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Social supports : their role in facilitating and hindering youth adjustment to unemployment Marak, Barbara Lea 1987

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SOCIAL SUPPORTS: THEIR ROLE IN FACILITATING AND HINDERING YOUTH ADJUSTMENT TO UNEMPLOYMENT by Barbara Lea Marak B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1987 (cp Barbara Lea Marak, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of f^2f r ^ ^ f^. The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date ^&S&fas; 3 . /f/f DE-6(3/81) A b s t r a c t There i s l i t t l e r e s e a r c h data a v a i l a b l e on the experience of unemployed youth and the e f f e c t s of s o c i a l supports i n b u f f e r i n g or i n s u l a t i n g t h e i r adjustment to t h i s s t r e s s f u l l i f e event. Fourteen unemployed youth, between the ages of eighteen and twenty-four, were i n t e r v i e w e d u t i l i z i n g a c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t methodology. The aim was to i d e n t i f y the f a c t o r s f a c i l i t a t i n g and h i n d e r i n g adjustment f o r these youth as w e l l as i s o l a t e sources of support ( i e . f r i e n d s , parents, r e l a t i v e s , or other key o t h e r s ) . The r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s y i e l d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the s p e c i f i c needs of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group of unemployed young people, and i d e n t i f i e d sources that p rovided s p e c i f i c forms of emotional, m a t e r i a l and i n f o r m a t i o n a l support. Recommendations are o f f e r e d f o r s u p p o r t i v e s e r v i c e s and programs needed by these youths. - i i i -Table of Contents Page A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of Tables v L i s t of Appendices v i Acknowledgements v i i CHAPTER I - INTRODUCTION 1 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 4 CHAPTER II - REVIEW OF LITERATURE 6 Magnitude of the Problem 6 Emotional & P s y c h o l o g i c a l Consequences of Unemployment 8 The Role of S o c i a l Supports 14 CHAPTER I I I - METHODOLOGY Meth o d o l o g i c a l Approach 23 Data C o l l e c t i o n 27 The P i l o t Interview 27 The Interview 28 Data A n a l y s i s 30 CHAPTER IV - RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 32 R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y 33 Superordinate C a t e g o r i e s 37 F a c i l i t a t i v e and H i n d e r i n g C a t e g o r i e s 39 Correspondence of C a t e g o r i e s With Support People . 52 Parents 62 S i b l i n g s 69 F r i e n d s 71 R e l a t i v e s 74 - i v -C o u n s e l l o r s 74 CHAPTER V - SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . 76 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 85 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Research 86 References 89 Appendices A. Subject Consent Form 95 B. Demographic Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 97 - V -L i s t of Tables Page Table 1. Demographic Information of Sample 26 Table 2. Rater R e l i a b i l i t y Scores 33 Table 3. L i t e r a t u r e Support f o r Category System 35 F a c i l i t a t i v e C a t e g o r i e s Table 4. L i t e r a t u r e Support f o r Category System 36 H i n d e r i n g C a t e g o r i e s Table 5. Frequency and Percentage of I n c i d e n t s 53 W i t h i n Each Superordinate Category Table 6. Frequency and Percentage of F a c i l i t a t i v e 55 C a t e g o r i e s Within Each Superordinate Category Table 7. Frequency and Percentage of H i n d e r i n g 56 C a t e g o r i e s W i t h i n Each Superordinate Category Table 8. Frequency and Percentage of I n c i d e n t s 58 Within Each F a c i l i t a t i v e Subordinate Category Table 9. Frequency and Percentage of I n c i d e n t s 59 W i t h i n Each H i n d e r i n g Subordinate Category Table 10. Frequency and Percentage of Agent 61 Responsible f o r F a c i l i t a t i v e I n c i d e n t s W i t h i n Superordinate C a t e g o r i e s Table 11. Frequency and Percentage of Agent 63 Responsible f o r H i n d e r i n g I n c i d e n t s W i t h i n Superordinate C a t e g o r i e s Table 12. Persons Responsible f o r Emotional 64 Support - F a c i l i t a t i v e and H i n d e r i n g Table 13. Persons Responsible f o r I n f o r m a t i o n a l 65 Support - F a c i l i t a t i v e and H i n d e r i n g Table 14. Persons Responsible f o r M a t e r i a l 66 Support - F a c i l i t a t i v e and H i n d e r i n g - v i -L i s t of Appendices A. Subject Consent Form B. Demographic Q u e s t i o n n a i r e - v i i -Acknowledgements I would l i k e to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to the chairman of my t h e s i s committee, Dr. Norman Amundson, f o r h i s continued support and encouragement. His a s s i s t a n c e i n pl a n n i n g i s g r e a t l y valued. A d d i t i o n a l l y , I would l i k e to thank my grandmother f o r her i n v a l u a b l e support throughout t h i s arduous pr o c e s s . I would a l s o l i k e to g i v e a s p e c i a l thanks to my br o t h e r , Dan, who was the impetus f o r choosing t h i s r e s e a r c h t o p i c . And f i n a l l y , I would l i k e to extend my g r a t i t u d e to the f o u r t e e n youth who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study and shared t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . - 1 -CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION During the 1970's, mass youth unemployment r e s u r f a c e d and has continued to i n c r e a s e w e l l i n t o the 1980's. Unemployment i s o f t e n viewed as a major l i f e event that generates s t r e s s and other p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s . A c c o r d i n g to I s r a l o w i t z and Singer (1986), unemployment ranks t h i r d on the S o c i a l Readjustment S c a l e by Holmes and Rahe (1967), preceded on l y by c h r o n i c i l l n e s s or the death of a loved one. Unemployment has been termed a p s y c h o - s o c i a l t r a n s i t i o n that i n v o l v e s a l o s s ( K i r s c h , 1983). Loss of a job may i n v o l v e l o s s of s t r u c t u r e , l o s s of i d e n t i t y , lower s e l f - e s t e e m as w e l l as f i n a n c i a l i n s e c u r i t y . Unemployment has been equated with other major l o s s e s experienced such as d i v o r c e , death of a spouse and r e t i r e m e n t . Borgen and Amundson (1984) have u t i l i z e d K u b l e r -Ross's model of g r i e v i n g to o u t l i n e a " r o l l e r c o a s t e r " model, which demonstrates l o s s and s t r e s s r e a c t i o n s i n response to unemployment. Jahoda (1971) and H i l l (1977) examined the p s y c h o l o g i c a l consequences on mental h e a l t h r e s u l t i n g from unemployment and d e l i n e a t e d stages i n the s u b j e c t i v e experience i n c l u d i n g a n x i e t y , d e p r e s s i o n and l o s s of morale. Dohrenwend and Dohrenwend (1974) examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r e s s f u l l i f e events and the p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l consequences on the w e l l being of the i n d i v i d u a l . T h e i r f i n d i n g s a l s o c o n f i r m that p s y c h o l o g i c a l impairment can r e s u l t from a s t r e s s f u l l i f e event. Supporting these f i n d i n g s , Coates (1969) found a c o r r e l a t i o n between job - 2 -l o s s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e . In t h i s study, i n d i v i d u a l s e x p e r i e n c i n g unemployment r e p o r t e d 61.5% symptoms on the Langar Scale (1962) of p s y c h i a t r i c impairment, compared with 22% not e x p e r i e n c i n g j ob l o s s . Although the r e s e a r c h demonstrates a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r e s s f u l l i f e events and p s y c h o l o g i c a l symptoms, Myers et a l (1975) and Dohrenwend and Dohrenwend (1974) found that some i n d i v i d u a l s experience more s t r e s s symptoms than o t h e r s , g i v e n s i m i l a r l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s . Researchers have begun to examine the i n t e r a c t i o n of mediating f a c t o r s with l i f e change i n p r e d i c t i n g the l e v e l of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s ( T h o i t s , 1982; Cobb, 1976). In examining these mediating f a c t o r s , the r o l e of s o c i a l support r e l a t i o n s h i p s emerged as a p o s s i b l e b u f f e r or i n s u l a t o r f o r the person e x p e r i e n c i n g a s t r e s s f u l l i f e s i t u a t i o n (Caplan, 1974). S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have termed t h i s the " b u f f e r i n g h y p o t h e s i s " and proposed that those i n d i v i d u a l s with a s t r o n g s o c i a l system should be b e t t e r equipped to d e a l with major l i f e changes while those with l i t t l e or not s o c i a l support would be more s u s c e p t i b l e to l i f e changes ( T h o i t s , 1982; Wilcox, 1981). As unemployment can be viewed as a s t r e s s f u l l i f e event, i t would appear that p o t e n t i a l s o c i a l supports may s o f t e n or b u f f e r the emotional and p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s on youth e x p e r i e n c i n g unemployment. However, i t would be necessary f o r the i n d i v i d u a l to maintain an o v e r a l l l e v e l of support i n order to r e c e i v e the " b u f f e r i n g " e f f e c t . T h o i t s (1982) maintains that l i f e events may a l t e r the number of persons i n the s o c i a l support system or change the degree of support provided by key o t h e r s . A recent study by - 3 -Borgen and Amundson (1984), seems to support t h i s theory. T h e i r f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e that unemployed youth experience changes i n t h e i r s o c i a l support systems. These changes may r e s u l t from a decrease i n d a i l y s t r u c t u r e which i n t u r n would l e s s e n t h e i r exposure to s o c i a l c o n t a c t s , r e s u l t i n g i n a d e p l e t e d or exhausted support system. Correspondingly, K i r s h (1983) wrote t h a t , Job l o s s o f t e n weakens people's s o c i a l support systems j u s t at a time when they most need reassurance and a sense of belonging; p r o v i d i n g the umemployed with v a r i o u s types of support i s c r u c i a l i n moderating the negative consequences of j o b l o s s . (p. 47) The e f f e c t of unemployment on the i n d i v i d u a l i s an extremely s t r e s s f u l l i f e t r a n s i t i o n with many p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r e s s f u l l i f e events and the r o l e of s o c i a l support as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l and emotional b u f f e r to these t r a n s i t i o n s has a l r e a d y been expl o r e d . However, there i s l i t t l e known concerning how p o t e n t i a l l y s u p p o r t i v e persons can i n f l u e n c e , both i n a p o s i t i v e and negative manner, youth e x p e r i e n c i n g a s t r e s s f u l l i f e event such as unemployment. Information i s needed on the degree of support provided and the types of support o f f e r e d . I t i s a l s o important to i d e n t i f y the source of support. T h i s study was p r i m a r i l y concerned with understanding what support people do or say that f a c i l i t a t e s and hinders youth's adjustment to unemployment. The c e n t r a l aim was to understand these c o n d i t i o n s as a means to i n c r e a s e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s e r v i c e s f o r unemployed youth. A c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t r e s e a r c h methodology (Flanagan, 1954) was employed i n - 4 -t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y study. The g e n e r a l r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n asked of the youth i n t h i s study was, "What, from your p e r s p e c t i v e , d i d support people do or say that f a c i l i t a t e d and hindered your adjustment to unemployment?" Answering t h i s q u e s t i o n may provide v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n that w i l l a s s i s t the youth, support people and p r o f e s s i o n a l s working with t h i s group. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms The f o l l o w i n g terms are r e f e r r e d to i n the f o l l o w i n g and subsequent c h a p t e r s . T h e r e f o r e , they are d e f i n e d here i n order to enable the reader to understand the terms used. 1. Unemployed - T h i s r e f e r s to that segment of the labour f o r c e out of work and l o o k i n g f o r a j o b . 2. Youth Unemployed - T h i s r e f e r s to that segment of the labour f o r c e who are unemployed and between the ages of 15 and 24. 3. L i f e Events - The events are d e f i n e d as d i s c r e t e happenings r e q u i r i n g some degree of readjustment i n ones l i f e c i rcumstances. They i n c l u d e entrances and e x i t s (eg. b i r t h of a c h i l d , death of a f a m i l y member), events w i t h i n and o u t s i d e the c o n t r o l of the i n d i v i d u a l (eg. i n c r e a s e d problems with spouse), and d e s i r a b l e and u n d e s i r a b l e events (eg. l o s s of a j o b ) . 4. S o c i a l Support Systems - T h i s r e f e r s to the degree to which a person's b a s i c s o c i a l needs are g r a t i f i e d through i n t e g r a t i o n with o t h e r s . B a s i c s o c i a l needs i n c l u d e a f f e c t i o n , esteem or a p p r o v a l , belonging, i d e n t i t y , and s e c u r i t y . These needs may be met by e i t h e r the p r o v i s i o n of - 5 -s o c i o e m o t i o n a l a i d (eg. a f f e c t i o n , sympathy and understanding, acceptance and esteem from s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s ) or the p r o v i s i o n of i n s t r u m e n t a l a i d (eg. a d v i c e , i n f o r m a t i o n , help with f a m i l y or work r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , f i n a n c i a l a i d ) (Kaplan et a l , 1970). S i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s , key others and concrete others are terms used synonomously with s o c i a l supports i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . 6. I n c i d e n t - An i n c i d e n t i s any event, i d e a , a c t i o n or thought that o c c u r r e d to or f o r the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t . 7. F a c i l i t a t i n g I n c i d ent - H e l p i n g or c o n t r i b u t i n g to a p o s i t i v e outcome. 8. H i n d e r i n g I n c i d e n t - C o n t r i b u t i n g to a negative outcome or p r e v e n t i n g a p o s i t i v e outcome. 9. C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t - Flanagan (1954) d e f i n e d an i n c i d e n t as c r i t i c a l i f i t made a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n , e i t h e r p o s i t i v e or negative, to the g e n e r a l aim of the a c t i v i t y . In t h i s study, the respondents judged f o r themselves whether an i n c i d e n t was c r i t i c a l . - 6 -CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE The l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g to unemployed youth and s o c i a l supports i s minimal. Data on what key others say or do that e i t h e r reduces or induces s t r e s s f o r unemployed youth i s not covered i n the l i t e r a t u r e and i n d i c a t e s the n e c e s s i t y f o r f u r t h e r in-depth r e s e a r c h . The l i t e r a t u r e review w i l l encompass three s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n o u t l i n e s the magnitude and scope of youth unemployment. Next, a d i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w s on the impact of unemployment on youth from p s y c h o l o g i c a l , emotional, and s o c i a l v i e w p o i n t s . The t h i r d s e c t i o n e x p l o r e s the concept of s o c i a l supports b u f f e r i n g or i n s u l a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s e x p e r i e n c i n g a s t r e s s f u l l i f e event such as unemployment. T h i s i s f o l l o w e d with a sho r t summary. Magnitude of the Problem K i r s h (1983) i n d i c a t e s t hat a person i s acknowledged as an unemployed person i f he/she: 1. was without work, had a c t i v e l y looked f o r work i n the past f o u r weeks and was a v a i l a b l e f o r work, 2. had not a c t i v e l y looked f o r work i n the past f o u r weeks, but had been on l a y o f f f o r 26 weeks or l e s s and was a v a i l a b l e f o r work, - 7 -3. had not a c t i v e l y looked f o r work i n the past f o u r weeks, but had a new job to s t a r t i n f o u r weeks or l e s s and was a v a i l a b l e f o r work. However, K i r s h (1983) maintains that there are two other c r u c i a l c a t e g o r i e s of j o b l e s s persons that are not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t a t i s t i c : 1. Those who have stopped l o o k i n g f o r employment. 2. Those who work pa r t - t i m e because they cannot f i n d f u l l - t i m e employment, or those who work at a s k i l l l e v e l much below that of t h e i r t r a i n i n g . Deaton (1983) suggests that the number of unemployed youth who are a c t u a l l y drawing unemployment insurance may w e l l be o n l y a s m a l l percentage of the t o t a l number of youth who are unemployed. Deaton (1983) i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s by n o t a t i n g the excluded groups from the unemployed category - discouraged workers, students who would p r e f e r employment, the d i s a b l e d , unemployed t r e a t y Indians, and those r e s i d i n g i n the Yukon and the N.W.T. He l a b e l s these the "hidden unemployed". Thus, the unemployment r a t e would be c o n s i d e r a b l y i n c r e a s e d . Canadian s t a t i s t i c s f o r A p r i l 1987 (Canada) i n d i c a t e that f o r the youth category, ages 15-24, 14.6% are unemployed, the l a r g e s t group comprised of the 15-19 year o l d s with 16% unemployment, and the lowest being the 20-24 year o l d span with 13.9%. B.C. ranked high i n the unemployed youth category with 18.3% unemployed i n the 15-24 year o l d category. - 8 -When compared to the Canadian r a t e of 9.8% unemployment f o r a l l age groups and B.C. with 12.9%, i t i s easy to understand why youth unemployment has become a n a t i o n a l concern with widespread emotional, s o c i a l and economical i m p l i c a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g to Hepworth (1980), widespread unemployment w i l l become a permanent f e a t u r e of our s o c i e t y . With t h i s p r e d i c t i o n and i n view of the recent s t a t i s t i c s , i t i s necessary that c o u n s e l l o r s and other h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s look c l o s e l y at the meaning of unemployment and i t s e f f e c t s on f a m i l y and s o c i e t y i n order to a s s i s t those coping with t h i s r e s u l t i n g l i f e event. T h e r e f o r e , the q u e s t i o n of how youth r e a c t to unemployment and which f a c t o r s may induce or reduce s t r e s s w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t to our understanding of the problems faced by t h i s s p e c i f i c group. The Emotional and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Consequences of Unemployment Being unemployed i s r e a l l y q u i t e hazardous to anyone's mental h e a l t h . A l l t h i s time with no source of income. I a p p l i e d f o r unemployment insurance f o r a second time but I d i d n ' t get i t a g a i n . So t h a t , you know, that was another d e t e r r a n t there. I would maybe have a chance at a j o b but then i t would suddenly j u s t f a l l through and t h i s would happen maybe every t h i r d day f o r months s t r a i g h t . A f t e r each time you're j u s t back to the p o i n t , as I s a i d b e f o r e , where - 9 -you j u s t don't even want to get out of bed. Dan (age 18) - p i l o t i n t e r v i e w The study of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and emotional impact of unemployment dates back t o the 1930's, although many of these s t u d i e s have p i n p o i n t e d s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s r a t h e r than p r e s e n t i n g a t o t a l p i c t u r e of the problem (Borgen and Amundson, 1984). There have been even fewer s t u d i e s concerning the p s y c h o l o g i c a l consequences of unemployment i n young people, d e s p i t e the magnitude of the problem (Jahoda, 1982; H a r t l e y , 1980). A study by Sherraden and Adamek (1985) suggested that unemployment a f f e c t s a d o l e s c e n t s i n a manner s i m i l a r to a d u l t s and i n c l u d e s r e a c t i o n stages such as optimism, c o n f u s i o n , d e s p a i r and boredom. T h i s r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d that a d o l e s c e n t s who cannot f i n d j obs o f t e n develop d y s f u n c t i o n a l behavior p a t t e r n s and low s e l f esteem. Feather (1982) found that unemployed young people s u f f e r e d more d e p r e s s i v e symptoms, d i m i n i s h i n g s e l f esteem and high e r l e v e l s of apathy when compared with those who have j o b s . Three models o u t l i n i n g stages of r e a c t i o n s to unemployment w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n order to p o r t r a y the emotional and p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s of j ob l o s s . Levine (1978) d e p i c t e d three d i s t i n c t phases d u r i n g unemployment: Stage 1: Optimism f e e l s f r e e and r e l a x e d c o n f i d e n t of f i n d i n g employment Stage 2: Ambiguity bored, f e e l s i s o l a t e d from the mainstream - 10 -- parents (and f r i e n d s ) e x e r t p ressure to look harder q u e s t i o n s own competence and s e l f worth Stage 3: Despair morose, moody qu e s t i o n s h e r / h i s l i f e and of s o c i e t y angry at s e l f , parents, s c h o o l i n g might " a c t out" through drugs, vandalism h a l t s j o b search Gold (1984) confirms t h i s f i n d i n g of stages i n her study of unemployed a d o l e s c e n t s . She found that youth were i n i t i a l l y h o peful but a f t e r l a c k of response and c o n t i n u a l r e f u s a l s , they became discouraged and angry. Gold contends that unemployment i s a modern-day s t r e s s o r and of great concern to c o u n s e l l o r s and p s y c h i a t r i s t s due to the range of emotional r e a c t i o n s . Sanford and Mullen (1985) agree that there i s a l i n k between unemployment and p h y s i c a l and mental i l l n e s s but were unable to p i n p o i n t the exact impact on p h y s i c a l h e a l t h . The second model of p s y c h o - s o c i a l t r a n s i t i o n s i s proposed by Hopson and Adams (1976) and d e l i n e a t e d seven stages: 1) I m m o b i l i z a t i o n : overwhelmed by the event; unable to understand what i s happening, numb, shocked. 2) M i n i m i z a t i o n : attempts to ma i n t a i n r e a l i t y as i f event had not o c c u r r e d . 3) Depression: begins to fa c e f a c t changes w i l l have to be made, but doesn't want t o , and doesn't know how t o . 4) Acceptance: of r e a l i t y - l e t t i n g go: begins to change former assumptions about s e l f and s i t u a t i o n . - 11 -5) T e s t i n g : s t a r t s to t r y out new behaviours and a t t i t u d e s and ways of coping. 6) Search f o r meaning: attempts to e s t a b l i s h a u s e f u l c o n c e p t i c a l framework f o r understanding the "new" s e l f and new s i t u a t i o n s . 7) I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n : new framework becomes accepted and i n t e r n a l i z e d . Feather and Davenport (1981) propose that l o s s of s e l f esteem as w e l l as d e p r e s s i o n symptoms are present i n people u n s u c c e s s f u l l y s e a r c h i n g f o r employment. Other consequences s u f f e r e d by those unemployed i n c l u d e l o s s of wages, i s o l a t i o n and negative e f f e c t s on peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s and f a m i l y l i f e . In a d d i t i o n , prolonged unemployment has been found to reduce the m o t i v a t i o n to seek work. Wilcock and Franke (1963) made a s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n i n t h e i r study of the e f f e c t s of permanent l a y o f f s and long-term unemployment on p s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustment. Job l o s s l e d to l o s s of s e l f - e s t e e m and d e t e r i o r a t i o n of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s due to f i n a n c i a l i n s e c u r i t y . Hepworth (1980), i n a study determining man's s u b j e c t i v e r e a c t i o n s t o unemployment, found that l e n g t h of unemployment s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d mental h e a l t h and l e d to poorer s u b j e c t i v e w e l l being. T h i s r e s e a r c h concludes that i n d i v i d u a l s may respond to unemployment with d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s . H i l l (1977) agrees t h a t w h ile there i s a t y p i c a l response to unemployment, i t can a f f e c t people i n v a r i o u s ways. A more re c e n t model developed by Borgen and Amundson (1984) d e s c r i b e s the process of unemployment as an "emotional - 12 -r o l l e r - c o a s t e r " . Unemployment or job l o s s r e p r e s e n t s a t r a n s i t i o n which i s comprised p r i m a r i l y of a l o s s , s i m i l a r to l o s s e s experienced with death or r e t i r e m e n t . Borgen and Amundson's model draws on Kubler-Ross's model of g r i e v i n g i n order to p o r t r a y people's experience of unemployment. The most common experience of unemployment as o u t l i n e d by Borgen and Amundson i s i l l u s t r a t e d as f o l l o w s : A. I n i t i a l r e a c t i o n s to j o b l o s s (shock, anger). B. R e f l e c t i o n upon job l o s s (worry, sadness, a n x i e t y ) . C. Acceptance of j o b l o s s (determined, i n c o n t r o l ) . D. A n t i c i p a t i o n of job search ( h o p e f u l , o p t i m i s t i c , proud). E. I n i t i a l r e a c t i o n s to s t r e s s a s s o c i a t e d with job s e arch ( p r e s s u r e , discouragement, s t a g n a t i o n , f e a r , anger, d e s p e r a t i o n ) . F. I n s u l a t i o n from job search r e l a t e d s t r e s s (apathy). G. I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of r e j e c t i o n ( worthless, i s o l a t e d , l o n e l y , d r i f t i n g ) . Amundson and Borgen (1987) i n At the C o n t r o l s : C h a r t i n g a  course through unemployment o u t l i n e the importance of work i n meeting our b a s i c needs. Acc o r d i n g to Amundson and Borgen (1987) these needs i n c l u d e s u r v i v a l , m a t e r i a l s e c u r i t y , b e l o n g i n g to a group where we are c o n s i d e r e d to be c o n t r i b u t i n g members, and the need f o r a sense of achievement and r e c o g n i t i o n . Work pr o v i d e s a sense of i d e n t i t y i n r e l a t i o n to o t h e r s . Consequently, when t h i s i s taken away, overwhelming f e e l i n g s of h e l p l e s s n e s s and hopelessness may occur. A study by Marsden and Duff (1975) demonstrates that the unemployed person f e e l s - 13 -excluded from the normal rhythms of l i f e . Emotional and p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s of unemployment that may be s p e c i f i c to the youth group i n c l u d e an i n a b i l i t y to develop an e s t a b l i s h e d sense of pe r s o n a l i d e n t i t y l i n k e d to o c c u p a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y ( K i r s h , 1983; Roberts et a l , 1982). Young people l e a r n many u s e f u l work s k i l l s from a f i r s t j o b and can begin to a c q u i r e independence from t h e i r f a m i l y . I f t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y i s beyond t h e i r reach, they are denied these growth experiences (O.E.C.D. 1977; Jahoda, 1982). E q u a l l y d i s t u r b i n g are r e s u l t s from s t u d i e s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t unemployed youth have l i t t l e awareness of the s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s governing unemployment and t h e r e f o r e tend to i n t e r n a l i z e blame and g u i l t . Jahoda (1982) r e p o r t s that youth o f t e n a t t r i b u t e l a c k of a job to p e r s o n a l inadequacies. Tanner, Lowe and Krahn (1984) r e f e r to the Edmonton Youth Unemployment Survey, conducted by H i l a r y Lynas, i n r e l a t i o n to the youth's views on reasons f o r unemployment. R e s u l t s were s u r p r i s i n g i n that f o r t y - s i x of the seventy unemployed respondents c i t e d " l a c k of e x p e r i e n c e " as the most p r e v a l e n t e x p l a n a t i o n . Only f i v e of the sample p i n p o i n t e d government p o l i c i e s as a f a c t o r determining unemployment. These f i n d i n g s c o n f i r m that there i s a tendency f o r unemployed youth to blame themselves f o r t h e i r s i t u a t i o n , l e a d i n g to i n c r e a s e d f e e l i n g s of hopelessness, worthlessness, and lower s e l f esteem. These f i n d i n g s c o n f i r m those of L e v i n (1976) i n her study of unemployed persons. L e v i n r e p o r t e d that 90% of her sample p l a c e d blame and assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r job l o s s even with an awareness of the present economic s i t u a t i o n . There i s a d d i t i o n a l evidence s u p p o r t i n g the negative e f f e c t s - 14 -on youth that are e x p e r i e n c i n g unemployment. Donovan and Oddy (1982) and T u r t l e et a l (1978) found that young people without work became s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d from t h e i r f r i e n d s and other c o n t a c t s . K i r s h (1983) and Marsden (1982) c i t e examples of unemployed youth's s t a t e of boredom and l a c k of purpose or g o a l s . S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s were obtained by Millham, B u l l o c k and Hosie (1978) i n t h e i r study of three hundred unemployed youth. T h i s r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d t h a t youth experience d e p r e s s i o n , boredom, f r u s t r a t i o n and g e n e r a l l y f e e l w o r t h l e s s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r p l i g h t . H a l f of the respondents r e p o r t e d a marked d e c l i n e i n t h e i r s o c i a l l i f e and other a c t i v i t i e s , due to l i m i t e d and o f t e n r e s t r i c t e d funds. As unemployment i s l i k e l y to continue, i t s consequences w i l l p e r s i s t . T h e r e f o r e , more i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be r e q u i r e d i n order that the i s s u e s can be addressed and e f f e c t i v e programs and i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s developed. The Role of S o c i a l Supports During the past t w e n t y - f i v e years r e s e a r c h has documented a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s and s t r e s s f u l l i f e events. These events are d e f i n e d as events or happenings that r e q u i r e change i n the behaviour and b a s i c l i f e p a t t e r n of an i n d i v i d u a l (Holmes and Rahe, 1967). Numerous s t u d i e s have documented high l e v e l s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l symptoms, i n c l u d i n g d e p r e s s i o n and a n x i e t y , i n i n d i v i d u a l s e x p e r i e n c i n g such events (Coates et a l , 1969; Myers et a l , 1975). - 15 -Researchers have begun to examine the i n t e r a c t i o n s of mediating f a c t o r s with l i f e change i n order to p r e d i c t l e v e l s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s . One important f a c t o r i s the r o l e of s o c i a l support r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n p r o v i d i n g a b u f f e r or i n s u l a t o r f o r the person f a c e d with a s t r e s s f u l l i f e s i t u a t i o n (Caplan, 1974; C a s s e l , 1976; Cobb, 1976). T h i s i s termed the " b u f f e r i n g h y p o t h e s i s " whereby i n d i v i d u a l s with a s t r o n g s o c i a l support network should be b e t t e r equipped to cope with l i f e changes and those with minimal s o c i a l support would be more s u s c e p t i b l e to l i f e events ( T h o i t s , 1982). An e a r l y study conducted by N u c k o l l s et a l (1972) e x p l o r e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i f e s t r e s s and pregnancy c o m p l i c a t i o n s and p s y c h o - s o c i a l a s s e t s . N u c k o l l s s t u d i e d 170 pregnant army wives b e f o r e and a f t e r d e l i v e r y . R e s u l t s demonstrated that support or " p s y c h o - s o c i a l a s s e t s " reduced the l e v e l of c o m p l i c a t i o n s that would normally f o l l o w a high number of s t r e s s events. S p e c i f i c a l l y , 91% of the pregnant women having high s t r e s s f u l l i f e events coupled with low p s y c h o - s o c i a l a s s e t s c o r e s had one or more c o m p l i c a t i o n s of pregnancy. In comparison, o n l y 33% of women with e q u a l l y high s t r e s s f u l l i f e events but with high p s y c h o - s o c i a l a s s e t s ( s o c i a l supports) had any c o m p l i c a t i o n s . N u c k o l l s e t a l conclude that h i g h l y s t r e s s e d i n d i v i d u a l s who are supported are i n b e t t e r h e a l t h than those who are s t r e s s e d but are unsupported. Myers et a l (1974; 1975) i n a l a r g e e p i d e m e o l o g i c a l survey i n New Haven sought to determine why the number of l i f e events i s not a s s o c i a t e d with p s y c h i a t r i c d i s t r e s s f o r some i n d i v i d u a l s . - 16 -Myers concluded that people with r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e support and access to ot h e r s are b e t t e r equipped to deal with the impact and e f f e c t s of l i f e events and s t r e s s o r s . T h i s study a l s o r e v e a l e d that those persons that experienced low event s c o r e s but had high symptoms of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s were o f t e n s i n g l e , d i v o r c e d , widowed, d i s s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r jobs or unemployed. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h lends support to the mediating e f f e c t of s o c i a l support or s i g n i f i c a n t o t h ers i n r e l a t i o n to s t r e s s f u l events and p s y c h i a t r i c d i s a b i l i t y . Brown and H a r r i s (1978) s t u d i e d d e p r e s s i o n i n women i n an attempt to e x p l a i n the in c r e a s e d m o r b i d i t y among the working c l a s s as opposed to the middle c l a s s . They i d e n t i f i e d f o u r f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with i n c r e a s e d m o r b i d i t y i n the presence of adverse environmental events. a) l o s s of the mother i n c h i l d h o o d b) three or more c h i l d r e n under 14 years of age at home c) l a c k of f u l l or p a r t time employment d) l a c k of an i n t i m a t e c o n f i d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p with a husband or a b o y f r i e n d . Brown and H a r r i s (1978) found that l a c k of an i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p was the most powerful i n d i c a t o r of p s y c h i a t r i c d i s t r e s s , which lends support to the b u f f e r i n g h y p o t h e s i s . In a study of s o c i a l support being l i n k e d to those e x p e r i e n c i n g unemployment, F r i e s e n (1983), addressed the importance of s o c i a l support f o r i n d i v i d u a l s a f f e c t e d by a c r i s i s and examined the e f f e c t s on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s spouse. F r i e s e n i n t e r v i e w e d 46 couples, ranging i n ages from 16 to 61. Each - 17 -couple had an unemployed male that was head of the household i n terms of major e a r n i n g s . There were s i x s o c i a l support components measures,, i n c l u d i n g d i r e c t i v e guidance, n o n - d i r e c t i v e support, p o s i t i v e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , t a n g i b l e a s s i s t a n c e , support s a t i s f a c t i o n and need. The i n d i v i d u a l and f a m i l y h e a l t h v a r i a b l e s c o n s i s t e d of a n x i e t y , d e p r e s s i o n , i n t e r p e r s o n a l s e n s i t i v i t y , p h y s i c a l symptomatology, e x p r e s s i v e n e s s , c o n f l i c t , a d a p t a b i l i t y , and cohesiveness. F r i e s e n (1983) found that d i r e c t i v e guidance was r e l a t e d o n l y to lowered a n x i e t y and d e p r e s s i o n i n husbands and wives i n s p i t e of p e r c e i v e d support d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . The other important f i n d i n g suggested that i n g e n e r a l the measure of support s a t i s f a c t i o n was r e l a t e d to lower symptom l e v e l s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study f u r t h e r suggest that there may be p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r p r e v e n t i o n of l i f e event s t r e s s by i n c r e a s i n g support s a t i s f a c t i o n . A study r e s e a r c h i n g p e r c e i v e d support by youth and parents i n r e l a t i o n to the youth's outcome f o l l o w i n g treatment was conducted by De Maio (1983). T h i r t y f a m i l i e s c o n s i s t i n g of youth and t h e i r mothers were i n t e r v i e w e d to assess network s i z e and p e r c e i v e d support from f i v e sources: r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s , s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l , s o c i a l s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l , and parent or youth. Mothers and t h e i r youth were asked to complete a 12 item q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n order to determine p e r c e i v e d support l e v e l . The youth outcome f o l l o w i n g treatment was assessed by youth s e l f r e p o r t , p a r e n t a l r e p o r t , s c h o o l and work p a r t i c i p a t i o n as w e l l as a court c o n t a c t . R e s u l t s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e that the youth - 18 -p e r c e p t i o n s of support from f a m i l y and p r o f e s s i o n a l s such as school and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s were s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to s u c c e s s f u l outcome f o l l o w i n g treatment. They a l s o i n d i c a t e d that parent p e r c e p t i o n s of support from f a m i l y but not the p r o f e s s i o n a l s were r e l a t e d to a more success o r i e n t e d youth outcome. Gore (1978) addresses the i s s u e of s o c i a l support i n r e l a t i o n to unemployment s t r e s s . Gore was i n t e r e s t e d i n determining why many i n d i v i d u a l s m a i n t a i n good h e a l t h even while exposed to s t r e s s f u l l i f e events. Beginning with the assumption that support i n c r e a s e s coping a b i l i t y which lea d s to i n c r e a s e d w e l l - b e i n g , Gore s e t out to t e s t the hypothesis that support b u f f e r s the h e a l t h e f f e c t s of s t r e s s o r s . Her study i s a l o n g i t u d i n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the p h y s i c a l and mental h e a l t h consequences of i n v o l u n t a r y job l o s s . Gore i n t e r v i e w e d one hundred men at f i v e stages over a two year p e r i o d . The s u b j e c t s had been l a i d o f f as a r e s u l t of a p l a n t shut down. S o c i a l support was measured by a t h i r t e e n item index c o v e r i n g the extent of s u p p o r t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s with wife, f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s . The study examined 54 r u r a l and 46 urban workers. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e a higher l e v e l of support f o r the r u r a l sample, which i s a t t r i b u t e d to the s t r e n g t h of t i e s i n a s m a l l community. The f i n d i n g s a l s o r e p o r t e d more changes i n c h o l e s t e r o l , i l l n e s s symptoms and e f f e c t i v e responses than the s u b j e c t s that r e c e i v e d g r e a t e r support. In Gore's study i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to p i n p o i n t s p e c i f i c behaviours of s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s which helped a m e l i o r a t e l i f e s t r e s s . An i n s i g h t i n t o what as p e c t s of the support and what sources were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h e l p i n g or h i n d e r i n g these - 19 -i n d i v i d u a l s i s l a c k i n g . A more recent study by C l a r k e and C l i s s o l d (1982) examined the c o r r e l a t i o n of a d a p t a t i o n among unemployed and employed young men. The study e x p l o r e d s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s , i n c l u d i n g the support an i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s as coming from peers, f a m i l y and community and h i s past experience of success and f a i l u r e , mainly at s c h o o l . These v a r i a b l e s are assumed to i n f l u e n c e the person's c u r r e n t f e e l i n g s of competence as w e l l as h i s a d a p t a t i o n to unemployment. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were completed by 126 unemployed and 59 employed men. F i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t hat s o c i a l support and past successes, i n f l u e n c e d competence and a d a p t a t i o n . S o c i a l support emerges as the most powerful s i n g l e p r e d i c t o r of a d a p t a t i o n . The unemployed group r e p o r t e d lower s o c i a l support from the f a m i l y than the employed group. There was no d i f f e r e n c e i n l e v e l of p e r c e i v e d support from f r i e n d s , as w e l l as community support. While t h i s study demonstrated a change i n s o c i a l support among groups of employed and unemployed men, i t does not d i s c u s s what changes occurred, nor the l a c k of f a m i l y support. An a d d i t i o n a l study by U l l a h , Banks and Warr (1985) s t u d i e d 388 white females, 388 white males, 129 b l a c k females and 245 b l a c k males. A l l were unemployed seventeen year o l d s . The r e s e a r c h e r s measured s o c i a l support i n terms of f i v e forms of help from o t h e r s i n c l u d i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s , p e r c e i v e d p r e s s u r e s from o t h e r s to o b t a i n a job, employment commitment, contact with other young people and c o n t a c t with other unemployed young people. They found t h a t two types of support i n c l u d i n g - 20 -having someone to t u r n to f o r f i n a n c i a l help and having someone suggest i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g s to do were s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d with lower measures of d i s t r e s s , as w e l l as p e r c e i v e d p r e s s u r e to o b t a i n a j o b and employment commitment. The a s s o c i a t i o n between d i s t r e s s and having someone to t u r n to f o r f i n a n c i a l h e lp was g r e a t e r f o r those p e r c e i v i n g pressure from o t h e r s to o b t a i n a job than those not r e c e i v i n g p r e s s u r e . The a s s o c i a t i o n between d i s t r e s s and having someone to t u r n to when f e e l i n g low was g r e a t e r f o r those with a high employment commitment than those with a low one. A study by B a r r e r a (1981) posed a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e by h y p o t h e s i z i n g that s u p p o r t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s might be i n e f f e c t i v e i n f a c i l i t a t i n g adjustment i f they were a l s o sources of i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t . The study i n v o l v e d a sample of 86 pregnant teenagers with a mean age of 17.2 years. The assessment b a t t e r i e s i n c l u d e d the A r i z o n a S o c i a l Support Interview Schedule (ASSIS). A s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w with each s u b j e c t was a l s o conducted. The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t hat s o c i a l support appears to be a good p r e d i c t o r of p s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustment. However, while the r e s u l t s suggested that r e c e i p t of support i s r e l a t e d to p o s i t i v e adjustment, the study d i d not explore f a c t o r s t hat c o n t r i b u t e to the development of s a t i s f y i n g support. B a r r e r a maintained that i n t e r v e n t i o n i s needed to e l i m i n a t e c o n f l i c t i n otherwise s u p p o r t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n order to a i d the adjustment of people undergoing major l i f e changes. Wellman (1981) agrees that not a l l s o c i a l c o n t a c t s possessed by i n d i v i d u a l s are n e c e s s a r i l y s u p p o r t i v e . Other r e s e a r c h has demonstrated t h a t not - 21 -a l l sources of s o c i a l support are e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n r e d u c i n g d i s t r e s s ( T h o i t s , 1982). There remains c o n f l i c t i n g evidence i n the s o c i a l support model f o r b u f f e r i n g l i f e events as s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s found no s i g n i f i c a n t s t r e s s - b u f f e r i n g e f f e c t s and concluded that s o c i a l support o n l y m i n i m a l l y a f f e c t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustment (Andrews et a l , 1978). Summary While the b u f f e r i n g h y p o t h e s i s p o i n t s to the p o t e n t i a l importance of s o c i a l support i n r e d u c i n g or i n s u l a t i n g the i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c i n g a l i f e s t r e s s such as unemployment, s t u d i e s s p e c i f i c to job l o s s are r a r e and do not i n d i c a t e the manner i n which support persons can e i t h e r h elp or hinder the i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c i n g t h i s l i f e change. Sources of support are not p i n p o i n t e d i n r e s p e c t to which i n d i v i d u a l s p rovide what types of support. The q u e s t i o n of how s o c i a l support systems a f f e c t unemployed youth has yet to be e x p l o r e d . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s necessary to examine t h i s area and to c o n s i d e r both h e l p f u l and h i n d e r i n g consequences of s o c i a l support. Some r e s e a r c h assumptions r e s u l t e d from the l i t e r a t u r e review. These assumptions are as f o l l o w s : 1. Those persons normally c o n s i d e r e d s u p p o r t i v e may i n f a c t e x e r t a n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e on the unemployed i n d i v i d u a l . 2. Key persons may c o n t r i b u t e sources of support and s t r a i n . - 22 -Unemployed youth may be i n a disadvantaged p o s i t i o n i n regards to drawing on a v a i l a b l e support. A change i n the youth's support system may occur as the r e s u l t of being unemployed. - 23 -CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Metho d o l o g i c a l Approach The data f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h was c o l l e c t e d through the use of the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique which was developed by Flanagan (1947; 1954). T h i s technique was developed d u r i n g World War II d u r i n g s t u d i e s i n the A v i a t i o n Psychology Program of the United S t a t e s Army A i r Fo r c e s . The program was o r i g i n a l l y designed t o develop techniques necessary f o r the s e l e c t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a i r c r e w s . The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique i s an in-depth i n t e r v i e w method concerned with o b t a i n i n g s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s that f a c i l i t a t e or hinder behaviours. The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique " c o n s i s t s of a set of procedures f o r c o l l e c t i n g d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n s of human behaviour i n such a way as to f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s i n s o l v i n g p r a c t i c a l problems and dev e l o p i n g broad p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . " (Flanagan, 1954, p.327). The o b j e c t of the approach i s to o b t a i n f i r s t hand r e p o r t s o u t l i n i n g a s i t u a t i o n i n which success or f a i l u r e i s determined by s p e c i f i c r e p o r t e d causes. The technique i s c o n s i d e r e d v a l u a b l e because i t u t i l i z e s the co - r e s e a r c h e r s viewpoint and permits a more comprehensive understanding of the phenomena under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Flanagan (1954) maintains that the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique a l l o w s f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of s p e c i f i c behaviours r e p o r t e d by those q u a l i f i e d to make the judgements r e g a r d i n g the a c t i v i t y i n q u e s t i o n . - 24 -Once s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n on the t o p i c has been e l i c i t e d , the development of c a t e g o r i e s can be c o n s t r u c t e d . T h i s category system must be v e r i f i a b l e by o u t s i d e o b s e r v e r s . Borg and G a l l (1983) c a u t i o n that two observers are necessary i n order to determine i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y i n s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g o b s e r v a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . Research conducted on the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique by Andersson and N i l s s o n (1964) determined that i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d by t h i s p a r t i c u l a r approach was both r e l i a b l e and v a l i d . In summary, the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t method was s e l e c t e d as an a p p r o p r i a t e means f o r o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and developing an in-depth understanding of what, from the unemployed youth's p e r s p e c t i v e , support people do or say that f a c i l i t a t e s or h i n d e r s t h e i r adjustment to unemployment. Sample For the purpose of t h i s study, "unemployed" i s d e f i n e d as a l a c k of f u l l time permanent employment i n any f i e l d . A t o t a l of f o u r t e e n v o l u n t e e r p a r t i c i p a n t s were s e l e c t e d from the p o p u l a t i o n of Vancouver, B.C. The sample was s e l e c t e d from c o n t a c t s w i t h i n the community. S e v e r a l were s e l e c t e d through r e f e r r a l from the S p e c i a l i z e d Youth U n i t , a government o r g a n i z a t i o n a s s i s t i n g unemployed youth with t h e i r j o b search s k i l l s . The r e s e a r c h e r met with the c o o r d i n a t o r f o r an i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w to e x p l a i n the nature of the r e s e a r c h and review the t o p i c s and qu e s t i o n s to be asked i n the i n t e r v i e w format. The c o o r d i n a t o r then informed the - 25 -youth p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Job Search Program of my i n t e n t . S u b j e c t s were informed of the c r i t e r i a r e q u i r e d i n order to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. They are as f o l l o w s : 1. A l l s u b j e c t s must be between the ages of e i g h t e e n and twenty-four years o l d i n c l u s i v e . 2. A l l s u b j e c t s must have been unemployed f o r a minimum of three months. Subject s ranged i n age from 18-24 years of age and the mean age was 19.8 (see Table 1 f o r Demographic I n f o r m a t i o n ) . Length of time unemployed ranged from three months to two years, with mean being 14.8 months. The three month minimum time unemployed i s necessary i n order f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s to have had adequate experiences to speak from. The breakdown between sexes was 57.14% (n=8) female, and 42.85% (n=6) male. The e d u c a t i o n a l attainment of p a r t i c i p a n t s v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . The lowest grade l e v e l completed was grade 9, while the h i g h e s t was three years u n i v e r s i t y or c o l l e g e attendance. Less than h a l f the sample (35.71%) had post secondary e d u c a t i o n while the remaining 64.28% had completed one or more grades of secondary s c h o o l . T h r e e - q u a r t e r s of the sample l i v e d with t h e i r parents as t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s prevented them from a c q u i r i n g independent l i v i n g arrangements. E d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of youth's parents v a r i e d , with approximately h a l f being employed i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d s and the other 50% comprised mainly of n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l or blue c o l l a r workers. The o r i g i n of the sample was predominantly Canadian with one s u b j e c t with a n a t i v e Indian a n c e s t r y . - 26 -Table 1. Demographic Information Respondent Age Sex Educ.Level Obtained Previous Job/Empl. Length of Unempl. Parents P r o f e s s i o n 1 18 M Gr. 11 K i t c h e n h e l p 3 mths. M-housewife 1 F-carpenter I 2 21 M Gr. 11 Furn. r e p a i r 15 mths. M-waitress j F-logger j 3 19 M Gr. 10 Cook 1 y r . M-housewife F-window washer 4 20 F 1 y r . c o l l e g e T y p i s t 1 y r . M-housewife F-business 5 18 F Gr. 10 B a b y s i t 7 mths. M - t y p i s t 6 20 F 2nd y r . Univ. Day care 4 mths. M-bookkeeper F-business 7 19 F Gr. 12 C l e r k 1 y r . M-dental a s s i s t a n t 8 18 M Gr. 9 D e l i v e r y 2 y r s . M - h a i r d r s r . 9 18 M Gr. 10 Labourer 9 jrtths. M-housewife F-C.A. 10 18 M Gr. 11 Gardener 3 y r s . F o s t e r parents 11 24 F 3 y r s . Univ. C C . Worker 10 mths. M-l e g a l seer F-Manager 12 21 F 1 y r . Univ. 15 mths. M-housewife F-stock b r k r 13 20 F 1 y r . Univ. swim i n s t r . 8 mths. M-sales F - d e n t i s t 14 23 F Gr. 12 Sales 11 mths. M-teacher * Average Age - 19.8 years * Average Length Unemployed - 14.8 months - 27 -Data C o l l e c t i o n Once the p a r t i c i p a n t s were s e l e c t e d each was contacted by telephone to inform him/her about the i n t e r v i e w . S p e c i f i c a l l y they were t o l d that the purpose of t h i s study was to examine and i d e n t i f y , from t h e i r own experience, what support people s a i d or d i d t hat e i t h e r helped or hindered them i n terms of a d j u s t i n g to being unemployed. I t was e x p l a i n e d that the study was meant as a follow-up of s i m i l a r r e s e a r c h conducted by Dr. Amundson and Dr. Borgen i n the Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. P a r t i c i p a n t s were informed the study was approved by the E t h i c s Committee of U.B.C. and that i t was i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements f o r a Master of A r t s i n C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology. In a d d i t i o n , they were t o l d t h a t t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n was v o l u n t a r y , and that one hour of t h e i r time would be r e q u i r e d f o r the i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s . I t was e x p l a i n e d that i n t e r v i e w s would be audiotaped, and when i n f o r m a t i o n was t r a n s f e r r e d on to index cards, the tapes would be erased. Su b j e c t s were t o l d that they c o u l d withdraw from the study at any time, without p e n a l t y , and were a l s o informed of the p o s s i b i l i t y of an a d d i t i o n a l s h o r t telephone c a l l follow-up to confirm the accuracy of the i n c i d e n t s s e l e c t e d by the r e s e a r c h e r . The P i l o t Interview One p i l o t i n t e r v i e w was conducted i n order to assess the c l a r i t y of q u e s t i o n s and the i n t e r v i e w format. In a d d i t i o n , t h i s - 28 -allowed the r e s e a r c h e r to become f a m i l i a r with the i n t e r v i e w s t y l e . F o l l o w i n g the i n t e r v i e w , the p a r t i c i p a n t was asked to g i v e feedback concerning the format. Questions asked i n c l u d e d : 1. Were there any p a r t s of the i n t e r v i e w which you found c o n f u s i n g or d i f f i c u l t ? 2. D i d you at any time f e e l swayed by my comments or q u e s t i o n s ? 3. Do you have f u r t h e r suggestions r e l a t i n g to the improvement of the i n t e r v i e w ? The p i l o t s u b j e c t was a b l e to d e s c r i b e i n depth h i s unemployment experience and appeared to be comfortable with the process. He mentioned that i t was an "unusual s i t u a t i o n " to " t a l k so much at once." He s t a t e d that he was a f r a i d that he wasn't answering the q u e s t i o n s " c o r r e c t l y " . However, the respondent was able to c l e a r l y o u t l i n e what s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s d i d or d i d n ' t do t h a t e i t h e r helped or hindered him. T h e r e f o r e the i n t e r v i e w s t r u c t u r e , with s e v e r a l minor a l t e r a t i o n s , was i n p l a c e . The Interview Each i n t e r v i e w began with a s h o r t i n t r o d u c t i o n , f o l l o w e d by a request of the respondent to review and s i g n a consent form (Appendix A). A f t e r completing the consent form the respondent was asked to complete a s h o r t demographic i n f o r m a t i o n sheet o u t l i n i n g age, sex, unemployment and e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y (Appendix B). The i n t e r v i e w e r began each i n t e r v i e w with a standard preamble as f o l l o w s : - 29 -"I am i n t e r e s t e d i n f i n d i n g out how your f r i e n d s , f a m i l y members or other important people i n your l i f e responded to you s i n c e you've been unemployed. In my j a r g o n we c a l l t h i s " s o c i a l supports". T h i s b a s i c a l l y r e f e r s to s i g n i f i c a n t o t hers that are c l o s e to you and that may g i v e you encouragement, advice, i n f o r m a t i o n or perhaps money. I'd l i k e you to d e s c r i b e i n as much d e t a i l as p o s s i b l e your experience of these people." F o l l o w i n g t h i s statement the p a r t i c i p a n t was a b l e to ask q u e s t i o n s f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n . The i n t e r v i e w c o n s i s t e d of open ended q u e s t i o n s , l i n k i n g , and summarizing i n order to a l l o w the p a r t i c i p a n t to f u l l y d e s c r i b e t h e i r experience without being l e d by the i n t e r v i e w e r . The s u b j e c t s were then asked t o : 1. L i s t s i g n i f i c a n t or key people i n t h e i r l i v e s . 2. D e s c r i b e experience w i t h each i n t u r n . At t h i s time the i n t e r v i e w e r focused each s u b j e c t ' s responses to g a i n more s p e c i f i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of the p o s i t i v e and negative aspects of t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . F a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s " L e t ' s begin with a s i t u a t i o n t h a t helped you the most. Think back on experiences i n which people behaved or acted i n a p o s i t i v e manner that helped you to a d j u s t to your s i t u a t i o n . Can you d e s c r i b e f o r me i n d e t a i l the i n c i d e n t that happened and why i t was so h e l p f u l to you?" Follow-Up Questions 1. What were the general circumstances l e a d i n g up to the i n c i d e n t ? - 30 -2. What e x a c t l y happened that was so h e l p f u l to you at that time? 3. What was i t about the i n c i d e n t that helped you s p e c i f i c a l l y ? H i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s "Now l e t ' s t u r n to an experience with key people that you had some disagreement with or that made you upset or angry. Could you t e l l me about the i n c i d e n t that happened and why i t was so u n h e l p f u l or h i n d e r i n g to you at the time?" Follow-Up Questions A f t e r the p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c a l l e d the i n c i d e n t the three follow-up q u e s t i o n s as c i t e d above were asked. Data A n a l y s i s Audiotapes were t r a n s c r i b e d and i n c i d e n t s e x t r a c t e d and t r a n s f e r r e d to index c a r d s . The next step i n v o l v e s examining the i n c i d e n t s f o r s i m i l a r i t i e s . The main o b j e c t i v e was to summarize the data i n a c l e a r manner i n order f o r i t to be u t i l i z e d to p r o v i d e new i n f o r m a t i o n while s a c r i f i c i n g as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e of i t s v a l i d i t y (Flanagan, 1954). The usual procedure f o r the formation of c a t e g o r i e s comprised f i v e s t e p s . Step one i n v o l v e s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the i n c i d e n t s and the f o r m u l a t i o n of d e s c r i p t i v e statements r e p r e s e n t i n g these groups. S e v e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s should be kept i n mind when s e l e c t i n g c a t e g o r i e s i n r e l a t i o n to the l e v e l of how ge n e r a l or s p e c i f i c each might be. The f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g headings - 31 -as o u t l i n e d by Flanagan (1954) were u s e f u l g u i d e l i n e s . 1. Headings and requirements must be c l e a r - c u t , l o g i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d and e a s i l y d i s c e r n a b l e with an e a s i l y remembered s t r u c t u r e . 2. T i t l e s r e q u i r e meanings i n themselves without d e t a i l e d d e f i n i t i o n s . 3. Headings f o r major areas should be homogenous and p a r a l l e l i n content and s t r u c t u r e and they should be n e u t r a l . 4. Headings must be of the same type and l e v e l of importance. 5. Headings should f a c i l i t a t e f i n d i n g s being e a s i l y a p p l i e d and maximally u s e f u l . 6. The l i s t of headings needs to be comprehensive, c o v e r i n g a l l i n c i d e n t s . U t i l i z i n g these g u i d e l i n e s , i n c i d e n t s deemed c r i t i c a l were summarized on to index cards, one i n c i d e n t per c a r d . Each card was a s s i g n e d a s e q u e n t i a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number. A f t e r the i n c i d e n t s were summarized, the category c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system was o r g a n i z e d . T h i s i n v o l v e d adding a d d i t i o n a l i n c i d e n t s to c a t e g o r i e s by means of a t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I n c i d e n t s that seemed s i m i l a r were s o r t e d and pl a c e d t o g e t h e r . The process continued with more i n c i d e n t s f a l l i n g i n t o groups. The c a t e g o r i e s were reviewed and r e f i n e d u n t i l a l l the i n c i d e n t s d e s c r i b i n g s i m i l a r experiences were s l o t t e d i n t o the same sub-category headings. The d e f i n i t i o n s of c a t e g o r i e s were r e - e v a l u a t e d i n r e l a t i o n to a c t u a l i n c i d e n t s i n c l u d e d i n each and t h i s process repeated u n t i l the system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was complete. - 32 -CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In t h i s c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t study on what f a c i l i t a t e s or h i n d e r s unemployed youth i n r e l a t i o n to support persons, the f o u r t e e n p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d a t o t a l of 209 i n c i d e n t s . Of these 209 i n c i d e n t s , 129 or about s i x t y - o n e percent (61.8) were f a c i l i t a t i v e , and 80 or about t h i r t y - e i g h t percent (38.2) were h i n d e r i n g . A f t e r completion of the i n t e r v i e w s , the i n c i d e n t s from the audiotape r e c o r d i n g s were summarized on to index cards. Through an i n d u c t i o n process of gradual refinement, a s e t of 20 b a s i c or s u b - c a t e g o r i e s emerged. These 20 c a t e g o r i e s were grouped i n t o three major or s u p e r o r d i n a t e c a t e g o r i e s . The three s u p e r o r d i n a t e c a t e g o r i e s are r e p r e s e n t e d with roman numerals and the 20 subordinate c a t e g o r i e s are represented with a r a b i c numerals. The r e s u l t s of the data a n a l y s i s are presented i n f o u r s e c t i o n s . S e c t i o n one o u t l i n e s checks on r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . S e c t i o n two o u t l i n e s and d e f i n e s the three main c a t e g o r i e s and l i s t s the s u b c a t e g o r i e s of each. S e c t i o n three d e s c r i b e s each sub-category b r i e f l y . The number of people mentioning each i n c i d e n t w i l l a l s o be g i v en. F i n a l l y , one or two d i r e c t quotes from the i n t e r v i e w s w i l l be used to p o r t r a y the f l a v o r of the respondent's experience. S e c t i o n f o u r i d e n t i f i e s sources of support, i e . f r i e n d s or parents, and i s o l a t e s a spects and types of support that were desi g n a t e d as e i t h e r h e l p f u l or h i n d e r i n g . - 33 -R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y Rater R e l i a b i l i t y The method of data a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d of dev e l o p i n g a category system and then checking i t s r e l i a b i l i t y by determining how c o n s i s t e n t l y r a t e r s p l a c e d the i n c i d e n t s i n t o subordinate and sup e r o r d i n a t e c a t e g o r i e s . Due to the s u b j e c t i v e nature of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s , the system was submitted to two independent r a t e r s . The r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y s c o r e s f o r super-o r d i n a t e and subordinate c a t e g o r i e s are d i s p l a y e d i n Table 2. Table 2. Rater R e l i a b i l i t y Scores f o r Superordinate and Subordinate C a t e g o r i e s Superordinate C a t e g o r i e s Subordinate C a t e g o r i e s Rater Number Percentage Rater Number Percentage #A 95.2 #A 89.4 #B 100.0 #B 93.6 A minimum of seventy percent (70%) agreement between each r a t e r ' s category placement and those of the r e s e a r c h e r ' s f o r the su b - c a t e g o r i e s and e i g h t y - f i v e percent (85%) agreement f o r su p e r o r d i n a t e c a t e g o r i e s was s e t (Woolsey, 1986). Rater A was a 26 year o l d female, with three years u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g i n psychology and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . She was a l s o a R e g i s t e r e d P s y c h i a t r i c Nurse. She r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n - 34 -how to c a t e g o r i z e the i n c i d e n t s . Rater B was a 30 year o l d male, with a B a c h e l o r ' s degree i n Psychology. He had t r a i n i n g i n c o u n s e l l i n g and s t a t i s t i c a l techniques. The two r a t e r s achieved r e l i a b i i t y s c ores or about n i n e t y -f i v e percent (95.2%) and one hundred percent (100%) r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r the s u p e r o r d i n a t e c a t e g o r i e s and about e i g h t y - n i n e (89.4%) and n i n e t y - t h r e e (93.6%) r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r the subordinate c a t e g o r i e s . These f i g u r e s suggest t h a t the category system i s a r e l i a b l e r e f l e c t i o n of the r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s . V a l i d i t y Checks As one check f o r v a l i d a t i o n , two p a r t i c i p a n t s were s e l e c t e d at random and were contacted by telephone. They were asked i f the d e s c r i p t i v e r e s u l t s matched t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . The r e s e a r c h e r asked i f i t was necessary to make any changes or a d d i t i o n s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s commented that the i n c i d e n t s and c a t e g o r i e s a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e d t h e i r e xperiences. In the words of one p a r t i c i p a n t , "That about sums i t up." As an a d d i t i o n a l v a l i d a t i o n check, the r e s e a r c h e r compared the c a t e g o r i e s that were developed with the l i t e r a t u r e that was reviewed. The r e l a t i o n of s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s to the l i t e r a t u r e i s summarized i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s . - 35 -Table 3, L i t e r a t u r e Support f o r Category System  F a c i l i t a t i v e C a t e g o r i e s T a l k i n g and L i s t e n i n g Amundson & Borgen (1987) Optimism and Encouragement Amundson & Borgen (1987) Belonging and A f f e c t i o n Amundson & Borgen (1987) R e a l i s t i c E x p e c t a t i o n s Amundson & Borgen (1987) R e c e i v i n g Job Leads Borgen & Amundson (1984) Employment S k i l l s Borgen & Amundson (1984) A s s i s t a n c e with S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n / R e c r e a t i o n U l l a h , Banks & Warr (1985) Millham, B u l l o c k & Hosie (1978) F i n a n c i a l A s s i s t a n c e U l l a h , Banks & Warr (1985) Help with T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Not s p e c i f i c a l l y r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e Help with Accomodation/ Household Tasks Not s p e c i f i c a l l y r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e - 36 -Table 4. L i t e r a t u r e Support f o r Category Systems  H i n d e r i n g C a t e g o r i e s Not Having Time to L i s t e n and Understand C l a r k e & C l i s s o r d (1982) Negative Judgements/ C r i t i c i s m and Blame K i r s h (1983) Lack of Encouragement and Optimism Gold (1984) Pressure t o Continue Job Search U l l a h , Banks & Warr (1985) U n r e a l i s t i c E x p e c t a t i o n s Feather & Barber (1983) A l i e n a t i o n Amundson & Borgen (1987) K i r s h (1983) Support People Not Supplying Job Leads Not s p e c i f i c a l l y r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e Negative Information Concerning Employment Tanner, Lowe and Krahn (1984) Lack of F i n a n c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Not s p e c i f i c a l l y r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e No Help With T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Not s p e c i f i c a l l y r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e - 37 -Superordinate C a t e g o r i e s Three major s u p e r o r d i n a t e c a t e g o r i e s emerged as a r e s u l t of the s u b - c a t e g o r i e s . These are: I. Emotional Support I I . I n f o r m a t i o n a l Support I I I . M a t e r i a l Support Emotional Support Emotional support was d e f i n e d by being understood and accepted by o t h e r s , a f e e l i n g of a f f e c t i o n , i n t i m a c y or empathy. Empathy through t a l k i n g or l i s t e n i n g . R e c e i v i n g encouragement, t r u s t , optimism and a sense of hope from support persons. Four p o s i t i v e i n c i d e n t c a t e g o r i e s were i d e n t i f i e d comprising events which helped the s u b j e c t s d u r i n g t h e i r unemployment experience. These f o u r c a t e g o r i e s were l a b e l l e d as f o l l o w s : f e e l i n g understood and approved of through t a l k i n g and l i s t e n i n g , r e c e i v i n g optimism and encouragement, belonging and a f f e c t i o n , and r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s from o t h e r s . S i x n e g ative i n c i d e n t c a t e g o r i e s were i d e n t i f i e d comprising events which hindered the s u b j e c t s while unemployed. These s i x c a t e g o r i e s were l a b e l l e d as f o l l o w s : key o t h e r s not having time to l i s t e n and understand t h e i r s i t u a t i o n , r e c e i v i n g n e g a t i v e judgements, c r i t i c i s m s and blame, l a c k of encouragement and optimism, p r e s s u r e to continue the job search, u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s from o t h e r s , and a l i e n a t i o n . - 38 -I n f o r m a t i o n a l Support I n f o r m a t i o n a l support was d e f i n e d as support u s e f u l i n a s s i s t i n g the unemployed youth seek out employment through job l e a d s and t i p s , e i t h e r by support people or job c l u b c o u n s e l l o r s p r o v i d i n g advice, suggestions and d i r e c t i v e s . Information on how to prepare resumes and present o n e s e l f at a job i n t e r v i e w would a l s o be i n c l u d e d . Two p o s i t i v e i n c i d e n t c a t e g o r i e s were i d e n t i f i e d . These c a t e g o r i e s were l a b e l l e d as f o l l o w s : r e c e i v i n g job l e a d s and h e l p f u l j o b t i p s and employment s k i l l s . Two negative i n c i d e n t c a t e g o r i e s were i d e n t i f i e d . These were l a b e l l e d as f o l l o w s : key support people not s u p p l y i n g job l e a d s or h e l p f u l t i p s , n e g ative i n f o r m a t i o n concerning employment. M a t e r i a l Support M a t e r i a l support was d e f i n e d as r e c e i v i n g goods and s e r v i c e s , time, help with work r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . T h i s would i n c l u d e help with t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and accomodation c o s t s . Four p o s i t i v e i n c i d e n t c a t e g o r i e s were i d e n t i f i e d . These c a t e g o r i e s were l a b e l l e d as f o l l o w s : s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e with i n t e r a c t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n with o t h e r s , f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and other m a t e r i a l s e r v i c e s , h e l p with t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and h e l p with accomodation and household t a s k s . Two n e g a t i v e i n c i d e n t c a t e g o r i e s were i d e n t i f i e d . These c a t e g o r i e s were l a b e l l e d as f o l l o w s : l a c k of f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , and r e c e i v i n g no a s s i s t a n c e with t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . - 39 -F a c i l i t a t i v e C a t e g o r i e s Emotional Support F e e l i n g understood and approved of through t a l k i n g and o t h e r s  l i s t e n i n g T h i s category i n c l u d e d i n s t a n c e s where support persons v a l i d a t e d the youth's experience of unemployment by o f f e r i n g support through l i s t e n i n g without being c r i t i c a l or judgemental. Having someone simply to t a l k who c o u l d grasp t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s proved t o be extremely b e n e f i c i a l . There were a t o t a l of twenty-four i n c i d e n t s w i t h i n t h i s category. Ten respondents mentioned i n c i d e n t s p e r t i n e n t to t h i s category. The f o l l o w i n g quotes serve as an i l l u s t r a t i o n : "Well, she l i s t e n e d . That was b a s i c a l l y i t . She d i d n ' t say much back but she l i s t e n e d . She was somebody who l i s t e n e d and mainly agreed which was what I needed, which made me f e e l b e t t e r . . . . She was a t h i n g of beauty through a l l t h i s u g l i n e s s that was going around." "He'd l i s t e n i f I had problems. He was comforting and always around." R e c e i v i n g optimism and encouragement T h i s category i n c l u d e d i n c i d e n t s where key persons o f f e r e d support through p r e s e n t i n g the " b r i g h t e r s i d e " , a s s i s t i n g the youth to f e e l h o p e f u l and p o s i t i v e about t h e i r f u t u r e , suggesting v i a b l e o p t i o n s and o f f e r i n g reassurance that t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s - 40 -w i l l improve. There was a t o t a l of t w e n t y - f i v e i n c i d e n t s w i t h i n t h i s category, seven respondents mentioned i n c i d e n t s p e r t i n e n t to t h i s category. The f o l l o w i n g quotes serve as an i l l u s t r a t i o n : " I f I s a i d I d i d n ' t t h i n k I got the job, he's say, 'That's OK, you can t r y f o r another, to go f o r another j o b . ' He'd encourage me to keep l o o k i n g . " "When I j u s t wanted to g i v e up she's say, 'Don't, y o u ' l l f i n d a j o b . ' She'd say, 'Well, you're not s t u p i d even though you may f e e l that way now. You're smart. You can get a job i f you j u s t take the time to look and a job w i l l come soon." Belonging and a f f e c t i o n The i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s category p e r t a i n to the ongoing f e e l i n g s of warmth, tenderness, regard and d e v o t i o n . I n c i d e n t s i n c l u d e d v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n s demonstrating c a r i n g as w e l l as p h y s i c a l a c t i o n s such as hugging and touching. There was a t o t a l of seven i n c i d e n t s and f i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s r e f e r r e d to i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s category. The f o l l o w i n g two quotes serve as an i l l u s t r a t i o n : "He j u s t puts h i s arms around me when he knows I f e e l bad and says, 'I love you'." " G i r l f r i e n d . . . s h e b a s i c a l l y kept me going l i k e , I d i d n ' t want to, t h a t ' s the only t h i n g I - 41 -r e a l l y was wanting to l i v e for was the fact that I had a g i r l f r i e n d that was completely honest with me and loved me just the way I was and not for any other reason." R e a l i s t i c expectations from others This category comprises those inc idents in which s i gn i f i c an t others hold reasonable job and job search expectations for the unemployed youth. It a lso includes key others having an awareness of the career asp i rat ions of the person involved. There were three inc idents in th i s category, re ferred to by one par t i c ipant . The fol lowing quote i l l u s t r a t e s th i s category: "She doesn't expect me to go and try for a job that I know I'm not going to get . " II. Informational Support Receiving leads and he lp fu l t i p s This category re fers to s p e c i f i c information received from others inc lud ing job openings, interview assistance and other useful advice pert inent to seeking employment. There were a t o ta l of twelve inc idents , f i ve par t i c ipants re ferred to inc idents pert inent to th i s category. The fo l lowing quote serves as an i l l u s t r a t i o n : "She would read my resume and say i t looked good - bu i ld up my s k i l l s and se l f - conf idence. Single out my strong po in t s . " - 42 -Employment S k i l l s T h i s category p e r t a i n s to i n c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g d i r e c t and s p e c i f i c employment a s s i s t a n c e such as g e n e r a t i n g job a l t e r n a t i v e s , t e a c h i n g employment s k i l l s , p r a c t i c i n g i n t e r v i e w s t r a t e g i e s and resume p r e p a r a t i o n . I t i n c l u d e s the b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n on how to get and keep a j o b . A l s o i n c l u d e d i s the demonstration or teaching of a marketable s k i l l . Seven i n c i d e n t s were r e p o r t e d by three of the respondents. The f o l l o w i n g quotes i l l u s t r a t e t h i s type of a s s i s t a n c e : "She helped me to l i s t those q u a l i t i e s , t a l e n t s , t h i n g s I c o u l d do. To see myself i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t , and to b r i n g me back to r e a l i t y . " "They were g i v i n g me i n t e r v i e w s k i l l s , how to present myself b e t t e r . I f e l t a l o t b e t t e r a f t e r doing t h a t . " "He taught me how to wash windows, I guess something of a s k i l l , some t r a i n i n g . " I I I . M a t e r i a l Support S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n with o t h e r s T h i s i n c l u d e s f i n a n c i a l l y a s s i s t i n g the youth to p a r t i c i p a t e i n l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , and being able to continue with o u t i n g s such as movies, di n n e r s and s p o r t s events with f r i e n d s and/or f a m i l y members. Family and f r i e n d s i n c l u d e d and i n v i t e d the - 43 -unemployed youth to p a r t i c i p a t e i n "fun a c t i v i t i e s " . There were a t o t a l of nine i n c i d e n t s mentioned by s i x of the respondents w i t h i n t h i s category. The quotes that f o l l o w serve as i l l u s t r a t i o n s : "He knew I d i d n ' t have money so he helped me by going out with me to the f o o t b a l l and hockey games - he'd have seasons t i c k e t s and i n s t e a d of t a k i n g h i s parents, he'd take me." "Well, he was always around. He'd come over and p l a y cards or something when there was nothing to do. Or we'd do some e x e r c i s e or go t o h i s house and watch h i s v i d e o s . " F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and other m a t e r i a l s e r v i c e s The i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s category i n c l u d e the l e n d i n g of money, bus f a r e , and s e r v i c e s such as photocopying resumes and purchasing envelopes. S e r v i c e s that a s s i s t e d the youth i n t h e i r search f o r a, j o b . There were twenty-four separate i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s category, r e f e r r e d to by e i g h t of the respondents. The f o l l o w i n g quotes i l l u s t r a t e t h i s category: "She hated the f a c t that I q u i t s c h o o l , but she d i d n ' t k i c k me out of the house. She s t i l l bought me my c l o t h e s , my food. I f I needed spending money, l i k e i f I needed a new p a i r of jeans or something, she'd get i t f o r me." - 44 -"He'd get me out of my d e p r e s s i o n . He'd lend me a few bucks." Help with t r a n s p o r t a t i o n T h i s category i n c l u d e d i n s t a n c e s where key others a s s i s t e d the youth by e i t h e r d r i v i n g them to job i n t e r v i e w s , job c l u b s , or l e n d i n g them a v e h i c l e . I t a l s o i n c l u d e d a s s i s t a n c e with bus routes and t r a n s p o r t i n f o r m a t i o n . There were twelve i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s category mentioned by f i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s . The f o l l o w i n g quotes i l l u s t r a t e t h i s category: " I t was my step mom that came up with concrete s t u f f , l i k e t a k i n g me to the Employment Centre and d r i v i n g me to the i n t e r v i e w s . In that way she was h e l p f u l . " "Well, he l e f t me h i s car to go p l a c e s , or d r i v e me there, one or the o t h e r . " Help with accomodation and household tasks T h i s category was comprised of i n c i d e n t s such as f r e e room and board, p l a c e s to stay with f r i e n d s and/or f a m i l y members and tasks such as c l e a n i n g bedrooms which helped the youth d u r i n g t h i s s t r e s s f u l time. There were a t o t a l of s i x i n c i d e n t s mentioned. Two d i r e c t quotes from the i n t e r v i e w s serve to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s category: "He l e t me stay at h i s house r e g a r d l e s s of the problems and t r y i n g to t e l l h i s wife t h a t ' s the way i t was going to be and she - 45 -was going to have to make some s a c r i f i c e , as w e l l as h i m s e l f . " "She t r i e d to help me; c l e a n s my room f o r me." "I d i d n ' t have to pay rent - I d i d work around the house." H i n d e r i n g C a t e g o r i e s I. Emotional Support Key o t h e r s not having time to l i s t e n and understand t h e i r  s i t u a t i o n T h i s category r e p r e s e n t s i n c i d e n t s where key people d i d not take the time to t a l k to the youth and empathize with t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . The youth experienced f e e l i n g s of i s o l a t i o n and f r u s t r a t i o n due to minimal emotional c o n t a c t with key ot h e r s and l a c k of understanding. There were seventeen i n c i d e n t s recorded w i t h i n t h i s category and seven p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s . The f o l l o w i n g quotes p o r t r a y t h i s category: "...Through a l l t h i s time I was j u s t r e a l l y depressed a l l the time. You know, I'd j u s t b a s i c a l l y see t h i n g s i n b l a c k and white, and i t j u s t d i d n ' t matter so I d i d n ' t c a r e . And I l o s t so much emotion through that time j u s t because I had, you know, I was c r y i n g out f o r help except - 46 -nobody was t h e r e t o l i s t e n . Nobody saw e x a c t l y what was happening t o me." "And i t wasn't so much...I was a s k i n g f o r e m o t i o n a l h e l p . J u s t o c c a s i o n a l l y I would phone up j u s t t o t a l k , and they would — my s i s t e r s would always be busy o r they wouldn't have a k i n d , any k i n d words a t a l l when I got on the phone. I can remember numerous phone c a l l s not l a s t i n g more than a minute and a h a l f . • I mean, t h e r e were days when I l i t e r a l l y s a t and j u s t phoned t o t a l k t o my s i s t e r s . I phoned everyone i n the f a m i l y t o t a l k t o them and the l o n g e s t c o n v e r s a t i o n was I t h i n k about f i v e m i n u t e s , and the r e s t of them, they j u s t d i d n ' t have time t o observe what was happening t o me p h y s i c a l l y o r m e n t a l l y . They were j u s t too busy, o r you know, too wrapped up i n themselves t o see what was happening. J u s t t o e x p r e s s any emotion o r f e e l i n g . J u s t not b e i n g a b l e t o see what's g o i n g on h e r e . " R e c e i v i n g n e g a t i v e judgements, c r i t i c i s m and blame T h i s c a t e g o r y i s comprised o f i n c i d e n t s r e l a t i n g t o the youth b e i n g blamed f o r not t r y i n g h a r d enough t o o b t a i n employment o r f o r not a p p l y i n g f o r a c e r t a i n q uota of p o s i t i o n s , - 47 -I t a l s o i n v o l v e s name c a l l i n g and a tendency on the pa r t of s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s to focus on negative behaviors r a t h e r than p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s . There were twenty-two recorded i n c i d e n t s . E i g h t respondents r e f e r r e d to i n c i d e n t s w i t h i n t h i s category. The f o l l o w i n g are i l l u s t r a t i v e quotes: "My f a t h e r would say, 'Jesus C h r i s t , you d i d n ' t do t h i s and you d i d n ' t do t h a t . Well, i f you don't go out and do t h i s , then nothing's going to happen anyways.', and i t ' s not what I wanted to hear." "She claimed I hung around the house. I found i t r e a l l y hard to get any energy to go out and get a job, e s p e c i a l l y when I've got someone t e l l i n g me, 'You're l a z y . * " Lack of encouragement and optimism T h i s category i n c l u d e s i n c i d e n t s where key others focus on what the youth haven't attempted to do, r a t h e r than what has been done. I n c i d e n t s c l e a r l y demonstrate a l a c k of l o b b y i n g and advocacy f o r the youth i n v o l v e d . There were a t o t a l of e i g h t i n c i d e n t s w i t h i n t h i s category r e p o r t e d by f o u r persons. The f o l l o w i n g quote i s an example: "Well, my dad would c o n s t a n t l y say to me — w e l l , he'd t e l l me about a j o b i n the paper and I'd go and apply and nothing would come of i t and he, l i k e he would put me down because I d i d n ' t get the job i n s t e a d - 48 -of encouraging me a l l t h i s time. L i k e s a y i n g , 'At l e a s t you went out and t r i e d and something's going to come up soon.' He would always j u s t say, 'Well, you d i d n ' t go out today and look f o r a j o b . ' He was always d i s c o u r a g i n g . I t was always a d i s c o u r a g i n g f a c t j u s t to t a l k to him." U n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s from others T h i s i n c l u d e s pressure to apply f o r jobs that the youth were not q u a l i f i e d f o r or to s e t t l e f o r a j o b that was unacceptable to the youth i n v o l v e d . There were s i x i n c i d e n t s of t h i s nature, r e p o r t e d by three of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The f o l l o w i n g quotes i l l u s t r a t e t h i s category: "They t r i e d to push me i n t o jobs I hated, l i k e McDonald's. They d i d n ' t t h i n k about how I f e l t - they d i d n ' t care - j u s t take any j o b . " "He was always s a y i n g that I should get a n i c e o f f i c e job somewhere. L o g i c a l l y , I don't have the s k i l l or the experience nor do I want to do i t . I f e l t annoyed and f r u s t r a t e d and kept e x p l a i n i n g what I wanted to do and what I was t r a i n e d and equipped to do." - 49 -Pressure to continue job s e a r c h i n g T h i s category i n c l u d e s i n c i d e n t s where the youth were pressured to keep l o o k i n g , keep s e a r c h i n g d e s p i t e t h e i r e f f o r t s . The c o - r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r t pressure not to take a day o f f from the search, even f o r s p e c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s category a l s o i n c l u d e s support persons i n s i s t i n g they s t a r t e a r l y each morning, r e g a r d l e s s of how the youth f e l t . There were e i g h t i n c i d e n t s w i t h i n t h i s category, r e p o r t e d by f o u r of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The f o l l o w i n g quotes serve to i l l u m i n a t e t h i s category: "I had been l o o k i n g f o r work, concentrated f o r two months u n t i l I f e l t there was no use anymore. So I j u s t f e l t l i k e f o r g e t t i n g l o o k i n g so I f e l t t h a t I c o u l d have taken some time o f f , but they wouldn't l e t me, they kept p r e s s u r i n g me." "She kept i n s i s t i n g that I c a l l t h i s p l a c e f o r a j o b and I had a l r e a d y c a l l e d and they d i d n ' t want people without degrees. I f e l t p r e s s u r e d by her." A l i e n a t i o n T h i s category i n c l u d e s i n c i d e n t s where the youth f e l t i s o l a t e d due to support people moving f u r t h e r away, d i s t a n c i n g , not c a l l i n g or m a i n t a i n i n g c o n t a c t . As a r e s u l t , the youth were o f t e n excluded from s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s and other a c t i v i t i e s . There were three i n c i d e n t s w i t h i n t h i s category r e p o r t e d by three - 50 -p a r t i c i p a n t s . F o l l o w i n g are i l l u s t r a t i v e quotes from two of the i n t e r v i e w s : " F r i e n d s . . . a few of them, they wouldn't phone me as o f t e n , and they wouldn't want to go out i f I d i d n ' t have money and s t u f f . So I was s o r t of secluded. Sort of out of the in-crowd while I was unemployed." "People that I was f r i e n d s with backed away, more or l e s s . You know, guy's not working, he's not going to s c h o o l . " I I . I n f o r m a t i o n a l Support Support people not s u p p l y i n g job l e a d s or h e l p f u l t i p s T h i s category c o n s i s t s of i n c i d e n t s where support persons d i d not a s s i s t the unemployed youth i n t h e i r j o b seeking a c t i v i t y . T h e i r l a c k of i n t e r e s t was demonstrated through s i t u a t i o n s where they d i d not share u s e f u l job i n f o r m a t i o n , such as where to apply and what to say or do i n an i n t e r v i e w s e t t i n g . There was a t o t a l of s i x i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d by f o u r p a r t i c i p a n t s . The f o l l o w i n g quotes i l l u s t r a t e t h i s category: "I would ask her, 'What do you say i n an i n t e r v i e w ? ' , but she would j u s t c l o s e her mind to the s u b j e c t and say, 'Go back to s c h o o l . * " - 51 -" I 'm sure i f my mom heard about a j ob tha t I c o u l d get she wou ldn ' t bother t e l l i n g me about i t . " Negat ive i n f o r m a t i o n conce rn ing employment T h i s ca tegory i n v o l v e s i n c i d e n t s where p e o p l e . l a b e l l e d as s u p p o r t i v e have a nega t i ve a t t i t u d e towards employment and young peop le work ing . T h i s c o u l d be e i t h e r a f a m i l y member or a p r o s p e c t i v e employer. There were two i n s t a n c e s of t h i s n a t u r e , r e p o r t e d by two of the re spondent s . The f o l l o w i n g quote i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s c a t e g o r y : " Peop le d o n ' t want to h i r e youth - they t h i n k t h e y ' r e hooked on marihuana or have had ten m i l l i o n a b o r t i o n s , my p a r e n t ' s f r i e n d s t o o . " I I I. M a t e r i a l Support Lack o f f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e T h i s c a tego ry con ta i ned i n c i d e n t s where key o the r s would not a s s i s t the youth f i n a n c i a l l y , e i t h e r by r e f u s i n g to l end money or by not s u p p l y i n g an a l l owance . There was a t o t a l of seven i n c i d e n t s , l i s t e d by f ou r of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The f o l l o w i n g quotes i l l u s t r a t e t h i s c a t e g o r y : "Because I'm not working or go ing to s c h o o l , I d o n ' t get an a l l owance . My o l d e r b r o t h e r i s s t i l l i n s c h o o l and he s t i l l ge t s an a l l o w a n c e . " - 52 -" L e t ' s see, from my s i s t e r L i s a , you know, I would c a l l her up and I'd ask her i f she would be able to len d me some money u n t i l I got on my f e e t again and a l l of a sudden there would be y e l l i n g and screaming over the phone and why are you phoning me f o r t h i s reason and b l a h , b l a h , b l a h . . . " R e c e i v i n g no a s s i s t a n c e with t r a n s p o r t a t i o n T h i s category c o n t a i n s i n c i d e n t s of s u p p o r t i v e persons not h e l p i n g the unemployed youth with t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , e i t h e r d r i v i n g them to job i n t e r v i e w s , l e n d i n g a c a r or a s s i s t i n g them with t r a n s i t i n f o r m a t i o n . There were a t o t a l of two i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d by two of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The f o l l o w i n g i s a d i r e c t quote from one of the i n t e r v i e w s : "She wouldn't help me get a job, she wouldn't d r i v e me anywhere, she wouldn't do a n y t h i n g . " Correspondence of C a t e g o r i e s With Support People T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l o u t l i n e what s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s d i d or s a i d t hat proved f a c i l i t a t i v e towards the unemployed youth, as w e l l as p i n p o i n t i n g what i t was that hindered them d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . By f a r , the l a r g e s t of the three s u p e r o r d i n a t e c a t e g o r i e s was t h a t of 'Emotional Support', with over h a l f of a l l i n c i d e n t s - 53 -(58.4%) forming t h i s category. T h i s demonstrates the importance the p a r t i c i p a n t s p l a c e d on r e l a t i o n s h i p s with others as s i g n i f i c a n t i n a s s i s t i n g t h e i r adjustment. P a r t i c i p a n t s c i t e d ' M a t e r i a l Support 1 as being next i n importance with 60 i n c i d e n t s (28.7%) belonging to t h i s category. ' I n f o r m a t i o n a l Support* was c o n s i d e r e d somewhat l e s s important i n t h e i r adjustment, making up f o r 27 of the i n c i d e n t s , or 12.9%. The frequency and percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n the three s u p e r o r d i n a t e c a t e g o r i e s are d i s p l a y e d i n Table 5. Table 5. Frequency and Percentage of I n c i d e n t s W i t h i n  Each Superordinate Category Superordinate Category F Percent (n = 209 i n c i d e n t s ) I. Emotional Support 122 58.4 I I . I n f o r m a t i o n a l Support 27 12.9 I I I . M a t e r i a l Support 60 28.7 In terms of emotional support the two most important f a c i l i t a t i v e c a t e g o r i e s , as d i s p l a y e d i n Table 6, are 'Receiving Optimism and Encouragement' from key o t h e r s i n t h e i r l i v e s and through s u p p o r t i v e others ' T a l k i n g and L i s t e n i n g ' . When p a r t i c i p a n t s were f e e l i n g most d e s o l a t e , 42.4% r e p o r t e d that people c l o s e to them c o u l d enhance t h e i r g e n e r a l mood and s e l f -esteem or s p i r i t simply by h i g h l i g h t i n g the b r i g h t e r s i d e of the s i t u a t i o n and a l l o w i n g a sense of hope f o r the f u t u r e . - 54 -F e e l i n g 'Understood through T a l k i n g and L i s t e n i n g ' was c i t e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s as being almost e q u a l l y important. Having someone c l o s e to them who would not pass judgement but r a t h e r o f f e r empathetic responses was p i n p o i n t e d by 40.7% of the youth as h e l p f u l to t h e i r adjustment. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that these same two c a t e g o r i e s corresponded with the two most h i n d e r i n g c a t e g o r i e s i n terms of emotional support. As i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 7, 'Receiving Negative J u d g e m e n t s / C r i t i c i s m and Blame' was r e p o r t e d by 33.3% of the p a r t i c i p a n t s to be d e t r i m e n t a l i n t h e i r coping a b i l i t y . The other category 'Not Having Time to T a l k and L i s t e n ' was c i t e d as being almost e q u a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r negative e f f e c t s with 27% of p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t i n g i n c i d e n t s of t h i s nature. In terms of i n f o r m a t i o n a l support, as i n d i c a t e d i n Table 6, the most important f a c i l i t a t i v e category was 'Receiving Job Leads and T i p s ' with 63.2% of p a r t i c i p a n t s r e f e r r i n g to i n c i d e n t s whereby o t h e r s o f f e r e d support i n the form of u s e f u l a d v i c e . They mentioned the importance of key people s u p p l y i n g job l e a d s , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r t h e i r own i d e a s were exhausted. R e c e i v i n g 'Employment S k i l l s ' enhanced the adjustment of these unemployed youth with 36.8% r e p o r t i n g h e l p f u l i n c i d e n t s with t h i s sub-category. In c o n t r a s t , 'Support People not Supplying Job Leads* with 75%, was r e p o r t e d most o f t e n as h i n d e r i n g t h e i r adjustment. Negative i n f o r m a t i o n concerning unemployment r a t e d second, with 25% of p a r t i c i p a n t s c i t i n g i n c i d e n t s c o n s i d e r e d h i n d e r i n g . The most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d sub-category w i t h i n ' M a t e r i a l - 55 -Table 6. Frequency and Percentage of F a c i l i t a t i n g C a t e g o r i e s Within Each Superordinate Category F a c i l i t a t i v e C a t e g o r i e s F % w i t h i n Superordinate C a t e g o r i e s I. Emotional Support 59 1. T a l k i n g and L i s t e n i n g 24 40.7 2. Optimism and Encouragement 25 42.4 3. Belonging and A f f e c t i o n 7 11.9 4. R e a l i s t i c E x p e c t a t i o n s 3 5.1 I I . I n f o r m a t i o n a l Support 19 1. R e c e i v i n g Job Leads 12 63.2 2. Employment S k i l l s 7 36.8 I I I . M a t e r i a l Support 51 1. A s s i s t a n c e with S o c i a l 9 17.6 I n t e r a c t i o n / R e c r e a t i o n 2. F i n a n c i a l A s s i s t a n c e 24 47.1 3. Help with T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 12 23.5 4. Help with Accommodation/ 6 11.8 Household Tasks - 56 -Table 7. Frequency and Percentage of H i n d e r i n g C a t e g o r i e s  W i t h i n Each Superordinate Category H i n d e r i n g C a t e g o r i e s % W i t h i n Superordinate C a t e g o r i e s Emotional Support 63 1. Not Having Time To L i s t e n 17 and Understand 2. Negative Judgements/ 21 C r i t i c i s m and Blame 3. Lack of Encouragement and 8 Optimism 4. Pressure to Continue 8 Job Search 5. U n r e a l i s t i c E x p e c t a t i o n s 6 6. A l i e n a t i o n 3 27 33.3 12.7 12.7 10.2 I I . I n f o r m a t i o n a l Support 1. Support People Not Supplying Job Leads 2. Negative Information Concerning Unemployment 8 75 25 I I I . M a t e r i a l Support 9 1. Lack of F i n a n c i a l A s s i s t a n c e 7 2. No Help With T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 2 77.8 22.2 - 57 -Support' was ' F i n a n c i a l A s s i s t a n c e ' (47.1%). 'Help With T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ' (23.5%) was a l s o r e p o r t e d as being f a c i l i t a t i v e . As i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 7, the sub-category 'Lack of F i n a n c i a l A s s i s t a n c e ' (77.8%) was c i t e d as being most h i n d e r i n g to these youth. The f r e q u e n c i e s and percentages of each f a c i l i t a t i v e and h i n d e r i n g sub-category are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 8 and Table 9, r e s p e c t i v e l y . In Table 8, i t i s demonstrated t h a t 'Optimism and Encouragement' (19.4%), ' T a l k i n g and L i s t e n i n g - Being Understood' (18.6%), and ' F i n a n c i a l A s s i s t a n c e ' (18.6%) were the three most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned f a c i l i t a t i n g s u b - c a t e g o r i e s . In Table 9, the two most f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d h i n d e r i n g sub-c a t e g o r i e s are 'Negative J u d g e m e n t s / C r i t i c i s m and Blame' (26.2%), and 'Not Having Time to L i s t e n and Understand' (21.2%). Both of these s u b - c a t e g o r i e s f a l l w i t h i n the s u p e r o r d i n a t e category of 'Emotional Support'. Because there i s l i t t l e understanding of what key o t h e r s do or say d u r i n g t h i s s t r e s s f u l unemployment experience, the r e s u l t s w i l l attempt to i s o l a t e and y i e l d i n f o r m a t i o n on which key others are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s u p p l y i n g s p e c i f i c types of support. T a b l e s 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 o u t l i n e the types of support and i d e n t i f y those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f a c i l i t a t i v e and h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s w i t h i n each sub-category and each s u p e r o r d i n a t e category. As Table 10 i n d i c a t e s , the o v e r a l l percentage of emotional support was o b t a i n e d from f r i e n d s of the p a r t i c i p a n t (42.4%), while parents p r o v i d e d 32.2% of the t o t a l emotional support. - 58 -Table 8. Frequency and Percentage of I n c i d e n t s W i t h i n Each  F a c i l i t a t i n g Subordinate Category F a c i l i t a t i o n C a t e g o r i e s F % Within F a c i l i t a t i v e (n = 129 f a c i l i t a t i o n i n c i d e n t s ) C a t e g o r i e s I. Emotional Support 59 1. T a l k i n g and L i s t e n i n g - 24 18.6 Being Understood 2. Optimism and Encouragement 25 19.4 3. Belonging and A f f e c t i o n 7 5.4 4. R e a l i s t i c E x p e c t a t i o n s 3 2.3 I I . I n f o r m a t i o n a l Support 19 1. R e c e i v i n g Job Leads 12 9.3 2. Employment S k i l l s 7 5.4 I I I . M a t e r i a l Support 51 1. A s s i s t a n c e With S o c i a l 9 7.0 I n t e r a c t i o n / R e c r e a t i o n 2. F i n a n c i a l A s s i s t a n c e 24 18.6 3. Help With T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 12 9.3 4. A s s i s t a n c e With Accommodation/ 6 4.7 Household Tasks - 59 -Table 9. Frequency and Percentage of I n c i d e n t s W i t h i n Each  H i n d e r i n g Subordinate Category H i n d e r i n g C a t e g o r i e s (n = 80 h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s ) % Within H i n d e r i n g C a t e g o r i e s I. Emotional Support 1. Not Having Time to L i s t e n And Understand 2. Negative Judgements, C r i t i c i s m / B l a m e 3. Lack of Encouragement and Optimism 4. P r e s s u r e to Continue Job Search 5. U n r e a l i s t i c E x p e c t a t i o n s 6. A l i e n a t i o n 63 17 21 8 8 6 3 21.2 26.2 10 10 7.5 3.8 I I . I n f o r m a t i o n a l Support 1. Support People Not Supplying Job Leads 2. Negative Information Concerning Employment 8 6 7.5 2.5 I I I . M a t e r i a l Support 9 1. Lack of F i n a n c i a l A s s i s t a n c e 7 2. No Help With T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 2 8.8 2.5 - 60 -S i b l i n g s s u p p l i e d 17% of t h i s form of support. In examining f a m i l y support, a t o t a l of 49.2% would be accounted f o r , i f s i b l i n g support i s i n c l u d e d . In comparison, as Table 11 i n d i c a t e s , 62% of emotional support of a hampering nature was c o n t r i b u t e d by the parents, while o n l y 15.9% of t h i s n e g ative support was by f r i e n d s . T o t a l f a m i l y support of an h i n d e r i n g emotional nature amounts to 81%. In both f a c i l i t a t i v e and h i n d e r i n g i n s t a n c e s , r e l a t i v e s p r ovided o n l y minimal support. In regards to I n f o r m a t i o n a l Support, as i n d i c a t e d i n Table 10, the h i g h e s t percentage r e c e i v e d (36.8%) was r e c e i v e d from c o u n s e l l o r s and job c l u b s . Parents, however, were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n f u r n i s h i n g 26.3% of t h i s type of support. P a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g low i n f o r m a t i o n a l support (15.8%) from f r i e n d s H i n d e r i n g I n f o r m a t i o n a l Support, Table 11, was s u r p r i s i n g i n that parents (87.5%) were r e p o r t e d to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r not s u p p l y i n g j ob l e a d s or t i p s more o f t e n than anyone e l s e . There were no r e p o r t e d h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g s i b l i n g s or c o u n s e l l o r s , and f r i e n d s r a t e d low (12.5%). In terms of M a t e r i a l Support, Table 10 demonstrates the high number of respondents r e p o r t i n g parents (43.1%) as being h e l p f u l , compared to the number r e p o r t i n g s i b l i n g s (17.6%), or f r i e n d s (23.7%) as being s u p p o r t i v e . In comparison, Table 11 demonstrates that respondents r e p o r t e d s i b l i n g s (55.4%), and parents (44.4%) as being s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r not a s s i s t i n g with necessary m a t e r i a l support. T h e r e f o r e , i t would appear that f r i e n d s are the most h e l p f u l - 61 -Table 10. Frequency and Percentage of Agent Responsible f o r  F a c i l i t a t i v e I n c i d e n t s Within Superordinate Category Superordinate Category Percentage Emotional Support A. From Parents B. From S i b l i n g s C. From F r i e n d s D. From R e l a t i v e s E. From C o u n s e l l o r s 59 19 10 25 2 3 32.2% 17.0% 42.4% 3.4% 5.1% I I . I n f o r m a t i o n a l Support A. From Parents B. From S i b l i n g s C. From F r i e n d s D. From R e l a t i v e s E. From C o u n s e l l o r s 19 5 2 3 2 7 26.3% 10.5% 15.8% 10.5% 31.8% I I I . M a t e r i a l Support A. From Parents B. From S i b l i n g s C. From F r i e n d s D. From R e l a t i v e s E. From C o u n s e l l o r s 51 22 9 14 6 0 43. 1% 17.6% 23.7% 10.2% - 62 -i n terms of emotional support, while parents e x c e l l e d i n p r o v i d i n g m a t e r i a l support. However, i t should be noted that parents a l s o e x e r t e d a s t r o n g negative i n f l u e n c e i n regards to t h i s m a t e r i a l support. That i s , they were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n t r i b u t i n g both major sources of support i n a d d i t i o n to sources of s t r a i n . With i n f o r m a t i o n a l support, parents again represented major sources of support and s t r a i n . Parents Parents c o n t r i b u t e d minimal emotional support (8.3%) i n the form of showing understanding through t a l k i n g and l i s t e n i n g as demonstrated i n Table 12. They d i d , however, provide maximum support (52%) i n terms of being encouraging and being o p t i m i s t i c about the f u t u r e and job p r o s p e c t s . E m o t i o n a l l y , parents were h i n d e r i n g i n the areas of c r i t i c i z i n g , blaming and having negative judgements towards the youth i n q u e s t i o n (57.1%). In a d d i t i o n , parents were c i t e d as being s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a i n t a i n i n g u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s and pressured the youth (88%) to continue the job search d e s p i t e t h e i r f e e l i n g s of f u t i l i t y and f a i l e d attempts (See Table 12). Often parents would i n s i s t that the youth e x p l o r e o p t i o n s that were simply not f e a s i b l e , thus s e t t i n g the youth up f o r a d d i t i o n a l f a i l u r e s and disappointments which f u r t h e r eroded t h e i r s e l f esteem. P a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s c o n s i s t e d of s e a r c h i n g and a p p l y i n g f o r jobs on a c o n t i n u a l b a s i s that the p a r t i c i p a n t s were e i t h e r - 63 -Table 11. Frequency and Percentage of Agent Responsible f o r  H i n d e r i n g I n c i d e n t s Within Superordinate C a t e g o r i e s Superordinate Category F Percentage I. Emotional Support 63 A. From Parents 39 62.0% B. From S i b l i n g s 12 19.0% C. From F r i e n d s 10 15.9% D. From R e l a t i v e s 2 3.4% E. From C o u n s e l l o r s 0 I I . I n f o r m a t i o n a l Support 8 A. From Parents 7 87.5% B. From S i b l i n g s C. From F r i e n d s 1 12.5% D. From R e l a t i v e s 0 E. From C o u n s e l l o r s 0 I I I . M a t e r i a l Support 9 A. From Parents 4 44.4% B. From S i b l i n g s 5 55.5% C. From F r i e n d s 0 D. From R e l a t i v e s 0 E. From C o u n s e l l o r s 0 E m o t i o n a l Support - F a c i l i t a t i v e I n c i d e n t s (n = 59 f a c i l i t a t i v e i n c i d e n t s ) P a r e n t s S i b l i n g s F r i e n d s R e l a t i v e s C o u n s e l l o r s 1. F e e l i n g s u n d e r s t o o d -t a l k i n g and l i s t e n i n g 2 8 . 3% F c" 2 5 % 6 f_ 66.7% 16 2. Optimism & Encouragement 13 5 2 % F 2 8% F 6 F 2 8 % F 2 8 % 3. B e l o n g i n g and A f f e c t i o n 2 28.5% 2 28.5% 3 42.8% 4. R e a l i s t i c E x p e c t a t i o n s 2 66.6% ^ 33.3% E m o t i o n a l Support - H i n d e r i n g I n c i d e n t s (n = 63 h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s ) P a r e n t s S i b l i n g s F r i e n d s R e l a t i v e s C o u n s e l l o r s 1. Key o t h e r s not h a v i n g time t o l i s t e n and u n d e r s t a n d F 7 41% F 7 41% 3 1 7 ' 6 % 2. N e g a t i v e judgements, c r i t i c i s m and blame towards youth 12 5 ? % F , 19% 3 14.2% 2 9 . 5% 3. Lack of encouragement and Optimism j 88% F 12.5% 4. P r e s s u r e t o c o n t i n u e s e a r c h 7 88% ^ 12.5% 5. U n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s c 100% 6 6. A l i e n a t i o n 3 100% Tl CD *i cn 0 cn 3J CD o cn H- ts H 0 H-r t cn 0) rt cr M < CD CD Hi !D o D a M m 3 0 D rt a H-CD o -s OJ H W C •o •o 0 ct H cr CD r-> to I n f o r m a t i o n a l Support - F a c i l i t a t i v e (n=19 f a c i l i t a t i v e i n c i d e n t s ) P a r e n t s S i b l i n g s F r i e n d s R e l a t i v e s C o u n s e l l o r s 1 . R e c e i v i n g j o b l e a d s and h e l p f u l t i p s c 41.7% 3 2 1 6 . 7 % 3 2 5 % 2 1 6 . 7 % 2 . Employment s k i l l s 7 1 0 0 % I n f o r m a t i o n a l Support - H i n d e r i n g (n= 8 h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s P a r e n t s S i b l i n g s F r i e n d s R e l a t i v e s C o u n s e l l o r s 1 . Key people not s u p p l y i n g t i p s or job l e a d s ^ 8 3 . 3 % o ^ 1 6 . 6 % 2 . I n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g employment 2 1 0 0 % M a t e r i a l Support - F a c i l i t a t i v e I n c i d e n t s (n=51 f a c i l i t a t i v e i n c i d e n t s ) P a r e n t s S i b l i n g s F r i e n d s R e l a t i v e s C o u n s e l l o r s 1. A s s i s t a n c e w i t h s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s 2 22.2% F ? 77.7% 2. F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and o t h e r m a t e r i a l s e r v i c e s ^ 3 54.2% 2 8. 3% F. 16.7% 4- ^ 20.8% 3 3. Help w i t h accomodation and household t a s k s F, 66.6% 2 33.3% 4. A s s i s t i n g w i t h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n * 41.6% 3 3 2 5 % 3 2 5 % ^ 8.3% M a t e r i a l Support - H i n d e r i n g I n c i d e n t s (n=9 h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s ) P a r e n t s S i b l i n g s F r i e n d s R e l a t i v e s , C o u n s e l l o r s 1. R e c e i v i n g no f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e 2 28.5% = 71.4% o 2. No a s s i s t a n c e w i t h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 2 100% - 67 -u n d e r - q u a l i f i e d or o v e r - q u a l i f i e d f o r . Youths were o f t e n c r i t i c i z e d f o r not t r y i n g hard enough or f o r wanting a s h o r t break from i t a l l . These r e s u l t s support K i r s h ' s (1983) f i n d i n g s that those c l o s e to the unemployed person o f t e n responded i n a negative manner and that f a m i l y members and f r i e n d s were of the o p i n i o n that the unemployed were not p u t t i n g enough e f f o r t i n t o f i n d i n g work. Parents were not very s u p p o r t i v e when i t came to l i s t e n i n g and a p p r e c i a t i n g the young person's dilemma. As Table 13 i n d i c a t e s , parents were re c o g n i z e d as being very h e l p f u l i n terms of r e l a t i n g j o b leads and g i v i n g u s e f u l t i p s concerning the job market and i n t e r v i e w techniques (41.7%). However, although parents were i d e n t i f i e d as being h e l p f u l i n t h i s area by some respondents, they were a l s o c o n s i d e r e d to be very u n h e l p f u l by not s u p p l y i n g job l e a d s and t i p s . In other words, the respondents r e p o r t e d that t h e i r parents (83.3%) were most r e s p o n s i b l e f o r demonstrating a l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n the search or not v o l u n t e e r i n g h e l p f u l h i n t s and a d v i c e . In s e v e r a l cases, the parents c l e a r l y disapproved of the youths not a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l and would t h e r e f o r e ignore t h e i r problems i n s e c u r i n g a job. T h i s demonstrates how key ot h e r s can exert both a p o s i t i v e and negative i n f l u e n c e on these youth d u r i n g times of s t r e s s . These r e s u l t s are c o n s i s t e n t with B a r r e r a (1981) who examined the s o c i a l support systems of pregnant a d o l e s c e n t s and concluded that major sources of support c o u l d a l s o c o n s t i t u t e major sources of s t r e s s . In terms of m a t e r i a l support (Table 14), parents were recog n i z e d as being the most h e l p f u l i n p r o v i d i n g f i n a n c i a l - 68 -a s s i s t a n c e (54.2%) and other m a t e r i a l s e r v i c e s such as photocopying resumes and s u p p l y i n g t y p e w r i t e r s . I t i s p o s s i b l e that the unemployed youth's f r i e n d s were not i n a p o s i t i o n to help i n t h i s manner. F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e l e n t s e c u r i t y to the i n d i v i d u a l and p r o v i d e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s to seek out employment and to continue to p a r t i c i p a t e i n normal d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . There was a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree of s t r e s s removed i f the youth f e l t he/she c o u l d a f f o r d to pay r e n t , room and board, b i l l s and food. Without t h i s necessary support, youth o f t e n became immobilized. T h i s concept i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i n l a y - J o n e s and Eckhardt's (1984) study of unemployed 16-24 year o l d s . T h e i r f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e that the i n a b i l i t y to borrow money f o r both female and male s u b j e c t s was one of the f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with an i n c r e a s e d prevalence of p s y c h i a t r i c d i s o r d e r . Parents were a l s o i n s t r u m e n t a l i n h e l p i n g with accommodation and other household chores (66.6%) as w e l l as a s s i s t i n g with t r a n s p o r t a t i o n (41.6%). Respondents found that help with t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n c r e a s e d t h e i r access to employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s which heightened t h e i r chances of r e g a i n i n g s e c u r i t y and independence. Parents a s s i s t i n g the youths by way of l e n d i n g a car, d r i v i n g the youth to i n t e r v i e w s or m a i n t a i n i n g v e h i c l e expenses was p e r t i n e n t to t h e i r adjustment. There was no mention of parents being h e l p f u l i n r e l a t i o n to s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n with o t h e r s , although f i n a n c i a l help played a r o l e i n a l l o w i n g the youth to have funds to p a r t i c i p a t e i n these types of a c t i v i t i e s . Parents were a l s o i d e n t i f i e d by some of the respondents as - 69 -being unsupportive i n regards to f i n a n c i a l h e l p . As Table 14 i n d i c a t e s , 28.5% of the p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d t h e i r parents as being u n h e l p f u l and r e f u s i n g to a s s i s t with b i l l s , or supply funds necessary to continue t h e i r job search. Parents were a l s o r e p o r t e d to be s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t u r n i n g down these youth's requests f o r a s s i s t a n c e with t r a n s p o r t a t i o n such as borrowing the car . To summarize, parents were c l e a r l y f a c i l i t a t i v e i n the areas of s u p p l y i n g job leads and p r o v i d i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e but were almost e q u a l l y as h i n d e r i n g i n these c a t e g o r i e s . Parents were ab l e to p r o v i d e maximum emotional support i n terms of being o p t i m i s t i c and encouraging, but again there were many i n s t a n c e s r e f e r r i n g to t h e i r negative judgements and blaming of these respondents. These f i n d i n g s c o n f i r m those of C l a r k e and C l i s s o r d (1982) whose study comparing 126 unemployed and 59 employed young men demonstrated that the unemployed group r e p o r t e d lower s o c i a l support from the f a m i l y than the employed group. In a d d i t i o n , t h i s study emphasized the importance of f r i e n d s i n p r o v i d i n g the necessary support. T h i s study proposes that the l a c k of f a m i l y support may occur because f a m i l y members have a l i m i t e d awareness of the consequences of unemployment. S i b l i n g s As evidenced by the data presented i n Tables 12, 13 and 14, s i b l i n g s p l a y e d a l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the adjustment of the respondents than e i t h e r parents or f r i e n d s . S i b l i n g s r a t e d - 70 -higher than parents i n p r o v i d i n g emotional support through t a l k i n g , l i s t e n i n g and understanding the s i t u a t i o n (25%) but t h e i r o v e r a l l support was n e g l i g i b l e . They were on l y m i n i m a l l y s u p p o r t i v e by o f f e r i n g encouragement and being o p t i m i s t i c (8%) to t h e i r s i b l i n g e x p e r i e n c i n g unemployment. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that s i b l i n g s were i d e n t i f i e d , by the respondents, i n f u r n i s h i n g n e gative emotional support by not having time to l i s t e n and demonstrate empathy and understanding (41%). Both parents and s i b l i n g s c o n t r i b u t e d e q u a l l y i n t h i s regard (See Table 12). However, they were l e s s damaging than parents i n terms of c r i t i c i z i n g and blaming the youth f o r t h e i r c u r r e n t p l i g h t , with about 19% of p a r t i c i p a n t s c i t i n g s i b l i n g s as behaving i n t h i s manner. S i b l i n g s were not mentioned i n s u b - c a t e g o r i e s such as u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s , l a c k of encouragement and optimism and a l i e n a t i o n . With i n f o r m a t i o n a l support, (Table 13), s i b l i n g s c o n t r i b u t e d l i t t l e i n the way of f a c i l i t a t i v e or h i n d e r i n g support. The respondents r e p o r t e d a d d i t i o n a l s i b l i n g support through s u p p l y i n g h e l p f u l j o b t i p s and leads (16.7%). While parents d i d not a s s i s t with s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n , s i b l i n g s f u r n i s h e d some of t h i s support (22.2%) to t h e i r unemployed b r o t h e r or s i s t e r . They s u p p l i e d even g r e a t e r amounts of support with t r a n s p o r t a t i o n (25%) by l e n d i n g c a r s or d r i v i n g the youth to i n t e r v i e w s and other appointments (Table 14). The number of respondents r e p o r t i n g s i b l i n g s as h i n d e r i n g - 71 -t h e i r adjustment by not l e n d i n g money or otherwise f i n a n c i a l l y a s s i s t i n g them was s u r p r i s i n g . S i b l i n g s (71.4%) were r e p o r t e d by respondents to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r not h e l p i n g out. The youth e x p e r i e n c i n g unemployment perhaps were e x p e c t i n g t h e i r s i b l i n g s to be more s u p p o r t i v e i n t h i s area and were d i s a p p o i n t e d with t h e i r negative response. Lack of funds served to l i m i t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o u t s i d e a c t i v i t i e s and severed or weakened t h e i r e x i s t i n g t i e s , which f u r t h e r i s o l a t e d those unemployed. Millham, B u l l o c k and Hosie (1978), i n t h e i r study of unemployed youth, r e p o r t e d that h a l f of the respondents r e p o r t e d a marked d e c l i n e i n t h e i r s o c i a l l i f e and r e c r e a t i o n a l access due to r e s t r i c t e d funds. K i r s h (1983), and Borgen and Amundson (1984) a l s o found that the l o s s of a job a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d one's s o c i a l system i n terms of others d i s t a n c i n g , thereby d e p l e t i n g the a v a i l a b l e r esources to draw on. In t h i s study, youth sometimes p e r c e i v e d t h e i r s i b l i n g s as secondary sources of f i n a n c i a l support a f t e r parents f a i l e d to meet t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s and were even more discouraged when no support was o f f e r e d . F r i e n d s Respondents c i t e d f r i e n d s (66.7%) as being e s s e n t i a l i n p r o v i d i n g p o s i t i v e emotional support through t a l k i n g and l i s t e n i n g and demonstrating understanding of t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . Having someone that the youth c o u l d t a l k to and vent t h e i r f e e l i n g s without f e a r of r e p r i s a l was c o n s i d e r e d b e n e f i c i a l and i n s t r u m e n t a l i n b u f f e r i n g t h e i r s t r e s s f u l experience. F r i e n d s - 72 -(24%) were a l s o c o n s i d e r e d important by the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n o f f e r i n g words and gestures of encouragement, and shedding hope on the f u t u r e . In a d d i t i o n , the respondents i d e n t i f i e d t h e i r f r i e n d s (42.8%) more than anyone e l s e as p r o v i d i n g the a f f e c t i o n , warmth and c a r i n g that was needed d u r i n g t h i s l i f e event (Table 12). F r i e n d s were r e p o r t e d much l e s s f r e q u e n t l y than parents and s i b l i n g s as being u n a v a i l a b l e to the p a r t i c i p a n t s when they r e q u i r e d someone to t a l k to concerning t h e i r predicament (17.6%). The p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d no i n c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g f r i e n d s p r e s s u r i n g them to continue the job search r e l e n t l e s s l y nor p l a c i n g u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s and demands upon them. The absence of these unsupportive behaviors served to strengthen the e x i s t i n g emotional bonds to t h e i r f r i e n d s . F r i e n d s were i d e n t i f i e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s as e x e r t i n g a h i n d e r i n g e f f e c t on t h e i r adjustment by d i s t a n c i n g themselves, withdrawing and g e n e r a l l y becoming l e s s a v a i l a b l e to the youth. T h i s was d e s c r i b e d as an a l i e n a t i n g experience - a l o s s t h at compounded the unemployment experience. These r e s u l t s c o n f i r m those of Amundson and Borgen (1987) whose study i d e n t i f i e d s h i f t s i n f r i e n d s h i p p a t t e r n s whereby people c l o s e to the person unemployed o f t e n p u l l e d away or d i s t a n c e d themselves. The reason f o r t h i s was a t t r i b u t e d to support people f e e l i n g uncomfortable and unable to understand the experiences of the unemployed person. F r i e n d s were the only group of i n d i v i d u a l s whose d i s t a n c i n g was mentioned by the youth. They o f t e n r e p o r t e d being excluded from normal a c t i v i t i e s and " l e f t out" because of not having a - 73 -jo b . (See Table 12). S e v e r a l respondents i n d i c a t e d a change or r e d u c t i o n i n t h e i r networks once t h e i r d a i l y s t r u c t u r e was a l t e r e d . As i n d i c a t e d i n Table 13, f r i e n d s were r e p o r t e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s as being s u p p o r t i v e by v o l u n t e e r i n g news and i n f o r m a t i o n about j o b openings (25%). Although parents c o n t r i b u t e d more i n f o r m a t i o n , the youth found that the s h a r i n g and exchange of job leads with t h e i r f r i e n d s was h e l p f u l , a j o i n t a c t i v i t y . In terms of m a t e r i a l support (Table 14), respondents found f r i e n d s to be h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t (77.7%) i n t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and o u t i n g s . Having fun, keeping busy and being able to maintain a c e r t a i n degree of pre-unemployment a c t i v i t y l e v e l was a p r i o r i t y f o r these youths. F r i e n d s (16.7%) provided minimal f i n a n c i a l support but d i d o f f e r more a s s i s t a n c e than s i b l i n g s . F r i e n d s and s i b l i n g s c o n t r i b u t e d e q u a l l y (25%) i n t h e i r share of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a s s i s t a n c e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that while parents were con s i d e r e d both h e l p f u l and u n h e l p f u l i n t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n with f i n a n c e s and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , f r i e n d s were r e p o r t e d only as being h e l p f u l i n these two areas. G e n e r a l l y , respondents deemed f r i e n d s as c o n t r i b u t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y to t h e i r emotional s t r e n g t h by t a l k i n g , l i s t e n i n g and demonstrating an understanding of what they were going through. In a d d i t i o n , p a r t i c i p a n t s s i n g l e d out f r i e n d s as being p a r t i c u l a r l y important i n h e l p i n g them p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e c r e a t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s . - 74 -Borgen and Amundson (1984) found that s o c i a l support systems were very important i n h e l p i n g the umemployed person maintain a sense of c o n f i d e n c e . They r e p o r t e d that support from f r i e n d s was l i s t e d as most important i n h e l p i n g maintain s p i r i t s . R e l a t i v e s R e l a t i v e s were not o f t e n r e f e r r e d to by p a r t i c i p a n t s as being e i t h e r s u p p o r t i v e or non-supportive. They provided minimal encouragement and optimism to the youth, perhaps because they were seldom turned to i n times of need. Some of the i n c i d e n t s c i t e d r e l a t i v e s i n a negative l i g h t , p r o j e c t i n g blame and c r i t i c i z i n g the youth (9.5%). R e l a t i v e s f u r n i s h e d some p o s i t i v e support of an i n f o r m a t i o n a l nature, p a s s i n g on j ob leads and t i p s (16.7%). I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that r e l a t i v e s c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f i n a n c i a l l y (20.8%), second only to parents. G e n e r a l l y , r e l a t i v e s appeared to o f f e r more p o s i t i v e support with l i t t l e h i n d e r i n g e f f e c t s . C o u n s e l l o r s In t h i s study c o u n s e l l o r s o f f e r e d support i n two major areas - emotional and i n f o r m a t i o n a l . There were no negative i n c i d e n t s mentioned by the p a r t i c i p a n t s concerning c o u n s e l l o r s . E m o t i o n a l l y , c o u n s e l l o r s o f f e r e d support by o f f e r i n g hope f o r the f u t u r e (8%) i n an encouraging manner and by d i s p l a y i n g r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s (33.3%). C o u n s e l l o r s were i d e n t i f i e d by the youth as being most r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f u r n i s h i n g p o s i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n a l - 75 -support s p e c i f i c to job search techniques and r e l a t e d employment s k i l l s (100%). Youth r e p o r t e d t h i s type of support to be i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t h e i r coping a b i l i t y and adjustment to unemployment. I t was demonstrated that c o u n s e l l o r s and j o b c l u b s p r o v i d e d the most u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n on how to get and keep a job by p r o v i d i n g concrete i n s t r u c t i o n and t r a i n i n g . These f a c t o r s correspond to Borgen and Amundson's (1984) f i n d i n g s that the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n j ob search support groups was e f f e c t i v e i n f a c i l i t a t i n g adjustment to unemployment. One of the f a c t o r s that helped these i n d i v i d u a l s was the range of job search techniques p r o v i d e d . - 76 -CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS As unemployment w i l l l i k e l y be a constant companion f o r many years to come, i t i s imperative that c o u n s e l l o r s and other p r o f e s s i o n a l s working w i t h i n t h i s realm have a thorough working knowledge of the d e v a s t a t i n g emotional, p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l e f f e c t s of job l o s s and long term unemployment. I t i s c l e a r t h at s o c i a l supports can i n s u l a t e the i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c i n g unemployment, however these supports must be strengthened i n order to maximize the p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s . C a s e l (1976) maintains t h a t s o c i a l c o n t a c t s are more amenable to change than coping a b i l i t y , t h e r e f o r e , i n times of s t r e s s , one needs to u t i l i z e these v a l u a b l e s o c i a l a s s e t s . As f r i e n d s were c o n s i d e r e d important supports to the unemployed youth, c o u n s e l l o r s can encourage i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l c o n t a c t through support groups c o n t a i n i n g both the unemployed and h i s / h e r f r i e n d s . Information workshops f o r p a r e n t s , other f a m i l y members and f r i e n d s of unemployed youth would be h e l p f u l i n e x p l a i n i n g the consequences of unemployment and f o c u s i n g on the emotional needs of the youth. The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n suggests c o u n s e l l i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s working with t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . A f a m i l i a r i t y with the stages of unemployment i n c l u d i n g j o b search and burn out i s a necessary f o u n d a t i o n f o r working with these youth. In a d d i t i o n , r e c o g n i t i o n of the importance of s o c i a l supports and the need to s t r e n g t h e n t i e s to s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s d u r i n g times of s t r e s s i s c r u c i a l to the adjustment of - 77 -youth e x p e r i e n c i n g unemployment. I t i s recommended that c o u n s e l l o r s be prepared to o f f e r c r i s i s i n t e r v e n t i o n and management as they may w e l l be faced with youth r e q u i r i n g t h i s s e r v i c e . The goal of c r i s i s c o u n s e l l i n g / i n t e r v e n t i o n i s to prevent f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n , r e t u r n the i n d i v i d u a l to a p r e - c r i s i s l e v e l and to p r o v i d e the c l i e n t with an a b i l i t y to deal with f u t u r e s i t u a t i o n s (Umana, Gross & M c C o n v i l l e , 1980). These s k i l l s may be necessary i n order to s t a b i l i z e an i n d i v i d u a l i n c r i s i s . The c o u n s e l l o r c o u l d a s s i s t the youth i n p i n p o i n t i n g s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of h i s / h e r support network and i n i d e n t i f y i n g sources of support and s t r a i n , as the r e s u l t s from t h i s study i n d i c a t e that parents can be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r both negative and p o s i t i v e forms of a i d . A necessary f o u n d a t i o n i s the v a l i d a t i o n of f e e l i n g s and the degree of emotional support r e q u i r e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The c o u n s e l l o r c o u l d f u r t h e r a s s i s t i n c l a r i f y i n g o p t i o n s and f a c i l i t a t i n g the f i n d i n g of a l t e r n a t e o p t i o n s i n order to meet the s p e c i f i c needs of t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . During the course of i n t e r v i e w i n g , the respondents c o n s i s t e n t l y r e f e r r e d to t h e i r need f o r emotional support and the subsequent l a c k of i t from t h e i r p a r e n t s . Hence, recommendations f o r f u t u r e programming i n c l u d e educating the parents r e g a r d i n g the s p e c i f i c needs of t h i s p o p u l a t i o n as w e l l as a s s i s t i n g the youth with an awareness of p a r e n t a l sources of s t r e n g t h and s t r a i n . For example, parents were not c o n s i d e r e d h e l p f u l when i t came to understanding the youth's s i t u a t i o n and were unable to demonstrate empathy through t a l k i n g and l i s t e n i n g , but d i d , - 78 -however, e x c e l i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to pr o v i d e encouragement and optimism. T h e r e f o r e , c o u n s e l l o r s may suggest that f r i e n d s be i d e n t i f i e d and sought out f o r emotional support of an understanding nature, while r e l y i n g on parents f o r more b a s i c forms of encouragement. To f a c i l i t a t e t h i s process, the youth c o u l d p l o t t h e i r own p e r s o n a l support map i n order to i d e n t i f y the i n f l u e n c e of key others w i t h i n t h e i r c i r c l e . The i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d p i n p o i n t emotional and other needs and c o u l d arrange to spend a d d i t i o n a l time with persons c o n s i d e r e d h e l p f u l and s u p p o r t i v e . Examples of e x e r c i s e s i n c l u d e : 1. Examine your s o c i a l network i n order to determine and assess whether your needs (emotional, i n f o r m a t i o n a l and m a t e r i a l ) are met and by whom. 2. To determine whether your p e r s o n a l network c o n t a i n s b u i l t - i n s upports. 3. To q u e s t i o n whether your support system i s adequate i n terms of q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of support. The c o u n s e l l o r c o u l d i n q u i r e i f the youth has someone he/she can go to f o r the f o l l o w i n g : 1. Fun 2. P r a c t i c a l a d v i c e 3. Information 4. Emotional advice/mentor 5. Nurturance 6. V a l i d a t i o n 7. A f f e c t i o n 8. L e i s u r e / r e c r e a t i o n - 79 -9. F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e The g o a l would be f o r the youth to know when they r e q u i r e a s s i s t a n c e from other people and to generate the necessary s k i l l s f o r a r r a n g i n g and i n c r e a s i n g c o n t a c t s with o t h e r s . C o u n s e l l o r s c o u l d l e a r n about an i n d i v i d u a l c l i e n t ' s f a c i l i t a t i n g and h i n d e r i n g sources from that c l i e n t and c o u l d u t i l i z e t h i s knowledge i n the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s . As f r i e n d s were con s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l i n p r o v i d i n g emotional support, c o u n s e l l o r s c o u l d encourage c l i e n t s to seek out new f r i e n d s and to maintain and strengthen e x i s t i n g f r i e n d s h i p s . C o u n s e l l o r ' s would a l s o be i n a p o s i t i o n to seek out r e s o u r c e s and p o t e n t i a l supports (groups, workshops, o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) and make the a p p r o p r i a t e r e f e r r a l s . Another area worth e x p l o r a t i o n i s the manner i n which an i n d i v i d u a l d e f i n e s unemployment. C o u n s e l l o r s may want to suggest ways of r e f r a m i n g t h i s experience by examining the economic and s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d . I t i s recommended that c o u n s e l l o r s c h a l l e n g e the youth's f e e l i n g s of s e l f blame and inadequacy. A l t e r n a t e coping s t r a t e g i e s and s t r e s s r e l i e v i n g a c t i v i t i e s might be suggested as a means of v e n t i n g and r e -d i r e c t i n g these emotions. I t i s a l s o suggested that c o u n s e l l o r s be cognizant of the dynamics of v i c t i m i z a t i o n accompanying unemployment - h e l p l e s s n e s s , hopelessness and low s e l f esteem. Using t h i s as a b a s i s , c o u n s e l l o r s c o u l d explore means of s t a y i n g h e a l t h y and i d e n t i f y sources of ego r e p a i r . T h i s may i n v o l v e c h a n n e l l i n g youth i n t o areas such as e x e r c i s e programs, use of r e l a x a t i o n techniques or the development of hobbies and - 80 -i n t e r e s t s . F u r t h e r , these a c t i v i t i e s would p o s s i b l y a l l o w f o r i n t e r a c t i o n with p o t e n t i a l l y s u p p o r t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s . The c o u n s e l l o r may want to a s s i s t c l i e n t s i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r i n n e r s t r e n g t h s and p o t e n t i a l through suggesting a l t e r n a t e means of p r o d u c t i v i t y such as v o l u n t e e r work. T h i s o p t i o n serves to s t r u c t u r e t h e i r time, i n c r e a s e s e l f s a t i s f a c t i o n and may strengthen t i e s with other i n d i v i d u a l s , as the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e a decrease i n the amount of support from parents. An important f a c e t of the s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y i n v o l v e s the education of parents and other p o t e n t i a l support persons through i n d i v i d u a l or group c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s . These s e s s i o n s c o u l d focus on the dynamics and the impact of unemployment and on the i n d i v i d u a l and key persons i n h i s / h e r l i f e . The s p e c i f i c needs of the youth c o u l d be emphasized and s t r a t e g i e s f o r meeting these needs c o u l d be generated. The p o s s i b i l i t y of e ducating and m o b i l i z i n g parents and other key i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d become a v a l i d means of i n t e r v e n t i o n i n c o u n s e l l i n g unemployed youths. The c o u n s e l l o r or other p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n v o l v e d may h e l p f a c i l i t a t e open and d i r e c t communication w i t h i n the f a m i l y system and attempt to e l i m i n a t e c o n f l i c t i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d s u p p o r t i v e . The r e s u l t s i n t h i s study i n d i c a t e that parents played a major r o l e i n e x e r t i n g both a p o s i t i v e and negative i n f l u e n c e on the youth. Respondents r e p o r t e d that the s t r e s s of unemployment c r e a t e d f r i c t i o n i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r p arents. Parents were a l s o i d e n t i f i e d as not being able to a p p r e c i a t e and respond to the young person's dilemma and were t h e r e f o r e - 81 -r e s p o n s i b l e f o r having e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t o f t e n exceeded the youth's c u r r e n t l e v e l of f u n c t i o n i n g . C o u n s e l l o r s may need to examine h i s t o r i c p a t t e r n s of e x p e c t a t i o n s i n order to e l i m i n a t e t h i s o f t e n r e p o r t e d c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t s . In a d d i t i o n , some of the parents exerted pressure on the youth to q u i t seeking employment and r e t u r n to s c h o o l . Due to t h i s f i n d i n g c o u n s e l l o r s may need to c l a r i f y f o r t h e i r c l i e n t s and separate p a r e n t a l needs from c l i e n t p e r s o n a l needs. The youths i n t h i s study p e r c e i v e d encouragement as p o s i t i v e , and e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h i s form of a s s i s t a n c e from pressu r e , i n t h i s case, p r e s s u r e to continue w i t h the job search. Encouragement was viewed as i n s p i r a t i o n a l , a form of l o b b y i n g f o r the youth i n v o l v e d . A c c o r d i n g to the p a r t i c i p a n t s , encouraging words and a c t s from s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s boosted t h e i r s p i r i t s and motivated them to continue j o b s e a r c h i n g . In c o n t r a s t , p r e s s u r e to continue seeking employment was g e n e r a l l y p e r c e i v e d as demanding behavior which tended to c u r t a i l t h e i r attempts at seeking employment. There was evidence that some parents p r o j e c t e d t h e i r own hopes on the youths and pushed them to pursue avenues that are con s i d e r e d u n s u i t a b l e or non-congruent with the youth's a s p i r a t i o n s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Parents need to be c o u n s e l l e d i n order to s e t r e a l i s t i c and f e a s i b l e j o b and c a r e e r g o a l s , as parents and youths may d i f f e r over the youth's f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l p l a n s . Parents can pro v i d e encouragement by g i v i n g cues or a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s designed to i n c r e a s e the youth's m o t i v a t i o n and job seeking b e h a v i o r s . Parents can v e r b a l l y - 82 -r e i n f o r c e the i n d i c a t i o n t h a t a youth i s p r e s e n t l y seeking i n f o r m a t i o n and l e a d s p e r t i n e n t to the job search. Through i n d i v i d u a l and group c o u n s e l l i n g , as w e l l as p u b l i c education forums, parents can l e a r n concrete ways of demonstrating i n t e r e s t and g e n e r a t i n g p o s i t i v e forms of a s s i s t a n c e . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h at some parents were r e c o g n i z e d as c o n t r i b u t i n g to the youth's f e e l i n g s of i s o l a t i o n and i m m o b i l i z a t i o n by r e s t r i c t i n g funds f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and g e n e r a l l y not s u p p l y i n g money f o r job search and other a c t i v i t i e s . C o u n s e l l o r s c o u l d a d v i s e parents on the long term b e n e f i t s t h at may r e s u l t when youth have reasonable access to funds. Perhaps an i n c e n t i v e program c o u l d be d e v i s e d where parents c o n t r i b u t e funds f o r worthwhile employment seeking a c t i v i t y and e f f o r t . F i n a l l y , c o u n s e l l o r s c o u l d develop a support group f o r unemployed youth, designed s p e c i f i c a l l y to focus on the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered, the f e e l i n g s and emotions i n v o l v e d as w e l l as the s p e c i a l needs of t h i s t a r g e t e d group. Groups can prov i d e many advantages f o r unemployed youth. For example, i t i s important and h e l p f u l f o r these youth to know that they are not alone. T h e r e f o r e , involvement with other youth i n a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n can h e l p to a l l e v i a t e the i s o l a t i o n and a l i e n a t i o n o f t e n accompanying unemployment. A group such as t h i s c o u l d serve to stren g t h e n t i e s and to i n c r e a s e network s i z e . Another advantage of support groups i s that members c r e a t e a s a f e environment which encourages and promotes s h a r i n g and e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s . Members c o u l d o f f e r r e c i p r o c a l support to one - 83 -another, through the exchange of s k i l l s such as budgeting, resume w r i t i n g and the p r o v i s i o n of emotional and i n f o r m a t i o n a l support. In a d d i t i o n , c o n s t r u c t i v e feedback from members f r e q u e n t l y f a c i l i t a t e s new l e a r n i n g and i n s i g h t . An important s t r a t e g y i n f a c i l i t a t i n g the adjustment of unemployed youth i s to educate the g e n e r a l p u b l i c i n order to minimize the s t r e s s e s a s s o c i a t e d with t h i s l i f e event and to promote g r e a t e r understanding of the dynamics i n v o l v e d . The more i n f o r m a t i o n and knowledge people have r e g a r d i n g unemployment, the b e t t e r a b l e they w i l l be to understand and grasp the dynamics of the s i t u a t i o n . An i n c r e a s e d understanding c o u l d promote and e l i c i t s t r o n g e r and more a p p r o p r i a t e types of support to a s s i s t youth e x p e r i e n c i n g unemployment. The e d u c a t i o n a l system i s a primary t a r g e t to approach with i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the impact and magnitude of unemployment. There appears to be a need to continue to prepare students e d u c a t i o n a l l y f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g beyond the p u b l i c s c h o o l years. Information concerning the degree of unemployment and the n e c e s s i t y of courses f o c u s i n g on employment s k i l l s f o r both graduates and drop-outs c o u l d s o f t e n the impact f o l l o w i n g completion of s c h o o l i f unemployment oc c u r s . I t i s recommended that focus be p l a c e d on i n c r e a s i n g c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n and work experience programs. In a d d i t i o n , parents p l a y an important r o l e i n c a r e e r p l a n n i n g as they o f t e n e x e r c i s e i n f l u e n c e over the a t t i t u d e s of t h e i r c h i l d r e n by means of conveying i n f o r m a t i o n . Expected outcomes of these programs are i n c r e a s e d understanding and - 84 -p o s s i b l y some concrete ways of demonstrating i n t e r e s t and p r o v i d i n g g r e a t e r a s s i s t a n c e . P a r e n t a l e d u c a t i o n and awareness programs c o u l d be i n s t r u m e n t a l i n e f f e c t i n g change. As the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that c o u n s e l l o r s were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a l support, there i s an i n c r e a s e d need f o r s e r v i c e s that p r o v i d e s k i l l s , emphasizing job search techniques, j o b - g e t t i n g , and s e l f - m a r k e t i n g s t r a t e g i e s . Incorporated i n t o these programs c o u l d be i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s f o c u s i n g on the p e r s o n a l impact of unemployment. Youths need to be r e a l i s t i c a l l y informed about t h e i r employment pro s p e c t s i n view of the c u r r e n t degree of unemployment. P r o f e s s i o n a l s o f f e r i n g employment and c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g c o u l d suggest r e l a t e d job o p t i o n s and c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n areas of higher demand u n t i l t h e i r p r e f e r r e d c a r e e r c h o i c e arena eases up. S p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n on d e p l e t e d c a r e e r o p t i o n s and r e -c h a n n e l l i n g the youth i s v i t a l i n attempting to maximize t h e i r chances of s e c u r i n g employment. The mass media i s an important area due to i t s impact on the p u b l i c . Programs o u t l i n i n g the magnitude of unemployment, i t s emotional and p s y c h o l o g i c a l consequences and the needs of the youth e x p e r i e n c i n g t h i s c o u l d f a m i l i a r i z e the p u b l i c and generate understanding and necessary support. I t i s a l s o recommended that pamphlets on t h i s t o p i c be d i s t r i b u t e d to high s c h o o l s , c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , l i b r a r i e s , r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t r e s and the C.E.I.C. o f f i c e s to promote knowledge and i n c r e a s e awareness of the problems f a c e by t h i s youth group. S i m i l a r to the C r i s i s L i n e , an unemployment help l i n e c o u l d - 85 -be implemented to a s s i s t those i n d i v i d u a l s i n c r i s i s . T h i s telephone l i n e c o u l d p r o v i d e both emotional support through t a l k i n g and l i s t e n i n g to the youth c a l l i n g , as w e l l as i n f o r m a t i o n a l support, such as r e f e r r a l to groups, job c l u b s and other sources of a s s i s t a n c e . Another i d e a may be to connect each c a l l e r with f o u r or f i v e other youth w i t h i n t h e i r l o c a l area i n order to i n c r e a s e t h e i r s u p p o r t i v e network and o f f e r concrete advice and job l e a d s . Unemployment i s i n c r e a s i n g , p a r t i c u l a r y with r e s p e c t to youth. I t i s hoped that the r e s u l t s from t h i s r e s e a r c h o f f e r u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n that w i l l h e lp o t h e r s understand the predicament of today's youth and the f a c t o r s t hat f a c i l i t a t e or hinder t h e i r adjustment. L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique used i n t h i s study i s of a s u b j e c t i v e nature and i s t h e r e f o r e s u b j e c t to c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s . Due to the r e f l e c t i v e nature of the data r e c a l l , the s u b j e c t ' s may omit or f o r g e t important i n f o r m a t i o n . A l s o , because of the s e n s i t i v e nature of the i n c i d e n t s , s u b j e c t s may have been i n c l i n e d to a l t e r the f a c t s t o make t h e i r s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g f a m i l y , f r i e n d s and key o t h e r s seem more a c c e p t a b l e . However, gi v e n the v o l u n t a r y nature of t h i s technique and the anonymity p r o v i d e d , these l i m i t a t i o n s were kept to a minimum. G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s i s a f f e c t e d by the number of respondents i n the study. Since p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study were - 86 -l i m i t e d i n number to 14, t h i s was taken i n t o account when i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e s u l t s . Borg and G a l l (1983) p o i n t e d out that people who v o l u n t e e r to p a r t i c i p a t e i n s t u d i e s tend to have the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : b e t t e r education, h i g h e r s o c i a l - c l a s s s t a t u s , higher i n t e l l i g e n c e , have an i n c r e a s e d need f o r achievement and s o c i a l a pproval and a l s o tend to be more s o c i a b l e than non-volunteers. T h i s i n d i c a t e s that v o l u n t e e r p a r t i c i p a n t s may i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n t i n c i d e n t s than a non-volunteer group. Thus, due to the d e s c r i p t i v e methodology, sma l l sample s i z e and v o l u n t e e r s t a t u s of the respondents, the f i n d i n g s of t h i s r e s e a r c h are regarded as e x p l o r a t o r y i n nature. R e c o g n i z i n g the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s study, these f a c t o r s were taken i n t o account when i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e s u l t s . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Research The e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h on youth unemployment and s o c i a l supports i s very s c a r c e . I t i s hoped that o t h e r s w i l l continue work i n t h i s area by e x p l o r i n g other aspects of the youth's s i t u a t i o n . Many a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s arose while working with the data. Among these q u e s t i o n s are the f o l l o w i n g : 1. How do s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s p e r c e i v e the unemployed? 2. Does the l e n g t h of unemployment a f f e c t the types of support, i e . q u a l i t y or q u a n t i t y r e q u i r e d ? - 87 -3. Do people that are unemployed c r e a t e b a r r i e r s between themselves and key o t h e r s i n t h e i r l i v e s ? 4. Do support people f e e l inadequate and consequently d i s t a n c e themselves from the unemployed person? 5. Does the sex of the youth a f f e c t the types of i n c i d e n t s r e p o r ted? 6. Do l i f e e xperiences of parents a f f e c t the q u a l i t y or q u a n t i t y of support they can o f f e r ? 7. What are the e f f e c t s of q u a l i t y of support versus q u a n t i t y of support provided? I t would be h e l p f u l to conduct r e s e a r c h on the support systems of other groups of unemployed persons such as c o l l e g e graduates, s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l s , and married couples. T h i s would allow r e s e a r c h e r s to compare and c o n t r a s t the r e s u l t s with t h i s study. I t would a l s o be of i n t e r e s t to conduct s t u d i e s f o c u s i n g on the f a c t o r s which f a c i l i t a t e d or hindered key i n d i v i d u a l s i n p r o v i d i n g necessary forms of support. V a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be o b t a i n e d from peers' and f a m i l y members' experience of r e l a t i n g to and a s s i s t i n g an unemployed person. P a t t e r n s of r e a c t i o n s to s t r e s s and methods of coping would be b e n e f i c i a l data. I t i s recommended that s i m i l a r s t u d i e s be conducted on other groups e x p e r i e n c i n g a s t r e s s f u l l i f e event i n v o l v i n g a l o s s , such as d i v o r c e or death. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t these groups may i d e n t i f y the same types of f a c i l i t a t i n g or h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s or sources of support as the youth i n t h i s study, and t h e r e f o r e the i m p l i c a t i o n s and recommendations may be t r a n s f e r a b l e to other - 88 -groups e x p e r i e n c i n g a s i m i l a r l i f e event. One might e x p l o r e f a c t o r s or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that l e d to the i n a b i l i t y to o f f e r maximum support such as p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s and l e v e l of empathy. A study comparing f a m i l i e s t h a t tend to be s u p p o r t i v e with f a m i l i e s that c l e a r l y are unable to a s s i s t an unemployed member might extend the knowledge and i n f o r m a t i o n necessary to strengthen a v a i l a b l e supports. I t i s a l s o suggested that r e s e a r c h examining the long term e f f e c t s of support versus non-support on unemployed i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d prove i n s t r u m e n t a l i n implementing programs and r e s o u r c e s to m o b i l i z e e x i s t i n g supports and serve as a form of p r e v e n t i o n when a n t i c i p a t i n g times of c r i s i s . The r o l e of s o c i a l supports i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n r e l a t i o n to b u f f e r i n g s t r e s s f u l l i f e events and t h e r e f o r e a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h on unemployment and youth i s necessary i n order to improve s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y to t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . - 89 -References Amundson, N.E., & Borgen, W.A. (1982). The dynamics of unemployment: Job l o s s and job search. Personnel and  Guidance J o u r n a l , 60, 562-564. Amundson, N.E., & Borgen, W.A. (1987). At the c o n t r o l s : C h a r t i n g  a course through unemployment. Toronto: Nelson Canada. 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S o c i a l support, s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l  Medicine. 15 ( 2 ) , 283-295. Umana, R., Gross, S., 8s M c C o n v i l l e , M. (1980). C r i s i s i n the  Family. New York: Gardner Press Inc. Wellman, B. (1981). A p p l y i n g network a n a l y s i s to the study of support. In Benjamin H. G o t t l i e b (ed.) S o c i a l Networks and  S o c i a l Support. B e v e r l y H i l l s , C a l i f o r n i a : Sage. - 93 -Wilcock, R., & Franke, W. (1963). Unwanted Workers; Permanent  L a y o f f s and Long-Term Unemployment. London: The Free Press of Glencoe. Wilcox, B.L. (1981). S o c i a l Support, L i f e S t r e s s , and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Adjustment: A Test of the B u f f e r i n g Hypothesis. American J o u r n a l of Community Psychology, j), 371-386. - 94 -APPENDIX A Subject Consent Form - 95 -Subject Consent Form I agree to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t about being unemployed. I a l s o understand that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study i s v o l u n t a r y , t h a t I am f r e e to withdraw at any time or r e f u s e to answer any q u e s t i o n s . I understand that t h i s p r o j e c t w i l l r e q u i r e me to t a l k with an i n t e r v i e w e r f o r approximately one hour about my experience being unemployed. I understand that there may be follow-up q u e s t i o n s by telephone a f t e r the i n t e r v i e w . I g i v e my p e r m i s s i o n f o r the i n t e r v i e w to be audiotaped with the understanding that the contents of the i n t e r v i e w w i l l be kept c o n f i d e n t i a l and be used f o r r e s e a r c h purposes o n l y . T h i s taped i n t e r v i e w i s to be l a b e l l e d with a randomly s e l e c t e d number and w i l l be erased upon completion of the r e s e a r c h . At the beginning of the i n t e r v i e w I w i l l complete a sh o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Signature of Subject Telephone No. I Consent Signature of Subject Date I acknowledge r e c e i p t of consent form. Barbara Marak Researcher and Interviewer T h e s i s T i t l e : S o c i a l Support F a c t o r s Which F a c i l i t a t e and Hinder P s y c h o - S o c i a l Adjustment of Unemployed Youth T h e s i s Committee: Dr. Norman Amundson, C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology Dept., U.B.C. Dr. W i l l i a m Borgen, C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology Dept., U.B.C. Dr. L a r r y Cohran, C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology Dept., U.B.C. - 96 -APPENDIX B Demographic Q u e s t i o n n a i r e - 97 -Demographic Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Age: Sex: Pr e v i o u s S c h o o l i n g : (check h i g h e s t l e v e l completed) Grade 8 Grade 9 Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12 C o l l e g e s ( s p e c i f y year) U n i v e r s i t y ( s p e c i f y year) P r e v i o u s j o b s : Income l e v e l of p r e v i o u s j o b s : Hourly wage: Monthly wage: Length of time unemployed: Months Years Parents o c c u p a t i o n : S u b j e c t ' s telephone number: Subj e c t ' s address: 

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