UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Reminiscence and self-concept in older adults Andersen, Ann Elizabeth 1982

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1982_A8 A63.pdf [ 5.37MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0054251.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0054251-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0054251-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0054251-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0054251-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0054251-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0054251-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0054251-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0054251.ris

Full Text

REMINISCENCE and SELF-CONCEPT IN OLDER ADULTS by ANN ELIZABETH ANDERSEN B . S c , U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Co u n s e l l i n g Psychology) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1982 © Ann E l i z a b e t h Andersen In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Ann E l i z a b e t h Andersen Department of Counsel 1 Tng P s y c h o l o g y The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 September 17, 1982 ABSTRACT Reminiscence i s a complex phenomenon which i s t h e o r i z e d i n contemporary g e r o n t o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e to serve adaptive func t i o n s i n s u c c e s s f u l aging. This study explores the r e l a t i o n -ship between reminiscence (as measured using the Reminiscence  Survey) and one c r i t e r i o n of adaptation: g l o b a l self-esteem (as measured by the T o t a l P score of the Tennessee S e l f Concept Scale) i n a sample of 40 o l d e r volunteers who range i n age from 55 years to 95 years and who s t i l l l i v e independently i n the community. S i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s were found between the Reminiscence Survey measures and the T o t a l P scores of the TSCS. As w e l l , l i f e - r e v i e w e r s reported s i g n i f i c a n t l y more uses, t r i g g e r s , and outcomes of reminiscence and had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher s e l f - c o n c e p t scores than d i d n o n - l i f e - r e v i e w e r s . These f i n d i n g s serve to demonstrate the p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the pervasiveness of reminiscence and the p o s i t i v i t y of s e l f -conception. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the c o n s t r u c t i v e use of reminiscence as a ther a p e u t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y i n c o u n s e l l i n g o l d e r a d u l t s are discussed. - i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE L i s t of Tables ( i v ) Acknowledgments ( v) I INTRODUCTION Background „ ' 1 Reminiscence d e f i n i t i o n 3 Lifer-review d e f i n i t i o n 5 Objectives 6 Summary of terms 9 I I LITERATURE REVIEW Self-concept i n o l d age 10 Reminiscence 12 T h e o r e t i c a l f u n c t i o n s - i n t e r p e r s o n a l 13 T h e o r e t i c a l , f u n c t i o n s r- i n t r a p e r s o n a l 15 E m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s on reminiscence 18 Reminiscence frequency 21 Reminiscence and adjustment 21 Reminiscence and sel f - c o n c e p t 23 - i i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS continued PAGE I I I METHODOLOGY Subjects . 30 Measuring instruments 31 Data c o l l e c t i o n 35 Assumptions 36 S t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses 37 IV RESULTS General i n f o r m a t i o n on reminiscence 39 C o r r e l a t i o n s 42 L i f e - r e v i e w e r s vs. n o n - l i f e - r e v i e w e r s 45 Extended a n a l y s i s - assumptions 47 Extended a n a l y s i s — e x p l o r a t o r y questions 49 Extended a n a l y s i s - s t a b i l i t y of the measures 54 Summary - 57 V DISCUSSION L i m i t a t i o n s 58 P r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s 60 T h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s 64 Future p o s s i b i l i t i e s 65 Summary 66 Bi b l i o g r a p h y Appendices 67 77 - i v -LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1. Summary of means and standard dev i a t i on s of the Reminiscence Survey Measures and T o t a l P Scores . 41 2. Pearson Product-moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s between the To t a l P Scores and the Reminiscence Survey Measures. 43 3. Pearson Product-moment i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of the Reminiscence Survey Measures. 44 4. L i f e - r e v i ewe r s v s . n o n - l i f e - r e v i e w e r s : means, standard d e v i a t i o n s , and t - va l ue s of the Reminiscence Survey Measures and To t a l P Scores . 46 5. Summary of s i g n i f i c a n t mean score d i f f e r e n c e s f o r three subgroups on the Reminiscence Survey Measures and To t a l P Scores . 48 6. Summary of Ch i -square r e s u l t s : S i g n i f i c a n t frequency d i f f e r e n c e s . 50 - 53 7. T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s . 55 - V -ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would l i k e to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to the f o l l o w i n g people who have been most h e l p f u l to me during t h i s p r o j e c t : To Larry R. Cochran, f o r h i s patience, h i s endurance, h i s sense of humor, and f o r h i s i n c r e d i b l e a b i l i t y to understand and c l a r i f y what I meant; - To Mary A. H i l l , f o r a l l she has taught me about o l d e r people s i n c e we f i r s t met some nine years ago; To L o r e t t e K. Woolsey, f o r her w i l l i n g i n t e r e s t , and her knowledge and guidance i n matters of research design; To a l l the s t a f f of both Marpole-Oakridge Services to Seniors and Edmonds House, f o r t h e i r warm h o s p i t a l i t y and w i l l i n g a s s i s t a n c e i n r e c r u i t i n g s u b j e c t s . I would e s p e c i a l l y l i k e to mention those w i t h whom I worked the c l o s e s t : Margaret Hauptman, Susan Mansbach, Andre Jackson, Jean C o l b e r t t and Irma Binz; - To the 40 o l d e r a d u l t s who agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study and there f o r e gave up a minimum of two hours out of t h e i r busy and i n v o l v e d schedules. Ten of these people deserve s p e c i a l mention f o r t h e i r involvement i n the 8-week reminiscence groups: thank you f o r so gener-ously sharing the i n t i m a c i e s of your l i v e s w i t h me John, Rose, Connie, Erma, B i l l , Vera, F o s t e r , Ruth, L i o n e l and Rae; To Michael Romaniuk, PhD, A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r , Department of Gerontology, V i r g i n i a Commonwealth U n i v e r s i t y , f o r both h i s encouragement and h i s permission to use the Reminiscence Survey; and To my f a m i l y and f r i e n d s f o r t h e i r support and considera-t i o n throughout! - 1 -CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION We are a l l aging. Some of us age s u c c e s s f u l l y , others do not. We a l l know the ol d e r person about whom we say: " I hope I'm as good as that a t age 80!"; and s t i l l the other o l d e r person about whom we say: " I hope I never get l i k e her when I'm o l d " . I n v e s t i -gations i n t o s u c c e s s f u l vs. unsuccessful aging discover no guaran-tees and few p r e s c r i p t i o n s . Good h e a l t h , s u f f i c i e n t income, s o c i a l supports, and continued independence are not necessary and s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n s f o r s u c c e s s f u l aging ( R y f f , 1982). The ol d e r person whom we emulate may be p h y s i c a l l y f r a i l , perhaps even confined to a wheel-c h a i r and l i v i n g i n an i n s t i t u t i o n , yet s t i l l does what she enjoys doing, and continues to get pleasure out of l i v i n g . Schwartz (1975) s t a t e d : What i s the c r i t i c a l f a c t o r then, the e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t , i n s u c c e s s f u l aging? Without h e s i t a t i o n I would answer that the e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t i s p o s i t i v e s e l f - r e g a r d , the maintenance of self-esteem. Without that g o l d , a l l e l s e i s dross. What i s at stake f o r the aged i s self-esteem which, I submit, i s the l i n c h p i n that holds everything e l s e i n i t s appropriate p l a c e . (p. 470) Self-esteem i s a confidence and s a t i s f a c t i o n i n onese l f . S e l f -esteem i s an important aspect of sel f - c o n c e p t which Rosenberg (1979) defined as "the t o t a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s thoughts and f e e l i n g s - 2 -having reference to himself as an o b j e c t " (p. 7). Self-concept i s b u i l t up g r a d u a l l y out of s o c i a l experience i n the course of maturation, and changes i n s e l f - c o n c e p t , both of a gradual or sudden nature, continue throughout the l i f e span. How are some ol d e r people able to maintain and/or improve t h e i r s e l f - c o n c e p t (encompassing a p o s i t i v e self-esteem)' throughout t h e i r l i f e span, w h i l e others l o s e confidence and s a t i s f a c t i o n i n themselves? There i s no easy answer. This i s s u e of maintaining and/or improving s e l f - c o n c e p t throughout the l i f e span can be approached from a s o c i a l l e a r n i n g p e r s p e c t i v e which holds that negative s e l f - c o n c e p t i s learned through i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h s o c i e t y (Kuypers & Bengtson, 1973) . The i s s u e can a l s o be approached from a developmental theory perspect-i v e which holds that p s y c h o l o g i c a l growth and ego development occur throughout the l i f e span, w i t h accompanying changes and challenges. Several t h e o r i s t s have o u t l i n e d models of t h i s develop-ment (Buhler, 1968; E r i k s o n , 1963; Havighurst, 1972; Levinson, 1978; Schaie, 1977-78), a l l of which i n v o l v e a progressive mastery of c e r t a i n developmental tasks. (Havighurst (1972) defined a develop-mental task as "a task which a r i s e s at or about a c e r t a i n p e r i o d i n the l i f e of an i n d i v i d u a l , s u c c e s s f u l achievement of which leads to h i s (or her) happiness and to success w i t h l a t e r t a s k s , w h i l e f a i l -ure leads to unhappiness i n the i n d i v i d u a l , d i s a p p r o v a l by the s o c i e t y , and d i f f i c u l t y w i t h l a t e r t a s k s " (p. 2).) The common - 3 -u n d e r l y i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s of these models i s that the i n d i v i d u a l who s u c c e s s f u l l y completes these developmental tasks w i l l s u s t a i n a healthy s e l f - c o n c e p t and remain confident, and s a t i s f i e d . Thus, from these two p e r s p e c t i v e s , the o l d e r person who has not s u c c e s s f u l l y aged, who has not maintained her self - c o n c e p t i s the i n d i v i d u a l who has not completed the developmental t a s k s , and has learned to devalue h e r s e l f . What s t r a t e g i e s can c o u n s e l l o r s use i n working w i t h o l d e r a d u l t s whose se l f - c o n c e p t s have eroded? One general t a r g e t of i n t e r v e n t i o n i n working w i t h o l d e r people i n v o l v e s the c o n s t r u c t i v e use of reminiscence. I t i s a promising area f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g the development and maintenance of s e l f - c o n c e p t , whether viewed from the s o c i a l l e a r n i n g p e r s p e c t i v e or from the developmental p e r s p e c t i v e . Reminiscence i s a complex mental a c t i v i t y which i n c l u d e s "the act or h a b i t of t h i n k i n g about or r e l a t i n g one's past experiences" (McMahon & Rhudiek, 1964, p. 292). Havighurst and Glasser (1972) st a t e d that "reminiscence appears to be u n i v e r s a l at a l l ages a f t e r middle childhood" (p. 245) and o f f e r e d .the f o l l o w i n g i l l u s t r a t i v e d e f i n i t i o n : A l l of us from time to.time look back over our l i v e s r e c a l l i n g people and events, thoughts and f e e l i n g s . Sometimes such r e c a l l comes unbidden, as i d l e thoughts or daydreams. Sometimes we purposely t h i n k back, - 4 -t r y i n g to remember and r e c o n s t r u c t . Such r e t r o s p e c t i o n , both purposive and spontaneous, may be c a l l e d reminiscence, (p. 245) Reminiscence takes many forms. I t may be o r a l , , w r i t t e n , or s i l e n t ; i t may be done i n p r i v a t e , or shared w i t h another, or discussed i n a group. The. phenomenon' of reminiscence has yet to be f u l l y understood. The body of l i t e r a t u r e i s not v a s t : only some 40 a r t i c l e s , both t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l , have been published s i n c e the mid-1960's, and most were' w r i t t e n "within the l a s t ten years. In h i s recent review a r t i c l e , Romaniuk (1981) concluded " t h a t reminiscence i s a complex'phenomenon v a r y i n g along many dimensions - content, frequency, form, f u n c t i o n , affeet, :outcome, and e l i c i t i n g s t i m u l i " (p. 315). Despite the i n c o n c l u s i v e f i n d i n g s of the l i m i t e d e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s , s e v e r a l authors have advocated the use of reminiscence as a t h e r a p e u t i c medium when working w i t h o l d e r c l i e n t s (Baum, 1980-81; B i r r e n , & Reedy, 1979; B o y l i n et a l , 1976; Burnside, 1976, 1978; Ebersole, 1976a, 1976b, 1976c, 1978; Havasy et a l , 1981; Ingerso11 & Silverman, 1978; Lesser et a l , 1981; L i t o n & O l s t e i n , 1969; Lo Gerfo, 1980-81; McMahon & Rhudick,. 1964, 1967; Maynard, 1980; Myerhoff & Tufte, 1975; Pincus, 1970; Tobin, 1972; Waters et a l , 1980). These advocates s t r o n g l y oppose any commonplace tendancy to regard reminiscence a c t i v i t y as a meaningless wandering of the mind, as a s i g n of d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n o l d age,, or as proof of s e n i l i t y . Robert B u t l e r , a noted research p s y c h i a t r i s t and g e r o n t o l o g i s t , discussed one p a r t i c u l a r form of reminiscence w i t h s p e c i f i c func-t i o n s : l i f e review ( B u t l e r , 1963, 1974, 1980-81; B u t l e r & Lewis, 1977). B u t l e r and Lewis (1977) s t a t e d : (the) l i f e review process ( i s ) brought about by r e a l i z a t i o n of approaching d i s s o l u t i o n and death. I t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the pr o g r e s s i v e r e t u r n to consciousness of past e x p e r i -ences and p a r t i c u l a r l y the resurgence of unresolved c o n f l i c t s which can be looked at again and r e i n t e g r a t e d . I f the r e i n t e -g r a t i o n .is s u c c e s s f u l , i t can' give new s i g n i f i c a n c e and mean-ingto one's l i f e and prepare one f o r death, by m i t i g a t i n g f e a r and a n x i e t y . This i s a process that i s b e l i e v e d to occur u n i v e r s a l l y i n a l l persons" i n the f i n a l years o f . t h e i r l i v e s , although they may not be t o t a l l y aware of i t and may i n pa r t defend themselves from r e a l i z i n g i t s presence. I t i s spontaneous, u n s e l e c t i v e , and seen i n other age groups as w e l l (adolesc-ence, middle age); but the i n t e n s i t y and emphasis on p u t t i n g one's l i f e i n order are most s t r i k i n g i n o l d age. In l a t e l i f e people have a p a r t i c u l a r l y v i v i d imagination and memory f o r the past and can r e c a l l w i t h sudden and remarkable c l a r -i t y e a r l y l i f e events. There i s renewed a b i l i t y to f r e e -- 6 -a s s o c i a t e and b r i n g up.material from the unconscious. I n d i v i d u a l s r e a l i z e that t h e i r own. personal myth of i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y and i m m o r t a l i t y can no longer be main-t a i n e d . A l l of t h i s r e s u l t s i n reassessment of l i f e , which b r i n g s depression, acceptance or s a t i s f a c t i o n . The l i f e review can occur i n a m i l d form through m i l d n o s t a l g i a , , m i l d r e g r e t , a tendancy to r e m i n i s c e , s t o r y - t e l l i n g , and the l i k e . Often the person w i l l give h i s l i f e s t o r y to anyone who w i l l l i s t e n . At other times i t i s conducted i n monologue without another person hearing i t . I t i s i n many ways s i m i l a r to the psycho-therapeutic, s i t u a t i o n i n which a person i s reviewing h i s l i f e i n order to understand h i s present circumstances. As p a r t of the l i f e review one may experience a sense of r e g r e t that i s i n c r e a s i n g l y p a i n f u l . I n severe forms i t can y i e l d a n x i e t y , g u i l t , d e s p a i r , and depression. And i n extreme cases i f . a person i s unable to r e s o l v e problems or accept them, t e r r o r , p a n ic, and s u i c i d e can r e s u l t . The most t r a g i c l i f e review i s that i n which a person decides l i f e was a t o t a l waste. (p. 49-50) This present study began i n a q u a l i t a t i v e way to i n v e s t i g a t e the process of reminiscence i n o l d e r a d u l t s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , what r e l a t i o n s h i p does reminiscence have to self-concept? Do o l d e r - 7 -people who reminisce have more p o s i t i v e self-concepts? Do older a d u l t s who reminisce develop more uses, t r i g g e r s and p o s i t i v e out-comes of reminiscence? What f u n c t i o n s does reminiscence serve f o r old e r people? Such research i n t o c o u n s e l l i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r use w i t h o l d e r a d u l t s i s becoming recognized as a necessary, i n t e r e s t i n g and most u s e f u l area. The whole f i e l d of gerontology, both t h e o r e t i c a l and a p p l i e d , i s r a p i d l y progressing. Canada i s a s t a t e of "population aging" which means there i s an ongoing increase i n the p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n that i s considered as forming'-the o l d e r p o p u l a t i o n . In 1978, some 8.7% of the n a t i o n was aged 65 years and over (2,002,345). By the year 2001, the p r o j e c t e d amount w i l l be 11% to 13% ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1979). By the year 2006, the le a d i n g edge of the "baby boom" generation w i l l enter the ranks of senior c i t i z e n s , f u r t h e r e s c a l a t i n g d r a m a t i c a l l y the s i z e of the sen i o r c i t i z e n p o p u l a t i o n . Also s i g n i f i c a n t i s the p r o j e c t e d r i s e i n the popu l a t i o n aged 75 years and over, which w i l l go from n e a r l y 3/4's of a m i l l i o n i n 1976 to about lh m i l l i o n by the year 2001 ( t h i s represents 44% of the p o p u l a t i o n aged 65 years and over) ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1978). What do these s t a t i s t i c s mean i n terms of s e r v i c e needs and c o u n s e l l i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s ? The e l d e r l y face m u l t i p l e s t r e s s e s as they grow o l d e r , and could b e n e f i t from c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s . Thus there i s an i n c r e a s i n g p o t e n t i a l f o r such s e r v i c e s designed - 8 -w i t h the s p e c i a l i z e d needs of t h i s growing segment of s o c i e t y i n mind. Many recent p u b l i c a t i o n s are aimed at s e n s i t i z i n g and t r a i n i n g c o u n s e l l o r s to work e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h o l d e r a d u l t s (Alpaugh & Haney, 1978; Barry, 1980; Berland & Poggi, 1979; B r i n k , 1979; Capuzzi & Gross, 1980; D i l l o n , 1978; Dychtwald, 1981; Edwards & B l o l a n d , 1980; Ganlkos, 1979, Herr & Weakland, 1979; Johnson & Buckley, 1979; K e l l e r & Croake, 1975; Kubie & Landau, 1953; Landreth & Berg, 1980; Leung & Eargle, 1980; Power & McCarron, 1975; R i e t e r & White, 1978; Rockwell et a l , 1980; Sargent, 1980; Schmidt, 1976; T a l l e y , 1981; Verwoerdt, 1981; Waters et a l , 1976);. Three j o u r n a l s have r e c e n t l y published s p e c i a l i s s u e s on aspects of aging: Canadian Counsellor, Counseling and Values, and the J o u r n a l of Employment Counseling. A l l of which serves to u n d e r l i n e the area of c o u n s e l l i n g w i t h o l d e r a d u l t s as important and worthwhile. - 9 -Summary of the d e f i n i t i o n s to be used Reminiscence: A complex phenomenon which i n v o l v e s t h i n k i n g or t a l k i n g about one's past (the time e a r l i e r than s i x months ago), and which may serve one or more of a wide v a r i e t y of f u n c t i o n s . Life-Review : One p a r t i c u l a r aspect of the l a r g e r phenomenon of reminiscence, w i t h the purpose of review-i n g , r e o r g a n i z i n g and e v a l u a t i n g the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e of one's l i f e . Self-Goncept: The dynamic t o t a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s thoughts arid f e e l i n g s have reference to oneself as an object - the most important aspect of which i s g l o b a l self-esteem (how p o s i t i v e l y one views o n e s e l f ) . These two terms w i l l be used interchangeably. - 10 -CHAPTER I I  LITERATURE REVIEW The body of l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t to t h i s study can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o three l a r g e subgroups: l i t e r a t u r e on the self-concept of o l d e r a d u l t s , l i t e r a t u r e on the phenomenon of reminiscence, and l i t e r a t u r e encompassing both the t o p i c s of reminiscence and s e l f - c o n c e p t . L i t e r a t u r e on the s e l f and aging In her recent a r t i c l e , Breytspraak (1981) sta t e d the f o l l o w i n g : Over the past three decades l i t e r a l l y thousands of research s t u d i e s on the s e l f have appeared. Indeed, i t has been observed that i n the f i e l d of psychology the only construct to r e c e i v e any more a t t e n t i o n i n recent years i s i n t e l l i g e n c e . In s p i t e of the dominance of concerns w i t h selfhood i n psy-chology ...., s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l g e r o n t o l o g i s t s have given i t r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d a t t e n t i o n one of the reasons t h i s i s so i s that few have approached the selfhood of the o l d e r person as a dynamic e n t e r p r i s e Our assump-t i o n s about the aging process have seldom allowed f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y that o l d people may be j u s t as i n v o l v e d i n con-s t r u c t i n g t h e i r notions of s e l f and using these notions i n the conduct of everyday l i v e s as are young people. (p. 2) R e l a t i v e l y i n f r e q u e n t l y was the s e l f viewed i n an a c t i v e sense as i n v o l v i n g processes of i n t e r p r e t i n g , managing, r a t i o n a l i z i n g , r e a d j u s t i n g , coping, and planning new modes - 11 -of a c t i o n , (p. 3) She went on to add that researchers need to develop "a p e r s p e c t i v e on selfhood that looks at how we a c t i v e l y make sense of ourselves i n the context of c u l t u r e s and our p o s i t i o n i n the flow of h i s t o r y " (p. 7). However, the l i t e r a t u r e to date r e f l e c t s n e i t h e r of these p r e s c r i p t i o n s . More t y p i c a l l y , authors have t h e o r i z e d about the passive nature of the sel f - c o n c e p t throughout the l i f e span (Back, 1971; Back & Gergen, 1968; P e t e r s , 1971, Rynerson, 1972; Schwartz, 1975; Smith, 1978; Turner, 1979). Other i n v e s t i g a t o r s have been i n t e r e s t e d i n the antecedents or c o r r e l a t e s of s e l f - c o n c e p t ; v a r i -ables which a f f e c t and change the sel f - c o n c e p t of o l d e r a d u l t s (Back & M o r r i s , 1974; Kaplan & Pokorny, 1970; McKay, 1980; P i e r c e & C h i r i b o g a , 1979; Stones & Kozma, 1980). S p e c i f i c a l l y , the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s have a l l r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n : i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n (Gordon & Vinacke, 1971; Kahana & Coe, 1969; M i n k l e r & Shaw, 1980; P o l l a c k et a l , 1962; Seelbach & Hansen, 1980); l i v i n g arrangements (Postema, 1971); socioeconomic f a c t o r s (Mason, 1954); sex or gender (Monge, 1975; Turner, 1979); h e a l t h ( C r a n d a l l , 1975); dependency (Gordon's Vinacke, 1971); a l t r u i s t i c behavior (Trimakas & N i c o l a y , 1974); age or l i f e stages (Bloom, 1961; Grant, 1969; Mason, 1954; Monge, 1975); and measurement of sel f - c o n c e p t change (Back, 1974; Bloom, 1961; Eden, 1981; G i f f o r d & Golde, 1978; Grant, 1969; Monge, 1975). Three recent a r t i c l e s provided extensive - 12 -c r i t i q u e s of methodological and conceptual issues (Breytspraak & George, 1979; George & Bearon, 1980; Wylie, 197.4). Two major p o i n t s emerge. F i r s t , there has been a l a c k of conceptual c l a r i t y and consistency i n s p e c i f y i n g the exact nature of the s e l f - c o n c e p t phenomenon under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Hence, comparison and r e p l i c a t i o n of f i n d i n g s i s d i f f i c u l t . Second, there are vast d i f f e r e n c e s i n s e n s i t i v i t y and s t a b i l i t y of the measuring instruments which have been used. In summary, self - c o n c e p t needs to be viewed as a dynamic process throughout the l i f e span which i n t e r a c t s w i t h age-related events using such processes as i n t e r p r e t i n g , managing, r a t i o n a l i z -i n g , r e a d j u s t i n g , coping and planning. L i t e r a t u r e on reminiscence Merriam (1980) s t a t e d that "most of the research on r e m i n i s c -ence has been conducted w i t h i n the l a s t 10 years. P r i o r to 1970, few references could be found p e r t a i n i n g to reminiscence" (p. 604). Many of these a r t i c l e s have o u t l i n e d conceptual frameworks of the f u n c t i o n s of reminiscence i n r e l a t i o n to o l der a d u l t s . L i t e r a t u r e of a more e m p i r i c a l nature has i n v e s t i g a t e d aspects of reminiscence such as frequency, uses, t r i g g e r s , and outcomes. Romaniuk and Romaniuk (1981) concluded the f o l l o w i n g : However, the l i t e r a t u r e i s i n i t s e a r l i e s t stages, many issu e s remained u n s e t t l e d , and our knowledge of r e m i n i s c -ence .... i s of a t e n t a t i v e and q u a l i f i e d nature. (p. 479)-- 13 -Theoretical functions Reminiscence i s a complex phenomenon taking on d i f f e r e n t forms and f u l f i l l i n g d i f f e r e n t functions. The t h e o r e t i c a l discussion of the many v a r i a t i o n s i n the use of reminiscence and i t s functions can be grouped into two general categories: interpersonal (conver-sational) functions and intrapersonal (private thought) functions. These categories are d e s c r i p t i v e only, and are not mutually exclu-sive: a p a r t i c u l a r reminiscing event may serve one or many functions for the i n d i v i d u a l at that moment i n time. Five t h e o r e t i c a l functions can be summarized f o r interpersonal (conversational) reminiscence. F i r s t , reminiscence serves to enhance r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and does so i n at le a s t three ways:, a) f a c i l i t a t i n g s o c i a l i z a t i o n by providing conversational stimulants (Bielby & Boden, 1981; Ebersole, 1978; Havasy et a l , 1981; Maynard, 1980, Waters et a l , 1980); b) e s t a b l i s h i n g an audience-performer system (reminiscence with common courtesy on the part of the other person) which has the secondary gain of r e l i e v i n g l o n e l i n e s s (Butler, 1963; Postema, 1971; and c) providing a forum to negotiate the interpersonal system beyond the l e v e l of audience-performer (Pincus, 1970). Such nego-t i a t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y important f o r enhancing peer i n t e r a c t i o n s : reminiscence can produce or strengthen a cohort i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ; that i s , a shared sense of meaning and a legacy as a group (Bielby & Boden, 1981; Ebersole, 1978; Myerhoff & Tufte, 1975). I t also has sp e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e for enhancing intergenerational i n t e r a c t i o n s : - 14 -reminiscence serves as a communication bridge between the genera-t i o n s by reducing any inherent s t a t u s d i f f e r e n c e s through achiev-ing time p a r i t y . Pincus (1970) explained the f o l l o w i n g : (Reminiscence) can e s t a b l i s h time p a r i t y because i t has the e f f e c t of b r i n g i n g the o l d e r personal mentally back through time to the same age or s i t u a t i o n , thereby i n e f f e c t e r a s i n g the e x i s t i n g age d i f f e r e n c e (and inherent s t a t u s d i f f e r e n c e s ) . The o l d e r person f i g u r a t i v e l y places himself i n the younger person's shoes. Expressions such as "when I was your age" and "when I was i n your boat" are examples of attempts to create time p a r i t y . (p. 51) Secondly, i n t e r p e r s o n a l reminiscence serves an i n s t r u c t i o n a l / e d u c a t i o n a l purpose. P r e s e r v a t i o n of the c u l t u r e ' s h i s t o r y and f o l k l o r e through reminiscence has " t r i b a l " value (Havasy et a l , 1981; Merriam, 1980). Reminiscence c o n t r i b u t e s to h i s t o r i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p s u i t a b l e f o r both h i s t o r i c a l a r c h ives and f a m i l y l e g a -c i e s (Lo Gerfo, 1980-81; Ryant, 1981). "Informative reminiscence" can be used to teach others the lessons of experience (Coleman 1974; McMahon & Rhudick, 1964, 1967), to provide c r e a t i v e models f o r l i v i n g and growing o l d e r (Myerhoff & Tufte, 1975), and to express one's views or a t t i t u d e s about current general issues i n the world (Coleman, 1974). T h i r d , i n t e r p e r s o n a l reminiscence i s a popular v e h i c l e of entertainment. Amusing " s t o r y t e l l e r s " who recount humorous i n c i d e n t s 15 -from the past are common across a l l c u l t u r e s (Ebersole, 1976c; McMahon & Rhudick, 1964, 1967). Fourth, i n t e r p e r s o n a l reminiscence r e i n f o r c e s the b e l i e f that the world s t i l l values the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the past (Ryant, 1981), and serves as a t r i b u t e to l o n g e v i t y and mental soundness that memory of the d i s t a n t past c e l e b r a t e s (Lo Gerfo, 1980-81). The reminis c e r i s thus accepted and v a l i d a t e d by her audience (Romaniuk, 1981). F i f t h , reminiscence can serve as a safe, d i s g u i s e d medium to express one's present f e e l i n g s to another person. Such instances are covert expressions of a f f e c t that are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h current adaptation and r e a c t i o n s to s p e c i f i c , c u r r e n t l y s t r e s s f u l e x p e r i -ences (Ebersole, 1976a; Pincus, 1970; Tobin, 1972). Some eigh t t h e o r e t i c a l f u n c t i o n s f o r i n t r a p e r s o n a l ( p r i v a t e thought) reminiscence can be o u t l i n e d . F i r s t , reminiscence i s a medium of s e l f expression w i t h the same c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l toward s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t of every other means of human s e l f expression (Postema, 1971). Second, the remini s c e r creates a p l e a s u r a b l e form of s e l f -entertainment (Ebersole, 1978). Memories are pl e a s a n t , enjoyable and help to pass the time of day (Romaniuk, 1981). T h i r d , r e m i n i s c i n g provides the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a sense of personal c o n t i n u i t y w i t h the past, a h i s t o r i c a l context f o r her l i f e ( B i e l b y & Boden, 1981). She r e a l i z e s her past has a bearing - 16 -on what she i s experiencing now (Myerhoff & Tufte, 1975). Fourth, reminiscence f u n c t i o n s to provide e x i s t e n t i a l meaning to l i f e ( B u t l e r , 1963). The i n d i v i d u a l d e r i v e s meaning from the environment of her whole l i f e (Merriam, 1980), and a r r i v e s as a c o n s t r u c t i o n as to what l i f e has been about ( L i t o n & O l s t e i n , 1969; Myerhoff & Tufte, 1975). This r e s u l t s i n a greater understanding and a p p r e c i a t i o n of l i f e and human nature (Romaniuk, 1981). F i f t h , reminiscence i s a coping mechanism i n at l e a s t three r e l a t e d s i t u a t i o n s . The i n d i v i d u a l can use past experiences to solve s p e c i f i c current problems and to make plans f o r the f u t u r e (Ebersole, 1978; Lieberman & F a l k , 1971; Postema, 1971). Past s t r e s s coping s t r a t e g i e s can be adapted to now cope w i t h the st r e s s e s inherent i n the aging process (Ebersole, 1976a; Merriam, 1980; Pincus, 1970). And the past coping s t r a t e g i e s can be adapted to f a c i l i t a t e the i n d i v i d u a l through a myriad of t r a n s -i t i o n s such as changes i n h e a l t h , p h y s i c a l appearance and a b i l i t i e s , and r o l e s (Lewis, 1971; Lieberman & F a l k , 1971; McMahon & Rhudick, 1964, 1967). S i x t h , reminiscence provides status enhancement: r e c a l l i n g past achievements provides a source of g r a t i f i c a t i o n which may be l a c k i n g i n the current environment (Lewis & B u t l e r , 1974; Pincus, 1970). Reminiscence provides emotional succor by c r e a t i n g and pre s e r v i n g a sense of personal s i g n i f i c a n c e , a unique sense of usefulness (Lieberman & F a l k , 1971; L i t o n & O l s t e i n , 1969; McMahon & Rhudick, - 17 -1964, 1967). Romaniuk (198.1) s t a t e d , " r e c a l l i n g memories of successes and accomplishments l i f t s my s p i r i t s " (p. 5). Ebersole (1978) quoted an aged woman who s a i d , "God gave us memories so we could have roses i n December" (p. 237). Seventh, reminiscence f u n c t i o n s i n a therapeutic mode to r e s o l v e , reorganize, and r e i n t e g r a t e l i f e experiences (B.oylin et a l , 1976; Lewis & B u t l e r , 1974; Postema, 1971). B u t l e r (1963) described t h i s as the l i f e review process. Unresolved c o n f l i c t s and u n f i n i s h e d business from the past can be worked through and completed (Coleman, 1974; Postema, 1971; Waters et a l , 1980). Self-understanding and i n s i g h t s are f a c i l i t a t e d (Romaniuk, 1981). Serious personal l o s s e s can be worked through: r e m i n i s c i n g might be a necessary step i n the r e s o l u t i o n of g r i e f , e s p e c i a l l y r e c o l l e c t i o n s of both happy and sad memories of the deceased (Havighurst & Glasser, 1972; Pincus, 1970; Romaniuk, 1981). F i n a l l y , reminiscence i s i n v o l v e d i n the process of i d e n t i t y formation and self- c o n c e p t p r e s e r v a t i o n (Havasy et a l , 1981; Lewis, 1971; L i t o n & O l s t e i n , 1969; McMahon & Rhudick, 1964, 1967; Myerhoff & Tufte, 1975; Pincus, 1970). In summary, some t h i r t e e n f u n c t i o n s of reminiscence have been discussed i n the l i t e r a t u r e from a t h e o r e t i c a l framework. These fun c t i o n s a l l have i n t u i t i v e appeal but s t i l l await e m p i r i c a l v a l i -d a t i o n . Most or a l l have been propounded to have adaptive p o t e n t i a l f o r the aging i n d i v i d u a l . - 18 -This adaptive p o t e n t i a l of reminiscence has been widely discussed. Several a r t i c l e s provided d e s c r i p t i v e r e p o r t s of the ther a p e u t i c b e n e f i t s of reminiscence as an adaptive medium f o r ol d e r a d u l t s . (Baum, 1980-81; B o y l i n et a l , 1976; Burnside, 1976, 1978; B u t l e r , 1963, 1974, 1980-81; Ebersole, 1976a, 1976b, 1976c, 1978; Havasy et a l , 1981; I n g e r s o l l & Silverman, 1978; Lesser et a l , 1981; Lewis & B u t l e r , 1974; L i t o n & O l s t e i n , 1969; Lo Gerfo, 1980-81; Maynard, 1980-, Myerhoff & Tufte, 1975; Pincus, 1970; Tobin, 1972; Waters et a l , 1980). However, there i s no convincing e m p i r i c a l evidence at t h i s time. E m p i r i c a l research The e m p i r i c a l study of reminiscence has not been approached i n a ri g o r o u s and systematic f a s h i o n , but r a t h e r has been approached i n an e x p l o r a t o r y , p r e l i m i n a r y way. Procedural d i f f e r e n c e s , methodological problems, d i f f e r e n c e s i n subject c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a l l serve to make c l e a r comparisons and r e l i a b l e conclusions d i f f i -c u l t (Romaniuk, 1981). Several d i f f e r e n t measurements of reminiscence have been employed. Most measures have been s i m p l i s t i c , and have focused on c o n v e r s a t i o n a l reminiscence. Tobin (1972) asked h i s subjects to r e l a t e t h e i r e a r l i e s t memory. Lewis (1971) c a r r i e d out content a n a l -yses of t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of s u b j e c t s ' responses to the i n s t r u c t i o n to t a l k about whatever i s important i n l i f e . Coleman (1974) analysed conversations w i t h subjects during s e m i - s t r u c t u r a l s o c i a l v i s i t s . - 19 -McMahon and Rhudick (1964; 91967) performed content analyses of t r a n s c r i p t e d conversations based on i n s t r u c t i o n s to t a l k about whatever one wished during a r o u t i n e p h y s i c a l examination. B i e l b y and Boden (1981) developed an elaborate format which i n v o l v e d con-v e r s a t i o n a l analyses of semi-structured i n t e r a c t i o n s between aged peers. Postema (1971) used a l i f e experience questionnaire to s t r u c t u r e i n t e r v i e w s designed to e l i c i t spontaneous rememberings. In h i s recent extensive review, Romaniuk (1981) s t a t e d the f o l l o w i n g : An immediate methodological i s s u e r a i s e d by ....measures of c o n v e r s a t i o n a l reminiscence i s the representativeness of the person's " t r u e " reminiscence a c t i v i t y . Keeping i n mind that reminiscence i s viewed as l a r g e l y a private,, ( i n t r a p e r s o n a l ) phenomenon, there i s no reason to b e l i e v e that ( p u b l i c ) c o n v e r s a t i o n a l reminiscence i s l i k e l y to m i r r o r p r i v a t e reminiscence i n frequency, content, or f u n c t i o n . (p. 328) Havighurst and Glasser (1972) pointed out "thus, i f ( i n t r a p e r s o n a l ) reminiscence i s to be s t u d i e d , the researcher must r e l y upon s e l f -r e p o r t s by people of the amount and a f f e c t i v e q u a l i t y arid the con-tent of t h e i r reminiscence" (p. 246). In t h i s v e i n , other researchers have designed and used questionnaires r e q u i r i n g subjects to describe t h e i r r e m i n i s c i n g a c t i v i t y , both i n t e r p e r s o n a l and i n t r a p e r s o n a l ( B o y l i n et a l , 1976; - 20 -Giambra, 1974; Havighurst & G l a s s e r , 1972; Romaniuk & Romaniuk, 1981; Romaniuk et a l , 1981). One p a r t i c u l a r study warrants f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n at t h i s p o i n t as the r e s u l t a n t measuring instrument was used i n t h i s research p r o j e c t . Romaniuk et a l (1981) o u t l i n e d a p r o j e c t w i t h two major purposes. The f i r s t purpose was "to develop an instrument which could assess the v a r i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l specula-t i o n s concerning the f u n c t i o n s , t r i g g e r s , and outcomes of t u r n i n g one's a t t e n t i o n to the past and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to l i f e r e viewing" (p. 4 ) . Next they planned to determine the d i f f e r e n c e s between those o l d e r persons who are, or who have reviewed t h e i r l i v e s ( l i f e -reviewers) and n o n - l i f e - r e v i e w e r s i n the f u n c t i o n s , t r i g g e r s , and outcomes of the reminiscence behavior. They reported data on t h e i r Reminiscence Survey from 91 subjects ranging i n age from 58 to 98 years, a l l of whom re s i d e d i n p r i v a t e retirement communities i n Richmond, V i r g i n i a . 81% of t h e i r subjects had engaged i n l i f e review, 19% had not. Their r e s u l t s suggested that l i f e - r e v i e w e r s can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from n o n - l i f e - r e v i e w e r s on three v a r i a b l e s : two f u n c t i o n s and one t r i g g e r . L i f e - r e v i e w e r s used reminiscence to gain i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i r own l i v e s or to deal w i t h p h i l o s o p h i c a l concerns. They a l s o used reminiscence f o r present problem-solving; that i s , as a method of coping w i t h or r e s o l v i n g current d i f f i c u l t i e s . N o n - l i f e - r e v i e w e r s d i d not appear to use reminiscence f o r e i t h e r of these uses. L i f e -reviewers a l s o acknowledged that the awareness of t h e i r own m o r t a l i t y - 21 -t r i g g e r e d t h e i r reminiscence behavior, w h i l e n o n - l i f e - r e v i e w e r s seemed not to. Reminiscence frequency What incidence of reminiscence a c t i v i t y has been found i n the e m p i r i c a l research to date? In the above study, 81% of the subjects i n d i c a t e d they had (or were) engaged i n l i f e review w h i l e 19% stat e d they had not engaged i n l i f e - r e v i e w i n g , and 74% reported r e m i n i s c i n g o c c a s i o n a l l y or more, 26% seldom and r a r e l y (Romaniuk & Romaniuk, 1981; Romaniuk et a l , 1981). Havighurst and Glasser (1972) reported that 67% of the subjects reminisced " o f t e n " or " o c c a s i o n a l l y " when they were alone, 79% s a i d they reminisced when they were together w i t h spouse, f r i e n d s , r e l a -t i v e s , and so on, w h i l e 11% to 23% reminisced only r a r e l y i f at a l l . Two other s t u d i e s ( B o y l i n et a l , 1976; McMahon & Rhudick, 1964, 1967) found that two-thirds of the subjects could be c l a s s i f i e d as at l e a s t o c c a s i o n a l r e m i n i s c e r s . A l l these f i n d i n g s are suggestive only, but do p o i n t to the commonality of t h i s reminiscence experience among e l d e r l y people. Reminiscence and adjustment Research f i n d i n g s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between reminiscence and adjustment i n o l d age are only suggestive. P a r t of the problem stems from the d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a of adjustment that v a r i o u s researchers have employed. These c r i t e r i a of adjustment, w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i n d i n g s , . i n c l u d e d : - 22 -a) expressed l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n : those who were d i s -s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r past l i v e s reviewed l i f e to a greater extent than d i d those who were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r past l i f e (Coleman, 1974).; b) l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n i nventory: there i s a syndrome of good p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l adjustment, p o s i t i v e a f f e c t of reminiscence, and high frequency of reminiscence (Havighurst & G l a s s e r , 1972); c) freedom from depression: non-depressed subjects reminisced more than those who were depressed (McMahon & Rhudick, 1964, 1967); d) ego adjustment: those who reminisced more scored higher on the ego i n t e g r i t y measure ( B o y l i n et a l , 1 9 7 6 ) ; e) one's f u t u r e outlook: those centenarians who were able to o f f e r responses f o r a l l memory items more f r e q u e n t l y s t a t e d f u t u r e ambitions than d i d t h e i r peers who had l e s s command over the past (Costa & Kastenbaum, 1967). Self-concept has a l s o been used as a measure of adjustment, and w i l l be discussed f u r t h e r i n the l a s t p a r t of t h i s chapter. Romaniuk (1981) provided an extensive review and methodological c r i t i q u e of these v a r i o u s research s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g reminiscence and adjustment, and concluded that " c e r t a i n forms of reminiscence may have b e n e f i c i a l outcomes. Simply r e c a l l i n g the past does not seem to be r e l a t e d to adjustment, but under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , l i f e - r e v i e w i n g - 23 -and i n f o r m a t i v e reminiscence may produce p o s i t i v e outcomes, (p. 332)". L i t e r a t u r e on reminiscence and the s e l f - c o n c e p t Two a r t i c l e s d i r e c t l y addressed the adjustment p o t e n t i a l of reminiscence i n maintaining and/or improving s e l f - c o n c e p t i n o l d e r a d u l t s , and reported research f i n d i n g s . Lewis (1971) i n v e s t i g a t e d whether r e m i n i s c e r s show c o g n i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the consistency of the self-concept compared to non-r e m i n i s c e r s (with the underlying premise that consistency of the s e l f - c o n c e p t i s one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c that prompted healthy a d a p t a t i o n ) . The sample was 24 males, Caucasian, over the age of 65 and r e s i d i n g on t h e i r own i n the greater Boston area. Subjects were c l a s s i f i e d as r e m i n i s c e r s or non-reminiscers based on r a t i n g s of t h e i r responses during a taped, 30 minute n o n - d i r e c t i v e i n t e r v i e w i n which they were asked to t a l k about what was important i n l i f e . I n i t i a l l y , the subjects sorted two 48-item Q-sorts, one f o r t h e i r present s e l f ^ -concept and one f o r t h e i r past s e l f - c o n c e p t . Two weeks l a t e r , subjects had t h e i r expressed opinions challenged i n a manipulated s o c i a l - r e s e a r c h - s t y l e - c o n t e x t . Immediately a f t e r t h i s , a l l Ss sorted a Q-sort f o r t h e i r present and then t h e i r past s e l f - c o n c e p t . Then a l l S_s_ were given another 30-minute taped i n t e r v i e w which was l a t e r analyzed to determine any changes i n the amount of r e m i n i s c i n g . As a f i n a l task, a l l _ S s r e c e i v e d a second - 24 -set of Q-sorts items, s i m i l a r to the f i r s t set but w i t h the wording changed to reduce the e f f e c t of memory, and were asked to de s c r i b e t h e i r present and past-concepts. (Lewis, 1971, p. 241) Lewis described three hypotheses f o r h i s study as f o l l o w s : Hypothesis I s t a t e d that r e m i n i s c e r s would show a greater c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e i r present and past s e l f - c o n c e p t s , i n the i n i t i a l s e s s i o n , compared to non-reminiscers. Hypothesis I I s t a t e d that r e m i n i s c e r s , when faced w i t h an experimental s o c i a l t h r e a t , would show an increase i n c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e i r present and past s e l f -concepts compared to non-reminiscers. Hypothesis I I I s t a t e d that a f t e r being allowed to remin-i s c e f o l l o w i n g threat r e m i n i s c e r s would show a s t i l l f u r t h e r increase i n past-present s e l f - c o n c e p t c o r r e l a t i o n compared to non-reminiscers. (p. 242) Only the second hypothesis was confirmed. Lewis concluded that " r e m i n i s c e r s , when t h e i r expressed opinions are threatened, showed a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n the c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e i r past and present s e l f - c o n c e p t s compared to non-reminiscers (t = +2.16, p = 0.025)" (p. 242). This study suggested that r e m i n i s c i n g may serve to i n s u l a t e and thus maintain the s e l f -concept from s o c i a l forms of s t r e s s . That i s , one f u n c t i o n of reminiscence i s as an adaptive coping mechanism. This coping - 25 -f u n c t i o n d i f f e r s from the i n t e g r a t i v e f u n c t i o n of reminiscence l a b e l e d as l i f e - r e v i e w o u t l i n e d by B u t l e r (1963, 1974, 1980-81). Given t h i s i n t e g r a t i v e f u n c t i o n , r e m i n i s c e r s would be p r e d i c t e d to show a greater c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e i r present and past s e l f - c o n c e p t s than would non-reminiscers. However, i t may be that the r e m i n i s c e r s showed an increase i n present s e l f - c o n c e p t over the past s e l f - c o n c e p t . This increase would serve to reduce the c o r r e l a t i o n of the Q-sorts, an instrument not able to i n d i -cate the d i r e c t i o n of change i n the s e l f - c o n c e p t w i t h age. A l s o , Lewis i n v e s t i g a t e d only c o n v e r s a t i o n a l reminiscence which i s not s u f f i c i e n t to v a l i d l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e between re m i n i s c e r s and non-r e m i n i s c e r s . Postema (1971) explored the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the q u a n t i t y and type of r e m i n i s c i n g , time o r i e n t a t i o n ^ and s e l f -concept i n 60 aged male volunt e e r s (30 were s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t community v o l u n t e e r s , 30 were nursing home r e s i d e n t s ) . Each subject was interviewed i n d i v i d u a l l y using a standard set of general questions to s t i m u l a t e reminiscence. The measure of r e m i n i s c i n g q u a n t i t y was the number of statements r e f e r r i n g to the past. Then two judges c l a s s i f i e d the subjects i n t o four types of r e m i n i s c e r s : Avoidant, Defensive, C o n f l i c t , and W e l l -adjusted, based on c l i n i c a l c r i t e r i a and the f o l l o w i n g p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l l y - i n f l u e n c e d d e s c r i p t i o n s : - 26 -Reminiscing Avoider 1. Tends to avoid s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e or any k i n d of r e m i n i s c i n g . 2. U s u a l l y defensive use of avoidance, but not n e c e s s a r i l y . May be w e l l - a d j u s t e d but j u s t not care to d i s c u s s the past. 3. This judgment i s based p r i m a r i l y on the l i m i t e d amount of r e m i n i s c i n g of any k i n d done by the S_. 4. A f f e c t i s u s u a l l y f l a t . Defensive Reminiscer 1. Tends to use r e m i n i s c i n g mainly to enhance ego. 2. This category i n c l u d e s those who complain about past or present i n j u s t i c e s done him. 3. A l s o , garrulousness to ward o f f c o n f l i c t s and/or l o n e l i n e s s without i n s i g h t i n t o t h i s defense. 4. I n a b i l i t y to accept one's own l i m i t a t i o n s , e.g., unreal "too p e r f e c t " self-image that i s defended by r e v e a l i n g only the good. 5. Though c o n f l i c t areas may be mentioned or a l l u d e d t o , there i s u s u a l l y l i t t l e a f f e c t or i n s i g h t that any d i s p a r i t y e x i s t s . 6. S i m i l a r d i s p a r i t i e s between the defended S_' s s e l f -p e r c e p t i o n and s o c i e t a l norms are apparent only to others. - 27 -C o n f l i c t u a l Reminiscers 1. Reminiscence leads to a i r i n g of personal and/or i n t e r - p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t areas i n such a way that S_ i s p a i n f u l l y aware of them. 2. Often much, u s u a l l y negative a f f e c t . 3. S_ tends not to "blame" others and has some awareness that c o n f l i c t r e s u l t s from d i s p a r i t y between " i d e a l " vs. " a c t u a l " perceived s e l f . 4. Often such c o n f l i c t u a l r e m i n i s c i n g seems to emerge compulsively and i s not under c o n t r o l of the ego. Well-Adjusted 1. This r e m i n i s c i n g c o n s i s t s of i n f o r m a t i v e and/or e n t e r t a i n i n g t a l e s from the j5' s past. 2. Also there i s r e t e l l i n g of o l d hardships or con-f l i c t s that have been re s o l v e d . 3. Often jS may wish to share these experiences f o r the b e n e f i t of the l i s t e n e r s or as a guide to help them. 4. U s u a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a high degree of openness about s e l f though may c o n s c i o u s l y choose not to r e v e a l things that might " h u r t " s i g n i f i c a n t others. 5. U s u a l l y found i s a d e s i r e to help others and acknow-ledge help from others. 6. A f f e c t g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e . (p. 138-139) - 28 -The attempts to measure time o r i e n t a t i o n proved inadequate. S e l f -concept was assessed by the T o t a l P Score on the Tennessee S e l f Concept Scale. Two f i n d i n g s are of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . H i s sample had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher mean se l f - c o n c e p t score (X = 358.0) than the TSCS norm group (X = 345.57). And the self - c o n c e p t l e v e l s v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h r e m i n i s c i n g types from lowest to highest as f o l l o w s : C o n f l i c t , Avoidant, Defensive, and Well-adjusted. However, reminiscence q u a n t i t y was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to any other v a r i a b l e i n the study. S p e c i f i c a l l y , there was no i n d i c a t i o n of any s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between r e m i n i s c i n g q u a n t i t y and s e l f - c o n c e p t . This study a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d only c o n v e r s a t i o n a l reminiscence, and that by c o n s t r u c t i n g a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system w i t h questionable v a l i d i t y . The l a r g e r adaptive p o t e n t i a l of i n t r a p e r s o n a l reminiscence i s not d i r e c t l y explored. Self-concept and reminiscence was mentioned i n one a d d i t i o n a l study. In t h e i r study of 555 s u b j e c t s ' reminiscence behavior (both c o n v e r s a t i o n a l and i n t r a p e r s o n a l ) , Havighurst and Glasser (1972) noted almost i n passing that "pleasant reminiscence or reminiscence w i t h P o s i t i v e A f f e c t .... i s p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n by the respondent of himself i n r e l a t i o n to others of the same age" (p. 251). They d i d not d e t a i l the measure of self - c o n c e p t they used. - 29 -Summary This l i t e r a t u r e review u n d e r l i n e s the i n t e r e s t i n the a d j u s t -ment p o t e n t i a l of reminiscence, but demonstrates that.the i n v e s t i -g a t i o n of reminiscence i s j u s t beginning. So l i t t l e i s understood. Even the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e m i n i s c i n g and s e l f - c o n c e p t has not been adequately e s t a b l i s h e d . This i s the f i r s t step i n e e v a l u a t i n g any adaptive f u n c t i o n s that reminiscence might have. This present study w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the pervasiveness of reminiscence and the p o s i t i v i t y of s e l f -conception i n o l d e r a d u l t s . - 30 -CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY Subjects A t o t a l of 40 ol d e r persons volunteered to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study of reminiscence. They ranged i n age from 55 to 95 years w i t h a mean age of 71.3 years and a standard d e v i a t i o n of 7.4 years. T h i r t y , or 75%, were female; 10, or 25%, were male. These subjects had an average of approximately 10 years of formal education. A l l s t i l l r e s i d e d i n the community i n t h e i r own homes or apartments. T h i r t e e n , or 32%%, were married; 27, or 67%%, were s i n g l e ( ( w i t h 20 (50%) widowed; 3 (7%%) divorced; and 4 (10%) never m a r r i e d ) ) . F i n a l l y , 37 (92%%) of the subjects considered t h e i r h e a l t h to be average or b e t t e r , w h i l e the other 3 (7%%) rated t h e i r h e a l t h as poor. The subjects were r e c r u i t e d from a po p u l a t i o n of r e t i r e d p a r t i c i p a n t s at two sen i o r s a c t i v i t y program s i t e s i n the Lower Mainland: Edmonds House, a mun i c i p a l l y - o p e r a t e d s e n i o r s center i n Burnaby, and Marpole Oakridge Seniors, a multi-purpose program pro-vided by Marpole Oakridge S e r v i c e s to Seniors p r i m a r i l y funded by the M i n i s t r y of Human Resources. T h i r t y of the 40 subjects (15 from each centre) volunteered to p a r t i c i p a t e by completing the two questionnaires f o l l o w i n g a b r i e f o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n by _E to the e s t a b l i s h e d c l a s s e s i n which they were i n v o l v e d (at the f i r s t centre i t was an e x e r c i s e c l a s s , - 3 0 3 -at the second a l e c t u r e - d i s c u s s i o n group). These 30 represent approximately 2/3's of the t o t a l audience. The f i v e minute p r e s e n t a t i o n described b r i e f l y the nature of the study and the nature of the tasks that were r e q u i r e d of the s u b j e c t s . The other 10 of the 40 subjects were p a r t i c i p a n t s newly e n r o l l e d i n an eight-week s t r u c t u r e d reminiscence course. Enrollment i n the course was l i m i t e d to f i v e persons at each l o c a t i o n . Both the course o u t l i n e and a summary of the content h i g h l i g h t s are included i n Appendix IV. In summary then, there were a t o t a l of 20 subjects from each of two centres; f i v e were s e n i o r s i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a s t r u c t u r e d r e m i n i s c i n g c l a s s and 15 were p a r t i c i p a n t s i n another r e g u l a r l y scheduled c l a s s . Measuring Instruments 1. Reminiscence Survey (Appendix I) This instrument was designed to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on v a r i o u s dimensions of reminiscence i n general and l i f e review i n p a r t i c u l a r (Romaniuk et a l , 1981). I t i s a paper-and-pencil q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t i n g of a l i f e review item and three reminiscence s c a l e s : uses, t r i g g e r s , and outcomes. Subjects are i n s t r u c t e d to consider the past as the time e a r l i e r than s i x months ago. Romaniuk et a l (1981) described the f o l l o w i n g : Engagement i n the l i f e review process i s determined by the subject's answer (have, have not, c u r r e n t l y reviewing) - 32 -f o l l o w i n g a b r i e f d e f i n i t i o n of the concept of l i f e review. The items of the reminiscence s c a l e s were i n t u i t i v e l y derived from the l i t e r a t u r e and c o n s i s t of statements i d e n t i f y i n g v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s , t r i g g e r s , and outcomes of r e m i n i s c i n g . The Reminiscence Uses Scale c o n s i s t s of 13 d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s of reminiscence (eg. to teach others, to cope w i t h a l o s s , to solve past t r o u b l e s , to determine l i f e ' s meaning). A f t e r reading a short d e f i n i t i o n , the subject i s i n s t r u c t e d to choose the answer (yes, no, not sure) which best describes her experience w i t h the uses of reminiscence l i s t e d i n the s c a l e . The Reminiscence Tr i g g e r s Scale c o n s i s t s of 21 d i f f e r e n t s t i m u l i f o r r e t r o s p e c t i o n (eg. awareness of personal m o r t a l i t y , r e a l i z a t i o n of highest accomplish-ment, death of a s i g n i f i c a n t person, r e t i r e m e n t , a serious i l l n e s s or i n j u r y ) . Correspondingly, a short phrase describes the reminiscence t r i g g e r and the subject i s i n s t r u c t e d to choose the answer (yes, no, not sure, not a p p l i c a b l e / n e v e r happened) which best describes her experiences w i t h the l i s t e d s t i m u l i . And l a s t l y , the Reminiscence Products Scale l i s t s 26 outcomes or products of r e c a l l i n g the past (eg. depressed me, helped me to cope, b o l s t e r e d my s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , lessened f e a r of death, l e d to the c o n c l u s i o n that my l i f e has been - 33 -meaningful). As w i t h the other s c a l e s , a d e f i n i t i o n pre-cedes each statement and the subject determines which answer (yes, no, not sure) best describes her experience w i t h the v a r i o u s outcomes of r e c a l l i n g the past. (p. 5) In a d d i t i o n , frequency of reminiscence i s determined by the sub-j e c t ' s answer ( f i v e p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e ranging from f r e q u e n t l y to very r a r e l y ) to the question "How o f t e n do your thoughts and conversations t u r n to past experiences and events?". Health ( r a t i n g s on a f i v e p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e , e x c e l l e n t to very poor), age, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , and education (years of schooling) aire a l s o surveyed. This q u e s t i o n n a i r e y i e l d e d frequency measures f o r each of the 13 uses, 21 t r i g g e r s , and 26 outcomes, which were analyzed using Pearson's Chi-square to determine any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences between v a r i o u s subgroups. This q u e s t i o n n a i r e a l s o y i e l d e d the number of "yes" responses on the USES s c a l e , the TRIGGERS s c a l e , and the OUTCOMES s c a l e , as w e l l as the t o t a l number of "yes" responses, f o r each of the 40 subje c t s . This i n f o r m a t i o n was tabulated so that group means and standard d e v i a t i o n s could be determined. T-tests were used to determine d i f f e r e n c e s on mean s c a l e scores. - 34 -2. The Tennessee Se l f Concept Sca le (Appendix I I ) (TSCS) Th is i s an instrument designed f o r c l i n i c a l r esea rch and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . There are a t o t a l of 100 i tems: 10 i tems are the S e l f - C r i t i c i s m s ca l e (L Sca le) from the MMPI; 90 i tems are s e l f - d e s c r i p t i v e statements balanced f o r p o s i t i v i t y and n e g a t i v i t y . The response ca tego r i e s l i e a long a f i v e - p o i n t continuum, rang ing from "complete ly f a l s e " to "comple te ly t r u e " . The t o t a l score f o r these 90 i tems, the "P" score , i s a se l f -es teem measure; wh i l e the other subscores r e f l e c t more s p e c i f i c aspects of the s e l f (eg. p h y s i c a l s e l f , m o r a l - e t h i c a l s e l f , pe r sona l s e l f , f am i l y s e l f , and s o c i a l s e l f ) . The TSCS has been used w ide ly on d i ve r se samples f o r a v a r i e t y of r e sea r ch and c l i n i c a l s t u d i e s . R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y data e s p e c i a l l y f o r o l d e r aged samples i s j u s t not a v a i l a b l e . However, i n a recent rev iew of four s tud i e s of o l de r persons which u t i l i z e d the TSCS, George and Bearon (1980) conc luded: " t h i s instrument i s very a t t r a c t i v e and i s h i g h l y recommended f o r f u r t h e r use (on samples of o l de r a d u l t s ) " (p. 91) . As a cau t i ona ry note they po in ted out the need f o r more normative data on o l de r samples, and that the p rospec t i ve user need be aware of a p o s s i b l e d e n i a l b i a s i n o l d e r sub jec t s which might i n f l u en ce r e s u l t s . In another recent rev iew, Breytspraak and George (1979) concluded the f o l l o w i n g : The Tennessee Se l f Concept Sca le . . . s tand(s) out as hav ing - 3 5 -p r o f i t e d from a s u b s t a n t i a l amount of a t t e n t i o n to s c a l e development and psychometric e v a l u a t i o n ....and at l e a s t some a t t e n t i o n has been given to the appropriateness of the instrument f o r use w i t h o l d e r s u b j e c t s . (p. 145) F i t t s (1965) reported r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y i n f o r m a t i o n based on h i s i n i t i a l sample of 626 persons, aged 12 to 68 years. He reported a t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y of .92 f o r the T o t a l P score and summarized four kinds of v a l i d a t i o n procedures he used: content v a l i d i t y , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between groups, c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h other p e r s o n a l i t y measures, and p e r s o n a l i t y changes under p a r t i c u -l a r c o n d i t i o n s . For the purposes of t h i s present i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the T o t a l P Score of the TSCS was used to measure g l o b a l self-esteem. These T o t a l P scores were tabulated so that means and standard d e v i a t i o n s could be determined f o r s e v e r a l subgroups. T-tests were then used to determine d i f f e r e n c e s between these subgroups on mean scores. Data C o l l e c t i o n A l l s u b jects were asked'to complete at home (and r e t u r n by mail) the two questionnaires which were d i s t r i b u t e d f o l l o w i n g e i t h e r the o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n to the e x i s t i n g c l a s s e s or the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l meetings of the new c l a s s e s . Note that ten s u b j e c t s , or 25%, subsequently accepted E_'s o f f e r of a s s i s t a n c e to f i l l out t h e i r forms. They had decided to ask f o r help due to t h e i r v i s u a l and/or w r i t i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s , and/or t h e i r u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h " t e s t -- 36 -t a k i n g " procedures. In these i n s t a n c e s , _E acted as a passive recorder of t h e i r responses to the questionnaire items during a home v i s i t . Assumptions I t was assumed that the data could be pooled i r r e s p e c t i v e of the subject's sex, choice of c l a s s , c o r choice of program l o c a t i o n . That i s , i t was assumed that there would be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g -n i f i c a n t mean score d i f f e r e n c e s , as. analyzed by the t - t e s t on group means, between the subjects from Edmonds House and the subjects from Marpole Oakridge Seniors; nor between female subjects and male su b j e c t s ; not between subjects r e c r u i t e d from the r e m i n i s c i n g c l a s s and the other c l a s s ; as measured by the TSCS ( T o t a l P Score) and the Reminiscence Survey (number of "yes" responses to each s c a l e plus the t o t a l number of "yes" responses). - 37 -S t a t i s t i c a l Hypotheses 1. There w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the T o t a l P Score (of the TSCS) of a l l of the e l d e r l y subjects and: a) t h e i r number of "yes" responses on the USES Scale of the Reminiscence Survey, b) t h e i r number of "yes" responses on the TRIGGERS Scale of the Reminiscence Survey, c) t h e i r number of "yes" responses on the OUTCOMES Scale of the Reminiscence Survey,- and d) t h e i r t o t a l number, of "yes" responses on the Reminiscence Survey, as determined bytthe Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t . This hypothesis w i l l f u r t h e r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the pervasiveness of reminiscence and the p o s i t i v i t y of s e l f - c o n c e p t i o n i n o l d e r a d u l t s . - 38 -2. There w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t higher mean score f o r the subgroup of subjects l a b e l e d as l i f e - r e v i e w e r s than f o r the subgroup l a b e l e d as n o n - l i f e - r e v i e w e r s on: a) t h e i r T o t a l P Scores (TSCS), b) t h e i r number of "yes" responses on the USES Scale of the Reminiscence Survey, c) t h e i r number of "yes" responses on the TRIGGERS Scale of the Reminiscence Survey, d) t h e i r number of "yes" responses on the OUTCOMES Scale of the Reminiscence Survey, and • e) t h e i r t o t a l number of "yes" responses on the Reminiscence Survey, as determined by the t - t e s t on group means. This hypothesis w i l l help explore the questions: Do o l d e r people who reminisce have more p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t s than those people who do not reminisce? And do ol d e r people who reminisce more develop more uses, t r i g g e r s , and p o s i t i v e outcomes of reminiscence? In a d d i t i o n to these two formal hypotheses, a beginning w i l l be made i n v a l i d a t i n g some of the t h e o r e t i c a l f u n c t i o n s that reminiscence i s thought to serve f o r these o l d e r a d u l t s by examining the frequency data f o r each of the items of the Reminiscence Survey. - 39 -CHAPTER IV  RESULTS General i n f o r m a t i o n on reminiscence a c t i v i t y S e l f - r e p o r t e d reminiscence frequency v a r i e d among respondents. Approximately h a l f (19, or 47%%) of the p a r t i c i p a n t s reported r e m i n i s c i n g o c c a s i o n a l l y (a few times a week); 7 s u b j e c t s , or 17%%, reported o f t e n r e m i n i s c i n g (almost every day); 7, or 17%% reported seldom (a few times a month); 3, or 7%%, reported f r e q u e n t l y ( s e v e r a l times a day); and the remaining 4 s u b j e c t s , or 10%, reported r e m i n i s c i n g very r a r e l y (a few times a y e a r ) . Engagement i n the l i v e review process was reported by a l a r g e m a j o r i t y of the subjects (31, or 77%%): 15 of the subjects (37%%) i n d i c a t e d that they had engaged i n l i f e - r e v i e w , w h i l e 16 (40%) i n d i c a t e d they were c u r r e n t l y i n the process of reviewing t h e i r l i v e s . A smaller number, 9 (22%%), i n d i c a t e d that they had not engaged i n l i f e review. In a d d i t i o n , two out of three p a r t i c i p a n t s l a r g e l y f e l t that i n t r a p e r s o n a l ( c o g n i t i v e ) reminiscence was more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e i r reminiscence a c t i v i t y than i n t e r p e r s o n a l (conversational) reminiscence. When asked to decide i f they were someone who mostly t h i n k s or t a l k s about the past, 67%% (27) c l a s s i f i e d themselves as l a r g e l y " t h i n k e r s " w i t h only 32%% (13) viewing themselves as " t a l k e r s " . As a t o t a l group, the subjects responded "yes" to a mean t o t a l of 27.8 of the p o s s i b l e 60 uses, t r i g g e r s , and outcomes of the - 40 -Reminiscence Survey. On the TSCS, t h e i r mean T o t a l P Score was 355.2. A summary of the t o t a l group means and standard d e v i a t i o n s i s presented i n Table 1. A t o t a l group d i s t r i b u t i o n of frequencies that each USE, TRIGGER, and OUTCOME of the Reminiscence Survey generated i s summarized i n Appendix I I I . These frequencies are tabulated i n rank order from the most popular to the l e a s t popular. The top f i v e uses are more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c o n v e r s a t i o n a l reminiscence: #5: to be amusing and e n t e r t a i n i n g ; #1: because memories are pleasant, enjoyable, and help to pass the time of day; #11: when someone asked me to des c r i b e or t a l k about myself; #13: because r e c a l l i n g memories of successes and accomplishments l i f t my s p i r i t s ; #7: to l e t people know the past had a l o t to o f f e r which cannot be found today. Hypothesis 1: There w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the T o t a l P Score (TSCS) of a l l subjects and: a) t h e i r number of "yes" responses on the USES s c a l e , b) t h e i r number of "yes" responses on the TRIGGERS s c a l e , c) t h e i r number of "yes" responses on the OUTCOMES s c a l e , d) and t h e i r t o t a l number of "yes" responses on the Reminiscence Survey, - 41 -TABLE 1 SUMMARY OF MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS of the REMINISCENCE SURVEY MEASURES and TOTAL P SCORES f o r the T o t a l sample N = 40 Measure X S.D. M USES "yes" 6.3 3.0 * (out of 13) w <: w s S H TRIGGERS "yes" 8.8 5.2 > (out of 21) Pi t=> CO u OUTCOMES "yes" 12.7 4.6 w (out of 26) M iz; g T o t a l "yes" 27.8 11.3 Pi (out of 60) TOTAL P SCORE 355.2 23.7 TSCS - 42 -as determined by the Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t . The c o r r e l a t i o n s are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e or b e t t e r (Table 2). The strongest c o r r e l a t i o n i s wi t h the USES s c a l e , the weakest w i t h the TRIGGERS s c a l e . However, the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of the USES, TRIGGERS, and OUTCOMES sc a l e s are so high (Table 3) that separate i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s would be misl e a d i n g . The three s c a l e s are not so much d i s t i n c t i v e , but ra t h e r are three d i f f e r e n t perspectives of the same process. For example, the USES item #10 (to a r r i v e a t a b e t t e r understanding of my past l i f e and mys e l f ) , the TRIGGERS item #1 (when I became concerned w i t h the meaning of l i f e and the meaning of my l i f e ) , and the OUTCOMES item #12 (has r e s u l t e d i n a b e t t e r understanding of my past l i f e and myself) are a l l e s s e n t i a l l y the same. One way to combine these sc a l e s i n t o a s i n g l e index i s by using the 'Total "yes" responses', which can be i n t e r p r e t e d as i n d i c a t i v e of the pervasiveness of reminiscence. This s i n g l e index a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e s w i t h the T o t a l P Scores (Table 2). A second way to combine these s c a l e s i s to c a l c u l a t e a m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t which i n v o l v e s the weighted sums of the three s c a l e s . The c a l c u l a t e d beta c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the USES, TRIGGERS, and OUTCOMES sc a l e s are .602, -.166, and .010 r e s p e c t i v e l y . This y i e l d s a m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .4965 (F„ „. = J , Jo 3.9257, £<.05). - 43 -TABLE 2 PEARSON PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS f o r the T o t a l sample N = 40 BETWEEN THE TOTAL P SCORES and REMINISCENCE SURVEY MEASURES Reminiscence Survey C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t Measure USES "yes" TRIGGERS "yes" OUTCOMES "yes" T o t a l "yes" 0.4845 0.2924* 0.3388 0.402 Note: df = 38 * p_ < .05 ** p_ < .01 - 44 -TABLE 3 PEARSON PRODUCT-MOMENT INTERCORRELATIONS of the REMINISCENCE SURVEY MEASURES USES s c a l e TRIGGERS s c a l e OUTCOMES s e a l USES s c a l e 1.0 .750 .704 TRIGGERS s c a l e - 1.0 .569 OUTCOMES s c a l e - - 1.0 - 45 -In summary, the hypothesis was supported by the r e s u l t s . Hypothesis 2: There w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t higher mean score f o r the subgroup of subjects l a b e l e d as l i f e - r e v i e w e r s than f o r the subgroup of sub-j e c t s l a b e l e d as n o n - l i f e - r e v i e w e r s on: a) Their T o t a l P Scores (TSCS), b) Their number of "yes" responses on the USES s c a l e of the Reminiscence Survey, c) Their number of "yes" responses on the TRIGGERS s c a l e of the Reminiscence Survey, d) Their number of "yes" responses on the OUT-t COMES s c a l e of the Reminiscence Survey, and e) Their t o t a l number of "yes" responses on the Reminiscence Survey, as determined by the t - t e s t on group means. S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (at the .05 l e v e l or b e t t e r ) higher mean scores were i d e n t i f i e d f o r l i f e - r e v i e w e r s as compared to non-l i f e - r e v i e w e r s , across a l l f i v e measures. The mean scores and standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r these two subgroups are presented i n Table 4 along w i t h the c a l c u l a t e d t - v a l u e s . Therefore, t h i s hypothesis was supported by the r e s u l t s . An extended a n a l y s i s was done to compare l i f e - r e v i e w e r s to non-l i f e - r e v i e w e r s on a number of subject c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . No s i g n i f i -cant d i f f e r e n c e s were noted between the two groups on age, sex, - 46 -TABLE 4 LIFE-REVIEWERS vs. NON-LIFE-REVIEWERS  MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATIONS, and t-VALUES of the REMINISCENCE SURVEY MEASURES and TOTAL P SCORES Measure L i f e - r e v i e w e r s X S.D. 1 No n - l i f e - r e v i e w e r s X S.D. t-value USES "yes" U (out of 13) > 6.97 g TRIGGERS "yes" 9.71 w (out of 21) u 55 u OUTCOMES "yes" 13.58 H (out of 26) M § T o t a l "yes" * (out of 60) 3.1 5.2 4.1 30.26 10.8 4.11 5.55 9.44 19.11 1.6 3.9 4.9 8.5 2.65 2.18 2.41 2.78 TOTAL P Score 358.71 23.3 TSCS 342.89 21.0 1.79 Note: df = 38 1: N = 31 2: N = 9 * p_ < .05 ** p_ < .01 - 47 -education, s e l f - p e r c e i v e d h e a l t h , frequency of r e m i n i s c i n g , or th i n k e r vs. t a l k e r about the past. The only s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was i n m a r i t a l s t a t u s . 12 of the 31 l i f e - r e v i e w e r s were married. 2 but only 1 of the 9 n o n - l i f e - r e v i e w e r s was, ^ (1) = 6.675, p_^.10. Extended a n a l y s i s - Assumptions I t was assumed that the subject's sex, choice of c l a s s , or choice of program l o c a t i o n s would not r e s u l t i n any s i g n i f i c a n t mean score d i f f e r e n c e s . These mean scores f o r each of three sub-groups were analyzed by the t - t e s t . A summary of the s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mean score d i f f e r e n c e s i s presented i n Table 5. The assumption that choice of program l o c a t i o n would not produce any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s was supported. However, males reported more t r i g g e r s than d i d the females (and were a l s o o l d e r ) ; and subjects i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a re m i n i s c i n g group reported more uses and outcomes of t h e i r reminiscence a c t i v i t y as w e l l as sc o r i n g higher on the o v e r a l l pervasiveness of t h e i r r e m i n i s c i n g , than d i d those p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c r u i t e d from other c l a s s e s . These f i n d i n g s do not preclude the po o l i n g of the data from a l l the subjects f o r t h i s present research p r o j e c t . However, i n fu t u r e research designed to evaluate such aspects as treatment outcomes, gender d i f f e r e n c e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n b a s e l i n e l e v e l s of reminiscence a c t i v i t y must be taken i n t o account. TABLE 5 SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT MEAN SCORE DIFFERENCES FOR THREE SUBGROUPS on the REMINISCENCE SURVEY MEASURES and TOTAL P SCORES Reminisce c l a s s e s Subgroup A Other X S.D. c l a s s e s S.D. Subgroup C Male 1 X S.D. Female S.D. t-valu e USES "yes" ta (out of 13) 5 £ TRIGGERS "yes 1  w (out of 21) i s g OUTCOMES "yes' S (out of 26) 25 M § T o t a l "yes" -^ (out of 60) TOTAL P SCORE AGE 8.3 3.7 5.7 2.4 11.4 4.18 7.9 • 5.23 14.8 33.8 4.4 13.2 11.9 25.7 4.5 9.9 2.4979 -1.876 1.7196 1.9975 76.4 !8.73 69.6 6.02 -2.689 * 2. < -05 ** £ < .01 Note: df = 38 1: N = 10 2: N = 30 *** Note: There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r Subgroup B (Edmonds House vs. Marpole Oakridge S e n i o r s ) . - 49 -Extended a n a l y s i s - e x p l o r a t o r y questions I t i s of i n t e r e s t to explore p o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the frequency w i t h which p a r t i c u l a r Reminiscence Survey items are reported by l i f e - r e v i e w e r s vs. n o n - l i f e - r e v i e w e r s , by males vs. females, and by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the s t r u c t u r e d reminiscence group vs. other s u b j e c t s . Frequency measures of "yes" responses to each of the .13 uses, 21 t r i g g e r s and 26 outcomes of the Reminiscence  Survey are tabulated i n Appendix I I I . Pearson's Chi-squares were c a l c u l a t e d on a l l frequencies across the v a r i o u s subgroups. Some items showed no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t frequency d i f f e r e n c e s w h i l e other items were indeed d i f f e r e n t at the .10 l e v e l of s i g n i f i -cance or b e t t e r . Those items which showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s are summarized i n Table 6. Note that t h i s number of s i g n i f i c a n t C h i -square t e s t s exceeds the 5% expected by chance to be s i g n i f i c a n t . These frequency d i f f e r e n c e s serve to u n d e r l i n e the d i f f e r e n c e s i n l i f e experiences of peoples, and p o i n t to f u t u r e research questions of j u s t how reminiscence f u n c t i o n s . For example, l i f e -reviewers reminisced because "memories are pleasant, enjoyable, and help to pass the time of day" more than d i d n o n - l i f e - r e v i e w e r s ; males responded "yes" more o f t e n to the t r i g g e r "when I had a c l o s e c a l l w i t h death" than d i d females; and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the s t r u c t u r e d reminiscence group reported the outcome "has r e s u l t e d i n my s o l v i n g something i n my past which has been bothering me" more o f t e n than d i d those subjects r e c r u i t e d from other c l a s s e s . TABLE 6 SUMMARY OF CHI-SQUARE RESULTS:  SIGNIFICANT FREQUENCY DIFFERENCES cu 4-1 03 «* u-l CU CU cn 1 CO V-i J * u CU M CO CD "4-1 CU 3 & •H 13 cr i—1 1 CD rH cu c« n) CD -rl 1 •H I 4-1 M-l > c > •rl o •H CU o CU ,13 H !S CJ cu o C cu o tn •rl (3 •rl r l CU X, cu M cd 3 cr CO I •rl X. u cn cu cu •H cd 3 cr to I •rl CJ USES # 1: Because memories are pleasant, enjoyable, and help to pass the time of day. #3: To teach others by drawing upon my past experiences. # 7: To l e t people know that the past had a l o t to o f f e r which cannot be found today. #8: To deal w i t h some d i f f i c u l t y which I am experiencing. #9: To inform people about the successes and accomplishments i n my l i f e . #10: To a r r i v e at a b e t t e r under-standing of my past l i f e and myself. #12: To determine l i f e ' s meaning. 30 18 24 13 13 21 16 21 17 19 8.076 3.767 2.846 9 15 3.47 6 7' 3.077 7 3.077 3.472 TABLE 6 CONTINUED e cu USES con't. #13: Because r e c a l l i n g memories of successes and accomplishments l i f t my s p i r i t s . TRIGGERS # 2: When I- experienced a change i n my h e a l t h or p h y s i c a l appearance. # 4: When I su f f e r e d a serious i l l n e s s or i n j u r y . # 8: When I accomplished a major goal i n my l i f e . #11: When I became d i s s a t i s f i e d with| the way my l i f e was going. #13: When I had a c l o s e c a l l w i t h death. #14: When death entered my r e a l i t y . CM i-H CD a CO m cu a cu cu CU CO 1 CO 1^ CU u u u 0) n a n) cO 14-1 0) 3 CO 3 r o 3 IS •rl IS c r •rl r o c r CU c r H 1 <u H 0) CO C t o CM rH to <3J -rl 1 -rl 1 •H cu I tfl I •u M-t > c > •rl e 2^ •rl r-J B •rl o •H QJ o cu .C cu •U J (U .C H S3 M O Pi O s U 25 9 16 2. * 16 7 9 3.472 7 9 3. ** 15 15 0 5 .056 * 13 6 7 3.077 A * 13 7 6 4 .333 ** ** 14 14 0 4 .426 7 7 5.275 8 6 9. 16 7 9 3. *** TABLE 6 CONTINUED H TRIGGERS con't. #20: When I r e t i r e d . #21: When I experienced a change i n my p h y s i c a l or mental a b i l i t i e s . OUTCOMES # 2: Has l e d me to conclude that my l i f e has been meaningful. # 7: Has l e d me to r e a l i z e that I have reached my p o t e n t i a l as a person. # 9: Has r e s u l t e d i n my s o l v i n g something i n my past which had been bothering me. #12: Has r e s u l t e d i n a b e t t e r under-standing of my past l i f e and myself. #13: Has r e s u l t e d i n my being at peace with myself. CD O 03 m CD c • CD CD CD 03 I CO U CD M H u CD u CO a Ctj CO CD UH CJ 3 CO 3 3 is •H cr •rl CO cr CD cr rH 1 CD •J CD co a U CO CN rH CO CO CD >H 1 •rl 1 •rl CD 1 CD cfl 1 4-1 MH > c > •H e rC •iH rH 6 •H o •H CD o CD rC CD 4J ,C CO CD ,C H rJ U is Pi u Pi O CJ> S u 17 7 10 2. ** 19 18 1 4. 427 * 29 25 4 2. 949 11 0 11 3. ** 6 4 2 4.183 4 2 4. ** 25 23 2 5. 974 *a 30 26 4 3. 879 UI -P" (jO hO H-* Z 2 Z 2 Z II II II II II W W H 4> VO I—' o o o A A o Ui A N3 to ON g a a vi ro a PI CD Co o X Co CO CO CO c "a CO CD i-i 3 ro H-' 3 C 3 0Q H p rh CO 3 to ro H- Co • 3 a. i-i ro CL CD H- ro 3 (D rt o 3 <JQ 3 3^  ro 3 CD ro Pi CO ro O 3 l-h C i-s (f s: CD rt ro 3 o Co CD cu VI 3 h-1 rt h-1 CO rt rt O H- ro ro cr O N M Co rt CD ro i-ti o O rt 43 • & rt C el- c n> H- s ' rt CO i-i O Co ro ?r rt O Co CO 3 cr Vi rt ro V| o • c 3 rt ro § n s to UI ro i—• i — " --J T o t a l " y e s " 1 to ro i—• t—* ON L i f e - . 4 reviewer CO ro I—" Non-life-"' reviewer 2.767 2.846 3.171 Chi-Square Item W o o a H Reminiscence 3 Other Chi-Square Male 3 Female Chi-Square - GS -- 54 -Extended a n a l y s i s - S t a b i l i t y of the measures As an offsh o o t of the main study, i t i s of i n t e r e s t to deter-mine i f the two measures used are s t a b l e . To t h i s end, a l l sub-j e c t s were asked to complete the same questionnaires some eight weeks f o l l o w i n g the i n i t i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . This task was compli-cated by two f a c t o r s . F i r s t , ten of the 40 subjects were i n v o l v e d i n the s t r u c t u r e d reminiscence group, and i t i s probable that they would re p o r t more uses, t r i g g e r s , and outcomes as a r e s u l t of t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Second, of the remaining 30 other s u b j e c t s , only 26 (87%) agreed to complete the second s e t ; r e t e s t data i s t h e r e f o r e not a v a i l a b l e f o r the other four s u b j e c t s . T e s t - r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed f o r the t o t a l s of the USES, TRIGGERS, and OUTCOMES s c a l e s , f o r the T o t a l "Yes" on the Reminiscence Survey and f o r the T o t a l P scores of the TSCS. These t e s t - r e t e s t c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the reminiscence c l a s s p a r t i c i p a n t s , f o r the other c l a s s p a r t i c i p a n t s , and then f o r the combined t o t a l of 36 people are presented i n Table 7. The most s t a b l e measures are the T o t a l "yes" and the T o t a l P score. This f i n d i n g f u r t h e r supports the strong c o r r e l a t i o n of these two scores already reported. I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the l e a s t s t a b l e measure was the OUTCOMES s c a l e f o r the reminiscence c l a s s p a r t i c i p a n t s . That i s , they reported more outcomes a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the c l a s s (X = 16.4), than they had reported before the eight-week c l a s s (X = 14.8) (t = -.79, p< .25) . - 55 -TABLE 7 TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY COEFFICIENTS Measure w % USES "yes" co w TRIGGERS "yes" u S OUTCOMES "yes" CO J M M T o t a l "yes" Pi Reminiscence Classes Subgroup N = 10 .83 .92 .28 .86 Other Classes Subgroup N = 26 .62 .77 .79 .85 T o t a l Subjects N = 36 •71 .83 .70 .86 TOTAL P Score TSCS ,80 ,85 .83 Note: The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s are Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s between scores at two a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s separated by a time i n t e r v a l of eig h t weeks. - 56 -The s t a b i l i t y of the s e l f - l a b e l as l i f e - r e v i e w e r vs. non-l i f e - r e v i e w e r was a l s o examined. Only f i v e subjects (14% of the 36) changed t h e i r s e l f - l a b e l ; two of these were subjects who changed from " I have not reviewed my l i f e " to " I have reviewed my l i f e " , a p o s s i b l e change. Unexplainedly, three subjects changed from " I have reviewed my l i f e " to " I have not reviewed my l i f e " / Perhaps these subjects f e l t unsure of j u s t how to c a t e g o r i z e themselves so answered d i f f e r e n t l y at the d i f f e r e n t times. How-ever, 31 subjects (86%) c o n s i s t e n t l y l a b e l e d themselves as l i f e -reviewers or n o n - l i f e - r e v i e w e r s . - 57 -Summary S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were found between the Reminiscence  Survey scores and the T o t a l P scores of the TSCS f o r a l l su b j e c t s . As w e l l , s i g n i f i c a n t mean score d i f f e r e n c e s were found between subjects who say they are l i f e - r e v i e w e r s and subjects who say they are n o n - l i f e - r e v i e w e r s . Thus, both hypotheses were accepted and serve to demonstrate the p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the pervasiveness of reminiscence and the p o s i t i v i t y of s e l f - c o n c e p t i o n i n ol d e r a d u l t s . In a d d i t i o n , extended analyses y i e l d e d i n t e r e s t i n g , but s p e c u l a t i v e finding's of frequency d i f f e r e n c e s which suggest f u t u r e research p o s s i b i l i t i e s . - 58 -CHAPTER V  DISCUSSION The r e s u l t s of t h i s study demonstrate a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the pervasiveness of reminiscence and the p o s i t i v i t y of s e l f - c o n c e p t i o n i n o l d e r a d u l t s . This i s an important f i n d i n g as previous research has only h i n t e d at such a r e l a t i o n s h i p , yet many p r a c t i c a l programs seem to have assumed such a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s . S p e c u l a t i v e f i n d i n g s about the p a r t i c u l a r s of frequency d i f f e r e n c e s f o r the v a r i o u s sample subgroups were suggested by the extended analyses. While the p a r t i c u l a r s of these frequency d i f f e r e n c e s ( i n the reported USES, TRIGGERS, and OUTCOMES on the Reminiscence Survey) serve to u n d e r l i n e the d i v e r s i t y of the reminiscence experience, they are not l i k e l y to be as s t a b l e as the major f i n d i n g . Further d i s c u s s i o n or conclusions are pre-mature at t h i s p o i n t , and would only d e t r a c t from the t h r u s t of t h i s research. Thus, t h i s d i s c u s s i o n s e c t i o n w i l l focus only on the c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . L i m i t a t i o n s The non-random sample of volunteer subjects may l i m i t the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y to other o l d e r people, or even to people i n general, i n s e v e r a l unknown ways. P a r t i c i p a n t s i n s e n i o r centre a c t i v i t i e s may d i f f e r i n s e l f - c o n c e p t i o n and i n reminiscence behaviors from people who do not p a r t i c i p a t e i n such centres because - 59 -they are e i t h e r too s o c i a l l y withdrawn and/or f r a i l to attend, or who don't want to attend a f a c i l i t y that serves o l d people because they t h i n k : "I'm not o l d " . There may be a c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e as a l l but four of the subjects were of Anglo-Saxon ancestry (the remaining four were of Scandinavian, French, P o l i s h , and Asian descent). There may a l s o be cohort d i f f e r e n c e s , although t h i s sample w i t h i t s 40-year range of c h r o n o l o g i c a l ages represents a r i c h mixture of age cohorts indeed. Volunteer subjects may have an attenuated range of Reminiscence Survey and TSCS scores than might non-volunteers ( p r a c t i c a l l y , however, as the c o u n s e l l i n g process most u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s a v o l u n t a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e i s of minor importance). In a d d i t i o n , the nature of the Reminiscence Survey i s such that i t may have s u c c e s s f u l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d only c e r t a i n aspects of reminiscence. The items seem l a r g e l y to focus on i n t e r p e r s o n a l aspects, and seem not to have adequately tapped the e n t i r e realm of i n t r a p e r s o n a l reminiscence. This l i m i t a t i o n may be e s p e c i a l l y c r i t i c a l as 67%% of the subjects c l a s s i f i e d themselves as l a r g e l y " t h i n k e r s " r a t h e r than " t a l k e r s " about the past. However, a very reasonable r e l a t i o n s h i p has been e s t a b l i s h e d between the t o t a l number of "yes" responses on the Reminiscence  Survey (a measure of the pervasiveness of reminiscence) and the T o t a l P score of the TSCS (a measure of g l o b a l self-esteem), one that might w e l l prove to be even stronger than that demonstrated - 60 -i n t h i s study i f an extensive range of people are sampled. P r a c t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s I n an attempt to f u r t h e r understand t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , i t i s of i n t e r e s t to pose a casu a l question. Does the o l d e r i n d i v i d u a l reminisce more because she f e e l s good about h e r s e l f ? Or, does her reminiscence behavior have an adaptive value i n maintaining and enhancing her s e l f - c o n c e p t . Both p o s s i b i l i t i e s have i n t u i t i v e m e rit. The o l d e r person w i t h p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s of s e l f - r e g a r d would be more l i k e l y to construct a supportive s o c i a l network, to be more w i l l i n g to share w i t h others the lessons of her experience, to be more proud of her past accomplishments, to have more of a sense of personal c o n t i n u i t y w i t h her past, a l l of which she might demonstrate by r e m i n i s c i n g . Conversely, so many of the th e o r i z e d f u n c t i o n s of reminiscence have a great p o t e n t i a l f o r p o s i t i v e l y i n f l u e n c i n g one's s e l f - c o n c e p t . For example, the o l d e r person who reminisces and thus experiences strengthened r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i s viewed as amusing, e n t e r t a i n i n g and s o c i a l l y a t t r a c t i v e , makes the opportunity to r e - l i v e past accomplishments, reviews problem-solving s t r a t e g i e s , teaches and c o n t r i b u t e s , has such a vast r e s e r v o i r of no u r i s h i n g experiences to generate a p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t . At t h i s j u n c t u r e , i t seems appropriate to speculate that the dynamic system of s e l f - c o n c e p t i o n and the complex process of reminiscence i n t e r a c t i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p of mutual c a s u a l i t y . This question of c a s u a l i t y i s important as i t generates i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r - 61' -the c o n s t r u c t i v e use of reminiscence as a t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n i n c o u n s e l l i n g o l d e r a d u l t s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , should a c o u n s e l l o r focus on reminiscence to improve the c l i e n t ' s s e l f - c o n c e p t , or focus on s e l f - c o n c e p t i o n as a prelude to any s o r t of l i f e - r e v i e w , or focus on a combination of both? IS. the c l i e n t i s one who already reminisces, the c o u n s e l l o r can c a p i t a l i z e on t h i s spontaneous a c t i v i t y to enhance the therapeu-t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p , by using a c t i v e , empathic l i s t e n i n g to the themes the c l i e n t chooses to share. This r e m i n i s c i n g - l i s t e n i n g i n t e r a c t i o n can be one v e h i c l e f o r demonstrating the respect, genuineness, arid understanding necessary f o r such a h e l p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p (Brammer, 1979; Egan, 1975; Gazda et a l , 1977; Hackney & Cormier, 1979). The c o u n s e l l o r can go on to encourage "the c l i e n t to enhance the q u a l i t y of her remembering a c t i v i t i e s and sharpen her reminiscence s k i l l s , beyond the i n t e r p e r s o n a l f u n c t i o n s such as entertainment and teach-ing younger generations. For example, the c o u n s e l l o r can encourage the c l i e n t to f u r t h e r explore her past w i t h the goal of i n c r e a s i n g s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g and self-acceptance. F a c i l i t a t i n g queries would be designed to b u i l d bridges w i t h the past and might express the theme: how does what you're f e e l i n g now connect w i t h your values and a t t i t u d e s as described i n your r e c a l l of your past experiences? The c l i e n t might a l s o be encouraged to r e s o l v e past c o n f l i c t s . Probes might be designed to uncover f e e l i n g s and to reorganize con-cerns: what should you have done instead? Other s t i m u l a t i n g - 62 -queries might serve to develop v i a b l e a c t i o n s t r a t e g i e s : what worked i n the past when you faced s i m i l a r problems? Or, when you f e l t l i k e t h i s i n the past, what d i d you do to make y o u r s e l f f e e l b e t t e r ? The o v e r a l l object would be to encourage the c l i e n t to use reminiscence e f f e c t i v e l y and c r e a t i v e l y . The c i r c u l a r i t y of the self-concept-reminiscence r e l a t i o n s h i p u n d e r lines the p o t e n t i a l value of t h i s s t r a t e g y to enhance self - c o n c e p t and adaptation. What about the person who seems "stuck" on a p a r t i c u l a r memory and r e t e l l s i t over and over again to anyone who w i l l l i s t e n ? The c o u n s e l l o r should explore what t h i s "stuckness" might mean: Is the person i n the middle of a r e s o l u t i o n process and the r e t e l l i n g a c a t h a r t i c event? I s she f e e l i n g not understood and so r e t e l l s the t r a g i c s t o r y hoping f o r understanding? I s she r e t e l l i n g an enter-t a i n i n g s t o r y which has always y i e l d e d increased s o c i a l acceptance i n the past? I s she c o v e r t l y communicating a s a l i e n t need? The o v e r a l l object would be to a s s i s t the c l i e n t to r e s o l v e past con-f l i c t s , to f e e l understood, to f e e l accepted, to communicate her needs. The i s s u e of how to proceed w i t h a c l i e n t who chooses not to reminisce (and thus stops what i s an o r d i n a r y , usual process) i s l e s s c l e a r . Such a person may s t i l l reminisce s i l e n t l y , perhaps without even being aware of i t . Or she may be extremely h e s i t a n t to reminisce as she b e l i e v e s the misconception that such a c t i v i t y i s proof of s e n i l i t y . Or memories may be so p a i n f u l that the person - 63 -w i l l need an ongoing supportive environment to even begin to r e c a l l the past. Or, as one subject expressed, the theme: I r e f u s e to remember the past because the s t a r k c o n t r a s t between the f u l l n e s s of my l i f e then, and the emptiness of.my l i f e now, j u s t makes me f e e l even more d i s t r e s s e d about my present l i f e - I j u s t put memories r i g h t out of my mind. The c o u n s e l l i n g task may be to c a u t i o u s l y , s l o w l y proceed to re-teach c o n s t r u c t i v e reminiscence s k i l l s so that such c l i e n t s can r e g a i n access to the p o t e n t i a l of t h e i r p asts. The c o u n s e l l o r may need to begin w i t h i n d i r e c t t r i g g e r s such as music, p i c t u r e s , poems, s t o r i e s , foods, and memorabilia (Ebersole, 1976a, 1978). With some c l i e n t s , i t may. be appropriate and t i m e l y to focus d i r e c t l y on t h e i r r e m i n i s c i n g a c t i v i t y . F a c i l i t a t i n g queries might i n c l u d e : How o f t e n do you reminisce? What t r i g g e r s your remember-ing? How does remembering that episode or event serve you now? Or conversely, how does not r e c a l l i n g serve you now? To t h i s end, the Reminiscence Survey i t s e l f could be used as a c o u n s e l l i n g t o o l f o r those c l i e n t s f o r whom such t e s t - t a k i n g i s both p o s s i b l e and appro-p r i a t e . Indeed the i n f o r m a l feedback from the subjects of t h i s present study expressed the theme: " I r e a l l y found doing these questionnaires i n t e r e s t i n g and enjoyable. I've never stopped to t h i n k about my r e m i n i s c i n g behavior nor myself i n t h i s way before. I t r e a l l y made me stop and t h i n k " . For some c l i e n t s , a reminiscence group s t r a t e g y may be the - 64 -interventicmoof choice. There i s a c e r t a i n power and cbhesiveness that grows from sharing memories w i t h one's cohort group (Ebersole, 1976a) that might be i n v a l u a b l e i n reducing f e e l i n g s such as lone-l i n e s s and i s o l a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l suggestions and ideas of how to proceed i n a group context are included i n Appendix IV. T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s T h e o r e t i c a l l y , however, t h i s p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the pervasiveness of reminiscence and the p o s i t i v i t y of s e l f -conception b r i n g s to the f o r e j u s t how l i t t l e i s known both about the nature of the s e l f - c o n c e p t and about the nature of reminiscence. In research and c o u n s e l l i n g p r a c t i c e , i t seems to have been v i r t u a l l y i n v i s i b l e - i t has long been overlooked and neglected as a p o s s i b l e resource throughout the l i f e span. Given that the s e l f - c o n c e p t i o n i s a dynamic process, how does t h i s other process of reminiscence i n t e r a c t ? What do a l l the f u n c t i o n s , uses, t r i g g e r s , and outcomes of r e m i n i s c i n g have i n common? S p e c u l a t i v e l y , reminiscence may serve as a type of l i f e - l o n g r e g u l a t o r y mechanism, a s o r t of gyroscope, a c e n t r a l method of main-t a i n i n g and extending one's o r i e n t a t i o n throughout l i f e . For example, i n oneeinstance reminiscence may serve to give the present meaning; that i s , i t may serve to c o l o r one's view of the present. In another instance?\.one may use memories of past accomplishments to compensate f o r a current l a c k of g r a t i f y i n g experiences, or to modulate and guide during periods of emotional highs, upsets, or d i s r u p t i o n s . - 65 -Reminiscence may help to provide a sense of anchorage, a sense of c o n t i n u i t y of the past w i t h the present. Reminiscing may a l s o provide a guide to deal w i t h the unknown, the u n f a m i l i a r ; one may use past experiences as a metaphor to understand the present. An i l l u s t r a t i o n of such a metaphor might be: "oh, t h i s i s l i k e the time I f e l t Could i t be that the epitome of the wise person i s someone who i s s k i l l e d and p r a c t i s e d i n the adaptive use of reminiscence? Future P o s s i b i l i t i e s The c o r r e l a t i o n of the p o s i t i v i t y of s e l f - c o n c e p t i o n and the pervasiveness of reminiscence i s p o t e n t i a l l y an extremely important r e l a t i o n s h i p . This d i s c u s s i o n so f a r has i n d i c a t e d a number of areas of extension of t h i s f i n d i n g , but two things ought to happen to permit such extensions. F i r s t , the term reminiscence needs to be s p e c i f i e d more accur-a t e l y . Rather than being used j u s t as a noun, the word reminiscence connotes a f u l l b o d i e d human a c t i o n , a resource f o r and a medium of a wide v a r i e t y of human experiences. As such, the term needs to be s p e c i f i e d i n a v a r i e t y of ways i n c l u d i n g f u n c t i o n s , contexts, and t r i g g e r s . Second, our use of the term s e l f - c o n c e p t tends to p a i n t a s t a t i c p i c t u r e . I t might be more u s e f u l to t h i n k of s e l f - c o n c e p t i o n : a dynamic process i n v o l v i n g at l e a s t four p r i n c i p l e s of formation: r e f l e c t e d a p p r a i s a l s , s o c i a l comparisons, s e l f - a t t r i b u t i o n , and - 66 -p s y c h o l o g i c a l c e n t r a l i t y (Rosenberg, 1979). The r e - s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the two terms i s necessary f o r more sound research and t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s (Meriam, 1980; Romaniuk, 1981). Such s p e c i f i c i t y can a l s o serve to guide p r a c t i s e more. At present, the p r a c t i c a l uses of reminiscence are r e l a t i v e l y gross and unexplored. As we are b e t t e r able to s p e c i f y reminiscence as to f u n c t i o n s , t r i g g e r s , and contexts, our thera p e u t i c s k i l l s might become much more r e f i n e d . We might be able to r e a d i l y i d e n t i f y s i g n i f i c a n t gaps i n a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v -i d u a l ' s r e p e t o i r e of reminiscence uses, and .then custom design an i n t e r v e n t i o n n s t r a t e g y to optimize the reminiscence p o t e n t i a l . For example, the i n d i v i d u a l who i s d e f i c i e n t i n the use of past e x p e r i -ences to sol v e s p e c i f i c current problems could be re-taught t h i s v a l u a b l e s k i l l . Summary Focusing b r i e f l y again on the o r i g i n a l question of how to age s u c c e s s f u l l y , reminiscence may indeed serve as a c e n t r a l a c t i v i t y , a l i f e - l o n g resource, a n a t u r a l means f o r a c t i v e adaptation and adjustment to the myriad of d a i l y experiences that c o n s t i t u t e a l i f e t i m e . - 67 -BIBLIOGRAPHY Alpaugh, P., & Haney, M. Counseling the o l d e r a d u l t : A t r a i n i n g  manual. Los Angeles, C a l i f . : The U n i v e r s i t y of Southern C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1978. Back, K. W. T r a n s i t i o n to aging and the self-image. In E. Palmore (Ed.), Normal aging I I . Durham, N. C. : Duke U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1974. Back, K. W. T r a n s i t i o n to aging and the self-image. Aging and  Human Development, 1971, 2/4), 296-304. Back, K. W., & Gergen, K. J . The s e l f through the l a t t e r span of l i f e . I n C. Gordon and K. J . Gergen (Eds.), The s e l f i n  s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . New York: Wiley, 1968. Back, K. W., & M o r r i s , J . D. Pe r c e p t i o n of s e l f and the study of whole l i v e s . IN E. Palmore (Ed.), Normal aging I I . Durham, N. C. : Duke U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1974. Barry, J . R. Counseling the aging. The Personnel and Guidance  J o u r n a l , 1980, 59(2), 122-124. Baum, W. Therapeutic value of o r a l h i s t o r y . I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l  of Aging and Human. Development, 1980-81, 12(1), 49-53. Berland, D. I . , & Poggi, R. Expressive group psychotherapy w i t h the aging. I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of Group Psychotherapy, 1979, 29(1), 87-108. B i e l b y , D. D. V., & Boden, D. M. The s o c i a l production of l i f e  h i s t o r y : "Doing" the past. Paper presented at the meeting of the G e r o n t o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of America, Toronto, Canada, November 1981. B i r r e n , J . E., & Reedy, M. N. P s y c h o l o g i c a l development through  autobiography: Course o u t l i n e . Personal communication a t Vancouver, Canada, J u l y 20th 1979. B i r r e n , J . E., & Renner, V. J . Concepts and c r i t e r i a of mental h e a l t h and aging. American J o u r n a l of Orthopsychiatry, 1981, 51 ( 2 ) , 242-254. Bloom, K. L. Age and the s e l f concept. American J o u r n a l of  P s y c h i a t r y , 1961, 118(1), 534-538. - 68 -B o y l i n , W., Gordon, S. K., & Nehrke, M. F. Reminiscing and ego i n t e g r i t y i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d e l d e r l y males. G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 1976, 16(2), 118-124. Brammer, L. M. The he l p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p (2nd ed.). Englewood C l i f f s , N. J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1979. Breytspraak, L. M. Toward a conceptual framework f o r a n a l y s i s of the development of the s e l f i n the l a t e r years. Paper presented at the meeting of the G e r o n t o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of America, Toronto, Canada, November 1981. Breytspraak, L. M. Achievement and the self- c o n c e p t i n middle age. In E. Palmore (Ed.), Normal aging I I . Durham, N. C. : Duke U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1974. Breytspraak, L. M., & George, L. K. Measurement of the sel f - c o n c e p t and self-esteem i n o l d e r people: State of the a r t . Experimental  Aging Research, 1979, 5_(2), 137-148. Br i n k , T. L. G e r i a t r i c psychotherapy. New York: Human Services Press, 1979. Buhler, C. The developmental s t r u c t u r e of goal s e t t i n g i n group and i n d i v i d u a l s t u d i e s . In C. Buhler and F. Massarik (Eds.), The course of human l i f e . New York: Springer, 1968. Burnside, I . M. Group work w i t h the mentally impaired e l d e r l y . In I . M. Burnside (Ed.), Working w i t h the e l d e r l y : Group processes  and techniques. North S c i t u a t e , Mass.: Duxbury Press, 1978. Burnside, I . M. Group therapy w i t h regressed aged people. In I . M. Burnside (Ed.), Nursing and the aged. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976. B u t l e r , R. N. The l i f e review: An unrecognized bonanza. I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of Aging and Human Development, 1980-81, _12(1), 35-38. B u t l e r , R. N. Su c c e s s f u l aging and the r o l e of the l i f e review. J o u r n a l of the American G e r i a t r i c s S o c i e t y , 1974, 22(12), 529-535. B u t l e r , R. N. The l i f e review: An i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of reminiscence i n the aged. P s y c h i a t r y , 1963, 26_(1), 65-75. - 69 -B u t l e r , R. N., & Lewis, M. I . Aging and mental h e a l t h (2nd ed.). Saint L o u i s , MO: C. V, Mosby Co., 1977. Canadian Counsellor, 1980, 2 4_(2), S p e c i a l i s s u e : Problems w i t h retirement and aging. Capuzzi, D., & Gross, D. Group work w i t h the e l d e r l y : An overview f o r counselors. The Personnel arid Guidance J o u r n a l , 1980, j>9(4), 206-211. Carp, F. M., & Carp, A. Mental h e a l t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and acc e p t a n c e - r e j e c t i o n of o l d age. American J o u r n a l of  Orthopsychiatry, 1981, _51(2), 230-241. Coleman, P. G. Measuring reminiscence c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from conversation as adaptive features of o l d age. I n t e r n a t i o n a l  J o u r n a l of Aging and Human Development, 1974, 5_(2), 281-294. Costa, P., & Kastenbaum, R. Some aspects of memories and ambitions i n centenarians. The J o u r n a l of Genetic Psychology, 1967, 110, 3-16. Counseling and Values, 1980, ^24(2, 3, 4 ) , S p e c i a l i s s u e s : Counseling the e l d e r l y . C r a n d a l l , R. C. An ex p l o r a t o r y study of the sel f - c o n c e p t of male members of s e l e c t e d s e n i o r centers i n Southeastern Michigan. D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1975, 36(2-A), 1824. D i l l o n , K. M. The need f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e r v i c e s f o r g e r i a t r i c P a t i e n t s i n long term care f a c i l i t i e s . Long Term Care and  Health Services A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y , 1978, 2_(1), 29-37. Dychtwald, K. Humanistic s e r v i c e s f o r the e l d e r l y . J o u r n a l of  Humanistic Psychology, 1981, _21_(1), 39-56. Ebersole, P. P. E s t a b l i s h i n g r e m i n i s c i n g groups. In I . M. Burnside (Ed.), Working w i t h the e l d e r l y : Group processes  and techniques. North S c i t u a t e , Mass.: Duxbury Press, 1978. Ebersole, P. P. Reminiscing. American J o u r n a l of Nursing, 1976a, 76(8), 1304-1305. Ebersole, P. P. Group work w i t h the aged: A survey of the l i t e r a t u r e . In I . M. Burnside (Ed.), Nursirig and the aged. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976b. - 70 -Ebersole, P. P. Reminiscing and group psychotherapy w i t h the aged. In I . M. Burnside (Ed.), Nursing and the aged. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976c. Eden, E. Factor a n a l y s i s of a sel f - c o n c e p t instrument f o r o l d e r a d u l t s . Experimental Aging Research, 1981, 7_(2), 159-168. Edwards, P. B., & B l o l a n d , P. A. L e i s u r e counseling and c o n s u l t a t i o n . The Personnel and Guidance J o u r n a l , 1980, 58(6), 435-440. Egan, G. The s k i l l e d h elper. Monterey, C a l i f . : Brooks/Cole, 1975. Er i k s o n , E. H. Childhood and s o c i e t y (2nd ed.). New York: W. W. Norton, 1963. F i e l d , D. That's what we enjoyed i n the o l d days: Re t r o s p e c t i v e r e p o r t s . Paper presented at the meeting of the G e r o n t o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of America, Toronto, Canada, November 1981. F i e l d , D. Ret r o s p e c t i v e r e p o r t s by heal t h y , i n t e l l i g e n t e l d e r l y people of personal events of t h e i r a d u l t l i v e s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l  J o u r n a l of Be h a v i o r a l Development, 1981, _4(1), 77-97. F i t t s , W. Tennessee S e l f Concept Scale manual. N a s h v i l l e , Tenn.: Counselor Recordings and Tests, 1965. Ganikos, M. L. (Ed.). Counseling the aged: A t r a i n i n g s y l l a b u s  f o r educators. F a l l s Church, VA: American Personnel and Guidance A s s o c i a t i o n , 1979. Gazda, G. M. , Asbury, F. R., B a l z e r , F. J . , C h i l d e r s , W. C , & Walters, R. P. Human r e l a t i o n s development (2nd ed.). Boston, Mass.: A l l y n and Bacon, Inc., 1977. George, L. K., & Bearon, L. B. Q u a l i t y of l i f e i n o l d e r persons: Meaning and measurement. New York: Human Sciences Press, 1980. Giambra, L. M. Daydreaming across the l i f e span: l a t e adolescent to s e n i o r c i t i z e n . I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of Aging and Human  Development, 1974, 5_(2), 115-140. G i f f o r d , A., & Golde, P. Self-esteem i n an aging p o p u l a t i o n . J o u r n a l of G e r o n t o l o g i c a l S o c i a l Work, 1978, 1_(1), 69-80. Goodstein, R. K. I n e x t r i c a b l e i n t e r a c t i o n : S o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and b i o l o g i c s t r e s s e s f a c i n g the e l d e r l y . American J o u r n a l  of Orthopsychiatry, 1981, 51_(2), 219-229. - 71 -Gordon, S. K., & Vinacke, W. E, S e l f and i d e a l s e l f - c o n c e p t s and dependency i n aged persons r e s i d i n g i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . J o u r n a l  of Gerontology, 1971, 2J6(3) , 337-343. Grant, C. H. Age d i f f e r e n c e s i n s e l f - c o n c e p t from e a r l y adulthood through o l d age. Proceedings, 77th Annual Convention, American P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1969, 717-718. Hackney, H., & Cormier, L. S. Counseling s t r a t e g i e s and o b j e c t i v e s (2nd ed.). Englewood C l i f f s , N. J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1979. Havasy, S., Lesser, J . , F r a n k e l , R., & Lazarus, L. Reminiscing: Further thoughts. Paper presented at the meeting of the G e r o n t o l o g i c a l Society of America, Toronto, Canada, November:1981. Havighurst, R. J . Developmental tasks and education (3rd ed.). New York: David McKay, 1972. Havighurst, R. J . , & G l a s s e r , R. An e x p l o r a t o r y study of reminiscence. J o u r n a l of Gerontology, 1972, 27(2), 245-253. Herr, J . J . , & Weakland, J . H. Counseling e l d e r s and t h e i r  f a m i l i e s . New York: Springer P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1979. I n g e r s o l l , B., & Silverman, A. Comparative group psychotherapy f o r the aged. G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 1978, Jj3(2), 201-206. Johnson, R. 0., Buckley, K. D., & Kleinbaum, J . S. Peer counselor workbook: Peer counselor t r a i n i n g program. Minneapolis, MN: U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, 1979. J o u r n a l of Employment Counseling, 1980, _1_7(1), S p e c i a l i s s u e : W o r k / l i f e counseling f o r older people. Kahana, E., & Coe, R. M. S e l f and s t a f f conceptions of i n s t i t u t i o n -a l i z e d aged. G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 1969, 9/4), 264-267. Kaplan, H. B., & Pokorny, M. D. Aging and s e l f - a t t i t u d e : A c o n d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . Aging and Human Development, 1970, 1(3), 241-249. K e l l e r , J . F., & Croake, J . W. E f f e c t s of a program i n r a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g on a n x i e t i e s i n o l d e r persons. J o u r n a l of Counseling  Psychology, 1975, 22(1), 54-57. - 72 -Kozma, A., & Stones, M. J . The measurement of happiness: Development of the Memorial U n i v e r s i t y of Newfoundland sc a l e of happiness (MUNSH). Jo u r n a l of Gerontology, 1980, 35(6), 906-912. Kubie, S., & Landau, G. Group work w i t h the aged. New York: I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t i e s P r ess, Inc., 1953. Kuypers, J . A., & Bengtson, V. L. S o c i a l breakdown and competence: A model of normal aging. Human Development, 1973, 16(3), 181-201. Landreth, G. L., & Berg, R. C. (Eds.). Counseling the e l d e r l y : For p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p e r s who work w i t h the aged. S p r i n g f i e l d , 111.: Charles C. Thomas, 1980. Lesser, J . , Lazarus, L., F r a n k e l , R., & Havasy, S. Reminiscence group therapy w i t h p s y c h o t i c g e r i a t r i c i n p a t i e n t s . G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 1981, 21 ( 3 ) , 291-296. Leung, P., & Ea r g l e , D. Counseling w i t h the e l d e r l y l i v i n g i n p u b l i c housing. The Personnel and Guidance J o u r n a l , 1980, 58(6), 442-445. Levinson, D. J . The seasons of a man's l i f e . New York: B a l l a n t y n e Books, 1978. Lewis, C. N. Reminiscing and se l f - c o n c e p t i n o l d age. J o u r n a l  of Gerontology, 1971, _26(2), 240-243. Lewis, M. I . , & B u t l e r , R. N. L i f e - r e v i e w therapy - P u t t i n g memories to work i n i n d i v i d u a l and group psychotherapy. G e r i a t r i c s , 1974, 29(11), 165-173. Lieberman, M. A., & F a l k , J . M. The remembered past as a source of data f o r research on the l i f e c y c l e . Human Development, 1971, 1_4, 132-141. Lieberman, M. A., & Gourlash, N. E v a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t of change groups on the e l d e r l y . I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of Group  Psychotherapy, 1979, 29_(3), 283-304. L i t o n , J . , & O l s t e i n , S. C. Therapeutic aspects of reminiscence. S o c i a l Casework, 1969, _50(5), 263-268. Lo Gerfo, M. Three ways of reminiscence i n theory and p r a c t i c e . I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of Aging and Human Development, 1980-81, 22(1), 39-48. - 73 -McCarthy, H. Time p e r s p e c t i v e and aged persons; a t t r i b u t i o n s of t h e i r l i f e experiences. G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 1977, _17_(5: P a r t I I ) , 97, ( a b s t r a c t o n l y ) , McKay, J . L. Selfhood: Comment on Brewster Smith. American  P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1980, 35(1), 106-108. McMahon, A. W., & Rhudick, P. J . Reminiscing i n the aged: An a d a p t a t i o n a l response. In S. L e v i n and R. J . Kahana (Eds.), Psychodynamic s t u d i e s on aging: C r e a t i v i t y , r e m i n i s c i n g and  dying. New York: I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t i e s Press, 1967. McMahon, A. W., & Rhudick, P. J . Reminiscing - a d a p t a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the aged. Archives of General P s y c h i a t r y , 1964, JL0(3), 292-298. Mason, E. P. Some c o r r e l a t e s of self-judgments of the aged. Jo u r n a l of Gerontology, 1954, 9/3), 324-337. Matthews, S. H. The s o c i a l world of o l d women - management of  s e l f - i d e n t i t y . Beverly H i l l s , C a l i f . : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , Inc., 1979. Maynard, P. E. Group counseling w i t h the e l d e r l y . Counseling' arid Values, 1980, 24(4), 227-235. Merriam, S. The concept and f u n c t i o n of reminiscence: A review of the research. G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 1980, 20(5), 604-609. M i n k l e r , P. H., & Shaw, W. F. Self-image and age group perceptions of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d e l d e r l y . Long Term Care and Health  Services A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y , 1980, 4_(1), 29-41. Monge, R. H. St r u c t u r e of the se l f - c o n c e p t from adolescence through o l d age. Experimental Aging Research, 1975, _1(2) , 281-291. Myerhoff, B. G., & Tufte, V. L i f e h i s t o r y as i n t e g r a t i o n . G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 1975, 15(6), 541-543. Pe t e r s , G. R. Self - c o n c e p t i o n s of the aged, age i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and aging. G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 1971, LU4: Part 2 ) , 69-73. P i e r c e , R. C , & C h i r i b o g a , D. A. Dimensions of adu l t s e l f - c o n c e p t . J o u r n a l of Gerontology, 1979, 34(1), 80-85. Pincus , A. Reminiscence i n aging and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e . S o c i a l Work, 1970, J j K J u l y ) , 47-53. - 74 -P o l l a c k , M,, Karp, E., Kahn, R., & Gpldfarb, A- P e r c e p t i o n of s e l f i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d aged. J o u r n a l of Gerontology, 1962, -17(4), 405-408, Postema, L. J . Reminiscing, time o r i e n t a t i o n , and s e l f - c o n c e p t i n aged men. D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1971, 31(11-B), 6880-6881. Power, C. A., & McCarron, L. T. Treatment of depression i n persons r e s i d i n g i n homes f o r the aged. G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 1975, 15(2), 132-135. R e i t e r , S., & White, B. Group work w i t h o l d e r people u t i l i z i n g  peer counselors. Paper presented at the meeting of the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on Aging, St. L o u i s , M i s s o u r i , A p r i l 1978. R i z z o , R., & Vinacke, E. S e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n and the meaning of the c r i t i c a l experience. J o u r n a l of Humanistic Psychology, 1975, 1_5(3), 19-30. Rockwell, L. K., Hood, A. B., & Lee,.V. E. APGA members i n retirement and t h e i r advice to the r e s t of us. The Personnel  and Guidance J o u r n a l , 1980, 59(3), 135-139. Romaniuk, M. Reminiscence and the second h a l f of l i f e : A review. Experimental Aging Research, 1981, 7_(3), 315-336. Romaniuk, M., Hoyer, F. W., & Romaniuk, J . G. H e l p l e s s s e l f - a t t i t u d e s of the e l d e r l y : The e f f e c t of p a t r o n i z i n g  statements. Paper presented at the meeting of the G e r o n t o l o g i c a l Society of America, San F r a n c i s c o , November 1977. Romaniuk, M., & Romaniuk, J . G. Looking back: An a n a l y s i s of reminiscence f u n c t i o n s and t r i g g e r s . Experimental Aging  Research, 1981, _7(4), 477-489. Romaniuk, M., Romaniuk, J . G., & Pope, R. L i f e - r e v i e w e r s and  reminiscence: A m u l t i p l e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s . Paper presented at the meeting of the G e r o n t o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of America, Toronto, Canada, November 1981. Rosenberg, M. Conceiving the s e l f . New York: B a s i c Books, Inc., 1979. Rosow, I . The s o c i a l context of the aging s e l f . G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 1973, 1_3(1), 82-87. - 75 -Ryant, C. Comment: Oral h i s t o r y and gerontology. G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 1981, H Q ) , 104-105. R y f f , C. D. Su c c e s s f u l aging: A developmental approach. G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 1982, 22(2), 209-214. Rynerson, B. C. Need f o r self-esteem i n the aged: A l i t e r a t u r e review. J o u r n a l of P s y c h i a t r i c Nursing and Mental Health  S e r v i c e s , 1972, 10(1), 22-26. Sargent, S. S. (Ed.). N o n t r a d i t i o n a l therapy and counseling w i t h  the aging. New York: Springer P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1980. Schaie, K. W. P s y c h o l o g i c a l changes from m i d l i f e to e a r l y o l d age: I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the maintenance of mental h e a l t h . American J o u r n a l of Orthopsychiatry, 1981, 5_1 (2), 199-218. Schaie, K. W. Toward a stage theory of a d u l t c o g n i t i v e development. J o u r n a l of Aging and Human Development, 1977-78, 8_(2), 129-138. Schmidt, L. D. Issues i n counseling o l d e r people. Educational  Gerontology, 1976, 1(2), 187-192. Schwartz, A. N. An observation on self-esteem as the l i n c h p i n of q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r the aged. An essay. G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 1975, 15(5: Part I I ) , 470-472. Seelbach, W. C , & Hansen, C. J . Self-concept among i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d and n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d e l d e r l y . Long Term Care and Health  Services A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y , 1980, _4(2), 93-102. S e l t z e r , M., & A t c h l e y , R. C. The concept of o l d : changing a t t i t u d e s and stereotypes. G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 1971, 1_1_(3: P a r t I ) , 226-230. Smith, M. B. Pe r s p e c t i v e s on selfhood. American P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1978, ^33(12), 1053-1063. S t a t i s t i c s Canada. Canada's e l d e r l y . Ottawa: M i n i s t r y of Supply and Services Canada, 1979. S t a t i s t i c s Canada. Pop u l a t i o n aging and dependency r a t i o s i n Canada. In Senate of Canada, Retirement Age P o l i c i e s  Issue No. 6. H u l l , Canada: Queen's P r i n t e r , Nov. 30, 1978. Stones, M. J . , & Kozma, A. The components of happiness: I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r retirement c o u n s e l l i n g . Canadian Counsellor, 1980, 14(2), 93-96. - 76 -T a l l e y , W. M. C o u n s e l l i n g the e l d e r l y c l i e n t . Canada'a Mental  Healt h , 1981, 29(2), 5-7. Tobin, S. S. The e a r l i e s t memory as data f o r research i n aging. In D. P, Kent (Ed.), Research planning and a c t i o n f o r the  e l d e r l y : The power and p o t e n t i a l of s o c i a l s e r v i c e . New York: B e h a v i o r a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1972. Trimakas, K., & N i c o l a y , R. C. Self-concept and a l t r u i s m i n o l d age. J o u r n a l of Gerontology, 1974, 29(4), 434-439. Turner, B. F. The s e l f - c o n c e p t of o l d e r women. Research on  Aging, 1979, _1 (4) , 464-480. Verwoerdt, A. Psychotherapy f o r the e l d e r l y . In T. A r i e (Ed.), Health care of the e l d e r l y l B altimore, Md.: John Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1981. Wasylenki, D. Depression i n the e l d e r l y . Canadian Medical  A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l , 1980, 122(5), 525-532,540. Waters, E., Fink, S., & White, B. Peer group counseling f o r o l d e r people. Educational Gerontology, 1976, U 2 ) , 157-170. Waters, E., Weaver, A., & White, B. G e r o n t o l o g i c a l counseling  s k i l l s : A manual f o r t r a i n i n g s e r v i c e p r o v i d e r s . Rochester, Michigan: Oakland U n i v e r s i t y Continuum Center, 1980. Wylie, R. C. The s e l f - c o n c e p t : A c r i t i c a l survey of p e r t i n e n t  research l i t e r a t u r e . L i n c o l n , Neb.: U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska Press, 1974. APPENDIX I REMINISCENCE SURVEY - 78 -REMINISCENCE SURVEY Copyrighted 1978. Not to be reproduced without permission. Michael Romaniuk, Ph.D. Department of Gerontology V i r g i n i a iCommonwealth University Richmond, V i r g i n i a , USA 23284 f - 79 -BACKGROUND INFORMATION NAME ADDRESS TELEPHONE SEX MALE FEMALE AGE DATE OF BIRTH MARITAL STATUS (CHECK ONE): MARRIED HOW LONG? NEVER MARRIED DIVORCED HOW LONG? WIDOWED HOW LONG? NUMBER OF CHILDREN . NUMBER OF GRANDCHILDREN PRESENT OCCUPATION AGE WHEN YOU PLAN TO RETIRE IF RETIRED, WHAT WAS YOUR OCCUPATION BEFORE RETIREMENT EDUCATION HOW MANY YEARS OF SCHOOL HAVE YOU COMPLETED? WHERE DO YOU LIVE (CHECK ONE): OWN HOME OR APARTMENT HOW LONG? RETIREMENT HOUSING HOW LONG? NURSING HOME or CARE FACILITY HOW LONG? HOW WOULD YOU RATE YOUR OVERALL HEALTH (CHECK ONE): EXCELLENT VERY GOOD AVERAGE POOR VERY POOR - 80 -INTRODUCTION DURING THE COURSE OF OUR LIVES, EACH OF US EXPERIENCES A UNIQUE SET OF EVENTS, THOUGHTS AND FEELINGS WHICH MAKE UP OUR LIFE HISTORIES. FROM TIME TO TIME, OUR THOUGHTS OR CONVERSATIONS TURN TO THE PAST. SOME PEOPLE DEVOTE A GREAT DEAL OF INTEREST OR ATTENTION TO THE MEMORIES OF THEIR PAST WHILE OTHERS DIRECT LITTLE ATTENTION TO THEIR PAST. WHY DO PEOPLE RECALL PAST EXPERIENCES? WHAT KINDS OF MEMORIES ARE RECALLED? WHEN DO PEOPLE RECALL THE PAST? UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES ARE MEMORIES RECALLED? ALTHOUGH RESEARCHERS HAVE SUGGESTED ANSWERS TO THESE QUESTIONS, OUR KNOWLEDGE ABOUT REMINISCENCE REMAINS INCOMPLETE. THE PURPOSE OF THIS QUESTIONNAIRE IS TO ADD TO OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE MEANING OF THE PAST IN OUR LIVES. A TERM COMMONLY USED TO DESCRIBE THE TURNING OF ONE'S ATTENTION TO THE PAST IS REMINISCENCE. REMINISCENCE REFERS TO EITHER THINKING (OR DAYDREAMING). ABOUT THE PAST OR TELLING OTHERS (FRIENDS, SPOUSE, RELATIVES, NEIGHBORS, ETC.) ABOUT THE PAST. ONE'S 2NTIRE LIFE HISTORY IS A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF MATERIAL TO REMINISCE ABOUT. FOR SOME PEOPLE, MAJOR OR MINOR EVENTS OR EXPERIENCES MAY DRAW ONE'S ATTENTION. FOR OTHER PEOPLE, THE COURSE OF ONE'S ENTIRE LIFE MAY BE REVIEWED. FOR THE SAKE OF THIS QUESTIONNAIRE, PLEASE CONSIDER THE "PAST" AS THE TIME EARLIER THAN 6 MONTHS AGO. THAT IS, CONSIDER THE EVENTS, THOUGHTS AND EXPERIENCES THAT OCCURRED DURING YOUR ENTIRE LIFE UP UNTIL 6 MONTHS AGO AS PART OF YOUR "PAST". CONSIDER THE LAST 6 MONTHS AS PART OF YOUR "PRESENT". - 81 --I. HOW OFTEN DO YOUR THOUGHTS AND CONVERSATIONS TURN TO PAST EXPERIENCES AND  EVENTS ? (CHECK ONE) FREQUENTLY SEVERAL TIMES A DAY. OFTEN: ALMOST EVERY DAY. OCCASIONALLY A FEW TIMES A WEEK. SELDOM A FEW TIMES A MONTH. VERY RARELY- A FEW TIMES A YEAR. II., WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS IS MOST CHARACTERISTIC OF YOU? (CHECK ONE) I AM SOMEONE WHO MOSTLY THINKS ABOUT THE PAST. . I AM SOMEONE WHO MOSTLY TALKS ABOUT THE PAST. ********************************************* FOR SOME PEOPLE, TURNING ONE'S ATTENTION TO THE PAST INVOLVES A REVIEW OF ONE'S LIFE IN ITS ENTIRETY. PAST EVENTS AND EXPERIENCES (SUCCESSES, FAILURES, ACCOMPLISHMENTS, MISTAKES, HIGH AND LOW POINTS, MILESTONES, ETC.) ARE REVIEWED AND EVALUATED IN ARRIVING AT AN OVERALL PICTURE OF ONE'S LIFE. H I ; WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS BEST DESCRIBES YOU? (CHECK ONE) I HAVE REVIEWED MY LIFE. I HAVE NOT REVIEWED MY LIFE. I AM CURRENTLY REVIEWING MY LIFE. - 82 -TURN TO THE NEXT PAGE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS ON THE FOLLOWING PAGES BY EITHER CIRCLING AN ANSWER OR GIVING A SHORT ANSWER AS REQUIRED. PLEASE ANSWER THE ITEMS IN ORDER AND TRY NOT TO SKIP ANY. - 83 -TALKING AND THINKING ABOUT THE PAST REMINISCENCE OFTEN OCCURS DURING OUR CONVERSATIONS WITH FRIENDS, RELATIVES AND EVEN STRANGERS. ALSO, WHEN WE ARE ALONE, SOME OF OUR THOUGHTS (OR DAYDREAMS) TURN TO PAST EXPERIENCES, EVENTS, AND FEELINGS. PLEASE READ EACH OF THE FOLLOWING USES OF REMINISCENCE OR THE LIFE REVIEW. CIRCLE THE ANSWER WHICH BEST DESCRIBES YOUR EXPERIENCE WITH THE FOLLOWING USES OF REMINISCENCE OR THE LIFE REVIEW WHEN YOUR THOUGHTS OR CONVERSATION TURNS TO THE PAST. ANSWER GUIDE: YES = YES; I HAVE USED MY REMINISCENCE IN THIS WAY. NO = NO; I HAVE NOT USED MY REMINISCENCE IN THIS WAY. NS = NOT SURE; I CAN'T REMEMBER IF I USED REMINISCENCE IN THIS WAY. CIRCLE YOUR CHOICE BELOW: YES NO NS YES YES YES YES YES YES NO NS NO NS NO NS NO NS NO NS NO NS YES NO NS YES NO NS YES NO NS YES NO NS YES NO NS YES NO NS STATEMENT WHEN I HAVE TALKED OR THOUGHT ABOUT THE PAST, I HAVE DONE SO. 1. BECAUSE MEMORIES ARE PLEASANT, ENJOYABLE AND HELP TO PASS THE TIME OF DAY. 2. TO MAKE PLANS FOR THE FUTURE. 3. TO TEACH OTHERS BY DRAWING UPON MY PAST EXPERIENCES. A. TO COPE WITH A LOSS IN MY LIFE. 5. TO BE AMUSING AND ENTERTAINING. 6. TO SOLVE SOMETHING IN MY PAST THAT IS TROUBLING ME. 7. TO LET PEOPLE KNOW THAT THE PAST HAD A LOT TO OFFER WHICH CANNOT BE FOUND TODAY. 8. TO DEAL WITH SOME DIFFICULTY WHICH I AM EXPERIENCING. 9. TO INFORM PEOPLE ABOUT THE SUCCESSES AND ACCOMPLISH-MENTS IN MY LIFE. 10. TO ARRIVE AT A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF MY PAST LIFE AND MYSELF. 11. WHEN SOMEONE HAS ASKED ME TO DESCRIBE OR TALK ABOUT MYSELF. 12. TO DETERMINE LIFE'S MEANING. 13. BECAUSE RECALLING MEMORIES OF SUCCESSES AND ACCOMPLISH-MENTS LIFT MY SPIRITS. - 84 -FOR SOME OF US, THERE ARE CERTAIN EVENTS, EXPERIENCES OR CHANGES WITHIN OUR LIVES WHICH STIMULATE US TO THINK ABOUT OR DISCUSS THE PAST. LISTED BELOW ARE VARIOUS "TRIGGERS" WHICH TURN OUR ATTENTION TO OUR PAST. CIRCLE THE-ANSWER WHICH BEST DESCRIBES YOUR EXPERIENCE WITH THE FOLLOWING "TRIGGERS" FOR REMINISCENCE OR LIFE REVIEW. ANSWER GUIDE: YES = YES; THIS CERTAINLY HAS BEEN A TRIGGER FOR MY REMINISCENCE OR LIFE REVIEW. NO = NO; THIS CERTAINLY HAS NOT BEEN A TRIGGER. NS = NOT SURE; CAN'T REMEMBER IF THIS WAS A TRIGGER. -NA = NOT APPLICABLE; THIS EVENT OR EXPERIENCE HAS NEVER HAPPENED TO ME. CIRCLE YOUR CHOICE BELOW: STATEMENT MY THOUGHTS OR CONVERSATIONS HAVE TURNED TO THE EVENTS AND EXPERIENCES OF MY PAST YES NO NS. NA YES NO NS NA YES NO NS NA 3. WHEN I BECAME CONCERNED WITH THE MEANING OF LIFE AND THE MEANING OF MY LIF«. WHEN I EXPERIENCED A CHANGE IN MY HEALTH OR PHYSICAL APPEARANCE. WHEN I REALIZED MY HIGHEST ACCOMPLISHMENT IN MY WORK OR MY FAMILY. YES NO NS NA YES NO NS NA YES NO NS NA YES NO NS NA 4 WHEN I SUFFERED A SERIOUS ILLNESS OR INJURY. 5 WHEN SOMEONE CLOSE TO ME SUFFERED A SERIOUS ILLNESS OR INJURY. 6 WHEN I REALIZED THAT PEOPLE CLOSE TO ME MAY DIE. 7. .... WHEN I REALIZED THAT MY BODY CAN'T DO WHAT IT USED TO. YES NO NS NA WHEN I ACCOMPLISHED A MAJOR GOAL IN MY LIFE. - 85 -ANSWER GUIDE: YES = YES; THIS CERTAINLY HAS BEEN A TRIGGER FOR MY REMINISCENCE OR LIFE REVIEW. NO = NO; THIS CERTAINLY HAS NOT BEEN A TRIGGER. NS = NOT SURE; CAN'T REMEMBER IF THIS WAS A TRIGGER. -NA = NOT APPLICABLE; THIS EVENT OR EXPERIENCE HAS NEVER HAPPENED TO ME. CIRCLE YOUR CHOICE BELOW: YES NO NS NA 9. YES NO NS NA 10. YES NO NS NA 11. > YES NO NS NA 12. YES NO NS NA 13. YES NO NS NA 14. YES NO NS NA 15. YES NO NS NA YES NO NS NA YES NO NS NA 18. YES NO NS NA 19. YES NO NS NA 20. YES NO NS NA 21. STATEMENT (CONTINUED) MY THOUGHTS OR CONVERSATIONS HAVE TURNED TO THE EVENTS AND EXPERIENCES OF MY PAST WHEN SOMEONE CLOSE TO ME HAD A CLOSE CALL WITH DEATH (NEAR FATAL ACCIDENT OR LIFE-THREATENING HOSPITALIZATION). WHEN I REALIZED THAT MY FUTURE IS NOT INFINITE. .... WHEN I BECAME DISSATISFIED WITH THE WAY MY LIFE WAS GOING. .... WHEN I EXPERIENCED A CHANGE IN MY WORK OR CAREER. .... WHEN I HAD A CLOSE CALL WITH DEATH (NEAR FATAL ACCIDENT OR LIFE-THREATENING HOSPITALIZATION). WHEN DEATH ENTERED MY REALITY (I BECAME PROFOUNDLY AWARE THAT SOMEDAY I WILL DIE). WHEN I REALIZED THAT I WOULD NOT BE ABLE TO ACCOMPLISH WHAT I HAD HOPED FOR DURING MY LIFE. 16 WHEN I MADE A MAJOR CHANGE IN THE DIRECTION OF MY LIFE. 17 WHEN I BECAME AWARE THAT LIFE IS SHORT AND MY TIME IS RUNNING OUT. WHEN I MADE MY CONTRIBUTION TO SOCIETY. WHEN I EXPERIENCED THE DEATH OF MY MATE, RELATIVE OR CLOSE FRIEND. WHEN I RETIRED. WHEN I EXPERIENCED A CHANGE IN MY PHYSICAL OR MENTAL ABILITIES. FOR SOME PEOPLE, TURNING ONE'S ATTENTION TO THE EVENTS AND EXPERIENCES OF THE PAST RESULTS IN CERTAIN FEELINGS OR CONCLUSIONS ABOUT ONESELF OR LIFE IN GENERAL. LISTED BELOW ARE SOME RESULTS OR CONCLUSIONS PRODUCED BY RECALLING THE PAST. CIRCLE THE ANSWER WHICH BEST DESCRIBES YOUR EXPERIENCE WITH THE FOLLOWING RESULTS OR OUTCOMES OF REMINISCENCE OR A REVIEW OF YOUR LIFE. ANSWER GUIDE: YES = YES; THIS CERTAINLY HAS BEEN A RESULT. NO = NO; THIS CERTAINLY HAS NOT BEEN A RESULT. NS = NOT SURE; I CAN'T REMEMBER IF THIS HAS BEEN A RESULT. CIRCLE YOUR CHOICE BELOW: YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO NS NO NS NO NS NO NS NO NS NO NS NO NS YES NO NS : YES NO NS NO NS NO NS 10. 11. STATEMENT TURNING MY ATTENTION TO THE EVENTS AND EXPERIENCES OF MY PAST HAS RESULTED IN MY WISHING TO CHANGE MY PAST. HAS LED ME TO CONCLUDE THAT MY LIFE HAS BEEN MEANINGFUL. HAS LED ME TO REVISE MY PLANS FOR THE FUTURE. HAS MADE ME MORE OPEN TO THE TOPIC OF DEATH. HAS AIDED ME IN COPING WITH SOME DIFFICULTY. HAS TROUBLED ME. HAS LED ME TO REALIZE THAT I HAVE REACHED MY POTENTIAL AS A PERSON. HAS MADE ME REALIZE THAT I HAVE YET TO ACCOMPLISH A MAJOR GOAL IN MY LIFE. HAS RESULTED IN MY SOLVING SOMETHING IN MY PAST WHICH HAD BEEN BOTHERING ME. HAS DEPRESSED ME. HAS BOLSTERED MY SELF-CONFIDENCE. - 87 -ANSWER GUIDE: YES = YES; THIS CERTAINLY HAS BEEN A RESULT. NO = NO; THIS CERTAINTLY HAS NOT BEEN A RESULT. NS = NOT SURE; I CAN'T REMEMBER IF THIS HAS BEEN A RESULT. CIRCLE YOUR CHOICE BELOW: YES NO NS 12. YES NO NS 13. YES NO NS 14. YES NO NS 15. YES NO NS 16. YES NO NS 17. YES NO NS 18. YES NO NS 19. YES NO NS 20. YES NO NS 21. YES NO NS 22. YES NO NS 23. YES NO NS 24. YES NO NS 25. YES NO NS 26. STATEMENT TURNING MY ATTENTION TO THE EVENTS AND EXPERIENCES OF MY PAST HAS RESULTED IN A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF MY PAST LIFE AND MYSELF. HAS RESULTED IN MY BEING AT PEACE WITH MYSELF. HAS RESULTED IN MY ACCEPTANCE OF MY LIFE FOR WHAT IT IS. HAS MADE ME WANT TO USE MY EXPERIENCES TO TEACH THOSE YOUNGER THAN MYSELF. HAS LED ME TO A GREATER UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATION OF LIFE AND HUMAN NATURE. HAS LED ME TO CONCLUDE THAT MY LIFE HAS BEEN USELESS. HAS STIMULATED CONCERN OVER THE YOUNGER GENERATIONS ABILITY TO CARRY ON WHEN MY GENERATION IS GONE. HAS AIDED ME IN COPING WITH A LOSS IN-MY LIFE. HAS MADE ME INTERESTED IN THE MEANING OF LIFE. HAS MADE ME REALIZE THAT TIME IS RUNNING OUT TOO QUICKLY. HAS RESULTED IN MY FEELING SATISFIED WITH WHAT I HAVE ACCOMPLISHED IN MY LIFE. HAS LESSENED MY FEAR OF DEATH. HAS RESULTED IN MY BEING ACCEPTED BY THOSE AROUND ME. HAS RESULTED IN MY VIEWING MYSELF DIFFERENTLY. HAS MADE ME FEEL BETTER ABOUT MYSELF. THE END. - 88 -APPENDIX II THE TENNESSEE SELF CONCEPT SCALE fr cory ^ T E N N E S S E E S E L F C O N C E P T S C A L E by W i l l i a m H. F i t ts , PhD. Published by Counselor Recordings and Tests Box 6184 - Acklen Station Nashvil le, Tennessee 37212 INSTRUCTIONS On the top line of the separate answer sheet, fill in your name and the other information except for the time information in the last three boxes. You will fill these boxes in later. Write only on the answer sheet. Do not put any marks in this booklet. The statements in this booklet are to help you describe yourself as you see yourself. Please respond to them as if you were describing yourself to yourself.  Do not omit any item! Read each statement carefully; then select one of the five responses listed below. On your answer sheet, put a circle around the response you chose. If you want to change an answer after you have circled it, do not erase it but put an J( mark through the response and then circle the response you want. When you are ready to start, find the box on your answer sheet marked time  started and record the time. When you are finished, record the time finished in the box on your answer sheet marked time finished. As you start, be sure that your answer sheet and this booklet are lined up evenly so that the item numbers match each other. Remember, put a circle around the response number you have chosen for each statement. Completely Mostly Partly false Mostly Completely Responses- false false and true true partly true 1 2 3 4 5 You will find these response numbers repeated at the bottom of each page to help you remember them. ° William H. Fitts, 1964 I , I have a healthy b o d / 3. I am an attractive person 5. I consider myself a sloppy person 19. I am a decent sort of person 21 . I am an honest person 23. I am a bad person 37. I am a cheerful person 39. I am a calm and easy going person 41 . I am a nobody 55. I have a family that would always help me in any kind of trouble 57. I am a member of a happy family 59. My friends have no confidence in me 73. I am a friendly person 75. I am popular with men 77. I am not interested in what other people do. . . 91 . I do not always tell the truth 93. I get angry sometimes Completely Mostly Partly false Mostly Completely nses- false false and true true partly true 1 2 3 4 5 2. I like to look nice and neat all the time 4. I am full of aches and pains 6. I am a sick person 20. I am a religious person. 22. I am a moral failure 24. I am a morally weak person 38. I have a lot of self-control 40. I am a hateful person 42. I am losing my mind 56. I am an important person to my friends and family 58. I am not loved by my family 60. I feel that my family doesn't trust me 74. I am popular with women 76. I am mad at the whole world 78. I am hard to be friendly with 92. Once in a while I think of things too bad to talk about 94. Sometimes, when I am not feeling wel l , I am cross Completely Mostly Partly false Mostly Completely nses- false false and true true partly true 1 2 3 4 5 7. I am neither too fat nor too thin 9. I like my looks just the way they are 11.1 would like to change some parts of my body 25. I am satisfied with my moral behavior 27. I am satisfied with my relationship to God 29. I ought to go to church more 43. I am satisfied to be just what I am 45. I am just as nice as I should be 47. I despise myself 61 . I am satisfied with my family relationships 63. I understand my family as well as I should 65. I should trust my family more 79. I am as sociable as I want to be 81 . I try to please others, but I don't overdo it 83. I am no good at all from a social standpoint 95. I do not like everyone I know 97. Once in a while, I laugh at a dirty joke Completely Mostly Partly false Mostly Completely Responses- false false and true true partly true 1 2 3 4 5 _ . ^  Item Page 4 No. 8. I am neither too tall nor too short. 10. I don't feel as well as I should r . \Q 12. I should have more sex appeal £'j';y$^ 26. i am as religious as I want to be £-r°!3& 28. I wish I could be more trustworthy. ! ,"20 30. I shouldn't tell so many lies P^iJis 44. I am as smart as I want to be . I. 46. I am not the person I would like to be f P p S T 48. I wish I didn't give up as easily as I do "^'4§K| 62. I treat my parents as well as I should (Use past tense if parents are not l iv ing! . 62 64. I am too sensitive to things my family say f ^ j p f 66. I should love my family more f . 55 80. I am satisfied with the way I treat other people 82. I should be more polite to others 1,"$$+ 84. I ought to get along better with other people ix 96. I gossip a little at times I / ' W * 98. At times I feel like swearing, 98 Responses Completely fal se Mostly false Partly false and partly true Mostly true Completely true 9i o c I t e m Page 5 No. 13. I take good care of myself physically *3 15. I try to be careful about my appearance 17. I often act like I am "all thumbs" 1 7 31 . I am true to my religion in my everyday life 31 33. I try to change when I know I'm doing things that are wrong . 33 35. I sometimes do very bad things 35 49. I can always take care of myself in any situation ^9 51 . I take the blame for things without getting mad 51 53. I do things without thinking about them first 67. I try to play fair with my friends and family ^ 69. I take a real interest in my family ^ 71 . I give in to my parents. (Use past tense if parents are not living) ^ 85. I try to understand the other fellow's point of view 85 87. I get along well with other people ^ 89. I do not forgive others easily ***9 99. I would rather win than lose in a game ^ Completely Mostly Partly false Mostly Completely Responses - false false and true true partly true 1 2 3 4 5 D L Item Page 6 No. 14. I feel good most of the time 14 16. I do poorly in sports and games 36 18. I am a poor sleeper | \B 32. I do what is right most of the time 34. I sometimes use unfair means to get ahead 32 34 36. I have trouble doing the things that are right j 26 50. I solve my problems quite easily 52. I change my mind a lot 50 52 54. I try to run away from my problems 54 68. I do my share of work at home . . 68 70. I quarrel with my family 70 72. I do not act like my family thinks I should I 72~\ 86. I see good points in all the people I meet 86 88. 1 do not feel at ease with other people 88 : 90. I find it hard to talk with strangers 100. Once in a while I put off until tomorrow what I ought to do today 90 100 Completely Mostly Partly false Mostly Completely Responses- false false and true true partly true 1 2 3 4 5 APPENDIX III FREQUENCIES OF "YES" RESPONSES  to the USES, TRIGGERS, OUTCOMES of the REMINISCENCE SURVEY - 98 -DATA TABULATION To explore p o t e n t i a l differences for each of the 60 Reminisc- ence Survey items, the raw data (the number of "yes" responses per item) was tabulated f i r s t for the subject group as a whole (rank ordered), and then by grouping the subjects a t o t a l of s i x ways. Subgroup 1: The data of those subjects who labeled them-selves as non-life-reviewers was examined opposite the data of those subjects who labeled themselves as l i f e - r e v i e w e r s and current l i f e - r e v i e w e r s . Subgroup 2: The data of male subjects was processed apart from the data of female subjects. Subgroup 3: The data of subjects recruited from Edmonds House was tabulated against the data of the subjects from Marpole Oakridge Seniors. Subgroup 4: The data of subjects r e c r u i t e d from the reminiscing groups was separated from the data of the subjects from the other two groups: an exercise group and a l e c t u r e -discussion group. Subgroup 5: The subjects' data was ranked according to t h e i r Total P Score on the Tennessee Self Concept Scale from the highest Score (407) down to the lowest Score (308). The median - 99 -self-concept score of a l l 40 subjects was then used as the s t a t i s t i c a l basis for dichotomizing the subjects into two subgroups: the P o s i t i v e Self-concept subgroup with Total P scores above the median, and the Negative Self-concept sub-group with T o t a l P scores below the median score. Subgroup 6: The data of the 3 subjects who reported reminisc-ing frequently (several times a day) and that of the 7 subjects who reported reminiscing often (almost every day) was tabulated opposite the pooled data of the 19 subjects who reported reminiscing occasionally (a few times a week), of the 7 subjects who reported reminiscing seldom (a few times a month), and of the 4 subjects who reported reminiscing very r a r e l y (a few times a year). Pearson's Ghi-square s t a t i s t i c was calculated for each frequency p a i r (using the Yates c o r r e c t i o n f o r those subgroups with l e s s than 20 subjects, i . e . subgroups 1, 2, 4, and 6). S i g n i f i c a n t frequency differences at a s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l of .10 or better, are indicated by an»4fr on the following eight pages. These frequency differences serve to underline the differences i n l i f e experiences of peoples, and point to future research questions of j u s t how reminiscence functions. ITEM Rank Order "to QJ >, r H cs 4-1 o H 1 cn CSl • l-J • • un QJ 2 QJ r H i SUBGR 3 EC d OUPS 4 in vo C u •rl QJ a ^3 0J +J P5 O d C O + 5 d C O I 6 • • cr cr QJ QJ U u Pn P^  + I USES # 5: To be amusing and e n t e r t a i n i n g . 1 31 23 8 9 22 16 15 7 24 15 16 7 24 # 1: Because memories are p l ea san t , en joyab l e , and he lp to pass the 2 30 27 * 3 9 21 13 17 8 22 17 13 9 21 time of day. #11: When someone has asked me to desc r i be o r t a l k about myse l f . 3 27 22 5 5 22 12 15 8 19 15 12 7 20 #13: Because r e c a l l i n g memories of successes and accomplishments 4 25 21 4 9 * 16 11 14 7 18 14 11 8 17 l i f t my s p i r i t s . # 7: To l e t peop le know that the past had a l o t to o f f e r which cannot 5 24 21 3 5 19 12 12 9 * 15 12 12 6 18 be found today. #10: To a r r i v e a t a b e t t e r unders tand-i ng o f my pas t l i f e and myse l f . 6 21 19 * 2 6 15 11 10 6 15 12 9 8* 13 # 3: To teach o thers by drawing upon my pas t expe r i ences . 7 18 17 « 1 7 11 11 7 7 11 11 7 8 * 10 I T E M u CD T 3 U O c rt Pi CO CD cfl O H CO Pi hi Pi r 3 rt rt SUBGROUPS 3 , 4 w o c •rl g Pi CD c j c J LO vo CO + CO I cr CD P>4 c r CD u i USES con't. # 4: To cope w i t h a l o s s i n my l i f e . #12: To determine l i f e ' s meaning. #8: To de a l w i t h some d i f f i c u l t y which I am experiencing. #9: To inform people about the successes and accomplishments i n my l i f e . #2: To make plans f o r the f u t u r e . # 6: To s o l v e something i n my past that i s t r o u b l i n g me. USES TOTALS TRIGGERS #19: When I experienced the death of my mate, r e l a t i v e , or c l o s e f r i e n d . # 7: When I r e a l i z e d that my body can't do what i t used to do. 8 9 10.5 i ^0.5 12 13 17 16 13 13 11 14 14 11 2 12 1 9 2 6 1 3 14 5 11 3 10 4 9 4 7 2 5 8 9 8 8 6 7 9 * 4 5 6 2 5 5 12 7 * 9 6 + 7 6 * 7 5 6 2 5 11 6 8 8 8 5 8 5 6 5 3 4 6 11 6 10 5 8 4 9 5 6 2 5 253 216 37 71 182 124 129 83 170 140 113 81 172 27 26 22 5 21 5 6 21 9 17 13 14 12 14 5 22 7 19 13 14 11 15 8 19 9 17 u CU r d U O A! C cfl Pi 3.5 3.5 I T E M TRIGGERS con't. # 5: When someone c l o s e to me s u f f e r e d a seri o u s i l l n e s s or i n j u r y . # 9: When someone c l o s e to me had a c l o s e c a l l w i t h death. # 6: When I r e a l i z e d that people c l o s e to me may d i e . #21: When I r e a l i z e d a change i n my p h y s i c a l or mental a b i l i t i e s . # 3: When I r e a l i z e d my highest accomp-lishment i n my work or f a m i l y . 17.5 #17: When I became aware that l i f e i s short and my time i s running out. |7.5 #20: When I r e t i r e d . I 9 # 1: When I became concerned w i t h the meaning of l i f e and the meaning 111 of my l i f e . t o <u o H 22 22 20 19 18 If 17 116 CN Pi Pi • • r J 2 5 cu cu cfl CU SUBGROUPS 3 4 jo- <J S3 O • c i-i •H cu • 6 3^ C/3. cu 4-1 Pi O + cj c/i i c r <u u cr cu u Pn + i 19 3 17 5 17 3 1 8 * 1 15 3 15 3 15 2 15 1 8 14 6 16 5 15 7 12 7 11 5 13 7 * 10 4 12 11 11 10 12 10 10 7 12 8 10 9 9 8 9 8 8 7 15 6 16 5 15 7 12 5 13 6 12 6 11 6 10 11 11 12 10 9 11 9 10 10 8 8 10 8 9 12 * 4 9*13 8 14 8* 12 8* 11 7 11 4 14 6 11 6 10 SUBGROUPS r H I 2 3 4 5 6 Rank Order )tal "yes1 ITEM Rank Order )tal "yes1 cn CN pi pi Ji LO OJ r H CO s CU r H CO e 0J st w St O LO • v D C JH •rl CU S r C CU 4J Pi o St U CO St Lf C J CO 1 cr cr OJ OJ u u Rank Order H rH w + 1 + I TRIGGERS con't. # 2: When I experienced a change i n my health or p h y s i c a l appearance. 11 16 15 1 7 * 9 9 7 7* 9 7 9 9 * 7 #14: When death entered my r e a l i t y . 11 16 14 2 7 «• 9 8 8 5 11 8 8 7 * 9 # 4: When I suffered a serious i l l n e s s or i n j u r y . 13 15 15* 0 6 9 9 6 6 9 7 8 7 * 8 #12: When I experienced a change i n my work or career. 14.5 14 13 1 5 9 9 5 5 9 5 9 6 8 #13: When I had a close c a l l with death. L4.5 14 14 * 0 8 * 6 6 8 7 * 7 8 6 7 * 7 # 8: When I accomplished a major goal i n my l i f e . 17 13 10 3 4 9 7 6 6 * 7 8 5 4 9 #10: When I r e a l i z e d that my future i s not i n f i n i t e . 17 13 12 1 4 9 6 7 4 9 8 5 5 8 #11: When I became d i s s a t i s f i e d with the way my l i f e was going. 17 13 7 * 6 2 11 7 6 1 12 4 * 9 1 12 #16: When I made a major change i n the d i r e c t i o n of my l i f e . 19 12 10 2 3 9 6 6 3 9 6 6 3 9 SUBGROUPS rH 1 2 3 4 5 6 rder •yes" rder •yes" ro pi i-3 0) rH Cfl <r •cr m I T E M Rank Oi 3tal ' CN pi cu rH cd S • • « o Remin." M cu 4J O c_> w c_> 00 Freq. Freq. Rank Oi H S3 w S Remin." + I + i TRIGGERS con't. #15: When I r e a l i z e d that I would not be able to accomplish what I had 20 11 9 2 2 9 4 7 1 10 5 6 2 9 hoped f o r i n my l i f e . #18: When I made my c o n t r i b u t i o n to s o c i e t y . 21 9 8 1 2 7 2* 7 2 7 7* 2 4 5 TRIGGERS TOTALS 351 301 50 114 237 169 182 107 244 176 175 128 223 OUTCOMES #14: Has r e s u l t e d i n my acceptance of my l i f e f o r what i t i s . 1 35 29 6 9 26 17 18 9 26 18 17 10 25 #16: Has l e d me to a grea t e r under-standing and a p p r e c i a t i o n of l i f e 2 34 28 6 10 24^ 17 17 8 26 17 9 25 and human nature. #13: Has r e s u l t e d i n my being a t peace w i t h myself. 3 30 26 * 4 7 23 15 15 9 21 19 * 11 10 20 # 2: Has l e d me to conclude that my l i f e has been meaningful. 4 29 25 * 4 8 21 13 16 8 21 1 7 * 12 7 22 SUBGROUPS rH I 2 3 4 5 6 I T E M Rank Order Total "yes' CO <N rH • • rH 5 3 LO cu rH 0 3 S vD cu r H cfl 1 <t W <t d S i n • c • H s cu P H Other c_> CO + • u CO 1 LO cr cu u P H + cr cu u P H 1 OUTCOMES con't. # 4: Has made me more open to the t o p i c of death. 6 28 21 7 • 7 21 15 13 6 22 13 15 5 23 #20: Has made me i n t e r e s t e d i n the meaning of l i f e . 6 28 23 5 8 20 15 13 9 19 13 15 8 20 #24: Has r e s u l t e d i n my being accepted by those around me. 6 28 23 5 8 20 15 13 8 20 14 14 9 19 #23: Has lessened my f e a r of death. 8 26 19 7 7 19 13 13 6 20 11 15 7 19 #12: Has r e s u l t e d i n a b e t t e r under-standing of my past l i f e and myself. 10 25 23 * 2 7 18 11 14 7 18 14 11 1 0 * 15 #19: Has aided me i n coping w i t h a l o s s i n my l i f e . 10 25 21 4 8 17 11 14 8 17 14 11 9* 16 #26: Has made me f e e l b e t t e r about myself. 10 25 2 2 * 3 8 17 11 14 7 18 15 10 9*16 #21: Has made me r e a l i z e that time i s running out too q u i c k l y . 12.5 21 19 # 2 6 15 11 10 7 14 9 12 4 17 #22: Has r e s u l t e d i n my f e e l i n g s a t i s -f i e d w i t h what I have accomplished 12.5 21 17 4 4 17 13 8 5 16 15* 6 8* 13 i n my l i f e . OUTCOMES con't. // 5: Has aided me i n coping w i t h some d i f f i c u l t y . #11: Has b o l s t e r e d my s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . #15: Has made me want to use my experiences to teach those younger| than myself. #18: Has sti m u l a t e d concern over the younger generation's a b i l i t y to ca r r y on when my generation i s gone. #25: Has r e s u l t e d i n my viewing myself d i f f e r e n t l y . # 7: Has l e d me to r e a l i z e that I have reached my p o t e n t i a l as a person. # 8: Has made me r e a l i z e that I have yet to accomplish a major goal i n my l i f e . 14.5 14.5 17 17 17 19.5 19.5 20 20 17 17 17 11 11 15 5 17 3 16 * 1 13 4 15 2 10 1 9 2 4 16 6 14 5 12 4 13 5 12 0*11 5 6 8 12 10 10 8 9 10 7 8 9 8 * 3 7 4 5 15 7 13 6 11 6 11 4 13 4 7 5 6 8 12 13 * 7 11 6 8 9 7 10 5 6 4 7 5 15 5 15 7 * 10 6 11 4 13 3 8 2 9 I T E M u QJ •O U O AS C p 2 CD CD o H 03 P3 53 P H SUBGROUPS 3 4 fa- <t fC CD • o c H r l QJ • e ,C CO QJ 4-1 o + fa- <* CO I I n cr QJ cr QJ U P H + I OUTCOMES con't. # 6: Has tro u b l e d me. # 1: Has r e s u l t e d i n my wis h i n g to change my past. // 3: Has l e d me to r e v i s e my plans f o r the f u t u r e . # 9: Has r e s u l t e d i n my s o l v i n g some-t h i n g i n my past which i s t r o u b l i n g me. #10: Has depressed me. #17: Has l e d me to conclude t h a t my l i f e has been u s e l e s s . 21 22.5 22.5 24 25 26 10 8 2 7 2 7 2 6 0 1 2 1 0 2 8 1 8 2 7 4 * 2 1 2 0 1 6 4 5 4 7 * 2 3 3 2 1 0 1 3 7 2 7 3 6 4 *2 1 2 1 0 4 6 5 4 3 6 4 2 2 1 0 1 3 7 2 7 4 5 3 3 0 3 0 1 OUTCOMES TOTALS 506 421 85 136 370 259 247 0.48 358 263 243 149 357 N = 40 N = 31 N = 9 N N N 20 10 30 + : i n d i c a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t frequency d i f f e r e n c e . - 108 -APPENDIX IV REFLECTIONS ON "A JOURNEY THROUGH THE TIMES OF YOUR LIFE" - 109 -A JOURNEY THROUGH THE TIMES OF YOUR LIFE Two groups of f i v e people ( three women and two men i n each group) met w i t h the c ounse l l o r f o r an hour each week f o r a pe r i od of e igh t weeks. The c ounse l l o r in t roduced a t o p i c of remin iscence a t the beg inn ing of each s e s s i on , and then f a c i l i t a t e d the l i f e -rev iew ing process f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s by produc ing the core t he rapeu t i c c ond i t i o n s , and by employing c oun se l l i n g s k i l l s such as a c t i v e l i s t e n i n g , empathic r e f l e c t i o n , and s t i m u l a t i n g probes. The o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s sem i - s t ruc tu red group were two-f o l d : 1. To p rov ide a suppor t i ve group con tex t , and 2. To f a c i l i -t a t e i n d i v i d u a l remin iscence w i t h the s p e c i f i c i n t e g r a t i v e f unc t i ons of l i f e - r e v i e w . A d e t a i l e d , week-to-week course o u t l i n e f o l l ows below. Th i s o u t l i n e i s a comp i l a t i on and d i s t i l l a t i o n of suggested t o p i c s from seve r a l s ou r c e s , ( B i r r e n & Reedy, 1979; Ebe r so l e , 1976a, 1976c, 1978; Lewis & B u t l e r , 1974). In a d d i t i o n , h i g h l i g h t s from the content l o g of each weekly meeting are excerpted i n po i n t form to i l l u s t r a t e the potent content and v i v i d n e s s of the memories. These ten p a r t i c i p a n t s ranged i n age from 68 years to 85 years w i t h a mean age of 74.4 y ea r s . Many of the remembered events occurred as long ago as 80 yea r s , ye t they were r e c a l l e d w i t h remarkable c l a r i t y : the pe rson ' s body, f e e l i n g s , words, were a l l i n vo l ved i n the r e - t e l l i n g of the ep isode. COURSE OUTLINE OBJECTIVES Week 1. To introduce the group and i t s objectives. 2. To begin to develop a supportive group climate. 3. To allow p a r t i c i p a n t s to p r a c t i c e sharing personal information with the group. 4. To begin reminiscing w i t h i n the structured format of a l i f e -long perspective. 5. To provide continuity l i n k s with the subsequent weeks. ACTIVITIES B r i e f introduction of leader and explan-a t i o n and out l i n e of the group. NAMES: Each person i s asked to introduce themselves by t e l l i n g a story about how they got t h e i r name. They can also t e l l of the c u l t u r a l heritage of the name; how they f e e l about the name. LIFE LINE: Each person w i l l draw t h e i r l i f e l i n e from b i r t h to death, and mark on i t the s i g n i f i c a n t events of t h e i r l i v e s . Then each person w i l l be i n v i t e d to discuss t h e i r l i n e with the group. B r i e f session c l o s i n g exercise of the leader's choice. o i Week 2. 1. To continue to b u i l d the support-ive group environment. 2. To continue to reminisce and share personal information (experiences, f e e l i n g s , e t c . ) . 1. B r i e f recap of the previous week. 2. The group w i l l generate a l i s t of s i g n i f i -cant events i n public h i s t o r y , and then each i n d i v i d u a l w i l l discuss her personal experience of one or more of these p u b l i c events as time allows. 3. B r i e f session c l o s i n g exercise of the leader's choice. COURSE OUTLINE ( OBJECTIVES Weeks 3 to 7: 1. To continue to re m i n i s c e , always w i t h the focus of l i f e - r e v i e w f u n c t i o n s and outcomes. 2. To p r o g r e s s i v e l y explore more personal and more i n t i m a t e areas of each of our l i v e s . Week 8: 1 . T o f a c i l i t a t e a p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s of the va l u e and meaning of each of our l i v e s . 2. To u n d e r l i n e again the l i f e - l o n g p e r s p e c t i v e . 3. To provide c l o s u r e to t h i s s m a l l group experience. ACTIVITIES 1. B r i e f recap of the previous week. 2. Weekly t o p i c s as f o l l o w s : Week 3: Talk about the s p e c i a l c e l e b r a t -ions, r i t u a l s , and foods i n your l i f e . Week 4: Describe the h i s t o r y of your career or major l i f e work. Week 5: Talk about a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t -i onship and how i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t . Week 6: L i s t and di s c u s s your accomplish-ments . Week 7: Discuss the roads not taken. L i s t the things you could not do or chose not to do. 3. B r i e f s e s s i o n c l o s i n g e x e r c i s e of the leader's choice. 1. B r i e f recap of the previous week. 2. Describe the development of your l i f e goals and the meaning of your l i f e . 3. LIFE LINE REVIEW & UPDATE: Each person w i l l add to and r e v i s e the l i f e l i n e s t a r t e d i n the f i r s t week. 4. Ap p r e c i a t i o n s and goodbyes: s e s s i o n and group c l o s u r e . - 112 -WEEKLY HIGHLIGHTS FROM THE CURRENT LOG Week One: Highlights In drawing t h e i r l i f e l i n e s , the pa r t i c i p a n t s i d e n t i f i e d the following l i f e events as s i g n i f i c a n t (note: t h e i r age when the event occurred i s given i n brackets): 1. Births a) t h e i r own : year (1896, 1904, 1905, 1905, 1906, 1906, 1908, 1908, 1913, 1914); : geographical l o c a t i o n (seven i n Canada, one each i n USA, Ireland, and England); : b i r t h order (only c h i l d , youngest by 12 years of two daughters, youngest of 13 and a twin, eldest of f i v e , t h i r d of four, youngest of four, second eldest of eight, middle daughter of three, eldest of two sons, t h i r d of eight); b) of younger s i b l i n g s (at age 9); c) of t h e i r own children (at age 18, 19, 23, 29, 31). 2. Deaths a) of parents (at age 15, 31, 58, 63); b) of spouse (at age 40, 63, 64, 67, 68); c) of t h e i r c h i l d r e n (at age 21, 24, 56); d) of s i b l i n g s (at age 4, 68); e) of s i g n i f i c a n t others eg. an aunt (at age 65); f) of beloved pets (at age 64). 3. F i r s t s a) purchase of f i r s t car (at age 20); b) purchase of f i r s t house (at age 24); c) f i r s t job (at age 14, 16, 23); - 113 -d) f i r s t set of new clothes (at age 26); e) eating peaches f or the f i r s t time (at age 6). 4. Work hist o r y including war service. 5. Retirement (at age 59, 61, 63, 68). 6. Starting school (at age 7) and leaving school (at age 11). 7. Geographical moves a) own (at age 3, 4, 22, 58); b) of chi l d r e n (at age 63 daughter moved to A u s t r a l i a ) . 8. Marriages and remarriages (at age 17, 22, 29, 30, 30, 63; one man married at age 27 and remarried three more times at ages 30, 41, 68). 9. Divorces and separations (at age 44, 73). 10. Childhood "traumas" a) gored by b u l l (at age 13); b) being p h y s i c a l l y fought over by divorcing parents (at age 4); c) i l l n e s s e s - p o l i o (at age 5) - s c a r l e t fever (at age 4) - diphtheria (at age 6); d) car accident (at age 7). 11. Personal health c r i s e s a) accidents (at age 50); b) eyes (at age 73); c) cancer (at age 54); d) operations (at age 23); e) heart attacks (at age 56). - 114 -12. Personal experiences of natural disasters a) fl o o d (at age 43); b) earthquake (at age 41); c) f l u epidemic which resulted i n schools being closed (at age 14). 13. Personal experiences of h i s t o r i c a l events a) depression (at age 18, 28, 38); b) WWII (at age 25, 34, 44); c) assassination of Kennedy (at age 50); d) abdication of King Edward (at age 41); 14. Extensive t r i p s and t r a v e l l i n g (at a wide v a r i e t y of ages). 15. Milestones i n l i f e - l o n g i n t e r e s t s and hobbies a) playing guitar on the radio (at age 35); - 115 -Week two: Highlights The subjects r e c a l l e d several personal experiences of the events i n public history: WWI - fascinated by the s t o r i e s of the defense mines i n Georgia S t r a i t ; Post-WWI - scandal of the Komo Gata Maru - a boat "quarantined" i n the Vancouver harbour because the Hindu passengers were not wanted i n Canada; Crash of '29 - started to work at an investment house only s i x months before the crash - knew of men who committed suicide; Depression - memories of mother giving a man a meal i n exchange for h i s chopping wood or whatever - t r a i n s of hungry men t r a v e l l i n g looking f or work; - spent time i n a r e l i e f camp up north - dishearted -thoughts of suicide; - remembers a parade of men marching past on t h e i r way to occupy the post o f f i c e - they were f i n a l l y gassed out by the p o l i c e ; - remembers the i n j u s t i c e and i n d i g n i t y of men having to peddle f r u i t on the streetcorners; - did l o t s of odd jobs, long hours - poor pay - once shoveled snow for 10 hours (no breaks) for $3.00; - remembers the hopelessness and sense of betrayal when the house was l o s t when the payments were i n arrears; - out of desperation, had to s e l l my best team of horses and my wagon at much l e s s than I had paid for them; Abdication of the King (1937) - remembers s i t t i n g around the radio, hushed, crying. - 116 -WWII (1939-1945) - constant f e a r of i n c e n d i a r y b a l l o o n s from Japan; - acceptance of f r i e n d s (of Japanese ancestry) being inter n e d i n camps; - widespread f e a r and m i l l i o n s of rumors when the ship blew up i n the Vancouver harbour - windows blown out a l l over town; - o p p o r t u n i t i e s to serve one's country - i n the m i l i t a r y and as a c i v i l i a n ; - staunch t e e t o t l e r being embarrassed standing i n l i n e at the l i q u o r s t o r e to use r a t i o n coupons f o r l i q u o r purchases f o r a f r i e n d . A s s a s s i n a t i o n of Kennedy (1963) - v i v i d l y remembers tur n i n g on the TV at work -everyone gathered around i n d i s b e l i e f . - 117 -Week three: Highlights Many memories of childhood Christmases were shared: - p a r t i c u l a r Christmas celebrated at my uncle's at age 7 - 1 got a d o l l ' s bed as my g i f t ; - fresh orange i n my stocking - a once i n a year trea t ! - my maternal grandparents always gave me something new to wear - I remember the year I got my f i r s t p a i r of trousers (age 5); - we each got one g i f t , and we opened them on Christmas eve; - the smell of the candles on the tree; - going with my father to chop down the tree; - can s t i l l hear my mother admonishing: "Don't crack nuts i n bed!"; - l i q u o r was served with the meal - but only to the men; - remembers shooting game with h i s father on C h r i s t -mas day - the one day each year you could get away with poaching on the estate ( i n Ireland). Easter was also a s p e c i a l time: - there was always an Easter parade i n Stanley Park -women wore t h e i r new hats - one company had a p o l i c y that i f i t rained on your new hat during the parade, they refunded your money; - neighbours, a German family, always brought over a s p e c i a l basket of candies and decorated eggs; - decorating eggs with dyes made from substances such as onion skins. - 118 -Week four: Highlights The theme of the hi s t o r y of your work career was the most popular - work i s such an important part of our l i v e s . Several comments, r e f l e c t i v e ot the Protestant work et h i c , were repeated over and over again: - keep busy, don't j u s t s i t ; - a busy person i s a happy person; - be interested i n meeting challenges; - i t ' s important to accomplish something - come up with a f i n i s h e d product; - never look for glory; - take pride i n doing a good job; - work i s and was a joy; - l i f e ' s biggest challenge i s to make something out of nothing; - help others; - work i s j u s t part of l i v i n g - we a l l have to do i t ; - no task i s too menial. The following vignettes i l l u s t r a t e how these subjects have l i v e d these r u l e s : 1. Two of the women had always worked preparing food as cooks for f a m i l i e s , logging camps, etc., and both are s t i l l a c t ive i n various clubs i n charge of catering s p e c i a l events. "Food brings out the best i n people - and I've met a l l sorts". - 119 -For one of these women, the best job was as cook to a prominent m i l l i o n a i r e and his family. "I only did the cooking, they had other s t a f f to do the cleaning etc. I had the best of everything to work with - and they were so good to me - they always i n s i s t e d I take home the l e f t o v e r s . " One woman worked her way up as a bookkeeper: " i t was always such a t h r i l l to get a sight balance." She took time out to r a i s e a family. Twenty years l a t e r , she was very proud to be re c r u i t e d back by her employer based on her previous reputation. One man has been a j a c k - o f - a l l - t r a d e s : he has worked as a carpenter, a labourer, a trainman, and an o f f i c e clerk. His f a v o r i t e job was as a medical cl e r k with the RCAF during the war - a key, c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n - "I'd have rather done i t than sleep". One woman, who began working outside the home at the age of 14, has also performed a wide v a r i e t y of jobs. Her fav o r i t e job was working on an assembly l i n e i n a food packaging plant - she l i k e d to compete against herself to improve on the previous day's output. Her le a s t f a v o r i t e job was as a mother's helper because she f e l t v i r t u a l l y a slave. She i s also proud of having driven a large truck during the war. - 120 -One woman's f a v o r i t e paid job was as a cler k i n a drug store. She was friends with a l l the customers and f e l t she provided an important s e r v i c e . She had also b u i l t most of her own house and to do so had had to learn to do a l l sorts of construction s k i l l s . Another j a c k - o f - a l l - t r a d e s man whose f a v o r i t e job was as a road grader, was responsible for the upkeep of several miles of gravel roads, and worked long, hard, and dusty hours. He took great pride i n grading a stra i g h t l i n e - "jus t so" - f o r as f a r as he could see. The job kept him i n the out-of-doors and he would see l o t s of w i l d l i f e i n the course of a day. One man had always worked with machinery and metals. His f a v o r i t e job had been i n a t o o l making plant where he designed and fabricated a wide v a r i e t y of custom items. The I r i s h man has always had a s p e c i a l way with horses. Even when he was a young boy, the neighbours would send for him i f ever one of t h e i r horses was i l l . He'd worked with horses on a v a r i e t y of ranches, spent eight years as a mounted policeman, and f i n a l l y " a r r i v e d " when he got a job as a milkman with a horse-drawn wagon - the l a s t one i n Vancouver. - 121 -9. One woman had worked for pay only for a b r i e f time before she was married. She remembers fondly the ceremony thrown by her fellow co-workers when she quit as a secretary and addressograph operator to be married. She has spent many years as a volunteer guide and scout leader, was act i v e i n her church group, and s t i l l donates a l l sorts of her handmade c r a f t items to the seniors group f o r re - s a l e . A d d i t i o n a l observations: The groups acknowledged the contributions they had made against many obstacles, and how they're s t i l l endeavouring to contribute, to be productive now that they're r e t i r e d . - 122 -Week f i v e : Highlights Most of the subjects focused on childhood " i d o l s " : - my maternal grandfather: we l i v e d with him af t e r my own father died - he was nice, easy-going, I l i k e d doing things with him. - my maternal grandfather: he was 12 years older than my grandmother but I used to think he'd never get old; we'd spend hours at h i s house looking up into the trees; I doted on him; he went dotty f i n a l l y - I hope I don't get l i k e that; I used to l i g h t h i s pipe when he was j u s t s i t t i n g by the f i r e ; he died a f t e r I'd l e f t Ireland; years l a t e r when I went home when my own mother was dying, she gave me money he'd l e f t e s p e c i a l l y f or me - she was waiting for me to come home to give i t to me =• i t was 500 pounds - my wife and I sure needed i t at that time too! - my paternal grandmother: she was our anchor, she could do everything; - my mother: she was always helping other people; - my Aunt Adeline:- she was always diplomatic -she always knew ju s t the r i g h t thing to say to make you f e e l good; she was always comfort-able to be with; she made my wedding cake, and often sent me home baking when we l i v e d i n Winnipeg to remind me of home; - "Kirk": Mr. K i r k p a t r i c k was s t a t i o n master of the town I grew up i n ; when I was about age 10, he was my i d e a l - he was wonderful - he had a great sense of humor - he was never angry - he was stable, competent, and always persevered; he had status i n the town; h i s daughter Catherine taught me v i o l i n . Other subjects r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t others from other periods i n "their l i v e s : - 123 -- my best f r i e n d at school, May, we s t i l l see each other - we've been friends f or over 60 years - she now.lives i n Nanaimo; - I have one f r i e n d now who i s too negative about everything a l l the time - I've promised myself never to be l i k e her; - B i l l - he's been a t e r r i f i c f r i e n d over a l l these years - he's always there, he's l o y a l -he helped me when my mother died - he's my daughter's godfather. Ad d i t i o n a l observations: Much more time could have been spent on t h i s theme. Possible probes might include: what would t h i s person think of you now? What are the " r u l e s " t h i s person taught you to l i v e by? Who i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n your l i f e now? Who, in'turn, do you think you have been s i g n i f i c a n t for i n t h i s same way? - 124 -Week s i x : Highlights The men i n the groups r e a d i l y generated l i s t s of accomplish-ments with apparent ease: 1. f u l f i l l e d a dream by learning accounting by corres-pondence; 2. through perseverance and hard work, advanced to become a supervisor; 3. r a i s e d c h i l d r e n ; 4. acquired property; 5. was a volunteer community centre leader for many years; 6. almost always got along with others; 7. ran a small business for many years; 8. always did whatever job well; 9. served my country during the war. The women i n i t i a l l y had great trouble i d e n t i f y i n g t h e i r accomplishments. They made comments such as: "but I haven't done anything that anyone else hasn't done", "I've l i v e d a commonplace l i f e " , "men had more opportunities to accomplish something". Further probes about what are your strengths? What are you proud of? encouraged them to begin t h e i r l i s t s , and then hearing from the others i n the group further increased t h e i r awarenesses of t h e i r achievements, as l i s t e d below: 1. coped successfully with whatever came along; 2. worked hard i n my marriage which has l a s t e d 55 years; - 125 -3. raised c h i l d r e n who seem happy and content; 4. adopted two c h i l d r e n and raised them as my own; 5. always involved i n community service projects; 6. always helped others when they needed me; 7. I never have i n t e n t i o n a l l y done anything wrong; 8. I've worked hard to overcome fe e l i n g s of shyness; 9; I'm learning to be more accepting of others; 10. I've become much more patient over the years; 11. I've always been an organized, orderly, methodical person; 12. I've demonstrated leadership strengths; 13. I am a r t i s t i c - painting and c r a f t s ; 14. I've earned the t r u s t of others; 15. I've taught myself to do many things; 16. I've always looked a f t e r myself - ate r i g h t , exercised; 17. I've an adventurous s p i r i t - always ready to t r y any-thing . A d d i t i o n a l observations: This theme seemed to require a d d i t i o n a l encouragement as some Ss. seemed reluctant to appear b o a s t f u l . Also, the women at f i r s t hadn't seen themselves as having accomplished anything worth men-tioning - t h i s i l l u s t r a t e s the devaluing of women's ro l e s by our society - e s p e c i a l l y i n women of these age cohorts. The next step would be to review f a i l u r e s . - 126 -Week seven: H i g h l i g h t s The subjects r e l a t e d s e v e r a l examples of roads not taken: 1. (Male): I waited u n t i l I was 33 to get married. What i f I had remained s i n g l e ? Would I have been able to stay w i t h a second career (bookkeeping) instead of f a l l i n g back on carpentry to support my f a m i l y . 2. (Male): What i f I hadn't moved to America when I was 18. How very d i f f e r e n t my l i f e would have been i f I had remained i n I r e l a n d . 3. (Female): I had to choose between marriage and the expectations of my f a m i l y that I , as the unmarried 30 year o l d daughter, would continue to look a f t e r my widowed mother. I chose marriage because I r e a l i z e d that f o r once I had to put myself f i r s t . 4. (Female): When I was 20, I wanted to be i n show business. My mother thought such p u r s u i t s were immoral, and so she pushed me i n t o t a k i n g a job i n a f a c t o r y , where I met my f i r s t husband who became an a l c o h o l i c ... I've always remained i n t e r e s t e d i n si n g i n g . 5. (Male): I had one time where I had to choose between a woman and a job. I took the jo b , and I o f t e n wondered i f i t was the r i g h t d e c i s i o n . 6. (Female): My mother remarried when I was about s i x . - 127 -My step-father was then president of the l o c a l theosophy society. I joined at age 7 and have spent the rest of my l i f e pursuing understanding and s e l f -d i r e c t i o n . I t wasn't j u s t luck that he became my step-father. 7. (Female): I'm not able to remember any forks i n the path - I seem to have been on a s t r a i g h t , even course. 8. (Female): I had a dream of becoming a nurse, but my family couldn't a f f o r t to keep me i n school. I've had a good l i f e none the l e s s . A d d i t i o n a l observations: P o t e n t i a l probes would include probes for f e e l i n g s such as anger and resentment, probes for a sense of who i s responsible, and probes of how can you now pursue those important other roads? - 128 -Week eight: Highlights This was a more abstract theme, and the subjects therefore had a more d i f f i c u l t time a r t i c u l a t i n g the meaning of t h e i r l i f e and t h e i r l i f e goals: - trying your best to the best of your a b i l i t y ; - work; - r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; - helping others; - helping neighbours; - enjoying beauty and pleasure; - achieving contentment, peace, inner i n t e g r i t y ; - be honest, responsible; - be s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t ; - meet challenges; - develop your s k i l l s to handle l i f e ; - inner s a t i s f a c t i o n of accomplishment. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0054251/manifest

Comment

Related Items