reasonably be a t t r i b u t e d to l i v e d - o u t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s r a t h e r than semantic d i f f e r e n c e s . Furthermore, grounding the c u r r e n t e x p l o r a t i o n i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r o t o t y p i c a l f a m i l y drama suggests the 4 c o n t e x t u a l complexity of c a r e e r change while simultaneously p r o v i d i n g an avenue f o r e x p l o r i n g the phenomenon. The adoption of a f a m i l y p e r s p e c t i v e towards c a r e e r change might have p a r t i c u l a r l y p r a c t i c a l u s e f u l n e s s i n the context of c o u n s e l l i n g p r a c t i c e . In t h i s regard, the present study c o n t r i b u t e s to a r e s e a r c h base supp o r t i n g an i n c r e a s e d i n t e g r a t i o n between f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g theory and p r a c t i c e , and v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g theory and p r a c t i c e . In s h o r t , a key theme of the present study i s the i n d i c a t i o n that r o l e p a t t e r n s from the f a m i l y drama are re-enacted i d i o s y n c r a t i c a l l y a c r o s s v o c a t i o n a l arenas. Given that the focus here i s on the meaning of c a r e e r change, no attempt was made to e s t a b l i s h c a u s a l i t y with regard to c a r e e r change phenomenon. The inherent l i m i t s of the c u r r e n t study do not allow f o r an examination of the mechanisms of r o l e displacement. Rather, t h i s study i s concerned with e s t a b l i s h i n g that r o l e displacement does appear to occur between f a m i l y and m u l t i p l e c a r e e r arenas, and that there i s r e g u l a r i t y i n the meaning of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a r e e r change when viewed i n t h i s l i g h t . The q u a n t i t a t i v e l e v e l of t h i s study (see Chapters III and IV) was intended to e s t a b l i s h r e g u l a r i t i e s among s e l f , f a m i l y , and v o c a t i o n a l r o l e s that c o u l d be c l a r i f i e d i n d i s c u s s i o n with s u b j e c t s . The q u a l i t a t i v e l e v e l of t h i s study (see Chapters II I and V) was intended to provide a more d e t a i l e d p o r t r a i t of each su b j e c t and, by v i r t u e of the 5 s e n s i t i v i t y of t h i s aspect of the r e s e a r c h , to expand or i l l u m i n a t e the meaning of the c a r e e r change suggested by the q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s u l t s . DEFINITION OF TERMS Ex p l a n a t i o n s of terms l i s t e d here r e f e r to t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r usage i n t h i s study. Arena: Refers to the three d i s t i n c t l i f e c o n t e x t s i n which the s u b j e c t was or i s c u r r e n t l y m e a n i n g f u l l y absorbed, and which were examined i n t h i s study. For each subject the three l i f e c o n t e x t s , or arenas, examined were: 1) f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n , 2) p a r t i c u l a r employment context viewed by the s u b j e c t as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of V o c a t i o n 1, and 3) p a r t i c u l a r employment context viewed by the s u b j e c t as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of V o c a t i o n 2. Each of these d i s t i n c t l i f e c o n texts may be viewed as d i f f e r e n t "arenas" of a c t i v i t y and e x p r e s s i o n f o r the s u b j e c t . Domain: Refers to the p o o l of s a l i e n t f i g u r e s and/or r o l e i d e n t i t i e s sampled as objects-of-judgement f o r Q - s o r t i n g . In t h i s study the three domains sampled were: 1) S e l f : both those r o l e s enacted by the s u b j e c t , such as son and employee, and those which the s u b j e c t u t i l i z e s as s e l f - r e f e r e n t s , such as " a c t u a l " or " i d e a l " s e l f ; 2) Primary O b j e c t s : F a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n f i g u r e s ; 3) Secondary O b j e c t s : F i g u r e s from V o c a t i o n a l Arenas 1 and 2. Drama: A complete experience; an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i v e d - o u t sense based on a s y n t h e s i s of the environmental, h i s t o r i c a l , s o c i a l , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l ( p e r c e p t u a l , 6 a t t i t u d i n a l , emotional) dimensions of a given l i f e c o n t e x t . For example, i n t h i s study an i n s t a n c e of the "mother-son drama" r e f e r s to the s u b j e c t ' s l i v e d - o u t sense of the s y n t h e s i s of the h i s t o r y of the i n t e r a c t i v e p a t t e r n between mother and h i m s e l f - a s - s o n , i n the context of the t o t a l web of f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , as i n f l u e n c e d and c o l o u r e d by the l a r g e r s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l context of the times, and as p e r c e i v e d , judged, and a t t r i b u t e d with meaning by the s u b j e c t . D r a m a t u r g i c a l : A model f o r examining and understanding l i f e u t i l i z i n g terms and concepts borrowed from the world of t h e a t r e , as a metaphor. The key concepts of t h i s model (McCall and Simmons, 1978) are c h a r a c t e r , r o l e , and audience. Here, " c h a r a c t e r " and "audience" are i m p l i c i t background phenomena only, and c o n s i d e r a b l e focus i s given to " r o l e . " Role i s understood as the i n d i v i d u a l ' s t h e m a t i c a l l y u n i f i e d enactment i n a given s o c i a l drama. Family and F a m i l y - o f - O r i g i n : Here " f a m i l y " r e f e r s to the primary s o c i a l matrix of the s u b j e c t f o r most of h i s or her c h i l d h o o d years, and i s not l i m i t e d e x c l u s i v e l y to b i o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s or nuclear f a m i l y . Meaning Interview: T h i s r e f e r s to a s p e c i f i c procedure i n the r e s e a r c h methodology of t h i s study. A f t e r thorough a n a l y s i s of the data obtained from the Q - s o r t i n g accomplished by each s u b j e c t , the r e s e a r c h e r " f e d back" these r e s u l t s to each s u b j e c t i n laymen's terms and i n a way that s t i m u l a t e d the s u b j e c t to explore and e l a b o r a t e on the meaning of the f i n d i n g s as he or she viewed them. Subjects-of-Judgement: T h i s term r e f e r s to a l l of those i n d i v i d u a l s and r o l e s that were the focus of e v a l u a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n i n the Q - s o r t i n g accomplished by each s u b j e c t ; the term i n c l u d e s what are r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s study as " s a l i e n t f i g u r e s " from the f a m i l y and v o c a t i o n a l domains, as w e l l as r o l e s from the self-domain. 7 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The aim of t h i s chapter i s to review the l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t to the q u e s t i o n of what i s the meaning of career change. In p a r t i c u l a r , the review i s intended to i n d i c a t e the need f o r s t u d y i n g the person i n context i n order to understand the meaning of car e e r change as i t i s l i v e d out. Much of the r e s e a r c h on ca r e e r change has focused on s p e c i f i c aspects of t r a n s i t i o n or a s s o c i a t e d phenomena; these s t u d i e s may be valued f o r i d e n t i f y i n g s p e c i f i c aspects of c a r e e r change. An u n d e r l y i n g i s s u e i n n e a r l y a l l of these s t u d i e s i s a concern with the meaning of the car e e r change f o r the i n d i v i d u a l c a r e e r changer, yet none appeared s u f f i c i e n t l y broad to c l a r i f y the meaning of the change. In response to t h i s gap i n the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e , the present study i s intended as an approach to e x p l o r i n g and understanding career change where the b e h a v i o u r a l aspects and r o l e i d e n t i t y i s s u e s c o u l d be viewed i n the l a r g e r context of the meaning they h e l d f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . F i r s t , t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s to c a r e e r and career change are d i s c u s s e d . Second, two types of s t u d i e s on c a r e e r change are reviewed: those which i n d i r e c t l y d e s c r i b e the phenomenon and those which i n d i r e c t l y seek support f o r a given p o s i t i o n on the meaning of car e e r change. T h i r d l y , 8 the work of Roe (1956) and Bratcher (1982) i s then d i s c u s s e d as t h i s r e s e a r c h p o i n t s to the r a t i o n a l e f o r u t i l i z i n g a f a m i l y p e r s p e c t i v e i n examining c a r e e r phenomena. Next, two s t u d i e s (Baas and Brown, 1973; McGregor, 1983) concerning r o l e displacement are d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l , s i n c e they p r o v i d e e m p i r i c a l support f o r the t h e o r e t i c a l assumptions of t h i s study, as w e l l as o f f e r i n g a paradigm f o r r e s e a r c h . One of these s t u d i e s (McGregor, 1983), i n p a r t i c u l a r , p r o v i d e s support f o r the premise that f a m i l i a l r o l e s are d i s p l a c e d onto the v o c a t i o n a l domain. F i n a l l y , the s i n g l e case study and Q-methodology are d i s c u s s e d . ' O p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s of "career change" n e c e s s a r i l y assume a p a r t i c u l a r concept of " c a r e e r . " Yet, there appeared to be l i t t l e c o n s i s t e n c y r e g a r d i n g t h i s concept i n the l i t e r a t u r e . For i n s t a n c e , a number of s t u d i e s , i n c l u d i n g those of G o t t f r e d s o n (1977), V a i t e n a s and Weiner (1977), and Perosa and Perosa (1983, 1984), r e l i e d on H o l l a n d ' s (1973) o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n to i d e n t i f y the nature of a s u b j e c t ' s v o c a t i o n , thus f o c u s i n g on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s f i e l d of v o c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . T y p i c a l l y , these s t u d i e s d e f i n e d career change as i n s t a n c e s where the s u b j e c t had changed p o s i t i o n s from one v o c a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n to another. T h i s approach d i d not appear to c o n s i d e r the r o l e i d e n t i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l , which may remain constant a c r o s s v o c a t i o n a l f i e l d s (e.g., an i n d i v i d u a l whose r o l e i s that of a teacher may be i n one v o c a t i o n a l category when i n the 9 f i e l d of p u b l i c education i n the school system, and r e - c l a s s i f i e d when he or she t r a n s f e r s these s k i l l s and r o l e i d e n t i t y t o t e a c h i n g i n the b u s i n e s s world, perhaps as a s t a f f t r a i n e r i n banking). On the other end of the range of conceptual frameworks, L o u i s (1980) d e f i n e d c a r e e r as "an accumulation of r o l e r e l a t e d experiences over time." T h i s view assumes the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a r e e r i s r e f l e c t e d c o n s i s t e n t l y a c r o s s l i f e arenas, both i n s i d e and o u t s i d e the work context, or a c r o s s f i e l d s of v o c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . In a r e l a t e d v e i n , Krause (1971) maintained "the concept of c a r e e r l o s e s i t s meaning as one goes downward i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y . " The i m p l i c a t i o n here i s t h a t , l i k e L o u i s , Krause viewed "career" as r e f e r r i n g to a p e r v a s i v e l i f e o r i e n t a t i o n , r a t h e r than a set of n i n e - t o - f i v e a c t i v i t i e s . S i m i l a r l y , N e o p o l i t a n (1980) l i m i t e d h i s study of c a r e e r change to people l e a v i n g "upper-stratum" o c c u p a t i o n s . In t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l work Tiedeman and M i l l e r - T i e d e m a n (1985) develop a s i m i l a r but more extreme view than the one put f o r t h by L o u i s . T h e i r d e f i n i t i o n of c a r e e r r e f l e c t s a h o l i s t i c and phenomenological o r i e n t a t i o n that v i r t u a l l y holds the n o t i o n of " l i f e path" and c a r e e r as synonymous. Within t h i s framework there can be no "career change" as such. Rather, i n d i v i d u a l s ' v a r i o u s e x p r e s s i o n s of purpose c o n s t i t u t e a s i n g l e c a r e e r along t h e i r unique " l i f e path." 10 Thus, "career" has been v a r i o u s l y d e f i n e d i n the re s e a r c h and t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e as r e f e r r i n g to f i e l d s of v o c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , p e r s o n a l goals and r o l e i d e n t i t i e s a c t ed upon i n the work arena, or l i f e path. T h i s fundamental conceptual i n c o n s i s t e n c y appears throughout the l i t e r a t u r e . Consequently, meaningful comparisons between s t u d i e s i s f a i r l y l i m i t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the purposes of e s t a b l i s h i n g p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s to the f i e l d s of v o c a t i o n a l guidance, c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g , and a d u l t developmental c o u n s e l l i n g . For purposes of the present review, two broad o r i e n t a t i o n s i n the re s e a r c h were i d e n t i f i e d i n terms of the nature of the resea r c h i s s u e being examined. The l a r g e r t h r u s t i n the l i t e r a t u r e was an i n d i r e c t d e s c r i p t i o n of the phenomenon of a d u l t c a r e e r change and, i n some i n s t a n c e s , i n v o l v e d the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a s s o c i a t e d phenomena or t r a i t s , (Hiestand, 1971; Sheppard, 1971; Clopton, 1972; Thomas et a l , 1976; G o t t f r e d s o n , 1977; V a i t e n a s and Weiner, 1977; Weiner and V a i t e n a s , 1977; Snyder, Hammer and Howard, 1978; Thomas, 1980; Armstrong, 1981; H i l l and M i l l e r , 1981; Perosa and Perosa, 1983, 1984). The smaller t h r u s t i n the l i t e r a t u r e adopted a more i d i o g r a p h i c o r i e n t a t i o n . Anne Roe (1956) was one of the e a r l i e r t h e o r i s t s and r e s e a r c h e r s i n the area of v o c a t i o n a l psychology to po i n t out the importance of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r s o n a l i t y , as i n f l u e n c e d by f a m i l y , and 11 o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . However, here a t t e n t i o n was given to those s t u d i e s that examined the i n d i v i d u a l person and car e e r w i t h i n the t o t a l i t y of h i s or her l i f e s t r u c t u r e . These s t u d i e s i m p l i c i t l y address c a r e e r , and hence c a r e e r change, as an e x p r e s s i o n or r e f l e c t i o n of p e r s o n a l meaning, (Robbins et a l , 1978; Thomas, 1977 and 1979; Levinson et a l , 1978; Thomas and Robbins, 1978; Lawrence, 1980; N e o p o l i t a n , 1980; Osherson, 1980; Perosa and Persosa, 1983). T r a i t C o r r e l a t i o n s and T y p o l o g i e s Weiner and V a i t e n a s (1977; 1977) conducted two s t u d i e s i n which they compared m u l t i p l e measures of p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , o b t ained through s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g , of "career changers," with " v o c a t i o n a l l y s t a b l e " i n d i v i d u a l s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that "career changers" are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p e r s o n a l i t y " i n c o n g r u i t y . " However, when the sample s e l e c t i o n method was taken i n t o account, the f i n d i n g s suggested that i t may a c t u a l l y be i n d i v i d u a l s engaged i n car e e r c o u n s e l l i n g that are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by " i n c o n g r u i t y . " A d d i t i o n a l l y , there was an i m p l i c i t assumption i n t h i s study that i n d i v i d u a l s who express the d e s i r e to change c a r e e r s , i n f a c t , do so. In a c t u a l i t y , these s t u d i e s examined i n d i v i d u a l s who expressed the i n t e n t to change c a r e e r s , which may represent a d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n than i n d i v i d u a l s who do change c a r e e r s . 1 2 T h i s l a t t e r problem was inherent i n the study by Sheppard (1971) as w e l l . His d e f i n i t i o n of a "second c a r e e r c a n d i d a t e " drew on a s i m i l a r assumption: that s u b j e c t s ' thoughts about c a r e e r change have a c l e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p to a c t u a l c a r e e r behaviour. In h i s a n a l y s i s of 210 i n t e r v i e w s , Sheppard d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between "second-career c a n d i d a t e s " and "non-candidates" using three v a r i a b l e s . The r e s u l t s suggested that "second-career c a n d i d a t e s " r a t e higher on achievement values and a s p i r a t i o n - a c h i e v e m e n t d i s c r e p a n c y , and lower on autonomy-on-the-job, than "non-candidates." C o n s i s t e n t with Sheppard's conception of career-change c a n d i d a t e s , Perosa and Perosa (1984) found no d i f f e r e n c e on measures of autonomy, achievement, and endurance in t h e i r sample of 134 i n d i v i d u a l s composed of three groups: those who had changed c a r e e r s , those i n the process of changing c a r e e r s through a r e t u r n to s c h o o l , and those who had expressed a d e s i r e to change c a r e e r s but as yet p e r s i s t e d i n t h e i r present o c c u p a t i o n s . Perosa and Perosa attempted to i n t e g r a t e c a r e e r development theory with a d u l t developmental theory through a r e s e a r c h design that u t i l i z e d both q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e data. The complexity of the design i n t h i s regard a f f o r d e d a r i c h n e s s of r e s u l t s not t y p i c a l l y found i n s t u d i e s i n t h i s area based only on s t a t i s t i c a l l y d e r i v e d t r a i t comparisons. The r e s e a r c h e r s compared the three groups noted above on measures of i d e n t i t y achievement s t a t u s and v o c a t i o n a l 13 m a t u r i t y . A d d i t i o n a l l y , they compared measures on s e v e r a l p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s such as needs f o r autonomy, achievement, endurance, nurturance, order, and a f f i l i a t i o n . F i n a l l y , s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s were used as a means to e s t a b l i s h s u b j e c t s ' e a r l y i d e n t i t y s t a t u s i n a d d i t i o n to h i s or her c u r r e n t r a t i n g . The major f i n d i n g s i n c l u d e d the o b s e r v a t i o n that i n d i v i d u a l s i n the 'already changed c a r e e r s ' group scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the other groups on i d e n t i t y achievement and a f f i l i a t i o n , but not on s e l f - c o n c e p t ( i n terms of s e l f - e s t e e m ) . There was, however, a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between i d e n t i t y achievement and s e l f - c o n c e p t . The evidence i n d i c a t e d that those who had changed c a r e e r s were not more l i k e l y to have been i d e n t i t y - a c h i e v e d as youths than the other groups. T h i s f i n d i n g suggested that i d e n t i t y formation i s on-going i n a d u l t l i f e stages. Thomas's (1976) t r a i t - b a s e d typology of m i d - l i f e c a r e e r changes was not based on a comparison with non-changers or " p e r s i s t e r s " as i n the p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d s t u d i e s . Rather, through i n t e r v i e w s with ten men,, four "types" of c a r e e r changers were i d e n t i f i e d , r e f l e c t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n m o t i v a t i o n and b e h a v i o u r a l s t r a t e g y . The g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n , that there i s v a r i e t y i n i n d i v i d u a l o r i e n t a t i o n s among a group of "corporate drop-outs," was a p p r o p r i a t e to the p i l o t nature of the study. 14 D e c i s i o n C r i t e r i a In t h i s group of s t u d i e s , d e c i s i o n c r i t e r i a , or reasons f o r changing c a r e e r s , were seen as c e n t r a l f a c t o r s i n i n f l u e n c i n g c a r e e r change behaviour. An u n d e r l y i n g dichotomy appeared to e x i s t between those s t u d i e s which assumed or concluded t h a t , l i k e t r a i t s , d e c i s i o n c r i t e r i a represent i n t r i n s i c m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s , and those that addressed the impact of e x t r i n s i c f a c t o r s . H i e s t a n d (1971) and Clopton (1972) are the most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h i s area, p o s s i b l y because they were among the f i r s t to examine a d u l t c a r e e r change. These s t u d i e s acknowledged the i n f l u e n c e of both i n t r i n s i c and e x t r i n s i c d e c i s i o n c r i t e r i a f a c t o r s . L i k e H i e s t a n d , Armstrong (1981) d e f i n e d c a r e e r change as a r e t u r n to f u l l - t i m e study as an a d u l t . The s u b j e c t s ' decision-making approach, determined through i n t e r v i e w i n g , was viewed with respect to "success i n c r e a t i n g a new c a r e e r s i t u a t i o n . " A typology of c a r e e r changers was formed along these two dimensions. Thomas (1980) l a t e r developed yet another typology of c a r e e r changers, p o s t u l a t i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t r i n s i c and e x t r i n s i c i n f l u e n c e s on c a r e e r change behaviour. He i d e n t i f i e d four m o t i v a t i o n s or "types" of changers, who responded both to e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s and p e r s o n a l g o a l s . 15 A more m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d study suggested that c a r e e r change may be a f u n c t i o n both of i n t r i n s i c f a c t o r s , such as va l u e s , and of the p e r c e p t i o n of the p o t e n t i a l s of both one's present c a r e e r and an a l t e r n a t e c a r e e r r o l e . The r e s e a r c h e r s (Snyder, Howard, and Hammer, 1978) s t u d i e d the m o t i v a t i o n of p r o f e s s o r s who were l e a v i n g t e a c h i n g / r e s e a r c h r o l e s to become a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . Analyses of data obtained from s c a l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s suggested that p r o f e s s o r s who had become, or who intended to become, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were a t t r a c t e d by the p e r c e p t i o n of power and formal a u t h o r i t y vested i n the a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s r o l e . On the other hand, p r o f e s s o r s with no i n t e n t i o n of l e a v i n g t e a c h i n g / r e s e a r c h d i d not value power h i g h l y ; they were a t t r a c t e d t o the p e r c e p t i o n of autonomy i n t h e i r present r o l e s . The two groups were not d i f f e r e n t i a t e d along other dimensions. The i n f l u e n c e of i n d i v i d u a l s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of an a l t e r n a t e c a r e e r r o l e was f u r t h e r examined by H i l l and M i l l e r (1981). Drawing from an a n a l y s i s of L i k e r t - s c a l e survey data, they i d e n t i f i e d " c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d " f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g c a r e e r change. Summarized, these f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d p e r c e p t i o n s of o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n c r e a s e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , r e c o g n i t i o n , promotion p o t e n t i a l , and p r o f e s s i o n a l development. 16 In a more recent two-part study, Perosa and Perosa (1983) examined s u b j e c t s ' p e r c e p t i o n of " t h r e a t to themselves" ( p s y c h o l o g i c a l r i s k ) i n r e l a t i o n to c a r e e r change, and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of the r e a l i s t i c v i a b i l i t y of c a r e e r change in terms of o p t i o n s and time frames. These i s s u e s were conceived of as f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g d e c i s i o n s to change c a r e e r s . Based on a comparison of three groups, those who had changed c a r e e r s , those who were i n the midst of changing, and those,who expressed a d e s i r e to change but p e r s i s t e d i n f i r s t c a r e e r s , the r e s e a r c h e r s observed that " p e r s i s t e r s " tended to assess the p s y c h o l o g i c a l r i s k s of changing as g r e a t e r than those who had changed c a r e e r s , or sought to change c a r e e r s . Of a t o t a l sample of 134, 63% of the changers (those who had changed and those i n process) foresaw " s e r i o u s p s y c h o l o g i c a l r i s k " to themselves i f they remained, while 54% of p e r s i s t e r s i n d i c a t e d that there were not s e r i o u s r i s k s to themselves i f they remained i n t h e i r present o c c u p a t i o n . P e r s i s t e r s a l s o tended to have "no hope of f i n d i n g a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n . " The second major p a r t of t h i s study u t i l i z e d s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s to e x p l o r e the u s e f u l n e s s of a model of g r i e v i n g to understand the p s y c h o l o g i c a l experience of career changers. T h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e review, together with other s t u d i e s that more d i r e c t l y address the meaning of c a r e e r change. 1 7 Frequency of Career Change Go t t f r e d s o n ' s study (1977) of c a r e e r s t a b i l i t y and frequency of change w i t h i n a p o p u l a t i o n i s one of the c l e a r e s t examples of s t u d i e s u s i n g Holland's o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system to d i s t i n g u i s h between major and minor career changes based upon the extent of the c a t e g o r i c a l s h i f t . E s s e n t i a l l y , data drawn from the U.S. Bureau of Census records f o r 1965 and 1970 were compared, using o c c u p a t i o n a l t i t l e s i n H o l l a n d ' s s t r u c t u r e . Of a d u l t s employed i n both of the years sampled, only about 10-14% made c a t e g o r i c a l s h i f t s ; c a t e g o r i c a l s t a b i l i t y i n c r e a s e d with age. Meaning of Career Change Among those s t u d i e s which i m p l i c i t l y assumed that c a r e e r change r e f l e c t s or expresses p e r s o n a l meaning, two otherwise d i s t i n c t p o s i t i o n s were found. One p o s i t i o n suggested that s i g n i f i c a n t c a r e e r change rep r e s e n t s a r a d i c a l d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n meaning f o r the i n d i v i d u a l (Thomas, 1977; Levinson, 1977; Levinson et a l , 1978; Osherson, 1980; Perosa and Perosa, 1984). The c o n t r a s t i n g p o s i t i o n suggested that c a r e e r change r e p r e s e n t s a c o n t i n u a l expansion of meaning (Robbins et a l , 1978; Thomas and Robbins, 1979; Thomas, 1979; Lawrence, 1980; N e o p o l i t a n , 1980; Perosa and Perosa, 1983). The i s s u e here i s the 18 m o t i v a t i o n , purpose, or goal of car e e r change behaviour. The u n d e r l y i n g debate appears to hinge on whether i n d i v i d u a l s ' meaning s t r u c t u r e s are viewed as r e l a t i v e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t and d i s c o n t i n u o u s , or c o n s i s t e n t and continuous, a c r o s s time and c o n t e x t . In the f i r s t p o s i t i o n , where d i s c o n t i n u i t y of person/meaning was p e r c e i v e d , the inherent assumption i s that s i g n i f i c a n t p e r s o n a l change represents a d i r e c t i o n a l movement away from, and s t r u c t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t from, pr e v i o u s l i f e p a t t e r n s . By c o n t r a s t , the p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y of person/meaning assumes that s i g n i f i c a n t change re p r e s e n t s a q u a l i t a t i v e e x t e n s i o n of the e x i s t i n g l i f e p a t t e r n . While assumptions r e g a r d i n g the c o n t i n u i t y or d i s c o n t i n u i t y of meaning appeared fundamental to the two re s e a r c h p e r s p e c t i v e s d i s c u s s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e , nowhere was the nature or source of meaning d i r e c t l y examined as i t r e l a t e d to c a r e e r movement i n g e n e r a l , and a d u l t c a r e e r change i n p a r t i c u l a r . The most p o p u l a r i z e d p e r s p e c t i v e on career change (Sheehy, 1975; Krantz, 1978) draws upon rese a r c h which suggested that c a r e e r change r e f l e c t s an a c t u a l or attempted r e s o l u t i o n of a developmental c r i s i s of s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n . Thomas (1977) was among the f i r s t to make ov e r t the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c a r e e r change and " l i f e s t y l e change." In a t h e o r e t i c a l paper, he d i s t i n g u i s h e d between i n d i v i d u a l s who change i n response to 19 e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s and those who change to a l i g n t h e i r w o rk-related r o l e s with a r e o r i e n t a t i o n of broader l i f e v a l u e s and g o a l s , and the meanings these have i n terms of i d e n t i t y and v a l u e s . In e f f e c t , he suggested that c a r e e r change i s i t s e l f only an i n d i c a t o r of deeper l e v e l a l t e r a t i o n s i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p s y c h o - s o c i a l p a t t e r n s . S i m i l a r l y , Levinson (1978) proposed that a d u l t s have a g e - r e l a t e d developmental stages, based upon f i n d i n g s from 40 case s t u d i e s . Each stage, he p o s t u l a t e d , represents a renewed c r i s i s of s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n and d i r e c t i o n . Having thus equated t r a n s i t i o n with c r i s i s , he concluded that c a r e e r change i s a "marker event" i n d i c a t i n g i d e n t i t y and l i f e s t y l e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n accordance with new v a l u e s and a s p i r a t i o n s . However, Brim (1975) has p o i n t e d out that as ye t , t h ere i s no evidence f o r s e q u e n t i a l development stages i n m i d - l i f e . L i k e Levinson's group, Osherson c h a r a c t e r i z e d c a r e e r change as n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v i n g an experience of l o s s of s e l f , p a r a l l e l to a model of g r i e v i n g . In h i s study p u b l i s h e d under the t i t l e H o l d i n g On or L e t t i n g Go (1980), Osherson made an e f f o r t to sample extreme i n s t a n c e s of the phenomenon as i s a p p r o p r i a t e to the case study approach; t h i s concern with sampling extremes stands out i n c o n t r a s t to v i r t u a l l y a l l other case s t u d i e s i n the r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e . A d d i t i o n a l l y , Osherson i n c l u d e d a r i c h source of v a l i d a t i o n and e l a b o r a t i o n on the case study data by 20 r e p o r t i n g on the s u b j e c t s ' responses to d e b r i e f i n g . Data a n a l y s i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between car e e r changes which r e f l e c t e d a c t u a l , " s c u l p t e d , " c r i s i s r e s o l u t i o n , and those r e f l e c t i n g attempted, " f o r e c l o s e d , " r e s o l u t i o n : In f o r e c l o s e d r e s o l u t i o n s , the career change came about in response t o , but without making use of, new i n f o r m a t i o n about s e l f . That i s , people e s s e n t i a l l y f o r e c l o s e d g r i e v i n g through a career change in order to a v o i d deeper u n c e r t a i n t y and ambivalence about s e l f ... the t r a n s i t i o n avoids and suppresses c o n f l i c t ... aroused by the d i s c r e p a n t experiences and that of u n d e r l y i n g a m b i v a l e n t l y h e l d aspects of s e l f . . . . If we take as our measure of h e a l t h some sense of the degree to which c o n f l i c t i s a c c e s s i b l e to consciousness f o r r a t i o n a l c h o i c e and d e c i s i o n making, then we can l a b e l c a r e e r changes emerging from s c u l p t e d r e s o l u t i o n s as a d a p t i v e career changes, s i n c e the l o s s has been acknowledged and used (confronted) r a t h e r than avoided. One might s p e c u l a t e that t h i s r e s u l t s i n a more ' r e a l i s t i c ' p e r s o n a l l y g r a t i f y i n g match of o n e s e l f with the work s i t u a t i o n .... (p. 154-155) To accept that c a r e e r change i s an i n d i c a t o r of i d e n t i t y r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , r e a l or attempted, one must f i r s t assume there has been i d e n t i t y breakdown. The assumption of c a r e e r change t r a n s i t i o n as r e f l e c t i v e of c r i s i s l e v e l i d e n t i t y breakdown, a t h e o r e t i c a l premise i n the Levinson and Osherson s t u d i e s , has not been c r i t i c a l l y examined through e m p i r i c a l means. S e v e r a l other s t u d i e s , d i s c u s s e d below, were more s p e c i f i c i n suggesting that career change i n d i c a t e s i n c r e a s e d p e r s o n / s i t u a t i o n congruence. In other words, the person of the c a r e e r changer, construed e i t h e r as a conglomerate of p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s or as a set of v a l u e s , was seen as seeking to maintain or expand h i s or her 21 i d e n t i t y by s i t u a t i n g h i m s e l f or h e r s e l f i n a car e e r more c o n s i s t e n t with and s u p p o r t i v e of h i s or her meaning framework. Two s t u d i e s analyzed t r a i t s based on m u l t i p l e measures obtained through s c a l e s , i n v e n t o r i e s , and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s as they r e l a t e d to f i r s t and second ca r e e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s based on the D i c t i o n a r y of Occupa t i o n a l T i t l e s (D.O.T.), (Robbins et a l , 1978; Thomas and Robbins, 1979). These s t u d i e s f a i l e d to demonstrate i n c r e a s e d congruence of t r a i t / v o c a t i o n i n second c a r e e r s . The r e s e a r c h e r s of these s t u d i e s suggest the D.O.T., which i s based upon Holland's (1973) typology, i s an i n s u f f i c i e n t l y s e n s i t i v e instrument to i n d i c a t e the nature of change. One other study (Neopolitan, 1980) used s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s and a more s u b j e c t i v e b a s i s to e s t a b l i s h the nature of the car e e r change. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study suggested that second c a r e e r s r e f l e c t an in c r e a s e i n t r a i t / v o c a t i o n congruence. Thomas (1979) a l s o examined the n o t i o n of i n c r e a s e d p e r s o n / s i t u a t i o n congruence i n second c a r e e r s . His focus, however, was on value s r a t h e r than t r a i t s . I n t e n s i v e i n t e r v i e w i n g of 73 men re v e a l e d that second c a r e e r s r e f l e c t e d at l e a s t the seeking of i n c r e a s e d v a l u e / s i t u a t i o n congruence. The most frequent reason f o r car e e r change r e p o r t e d was the seeking of "more meaningful work." Thomas noted that broader s o c i e t a l value s h i f t s may c o n t r i b u t e to 22 the i n d i v i d u a l ' s impetus to change c a r e e r s . S i m i l a r l y , i n a major e a r l y e x p l o r a t o r y study, Roberts (1975) noted that "l a c k of meaning" was an element of work-related d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , and consequently, a reason f o r c a r e e r change. I t i s p o s s i b l e that s o c i a l f a s h i o n d i c t a t e s the framework used f o r s e l f - r e p o r t s of t h i s kind. Perosa and Perosa (1983) focused on the p s y c h o l o g i c a l experience of c a r e e r changes, and l i k e Thomas, observed t h a t , from among 134 s u b j e c t s , "search f o r meaning" was a common experience i n the c a r e e r change pro c e s s . Furthermore, " s e l f - d o u b t , d e p r e s s i o n and meaninglessness" d e s c r i b e d 110 of t h e i r s u b j e c t s at an e a r l i e r stage i n the t r a n s i t i o n p r o c e s s . The r e s e a r c h e r s a l s o note that "the s e l e c t i o n of a new c a r e e r d i d not represent a t o t a l r e j e c t i o n of the past, f r e q u e n t l y the new c a r e e r i n c l u d e d elements valued i n the f i r s t " (p. 76). Thus, the study suggested that c a r e e r change r e f l e c t s continuous but expanded meaning. One f i n a l study of note (Lawrence, 1980) though l i m i t e d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y , as there was no i n d i c a t i o n of i n t e n s i v e study or a n a l y s i s of the ten s u b j e c t s , may be important f o r i t s unique c h a l l e n g e to the n o t i o n of c a r e e r change as c r i s i s , and f o r i t s e x p l i c i t a r t i c u l a t i o n of an a l t e r n a t i v e framework. Lawrence viewed ca r e e r change as one example or e x p r e s s i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s "personal theme," r e f e r r i n g t o h i s or her p e r v a s i v e and dynamic 23 decision-making p a t t e r n throughout l i f e . Here, the second career was viewed as r e f l e c t i n g an expansion of a c o n t i n u o u s l y e v o l v i n g but c o n s i s t e n t meaning framework, o p e r a t i v e throughout the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e . T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e appears to o f f e r r i c h p o t e n t i a l f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . Family P e r s p e c t i v e Roe (1956) was one of the e a r l i e s t r e s e a r c h e r s i n the f i e l d of v o c a t i o n a l theory to p o i n t to f a m i l i a l i n f l u e n c e s i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s v o c a t i o n a l behavior. In p a r t i c u l a r , her work focused on the p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n and the i n f l u e n c e of p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s on e a r l y o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . Perhaps more d i r e c t l y than any other r e s e a r c h e r , Bratcher (1982) a p p l i e d a f a m i l y p e r s p e c t i v e to the examination of c a r e e r - r e l a t e d phenomena. S p e c i f i c a l l y , he u t i l i z e d a f a m i l y systems p e r s p e c t i v e to explore i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n career s e l e c t i o n . Bratcher s y s t e m a t i c a l l y developed a case f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n of f a m i l y theory i n care e r c o u n s e l l i n g . I t was h i s c o n t e n t i o n that f a m i l y systems theory serves to broaden understanding of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n of many f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g i n d i v i d u a l c a r e e r behavior. In h i s e x p l i c a t i o n of key elements of f a m i l y systems theory, Bratcher i d e n t i f i e d f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s as r e c i p r o c a l , p a t t e r n e d , r e p e t i t i v e , and c i r c u l a r . These 24 r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the theory s t a t e d , continue to shape our l i v e s i n an ongoing manner. Bratcher then examined the i m p l i c a t i o n s of these p r o p o s i t i o n s f o r c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g and i d e n t i f i e d as an i s s u e , the extent of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e p a r a t i o n from f a m i l y , seeing t h i s as a key f a c t o r i n a s s e s s i n g the i n f l u e n c e of the f a m i l y on c a r e e r c h o i c e . The c u r r e n t study has moved i n a somewhat d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n from B r a t c h e r . Here, the premise i s that f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s continue to shape i n d i v i d u a l s as a d u l t s and so i n f l u e n c e t h e i r c a r e e r behavior based upon the s i m i l a r assumption that the r e c i p r o c a l , p a t t e r n e d , r e p e t i t i v e and c i r c u l a r dynamics of f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s serve as prototypes i n v o c a t i o n a l arenas. Role Displacement Two s t u d i e s p r o v i d e d e m p i r i c a l support f o r the premise that the r e p e r t o i r e of r o l e s experienced i n f a m i l y of o r i g i n are d i s p l a c e d onto an e x t e r n a l domain. Baas and Brown's (1973) i n t e n s i v e s i n g l e case study showed that " p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s " can be understood as examples of the displacement of e a r l y l i f e f i g u r e s from the s e l f and f a m i l y domains. A p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s with varimax r o t a t i o n on 46 Q-sort items, s o r t e d to d e s c r i b e f i g u r e s i n the s e l f , f a m i l y , and p o l i t i c a l domains, i d e n t i f i e d strong r e l a t i o n s h i p s among f i g u r e s i n these three domains. 25 Of d i r e c t r elevance to t h i s study, McGregor (1983) conducted ten i n t e n s i v e case s t u d i e s to e x p l o r e the p r o p o s i t i o n that one's f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n serves as a metaphor fo r the world of work. The study p r o v i d e s both q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e data s u p p o r t i n g the premise that o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e enactment i n v o l v e s displacement of r o l e s from f a m i l y of o r i g i n i n an i d i o s y n c r a t i c manner, c o n s i s t e n t with a Type C law as a r t i c u l a t e d by Herbst (1970). McGregor's c o n s t r u c t i o n of a 46 item Q-sort was based upon Holland's (1966) p e r s o n a l i t y typology, which p r o v i d e s a comprehensive sample of d e s c r i p t i v e a d j e c t i v e s from the u n i v e r s e of p o s s i b l e types; t h i s typology i s w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d i n the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e on c a r e e r development. Subjects conducted Q-sorts on s a l i e n t f i g u r e s from the three domains of s e l f , f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n , and work. Q-sort r e s u l t s were i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d to o b t a i n a c o r r e l a t i o n ' matrix and submitted to a p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s with varimax r o t a t i o n . The s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s , expressed i n l a y terms, were submitted to case s u b j e c t s . The s u b j e c t s v a l i d a t e d the data by d i r e c t emotional response and by e l a b o r a t i o n on the meaning of the r o l e c o r r e l a t i o n s . Mcgregor's study i s important f o r at l e a s t two reasons. F i r s t , i t p r o v i d e s support f o r the p r o p o s i t i o n that v o c a t i o n a l r o l e enactment i n v o l v e s the re-enactment of a f a m i l y drama. Secondly, the i n t e g r a t e d use of both q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e data p r o v i d e s a paradigm f o r 26 systematic i n t e n s i v e case s t u d i e s examining v o c a t i o n a l r o l e enactment, and, by e x t e n s i o n , f o r d i r e c t examination of the meaning of changes i n v o c a t i o n a l r o l e enactment. S i n g l e Case Stud i e s The use of the case study as the o v e r a l l m e t h o d o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e l i m i t e d t h i s study i n a number of ways. Kazdin (1980) s a i d that the major l i m i t a t i o n of case s t u d i e s i s t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to e s t a b l i s h c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , he maintained that s i n c e case s t u d i e s t y p i c a l l y omit experimental or s t a t i s t i c a l c o n t r o l s , i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o r u l e out a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s to account f o r the b e h a v i o u r a l phenomena observed. T h i s d i f f i c u l t y i n data i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may l i m i t the a b i l i t y to g e n e r a l i z e about the f i n d i n g s . However, Kazdin noted f u r t h e r t h a t a l a r g e number of cases does not n e c e s s a r i l y i n c r e a s e g e n e r a l i t y . He c i t e d Freud as an example of a r e s e a r c h e r who accumulated s m a l l e r numbers of d i f f e r e n t i n t e n s i v e case s t u d i e s to develop concepts. While F i s h e r (1935) has been c r e d i t e d as the f i r s t t o exemplify contemporary p r i n c i p l e s of s u c c e s s f u l r e s e a r c h design u t i l i z i n g a s i n g l e case study, i t was L a s w e l l (1938) who made the d i s t i n c t i o n between i n t e n s i v e and e x t e n s i v e o b s e r v a t i o n a l s t a n d p o i n t s . The e x t e n s i v e design i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c u r s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p between observer and observed, u s u a l l y i n v o l v i n g a l a r g e number of s u b j e c t s from 27 which i n f e r e n c e s are drawn, based on group averages. By c o n t r a s t , the i n t e n s i v e design i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r e l a t i v e l y lengthy r e l a t i o n s h i p between the observer and a small number of s u b j e c t s , who p r o v i d e more comprehensive and complex responses from which i n d i v i d u a l p o r t r a i t s are drawn (Bass and Brown, 1973). The major l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t y of the e x t e n s i v e model i s that s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s based on averaging of heterogeneous groups does not provide a b a s i s f o r understanding the a c t u a l e f f e c t on any p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l (Chassan, 1979). The i n t e n s i v e s i n g l e case study, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h s u b j e c t , can overcome t h i s d i f f i c u l t y . The t y p i c a l argument a g a i n s t the s p e c i f i c i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n i n i n t e n s i v e case study a n a l y s i s addresses the l i m i t a t i o n of drawing g e n e r a l i z e d i n f e r e n c e s beyond the s i n g l e case. Baas and Brown (1973) suggested the issue i s u s u a l l y p e r c e i v e d i n c o r r e c t l y as a r e s u l t of equating the n o t i o n s of " s i n g l e case" with i n d i v i d u a l persons. As Lundberg (1941) p o i n t e d out, p r e d i c t i o n of s o c i a l behaviour i s based on the p r o b a b i l i t y of o b s e r v i n g i n s t a n c e s of that behaviour i n a p o p u l a t i o n sample. However, m u l t i p l e cases of a behaviour, and the i n f e r e n c e of b e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n s which allow f o r p r e d i c t a b i l i t y , may be observed w i t h i n the boundaries of an i n d i v i d u a l person, or i n a group (Baas and Brown, 1973). Furthermore, i t has been noted t h a t s t a t i s t i c a l procedures 28 and analyses are most u s e f u l when the type of s c i e n t i f i c law a p p l i e d (Herbst, 1970) i s a p p r o p r i a t e to the nature of the res e a r c h i s s u e . Herbst d e f i n e d a s c i e n t i f i c law as a " s p e c i f i c type of i n v a r i a n c e i n the c o n c e p t u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a phenomenon," and i d e n t i f i e d three such laws: 1) Type A law a p p l i e s where both f u n c t i o n s and parameters are c o n s t a n t . Averaging of o b s e r v a t i o n s a c r o s s a group i s not p r o b l e m a t i c , s i n c e u n i t s of a n a l y s i s behave r e l a t i v e l y homogeneously. T h i s law i s most u s e f u l i n the study of i n e r t matter. Baas and Brown (1973) c i t e as an example Boyle's Law: pv/t=R. The parameter R remains constant because of the f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between temperature ( t ) , volume (v) and pressure ( p ) . Since gases act 'homogeneously, one may use averaging techniques. These types of laws are found i n the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s , but only r a r e l y . 2) Type B law a p p l i e s where the f u n c t i o n a l form of a r e l a t i o n s h i p of f a c t o r s i s c o n s t a n t , but the parameters are s p e c i f i c . A n a l y s i s of phenomena f i t t i n g these c o n d i t i o n s r e q u i r e s i n i t i a l s i n g l e case study, i . e . , cases where the value of the parameters i s the same may be averaged t o g e t h e r . Baas and Brown (1973) give the example: "Y=\X" might be the r e l a t i o n s h i p between heat (X) and l e n g t h of rod (Y) where (X) i s the heat s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i f i c to each metal. In order to c o r r e c t l y analyze the phenomena, one would have to use s i n g l e case a n a l y s i s s i n c e averaging a l l metals together would mask the e x i s t e n c e of type B laws. Only those metals with the same heat s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (X) c o u l d be averaged t o g e t h e r . Baas and Brown suggest that t h i s type of law i s found i n f r e q u e n t l y i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . 3) Type C law i s most a p p l i c a b l e i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e s where phenomena f r e q u e n t l y demonstrate a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l of i n v a r i a n c e . Here, both f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and parameters are s p e c i f i c , but the g e n e r a t i n g r u l e s of p o s s i b l e f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are c o n s t a n t . A g e n e r a t i n g r u l e i s u n i v e r s a l l y but i d i o s y n c r a t i c a l l y a p p l i c a b l e . Research attempting to r e v e a l the g e n e r a t i n g r u l e s f o r a s p e c i f i c type of s o c i a l behaviour, f o r i n s t a n c e , must use an i n d i v i d u a l case approach. By way of example here, L a s w e l l (1938) s t a t e d in h i s formula f o r p o l i t i c a l man that p r i v a t e motives 29 (p) become d i s p l a c e d (d) onto the p u b l i c arena, through a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n process (£) and are r a t i o n a l i z e d (r) i n terms of the common good. In t h i s case, averaging procedures should not be used s i n c e p r i v a t e motives vary, displacements are i d i o s y n c r a t i c and there may be many r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s , however p£d£r may be u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i c a b l e i d i o s y n c r a t i c a l l y . A c c o r d i n g l y , t o apply e i t h e r Type A or Type B laws to t h i s study would be i n a p p r o p r i a t e . F i r s t l y , the u n i t of a n a l y s i s , i n d i v i d u a l s , does not behave homogeneously as r e q u i r e d f o r Type A law. Secondly, c a r e e r change phenomena are too complex to be d e s c r i b e d i n terms of a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p as r e q u i r e d by Type B Law. S i m i l a r l y , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the meaning of c a r e e r change i s too complex to be d e s c r i b e d i n terms of a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p . While i t i s expected that the meaning of c a r e e r change i s n e c e s s a r i l y i d i o s y n c r a t i c , an i n v a r i a n t g e n e r a t i n g r u l e may r e v e a l the nature of p o s s i b l e f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s , suggesting the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of Type C law to t h i s study. McGregor's (1983) study demonstrated the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of Type C law to the i s s u e of r o l e displacement from the f a m i l y domain to the v o c a t i o n a l domain. I f i n s t a n c e s of r o l e displacement had been averaged a c r o s s case s u b j e c t s (as i n phenomena where Types A or B law a p p l y ) , the o p e r a t i v e n e s s of a Type C law would not have become apparent, as p a t t e r n s of r o l e displacement among the 10 case s t u d i e s were h i g h l y i d i o s y n c r a t i c . 30 The present study assumes that c a r e e r change i s meaningful i n terms of f a m i l y dramas. In other words, s h i f t s i n v o c a t i o n a l r o l e enactment correspond to the r e p e r t o i r e of r o l e s experienced i n f a m i l y of o r i g i n . The s p e c i f i c nature of these correspondences i s expected to r e v e a l i d i o s y n c r a t i c p a t t e r n s . Given that Type C law i s expected to be o p e r a t i v e , i n t e n s i v e case study i s a p p r o p r i a t e l y u t i l i z e d here. 31 CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY Type C law (Herbst, 1970) can be assumed o p e r a t i v e f o r a given phenomenon where f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and parameters of v a r i a b l e s are i d i o s y n c r a t i c , but where gen e r a t i n g v a l u e s of these r e l a t i o n s h i p s are c o n s t a n t . To study such phenomena, a c c o r d i n g to Herbst, one must n e c c e s s a r i l y u t i l i z e an i n d i v i d u a l case approach. Here, Type C law has been assumed o p e r a t i v e , and an i n d i v i d u a l case approach has been a p p l i e d u t i l i z i n g Q-methodology to provide the re s e a r c h o r i e n t a t i o n and techniques. K e r l i n g e r (1973) maintained that Q-methodology i s u s e f u l i n the study of the i d e n t i t y , i n t e r r e l a t i o n , and f u n c t i o n i n g of r e l a t i v e l y unknown areas and v a r i a b l e s . Furthermore, Q-methodology i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d to i n t e n s i v e case study. Q - s o r t s , the foundation t o o l of Q-methodology, can be used to o b t a i n data from an i n d i v i d u a l i n two d i f f e r e n t ways, both of which allow f o r the q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of otherwise s u b j e c t i v e judgements. The i n d i v i d u a l can be given s e v e r a l r e l a t e d Q - s o r t s , or a s t r u c t u r e d s o r t based on s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , the study of Type C law r e g u l a t e d phenomena i s concerned with attempting to r e v e a l the gen e r a t i n g r u l e s f o r a s p e c i f i c phenomenon. C o n s i s t e n t with 32 t h i s aim, a primary s t r e n g t h of Q-methodology i s i t s a f f i n i t y to theory. The b u i l d i n g of a Q-sort r e q u i r e s the s e l e c t i o n of v a r i a b l e s that r e l a t e l o g i c a l l y and e m p i r i c a l l y , thus p r o v i d i n g a b a s i s f o r theory. In r e v e a l i n g the generating r u l e s f o r f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n r e l a t i v e l y unknown areas, r e s e a r c h e f f e c t i v e l y extends theory. Thus, i t appeared reasonable to u t i l i z e Q-methodology here to study career change behavior, where Type C law was assumed o p e r a t i v e . Overview of Procedures Ten s u b j e c t s were i d e n t i f i e d through an i n f o r m a l network of c o n t a c t s and r e f e r r a l s . Subject p r o f i l e s were obtained through i n t e r v i e w i n g p r i o r to t h e i r s e l e c t i o n as t e s t cases of career change. Subjects were i n t e r v i e w e d to i d e n t i f y s a l i e n t f i g u r e s from the three domains of s e l f , f a m i l y , and v o c a t i o n ; i n c l u d e d i n t h i s l a t t e r domain were f i g u r e s from the two d i s t i n c t arenas of V o c a t i o n 1 and V o c a t i o n 2. Subjects conducted Q-sorts on each s a l i e n t f i g u r e . Q - s o r t i n g o c c u r r e d i n one to four s e s s i o n s , l a s t i n g from one to three hours. The v a r i a b i l i t y between s u b j e c t s i n time for Q - s o r t i n g r e s u l t e d from d i f f e r e n c e s i n numbers of s o r t s and the extent of s u b j e c t r e f l e c t i o n f o l l o w i n g each Q-sort. The Q-sort item sample was used p r e v i o u s l y by McGregor (1983) and i n c l u d e s 46 a d j e c t i v e s or t r a i t s drawn from Ho l l a n d ' s (1966) theory of p e r s o n a l i t y types. 33 For each s u b j e c t , the Q-sorts f o r each s a l i e n t f i g u r e was c o r r e l a t e d with the Q-sort of every other s a l i e n t f i g u r e i n the s l a t e , to o b t a i n a c o r r e l a t i o n matrix of s a l i e n t f i g u r e s , based upon t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y of Q-sort p a t t e r n s . The data were then submitted to a p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s u t i l i z i n g the UBC-FACTO program. The r e s u l t a n t p r i n c i p a l components matrix was then submitted to a varimax r o t a t i o n . Both the c o r r e l a t i o n matrix and the p r i n c i p a l components s o l u t i o n s were examined by the r e s e a r c h e r to i d e n t i f y apparent p a t t e r n s and i m p l i c i t themes emerging from the data. The apparent p a t t e r n s and themes suggested by correspondences and c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s , were presented to each s u b j e c t i n laymen's terms. The p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was used to s t i m u l a t e and e l i c i t from each s u b j e c t an e l a b o r a t i o n on the data and a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of meaning; t h i s procedure i s r e f e r r e d to here as the Meaning Inter v i e w . Audio tapes from the Meaning Interviews were p a r t i a l l y t r a n s c r i b e d and reviewed to f u r t h e r i d e n t i f y themes and the s u b j e c t ' s view of the meaning of c a r e e r change. P a t t e r n s were understood as i m p l i c i t where the s u b j e c t ' s language r e v e a l e d r e p e t i t i o n s or p a r a l l e l s , and meaning was understood as i m p l i c i t i n p a t t e r n s or themes. T h i s procedure o c c u r r e d over a one year p e r i o d f o r l o g i s t i c a l reasons. 34 PROCEDURAL FLOW CHART 1. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p o s s i b l e s u b j e c t s and p r e l i m i n a r y s u b j e c t s c r e e n i n g i n t e r v i e w . V 2. Interview with s u b j e c t to i d e n t i f y s a l i e n t f i g u r e s . V 3. Subject Q - s o r t i n g with 46 item s o r t on each s a l i e n t f i g u r e . V 4. P r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s of Q-sort data. V 5. A n a l y s i s of data to i d e n t i f y apparent themes and develop probes f o r Meaning Interview. V 6. Meaning Interview V 7. Review, t r a n s c r i p t i o n , and a n a l y s i s of Meaning Interview a u d i o t a p e s . V 8. S y n t h e s i s of Q-sort data and Meaning Interview data to develop and write-up case p o r t r a i t . V (One year from the completion of Step 6) 9(a) Subject S e l f - c a s e Review V 9(b) Independent Case Review V 10. I n c l u s i o n of s u b j e c t s e l f - r e v i e w and independent case review i n a n a l y s i s and r e p o r t s of r e s u l t s . 35 The a n a l y s i s of the c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r ix, p r i n c i p a l components s o l u t i o n s , and Meaning Interview was i n t e g r a t e d to develop a case p o r t r a i t of each subject p o i n t i n g to the meaning of c a r e e r change. The p o r t r a i t was s p e c i f i e d i n a w r i t t e n format and presented to nine of ten s u b j e c t s f o r a case "Self-Review." Simultaneously, audiotapes of the Meaning Interviews and the case write-ups were d i s t r i b u t e d to r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s who served to provide an "Independent-Review" on each case. The c r i t i c a l commentary p r o v i d e d by both types of reviews was i n c l u d e d i n the data base of the study. Case Subje c t s In c o n t r a s t to e x t e n s i v e designs where h e t e r o g e n e i t y of s u b j e c t s r e p r e s e n t s a l i m i t a t i o n to i n f e r e n t i a l v a l i d i t y , i n i n t e n s i v e case s t u d i e s i t i s important to s e l e c t a sample which maximizes the d i f f e r e n t viewpoints of a given phenomenon (Baas and Brown, 1973; McGregor, 1983). The study of s i n g l e t e s t cases i s concerned, not with the e l u c i d a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , but r a t h e r with the understanding of major p a t t e r n s represented i n d i v e r s e i n d i v i d u a l i n s t a n c e s (Chassan, 1979). More p a r t i c u l a r l y , the i n t e n s i v e case study u s i n g Q-methodology r e q u i r e s d i v e r s i t y of s u b j e c t s along the dimensions of the phenomenon under study ( B o l d t , 1980). Here the dimension of career change that i s of concern i s the symbolic value of career 36 s h i f t s ; t h i s can a l s o be understood as the s h i f t i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l context that p a r a l l e l s , or i s i m p l i c i t i n , the broader s o c i a l context of h i s or her car e e r change. I t f o l l o w s , then, t h a t s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d to r e f l e c t d i v e r s i t y i n the nature, pace, and s t y l e of the t r a n s i t i o n . In t h i s study, Krause's (1971) o r i e n t a t i o n to the concept of "c a r e e r " was u t i l i z e d as i m p l i e d i n the notion that "the concept of c a r e e r l o s e s meaning as one goes downward i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y . " In other words, care e r i m p l i e s more than a set of n i n e - t o - f i v e a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with economic s u r v i v a l needs and extends, r a t h e r , to i n c l u d e s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l contexts and symbolic values of work a c t i v i t i e s i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e o v e r a l l . Given t h i s , the d i v e r s i t y of i n d i v i d u a l i n s t a n c e s of career change r e f e r s p a r t i c u l a r l y to i n s t a n c e s among p r o f e s s i o n a l s and management l e v e l e x e c u t i v e s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s as i t i s assumed that the concept " c a r e e r " as d i s c u s s e d here has more a p p l i c a b i l i t y to t h i s p o p u l a t i o n of workers than to u n s k i l l e d and s e m i - s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r s . Thus, r e l a t i v e to the general p o p u l a t i o n , a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number of s u b j e c t s had r e c e i v e d u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l e d u c a t i o n , and a l l were i n p r o f e s s i o n a l or management l e v e l r o l e s . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of pure examples of c a r e e r change r a i s e d c h a l l e n g i n g c o n c e p t u a l i s s u e s . Throughout the t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e there i s l i t t l e 37 u n i f o r m i t y of c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of n o t i o n s of " c a r e e r " and "career t r a n s i t i o n " ( L o u i s , 1980). F r e q u e n t l y , the term "career" i s used synonymously with " j o b , " " v o c a t i o n " and "occupation." At i s s u e here i s the equating of a f i e l d of a c t i v i t y , s o c i a l r o l e , and s e l f - i d e n t i t y as r e l a t e d to the world of work. A d d i t i o n a l l y , i n c r e a s i n g acceptance of m u l t i p l e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of "normal" c a r e e r p r o g r e s s i o n s , incuding l i n e a r , s t e a d y - s t a t e , and s p i r a l career paths, encourages m u l t i p l e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s of c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n ( L o u i s , 1980). A few b r i e f examples here are intended to i l l u s t r a t e the dilemma one has i n l o c a t i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e sample s e l e c t i o n to r e s e a r c h c a r e e r change. Where car e e r change was o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i n terms of e d u c a t i o n a l or t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s (Heistand, 1971), the d i s t i n c t i o n between s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and s h i f t i n i d e n t i t y i s obscured. Where o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems were r e l i e d upon and career change was o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d as a c a t e g o r i c a l s h i f t of f i e l d ( G o t t f r e d s o n , 1977; V a i t e n a s and Weiner, 1977; Robbins et a l , 1978; Thomas, 1979; Thomas and Robbins, 1979; Thomas, 1980; Perosa and Perosa, 1983, 1984), the d i s t i n c t i o n between f i e l d of a c t i v i t y and s o c i a l r o l e i s obscured. For i n s t a n c e , a teacher who leaves the f i e l d of p u b l i c education and e n t e r s the p r i v a t e s e c t o r as a textbook salesman, may maintain a constant s e l f - i d e n t i t y as an educator, although h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l "category" has s h i f t e d . Conversely, i f a 38 p h y s i c i a n s h i f t s r o l e s from t r e a t i n g p a t i e n t s to r e s e a r c h i n g d i s e a s e s t h i s may r e f l e c t a r a d i c a l change i n goals and s e l f - c o n c e p t while the f i e l d of medicine remains a co n s t a n t . In t h i s study, the no t i o n of car e e r t r a n s i t i o n r e f e r s to any ca r e e r movement encompassing any one of the v a r i e t y of d e f i n i t i o n s noted i n the l i t e r a t u r e review, thus a l l o w i n g f o r the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of d i v e r s e types of car e e r change. Through a network of c o n t a c t s , 10 s u b j e c t s were r e c r u i t e d , 4 women and 6 men, ranging i n age from 30 to 61, fo r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study. As d i s c u s s e d , the s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d to represent a d i v e r s i t y i n the nature and pace of the t r a n s i t i o n p r o c e s s , and s t y l e of the v o c a t i o n a l t r a n s i t i o n . For i n s t a n c e , in terms of pace of change, some s u b j e c t s appeared to s h i f t to d r a m a t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s of a c t i v i t y q u i t e suddenly (cases A, D, G) w i t h i n a matter of months, while others s h i f t e d to d r a m a t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s of a c t i v i t y over a longer t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d of s e v e r a l y e a r s . Others engaged i n ext e n s i v e r e t r a i n i n g and/or v o c a t i o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n over time (cases B, C, F ) . In terms of s t y l e of change, some appeared to s h i f t r o l e s w i t h i n the same or very s i m i l a r f i e l d s of a c t i v i t y (cases E, K). One case (H) represented a s h i f t from a non-paid, p r o d u c t i v e s o c i a l r o l e (as housewife) to a p a i d p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e . I n i t i a l l y , s u b j e c t s were i d e n t i f i e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of c a r e e r change i f the formal p r e p a r a t i o n f o r , and/or experience in t h e i r V o c a t i o n 1 had no d i r e c t or obvious 39 r e l e v a n c e , from the s u b j e c t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e , to the demands of V o c a t i o n 2. Through an u n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w , each su b j e c t was probed f o r both f a c t u a l data and p e r s o n a l r e f l e c t i o n s on t h e i r c a r e e r h i s t o r y . These i n t e r v i e w s were u n s t r u c t u r e d to provide an i n f o r m a l , non-threatening o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s h a r i n g , and thus encouraged maximum p a r t i c i p a t i o n by s u b j e c t s . Interview l e n g t h v a r i e d from one to four hours. The primary purpose of the i n t e r v i e w was to e s t a b l i s h that each s u b j e c t s e l e c t e d had both an e x p e r i e n t i a l and o b j e c t i v e b a s i s f o r being i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study as an example of c a r e e r change phenomenon. Secondly, the i n t e r v i e w enabled the r e s e a r c h e r to a s c e r t a i n the s t y l e of the c a r e e r change of each s u b j e c t , as d i s c u s s e d above in t h i s s e c t i o n . The one-to-four hour v a r i a t i o n i n i n t e r v i e w time was due to d i f f e r e n c e s i n s u b j e c t s ' s t y l e of e x p l o r i n g and responding to the r e s e a r c h e r ' s probes. Q-Technique Q-technique i s the p r o c e d u r a l approach i n v o l v i n g Q-sort and p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s i n which persons are t r e a t e d as v a r i a b l e s and items are t r e a t e d as o b s e r v a t i o n s (Boldt, 1980). In t h i s study the v a r i a b l e s are r e f e r r e d to as s a l i e n t r o l e f i g u r e s , persons i d e n t i f i e d by the r e s e a r c h e r and s u b j e c t as r e l e v e n t to the focus of t h i s examination. F o r t y - s i x d e s c r i p t i v e a d j e c t i v e s drawn from Hol l a n d ' s t h e s i s of s i x major p e r s o n a l i t y types (Holland, 40 1966) were s e l e c t e d by the researcher as items. In Q-technique, items are s o r t e d by the s u b j e c t through r a n k - o r d e r i n g i n t o weighted c a t e g o r i e s , as a systematic means of g a t h e r i n g the s u b j e c t s ' s u b j e c t i v e f e e l i n g s and judgements (Stephanson, 1953). The data from Q - s o r t i n g i s f i r s t handled by developing a c o r r e l a t i o n matrix, and then a n a l y z i n g the matrix using p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s . T y p i c a l l y , Q-technique seeks to e s t a b l i s h how a given item of a given person d e v i a t e s from the mean of a l l other items f o r that person. T h i s i p s a t i v e measure enables one to make complex comparisons of s e t s of measures w i t h i n the data of one i n d i v i d u a l . For t h i s reason, Q-technique i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e to case s t u d i e s . S u b j e c t s of Judgement f o r Q-Sorts ( S a l i e n t F i g u r e s ) . As i n McGregor's study (1983), three domains of s a l i e n t f i g u r e s were sampled f o r each case s u b j e c t : the self-domain, the primary o b j e c t s domain ( f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n ) , and the secondary o b j e c t s domain ( v o c a t i o n a l a r e n a ) . A major d i f f e r e n c e i n t h i s study l a y i n the expansion of the secondary o b j e c t s domain to i n c l u d e a sample set of s a l i e n t f i g u r e s from each of two d i s t i n c t v o c a t i o n a l arenas (Vocation 1 and V o c a t i o n 2) p a r t i c i p a t e d i n by the case s u b j e c t at d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r i c a l p o i n t s . Thus, the three domains sampled r e f l e c t three more p a r t i c u l a r arenas of r o l e enactment: f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n , V o c a t i o n 1, and V o c a t i o n 2. 41 Secondly, the sample range of subjects-of-judgement from each of the three domains was somewhat broader than i n McGregor's study, and i s s p e c i f i e d below. In the s e l f domain, 3 subjects-of-judgement were r o u t i n e l y i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study: (1) b a s i c or a c t u a l s e l f ; (2) i d e a l s e l f ; (3) s e l f - a s - c h i l d (son or daughter). A d d i t i o n a l l y , s e l f - a s - s i b l i n g , s e l f - a s - s u r r o g a t e - s i b l i n g , as peer ( f r i e n d ) or g r a n d c h i l d were i n c l u d e d where the complementary r o l e s were s a l i e n t f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . In the primary o b j e c t s domain, "mother" and " f a t h e r " were r o u t i n e l y i n c l u d e d as s u b j e c t s of judgement f o r the Q - s o r t i n g . One to four other f i g u r e s were i n c l u d e d - such as s i b l i n g s , grandparents, aunts or u n c l e s , or peers. In the secondary o b j e c t s domain, 4 s u b j e c t s were t y p i c a l l y i n c l u d e d as subjects-of-judgement. These were: (1) s e l f - a s - v o c a t i o n a l r o l e #1 (2) s e l f - a s - v o c a t i o n a l r o l e #2 (3) i d e a l of v o c a t i o n a l r o l e #1 (4) i d e a l of v o c a t i o n a l r o l e #2 T h i s f o u r t h s a l i e n t f i g u r e was not r e l e v a n t i n Case E, as the c a r e e r change d i d not i n v o l v e a d i s t i n c t change in v o c a t i o n a l r o l e i d e a l s , and so was not i n c l u d e d i n that i n s t a n c e . An a d d i t i o n a l two to seven s a l i e n t f i g u r e s were e l i c i t e d from each case su b j e c t f o r each of the two v o c a t i o n a l arenas, i n c l u d i n g f i g u r e s such as " s u p e r i o r s , " " c o l l e a g u e s , " " s u b o r d i n a t e s , " "peers," and "mentors." 42 To e l i c i t s a l i e n t f i g u r e s from each of the three arenas, case s u b j e c t s were in t e r v i e w e d over one to two meetings ranging from one to four hours. These i n t e r v i e w s were guided by the c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n : "Who was important to you ( i n each arena) and why?" E l i c i t e d f i g u r e s were i n c l u d e d i n the sample as subjects-of-judgement when there was reasonable assurance the f i g u r e was r e l e v a n t and important to the case s u b j e c t . Where m u l t i p l e s a l i e n t f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a s i m i l a r r o l e were e l i c i t e d , such as c l i e n t , student, or c o l l e a g u e , case s u b j e c t s were t y p i c a l l y asked to s e l e c t the f i g u r e most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of that r o l e . In sum, f o r each of ten case s u b j e c t s , 19 to 23 subjects-of-judgment f o r Q - s o r t i n g were sampled, r e p r e s e n t i n g three domains and three arenas of r o l e enactment. Q-Sort Items. The present study was b u i l t d i r e c t l y upon McGregor's (1983) study i n that both s t u d i e s examine symbolic dimensions of c a r e e r - r e l a t e d r o l e s and the s o c i a l c o n t e x t s of these r o l e s , u s i n g f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n as a metaphor to examine the phenomenon. Furthermore, p a r a l l e l methodology was used i n both s t u d i e s . McGregor's study appears to have produced meaningful r e s u l t s with important t h e o r e t i c a l , c l i n i c a l , and f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i m p l i c a t i o n s . Furthermore, r e s u l t s suggested that the item sample used was 43 s u f f i c i e n t l y unambiguous to allow f o r meaningful data a n a l y s i s . Based on these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , the 46 item sample, l i s t e d i n Table 1, was drawn d i r e c t l y from the r e l a t e d study by McGregor. The sample was c o n s t r u c t e d upon the b a s i s of H olland's (1966) t h e o r e t i c a l work on p e r s o n a l i t y types. H o l l a n d suggested that a l l i n d i v i d u a l s can be d e s c r i b e d i n terms of combinations and permutations of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t r a i t s a s s o c i a t e d with each of s i x i d e a l p e r s o n a l i t y types: r e a l i s t i c , i n v e s t i g a t i v e , a r t i s t i c , s o c i a l , e n t e r p r i s i n g and c o n v e n t i o n a l . The item sample i s a reasonably comprehensive r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the t r a i t s a s s o c i a t e d with these s i x p e r s o n a l i t y types, t r a n s l a t e d where u s e f u l i n t o more common and understandable terms. Q - S o r t i n g . The 46 a d j e c t i v e s r e f e r r e d to i n Table 1 were used by s u b j e c t s d u r i n g Q - s o r t i n g s e s s i o n s . S u b j e c t s s o r t e d cards f o r each s a l i e n t r o l e f i g u r e that was i d e n t i f i e d p r e v i o u s l y through i n t e r v i e w i n g . Each a d j e c t i v e was typed on a small c a r d f o r use i n s o r t i n g . I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s o r t i n g were as f o l l o w s : 1) Take the deck of c a r d s , read each car d s e p a r a t e l y and put i t down on the t a b l e i n f r o n t of you. Spread out the cards and t r y to form a g e n e r a l impression of the a t t r i b u t e s s t a t e d on the c a r d s . 2) Now p i c k up the c a r d s , make a deck and s h u f f l e the cards i n the deck. 44 Table 1: T r a i t s Used i n the Q-Sort Item Sample of the Study p r a c t i c a l hard headed independent r e a l i s t i c i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t r o v e r t e d c o n v e n t i o n a l r a t i o n a l i n t e l l i g e n t b l unt ambitious p r e c i s e r e s p o n s i b l e e x t r o v e r t e d a c t i v e p e r s i s t e n t s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d p l e a s u r e seeking soc i a b l e conforming a r t i s t i c i d e a l i s t i c o r d e r l y c r e a t i v e t r u s t w o r t h y s t a t u s - o r i e n t e d e x p r e s s i v e mature f l e x i b l e emotional c a r i n g dominant i m a g i n a t i v e a f f e c t i o n a t e e n t h u s i a s t i c s e n s i t i v e understanding a p p e a l i n g s e l f - i n s i g h t f u l h e l p f u l adventurous c o m p e t i t i v e moral p e r s u a s i v e d e l i b e r a t e spontaneous 45 3) Now ( f o r example), s o r t these cards to d e s c r i b e your mother, r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y , a c c o r d i n g to your r e c a l l of your mother i n the f a m i l y d u r i n g your c h i l d h o o d years, ranging from those that are most l i k e your mother to those that are l e a s t l i k e your mother. 4) Place the cards i n t o roughly three equal p i l e s as f o l l o w s : most l i k e ; d o u b t f u l l y l i k e ; and l e a s t l i k e . 5) Sort the cards as f o l l o w s : 2 3 5 8 10 8 5 3 2 6) a b c d e S t a r t with p i l e one. Place the two "most l i k e " cards to your f a r l e f t . P lace the three next "most l i k e " cards next to the l a s t . P l ace the next f i v e "most l i k e " cards next to i t . Place the next e i g h t "most l i k e " cards next to the l a s t t h r e e . f) Repeat with p i l e t h r e e . g) Repeat the same process, going from your f a r r i g h t towards the c e n t r e , with your " l e a s t l i k e " judgments. Place the " d o u b t f u l l y l i k e " cards (10) i n the middle. (NOTE: I f necessary, i t i s p o s s i b l e to draw cards from the middle p i l e . ) 7) Check the s o r t i n g and make any changes you wish, but r e t a i n r e q u i r e d number in each c a t e g o r y . The s t r u c t u r e of the Q-sort u t i l i z e d i n t h i s study i s s p e c i f i e d i n the diagram p r o v i d e d below: E v a l u a t i v e Most D e s c r i p t i v e N e u t r a l or Least D e s c r i p t i v e C r i t e r i a : of S a l i e n t F i g u r e Undecided of S a l i e n t F i g u r e Frequency Q-Score V 2 3 8 5 7 8 6 V 10 8 4 5 3 3 2 V 2 46 ANALYSIS OF PROTOCOLS A n a l y s i s of Q-sorts Q-sort data were examined through the use of c o r r e l a t i o n s and then through p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s . For each s u b j e c t , the Q-sort p a t t e r n s of every s a l i e n t r o l e f i g u r e was c o r r e l a t e d with the Q-sort p a t t e r n s of every other s a l i e n t f i g u r e i n the s l a t e . T h i s produced a t a b l e of c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each s u b j e c t r e v e a l i n g correspondences between f i g u r e s ; Table 2 p r o v i d e s an example, showing a p a r t i a l t a b l e of c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s that i n c l u d e s correspondences f o r only the f i r s t ten s a l i e n t f i g u r e s i n Case A. C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of ±.30 were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n was given to i d e n t i f y i n g i n s t a n c e s of a ±.30 c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t between a Family f i g u r e and a f i g u r e from e i t h e r V o c a t i o n 1 or Vocat i o n 2. Such a correspondence was i n t e r p r e t e d to i n d i c a t e that the p a r t i c u l a r f i g u r e s i n v o l v e d were s i m i l a r , along the dimensions s o r t e d on, and t h i s s i m i l a r i t y was suggestive of a common dramatic enactment or theme i n the two arenas. A d d i t i o n a l l y , a t t e n t i o n was given to ±.30 c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between f i g u r e s from Voc a t i o n 1 and Vocat i o n 2, and the a n a l y t i c framework o u t l i n e d above was observed. T h i r d l y , c o n t r a s t s and commonalities i n the s i g n i f i c a n t Table 2: Case A: Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s for Salient Role Figures tt 1-10 Actual Ideal Self-as-Voc. Self-as-Voc. Ideal Voc. Ideal Voc. Mother Father Self-as-Daughter S i ster Sel f Self Role 1 Role 2 Role 1 Role 2 #1 tt2 #3 #4 #5 06 til #8 #9 #10 tt 1 1 .00 tt 2 .09 1 .00 # 3 . 10 .44 1 .00 # 4 .08 .50 .31 1 .00 tt 5 .06 . 55 .56 .32 1 .00 # 6 .08 . 34 . 23 .45 . 36 1 .00 # 7 - . 18 - . 28 .04 .04 - . 27 .09 1 .00 # 8 - .25 - .24 - .07 -.28 -.24 .01 - .02 1.00 # 9 - .06 .28 . 55 . 19 .39 .24 - .02 .28 1 .00 #10 - . 12 - .37 -.20 - .07 -.29 - .03 .39 .28 .04 1 .00 - J 48 correspondences of Family f i g u r e s to V o c a t i o n 1 f i g u r e s and Family f i g u r e s to V o c a t i o n 2 f i g u r e s , were examined. L a s t l y , correspondences between any of the s e l f - r e f e r r e n t f i g u r e s and v o c a t i o n a l f i g u r e s were examined to f u r t h e r e l u c i d a t e p o s s i b l e p a t t e r n s i n the data, or suggested themes i m p l i c i t i n the v o c a t i o n a l t r a n s i t i o n . The v a r i o u s o b s e r v a t i o n s were i n t e g r a t e d i n t o an o v e r a l l s y n t h e s i s to i d e n t i f y themes suggested by the c o r r e l a t i o n a l data. The c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i c e s were submitted to a p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s . Both the unrotated and vaimax r o t a t e d s o l u t i o n s were d e r i v e d and were examined f o r i n t e r p r e t a b i l i t y . The r o t a t e d s o l u t i o n d i d not r e v e a l simple s t r u c t u r e i n a l l ten c a s e s . That i s , f i g u r e s were o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with more than one component. Since the f i r s t p r i n c i p a l component of the unrotated s o l u t i o n accounts f o r more v a r i a n c e than any other l i n e a r combination, i t appeared t o be most amenable to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The f i r s t component i n each unrotated s o l u t i o n was examined to i d e n t i f y the extent of a s s o c i a t i o n of s a l i e n t f i g u r e s with the h y p o t h e t i c a l type represented by that component. A c o e f f i c i e n t of ±.50 was accepted as i n d i c a t i v e of a p a r t i c u l a r f i g u r e ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of the h y p o t h e t i c a l type. A negative c o e f f i c i e n t at the .50 l e v e l was understood as suggestive of an e q u a l l y meaningful but i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between that f i g u r e and the h y p o t h e t i c a l type. 49 The f i r s t component was examined to i d e n t i f y the extent to which f i g u r e s from the three areas of Family, V o c a t i o n 1, and V o c a t i o n 2 were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the type. Table 3 p r o v i d e s an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the breakdown of f i g u r e s from d i f f e r e n t domains r e p r e s e n t i n g the f i r s t component, i n Case C. A t o t a l l y mixed f i r s t component, that i s , where Table 3: F i g u r e s A s s o c i a t e d With Unrotated F i r s t Component at ±.50 L e v e l or Greater, Case C Domain S a l i e n t F i g u r e A s s o c i a t e d With F i r s t Component (at ±.50) Numerical I d e n t i t y of S a l i e n t F i g u r e s C o e f f i c i e n t S e l f A c t u a l S e l f 1 .75 I d e a l S e l f 2 .71 S e l f - a s - V o c a t i o n a l Role 2 4 .83 Se l f - a s - S o n 9 .63 S e l f - a s - B r o t h e r 14 .50 Family Nanny 10 .66 S i s t e r 12 .59 V o c a t i o n 1 Colleague 1 15 -.64 Employee 1 16 .61 2 Su p e r v i s o r 2 19 .57 Su p e r v i s o r 2 20 .51 Colleague 2 22 .79 f i g u r e s from a l l three domains were represented, was viewed as an i n d i c a t i o n of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s of these three domains. The analyses of the c o r r e l a t i o n matrix and the p r i n c i p a l components matrix were s y n t h e s i z e d to develop probes f o r the Meaning Interview, d i s c u s s e d below. Thus, 50 Q-sort r e s u l t s were u t i l i z e d to p r o v i d e an e m p i r i c a l b a s i s f o r s t r u c t u r i n g subject i n t e r v i e w s . Meaning Interview The term "Meaning Interview" was a p p l i e d to the e n t i r e process d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . In g e n e r a l , i t r e f e r s to the process of the r e s e a r c h e r p r o v i d i n g case s u b j e c t s with a s y n t h e s i s of the Q - r e s u l t s , and then encouraging them to e x p l o r e and e l a b o r a t e i n order to i l l u m i n a t e the s u b j e c t ' s sense of meaning r e g a r d i n g h i s or her c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the a p p a r e n t l y c e n t r a l c o r r e l a t i o n s and dramatic themes, i d e n t i f i e d through a n a l y s i s of the Q-sorts, were shared with the case s u b j e c t s i n order to s t i m u l a t e focused r e f l e c t i v e responses. By encouraging the s u b j e c t s ' e l a b o r a t i o n on, and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of, the c e n t r a l Q-sort c o r r e l a t i o n s and themes, the re s e a r c h e r e l i c i t e d s u b j e c t s ' understanding of the meaning of t h e i r c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n i n terms of t h e i r f a m i l y drama. In s e t t i n g up the Meaning Interview, each s u b j e c t was t o l d t h a t the researcher was going to share a summarized form of the Q - r e s u l t s . Each su b j e c t was a l s o t o l d t h a t these r e s u l t s were being used to p r o v i d e a common ground of language and frame-of-reference f o r the s u b j e c t and r e s e a r c h e r to explore the meaning of the s u b j e c t ' s c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n . The r e s e a r c h e r s t a t e d that the Q - r e s u l t s only p r o v i d e d i n d i c a t i o n s of the s u b j e c t ' s web of r o l e enactments 51 i n r e l a t i o n to s a l i e n t f i g u r e s i n the f a m i l y and two v o c a t i o n arenas. The researcher s p e c i f i e d to each s u b j e c t that n e i t h e r agreement nor disagreement with the Q-sort data was being sought. Furthermore, s u b j e c t s were t o l d that an understanding of the meaning a s s o c i a t e d with each v o c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t , and hence with the v o c a t i o n a l t r a n s i t i o n i t s e l f , was to be i d e n t i f i e d from the s u b j e c t ' s own e x p l o r a t i o n of and e l a b o r a t i o n on the key p a t t e r n s of r o l e enactments as i n d i c a t e d by the Q - r e s u l t s . In each case, p a r a l l e l s drawn from the s t a t i s t i c a l data were shared with the s u b j e c t i n order to focus the e x p l o r a t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , three types of p a r a l l e l s were shared with each s u b j e c t , i n v o l v i n g correspondences between: 1) the self-domain and other domains 2) v o c a t i o n a l r o l e s and f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n f i g u r e s 3) other r o l e f i g u r e s i n both v o c a t i o n a l arenas and f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n f i g u r e s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , a f o u r t h i n t e g r a t i v e statement was shared with each s u b j e c t , which r e l a t e d the apparent emergent v o c a t i o n a l dramas or themes to f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n (prototype) dramas. For example, d u r i n g the Meaning Interview with Subject A, the f o l l o w i n g statements were made to e l i c i t the s u b j e c t ' s r e f l e c t i o n s on, and a n a l y s i s of, the Q-sort c o r r e l a t i o n s as they r e l a t e to the meaning of the c a r e e r t r a n s i t i o n : 52 1) The Q - r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between each of your c a r e e r r o l e s and your Q-sort of your p e r s o n a l i d e a l . Conversely, n e i t h e r of the Q-sorts of your c a r e e r r o l e s c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y with the s o r t on your " A c t u a l S e l f . " In sum then, n e i t h e r as an a r c h i t e c t nor as a s t o c k b r o k e r ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e are you very much l i k e your a c t u a l s e l f , but i n both c a r e e r r o l e s you approach your p e r s o n a l i d e a l s e l f . 2) The Q-sort on " s e l f - a s - a n - a r c h i t e c t " c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the s o r t on " s e l f - a s - d a u g h t e r . " The Q-sort on your second c a r e e r r o l e of s t o c k b r o ker's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , however, c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the s o r t on " s e l f - a s - s i s t e r . " T h i s suggests then, that as an a r c h i t e c t you were l i k e y o u r s e l f as a daughter and as a stockbroker's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e you are l i k e y o u r s e l f as a s i s t e r . 3) You s o r t e d more than one co-worker from the f i r s t v o c a t i o n a l arena of a r c h i t e c t very s i m i l a r l y to the way in which you s o r t e d the r o l e of "mother" from your e a r l y f a m i l y , and very d i s s i m i l a r l y to the way i n which you s o r t e d f o r " s e l f - a s - s i s t e r , " and "aunt." However, in your second v o c a t i o n a l arena as a stockbroker's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , more than one co-worker was s o r t e d s i m i l a r l y to your s o r t s on " s i s t e r " and "aunt," and o p p o s i t e to your s o r t on " s e l f - a s - d a u g h t e r . " A l l of t h i s suggests that your co-workers i n your a r c h i t e c t ' s job, g e n e r a l l y are most l i k e your mom and opposite to y o u r s e l f as s i s t e r , and aunt. In c o n t r a s t , your co-workers as a s t o c k b r o k e r ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e are g e n e r a l l y most l i k e your s i s t e r and aunt and opposite y o u r s e l f - a s - d a u g h t e r . 4) On the whole in your f i r s t c areer you seem to have r e c r e a t e d a daughter-mother drama, and now you seem to be r e c r e a t i n g more of a s i s t e r l y drama. E l a b o r a t i o n upon the s u b j e c t ' s i n i t i a l response was encouraged t y p i c a l l y through the use of (1) p a r r o t i n g , (2) r e f l e c t i o n s of s u b j e c t ' s statements, (3) r e f l e c t i o n s on s u b j e c t ' s non-verbal cues, (4) summarizing and c l a r i f y i n g statements, (5) d i r e c t open-ended probing f o r e l a b o r a t i o n of 53 meaning. S u b j e c t s were a l s o reminded, where a p p r o p r i a t e , ( 6 ) that no p a r t i c u l a r response was favoured. Examples of each of these f o l l o w s : ( 1 ) A: "... she's a powerful woman so i t l e f t you with, always those f e e l i n g s u n t i l the next time." I n t e r v i e w e r : "What s o r t of f e e l i n g s ? " A: "They're f e e l i n g s of, um, -oh s h i t ! " I: '"Oh s h i t ! ' ? That's the f e e l i n g ? " A: "I know, I'm j u s t t r y i n g to grab i t . I t ' s a f e e l i n g of p u l l i n g t h i n g s out of myself, r e a l l y b u s t i n g your gut on an understanding l e v e l , on a g i v i n g l e v e l . " ( 2 ) E: "I don't think these are the s o r t s of t h i n g s you can a r t i c u l a t e .... I t ' s something that I know deep w i t h i n my heart and being and s o u l ... and I can't put i t i n t o words ... Can't do i t . Can't." I: "You're t a l k i n g about knowing i n your h e a r t - o f - h e a r t s a sense of purpose." E: "Uh huh. A sense of being guided ... I know i t ' s there and I know I'm responding to i t ..." ( l e a d i n g up to d i r e c t statement r e g a r d i n g h i s c a r e e r s h i f t ) . ( 3 ) I: "What are you f e e l i n g r i g h t now, I mean, I see your hand on your t h r o a t . " and "There's that b i g g r i n t h e r e . " A: "That says 'wouldn't that be n i c e , then there's nobody at a l l ' ... l i k e t h e r e ' s no beef, now I would be moving one more step, because I want the income ... at the same time I_ can h i r e people and I can get a cut of t h e i r pay. And t h a t ' s kind of going f u l l c i r c l e ! " (4) A: "The only t h i n g that comes to mind was that maybe on some strange l e v e l I had a f e e l i n g that i f I went and worked at i t , although I d i d n ' t r e a l l y know what i t was about, was that I would get more c o n t r o l and that that was comfortable ..." I: "Something l e d you to i t ... d e s p i t e the f a c t that you d i d n ' t get a l o t of support from f r i e n d s . " 54 A: "Oh, q u i t e the opposite ... I had to l e t go of something that looked c o o l , f e l t c o o l , and that people ( f r i e n d s ) looked up t o , but i n r e t u r n I was going to get something r e a l f o r me, r e a l - e r . " AND ... I: "That would be a d e s c r i p t i o n of how you d e a l t with your mom, i s that what you are saying?" A: "Yeah, that was the * oh god!'" (5) "Can you t e l l me something more about what you mean when you say you've been t r y i n g to move away from a l l t h i s yucky s t u f f ? " (6) "I'm not l o o k i n g f o r a l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n of what came f i r s t , the chicken or the egg, but simply f o r what sense you've made of these o b s e r v a t i o n s . At the c o n c l u s i o n of each i n t e r v i e w , the s u b j e c t was i n v i t e d to share any a d d i t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n s on h i s or her c a r e e r change in r e l a t i o n to f a m i l y r o l e s , which may not have been a r t i c u l a t e d a l r e a d y . Interviews were terminated only once there was an i n d i c a t i o n that e x p l o r a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h i s s u e had been s a t u r a t e d . T y p i c a l l y , s u b j e c t s had p r o v i d e d at l e a s t one d i r e c t i n t e r p r e t i v e statement about the meaning of t h e i r c a r e e r change i n terms of f a m i l y . Case P o r t r a i t s The Meaning Interview with each s u b j e c t was audiotaped, both to allow the researcher to a t t e n d f u l l y to the i n t e r v i e w process i t s e l f and to provide a data base f o r i n t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s . A f t e r completion of each Meaning 55 Interview, t y p i c a l l y one hour long, the r e s e a r c h e r l i s t e n e d i n t e n t l y to each audiotape, f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of o v e r a l l themes, content and s t r u c t u r e of the s u b j e c t ' s response. The rese a r c h e r l i s t e n e d c l o s e l y a second time to each tape, t h i s time t r a n s c r i b i n g p o r t i o n s . The s p e c i f i c use of s u b j e c t ' s language, a f f e c t , and metaphors was p a r t i c u l a r l y attended t o . A p a t t e r n of r o l e re-enactment was i d e n t i f i e d in those i n s t a n c e s where s u b j e c t s used p a r a l l e l language or p r e c i s e r e p e t i t i o n of words and phrases to d e s c r i b e at l e a s t some r o l e f i g u r e s from e a r l y f a m i l y and from at l e a s t one v o c a t i o n a l arena. Meaning was assumed to be i m p l i c i t i n the r e p e t i t i v e dimension of the r o l e re-enactments r e f l e c t e d i n s u b j e c t ' s language. A s h i f t i n the p a t t e r n of r o l e re-enactment was i d e n t i f i e d where d i f f e r e n t language was used i n d e s c r i p t i o n s of f a m i l y and f i r s t c a r e e r f i g u r e s , and i n d e s c r i p t i o n s of f a m i l y and second ca r e e r f i g u r e s . The meaning of the c a r e e r s h i f t i t s e l f was i d e n t i f i e d as i m p l i c i t i n the c e n t r a l s h i f t s or c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n the p a t t e r n of r o l e re-enactment in the v o c a t i o n a l context, as these r e l a t e d to f a m i l y r o l e p a t t e r n s . The q u a n t i t a t i v e p o r t r a i t and q u a l i t a t i v e p o r t r a i t s were used c o n j u n c t i v e l y to develop a p o r t r a i t f o r each s u b j e c t . One f u l l year elapsed between beginning data c o l l e c t i o n and the completion of w r i t t e n case p o r t r a i t s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . T h i s one year time l a p s e o c c u r r e d f o r l o g i s t i c a l reasons rather than f o r methodological ones; the 56 p r o c e d u r a l steps of Interview t r a n s c r i p t i o n , data a n a l y s i s , and case write-up took a year to complete. R e s u l t s of both types of case reviews are r e p o r t e d i n Chapter V of t h i s study. Case P o r t r a i t Reviews Two types of case review were employed to lend f u r t h e r c r e d i b i l i t y to each case a n a l y s i s . One year a f t e r the Meaning Interviews were conducted, f o l l o w i n g the completion of the case write-ups, nine of the ten s u b j e c t s reviewed the case write-up on t h e i r own case (Subject A reviewed case p o r t r a i t A, and so f o r t h ) . Subject K was u n a v a i l a b l e to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s review process due to prolonged i l l n e s s and subsequent t r a v e l . The nine s u b j e c t s who reviewed cases p r o v i d e d v e r b a l feedback to the resea r c h e r through an i n f o r m a l , open-ended i n t e r v i e w . Simultaneous to the s u b j e c t s e l f - r e v i e w s o c c u r r i n g , a second case review procedure was implemented. An independent reviewer f o r each case l i s t e n e d to the audiotapes of the Meaning Interview, and then read the case write-up and p r o v i d e d v e r b a l feedback to the r e s e a r c h e r . The parameters of each type of review are d e s c r i b e d i n more d e t a i l i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . Subject Self-Review. One year a f t e r the Meaning Interviews, each s u b j e c t was c o n t a c t e d by the r e s e a r c h e r and 57 given the case p o r t r a i t write-up. The time lapse of one year between the Meaning Interview and the Subject Self-Review was a l o g i s t i c a l d e c i s i o n r a t h e r than a methodological one. T h i s was the time p e r i o d that elapsed while the Meaning Interviews were t r a n s c r i b e d and analyzed, and case write-ups prepared and s y n t h e s i z e d . I t was c l e a r l y s t a t e d to s u b j e c t s that the Subject Self-Review was not a r e q u i r e d p a r t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study. A l l ten s u b j e c t s expressed i n t e r e s t i n reading the case write-up and 9 of the 10 a c t u a l l y were able to do the s e l f - r e v i e w . (Subject K had s c h e d u l i n g c o n f l i c t s due to extended t r a v e l and a p e r i o d of i l l n e s s which prevented her from f o l l o w i n g through with her expressed w i l l i n g n e s s to p r o v i d e a review.) I t may add to the i n t e r e s t of the o v e r a l l f i n d i n g s to note that one f u l l year a f t e r doing the Q - s o r t i n g and e x p l o r i n g the r e s u l t s through the Meaning Interviews, a l l nine s u b j e c t s found the case write-up to be at l e a s t p e r s o n a l l y v a l i d , and o f t e n h i g h l y p e r s o n a l l y i l l u m i n a t i n g . Once s u b j e c t s agreed to review t h e i r case write-up, they were asked to read with a view towards p r o v i d i n g the researcher with v e r b a l feedback on the f o l l o w i n g three q u e s t i o n s : 1) Did the r e s e a r c h e r a c c u r a t e l y p o r t r a y your experience? Does the p o r t r a i t " r i n g t r u e " f o r you? 2 ) Is the p o r t r a y a l p l a u s i b l e , even though i t may be a new or d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e f o r you? 58 3 ) Did the researcher leave out anything of c e n t r a l importance to the p i c t u r e ? Subject comments are r e p o r t e d i n Chapter V of t h i s study. Independent Reviews. Each case study, together with the audiotape of the Meaning Interview f o r that case, was given to an independent reviewer. Each reviewer had graduate l e v e l t r a i n i n g i n one of the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . E i g h t reviewers reviewed only one case; the n i n t h reviewer reviewed two cases. Each reviewer was i n s t r u c t e d as f o l l o w s : 1) F i r s t l i s t e n to the audiotaped i n t e r v i e w . Attend to and note i n s t a n c e s of l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s , i n a p p r o p r i a t e r e f l e c t i o n by the i n t e r v i e w e r , or any other type of the i n t e r v i e w e r i n f l u e n c e on the s u b j e c t ' s response. 2) While you l i s t e n , formulate an impression of the essence of what the r e s e a r c h s u b j e c t , the i n t e r v i e w e e , i s i n t e n d i n g to communicate. 3 ) A f t e r you have assessed the audiotape f o r i n t e r v i e w e r o b j e c t i v i t y , and formulated your own p o r t r a i t of the s u b j e c t , read the Case P o r t r a i t write-up with a view to a d d r e s s i n g these q u e s t i o n s : Does the Case P o r t r a i t w rite-up a c c u r a t e l y p o r t r a y what the s u b j e c t intended to communicate? Has anything of importance to the understanding of the Case Subject been omitted or i n any way d i s t o r t e d ? 4) F e e l f r e e to g i v e your assessment to the researcher v e r b a l l y or i n w r i t i n g . As with the s u b j e c t s e l f - r e v i e w s , the f i n d i n g s from the independent reviews are r e p o r t e d i n Chapter V. 59 CHAPTER IV QUANTITATIVE RESULTS Given that people re-enact f a m i l y r o l e s i n the v o c a t i o n a l arena, what i s the meaning of v o c a t i o n a l t r a n s i t i o n from the p o i n t of view of the f a m i l y drama? T h i s q u e s t i o n can be explored i n a v a r i e t y of ways with the present data. In t h i s chapter, group r e s u l t s were examined from two o v e r l a p p i n g a n g l e s . C o r r e l a t i o n s Among Q-Sorts Acco r d i n g to Roles For each s u b j e c t , the Q-sort f o r each s a l i e n t r o l e was c o r r e l a t e d with the Q-sort of every other s a l i e n t r o l e . A correspondence between any two r o l e s was accepted as s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i f there was a c o r r e l a t i o n of ±.30. On the b a s i s of t e s t i n g the hypothesis that the p o p u l a t i o n c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s 0, using F i s h e r ' s Z t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , i t was concluded that a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of ±.30 or higher i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l (Glass & S t a n l e y , 1970). When examining the c o r r e l a t i o n s among the s a l i e n t f i g u r e s , four types of correspondences were p a r t i c u l a r l y attended t o : 1) co-workers to s a l i e n t f a m i l y members, 2) co-workers to v a r i a n t of s e l f , 60 3) s e l f - i n - v o c a t i o n a l r o l e ( s ) to other v a r i a n t s of s e l f , 4) s e l f - i n - v o c a t i o n a l r o l e ( s ) to other s a l i e n t f a m i l y members. The f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g these d i f f e r e n t correspondences, and t h e i r g eneral relevance to the re s e a r c h q u e s t i o n , are d i s c u s s e d below. F i r s t , do co-workers correspond to s a l i e n t f i g u r e s from the fa m i l y arena? For the ten s u b j e c t s , 39 co-workers were e l i c i t e d f o r V o c a t i o n 1 and 44 were e l i c i t e d f o r Vo c a t i o n 2. Of these, 35 co-workers from V o c a t i o n 1 and 33 co-workers from V o c a t i o n 2 corresponded to at l e a s t one s a l i e n t f i g u r e from the f a m i l y arena. For both V o c a t i o n 1 and 2, correspondences ranged from m i l d t o very strong (.30 to .83); i n the l a t t e r i n s t a n c e , i t appeared that the co-worker was a v i r t u a l re-embodiment of an e a r l y f a m i l y f i g u r e . The s t r e n g t h of the correspondences s h i f t e d i n both d i r e c t i o n s when correspondences from the Vo c a t i o n 1 arena were d i r e c t l y compared with those from the Vo c a t i o n 2 arena. I t appeared that the m a j o r i t y of co-workers c o u l d be constr u e d as v a r i a n t s of a p r i o r f a m i l y member, and that t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n h e l d a c r o s s v o c a t i o n a l arenas f o r a given i n d i v i d u a l . A l s o , i t appeared that the p a t t e r n of correspondences of co-workers and f a m i l y f i g u r e s s h i f t e d a c r o s s v o c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t s . Second, do co-workers correspond to a v a r i a n t of o n e s e l f ? In other words, do co-workers serve as o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n s of s e l f ? Of the 39 co-workers i n V o c a t i o n 61 1, 16 c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to at l e a s t one s e l f - r o l e from the e a r l y f a m i l y drama, and 26 c o r r e l a t e d to at l e a s t one other v a r i a n t of s e l f ( b a s i c , i d e a l , s e l f - i n - v o c a t i o n a l r o l e s ) . Of the 44 co-workers i n V o c a t i o n 2, 17 c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to at l e a s t one f i g u r e from the e a r l y f a m i l y drama and 37 c o r r e l a t e d to at l e a s t one other v a r i a n t of o n e s e l f . Thus, f o r both Vo c a t i o n s 1 and 2, the m a j o r i t y of co-workers appeared to be construed as v a r i a n t aspects of s e l f . In 9 of the 10 cases, there was a tendency towards i n c r e a s e d numbers of correspondences between co-workers and v a r i a n t aspects of s e l f from V o c a t i o n 1 to V o c a t i o n 2. (Refer to Appendix A ) . T h i r d , f o r each of the two v o c a t i o n a l arenas examined, does s e l f - a s - v o c a t i o n a l r o l e correspond with other s e l v e s ( b a s i c s e l f , i d e a l , s e l f - a s - s o n or daughter, s e l f - a s - s i b l i n g , s e l f - a s - c h i l d h o o d peer)? Does the enactment of v o c a t i o n a l r o l e s i n c l u d e the p a r t i a l enactment of other s e l f r o l e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those other s e l f r o l e s that are not a s s o c i a t e d with v o c a t i o n ? Does the apparent i n t e g r a t i o n of other s e l f r o l e s i n t o a v o c a t i o n a l r o l e enactment s h i f t i n i n s t a n c e s of v o c a t i o n a l t r a n s i t i o n ? In 19 of the 20 v o c a t i o n a l s e l f r o l e s r a t e d , there was a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n with at l e a s t one other s e l f r o l e . Case G p r o v i d e d the one notable e x c e p t i o n here. For s u b j e c t G, s e l f - a s - v o c a t i o n a l r o l e 1 corresponded to three other s e l f r o l e s ( b a s i c , i d e a l , s e l f - a s - s o n ) while 62 s e l f - a s - v o c a t i o n a l r o l e 2 d i d not correspond to any other s e l f r o l e s . T h i s comparison suggested t h a t , f o r su b j e c t G, s e l f - a s - v o c a t i o n a l r o l e 2 was a l i e n to him, that i t was not anchored i n the r o l e r e p e r t o i r e experienced e a r l y i n l i f e . T h i s n o t i o n was supported by the lack of correspondences between t h i s v o c a t i o n a l r o l e and any f i g u r e s from the f a m i l y arena. Furthermore, one year a f t e r data c o l l e c t i o n , subject G was the s o l e subject among the ten who had re t u r n e d to the r o l e enactment a s s o c i a t e d with V o c a t i o n 1. Thus i t appears that v o c a t i o n a l r o l e enactment may be i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d with other r o l e enactments; Case G suggests that t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p may play a r o l e i n the s t a b i l i t y of v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e . For a l l ten s u b j e c t s , there appeared to be a s h i f t i n the p a t t e r n of correspondences between s e l f - a s - v o c a t i o n a l r o l e and other s e l f r o l e s , when the data was examined a c r o s s v o c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t s . For example, in Case B, s e l f - a s - v o c a t i o n a l r o l e 1 corresponded to s e l f - a s - s i b l i n g and s e l f - a s - s o n while s e l f - a s - v o c a t i o n a l r o l e 2 corresponded to only s e l f - a s - s o n , ( r e f e r to Appendix B). Fou r t h , does s e l f - a s - v o c a t i o n a l r o l e correspond to e a r l y s a l i e n t f a m i l y f i g u r e s ? In en a c t i n g a v o c a t i o n a l r o l e , i s one a l s o p a r t i a l l y e n a c t i n g a r o l e model from the e a r l y f a m i l y drama? When the s e l f - r o l e s that were a s s o c i a t e d with the e a r l y f a m i l y drama ( s e l f - a s - s o n or daughter, as g r a n d c h i l d , as s i b l i n g , as peer) were i n c l u d e d i n the r e p e r t o i r e of e a r l y s a l i e n t f a m i l y f i g u r e s , then 18 63 of the 20 s e l f - a s - v o c a t i o n a l r o l e s corresponded with at l e a s t one r o l e a s s o c i a t e d with the e a r l y f a m i l y drama. One e x c e p t i o n , Case G, has been d i s c u s s e d above. The other e x c e p t i o n here i s Case D; the lack of correspondences here i s d i s c u s s e d i n the Case D Meaning Interview (Chapter V ) . The f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t with the s u b j e c t ' s view of h i m s e l f as "a self-made man." Furthermore, the nature of t h i s s u b j e c t ' s sense of r e l a t e d n e s s to the f i g u r e of f a t h e r , i n h i s V o c a t i o n 2 r o l e , i s e l u c i d a t e d i n the Meaning Interview. When the e a r l y s e l f - r o l e s w i t h i n the f a m i l y were not c o n s i d e r e d , then 13 of the 20 s e l f - a s - v o c a t i o n a l r o l e s examined corresponded with at l e a s t one e a r l y f a m i l y f i g u r e . I t appears that v o c a t i o n a l r o l e enactment d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y i n c l u d e the p a r t i a l re-enactment of f a m i l y f i g u r e s i n the sense of m o d e l l i n g . I t does appear, however, that v o c a t i o n a l enactment t y p i c a l l y i n c l u d e d the re-enactment of at l e a s t one r o l e from the f u l l r o l e r e p e r t o i r e of the e a r l y f a m i l y . Where there was no apparent mode l l i n g i n a v o c a t i o n a l r o l e enactment, the s e l f - r o l e that was complementary to another f a m i l y r o l e was re-enacted. For example, i n Case A there were no correspondences between s e l f - a s - v o c a t i o n a l r o l e s and f a m i l y f i g u r e s . However, f o r both v o c a t i o n a l arenas there was a correspondence between the v o c a t i o n a l r o l e enactment and an e a r l y s e l f r o l e , which can be seen as complementary to a f a m i l y f i g u r e (e.g., s e l f - a s - d a u g h t e r i s the complement of mother and/or f a t h e r ; and s e l f - a s - s i s t e r i s the complement of s i s t e r ) . 64 P r i n c i p a l Components A n a l y s i s For each s u b j e c t , a p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s was conducted on the c o r r e l a t i o n matrix d e r i v e d from the Q-sort data, i n order to organize the data set by c l u s t e r i n g f i g u r e s i n t o h y p o t h e t i c a l types or components. Examination of the s o l u t i o n s showed that the unrotated f i r s t p r i n c i p a l component was most i n t e r p r e t a b l e . The range of v a r i a n c e accounted f o r by the f i r s t component a c r o s s the ten cases was 56% to 86%. In a l l ten cases the f i r s t component was t o t a l l y mixed, meaning that s a l i e n t f i g u r e s from a l l three domains were a s s o c i a t e d with the component at a l e v e l of ±.50 or g r e a t e r . T h i s f i n d i n g suggests that the arenas of Family, V o c a t i o n 1, and V o c a t i o n 2 are p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i n t e r r e l a t e d , p r o v i d i n g support f o r the p r o p o s i t i o n that there i s a re-enactment of the f a m i l y drama i n the v o c a t i o n a l arena. A d d i t i o n a l l y , f i g u r e s from both V o c a t i o n 1 and V o c a t i o n 2 were a s s o c i a t e d with the f i r s t component at a l e v e l of ±.50 or g r e a t e r , suggesting that there i s an element of c o n t i n u i t y w i t h i n a car e e r t r a n s i t i o n , when viewed i n terms of f a m i l y drama. 65 CHAPTER V QUALITATIVE RESULTS: CASE STUDIES The q u a n t i t a t i v e data presented i n the p r e v i o u s chapter p r o v i d e d support f o r the n o t i o n that people re-enact the drama of t h e i r f a m i l y i n t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g . Furthermore, the phenomenon of re-enactment of aspects of the f a m i l i a l drama tended to hol d a c r o s s v o c a t i o n a l arenas. The data suggested that i n s t a n c e s of v o c a t i o n a l t r a n s i t i o n r e f l e c t e d a s h i f t i n the f a m i l i a l r o l e p a t t e r n s that were s e l e c t e d f o r re-enactment. However, these data were g e n e r a l , and more s p e c i f i c p o r t r a i t s of i n d i v i d u a l s would be important to provide f u r t h e r support, and to examine p a r t i c u l a r l y the meaning of the v o c a t i o n a l t r a n s i t i o n i n terms of the f a m i l y drama. The f o l l o w i n g case study p o r t r a i t s were based upon a s y n t h e s i s of Q-sort r e s u l t s and the Meaning Interview. As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I I , each s u b j e c t was interv i e w e d f o r an average of one hour, d u r i n g which time the r e s u l t s of the Q-sort a n a l y s i s were s t r u c t u r e d and used to draw out the s u b j e c t . The content of each i n t e r v i e w was reviewed by the r e s e a r c h e r to i d e n t i f y p e r v a s i v e themes. Themes were i d e n t i f i e d where there were p a r a l l e l s i n d e s c r i p t i v e language used by the s u b j e c t when d i s c u s s i n g dramas from d i f f e r i n g arenas. For example, where s i m i l a r language or 66 p h r a s i n g was used to d e s c r i b e the Boss-Employee dynamic and the Mother-Daughter dynamic, a theme was i d e n t i f i e d and r e p o r t e d i n the case study p o r t r a i t as one dimension of the meaning or s h i f t i n meaning represented by the c a r e e r s h i f t . The verbatim t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of i n t e r v i e w s were a b s t r a c t e d f o r c l a r i t y and b r e v i t y while m a i n t a i n i n g the o r i g i n a l sense and i n t e n t i o n of the f u l l i n t e r v i e w . The accuracy of these case p o r t r a i t s was reviewed by both the su b j e c t and by an independent reviewer. A f t e r each Case P o r t r a i t was w r i t t e n , a d r a f t of the write-up was presented, a year a f t e r the i n t e r v i e w , to each s u b j e c t , and c r i t i c a l comment was sought. Subjects were s p e c i f i c a l l y probed as to whether or not the o v e r a l l i n t e r v i e w p r e s e n t a t i o n "made sense" to them, whether or not i t "rang t r u e . " They were asked to i d e n t i f y what of importance may have been omitted. The Subject Self-Reviews presented here were a b s t r a c t e d from the s u b j e c t s ' c r i t i c a l comments and were s e l e c t e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the s u b j e c t s ' feedback. (Subject K was not a v a i l a b l e f o r Self-Review due to extended t r a v e l s and i l l n e s s ) . Each audiotape of the Meaning Interview and the Case P o r t r a i t write-up was presented to an independent reviewer. The reviewers each had graduate l e v e l t r a i n i n g i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and most reviewers reviewed only one case; one reviewer reviewed two cases. The reviewers assessed the audiotapes to e s t a b l i s h whether or not i n t e r v i e w i n g 67 techniques had been open-ended and/or " l e a d i n g . " Case write-ups were assessed i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the i n t e r v i e w audiotapes to e s t a b l i s h whether or not the write-ups r e f l e c t e d a c c u r a t e l y the m a t e r i a l on the tapes. The Independent Case Reviews r e p o r t e d here are the t o t a l i t y of reviewers comments with the e x c e p t i o n of Independent Case Review F which was a b s t r a c t e d f o r the sake of b r e v i t y . T h i s chapter p r e s e n t s the case study p o r t r a i t s , the s u b j e c t s e l f - r e v i e w s , and the independent case reviews. 68 CASE STUDY A Background A was a 36 year o l d , Dutch-born, d i v o r c e d woman, l i v i n g alone i n a f a s h i o n a b l e apartment. F o l l o w i n g a r e q u i r e d s i x years of post-secondary educa t i o n , A worked f o r two years (Vocation 1) as a Master's l e v e l a r c h i t e c t . A f t e r a p e r i o d of e x p l o r a t i o n and r e t r a i n i n g l a s t i n g approximately one year, she began work (Vocation 2) as a r e g i s t e r e d s t o c k b r o k e r ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ; at the time of t h i s study, she had worked i n t h i s p o s i t i o n f o r s i x y e a r s . Family Experience A's e a r l y l i f e was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an experience of oppression and s t r u g g l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n to a dominant negative mother f i g u r e . Subject A grew up i n H o l l a n d with mother, f a t h e r , and one s i s t e r e i g h t years her s e n i o r ; f a t h e r was a c o n t r a c t o r and mother was a housewife: ... as a c h i l d I suppose a p a r t of me was s o r t of weak and under the thumb and repressed and having to f i g h t f o r space and a i r to breathe my own ... Mother was viewed as the one who "wielded the most power i n the f a m i l y " and, p a r a d o x i c a l l y , d i d so by a c t i n g " r e s e n t f u l l y and o f t e n n e g a t i v e l y , m a l i c i o u s l y ... as a v i c t i m . " 69 A's major r o l e was one of s u p p o r t i n g and p l e a s i n g mother through performing: I'd always be the one who'd motivate her, and 'oh you can do i t - you're wonderful', to get her to get her a c t together ... to be more p o s i t i v e ... the other t h i n g I d i d with my mother was, i n order to appease the gods her - was to be s o r t of sucky and unthreatening and undemanding and compromising ... always p u t t i n g out -The mother-daughter dynamic may have been experienced as p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e n s e s i n c e A was r a i s e d s e p a r a t e l y from her s i s t e r , v i r t u a l l y as an only c h i l d : She ( s i s t e r ) being 8 years o l d e r , we grew up very s e p a r a t e l y . My mother had a one-to-one r e l a t i o n s h i p with me and d i d very l i t t l e or nothing to f o s t e r a nything between the two of us ... she was j u s t that other person - we d i d n ' t r e a l l y r e l a t e . When r e l a t i n g as a dyad, A experienced an "almost s t o r y b o o k - l i k e " r e l a t i o n s h i p with f a t h e r - " c l o s e , p l e a s a n t , and p o s i t i v e " - though he was seen as d e f e r e n t i a l to, and overshadowed by, mother's strong c o n t r o l . A's experience of mother was c o n t r a s t e d with her r e l a t i o n s h i p to a maternal aunt: Being with my aunt was j u s t a d e l i g h t . I t was l i k e the bonus you got f o r s t r u g g l i n g a l l year ... I'd get a l i t t l e s p o i l e d and p a t t e d on the head and t o l d I was cute ... A's " a l l - y e a r s t r u g g l e " was, as noted, a s s o c i a t e d with mother and more p a r t i c u l a r l y , with working to demonstrate her worth and e l i c i t a p p r o v a l : ... I t ' s a f e e l i n g of p u l l i n g t h i n g s out of myself ... the word t h a t comes to mind ... ' i t ' s not good enough. Keep t r y i n g harder and harder.' Forever p u t t i n g 70 out. If a phrase came to mind i t would be ' r e a l l y b u s t i n g your gut' on an emotional l e v e l , on an understanding l e v e l , on a g i v i n g l e v e l . V o c a t i o n 1 As an a r c h i t e c t , A seemed to be r e - e n a c t i n g the drama of h e r s e l f as daughter i n r e l a t i o n to dominant and negative mother f i g u r e s . The Q-sort c o r r e l a t i o n matrix supported t h i s by i n d i c a t i n g A was l i k e her s e l f - a s - d a u g h t e r i n her a r c h i t e c t r o l e (.55), and both her boss and c o l l e a g u e were l i k e mother (.43 and .35). The r e - c r e a t i o n of t h i s e a r l y l i f e drama i n A's f i r s t v o c a t i o n was f u r t h e r suggested by her somewhat int e r c h a n g e a b l e d e s c r i p t i o n s of the two arenas: ... [being an a r c h i t e c t ] r e q u i r e d a p u l l i n g out of  y o u r s e l f to put i t on paper ... p a r t of the whole c r e a t i v e process, but i n a n i c e , p o s i t i v e way . . . I t was very, very f r u s t r a t i n g . I t was on your shoulders and i t was l i k e an a l b a t r o s s . At the same time i t hung around you a l l the time, i t wouldn't l e t go ... I remember j u s t working 36 hours s t r a i g h t ... I redesigned e i g h t times, each time f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons something had to change. With my mom, no matter how hard you t r i e d i t was never good enough. There was j u s t never a p o i n t where you were going to get (sigh) oh, a l l that support or love ... you needed as a c h i l d . The more you gave, the more she demanded - i t was always 'more, more'. I suppose there was that s i m i l a r i t y . More p a r t i c u l a r l y , A drew d i r e c t correspondences between other r o l e f i g u r e s i n her arena as a r c h i t e c t and mother: ... I t h i n k that p r o j e c t [ i n a r c h i t e c t u r e ] was very black and white ... between people who were g e t t i n g used and those that were handing i t out, and I'd say my 71 mother a l s o belongs on the other s i d e of that d i t c h ... people who were nonsupporters, t a k e r s , and no h e a r t . In response to a d i r e c t query r e g a r d i n g her experience i n t h i s v o c a t i o n a l arena, A again v e r i f i e d and e l a b o r a t e d on the re-enactment of her e a r l y mother-daughter drama: Oh j u s t e n d l e s s l y g i v i n g , never good enough, more, more, more, ... and d e f i n i t e l y f e e l i n g under the power of the people who were demanding ... they were i n c o n t r o l of me and what I had to put out, j u s t l i k e mother." V o c a t i o n 2 By c o n t r a s t , as a s t o c k b r o k e r ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , A seemed to be r e l a t i v e l y disengaged from e f f o r t s at p l e a s i n g o t h e r s . As she e x p l a i n e d i t : I'm self-employed to a degree ... nobody t e l l s me what to do ... i t ' s r e a l l y up to me, j u s t as long as I p l a y f a i r ... so now I've got c o n t r o l ! ... I have c o n t r o l over me. Nobody pushes me around. I don't have to do anything out of 'niceness'. As a stockbroker's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , A seemed to have r e - c r e a t e d more of a s i s t e r l y drama of equal s t a t u s and a sense of independence from i n f l u e n c e by the o t h e r . In t h i s v o c a t i o n a l r o l e , A was l i k e her s e l f - a s - s i s t e r (.41). A d d i t i o n a l l y , v i r t u a l l y everyone i n t h i s arena was l i k e e i t h e r a s i s t e r f i g u r e or an aunt f i g u r e : c l i e n t was l i k e s e l f - a s - s i s t e r (.39) and aunt (.40); c o l l e a g u e was l i k e s i s t e r (.327) and aunt (.419); support s t a f f was l i k e s i s t e r 72 (.459) and aunt (.74); and mentor was l i k e s i s t e r (.448) and aunt (.339). When the r e s e a r c h e r ' s impression of a " s i s t e r l y " drama was shared with A she responded with the f o l l o w i n g e l a b o r a t i o n on the nature of her s e l f - a s - s i s t e r : I'm the l o g i c a l one. I make smart, r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s and I'm v e r b a l l y handing them out to her i n as c o v e r t a way as p o s s i b l e ... a c t u a l l y I'm the l i t t l e s i s t e r , but I kind of f e e l bad about the way her l i f e i s going and every once in a while we s i t down and say ' w e l l , you c o u l d do t h i s and t h i s , you c o u l d do that and t h a t . ' I t ' s not the same s o r t of g u t - p u l l i n g type of s t u f f as with mother at a l l . We j u s t s i t , we t a l k , we d i s c u s s ... and I'm s o r t of the " a d v i c e " person ... I don't come acr o s s that way but I f e e l that way i n s i d e . So that would tend to be s i m i l a r to the r o l e I p l a y a t work, which i s : I get a l l t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , I organize i t and I s p i t i t back out ... i t i s something that can be l e a r n e d and i t ' s something t h a t ' s i n t u i t i v e and over time you s o r t of s y n t h e s i z e the two. V o c a t i o n a l T r a n s i t i o n In s w i t c h i n g from a r c h i t e c t to s t o c k b r o k e r ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , A seemed to have s h i f t e d from r e - e n a c t i n g the mother-daughter drama, to the more p o s i t i v e l y connoted dramas of accepted n i e c e to aunt and d i s t a n t l y c a r i n g s i s t e r . Her r o l e i n the mother-daughter drama was an enactment of an inadequate, powerless f i g u r e f o r e v e r s t r i v i n g to please an u n g i v i n g , demanding a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e . In the l a t t e r drama she s h i f t e d to a r o l e of r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r s t a t u r e , r e l a t i n g on more d i s t a n t but equal terms with a l o v i n g f i g u r e . If t h e r e ' s anything that I wanted, i t was to dump a l l that mother s h i t and i f t h e r e ' s anything that I d i d want i s something that to me, means more n e u t r a l . Where, 73 w e l l one: a sense that I'm more in c o n t r o l of i t where i t ' s not p u l l i n g myself away and, or gr a s p i n g upward where th e r e ' s t h a t sense of domination coming down at me where I don't have c o n t r o l - where i t ' s - okay, how do you c a l l i t ? - the r e ' s a word f o r t h a t , that j u s t does i t - a sense o f , urn, where I_ react as I_ choose, where I don't - where I act and not react , where I_ motivate me to go i n whatever d i r e c t i o n I_ choose. Whereas I'm not as much of a puppet, where I'm not as much l e f t at the whims of o t h e r s , where I don't f e e l as manipulated, whereas I don't f e e l as pushed around by circumstance. And t h a t ' s a l l having to with people l i k e s i s t e r and aunt. ... I never f e l t that she ( s i s t e r ) ever had any say over me. I was never i n r e a c t i o n to her, l i k e , I was f o r e v e r r e a c t i n g to my mother - always, but as to my s i s t e r - no r e a c t i o n , to my dad, very l i t t l e and to my aunt - she di d n ' t make that you had to r e a c t , you c o u l d j u s t be and you. c o u l d f e e l kind of good about who you were ... The f a m i l y drama themes of oppression and r e a c t i n g a g a i n s t a u t h o r i t y versus freedom from c o n t r o l , p a r a l l e l e d the c a r e e r themes of being i n s e r v i c e to others versus self-employed and i n c o n t r o l : I f e l t that ... as an a r c h i t e c t you were i n s e r v i c e to someone who was i n s e r v i c e . I t was l i k e too f a r removed down the pik e ... you're twice as removed from any sense of seeing the d a y l i g h t at a l l ... and here [s t o c k b r o k e r ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ] I'm only i n s e r v i c e to a l l of those t h i n g s that a developer a l s o has to worry about ... but I can even manipulate those b e t t e r than a developer ... In f a c t r e c e n t l y I've come up with some ideas that i n about two or three years I can open my own f i r m ... I_ can h i r e people and I can get a cut of t h e i r pay, and t h a t ' s kind of going f u l l c i r c l e ... 74 CASE STUDY B Background B was a 46 year o l d man i n a second marriage of ne a r l y ten years; two adolescent daughters from h i s f i r s t marriage l i v e d with him and h i s wife on a f l e x i b l e and sporad i c b a s i s . In the midst of an upper-middle c l a s s neighbourhood, B and h i s wife appeared to have c u l t i v a t e d a n a t u r a l i s t i c w i l d f o r e s t look to t h e i r yard; i n s i d e , t h e i r home gave the impression of being an a r t i s t ' s country haven, f i l l e d w ith c o l o u r f u l p a i n t i n g s and o b j e c t s of nature. A f t e r o b t a i n i n g an honours B.A. i n e n g i n e e r i n g , B undertook Masters work i n p a r t i c l e p h y s i c s and thermodynamics. Three years l a t e r he switched f i e l d s and completed h i s Masters i n Urban P l a n n i n g . B a l s o had one year of t r a i n i n g i n t h e a t r e a r t s , one year t r a i n i n g i n f i l m p r o d u c t i o n , and s e v e r a l years of nonacademic t r a i n i n g i n a v a r i e t y of c o u n s e l l i n g approaches and p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s . His f i r s t v o c a t i o n was as a planner, urban and environmental; h i s second v o c a t i o n was as an a r t i s t / t h e r a p i s t . Adopted at age two, B grew up as the only c h i l d of Canadian parents i n western Canada. Having l e a r n e d of h i s adopted s t a t u s at about age 10, he knew no other f a m i l y . 75 Both maternal and p a t e r n a l grandparents were a c t i v e i n h i s up b r i n g i n g , and c l o s e t i e s were kept with a l a r g e extended f a m i l y i n the r e g i o n . Family Experience B's e a r l y f a m i l y l i f e was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an experience of purposive belonging and of being uniquely l o v e d and nurtured. B e x p l a i n e d h i s sense of p o s i t i v e d i s t i n c t i o n i n terms of h i s adopted s t a t u s with the f a m i l y : . . . I was adopted you see ... I t h i n k , because of th a t , when you're adopted you have a strong sense of 'Karmic' connection with your parents - the adopted parents ... I have a very, very s t r o n g sense that was an omnipotent aspect of my own parents [adoptive] t r u t h - they loved that ... being p a r e n t s . On t h i s theme, B r e l a t e d that when h i s adoptive parents v i s i t e d the orphanage, o s t e n s i b l y to "shop" f o r a l i t t l e g i r l , B, age two, a c t i v e l y chose h i s mother by approaching her and " v i c e - g r i p p i n g " her l e g . B's experience of being s p e c i a l l y loved was r e f l e c t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g comments: I always f e l t very loved, but I f e l t l o v e d a c e r t a i n way that I was a c t u a l l y p r o v i d i n g ( l a u g h ) . L i k e I was s e r v i n g by being loved ... I t was almost l i k e being grounded: my parents l o v e d me, and I lov e d the world and t h a t ' s how I s t i l l b a s i c a l l y f e e l . F u r t h e r e x e m p l i f y i n g B's sense of h i s r o l e - a s - s o n was h i s s t o r y of the annual f a m i l y g a t h e r i n g . He presented a p i c t u r e of a young boy whose r a t h e r l a r g e extended f a m i l y gathered a n n u a l l y f o r a day-long c e l e b r a t i o n i n honour of 76 h i s b i r t h d a y , out of t h e i r love f o r him; he i n turn served the f a m i l y by p r o v i d i n g them with a focus f o r an annual reunion. B's primary peer r e l a t i o n s h i p as a c h i l d with a neighbourhood b o y f r i e n d , a l s o an only c h i l d , p r o v i d e d an important c o n t r a s t i n B's e a r l y l i f e e x p erience. The r e l a t i o n s h i p B had to N , whom B d e s c r i b e d as "the e q u i v a l e n t of my b r o t h e r , " p r i o r to school age, was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by "pure c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s , o f t e n very p h y s i c a l , " coupled with m i s t r u s t : ... I never t r u s t e d because N was the kind of person who, you know, you c o u l d only go so f a r but then he'd turn and around and stab you ... t h a t ' s j u s t N---.. I don't t h i n k I'm making that up, t h a t ' s the kind of person he was. He wasn't nasty, i t ' s j u s t ... he him s e l f was d r i v e n with such a c o m p e t i t i v e q u a l i t y that that would o v e r r u l e any sense of l o y a l t y or compassion or r e a l l o v i n g t h i n g . The p h y s i c a l l y combative e x p r e s s i o n of c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s with N s h i f t e d i n the context of the classroom as B saw i t : I was always pushing l i m i t s and I was doing i t i n a way on b e h a l f of a l o t of the other k i d s who d i d n ' t have that bent ... to q u e s t i o n so deeply and so p e r v a s i v e l y . And i t was not out of a sense of competition with the teacher or a power p l a y , but a g a i n , that g r a p p l i n g with the f r o n t i e r l e v e l - 'gosh, our understanding can't stop here ...' (laugh) I t ' s always kind of d r i v e n me i n a way, a u t o m a t i c a l l y . So I d e f i n i t e l y moved away from that p e r s o n a l l e v e l of c o m p e t i t i o n with N to t h i s other kind of r o l e ... i t ' s r e a l l y s i m i l a r to how I f e e l now. 77 Vo c a t i o n 1 B's v o c a t i o n i n the f i e l d of p l a n n i n g , both urban and environmental, spanned a t h i r t e e n year p e r i o d from about age 26 to 39 years of age. During the l a s t four years of t h i s p e r i o d he was a p a r t n e r i n a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e environmental c o n s u l t i n g f i r m i n a 'hands-on' management r o l e . As manager i n an environmental c o n s u l t i n g f i r m , B seemed to be r e - e n a c t i n g the drama of b r o t h e r l y competition experienced i n e a r l y l i f e . While B was l i k e s e l f - a s - s o n and mother i n both h i s f i r s t and second v o c a t i o n a l r o l e s , only i n the f i r s t was he a l s o l i k e s e l f - a s - b r o t h e r (.465). A l s o , i n t h i s arena, those around him were l i k e h i s " s u r r o g r a t e b r o t h e r " ( c o l l e a g u e a : . 6 3 7 / c l i e n t - l a w y e r : .379). These o b s e r v a t i o n s d i d not s u r p r i s e B at a l l . In response to the p a r a l l e l between h i s c o l l e a g u e s i n the f i r s t v o c a t i o n a l arena, and h i s surrogate b r o t h e r , B a s s o c i a t e d the themes of com p e t i t i v e n e s s and m i s t r u s t with t h i s c a r e e r arena. These themes were both r e f e r r e d t o p r e v i o u s l y (Family Experience) i n r e l a t i o n to B's surrogate b r o t h e r : ... that c o m p e t i t i v e r o l e and that c o m p e t i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p and being i n that business - i t ' s how I viewed and h e l d them, and there's no q u e s t i o n that I l e a r n e d about that with N and however I c r e a t e d i t there [with surrogate b r o t h e r ] I c r e a t e d i t [ i n the bu s i n e s s ] ... t h a t ' s the way I h e l d those people i n the f i r m , a b i t M a c h i a v e l l i a n i n a way ... I d i d not enjoy 78 at a l l the more 'dishonest' forms of c o m p e t i t i o n that went on i n the f i r m - l i t t l e power p l a y s , m a nipulations, w i t h h o l d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ... c e r t a i n l y , t h e r e ' s a c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s that I had i n my r o l e with N [ b r o t h e r ] that was d e f i n i t e l y present f u n c t i o n i n g i n that f i r m [Vocation 1] - a kind of competitiveness that I no longer have any sense of i n my l i f e ... one-upping each other, being b e t t e r than, kind of a whole s t r i v i n g t h i n g based on beating the other guy out - i n a way .... With N i t was j u s t a pure, pure co m p e t i t i v e n e s s , and very p h y s i c a l o f t e n . In the f i r m ... i t was a b i t of a dilemma. One p a r t of me would compete and want to do w e l l i n those terms, in terms of my performance and where I was i n the f i r m , how powerful.I was, and there was another p a r t of me that wanted to be more t r u t h f u l to who I r e a l l y was. There was a l s o a p o s i t i v e l y connoted p a r a l l e l between t h i s v o c a t i o n a l enactment and B's e a r l y b r o t h e r l y c o m p e t i t i v e r o l e supported by t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n : ... I j u s t loved p l a y i n g that game (lau g h ) . A l l those lawyers, the s o r t of r e p a r t e e , I was p l a y i n g with c o u r t testimony ... again that c o m p e t i t i v e game, t r y i n g to 'get' you and then you come and get back to them (laugh) ... I played a l o t of s p o r t s when I was young and I enjoyed the c o m p e t i t i v e element i n that sense. I t h i n k the other t h i n g I r e a l l y l i k e d about the c o u r t s i t u a t i o n was i t was a l o t l i k e s p o r t s - the r u l e s were r e a l c l e a r . I t is,was, a r e a l pure co m p e t i t i v e game and you c o u l d p l a y i t and you d i d n ' t have to be s l e a z y ... i t was an honest f i g h t ... and I loved t h a t . V o c a t i o n 2 In d i s c u s s i o n with B i t was agreed that the t i t l e of " a r t i s t - t h e r a p i s t " would serve here to d e s c r i b e h i s present v o c a t i o n . While h i s a c t u a l range of v o c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d p a i n t i n g , producing t h e a t r i c a l events, and c o u n s e l l i n g i n d i v i d u a l s and groups, he viewed a l l h i s 79 v o c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as both a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s of t h e r a p e u t i c v a l u e , both i n v o l v i n g what he termed " c r e a t i v e d i a l o g u e . " A f t e r l e a v i n g h i s p o s i t i o n as manager/environmental c o n s u l t a n t , B spent four years i n an i n f o r m a l t r a i n i n g p e r i o d , p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n , and sometimes assuming l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s i n , a wide v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s , groups, and workshops o r i e n t e d to self-development i n the areas of c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n and self-awareness. As an a r t i s t - t h e r a p i s t , the element of s e l f - a s - b r o t h e r was no longer p r e s e n t . In t h i s r o l e B corresponded most to mother (.5) and to s e l f - a s - s o n (.36). These o b s e r v a t i o n s were, again , u n s u r p r i s i n g to B. The p a r a l l e l between s e l f - a s - a r t i s t / t h e r a p i s t to mother was p a r t i c u l a r l y meaningful to B and prompted him to share the s i g n i f i c a n c e of h i s c a r e e r change in t h i s l i g h t : I have a very strong sense of the world moving i n t o a more feminine mode, t o t a l l y . And I have a very s t r o n g sense ... that my changing c a r e e r s i s very r e l a t e d to t h a t ... having a c a r e e r and p l a y i n g those c o m p e t i t i v e games that have s u s t a i n e d a great number of men's sense of purpose ... the whole mythology of business and a l l t h a t t h a t ' s about and now ... having to ... c r e a t e a ... mythology of purpose o u t s i d e of that realm, in terms of a realm of j u s t l i v i n g - which women have more done in any event j u s t because of the r o l e that they p l a y ... t h a t ' s a much l e s s s t r u c t u r e d game than men can p l a y ... I t h i n k the a r t i s t ' s ... mode i s a very good t r a i n i n g ground f o r men - f o r a l l people r i g h t now. Because ... i t g i v e s a h i s t o r i c a l l e g i t i m a c y and b a s i s f o r e v o l v i n g l i f e i n a d i f f e r e n t mode ... what an a r t i s t always has ... been the person that evolved out of themselves t h e i r own meaning and purpose, not out of a s t r u c t u r e ... and t h a t ' s very much what happened to me when I went from t h i s game of business and c o n s u l t i n g et c e t e r a to t h i s ... 80 V o c a t i o n a l T r a n s i t i o n In changing r o l e s from V o c a t i o n 1 to V o c a t i o n 2, B appeared to have s h i f t e d from enactment of one symbolic p r i n c i p l e to another; B i d e n t i f i e d both p r i n c i p l e s as having t h e i r p a r a l l e l i n h i s e a r l y l i f e e x p e r i e n c e . The r o l e p a t t e r n s i d e n t i f i e d from e a r l y l i f e were viewed by B as important because of t h e i r symbolic meaning, r a t h e r than because of s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r a l or i n t e r a c t i v e p a t t e r n s that may be a s s o c i a t e d . As he e x p l a i n e d i t : In terms of p r i n c i p l e s not i n terms of r o l e s at a l l ... i t ' s the r i g h t b r a i n t a k i n g the l e a d and the l e f t b r a i n f o l l o w i n g r a t h e r than the reverse ... I t ' s very much the r e a l sense of what the s h i f t was f o r me r a t h e r than an environmental da-da-da to an a r t i s t / t h e r a p i s t - t h a t ' s i n a way m i s l e a d i n g ... i t was r e a l l y a s h i f t from the male p r i n c i p l e to the female, r e a l l y , but a l s o a much g r e a t e r move to what I would c a l l my innate purpose i n l i f e ... It c o u l d a l s o be s a i d that the v o c a t i o n a l s h i f t r e f l e c t e d a move away from the c o m p e t i t i v e s t r i v i n g , as p a r a l l e l e d i n B's e a r l y b r o t h e r l y r o l e , to a re-enactment of h i s r o l e - a s - s o n as " s p e c i a l " channel f o r nurturance and l o v e : I t h i n k i n time I moved from being c e n t r a l to the f i r m to being a kind of ' s p e c i a l case' - which has i t s own kind of power ... i n that sense I think I moved more and more to my n a t u r a l r o l e , the one that f e l t the best ... i n a very i n t u i t i v e way. I t h i n k I was making a c h o i c e to go ... to where my heart took me, r e a l l y . 81 In h i s present v o c a t i o n , B's e a r l y r o l e w i t h i n the fa m i l y as a s p e c i a l channel f o r love and nurturance had expanded t o e x p e r i e n c i n g h i m s e l f as i n a s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the g l o b a l human community: I a c t u a l l y sense t h i s t h i n g of t a k i n g the next step that the s p e c i e s has to take. In a sense, I'm doing a kind of g l o b a l shamanism t r i p r e a l l y , i n terms of v i s i o n and knowledge ... I have a very strong sense about that ... that i n v o l v e s a much higher l e v e l of c r e a t i v i t y and e x p l o r a t i o n r e a l l y than the other forms of c o m p e t i t i o n , the more pers o n a l ones. B l a t e r p l a c e d the scope of h i s expanded "channel" r o l e on a grander s c a l e drawing the metaphor of himself as a " s a t e l l i t e tuning s t a t i o n " with a sense of s p e c i a l and f u l f i l l e d purpose i n h i s r o l e as "Cosmic D e t e c t i v e ... c o n s t a n t l y tuning i n on what's a c t u a l l y going on ... i n the cosmos." In summation, B's t r a n s i t i o n r e f l e c t e d a s h i f t from e n a c t i n g the male p r i n c i p l e of p e r s o n a l competitiveness and p o w e r - s t r i v i n g to e n a c t i n g the female p r i n c i p l e of an expanded e x p l o r a t i o n and c h a n n e l i n g of l o v e : I guess f o r me i n the end i t ' s about making connections ... and one way of making connections i s r e a l l y competing with somebody ... there's that sense of r e a l l y , r e a l l y g r a p p l i n g , coming i n t o combat with somebody and t h a t ' s t e r r i f i c and s o r t of l o c k i n g horns and being r i g h t there and c h r r r - very powerful, p a s s i o n a t e t h i n g . But I do that now much with my e x p l o r a t i o n i n t o the cosmos - l i k e I'm p l a y i n g with the whole idea of morphogenetic f i e l d s a l o t now i n my p a i n t i n g and I'm making r e a l connections there and i t ' s the same f e e l i n g as competing only I'm not competing with anything ... There's the same combative s t r u g g l e to p l a y i n g on the edge of knowledge and understanding and of t a k i n g the next step and popping that one open. 82 CASE STUDY C Background C was a 37 year o l d d i v o r c e d male; h i s two school-age c h i l d r e n l i v e d with him i n an urban c o o p e r a t i v e housing development. C s V o c a t i o n 1 was i n the f i e l d of automotive mechanics; h i s 13-year c a r e e r i n c l u d e d a four-year t r a i n i n g and a p p r e n t i c e s h i p p e r i o d . C s l a s t f u l l - t i m e p o s i t i o n i n t h i s f i e l d was as a s e n i o r mechanic, s u p e r v i s i n g s t a f f and doing "hands-on" work. During the subsequent nine years, C was a s u c c e s s f u l entrepreneur, and par t - t i m e teacher of mechanics. At age 34, C s h i f t e d t o Vo c a t i o n 2, i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , working as a "human s e r v i c e s worker." He obtained p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , and at the time of t h i s study was working towards completion of h i s B.A. i n a r e l a t e d area, with a view towards d o c t o r a l l e v e l work i n the f u t u r e . C grew up i n England i n an upper m i d d l e - c l a s s Jewish household. One of four c h i l d r e n , he was brother to a s i s t e r three years h i s j u n i o r i n h i s s i b l i n g subset; he grew up q u i t e s e p a r a t e l y from the two o l d e r s i b l i n g s , who were teenagers when he was a small c h i l d . Father was a p h y s i c i a n ; mother was a housewife. A working-class I r i s h - C a t h o l i c nanny played a c e n t r a l r o l e i n h i s e a r l y 83 y e a r s ; she was present more o f t e n i n h i s d a i l y l i f e than e i t h e r parent, and C experienced t h i s as an important bond. Family Experience S e v e r a l elements i n C's e a r l y experience suggested that he was d i s c o n n e c t e d from h i s own f a m i l y u n i t of b i r t h , and r e l a t i v e l y more a f f i l i a t e d with a "surrogate f a m i l y , " comprised of h i s w o r k i n g - c l a s s , I r i s h - C a t h o l i c Nanny, c h a u f f e u r , and boyhood f r i e n d and h i s f a m i l y . With respect to h i s own s i b l i n g group, C was e x p e r i e n t i a l l y an only c h i l d f o r the e a r l i e s t p a r t of h i s l i f e . Though he was the t h i r d male c h i l d , he was the f i r s t b o r n and only male i n h i s s i b l i n g sub-set, as the f i r s t two were s e v e r a l years h i s s e n i o r : There's a schism i n my f a m i l y between my two s i b l i n g s who grew up through adolescence with a f a m i l y , and myself and [younger] s i b l i n g who grew up mostly with a nanny. Of h i s younger s i b l i n g , C had no r e c o l l e c t i o n of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e f o r e C was 11, when they shared the experience of the death of t h e i r f a t h e r . From that p o i n t on, he experienced a warm, s u p p o r t i v e , and l o v i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s s i s t e r . C b e l i e v e d that an e a r l y , deep, and w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d l o v i n g bond paved the way f o r the intimacy they have shared s i n c e the time of t h e i r f a t h e r ' s death. 84 As with s i s t e r , C had no r e c o l l e c t i o n of h i s mother u n t i l a f t e r h i s f a t h e r ' s death: Mother i s h a r d l y i n the p i c t u r e . The f i r s t image I have i s her h y s t e r i a and i n a b i l i t y to f u n c t i o n a f t e r f a t h e r d i e d . C e r t a i n l y not of importance. C s e a r l y sense of d i s c o n n e c t i o n from h i s own f a m i l y extended to h i s experience and r e c o l l e c t i o n s of h i s f a t h e r . For most of h i s a d u l t l i f e , C viewed h i s f a t h e r as e x c l u s i v e l y focused on work and achievement to the p o i n t of being "sado-masochistic." C remembered h i s f a t h e r as concerned with C s o l e l y i n r e l a t i o n to C s academic performance and achievement. However, C s i n d i r e c t experience of h i s f a t h e r was c o n s i d e r a b l y more p o s i t i v e l y connoted. C s t a t e d that he observed h i s f a t h e r i n t e r a c t i n g a great d e a l with h i s b r o t h e r s ( C s u n c l e s ) . C admired and i n t e g r a t e d what he saw as generously s u p p o r t i v e b r o t h e r l i n e s s i n t o h i s own concept of himself as a b r o t h e r . I t was only w i t h i n the past year, C re p o r t e d , that a review of h i s e a r l y l i f e experience provided him with the p e r s p e c t i v e that h i s f a t h e r was motivated by humanitarian i d e a l s of s e r v i c e to mankind. Given the age and gender gap among h i s s i b l i n g group, remoteness of mother i n every sense, and C s r e j e c t i o n of h i s f a t h e r ' s single-minded focus on achievement, C was v i r t u a l l y an o u t s i d e r i n r e l a t i o n to h i s own f a m i l y u n i t . C d i d , however, develop an a l t e r n a t i v e a f f i l i a t i o n and sense of f a m i l y belonging with h i s nanny, c h a u f f e u r , and boyhood f r i e n d and h i s f a m i l y . 85 In a d d i t i o n to spending a v a s t l y g r e a t e r number of hours with t h i s surrogate f a m i l y than with h i s own, many elements of s e l f were experienced, allowed e x p r e s s i o n , and developed i n r e l a t i o n to surrogate f a m i l y f i g u r e s . In C's own words: [Chauffeur] t r e a t e d me very e q u a l l y . He gave me some s o r t of c o g n i t i o n . He helped me make t h i n g s . My dad never d i d t h a t , i t was a l l about academics and grades and such ... (This l a t t e r r e f e r e n c e to f a t h e r was s a i d i n a t i g h t e n e d v o i c e and a c c u s a t o r y tone.) S i m i l a r l y , i n r e l a t i o n to Nanny, C f e l t " r e s p e c t e d . " Contact with h i s "surrogate f a m i l y " was more than c i r c u m s t a n t i a l ; C f r e q u e n t l y sought t h i s out. Of h i s boyhood f r i e n d and h i s f a m i l y , he s a i d : We were c l o s e f r i e n d s ; he was working c l a s s . These people were poor compared to my f a m i l y , but there seemed to be a l o t more warmth than my own f a m i l y . I t was e a s i e r f o r me to r e l a x t h e r e , not so a n t i s e p t i c . Even a f t e r I went away to boarding s c h o o l , when I'd come home, I c o u l d n ' t wait to get out of my own home and go over t h e r e . 'Gran' was on the porch i n her shawl. There wasn't the a i r of 'properness' l i k e there was i n my own home, i t wasn't s p i c and span. There were s m e l l s . There was always tea on the t a b l e . In s h o r t , C's e a r l y experience combined elements he a s s o c i a t e d with the European, I r i s h - C a t h o l i c working c l a s s -h i g h l y d e l i n e a t e d s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g , emphasis on males developing manual competencies and an e a r t h y , r e l a x e d i n t e r p e r s o n a l s t y l e - together with elements he a s s o c i a t e d with European, Jewish, upper-middle c l a s s - emphasis on 86 development of conceptual s k i l l s , and an i n t e r p e r s o n a l s t y l e based on r i g i d o b s e r v a t i o n of codes of p r o p r i e t y and e t i q u e t t e . V o c a t i o n 1 As a mechanic, C was not very c l o s e to h i s a c t u a l or i d e a l s e l v e s (.25/.37), suggesting he was not f u l l y 'at home' in t h i s r o l e . C suggested that he was somehow a l i e n a t e d from h i s e s s e n t i a l nature i n t h i s r o l e : In p e r s o n a l i t y I'm very s i m i l a r to him ( f a t h e r ) . I took on h i s r o l e model, i n terms of my p s y c h o l o g i c a l make-up, and I i n v a l i d a t e d a l o t of that by becoming a mechanic. In a l a t e r e l a b o r a t i o n on t h i s theme, C e x p l a i n e d that the r e p e t i t i v e aspect of being a mechanic d i d not allow f o r e x p r e s s i o n of the c r e a t i v i t y he viewed as c e n t r a l to h i s e s s e n t i a l nature. In h i s r o l e as mechanic, C was l i k e s e l f - a s - s o n (.44). When t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n was shared with C, he concluded that the Q-sort p r o f i l e of s e l f - a s - s o n r e v e a l e d h i s r o l e as s e l f - a s - s u r r o g a t e son to Nanny, rather than s o n - t o - h i s p a r e n t s : ... a l a r g e m a j o r i t y of my e a r l y c h i l d h o o d was spent i n the company of my Nanny, who was working c l a s s . D e f i n i t e l y , my i n t i m a t e c o n t a c t i n my formative years what, 1-5? - were with my Nanny ... I suspect she p r o j e c t e d ... her needs onto me, as a son ... 'Nanny's son' was somebody who was very pragmatic, who c o u l d f i x t h i n g s and who c o u l d look a f t e r Nanny i n many ways ... who would come up to the standards or the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the male s t e r e o t y p e ... That r o l e was not s t e r e o t y p e d from my Jewish f a m i l y . 87 In t h i s arena, c o l l e a g u e s and bosses corresponded n e g a t i v e l y to s i s t e r (-.40/-.48/-.43). In other words, they enacted r o l e s seen as c o n t r a r y to the warm bond and emotional openness experienced with s i s t e r . C d e s c r i b e d t h i s as an environment of "constant c o m p e t i t i o n " : ... That c o m p e t i t i o n e x h i b i t e d i t s e l f i n a r e a l u n w i l l i n g n e s s to share i n f o r m a t i o n and a r e a l u n w i l l i n g n e s s f o r people to support each other i n accomplishment of t h e i r g o a l s . The goals may c o n s i s t of f i n i s h i n g an engine ... and the f a c t o r s are, maybe, l e n d i n g t o o l s ... There was very l i t t l e w i l l i n g n e s s to cooperate between the men. I t appeared that i n h i s f i r s t v o c a t i o n a l r o l e , C re-enacted the drama o f ' h i s s urrogate f a m i l y , r e - c r e a t i n g the r o l e of a son of a working c l a s s I r i s h - C a t h o l i c "mother" and s i t u a t i n g h i m s e l f i n a s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e / a r e n a c o n s i s t e n t with t h i s r o l e . V o c a t i o n 2 As a human s e r v i c e s worker, C was l i k e s i s t e r (.48), Nanny (.31), and l i k e himself i n h i s e a r l y l i f e r o l e s as son and brother (.36;.37). In t h i s r o l e he was a l s o more l i k e h i s a c t u a l and i d e a l s e l v e s than i n the f i r s t v o c a t i o n a l r o l e (.56;.66). T h i s c o r r e l a t i o n with both a c t u a l and i d e a l s e l v e s was c o r r o b o r a t e d by the f u l l n e s s of C's experience i n t h i s v o c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t : I t f e e l s f u l f i l l i n g . I t ' s s a t i s f y i n g , i t ' s f u l f i l l i n g ... and i t f e e l s to some extent that I've a r r i v e d , i t f e e l s i n t e g r a t e d ... t h i s i s where I belong. When I'm working I'm engaged in my work, I'm not preoccupied ... I'm engaged i n what I'm a c t u a l l y doing. 88 It seemed t h a t , as a human s e r v i c e s worker, C enacted aspects of Nanny which were more c o n s i s t e n t with h i s a c t u a l s e l f , and i d e n t i f i e d more with f i g u r e s from h i s f a m i l y - o f - b i r t h . C drew a l i n e of c o n t i n u i t y between h i s v o c a t i o n a l r o l e , s e l f - a s - b r o t h e r , Nanny, and h i s s i s t e r (who has worked in the s o c i a l s e r v i c e f i e l d a l l of her a d u l t l i f e ) : ... as a brother to my s i s t e r ... i t was a s u p p o r t i v e r o l e , a very c a r i n g r o l e ... n u r t u r i n g r o l e , p r o t e c t i v e r o l e . Again, Nanny was a n u r t u r e r , a developer, an empathist ... and a l l of those were p a r t s of Nanny that I i n t e g r a t e d i n t o my p e r s o n a l i t y . ... one of the t h i n g s I'm r e a l i z i n g about my present p o s i t o n which I f i n d so d e s i r a b l e i s , t h e r e ' s a r e a l warm f e e l i n g between my c o o r d i n a t o r and myself ... I c a l l i t a ' b r o t h e r l y ' f e e l i n g but i t ' s not r e a l l y the f e e l i n g I had f o r any of my b r o t h e r s ... t h i s i s a very much ' s i s t e r l y ' f e e l i n g , or m e - a s - b r o t h e r - t o - a - s i s t e r ... t h e r e ' s a s t r o n g element of mutual r e c i p r o c i t y and c a r i n g ... I t takes work out of the realm of being e f f o r t f u l i n t o the realm of being a labour of lo v e , or almost worship. C s experience i n V o c a t i o n 2 was c o n s i s t e n t with the o b s e r v a t i o n s t h a t , i n comparison to V o c a t i o n 1, h i s present c o l l e a g u e s tended towards being l i k e s i s t e r s (.52; .22; .17). In h i s Vo c a t i o n 2, C seemed to be r e - e n a c t i n g the drama of s e l f - a s - b r o t h e r - t o - s i s t e r . The essence of t h i s enactment i n v o l v e d c o o p e r a t i o n , r e c e p t i v i t y and emotional a v a i l a b i l i t y p a r a l l e l i n g the s a l i e n t female f i g u r e s i n e a r l y l i f e . C d e s c r i b e d the theme as " i n t e g r a t i n g the ou t s t a n d i n g female p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n my background 89 V o c a t i o n a l T r a n s i t i o n In s w i t c h i n g from a s u p e r v i s o r i n mechanics to a human s e r v i c e s worker, C seemed to be s w i t c h i n g from i d e n t i f y i n g with and r e - e n a c t i n g the s u r r o g a t e - f a m i l y p a r e n t - c h i l d drama, to r e - e n a c t i n g the c e n t r a l - s i b l i n g drama of h i s f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n . In the f i r s t , he was r e - e n a c t i n g the borrowed or adopted drama of h i s surrogate f a m i l y , f i l l i n g the gap l e f t by h i s r e j e c t i o n of h i s f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n . In the second i n s t a n c e , there was a re-embracing of the f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n f i g u r e s and drama. He came f u l l c i r c l e to embrace f a t h e r ' s v a l u i n g of conceptual development i m p l i c i t i n the emphasis on academic achievement: With mechanics i t ' s a l l t h e r e . I t ' s a process that I've l e a r n t a l r e a d y ... i t ' s very concrete ... and d e a l i n g i n an i n t a n g i b l e environment rather than a t a n g i b l e environment ... i t ' s the d i f f e r e n c e between a wrench and a t h e r a p e u t i c t o o l . A wrench you can grab ahold of i t and a t h e r a p e u t i c t o o l i s conceptual ... i t ' s a p r e - r e q u i s i t e to me to c r e a t e , to be able to c o n c e p t u a l i z e . It w i l l be r e c a l l e d here that the "ground" behind C s s i b l i n g drama was h i s i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p with, and mod e l l i n g o f , f a t h e r , s p e c i f i c a l l y f a t h e r - a s - b r o t h e r . In terms of meaning a s s o c i a t i o n s , the switch to r e - e n a c t i n g the " s i s t e r l y drama" of b r o t h e r - t o - s i s t e r suggested C had i n t e g r a t e d the female as a p r i n c i p l e i n t o h i s r o l e p a t t e r n s . H i s conscious a s s o c i a t i o n of sup p o r t i v e and n u r t u r i n g 9 0 behaviours with only the s a l i e n t female f i g u r e s i n h i s l i f e may r e f l e c t both h i s present perception of f a t h e r and the pervasive c u l t u r a l mythology a s s o c i a t i n g the feminine e x c l u s i v e l y with females. This was borne out i n C's own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the meaning of h i s v o c a t i o n a l s h i f t : ... i t has to do with the whole concept of power - of women's power - which i s c o r r e l a t e d i n my mind and experience to non-suppression of emotions [and] the whole d i s t o r t e d myth of the source of power i n the world which r e l a t e s to ... the whole concept of God as a man or woman ... In summation of the e n t i r e research i n t e r v i e w process, C concluded by sharing a f o l k t a l e with the f o l l o w i n g moral: ... i f you spend your l i f e doing what everybody e l s e asks of you, you may lose your 'ass.' He ended with a p r i v a t e chuckle and i n d i c a t e d he could not a r t i c u l a t e the meaning of the s t o r y or moral, but s a i d that i t was p e r f e c t l y apt i n terms of h i s l i f e s t o r y . Perhaps, out of a s u r v i v a l i n s t i n c t not to lose h i s 'ass,' or s e n s e - o f - s e l f i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l terms, C's e a r l y adoption of, and l a t e r r e - c r e a t i o n of a surrogate f a m i l y drama, allowed him to re-discover and more co n s c i o u s l y choose to re-enact the s i b l i n g drama a s s o c i a t e d with s i s t e r and f a t h e r , rather than c a p i t u l a t i n g to strong p a r e n t a l expectations at an e a r l i e r v o c a t i o n a l stage. 91 CASE STUDY D Background D was a 36 year o l d male; he worked out of an o f f i c e i n h i s house, where he l i v e d with h i s wife and two teenage daughters. His V o c a t i o n 1 was as a s o c i a l worker and spanned a p e r i o d of more than seven y e a r s . F i r s t r e c o g n i z i n g i n h i s e a r l y teens that he had str o n g "people s k i l l s , " D l a t e r sought work in s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . Without academic c r e d e n t i a l s i n the f i e l d , D faked years of experience i n order to o b t a i n an e n t r y - l e v e l p o s i t i o n w i t h i n p r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . He was soon "promoted" to a p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l worker p o s i t i o n d u r i n g a r e - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of government jobs. D's p o s i t i o n s i n s o c i a l work focused p r i m a r i l y on work with a d o l e s c e n t s , s t r e e t youth and those i n group homes. He l e f t the f i e l d a b r u p t l y , prompted by a sense that the work presented an i n c r e a s i n g amount of p o t e n t i a l v i o l e n c e . A f t e r a couple of years of i n t e r i m work, D began managing h i s own company, a wholesale d i s t r i b u t o r of n o v e l t y items (Vocation 2). At the time of t h i s study, he had been doing t h i s work f o r f i v e y ears, h i s business employed f o r t y salesmen and he claimed to be w i t h i n s i g h t of a c h i e v i n g h i s goal of being a m i l l i o n a i r e . 92 D grew up i n Montreal i n a Jewish, middle c l a s s f a m i l y as the o l d e r of i d e n t i c a l twins. H i s f a t h e r was a s a l e s manager; h i s mother was a housewife. Family Experience Being an i d e n t i c a l twin meant that there was a c l o s e peer n e a r l y always at hand in the f a m i l y c o n t e x t . D i n d i c a t e d , i n a metaphorical d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s twin b r o t h e r , t h a t having a twin enhanced h i s self-development: He was an ongoing m i r r o r of the other s i d e of me. I got to see aspects of myself that I might not otherwise have acknowledged so completely, every day, a l l the time. Being a twin was c e n t r a l to e v e r y t h i n g about my e a r l y l i f e . In other words, D's experience of h i s twin brother as an ever-present peer, provided him with almost constant r e c o g n i z a b l e source of feedback on s e l f . Furthermore, being a twin was c e n t r a l to D's experience of h i s mother. As he saw i t , she was overwhelmed by having to d e a l with twin boys, and r e t r e a t e d i n t o the t a s k - f o c u s of domestic d u t i e s . I n t e r a c t i o n with mother was d i s t a n t , c o l o u r e d by her f e a r of the twins: ... My mother was always a f r a i d of us from about three to four months. We were always too much to handle, being a twin. And having two i n f a n t s at once was a l o t f o r her to handle. 93 Father worked long hours and was "not around a l o t . " D s p e c u l a t e d t h a t f a t h e r ' s absence and mother's remoteness were the b a s i s f o r h i s c o n c l u d i n g "... I go t t a make i t on my own." I r o n i c a l l y then, when f a t h e r was present D resented i t , as t h i s c r e a t e d c o n f l i c t with h i s " g o - i t - a l o n e " s u r v i v a l method. Boyhood heroes were important i n D's e a r l y l i f e , as w e l l . When q u e r i e d D was n o t i c a b l y more animated, f l u s h e d , and focused i n r e c a l l i n g h i s a f f i l i a t i o n to h i s heroes, than when speaking of e i t h e r parent. In p a r t i c u l a r , Superman was d e s c r i b e d as " i n v u l n e r a b l e . " D was unable to a r t i c u l a t e f u r t h e r on the r o l e of Superman s t a t i n g simply that "Superman i s Superman, the u l t i m a t e hero." I f heroes f i g u r e l a r g e l y as a needed p r o j e c t i o n of an aspect of s e l f , then an experience of i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y was c e n t r a l to D's e a r l y l i f e . T h i s was c o r r o b o r a t e d by an i n s t a n c e D r e l a t e d : I d i d whatever I wanted most of the time, and she [mother] t o l d me once that from the age of 3 or 4 she c o u l d never f o r c e me to do anything, those were her words. In response to my q u e s t i o n s ... 'why d i d n ' t you f o r c e me to go to Y i d d i s h school so I c o u l d l e a r n Y i d d i s h ? ' she s a i d 'who c o u l d f o r c e yo to do anything? From the age of s i x I c o u l d never f o r c e you to do anything.' Those were her words, but I know i t s t a r t e d much e a r l i e r . And f u r t h e r to t h i s p o i n t : ... I grew up with a parent f i g u r e who was i n t i m i d a t e d by me - another reason to j u s t i f y being Superman ... I must have been i f my parents - these b i g , o l d people who knew what went on i n l i f e ... i f they were a f r a i d of me, I must be something powerful. 94 More broadly, D's i n d i r e c t experience of h i s paren t s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y of f a t h e r , was that they were s o c i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e , v i t a l people: "My parents were p r o g r e s s i v e l y minded people. They were l e f t - w i n g p o l i t i c a l l y , a c t i v e - s o c i a l l y , and they cared fo r people. They p a r t i c i p a t e d i n l i f e - they had some 'yes-man' i n them, but i t wasn't predominant. T h i s dimension was experienced l a r g e l y through D's o b s e r v a t i o n of h i s parents' s o c i a l l i f e and a c t i v i t i e s p e r i p h e r a l to the f a m i l y u n i t . V o c a t i o n 1 As a s o c i a l worker, D was l i k e h i s f a t h e r (.356) and h i s c h i l d h o o d hero, Superman, (.379). He was a l s o c l o s e to h i s a c t u a l s e l f i n t h i s r o l e (.43). When these o b s e r v a t i o n s were shared with D he confirmed them d e f i n i t i v e l y , and e l a b o r a t e d : That's t r u e , that f i t s . My f a t h e r ' s whole l i f e i s d e d i c a t e d to t a k i n g care of h i s c h i l d r e n - m a k i n g sure, i n h i s words get t h i s , i n h i s words, making sure h i s c h i l d r e n 'never go hungry and have a roof over t h e i r heads' - as the b a s i c t h i n g s a s o c i a l worker does i s p r o v i d e food, c l o t h i n g , and s h e l t e r ... and, Superman! Of course! The i d e a l s o c i a l worker, a good S a m a r i t a n -doesn't even stop to eat or pee, to h e l p people ... the f a t h e r l y man of s t e e l , t h a t ' s how I was as a s o c i a l worker ... the r o l e that I acted out, the game I was p l a y i n g was be the v e r y s t r o n g f a t h e r , s a v i n g the day, not r e a l l y l e t t i n g them do i t f o r themselves. D's p e r s p e c t i v e s on s o c i a l work were c o n s i s t e n t with the o b s e r v a t i o n s that other f i g u r e s i n t h i s v o c a t i o n a l arena were a l s o l i k e f a t h e r , or opposite t o hero, the adequate 95 saving the inadequate or the inept s e r v i n g the inadequate, ( l i k e f a t h e r : .31/.33; op p o s i t e hero: -.57/-.40). D e x p l a i n e d : Those were the people I was working with - t o t a l fuck-ups, o u t - i n t e g r i t y , yes-men, incompetent, paranoid, i n s e c u r e people ... The other people were s i n c e r e people, warm people who were there doing the job more or l e s s as best they c o u l d . In t h i s r o l e , D appeared to be r e - e n a c t i n g the h e r o i c and f a t h e r l y dramas of the powerful adequate c a r e t a k i n g and p r o t e c t i n g dependents. V o c a t i o n 2 As i n h i s f i r s t c a r e e r , D remained c l o s e to h i s a c t u a l s e l f , as an entrepreneur (.45). In t h i s r o l e , however, he was not s i m i l a r to any e a r l y l i f e f i g u r e s . T h i s l a t t e r o b s e r v a t i o n prompted him to d e s c r i b e h i m s e l f as a "self-made man." D's equating being an entrepreneur with being "a self-made man" r e l a t e d to l i v i n g out a sense of p e r s o n a l d e s t i n y : I've always had some l i t t l e e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l streak i n me. So being i n t h i s i t ' s not l i k e i t ' s t o t a l l y new ... and I've always seen myself as very connected with my r o o t s , human r o o t s throughout h i s t o r y ... I i d e n t i f y with the f i r s t t r a d e r s who c r e a t e d roads between c i t i e s , who forwarded c i v i l i z a t i o n ... Although D d i d not appear to be s i m i l a r to f a t h e r based on the Q-sort c o r r e l a t i o n s , h i s sense of having a p e r s o n a l part i n forwarding c i v i l i z a t i o n appeared to be connected with f a t h e r : 96 My dad i s an entrepreneur too. I'm b a s i c a l l y doing a s i m i l a r type of a c t i v i t y t h a t he was i n most of h i s l i f e . He was a self-made man. I t ' s almost l i k e ... I have a karmic d e s t i n y to repeat h i s p a t t e r n and complete i t ... I'm t a k i n g the same route to doing t h i n g s that he d i d - but he d i d n ' t have the o p p o r t u n i t y of anything e l s e , I d i d . I c o u l d have done t h i n g s d i f f e r e n t l y . I'm r e p e a t i n g some of the t h i n g s - s t a r t i n g a small business i s something he d i d ; I'm doing i t ... he used to go to g i f t shows, I go to g i f t shows ... s t r o n g c o i n c i d e n c e : once a week he would take t h i s t r i p to s e r v i c e some of h i s accounts i n the i n t e r i o r of Quebec. Once a week I go down to Bellingham. Strong s i m i l a r i t i e s ... I'm i n the process of s e l l i n g my American business now - he's been wanting to s e l l h i s business f o r years ... I'm very c l o s e to c l o s i n g a deal now. When I do t h a t , that w i l l complete fo r me, h i s incompletion i n that area. In t h i s arena, others around D were l i k e h i s hero (.45) or l i k e h i s twin brother (.31). In t a l k i n g about h i s present working arena, D d e s c r i b e d himself as having moved away from a p a t r o n i z i n g stance to one where others are c r e d i t e d with more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , r e s u l t i n g i n more e g a l i t a r i a n i s m : ... I t ' s not l i k e I'm working with c l i e n t s . I'm working with peers on a l e v e l . People are out there r e s p o n s i b l e fo r what they're doing ... I'm p l a y i n g with bigger people ... And what's dropped - there's p a r t of being a parent, what I d e s c r i b e d as being p a t r o n i z i n g - t h a t ' s suckhold-y i n a way ... t h e r e ' s part of being a parent that assumes that the c h i l d i s not okay, i s not f u l l , i s not capable, i s not whole, and so I am not r e l a t i n g to that aspect of people. A d d i t i o n a l l y , D d e s c r i b e d h i s s i t u a t i o n as surrounding himse l f with "winners" r a t h e r than " l o s e r s . " 97 V o c a t i o n a l T r a n s i t i o n In terms of f a m i l y , the t r a n s i t i o n from s o c i a l worker to entrepreneur appeared to r e f l e c t a s h i f t from D en a c t i n g one aspect of f a t h e r to e n a c t i n g a d i f f e r e n t aspect of f a t h e r . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , from e n a c t i n g the r o l e of f a t h e r - a s - f a t h e r to e n a c t i n g the r o l e of f a t h e r - a s - e n t r e p r e n e u r . I t was as i f D had i n i t i a l l y equated performance i n the a d u l t world with p a r e n t i n g t a s k s , and i n c o r p o r a t e d t h i s i n t o h i s v o c a t i o n a l f o c u s . In h i s l a t e r , more matured view, a d u l t performance was equated with l i v i n g out one's d e s t i n y which, f o r him, meant f u r t h e r i n g humanity by extending the work of the preceding g e n e r a t i o n . D concurred with t h i s a n a l y s i s : ... before I was t r y i n g to be a p a t t e r n . I was e i t h e r a b i g f a t h e r f i g u r e or a hero f i g u r e or a brother f i g u r e ... I've been able to allow my a c t u a l s e l f to show up ... so t h a t ' s been a r e a l s h i f t f o r me, not p u t t i n g so much energy i n t o t r y i n g to be a c e r t a i n way, rather j u s t being the way I am ... D put t h i s i n terms of being i m i t a t i v e of f a t h e r ' s " p e r s o n a l i t y " versus i m i t a t i n g h i s " a c t i v i t i e s " : (In s o c i a l work) I was l i k e h i s p e r s o n a l i t y and here I show up l i k e what he does - that was the do-er and t h i s i s the deed. In my other job I was 'being' l i k e he was 'being' - how he was. In t h i s job I am 'doing' what he d i d , p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the same a c t i v i t i e s . 98 Without the f i l t e r of i m i t a t i n g f a t h e r ' s way of being, D was l e f t with only the e x p r e s s i o n of h i s a c t u a l s e l f i n h i s e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l r o l e ; he put t h i s i n terms of i n c r e a s e d " r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " : I'm t a k i n g f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e v e r y t h i n g t h a t ' s going on r i g h t now and I never d i d b e f o r e . 99 CASE STUDY E Background E was a d i v o r c e d man in h i s e a r l y f i f t i e s ; he l i v e d alone with h i s pet dogs i n a p l u s h apartment i n the urban core of a Western Canadian c i t y . Two re s e a r c h meetings took p l a c e i n t h i s apartment; there was another meeting i n h i s e q u a l l y p l u s h country home. At the time of t h i s r e s e a r c h E was s e p a r a t i n g from the woman he had l i v e d with f o r j u s t over a year. With a Ph.D. i n psychology, E's V o c a t i o n 1 was as a c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t f u n c t i o n i n g i n a c o n v e n t i o n a l p r i v a t e p r a c t i c e . The work e n t a i l e d c o u n s e l l i n g one-to-one and l e c t u r i n g . He was among the f i r s t p r i v a t e p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n h i s f i e l d i n Western Canada. Though remaining i n the f i e l d of psychology, E s h i f t e d h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l focus from that of a r e l a t i v e l y c o n v e n t i o n a l c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t , t o that of a t r a n s p e r s o n a l p s y c h o l o g i s t (Vocation 2 ) . In t h i s r o l e , E worked and s t u d i e d with many " h e a l e r s " who d e r i v e d t h e i r s k i l l s and background from thought domains and systems he r e f e r r e d to as " p s y c h i c . " More than simply a move towards s p e c i a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n the o r i g i n a l v o c a t i o n a l domain, the p r o f e s s i o n a l s h i f t was one f a c e t of a dramatic p e r v a s i v e l i f e r e - o r i e n t a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g to E. In h i s own words, the 100 new v o c a t i o n a l focus evolved out of a "traumatic experience which s h a t t e r e d [ h i s ] view of the world." He grew up i n c e n t r a l Canada as the youngest of four sons to E a s t e r n European immigrant parents, d u r i n g The Depression. His parents owned and worked together i n a c o n f e c t i o n a r y shop. Family Experience E's e a r l y l i f e was l a r g e l y an experience of " j o y l e s s drudgery." He was a "very somber, s e r i o u s c h i l d , " l a c k i n g e i t h e r the o p p o r t u n i t y or s p i r i t f o r play i n the f r i v o l o u s sense. On the c o n t r a r y , he was, i n h i s view, "an Old Man, u n t r u s t i n g of o t h e r s , " who resented h i s parents' seemingly e x c l u s i v e focus on work and s e r v i c e to others o u t s i d e the f a m i l y domain. He r e c a l l e d no a s s o c i a t i o n with h i s b r o t h e r s o u t s i d e t h e i r working r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the f a m i l y shop, a r e l a t i o n s h i p that was " t a sk-focused and harmonious." Mother and f a t h e r , both very "hard workers," gave of t h e i r time and a t t e n t i o n to s e l f l e s s l y serve people i n need. In r e l a t i o n to f a t h e r , E p r o v i d e d t h i s example: I can remember d u r i n g the Depression, g e t t i n g bags of food and he'd go out to people's houses t h a t he knew were poor and s t a r v i n g , leave the bag on the door, knock, and run away - he d i d n ' t want them to know who he was. E r e l a t e d s i m i l a r s t o r i e s about mother: for i n s t a n c e , she r e g u l a r l y " v i s i t e d the s i c k " i n h o s p i t a l throughout h i s growing up years and i n t o her l a t e r l i f e . While both parents p u r p o s e f u l l y gave of themselves i n 101 c h a r i t a b l e ways, mother stood apart i n E's r e c o l l e c t i o n as a person of tremendous e f f e r v e s c e n c e and g e n e r o s i t y of s p i r i t . T h i s was demonstrated to him, i n d i r e c t l y , through her ap p a r e n t l y "magnetic" e f f e c t on people. T y p i c a l l y , customers came i n t o the shop s p e c i f i c a l l y to see her, simply to be i n her presence. She gave each customer p e r s o n a l a t t e n t i o n , t r e a t e d each as an honoured v i s i t o r , and expressed concern about h i s or her p e r s o n a l w e l l - b e i n g . In r e t r o s p e c t , E viewed h i s mother's a c t i o n s as motivated by something more ba s i c than good salesmanship. Rather, he viewed her manner as i n d i c a t i v e of her h u m i l i t y and openly l o v i n g warmth as a person. V o c a t i o n 1 As a c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t E was somewhat l i k e mother (.339) and f a t h e r (.34), but was most l i k e s e l f - a s - b r o t h e r (.48). In t h i s r o l e E f r e q u e n t l y reached out i n c a r i n g ways beyond the l i m i t s of h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n . He r e l a t e d t h i s p r a c t i c e to both parents who, d e s p i t e t h e i r having to " s c r a t c h " out a l i v i n g , gave t h e i r resources p r o v i d i n g food to the poor and v i s i t i n g the s i c k . A d d i t i o n a l l y , he noted that one brother ( f i g u r e 10) "has a s i m i l a r o r i e n t a t i o n that way": We've both given money and taken care of people who co u l d n ' t a f f o r d to do c e r t a i n t h i n g s , and we've pr o v i d e d f o r people. 102 C o n s i s t e n t with the Q-sort p a r a l l e l to s e l f - a s - b r o t h e r , E d e s c r i b e d h i s own p r o f e s s i o n a l g e n e r o s i t y i n terms of c o n v e n t i o n a l n o t i o n s of " b r o t h e r l y l o v e " : ... why do I do i t ? I don't know. You t a l k about I'm more l i k e a brother ... t h e r e ' s s o r t of a b r o t h e r l y q u a l i t y . I see 'brothers,' t h a t we are each ot h e r s ' 'brother's keepers,' t h a t ' s what I see, and I've always abided by t h a t . S i m i l a r l y , E's c o l l e a g u e i n V o c a t i o n 1 was l i k e f a t h e r (.41). T h i s p a r a l l e l prompted a r e i t e r a t i o n of the l o v i n g , generous nature of h i s f a t h e r : (Colleague) I see him very much l i k e my f a t h e r , very s p i r i t u a l kind of guy, very g i v i n g , very very g i v i n g . (Colleague's) p r a c t i c e of going "beyond the c a l l of duty" had even earned him some n o t o r i e t y w i t h i n h i s own p r o f e s s i o n among those who deem i t " u n p r o f e s s i o n a l " to pro v i d e s e r v i c e s o u t s i d e s p e c i f i c and narrowly d e f i n e d parameters. In summary, i n V o c a t i o n 1, E appeared to be r e - e n a c t i n g the f a t h e r l y drama of l i v i n g out p r i n c i p l e s of " b r o t h e r l y l o v e . " V o c a t i o n 2 As a t r a n s p e r s o n a l p s y c h o l o g i s t , E appeared to be more m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l , t a k i n g a f t e r f a t h e r (.316), and s e l f - a s - b r o t h e r (.41) as i n h i s pr e v i o u s v o c a t i o n a l r o l e , but a l s o t a k i n g a f t e r mother (.47), s e l f - a s - s o n (.327) and s e l f - a s - f r i e n d (.333). 103 C o n s i s t e n t with t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n , others i n t h i s v o c a t i o n a l arena provided a more complete a r r a y of p a r a l l e l s to e a r l y f a m i l y f i g u r e s . C l i e n t A and 'Role Model A' were l i k e mother (.47/.436); C l i e n t s A and B, Role Model A and Colleague B were l i k e f a t h e r (.34/.32/.48/.35); Mentor was l i k e c h i l d h o o d peer (.40); C l i e n t A was l i k e s e l f - a s - f r i e n d (.33); Colleague B was l i k e Brother B (.32); and Role Model A was l i k e s e l f - a s - s o n (.36). In s h o r t , n e a r l y a l l f i g u r e s i n t h i s v o c a t i o n a l arena p a r a l l e l e d at l e a s t one e a r l y f a m i l y f i g u r e . The m u l t i p l e p a r a l l e l s between E's r o l e as a t r a n s p e r s o n a l p s y c h o l o g i s t and e a r l y r o l e f i g u r e s were c o n s i s t e n t with E's experience of i n c r e a s e d v o c a t i o n a l r o l e complexity: I t h i n k my r o l e d i v e r s i t y now i s f a r wider than i t was e a r l y i n my career or i n my c h i l d h o o d . E a r l y i n my c a r e e r I was C l i n i c a l c l i n i c a l , and now I'm - the r o l e d i v e r s i t y i s enormous and with each kind of, core r o l e , t h e r e ' s a whole o r b i t of d i f f e r e n t f r i e n d s and a s s o c i a t e s and a s s o c i a t i o n s . . . yeah, i t ' s r i c h e r and more fun now. Thus, E's own present " r o l e d i v e r s i t y " seemed to be c l e a r l y a s s o c i a t e d as w e l l with the "broader spectrum of f r i e n d s " he experienced at the time of the i n t e r v i e w . 104 V o c a t i o n a l T r a n s i t i o n In s h i f t i n g from the t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e of c l i n i c a l psychology to a v a r i e t y of p r o f e s s i o n a l p u r s u i t s i n t r a n s p e r s o n a l psychology, E seemed to have made a t r a n s i t i o n , or " c r e a t e d a b r i d g e " as he termed i t , from r e - e n a c t i n g the r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d e a r l y drama of r e s p o n s i b l e c h a r i t y , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of f a t h e r , to r e - e n a c t i n g the theme of l o v i n g openness c h a r a c t e r i z e d by mother: (I'm) going from un i d i m e n s i o n a l to m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l , and the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l i t y i n c l u d e s the added dimension of s p i r i t u a l i t y , higher sense of purpose, ... i t j u s t means an e n r i c h i n g . ( o f f t a p e ) : I f I were to put one word to i t , i t would be ' l o v i n g , ' more l o v i n g . ' For E, t h i s movement towards being more t r u s t i n g and l o v i n g i n h i s v o c a t i o n a l r o l e was a s s o c i a t e d with l i v i n g out a sense of p e r s o n a l d e s t i n y : My s h i f t from e a r l y c a r e e r to now seems n a t u r a l , there was nothing f o r c e d or d r i v e n about i t - i t unfo l d e d . Almost as i f (chuckle) there was some kind of purpose i n i t a l l ... In r e - e n a c t i n g a f a t h e r l y / b r o t h e r l y drama i n V o c a t i o n 1 i t seems E modelled himself b e h a v i o r a l l y a f t e r f a t h e r , without the deeper l e v e l i n t e g r a t i o n of a l o v i n g o r i e n t a t i o n o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with c h a r i t y . Rather, he was l i k e f a t h e r 105 b e h a v i o u r a l l y , yet repeated h i s e a r l y enactment of d i s t r u s t . I t seemed h i s g i v i n g "beyond the c a l l of duty" i n V o c a t i o n 1 was not a s s o c i a t e d with the joy of g i v i n g , but r a t h e r was a re-enactment of the e a r l y drama of being 'super' r e s p o n s i b l e and t a s k - o r i e n t e d . The t r a n s i t i o n to V o c a t i o n 2 p a r a l l e l e d an i n c r e a s e d presence of motherly f i g u r e s i n h i s l i f e , as w e l l as the i n c r e a s e d emphasis i n h i s own re-enactment of the motherly drama. Though the f i e l d of work remained c o n s t a n t , there was an expanded sense of purpose r e f l e c t e d by the i n f u s i o n of g r e a t e r "fun" and v i t a l i t y i n t o task performance. 1 06 CASE STUDY F Background F was a 32 year o l d female. At the time of the study she had been married 13 y e a r s , had a seven month o l d son, and was i n the l a s t month of a pregnancy leave from her work. She and her f a m i l y l i v e d i n a comfortable home in a middle c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l community of a western Canadian c i t y . F's f i r s t v o c a t i o n was as a s o c i a l worker; a f t e r a f o ur-year t r a i n i n g to o b t a i n a Bachelor's degree, she worked i n a government s o c i a l s e r v i c e p o s i t i o n f o r more than s i x y e a r s . V o c a t i o n 2, as a p r a c t i c i n g lawyer, r e q u i r e d F to r e t r a i n f o r m a l l y ; she had been in the f i e l d of law f o r 5 y e a r s . F grew up i n a small western Canadian c i t y , the youngest and only g i r l of 3 s i b l i n g s i n a m i d d l e - c l a s s Jewish f a m i l y . Born to " o l d e r p a r e n t s " ( f a t h e r was 50 and mother was 43 at the time of F's b i r t h ) , there was more than a 20-year gap between h e r s e l f and her b r o t h e r s . Father was a r e t a i l f u r r i e r ; mother was a housewife. Family Experience F's predominant experience of her e a r l y f a m i l y l i f e was of an atmosphere of v i t a l i t y , warmth, and l o v i n g 107 p l a y f u l n e s s . She r e c a l l e d that guests were welcomed openly and f r e q u e n t l y at the f a m i l y t a b l e , and t h a t her parents were openly a f f e c t i o n a t e with one another. F a t h e r , who d i e d when F was 11, was experienced as " q u i e t e r , more s e n s i t i v e ... and p l a y f u l , " i n comparison to mother; he was not focused on m a t e r i a l success as much as on human r e l a t i o n s h i p s : ( r e : dad) In a q u i e t e r , more g e n t l e way but the same s o r t of q u a l i t i e s ... my f a t h e r was a humanistic f u r r i e r ( l a u g h s ) . He was dumb enough not to go and get h i s insurance p o l i c i e s out of h i s business and go put them where they belong and they burnt up i n a f i r e ... and he l o s t , l i k e 100 grand ... and s t a r t e d over a g a i n . - j u s t a c r a z y guy - crazy n i c e . But very human. Even though he was i n business he wasn't l i k e the businessmen I see - so as a r e s u l t he wasn't p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l ... He used to do t h i n g s l i k e : I remember once c r y i n g and being r e a l l y crabby - j u s t t e r r i b l e and he was going to giv e me a s t r a p ... I'm running up the s t a i r s and he's t r y i n g to f o l l o w me at the same time takes the s t r a p o f f h i s pants and h i s pants s t a r t f a l l i n g o f f and he s t a r t s l a u g h i n g , and so d i d I ... we both sat down on the steps and s t a r t e d laughing ... or him k i s s i n g my mother at the fence when he went o f f to shu l F r i d a y n i g h t . She used to have to drag him home from the shul because he used to s i t there and t e l l s t o r i e s ... he'd s i t and draw and make poems up f o r me and s i n g to me ... S i m i l a r to f a t h e r , brother A a l s o d i e d when F was a c h i l d : He d i e d when I was 6. He was a very strong r o l e model, but mostly from what people t o l d me about him - I never knew him - i n terms of h i s a l l c a r i n g and a l l g i v i n g  nature ... He d i e d from l i v i n g - Diabetes - i n s u l i n -he j u s t d i d n ' t take care of h i m s e l f . 108 Again, as with f a t h e r , brother A was thought to exemplify l i v e d - o u t humanitarian i d e a l s . Although t h i s image was grounded i n the f a c t t h at brother A was a s o c i a l worker, F s p e c u l a t e d h i s e a r l y death c o n t r i b u t e d to a l a r g e r - t h a n - l i f e mythology i n r e l a t i o n to h i s humanitarianism: ... t h e r e ' s a myth surrounding my brother A, ... i n terms of the kind of person he was. Maybe not a myth but - l o t s of people knew him and I looked a l o t l i k e him, and I hung around p l a c e s where he was. People t a l k e d about him - a l o t . And he was a r e a l part of our f a m i l y . So there was an intense model a v a i l a b l e to me By c o n t r a s t , brother B was a r e l a t i v e l y d i s t a n t f i g u r e i n her e a r l y l i f e and only became more c e n t r a l i n adulthood: A's image was c l e a r e r to me then, than who B was as a person, e a r l y on. 'Cause I never r e a l l y knew - B was out, he was a teenager ... I never r e a l l y knew him ... I don't t h i n k I r e a l l y t a l k e d to him s e r i o u s l y u n t i l I was about 19, 20, 21 Once she d i d begin to engage with B d i r e c t l y , F developed an immense admiration and res p e c t f o r h i s sense of e t h i c s , and p r o f e s s i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s , as a lawyer. In p a r t i c u l a r , she c i t e d that he maintained h i g h p r o f e s s i o n a l standards while remaining e x c i t e d about h i s work a f t e r twenty years. In an e a r l i e r comment, F noted that brother B " p r a c t i s e s [law] with i n t e g r i t y and yet has not forsaken h i s own l i f e . " 109 V o c a t i o n 1 As a s o c i a l worker, F seemed to take a f t e r her mother and f a t h e r (.59/.54) and brother A (.51). She was not c l o s e to her a c t u a l or i d e a l s e l f i n t h i s r o l e , nor c l o s e to her i d e a l of a s o c i a l worker. ... In s o c i a l work you can't get f a c t s down on paper ... you have to be around o f t e n to see what r e s u l t s happen ... you always have a l l t h i s e f f o r t going out and sometimes you don't see what happens, and that use to d r i v e me c r a z y , sometimes ( l a u g h s ) . I l i k e to s o r t of know, what am I_ doing, along with a l l the other f o r c e s . I take p l e a s u r e i n seeing the f i n a l product ... I l i k e to see the i n t e l l e c t u a l t h i n g s o r t of narrow i t s e l f down i n t o something one can touch or f e e l or - yeah t h a t ' s i t . That F's s o c i a l work r o l e r e p r e s e n t e d a l i m i t a t i o n to a more v i v i d experience of p e r s o n a l power was f u r t h e r suggested by her o b s e r v a t i o n on s o c i a l workers as g e n e r a l i s t s : When you're standing i n Family Court and you're going ... 'In my o p i n i o n the k i d was d y s l e x i c ' - w e l l they don't l i s t e n to your o p i n i o n s on whether he was d y s l e x i c . They h i r e an expert! ... You may be a g g r e s s i v e as a s o c i a l worker, but i t doesn't get you a l l t h a t f a r , i n terms of c r e d i b i l i t y . . . The o b s e r v a t i o n that F was l i k e brother A as a s o c i a l worker, and l i k e brother B as a lawyer evoked l a u g h t e r and t h i s c o n f i r m a t i o n : That's good (laugh), brother A was the s o c i a l worker and brother B was the lawyer ( l a u g h t e r ) so t h a t ' s (laugh) ... t h a t ' s c a l l e d m o d e l l i n g ! (laughs) 1 10 S i m i l a r l y , to the o b s e r v a t i o n that the other f i g u r e s i n t h i s arena were l i k e brother A and f a t h e r , F again p r o v i d e d an unequivocal c o n f i r m a t i o n : Well, yeah! That's who they - I mean t h a t ' s s o c i a l work! ... He [A] used to b r i n g people home from o f f the s t r e e t . Passover at our house we'd have my mother and I, my brother and f a t h e r and 35 hookers from the corner downtown ... my brother would adopt from o f f the s t r e e t or h i s c l i e n t s came home f o r supper - that kind of person ... judging by the number of people he knew he must have been extremely warm, f r i e n d l y , open ... so I a s s o c i a t e those q u a l i t i e s with s o c i a l work. F at one p o i n t d e s c r i b e d s o c i a l workers as people who are "ambitious" r e g a r d i n g p l e a s u r e i n l i f e , but not i n r e l a t i o n to money. T h i s provided f u r t h e r support f o r the o b s e r v a t i o n that s e l f - a s - s o c i a l worker was l i k e f a t h e r , as her s t o r i e s of him r e v e a l a p l a y f u l , f u n - l o v i n g person who was not o b v i o u s l y focused on f i n a n c i a l success. V o c a t i o n 2 As a lawyer, F was much more l i k e her a c t u a l s e l f (.626) and her i d e a l s e l f (.62). I t has a l r e a d y been noted that as a lawyer F was l i k e brother B (.47), who was h i m s e l f a lawyer. T h i s l a t t e r c o r r e l a t i o n was supported by F's comment suggesting her view of brother B does not c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e h i s r o l e - a s - b r o t h e r , from h i s r o l e - a s - l a w y e r : He's famous f o r what he does; he's a f a i r l y w e l l known lawyer in Canada r i g h t now so the experience f o r him of being a lawyer i s q u i t e i n t e n s e . He's a lawyer a l l the time ... i t ' s a p a r t of him. 111 T h i s was a l s o c o n s i s t e n t with F's comment that she d i d not have a " r e a l c o n v e r s a t i o n " with him u n t i l "about age 19," at which time brother B was a l r e a d y a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d lawyer. The o b s e r v a t i o n that two of her three law c o l l e a g u e s were l i k e brother B, (.54/.43), e l i c i t e d a g r a t i f i e d c o n f i r m a t i o n and t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n : Brother B i s much more l a i d back. I don't t h i n k my brother owns a white s h i r t anymore ... he's much more to the l e f t than they are ... l i b e r a l and easy-going, l e s s c o n s e r v a t i v e than they a r e . In terms of i n t e g r i t y and honesty, yeah - there's s i m i l a r i t y there - but i n terms of how he comes a c r o s s ... he's l i k e 360° d i f f e r e n t than them ... they are l i k e brother B i n the sense that they have honesty and i n t e g r i t y and they're ambitious and whatever, but warmth and s e n s i t i v i t y - they're not l i k e him. H's (brother) more l i k e the i d e a l lawyer to me than they are .... The t h i r d c o l l e a g u e , who corresponded n e g l i g i b l y to brother B (-.10) and to a l l the e a r l y r o l e f i g u r e s (-.5/-.14/-.27/-.25/-.17/-.4/-.2), was viewed by F as i f he were an a l i e n f i g u r e i n her world: He's j u s t [ l a u g h t e r ] yuck! ... he's one of those misplaced human beings. His s o c i a l s k i l l s are about a four-and-a-half out of sixty-two [ l a u g h t e r ] . He's a n i t - p i c k y human being. He worries about form and not content ... j u s t a s i l l y person sometimes ... and he's pompous and arrogant ... I don't t r u s t him and I'm not sure I l i k e him a l l that much. V o c a t i o n a l T r a n s i t i o n As noted, F's second career seemed to be more congruent with her a c t u a l and i d e a l s e l v e s than her f i r s t v o c a t i o n . T h i s was c o n s i s t e n t with F's repeated 1 12 o b s e r v a t i o n s that her c u r r e n t v o c a t i o n a l context met her needs f o r r e c o g n i t i o n and f o r being " i n c o n t r o l " to a f a r g r e a t e r extent than her f i r s t v o c a t i o n : I l i k e t o be ... i n c o n t r o l . I l i k e to g i v e the p a r t y r a t h e r than have the p a r t y be given to me ... Although I a p p r e c i a t e the new and unexpected ... i t ' s comfortable to know what's going to happen ... I thought as a lawyer, I'd have more c o n t r o l . I t ' s more d e f i n i t e and a l s o I ' l l be able to c o n t r o l t h i n g s more. The t h i n g that bothered me about the s o c i a l work ... i s that i t a l l depends on the ebb and flow of the government ... [ i n law] i t was more d e f i n i t e what I was doing so that i f I accomplished something i t would be to a great degree my own accomplishment and that was important. I wanted to be able to see accomplishments in my l i f e , c o n c r e t e ones ... I guess I wanted to be more the s t a r and to get more c r e d i t f o r what I was doing than as a s o c i a l worker. Of V o c a t i o n 2 , however, F s t a t e d : [Now] I can d i s t a n c e myself from the s i t u a t i o n ... [people] are more r e s p o n s i b l e f o r themselves than I use to g i v e them c r e d i t f o r . I use to t h i n k I'd have to be there a l l the way through and was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t a l l and I used to put myself through motions, emotional motions and gymnastics, to worry about what they were doing or not doing and now I'm a l i t t l e more d i s t a n t from t h a t . I can d i s t a n c e myself from i t so I don't have to get an u l c e r every time somebody has an emotional experience ... I'm not so anxious. I t appeared that the meaning of the v o c a t i o n a l t r a n s i t i o n i n terms of the f a m i l y drama was a s h i f t from r e - e n a c t i n g an extreme degree of emotional v u l n e r a b i l i t y and s e l f - l e s s g i v i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y represented by brother A, to a re-enactment of a p o s i t i v e l y connoted s e l f - c e n t e r e d n e s s and s e l f - c o n t a i n m e n t as represented by brother B. T h i s can a l s o be s t a t e d more broadly as a s h i f t from intense and 1 13 h i g h - r i s k l i v i n g to one of more moderation and r e l a t i v e s a f e t y . The i n t e n s i t y of l i v i n g a s s o c i a t e d with s o c i a l work was seen as l i f e t h r e a t e n i n g by F, i n a l i t e r a l sense. As noted ("Family E x p e r i e n c e " ) , F d e s c r i b e d brother A as having "died from l i v i n g . " T h i s i n t e n s i t y was i n p a r t r e f l e c t e d i n the b l u r r i n g between p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e s that F a s s o c i a t e d with V o c a t i o n 1: ... i n s o c i a l work ... your emotional s e l f i s g e t t i n g t e s t e d a l l day, you don't shut o f f completely when you go home ... A f t e r a day of being a s o c i a l worker ... t h e r e ' s nothing l e f t f o r me to g i v e , or to get, whatever - I experienced a l i f e t i m e d u r i n g a day ... I thought, 'This i s exhausting.' And I want more homelife By c o n t r a s t , F noted ("Family Experience") that brother B " p r a c t i c e d with i n t e g r i t y and d i d not forsake h i s own l i f e . " L a t e r comments by F suggested that the i n c r e a s e d r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d with V o c a t i o n 2 p r o v i d e d a sense of r e l a t i v e s a f e t y : ... There's a s a f e t y i n not exposing your humanity as a lawyer. You know, you only have to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y then f o r the law, not f o r your r e l a t i o n s h i p with your c l i e n t ... I'm l e s s s a t i s f i e d with working that hard. I'm s a t i s f i e d with working to a c e r t a i n degree and having a l i f e to c e r t a i n degree. Thus f a r , meaning has been d i s c u s s e d through h i g h l i g h t i n g the c o n t r a s t s between the v o c a t i o n a l dramas and t h e i r f a m i l i a l p a r a l l e l s . For F, though, these c o n t r a s t i n g dramas were seen as p a r t of the same continuum; not from one of extreme v u l n e r a b i l i t y to i n s e n s i t i v i t y but r a t h e r a matter 1 1 4 of degree or i n t e n s i t y of humanity manifest i n the v o c a t i o n a l arena: Brother A d i e d when he was 27. Brother B's 46. Part of the i n t e n s i t y , the exuberance - i f you want to c a l l i t -of the i d e a l s o c i a l worker. I t ' s a more g i v i n g up of o n e s e l f to other people, than the lawyer kind of t h i n g . And that i n t e r e s t e d me and I see i t as a continuum, that I s t a r t e d from a very intense human l e v e l and d r i f t i n g now to a middle-kind of t h i n g where I want to be human and I want to be b u s i n e s s - l i k e . Both of them appeal to me. So now I'm t r y i n g to c o n s o l i d a t e ... when I looked at law I wanted to do something that would i n v o l v e working with people but not as i n t e n s e l y as a s o c i a l worker ... I don't t h i n k I'm t o t a l l y one way or the o t h e r . The s o c i a l worker draws out of me the more humanistic brother A kinds of mother, s o r t of f a t h e r t h i n g s . Brother B's i n b u s i n e s s . He's more b u s i n e s s - l i k e than they are and l e s s e m o t i o n a l l y based ... and so I'm more l i k e that now. But i t i s n ' t and/or, i t i s n ' t e i t h e r / o r ... see, brother B i s a continuum of my mother and f a t h e r and brother A. He's one of the more humanistic lawyers and not so b u s i n e s s - l i k e . Thus, i t appeared that f o r F the e s s e n t i a l meaning of s w i t c h i n g v o c a t i o n a l arenas in terms of e a r l y dramas, was an expanded r o l e which more f u l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d and i n t e g r a t e d the r o l e p a t t e r n s a v a i l a b l e i n F's f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n . 1 1 5 CASE STUDY G Background G was a 30 year o l d s i n g l e male. At the time of t h i s study he shared a house with h i s b u s i n e s s p a r t n e r ; these q u a r t e r s doubled as t h e i r o f f i c e and f a c t o r y space. G's V o c a t i o n 1 was i n t h e a t r e a r t s as a t h e a t r i c a l d i r e c t o r . F o l l o w i n g high s c h o o l , he t r a i n e d f o r three years i n a t h e a t r e a r t s s c h o o l , and soon a f t e r became a d i r e c t o r . G remained i n t h i s f i e l d f o r a p e r i o d of n e a r l y ten y e a r s . V o c a t i o n 2 was as an entrepreneur and marketing manager in the f a s h i o n i n d u s t r y . G had a l i f e - l o n g a s p i r a t i o n to be a businessman and thus viewed t h i s p o s i t i o n as c o n s i s t e n t with long-range p e r s o n a l and c a r e e r g o a l s . Born i n e a s t e r n Canada, G had one brother four years h i s j u n i o r . H i s f a t h e r was a non-commissioned o f f i c e r i n the Canadian m i l i t a r y , who worked as an a t h l e t i c s t r a i n e r and coach to c a d e t s . H i s mother, a housewife, t r a i n e d and worked as an a c t r e s s p r i o r to marriage. Family Experience Father was a C a t h o l i c French Canadian; French was h i s f i r s t language. Mother was E n g l i s h born. T h e i r d i f f e r e n c e i n E n g l i s h language f l u e n c y accentuated other c o n t r a s t s i n t h e i r s t y l e and i n f l u e n c e i n the f a m i l y . 116 As a f i r s t - b o r n son i n a l o v i n g f a m i l y , G's e a r l y experience was e s s e n t i a l l y very p o s i t i v e . Mother was a h i g h l y s u p p o r t i v e , a v a i l a b l e , n o n - c r i t i c a l l i s t e n e r whom G t r u s t e d as a c o n f i d a n t e and a d v i s o r . She was a l i s t e n e r a v a i l a b l e on a d a i l y b a s i s , who coached and guided him p r i m a r i l y by her i m p l i c i t acceptance and open p o s i t i v e encouragements. She i n s t i l l e d i n G a sense of confidence and p e r s o n a l power with her f r e q u e n t l y s t a t e d b e l i e f that G was capable of anything i n l i f e t h a t he wanted. In f a t h e r - s o n c o n f l i c t s , mother a c t i v e l y " s i d e d " with G. During the f a m i l y g a t h e r i n g times, t o p i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s t y p i c a l l y r e s u l t e d i n mother and sons ar g u i n g on one s i d e , with f a t h e r s t a n d i n g alone i n h i s p o s i t i o n . Father's uncompromising demands f o r high achievement in a l l p u r s u i t s were experienced by G as d i s c o u r a g i n g censure. T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was so s t r a i n e d that G r e c a l l e d an i n c i d e n t when he "cut f a t h e r out" of h i s l i f e almost e n t i r e l y at age 11; s i n c e that o c c a s s i o n communication between them was minimal f o r n e a r l y twenty years, with a turn-about approximately s i x months to one year p r i o r to t h i s study. G's r o l e as "adored and l o v e d , " a b l e , o l d e r brother had i t s b a s i s i n e a r l y boyhood when the two b r o t h e r s f r e q u e n t l y p l a y e d and e x p l o r e d the neighbourhood t o g e t h e r . As youths, both t r a i n e d and competed i n many a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s ; G t y p i c a l l y was c a p t a i n and s t a r team p l a y e r and top i n d i v i d u a l competitor. 1 17 The competency gap i n c r e a s e d between the broth e r s as h i s younger brother came to be seen as having emotional problems; h i s brother was obese and h e a v i l y d r u g - i n v o l v e d from e a r l y adolescence on, while G continued performing as a top a t h l e t e . During t h i s p e r i o d , G saw himself as "h o l d i n g him [ b r o t h e r ] up," and saw h i s brother i n need of p r o t e c t i o n . G b e l i e v e d he was the only person h i s brother continued to r e l a t e to i n any meaningful way du r i n g t h i s time; he c r e d i t e d himself with i n i t i a t i n g the c o n f r o n t a t i o n which shook h i s brother out of a s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e path. G e x p l a i n e d that h i s " p r o t e c t i v e n e s s " towards h i s brother was a response to seeing "great p o t e n t i a l " i n him. A maternal great uncle, a "self-made m i l l i o n a i r e twice over," commanded great f a m i l i a l and community respect both f o r h i s accomplishment and f o r h i s k i n d l y and very generous nature. V o c a t i o n 1 As a d i r e c t o r , G was most l i k e mother (.67) and l i k e maternal great uncle (.448) and somewhat l i k e s e l f - a s - s o n and brother (.37/.379). He was opposite to f a t h e r i n t h i s r o l e (-.39). G u n e q u i v o c a l l y confirmed t h i s l a s t o b s e r v a t i o n when he s t a t e d : My f a t h e r i s the a n t i t h e s i s of what t h e a t r e i s , what t h e a t r e means. 118 In h i s e l a b o r a t i o n on t h i s theme, i t was apparent that f a t h e r ' s v a l u i n g l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g c o n t r a s t e d with G's more i n t u i t i v e s t y l e : ... when I'm d i r e c t i n g i t ' s not an e f f o r t - at a l l - i t j u s t comes for me, what I'm t h i n k i n g , what I want to do, what I want to c r e a t e ... i t s p r i n g s from me the same way a c t i n g does ... the emotional charge I get from d i r e c t i n g i s when the p l a y ' s put on and then I see i t -i t ' s l i k e the t y p i c a l t h i n g of having a baby ... i t ' s not working with f a c t s ... i t ' s v i s u a l ... i t ' s a l l image, image and sound ... Furthermore, the s t y l e and s k i l l s he used as a d i r e c t o r appeared to c o n t r a s t with f a t h e r ' s s t y l e , and p a r a l l e l e d mother and g r e a t u n c l e : He ( f a t h e r ) was such an a u t h o r i t a r i a n . . . I'm not an a u t h o r i t a r i a n as a d i r e c t o r ... I suppose i t has to do with my concept of 'power' ... being i n a p o s i t i o n of power and yet h a n d l i n g that with respect to the people you're dominating ... I o b v i o u s l y use the s k i l l s my mother gave me. My mother has good communication s k i l l s and t h a t ' s how I would get someone to do what I want them to do - I would persuade them, or show them or t e l l them why I wanted i t ... my uncle was a very kind man ... people respected him, they took h i s advice ... he was i n a p o s i t i o n of power ... he had a way with people. A d d i t i o n a l l y , G's s u p p o r t i v e b r o t h e r l y r o l e was c l e a r l y a dimension of t h i s v o c a t i o n a l r o l e : ... you support your a c t o r s , and demand from them, as I demand a l o t from my b r o t h e r , and then you have to be there to support them ... As a brother and as a d i r e c t o r you have to see p o t e n t i a l s . I mean, you have the concept, you have the i d e a l image of the c h a r a c t e r . Now you have to take a r e a l human being and somehow get him to your i d e a l ... I see p o t e n t i a l i n my brother and I t r y to support him i n a c h i e v i n g h i s g o a l s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s ... whatever he was doing. 119 Other f i g u r e s i n t h i s v o c a t i o n a l arena s i m i l a r l y p a r a l l e l e d mother and b r o t h e r , and tended to be o p p o s i t e to f a t h e r . The l e a d i n g man, l e a d i n g lady, c l o s e s t peer and audience f i g u r e were a l l seen as l i k e mother (.419/.597/.385/.678) and brother (.586/.43/.47/.44); the l e a d i n g lady and peer were opp o s i t e f a t h e r (-.50/-.505). The l e a d i n g lady p r o v i d e d perhaps the c l e a r e s t example of these p a r a l l e l s . Her support and admiration of G, s i m i l a r to h i s mother's, were such that f o r f i v e years she was G's g i r l f r i e n d as w e l l as l e a d i n g a c t r e s s . L i k e b r o t h e r , she was seen as having emotional problems and i n need of p r o t e c t i o n ; upon the t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p , she became a c u l t member where b r o t h e r l y ' p r o t e c t i v e n e s s ' was extreme and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d . In t h i s v o c a t i o n a l r o l e , where the f i g u r e - o f - f a t h e r was absent and other f i g u r e s i n the arena emerged as l i k e mother and brother, G experienced h i m s e l f as powerful and competent. He appeared to have re-enacted the e a r l y l i f e drama, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l l i a n c e with u n c r i t i c a l and/or adoring o t h e r s who c o l l e c t i v e l y exclude a c r i t i c a l f i g u r e . V o c a t i o n 2 As a manager G was not s i m i l a r to any e a r l y r o l e f i g u r e s . N e i t h e r was he l i k e h i s a c t u a l or i d e a l s e l v e s i n t h i s r o l e . H i s i d e a l of a manager, however, was most l i k e h i s great uncle (.568). 120 These correspondences suggested that G had s h i f t e d away from h i s p r e v i o u s v o c a t i o n a l r o l e and had not yet developed a meaningful r o l e f o r himself-as-manager. G i n i t i a l l y d e s c r i b e d managing as "new ground" f o r him, and s t a t e d he had no " r o l e models" f o r t h i s i n h i s e a r l y l i f e . Upon e l a b o r a t i o n though, i t appeared that the new dimension here was not the management r o l e i t s e l f , but the dimension of s h a r i n g a l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n with another, i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , h i s business p a r t n e r : ... r i g h t now t h a t ' s one of the reasons t h i s work i s hard, because when you've got two p a r t n e r s each has a d i f f e r e n t s t y l e . I cannot operate i n my s t y l e with [ p a r t n e r ] ... when I was young, I managed twenty people and i t was never a c o n f l i c t ... [now] somewhere everyday i t ' l l come up, our d i f f e r e n t ways of o p e r a t i n g and l i k e I say, i t ' s f r u s t r a t i n g to both of us ... our s t y l e s are d i f f e r e n t , so i n that sense t h a t ' s new ground, working with someone who t h i n k s d i f f e r e n t l y than I do. G noted that p r e v i o u s l y he was "always i n a s o l e l e a d e r s h i p r o l e . " Even i n h i s e a r l y years as an a t h l e t e , he was the team c a p t a i n or ' s t a r ' p l a y e r , or competed i n i n d i v i d u a l s p o r t s . A c e n t r a l aspect of G's r o l e as manager was the s h a r i n g of the s p o t l i g h t ; t h i s drama i s u n p a r a l l e l e d e i t h e r i n G's e a r l y l i f e or h i s p r e v i o u s v o c a t i o n a l r o l e : ... I haven't r e a l l y been i n a partner type r e l a t i o n s h i p b efore ... so both of us, have done and been i n charge of our own t h i n g f o r the l a s t ten years. So now i t ' s l i k e both of us being t h r u s t i n t o that p o s i t i o n of having to d e a l with each other, and being the top person, i t ' s a d i f f e r e n t dynamic ... the only t h i n g I can r e l a t e i t to was at the time we were both i n t e r e s t e d i n the same woman (laugh) ... whomever i t meant the most to , the other would acquiesce ... there has to be that g i v e and take sometimes ... 121 The most s a l i e n t f i g u r e i n t h i s v o c a t i o n a l arena appeared to be that of G's p a r t n e r , who was s i m i l a r to brother (.41). G's commentary confirmed t h i s s t a t i s t i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n : The b i g g e s t part of [ p a r t n e r ] and I i s communication and c r e a t i v i t y and the b u s i n e s s . I t i s more l i k e my brother t h e r e ' s the c o n f l i c t , my brother and I have c o n f l i c t , but t h e r e ' s a l o t of love and my brother and I a l s o get i n s p i r e d by the same t h i n g s as [ p a r t n e r ] ) and I do - so the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s d e f i n i t e l y a b r o t h e r l y t h i n g , j u s t so happens he has a few t r a i t s l i k e my f a t h e r ( l a u g h s ) . At f i r s t glance the presence of t h i s p a r a l l e l to brother might suggest a c o n t r a d i c t i o n to the i n i t i a l o b s e r v a t i o n that G's V o c a t i o n 2 represented an u n f a m i l i a r drama. However, Q-sort correspondences d i d not i n d i c a t e that G enacted the complementary r o l e of s e l f - a s - b r o t h e r i n t h i s v o c a t i o n a l arena. G s t a t e d that h i s s h i f t away from the re-enactment of a s u p p o r t i v e b r o t h e r l y r o l e was d e l i b e r a t e in t h i s v o c a t i o n a l context, yet another aspect of h i s experience of breaking "new ground." [P a r t n e r ] needs a l o t of support ... and I'm able to give a l o t of support. With [ p a r t n e r ] I've r e a l i z e d the cost of being i n a t o t a l l y s u p p o r t i v e s i t u a t i o n and so now I'm not s u p p o r t i v e with him ... i n such a complete way. There was an a c t u a l time I s a i d 'I'm not going to support you anymore.' There's a l s o a c o s t i n even s t i l l working with him, my own sense of, my own way of working. B a s i c a l l y ... I f e e l I'm making more adjustments to f i t h i s s t y l e than the other way around ... I'm not being t o t a l l y happy because I'm not doing t h i n g s the way I want to do them and u s u a l l y I do ... a way t h a t was n a t u r a l f o r me ... 1 22 V o c a t i o n a l T r a n s i t i o n In s h i f t i n g from t h e a t r i c a l d i r e c t o r to a manager i n a business p a r t n e r s h i p , G s h i f t e d away from the re-enactment of h i s e a r l y l i f e drama and was more engaged with c o n f r o n t i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s and c o n f l i c t as represented by f a t h e r : I t ' s l i k e that part that I can't deal with ( i n p a r t n e r ) , t h a t ' s the part that always becomes a source of c o n f l i c t . L i k e , I d i d n ' t want to deal with what he ( f a t h e r ) represented then, so I cut him out, and so when i t comes up now, i t ' s not something easy to d e a l with, i t ' s ... a r e a l b l o c k i n g p o i n t . In other words ... when [p a r t n e r ] a c t s that way ... I'm not q u i t e sure how much i s my r e a c t i n g to what he represents as opposed to r e a c t i n g to what he's r e a l l y doing. A f t e r l o o k i n g at i t long and hard I t h i n k t h a t what he's doing i s a p a i n - i n - t h e - a s s (laughs) but the way I'm r e a c t i n g to i t [ t h e r e ' s ] d e f i n i t e l y something e l s e to i t as w e l l ... We [ f a t h e r and s e l f ] never 'worked i t out' - ever! (laugh) ... The bus i n e s s , and 'working i t out' with [ p a r t n e r ] , we have a common g o a l , the b u s i n e s s . I t ' s a r e a l growth experience, but i t ' s not easy a l l the time -i t can be p a i n f u l at times. It was as i f p r e v i o u s l y , G's experience of pe r s o n a l power and competence r e l i e d on- a drama c h a r a c t e r i z e d by ease, where he was a s t a r among s u p p o r t i v e or needf u l o t h e r s . The v o c a t i o n a l s h i f t appeared t o represent an i n c r e a s e d a b i l i t y or w i l l i n g n e s s to allow i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t and to co n f r o n t c r i t i c i s m , as represented by both f a t h e r and business p a r t n e r s . 1 23 I n t e r e s t i n g l y , G i d e n t i f i e d the p o i n t of s i x months i n t o V o c a t i o n 2 as the time when he began to r e l a t e " e f f e c t i v e l y " with h i s f a t h e r . In a sense t h i s i s one of the reasons I can r e l a t e to my f a t h e r a b i t more. I can see how he t h i n k s now, and I can even see the value of that - I mean there i s a value t h e r e . At one time f o r me there wasn't ... At one time I wouldn't look at a machine, maybe f o r what i t r e p r e s e n t e d . There i s a b i g t i e - i n f o r machines and my f a t h e r because he wanted me to understand them. He had me stand f o r hours watching him take apart a machine; I j u s t went 'whoosh!'; I was not t h e r e . Then he gave me something to do and I c o u l d n ' t do i t and he'd never even l e t me t r y i t again but I s t i l l had to stand there and watch i t . So i t s o r t of b u i l t up t h i s incompetent f e e l i n g i n d e a l i n g with machinery and what i t represented - which represented my f a t h e r . Whereas now I can ... w i t h i n the l a s t year, I don't remember i f I f i x e d a machine or t o l d him how to do i t and he j u s t kind of went - look at me - shock ( l a u g h ) ! ... I t g i v e s me more an acceptance of him. I may not l i k e my f a t h e r but at l e a s t I accept him f o r what he i s . 124 CASE STUDY H Background H was a 61 year o l d woman; married f o r a second time, she had two a d u l t daughters from her f i r s t marriage of 25 years and at the time of the study was a n t i c i p a t i n g the a r r i v a l of a g r a n d c h i l d . A f t e r o b t a i n i n g a B.A. i n e n g l i s h and psychology, H worked as a customer s e r v i c e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r a major c o r p o r a t i o n . The s e l e c t i o n process and t r a i n i n g program f o r the job r e q u i r e d that she t e m p o r a r i l y r e l o c a t e . When she married one-and-a-half years l a t e r , the o r g a n i z a t i o n d i s m i s s e d her, as was t h e i r p o l i c y f o r women who married. For the next 17 years working as a housewife and mother was her e n t i r e world, with her home l i f e and v o c a t i o n a l r o l e being one and the same. As the wife of an ambitious businessman i n s a l e s , an aspect of her r o l e was that of the 'corporate wife,' s u p p o r t i n g and c o n t r i b u t i n g to her husband's business a c t i v i t i e s by being a frequent model ho s t e s s , t r a v e l companion and p e r s o n a l s e c r e t a r y . She l a t e r r eturned to school as a mature student and r e c e i v e d her Masters i n s o c i a l work. For H, the r e t u r n t o school was a p u r p o s e f u l move away from the f u l l - t i m e r o l e of housewife. She e v e n t u a l l y switched her focus e n t i r e l y from her m a r i t a l r o l e , and devoted h e r s e l f to a f u l l - t i m e s o c i a l 125 work c a r e e r . At the time of the study she had h e l d a high p r o f i l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s o c i a l work p o s i t i o n i n a major Canadian urban c e n t r e f o r the 12 y e a r s . H grew up i n western Canada, as the only c h i l d of parents of S c o t t i s h descent. Her f a t h e r was a managerial l e v e l e x e c u t i v e ; her mother was a housewife and a v o l u n t e e r nurse. Her maternal grandmother was a key f i g u r e i n H's u p b r i n g i n g as w e l l ; she was an a r t i s t and managed a f a m i l y r e t a i l b u s i n e s s . Family Experience The predominant experience of H's e a r l y l i f e was of a h i g h l y demanding and c r i t i c a l world. There was an i m p l i c i t p a r e n t a l demand f o r conformity and deference to ot h e r s ' needs, p r e f e r e n c e s , and d e c i s i o n s . I t h i n k that I would be a very take-charge person except that I was not allowed to be when I was a k i d . I was s e v e r e l y punished and l e c t u r e d when I stepped out of l i n e i n any way and made d e c i s i o n s f o r myself ... I'd been t r a i n e d never to speak out - b l u n t l y - to people. That was e a r l y and v i g o r o u s l y enforced t r a i n i n g ... the message was again that you always have to get approval before you move and i f other people don't l i k e i t then you don't do i t . And so t h a t ' s the way I've l i v e d my l i f e , on the whole. An important aspect of f a m i l i a l standards of p r o p r i e t y was the n o t i o n of s i l e n t l y enduring p e r s o n a l d i s c o m f o r t or unmet needs: ... That's t h e i r number one r u l e , l i k e i t ' s pasted up there on your forehead. 'Get on with i t . Don't make a f u s s and get on with i t . ' Those were the two c a r d i n a l 126 r u l e s ... i f I was upset about something ... as simple as 'I don't want to stand any longer on the s t r e e t while you' - to my mom - 'while you t a l k to your f r i e n d ' ... to something very s e r i o u s l i k e the death of a d e a r l y beloved pet cat - 'Don't make a f u s s . Don't ever make a fu s s . ' According to H, s t o i c i s m was p r a c t i s e d by her pare n t s , as w e l l as preached. I t appeared to her that c l e a r l y n e a r l y everyone d i d what was expected. The one s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t to t h i s was e x e m p l i f i e d by H's maternal grandmother. She was the business person of the f a m i l y , managing t h e i r r e t a i l s t o r e , and she made a deep impression on H when she a s s e r t e d h e r s e l f i n an independent way, to a shocking degree: She walked out on her u n f a i t h f u l husband i n the beginning of ... the 20th Century ... and got a d i v o r c e . That's kind of a beacon i n my l i f e ... the f a c t that she had taken that a c t i o n , i t j u s t blew me away, ... I guess I was i n my teens when I l e a r n e d t h a t . The experience of grandmother was, however, not one of c o n s i s t e n t boldness and courage. A f t e r grandmother's second marriage, she too resumed a c t i n g i n accord with the f a m i l y ' s e t h i c of s i l e n t submission to l i f e : ... a f t e r ... she knuckled under and was t o t a l l y submissive ... I guess she f i g u r e d you don't get more than two chances. Her second husband was c o n s t a n t l y u n f a i t h f u l , and f l a g r a n t l y so, and p u b l i c l y so ... She j u s t c a r r i e d on and ran h i s b u s i n e s s . . . H d e s c r i b e d her own r o l e i n the e a r l y f a m i l y drama as a being " c a p t i v e - a happy i s o l a t e . " The e t h i c of uncomplaining coping with a r e p r e s s i v e s i t u a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h i s r o l e . 1 27 H experienced the drama of "adjustment" as a demand for r i t u a l i s t i c c o n f ormity to e x p e c t a t i o n s , o f t e n concomitant with an unexpressed response of anger. At one p o i n t she r e f e r r e d to the n e c e s s i t y of always "beating back the angers" to allow the " g e t t i n g on with i t . " The c o v e r t e x p r e s s i o n of these angers was c e n t r a l to the drama: You're o f t e n aware of the coping mechanisms that you are using and sometimes they f a i l and you get p r e t t y upset and q u i t e desperate at times - the idea of s u i c i d e i s very very a p p e a l i n g ... and so sometimes you l i t e r a l l y have to t h i n k 'OK ... how can I get myself back on t r a c k and get moving again?' ... and something always turns up • • • V o c a t i o n 1 As a housewife H was l i k e s e l f - a s - d a u g h t e r (.54), mother (.517), grandmother (.48), and to a l e s s e r extent, f a t h e r (.425). In other words she i n t e g r a t e d v i r t u a l l y a l l of the s a l i e n t r o l e s from her e a r l y l i f e i n t o her f i r s t v o c a t i o n a l r o l e enactment. She was only somewhat c l o s e to her a c t u a l s e l f (.37) i n t h i s r o l e and there was no p a t t e r n of p a r a l l e l s between o t h e r s i n t h i s arena and e a r l y f a m i l y . H's e a r l y r o l e of s t o i c , i s o l a t e and c a p t i v e p a r a l l e l e d her experience as a housewife. She viewed her marriage (to an a l c o h o l i c husband) as an almost h o r r i f i c o r d e a l which she had to endure. Her housewife r o l e was performed r i t u a l l y with l i t t l e sense of s p o n t a n e i t y ; the focus was on "measuring up" and p l e a s i n g her husband whom she viewed as a " t o t a l r u l e r " : 128 ... sometimes when I was most unhappy the ' r e a l ' was a kind of dream world I r e t r e a t e d i n t o - I j u s t kept doing a l l the t h i n g s I had to do. My r e a l world was my dream world ... t h i n k i n g about t h i n g s I wanted to t h i n k about even while I was t a l k i n g about the t h i n g s I was expected to t a l k about ... going through the motions while my mind was somewhere e l s e . When the i n t e r v i e w e r summarized H's r o l e as a housewife as one of " b a s i c s u r v i v a l , " H concurred with great e x p r e s s i v e n e s s : Yes! E x a c t l y . E x a c t l y . I t i n t i m i d a t e s me to think about i t . I t ' s so l a r g e , the immensity of i t i s so overwhelming 'What i f I had not done that [changed c a r e e r s ] ? ' that my mind l i t e r a l l y c l o s e s . I can only t e n t a t i v e l y say - god knows, I would have become an a l c o h o l i c - I can't imagine what I would have done r e a l l y . And then my mind j u s t c l o s e s o f f . The s e v e r a l p a r a l l e l s between H's housewife r o l e and e a r l y f a m i l y f i g u r e s suggested the e a r l y f a m i l y drama was embodied w i t h i n H's own r o l e performance, ren d e r i n g the other a c t o r s in. t h i s V o c a t i o n 1 arena somewhat s u p e r f l u o u s . T h i s i s f u r t h e r suggested by the combination of a l a c k of c l e a r p a t t e r n s of p a r a l l e l s between others i n t h i s arena and with e a r l y f i g u r e s , and her l i v e d - o u t experience of the re-enactment of d u t i f u l but r i t u a l i s t i c l i v i n g . In other words, i n her v o c a t i o n as housewife, H seemed to have enacted her c h i l d h o o d r o l e of d u t i f u l daughter i n response to other e a r l y r o l e f i g u r e s she i n t e r n a l i z e d . 1 29 V o c a t i o n 2 As a s o c i a l worker, H was again s i m i l a r to a l l the e a r l y f a m i l y r o l e f i g u r e s with the d i f f e r e n c e that the emphasis s h i f t e d to being more l i k e mother (.56) and grandmother (.50) and somewhat l e s s l i k e f a t h e r (.367) and s e l f - a s - d a u g h t e r (.36). In t h i s r o l e H was not at a l l s i m i l a r to her a c t u a l s e l f or i d e a l s e l f . Again, in t h i s second v o c a t i o n a l r o l e , enactment i s guided by the e a r l y f a m i l y " C a r d i n a l Rules": ... I phrase i t 'I do what has to be done and then I have my h y s t e r i c s l a t e r ' and of course by the time l a t e r comes, you don't need to have h y s t e r i c s . As a s o c i a l worker, I use that a l o t . I was t o t a l l y s t a r t l e d to f i n d s o c i a l workers g e t t i n g upset about something that was happening in t h e i r c a s e l o a d ... i t was the a f f e c t , the f a c t t h at they were s o r t of c a r r y i n g on, and t h a t ' s very bad manners ... The apparent p a r a l l e l between H's r o l e as housewife and as s o c i a l worker was c o n s i s t e n t with H's e x p l a n a t i o n of her c h o i c e of a new v o c a t i o n a l f o c u s : T h i s was an escape as w e l l as a means of p r e p a r i n g f o r the f u t u r e ... going i n t o s o c i a l work p a r t l y to keep my own s a n i t y and p a r t l y to achieve some independence ... that was a f i e l d that I r e a l l y c a r ed about so i t r e a l l y f i t ... I c o u l d s o r t of take the module of myself  and f i t i t r i g h t i n t o that i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d f i e l d . Furthermore, as a s o c i a l worker, H d i d not experience h e r s e l f as very d i f f e r e n t from her p r e v i o u s r o l e as housewife, or from her e a r l y f a m i l y experience: 130 I don't f e e l very p r o f e s s i o n a l ... I'm deadly s e r i o u s about the aims and goals and o b j e c t i v e s of s o c i a l work, but ... I don't take myself very s e r i o u s l y as a " p r o f e s s i o n a l " ... I'm j u s t a person who happens to be doing t h i s job ... when something's to be done, you j u s t get on and do i t , you don't stop and t h i n k 'now how does t h i s look i n the eyes of the world' ... you j u s t do i t ... r e g a r d l e s s of whether you're at home or i n an o f f i c e somewhere ... i n my u p b r i n g i n g there was 'no fuss or muss', one j u s t d i d what needed to be done. I t appeared that as a s o c i a l worker, H was again r e - e n a c t i n g her e a r l y f a m i l y dynamic of coping and meeting e x t e r n a l demands and e x p e c t a t i o n s . V o c a t i o n a l T r a n s i t i o n In l i v i n g out her two v o c a t i o n a l r o l e s , housewife and p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l worker, H e s s e n t i a l l y repeated the enactment of the drama of coping by r e t r e a t or escape i n t o tasks and e x e r n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . The s h i f t was one of context r a t h e r than r o l e performances or drama. For H the a c t of changing v o c a t i o n s r e q u i r e d only a temporary break from the p e r v a s i v e drama of acceptance of the s t a t u s quo: ... i n order to become a s o c i a l worker I had to take an u n t y p i c a l course of a c t i o n . That was, to s t r i k e out and get myself r e g i s t e r e d ( f o r u n i v e r s i t y ) - make the d e c i s i o n and go ahead and c a r r y that out. To r e g i s t e r ... I had to screw up an enormous amount of courage ... I d i d n ' t ever d i s c u s s i t with my husband, He knew nothing about i t u n t i l I t o l d him . . . i n May. And that was when my hayfever c l e a r e d up the next week a f t e r twenty-odd years - oh god! so that was an enormous r e l e a s e ... doing something on my own ... u s u a l l y I'm doing what I think I should ... 131 I t i s noteworthy that t h i s percepton of her a c t i o n as an i s o l a t e d i n s t a n c e of courage p a r a l l e l e d her p e r c e p t i o n of maternal grandmother, whose s e l f - a s s e r t i o n upon l e a v i n g her f i r s t husband was a l s o viewed as an a t y p i c a l , i s o l a t e d i n s t a n c e of a c t i n g independently: ... i n the 7 years before the end of my marriage ... from time to time, I would t h i n k of my grandmother and I would o f t e n say to myself, 'You don't have the guts that your grandmother had.' The theme of t h i s case of v o c a t i o n a l change was one of c o n t i n u i t y of the drama of the e a r l y f a m i l y . The essence of t h i s drama was coping with a p o s i t i o n and experience of powerlessness by r e t r e a t i n g or escaping i n t o "dreams" or task performances to meet e x t e r n a l demands. The r e s u l t a n t r o l e performance was a r i t u a l i s t i c f u l f i l l i n g of e x p e c t a t i o n s of o t h e r s , f o s t e r i n g concomitant angers which were w i t h e l d . The meaning of the ca r e e r change was a "measuring up" to the image of s t r e n g t h , courage and independence of grandmother. 132 CASE STUDY J Background J was a 52 year o l d male; he was married and had four sons, two i n adolescence and two o l d e r young a d u l t s . H i s V o c a t i o n 1 was i n s a l e s , as a toy manufacturer's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . J entered t h i s f i e l d a f t e r high school and remained there f o r n e a r l y twenty years, working c l o s e l y throughout with h i s f a t h e r . J's V o c a t i o n 2 was i n educat i o n , as an elementary school t e a c h e r . Since o b t a i n i n g the r e q u i r e d u n i v e r s i t y education he has worked as a teacher; at the time of the study J had taught n e a r l y e i g h t y e a r s . J was r a i s e d the second of two sons i n a m i d d l e - c l a s s Jewish f a m i l y i n urban western Canada; h i s brother was e i g h t years h i s s e n i o r . Father worked i n s a l e s management f o r a toy manufacturer; mother was a housewife. Family Experience J's e a r l y l i f e was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a sense of i s o l a t i o n and aloneness. His r o l e as a " l o n e r " was a double-edged experience of encouraging the e a r l y development of s e l f - r e l i a n c e and independent t h i n k i n g , while simultaneously i n h i b i t i n g h i s i n c l i n a t i o n s to p l a y f u l n e s s , c r e a t i v i t y and s o c i a b i l i t y . J b e l i e v e d the loner r o l e was 133 not as " n a t u r a l " to him as h i s p l a y f u l and c r e a t i v e s i d e ; r a t h e r that t h i s r o l e was l e a r n e d i n response to a set of e a r l y c i r c u m s t a n c es. Four of these circumstances were i d e n t i f i e d by J , with i l l u s t r a t i v e comments: (1) frequent extended p e r i o d s of i l l n e s s as a c h i l d d i s t a n c i n g him from ongoing peer c o n t a c t : ... I was s o r t of a s i c k l y l i t t l e k i d and d i d not have a l l the s o c i a l graces that would endear myself to the people around me. I f I d i d , or I knew how to use them or I knew how to a c q u i r e them, then I might be a d i f f e r e n t s o r t of person ... I used to get s i c k every winter f o r 6, 8, 10 weeks ... and I guess that s o r t of p u l l e d me out of the mainstream and made me p e r c e i v e the world i n whatever way ... I would not be a loner i f I had the s o c i a l graces to i n t e r a c t with people ... i f I were more i n t e r a c t i n g I would maybe be l e s s ... i n h i b i t e d , yet by nature I am not an i n h i b i t e d person ... but maybe events c o n s p i r e d to make me that way . . . (2) J's p o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y as the second c h i l d , e i g h t years j u n i o r to h i s s i b l i n g allowed him the p a r e n t a l e x c l u s i v i t y of an only c h i l d without the pressures or expectat i o n s : ... to move from one job to another I sometimes think i s the advantage of being a second c h i l d ... I think i n many ways with a f i r s t c h i l d , parents put a l l e x p e c t a t i o n s and hopes, i t ' s the f i r s t k i d you want to do e v e r y t h i n g " r i g h t . " By the time the second k i d comes along, you're not so u p t i g h t . So the second k i d has, u s u a l l y , I t h i n k , has more l a t i t u d e to do a whole bunch of t h i n g s ... so as a r e s u l t I have that l a t i t u d e . I had that l a t i t u d e . I t ' s probably b u i l t i n t o the psyches of our f a m i l y l i f e ... (3) Being Jewish i n a non-Jewish s o c i a l environment and t h e r e f o r e " d i f f e r e n t " : 134 ... i t [being a l o n e r ] may even have something to do with being Jewish i n a non-Jewish environment, where I r e a l l y d i d n ' t have anything i n the way of r e a l s t r o n g e t h n i c i d e n t i t y at home th a t would back t h a t , what I would c o n s i d e r 'rapport' with one's e t h n i c i t y ... any f e e l i n g I have towards my e t h n i c i t y has come l a t e r on and has come more out of an i n t e l l e c t u a l b a s i s r a t h e r than out of an emotional b a s i s . And that a l s o c o u l d have something to do with the way I p e r c e i v e myself as being somewhat i s o l a t e d . When questioned, J had d i f f i c u l t y i n r e c a l l i n g any boyhood f r i e n d s . Instead, he r e l a t e d a s t o r y of being beaten up by a neighbour boy, o s t e n s i b l y f o r being Jewish. (4) Being r a i s e d p r i m a r i l y by mother, who was e s s e n t i a l l y u n a v a i l a b l e to J i n emotional terms, as J saw i t , due to her being s e l f - c e n t e r e d and needy: The r e l a t i o n s h i p at home ... my mother I c o n s i d e r as a minor f i g u r e i n the house ... I don't p e r c e i v e my mother as being an important or i n f l u e n t i a l person i n my l i f e ... being that somewhat i s o l a t e d being, I had to r e l y on my own resources ... i t i s n ' t that [as i f ] she sat down and t a l k e d to me or read me s t o r i e s or a n y t h i n g . When I was s i c k , I was s i c k i n bed by myself. My mother wasn't a strong person. I t wasn't that, my f a t h e r was a dominating person, but my mother wasn't a stro n g person both p h y s i c a l l y and ... When my brother l e f t home and when I was on the verge of manhood, she went through some of the problems that women go through at t h a t stage of l i f e - they have a nervous breakdown ... she wasn't a f o r c e f u l person, e a s i l y upset ... A f t e r t h i s comment, when the i n t e r v i e w e r probed as to whether mother had been a model f o r le a r n e d c o w a r d l i n e s s , J responded a f f i r m a t i v e l y : "Yeah, that has a c e r t a i n r i n g of l o g i c to i t . " 1 35 J's f a t h e r was the other c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n h i s e a r l y experience, though hot a s s o c i a t e d with h i s sense of being a " l o n e r . " J d e s c r i b e d h i s f a t h e r both as the "pragmatist" of the f a m i l y , and as a model of democratic v a l u e s ; he viewed t h e i r e a r l y r e l a t i o n s h i p as q u i t e c l o s e : ... my f a t h e r was not an a u t o c r a t ... the e g a l i t a r i a n i s m of the North American s o c i e t y brushed my f a t h e r as a second-generation Canadian with some of those "democratizing" p r i n c i p l e s . You know, my f a t h e r vacuumed around the house, washed the d i s h e s ... i t was s o r t of a n a t u r a l type of t h i n g to do. J b e l i e v e d that the c l o s e and harmonious working r e l a t i o n s h i p between himself as an a d u l t and f a t h e r had i t s root s i n a c l o s e , l o v i n g e a r l y bonding. Fat h e r ' s social-mindedness extended beyond the household to i n c l u d e a c t i v e and v i s i b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a s o c i a l i s t - b a s e d o r g a n i z a t i o n . J r e l a t e d s e v e r a l s t o r i e s of how h i s f a t h e r and h i s f a t h e r ' s s o c i a l i s t f r i e n d s were concerned with humanitarian i d e a l s . The f a m i l y ' s a s s o c i a t i o n with t h i s s o c i a l i s t - b a s e d group was a c e n t r a l aspect of household a c t i v i t y . The f a m i l y ' s s o c i a l c i r c l e and a c t i v i t i e s c e n t e r e d around t h i s group and other members of i t , and J was very much i n c l u d e d i n t h i s type of f a m i l y a c t i v i t y . V o c a t i o n 1 In h i s f i r s t v o c a t i o n , J was most l i k e s e l f as-a-son, (.58). T h i s p a r a l l e l seemed s e l f - e v i d e n t to J who made t h i s comment: 1 36 I was c l o s e r to being a son when I s t a r t e d [ i n V o c a t i o n 1]. In f a c t , I was a son l i v i n g at home with my pa r e n t s . So i t would only seem n a t u r a l that i t was the same b a l l of wax - working with my f a t h e r , l i v i n g at home ... I l i v e d at home u n t i l the time I was 24, when I got married, and I was working with my f a t h e r from the time I was 19, 20 ... [ u n t i l ] 42, 43. In the d a i l y working s i t u a t i o n , J i n f a c t worked c l o s e l y as a duo with h i s f a t h e r ; other key f i g u r e s i n t h i s arena were g e o g r a p h i c a l l y thousands of mi l e s away, present only i n d i r e c t l y through "Telex." Not only was J's f a t h e r - a s - c o l l e a g u e s i m i l a r to f a t h e r , but other s a l i e n t f i g u r e s (owner, manager) i n t h i s arena a l s o p a r a l l e l e d f a t h e r (.57/.327/.425). J viewed the s i m i l a r i t y of others i n t h i s arena as the r e s u l t of t h e i r common r o l e tasks as managerial w h o l e s a l e r s . As a manufacturer's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , J seemed to be r e c r e a t i n g the e a r l y f a m i l y dynamic of a c l o s e f a t h e r - s o n team with a v i r t u a l l y non-present mother. The constancy of t h i s dynamic i n the v o c a t i o n a l arena suggested there was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between h i s r o l e w i t h i n the fa m i l y drama and h i s v o c a t i o n a l r o l e . V o c a t i o n 2 As a teacher J was again l i k e h i m s e l f - a s - s o n (.396), but a l s o l i k e mother (.35). Others i n t h i s arena p a r a l l e l e d the s e l f - a s - s o n r o l e (.367/.35). J's c h i l d h o o d r o l e of the 1 37 r e s o u r c e f u l " l o n e r " appeared to be r e c r e a t e d i n t h i s v o c a t i o n a l r o l e . His p r o f e s s i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n was v i r t u a l l y unique among h i s c o l l e a g u e s . He gave t h i s general d e s c r i p t i o n of the essence of t e a c h i n g and most tea c h e r s ' o r i e n t a t i o n , and then excluded h i m s e l f from i t : Teaching b a s i c a l l y f o r most of the c o l l e a g u e s and most of the people I know i s a f a i r l y s t r u c t u r e d type of t h i n g , and I have d i f f i c u l t y many times d e a l i n g with t h i n g s that are s t r u c t u r e d and s e q u e n t i a l i n nature ... I imagine there's ... a meshing of how I have f e l t and my academic e x p l o r a t i o n s are such that t h i n g s that are s e q u e n t i a l are ... t h i n g s that i n t e r f e r e with c r e a t i v i t y and with ... quantum leaps that people ... must make i f they are to ... go beyond the type of l e a r n i n g we p r e s e n t l y get. The aspect of s e l f - a s - t e a c h e r t h a t p a r a l l e l e d mother may r e l a t e to J's p e r c e i v e d l a c k of a s s e r t i o n i n t h i s r o l e , perhaps s i m i l a r to mother's lack of " f o r c e f u l n e s s . " With r e f e r e n c e to t h i s dimension of the v o c a t i o n a l drama J s t a t e d : ... I would l i k e to be able to e l o q u e n t l y s t a t e my case i n such a way I can convince people that what I th i n k and what I f e e l i s of value i n the sense that they too c o u l d partake and be p a r t of i t - the way I view l e a r n i n g ... I guess ... my r e l u c t a n c e to be outspoken i s - f o r l a c k of a b e t t e r word - cowardliness on my p a r t A d d i t i o n a l l y , mother was a s s o c i a t e d with the n o n - l i n e a r , c r e a t i v e mode that J i d e n t i f i e d with h i s r o l e as teacher: ... I imagine my f a t h e r might be more the ' l e f t b r a i n ' and my mother might be more ' r i g h t b r a i n ' [ i n the f a m i l y ] 1 38 In h i s t e a c h i n g r o l e J encouraged i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t i v i t y . The p a r a l l e l s between s e l f - a s - s o n and s e l f - a s - t e a c h e r , as w e l l as with other f i g u r e s i n t h i s arena, s t i m u l a t e d an e l a b o r a t i o n of " c r e a t i v i t y " as a theme p r o v i d i n g c o n t i n u i t y from the f a m i l y to v o c a t i o n a l dramas: There's a c e r t a i n c h i l d - l i k e a f f i n i t y between the three of us ( s e l f - a s - t e a c h e r , c o l l e a g u e , student) ... those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ... that I probably enjoyed as a c h i l d or would l i k e to see as being p a r t of myself, were those t h i n g s that were c r e a t i v e . And w i t h i n these two people I d e t e c t e d that c r e a t i v i t y that I had as a c h i l d , and that I f e e l I am a l s o somewhat c r e a t i v e ... I imagine that would be the common core of ... ' a f f i n i t y - n e s s ' that e x i s t s between (c o l l e a g u e ) and myself and ( s t u d e n t ) . J's re-enactment of the f i g u r e s of mother and s e l f - a s - s o n as a teacher was apparent i n the d a i l y e x p r e s s i o n of t h i s r o l e . His p e r s o n a l s t y l e manifested mother's l a c k - o f - f o r t h r i g h t n e s s , while h i s teaching methods manifested h i s c h i l d l i k e p l a y f u l n e s s . I t appeared, however, that both of these r o l e s were l i v e d - o u t w i t h i n the r e c r e a t i o n of a l a r g e r , more p e r v a s i v e f a m i l y drama. S p e c i f i c a l l y , h i s fundamental o r i e n t a t i o n to h i s r o l e - a s - t e a c h e r was that of a s o c i a l reformer, p a r a l l e l l i n g f a t h e r ' s devoted involvement with a s o c i a l i s t - b a s e d o r g a n i z a t i o n . The s o c i a l i d e a l i s m J brought to h i s r o l e - a s - t e a c h e r seemed to p a r a l l e l the s o c i a l i d e a l i s m that f a t h e r expressed through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a s o c i a l i s t - b a s e d s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l network. 139 As a teacher then, J appeared to be r e - e n a c t i n g mother's "cowardliness," h i s s e l f - a s - s o n p l a y f u l c r e a t i v i t y , and h i s f a t h e r ' s i d e a l i s m as a s o c i a l reformer. V o c a t i o n a l T r a n s i t i o n In s h i f t i n g from a manufacturer's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e to an elementary teacher, J seemed to have s h i f t e d from l i v i n g - o u t a f a t h e r - s o n drama to l i v i n g - o u t a more e g a l i t a r i a n peer-based drama. The s h i f t represented an a l t e r a t i o n i n the extent to which the themes of s e l f - i s o l a t i o n , c o w a r d l i n e s s , and s o c i a l i d e a l i s m pervaded these dramas. The f i r s t v o c a t i o n a l drama represented a v i r t u a l e xtension of the f a m i l y drama; s e l f - r e l i a n t i s o l a t e , 'cowardliness,' and e x p r e s s i o n of s o c i a l i d e a l s do not emerge as overt themes where the f a t h e r - s o n drama played out d a i l y i n the v o c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . J's movement away from t h i s f a m i l i a r enactment suggested both a move towards a c t u a l g r e a t e r s e l f - r e l i a n c e and p e r s o n a l s t r e n g t h and a simultaneous i n c r e a s e d awareness of p e r s o n a l v u l n e r a b i l i t i e s , which he r e f e r r e d to as " c o w a r d l i n e s s . " I do have that streak of cowardliness that runs through me, t h a t does not allow me to speak out w e l l with other people about how I p e r c e i v e t h i n g s . Now, t h a t may have something to do with the f a c t that I d i d go i n t o my f i r s t c a r e e r ... with my f a t h e r ... The f a c t that I've been a b l e to overcome some of that ... may very w e l l be why I went i n t o a second c a r e e r ... i f that be the case i t would seem l o g i c a l that I do not now f e e l uncomfortable with people who are l e s s l i k e those that preceded them i n another work environment ... 140 I'm suggesting I have more conf i d e n c e out of whatever reasons and that now I do not have as much d i f f i c u l t y s t a n d i n g as a person who may have ... o p i n i o n s or thoughts or ideas d i f f e r e n t than other people ... I'm more c o n f i d e n t i n my r o l e as a loner and strange as i t may seem, that confidence of now knowing that t h a t ' s not such a d i f f i c u l t t h i n g to be makes i t e a s i e r f o r me to i n t e r a c t with people... A d d i t i o n a l l y , the move away from the d a i l y f a t h e r - s o n enactment appeared to i n v o l v e the i n t e g r a t i o n of f a t h e r ' s r o l e i n the world o u t s i d e the f a m i l y , as witnessed by J , f a t h e r - a s - s o c i a l - r e f o r m e r . Father enacted the r o l e of s o c i a l reformer and found a sense of belonging by a f f i l i a t i n g with others s i m i l a r l y i n c l i n e d ; J however, enacted the s o c i a l reformer r o l e without the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l support that h i s f a t h e r had appeared to have. Thus, the i s o l a t i o n w i t h i n the f a m i l y that J experienced, and re-enacted i n Vocation 1, became much more overt i n V o c a t i o n 2 as i t r e q u i r e d an a c t i v e s e l f - i s o l a t i n g stance. In other words, i n s h i f t i n g c a r e e r s , J s h i f t e d from c o n t i n u i n g or r e c r e a t i n g the f a m i l y drama, which i n c l u d e d a sense of a l i e n a t i o n and d i s c o m f o r t , to a re-enactment of the f a m i l y drama with the d i f f e r e n c e t h a t h i s e s s e n t i a l r o l e as loner was more i n t e g r a t e d and accepted. T h i s seemed to be supported by the f a c t t h a t i n both c a r e e r r o l e s J was c l o s e r to h i s i d e a l s e l f (.59/.79) than to h i s a c t u a l s e l f (.31/.34), and the f a c t that t h i s i s even more so i n h i s second v o c a t i o n : ... I f you look at y o u r s e l f and there are t h i n g s that do not p l e a s e you about y o u r s e l f , you would l i k e t o , i n a sense, reach f o r something b e t t e r or beyond that ... I 1 4 1 have the f e e l i n g that there are c e r t a i n t h i n g s I've always l i v e d with and I p r e f e r to be f u r t h e r away from them ... maybe I would l i k e to p e r c e i v e myself as being more f o r c e f u l or a g g r e s s i v e ... To summarize, i n terms of e a r l y f a m i l y r o l e s , J's v o c a t i o n a l change was r e f l e c t e d i n a s h i f t from the drama of ' s e l f - a s - s o n - t o - f a t h e r ' to i n c l u d e the drama of mother and of a more expanded view and re-enactment of f a t h e r . The meaning of t h i s change was i n c r e a s e d "confidence" or s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e of the r o l e of s e l f - r e l i a n t i s o l a t e , a l l o w i n g the theme of "cowardliness" to s h i f t from c o v e r t to o v e r t , and a l l o w i n g f o r the d a i l y e x p r e s s i o n of s o c i a l i d e a l s w i t h i n a v o c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . 1 42 CASE STUDY K Background K was a 44 year o l d woman; she was i n a committed l e s b i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p and d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f as a " f e m i n i s t , through and through." K and her partner l i v e d i n t h e i r own home with R's four teenage c h i l d r e n from a pre v i o u s marriage. Her p r e p a r a t i o n f o r Vo c a t i o n 1, as a p r e - s c h o o l s u p e r v i s o r , r e q u i r e d n e a r l y four years of night school simultaneous with r a i s i n g her four t o d d l e r s . Once l i c e n s e d , she worked as a p r e - s c h o o l s u p e r v i s o r while t a k i n g courses to o b t a i n her " E a r l y Childhood C e r t i f i c a t e . " P r e p a r a t i o n f o r V o c a t i o n 2, i n the f i e l d of the m i n i s t r y as a c o u n s e l l o r , i n v o l v e d undertaking a d o u b l e - b a r r e l l e d academic t r a c k . A f t e r t a k i n g two years to o b t a i n a b a c h e l o r s degree, K went on to r e c e i v e a Masters i n c o u n s e l l i n g psychology. Throughout t h i s p e r i o d she took courses i n theology working towards o r d i n a t i o n i n the m i n i s t r y ; f o r one year t h i s was a f u l l - t i m e course of study. In short, to prepare f o r a ca r e e r i n the m i n i s t r y as a c o u n s e l l o r , K o b t a i n e d more than Masters l e v e l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n c o u n s e l l i n g psychology and worked i n t o t a l f o r more than two years towards o r d i n a t i o n . At the time of the i n t e r v i e w , t h i s l a t t e r goal had thus f a r been f r u s t r a t e d by her church's p o l i c y of not o r d a i n i n g 143 d e c l a r e d homosexuals. She had been a c t i v e l y l o b b y i n g f o r changes i n t h i s p o l i c y s i n c e she began her t h e o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s . Despite t h i s b a r r i e r to o b t a i n i n g f u l l c r e d e n t i a l s , K had worked at the time of the study as a p a s t o r a l c o u n s e l l o r f o r four y e a r s . Raised i n England u n t i l age 11, K was the e l d e s t of f i v e c h i l d r e n and the only g i r l among her s i b l i n g s f o r 17 years; her three b r o t h e r s were born w i t h i n f i v e years of her. Family Experience K grew up i n a m a t r i a r c h a l working-class f a m i l y i n England i n the '40's. She was r a i s e d by her mother and grandmother p r i m a r i l y ; her r e l a t i o n s h i p with her f a t h e r was i n d i r e c t l y experienced through mother u n t i l adolescence. Mother was seen as domineering, demanding and c r i t i c a l : She's very c o n t r o l l i n g and very much wants power and she would not be content to be anything other than boss. K had a s t r o n g sense of having to f i g h t mother throughout her e a r l y l i f e , i n order to be seen and acknowledged as a t h i n k i n g i n d i v i d u a l . Mother's h i g h standards f o r d u t i f u l performance and conformity were the o v e r r i d i n g e x p e c t a t i o n and p r i c e of f a m i l i a l acceptance. T h i s theme pervaded i n such a way that K's experience of s e l f was clouded by mother's presence. T y p i c a l l y , mother was seen as r e j e c t i n g and i n v a l i d a t i n g K's s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n : 1 44 Anytime I expressed anything of who I was ... I was never seen as me, i t was always seen only as somebody e l s e a c t i n g through me, or me mimicking ... "mimicking" was the word that was used a l o t i n my l i f e . My mother would always say, 'Why do you always mimic?' S i m i l a r l y , she r e c a l l e d mother's e x p r e s s i o n of love as t y p i c a l l y q u a l i f i e d by c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n : The t h i n g that I got from my Mom always was 'I r e a l l y do love you and I r e a l l y do l i k e you, but ... ' or 'I do a p p r e c i a t e ... ' that kind of t h i n g , 'but ... As the e l d e s t c h i l d , and only g i r l ( f o r 17 y e a r s ) , K was expected to c a r r y out a good d e a l of the "mothering" tasks i n r e l a t i o n to her s i b l i n g s . As K put i t , she had " r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " with no "autonomy." She experienced t h i s as p a r a d o x i c a l ; on the one hand K was expected to conform to mother's ideas of who she was, and on the other hand she was expected to be independent enough to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r an important r o l e i n 'mothering' and household management: ... somehow or other she [mother] wants to c o n t r o l but then i f she can she doesn't a p p r e c i a t e i t . I t ' s l i k e , i f she c o u l d c o n t r o l me, then I wasn't str o n g enough. Grandmother was head-of-the-household d u r i n g mother's many p e r i o d s of i l l n e s s , and t h i s p r ovided a d e f i n i t e c o n t r a s t i n g experience f o r K. Grandmother, a much more p l a y f u l person than mother, allowed K g r e a t e r room f o r pe r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n ; she f e l t accepted by "Granny." 145 I see myself as a daughter as being much more r e s p o n s i b l e than as a g r a n d c h i l d . [As a g r a n d c h i l d ] I had no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y whatsoever. I c o u l d j u s t be c r e a t i v e and be who I was. When she [mother] i s l e s s i n the p i c t u r e I have more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , but I have more autonomy ... when she was around and I was r e s p o n s i b l e I had to do i t her way Mother's c o n t r o l l i n g i n f l u e n c e extended to K's experience of her r e l a t i o n s h i p with her f a t h e r as w e l l : My r e l a t i o n s h i p to my f a t h e r was u s u a l l y through my mother ... I had to push Mom out to be a b l e to r e l a t e d i r e c t l y to my dad. I had to s o r t of block out Mom or push her away. The p r e v a l e n t sense of i n v a l i d a t i o n by mother was evident i n t h i s comment by K as w e l l : I a l s o t h i n k , when my f a t h e r ' s i n the p i c t u r e and my mother's l e s s i n the p i c t u r e then I have a c l e a r e r sense of myself as a daughter ... because when my mother's i n the p i c t u r e , I'm not r e a l l y sure who I am. Voc a t i o n 1 As a pr e - s c h o o l s u p e r v i s o r , K was l i k e grandmother (.75), se l f - a s - g r a n d a u g h t e r (.49), and f a t h e r (.48). K i d e n t i f i e d a commonality among these four r o l e s : The one t h i n g that a l l of those have i n common f o r me i s the a b i l i t y to p l a y . My grandmother knew how to p l a y , my f a t h e r knows how to p l a y , as a g r a n d c h i l d I c o u l d p l a y and pre- s c h o o l I c o u l d p l a y . Again, o t h e r s i n t h i s v o c a t i o n a l arena p a r a l l e l e d the three e a r l y f i g u r e s noted above: the f i g u r e of p r o f e s s o r was l i k e 146 grandmother (.666)/father (.54)/self-as-grandaughter (.436); the f i g u r e of student was l i k e grandmother (.57)/self-as-grandaughter (.689). These f i n d i n g s supported K's suggestion that the theme of p l a y f u l n e s s was p e r v a s i v e i n t h i s arena. One c o n t r a s t of note i s the f i g u r e of boss, who was l i k e mother (.477). T h i s l a s t p a r a l l e l was c o n s i s t e n t with K's e a r l y experience of mother, whom she rep e a t e d l y d e s c r i b e d i n terms of being l i k e a boss. Thus, as a p r e - s c h o o l s u p e r v i s o r K re-enacted the e a r l y f a m i l y drama c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p l a y f u l n e s s and autonomy when 'the mother f i g u r e was absent from the scene and grandmother was present, and c h a r a c t e r i z e d by threatened autonomy and r e b e l l i o u s r e s i s t e n c e when mother was p r e s e n t . More p a r t i c u l a r l y , she was l i k e her p l a y f u l , n u r t u r i n g grandmother to her young s e l f - a s - g r a n d c h i l d , perhaps embodied i n the c h i l d r e n / s t u d e n t s she cared f o r . V o c a t i o n 2 As a p a s t o r a l c o u n s e l l o r , K was s i m i l a r to the same three e a r l y f i g u r e s as i n Vo c a t i o n 1 (grandmother: .69/father: .528/(self-as-grandaughter: .51) with the a d d i t i o n of being l i k e s e l f - a s - d a u g h t e r (.505). Again, the f i g u r e of "boss" i n t h i s arena was l i k e mother though the l i k e n e s s was not as str o n g as p r e v i o u s l y (.32). Her own v o c a t i o n a l r o l e corresponded n e g a t i v e l y to mother here (-.35). 147 K r e l a t e d the a d d i t i o n of s e l f - a s - d a u g h t e r to the i n c r e a s e d sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a s s o c i a t e d l a c k - o f - p l a y f u l n e s s i n t h i s v o c a t i o n a l arena: ... as a daughter I had a l o t more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y because I was the only daughter, I was the e l d e s t c h i l d , my mother was i l l a l o t ... the t h i n g that c o u n s e l l i n g l a c k s f o r me i s that element of p l a y i n g i n some kind of a - not i r r e s p o n s i b l e way, but non-responsible ... I'm t a l k i n g about something where r e s p o n s i b l i t y i s n ' t part of the p i c t u r e , doesn't need to be. An example of what K experienced as " r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " i n t h i s arena appeared to be a s s o c i a t e d with a sense of threatened autonomy: ... we had to keep copious notes, which were an a b s o l u t e bore to me and that was a r e a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ... I don't d i s a g r e e with being accountable to somebody. What I d i s a g r e e with i s what was v a l u e d ... I mean I'm a f e m i n i s t through and through ... and my theology i s f e m i n i s t theology ... what I o f t e n f i n d i s men i n the system ... they don't understand my concepts ... my framework ... the very t h i n g they a p p r e c i a t e about me, I continue to get slapped with. 'I'm too s t r o n g . I'm too t h i s . I'm too t h a t . ' K r e l a t e d her boss's c r i t i c i s m of her theology and s t y l e to her mother's tendency to c r i t i c i z e : The t h i n g I got from my Mom always was 'I r e a l l y do love you, but' - Boss 2 i s a prime example of t h a t . They don't understand my f e m i n i s t theology so what they want me to do i s g i v e them ... a bunch of t h e o l o g i e s that I've l e a r n e d out of a book ... i t was almost the same kind of t h i n g with Mom ... Again, i t i s noteworthy that with her entrance i n t o u n i v e r s i t y s t u d i e s to prepare f o r V o c a t i o n 2, K ceased d a i l y 148 co n t a c t with her mother. She r e c a l l e d making a conscious d e c i s i o n at that time to "give ... Mom l e s s power and (give) f a t h e r more space i n [her] l i f e . " ... i t was Dad - and s t i l l i s - that w i l l t a l k to me about ... the t h i n g s I'm st u d y i n g ... so i t gave me more co n t a c t with my dad, and i t gave me l e s s c o n t a c t with my mother. V o c a t i o n a l T r a n s i t i o n K's t r a n s i t i o n from p r e - s c h o o l s u p e r v i s o r to p a s t o r a l c o u n s e l l o r suggested a re-enactment of the same drama. In both dramas she was r e - e n a c t i n g the grandmother-grand-daughter theme of p l a y f u l n e s s , and i n both she re-enacted the drama of s t r u g g l e f o r s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n i n r e l a t i o n to a mother f i g u r e . However, i n V o c a t i o n 2, the drama appeared to be i n t e n s i f i e d to i n c l u d e mother i n more d i r e c t c o n f l i c t ; she acted more i n o p p o s i t i o n to mother, s h i f t i n g the c o n f l i c t from c o v e r t to o v e r t . T h i s a n a l y s i s i s c o n s i s t e n t with the c o r r e l a t i o n s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i n V o c a t i o n 2, K was s l i g h t l y more l i k e both her a c t u a l and i d e a l s e l v e s than i n V o c a t i o n 1 (.58/.74; .60/.75). I t was as i f V o c a t i o n 1 was p r a c t i c e f o r 2, where the stakes rose; the second v o c a t i o n a l arena had a p o t e n t i a l l y important impact on how she was p e r c e i v e d w i t h i n the p a s t o r a l community and thus, a b e a r i n g on her pr o s p e c t s f o r a c h i e v i n g her i d e a l c a r e e r goal of becoming an ordained m i n i s t e r . In V o c a t i o n 1 she took a c t i o n a g a i n s t the mother f i g u r e ' s 1 49 a u t h o r i t y and viewpoint when t h i s f i g u r e was absent from the scene. By c o n t r a s t , i n V o c a t i o n 2 she rep e a t e d l y took open stances c o n t r a r y to present mother f i g u r e s ( i n terms of her t h e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n ) , s t r i v i n g to d e f i n e h e r s e l f as d i f f e r e n t from mother f i g u r e s . Since the dramatic c o n f l i c t was not r e s o l v e d at t h i s p o i n t i n Vocat i o n 2, i t appeared l i k e l y to be an unstable p o i n t i n her v o c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y ; a subsequent v o c a t i o n a l s h i f t i s probable. T h i s a n a l y s i s was supported by K's o b s e r v a t i o n that she was not as enmeshed i n her mother's d e f i n i t i o n of her as p r e v i o u s l y : There's my mother's p i c t u r e of who I am and the r e ' s my own sense of who I am and they get a l l mixed up sometimes - not so much anymore. 150 SUBJECT SELF-REVIEW One year a f t e r the Meaning Interview, the s u b j e c t s were asked to c r i t i c a l l y read the Case Study write-up p e r t a i n i n g to themselves and to provide v e r b a l feedback; the researcher took w r i t t e n notes on these comments. In g e n e r a l , the ten s u b j e c t s were s u p p o r t i v e of the case p r e s e n t a t i o n , and i n agreement with the a n a l y s i s of t h e i r case. Most s u b j e c t s found the content to be f a m i l i a r , to " r i n g t r u e , " while at the same time e x p r e s s i n g that i t p r o v i d e d them with g r e a t e r sense of c l a r i t y r e g a r d i n g t h e i r own experience. The tenor of each s u b j e c t ' s s e l f - r e v i e w i s r e l a t e d here through b r i e f quotes from the follow-up c o n t a c t . A Self-Review I read i t and I thought i t was g r e a t ! I t was r e a l l y 'appropo.' What you s a i d , I thought about i t . I had s a i d something about going f u l l c i r c l e w i t h i n a couple of y e a r s , w e l l , i t ' s even c l o s e r ... What I want i s to get as f a r away from being c o n t r o l l e d and as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e to c a l l i n g my own shots ... I'm s o r r y , t h e r e ' s nothing I would change [ i n the w r i t e - u p ] . I looked f o r flaws or t h i n g s to change ... You h i t the n a i l on the head i n what you s a i d about my mother, aunt, and s i s t e r , and a l l t h a t . 151 B Self-Review Subject B commented on s p e c i f i c elements of the write-up. In r e l a t i o n to the a n a l y s i s of V o c a t i o n 1 as a re-enacted drama of b r o t h e r l y c o m p e t i t i o n , he commented: I n t e r e s t i n g . Yeah. T h i s seems very 'on.' The a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s i t i o n brought a s i m i l a r response: Yeah. T h i s makes a l o t of sense. I t seems r e a l l y 'on'. The combative male q u a l i t i e s r e a l l y are i n s e r v i c e to the feminine, but they s t i l l e x i s t . I use the same q u a l i t i e s of d r i v e and t h r u s t and examining and preoccupation with the t r u t h and i n t e g r i t y . I t ' s a l l very male in a way, but they're used i n s e r v i c e to the female concerns of love and nurturance. I t ' s l i k e the boss changed. C Self-Review An o v e r a l l impression was that i t f i t s ... I t r e a l l y helped me to get back to my r o o t s and to r e a l i z e that some of the t h i n g s from my past play a r o l e i n who I am now. I t ' s helped to add some c l a r i t y i n t o why I d i d the t h i n g s I d i d , i n terms of c a r e e r c h o i c e s . And besides t h a t , i t added some meaning to i t . I t f e e l s r i g h t , on a very gut l e v e l . Yeah, t h i s i s the reason I became a mechanic, and these are the reasons I became a human s e r v i c e s worker. Yeah, some of my values d i d c r y s t a l l i z e as the r e s u l t of bonding with my nanny. I t a l s o e x p l a i n s my almost dominant a t t r a c t i o n to C e l t i c women. I r e a l l y got a handle on that one. The aspect of my f a t h e r as brother a l s o r e a l l y r i n g s t r u e f o r me. My f a t h e r was very much a f a m i l y person and that meant t a k i n g care of h i s b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s ... extending i n t o h i s work; a high degree of compassion and humanism ... So I see myself i n t e g r a t i n g many of my f a t h e r ' s v a l u e s . T h i s paper gave me an i n t e l l e c t u a l framework that confirms that i n a more concrete way. 1 52 D Self-Review You put i t together p r e t t y good. You seemed to have a s p e c i f i c base from which you were coming ... I d i d n ' t f e e l you d i s t o r t e d anything ... Yes, you p o r t r a y e d what I was saying , even more a c c u r a t e l y . You s k i l l f u l l y e x t r a c t e d the essence of my belaboured thoughts ... I had my wife read i t . She found i t almost ... f a c i n a t i n g . None of the m a t e r i a l was new to her but the way i t was put together threw more l i g h t on the whole t h i n g . E Self-Review I thought i t was super ... That's r e a l l y a l l I can say about i t . You s y n t h e s i z e d the m a t e r i a l c l e a r l y . F Self-Review ... There was nothing that sounded u n f a m i l i a r at a l l . I t sounded a l o t c l e a r e r than what I thought I s a i d ... The way i t came a c r o s s , i t sounds l i k e my p e r c e p t i o n s were that the law m i l i e u was more my kind of people than s o c i a l work. In terms of the people, the s o c i a l workers are more s i m i l a r to me than the lawyer types.... I do l i k e to t h i n k of myself as l i k e brother B [a lawyer], i n some ways ... but i n terms of h i s humanness, not h i s lawyer-ness. I j u s t t h i n k t h a t ' s who he is_, whether he's a lawyer or not ... yes i t ' s t r u e , I only got c l o s e to him as an a d u l t , and h i s lawyer-ness i s , I guess you c o u l d say, i n s e p a r a b l e from h i s humanness. Your p e r c e p t i o n s of the i n d i v i d u a l people are r i g h t on. Your c o n c l u s i o n s are o f f a b i t , j u s t i n terms of what I s a i d about brother B and a l l t h a t . Upon c a r e f u l reading of t h i s . c r i t i q u e , what appeared to be a r e f u t a t i o n of the case write-up was a c t u a l l y a 153 c o n f i r m a t i o n of the accuracy of the s y n t h e s i s . Apparently, F understood the study to suggest she was l i k e lawyers when a c t u a l l y i t suggested that i n her c u r r e n t v o c a t i o n a l r o l e as a lawyer she was l i k e brother B. I t i s a l s o p o i n t e d out th a t brother B, who was hi m s e l f a lawyer, was more humanistic than the other lawyers i n F's v o c a t i o n a l arena. G Self-Review G made s p e c i f i c comments r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y to the copy i n the case write-up. In response to the d e s c r i p t i o n under V o c a t i o n 1 of h i s l e a d i n g a c t r e s s / g i r l f r i e n d as " l i k e b r o t h e r " G s a i d : ... Very good o b s e r v a t i o n . I t ' s funny, she r e a l l y l i k e d her own o l d e r brother too. She was very c l o s e to him. In response t o the summation of the V o c a t i o n 1 drama as " c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l l i a n c e with u n c r i t i c a l ... others who c o l l e c t i v e l y exclude c r i t i c a l f i g u r e s " G comments: I f i n d t h i s l a s t statement t o be t r u e and now, a year l a t e r , see i t more i n my way of r e l a t i n g to ot h e r s ' s i t u a t i o n s . A year ago I was not cognizant of the way I r e l a t e d as c l e a r l y . The d i s c u s s i o n of h i s v o c a t i o n a l t r a n s i t i o n evoked simply: T h i s makes a l o t of sense to me. 154 H Self-Review I t comes through so s t r o n g l y that i t kind of blew me away. I was t r u l y a s t o n i s h e d at how strong the p a t t e r n i s ... What you s a i d i s t r u e . A b s o l u t e l y t r u e . I never saw i t l i k e t h i s b e f o r e . J u s t seeing t h i n g s juxtaposed i n t h i s way. There's nothing d i s t o r t e d though. I t t r u l y a s t o n i s h e d me ... Thank you f o r doing that f o r me. I le a r n e d a l o t about myself. J Self-Review ... I never thought of i t , i n terms of mother or f a t h e r . I t ' s something I have d i f f i c u l t y a p p r e c i a t i n g ... I so r t of mulled i t over and s a i d , 'No that i s n ' t me, and then thought w e l l yes, words can have d i f f e r e n t meanings and I can see how t h a t r e l a t e s to me'. Cowardice, f o r example, i t has d i f f e r e n t c o n n o t a t i o n s . I guess i n that context, i t ' s 'fear of o f f e n d i n g ' . And then i t makes sense, yes ... My e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r type of t h i n g s , f r i e n d s and a c t i v i t i e s , preceded me i n doing some of the types of th i n g s I d i d l a t e r on ... I recognized myself t h e r e . That's me.... I s t i l l f e e l uncomfortable with what I c o n s i d e r to be a Freudian type of approach. My approach i s l e s s p s y c h o a n a l y t i c and more a person i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r c u l t u r e , from an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p o i n t of view. I f e e l uncomfortable with the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l p o i n t of view. I thin k that d i s t o r t s the p i c t u r e of a person by t a k i n g him out of h i s c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . My c u l t u r a l context i s l e f t - w i n g Jewish. My o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , f r i e n d s a l l r e f l e c t t h a t , so the chances of me going i n t o banking, f o r example, are p r e t t y remote. K Self-Review Subject was u n a v a i l a b l e due to extended i l l n e s s and t r a v e l . 155 INDEPENDENT CASE REVIEWS A Independent Review The a n a l y s i s makes sense to me and the paper and tape correspond as f a r as I can t e l l . I found a whole l i s t of l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s though, a t l e a s t what i s con s i d e r e d a l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n i n a c o u r t of law, maybe the standards are d i f f e r e n t i n psychology. When the " l i s t of l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s " was reviewed by the r e s e a r c h e r , i t appeared that they f e l l i n t o the category of t y p i c a l q u e s t i o n s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , or probi n g q u e s t i o n s seeking e l a b o r a t i o n , e.g., So when you thin k of your a d v i c e - g i v i n g r o l e with her ( s i s t e r ) , that was as a d u l t s ? There's a l s o the dimension that you're not speaking. So you're saying i t ' s a s h i f t i n how you're r e l a t i n g to people and i t ' s r e f l e c t e d i n your c a r e e r ? B Independent Review You d i d n ' t ask l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s . Your t r a n s c r i p t j i b e s with the tapes, and i t makes sense to me. C Independent Review The paper d i d r e f l e c t the tape w e l l . You p o r t r a y e d him q u i t e c l e a r l y ... used good summary and c l a r i f i c a t i o n t e chniques. 156 T h i s reviewer noted that the subj e c t was now f i n d i n g more p o i n t s of connection between himself and h i s f a t h e r ; the reviewer f e l t the r o l e of the f a t h e r i n t h i s p o r t r a y a l should be e l a b o r a t e d on more. A l s o , the reviewer noted a p o s s i b l e source of b i a s that may a r i s e from the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the subj e c t and i n t e r v i e w e r . T h i s concern i s based upon the theme i n the s u b j e c t ' s drama of being i n f l u e n c e d by "powerful" women and h i s statement, "I fear your judgment [female i n t e r v i e w e r ' s name]." The reviewer d i d confi r m , however, that the i n t e r v i e w e r f o l l o w e d a l l a p p r o p r i a t e procedure i n r e p e a t e d l y i n v i t i n g the sub j e c t t o respond to the c o r r e l a t i o n s i n any way, and i n c l e a r l y s t a t i n g that agreement was not valued above r e f u t a t i o n . I t might a l s o be noted that there was s u f f i c i e n t rapport with t h i s s u b j e c t that throughout the re s e a r c h process, he was more v e r b a l l y forthcoming with fewer prompts than any other s u b j e c t i n t h i s study. D Independent Review You used non-biased l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s , mostly c l a r i f y i n g statements ... He [the s u b j e c t ] was a b i t e v a s i v e . You pi c k e d out a l l the good quotes, the most i l l u s t r a t i v e . . . . Your a n a l y s i s made sense to me. One c o n t r a d i c t i o n : he t a l k e d about h i s dad not being home of t e n and that he d i d n ' t have much time f o r f a m i l y and he [ s u b j e c t ] t a l k e d about wanting to make enough money, to be a b l e to stay home. At l e a s t I'm assuming t h a t ' s what he'd want to make a p i l e of money f o r , so he wouldn't have to work and c o u l d be f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d , and t h i s seems to c o n t r a d i c t the theme of r e p e a t i n g h i s f a t h e r ' s way. 1 57 The apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n here l a y i n the assumption on the p a r t of the reviewer. During i n f o r m a l exchange with the sub j e c t (not on t a p e ) , i t was r e v e a l e d t h a t D a s s o c i a t e d h i s ambition not to have to conc e n t r a t e on earn i n g money with h i s d e s i r e to be more i n v o l v e d i n other work that was not n e c e s s a r i l y income producing but, n e v e r t h e l e s s , of s e r v i c e to the community. E Independent Review You d i d n ' t ask l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s . You gave a broad sense of o p t i o n s . I t f e l t l i k e you had a d e f i n i t e i n t e n t i o n i n your i n t e r v i e w , and you l e f t room f o r an i n d i v i d u a l response.... He [ s u b j e c t ] seemed i n t e r e s t e d i n r e f l e c t i n g i n h i s s p i r i t u a l l i f e , the un e x p l a i n a b l e , magic, e x c i t i n g part of l i f e , but not on h i s care e r l i f e . He kept t r y i n g to p i n you down. He couldn't answer the qu e s t i o n s but I thin k that was a f u n c t i o n of him, not of the pr o c e s s . He wasn't w i l l i n g to enter i n t o the process and and t h e r e f o r e he found your q u e s t i o n s d i r e c t i v e and couldn't answer them... I b e l i e v e he was i n an unconscious p r o c e s s . I think he was t r y i n g , and j u s t c ouldn't get i t . . . I've got l o t s of s p e c u l a t i o n s and I was impressed with the lack of s p e c u l a t i o n s i n your paper. Your paper seemed to be a r e p o r t i n g , a c l e a n r e p o r t i n g . I t f e l t p r e t t y t r u e . . . . I was impressed with h i s sense of the l a c k of impact of the people i n h i s l i f e . . . I was s u r p r i s e d at the l a c k of an i n t e l l e c t u a l mentor.... I can understand where the m o t i v a t i o n to be d r i v e n came from, but I can't understand where the m o t i v a t i o n to be academic came from... In the paper, you mentioned h i s v o i c e changed and h i s face l i t up at one p o i n t ; w e l l I c o u l d hear that i n the tape. The apparent r e s i s t a n c e to t a l k i n g about c a r e e r l i f e i n favour of s p i r i t u a l l i f e was non-problematic f o r E; h i s car e e r l i f e was the v e h i c l e f o r h i s " s p i r i t u a l " development. Hi s focus, i n t h i s i n t e r v i e w , was so much an inner one, that 158 he had d i f f i c u l t y t h i n k i n g that s o c i a l dynamics, an e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n of inner l i f e , would have much relev a n c e to him. F Independent Review I don't thi n k you're asking l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s . I thin k your s t y l e i s r e l a t i v e l y unbiased. Sometimes I get a sense when you're on the tape that she was g e t t i n g ahead of you somewhat. Perhaps the framework t h a t you were t r y i n g to put her responses i n t o , i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to your study, she was ... t r y i n g to jump ahead of that or jump out of that and you were t r y i n g to b r i n g her back to some sense of form that you were using as a s t r u c t u r e . I t h i n k ... the r o l e models that you've given ... you've put c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s ... on the overview of what she c o n s c i o u s l y or un c o n s c i o u s l y has chosen to do with her l i f e ... I'm guessing that you've c o n s c i o u s l y chosen to do that because of the nature of the study and the n e c e s s i t y to keep i t i n some r e l a t i v e l y c o n c r e t e format. ... On page one [of the write-up] the time q u a n t i t i e s you've given p l a c e her at age 16 when she s t a r t e d her s o c i a l work c a r e e r ; i s that p o s s i b l e ? ... I'm wondering a l i t t l e b i t , why you chose to i n c o r p o r a t e only the male r o l e models ... there was no i n depth q u e s t i o n i n g on the r o l e model of the mother ... You say as a s o c i a l worker she i s l i k e her mother, f a t h e r , and b r o t h e r ; I d i d n ' t get a sense from the tape that she was t a k i n g her mother's p l a c e as a r o l e model ... i n the same category or r e f e r e n c e p o i n t as f a t h e r or brother A. ... A l l through i t I see s o r t of a blend, [of the two v o c a t i o n a l r o l e s ] and I thin k that was confirmed by her d e s c r i p t i o n ... she s a i d when she was a s o c i a l worker ... that was c o r r e c t f o r c r e a t i v e development at that time and now she's a lawyer and that was c o r r e c t f o r her to be where she i s now. That seemed q u i t e a reasonable and accurate s e l f - o b s e r v a t i o n on her p a r t . And ... reading between the l i n e s she sees that she needs to i n c o r p o r a t e or i n t e g r a t e both of these aspects of h e r s e l f before she can come to terms with an occupation which f a c i l i t a t e s her maximal s e l f - g r o w t h . ... As a lawyer she's more l i k e her a c t u a l and i d e a l s e l f and her brother being a lawyer and being a lawyer a l l the time and being famous f o r what he does ... I don't get the 159 f e e l i n g that she sees that i n t e n s i t y that she views him as e x p e r i e n c i n g as a lawyer as something ... that she wants to be i n v o l v e d i n because t h a t ' s a throwback to brother A, the s o c i a l worker. ... I t h i n k that your s c e n a r i o i s f a i r l y c o r r e c t . Again I'm not c l e a r the mother's r o l e ... and f o r a complete p i c t u r e that needs to be i n c o r p o r a t e d ... I have a hard time seeing a c l e a r cut d i s t i n c t i o n between V o c a t i o n 1 and Vo c a t i o n 2 although you s o r t of s t a t e d that by saying "The c o n t r o l l i n g drama i s seen as pa r t of a continuum ..." G Independent Review Your q u e s t i o n s were not l e a d i n g ... the t r a n s c r i p t j i b e s with the tape. I understood where e v e r y t h i n g came from. I o f t e n a r r i v e d at a c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n , and then you would talk' about that i n your next paragraph. H Independent Review The typed m a t e r i a l and the tape correspond; no s u r p r i s e s between the tape and w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l . Does one act a c c o r d i n g to c h i l d h o o d r e s t r a i n t s , "no f u s s , " n e c e s s a r i l y ? Someone e l s e might not re-enact t h i s as an a d u l t given that same element of r e s t r a i n t . F a c i n a t i n g s t u f f ! J Independent Review You d i d n ' t ask l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s ... when you s t a t e d one of h i s reasons f o r being i s o l a t e d was h i s being "Jewish i n a non-Jewish environment, and being beaten up," w e l l , I d i d n ' t hear t h i s on the tape. A l s o , you s t a t e h i s mother was u n a v a i l a b l e due to being s e l f - p r e o c c u p i e d and needy. Those weren't h i s words; he t a l k e d about her being a weak person, and i l l , but he d i d n ' t use those words e x a c t l y . Otherwise the paper r e f l e c t s the tape w e l l and your a n a l y s i s o v e r a l l makes sense. 160 K Independent Review You ask c l a r i f y i n g q u e s t i o n s ... I d i d n ' t hear any l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s ... The tape and the paper j i b e , and your assumptions about i t , or your comments about i t [ i n the paper] j i b e with the gen e r a l [ g i s t of what she s a i d ] ... When I thin k of i t , the going back to school i s the second v o c a t i o n ... d i d she go to school because she wanted to make a career change or d i d she j u s t want to be i n the school environment; that seemed so important to her ... i n terms of her p e r c e p t i o n of her bosses and her p e r c e p t i o n of her mother as a c o n t r o l l i n g , bossy woman, that was f a i r l y c l e a r [ i n your paper] ... i t was i n the second v o c a t i o n a f t e r having made her i d e n t i t y commitment [as a l e s b i a n ] that she began to chafe at how she r e l a t e s to her mother, "I l i k e you but The e a r l y experience had l e s s c o n f l i c t f o r her ap p a r e n t l y than the l a t e r one ... the c o n f l i c t between her mother and grandmother f i g u r e , as r e s p o n s i b l e and un - r e s p o n s i b l e , t h i s became a harsher c o n f l i c t [ i n Voc a t i o n 2 ] ... The " d r i v e r " f o r her, to o v e r s i m p l i f y , might w e l l be i d e n t i f y i n g with the mother and the need to c o n t r o l , and then the c o n f l i c t with the grandmother f i g u r e and wanting to p l a y . 161 CHAPTER VI DISCUSSION The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e s u b s t a n t i a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s among f i g u r e s from the s e l f , f a m i l y , and v o c a t i o n a l domains. Of p a r t i c u l a r importance to t h i s study, t h i s f i n d i n g h e l d a c r o s s the two v o c a t i o n a l arenas examined i n each of the ten cases. A d d i t i o n a l l y , the nature of the v o c a t i o n a l t r a n s i t i o n , as r e f l e c t e d i n s h i f t i n g r o l e displacements and re-enacted r o l e p a t t e r n s , a l s o appeared to vary i d i o s y n c r a t i c a l l y f o r each s u b j e c t . On the whole, when viewed i n the context of the s u b j e c t s ' l i v e d - o u t experience, there appears to be r e g u l a r i t y of meaning i n c a r e e r change. That i s , i n a l l ten cases, the meaning of the ca r e e r change can be understood i n terms of the s h i f t s and/or maintenance i n f a m i l y dramas re-enacted i n the v o c a t i o n a l arena. T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s The f i n d i n g s have relevance to v o c a t i o n a l and car e e r theory i n two d i f f e r e n t regards. F i r s t l y , by e x p l i c i t l y focusing, on the p e r s p e c t i v e of the ca r e e r changer, the f i n d i n g s suggest a refinement of car e e r theory that r e s o l v e s the i m p l i c i t debate w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e regarding c o n t i n u i t y versus d i s c o n t i n u i t y of meaning. Secondly, the f i n d i n g s support e x i s t i n g v o c a t i o n a l theory that advocates 162 the u t i l i z a t i o n of a f a m i l y p e r s p e c t i v e when examining c a r e e r phenomena. C o n t i n u i t y / D i s c o n t i n u i t y of Meaning. The p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h on car e e r change has presented two, l a r g e l y i m p l i c i t , t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s on the meaning of care e r change. As i d e n t i f i e d and d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter II of t h i s study, the dichotomous t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s that have p r e v i o u s l y guided r e s e a r c h i n t h i s area are t h a t : 1. Meaning i s continuous f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s p o s i t i o n i n c l u d e s the view that meaning may be dynamic and c o n t i n u o u s l y e v o l v i n g , but i s nonetheless e s s e n t i a l l y c o n s i s t e n t . 2. Meaning i s d i s c o n t i n u o u s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s p o s i t i o n i n c l u d e s the view t h a t c a r e e r change r e f l e c t s a breakdown i n the c o n t i n u i t y or c o n s i s t a n c y of the meaning s t r u c t u r e s f o r an i n d i v i d u a l . The r e s u l t s of the present study d i r e c t l y c o n t r i b u t e to v o c a t i o n a l theory by suggesting an a l t e r n a t i v e to e i t h e r of these dichotomous views. That i s , i n i n s t a n c e s of car e e r change, some elements of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s meaning s t r u c t u r e may be d i c o n t i n u o u s , while other elements may be continuous. By viewing meaning s t r u c t u r e s as complex and m u l t i - l e v e l e d , t h i s study p r o v i d e s an i n t e g r a t e d t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n that o f f e r s a u s e f u l a l t e r n a t i v e p o s i t i o n o u t s i d e of the inherent debate w i t h i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Furthermore, although t h i s 163 study i n d i c a t e s that both d i s c o n t i n u i t y and c o n t i n u i t y of meaning s t r u c t u r e s occurs at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l i n career t r a n s i t i o n when c a r e e r change i s examined i n the context of the i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t ' s l i v e d - o u t experience i n terms of r o l e s , the p a t t e r n of continuous meaning appears as the l a r g e r , more p e r v a s i v e one. In other words, the evidence suggests that i t i s the gener a l n e g l e c t of the s u b j e c t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e that has c r e a t e d f r u i t l e s s t h e o r e t i c a l c o n f l i c t r e g a r d i n g c o n t i n u i t y versus d i s c o n t i n u i t y of meaning. For example, a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of a p p l i c a t i o n s of Holland's t h e o r e t i c a l work as i t r e l a t e s to the i s s u e of c o n t i n u i t y / d i s c o n t i n u i t y of meaning w i l l r e v e a l the c o n f u s i o n r e s u l t a n t from o v e r l o o k i n g the p e r s p e c t i v e of the s u b j e c t s . As noted i n Chapter II of t h i s study, Holland's (1966) t h e o r e t i c a l work i d e n t i f y i n g s i x i d e a l v o c a t i o n a l types has l e d to s e v e r a l s t u d i e s examining c a r e e r change i n terms of c a t e g o r i c a l s h i f t s from one "type" of v o c a t i o n to another. Robbins (1978) and Thomas (1979) have suggested that the t o o l based on Holland's theory (The D i c t i o n a r y of Oc c u p a t i o n a l T i t l e s , or D.O.T.) i s i n s u f f i c i e n t l y s e n s i t i v e to i l l u m i n a t e the nature of change. The present study suggests t h a t the i n s e n s i t i v i t y of the D.O.T. a r i s e s from i t s premise of constancy e x i s t i n g at the l e v e l of t r a i t s and e x t e r n a l environment, r a t h e r than at the l e v e l of pers o n a l meaning. While t h i s study supports H o l l a n d ' s u n d e r l y i n g 1 64 premise that there appears to be some phenomena that endure throughout the i n d i v i d u a l ' s career, i t i s suggested here that n e g l e c t i n g the personal p e r s p e c t i v e of a career change v e i l s the nature of the c o n t i n u i t y i n career. On the other hand, those who have suggested that personal meaning i s c e n t r a l to an understanding of career change (Thomas, 1979; Roberts, 1975; Lawrence, 1980) have not developed the notion s u f f i c i e n t l y to allow f o r a d i r e c t examination of i t through t h e i r own work. The present study f u r t h e r s these works by s u b s t a n t i a t i n g t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y t e n t a t i v e suggestion of personal meaning as c e n t r a l to an understanding of career change behavior. When a more comprehensive examination was undertaken that focused on understanding career change i n the context of the subject's l i v e d - o u t experience, as i n t h i s study, i t appeared that d i s c o n t i n u i t y and c o n t i n u i t y of meaning may not be mutually e x c l u s i v e phenomena. D i s c o n t i n u i t y at one l e v e l may c o i n c i d e with c o n t i n u i t y and an expanded meaning framework at another l e v e l i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e s t r u c t u r e . Several case examples w i l l serve to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t . In s e v e r a l respects, subject B t y p i f i e d what has been r e f e r r e d to as a "corporate drop-out" i n the e x i s t i n g research l i t e r a t u r e . P r e v i o u s l y a h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l entrepreneur and p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n s u l t a n t , h i s v o c a t i o n a l s h i f t to " a r t i s t / t h e r a p i s t " involved a s u b s t a n t i a l income 165 r e d u c t i o n and broader change i n many elements of h i s e x t e r n a l l i f e s t r u c t u r e , such as h i s network of pe r s o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n s , and h i s a c t i v i t i e s beyond the v o c a t i o n a l arena. The most obvious example of t h i s was that the v o c a t i o n a l s h i f t c o i n c i d e d approximately with a m a r i t a l s e p a r a t i o n . S u p e r f i c i a l l y , i t appeared that B abandoned the goals and values i m p l i c i t i n h i s v o c a t i o n a l r o l e as a co m p e t i t i v e entrepreneur and t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i s t , and embraced what i s commonly r e f e r r e d to as a c o u n t e r - c u l t u r e or "new-age" set of i d e a l s . L e f t here, t h i s a n a l y s i s suggested a r a d i c a l d i s c o n t i n u i t y of meaning i n B's l i f e , r e f l e c t e d i n e x t e r n a l s t r u c t u r a l changes. When both q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e data were examined together, however, i t appeared that at the l e v e l of r o l e enactments and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n p r o t o t y p e s , B maintained h i s e a r l i e r p a t t e r n and extended i t by e l e v a t i n g or e n l a r g i n g h i s p e r c e p t i o n of the arena i n which he was engaged. He d i d not abandon the meaning s t r u c t u r e of h i s f i r s t v o c a t i o n , which was embodied i n the b r o t h e r l y drama of com p e t i t i o n he enacted i n t h i s c o n t e x t . Rather, the element of b r o t h e r l y competition was seen by B as expanded to v i r t u a l l y cosmic p r o p o r t i o n s , with a d d i t i o n a l f a m i l i a r r o l e re-enactments i n c l u d e d i n t h i s more grandly s c a l e d drama. From B's own viewpoint, i t was as i f Vocati o n 2 was, i n e f f e c t , a bigger f i s h - p o n d to play i n ; h i s c o m p e t i t i v e nature was seen i n a broader context as he p i t t e d himself 1 66 a g a i n s t c o s m o l o g i c a l concepts and f o r c e s , rather than f r i e n d s and c o l l e a g u e s . S i m i l a r l y , he was c o n s i s t e n t i n h i s stance and s e l f - c o n c e p t as the unusual, and even unique p l a y e r , whose purpose was to shake up people's p e r c e p t i o n s and push people's p e r c e p t u a l l i m i t s . In V o c a t i o n 1 t h i s r o l e enactment earned him the s t a t u s of a f r i n g e member of the managerial group, while the same r o l e enactment v i r t u a l l y d e f i n e d V o c a t i o n 2. Case E p r o v i d e d an i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t to Case B. L i k e B, E's v o c a t i o n a l t r a n s i t i o n was approximately c o i n c i d e n t with a m a r i t a l s e p a r a t i o n . U n l i k e B though, the s h i f t d i d not impose any s i g n i f i c a n t f i n a n c i a l or r e l a t e d l i f e s t y l e a l t e r a t i o n s . To the c o n t r a r y , the s h i f t from c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t to t r a n s p e r s o n a l p s y c h o l o g i s t would l i k e l y be commonly viewed as a c a r e e r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n not i n v o l v i n g any major a l t e r a t i o n i n one's meaning framework. Here again an examination of both the q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e data suggested that E's v o c a t i o n a l s h i f t r e f l e c t e d an expansion of h i s meaning framework; he d i d not abandon the aspect of the drama based on the prototype of generously g i v i n g f a t h e r , but r a t h e r i n t e g r a t e d the a d d i t i o n a l p rototype of " j o i e de v i v r e " e x e m p l i f i e d by mother. 167 In c o n t r a s t to Case B, Case E d i d not support the argument that expansion of meaning framework and c o n t i n u i t y of meaning were n e c e s s a r i l y c o i n c i d e n t , as experienced by the s u b j e c t . For E, the expanded con c e p t u a l framework w i t h i n which he enacted a f a m i l i a r drama was s u b j e c t i v e l y experienced as a r a d i c a l break from p r e v i o u s experience. Throughout the i n t e r v i e w , E was f r u s t r a t e d by the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of a r t i c u l a t i n g the f u l l import of the s h i f t . I t was as i f the s h i f t was so profound that he c o u l d not f i n d any language borrowed from previous experience adequate to express i t . Here, then, was an i n s t a n c e of a p p a r e n t l y continuous and expanded meaning framework; yet the i n d i v i d u a l ' s experience was one of d i s c o n t i n u i t y . The case of H r a i s e d yet f u r t h e r doubt as to the u s e f u l n e s s of the c o n t i n u i t y / d i s c o n t i n u i t y of meaning debate. Appearances suggested here that H's v o c a t i o n a l t r a n s i t i o n r e f l e c t e d a r a d i c a l , d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n meaning. A s h i f t from housewife to a h i g h - s t a t u s p a i d p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e e n t a i l i n g graduate l e v e l e d u c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n might i n i t i a l l y suggest a s h i f t i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s goals and s e l f - i m a g e . The data suggested, however, that t h i s v o c a t i o n a l s h i f t was an instance of r e - e n a c t i n g the same p a t t e r n s i n two d i s t i n c t arenas. The drama and i m p l i c i t meaning were continuous; only the context was a l t e r e d . H's a r t i c u l a t i o n of her p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l f r u s t r a t i o n s f u r t h e r 168 i n d i c a t e d t h a t the v o c a t i o n a l s h i f t was not c o i n c i d e n t with an expanded or a l t e r e d s e l f - c o n c e p t , or with the p e r c e p t i o n of i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . H's meaning framework was continuous a c r o s s c o n t e x t s , i n i t s n e g a t i v e l y connoted a s p e c t s of an experience of anomie and of d e s p e r a t i o n which evoked s u i c i d a l t h i n k i n g , as w e l l as i t s p o s i t i v e l y connoted aspects of being the h e l p f u l supporter and n u r t u r e r . In the case of H, i t can be seen that c o n t i n u i t y of meaning may be an i n s u f f i c i e n t c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of mental h e a l t h , when one's p r o t o t y p i c a l p a t t e r n and subsequent meaning framework i s not r i c h or open-ended enough to p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the r e s o l u t i o n of inner c o n f l i c t or extreme d e s p a i r . These i l l u s t r a t i o n s c h a l l e n g e the i m p l i c i t assumption w i t h i n the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e that c o n t i n u i t y of meaning i s a s s o c i a t e d with p e r s o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n and a s t a t e of mental h e a l t h , and that d i s c o n t i n u i t y of meaning suggests the i n v e r s e . Furthermore, the importance of examining the phenomena from the s u b j e c t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e i s suggested as a key to r e v e a l i n g c o n t i n u i t y of meaning i n i n s t a n c e s of c a r e e r change. Family P e r s p e c t i v e . Anne McGregor's e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s (1983), which served as a b a s i s f o r the present study, suggested that f a m i l y dramas are re-enacted i n the v o c a t i o n a l arena. The present study both supports t h i s 169 f i n d i n g and suggests the i m p l i c a t i o n s of i t i n i n s t a n c e s of c a r e e r change. S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s study suggests that f a m i l y dramas are re-enacted a c r o s s m u l t i p l e v o c a t i o n a l arenas. As noted in Chapter II of t h i s study (page 20), Roe (1956) and more r e c e n t l y Bratcher (1982) are among the t h e o r e t i c i a n s who have advocated the examination of c a r e e r phenomena from a p e r s p e c t i v e that acknowledges the i n f l u e n c e of f a m i l y on c a r e e r r e l a t e d behavior. In p a r t i c u l a r , Bratcher t h e o r i z e d the continued i n f l u e n c e of e a r l y f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p i n a d u l t behavior, as w e l l as i n e a r l y , i n i t i a l c areer s e l e c t i o n s . H i s suggestion that the p a t t e r n e d , r e p e t i t i v e , c i r c u l a r dynamics of f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s serve as prototypes i n v o c a t i o n a l arenas was supported by t h i s study. The examination of c a r e e r change phenomena from the p e r s p e c t i v e of e a r l y f a m i l y r o l e dynamics, as i n t h i s study, added a depth and u n i t y that would be otherwise l a c k i n g i n an i n t e n s i v e o b s e r v a t i o n of the phenomena. The examples that f o l l o w w i l l h i g h l i g h t the value of u s i n g a f a m i l y p e r s p e c t i v e to examine c a r e e r phenomena. Subject C, i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , was an automotive mechanic who l a t e r became a human s e r v i c e s worker. The t r a n s i t i o n e n t a i l e d a s h i f t from blue c o l l a r to white c o l l a r work, from concr e t e to conceptual problem-solving, from a male-dominated to a female-dominated work world, and from a 170 s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y t o , i n i t i a l l y , a t r a i n e e c a p a c i t y . The s h i f t a l s o i n v o l v e d an adjustment from r e l a t i v e m a t e r i a l comfort to a s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduced income l e v e l and l i v i n g s t y l e . A d d i t i o n a l l y , the s h i f t r e q u i r e d C to recog n i z e and overcome many areas of p e r c e i v e d and experienced inadequacy in terms of h i s own conceptual and r e l a t i o n s h i p c a p a c i t i e s . Without the f a m i l y p e r s p e c t i v e as an o r i e n t a t i o n , C's v o c a t i o n a l s h i f t might appear to be an inst a n c e of " i n a p p r o p r i a t e " i n i t i a l c a r e e r c h o i c e with a m i d - l i f e r e c t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s s i t u a t i o n . A l t e r n a t e l y , i t might appear to be an inst a n c e of attempting to " p u l l h i m s e l f up by the b o o t s t r a p s " to higher s t a t u s (though lower paying) work, a r e j e c t i o n of h i s blue c o l l a r past a f f i l i a t i o n s and i d e n t i t y . These and any number of other e x p l a n a t i o n s which might serve suggest that one or the other c a r e e r c h o i c e was a mistake, i n a p p r o p r i a t e , or i n some way i n c o n s i s t e n t with C's s e l f - i d e n t i t y , and t h e r e f o r e r e f l e c t i v e of a d i s c o n t i n u i t y of meaning. Without the i n t e g r a t i n g backdrop of the f a m i l y p e r s p e c t i v e , o b s e r v a t i o n of C i n r e l a t i o n to h i s v o c a t i o n a l context renders him a r e l a t i v e l y two-dimensional f i g u r e . That would overlook l a t e n t underdeveloped aspects of the i n d i v i d u a l and unexpressed dimensions of p r o t o t y p i c a l dramas. Wit h i n the context of a f a m i l y p e r s p e c t i v e , i t can be seen that i n each v o c a t i o n a l arena, C appeared to re-enact d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t a spects of h i s e a r l y f a m i l y 171 drama, as embodied most v i v i d l y by h i s w o r k i n g - c l a s s mother f i g u r e , Nanny, and h i s higher s t a t u s p r o f e s s i o n a l f a t h e r with humanitarian i d e a l s . I t i s as i f , i n r e - e n a c t i n g the a s p e c t s of the f a m i l y drama a s s o c i a t e d with V o c a t i o n 1, C i n t e g r a t e d the f i r s t drama and a r r i v e d at a sense of i n t e r n a l completion; the inherent dramatic c o n f l i c t (male co m p e t i t i o n here) no longer h e l d a p o s i t i v e f o r c e f o r him. In V o c a t i o n 2, not only d i d the data suggest C more f u l l y re-enacted the r e l a t i o n s h i p p a t t e r n s from h i s f a m i l y - o f - b i r t h , he a l s o seemed to be a c t i v e l y i n t e g r a t i n g the v a l u e s and a t t r i b u t e s a s s o c i a t e d with h i s f a m i l y drama. C q u i t e c l e a r l y a s s o c i a t e d h i s new-found c a r e e r i d e n t i t y and d i r e c t i o n with a recent awareness of i n c r e a s e d r e c o g n i t i o n , r e s p e c t , and admiration of those aspects of the f a m i l y drama embodied by h i s f a t h e r . S i m i l a r l y , examining s u b j e c t F's s h i f t from s o c i a l worker to lawyer from a f a m i l y p e r s p e c t i v e added c o n s i d e r a b l e depth. If the o b s e r v a t i o n extended no f u r t h e r than the c a r e e r domain i t c o u l d be seen that the s h i f t was, w i t h i n the white c o l l a r world, from one s e r v i c e p r o f e s s i o n to another. An upward s h i f t i n s t a t u s and income such as t h i s , where there i s no obvious r a d i c a l d i s c o n t i n u i t y suggested, might be seen as motivated only by m a t e r i a l or f i n a n c i a l needs and d e s i r e s . 172 The f a m i l y p e r s p e c t i v e here f l e s h e d out the p i c t u r e c o n s i d e r a b l y . The data i n d i c a t e d that each of two b r o t h e r s was c h a r a c t e r i z e d , r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n terms p a r a l l e l to each of F's two v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s , and furthermore, each p r o v i d e d her with e a r l y models of these v o c a t i o n a l r o l e s i n h i s own r e s p e c t i v e c a r e e r . Given t h i s , F's s h i f t assumed more s u b t l e and complex tones, as the images of d i f f e r e n t aspects of her f a m i l y drama appeared to have been r e c r e a t e d at d i f f e r e n t stages i n her c a r e e r . J was yet another s u b j e c t whose v o c a t i o n a l t r a n s i t i o n can be seen more f u l l y i n l i g h t of a f a m i l y p e r s p e c t i v e . I f the examination of v o c a t i o n a l t r a n s i t i o n were to r e l y on data from the c a r e e r domain alone, a n a l y s i s would again r e s t upon a c o l l e c t i o n of e x t e r n a l and/or i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s . In such a case, there would s t i l l be no framework f o r c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g why those p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e d J i n the d i r e c t i o n they d i d , no e x p l a n a t i o n of what p r o t o t y p i c a l p e r c e p t u a l p a t t e r n s operated to allow or d i r e c t the nature of e x t e r n a l / i n t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s . The assumption that p r o t o t y p e s were d e r i v e d from f a m i l y experience served again to i n d i c a t e , as Subject J suggested, why t e a c h i n g became h i s second v o c a t i o n " r a t h e r than banking." Furthermore, the f a m i l y p e r s p e c t i v e a l s o p r o v i d e d a framework f o r seeing how J's p a r t i c u l a r approach to t e a c h i n g , the r o l e he assumed as a s o c i a l c r i t i c and change agent, was rooted i n h i s p e r s o n a l mythology and was 173 an i n t e g r a t e d aspect of h i s s e l f - c o n c e p t , an i n d i c a t i o n that he was not t r a v e l l i n g uncharted waters i n the s p i r i t of a p ioneer or madman. For J , i t appeared that t e a c h i n g r e p r e s e n t e d an embracing of aspects of h i m s e l f that were r e l a t i v e l y undeveloped and/or unexpressed p r e v i o u s l y ; s p e c i f i c a l l y , h i s c h i l d - l i k e p l a y f u l n e s s , and the " r i g h t b r a i n a r t s y " c r e a t i v i t y he a s s o c i a t e d with the mother f i g u r e . A d d i t i o n a l l y , h i s p a r t i c u l a r approach and i d e n t i t y as a teacher appeared to be an a c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n of humanitarian i d e a l s and concerns f o r s o c i a l reform which were valu e s modelled by the f i g u r e of f a t h e r . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C o u n s e l l i n g P r a c t i c e ; B l u r r i n g of  V o c a t i o n a l and Family C o u n s e l l i n g P r a c t i c e In a d d i t i o n to p r o v i d i n g depth and a u n i f y i n g framework, the use of a f a m i l y p e r s p e c t i v e to examine car e e r change phenomena pro v i d e d a p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l glimpse at the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c a r e e r phenomena and concurrent f a m i l y dynamics. The f i n d i n g s suggested that i t may be f r u i t f u l to examine and address t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to a g r e a t e r extent than has o c c u r r e d i n e i t h e r the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e or i n c o u n s e l l i n g p r a c t i c e thus f a r . The p i c t u r e that emerged here suggests that d i s t i n c t i o n s between f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p c o u n s e l l i n g i s s u e s and c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g i s s u e s , i n r e s e a r c h and c o u n s e l l i n g p r a c t i c e , may d i s t o r t the phenomena i n important ways. 174 In at l e a s t three of the ten cases (Cases A, G, K) examined i n t h i s study, the s u b j e c t ' s v o c a t i o n a l s h i f t , which s y m b o l i c a l l y r e - o r i e n t e d the s u b j e c t i n r e l a t i o n to h i s or her e a r l y f a m i l y drama, c o i n c i d e d with a c t i v e s h i f t s i n the s u b j e c t ' s simultaneous a c t u a l r o l e enactment i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n . In each of these three i n s t a n c e s , the s u b j e c t ' s r e p o r t i n g of the c o i n c i d e n c e of apparent change w i t h i n f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n dynamics and career change emerged spontaneously, without any probing i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . For Subject A, V o c a t i o n 1 appeared to be a re-enactment of the e a r l y mother-daughter drama. "A" noted that her t r a n s i t i o n away from V o c a t i o n 1 c o i n c i d e d with a complete break i n communications with her mother; she claimed to have had no c o n t a c t by phone or i n person s i n c e that time. Furthermore, she noted that i n recent years she had i n c r e a s i n g l y acted as c o n f i d a n t e and a d v i s o r to her s i s t e r . During t h i s same p e r i o d , A appeared to be r e - e n a c t i n g i n the V o c a t i o n 2 arena the s i s t e r l y drama of d i s t a n t a d v i s o r to her c l i e n t s . Subject G's v o c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y and i d e n t i t y seemed s i m i l a r l y to p a r a l l e l s h i f t s i n f a m i l y dynamics, p a r t i c u l a r l y a s h i f t to the f a t h e r - s o n r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t may be r e c a l l e d t h a t G's mother had a b r i e f c a r e e r i n t h e a t r e , and was seen by G as an a l l y and fan w i t h i n the f a m i l y . Much of G's V o c a t i o n 1, i n t h e a t r e , appeared to r e - c r e a t e 175 the mother-son dynamic which i n c l u d e d e x c l u s i o n of f a t h e r ; G r e c a l l e d a c t i v e l y r e j e c t i n g f a t h e r i n e a r l y adolescence. A d d i t i o n a l l y , G's d e c i s i o n to a t t e n d t h e a t r e s c h o o l was made and pursued a g a i n s t f a t h e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s and was seen by G as an act of r e b e l l i o n . I t may be noteworthy that G's v o c a t i o n a l s h i f t to entrepreneur c o i n c i d e d with what G experienced as a major turnaround i n h i s present day r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s f a t h e r . In the course of the i n t e r v i e w , G noted on s e v e r a l occasions that he and h i s f a t h e r had r e c e n t l y spoken together more than ever b e f o r e . G saw h i s f a t h e r as now seeking and v a l u i n g h i s o p i n i o n s to an extent not experienced p r e v i o u s l y and e x p l a i n e d t h i s as d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to h i s f a t h e r ' s respect f o r G's own e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v e n t u r i n g . A d d i t i o n a l l y , G a p p a r e n t l y was seeking to bridge the p r e v i o u s l y experienced schism between him and h i s f a t h e r ; he noted that h i s recent knee i n j u r y p r o v i d e d him with a g r e a t e r sense of connectedness to h i s f a t h e r , who had a h i s t o r y of knee i n j u r i e s . Throughout the i n t e r v i e w s , r e f e r e n c e s to c o n f l i c t with G's business p a r t n e r i n V o c a t i o n 2 p a r a l l e l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of ongoing c o n f l i c t with G's f a t h e r . At the p o i n t of the one year follow-up, G had resumed h i s e a r l i e r v o c a t i o n a l r o l e enactment, as d i r e c t o r i n the world of t h e a t r e , while m a i n t a i n i n g ongoing p o s i t i v e l y connoted c o n t a c t s with h i s f a t h e r . I t was as i f 176 G u t i l i z e d the v o c a t i o n a l arena to c o n f r o n t , and u l t i m a t e l y r e s o l v e , the longstanding c o n f l i c t with h i s f a t h e r . Subject K i s the t h i r d c l e a r example of a v o c a t i o n a l s h i f t , d e s c r i b e d i n terms of the f a m i l y drama, which p a r a l l e l e d an a c t u a l change i n the c u r r e n t f a m i l y drama. K mentioned, i n c i d e n t a l l y , that while i n V o c a t i o n 1 as a pr e - s c h o o l s u p e r v i s o r , she spoke to her mother on the phone on a d a i l y b a s i s . When she returned to u n i v e r s i t y as a step towards Voca t i o n 2, she made a d e c i s i o n to stop the p r a c t i c e of d a i l y phone contact with her mother. A d d i t i o n a l l y , she noted that her r e t u r n to school gave her "something to t a l k about" with her f a t h e r , and that i n f a c t her i n t e r a c t i o n with her f a t h e r i n c r e a s e d . A l l of t h i s c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d the f i n d i n g s that K's v o c a t i o n a l t r a n s i t i o n represented to her, i n p a r t , an embracing and i n t e g r a t i o n of her "masculine" aspect. I t may a l s o be noteworthy that as K l i m i t e d her conta c t with her a c t u a l mother, i t appeared she con f r o n t e d more d i r e c t l y the mother-daughter dynamic d i s p l a c e d onto the v o c a t i o n a l arena i n Vo c a t i o n 2. I t was as i f , i n s e p a r a t i n g h e r s e l f from her mother's a c t u a l presence, she took a stance of independance that she maintained i n the v o c a t i o n a l arena as w e l l . Together, the examples c i t e d above suggest that c o u n s e l l i n g p r a c t i c e might b e n e f i t from f u r t h e r i n t e g r a t i o n of f a m i l y and care e r theory and c o u n s e l l i n g t o o l s . 177 D e l i m i t a t i o n s and L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study C o r r e l a t i o n s here are l i m i t e d i n t h e i r s u b t l e t y i n r e v e a l i n g the v a r i o u s ways i n which r o l e p a t t e r n s from the f a m i l y drama are re-enacted a c r o s s v o c a t i o n a l arenas; they are a l s o l i m i t e d i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to e s t a b l i s h c a u s a l i t y (Glass and S t a n l e y , 1970). T h i s study d i d not i l l u m i n a t e the mechanisms of r o l e displacement nor d i d i t e s t a b l i s h c a u s a l i t y . The q u a n t i t a t i v e p o r t i o n of the data l e n t support to the a s s e r t i o n that Type C r e g u l a r i t y e x i s t s (Herbst, 1970) w i t h i n c a r e e r change phenomena. I t f u r t h e r d i r e c t e d t h i s enquiry i n t o the nature of the r e g u l a r i t y by p r o v i d i n g an i n i t i a l s ystematic b a s i s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g p a t t e r n s . The q u a l i t a t i v e p o r t i o n of the data provided the d e t a i l and s u b t l e t y to r e v e a l , through i n d i v i d u a l p o r t r a i t s , the v a r i e t i e s of r o l e displacement between f a m i l y and v o c a t i o n , and to suggest the meaning of v o c a t i o n a l changes i n l i g h t of the phenomenon of r o l e displacement. Given that t h i s study u t i l i z e d d i v e r s e i n t e n s i v e i n d i v i d u a l s t u d i e s , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n to a p o p u l a t i o n i s l i m i t e d . Chassan (1979) noted, however, that what i s found t r u e f o r one person i s l i k e l y to h o l d true f o r some o t h e r s . Thus, while the meaning of the c a r e e r change v a r i e d i d i o s y n c r a t i c a l l y , i n each of the ten cases s u b j e c t s appeared to engage i n f a m i l i a l drama re-enactment i n both of 178 the two v o c a t i o n a l arenas examined. Given the d i v e r s i t y of i n d i v i d u a l cases examined, i t i s l i k e l y that s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s w i l l h o l d a c r o s s a broader p o p u l a t i o n . Future Research I m p l i c a t i o n s 1) To the extent that i t i s e s t a b l i s h e d that r o l e displacement from the f a m i l y to the v o c a t i o n a l arena does occur a c r o s s v o c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t s , how does awareness of one's own p a t t e r n of displacement/re-enactment i n f l u e n c e subsequent a d a p t a t i o n to the work arena? T h i s q u e s t i o n i s c r i t i c a l to uncovering whether the r e s e a r c h method used here, or another p r o v i d i n g s i m i l a r i n f o r m a t i o n , may be a u s e f u l t o o l f o r p e r s o n a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . 2) Case H suggested that a p o s i t i v e l y connoted v o c a t i o n a l s h i f t i s i n s u f f i c i e n t to f o s t e r or r e f l e c t a p o s i t i v e l y connoted r o l e enactment and drama. Though H found her second v o c a t i o n more rewarding, e x c i t i n g , and p o s i t i v e than her f i r s t , i n both she engaged i n the re-enactment of the n e g a t i v e l y connoted d u t i f u l n u r t u r e r , to the extent of d e n i a l of her own needs f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . T h i s case r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n , 'What elements and dynamics c r e a t e a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r p o s i t i v e l y connoted r o l e displacement and re-enactment i n the v o c a t i o n a l arena?' 3) Case E suggested that changes i n r o l e displacement and re-enactment i n the v o c a t i o n a l arena can occur w i t h i n the 179 context of the same apparent v o c a t i o n a l r o l e and s t r u c t u r e , without r e q u i r i n g a r a d i c a l change i n v o c a t i o n a l arena (new job, new employer, new tasks) to support the symbolic s h i f t . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n may warrant f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n i n terms of i t s relevance f o r in s t a n c e s of "job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n " and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l concerns such as s t a f f turnover, t r a i n i n g time and expense. What elements and dynamics c r e a t e a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r p o s i t i v e l y connoted s h i f t s i n rol e - d i s p l a c e m e n t and re-enactment w i t h i n a given v o c a t i o n a l r o l e / s t r u c t u r e ? 4) I t i s suggested here that symbolic change, through an expansion i n meaning framework, may be c o i n c i d e n t with v o l u n t a r y career change. What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a m i l y r o l e displacement onto the work arena and p e r c e i v e d i n v o l u n t a r y c a r e e r change? In Case H, the subje c t i n d i c a t e d that though s t i l l married, i n the back of her mind her move to seek a p r o f e s s i o n a l c r e d e n t i a l was s t i m u l a t e d by her awareness of the p o s s i b i l i t y of her marriage ending and of her "having to become s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g . " T h i s i s s u e may be important f o r care e r c o u n s e l l i n g i n e s t a b l i s h i n g whether or not there i s value i n the c l i e n t ' s s h i f t i n g away from a p e r c e p t i o n of i n v o l u n t a r y to v o l u n t a r y c a r e e r change. 5) The i n d i c a t i o n here i s that re-enactment of f a m i l y dramas i n the v o c a t i o n a l arena i s so i n t e g r a l to our experience 180 t h a t t h i s phenomenon appears to occur r e p e a t e d l y at d i f f e r e n t age/stages v o c a t i o n a l l y and a c r o s s v o c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t s . Is there an i d e n t i f i a b l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l / developmental need that i s being met through the mechanism of f a m i l i a l r o l e re-enactment i n the v o c a t i o n a l arena? To the extent that there i s a p a r t i c u l a r p s y c h o l o g i c a l / d e v e l o p m e n t a l need met i n t h i s way, are there a l t e r n a t i v e mechanisms or v e h i c l e s that are developed f o r , or a v a i l a b l e t o , unemployed i n d i v i d u a l s to meet t h i s need? Do unemployed i n d i v i d u a l s simply re-enact f a m i l y dramas w i t h i n the arena of t h e i r primary and secondary s o c i a l support systems ( f a m i l y and f r i e n d s ) , and i f so, i s t h i s d i f f e r e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y from r o l e displacement and re-enactment i n the v o c a t i o n a l arena? Where does t h i s leave the s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l i n terms of the need f o r re-enactment of f a m i l y drama? 6 ) Are there c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h i s p a t t e r n of r o l e displacement and re-enactment due to v a r y i n g o r i e n t a t i o n s t o , and p e r c e p t i o n s of, the f u n c t i o n and purpose of f a m i l y and work? Where the n o t i o n of v o c a t i o n a l change i s p o s i t i v e l y v alued and expected, are i n d i v i d u a l s more l i k e l y to experience a p o s i t i v e expansion of meaning c o i n c i d e n t with c a r e e r change? How does an immigrant to North America from a l e s s mobile s o c i e t y , who may be accustomed to m u l t i p l e g e n e r a t i o n s working i n the same 181 f i e l d , experience c a r e e r change? Is r e - e n a c t i n g the f a m i l y drama i n the work s e t t i n g an i s s u e f o r such an i n d i v i d u a l ? 7) What mechanisms and dynamics are o p e r a t i v e i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s apparent c h o i c e or s e l e c t i o n of r o l e p a t t e r n s to re-enact i n the v o c a t i o n a l arena? Does a s h i f t i n s e l e c t i o n of dramatic re-enactment in the v o c a t i o n a l arena r e f l e c t a s h i f t i n the c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n of r o l e p a t t e r n s to re-enact? Is i t r e f l e c t i v e of the completion of a developmental c y c l e , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the p s y c h o l o g i c a l purpose of the e a r l i e r dramatic re-enactment has been f u l f i l l e d and, i n e f f e c t , a higher purpose becomes o p e r a t i v e , i n a way perhaps s i m i l a r to Maslow's needs h e i r a r c h y ? C o n c l u s i o n The present study examined the meaning of c a r e e r change in r e l a t i o n t o f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n r o l e p a t t e r n s or dramas. I t confirms McGregor's f i n d i n g (1983) that f a m i l y dramas appear to be d i s p l a c e d onto the work arena. F u r t h e r , the study found that the p a r t i c u l a r meaning of c a r e e r change v a r i e s i d i o s y n c r a t i c a l l y but that the phenomenon of f a m i l y drama displacement and re-enactment appears to occur a c r o s s v o c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t s f o r each i n d i v i d u a l , i n accordance with Type C law (Herbst, 1970). T h i s suggests that there i s r e g u l a r i t y i n the meaning of c a r e e r change at the l e v e l of 182 f a m i l y drama re-enactment; f o r both V o c a t i o n 1 and V o c a t i o n 2 the f a m i l y appears to serve as a prototype drama. Ten i n d i v i d u a l s , s i x men and four women, ranging i n age from 30 to 61, were i d e n t i f i e d through r e f e r r a l sampling f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study. A l l had a s u b j e c t i v e experience i d e n t i f i e d as a c a r e e r change. A l l s u b j e c t s had seven or more years of involvement i n V o c a t i o n 1; involvement i n a l a t e r v o c a t i o n ranged from involvement of one to seventeen years i n d u r a t i o n . A v o c a t i o n a l change was i d e n t i f i e d where the i n d i v i d u a l a) experienced a p e r s o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t i n h i s or her v o c a t i o n a l / p e r s o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n and/or b) i n v e s t e d time and e f f o r t , and sometimes money, i n c r e a t i n g and developing a new v o c a t i o n a l context and/or c) a l t e r e d h i s or her l i f e s t y l e and/or s o c i a l network to adapt to a new v o c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . P a r t i c i p a n t s were s e l e c t e d to represent a d i v e r s e range of types of career change, such as u n p a i d - t o - p a i d work (H), apparent s p e c i a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n a f i e l d or v o c a t i o n a l r o l e (E and, to some extent, K), and adoption of new r o l e i d e n t i t i e s that r e q u i r e d r e t r a i n i n g or advanced education (A, F, K, J ) . An i n t e n s i v e s i n g l e case design was used which i n t e g r a t e d Q-methodology and s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s . Each sub j e c t was asked to Q-sort on s a l i e n t f i g u r e s from s e l f , f a m i l y - o f - o r i g i n , and two d i s t i n c t v o c a t i o n a l arenas. The Q-sort item sample used 46 t r a i t s drawn from Holland's theory of p e r s o n a l i t y types (1966) and u t i l i z e d by McGregor 183 (1983) i n a f o u n d a t i o n a l study on r o l e displacement i n the work arena. Each p a r t i c i p a n t ' s Q-sort r e s u l t s were i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d to o b t a i n a c o r r e l a t i o n matrix of r o l e s , which was then submitted to a p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s . The data from a l l sources was examined to i d e n t i f y r e a d i l y apparent major themes and p a t t e r n s . Subjects were presented with the p a t t e r n s i d e n t i f i e d to e l i c i t s u b j e c t e l a b o r a t i o n and i l l u m i n a t i o n of the meaning of apparent p a t t e r n s . In i d e n t i f y i n g themes, the researcher p a r t i c u l a r l y attended to s u b j e c t s ' use of p a r a l l e l s i n d e s c r i p t i v e language and emotional response when d e s c r i b i n g i n d i v i d u a l s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s from v a r i e d c o n t e x t s . The s t a t i s t i c a l l y d e r i v e d data were used as a b a s i s f o r developing probes used in s u b j e c t i n t e r v i e w s . A p o r t r a i t of the i n d i v i d u a l with regard to the meaning of c a r e e r change i n terms of f a m i l y dramas was developed s y n t h e s i z i n g Q-data and Meaning Int e r v i e w s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e a s u b s t a n t i a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p among r o l e s between f a m i l y and the v o c a t i o n a l arenas a c r o s s v o c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t s . The s u b j e c t s ' response to the s t a t i s t i c a l data confirmed through d i r e c t a f f i r m a t i o n , i n d i r e c t emotional response, and e l a b o r a t i o n that re-enactment of f a m i l y dramas occurred a c r o s s v o c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t s . With one e x c e p t i o n , (H), the c a r e e r change was c o i n c i d e n t with a s h i f t i n the s u b j e c t ' s meaning framework 184 i n terms of fa m i l y drama. In at l e a s t four cases (B, C, E, F ) , the s h i f t i n meaning was a s h i f t i n scope; that i s , meaning frameworks remained c o n s i s t e n t but expanding, encompassing more f a c e t s of the f a m i l y drama. As expected, i n t e n s i v e case study suggested t h a t the meaning of care e r change can be understood i n terms of Type C law (Herbst, 1970) when viewed i n terms of f a m i l y dramas. That i s , the s p e c i f i c nature and meaning of the c a r e e r change was i d i o s y n c r a t i c , but i n each case displacement of fa m i l y dramas appeared to occur a c r o s s v o c a t i o n a l arenas, and use of f a m i l y as metaphor served t o r e v e a l meaning. On the whole, when viewed i n the context of the s u b j e c t ' s l i v e d - o u t experience i n terms of dramas, c a r e e r change appeared to r e f l e c t or express an expanded sense of meaning. 185 REFERENCES Abelson, R. 1977. Persons, a study i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l psychology. 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APPENDIX A CORRESPONDENCES OF ±.30 BETWEEN CO-WORKERS AND SELF-REFERRANT ROLES, IDEAL VOCATIONAL ROLES, AND/OR FAMILY FIGURE ROLES Appendix A Correspondences of ±.30 Between Co--Workers and Self-Referrant Roles, Ideal Vocat i ona1 Roles, and/or Family Figure Roles Bas 1 c Self Ideal Self Self in Voc. 1 Rol e Self In Voc. 2 Role Voc. 1 Ideal Voc. 2 Ideal Self-referrant Roles in Fami1y Other Family Roles Case A: Vocation 1 Boss Col 1eague Manager Peer .40 . 45 - .43 .40/-.47 - .48 .43/-.31 .35/.37/-.40 - .44 -.31/.34 Case A: Vocation 2 CIient Boss Col 1eague Staff Mentor -.34 -.34 - .50 -.47 - .34 - .65 - . 34 - .44 - .56 .39 - .49 . 34 - . 39 .47/-.50 .32 .36/.46/.31 .45 Case B: Vocation 1 Col league Col 1eague CIient Subordi nate - .40 .42 - .44 .34 - . 33 .37 .33 . 56 . 39 - .43 . 37 -.32/.64 .38 .37/-.32 Case B: Vocation 2 CIient Peer Mentor . 37 .60 .57 .48 .68 .45 . 36 .55 .49 .48 .59 .63 .41 .48 .40 .51 .37 . 30 .34 .48/.43/-.34 Case C: Vocation 1 Boss Subordinate Peer Foreman -.52 . 34 -.35 .30 -.54 .48 - . 36 - . 34 . 34 - .47 - . 53/- . 47 - .40 .47/.36/.37/.47 - .48 -.44 Case C: Vocation 2 Supervi sor Col 1eague a CIient Col 1eague b .39 . 32 .61 .49 .47 . 46 . 76 .41 .40 •57 .31 .36/.30 .32/-.47 .53 Appendix A continued Bas i c Sel f Ideal Self Self in Voc. 1 Role Self in Voc. 2 Rol e Voc. 1 Voc. 2 Self-referrant Ideal Ideal Roles in Family Other Family Roles Case D: Vocation 1 Cl i e n t Col 1eague Superv i sor Boss . 33 .55 .31 -.57 .51/.32/.53 - .40 .34 Case D: Vocation Mentor Cli e n t Sa1esman .32 .50 .47 .45 .42 .32 .51 .45 .31 Case E: Vocation 1 Colleague .36 Cl i e n t Mentor Case E: Vocation 2 Clie n t a Cl i e n t b .34 Model a Model b Col 1eague Teacher .66 .51 .62 .31 .38 .37 .56 .50 .51 . 45 .37 .46 .41 .39 .52 .38 .66 .68 .67 .69 .32 . 35 .39 . 34 . 36 .41 .39/.40 .47/.34 .32 .44/.48 .36/.32 Case F: Vocat ion 1 Superv1sor Col 1eague C l l e n t a Cli e n t b Peer Case F: Vocation 2 Partner Partner Col 1eague .44 . 32 .31 .44 .31 . 37 .41 .31 .40 . 74 . 35 .31 .43 .68/.70 . 32 .34 .40 .31 .72 .37/.40/.51 .39/.37/.43/.34/. 39 .59/.47/.44/.32 .36/.31/.41 .31/.55 • .40/-.51/-.39 .43 Appendix A continued Bas ic Ideal Self in Self in Voc. 1 Voc. 2 Self - r e f e r r a n t Other Family Roles Self Self Voc. 1 Voc. 2 Ideal Ideal Roles in Fami1y Role Rol e Case G: Vocation 1 Lead Man .42/.59 Lead Lady .33 . 39 .71 .48 .60/-.50/.43 Peer .39/-.51/.47 Aud i ence .37 .40 .58 .68/-.45/.44 Case G: Vocation 2 Buyer .31 .42 .55 . 32 . 44 .45/.33 Partner . 33 .41 Subord i nate .36 . 34 Case H: Vocation 1 Col 1eague a .47 . 33 .31 Peer - . 40 - .31 Col 1eague b .32 .30 .47 Case H: Vocation 2 Superv i sor Mentor a .61 . 52 .35 Mentor b .35 Col 1eague a .43 . 36 .66 .39 .49/.39 Col 1eague b . 36 .41 .45 Peer . 36 .36 Case J: Vocation 1 Manager . 32 .33 Owner .43 Customer .31 .57 Col league . 37 .45 .40 . 38 .57 Case J: Vocation 2 Boss Col 1eague a Col 1eague b Student Col 1eague c Mentor .47 .53 . 35 . 55 .56 .56 .47 .36 . 37 . 35 . 33 Appendix A continued Bas ic Self Ideal Self Self in Voc. 1 Rol e Self in Voc. 2 Role Voc. 1 Ideal Voc. 2 Ideal Self-referrant Roles in Family Other Family Roles Case K: Vocation 1 Peer Professor .51 .66 .83 .76 .74 . 74 .34/.44 -.35/.54/.67 Boss - .45 -.54 -.51 - . 57 -.66 - . 55 .48/-.56/-.52 Student .56 .49 .45 .52 .69 .40/.57 Case K: Vocation 2 Supervisor a .59 .49 .55 .49 .52 .54 .37/.30 .39/.40 Boss . 33 . 32 Supervisor b .59 .49 .55 .49 .52 .54 .30 .39/.37/.40 CIient . 34 .40 .43 .61 .49 .53 . 35 .41 Mentor .47 .48 . 56 .44 .41 .32 .37/.40 198 APPENDIX B ±.30 CORRESPONDENCES OF SELF-AS-VOCATIONAL ROLES (1 AND 2) TO OTHER VARIANTS OF SELF AND VOCATIONAL IDEALS FOR 10 CASE SUBJECTS Appendix B +.30 Correspondences of Self-as-Vocational Roles (1 and 2) to Other Variants of Self and Vocational Ideals Self as Voc. Role: I Basic 1 Self 2 II Ideal 1 Self 2 Voc. 1 III Ideal 1 2 Voc. 1 IV Ideal 2 2 1 V Self-Roles From Fami1y 2 Case A .44 .50 .56 .32 .45 .55 (daughter) .41 ( s i s t e r ) Case B . 77 . 78 .59 .68 .52 . 87 . 59 .47 (son) (brother) .37 (son) Case C . 57 . 37 .66 .63 .45 (son) .36 .37 (son) (brother) Case D .43 .45 .41 .39 .49 Case E .71 .60 .68 .67 Only Voc. One Ideal .48 (brother) .41 . 34 (brother)/.33 (son) (s e l f - a s - f r i e n d ) Case F .63 .62 .41 .40 .69 .83 .39 .32 (daughter) (friend) Case G . 37 .43 .68 .40 . 34 .37 (son) Case H . 37 . 52 .54 (daughter) .37 (daughter) Case J .31 .34 .60 .80 .48 .60 .54 (son) .40 (son) Case K . 58 .61 .74 .75 .83 .87 .75 .80 .51 (grand-daughter) .49 (daughter) 200 APPENDIX C ±.30 CORRESPONDENCES OF SELF-AS-VOCATIONAL ROLES (1 AND 2) TO ROLE FIGURES FROM EARLY FAMILY (INCLUDING SELF-REFERRANT ROLES) FOR 10 CASE SUBJECTS Appendix C ±.30 Correspondences of Self-as-Vocational Roles (1 and 2) to Role Figures from Early Family (Including Self-Referrant Roles) Self-Refferents From Family Other Family Role Figures Self as Vocational Role: 1 Case A Case B Case C Case D Case E Case F Case G Case H Case J Case K .55 (daughter) .59 (son) .47 (brother) .45 (son) .48 (brother) .39 (daughter) .32 (friend) .37 (son) .54 (daughter) .41 (s i ster) .37 (son) .36 (son) .37 (brother) .41 (brother) .33 (son) .34 (friend) .37 (daughter) .54 (son) .40 (son) .51 (grand-daughter) .49 (daughter) .40 (mother) .36 (father) .38 (hero) .34 (mother) .34 (father) .59 (mother) .54 (father) .51 (brother a) .32 (brother b) .67 (mother) .45 (great uncle) .38 (brother) .39 (father) .52 (mother) .48 (grandmother) .43 (father) .75 (grandmother) .48 (father) .50 (mother) .32 (nanny) .48 ( s i s t e r ) .47 (mother) .32 (father) .34 (mother) .47 (brother b) .56 (mother) .50 (grandmother) .36 (father) .35 (mother) .70 (grandmother) .53 (father) .35 (mother) 

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