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The experience of unemployment for learning disabled young adults Hansen, Lisa D. 1986

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THE EXPERIENCE OF UNEMPLOYMENT FOR LEARNING  DISABLED YOUNG ADULTS by LISA  B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  D. HANSEN  of British  Columbia,  1982  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOP THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE (Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g  We a c c e p t t h i s  STUDIES Psychology)  t h e s i s as conforming  to the accepted standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA O c t o b e r 1986 ©  Lisa  Hansen, 1986  In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  )E-6 (3/81)  Abstract  This  research  the  study explores  vantage p o i n t of  the  experience  l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d young  learning  disabled  utilizing  a phenomenological/critical  methodology the  was  perspective  people  utilized of the  young a d u l t s .  of  areas.  and For  this  Termination  of  workforce.  Frequently,  difficulty  maintaining  often  occurs  r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e the  system  with  l i e within  has  failed  securing  the  school  t o meet  the  increasing  the  i n part  opportunity  and  academic does  not the  learning  disabled  person  has  learning f o r long  psychological  i i  special  within  include modifications  unemployment a d u l t s and  the  position  a p o s i t i o n due  the  system.  a  to s k i l l  i s suggested that a  to  unemployment  unemployment e x p e r i e n c e  In  offered  findings  the  work h i s t o r y .  services  from  l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d young a d u l t s ,  i s a s e r i e s of short  i t  data  non-  result, i s a sporadic  conclusion,  This  extends f u r t h e r than f o r other  the  coincide  services  of the  l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d persons i n vocational  necessarily  what  qualitative  unique f e a t u r e s  t o a h i s t o r y o f unemployment within  i n c i d e n t methodology.  to obtain  The  begins e a r l i e r  Programming  interviewed  psychological  o f unemployment.  needs  as  were  the  process  roots  so  twenties  Thirteen  The  information  disabled  on  in their  adults.  from  l e a r n i n g disabled person.  yielded  experience  o f unemployment  deficits.  term  positions.  comprehensive  disabled term  Hence,  would  The  list  of  assist  in  employment.  These  t o e x i s t i n g programmes f o r counselling.  i  Table  of  Contents  Page  ABSTRACT  i i  L I S T OF TABLES  v  L I S T OF FIGURES  vi  L I S T OF APPENDICES  v i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  ix  CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION  1  CHAPTER 2  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  6  Psychological  7  Vocational  CHAPTER 3  Characteristics  Adjustments  Suggested S o l u t i o n s  15  B a s i c Assumptions..  17  METHODOLOGY  19  Methodological  CHAPTER 4  12  Approach  19  Subjects  21  Data C o l l e c t i o n  23  The  Pilot  27  The  Interview  30  Data A n a l y s i s  33  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  40  School  Experience  40  School  41  Past  Present  Interview  Experiences  School  Experiences'  iii  47  Work H i s t o r y a n d J o b S e a r c h Job  Skills  Utilized  56  P o s i t i v e and N e g a t i v e Incident Categories  Critical 60  Positive Critical Categories.  Incident  Negative C r i t i c a l  Incident  84  Categories Future  Plans  Holistic  CHAPTER 5  68 and E x p e c t a t i o n s . . . .  Description  Coping versus Techniques  75 78  Non-Coping 86  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS Implications Research  51  AND 90  f o r Further 97  REFERENCES  100  APPENDICES  102  iv  List  of  Tables  Page  1.  Demographic I n f o r m a t i o n  22  2.  Educational History  42  3.  Jobs Held  4.  Frequency o f Job  5.  Positive Critical  Incident Categories  6.  Negative  Incident Categories  7.  D e s c r i p t i o n of Co-researcher  Since Leaving  Critical  Search  Secondary School  52  Methods U t i l i z e d  57  V  Long Term P l a n s  62 .•**• ...  6  3  76  List  of Figures  Page  Psychological  Process of  Unemployment  79  List  o f Appendices  Page A.  Referee Letter  102  B.  S u b j e c t Consent  C.  Pilot  D.  C o - r e s e a r c h e r Diagram  E.  Background  F.  Rating Sheets  113  F-l  R a t i n g S h e e t Form  114  F-2  Completed  R a t i n g S h e e t Example #25  116  F-3  Completed  Rating  S h e e t Example #26  124  F-4  Completed  R a t i n g S h e e t Example #27  129  Form  104  Interview Questions  106  Sheet.......  109  I n f o r m a t i o n Sheet  G.  Summary Example #25  H.  Selected  Quotes  I l l  134  in Positive Critical  Incident  Categories H-l  145  Success/Achievement  i n Adult Education  Programme  146  H-2  P l e a s u r e i n Having a Job  149  H-3  Realization  152  H-4  S u p p o r t f r o m S e r v i c e Agency  of Self-worth  C.E.C.)  (excluding 154  H-5  Re-assessment  of Self  H-6  Support from F a m i l y  156 158  Vi i  I.  H-7  S u p p o r t i v e Work E n v i r o n m e n t  160  H-8  Landing a Job  162  H-9  Support  Selected  from  Friends  164  Quotes i n N e g a t i v e C r i t i c a l  Incident  Categories  166  1-1  Anticipated  Job F a i l u r e / J o b F a i l u r e  1-2  Discounted/Devalued  by S u p p o r t  167  Services  ( e x c l u d i n g C.E.C.)  170  1-3  Financial  173  1-4  Job R e j e c t i o n s / L a c k o f O p p o r t u n i t y from  Pressures  Employers  175  1-5  Avoidance  o f Job Search  1-6  Discounted/Devalued  by  178 C.E.C.  Personnel  180  1-7  Delayws C a r e e r P r o g r e s s  182  1-8  Longing  f o r More E q u i t a b l e / S e c u r e  Employment O p p o r t u n i t i e s  184  1-9  Stagnation/Boredom  186  1-10  F e a r o f S c h o o l a s an A d u l t S t u d e n t  188  1-11  Isolation  190  1-12  N e g a t i v e Comparisons  Due  t o Unemployment  192  vii i  Acknowledgements  I  would  people  who  following  like  t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n  were v i t a l people  t o the completion o f  were most h e l p f u l  researchers.  They  schedules.  These people  Individualized Campus,  Dr.  for  and  Grace  and of  would  the  I  Mrs. of  Columbia  Mills  Betty  thanks  this  arduous  of  Edward  Community  Mackie,  Association  Roman  Association  Disabilities  my g r a t i t u d e t o  those  disabled  Phylis,  person.  and t h e y  Cheryl,  and M r s .  f o r Children  people a  who  thesis  These a r e  include:  Tony,  Bob, R o b e r t ,  Thomas  L i n d a , and R o b e r t .  like  checks,  t o thank Dorothy  my c o l l e a g u e s who a s s i s t e d Hyslop  and R u s s e l Earnshaw  who t y p e d t h e t h e s i s a g a i n and a g a i n ,  Many  co-  hectic  King  t h e Vancouver  Learning  people themselves  Sue, J o h n ,  would a l s o  the person  The  C l a u d i a Mason o f t h e  Therese  point of a learning  Darryl,  reliability  too  of  Disabilities.  t o extend  disabled  Dobson, S t e v e n ,  British  already  f o rAdults at  Ms.  with  number  thesis.  and made i t p o s s i b l e f o r me t o w r i t e  t h e vantage  Anthony,  the  Adults  like  forward  the l e a r n i n g  Programme  Piontkosky  Adults with Learning  stepped from  and  Martin  I  Ms.  Matsqui-Abbotsford,  Children  Elinor  include:  A n n e l i e s e Robens,  this  a  i n contacting potential  time o u t o f t h e i r  Education  Enterprises, Piontkosky  took  to  t o Brad process.  Michele  f o r h i s s u p p o r t and e n c o u r a g e m e n t  with and  Spence.  throughout  1  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION  What d o e s i t mean t o be l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d b o t h 'and  theoretical  following  terms?  definition  For  the purposes o f  in  this  practical study  the  i s t o be u s e d t o d e s c r i b e l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d  people.  'Learning d i s a b i l i t i e s ' " i s a g e n e r i c term t h a t r e f e r s to a heterogeneous group o f d i s o r d e r s due t o i d e n t i f i a b l e or i n f e r r e d c e n t r a l nervous system d y s f u n c t i o n . Such d i s o r d e r s may be m a n i f e s t e d by d e l a y s i n e a r l y development and/or difficulties i n any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : attention, memory, reasoning, c o o r d i n a t i o n , communicating, reading, writing, spelling, calculation, social competence, and emotional maturation. 'Learning d i s a b i l i t i e s ' * are i n t r i n s i c t o the i n d i v i d u a l , and may affect l e a r n i n g and b e h a v i o u r i n any individual, i n c l u d i n g those with p o t e n t i a l l y average, a v e r a g e o r above average i n t e l l i g e n c e . 'Learning disabilities' a r e n o t due p r i m a r i l y to visual, h e a r i n g o r motor h a n d i c a p s ; t o m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n , e m o t i o n a l disturbance, or environmental disadvantage; although they may o c c u r c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h any o f t h e s e . ' L e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s ' may a r i s e f r o m g e n e t i c v a r i a t i o n s , biochemical f a c t o r s , events i n the pre t o p e r i - n a t a l period, or i n any o t h e r s u b s e q u e n t e v e n t s r e s u l t i n g i n n e u r o l o g i c a l impairment.  This definition the  Canadian  Disabilities. practical learning  was f o r m u l a t e d  A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C h i l d r e n and A d u l t s w i t h Learning  terms.  The  d i s a b l e d people unable  by t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s f o r  disabilities following  c a n a l s o be  are  explained  experiences  share:  t o r e a d d i r e c t i o n s on a c o p y  machine  Learning  that  in many  2  unable t o d i s t i n g u i s h women's washroom  between s y m b o l s  u n a b l e t o remember t h e l a s t  f o u n d on a men's o r  name o f a  person  u n a b l e t o r e a d s i g n s a l o n g a highway unable to read taking notes diagrams  a letter  w r i t t e n by a c o l l e a g u e  a t a meeting  unable t o d i s t i n g u i s h  i n t h e form o f  between t h e r i g h t  drawings  and  left  or  hand  unintentionally expressing a q u e s t i o n as a demand r e s u l t i n g i n a secondary d i s a b i l i t y ; uncomfortable s o c i a l interactions easily distracted, meaning t h a t c o n c e n t r a t i o n can be broken by t h e d r o p p i n g o f a p e n c i l -- on the positive side i s t h e a b i l i t y t o n o t i c e d e t a i l s t h a t o t h e r s do n o t see such as t h o s e found i n n a t u r e o r i n c l a s s i c a l music material i n a book may p r e s e n t i t s e l f t o o q u i c k l y on t h e highway (Harms and  This l i s t the  issue  is  differently, share  could that  indefinitely,  learning  gainful  One  passed  1975)  however t h e e s s e n c e  disabilities  experiences.  a sign  Ridenour,  affect  w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e many l e a r n i n g  some s i m i l a r  finding  go on  like  of their  employment a s t h e y move f r o m  each  of  person  disabled  people  difficulties  is  a d o l e s c e n c e t o young  adulthood.  As  stated  by Aune and  Gray  (1983) a d u l t s w i t h  disability  t e n d t o be u n d e r - e m p l o y e d  jobs  more t h a n a s h o r t  for  usually  low  academic  skills,  period  and  often  of time.  they are f o r c e d  a  learning  a r e u n a b l e t o keep Because  of  to apply f o r  their low-  3 skill In  and  low-pay p o s i t i o n s w i t h  difficult  majority  of  strained youth  negative  hope o f  upward  mobility.  economic times t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s heightened  disabled  economic  has  little  young a d u l t s times the  been one  b e i n g unemployed.  difficulty  for  o f g a i n f u l employment,  economic c o n d i t i o n s  the  by  the  During  less  learning  but  disabled  under our  main d i f f i c u l t y  present  i s finding  any  employment a t a l l .  It  i s possible  employed, a great  but  deal  are  assistance.  obstacles to  it  learning  disabled  intercede  f o r them.  the  fact that  There  teachers This our  the  are  often  disability  a  learning  of  longer  community.  have  These l e a r n i n g  that  in  external  basis. and  on  people  youth Brutton  the  30b,  who  will  interest in  disabled".  present  f o r the  that  disabled  [ e m p l o y e r s ] have no  for  i n elementary school.  always t r u e  point  Finally,  school  i n t e n s i v e programming  centres  obvious  learn s k i l l s  more s u b t l e  long-term  learning They a r e  i n most s c h o o l s  s p e c i a l i z e d i n working with  i s not  d a t e ) makes t h e  failure.  "Once o u t  Boss f i g u r e s  without  y o u t h must b r e a k down i n t e r n a l  employed on  well:  people while they are learning  (no  a l s o makes t h e  i n d i v i d u a l s no  they  is  f o r t h i s t o happen  overcome i n o r d e r f o r l e a r n i n g  gainfully  says  t o become g a i n f u l l y  y o u t h need t o  e x i s t a f t e r years of  must be  become  (1981)  She  to marketable s k i l l s ,  barriers that  disabled  Anderson  learning disabled  marketable.  addition  learning  i t i s almost impossible  of  statement that  f o r the  learning  learning centres  able  to  complete  disabled  disabled  disabled use with  children.  adults  d e c r e a s e when t h e  within child  4  moves and  to secondary s c h o o l . the  social  increase. disabled  skills  The  required  T h i s atmosphere can students  who  may  secondary school t o adapt  l a c k b o t h a c a d e m i c and  to expect f a i l u r e ;  adjust  to f a i l u r e .  experience disabled world  have  person  s/he  passed  can  within  set  set  system.  of f a i l u r e ) , debilitating  c o u n s e l l o r s we  diminished  failure  the  disabled  youth.  psychological This  those  people  administered as  who an  reflecting  learning  disabled  likely  mechanisms (i.e.  lack  decreased  of  initiative  process  study  i s an  follow-up The  of the  in-depth  study  done  an  average range or test;  psychological  experience  young  ( a g e d 20  adults  take place by  and  Borgen  applicable  above can  score be  across  the as  a  and to when  viewed  o f unemployment  - 30)  to  learning  examination of will  to  attempt  o f unemployment f o r  r e s u l t s of t h i s study are  obtain  a b o u t how  T h i s study w i l l  individual intelligence the  most  self-confidence,  s u b - g r o u p l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d young a d u l t s and  (1984).  working  syndrome  need t o h a v e more i n f o r m a t i o n  describe  Amundson  to  date).  or prevent these problems.  and  has  how  learning  the  defense  self-consciousness,  alleviate  continuation  with  S/he  certain the  person  adolescent  Once t h e  a young a d u l t f a c e d  " G i v e n enough t i m e ,  i n " ( S e i g e l , no  As  learning disabled  and  skills.  learns at best  become g r o s s l y o v e r w h e l m e d .  in.  motivation,  does the  of f a i l u r e  learning  learning disabled  o r she  school  school  social  where he  the  becomes  through years  expectation  may  Rarely  success  secondary  become o v e r w h e l m i n g f o r  I t q u i c k l y becomes a s i t u a t i o n where t h e learns  to  becomes l a r g e r  for  Canada.  This those  study  i s limited i n that  people  learning  who  t h e r e s u l t s do  are mentally handicapped  disability.  not  w i t h an  generalize  to  accompanying  CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE  The  literature  unemployment thorough  three  and  that  adults  i s  i s  a job.  "minimal".  characteristics  The f i r s t  t o recognize  young a d u l t  proceed  with  presentation  the  that  learning  the  of  the  of  also  disabled  young  follow  along  with caution the  disabled  young  adults.  psychological  f o r a l l members o f  population.  a  adults  (1981)  presented  true  dearth  disabled  and H a u b r i c h  section describes  and  Next, d i s c u s s i o n literature  the will  specifically  t o w a r d t h e a n t e c e d e n t s f o r unemployment and t h e p r e s e n t  unemployment  factors  Finally,  information  solutions  as  counselling,  for will  perceived vocational  learning be  disabled  presented  by r e s e a r c h e r s counselling,  young  adults.  suggesting  possible  i n the  field.  Personal  psychotherapy,  a n d r e m e d i a t i o n a r e some o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s  enhance  adults.  Fafard  adults  who c o m p l e t e d  The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w w i l l  disabled  to  learning  describing  learning  groups  to  may o r may n o t h o l d  a  disabled  <1984>  characteristics of learning  important  oriented  Kroll,  pertaining  holding  main l i n e s .  to learning  t h e l i t e r a t u r e comments on  the information  psychological It  of  completed  locating state  i s scanty a t best.  review  research  pertaining  t h e economic p r o s p e c t s f o r l e a r n i n g  support  that  exist  disabled  young  7  E§Y-?l22i2Si9§i C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  Research disabled Osman  i n d i c a t e s t h a t adjustment  young  adults  begin a t the  difficulties elementary  f o r learning  school  level.  <1982) s t a t e s t h a t many members o f an a d u l t s u p p o r t  were aware t h a t t h e y had a l e a r n i n g They  disability  from  remembered s t o r i e s o f b e i n g t e a s e d by t h e i r  elementary suggest  school  children.  that the antecedent  a t s c h o o l age. the adult  Neyers  to future  This s t r e s s begins early  as  (1981)  also  concerns"  begin  well  into  years.  totter  with  first  the overuse o f the f i g h t  racing  through  exhausted.  Learning  confronted  with  expenditures problems,  feeling  family  Cox  (1977)  incompetent.  disabled  young  flight  mechanism them  are  often  extra  energy  covering  belongingness,  concern  unusual  messages.  environment  for  and  the  messages  psychological  Many l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d  received  over  of  (Johnson,  a s young p e o p l e t h a t t h e y were i n a d e q u a t e  These  up  being too d i f f i c u l t  d y n a m i c s and t h e c o n s t a n t f r u s t r a t i o n  expresses  o f l o n g term  teeter  leaving  adults  forfailures,  and  bodies  b o d i e s and t h e n  a t ease with t h e t o t a l  p. 4 3 9 ) .  perceived  or  inappropriate expectations,  acceptance  ill  their  i n h a v i n g t o o much t o c o p e w i t h ,  1981,  implication  their  overcompensation  social  stressful  adults  classmates  and c a n e x t e n d  Many l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d young a d u l t s f e e l  for  an e a r l y a g e .  and M e s s e r e r "adjustment  group  time  lead  young and to  dysfunctional  b e h a v i o u r s f o r some l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d  inadequate p e r s o n a l i t y w i l l of himself (1981) long  a  describes  within  constant  create  a  perform not  failure social  learning disabled  intense  world.  His  with a s o c i e t y that Fafard exists  one and  and  can the  The  say  within  psychological  The  desire a  the at  vocational  emotional, traits,  characteristics young a d u l t .  possible  an  are  They a r e  not  a  does  academic  or she to  then their  although academic  found w i t h i n  lead  of to  describe  disabled  adults.  field  t o want  to  young  adult.  i s i t desirable  (Gray,  general  psychological, must  to  i s mode t o  learning disabled  to present  simply  this  may  to  often  able  term  a  adulthood.  i n the  nor  it  but  He  different  learning  possible,  but  to  to grasp  long  attempt  professional  social,  i s subject  makes r e f e r e n c e  of  as  t e n t a t i v e l y that experiences  literature  i s not  adult  (1981) s u g g e s t t h a t  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  this is  abilities  adjustment problems i n  the  undergoing  not  from p e e r s .  influence  least  is  care  Johnson  which s e r v e s  inability  frequently  "composite" of the  Unfortunately  personal,  her  Haubrich  e x i s t s f o r the  It  or  as  person  person  ongoing s t r e s s of being  the  represent  and on  vocational  Often  1981).  The  the  meets w i t h d i s a p p r o v a l  data  86).  learning disabled  describes  expected f o r h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l  inferiority.  p.  She  in isolation.  problems,  1977,  "The  take  young a d u l t s  a layer.  fundamentals  little  (Cox,  stream of academic d i f f i c u l t i e s  as  must d e a l  for himself,  learning disabled  socially  occur  s p e a k up  o r work i n d e p e n d e n t l y "  term s t r e s s .  layer  not  adults.  be every  noted  description academic, that  learning  of and  these disabled  a d e s c r i p t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y  traits  9  which  might  also  play  relevant  responsible addition,  the  shaping of  similar  development traits  life  of  a  following  is  (Patton  a  and  list  cohesive  which s e r v e s t o d e s c r i b e  group.  Examples o f  Polloway,  the  may  disabled  people are  devised  It  experiences  marketable.  for learning disabled  creativity  personality.  exist for learning  r e n d e r them h i g h l y  existing  The  disabled  note t h a t  positive  motivation,  (1982)  to  for  which c o u l d traits  a r o l e i n the  by  is be In  adults positive  high  energy,  1982).  Patton  and  Polloway  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  learning  adults.  Personal  - disorganization,  difficulty skills,  - f r u s t r a t i o n , anxiety,  of  hopelessness,  embarrassment, n e u r o t i c  Social  directions,  - social  perceptual  and  borderline  and  restlessness,  attention  hyperactivity.  psychotic  poor peer  temper, concept,  symptoms.  reacting  to  relationships  keeping f r i e n d s ) .  - problems i n a t t e n t i o n sustaining  self  (difficulty  ( m e e t i n g p e o p l e , making f r i e n d s , and  features  skills.  poor  situations appropriately)  Pyschologicol  decision-making  f e a r , anger, s h o r t  guilt,  imperception  carelessness,  poor  inadequate independent f u n c t i o n i n g  Emotional sense  in following  sloppiness,  (selecting  thereafter)  important  impulsivity,  Academic - underachievement, d i f f i c u l t y and  spoken), reading,  Vocational and  job,  attitudes), with  work  sources  learning include tend  of  to  be  presented  and  anecedotal.  There i s  these personal follow-up  'studies.  comment  follow-up  studies  often  as  not  follow-up  the  little  studies Also  t o d e c i d e on  social  a l l use  each r e s e a r c h e r  t o be  small  that  most r e s e a r c h  preliminary  and  not  and  main  no  c o n t r o l groups are material  findings.  categories. The  As  tend toward  used.  rigorous,  information  and  researchers. for  device  samples  I t could be  detailed  The  learning  measurement The  are  (1982)  "ambiguity"  definition  adjustment.  studies  Palloway  a v a i l a b l e t o d a t e can  Wore  case  of They  well, there  P a t t o n and  not  phone  outcomes  consistent  u s e s h i s own  vocational  taking  adult  studies.  one  errors),  83).  a g r e e m e n t e x i s t s between do  disability.  (e.g.  descriptions.  problems with the that  (p.  two  follow-up  directions,  (inefficiency,  discussing  into  problems f i n d i n g  (following  skills  changes  fall  studies  across  work  information  disabilities case  skills  specific  m e s s a g e s ) , numerous j o b  The  success,  p o o r work h a b i t s  poor  (written  spelling.  - below a v e r a g e c a r e e r  keeping  problems  math,  i n language  tend  be  said  classed work  as  seems  warranted.  Of disabled Osman  the  various  adult,  one  social  concerns abounding f o r  frequently  mentioned  the  learning  i s social interaction.  (1982) s t a t e s t h a t many l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d  young a d u l t s  may  11  have  difficulties  in  maintaining  person because they are have  difficulty  interactive close If  the  This  learning the  develop the  friendship.  them t h e  i s due  disabled  disability  with  the  fear  i s that  and  twenty-one social wide  adjustment. range  disclose It  was  found  secondary  school, settings  suggest that that  a  keeping  recreational  disabled  <p.  has  church or  of  rejection.  their  learning  want t o "This  maintain  the  on  The  to  their  interviewing  their  perceived  subjects  maintaining  recreational  were i n v o l v e d  were p l a n n e d  disabled  present  evidence  young  a not  friendships.  activities  the  around  Although these  spend by  did  i n revolved  home s e t t i n g s .  learning  or  group c a r r i e s  study  time,  others.  g r o w t h t o w a r d more autonomous s e t t i n g s with the  of  were f o u n d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n  young p e o p l e t o  most a c t i v i t i e s  development  119).  i n d e v e l o p i n g or  young a d u l t s  an  been a t t a c h e d  activities.  most o f  for  not  they  for  fear  discloses  young a d u l t s  A l l subjects  that  the  <1981) c o n d u c t e d a  disabled  difficulties  learning  healthy  of  to  (1982) s t a t e s ,  stigma that  Haubrich  learning  another  cues necessary  i s i n the  people w i l l  Osman  shame and  i n part adult  h a n d i c a p s when t h e y were y o u n g "  Fafard  social  Another d i f f i c u l t y  friendships.  with  unable to a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r ideas or  maintaining  flow.  a conversation  one  could  I t may  w o u l d be  adults'  are  more  be in  chronological  age.  Researchers adjustment  among l e a r n i n g  disabled  f o r a v a r i e t y of young a d u l t s .  levels  White e t  of al.  12  (1982) f o u n d as  well  that  as  learning  non-learning  vocational,  social,  education.  Even  researchers The  J.Qdex,  status  the  disabled  adjustment problems.  As  and, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e  competent  social  in  the  workforce  Vocational  When  and  (Brown,  close  of  surface  poor  job  average  learning  the  case,  the  their  neither  significantly disabled  young  disabled  adults  shaped  their  results indicate experience  learning  disabled  being d i s s a t i s f i e d  ability  lives.  Socioeconomic  a  likelihood  though t o  examination  adjustment of  which  inadequate  the  and  ignore  the  t o compete  that  social  young  adult  with  their  link  between  successfully  1985).  vocational  concerns  had  status,  Adjustment  a  points  adults  of  being  a Duncan  research  the  themselves as  skills  using  adjust  areas  the  q u a l i t y of  individuals  well,  lifestyle,  t o be  t h e m s e l v e s as  all The  the  medical  non-learning  that  in  future.  learning  perceive  the  disabled  than  have  f o r the  all  not  found  researchers,  authors speculate  expectations  may  was  appear t o  in  community,  this  learning  experiences  not  adults  group d e s c r i b e d  The  the  job  The  prior  though  unhappy.  mean  adults.  disabled  personal,  disabled  found  lower  young a d u l t s  express concern regarding  learning  happy n o r  disabled  career search  work  learning  repeatedly. include  poor  preparation skills,  habits,  i s made  and  of  disabled  the  literature  young a d u l t s  a  number  Researchers  write  long  planning  skills,  secondary  school,  term  while attending  acceptance of p o o r work  low-status skills.  of  on  similar  work,  None  of  below those  13  concerns serve disabled in  the  young a d u l t .  q u a l i t y of  establish  disabled  primarily presents  Instead  this  to  the  (Siegel,  learning  initial The  by  i n p r o j e c t i n g i n t o the  outward appearance  1975).  "choose" jobs. be  minimal.  level  of the  adults  were w o r k i n g  Fafard  and  found  they  most f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d c a t e g o r y  industry.  The  indicated  they  had  a l m o s t no  school.  Subjects  were n o t  chose  a  pursuits  subjects  vocation, b a s e d on  interviewed  interviewed  apply  provided for  a  f o r jobs  the  Fafard  desire  with  desires.  that rather  satisfaction  learning disabled  was  are  (1981) e x a m i n e d  obtained  work o r  gift.  position  fast and  food  decide  while  on  Although  to obtain a  higher  work. service  Haubrich  information  the young  low-status  vocational preparation  future career  expressed  by  underlying  "handicapped".  o f employment  Haubrich  be  person  (1981) s t a t e  to " s e t t l e "  level  could  specific  level  Messerer  various occupations i n and  a  t h e employer as  Meyer and  Hence t h e i r  status  or  term  future.  the  employer misses the  d i s a b l e d young a d u l t s t e n d  to  learning  to develop long  f o r obtaining a higher  to  record.  difficulty  inability  motivation  i s labelled  decrease  are unable  placement a t a l o w - l e v e l p o s i t i o n  possibilities  minimal  The  i s the  intelligence,  person  p e o p l e who  s t a t e s that a primary  h i s employer.  of  learning  assumed t h a t a marked  l o n g t e r m employment  b a s e d upon t h e  strengths  tends  be  There e x i s t s a d i f f i c u l t y  addition,  than  o p t i m i s t i c p i c t u r e f o r the  e x i s t s f o r those  young a d u l t s f a c e  goals.  Their  life  (1978)  an  I t can  a satisfactory  Kronick  In  to present  on  (1981) in  high  how  to  educational the  people  level  of  14  employment, with as  they d i d not  their  being  A young  know how  aspirations.  very  This area  exists.  i s being  The  feature  placed  Deficits  inflexibility  in  work  and  challenge  skills  may  include  poor long  disabled  in  disabled  individualized  examines the  When  skills,  These d e f i c i t s  h i s t o r y of  findings  require close  instructions.  adults  many  Neyers  that  and  brain  t h e y were f o u n d t o h a v e more i n t e r p e r s o n a l  and  similar  indicate  supervision  compared t o  are  failure  (1982) d e s c r i b e  Their  long  organizational  ( S i e g e l , 1975).  Polloway  habits.  people  poor  term p l a n n i n g .  P a t t o n and  work  the  poor problem s o l v i n g  p e o p l e have e n d u r e d  <1981) and  limiting  f o r young l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d skills.  learning  people  mentioned as  work  compounded when one  deficiencies  f o r the  and  further  learning  individuals  i n a p o s i t i o n where l i t t l e  u n p r o d u c t i v e work h a b i t s ,  Messerer  by  disabled  a r e a s most f r e q u e n t l y  i n a d e q u a t e work h a b i t s  ability,  described  commensurate  learning  t e r m employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s are  was  skills  difficult.  further disheartening adult  to obtain  more  damaged  conflict  and  fewer f r i e n d s h i p s .  In  addition  dependable  work  a  number  skills.  of researchers Osman  (1982) and  (1981) n o t e t h a t many l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d the  work  skills  needed  rewarding or c h a l l e n g i n g . Guzzardi  and  Genova  to  Fafard  the &  lack  job  Polloway  (1981) comment t h a t  if a  they  would  (1982) and learning  of  Haubrich  young p e o p l e s i m p l y  complete a  P a t t o n and  note  lack find Geib,  disabled  15  person  presents  vocational  skills  researchers reading  their  of  concern  over  disabled  life.  rudimentary  they  lack  c o n t i n u e d employment  taking  is  the unusual  i f  The  al.(1981)  effort  (p.  include:  of l i f e  adults  above  state,  318).  capable  seeking  of  opportunities.  One  their  disabled  inability  infer  elements young  their  t o view  this that  They lack  as  of  being  psychological  the  vocational  Solutions number  disabilities  that  impinging  much  process.  such  White e t  employment  adjustment  of  required  and  taken p l a c e over the years i n f l u e n c i n g  A  individual  adults.  themselves  educational from  life.is  expressed  damage h a s  Suggested  of  activities  vocational  higher can  When an  their  complete  I n a summary s t a t e m e n t  i n low-status positions,  and  in  express  to  " the q u a l i t y  daily  on  (1981)  needed  diminished.  of learning  satisfaction,  The  p r o b l e m s f a c e d by  Genova  frequently  draws t o g e t h e r t h e key  quality  unlikely.  phone m e s s a g e s .  engage i n e s s e n t i a l  modern s o c i e t y "  specific  a r e a s as d i f f i c u l t y  G u z z a r d i and  not dangerously  effectively  in  young a d u l t s a r e s u r e t o i m p a c t  Geib,  tasks.  painfully,  the  that  c a n assume t h a t t h e complex a d j u s t m e n t  quality  in  employer  s t a t e p r o b l e m s i n work s k i l l  learning  cannot  an  i n s t r u c t i o n s and  One many  to  of  professionals  express concern  continuous  psychotherapy  in  the  field  of  learning  regarding the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  struggle. for learning  Rogan and disabled  Hartman  outcome  <1976) s u g g e s t  young a d u l t s  is  worthy  16  of  consideration,  favour  of utilizing  disabled (1977)  in  their  suggests  disabled  educational advocates classes  as  q u e s t f o r a more  balanced  p s y c h o t h e r a p y be  concurrently  as  an  self-esteem  the l i t e r a t u r e  strong  and a s s i s t  made  by  f o r people  impaired  comprehensive not  Kendall  career  (1981)  to  recognition  needs  adults Geib, service  require  provided  psychological researchers taking  to  varied  Guzzardi,  improvements  constantly  to  take place  that  that  the  present  disabled  services  and  learning  disabled  disabled  many y e a r s o f l i f e  a  as  is for such  young  population  t h e adequacy o f t h e  youth  s e r v i c e s need t o be u p g r a d e d .  i n t o account his/her  people  I t i s necessary  vocational  t o examine t h e l e a r n i n g  f o r the  developing  disabled  (1981) q u e s t i o n  learning  adults.  neurologically  and u n i q u e s e r v i c e s a s a s p e c i a l  and Genova to  upgrade  serve  (1975) makes  to  states  a " b e n e v o l e n t " a c t but n e c e s s a r y one.  professions  young  Siegel  programmes f o r l e a r n i n g  As one  the authors  t o have knowledge s p e c i f i c  people.  education  adult.  professionals  e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s p e c i a l i z e d programmes. plea  (1977)  i n t h e development o f a  disabled  the  views  Cox  adult  disabled  f o rthe learning  learning  uninformed  youth.  along with  Cox  She  f o r an  their  f o rthe learning  are  to  remediation.  in  learning  lifestyle.  available  i t becomes a p p a r e n t t h a t  advocates references  to assist  attempt t o compensate  use o f psychotherapy  t o inrease  Frequent  with  system encountered d u r i n g the  a c l e a r stance  fields  positive identity  reads  (1981) e s t a b l i s h e s  the psychological  that  adults  psychotherapy  more  Johnson  suggesting  that  programming  and  I t i s necessary f o r person  holistically  experience.  17  Basic  Due  t o t h e methodology u t i l i z e d  necessary These  Assumptions  for  the author t o o u t l i n e her  assumptions  literature,  but  experience within  Learning search  are  are  the f i e l d  when l o o k i n g  Learning esteem  went  assumptions. in  author  based  a r e l e s s aware o f  young  skills  within  adults  to  young a d u l t s that  are l i k e l y  t o h a v e low  most l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d  secondary school  with a school  i n the  seventies  both  system unable and/or  have l e a r n e d  success,  t o adjust  to failure  t h e m s e l v e s a s competent p e o p l e a b l e  F a m i l y d y n a m i c s may be p r e s e n t e d h a s been a f a m i l y  to  selfpeople  have  met  unwilling  learning disabled  a lack of school  there  less  t o hamper t h e p e r s o n  Due  that  job  have  people.  adults  on  a s i m i l a r age g r o u p .  are l i k e l y  which s e r v e  effective  meet t h e n e e d s o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d  to  the  of rehabilitation.  to the fact  to  typically  i t is  f o r a j o b and when t h e y a r e e m p l o y e d .  disabled due  study  supported  assumptions o f t h e  young  disabled  personal  necessarily  techniques than others  developed s o c i a l  who  not  the  disabled  Learning  i n t h i s research  rather  than  to  young view  achieve.  a s s t r a i n e d due t o t h e f a c t  member w i t h a s p e c i a l need  in  the f a m i l y f o r  a minimum o f t w e n t y  years  19  CHAPTER  3  METHOD Methodological  The  Approach  purpose of t h i s  possible  the  The  initial  i n t e n t of  phenomenological/critical  Borgen  and  interview  Amundson in  researchers, more  more  the  same,  f r o m B o r g e n and  or  reveal  (Giorgi,  1975,  106)  the  Amundson's method  itself p.  approach  given  data could  approach.  (1984) r e s e a r c h is  used the  i s to  s i t u a t i o n as  lived  life  Biographical for  describe  Primacy of  Expression as  meaning  pilot  the  coa  intent  The  is  reason  world  the  of  the the  unbiased  emphasis ".  world  to the  ...  3.  research ...  7.  implies  1975,  way"  p.  requirements  Descriptive  subject  ...  a  i t is  approach  s t r u c t u r a l approach  Engaged r e s e a r c h e r s  99  for  phenomenon a s  o f s i t u a t i o n from v i e w p o i n t o f  u n i t of  ...  a  by  i t exists for  eight characteristics (Giorgi,  Fidelity  Situation  follow  developed  the  t h r o u g h d e s c r i p t i o n i n an  "1.  4.  to  yielded using  " l e t the  phenomenological study:  ...  be  study.  methodological  2.  was  nature of  Hence,  the  ...  disabled  conducting  the  as  74).  following  more f u l l y  learning  researcher  after  much d e p t h  d a t a i s c o l l e c t e d i n a d i f f e r e n t manner  more c o n c r e t e l y ,  subject  The  but  comprehensive  but  phenomenological describer  (1984),  interviewing  the  incident  became a p p a r e n t t h a t  structured  still  i s t o examine i n a s  e x p e r i e n c e o f unemployment f o r  young a d u l t s . the  study  8.  ... ...  5. 6.  Search  20  The  critical,  procedures in  such  forcollecting a  solving  practical  a  technique  direct  group is  1954,  of  people  the co-researchers  strives  to e l i c i t  behaviour  usefulness  broad  Through t h i s  technique  i n f o r m a t i o n on what h e l p s a  specific because  the  critical  viewpoint.  evolves.  outside  observers.  Gray research  (1981,  p.  category  This  similar  the  incident  to  technique  With t h i s t e c h n i q u e  be  one  a  category  data  i s n e e d e d t o examine t h e L.D. a d u l t s ' n e e d s f r o m  an e x p e r t  (1981 p.435) s t a t e s :  i n t h e a r t and s c i e n c e o f b e i n g  p e r s p e c t i v e on l i v i n g  exist".  Essentially  phenomenological/critical have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o t e l l  with  through incident  his/her  disabled. can  of  a  co-researchers  will  own s t o r y .  The c o - r e s e a r c h e r s  a r e viewed a s " e x p e r t s " and t h i s methodology  i s chosen t o enhance  their  expert  status.  their  technique  based  disabilities use  by  individidual  learning  learning the  "Each  the Once  verifiable  432) s t a t e s t h a t " s y s t e m a t i c ,  own p e r s p e c t i v e . " J o h n s o n  common  s y s t e m must  or  situation.  on t h e t o p i c h a s been e l i c i t e d  This  in  psychological  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e h i g h and l o w p o i n t s o f  information  system  A  in  s e t of  o f unemployment f o r l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d young a d u l t s .  specific  is  potential  327).  powerful,  utilizes  process  p.  methodology,  a  o b s e r v a t i o n s o f human  c o l l e c t s concrete  considered  phenomenological  "consists of  problems and d e v e l o p i n g  (Flanagan,  interviewer  hinders  technique  way a s t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r  principles" the  incident  21  Subjects  This subjects  study u t i l i z e s will  For  the  be  r e f e r r e d t o as  Volunteer  disabled  co-researchers  adults,  and  facilities, social  about  Columbia. assessing  referee.  These r e f e r e e s  to  a regular  contact  basis.  months  or  have a h i s t o r y o f  Thirteen 1  for  undergone learning to  sixty  i n the  y e a r s o f age,  defined  by  subjects  demographic diagnostic disability.  will  for  from  learning  was  hereafter  knowledgeable  contacted  by  the  be  as  the  known  learning disabled  adults  subjects  needed  unemployed f o r a minimum o f  three  unemployment,  C.A.C.L.D.  were c o n t a c t e d  information). testing  that  (see  and  have  a  learning  introduction).  and  interviewed  All  (see  co-researchers  define  them  as  was  23.4  months.  The  deemed n e c e s s a r y t o  Table have  having  C o - r e s e a r c h e r s were unemployed f r o m  period  of  young  months w i t h a mean o f  minimum unemployment  writer  Lower M a i n l a n d  R e f e r e e s were i n f o r m e d t h a t  - 30  as  adults  work w i t h  20  a  service agencies o f f e r i n g vocational  person  be  disability  associations  learning d i s a b i l i t i e s ,  The  as  field.  A person from each o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  writer.  on  i n any  were r e f e r r e d t o t h e  programming f o r l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d British  "unemployed" i s d e f i n e d  permanent employment  educational  thus a l l  co-researchers.  purposes of t h i s study,  lack of f u l l - t i m e  various  a p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h and  three ensure  a  three month all  TABLE 1 Demographic  13  Age (II)  Sex  23  S 8  Marital Statue  females males  1 12  married single  Information  Living Situation  5 8  with f a m i l y Independently  Time Unemployed <Ho) (H)  23.4  Present Income  3 • 6 4  No Income Income A s s i s t a n c e Approx. SlOOO/aos.  23  co-researchers breakdown  had  adequate e x p e r i e n c e  between  female.  This  s e x e s was  61.6fc  approximates the  <n=  Grade  educational  diploma  researchers academic awarded level  sailing  p l e a s e see  she list  Table  but  38.4?s (n=  completed  within  the  taken a  ranged  from  courses  at  certificate  last  a or  grade the  co-  actual level  of  co-researchers  were  are p r e s e n t l y t a k i n g Grade  the  berry  careworker, One  two  5)  6  i n adult education c l a s s e s .  kitchen  consultant.  complete  had  The  1981).  necessarily their  of  counsellor,  but  not  example,  math c o u r s e s  labourer,  experience,  Data  For  assistant,  assistant,  not  occupations  camp  recreation  had  school diplomas,  Previous janitor,  co-researchers  but  and  achievement. high  (Lerner,  These l e v e l s r e p r e s e n t the  attended  r e a d i n g and  (for  Two  college level  programme'.  male and  l e v e l s of the co-researchers  8 t o G r a d e 12.  community  8)  sexual d i s t r i b u t i o n  community o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d p e o p l e  The  from which t o speak.  co-researchers picker,  helper,  include:  chicken clerk,  catcher, mechanic's  Canadian F o r c e s employee,  co-researcher  had  had  done v o l u n t e e r work a s a  of  co-researchers'  no  previous  paid  and work  library  page  occupations,  3).  Collection Volunteer  c o - r e s e a r c h e r s were r e f e r r e d  within  the  Lower M a i n l a n d  agents  include:  of B r i t i s h  f r o m numerous  Columbia.  The  sources  referring  V a n c o u v e r A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C h i l d r e n and  Adults  24  with  Learning  Children  and  Disabilities, Adults,  with  British  Columbia  Learning  Association  Disabilities,  for  Vancouver  i Community C o l l e g e -- K i n g Edward Campus, I n d i v i d u a l i z e d Programmes  for  Abbotsford, All and  and  Community  r e f e r e e s were f u l l y  t h i s study  Enterprises  Matsqui  Adult Basic Education, Delta.  in writing  informed  (See A p p e n d i x A ) .  of the study  They were t o l d  both  verbally  the purpose  i s t o examine t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l i s s u e s s u r r o u n d i n g  experience from  Adults,  Education  of  the  unemployment f o r l e a r n i n g  perspective of the learning  explained  to referees that  the study  to s i m i l a r  r e s e a r c h conducted  by D r .  disabled  disabled  young  It  i s meant a s f o l l o w - u p Dr.  University  Columbia.  methodology t o  and  Amundson  particular  study  (1984),  group  utilizes but  within  a similar  i t t a k e s a more d e t a i l e d the  adult  category.  informed  the  study  was  approved  by  U.B.C.,  and  that  i t  was  partial  requirements  f o r a Master  Referees  were t o l d  m i n u t e s t o one  in  to  d e s c r i b e i n a s much d e t a i l  details All  on  their  of  British Borgen  look  at  Referees  Ethics  of  a  were  Committee  fulfillment  t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s would be  45  hour.  Co-researchers  study  of the  of A r t s i n C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology.  for  history.  the  was  Borgen i n  t h e Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , This  the  adults  person.  Amundson and  of  During as  that  time  possible,  t h e y would be their  were a l s o t o be a s k e d  e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s and  i n t e r v i e w s would need t o be a u d i o - t a p e d .  interviewed  unemployment  to recount  their  asked  some  future plans.  Co-researchers  were  25  asked  to f i l l  sheet  could  Referees  kept  a background  be  completed  were  voluntary, with  out  told  and  which they  hence  and  study's  completion.  consent  form p r i o r B).  contacted  by  they  were n o t  confidential  Appendix  that  in  either  oral  written  would be  question  destroyed  t o commencing t h e  interview  were a l s o t o l d  asked  be  upon to  the  sign  (Please r e f e r  co-researchers  a summary o f t h e  r e s e a r c h e r s must meet i n o r d e r  was  A l l i n f o r m a t i o n would  would be  informed  form.  participation  Co-researchers  were t h e n  information  c o u l d r e f u s e t o answer any  audio-tapes  phone t o r e v i e w  The  or  co-researchers'  comfortable.  Referees  Referees  information form.  would  a to be  interview.  of the c r i t e r i a  to participate  potential  i n the study.  coThey  a r e as f o l l o w s :  All  co-researchers  including  30  years of  All  co-researchers  the  Canadian  Learning  must be  at least  20  y e a r s o l d up  to  and  age.  must be  l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d as d e f i n e d  Association  for  Children  and  Adults  by with  Disabilities.  All  co-researchers  must be  for  a  three  minimum  of  unemployed o r n e w l y months  or  have  a  employable history  of  unemployment.  All work  co-researchers as  may  be  long as the time  involved i n school  or  volunteer  committment d o e s n o t e x c e e d  twenty  26  h o u r s p e r week o r t h e i r  Once met  a  if  for participation,  c o - r e s e a r c h e r and  the  student"  referee established that a potential  the c r i t e r i a  potential  status i s "part-time  potential  co-researcher  the r e f e r e e approached  outlined  co-researcher  the study.  They t h e n  would  interested  be  the asked in  participating.  Referees  d i d express  co-researchers. researcher  would  disability." comfortable learning a  a  decided  with  the  term  would be  the  the  The  in describing was  deemed  the  term  co-  "learning  people  viewed themselves  interviewed.  disability  thought  with  potential  whether  t h a t only those  and  c o - r e s e a r c h e r had  i t was  i n approaching  surrounded  comfortable  was  who  as  were  having  degree of  comfort  himself/herself important,  i n t e r v i e w might prove  a  as  because  disturbing  for  co-researcher.  Once p o t e n t i a l interviewed w h i c h was  forwarded with  in  again.  full  would  co-researchers expressed  the r e f e r e e asked  contact  one  concerns  It  learning  otherwise the  be  disability  potential  having  Host  some c o n c e r n  The  interest  f o r h i s / h e r name and  to the researcher.  the p o t e n t i a l  an  The  c o - r e s e a r c h e r and  terminated  participation a t any  time.  experience  i n the study  number  r e s e a r c h e r then  made  e x p l a i n e d the  study  i n t e r v i e w the co-researcher f o r approximately  stressed  phone  p o i n t s e m p h a s i z e d were t h a t t h e  hour t o d i s c u s s t h e i r  i n being  researcher  45  minutes t o  of  unemployment.  was  v o l u n t a r y and  A l l i n t e r v i e w s would  be  It could  was be  audio-taped.  27  Information  gathered  would be k e p t  research purposes. to  their  Potential  involvement  second time  co-researchers  i n the study  by phone t o r e v i e w  confidential  t h a t they  done  to  ensure  unemployment  the  researcher captured The  r e s e a r c h e r s a s an a u d i o - t a p e  time  Interviews at  The  took  convenient  One assess  involved  the  presented  to  co-  I f potential  w i l l i n g n e s s t o be i n t e r v i e w e d was  arranged.  the co-researcher  attended.  Interview co-researcher  to  was i n v o l v e d i n a P i l o t  t h e same q u e s t i o n ,  Study so  ( s e e A p p e n d i x C) p o s e d t o  i n the research project, the co-researcher  was a s k e d  as  2.  Were t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s t o sway y o u r  those  f o r the p i l o t  stated?  t h a t were worded  i n such  a way a s  answers?  What c h a n g e s c o u l d y o u s u g g e s t  regarding the interview  o r t h e wording o f t h e q u e s t i o n s ?  to In  the following questions:  Were t h e q u e s t i o n s c l e a r l y  style  a  a t t h e home o f t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r o r  1.  3.  of  t h e i n t e r v i e w i n g s t y l e and a d e q u a c y o f t h e q u e s t i o n s .  addition  study  essence  t o the co-researcher,  place either  prior  t h e i n t e r v i e w was  the was  a  This  home one week  or written transcript.  the educational i n s t i t u t i o n  Pilot  summary  showed c o n t i n u e d  and p l a c e ,  prior  a summary o f t h e i n t e r v i e w .  This exercise of validating  experience.  co-researchers  were i n f o r m e d  would be c o n t a c t e d  summary would be s e n t t o t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r ' s t o t h e phone c a l l .  and u s e d o n l y f o r  28  4.  Any  further  The  feedback?  pilot  co-researcher  unemployment h i s t o r y and ease  throughout the  hesitation. manner is  He  meaning he  t r u e f o r L.D.  experience note  of  similar  interviewer of  speaking,  discussing  The  patterns  pilot  became  aware  were  school.  The  question  so  applicable  describe  guided  experience  t h a t the  simplified. t h a t the  interviewing  moving  the  was  unemployment  beginning  with  During  course of future  his  alert  co-researcher  thought  towards When  back  question  the  was  at t h i s point  too  uemployed  the  manner towards  left  interviews  "wordy"  co-researchers left  secondary  to a l t e r  i n as  and  the  was  first  directly  a  learning  " C o u l d you much  interviewer  please  detail  secondary school the  and  interviewer  person with  experience  be.  interview  the  they  a l t e r e d to read:  own  mental  however p a i n f u l t h a t m i g h t  first  when you  "This  i n t o a detached  less information an  general  from  interviews.  therefore decided  possible, the  remain  shortly after  contained  Q u e s t i o n one  your  to  at  without  made a  unemployment d i f f i c u l t i e s  commenced  i t  researcher  s t a t e d he  Also,  interviewer  to  disability.  own  but  describing  The  subsequent  co-researcher  flowed smoothly, t o be  gently  appeared  detached,  than speaking  attempted  in  He  his  h i s statements with,  " rather  a co-researcher  she  his/her  needed  ...  about  answered a l l q u e s t i o n s  " I " statements.  noticed  length  background.  sometimes p r e f a c e d  t e n d e n c y and  speech  and  at  a tendency t o speak i n a  people  using this  educational  interview  had  spoke  ...  also  as ?"  found  29  it  necessary  parts.  t o f r e q u e n t l y break q u e s t i o n  First,  to  question  the co-researcher  aspects  o f h i s / h e r unemployment e x p e r i e n c e .  his/her  thoughts during  part,  the  experienced  while  Other after  pilot  interview.  The  Questions  which  question  four.  people  had  dealt  Question  with  great  two  one i n  job  need  therefore  therefore included  Questions seven,  four,  five  A p p e n d i x D) requested further  became  the  Interview became  Study  their  that  educational  moved  and s i x were t h u s  ten.  as  secondary school  interview)  and  that  of  eleven  Question  specific  to  diagram  Questions  Question  more  left  the  Pilot  remained  strategies  s e v e n was  clarification  specified  ( i . e . that  o f t h e event  feelings  three  the P i l o t  e i g h t and n i n e .  researcher  date  the  discuss  same i n r e s p e c t t o w o r d i n g and s e q u e n c e .  researcher  the  final  to  become  e i g h t was moved t o t h e q u e s t i o n  were c o m b i n e d t o f o r m q u e s t i o n  to  and  of the questions  and  search  to  question  and q u e s t i o n  become q u e s t i o n s  refer  In the t h i r d  I t became a p p a r e n t d u r i n g  five  factual  Second, t o a s c e r t a i n  i n f o r m a t i o n on  part of question  a  experiences,  the  three  unemployed.  unchanged.  position.  requested  into  on  changes took p l a c e i n t h e sequencing  the  question  the experiences.  interviewer  one down  the  the  nine  as  and t e n  (please  the p i l o t co-  question.  was t o b e g i n  to  remained t h e  twelve  period  and c o n t i n u e  modified  six  I t was  o f t i m e t o be when  the  co-  t o t h e time o f the  diagram needed t o i n c l u d e e v e n t s , t h e  and t h e f e e l i n g s w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d  the event.  30  The  Interview  The  researcher  researcher asked  i n such  interview of  played  concerns  form  on  The  "employing  times  Questions or  the were  lead  i n t e r v i e w e r "made  open-ended  the use  questions,  summarizing"  ( B o r g e n and  step of the  i n t e r v i e w was  the consent  content,  the  consent  researcher  on  was the  to  questions  the co-researcher at t h i s  time.  The  the space provided. fully  informed  form. ' T h i s could  any  The  consent  Amundson,  included  In o r d e r  important  t o Appendix E ) .  either  explained  or was  consent the  process  elements  that  The  of  the  co-  that  the  co-researcher  was  question,  and  audio-taped.  the consent  the co-researcher's  reading  the  interview  form,  the  information  the demographic i n f o r m a t i o n sheet  If  form  to ensure  emphasizing  complete a s h o r t demographic  form.  form.  questions  read  regarding the  r e f u s e t o answer any  completing  on  and  co-researcher  i n t e r v i e w e r v e r b a l i z e d the  i n t e r v i e w would be  After  with  d e a l t with  signed  and  refer  interviewer.  sway t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r  U.B.C. l e t t e r h e a d .  co-researcher  with  all  and  reviewed were  and  asked  as  linking,  initial  was  printed  as t o not  At  17).  The form  a way  techniques  paraphrasing, p.  the r o l e of the  into a counselling session.  such  1984,  began e a c h i n t e r v i e w .  employment and The  o r w r i t i n g was verbally  and/or  dealt  education  same a p p l i e d h e r e  The  primarily  history  (please  as t o the  consent  a difficulty, the  sheet.  the  interviewer  form  was  wrote  the  31  answers  onto  interview or  t h e , form.  t o ensure  reading s k i l l s  This  was  An  1.  with  in a direct  identifying  number  was p l a c e d on  t h e i n t e r v i e w commenced.  the  writing way.  the  each  cotape,  Once t h e s e  facts  The i n t e r v i e w e r t u r n e d  t o ask t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r  the  interview questions.  you p l e a s e d e s c r i b e your  much  detail  secondary  as  possible  school?  your  unemployment e x p e r i e n c e  beginning  P l e a s e i n c l u d e your  what p o s i t i o n s you h a v e h e l d , and  throughout  but s e n s i t i v e  information sheet.  t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r and p r o c e e d e d  Could  made  any p o s s i b l e d i s c o m f o r t f o r  f o r m , and b a c k g r o u n d  modified  were  regarding a co-researcher's  were d e a l t  were c o m p l e t e d , on  matters  done t o m i n i m i z e  researcher. consent  Efforts  thoughts  your  with  when  30b s e a r c h  experiences  and f e e l i n g s t h r o u g h o u t  you  as left  strategies,  while  the  in  working  unemployment  experience.  2.  Thinking  back  over  describe  what  y o u c o n s i d e r t o be y o u r  this it  3.  Now  time.  let's  exactly  why  turn  unemployment  with the f i r s t  was s o d i f f i c u l t  experience.  4.  Begin  your  lowest  low p o i n t ,  points and t e l l  please during me  why  f o r you a t t h e t i m e .  to the high  Begin  experience,  points  with the f i r s t  i t was s o h e l p f u l  of  your  high p o i n t ,  unemployment and t e l l  f o r you a t t h e t i m e .  What j o b s e a r c h s t r a t e g i e s h a v e you u s e d ?  me  32  5.  What was y o u r e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e  6.  What s u c c e s s  7.  What h e l p h a v e y o u had?  8.  What h e l p would you h a v e l i k e d  d i d you e x p e r i e n c e  while working o r while  while  like?  i n school?  t o h a v e had e i t h e r  l o o k i n g f o r work?  9.  What h e l p w o u l d you l i k e  10.  What a r e y o u r f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n a l and c a r e e r  11.  How a b o u t o t h e r f u t u r e  12.  The  last  i n the future?  t h i n g I would  school  how y o u f e l t  The in  like  t o a s k you t o do i s t o  t o the present  not d i r e c t  questions facilitated see", asked  were  whether  interviewer  a  when y o u date  had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o answer e a c h The i n t e r v i e w e r  the interview.  repeated  as  The q u e s t i o n s  necessary.  t h e i n t e r v i e w by u s i n g s u c h  "go o n . "  with  draw  and  a t the time.  co-researcher  did  Begin  and i n c l u d e e a c h e v e n t ,  a s much d e p t h a s h e / s h e c h o s e .  but  plans?  plans?  d i a g r a m o f y o u r unemployment e x p e r i e n c e . left  i n school,  The  phrases  question  facilitated, or  parts  interviewer  a s "uh  uh",  A t t h e end o f t h e i n t e r v i e w t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r there  was  any  additional  n e e d e d t o know t o a s s i s t  in fully  of  "I was  information  the  understanding  the  33  experience  At the a  o f unemployment, f o r a l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d  the  conclusion  co-researcher content  The  summaries  verbal  or  reminded t h a t the h e / s h e had was  by  interview. was  will  done  accurately  be  to the  The  co-researcher  u n d e r s t o o d by i n the  in also  co-researcher  after  that the  home.  was  Every  verify  mail  co-researcher  co-researcher  a p p r o x i m a t e l y one  to  thanked  co-researcher's  summary.  further discussed  interviewer  made a r r a n g e m e n t s t o  would phone t h e  content  was  the  to the  form.  telephone within  This  collected  t i m e , and  were p r e s e n t e d  interviewer the  interview,  interview  written  reviewed  contacted  area  for her/his  summary o f t h e  content  either  of the  person.  month o f  all  information  interviewer.  data  the  This  analysis section  to  follow.  Data  Analysis  The  data  Amundson 1.  analysis  (1984) and A>  establish  Protocol the  A n a l y s i s or  Check on  Reliability 2.  A)  Listing  factors  on  a  (Refer  form,  and  rating  sheet  was  c o n s i s t s of the  essence of the  Validity  (1984).  format  by  following four  meaning u n i t s  steps:  the  utilized.  meaning u n i t s .  shifts  developed  by  and  related  Borgen  t o Appendix F - l f o r a copy o f the  forms).  and  summary o f t r a n s c r i p t s t o  a l l emotional  A p p e n d i c e s F-2  Borgen  meaning u n i t s .  Check on  r a t i n g sheet  developed  t h r o u g h F-4  situational  and  Amundson  rating  f o r examples o f  sheet  completed  34  3.  B)  V a l i d i t y . Check on  the emotional  C)  R e l i a b i l i t y . Check on  A)  S o r t i n g v i a themes and  rating  the emotional resulting  sheet.  rating  i n an  sheet.  Establishment  of C a t e g o r i e s .  4. the  B)  Reliability  A)  The  individual  s h e e t s and  1.  Check on  establishment  of a h o l i s t i c  questions analysis,  diagram  sheet  with the researcher l i s t e n i n g  form  a  summary o f  i s seven  t o 10  (B) V a l i d i t y by  the  thesis  reliability interviews checked  analysis,  utilizing  rating  analysis.  t h e unemployment e x p e r i e n c e .  summary  category  description  (A) P r o t o c o l A n a l y s i s - A l l t a p e s were l i s t e n e d  three times  to  the e s t a b l i s h e d c a t e g o r i e s .  colleague to further  reflected  two  The the  ensure  As  checked  to  ensure  well,  three  a t random,  reliability  c o l l e a g u e found  statements  G).  Amundson,  described.  to  Each  summaries were  Norman  to  together  experience.  o f the sample) s e l e c t e d  meaning u n i t s d e s c r i b e d . accurately  Dr.  put  (see Appendix  first  t h e meaning u n i t s  (one-quarter a  - The  chairperson.  of  by  co-researcher's  pages i n l e n g t h  Check  f o r r e f e r e n c e s made  T h e s e u n i t s were t h e n  the  t o two  were  of  the  t h a t a l l summaries  expressed  by  the  co-  researchers during the i n t e r v i e w s . (C)  Reliability  co-researchers  in  approximately  one  followed  with  up  interviewer  asked  Check  either  month o f t h e a  phone  - A l l summaries were s e n t t o  verbal  or  interview. call  the co-researcher  from  written The the  i f i t was  form  within  m a i l i n g was interviewer. necessary  the  to  then The make  35  any  changes or a d d i t i o n s t o the  Because researcher,  all no  co-researcher description follow-up curler," will  decided  No  phone  achieve  each  summary  From  there  The  was  to  are  co-  wanted t o a l t e r  want t o be  that  t h a t she  transcripts:  "knows  a  [she]  the  "No  co-  changes.  what I was  necessary.",  the  "good  of  a her  stated during  "You  saying.  summarized  Sheet Record of Emotional S h i f t s  b r o k e n down i n t o was  of  t i m e was  f r o m a few  was  other  not  accompanying generally articulating  on  an  of  emotion found their  utilized  that  event/behaviour;  job search  because  in  the  emotions.  strategy. most  Given  i n t e r v i e w s w h i c h was  an  rating  cases  encompasses such v a r i e d p e r i o d s  co-researchers with  First,  experiences.  t i m e e l e m e n t would n o t  the  that the  and  --  emotional  months t o s i x y e a r s .  thought the  element was  placed  future expectation;  unemployment h i s t o r y  i t  i t s constituent  divided into four categories:  strategy;  researcher  the  c a s e where  Here i s a sample  their  each e x p e r i e n c e  ranging  ranges  i n one  added.," " I t ' s b a s i c a l l y  Rating  category  time  wants."  additions  w h i c h was  people's  d i d not  words o f  She  " t h a t b o r i n g " and  she  comments  (A)  coping  except  future plans.  t h a t she  i s not  or  exact  beautifully."  2.  The  call  n e e d s t o be  everything  sheet  with  what  changes  i n the  i n r e t r o s p e c t t h a t she  dealing  researchers"  are  c h a n g e s were n e c e s s a r y  t h a t she  Nothing  summaries  summary.  event  noted  researcher  had  wide  accurate. by  describe  behaviour.  co-researchers The  be  o f t e n d i d not or  the  of  It  the an was  difficulty  therefore  placed  36  each e x p e r i e n c e the  rating  researchers researcher  from  sheet. were  a l l cases the exact When  was a c c o m p a n i e d  experience  the event  words  expressed  Otherwise,  emotion  were u s e d  to  of  the  co-  by  the  co-  by an e m o t i o n i t was n o t e d  under  the researcher c a r e f u l l y  w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e i n t e r v i e w and  appropriate  by  In used.  emotion category.  emotions  t h e summary u n d e r an a p p r o p r i a t e c a t e g o r y on  accompany  the  t o anchor experiences  the  read t h e  selected  an  experience.  Because  not d i r e c t l y  expressed  t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r , t h e r e s e a r c h e r added an a d d i t i o n a l  validity  check. (B)  Validity  random f o r t h i s the  t o review  person  this  placed  the rating  the  content  check.  rating  20 - 30 m i n u t e s o f  generally  The  over  the  The  summary and t h e r a t i n g  sheet  s h e e t s and a s k e d  had d i f f i c u l t y  non-assertive  .  each  involved  expressing their  Therefore,  in  telephone.  She e x p l a i n e d how  co-researchers  their  Two i n t e r v i e w s were done  information  was  co-researcher  to  on w h e t h e r t h e e m o t i o n w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d  accurate.  at  The r e s e a r c h e r c o n t a c t e d e a c h o f  sheets.  the o r i g i n a l  validity  on  comment  be  check.  and one i n t e r v i e w was c o n d u c t e d  r e s e a r c h e r used  was  validity  t h r e e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s and r e q u e s t e d  time  for  Check - T h r e e summaries were s e l e c t e d  the in  experience  this  study  f e e l i n g s and t e n d e d  t h e i n t e r v i e w e r remained  to  attuned  throughout  t h e i n t e r v i e w f o r cues which might i n d i c a t e t h a t  the  researcher  did  The  validity the  not capture the essence  scores f o r the three emotional  co-researchers a r e as f o l l o w s :  scores indicate  the percentage  of  the  rating  91&,  o f agreement.  emotion.  s h e e t s checked  90* and  85*.  by  These  37  <C)  Reliability  Check - A c o l l e a g u e  phenomenological/critical-incident technique  o f completing  random s e l e c t i o n the  rating  i n t e r v i e w summaries,  within  the  categories either  summary on  the  and  emotion  and  accompanying  reviewed the  under  them  rating  sheet.  the context  then  emotions.  primary cases  emotion than the  agreement.  t h a t they  the  selected  In  anger)  disagreements  interviews.  I n a few  differed  word t o  in  the  a  few i n s t a n c e s ,  If  the  primary  by  and  these over  were  viewed  the t o t a l  as  number o f  to  chose  an  emotion selected  situations  co-researcher  e m o t i o n s t o accompany  emotion  same  In these  refined  t h e c o l l e a g u e and  c o l l e a g u e and r e s e a r c h e r  cases  the  came  i n those  the  emotion  I n some  express  dialogued  i n d i c a t e d a d i f f e r e n c e i n primary then  researcher selected  necessary  emotion expressed  different  behaviour.  of incidents  v i e w e d a s an improvement t o t h e o r i g i n a l l y  initial  The  had  l e a d t o a more s p e c i f i c ,  T h i s d i a l o g u i n g was o n l y  ambiguous.  which  different  an  incident.  or behaviour.  and r e s e a r c h e r  The d i a l o g u e  emotion.  utilized  t h e one c h o s e n by t h e r e s e a r c h e r .  colleague  w h i c h we b o t h  where  a  the  When t h e c o l l e a g u e and  t h a t was s e e n t o accompany t h e e v e n t offered  from  appropriate  then  compared t h e s e l e c t i o n  t h e c o l l e a g u e and r e s e a r c h e r  colleague  She  of  same i n c i d e n t s a c r o s s t h e t h r e e c h e c k e d  the  the  with  w i t h i n t h e summary o r s e l e c t e d  t h e i n c i d e n t s i t was d i s c o v e r e d  instances  Working  placed  given  c o l l e a g u e and r e s e a r c h e r  of the interviews.  selected incidents  emotion expressed  appropriate  T h i s c h e c k was b a s e d on a  the colleague  the emotional  in  m e t h o d o l o g y was t r a i n e d i n t h e  sheets.  o f one q u a r t e r  knowledgeable  was  researcher  an  event an  or  emotion  ( i . e . sadness v s .  disagreements. incidents  yielded  These the  38  reliability 82.6%,  scores.  84.2%  agreement. until 100%  we  and  The  85.7%.  When we  came t o an  reliability These s c o r e s  d i d not  as  i n d i c a t e the  a g r e e a b o u t an  agreement, hence the  follows:  percentage  e m o t i o n , we  final  of  dialogued  discussion yielded  agreement.  3. noting  The  card  researcher  carefully  incident card  held  the exact  was  were  created  facilitating  they  and  indicated  quote d e s c r i b i n g the  Hindering right pile  were  a green dot  separately  categories.  Each  <A> the category  category  Reliability system  the c o l l e a g u e s o r t i n g utilized  this  point  questions cards  she  upper r i g h t  then  a red dot researcher  titled.  hand in  corner.  This  the colleague. hindering  The  to  form  title  was  established colleague  system and  Prior  explained in  to the  detail.  answered  c o l l e a g u e then  incidents  each  themes.  researcher  category  upper  analyzed  hindering incidents.  each  cards  the  a c o l l e a g u e . . The  i n c i d e n t s , the  code  categories  i n c i d e n t s i n t o themes  c h e c k e d by  negative  the  categories:  Check - Once t h e r e s e a r c h e r  explained  with  broad  a  Each  incident  facilitory  i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the category  p o s e d by  beginning  the  was  two  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the  i t was  a l l p o s i t i v e and  process  i n the  s o r t e d the  t h e key  i n c i d e n t and  The  At t h i s p o i n t the  and  chosen t o c a p t u r e  sorted  into  i n c i d e n t s were i n d i c a t e d w i t h  hand c o r n e r .  incident.  A f t e r the c r i t i c a l sorted  sheets,  From t h i s p o i n t  f o r each  hindering categories. by  a l l the r a t i n g  shifts.  developed  number o f t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r .  were  re-read  i n c i d e n t s w i t h i n the emotional  critical  At  scores are  all  sorted a l l  resulting  in  a  39 reliability of  of  agreement.  facilitory of  score  the  because  This score  81.8JS.  The  colleague  incidents.  This task  hindering the  incidents.  hindering  the  the  Once  facilitory  incidents a r e l i a b i l i t y  score  the  for  This  score  helpful  the  the  score  category  sort  have  the pain  the  associated sorted  calculated. was  agreement.  refinement  of  the  refinement  was  p o s s i b l e because of c a r e f u l  the  which  occurred  co-researchers  incidents  c h e c k ws  system  may  was  percentage of  of t h i s r e l i a b i l i t y  to  colleague  s o r t i n g of the f a c i l i t o r y  indicates  aspect  by  because o f the  event.  percentage  l e s s time than the s o r t i n g  i n c i d e n t s expressed  articulated  of  took  proceeded  This discrepancy  were l e s s c l e a r l y telling  then  i n d i c a t e s the  81.6&.  The  place.  questioning  the The  clarifying  took  with  from  most and This the  colleague.  4.  Utilizing  developed. scores  to  This  all i s the  summarize  the  measures, final  a holistic  aspect  overall  of the  description  data  psychological  unemployment f o r l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d young  adults.  was  analysis  and  experience  of  40  4  CHAPTER RESULTS AND  The  results  sections. of  These  the data a n a l y s i s are  five  unemployment  information  for  of  learning  data  in  disabled  this  collected  sections  comprise  utilized, future  p a s t and positive  School  by  and  and  description  a  The  holistic  five  school  job search  incident  the  sheets,  sheets.  negative c r i t i c a l  skills  categories,  w i t h i n the  questions d i r e c t l y interview,  c o - r e s e a r c h e r ' s need  sometimes  co-researchers  minimum o f two  going  had  years,  of  the  discuss  their  69.2%  <n=9) o f t h e  an a r e a  The  was  school school.  were a s k e d t o d e s c r i b e  academic p r e p a r a t i o n .  t o be  interviewer  b e e n away f r o m s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l  employment s i t u a t i o n  anticipate this  to  the  pertaining  back as f a r as e l e m e n t a r y  y e t when t h e y  began t o d i s c u s s t h e i r not  rating  headings:  work h i s t o r y  t h e r e were o n l y two  the  experiences,  present  from  Experiences  school experiences  struck  All  and  broad  The  experience.  Although to  present,  expectations,  unemployment  following  five  adults.  the  the diagram  in  experience  results  utilizing  i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s , and the  young  chapter  individual  experiences  presented  s e c t i o n s serve to describe the  presented  integration  s  of  DISCUSSION  for  a  their  co-researchers interviewer did  so p r e v a l e n t i n t h e  minds  of  41 the  co-researchers.  examine  Given  the experience  the l e a r n i n g  the study's  o f unemployment f r o m  influenced  researcher  which  i s to  the vantage p o i n t o f  d i s a b l e d young a d u l t t h e i n t e r v i e w e r d e c i d e d  r e s e a r c h e r s were making a s t a t e m e n t strongly  purpose,  their  that  present  spoke o f h e r e x p e r i e n c e  past school  life  experiences  situation.  i n t h i s way,  theco-  One  "You  co-  would  be  surprised  how much t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m h a s t o do w i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l  problems  and  later  how  in life."  detail they  For t h i s reason,  and  where  problems  experienced  t h e r e s e a r c h e r has chosen  co-researchers' past school attained  school  much i t h a s t o do w i t h  experiences,  applicable,  any  to  successes  co-researchers'  present  situation.  Past School  School people  grade completion  completed  three  people  Grade  Twelve.  stated  their  2 fora full  The  Of  description  four people  began i n e l e m e n t a r y  of the co-researchers  t h r e e main c a t e g o r i e s :  peers,  shamed and  completed  percent  school.  Ten,  <n=9)  See T a b l e  of people's s c h o o l i n g .  school experiences  t e a c h e r s ' comments,  two  Grade  people  i n t e r v i e w e d 69.2*  b r o k e n down i n t o being  follows:  completed  G r a d e E l e v e n and f o u r  the people  difficulties  past  c a n be d e s c r i b e d a s  Grade E i g h t ,  completed  Experiences  through  t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s .  be  n o n - a c c e p t a n c e by t h e i r  inappropriate  not being  can  listened  programming  t o or understood  and by  Table 2 Educational History Co-researcher #  Highest Grade Achieved i n Secondary School  Actual Present Academic L e v e l ( i f known)  #25  Grade 12 (nonacademic)  Yes  No  #26  Grade 11  Yes  No  #27  Grade 12  Yes  No  #28  Grade 12  Yes  Yes  #29  Grade 11  No  No  #30  Grade 10  No  Yes  #31  Grade 8  No  Yes  #32  Grade 10 ( p r e employment)  Yes  Yes  #33  Grade 8  Yes  No  #34  Grade 12  Yes  Yes  #35  Grade 12  Yes  No  #36  Grade 10  Yes  Yes  #37  Grade 11  No  Yes  Grade 6  Grade 11  Grade 10  Grade 6  W i l l i n g n e s s to Accept Help While i n Secondary S c h o o l  Participation in Adult Education Program  43  The support that  description  of  traumatic school experiences  were  problems.  treated  secondary  by  People  their  school.  teased  me q u i t e a l o t ,  crooked  o r clumsy.  stupid  kid.",  difference  i n addition  insensitive This and  outlined  me f o u r  children  learning shaming  or  crippled,  laughed  a t me",  teasing  " k i d s c a n be s o  or  by  their  cruel".  classmates.  The  they  specifically  were f r u s t r a t e d  learning  disabled  two c a t e g o r i e s ;  Neither disabled  situations  related  were c o n f r o n t e d to their  classmates.  into  a  with  c l a s s e s f o r those  with p h y s i c a l  placement  meets t h e  i n which they  fully The  how  and  needs  I was dumb,  mental  detailed  or r i d i c u l e d  stupid.  began t o b e l i e v e I was s t u p i d . "  A n o t h e r man s t a t e d ,  c l a s s with  people  i n t h e head".  described  how  who were f u n n y  system  of the  One woman s t a t e d " I have an I.Q.  I was c o n s t a n t l y t o l d  I  by  o f 140. really  " I was i n a  Further,  he c o p e d w i t h h i s c l a s s p l a c e m e n t ,  to  'typical'  co-researchers  were m i s p l a c e d  with  Teachers  school  l a r g e classrooms  is  disability.  and a t a l o s s a s t o  students  population.  the teaching f a c u l t y . school  experiences i n  t o the usual teasing,  and s p e c i a l  handicaps.  and  d i s a b l e d young a d u l t s  administrators  into  elementary  their  eyes,  v e r b a l abuse d i d n o t end w i t h t h e i r  divided  in  t h i s group o f l e a r n i n g  comments  accommodate  In  while  t o g e t p i c k e d on q u i t e a l o t " , "They  called  experience  with  group  they  No one wanted t o make f r i e n d s w i t h a c l u m s y ,  "People  students  (1981) and Cox (1977)  s p o k e a t l e n g t h a b o u t t h e way  peer  " I used  experiences  l a y t h e g r o u n d work f o r f u t u r e  Co-researchers  t h e f o l l o w i n g ways:  that  school  t h e f i n d i n g s o f Meyers and Messener  adjustment  Many  co-researchers'  a  "In school  man I  4,4  made s u r e no one knew I was i n t h e c l a s s . class.  My  They c a l l e d  f r i e n d s would a s k me what c l a s s  i t the zoo  I came o u t o f a n d  I  would s a y I was i n t h e c a r p e n t r y room".  In class  addition  f o r mentally handicapped  overwhelmed teaching and  by  who  had  an o v e r a l l a thing  further frustrate t h a t they be  adults' school  energy  with t h e i r  as a learning  t o be u n d e r s t o o d  worthwhile  and  guidance.  listened  t o my i n t e r e s t s .  j u s t d i d n ' t h a v e t h e means.  "There  were  me s o l o n g .  something  times  I never  b a d i n my h e a r t t h a t  didn't  belief  that  sense  nor could they  expect  really  "No o n e  i n the  weren't  really  They  They t r i e d  t o help but  I t frustrated  I was good a t . "  the teachers d i d n ' t understand." feel  students  This served t o  One man s t a t e d  guess they  do  and  what  i n d i v i d u a l s worthy a s c h i l d r e n o f  i n why i t t o o k  to  disabled  disability.  interested  wanted  learning  were  about  t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s and l e a v e them w i t h a  as  system  the co-researchers  lack o f understanding  could n o t expect  deemed  people,  t e a c h e r s who were n o t k n o w l e d g e a b l e  methods t o u t i l i z e  t h e r e was s u c h  to  t o t h e shaming e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g p l a c e d i n a  I just  man  stated,  g o t t h e h e l p I needed  because  Another  Another  me.  I  woman s a i d ,  I wasn't d o i n g w e l l  " I used t o  but they  (teachers)  realize i t . "  To f u r t h e r whether  they  secondary  complicate matters would  school  have  been  when c o - r e s e a r c h e r s were open  4 1 . 6 % <n=6) s a i d  either  not i n a position  would  not  to learn  no.  to  assistance  They s t a t e d  asked  while they  in were  g i v e n p e r s o n a l problems o r they  have been a b l e t o a c c e p t t h e f a c t  that / \  they  needed  45  special  help  opinion,  this  counselling for  to  learn  serves  and  they  intertwine  By t h e t i m e  frustration.  of  self-esteem  and  establishing  programme.  This  statement  importance disabled  young  All  providing  an  s u r p r i s e a s i f p e o p l e had never  while i n high school.  ever  met w i t h  success  studies.  when  a  Haubrich based  in  educational and  Hartman  a l l o f whom s t r e s s services  the  to  learning  t o d e s c r i b e what  success  success  found  (1981)  everyone  a l s o found own i n t e r n a l  describe her school success,  met  schooling with  recalled  (n=5) s t a t e d  a s math,  was  the some  t h e y had  reading or social further  by  the  a c a d e m i c s u c c e s s was j u d g e d  aa  such  co-researcher attained  was  of their  Nevertheless,  Of t h e s a m p l e , 3 8 . 4 *  this  i t waa  on t h e i r  with  disability  by Rogan  thought  success.  i n academic s u b j e c t s such When  interviewer  success  deal  This question  o f 1 5 . 3 * (n=2) o f t h e s a m p l e ,  instances of success. had  a  to  individualized  were a s k e d  with  exception  personal  adults.  co-researchers  that  of  psychological  experienced  one  of  o f minimal  crucial  i s supported  they  as  author's  issues  a history  (1981) a n d Cox ( 1 9 7 7 ) ,  of  the  o f which a r e n e c e s s a r y  acceptance  with  Johnson  both  I t w o u l d seem  conjunction  (1976),  the  In  t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s were i n h i g h  had a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d  excess  issues  to  subjects.  and a c a d e m i c a s s i s t a n c e ,  this population.  school  academic  pursued  a mark o f C  that  or  s u b j e c t s judged  s e tof perceptions. o n e woman s a i d ,  g o t good marks i n S c i e n c e , H i s t o r y  C+.  Fafard  their  and  success  When a s k e d t o  "None i n s c h o o l .  I  a n d Home E c , t h e h i g h e s t mark  46  I got  i n school  this  that success  by  the  was  passing mark  of  people art,  to  mark  reflected  about  i t " , "One  examines  the  whether  having  success A  the  criteria  as  not  than  existing  typical  when  a  population  a  accomplishment.  area  typing.  Comments  such  i n non-academic s u b j e c t s : I liked  "I d i d w e l l  describe  of strength  s t a t e m e n t s a p p e a r t o be  sports", in  i t  becomes  while  least  as  these  "I  didn't is  When  one  questionable as  limited  themselves as d i s c o v e r i n g i n secondary  worst a t ,  as  "Sports  art".  a d e s c r i p t i o n o f what t h e  themselves as being  Other  i n non-academic s u b j e c t s such  in school.  not  used  uncommon f o r  above s t a t e m e n t s would b e t t e r d e s c r i b e d  ability  or  an  above s t a t e m e n t s c l o s e l y  P e o p l e do  school.  an  These  co-researchers  r a t h e r than a t  what  were s u c c e s s f u l .  People following  learning  It  "School was  different.",  day."  This  their was  really  d i s a b l e d person.",  knew I was last  summarized  ways:  breakdowns.  and  or  - typing",  successes.  they  success  people's success  have any  success  deemed  I t appears from  I t was  a t t a i n e d whereas f o r t h e  sports  really  different  disabled population.  A would u s u a l l y be  carpentry,  p r e t t y good."  describe school  was  described  viewed  T h a t was  i s measured by  non-learning  co-researchers  C+.  school  terrible. rough.  "School  I  I'm was  experiences  a  "I t h i n k t h a t the  had  two  classified  the  emotional as  nightmare. best  in  p a r t was  a  minor  Everyone the  first  ,  detailed  d e s c r i p t i o n of the  difficulties  the  co-  47 researchers teachers  experienced  in  a  i s n o t meant t o p o r t r a y t h e  negative l i g h t  g r e a t an e x t e n t on p e o p l e ' s strongly, served  a  situation.  backdrop  got t h e help  negative. I needed  the  participated their  that their  which  they  school  handle  to too indicated  experiences  their  present  academic l i f e  t h a t was  A co-researcher put i n s u c c i n t l y ,  ( i n school)  "If I  I'm s u r e t h a t I w o u l d n o t be i n  thirteen  School  schooling  Experiences  co-researchers,  i n Adult Education  present  elementary  will  53.8*  Programmes.  i t was i n  sharp  and h i g h s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e .  present experience  experiences  acceptance techniques,  and  to  community  statements  enrolled  will  accomplishment.  'where I'm a t e a s e ,  illustrate  People's three  teaching  present  categories: teaching  staff.  Co-  a l s o be d e t a i l e d .  i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Programmes w i t h i n  c o l l e g e system o r i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n  Continuing Education  their  elements o f t h e i r  s u i t a b l e p l a c e m e n t and e f f e c t i v e  r e s e a r c h e r s ' summarizing  have  contrast  Similar  p r o v i d e d by  7)  described  be b r o k e n down i n t o  the support  When p e o p l e  =  be d e s c r i b e d i n o r d e r t o f u l l y  will  by p e e r s ,  (n  When t h e y  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e p a s t and p r e s e n t .  school  of  Co-researchers  or  situation."  Of  the  life.  t o i g n o r e an e a r l y  Present  the  early  from  I t i s hard  overwhelmingly  this  nor i s i t t o concentrate  during the interviews,  as  school  P u b l i c School A woman s a i d ,  Board,  they  met w i t h a  "I've f i n a l l y  where I'm a c c e p t e d . "  through  found  the sense  a school  The c o - r e s e a r c h e r s were  48  met  with  viewpoint  sympathetic  teachers  considering  intellectual  researchers They  commented  were  time  had  difficult  Such  finally  had  statements:  by  on."  the time  "The  and  t e a c h e r s g i v e me  l o t s of feedback,  a  lot.  like  "The She  understood  me  well  needs.  in  nature.  which  they  t o t r y e v e n when  i f  "At  that  something  a hot p o t a t o ,  Co-researchers  deal The  was  but  she  of  how  and  how  spoke  teachers  patience to  Co-  with  them.  teachers  have  "Here a t t h e c o l l e g e  the  f a r more t h a n  they  d i d i n high  Programme t e a c h e r t h e r e h e l p e d a s she  worked w i t h o t h e r  me  people  me."  scholastic college  co-researchers  success.  I feel  of myself."  I'm  A  finally  Another  more h a p p i e r  co-researcher Programme  this  right  and  now  summed way, also  they  were  her  said,  "At c o l l e g e  in learning  at least up  "Now  a c h i e v i n g something.",  individual  now,  said  co-researcher said,  h a v e a l o t more e x p e r i e n c e  lot  like  what I l i k e . " ,  Adult Education  Finally,  I  that  teachers understood.  That's  holistic  i t t h i s way,  the Adult Education  patience here.  school.",  i n areas  i n myself  i t instantly  a  supportive  They were e n c o u r a g e d  keep g o i n g  understood  from  emotional  instructor's  confidence  dropped  made me  were  someone  and  A c o - r e s e a r c h e r put  little  I just  [teacher] they  improvement.  of f a i l u r e .  I  the  worked  given p o s i t i v e reinforcement  demonstrated fearful  on  who  and  I know I c a n  experience  meeting that "I'm  I'm so  at proud  I came h e r e  reading.  g e t somewhere."  i n the  Adult  around a b i t longer because i t  and  I feel  a A  Education  "College I think i s the best thing  stick  with  for is  me not  49 only 30b  what and  do  I'm  l e a r n i n g but  more  activities."  It disabled enter  would people  into  appear who  which does not  low  later be  experience  self  school needs  history  school  success  unable  The  to  meet  The  learning  high  school  skills.  Further  minimal s e l f  the  have n o t  worth  suggest  that a  vocational  contributes  by  and to  a  appear not  to  mastered  u s u a l l y accomplished  the  basic  'typical'  high  d i s a b l e d young a d u l t s h a v e more o p p o r t u n i t y  for  30b  success  i f enrolled  i n Adult  Education  T h e s e programmes a l l o w f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n obtained  through  previous schooling.  scholastic serves  success. to  confidence  resulting  In  summary,  school  experiences  needed  to  discover  The  increase  of  first  i f they  previously secondary  i s important  unable  achieving a  sense  low school  of  levels  the  academic of  self  experience.  to c a r e f u l l y  consider  l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d young a d u l t s . whether  not  are  f u r t h e r development  from t h e i r  i t  programmes.  of academic s k i l l s  I t i s as  move t o w a r d a s u i t a b l e c a r e e r w i t h o u t  skills  a  students.  future  of  in  co-researchers  because they  akilla  that  results  of learning disabled students  social  to f i n d  a l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d young a d u l t t o  o f unemployment.  Learning  to  30b  l e v e l s and  f o r employment.  a b l e t o move f o r w a r d ,  a c a d e m i c and  confidence  statements  limited  confidence  system  me  m i n i m a l o r no  serve to enable  compete s u c c e s s f u l l y  academic  from t h e s e  a work f o r c e w i t h  l i m i t a t i o n s are  secondary  also giving  psychological  the  This  is  process  of  50  unemployment  n e e d s t o be e x t e n d e d  p o s s i b l e antecedent  to a future  to include  school  failure  h i s t o r y o f unemployment.  as  a  51  Work H i s t o r y and  Table obtained  3 up  examining  to the  have  jobs  are  work  and  skills  catching  require  have a S p e c i f i c assistant,  fall  only  personal  on  All  positions.  With the e x c e p t i o n  janitorial  utilizing researcher training. obtain  skills  acquired  obtained This  work a s a s a i l i n g  interview,  one  had  Level  in  the  no  (Level  o f one.  clerical  o f the nurse's  marketable  skills  was  As  of  Canadian  (Level  chicken  positions  but  mechanics all  less  than  as L e v e l  as e n t r y  system.  2  level  aide position  obtained  1) For  worker a r e  and  employment One  co-  through a v o c a t i o n a l  used h i s r e c r e a t i o n a l  instructor.  2  2).  A  These a r e c l a s s i f i e d jobs q u a l i f y  the  T h i s means  These  o u t s i d e the school  co-researcher  colevel  has  b a b y s i t t i n g and  co-researchers  co-researcher  the low  (1978).  days  level  and  t h e above mentioned  position,  of  a short demonstration  positions.  the  30  topsoil,  attendant  the s i t e .  of  or  a short demonstration.  care  from  a short demonstration  Vocational Preparation  days t r a i n i n g  1  as o u t l i n e d  l e s s than  p i c k i n g , packing  evident  co-researcher  within Level  i s either  p o s i t i o n s r e q u i r i n g more t h a n 30  one  variety  D i c t i o n a r y of Occupations  of  have  r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e most o f  Preparation  a short demonstration berry  It is  people  ( 6 9 . 2 % n=9)  in a  In a d d i t i o n ,  t h e work e n t a i l e d  example,  interview.  the majority  They  Vocational  o f work e x p e r i e n c e  experience  The  minimal.  Classification  or  that  positions.  experience.  that  to the type  time of the  3  work  Specific  Search  refers  Table  researchers transient  Job  w e l l , at the  partaking  in  an  skills  to  time of  the  apprentice  Table 3 Jobs Held S i n c e L e a v i n g Secondary School and Employment  Co-researcher  #  Job  Goals  Employment  Title  Goal  #25  C l e r k , sandwich maker  C a s h i e r , Nurses Aide  #26  Personal care attendant, c a s h i e r , nurse's a i d e  Physiotherapist  #27  S a i l i n g i n s t r u c t o r / y a r d ape, s k i salesperson, s a i l b o a t aaleperson, wheelmotor mechanic, cook  T.V. P r o d u c t i o n , w r i t i n g and/ or d i r e c t i n g  #28  Mechanic's a s s i s t a n t  Transmission  #29  Berry p i c k e r  Daycare worker  #30  Labourer  Counselling/uncertain  #31  Armed F o r c e s  General/trade  #32  Camp c o u n s e l l o r , b a b y s i t t e r  C h i l d c a r e worker  #33  Chicken c a t c h e r , k i t c h e n h e l p e r , roofer, labourer  Carpenter  #34  Zoology/Animal  mechanic  care/uncertain  #35  Nurse's A i d e  Uncertain  #36  C o n s t r u c t i o n worker, j a n i t o r , owner of j a n i t o r b u s i n e s s  Owner o f J a n i t o r  #37  S e p t i c tank carwasher  Uncertain  installer,  labourer,  business  53  training  programme  as a c a r p e n t e r .  obtained  but  utilized  attendant,  No  through  one  half.  Six  call,  not  people  their who  t o work a s  personal expressed  employment.  washing c a r s ,  o f two p e o p l e ,  i n an employment  field  job s a t i s f a c t i o n  attendant.  of  researchers disabled  is  people  level  these  work  Only  one  i s scanty.  to  the  janitor,  but a t present  business. possessing  In  strong directed  summary,  a  researcher's i n their  i n i t i a l l y obtained  have  quest  matched  The  people one  of  personal  of  the  in  co-  learning  co-researcher  employment h i s own  not demonstrated  work s k i l l s  variety  was  The w r i t e r i s r e f e r r i n g  he owns and o p e r a t e s  Co-researchers  picker  d i s p l a y e d by t h e of  advanced w i t h i n h i s chosen vocation./ who  such  interested  history  has  co-researcher  on-  areas.  The  interviewed  were  a  or  felt  worked a s a  people  o f work e x p e r i e n c e  minimal.  worked  were t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s ,  care  and of  or berry  aspirations.  and t h e o t h e r who  overall  care  This includes  t h a t they  worked a s a j a n i t o r  themselves i n these  a year  comprised  roofer,  whom  The  personal  no one had  q u a l i t i e s and employment  Both  had  v o l u n t e e r s e r v i c e background.  or transient  working  furthering  a  <49.15e> had work e x p e r i e n c e  exception  presently  co-researcher  had worked a t one j o b f o r l o n g e r t h a n  temporary,  the  skills  h i s broad  p o s i t i o n s as b a b y s i t t e r , with  Another  as  a  janitorial  themselves  as  or h a b i t s .  difficulties  f o r upward m o b i l i t y .  impede  the  co-  F i v e of the co-  54  researchers They  are  a p p e a r t o be o r i e n t e d i n t h e d i r e c t i o n probably  ascertain  their  disabled.  The  The  g o a l s as other remaining  difficulty  weaknesses. areas  they  Once  the  are lacking  enhance t h e i r  for  steady  to analyze  skill  their  they  level.  c o u l d then  to  learning  difficulties. strengths  develop  and  in  what  a programme  T h i s would i n c r e a s e t h e i r  chance  employment.  the t h i r t e e n  co-researchers,  vocational plans.  history  and  t h e d e s i r e d employment  3 ) , one  can  see t h a t only f i v e  display  a minimal discrepancy desired  experience  work  related  have l o n g - t e r m Included  a r e not  co-researchers could establish skills  desire.  efficiently  f o u r a p p e a r t o be h a v i n g  definite  their  and  young a d u l t s who  i s the i n a b i l i t y  to  Of  working as competently  they  in  involved  in  goal  a  between These  of  their  five  the  to  have  experience  a l l have They  chance f o r goal  placement  Table  work e x p e r i e n c e  people  co-researcher  work  co-researchers  future career objectives.  group i s a work  (please refer  (38.4*)  p l a n s t o enhance t h e i r this  (69.2*)  Y e t when you examine t h e g e n e r a l  goal.  to their  nine people  who a  work also  attainment.  is  as  and  presently carpenter's  apprentice.  T h i s means t h a t t h e r e a r e s t i l l remaining  who  perform.  Unfortunately,  employment  related  have  also  training  been  know  the type  unable  necessary  to  o f job d u t i e s they  they  to their  four co-researchers  h a v e a s y e t been u n a b l e  desired f i e l d .  to obtain achieve  would  the their  These  academic employment  (30.7*) like  to  to locate  co-researchers or  vocational goal.  The  55  difficulty  f o r t h i s group i s not  realistic  employment  resources these  so  as  they  findings  of  often  worked on career course  she  not  the  a  necessary  be  At  least  supports  The  adults  Adult  (30.7%)  to  do  render  themselves  of the  management o r a s with  hand  is  i n the  most i n v o l v e d  never  four aspires to  co-researcher  has,  in  a tentative desire to  field  t h a t her  the  goals.  o f her  personal  choice  is  employment  volunteer  care  o f her  p e r s o n a l i t y combined w i t h  work a s own  the  zoology. such  in  the  a veterinary assistant.  her  a  work  q u a l i t i e s are  better suited to front l i n e  o f her  direction  people are attending  one  expressed  deep s a t i s f a c t i o n  aspects  of  goal.  have  One  expressed  These  mobilize  employment  This  a  not  step  realistic.  writer's opinion  and  of  f o u r p e o p l e f r o m t h i s g r o u p have  academic s e t t i n g .  of equestrian  to  l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d young  Three of these  interview,  m i g h t be  goal.  co-researchers  a regular basis.  i s the  that  four  Three of the  of  inability  e s t a b l i s h i n g long-term  plans.  t h a t may  w i t h i n an  ultimate  (1978) t h a t  courses;  employable.  area  their  Kronick  career  Education  It  know  remaining  specific  the  appear unable t o c h a r t a course  have d i f f i c u l t y  The  but  establishment  t o move t o w a r d a t t a i n i n g t h e  co-researchers  although  goal,  s o much t h e  She  a  ranch  small  pets.  slow  speed  at  *  assimilating  academic i n f o r m a t i o n  t o work d i r e c t l y  Four people  are  with  their  might  prefer  animals.  p e o p l e have no in  i n d i c a t e s t h a t she  mid  definite  career  twenties  plans.  attending  Three of Adult  these  Education  56 courses.  This  future.  The  satisfying  step adult  one.  benefiting  is  in a l l likelihood  schooling  experience  People are experiencing  scholastically  adult  students  do  not  career  possibilities  and  to  their  i s proving  to  be  continuous  psychologically.  a p p e a r t o be  while  essential  they  seriously  attend  Yet  thus  the  three  considering  their  school.  I t would be  cost e f f i c i e n t  T h i s group  would  probably  b e n e f i t from v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n  with  schooling.  volunteer  y e t he  a  specific  He  i s not  an  has  f o u r t h person  a l s o not  employment f i e l d  counselling  and  so as  employment a r e a .  Cox  w h i c h i n c l u d e s v o c a t i o n a l and with  remediation  On  co-researchers. system  useful  people  have  means,  note,  People in  obtained  motivated  people  4  personal  refers  than  is  to  limited.  not  psychotherapy  counselling in conjunction remediation  found  them f o r  the  and  in  isolation.  e x h i b i t e d by  traditional  future  volunteer  creative skills  school  employment.  through  and  the  Yet  avocational work. are  This highly  employment.  Search  to  that  many s t r e n g t h s a r e  have u t i l i z e d  Job  Table  (1977) s u g g e s t s  programmes  to obtain secure  s t r o n g committment  would a l s o b e n e f i t f r o m  marketable s k i l l s  apprenticeship  indicates  He  active  to acquire assistance i n selected-  have  preparing  any  h i s work e x p e r i e n c e  school.  i s more h e l p f u l  a more p o s i t i v e  i n t h i s g r o u p i s an  developed  presently attending  vocational ing  The  were t h e c a s e .  more  t i m e and  their  i f this  success  a  Skills  Utilized  the frequency  of  job  search  methods  4  Table Frequency of  Job  Search Search  Methods  Utilized  n  Job  Method  7  C.E.C.  6  Newspaper want  4  Special  4  Family and/or  4  Completed  2  Cold  2  None  2  Job p l a c e m e n t o r i e n t s Agency  1  Personal  1  Career  1  Resume  Needs  ads Counsellor friends  u n s o l i c i t e d job  applications  calls  agency Counsellor  Social  Service  58  utilized  by  co-researchers  throughout  experience.  With t h e e x c e p t i o n  engaged  in  some  methods  o f 30b s e a r c h o c c u r r e d  maximum  number  researcher  to  Hatch's  university Hatch per  disabled search exist  search  study  graduates  of  than  r e p e t o i r e than  Every  a number  that co-researchers  seem  within taped  their  t o be i n d i c a t i n g realm.  do u n i v e r s i t y  and  adult  to  feature  of  30b  methods w h i c h  most  a desire to  expressed  extreme  T h i s w o u l d seem o r have  not  Co-researchers  mobilize  F o r e x a m p l e , no one s e a r c h e d  interesting  young  expressed  employment.  an i n a b i l i t y  by  methods  the former as the  h a v e n o t been t a u g h t  o r w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s on 30b s e a r c h  Another  i s compared  graduates.  o f o b t a i n i n g work.  to obtain  two  that the learning  t o u s e 30b s e a r c h  co-researcher  to  skills  disabled  of co-researchers  the process  effective  co-  experiences  to indicate  t o suggest  with  learned  The  any  have l e s s knowledge o f p o s i t i v e  frustration indicate  by  When t h i s f i g u r e  unemployment  T h i s w o u l d seem  plausible explanation. and  positive  co-researchers. utilized  d i d the learning  The r e s e a r c h e r would l i k e  work  different  i s z e r o and t h e a v e r a g e i s  methods o r l e s s m o t i v a t i o n  obtain  a l l co-researchers  on a v e r a g e t h r e e more 30b s e a r c h  young a d u l t s e i t h e r  within their  also  methods  unemployment  one c a n s e e t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n s t u d i e d  utilized  study.  Ten  across a l l  per co-researcher.  co-researcher this  method.  t h e minimum  <1985>  (1985)  within  30b  i s four,  methods^utilized  o f two p e o p l e ,  30b s e a r c h  of  their  resources  the l i b r a r y f o r  skills.  this  data  is  that  co-  59 researchers  report  encountered search.  a  number  unsupportive  Two  personnel  co-researchers  newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . paper  but  there  experience  at  of  instances as they  also reported  One  man  I  d i d n ' t have  stated "I t r i e d  the  which  conducted feeling  i s so many t h i n g s i n t h e  and  in  they  their  job  overwhelmed looking in  paper t h a t  you  experience  for  research  study  by the  need hardly  anything..."  The  outcome  practical  indicate  one. that  competitive  The they  this  to  nor  aspect  of the  l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d young a d u l t s do  not  employment.  comprehensive researchers  of  have  the necessary  The  enterprising  l o c a t e employment.  methods enough  skills  utilized to  enable  is  a  interviewed to  obtain  are  not  the  co-  60  P o s i t i v e and N e g a t i v e C r i t i c a l  Nine which  positive critical  assisted  unemployed.  the The  having  a 30b,  agency  from f r i e n d s . when  tallied  categories  Adult  are  Education  work e n v i r o n m e n t ,  therefore  incidents which  support  include  service  support  from  a j o b , and  support  into categories  Examples  25%  which  of  the  work.  Eleven  These  of  those  sample  disability,  hindered The  incident categories  within the  are  supportive  i n c i d e n t s d i d not  co-researchers categories  (excluding of  discounted/devaluated delayed  equitable/secure  C.E.C),  C.E.C.  career employment  The  those  aspects  obtaining  secure  are t i t l e d  as  follows:  discounted/devalued  financial  opportunity by  identified.  detail  from  of job f a i l u r e / j o b f a i l u r e ,  services  were  these categories  negative  rejections/lack  search,  from  in  categories.  present  anticipation  not  and v o l u n t e e r  negative  employment.  follows:  pleasure  support  included.  or acceptance of a l e a r n i n g  counsellor  did  not  recognition  Twelve  were  d i d n o t c o m p r i s e 25% o f t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s .  are  i n t o any  they  as  programme,  T w e l v e i n c i d e n t s were p l a c e d  which  fit  titled  landing  identified  time  re-assessment o f s e l f ,  categories  C.E.C.  were  the  of self-worth,  C.E.C.),  supportive  during  categories  realization  (excluding  family,  in  Categories  incident categories  co-researchers nine  success/achievement  Incident  from  personnel,  progress, opportunities,  pressures,  job  'employers,  avoidance  longing  by  for  of  job more  stagnation/boredom.  61  negative school  comparisons, as  an a d u l t s t u d e n t .  c a t e g o r i e s which categories are:  guilt  5  experienced  incidents  to family tensions,  and l a c k o f s u p p o r t  into  Table  Seven  any  not  the  number  positive critical  of positive  of  incident  & r e p r e s e n t s t h e number o f c o - r e s e a r c h e r s  across  category,  distinguishing  quotes Appendix  in  from  and t h e t o t a l  detail  i n c i d e n t s were  features  of  critical  who  the  experienced  60  positive  identified.  each  category  will  H - l t o H-9 f o r  incident  categories.  1-1 t o 1-12 f o r c h o s e n q u o t e s f r o m t h e n e g a t i v e  categories).  and  number o f p o s i t i v e  Overall  ( p l e a s e s e e Appendix  the positive  who  a l l co-researchers.  a l l co-researchers.  i n c i d e n t s and 77 n e g a t i v e  presented  incidents across  category  Table  incident  to  Ten i n c i d e n t s  co-researchers  number  The  in  Examples o f  contributing  from f a m i l y .  total  incidents  placed  category.  presents  each  each n e g a t i v e  were  a r e n o t i n c l u d e d among t h e h i n d e r i n g c a t e g o r i e s  related  not f a l l  due t o unemployment, and f e a r o f  d i d n o t comprise 25* o f t h e sample.  which  society/family, did  isolation  be  chosen See  incident  TABLE 5 Positive Critical  Incident  Category  Categories  T*  n*»  Success/Achievement i n Adult E d u c a t i o n Programme  15  6  Pleasure  11  7  7  4  5  4  ( e x c l u d i n g C.E.C.)  5  4  Support from F a m i l y  5  3  Re-assessment o f S e l f  5  3  Landing  4  3  3  3  i n Having a Job  Realization Supportive  of Self-worth Work E n v i r o n m e n t  S u p p o r t f r o m S e r v i c e Agency  a Job  Support from F r i e n d s »T  =  total  number o f i n c i d e n t s  »*n  =  number o f  co-researchers  TABLE 6 Negative  Critical  Incident Categories  Category Anticipation Job f a i l u r e  n*»  o f Job F a i l u r e / 14  Discounted/Devalued Services  T*  by  Support  ( e x c l u d i n g C.E.C.)  11  7  8  6  8  5  7  4  6  S  6  3  Employment O p p o r t u n i t i e s  4  4  Stagnation/Boredom  4  3  Fear o f School  3  3  3  3  3  3  Financial Job  Pressures  Rejections/Lack of Opportunity  from  Employers  Discounted/Devalued  by C.E.C.  Personnel Avoidance  o f Job Search  Delayed  Career  Longing  f o r More E q u i t a b l e / S e c u r e  Isolation Negative  Progress  a s an A d u l t S t u d e n t  Due t o Unemployment Comparisons  »T  =  t o t a l number o f i n c i d e n t s  *«n  =  number o f c o - r e s e a r c h e r s  64  Positive Critical Success/Achievement This  i n Adult Education  category  school.  It  Education  Programme  a  involves  first  setting It  people  Returning  opportunity  experiences  school success  they  for  t h e f u t u r e . A person  is  able  basic  This category work  keeping  the  Adult  an  a  time  many  educational peers.  who  place  finally  where  one  thus enabling  the  p r i d e i n h i m / h e r s e l f and  hope  an a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t t h a t h e / s h e  T h i s then  offered  during  progresses  career  such  aspirations.  that The  the Adult  t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s an o p p o r t u n i t y  academic s k i l l s .  T h i s enabled  t h e person  to to  written  skills.  P l e a s u r e i n Having  period  an  j o b a p p l i c a t i o n s and compete f o r j o b s r e q u i r i n g  communication  time  f o r the f i r s t  new  in  a teacher  I t becomes  may f i n d  entertains  Programme  strengthen complete  learn.  to learn easily.  Education  in  u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y by t h e i r  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a k e  now  enrolled  t o move a b o u t  a p l a c e where one works w i t h how  person  are  t o s c h o o l a s an a d u l t o f f e r e d  are accepted  understands  individual  who  aspects of returning t o  on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s a t t e n d i n g e i t h e r  where t h e y  becomes  Programme  includes the positive  t h e day o r e v e n i n g . people  Incident Categories  a Job  includes the i n i t i a l  o r work e x p e r i e n c e . co-researcher  the job.  During  focuses a l l  The p e r s o n  employment p e r i o d , the  initial  his/her  employment  attention  takes p r i d e i n working  part-  upon  efficiently  65  and  enjoys  time an  the f i n a n c i a l  work o r f u l l - t i m e  rewards.  This category  t e m p o r a r y work w h i c h o f f e r s  o p p o r t u n i t y t o make a c o n t r i b u t i o n  well  this  category  experience  as  also  part of a service  minimum  The  primary  focus  experience  having  temporary  individual  agency  people  who a r e  vocational  on  As work  programme.  s u p p o r t i v e v o c a t i o n a l placements  wage o r s u p p l e m e n t s income a s s i s t a n c e .  researchers from  the  part-  t o h i s / h e r community.  i n c l u d e s those  T h i s v o c a t i o n a l programme o f f e r s for  includes  a job.  of  emotional  category  is  fulfillment  i s t h a t they  that  which  The o t h e r more p r a c t i c a l  employment s i t u a t i o n  ease i n f i n a n c i a l  this  the  is  aspect  co-  derived of  this  are able t o enjoy  an  pressure.  ?§§ii?§ti°Q o f §®l£zy2E£h  This  category  change i n t h e i r these they  people  planted  in their  due t o a s p e c i f i c  positive  the person  perception of s e l f occurred  when  For the r e a l i z a t i o n  i s now a b l e t o a r t i c u l a t e utilizing  of statements  t h i n k I have a l o t g o i n g  f o r me,"  such  minimal  a s "I'm on my  success.  A re-assessment  of s e l f usually  of self-worth.  firmly  way,"  " I c a n g e t a j o b . " In t h i s  t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r has been a b l e t o a s s i m i l a t e  of realization  a  of  qualifiers.  category  incident  a For  self-statement  i s comprised  expressed event.  an a c t i v i t y s u c c e s s f u l l y .  category  This category "I  view o f themselves  the s h i f t  completed  self-worth  p e r t a i n s t o c o - r e s e a r c h e r s who  a  takes place prior  recent t o an  66  Surjrjgrt f r o m  This who  Social  category  presented  strengths  offer  had  programmes. meaningful  includes personnel  themselves  and  personnel  social  S e r v i c e Agency ^ e x c l u d i n g C^E_^C^2  figures  enabled  activity  of  existing  agency  toward  personnel  The  future  an a l t e r a t i o n  deemed s u p p o r t i v e by  p e r t a i n s to those  skills  are i n f l u e n t i a l  a permanently a l t e r e d more  to  as  being  of  motivating  sense  former  develop  co-  they  did  p o s i t i v e energy tend  The  process a s one  group. and  result  which  events  who  listed  of these  could  The  final  t o be o n e s t h a t p r e c e e d  of self-worth category.  the  in  resulted  enabled  confidence.  o f s e l f - w o r t h i s more f i r m l y  category.  The  alter  the a  codrug self  outcome was The  latter  entrenched  one  incidents in  i n c i d e n t s found  In the  in  events  a c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p , o r v i e w one  a member o f a v a l u e d  the r e a l i z a t i o n the  thought  view themselves  dependent l i f e s t y l e ,  t h i s category  the  disability.  enough t h a t t h e y  self-statement.  positive  researchers  and  The  i n c i d e n t s which r e s u l t e d  of a present personal construct.  t h i s category  a  into  Self  This category  was  vocational  employment.  n o t shame t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r f o r h i s / h e r l e a r n i n g  under  supportive  co-researchers  r e s e a r c h e r s e x h i b i t e d e x c e l l e n t communication  5®Z§§§®§§5J®Qt  encourage  applied  them t o d i r e c t  oriented  contacted  able to  constructive suggestions.  knowledge  This  service  as empathic  co-researchers  than  in  category in  the  67  S u p p o r t from  This and  Family  includes  money  t o an unemployed s o n o r d a u g h t e r .  those instances This  where a f a m i l y  assistance  learning  i n c i d e n t s where f a m i l y o f f e r e d  member  stressful  It also  food  includes  a s s i s t e d i n the job search.  came i n t h e f o r m o f o u t l i n i n g  d i s a b l e d son o r daughter, a s s i s t i n g  application  housing.  goals  with  the  i n the completion of  f o r m s and t h e o f f e r i n g o f o n g o i n g s u p p o r t  during  this  period.  ?up.B2Etive Work E n v i r o n m e n t  The  incidents  supervisors habits  complimented  or  character.  compensating  skills  positive  aspect.  category  is  incidents  in  of  the  within  this  category  co-researchers  t o complete t h e i r  t h i s category job held  by  strong  duties.  included fellow  co-researchers future  when  successfully  job  t h e work e x p e r i e n c e  moments  on t h e i r  Co-researchers  assistance offered  sense t h a t t h e present  include  The  work use other  within  this  workers.  For  commented  on  the  opportunities.  Landing a Job  This job.  r e f e r s t o t h e i m m e d i a t e p r i d e one t a k e s i n a c c e s s i n g  The  co-researchers  were  able  t o view  themselves  a  as  a \  working  member  o f t h e community.  The  employment  o f f e r s a s t r u c t u r e t o t h e day and a s e n s e o f p u r p o s e .  opportunity  68  Support, f r o m  The  incidents  assistance The  Friends  and s u p p o r t  a s s i s t a n c e took  skill  and  constant  in  t h i s category  a variety  the co-researcher  Negative  a  lacked record  a  their  obtained  by t h e i r anxious  The  past  thought  the  i n c i d e n t s i n which  the  co-  state.  jobs,  T h i s c o u l d be t h e a b i l i t y  as  to  they  read  While the person  was  or  still  d e s c r i b e d themselves as being i n  The c o - r e s e a r c h e r s d e s c r i b e d f e a r t h a t they  were u n a b l e  to  complete  of the job d e s c r i p t i o n .  in  in  this  category  which t h e person  failures.  educational  or  attributes.  work b u t f e a r e d f o r t h e i r  employer they  incidents  situations  socialize  new  Categories  those  employer would soon r e a l i z e  some a s p e c t  the  Incident  comprises  basic s k i l l .  constant  to  positive  written information correctly.  retained  ongoing  o f Job F a i l u r e / J o b F a i l u r e  category  researchers  the  the teaching of a  o f forms from  f o c u s on a c o - r e s e a r c h e r ' s  This  to  o f f e r e d by f r i e n d s o f t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s .  encouraging  Anticipation  pertain  These  failures  o f f u t u r e employment.  a l l work  adjust  to failure.  pertain  to  those  f e a r e d f u t u r e employment due  o r employment s i t u a t i o n  almost  also  had  occurred  in  yet the r e s u l t Co-researchers  s i t u a t i o n s a s o n e s where t h e y  was  to  either  an  fear  at  experienced  could  at  best  69  Discounted/Devalued  The a  by S u p p o r t  Services ^excluding  issues discussed within t h i s category  lack  partaking  experienced in  structures  Adult  such  a sense  Education  programmes.  classes  a s an o l d c h u r c h .  They  found  themselves  because o f t h e l a c k o f t r a i n e d  not  employable.  conduct  their  Co-researchers  i n part  students.  o f devaluation as a within  run  of down  exacerbate  the  understaffed, insecure  unable  to attend school  teachers available  and  were d i s h e a r t e n e d by h a v i n g  a d u l t s c h o o l i n g w i t h i n such  to Co-  result  old  To f u r t h e r  p r o b l e m , c o - r e s e a r c h e r s were p r o v i d e d w i t h  time  relate  o f adequate f u n d i n g f o r A d u l t Education  researchers  C^EiC^  a minimally  full yet to  supportive  environment.  This further and  category  education,  offered  were  also  includes  to administer tests  by no f o l l o w - u p s e r v i c e s . their  point  nothing further  on h e a r d treatment  support  discouraged  Social and  service  test  personnel  interpretation  Co-researchers  were g i v e n  need f o r c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s and from  was a s e n s e  from  t h e agency.  o f being devalued  and  that  The r e s u l t  of  discounted  by  services.  Financial  This on  who  swept c o - r e s e a r c h e r s i n t o a b u r e a u c r a t i c s n a r l  reports stating  this  personnel  no p o s i t i v e e n c o u r a g e m e n t . known  accompanied  also  Pressures  i n c l u d e s inadequate  income a s s i s t a n c e were l e f t  government s u p p o r t . without  Co-researchers  the necessary  funds  to eat  70  and  shelter  search  themselves.  out temporary,  researchers from  illegal  month t o month.  full-time adult day  non-taxable  obtained  co-researchers  Co-researchers  employment  employment.  ability  <in some c a s e s  m o n i e s ) t o meet t h e i r  them  One c o - r e s e a r c h e r  date  to  to co-  needs  upon  the  seek  out  c a u g h t between c h i l d and  h i m s e l f e x p e l l e d from  to socialize,  basic  strain  t e m p o r a r i l y unable  o f f t o work s o he c o u l d buy f o o d .  limited  i t necessary  T h i s p l a c e d an a d d i t i o n a l  rendering  s e r v i c e s found  found  school f o r taking  People  the  a l s o spoke o f t h e i r  o r make b a s i c payments s u c h  as  rent.  The  co-researchers  developmentally  experienced  due t o l i m i t e d  t o postpone independence from to attend  Job  school without  funds. parents  monetary  People  t o move  found  and f o u n d  onward  i t necessary  themselves  unable  support.  Rejections  This offer.  includes It  negative  of his/her i n a b i l i t y  from  the  employment  descriptions  which  required  perform  to  expressed or  write.  t o read  job.  applied  People  For  the  experienced actual  example,  labour  job  job skills  co-researchers could  not  when  co-  j o b s f o r w h i c h on  the  frequently  for unskilled  job  co-researcher  when r e f u s e d a j o b b e c a u s e t h e y  This situation  a  o r w r i t e and h e n c e e l i m i n a t e d  n o t match w i t h  the  missing  i n s t a n c e s where a  competition.  did  frustration  researchers  interviews or just  a l s o i n c l u d e s those  spoke  read  an i n a b i l i t y  occurred  71  job  writing  description the  or  exceeded  actually  viewed t h i s  skills  was r e f u s e d a p o s i t i o n  i n c l u d e s those  regarding learning C.E.C.  disability.  not  succeed  programmes. perception  of  researchers impression offer  This  actively postponed search, adequate  duties.  l a c k o f employment  in certain didn't  came  into  implications  of  always  devalued.  of  some c o - r e s e a r c h e r s employment  f i t with  the  expressed  with they  training  co-researchers  and h e n c e r e s u l t e d It also  or  a  includes  t h a t C.E.C.  in  the  the  co-  overall  had l i t t l e  to  services.  Search  includes  those  p e r i o d s o f time  f o r work.  an a c t i v e  job  told  types  abilities  co-researchers  because  opportunity.  were n o t k n o w l e d g e a b l e  practical  Counsellors  feeling  search  Co-researchers  Personnel  and  i n t h e way o f employment  This  skill  I t includes discouraging conversations  their  Avoidance o f Job  job  b a s e d on t h e l a c k o f  i n s t a n c e s where c o - r e s e a r c h e r s  theoretical  counsellors.  would  The  when  S p e c i a l Needs C o u n s e l l o r s who the  necessary.  were e x p r e s s e d  needed t o complete t h e j o b a s an u n n e c e s s a r y  contact with  not  Feelings of frustration  Ql§92yD£edZQeyalued by C^E^C^  This  were  t h e a c t u a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s needed t o complete  job adequately.  a co-researcher not  reading  job search.  they  search  They may  have t a k e n  People  feared rejection skills.  where p e o p l e  may  a  vacation  have a v o i d e d  o r because  Co-researchers  did  also  they  a  not or job  lacked  avoided  job  72  search  because  necessary pertains  to  they  d i d not  complete  to  the  lack  have t h e w r i t i n g o r r e a d i n g  an  application  form.  of  energy  the  researchers to mobilize resources fruitfull  job  so as t o a c t i v e l y  describe situations  d e s c r i b e a l o n g i n g f o r a c a r e e r r a t h e r than It  complete  high  discrepancy example, they  also school  courses.  between t h e i r  some  the  age  disappointment  and  co-researchers  tendency  coin  a  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and  with  to  maintain It  unrelated to  t h e i r developmental  level.  For  twenties  yet  This category  also  early  coursework.  their  t h e i r present  a l s o r e f l e c t s the  qualifications.  a series of  realized  They e x p e c t  f o r More E g u i t a b l e / S e c u r e  struggle  co-researchers  Co-researchers  for co-researchers  A desire for co-researchers  they  partake  to  predict  chronological  Employment  t o see  age.  Opportunities  a mesh between  felt  a job f o r which  hold  establishing  employment  or a t t a i n a b l e job s k i l l s .  insecurity  a  negative  t h a t the f u t u r e w i l l  f u r t h e r r e n d e r i n g them i n c a p a b l e o f  competencies i n keeping  category  where  were i n t h e i r  G r a d e 11  outcomes f o r t h e f u t u r e .  Longing  of  i n c l u d e s t h e d e s i r e f o r an o p p o r t u n i t y  were j u s t f i n i s h i n g  includes  inability  Progress  incidents  positions.  category  search.  9S=1§Z®2[ C a r e e r  These  and  This  skills  by  This  co-researchers they  have  as  minimal  speaks of the d e s i r e f o r c o - r e s e a r c h e r s  to  73  openly This  discuss  their  category  learning d i s a b i l i t y  differs  that the incidents  from  the fear  i n t h i s category  desire  f o r secure  failure  category  employment.  with  their  of job failure  pertain  category  in  t o f u t u r e h o p e s and a  The main f e a t u r e  i s t h e element o f f e a r  employer.  surrounding  of  the job  t h e event.  Stagnation/Boredom  These i n c i d e n t s d e s c r i b e t h e i n a b i l i t y family  of a successful job search.  voids  of  time  recreational  Negative  When  or  pertains to the social,  activities.  Comparisons  former  were  classmates  begin  work and  hindering i n c i d e n t s expressed  comparing  continuously with  This category  where c o - r e s e a r c h e r s were i n v o l v e d i n no  or job search  Watching success  t o inform f r i e n d s  themselves  viewed  to  themselves  others  enjoy  by  their  financial  co-researchers.  own  as l e s s f i n a n c i a l l y  age,  they  secure  and  less career opportunities.  Isolation  This financial  Due t o Unemployment  r e f e r s t o the decrease resources  r e s e a r c h e r s found listening  to  and  a usually  themselves  the  depression expressed  stereo.  in territory poor  covered.  support  system,  f r e q u e n t l y a t home w a t c h i n g This category  describes  by c o - r e s e a r c h e r s a s t h e y  viewed  Without co-  T.V. the  or  deep  themselves  74  a s t h e o n l y o n e s moving t h r o u g h  Fear of School  a s an A d u l t  t h e unemployment  experience.  Student  T h i s c a t e g o r y r e f e r s t o c o - r e s e a r c h e r s ' knowledge t h a t academic  skills  a r e n o t o f a h i g h enough c a l i b r e  employment t h e y d e s i r e . their  skills,  entering  system.  to obtain  the  C o - r e s e a r c h e r s know t h e y n e e d t o u p g r a d e  but they express  a school  their  extreme f e a r  a t the thought  of re-  75  Future  P l a n s and E x p e c t a t i o n s  As  the interview with  researcher plans.  requested  This  personal, the early  responses  are  this  <30.7%  married."  to  a  regarding  thoughtfulness educational (30.7%)  want for  in  their  the  co-researchers  n=7), buy a h o u s e (23%  n=3).  <23% These  to get  and "See t h e w o r l d " .  interview techniques,  more d e t a i l e d  hisability  that  was n o t  i n f o r m a t i o n on  One c o - r e s e a r c h e r  to father a child  The  personal expressed  who  had  a  disability.  Nevertheless  allowed  "Have a c h i l d "  further,  Given  terms such as " I ' d l i k e  t h e e x c e p t i o n o f one man.  concern  learning  i n general  e v e n when u s i n g p r o b i n g  elicit  goals with  <53.8%  parts:  t h o r o u g h and r e f i n e d  n=4), and become p a r e n t s  "Buy a h o u s e "  researcher,  of  n=12)  the  future  main  7).  <92.3%  Many  a d e s i r e t o get married  travel  < see Table  overwhelmingly  question.  d e s i r e s were e x p r e s s e d  able  and c a r e e r  close,  co-researchers  the researcher d i d not expect  to  expressed  came t o a  was b r o k e n down i n t o t h r e e  educational,  twenties  n=3),  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e  question  co-researchers  co-researchers  the  interviewer  was  o f the co-researchers' response t o  and c a r e e r g o a l s .  expressed  In a d d i t i o n ,  four  a d e s i r e t o work o r v o l u n t e e r  them t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e community.  to  struck  do a n y t h i n g  their  Learning  the future  co-researchers  in a field  that  One man s t a t e d , " I  I c a n do t o h e l p t h e V a n c o u v e r  C h i l d r e n and A d u l t s w i t h  by  Disabilities.  Association I'd l i k e  to  Table Description  7  of Co-researchers  n»  Long-term  Category  9  Education  8  E s t a b l i s h e d long-term  employment  goals 7  Marriage  4  Doubts f o r t h e f u t u r e  4  Community  4  Travel  3  Home owner  3  Children  *  Plans  number  of co-researchers  responsibility  77  put  down  p a r t o f my s t o r y i n t o  who  have l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s . "  wanted t o work w i t h  The  educational  t e r m employment. to  either  attend  continue  (69.2%) c o - r e s e a r c h e r s their  education  institution  man  like  go  get  researcher  back t o s c h o o l  stated,  back t o s c h o o l  After concerned (61.5%) One  educational  co-researchers  course,  as  she of  opportunities. that they  can  job."  was  the long  described  next term  their  area  her  linkage  o f work t h e y g e t my r e a d i n g  their  i f I  Another  co-  I must  go  career  between  plans.  Eight  l o n g term  career  goals.  First  goals  career  learning disability  a r e a b l e t o do.  she  education  their  greatly  career  "My own d a y c a r e .  People expressed  realized  as  which  g e t t i n g a j o b i n a d a y c a r e and g o i n g  the  level  and s e e  t o go back t o s c h o o l .  goals  expressed  my  my d r e a m s . "  a s p i r e s t o have,  then  awareness  kind  t o achieve  co-researchers  woman  Again  "I'dlike  help  He s t a t e d , " I ' d  t o i m p r o v e my r e a d i n g  a b e t t e r j o b or a b e t t e r paying  to  As o n e man  h i s educational  h i s f u t u r e employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  long  plan  t h a t would r e a l l y  a l s o viewed  a  a desire  o r s t a t e d they  effecting  could  viewed  expressed  i n t h e near f u t u r e .  g e t my e d u c a t i o n  Another  to  she  background as a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o secure  with  " I fI could  future."  A n o t h e r woman s t a t e d t h a t  responses i n d i c a t e d t h a t they  Nine  an e d u c a t i o n a l  stated,  people  t h e " h a n d i c a p p e d , maybe i n r e c r e a t i o n " .  co-researchers  stronger  plays or s k i t s f o r other  from  an  employment  by i n d i c a t i n g  would i n f l u e n c e  A co-researcher  a  there."  indicated  and  goals  taking  said,  down p a t and my math down p a t I w o u l d n ' t  the "If I mind  78  getting  into  computers  woman s t a t e d , t o do.  even i f I j u s t  repair  them."  Another  " I n t h e f u t u r e I ' d l i k e t o g e t a j o b i n what I want  In Nursing  maybe I'm b e g i n n i n g  t o wonder i f I ' l l  ever g e t  ahead."  When four  people  people  achieve  (30.7*) e x p r e s s e d  their  achieve  were a s k e d t o d e s c r i b e  dreams.  my dreams t h a t  doubt as t o  A co-researcher I have.  more  conclusion,  detail  personal their  their  goals.  future  educational  plans  understanding  Figure  1  Learning  researcher  and  they  would  stated,  "I'd like  to that  were a b l e t o d e s c r i b e i n  career  was i m p r e s s e d on how t h e i r  l i v e s as working  plans  by  than  their  descriptions in  the  a  of  generalized  co-researchers'  learning d i s a b i l i t y  would  adults.  Description  framework titled Disabled  Typically, they  whether  were f r e q u e n t l y c u s h i o n e d  realistic  The  plans  Although the co-researchers'  the  Hoiistic  term  t o do them."  the co-researchers  vagueness  impact t h e i r  long  T h e r e a r e t h i n g s on my mind  I want t o do, b u t I d o n ' t seem a b l e  In  their  t o be u s e d f o r t h e h o l i s t i c  the Psychological Process  of  description i s Unemployment  for  Adults.  the  l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d person begins  have a l e a r n i n g p r o b l e m  i n elementary s c h o o l .  to  realize  During  this  Figure 1  A - secondary s c h o o l low academic s k i l l s poor job s e a r c h s k i l l s n i n i n a l marketable s k i l l s B i n i a a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o attend post secondary s c h o o l low s e l f - e s t e e m  E - person not a b l e t o access employment f e e l i n g s of i s o l a t i o n , f r u s t r a t i o n and anger i n t e n s i f y  B - u n s u c c e s s f u l job search f e e l i n g s of i s o l a t i o n , f r u s t r a t i o n , and anger C - p l e a s u r e i n o b t a i n i n g work s u p p o r t i v e work environment apprehension due to knowledge of skill deficits  F - person a t t e n d s A d u l t Education Programme acceptance by peers s t r e n g t h e n s academic s k i l l s i n c r e a s e i n s e l f esteem development o f p o s i t i v e i d e n t i t y hope f o r the f u t u r e G - s p o r a d i c work h i s t o r y c o n t i n u e s r e a l i z a t i o n o f delayed c a r e e r progress  o b t a i n work continued i n s e c u r i t y fear of f a i l u r e r e a l i z a t i o n of s k i l l d e f i c i t s  Negative  P s y c h o l o g i c a l Process of Unemployment  f o r L e a r n i n g D i s a b l e d Young A d u l t s  vo  80  time  they  same  pace  above  may r e a l i z e t h e y  are not able to learn material a t the  as other c h i l d r e n ,  average  mathematics  although  intelligence.  may  further  they  Difficulties  influence their  i s at a particular  nature  of  attended  the  the  proceeded did  for  changed,  i t  through  During  none  i n response  situation  since  handicap.  school,  remediation  disadvantage  received  to their  is  because o f  the time  important  t h e s c h o o l system  the  accurate  with to  classrooms  emotionally  children.  feelings  disturbed  o f shame f o r t h e i r  that  the  provide additional subsequent  skills.  On  preferred  grade  without  reflection,  to  be k e p t  "hidden"  co-researchers or  Although  problems  has  students  who  before  Frequently  people  with mentally handicapped Co-researchers  inappropriate  assistance,  the  i n t h e s e v e n t i e s and  or  expressed  placements.  teachers d i d not take the time t o understand and  disabled  information  learning  not r e c e i v e adequate academic s e r v i c e s .  were p l a c e d i n s e g r e g a t e d  and  behaviour,  disability.  note  or  language  The l e a r n i n g  learning  school children  in  average  classroom  r e l a t i o n s w i t h p e e r s , and f a m i l y d y n a m i c s . child  are of  Because  the learning  problem  c o - r e s e a r c h e r s were p a s s e d t o  acquiring  the  necessary  co-researchers stated  b a c k and e x p r e s s e d  academic  t h e y would  feelings of  have  anger  and  the  ever  frustration.  The  co-researchers stated  widening skills.  gap between t h e i r Being  self-worth  and  were c o g n i z a n t o f  chronological  "pushed t h r o u g h " foster  they  a sense  age and t h e i r  served t o decrease of  invisibility.  academic  their  sense o f  The  learning  81  disabled  students  generally,  they  curriculums. and  were were  the  learning which  not  particular  able  As w e l l ,  i n the  vocational  a  to  benefit  special  training  and  education  programme  work e x p e r i e n c e  d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s were d i s c h a r g e d f r o m  network w h i l e  in school.  o t h e r s completed  their  experience  The work  schooling in social  problems i n  learning  non-existant  job  a usually  search  benefit  from  Hence  a school  system  vocational  skills.  a  secure  became t h e  school  "wrong c r o w d " . isolation.  Still  This lack foster  now  must f a c e t h e  language  poor s o c i a l  skills,  world  skills,  sphere,  vague c a r e e r  minimal  plans,  and  i n f u r t h e r education with remediation.  add  t o an  a l r e a d y low  sense  of  self  worth,  learning may  have  a s p i r a t i o n s of  However, adult:  individual  d i s a b l e d person numerous  he/she  of s e l f  e s t e e m and  must  i s typically  talents  negative  secure  in addition  to a l l  the  to no To  feelings  employment.  h i g h l y motivated  of  minimal  p o s s i b i l i e s to e n r o l l  the  the  adulthood.  i n m a t h e m a t i c s and  experiences,  firmly  interactions serves to  disabled student  with d e f i c i t s  success  with the  in positive social  adjustment  unmanageable  to establish  Some p e o p l e  "outcasts" while others s o c i a l i z e d  further  to  as  existing  placements.  p r o v i d e d them w i t h n e i t h e r a c a d e m i c n o r  support  from  t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s were n o t  Many l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s were u n a b l e  of  disadvantage,  academic coursework o f t e n proved  frustrating.  ensconsed  at  to  dreams  The work, and  youth.  o n l y two may  clear  o p t i o n s greet the  o b t a i n employment,  learning disabled  o r permanent  long-term  82  employment r e m a i n s  elusive.  For  those  who  obtain  employment,  l  it  is  usually  skills  and  great.  in a low-level  work h a b i t s  The  a course of  less  fortunate: of  sporadic they  anger,  Frustration are  interfering  learning disabled  chart  feelings  j o b and  develops  learning  with sustained  work h i s t o r y .  obtain  no  the  and  knowledge t h a t  contact  people.  with  Learning  employers  qualifications,  and  disabled  who  C.E.C.  the  set  neither  an  isolation  co-researchers  history.  They  learning  disabled  thought haunt their  The of the  a  intensify.  realizes  they  directed at  young a d u l t s  who  "the  come i n entrance  may  not  A f t e r years of  or  be  finding  employment  of f a i l u r e  i n school  and  young a d u l t  the  niche,  employer about t h e i r  joy f e l t  young a d u l t  disability;  unique  should  compensating  faced  the  school at  the  continually they  learning  skills;  to work  having  is terrified  i s the  work  in obtaining  Questions that  those such as:  person knowledgeable regarding  limited  process  rapidly surfaces  employment. are  a  l i m i t e d success outside  learning disabled  losing their  d i d have  psychological  people i n that  Fear  failure  system.  interviewed  presented  fleeting.  years of  the  unique s i t u a t i o n of  personnel  educational  to  becomes a f a m i l i a r f e e l i n g .  The  was  appropriate  time  unrealistic  knowledgeable about l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s .  is  g r o u p i s even  this  one  Anger i s o f t e n  work  to begin  isolation  which i s u n w i l l i n g t o r e c o g n i z e disabled  other  During  of  employment  is likely  The  work.  frustration, from  likelihood  young a d u l t  i l l - p r e p a r e d t o l o c a t e work.  system",  the  and  inform disabled  can  these  83  skills  be  aspects  readily of  learning Borgen the  and  unique  young  Amundson  to  only  <1984).  Borgen  disabled  as  The  h i g h s and  as they  and  f e e l i n g s expressed  t h a t many by  the  finding  of  lows e x p e r i e n c e d  by  employment  1984  young a d u l t s e x p e r i e n c e t o be  to the  search f o r  Amundson's  i n t h a t i t appears  to note expressed  a d u l t s are s i m i l a r  d i s a b l e d people  similar  learning  I t i s important  unemployment e x p e r i e n c e  disabled  learning  very  The  the  implemented?  is  findings.  while  The  unemployed  a more i n t e n s e  w h i l e unemployed a r e s i m i l a r  is  experience. across  both  populations.  The  p a t t e r n t h a t f o l l o w s i s f r e q u e n t l y one  history. As  the  Employment i s o b t a i n e d o n l y f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s o f expectation  develops,  or  undone,  employer  is  no  increases f o r the  once  The one  becomes  t o produce  written  work  or  or i s being completed longer  willing  learning  to  by  another  make  d i s a b l e d person  job  they  increasingly  aware  are always  d i s a b l e d person  discrepancy  between  one  woman's  desire i s to  become  a  physiotherapist.  Although  she  enjoyed  her  job as  a  caregiver  The  and  previous  occupation.  individual,  she  longed  As  a  their  example,  vocational  desired  that  position  handicapped  the  of the  learning  is  on  existing  physically  and  job the  the  Stress  o t h e r e l e m e n t o f t h e employment e x p e r i e n c e  locates a satisfactory  has  employee,  exceptions. and  time.  calculations  t h e e m p l o y e r d i s c o v e r s some a s p e c t o f t h e  been l e f t  guard.  o f s p o r a d i c work  for  clear  to  a  further  education opportunities.  other p o s s i b i l i t y  i s t h a t the  learning  disabled  person  84  is  not  able  attempts  to secure  to  obtain  surrenders. search these  work  It  criminal police  records  happen  researchers  returned  they  not  education  within  had  is  the or  possibly  and  yet  skills a  own  learning  disability.  could  not  The  might  wonder  adults  to return  that  i t  forward? purely  i f  must  be  The  other  a practical  repeated element  one.  The  did  in have  the  percent  basic education Once  in  of  an  the  the  adult  first  school  basic  encountered time  they  peers.  observed t h e i r  first  co-  programme when  young a d u l t For  "system".  They  academic  time co-researchers  saw  P e o p l e s t o p p e d d e n y i n g t h e y had loud  f o r the  educational  for  school  before  the  important  person  is  to returning  able  a  that  proved  disabled  e x p e r i e n c e so  i n d i v i d u a l has  time  young a d u l t s .  learning  Is the  first  programmes  learning disabled  i t i s necessary  to school.  engaged  within  the  adult  extremely b e n e f i c i a l f o r the  become  become l o s t  Some s a i d o u t  read.  They may  of  assistance,  l e a r n i n g s t y l e and  with p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  some  income  instructors.  For  job  were on  learning disabled  steadily increase.  future  they  their  that  become  acknowledged p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s with t h e i r recognized  initial  co-researchers  over f i f t y  adult  repeated individual  the  "system".  s e c u r e employment.  supportive  disabled  during  some  that  t o an  programme t h e  knowledgeable,  not  After  a broad assumption  f o r minor o f f e n s e s  did  could  be  Although  people interviewed  What  learning  income a s s i s t a n c e  activities.  employment.  experienced  can  p e o p l e become l o s t of  the  feeling  escalates.  recipients  the  The  full-time  One young  negative to  move  to school  is  more t o o f f e r t o  the  85  employer  once t h e i r  The  overall  depressed towards  later  is  are  of the co-researchers  upgraded.  was  description i s  one  of  oriented  experience.  In  t h e u n i q u e e l e m e n t s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f unemployment disabled that  young  The  a learning disabled  fear  of f a i l u r e makes  adults  is  an u n s u p p o r t i v e s c h o o l  unemployment.  establishing  language s k i l l s  description of a described  once  person  and  Hence, t h e h o l i s t i c  a condensed  learning  feature  presentation  affect.  conclusion for  mathematics  which  an uneven  system  The  first  contributes  unemployment e x p e r i e n c e d o e s n o t person obtains  i s often  frequent  three-fold.  work.  There  r e a l i z e d as the l e a r n i n g  low-level  work h i s t o r y .  lateral  vocational  exists  to end a  disabled moves,  86  Coping  versus  During  the  researcher  Technigues  interview  that  demonstrate coping  Non-Coping  a  majority  competencies  skills.  process  The  of  in  i t became the  apparent  co-researchers  non-use o f c o p i n g  skills  was  who  This  will  now  same  age  thinking  One that  and and  d i d d i s c u s s i n depth h i s use be  contrasted with  similar  life  to  recognized  s p o k e on  positive  adult  the  through  living  brother  worked and  older  b r o t h e r s and and  expected  between t h e  maintained of the  discrepancy As  he  o f them i s w o r k i n g and bug  me  other  provide  the  earned  the expectation that  brother attended  sometimes they  who  adult learning disabled  without  brothers.  his  This i s in contrast  His brothers also l i v e d  the other  one  chores.  their  commented t h a t t h i s  in strife  school  allowed  rent free,  s c h o o l o r work.  result  to  still  money u n l e s s t h e money was  of household  in  parents  a t home, w i t h  f a m i l y who  co-researcher  t o what was  the  Support  T h i s f a m i l y d i d not  r e m a i n a t home,  attend  equal  they  of  t o l o c a t e work.  the f a m i l y .  the completion  to the other to  barriers  included  but  co-  skills.  co-researcher  developed  skills  learning disability,  within  son,  who  one  ongoing f a m i l y support.  coping  e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h a t son children  history  using  particularly  coping  a c t i o n s which i n f l u e n c e d h i s a b i l i t y  co-researcher  lead  another  not  and  T h e r e was of  the  did  the area of developing  p r o n o u n c e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f unemployment. researcher  to  t h a t I'm  a t home b u t  son he one  university.  The  i n expectations did said,  " I have  the other not  two  i s going  really  doing  87  anything."  Another friends. another  important One  area  of support  co-researcher  Through the  about t e l l i n g  others of t h e i r  shared  contrasts  with  friendship support  the other  primarily  to those  alone.  He  Another area  it  takes  "as  I  him  get  going  to  took that  a long time  still  shape i n the  includes impacts  the on  with  his  life  more open the  from  whom he  two This  needs  offered  through  this  for  ongoing was  that  volunteer  work  could develop  bother  to school.  but me  I'm  to recognize  itself  can  an  from to  That  the  face d i r e c t l y i s , how  now."  problem.  disability. how  the search  becomes more d i f f i c u l t  He  that says,  writing  learning.  s t r e n g t h s and  learning  skills  recognizes  that  still  the  coping  learn.  I have more p a t i e n c e  inability  inability  he  He  a s much  of denying  result  expressed  appraisal.  the b a r r i e r  ones l i f e .  unemployment  go  self  to learn,  longer.  with  directly  missing  i n which a c o - r e s e a r c h e r  take  contrasted  He  peers  similar  with.  to r e a l i s t i c  I  volunteering.  met  with  lifestyles. met  be  had  In a d d i t i o n ,  who  c o u l d not  o l d e r i t doesn't  difficult.  two  l e a r n e d t o be  disability.  i n n e e d , y e t what was  relationship  in relation  they  co-researcher  would b e n e f i t f r o m  was  The  to obtain q u a l i t y  through  need f o r f r i e n d s h i p  equal  friendship  i d e a s r e g a r d i n g how  development o f c l o s e  spoke o f h i s c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p  l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d young a d u l t .  experiences.  his  i s the  the  It's  This The  is  denial  weaknesses It  also  disability  f o r employment  at times  is  because  and of  88  the  disability.  One  co-researcher  himself.  Initially  him.  He  so  accepted  he  knew how  the  a t him  money he  have  he  difficult  He  researcher  could  one  of  summarizes just  "I stood  he  says, Later,  This  learned  helplessness  ineffective  coping  was  asking  him  C.E.C. and  examining the  says,  tried  anything directly  classified  looking  i n there  that  contrasts  aggressive  and  particular  from  industrial  parks.  methodical  He  i n the  I could with  his  get  a  do  parents. obtained  to  described a job,  He  could  the  cois and  "I guess  I'm  now."  ineffective who to  h i s job search  as  making a  trip  to  newspaper.  He  who  was  hardly  really."  This  initiated  family assistance,  applied  not  himself  o r wanted t o do  with  did  co-researcher  paper b u t . . . . t h e r e  co-researcher  I  to f i n d  through The  he  all  His outlook  s e c t i o n of the  job search  back  He  unable to m o b i l i z e He  could  me  work r i g h t  strategies.  skills  t o him.  t h a t he  saying,  i s perpetuated  conduct a p e r s i s t e n t job s e a r c h . h i s f a t h e r i f he  by  d o n ' t have any  job search  up  i s hard  of  position,  workforce.  employment  This  "I  learned  realizes  p e o p l e who  advantage  paid  He  for  a p o i n t where  i s in contrast  h i s unemployment e x p e r i e n c e  s o l v i n g and  he  assertiveness.  of those  used  As  initiate  one  problem  reach  not  passivity.  advocate  did finally  poor c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the successfully.  to  t o o b t a i n a new  This co-researcher  self-advocate who  learned  employer t o take  s c r e a m e d a t him.  owned."  to accept  an  he  i t w o u l d be  paid properly. and  how  allowed  a wage c u t .  demanded t o be yelled  described  throughout  a p p l i c a t i o n s from  an in  various  industries that  89  both up  were and were n o t h i r i n g an a p p l i c a t i o n  fill  i t out.  application  he b r o u g h t  Later  work.  mother  established  each  i t home and h i s p a r e n t s  and  his  parents  form.  He c o n t i n u e d  always  a v a i l a b l e by  short  phone.  him  a  to vigourously  and  his  mock  apply  This  parents h i s job  number o f a p p l i c a t i o n s  E a c h week he s u b m i t t e d  applications.  employment.  assistance  and  and l o n g t e r m g o a l s a s he c o n d u c t e d  f o r s e v e r a l months.  additional  located  helped  developed  He  He had a goal- t o s u b m i t a c e r t a i n  week  three  After picking  I f he came a c r o s s s o m e t h i n g he d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d , h i s  was  search.  a t the time.  f o r m w h i c h i n c l u d e d most o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n needed t o  c o m p l e t e any a p p l i c a t i o n for  he  openly  After  man's  a sustained belief  two  to  t h r e e t o f o u r months  he  parents that their  offerred son  concrete  could  obtain  work.  This utilized were  an  with  i t .  security  d e s c r i b e s a few o f t h e c o p i n g w h i l e unemployed. ability  methods one c o - r e s e a r c h e r  The main f e a t u r e o f h i s c o p i n g  to recognize h i s learning d i s a b i l i t y  He c o n t i n u a l l y and an a b i l i t y  focussed t o take  on t h e p r e s e n t  risks.  and  skills work  and d e m o n s t r a t e d  90  CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND  This  section  is  recommendations  divided  from  RECOMMENDATIONS  into  this  three  study  main  include  headings. the  comprehensive  s e r v i c e s f o r l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d young  similar  experiences  life  p e o p l e h a v e more i n v o l v e d  their  professional  These service  trades,  while  plan.  others  are  The l a s t  some Some  During  the  consistently  course  referred  of to  their  negative  important  be  incorporated  into  the  co-researchers  school  experiences.  include  school  they  elementary school.  stood  techniques  personnel.  warrented during  from t h e i r  peers  It is  in a as  vague  early  as  Students r e q u i r e e a r l y a s s i s t a n c e through t h e  assessment  educational  apart  suggestions  system.  t o note t h a t people spoke o f r e c o g n i z i n g ,  that  is  research.  the  Hence, r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e programming can  programming  s e c t i o n o f t h i s chapter  interviewing,  a  include the  vocational  devoted t o d i s c u s s i n g the p o s s i b i l t i e s f o r f u t u r e  is  as  interested  The p r i m a r y s e r v i c e s t o be d i s c u s s e d  counselling services.  of  have  n u a n c e s must be a c c o u n t e d f o r i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f  and  use  adults  careers.  programming,  sense,  for  v o c a t i o n a l needs vary  implications f o r educational  which  need  and s e v e r e l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s .  people a s p i r e t o vocational in  The  adminstered  F o r some s t u d e n t s ,  school  years  to assist  by  knowledgeable  psychological them  in  support  recognizing  91  and  accepting  their  disability.  component  include  a  style.  T e a c h e r s must i n c r e a s e t h e i r  skills  within the  style,  education  learning system  classroom  disabled  includes  more  example,  i t  orally  students.  The  disabled  for  standards  be  learning  in  demonstrate  test  to  taking  are  learn  not  to  i t i s simply  styles.  settings.  attitudes regarding  from be  The  conceivable  possibility  Students  to explore  need  to a l t e r  the  system.  An  for for a  number  They i n c l u d e A d u l t Both  Osman  options  and  to  that  the  the  adult  Geib,  opportunity  to  are Adult  Guzzardi,  l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d people they support  life  university  increase  and  of  the  the  school  person.  successful.  Education  Programmes.  Genova  (1981)  came i n c o n t a c t  experiences,  the  already  groups extremely b e n e f i c i a l .  share  of  during  place within  flexibility  which  S u p p o r t G r o u p s and  <1982> and  graduation  i s a permanent f e a t u r e , b u t i t  i n the  of s e r v i c e s e x i s t  learning  variety  would h a v e a p o s i t i v e i m p a c t f o r a l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d  A  tests  information.  of  acceptance to take  increase  take  taped  environment so as  f o r l e a r n i n g and  This For  opportunities  various career  learning disability  learning  procedures. to  to  school  knowledge.  standards  more  the how  decreased  t h a t the  learning  skills  i s for  broadened t o ensure r e c o g n i t i o n  secondary school  school  people  compensating  compensating  next step  must  learning  student's  must become l e g i t i m a t e f o r s t u d e n t s  students,  to  student's  Based on  teach  a s s i m i l a t e and  flexibility  and  Graduation  is  can  the  acceptance of  setting.  t o a d o p t more f l e x i b l e students  assessment procedure  to discover  personnel  disabled  need  so as  The  problem  It  with  noted found  became  solve,  an  trade  92  compensating  skills,  longer  in isolation.  living  presently with  weaknesses  time  that the funding and  time,  Education  Many and  to  pace.  possibilities  handicapped people.  basis.  of the i n s t r u c t o r s  and  with  long waits f o r instructors  time,  the  deficits for  students  i n the Adult  more  intensive  T h i s would a l l o w  their  is  instruction  students  v o c a t i o n a l g o a l s which  planning  exist  need  enrolled.  work are  The e x i s t i n g the  in  turn  coursework.  f o r future  and m o d e l l e d a f t e r  vocational those  programming  used with  T h e s e programmes c a n be a d a p t e d  mentally  t o meet  n e e d s o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d young a d u l t s . T h i s i n c l u d e s s e t t i n g a programme s i m i l a r is  presently  <0. Nonan, p e r s o n a l operates  t o Work S t a t i o n s i n I n d u s t r y .  i n place  communication,  company  regarding  the mentally  expectations for  in  work w i t h Work  industry.  This  S t a t e s and p a r t s o f  handicapped, task  who  Canada  w i t h i n an  knowledgeable  a n a l y s i s , and v o c a t i o n a l  a group o f mentally  Stations i n Industry  are  up  programme  handicapped people  Staff  the  programme  November 1 9 8 5 ) . T h i s  by p l a c i n g s e v e r a l m e n t a l l y  existing  Staff  i n the United  no  Programmes  People  stated the individual  long-term  i n students  one i s  There  the time spent  include  c a n be d e v e l o p e d  one  W i t h more i n s t r u c t i o n  realistic  would a s s i s t  helpful.  i s tenuous. There e x i s t s  c o u n s e l l i n g while  develop  a one  co-researchers  Programme  vocational  on  although  work a t a f a s t e r  realize  The A d u l t B a s i c E d u c a t i o n  include the sparseness  was n o t e n o u g h .  could  to  teachers  which  assessments, quality  most i m p o r t a n t l y ,  i n e x i s t e n c e a r e d e s c r i b e d as  qualified  the f a c t  and  handicapped  supervise  and  people.  train  the  93  mentally is  handicapped people u n t i l  achieved.  site  and  The  the  supervisors  mentally  a high  q u a l i t y of  remove t h e m s e l v e s f r o m t h e  handicapped people continue  to  minimal  supervision.  T h i s t y p e o f programme works  because  the  is  training  due  handicapped par  with  also  employer to  with  while  in  The  skills, success  the  and  supervisor  services Ongoing  i f the  follow-up  programme  the  Participants write  the  initial  level  at  spend  r e s u m e s and  felt  ongoing  comfortable  person learn  be  work  learns  the  compensating  The  phase  changes.  The  Job  assisting the  a c t on  i s to a l t e r  1980).  initial  covering  on  young  problem o f o b t a i n i n g  services could  job  are  The  chances f o r  of  receives the  provided  job  as  the  In a d d i t i o n ,  T h i s would e n s u r e t h a t o v e r t h e  possibility  aimed  skills  l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d person  l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d person could  & Besalel,  mentally  service f o r learning disabled could  advocacy s k i l l s .  CAzrin  the  they  t o i m p l e m e n t them.  during  of a support  Another  The  a p o s i t i o n and  guidance while  have a s s i s t a n c e  person's job d e s c r i p t i o n or  the  in securing  T h i s would a l l e v i a t e  greatly increase  placement.  additional  T h i s t y p e o f programme would  workplace u n t i l  offer  with  effectively  any  when h i s / h e r  l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d young a d u l t c o u l d  supportive  self  do  work  work  l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d young a d u l t s .  more i m p o r t a n t l y  job.  to  condition.  employees.  would h a v e a s s i s t a n c e  working alone. and  handicapping  those of other  support  required  p e r s o n works u n a i d e d o n l y  work w e l l  adults  the  not  performance  the  Club people  period  letters.  his/her  own  to  teach  long-term  behalf.  e x i s t i n g job c l u b i s a three  the  model  week i n t e n s i v e  secure  employment.  of time l e a r n i n g  They l e a r n i n t e r v i e w  how  to  skills.  94  write  r e s u m e s and  covering  telephone s c r i p t s ,  points  to  The  keep  a  actually  job. arranging  networking. the  of  i n Job  approach.  search  techniques  be  then  style.  All  existing  services  be  of  learning  people.  another  prevention  l e n g t h e n e d and  have an  by  school  s y s t e m have had necessary  step,  counselling  Specific  counselling  gaining  children.  to  utilizing learn  learn  meet  is a  it  multi-  visually also  or  be  Learning disabled  set  young  effective  to  their are  be  One  for learning aspect of  happening  job  learning  drawn  from  developed  we  recognition  as  A d o l e s c e n t s now  need  services to adults  need  to as  disabled  this  and for  make  a  This  problem  existing  school  continues to  available  is  Learning  legitimate  i n the  people  service  i n many s c h o o l s .  more i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n .  points  and  e f f e c t i v e f o r other populations  service.  yet  spent  participants  time could  atmosphere o r i e n t e d  i s already  are  is  how  adults.  personal  which  t i p s on  resumes  time  s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s can  young  skills,  additionally,  Extra  opportunity  known t o be  needed  disabilities  The  t h e s e programme p o s s i b i l i t i e s  disabled  Specialized  off  i n s t r u c t i o n a l material  i n an  and  programme  dropping  accommodated.  some r e v i s i o n s ,  faced  the  for individualized instruction. would  dress,  In t h i s manner p e o p l e who  could  adults  is  of  interview  t o e x p a n d t h i s e x i s t i n g model t o  disabled  Club could  sensory  with  g r o o m i n g and  second p a r t  learning  to present the  auditorially  They l e a r n  interviews,  possible  aside  on  It i s possible  needs  spend  letters.  be  specialized  well.  t o t o be  kept  i n mind  when  offering  95  counselling that  services to learning  disabled  t h i s group o f people g e n e r a l l y  f i g u r e s and g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s . minimal  opportunity  adults.  The f i r s t  have a d i s t r u s t o f a u t h o r i t y  The l e a r n i n g  disabled  groups.  They  placement  and  resources  a s t h e y were p u s h e d t h r o u g h t h e s y s t e m .  as  the learning  anger  emerge,  anger  a b o u n d s a t h a v i n g had  because  of  vocational  choices.  with t h e a b i l i t y  and A  learning  it  i s also v i t a l thought  of returning  adult  improved  academic s k i l l s .  knows  adult  worries that  retain  them f o r a s h o r t  time  i s crucial  of  counsellor  period  rapport  learning  this  informed  job search.  also  When one  disabled  the  at  learning  dependent  work t h e e m p l o y e r  on  disabled may  only  deficits.  t o take  the  and t o be k n o w l e d g e a b l e a b o u t  the  disability to listen  process.  t o be p r e p a r e d  adult  fearful  the learning  o f t i m e due t o s k i l l  t h e i r own s t o r y .  during  few  can sometimes  job s a t i s f a c t i o n i s  f o rthe counsellor  and  have  make  even though  In a d d i t i o n ,  must be w i l l i n g  time t o t e l l elicited  a  future  once t h e y o b t a i n  to build trust,  impact  they  with a l e a r n i n g  to school,  to  In a d d i t i o n ,  t o remember t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s l i k e l y  disabled  It  access  A l l of this interfere  t o conduct a comprehensive sessions  and  frustration  to  disability  immobile and d i s o r g a n i z e d .  conducting counselling  minimal  increased  opportunity  above  assessments  the r e a l i z a t i o n that  little  is  the  inadequate  person ages,  skills  render a person  experienced  disabled  marketable  a d u l t has  t o e x p e r i e n c e s u p p o r t f r o m any o f t h e  have  is  on  someone's  life.  c a r e f u l l y and a l l o w  people  Strong emotions a r e l i k e l y I t may be  necessary  The  to  be  f o r the  96  counsellor A  t o assume t h e  counselling  r o l e of  psychologist  who  community r e s o u r c e s ,  such as  of  t u t o r i n g can  assessments  counsellor  and  must  be  a d v o c a t e a t some p o i n t is  knowledgeable  competent p r o f e s s i o n a l s  prepared  be  a  tremendous  to take a d i r e c t  in  time.  regarding i n the  field  asset.  The  action  oriented  have  concrete  stance.  Finally, knowledge One  and  needs  to  disability client's spoken  understanding be  lead.  disabled  area  to discuss  readily  and  of  disability  issues  pertaining  comfortably  learning d i s a b i l i t i e s  i n the  past,  i t i s necessary opportunity  in a safe,  supportive  atmosphere.  services  career  for  the  the  learning  a l l encompassing,  child  goals.  i s of  school  However,  young a d u l t s  presently  as  would r e s u l t  comprehensive d e l i v e r y  plan.  to  the  is  the  often  been  learning  discuss  disabled  view.  age,  his/her  need  to  within  i n a much  I d e a l l y , one  working towards  t h i s was  p r o f e s s i o n a l s make e v e r y e f f o r t which  this  f o r the  to  theory.  be  including a l l aspects of  w i t h a much more h o l i s t i c  while the  and  for  if  have not  t o h a v e an  individual,  skills  i n the  must  young a d u l t  c o m p r e h e n s i v e and  that  able  As  freely  disability  start  counselling psychologist  openly,  of  The  the  generally  society, to  i t is  l e a r n and  stronger,  not  the  should personal  the  case  essential  develop supportive  their and  97  J:!SEli99ti2Q§ f o r F u r t h e r  The  existing  social  and  Research  research  vocational  t i m e t o draw a c c u r a t e  more  research  learning  t i m e be  follow  disabled  Many o f t h e not  utilize  studies from in age  field  group  assist just  of  the  the  work as  t o compare and  studies  who  to  learning  on  other  be  working.  and  use  of  the  learned  utilizing and  deal  of  the  two  people  learning  to o f f e r  compensating  groups.  It i s typical  i t  only  is  deal  learning  from  with  skills,  Most with  strong  describe  service  to  disabled  p r o f e s s i o n a l s as  They c o u l d  received  would  as  people  every  This  disability.  adults  disabled  research  between  populations  people.  assistance  above.  do  future  p e o p l e from  interviewing  Learning  learning disabled  experiences,  development  of  time  disabled  similarities  disabled  present  h e l p f u l to conduct  learning disabled  Much c a n  are  that  study  to conduct  non-learning  contrast  i n d i c a t e the  h i s t o r i e s have a g r e a t  school  and  I t would be  unique f e a t u r e s  unemployment. people  groups.  relevant  indicate  at  population.  i n the  to the  I t i s important  learning d i s a b i l i t i e s  and  necessary  study of t h i s  i n c l u d i n g elementary school  populations  It i s  c o n d u c t e d up  learning disabled  of  adults'  adults.  researchers as  t o the  young  c o m p r e h e n s i v e enough  areas f o r future research  studies being  s i m i l a r age  the  allotted  on  i s not  conclusions.  c o n t r o l groups.  with  learning disabled  adjustment  this  Suggestions  on  well their  agencies,  whether  their  98  employer  is  aware o f t h e l e a r n i n g  techniques.  The  researcher  information  by  demonstrated  competencies.  At  the  disabled  establishment  adults,  helpfulness to  interviewing  isolate  i t  is  disability,  stands  learning  to  and  gain  disabled  of the service.  to  people  useful who  to  test  i t would be  relevant  F o r example, when  thoroughly  disabilities.  One  esteem,  of control,  locus  some s p e c i f i c  could  studying  a r e a s seem  the  area  examine t h e i s s u e s coping  skills,  the  insightful  c e r t a i n aspects o f the experience o f having a  disability.  have  learning  independently  In a d d i t i o n ,  search  much  o f a s e r v i c e area unique relevant  job  learning  particularly of  learning  related  stress,  to  and  self  learned  helplessness.  The  learning  disabled  person  l i v e s within  Parents,  grandparents,  disabled  p e r s o n t h e m s e l f must a d j u s t  research  information  family  member  information maintain  As  the school  In  order  to  system.  addition  to the  learning  to the d i s a b i l i t y .  Useful  in  be e l i c i t e d accept  by  the  exploring  system r e c o g n i z e s  preparation,  continually  improve  Detailed  support,  counselling  and  of a learning  counselling  i t i s imperative  each  invaluable.  the legitimacy  be g a t h e r e d a s t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s to  how  disability.  when u n d e r s t r e s s would be  and i m p l e m e n t s new c u r r i c u l u m s ,  vocational  information  could  family  o f t h e methods f a m i l i e s u s e t o p r o v i d e  the family  disability and  learns  siblings,  a  that  independent  of those and  services,  changes.  programming  99  services, disabilities  researchers f o r both  must  children  explore and  the  a d u l t s on  field an  of  on-going  learning basis.  100  REFERENCES Anderson, L. (no d a t e ) . B.C.A.C.L.D.• Aune,  Learning d i s a b i l i t i e s  and  employment.;.  E . & G r a y , L . (1983, M a y / J u n e ) . Job s u c c e s s f o r t h e with learning d i s a b i l i t i e s ^ A.C.L.D. Newsbriefs.  Azrin, N.H. & Besalel, V.A. (1980). Job c l u b manualJL A b e h a v i o u r a l approach to v o c a t i o n a l Baltimore: U n i v e r s i t y Park P r e s s .  adult  counsellor^ counselling^  Borgen, B. & Amundson, N. (1984). D y n a m i c s o f unemployment^ Research findings^ University of British Columbia. Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n . Brown, R. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n programmes s t u d y . I n t e r i m P h a s e 1 Report ( P r o j e c t # 4558-29-4). Calgary, Alberta: Health & W e l f a r e Canada. Brutten, M. problem^ Cox,  S. 13,  (1981). Learning d i s a b i l i t i e s ^ A.C.L.D. Newsbrief.  (1977). The 79 - 86.  learning  disabled  adult.  Not  just  a school  Academic  Therapy,  Employment and Immigration Canada (1978). Canadian C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and D i c t i o n a r y o f O c c u p a t i o n s . Minister of S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s , C a n a d a . Fafard, M.B. & Haubrich, P.A. (1981). V o c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l adjustment o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d young a d u l t s : A follow-up study. Learning Disabled Quarterly, 4 ( 2 ) , 122 - 130. Flanagan, J.C. Psychological Geib,  (1954). B u l l e t i n , 51  Critical ( 4 ) , 327 -  incident 355.  technique.  B.B., G u z z a r d i , L.R. & Genova, P.M. (1981). Intervention for adults with learning d i s a b i l i t i e s . Academic Therapy, 16 ( 3 ) , 317 - 325.  Giorgi, A., F i s h e r , C , & M u r r a y , E . (Eds.). (1975). Deguesne studies i n phenomenological psychology Vol 1 P i t t s b u r g : Duquesne U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Gray,  R.A. (1981). Services f o r the L.D.adult: A working L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t y Q u a r t e r l y , 4 ( 4 ) , 426 - 434.  Harms, E., & Ridenaur, learning disabled. Hatch, W.E. yOi^^rsity University  D. (Speakers). Time Out t o E n j o y ,  (1975). Inc.  paper.  Yesj. we  are  (1985). The experience of unemployment for graduates. Unpublished master's thesis. o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver.  101  Johnson, C. Therapy,  (1981). L.D. a d u l t s : 16 ( 4 ) , 435 - 442.  The i n s i d e s t o r y .  Academig  Kendall, W.S. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . Career a t t i t u d e s o f the l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d adolescents R e s e a r c h i m p l i c a t i o n s o f i s s u e s and p r a c t i c e s , . Dallas, Texas: The C o u n c i l f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n . ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e , No. E d . 213 - 245. K r o l l , L.G. (1984). L.D.'s what h a p p e n s when t h e y a r e no children? A c a d e m i c T h e r a p y , 20 ( 2 ) , 133 - 148. Kronick, D. (1978). An e x a m i n a t i o n o f p s y c h o s o c i a l learning disabled adolescents. Learning Q u a r t e r l y , 4 ( 1 ) , 86 - 9 3 . Letner, and  J . (1981). Learning teaching s t r a t e g i e s ^  longer  aspects of Disability  d i s a b i l i t i e s - Theories^ diagnosis Boston: Houghton M i f f i n .  Meyers, G.S. & Messerer, J . ( adjustment of learning adolescents after hj.6.,1 D.C.: National Institute R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED  '81). The s o c i a l and v o c a t i o n a l di§abled/behayiour disordered A pilot survey^ Washington, of Education. (ERIC Document 213 245  Osman, B. (1982). No one t o play, w i t h - The s o c i a l learning d i s a b i l i t i e s . New Y o r k : Random House.  slide  of  Patton, J.R. & P o l l o w a y , E.A. (1982). The l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d : The adult years. Topics i n Learning and Learning Disabilities^ 2 ( 2 ) , 79 - 88. Siegel, for §"d  E. (1975). The e x c e p t i o n a l c h i d grows u p i G u i d e l i n e s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and h e l p i n g t h e b r a i n y i n j u r e d adolescent young a d u l t . New Y o r k : Dutton.  Siegel,  E.  (no d a t e ) .  &»C)«>AaCf»Li»Da  The l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d  grows  up^.  •  White, W.J., Alley, G.R., Warner, M.M., Clark, d i s a b i l i t i e s a f t e r high ( 3 ) , 273 - 274.  & Deschler, D.D., Schumaker, J . B . , F.L. (1982). Are there learning school? Exceptional Children, 49  White, W.J., Schumaker, J . B . , Warner, M.M., Alley, G.R., & Deschler, D.D. (1981). The c u r r e n t s t a t u s o f young a d u l t s identified as l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d during t h e i r school c a r e e r . Kansas University, Institute f o r Research in Learning Disabilities. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. 217 643.  Appendix A Referee  Letter  103 Referee L e t t e r July  11th,  1985  Dear Thank you f o r your i n t e r e s t i n the r e s e a r c h study on the " E x p e r i e n c e o f Unemployment f o r L e a r n i n g D i s a b l e d Young Adults." I would a p p r e c i a t e i t i f you c o u l d r e f e r f i v e t o t e n subjects. The c r i t e r i a i s a s f o l l o w s : All s u b j e c t s must be i n c l u d i n g age 30. All subjects must be Canadian Association Disabilities.  at  least  20  years  o f age,  up  l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d as d e f i n e d for Children & Adults with  to  and  by the Learning  All s u b j e c t s must be unemployed o r n e w l y e m p l o y a b l e o r a h i s t o r y o f unemployment.  have  S u b j e c t s may be i n v o l v e d i n s c h o o l o r v o l u n t e e r work a s as the t i m e committment d o e s n o t e x c e e d t w e n t y hours week, o r t h e i r s t a t u s i s " p a r t - t i m e student."  long per  Subjects will be i n t e r v i e w e d f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y forty-five (45) m i n u t e s t o one h o u r . The p r i m a r y q u e s t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w i s t o d e s c r i b e i n a s much d e t a i l a s p o s s i b l e , the experience of unemployment. S u b j e c t s w i l l be c o n t a c t e d a s e c o n d t i m e by phone. This contact will take place one to two weeks after the interview. The p u r p o s e o f t h e phone c a l l i s t o r e v i e w a summary of the interview to ensure that the researcher has fully understood the s u b j e c t . All subjects w i l l be a s k e d t o s i g n a c o n s e n t f o r m and all i n t e r v i e w s w i l l be a u d i o - t a p e d . A l l t a p e s w i l l be d e s t r o y e d at the completion of the r e s e a r c h e r ' s study. This research Committee a t U.B.C. fulfillment of the Psychology. If reached  you at:  have any  L i s a Hansen 4040 West 1 7 t h Vancouver Thank you  study has been approved by the Ethics The r e s e a r c h i s b e i n g c o n d u c t e d a s partial requirements for a M.A, in Counselling questions  Avenue  f o r your  time.  or  subjects to refer, 224 263  - 1698 o r - 1931  I can  be  104  Appendix  B  S u b j e c t Consent  Form  105  Subject  C o n s e n t Form  I agree t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t about being unemployed. I a l s o understand t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study i s v o l u n t a r y , t h a t I am f r e e t o w i t h d r a w a t any t i m e o r r e f u s e t o answer any q u e s t i o n . As w e l l , a l l q u e s t i o n s t h a t I may h a v e r e g a r d i n g t h i s s t u d y w i l l be a n s w e r e d by t h e i n t e r v i e w e r . I u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h i s p r o j e c t w i l l r e q u i r e me t o t a l k w i t h an i n t e r v i e w e r f o r a b o u t f o r t y - f i v e m i n u t e s a b o u t t h e experience o f b e i n g unemployed. In a d d i t i o n , I u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e r e w i l l be one f o l l o w - u p s e s s i o n a p p r o x i m a t e l y twenty minutes i n l e n g t h . I a l s o g i v e my p e r m i s s i o n f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w t o be audio-taped w i t h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w w i l l be k e p t c o n f i d e n t i a l and u s e d f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s o n l y . This t a p e d i n t e r v i e w i s t o be l a b e l l e d w i t h a r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d number and i t i s t o be w i p e d o u t upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s H.A. Thesis. F i n a l l y , I w i l l complete a s h o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  Signature of Subject I Consent  -  Signature of Subject I acknowledge r e c e i p t o f c o n s e n t form  L i s a Hansen R e s e a r c h e r and Thesis  Title:  T e l e p h o n e Number  Date  Interviewer The E x p e r i e n c e o f Unemployment f o r D i s a b l e d Young A d u l t s  Learning  T h e s i s Committee: D r . Norman Amundson, C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y D e p t . , U.B.C. Dr. W i l l i a m B o r g e n , C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y D e p t . , U.B.C. Dr. Ron N e u f e l d , S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n D e p t . , U.B.C.  106  Appendix Pilot  Interview  C Questions  107  Pilot  1.  Please  describe  experience  in  of  including  Interview  as  being  Questions  much  detail  unemployed  back  describe  what  this  3.  t h a t you have  Thinking  it  Now  thoughts  have had d u r i n g t h e unemployment  activities  2.  time.  over  let's  your  Begin  newly  unemployment  with the f i r s t  Begin  your  employable,  what y o u since;  thought  any f e e l i n g s  and j o b s e a r c h  tried.  experience, lowest  points  low p o i n t , and t e l l  please during me  why  f o r you a t t h e t i m e .  turn t o the high points  unemployed.  possible,  period,  y o u c o n s i d e r t o be y o u r  was s o d i f f i c u l t  exactly  or  how y o u came t o be unemployed,  a b o u t when i t h a p p e n e d and y o u r you  as  with  the f i r s t  why i t was s o h e l p f u l  you  experienced  while  h i g h p o i n t , and t e l l  me  f o r you a t t h e t i m e .  4.  What h e l p h a v e y o u had?  5.  What h e l p w o u l d y o u have l i k e d  6.  What s e r v i c e s w o u l d y o u l i k e  7.  What was y o u r  t o have had?  t o have i n p l a c e f o r t h e f u t u r e ?  educational experience  like?  108  8.  What s u c c e s s d i d y o u e x p e r i e n c e  9.  What a r e y o u r  f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s , i f any?  10.  What a r e y o u r  future career  11.  How a b o u t o t h e r f u t u r e p l a n s ?  12.  Could  you  experience  please from  draw a  while  i n school?  goals?  diagram  of  your  when i t began t o t h e p r e s e n t ?  unemployment  Appendix  D  - r e s e a r c h e r Diagram  Sheet  Since Leaving Secondary School  Present Time  Appendix Background  E  Information  Sheet  112  Background  Information  Thank you f o r agreeing t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s research p r o j e c t on t h e e x p e r i e n c e o £ unemployment. Please complete t h e following form w i t h your i n t e r v i e w e r . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be kept c o n f i d e n t i a l and used f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s o n l y . Age: Sex: Marital  Status:  Previous  Occupation:  Previous  Schooling:<  ) Check h i g h e s t  G r a d e 10 G r a d e 11 G r a d e 12 College (specify year) U n i v e r s i t y ( s p e c i f y year) Income L e v e l  o f Previous  Occupations  H o u r l y Wage Monthly S a l a r y 05,000 - 010,000 y e a r l y $10,000 - 015,000 y e a r l y 015,000 - 020,000 y e a r l y 020,000 - 025,000 y e a r l y 025,000 - 030,000 y e a r l y O v e r 030,000 y e a r l y Income L e v e l  of Present  Occupation^  H o u r l y Wage Monthly S a l a r y Under 05,000 y e a r l y 05,000 - 010,000 y e a r l y 010,000 - 015,000 y e a r l y 015,000 - 020,000 y e a r l y O v e r 020,000 y e a r l y L e n g t h o f Employment: T e l e p h o n e Number:  (months)  level  completed  Appendix Rating  F  Sheets  Appendix F - l R a t i n g S h e e t Form  Nuaber:  Date: _.  Esotiona  Tise (Month*)  Accoapaning Events/Behaviours Including Thoaa (poa/neg) Leading to a Change i n Eaotion  Coping Strategies (Moat e f f e c t i v e )  Future Expectations  Job Search Strategies  Appendix Completed  F-2  R a t i n g S h e e t Exampl  Co-researcher  #25  Eaotlons  very depressed discouraged  Tlae(H)  •-  Accoapanylng Events/Behaviour Including Those (poa/neg) Leading t o a Change l n Eaotion  Coping S t r a t e g i e s (aost e f f e c t i v e )  Future Expectations  "I used t o go t o Manpower once l n a while and I have s S p e c i a l Needs Counsellor t h e r e . She wasn't doing such f o r ae a t a l l . "  "wish" (hope) longing  "I've been working o f f and on but a l o t o f t i s e s I j u s t wish I had a career."  "bored" unhappy  "I was f e e l i n g bored a a l n l y when I wasn't working. A l o t o f t l a e s I s a i d t o a y s e l f I wish I had a career."  Job Search Strategies  "I used t o go t o Manpower once In a w h i l e . "  "I was going t o t h e l i b r a r y q u i t e a b i t and I would Beet ay b o y f r i e n d a l a o s t everyday and go f o r a c o f f e e j u s t before dinner." "I B a d e sure I g o t up a t a certain tlae each aornlng. I d i d n ' t want t o get i n t o a r u t . " "Froa t l a e t o t l a e I'd go to see ay g i r l f r i e n d . " "I Bade sure I d i d n ' t depend on w e l f a r e . " "I worked l n a few p l a c e s a s a b a b y s i t t e r and l i g h t housekeeper and the pay wasn't very good but j u s t the Idea o f g e t t i n g out and doing s o a e t h l n g . "  "Right now I'a permanent r e l i e f I s i g h t be g e t t i n g a peraanent j o b . "  Emotions  Time(N)  Accompanying Events/Behaviour Including Those (pos/neg) Leading t o a Change i n Emotion  frustrated  "She sent Me on 3 i n t e r v i e w s . One place I went t o they wanted t o have someone who was mute. I d i d n ' t know t h a t . The sepond one wanted someone who could catch on r i g h t away. The t h i r d was a f a c t o r y and I never heard from the guy, n e i t h e r d i d my S p e c i a l Needs C o u n s e l l o r . "  discouraged disappointed frustrated  "There were about f i v e d i f f e r e n t t e s t s . From doing that t e s t I found out according to him that a i f a r as g e t t i n g a job I was l i m i t e d t o my ability. Ky best bet was t o look f o r a job which was r o u t i n e . I was t h i n k i n g o f taking a Nurses Aides course which I wanted t o take f o r a long time but he thought i t would be too d i f f i c u l t f o r me.**  "upset" hurt  "I d i d go see another S p e c i a l Ne ids C o u n s e l l o r . She t h i n k s a l l I'd be able t o do i s f i l i n g f o r the r e s t of my l i f e . That r e a l l y upset me badly."  "hurt" "upset" ashamed misunderstood  "I'm s t i l l very hurt and upset that I don't have myself a career a t my age. E s p e c i a l l y when my family Is always pushing me and t e l l i n g me t o go back t o school. E s p e c i a l l y when I know I have the motivation."  fortunate understood  "I was very fortunate. I've got t h i s c o u n s e l l o r through a personnel agency. I heard that she Is not working as a temporary c o u n s e l l o r anymore, but at the time she was very concerned about people."  Coping S t r a t e g i e s (aost e f f e c t i v e )  Future Expectations  Job Search Strategies  "And t h a t ' s why I went t o see about g e t t i n g a S p e c i a l Needs C o u n s e l l o r . "  " I mentioned t h a t t o the support group and they s a i d not t o l i s t e n t o h e r . "  "I went down t o t a l k t o her about my d i s a b i l i t y and she s a i d you shouldn't f e e l ashamed o f i t . "  "She used to phone me and get me t o do work here and there."  Emotions .  Time<H)  Accompanying Events/Behaviour Including Those (pos/neg) Leading to a Change i n Eaotion  discouraged  "The other agencies when I would c a l l would say your s k i l l s are very H a l t e d . You should upgrade your s k i l l s because you won't be able to get a job very e a s i l y snd the market l a very c o m p e t i t i v e . "  appreciated understood  "The supportive c o u n s e l l o r used to teach a g i r l with a l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y and ehe knew how I f e l t and a l l t h i s . And she t o l d me I was very r e l i a b l e . Whenever she sent me on a job I a r r i v e d on t l a e .  "guilty"  "I used t o f e e l g u i l t y when I went out f o r c o f f e e even though I used to look f o r a job during the day. I didn't look f o r work everyday."  Important rewarded good  "I did some volunteer work. I t was at F r i e n d s h i p K e t t l e S o c i e t y and -I was there f o r three months."  pleasure at f e e l i n g useful  "Working at F r i e n d s h i p K e t t l e Society was n i c e . I used to f e e l good because those people had emotional problems and I wasn't having those problems. I f e l t I was Important at the time, special."  rewarded important ,  hurt ashamed "embarrassed"  "I've discussed with my b o 6 S my learning d i s a b i l i t y . There have been a l o t of times I've made mistakes, raised her voice at me but I t r y to Ignore i t . There was one time I was working and I used the wrong stamp and the lady came up to me and s a i d . 'Do you have a l e a r n i n g problem?' and I was r e a l l y embarrassed because there was q u i t e a few of us i n the lunch r'>om. That day they l e t me go."  Coping S t r a t e g i e s (aoat e f f e c t i v e )  Future Expectations  Job Search Strategies  "1 used to look f o r a job during the day."  "I made a point t o do soae volunteer work t o get me out of the house." "I would s t i l l say I would l o v e work ln a clothing s t o r e on the cash register."  The g i r l who  "I used to go l n and do the typing."  Is t r a i n i n g me  has  Emotions  Tlme(H>  Accompanying Events/Behaviour Including Those (pos/neg) Leading to a Change In Emotion  disapproved humiliated embarrassed  "At a government agency I was there about a year and a h a l f . She sent three of us on a word processing week and on the f i f t h day I couldn't remember how to program the computer and I d i d n ' t get a c e r t i f i c a t e . "  frustrated "bored"  "When I wasn't working I t was boredom. I used to think I wanted to go back to school and I couldn't a f f o r d i t . "  " f e l t good" understood belonging  "I haven't r e a l l y gotten anywhere to be In the support group but j u s t the idea o f knowing I'm not the only one makes me f e e l good. I used to think I was the only one In the world."  eager dedicated valued appreciated  "According to my supervisor I always make a point to cose i n on time."  Coping S t r a t e g i e s (most e f f e c t i v e )  Future Expectations  course.  "I'm going to t a l k about I t i n the auppport group."  "I t e l l myself I'm not l a z i n g around. I f someone t e l l s me o f f about something I d i d wrong I say to myself I'm trying." "I t o l d my s u p e r v i s o r about my l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y and t h a t I'd l i k e her to be able to understand me and t h a t I'm w i l l i n g t o t r y my very b e s t . "  appreciated validated  "I've been t o l d I'm a very good worker, very c o n s c i e n t i o u s . "  The course was  "Now I know I'm going back but I don't know what area."  Job Search Strategies  f o r one  Emotions  angry discounted resentful  uneasy "Insecure"  Time(H)  Accompanying Events/Behaviour I n c l u d i n g Those (pos/neg) Leading t o a Chanoe l n Emotion  "The l a s t letdown was with the c o u n s e l l o r here. I was taking some courses and changing ay career and the whole b i t and she s a i d I f you're going to do t h a t . I t might take two years on the w a i t i n g a l o t a money I f we know you're not going t o succeed."  "I don't know t i l l  "And she s a i d , 'we put out 61,000 on your t e s t s . ' She s a i d , 'from whst I can t e l l you we don't have any answers f o r you and the best bet Is t o c a r r y on with your f i l i n g because I f you can't do anything e l s e t h a t ' s a l l we can say.' I was very'depressed afterward."  "That's not t r u e . I was t o l d i t c o s t 9300.00 f o r the t e s t s . "  "Then she s a i d "After you're f i n i s h e d with your job come back to me."  "I don't need more o f that."t  I try.  Job Search Strategies  C . E . J  . C .  l i s t and then I t ' s going t o c o s t us  "Fortunately I have t h i s job. You never know what's going t o happen. I f e e l very Insecure s i n c e yesterday." (Her boss was f i r e d )  discourged hopeless  "hurt" discouraged by lack of progress  Future Expectations  Coping S t r a t e g i e s (most e f f e c t i v e )  " I hope I can get special training and p a t i e n t s — ln nursing maybe I'm beginning to wonder i f I ' l l ever get ahead."  "One thing I ' l l say i s that I've f e l t l i k e c r y i n g a l o t of times. People l n my age group are nurses or teachers or whatever. I t r e a l l y makes me f e e l rotten. It h u r t s . I t r e a l l y does.  N)  Emotions  apprehensive uncertain  Timed!)  Accompanying Events/Behaviour Including Those (pos/neg) Leading t o a Change In Emotion  Coping S t r a t e g i e s (most e f f e c t i v e )  Future Expectations  "For the f u t u r e I've thought of a l o t o f t h i n g s . Whether I can do I t Is the sain thing. According t o the c o u n s e l l o r the courses I picked are too d i f f i c u l t . "  "I'd l i k e t o get married one day and have a c h i l d . "  Job Search Strategies  Appendix Completed  F-3  R a t i n g S h e e t Exampl  Co-researcher  #26  Enot. i o n s  Timed!)  n c c o » D a n y l n q Eventa/Bohavloiir Including Those ( p o s / n e g ) Lending t o a Change In Emotion  "frustrated"  "But b e i n a unenployed  "depressed"  "I get r e f f l l y depressed, not going out a n d seeing people."  "depressed"  "Quite o f t e n walking across the Burrard S t r e e t Bridge I would t h i n k of throwing myself o f f I t ... B a s l c i l l y depressed a l o t . "  suicidal  i s frustrating."  "afraid"  "I was scared t o be employed again for f e a r o f f a i l u r e . I'm r e a l l y a f r a i d o f f a i l u r e because o f s c h o o l and s t u f f . They j u s t put you down and I t r e a l l y s t i c k s with you f o r a long time."  "really depressed" "discouraged  "In terms o f looking f o r work I d i d n ' t even look f o r work. I d i d n ' t even look f o r work u n t i l the f i r s t two months I was having a v a c a t i o n because I hadn't had one i n a long time. I d i d n ' t even look f o r work for the f i r s t few months and then I h a l f - h e a r t e d l y looked. I got r e a l l y depressed when I got turned down a whole bunch o f t i m e s . "  "very frustrated"  "A l o t times people w i l l phone back and t e l l me there were so many people beina c o n s i d e r e d f o r the job and I was one o f the f i v e people being considered but I wasn't o l d enough or something. I was very f r u s t r o t e d . "  disappointed  "Physiotherapy would be j r e a t f o r me. That's what I wanted t o l o but when f lmtked i n t o It I t wasn't f e a s i b l e i t t h r timp. I'm s t i l l dumb."  Coplnq S t r a t e g i e s (anst e f f e c t i v e )  Future Expectations  Job Search Strateiies  " I t Is f r u s t r a t i n g f o r everybody." •  "Unschooled anyway. I'm basically self-taught."  Emotions  Ttme(N)  Accompany 1 no Events/Behaviour Including Those (pos/neq) Leading to a Change in Emotion  _ Coping S t r a t e g i e s (most e f f e c t i v e )  Future Expectations  Job Search Strategies  "Hy job search s t r a t e g i e s b a s i c a l l y Included looking ln the paper, seeing what meets my c r i t e r i a , looking on the boards ... s e t t i n g up appointments, interviews, going out."  "I used word of south. Hum — r e l a t i v e s would get back to me." angry, "frustration"  "Anger. F r u s t r a t i o n . Sometimes I was mad at myself, sometimes I was mad at the world. Really fruetrated."  depressed, apathetic  "I had a l o t of probleaa r e t t i n g myself out of bed ln the morning. A f t e r a few months I t got to the point I have nothing to look forward t o . I dug myself Into a b i t of a hole. Ho motivation."  very discouraged  "I bought a car and I moved Into t h i s place and I l o s t ay job."  angry frustrated  "I d i r e c t a l o t of anger a t ayself. But I was r e a l l y angry at the system a l o t . The system doesn't do much to help you out of your hole."  useful, worthwhile  "A p o s i t i v e thing was g e t t i n g a b a b y s i t t i n g job for a week."  humlllated. shocked  "A negative thing was making my second month car payment. I couldn't. I hate being ln debt. I alw.iyi prided myaelf on that. When I r e a l i z e d 1 couldn't It wan a real blow to *•? rude lwflkon i ii'.i. "  Eaotions  Tlae(N)  Accompanying Events/Behaviour Including Those (pos/neg) Leading to a Change i n Emotion  hopeful, relleved  "Right now I'm working as a nanny f o r two k i d s and a t n i g h t , from 10 - 12 I put a q u a d r a p e l i g l c t o bed on weekdays so i t i s v a r i e d . With the two jobs I'm making about 31,000 a month. I'm going to t r y to save f o r a t r i p and save f o r work to be done on ay c a r . But now a t l e a s t I can save."  uneasy, Insecure  " I t j u s t seems everytime I get s e t t l e d In a job end s t a r t accumulating savings something happens and there goes the job end ay s a v i n g s . "  helpless  " I t Is r e a l l y l i k e a v i c i o u s c y c l e . There i s nothing to help you out."  humiliated, not supported, angry  "As f a r as I'm concerned the Employment Centre Is a complete f a r c e In the respect of job o p p o r t u n i t i e s . They've got S p e c i a l Needs C o u n s e l l o r s who don't even know what l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s are and t h a t ' s no help at a l l . I'd be t e l l i n g them t h i n g s . The S o c i a l Needs C o u n s e l l o r s were more of a hlnderance end there Is the stigma of going to a S p e c i a l Needs Counsellor."  "supported" encouraged  "I had a l o t of help and support from ay parents. Hy f r i e n d s were r e a l l y good. They would phone ae up and bug ae to have c o f f e e with them. That was just what I needed at the time."  discouraged exploited, angry  "The system g i v e s you enough money to be poor. Hy unemployment worker t o l d me I was l i v i n g below the poverty l e v e l . Boy d i d that ever help my s p i r i t s . "  Coping S t r a t e g i e s (most e f f e c t i v e )  Future Expectations  Note: 427 had been working f o r one week a t the time of the Interview.  "Welfare helped ae  out."  Job Search Strategies  Emotions  Time(H)  Accompanying Events/Behaviour Including Those (pos/neq) Leading to a Change l n Eaotion  "frustrated" Isolated  " I t i s r e a l l y f r u s t r a t i n g working with aoaeone who Is supposed t o be helping you and know what you're going through and doesn't know where t h e i r nose Is. I t Is r e a l l y hard t o buck the systea on your own."  longing. regret  "I'd l i k e to be s t r a i g h t with ay eaployers and on a couple o f t l a e s I've made mention o f the f a c t t o my employers that I have t r o u b l e l n t h i s area and t o be p a t i e n t or sometimes I t takes a l o t of r e p e t i t i o n or write down Instruct i o n s but people don't understand l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s and t h e i r f i r s t thought i s mental r e t a r dation so I've kept i t s e c r e t and by keeping I t a s e c r e t I t has caused problems. I f I could have been s t r a i g h t I t could have been smoothed over."  afraid. longing  "I have a r e a l s t l g a a when I t coaes to s c h o o l . I've gone so f a r as t o wait l n l i n e t o r e g i s t e r and then backed out a t the l a s t moment. I have a r e a l phobia. I want t o l e a r n . I'a r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d In l e a r n i n g .  desperation .. .  Coping S t r a t e g i e s (aost e f f e c t i v e )  Future Expectations  "In the f u t u r e I'd l i k e t o go back t o s c h o o l . " " I ' d l i k e t o go t o night s c h o o l . " "I know I have a l o t t o contribute."  " I don't foresee myself g e t t i n g anywhere near ay g o a l i n the near or even l a t e r f u t u r e . I aay never achieve what I want without going t o school and t h a t ' s not f e a s i b l e r i g h t now."  Job Search Strategies  Emotions  grief, loss, unprotected  strong  Tlme(M)  Accompanying Events/Behaviour Including Those (pos/neq) Leading to a Change ln Eaotion  "I've l o s t four f r i e n d s t o s u i c i d e . So once we leave the school system I t doesn't end there. Then you're thrown out into the world and t o l d to fend for yourself."  Coping S t r a t e g i e s (most e f f e c t i v e )  Future Expectations  "I've t r i e d t o keep i n touch with the people I hung out with l n high s c h o o l . We were a l l outcasts."  "I know I'a not s t u p i d , I have an I.Q. o f 140."  grief, angry  "I have aany dreams but I don't foresee getting t o my d r e s a s l n the near f u t u r e . I must go back to school t o achieve ay dreams. I would l i k e t o become a l i c e n s e d physlotheraplat. I w i l l become a l i c e n s e d physiot h e r a p i s t one of these days. I w i l l go back..."  determined  "I know t h a t I w i l l achieve what I want." T e n a c i t y keeps you going."  Job Search Strategies  Appendix Completed  F-4  R a t i n g Sheet  Co-reeearcher  Exampl  #27  Emotions  efflcent, productive  Tlme(N)  accompanying Events/Behaviour Including Those (pos/neg) Leading to a Change In Emotion  Coping S t r a t e g i e s (most e f f e c t i v e )  "After grad I got a job as a wheel motor mechanic. Hy job waa t o put brake pads on. I t would take h a l f an hour I f I waa e f f i c i e n t , but the guy I was working f o r t o l d me not t o be so e f f i c i e n t . We were doing i n 3 days what u s u a l l y took a week. He got r e a l l y s t i l l so they gave ae broom and I kept place r e a l l y c l e a n . They couldn't keep jobs f o r me to do because I kept doing them so q u i c k l y .  despondent  "I went ae I was weighed streets  "upset", crushed  I got a job working as a cook. They r e a l i z e d I couldn't read. They r e a l i z e d I was doing e v e r y t h i n g by v o i c e when a big order came up I couldn't keep up. I was f i r e d i n week. I was r e a l l y upset."  "o.k." pleased  I met a guy who owned a s k i shop...I explained about ay work. He asked I f I'd l i k e to be a salesman. So I worked f o r him f o r a while from February t o A p r i l and things worked out o.k., but that was the owner, not the manager."  embarrassed  "The manager wanted ae to use the t i l l . I kept g i v i n g i t to the g i r l t o r i n g up and she would get the commission. I was too eabarrassed t o work the t i l l so I waa g e t t i n g ay hourly wage and j u s t skimming by i n a boarding house."  terrific proud  Future Expectations  p i s s e d o f f at  Job Search Strategies  me.  I couldn't keep  to the o i l r i g s and they t o l d too skinny t o work t h e r e . I 135 l b s at 6'1". I l i v e d on the i n parka."  "The s t o r e owner lent me a Laser to go racing end I met a gentleman and he asked me i f I needed a job so he s a i d I could be a yard ape. I s a i d sure I was a s a i l i n g i n s t r u c t o r as w e l l . "  "To undspreaa myself I ended up going s k i i n g t o burn o f f s t e a a . "  -  -  EmotIons  "Isolated" "depressed" despair  Time(H)  Accompanying Events/Behaviour Including Those (pos/neq) Leading to a Change l n Emotion "When not working there Is no worda that I can express to explain not knowing what you're going to do l n l i f e -- a deep depression. When you go through days when you don't want to get out of bed and you don't. And you just don't. And your stomach hurts and you get up and you don't -feel l i k e eating cause you're hungry becauae you haven't done any e x e r c i s e s and you H e on your stomach so your stomach stops hurt-  Coping S t r a t e g i e s (most e f f e c t i v e )  "Vou t r y t o break I t with some a c t i o n . "  lng. And you wake up the next morning and you f e e l more t i r e d . And you t r y to break I t with some a c t i o n o r someone comes to v i s i t . A p h y s i c a l depression very much isolation. Total I s o l a t i o n . You don't want t o get up because you have nothing t o do."  Future Expectations"  Job Search Strategies "My job aearch s t r a t e g i e s conalated of reading the paper and phoning and that f r u s t r a t e d me. I wasn't g e t t i n g the klnda of jobs I was useful at ao I t r i e d walking around. I'd go i n t o a place and see what the ataoaphere was snd i f there was someone I could r e l y on. I a l s o went t o the work boards at U.I.C."  "I had no resume." "I went through the Yellow Pages sometimes."  Hopeless  "Then you t r y t o get work and meet people who are t o t a l l y competent and have degrees and they can't f i n d work so what a r e you going to be -- a dishwasher f o r the r e s t o f your l i f e ? "  Demeaned, deprived  "Host o f ay l i f e I was t o l d what I can't do. I can't take typing. I have t r o u b l e with ay smsll motor c o o r d i n a t i o n . Can't do p u b l i c speaking because I can't read. I love p u b l i c speaking but I'd have to apeak o f f the top of ay head."  "I t r i e d t o look f o r a j o b . I was going down t o see people who worked on tha docks. I chose jobs I knew I could handle."  "Degraded"  " I t I s r e a l l y degrading doing joba you can't handle."  "I chose jobs I knew I could handle."  Triumphant  "A p o s i t i v e thing Was going i n t o a aallboat race aqalnat the boas and beating him. The f e e l i n g was I proved to him I waa tust as good as him P » I > H though I couldn't do the mil h. "  "I t r i e d t o look f o r a job. I waa going t o see people who worked on the docks."  Emotions  Despondent,  Tiae(M)  Accompanying Events/Behaviour I n c l u d i n g Those (pos/neg) Leading to a Change i n Emotion  "I s t a r t e d as a yard ape. I wasn't a hard salesman but I ended up s e l l i n g more boats than he. So he wanted me to become manager and handle t h e i r accounts. When he r e a l i z e d I couldn't do I t he brought In someone e l s e . "  Frustrated,  "I worked there f o r a month and then he r e a l i z e d I couldn't work the t i l l . Then he r e a l i z e d tfiere was money missing and he thought I waa taking the money but I "'ust couldn't work the t i l l . I was l a i d o f f j u s t when I was s f v l n g money f o r a s a i l b o a t . "  Humiliated  "A negative i n c i d e n t was going to s s k i place and not remembering what I had learned about s k i s . When I was e x p l a i n i n g to the manager why he should h i r e ae and I got embarrassed because I confused a l l the s k i s . That was r e a l l y negative. I walked out of the store crying."  Humiliated/ embarrassed  "One t h i n g that bothered ae was phoning hoae and f i n d i n g out how things were going a f t e r ay mum and dad separated and they'd ask ae what I was doing. And I wouldn't be able to t e l l thea anything except that I was s t i l l looking f o r work."  Confldent. strong  "When I think of the T.V. Industry being c r e a t i v e , being able to c a l l ay own shots. I know I can handle it. I'm not f e a r f u l . I f e e l good about myself. More spunk more s e l f esteem. I have to have something Intellectual."  Coping S t r a t e g i e s (most e f f e c t i v e )  Future Expectations  "I r e a l i z e d t h a t I had no f u t u r e with the store.**  Job Search Strstegles  Eiiot tons  Time(N)  ncconpanyinq Events/Behaviour Including Those (pos/neq) Leading to a Change in Eaotion  Cast aside. nnqry. frustrated  "I waa assessed. I saw part of the assessment but It waa l i k e aore bad news. After t had the asaessaent done there was no follow up. UIC transferred ae to welfare. The asaessaent aald I should go Into therapy. Nothing. two years, nothing."  Guilty  "I couldn't l i v e with ay f o l k s . Ny father haa had f i v e years of s o b r i e t y . The day I moved out he becaae sober. That's a bad reainder. My brother and s l a t e r are p e r f e c t . "  Coping S t r a t e g i e s (aost ef a c t i v e )  Future Expectatlona  Job Search Strateglea  "I f i n a l l y Bade the d e c i s i o n to go back to school. That was ay therapy. I couldn't go work because no one would take aa."  "I s t i l l f e e l I caused ay parents' separation. Ny f a t h e r ' s an a l c o h o l i c . Old I aake hia an a l c o h o l i c ? After I aoved away ay parents got back together." "Fearful"  "I'a f e a r f u l of school and not being able to absorb I t q u i c k l y enough." "I want to do anything I can do to help the VACALO whether I t ' s an Interview o r what, c o a a e r c i a l , one-to-one work. I'd l i k e to work ln a T.V. station directing or working. I'd l i k e to put down part of ay l i f e story Into p l a y s or s k i t s and other people who have L.O." "I'a s t i l l t r y i n g to f i g u r e out I f I can be a good enough f a t h e r to a k i d who has a l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y . I r e a l l y want k i d s . "  Appendix Summary  G  Example  Co-researcher  #25  135  #25  "I in  was  a while  wasn't  feeling and  very depressed.  I have a S p e c i a l  d o i n g much f o r me  personnel  agencies.  got  job  the  finished and o n . Right  I'm who  as a f l o a t e r .  was  time,  "The was  h a v e now.  feeling I said  Special  place  I  didn't  know t h a t .  catch  on r i g h t  went  I had  She  Whatever needed  s e n t me  The  second The  one  N e i t h e r d i d my  My  a  She  do t h e a p t i t u d e t e s t . I.Q.  took 2 days.  said, You  is.'  She  I t was  working  t o be  done.  A l o t of  she  on t h r e e i n t e r v i e w s .  One  was  mute.  and  I never  do  an  I told  her  i t ' s a good i d e a  t o do more t e s t i n g . to a doctor.  more t h a n one  heard When I  I wanted t o why.  I  could  Needs C o u n s e l l o r .  'I don't t h i n k  s e n t me  for  hope t h a t  t h e r e a s k e d me  need  I  career.  a factory,  Special  counsellor  situation.  know what y o u r  job  t h e y wanted someone who  t h i r d was  I  career—clerical.  B e f o r e workng f o r h e r , I was  I had  few  after  a permanent  t o t h e Women's Employment C e n t r e I s a i d  a b o u t my  a  Needs C o u n s e l l o r u s e d t o g i v e me a job.  a  I ' v e been w o r k i n g o f f  be g e t t i n g  t o myself, I wish  She  T h a t ' s how  b o r e d m a i n l y when I wasn't w o r k i n g .  away.  test.  with  right  went t o t h e y wanted t o h a v e someone who  t h e guy.  aptitude  which  wish  a l o t of f l o a t i n g .  g o i n g t o g e t me  from  I might  i s expecting. Do  i n a while.  home.  once  there.  registered  I got a job almost  Then I l e f t  relief.  Counsellor  I was  them o n c e  But a l o t o f t i m e s I j u s t  this girl  the  Needs  at a l l .  I'd c a l l  high school.  now  "I  I  I u s e d t o go t o Manpower  test.  You  need  I t was  T h e r e were  a  to to  test about  136  5 different, tests. him,  that  My b e s t to  myself  situation.  "I  that test  I found o u t , a c c o r d i n g t o  a s f a r a s g e t t i n g a j o b I was l i m i t e d  b e t was t o l o o k  find  Special  From d o i n g  Needs  f o r a j o b w h i c h was r o u t i n e .  a supervisor  That's  when  to  take  f o r a long  while.  well.  t o school  t o take  effect. true.  said  f o l l o w up on i t .  t o them v e r y  poorly.  I t s o r t o f g a v e me  I ' v e had i n t h e p a s t  long.  school In  my  myself  a  a  one t i m e .  i t  I didn't  do  I wouldn't  be  psychological  I'm l a z y .  was  I h a v e n ' t been a b l e t o s t i c k  And i n h i g h  I u s e d t o go t o a  school  I  did  a way I u s e d t o t h i n k maybe I was l a z y .  even today t h i n k s  had  thought  I t h i n k what he s a i d  I a l w a y s knew I was s l o w .  at  which I  school  nursing,  I t made me go b a c k one s t e p . The j o b s  special  going  course  B u t he [ d o c t o r ]  Even i n h i g h  to  to  Counsellor.  f o r me.  able  And t o t r y  I went t o s e e a b o u t g e t t i n g  would be t o o d i f f i c u l t He  ability.  who would be u n d e r s t a n d i n g  was t h i n k i n g o f t a k i n g a N u r s e ' s A i d e  wanted  t o my  And r e a l l y  that  My  very  family  i s not true.  I  like  t o go o u t and work.  "I her  d i d s e e a n o t h e r S p e c i a l Needs C o u n s e l l o r  s h e t h i n k s a l l I ' d be a b l e  life.  That  really  support  g r o u p and t h e y  upset said  [Back t o t h e d o c t o r ' s there  i s no s e n s e i n t r y i n g  t o do i s f i l i n g  me b a d l y .  f o r the rest  I mentioned t h a t  not t o l i s t e n  report.]  and a c c o r d i n g t o  at  the  toher.  "Because I have a  any h a r d e r .  o f my  I t ' s hard  to  disability remember.  137 It's  about, two y e a r s a g o .  don't  have m y s e l f  is  always  especially  "I  a c a r e e r a t my a g e .  pushing  me  and t e l l i n g  v e r y h u r t and u p s e t Especially  me t o  go  that I  when my f a m i l y  back  to  school,  when I know I have t h e m o t i v a t i o n .  was g o i n g  boyfriend  I'm s t i l l  to the l i b r a r y  almost  everyday  quite a b i t ,  and g o i n g  for  and I would meet my coffee  just  before  dinner.  "The got  Manpower I was g o i n g  this  counsellor as  present  job,  I  through  a personnel  t o b e f o r e was on E a s t 1 0 t h .  was  very agency.  a t e m p o r a r y c o u n s e l l o r anymore,  concerned  about  disability  and s h e s a i d  and  So s h e u s e d  that.  there.  people.  I started  fortunate  I went down t o t a l k  you s h o u l d n ' t  the agency  "The are  very  otherwise  this  s h e was v e r y  t o her  about  my  ashamed a t i t and t h i s  t o phone me and g e t me t o do work h e r e and  working f o r a government agency.  l e t me go f o r a month,  When I g o t c a l l e d  feel  got  she's not working  but a t t h e time  s u p p o s e d t o be f o r two weeks, b u t t h e n Then t h e y  I heard  I've  Why I  I t was o n l y  i t went on f o r two months.  and I ' v e been t h e r e e v e r  back i t was on an i n d i v i d u a l  basis,  since.  not through  anymore.  o t h e r a g e n c i e s when I w o u l d c a l l limited. you  market i s v e r y  won't  You s h o u l d  upgrade  would s a y y o u r your  skills,  be a b l e t o g e t a j o b v e r y e a s i l y  competitive.  skills because and  the  138  "The  supportive  learning She  disability,  told  on  "When  I  wasn't g o i n g  though for  that  with  a  a l l this.  me on a 30b,  I g o t up a t  a  certain  E v e n when I  because I r e a l l y  I d i d n ' t depend on W e l f a r e .  needed  I  like  to  I feel  I worked i n a few p l a c e s a s a b a b y s i t t e r and l i g h t The  pay  wasn't v e r y  used  guilty  to feel  I used t o look  good,  when I went  f o r a 30b d u r i n g  but 3ust  out  for  t h e day.  the  idea  of  coffee,  even  I didn't  look  everyday.  around. for  volunteer  were That  times  I w o u l d go t o t h e m a l l  was a n e g a t i v e  thing.  work.  months.  happened, then  c o m i n g b a c k t o me.  3ust  browse  And I  also  did  to some  I t was a t t h e F r i e n d s h i p K e t t l e S o c i e t y , and I I made a p o i n t t o do some  work t o g e t me o u t o f t h e h o u s e . strike  and  When I would g e t l a z y  work, I would go t o t h e m a l l .  was t h e r e f o r f i v e  bus  and  I d i d n ' t want t o g e t i n t o a r u t .  something.  "There  look  I made s u r e  o u t and d o i n g  work  girl  From t i m e t o t i m e I ' d go and s e e my g i r l f r i e n d .  housekeeper.  "I  a  Whenever s h e s e n t  t o l o o k f o r a 30b I g o t up,  independent.  getting  t o teach  knew how I f e l t  reliable.  was n o t w o r k i n g  g e t up. sure  she  used  time.  time each morning.  made  and  me I was v e r y  I arrived  to  counsellor  I went t w i c e  a week.  I d i d n ' t go b a c k anymore.  I was a v o l u n t e e r  Now  volunteer Once t h e it's all  a t V.G.H. i n t h e g i f t  shop  139  once  a  week.  challenging clothing  At  work  V.G.H.  but  s t o r e on  I  I enjoyed  would  with  the p u b l i c  have  at  would  months and  a t K.F.S.  people  w h a t e v e r you  and  was  t h e r e had  those problems. or  l e t me  want t o c a l l  t h e y were v e r y n i c e .  Once  we  wine  not  One  giggling,  I was  I  and work  job I  did  When  the  there  two  go.  I used  to feel I  good  because  wasn't  having  important a t the time  i t .  A few  I used times  went t o R i v e r v i e w H o s p i t a l  t o go  and  -- s p e c i a l do  the  typing  I went on t r i p s w i t h  and  another  t i m e we  —  them.  went t o a  factory.  "In catch  the on  office  right  when I have t o l e a r n  away.  I t might  remember what I ' v e  been t o l d .  let  I haven't  me  go,  because  "I've have  i f  over the counter.  nice.  I was  is  l o v e work i n a  F o r one,  e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s and  I felt  i t  I get nervous  I giggle.  o r d e r , I would s t a r t they  I would  n o t a b l e t o do.  I get very nervous.  finally  "Working  say  anyplace.  Honey's making s a n d w i c h e s  customer  those  still  the cash r e g i s t e r  t h e r e ^ i s a l o t o f j o b s I'm  i t even though  d i s c u s s e d w i t h my  been a l o t o f t i m e s  training  me  I'm  getting  and  I used  "Do  you  has used  raised  t a k e me  I  boss  I've  my  idea.  but  The  girl  I t r y and  one  time  I was  really  There who  is  ignore i t .  I was  t h e l a d y came up t o me  problem?".  away.  disability.  made m i s t a k e s .  was  to  sometimes they have t o  learning  There  can't  times  been a b l e t o c a t c h on r i g h t  t h e wrong stamp and  have a l e a r n i n g  new  three or four  T h a t ' s why  h e r v o i c e a t me,  to that  something  and  working asked,  embarrassed.  140  b e c a u s e t h e r e was say  anything.  was  there  word  T h a t day  they  about a year  and  processing course.  fifth  day  whatever, my  q u i t e a few  I couldn't and  course.  been  told  and  my  a half. course  remember how  office  d i d n ' t say  was  f o r one  t o program and  by  instructor  My  s u p e r v i s o r came up  have a problem  years  I still  me  had  class,  problems.  started  going  to  getting  E o r D's.  computer  or  paid for  a month's  t h a t I had  and  already  said,  notice problems  "I  didn't  remembering."  put  me  back t h r e e y e a r s .  to a s p e c i a l  t o me  a the  b e c a u s e I had  told  I  on  the o f f i c e  s u p e r v i s o r was  on  week and  the  They, g a v e me  me  back two  But  I would be  because a f t e r Then we  years,  being  but  they  too o l d .  They  put  moved t o S u r r e y ,  a regular school.  I d i d very  A f t e r G r a d e 7 I moved a g a i n .  back and  bad. We  two  then I  moved  I was to  Vancouver.  '"My  school experiences  know I was doing  very  bad  well.  w e l l , but  jobs.  I t was  were bad,  in school.  they  very  very  bad.  I u s e d t o be  I used t o f e e l  bad  i n my  They a l l u s e d  to  ashamed o f m y s e l f  in  heart that  I  wasn't  didn't realize i t .  " I a l w a y s knew I was my  t h r e e o f us  off.  sent  doing  sent  laid  wanted t o p u t  not  She  anything,  the  I didn't  At a government o f f i c e  a certificate  "When I came t o Canada t h e y  North  go.  l u n c h room.  I would g e t  remembering. know you  i n the  l e t me  The  I didn't get  The  o f us  s l o w b e c a u s e o f how  obvious.  I did i n school  and  141  "I quit  want.ed  high  "When wanted  t o q u i t high  school.  I g u e s s e v e r y o n e wants  to  school.  I  wasn't w o r k i n g  i t was boredom.  t o go back t o s c h o o l  and I c o u l d n ' t  I used t o t h i n k afford  i t .  I  Now  I'm  planning  t o go b a c k b u t I h a v e n ' t d e c i d e d  what a r e a .  I'm  going  to  about i t i n t h e support  I haven't r e a l l y  gotten  talk  anywhere t o be i n t h e s u p p o r t I'm n o t t h e o n l y  compared  writing  to  and r e a d i n g  me.  good.  Still  I feel  According  learning d i s a b i l i t i e s .  t o my i n s t r u c t o r  There a r e a couple  I got a promotion.  had problems c o p y i n g  enough. mad  at other  a r e so  "According time.  mistakes. someone  I  I  o f guys I r a n i n t o from h i s nine  When I worked a s a r e c e p t i o n i s t I had t r o u b l e w r i t i n g i t f a s t They would s o u n d  e n d o f phone3  because I can't  like  they're  write  fast It i s  another.  t o my s u p e r v i s o r I a l w a y s make a p o i n t t o come i n t r y my b e s t t o do e v e r y t h i n g .  I n my mind I t e l l tells  in  there are a l o t  So t h e r e a r e a l o t o f t h i n g s t h a t h o l d me b a c k .  always one t h i n g o r  was  problem  Always g e t t i n g f i r e d  messages.  L i k e I'm s l o w w r i t i n g .  [person  enough.  on  have a  people  When I was a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c y I was t h e r e f o r  months u n t i l I  the other  I  L i k e they've g o t d y s l e x i a .  who h a v e t h e same p r o b l e m a s I d o . jobs.  t h e i d e a o f knowing  I used t o t h i n k  A l o t o f them j u s t  and t h a t ' s i t .  d o n ' t have d y s l e x i a . of  group, but j u s t  one makes me f e e l  t h e o n l y one i n t h e w o r l d . smart  group.  myself  me o f f a b o u t s o m e t h i n g  I'm  told  I  I'm n o t l a z y i n g a r o u n d .  make If  I d i d wrong I s a y t o m y s e l f  142  I tried, a  I'm  learning  group  she be  you're  because  I  "My  dumb,  instructor  a learning  herself  has  memory and  felt  t h a t ' s her  too  I'm  You  disability  She  a disability.  There are times  support  yourself.  i t ' s f o r other reasons.  stupid.  learning d i s a b i l i t y . like  h e r t o be  willing  t o t r y my  we  a m e e t i n g and  it's  problem  beginning  I don't  learning  we  I was  to  a b l e t o c a t c h on  That  I told  She  said  were t a l k i n g  t h e c o m p u t e r and and  my  to  understand  supervisor  I have a l e a r n i n g  able t o understand  very best.  time be  at the  for  supervisor i s very understanding.  I'd  had  instructor  I have  doing.  a b o u t my and  my  saying t o myself  s a y s t h a t ' s making e x c u s e s  t h i n k I was  what I'm  I told  have a p r o b l e m w i t h my  The  just  but  p o i n t I was  s a y i n g t h a t because i t i s not  because  too.  A t one  disability,  and  shouldn't  trying.  f i n a l l y I'm  me  and  disability  that  that's fine.  A week  a b o u t t h e work and how  I'm  I'd  going  doing r e a l l y  be  later  at  that  t o need  time  quite well  on  it.  "She is  told  me  exactly i t .  you  want t o show y o u r s e l f you  I told  her  with  my  other  a v e r y good w o r k e r ; v e r y c o n s c i e n t i o u s . You're  a  l o t more r e l i a b l e  employees.  Unfortunately,  w a s n ' t c a t c h i n g up years. on.  I She  feel  and they  j o b s I've She  f i r e d her  very sorry f o r her. i f you  do  said  She  yes  with  that  we  I'm  that. of  my  because  she  t h e company  Thanks t o her  c a n ' t p i c k i t up  I see  a lot  yesterday  was  i t and  been t o l d  c o n s c i e n t i o u s than  t o h e r work l o a d .  c o u l d have s a i d  can  they  kept  25 me  w i l l have t o  143  g e t someone e l s e .  The j o b m a r k e t i s s o b a d .  me a c h a n c e o £ g e t t i n g  "In  terms  U.B.C. but so  at  of  with  g e t anywhere. feel  counsellor  courses  and changing  you're  going  waiting  list  know y o u ' r e she was tell is else  said told  to  I ' v e had much h e l p . here.  i t ' s going  I don't  filing  I  learning  a l l we c a n s a y . " A f t e r you're  I  tests.  do  professional  years  That's  She s a i d  I was v e r y finished  i f  on t h e  from  I try.  And  not true  I  what I c a n  and t h e b e s t b e t  depressed  with your  afterward.  j o b come b a c k t o  went  but  t o have h a d was when I saw t h e  I wanted h e r t o p u t i n a word f o r  f o r a j o b i n t e r v i e w and t e l l  she  and  they  can  w o u l d n ' t do t h a t .  someone t o l o o k f o r a j o b f o r me. when  some  need more o f t h a t .  disability  situation,  was  b e c a u s e i f y o u c a n ' t do a n y t h i n g  h e l p I w o u l d have l i k e d  when  taking  know t i l l  have any more a n s w e r s f o r you,  t o c a r r y on w i t h y o u r  I don't  letdown  t o c o s t u s a l o t o f money i f we  i t c o s t €300.00 f o r t h e t e s t .  that's  about  t h a t i t m i g h t t a k e y o u two  not going t o succeed.  y o u we d o n ' t  The l a s t  I was t a l k i n g  Women's Employment c o u n s e l l o r . me  from  She was o n l y c o m i n g t h e r e f o r  we p u t o u t $1000.00 on y o u r  "The  counsellor  my c a r e e r and t h e w h o l e b i t and s h e s a i d  do  and t h e n  Then s h e s a i d , me."  I saw a  t h e Women's Employment O f f i c e f o r a b o u t t h r e e months,  I don't  the  has given  UIC t o o .  h e l p t h a t I ' v e had,  I didn't really long.  So t h i s  be  them  I  have  understanding  of  I'm n o t s a y i n g  say t h i s  person  my  I  want  I c a n do t h a t f o r m y s e l f .  But  go f o r an i n t e r v i e w l e t ' s s a y i f somebody who can  a  i s t h i s way and  she  i s  ia a very  144  conscientious.  That's  the  Fortunately  got t h i s  job.  happen.  I've  I feel  "I'd  like  Success.  Not  S o c i a l s and dreamer. admit one  very  a  j o b where I c a n  much.  getting  I can but  I find  i s t h a t I was  success  been  looking  never  know what's g o i n g  i s learning  learn.  They w i l l  read or w r i t e .  That's  anything  I wouldn't study  to type.  to  yesterday.  I didn't learn  lazy.  for.  That  has  train i t .  from One  me.  I  i t .  took I'm  a  thing I ' l l  f o r the  test.  been h e l p f u l  The  as f a r as  work.  be  like  very content.  patients, get  I've  s o m e t h i n g b o r i n g I dream.  "In t h e f u t u r e I'd would  You  insecure since  English, If  help  t o g e t a j o b i n what I want t o do. I hope I c a n  i n n u r s i n g maybe.  I'm  get s p e c i a l  beginning  I  training  and  t o wonder i f I ' l l  ever  ahead.  "One  thing  times.  People  whatever.  I'll in  say my  It really  i s t h a t I've age  makes me  felt  group are feel  like  nurses  rotten.  crying or  a lot  teachers  It hurts.  It  of or  really  does.  "For the f u t u r e can  do  courses  I've  thought  i t i s t h e main t h i n g .  of a l o t of things.  According  I picked are too d i f f i c u l t .  get married  one  day  and  have a  child."  Whether I  to the c o u n s e l l o r s  Other  goals  I'd  like  the to  Appendix Selected  Quotes  H  in Positive Critical  Incident  Categories  Appendix H - 1 Success/Achievement i n Adult Education Progra  147  Sucess/Achievement i n A d u l t Education  "When  I l e a r n more I f e e l  teachers That's  understand.  "I like  like  I'm  c o m i n g .to s c h o o l  patience  g o t a B.  That  boosted  my  confidence  getting  so proud  really  I  of  myself."  stuck  would n e v e r ,  my b i o l o g y and  i n my  really,  really  never  and made me  make  i t .  take  a  learning and  good w i t h  but a l s o  was  really towards  myself  doing  these courses I  something i n s t e a d  envious."  now  and a l s o  a b i t l o n g e r b e c a u s e i t i s n o t o n l y what i t ' s giving  do more a c t i v i t i e s .  alive  That step  " C o l l e g e I t h i n k i s t h e b e s t t h i n g f o r me r i g h t around  actually  chemistry."  s i t t i n g on t h e s i d e l i n e s b e i n g  stick  I  mind...Everyone  know when I went b a c k t o c o l l e g e t o l e a r n  felt  here.  now."  me  of  have  a c h i e v i n g i n my s c h o o l work.  telling  "I  teachers  The  t o be i n G r a d e 12 E n g l i s h i n September and I f e e l  i s a b i g step...I'm  feel  "I  The  I t i s the school.  what I l i k e . "  "I'm g o i n g that  better.  Programme  me c o n f i d e n c e t o f i n d  J u s t t o be a b e t t e r p e r s o n ,  i n s i d e and n o t d e a d . "  a  I'm job  s o I'm  148  "Adult lot.  Education  She u n d e r s t o o d  Programme t e a c h e r t h e r e h e l p e d  me w e l l a s s h e worked w i t h o t h e r  l i k e me a n d . . . s h e r e a l l y  "At  King  Edward.  experience happier  "They've English. that  in  now.  I  At l e a s t  [college]  was r e a l l y  good."  h e r e and I  and r e a d i n g .  I'm g e t t i n g  given  I've gained  a  people  understood."  came  learning  me  have  a  lot  I feel  a  l o t more o  somewhere  more  now."  me q u i t e a l o t o f h e l p  with  my  q u i t e a l o t o f c o n f i d e n c e and s u p p o r t  149  Appendix H - 2 P l e a s u r e i n Having a Job  150  P l e a s u r e i n Having  [Recently the  j o b I h a v e now.  and  business]  The p e o p l e  really  lucky  R i g h t now  I feel  with  and n i c e I have  a  of opportunity."  [Has  been w o r k i n g f o r one week] " R i g h t now  nanny  for  bed...I'm  two k i d s and a t n i g h t I p u t a  going t o t r y t o save  be done on my c a r .  [On  work  what  I'm  picking  B u t now  experience] doing  right  up p r e t t y  now.  quick.  experience]'  horses, much  liked  at least  working as a  quadrapalegic and s a v e  I can  for  I t ' s going I enjoy  to work  save."  pretty  d o i n g what I'm  is  good.  I'm  doing  right  (  [Work  how  for a trip  I'm  "Woodworking a n d k i t c h e n c a b i n e t s  now."  "I  "I'm  are r e a l l y friendly  g i v e me a l o t o f b e n e f i t s .  lot  to  began own  a Job  "At  the  e x e r c i s e horses, g r a i n s they  ranch  how  feed horses, clean t h e i r  s h o u l d e a t a n d what s o r t  t h i s work a l o t . "  f e e l happy when I'm  I learned  working."  of  to  wean  stables, hay...I  151  "I've  been b a b y s i t t i n g  makes  me  out  a  feel  family."  since  I was  good b e c a u s e I'm  15.  I  contributing.  love I'm  kids...It helping  Appendix H Realization  of  -  3  Self-worth  153  Realization  "The  last  couple of years  babysitting  "Three cut. him.  job, hold  my  of  I'm head  Self-worth  able  stood  Later  up t o him.  he p a i d  me  "A p o s i t i v e t h i n g was b o s s and b e a t i n g  him.  he wanted  I yelled  b a c k a l l t h e money he owed  going  into a s a i l b o a t race  The f e e l i n g  was  "Now  I'm  still  have  a  I think  few t h i n g s  to  me."  against  out.  I  the was  do t h e math."  I have a l o t g o i n g work  another  I p r o v e d t o him  a s good a s him e v e n t h o u g h I c o u l d n ' t  way.  t o make  a t him and s c r e a m e d a t  just  on my  g r a d e s , have a  high."  o r f o u r pay c h e q u e s l a t e r I  to achieve  Time  f o r me. will  I heal  itself."  "Hy  thinking  i s more p o s i t i v e now.  down and s a y I'm  n o t g o o d . . . I ' v e begun  a b o u t one week a f t e r I began  I used t o put to feel  a t Community  myself  more p o s i t i v e  Services."  154  Appendix H - 4 S u p p o r t f r o m S e r v i c e Agency  (excluding  C.E.C.)  155  S u p p o r t from S e r v i c e Agency ( e x c l u d i n g  "Community  Services  programme.  The p e o p l e a t Community  talk  C.E.C.>  hae been h e l p f u l by g e t t i n g me Services  are nice.  They  t o you."  "When I was on W e l f a r e my w o r k e r k e p t h e l p i n g kept suggesting  places  k e p t g i v i n g me  breaks."  [ R e f e r e n c e t o Community  " I was v e r y personnel disability  fortunate.  agency.  me o u t .  She  t o go t o s t r a i g h t e n m y s e l f o u t .  Services]  gone p o s i t i v e i n t h e l a s t  it."  into the  while  "The o n l y  i s this  She  t h i n g t h a t has  programme."  I've got t h i s c o u n s e l l o r through a  I went down t o t a l k  and s h e s a i d y o u s h o u l d n ' t  t o her about feel  ashamed  my about  Appendix H - 5 -assessment o f  Self  157  Re-assessment, o f S e l f  " I Knew I needed  t o s m a r t e n up, and I knew I c o u l d . "  "When I was a t an A l c o h o l i c to r e a l i z e  Treatment Centre I j u s t  i f I k e p t on c a r r y i n g  on l i k e  started  I hod been i t was  g o i n g t o be a l o t h a r d e r l a t e r o n . "  "The  e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e h a n d i c a p p e d a n d how t h e y f e e l  things.  I t h i n k t h a t changed  from a d i f f e r e n t changed.  p o i n t o f view.  I look a t things  I g u e s s my a t t i t u d e h a s  I'm n o t s o n e g a t i v e a b o u t c e r t a i n  "I d i d n ' t r e a l l y girl  me a b i t .  Esther  start  things."  t o gain confidence u n t i l  at the ranch."  about  I saw t h a t  158  Appendix H - 6 Support  from  Family  159  Support  "My  p a r e n t s h a v e g i v e n me  My  mum  has  "I  had  a l o t o f h e l p and  "Ever  ask  a l o t of support.  support  s i n c e I moved i n w i t h my  back t o s c h o o l and  Welfare  Family  done a l o t t o h e l p me  t h i n g s h a v e been b e t t e r . going  from  about i t .  They've  find  something."  from  my  parents."  brother-in-law's  They s t a r t e d  tried.  talking  I f i n a l l y made up  my  parents t o me  about  mind t o go  They're l i k e the parents  and  I didn't  have."  "They  [ f a m i l y ] h e l p me  or  work t h e y  my  h e l p me  out a l o t . out.  I f I need h e l p w i t h  They g i v e me  a l o t of  money  help."  Appendix H - 7 S u p p o r t i v e Work  Environment  161  Supportive  "I've  been t o l d  "According on  Work E n v i r o n m e n t  I'm a v e r y  good w o r k e r , v e r y c o n s c i e n t i o u s . "  t o my s u p e r v i s o r I a l w a y s make a p o i n t t o come i n  time."  "I'm  p i c k i n g up p r e t t y q u i c k .  right.  "I'm  really  really Right  I t makes i t much  lucky with  friendly now I f e e l  Everybody e x p l a i n s i t t o you  easier."  t h e j o b I h a v e now.  The p e o p l e a r e  and n i c e and g i v e me a l o t o f b e n e f i t s . I have a l o t o f o p p o r t u n i t y . "  Appendix H - 8 L a n d i n g a Job  163  Landing  a Job  "A p o s i t i v e t h i n g was g e t t i n g a b a b y s i t t i n g j o b f o r a while."  "I t h i n k last job  I ' l l do d r y c l e a n i n g on Monday.  week. placement  exciting."  And t h e y  I g o t an  [Community S e r v i c e s ]  was r e a d y .  I think  interview  told  me my  first  I ' l l do g o o d .  It  looks  Appendix H - 9 Support  from  Friends  165  Support from  "My  f r i e n d s were r e a l l y  beg me  t o have c o f f e e w i t h  needed a t t h e  "Once  this  help with it."  good.  Friends  They would phone  them.  T h a t was  just  me  up and  what I  time."  guy  reading  [ f e l l o w w o r k e r ] was  saying  i f I ever  o r m a t h e m a t i c s he would g i v e me  need  a hand  on  166  Appendix Selected  Quote©  I  i n Negative C r i t i c a l  Incident  Categories  167  Appendix Anticipation  of  Job  I - 1  Failure/Job  Failure  168  Anticipation  o f Job F a i l u r e / J o b  Failure  o  "She  eent  course  t h r e e o f us on a word  was  for  remember how  one  week and  processing  on t h e f i f t h  t o programme t h e computer  and  course.  day I  I  The  couldn't  didn't  get  a  certificate."  " T h e r e was and  the  one  t i m e I was  lady  came up t o me  learning  problem?"  t h e r e was  q u i t e a few  "If  I  had  worried  "I  was  go  get  always  that r e a l l y  "I  I was  because  really  you  have  embarrassed  because  I  would  get  tell  a l l  me  I c o u l d n ' t make o u t t h e a d d r e s s  have t o e x p l a i n  frustrating,  a  room."  [employer] would  I ' d be e m b a r r a s s e d how  and  uptight  to get there.  and I  to and he'd  found  tough."  scared  t o be employed  really  afraid  of f a i l u r e  p u t you down and  "Do  stamp  up."  they  was  just  she s a i d  t o r e a d on t h e 30b  o f f a c a r and lost.  and  I u s e d t h e wrong  o f us i n t h e l u n c h  something  embarrassed  [boss]  and  and p a r a n o i d and g i v e  drop  I'd  w o r k i n g and  again f o r fear of f a i l u r e .  b e c a u s e o f s c h o o l and  i t really  sticks  stuff.  w i t h you f o r a  I'm They long  time."  "I  feel  fear  a t t h e thought o f working cause I've never  been  169 in  t h e employment f i e l d  me.  I  like  "I  think  a sore  a  working  "The  I was  really  I was  me  they d i d n ' t  cause  hire  I sticked  to ring  too embarrassed  up  They r e a l i z e d  d o i n g e v e r y t h i n g by  I c o u l d n ' t k e e p up.  out  I was  I  couldn't  voice. fired  When in  a  upset."  manager wanted me  the g i r l  of hated  as a cook.  They r e a l i z e d  b i g o r d e r came up  week.  kind  f o r o n c e and  thumb."  g o t a 30b  read.  they  except  and  t o use she  t o work t h e  the t i l l .  I kept g i v i n g  would g e t t h e c o m m i s s i o n . till."  i t to I  was  170  Appendix Discounted/Devalued  by S u p p o r t  1-2 Services  (excluding  C.E.C.)  171  Discounted/Devalued  by  "The  other  when I w o u l d c a l l  are  very  agencies limited.  otherwise  you  market i s v e r y  "The  schools'  You're  trying  they're  doing  last  look  "I  You  won't be  should  closing to  out  get  has  been  h e l p from  i s backstabbing  was  do  much t o h e l p you  was  like  a doctor  up. should  angry a t the  assessed.  more bad  UIC go  bad.  the  you.  I mean s h i t  i t didn't really  "I  "I  The  because and  the  cutbacks.  government They're not  and  all  trying  to  out  news. through  to  I went t h e r e a c o u p l e  of  job."  work  out."  system a l o t .  of your  I saw  i t ' s not even worth i t  The  system  p a r t o f the assessment but  After C.E.C.  doesn't  hole."  I had  i t  t h e a s s e s s m e n t done  funding]  t h e r e was  t r a n s f e r r e d me  to Welfare.  The  into therapy.  Nothing.  years.  t  skills  out."  four years  really  "your  upgrade your s k i l l s  went t o a c a r e e r c o u n s e l l o r . but  would s a y  able t o get a job very e a s i l y  l n t h e newspaper f o r a  times  by  S e r v i c e s ( e x c l u d i n g C.E.C.>  competitive."  h e l p your problem  "The  Support  Two  no  was [done  follow  assessment s a i d Nothing."  I  172  "The  system  unemployment level.  Boy  gives  you  worker t o l d d i d t h a t ever  0  enough me  I was  h e l p my  money living  to  be  poor.  below t h e  spirits."  My  poverty  Appendix Financial  1 - 3  Pressures  174  Financial Pressures  "I  lived  on t h e s t r e e t s  "A  n e g a t i v e t h i n g was making my s e c o n d month c a r payment.  I hate being i n debt. I  realized  i n parks."  I always p r i d e d  I couldn't,  i t was a r e a l  I  m y s e l f o n t h a t . When blow  t o me.  A  rude  awakening."  "I bought  a c a r and moved i n t o t h i s p l a c e and I l o s t  "When I'm n o t w o r k i n g c a n go o u t .  I feel  the shits.  Can't Can't.  take  When I'm w o r k i n g I  I c a n t a k e whoever I want o u t .  Now I s i t a t home w a t c h i n g T.V.  Eat.  someone on t h e b u s .  Just can't afford  it.  my j o b . "  Do what I want.  C a n ' t go  anywhere.  Want t o t a k e a g i r l  Now I j u s t  s i t around."  out.  Appendix Job  1-4  Rejections/Lack of Opportunity  from  Employers  176  Job  Reiectione/Lack  "I t r i e d in  doing  septic  chance,  f o r moving c o m p a n i e s ,  tank p i p e s .  right.  Like  d o n ' t want y o u . they  of Opportunity  can.  chance out  i f you  job I can but  C S p e c i a l Needs C o u n s e l l o r ] s e n t me  One  place  right the  "A  give  I you  that's i t ,  do,  just  they  put a  they  a s much  as  d o n ' t g i v e you  a  there."  "She  mute.  work.  don't  can't read,  need a c h a n c e ,  Employers  carpenter  I t ' s when t h e y  Most o f t h e  I just  from  I went t o t h e y  The  second  away.  The  one  third  on  three interviews.  wanted t o h a v e  someone  who  was  wanted someone who  could  catch  on  was  a f a c t o r y and  I never heard  from  guy."  negative  remembering  incident what  was  I had  the  going  l e a r n e d about  explaining  to  embarrassed  because I confused  manager  of the s t o r e c r y i n g .  "  "They t r y t o make you  feel  went t o p u t them  you  can't  need t o r e a d  "After  an  application r e a d and  to drive a  school  I thought  to a s k i  why  he  and  not  I  was  I  got  I walked  out  skis.  should  or something.  i n at the f i s h  When  hire  a l l the s k i s .  guilty  sorry,  place  me  J u s t when I  cannery.  You  tell  h e l p you.  Do  you  enough t o be e m p l o y e d by  the  I can't  forklift?"  I had  177  library you  right  worked did  now  -- work on y o u r  on my E n g l i s h  they s a i d English.  fora little  that I  times  by t h a t  i n t h e y e a r and t h e y s t i l l  t i m e t h e l i b r a r i e s were p u t t i n g  I needed computer  science so I j u s t  we c a n ' t  said  hire  fine.  I  w h i l e a t home and t h e n  some v o l u n t e e r work i n t h e l i b r a r y .  several and  b u t when I went t o them  Then  I went  wouldn't h i r e  I  back me  i n c o m p u t e r s and  gave up."  Appendix Avoidance  1-5  o f Job  Search  179  Avoidance o f Job  "Because o f or  spell,  really  "I  so  a  "I  I just  looking  paper t h a t  experience in  learning d i s a b i l i t y stuck  there  i n the  you  with the  that  paper but  I could  anything. do  or  difficult  I had,  not  but  to I  write didn't  relying  on  w h a t e v e r money I had  found  I get  about s i x  real  l a z y and  I didn't  not  to  not  really to  look."  have  hardly  stuff  for  years  d e s i r e f o r me  scared  many t h i n g s  work.  in the  anything  that  mechanical s t u f f  looking  period  no  of  really  a  T h e r e was  i s so  T h e r e was  d o i n g anyway --  f o o l e d around.  there  wanted t o do,  through  "I  job  need e x p e r i e n c e a t and  f o r hardly  l o t of trouble  much.  i t was  like i t . "  tried  the  my  Search  I have  mainly."  I  went  working,  just  c a r i n g about  work."  too  Appendix scounted/Oevalued  1-6  by C.E.C. P e r s o n n e l  181  Discounted/Devalued  "As  f a r a s I'm c o n c e r n e d  farce  Personnel  t h e Employment C e n t r e  i n r e s p e c t o f job o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  Special  Needs C o u n s e l l o r s who d o n ' t  disabilities  "The I  by C.E.C.  last  was  They've  got  e v e n know what  some  learning  are."  letdown  talking  career  i s a complete  was w i t h t h e c o u n s e l l o r h e r e  a b o u t t a k i n g some c o u r s e s  and t h e w h o l e b i t a n d s h e s a i d  and  [C.E.C.].  changing  i f you're  going  my  t o do  that  i t m i g h t t a k e two y e a r s on t h e w a i t i n g l i s t  and  then  it's  g o i n g t o c o s t u s a l o t o f money i f we know y o u ' r e  not  going  to  don't  have  carry  on  else.  "I did  succeed."  She s a i d  from  what I c a n t e l l  any a n s w e r s f o r y o u and t h e b e s t with  your  filing  I was v e r y d e p r e s s e d  have gone t o Manpower,  b e c a u s e you c a n ' t  going  there."  do  we  i s to anything  afterward."  b u t n o t f o r a w h i l e now.  go I d i d n ' t seem t o g e t much h e l p t h e r e .  my t i m e  thing  you  I was  When I wasting  Appendix Delayed Career  1-7 Progress  183  Delayed  "It  depresses  still slow  at  23 and I s h o u l d be w o r k i n g and  s c h o o l and i t c o u l d be a g e s b e c a u s e i t ' s  t h i n g I ' l l say i s t h a t I've f e l t  times.  People  whatever. really  I'm  a  very  makes me f e e l  rotten.  or  a l o t of  teachers I t hurts.  or It  does."  just  my  like crying  i n my age g r o u p a r e n u r s e s  It really  seems e v e r y t i m e  accumulating and  I'm  Progress  programme."  "One  "It  me.  Career  I get settled  i n a j o b and  start  s a v i n g s s o m e t h i n g h a p p e n s and t h e r e g o e s my j o b  savings."  184  Appendix Longing  f o r More E q u i t a b l e / S e c u r e  1 - 8 Employment  Opportunities  185  Longing  f o r More E q u i t a b l e / S e c u r e  "You're There I'd to  limited  choices i n the type  l i k e t o get a job doing I c a n do.  "Fortunately, to  s o much when you h a v e a p r o b l e m  i s not r e a l l y  what  happen.  anything,  o f work  feel  very  job.  like I  can  but there i s a  I ' d l i k e t o be a n o r m a l  I have t h i s I  Employment, Opport.unit.iee  do. limit  person."  You n e v e r know what's  insecure  this.  since  yesterday  going [boss  fired3  "I  wish  i t  requirements opportunity."  was were  easier  to find  easier to get.  work  and  that  I wish t h e r e  the was  job more  Appendix  1 - 9  Stagnation/Boredom  187  Stagnation/Boredom  "One  t h i n g t h a t bothered  how  things  they'd  were g o i n g  me was p h o n i n g after  my mum  home a n d f i n d i n g o u t  and d a d  separated  and  a s k me how I was d o i n g a n d I w o u l d n ' t be a b l e t o t e l l  them a n y t h i n g e x c e p t  t h a t I was s t i l l  "When I wasn't w o r k i n g  l o o k i n g f o r work."  i t was boredom."  Appendix Fear of School  I -  a s an  10  Adult  Student  189  Fear of School  "I'm  fearful  quickly  of  Student  s c h o o l and n o t b e i n g a b l e  to  absorb  i t  enough."  "I have a r e a l  stigma  far  as t o wait  the  l a s t moment.  I'm  a s an A d u l t  really  when i t comes t o s c h o o l .  i n l i n e t o r e g i s t e r and t h e n I have a r e a l  interested  phobia.  i n learning."  I ' v e gone s o  backed  out  at  I want t o l e a r n .  190  Appendix Isolation  I - 11  Due t o Unemployment  191  Isolation  "When  not  Due  working t h e r e  to  Unemployment  i s no  words t h a t I c a n  e x p l a i n not  knowing what y o u ' r e g o i n g  depression  when you  get out hurts  o f bed and  and  you  go  you  get  up  with  ...  and  some  you  don't.  You  and  don't f e e l  very  much i s o l a t i o n .  wasn't v e r y  very  concerned  to  do  I  i t was  very  people  live for  right low  or nothing  and  never  went anywhere on  stay  by  my  a s s o c i a t e d with  myself."  ...  A  to  you  physical You  do."  been g o i n g .  I  was 1984  I couldn't right  seem  for  seem t o r e a l l y g e t  me. along  t h e r e d i d n ' t seem t o be I was  ...  anyone.  I just  much  even a f r a i d  i n the house a l l the  bike  cause  isolation.  seemed t o go  I couldn't  I stayed  stomach  . I thought as f a r as  I n e v e r went anywhere.  the house.  t o be  t h i n g s had  a l l t h a t w e l l and ...  visit.  Total  to  t r y t o break i t  a complete w r i t e - o f f .  leave  want  how  Your  exercise  have n o t h i n g  f o r quite a while.  anything  j u s t , go  with to  happy w i t h  depressed  was  b e c a u s e you  A deep  l i k e eating  you  to  d o n ' t want  don't.  h a v e n ' t done any  f e e l more t i r e d and  d o n ' t want t o g e t up  "I  you  just  a c t i o n o r someone comes t o  depression,  in life.  t h r o u g h d a y s when you  y o u ' r e h u n g r y b e c a u s e you wake up  t o do  express  time.  I  seem  to  didn't  I more o r  to  less  want  to  Appendix Negative  1-12  Comparisons  193  Negative  "Then  you  competent are  you  t r y t o g e t work and and  have d e g r e e s  g o i n g t o do  "When I was  Comparisons  meet p e o p l e who  and  f o r the r e s t  unemployed  I missed  they can't f i n d o f your  are  work s o what  life?"  a l o t of things other  seemed t o have a l o t more g o i n g t o them."  totally  people  

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