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International peers : perceptions of the host-national peers in a program designed to aid the adjustment… Duthie, Myrna 1987

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INTERNATIONAL PEERS: P e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e H o s t - N a t i o n a l P e e r s i n a P r o g r a m D e s i g n e d t o A i d t h e A d j u s t m e n t o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by M y r n a D u t h i e B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES D e p a r t m e n t o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d : THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA JANUARY 1987 (§) M y r n a L o i s D u t h i e , 19 87 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date J a n u a r y 19 87  DE-6G/81) i i . A b s t r a c t INTERNATIONAL PEERS: P e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e H o s t - N a t i o n a l P e e r s i n a P r o g r a m D e s i g n e d t o A i d t h e A d j u s t m e n t o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F o r e i g n s t u d e n t s want and n e e d s o c i a l c o n t a c t w i t h p e o p l e f r o m t h e h o s t c o u n t r y when t h e y s t u d y a b r o a d . The C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y D e p a r t m e n t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a s d e v e l o p e d a p e e r p r o g r a m where C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s a r e p a i r e d w i t h f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i n an a t t e m p t t o e a s e t h e f e e l i n g s o f l o n e l i n e s s a n d i s o l a t i o n w h i c h t h e s e f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s o f t e n e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s p a p e r c o n t a i n s a r e v i e w o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p e e r p r o g r a m , an a n a l y s i s o f i n t e r v i e w s w i t h h o s t - n a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a n t s a nd r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e m e n t s t o t h e p r o g r a m . The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w s u r v e y s t h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s on N o r t h A m e r i c a n c a m p u s e s , s e v e r a l t h e o r i e s o f t h e a d j u s t m e n t p r o c e s s and p r o g r a m s d e s i g n e d t o a i d t h a t a d j u s t m e n t . Some f a c t o r s w h i c h h e l p s t u d e n t s a d j u s t t o a new e n v i r o n m e n t a r e c o u n s e l l i n g and p e e r s u p p o r t . H o s t p e e r s commented on how and why t h e y became p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e p r o g r a m . They r e v e a l e d some o f t h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b e i n g a h e l p i n g p e e r . The b e n e f i t s t h e y r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e p r o g r a m were many b u t t h e y were a b l e t o i d e n t i f y s e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o g r a m w h i c h c o u l d be c h a n g e d t o make t h e p r o g r a m more r e w a r d i n g t o t h e m s e l v e s and t o t h e f o r e i g n p e e r s . i i i . Table of Contents Page T i t l e Page i Abstract i i Table of Contents i i i L i s t of Graphs v 1. Introduction Foreign Students in Canada 1 D i f f i c u l t i e s of Adjustment 2 Academic and Personal Adjustment 3 Need for thi s Study 4 Purpose of t h i s Study 6 Research Question 7 2. Literature Review Overview 8 Problems Encountered by Foreign Students ... 8 The Process of Adjustment 15 Programs to Aid Adjustment 21 Counselling & the International Student .... 26 Peer Programs 29 Personal Contact with Host Nationals 31 Summary 33 3. Method Overview 35 Design & Implementation of a Peer Program .. 35 Components of the program 36 Host student recruitment & tra i n i n g 37 Orientation 38 On-going meetings 40 Evaluation and research 40 Procedure 41 Sample 41 Data C o l l e c t i o n 42 Sorting 44 Data Analysis 44 Content Analysis 45 Summary 46 4. Analysis of Data 47 iv. 5. Discussion Overview 72 Reasons for Joining the Peer Program 74 Training for the Program 76 Orientation 77 Compatibility of Peers & Buddies 80 D i f f i c u l t i e s with Being a Peer 81 Sex 83 Culture 84 Perceptions of International Students' Views 84 6. Summary and Recommendations Overview 87 Recruiting 88 Orientation 90 D i f f i c u l t i e s of Being a Peer 90 Perception of the Importance of Their Role.. 91 Recommendations: Continuation of the Program 91 Selection and Recruiting of Host Peers 92 Orientation Process 92 Manual or Handbook 93 Support for Host Peers 94 Recognition of Contribution 95 Support for International Students 95 Training for Host National Peers 96 Evaluation 97 Further Research 97 Conclusion 99 7. References 100 Appendices Appendix A Interview Questions 105 Appendix B Graphs 108 Appendix C Recruiting Posters 116 Appendix D C e r t i f i c a t e s of Recognition 120 L i s t of Graphs page 1. Impact th i s Association had on You 48 2. Host Canadians Experience: Anticipated and Actual Rewards 52 3. Nature of Contacts Between Peers 57 4. Positive/Negative Aspects of Program 58 5. Suggested Changes to the Program 61 6. Changes to Program to Benefit Hosts 62 7. Changes to Program to Benefit Foreign Students ... 62 - 1 -Chapter 1 I r x t i r o d u c t i o n . E°£i.i2Q_St udents_j_n_Canada Foreign students want and need soc ia l contact with people from the host country when they study abroad. The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia developed a peer program where Canadian students are paired with foreign students in an attempt to a id the feel ings of lonel iness and i s o l a t i o n which they often experience. This study w i l l examine the host nat iona l s ' perceptions of the program and look at some of the suggestions made to improve the program for the benefit of the hosts and the foreign students. Adjustment to another country and cul ture takes time and e f f o r t . The degree of d i f f i c u l t y in the task is dependent upon three main fac tors : a) the difference between the culture from which one comes and the new c u l t u r e , b> the tasks one wishes to accomplish in the new c u l t u r e , and c) the personal i ty and s k i l l s of the i n d i v i d u a l . S k i l l s which would be considered helpful would be language s k i l l s , soc ia l s k i l l s and such p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s as f i n a n c i a l and everyday 1 iv ing s k i l l s . Students from around the world have been leaving the r e l a t i v e safety and secur i ty of t h e i r homes to attend u n i v e r s i t i e s in other countries for many years. - 2 -The f i r s t s t u d e n t s f r o m o t h e r n a t i o n s were b r o u g h t t o Canada by m i s s i o n a r i e s o r t e a c h e r s i n m i s s i o n s c h o o l s i n d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s ( M i c k l e , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h i s f i r s t i n v o l v e m e n t o c c u r r e d a b o u t 1945. I n 1959 Canada o f f e r e d 250 p l a c e s f o r f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h t h e Commonwealth S c h o l a r s h i p P l a n and t h e numbers have been s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g s i n c e t h e n ( M i c k l e , 1 9 8 4 ) . D i l i i£.y.!ties_of . A d j u s t m e n t A l l s t u d e n t s e x p e r i e n c e a m i n o r c h a n g e i n e n v i r o n m e n t when t h e y l e a v e s c h o o l and go t o a c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y . U n l i k e t h e s e n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s , most i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s e n c o u n t e r t r e m e n d o u s c u l t u r e s h o c k once t h e y e n t e r a f o r e i g n c o u n t r y a n d engage i n campus a c t i v i t i e s . They e x p e r i e n c e d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l i m a t e , f o o d , s o c i a l v a l u e s , modes o f b e h a v i o u r and v e r b a l a n d n o n - v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . These e x p e r i e n c e s o f t e n r e s u l t i n a l o s s o f c u l t u r a l a n d p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y . Sue and Sue ( 1 9 7 2 ) i d e n t i f i e d t h e way s t u d e n t s may r e a c t t o c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t : ( 1 ) r e s i s t a s s i m i l a t i o n by a d h e r i n g t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s o f t h e f a m i l y and a s s o c i a t e p r i m a r i l y w i t h members o f t h e i r own e t h n i c g r o u p ( 2 ) t o t r y t o become - 3 -a s s i m i l a t e d a s s o o n a s p o s s i b l e and r e j e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e i r own e t h n i c g r o u p , and ( 3 ) t o have p r i d e i n o n e ' s own c u l t u r e and be p a r t o f t h e h o s t c u l t u r e a s w e l l . W h i c h e v e r way f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s a t t e m p t t o a d j u s t , t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n f r e q u e n t l y g e n e r a t e s s t r e s s , d e p r e s s i o n , f r u s t r a t i o n , f e a r and f i n a l l y p e s s i m i s m ( D i l l a r d and C h i s o l m , 1 9 8 3 ) . R e s e a r c h s i t e d by D i l l a r d a nd C h i s o l m ( 1 9 8 3 ) r e p o r t s t h a t most i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s p l a c e h i g h p r i o r i t y on a c a d e m i c a d j u s t m e n t and v i e w i n t e r p e r s o n a l h a p p i n e s s a s a s o c i a l a c c e s s o r y . These s t u d e n t s f o r e s a w t h e i r m a j o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a s b e i n g t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l a c a d e m i c g o a l and p l a c e d o n l y s m a l l i m p o r t a n c e on i n t e r p e r s o n a l g o a l s o r l e a r n i n g a b o u t t h e h o s t c u l t u r e and g o v e r n m e n t . W h i l e t h e y a n t i c i p a t e d p r o b l e m s r e l a t i n g t o f i n a n c e s , c o u r s e s c h e d u l e s , h o u s i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s and s c h o l a s t i c p e r f o r m a n c e , t h e y were n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h s o c i a l c o n t a c t o r h o m e s i c k n e s s . The r e a l i t y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i s t h a t a f t e r s t u d e n t s a r r i v e i n a f o r e i g n c o u n t r y t h e i r n e e d f o r s o c i a l c o n t a c t o v e r s h a d o w s t h e o t h e r i s s u e s a n d i m p a i r s t h e i r a b i l i t y t o f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r p o t e n t i a l . - 4 -A l t h o u g h Kahne ( 1976) f e e l s t h a t f o r e i g n , s t u d e n t s e x p e r i e n c e t h e same p r o b l e m s a s n a t i v e s t u d e n t s , t h e y a l s o f a c e p r o b l e m s t h a t a r e more u n i q u e l y c u l t u r e - b a s e d o r a r e a t l e a s t a g g r a v a t e d by t h e s t r e s s e s o f t h e new c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s m u l t i p l e n a t u r e o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t a d j u s t m e n t c a n be s u m m a r i z e d a s a n e e d i n g t o a t t a i n a d j u s t m e n t t o f o u r d i f f e r e n t r o l e s ( 1 ) a s a f o r e i g n e r w i t h s p e c i a l c u l t u r a l l e a r n i n g p r o b l e m s ; ( 2 ) a s a s t u d e n t a d j u s t i n g t o t h e s t r e s s common t o a l l b e g i n n i n g s t u d e n t s ; ( 3 ) a s a m a t u r i n g , d e v e l o p i n g p e r s o n c o n c e r n e d a b o u t p u r p o s e s , m e a n i n g and g o a l s ; a n d ( 4 ) a s a n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e n s i t i v e a b o u t h i s o r h e r e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d and n a t i o n a l s t a t u s ( B o c h n e r , 1972 i n C h u r c h , 1 9 8 2 ) . N e e d _ f or_Th_i s _ S t u d y T h e r e i s a n e e d f o r an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y t o i n v e s t i g a t e s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f a p a i r i n g p r o g r a m done a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i t h f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s and h o s t - c o u n t r y p e e r s . The p a r t i c u l a r f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y i s on t h e p e r c e p t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e h o s t n a t i o n a l s who a c t e d a s p a r t n e r s w i t h t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s i n a n e f f o r t t o a i d t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t . - 5 -Few s t u d i e s have been c o n d u c t e d i n Canada on t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s o r on t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e o r h i n d e r s u c c e s s f u l a d a p t a t i o n ( M i c k l e , 1984; Westwood, 1 9 8 5 ) . V e r y l i t t l e h a s b e e n done t o p r o v i d e p r o g r a m s t o a i d i n t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . The l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e on f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s (Westwood, 1985; M i c k l e , 1985) i s a l m o s t u n a n i m o u s i n f i n d i n g t h a t f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s want and n e e d s o c i a l c o n t a c t w i t h p e o p l e i n t h e i r h o s t c o u n t r y . R e s e a r c h , h o w e v e r , has i g n o r e d t h e p a r t p l a y e d by t h e h o s t n a t i o n a l s i n a i d i n g t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . I n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a p r o g r a m f o r f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s , we must a l s o l o o k a t t h e m o t i v a t i o n s a n d r e w a r d s f o r h o s t n a t i o n a l s b e c a u s e t h e s e p e o p l e , t o o , must b e n e f i t f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e . The t r a u m a o f " c u l t u r a l s h o c k " c o u l d be r e d u c e d i f t h e f o r e i g n s t u d e n t , on a r r i v a l , knew more a b o u t g e n e r a l norms o r s t a n d a r d s o f b e h a v i o r . T h i s k i n d o f p r e - i n f o r m a t i o n i s o f t e n l a c k i n g and d i f f i c u l t t o i m p a r t by w r i t t e n c o m m u n i c a t i o n and t h e b u l k o f t h e s t u d e n t o r i e n t a t i o n i s l e f t t o t h e h o s t c o u n t r y a f t e r t h e s t u d e n t has a r r i v e d . K l e i n b e r g and H u l l ( 1 9 7 9 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y were n o t t o o s u r p r i s e d t o f i n d t h a t a number o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s ( o f t e n a s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n ) r e p o r t e d i n a d e q u a t e i n f o r m a t i o n b e f o r e a r r i v a l . What was more s t a r t l i n g was how many i n d i c a t e d d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g t h e n e e d e d i n f o r m a t i o n a f t e r a r r i v a l . T h i s may have b e e n due t o t h e i r own l a c k o f e n t e r p r i s e , b u t i t i s h i g h l y p r o b a b l e t h a t i n many c a s e s t h e y f o u n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c o v e r w h e r e , a nd f r o m whom, s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be o b t a i n e d . T h i s t y p e o f " i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t i n f o r m a t i o n " i s one o f s e v e r a l r e a s o n s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a p e e r p r o g r a m . P u r g o s e _ o f _ThJ_s_Study_ The p u r p o s e o f t h i s p a p e r i s t o e x a m i n e one a s p e c t o f th e p r o g r a m w h i c h was e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d e s i g n e d t o a i d t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y i s on t h e r o l e a n d e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e h o s t - n a t i o n a l s r a t h e r t h a n on th e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . G r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s f r o m t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y i n t h e F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n a c t e d a s p e e r s o r b u d d i e s f o r s t u d e n t s f r o m o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . These C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s h a d o r were a c q u i r i n g t r a i n i n g i n c o u n s e l l i n g t e c h n i q u e s a n d most had e x p r e s s e d an i n t e r e s t i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g . I n o r d e r t o f i n d o u t a b o u t t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e h o s t n a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a n t s , an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d . As p a r t o f t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y , t h i r t y v o l u n t e e r - 7 -C a n a d i a n s were m a t c h e d w i t h t h i r t y f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s who were a l s o v o l u n t e e r s f o r t h e p r o g r a m . From t h i s g r o u p , 17 C a n a d i a n s who had a g r e e d t o a c t a s p e e r s were i n t e r v i e w e d w i t h a v i e w t o o b t a i n i n g t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e p r o g r a m . A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s were a s k e d t h e same q u e s t i o n s . The a n s w e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s were a n a l y z e d u s i n g t h e c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e . The i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s p r o d u c e d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e methods u s e d i n s e l e c t i n g p e e r s , t h e t y p e o f t r a i n i n g n e c e s s a r y t o f u l f i l l t h e r o l e o f p e e r a n d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d management o f t h e p r o g r a m w i t h a v i e w t o a l t e r i n g t h e p r o g r a m t o make i t e f f e c t i v e and r e w a r d i n g f o r b o t h t h e C a n a d i a n s a nd I n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . B£§earch_Que s t j. on The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e s c r i b e a n d u n d e r s t a n d t h e p e r c e p t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e h o s t n a t i o n a l s who p a r t i c i p a t e d a s p e e r s i n a p r o g r a m d e s i g n e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The n e x t c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s a r e v i e w o f t h e r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e s u r r o u n d i n g t h e c o n t e n t o f t h i s s t u d y . - 8 -Chapter 2 E_. i teirait ur*e Review Overview T h i s r e s e a r c h review w i l l focus on s t u d i e s e x p l o r i n g the problems encountered by f o r e i g n u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s , t h e o r i e s of adjustment of f o r e i g n student and programs and s e r v i c e s designed to help t h e i r adjustment. Because the time in the f o r e i g n country i s longer than that of a t o u r i s t and s h o r t e r than that of an immigrant, the term "sojourner" ( B r e i n & David, 1971) has been adapted to d e s c r i b e a student who s t u d i e s abroad. A so j o u r n e r has a very s p e c i f i c task and a d e f i n i t e t i m e t a b l e f o r accomplishing h i s task. A great deal of r e s e a r c h has been done on the types of problems these s o j o u r n e r s encounter and the stages of adjustment they experience d u r i n g t h e i r time abroad. E£2^l£IBS_Encountered_by__Fore The term " c u l t u r e shock" was f i r s t used by H a l l (1959) to r e f e r to people suddenly introduced to a c u l t u r e very d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r own. He d e s c r i b e s i t as a removal or d i s t o r t i o n of many of the f a m i l i a r cues one encounters at home and the s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r them other cues which are strange ( H a l l , 1959, p. 156) 9 -O b e r g ( 1 9 6 0 ) s t a t e s t h a t c u l t u r e s h o c k i s p r e c i p i t a t e d by l o s i n g o n e's c u e s t o s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . F o r e i g n s t u d e n t s s u f f e r c u l t u r e s h o c k when d e a l i n g w i t h e x t e r n a l m a t t e r s s u c h a s d i f f e r e n c e s i n f o o d , c l i m a t e , l a n g u a g e , m a n n e r i s m s a nd commun i c a t i o n s . S o j o u r n e r s a l s o s u f f e r f r o m s t a t u s l o s s i n p e r s o n a l a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l c i r c l e s . S t u d e n t s who were a c a d e m i c a l l y s u c c e s s f u l a t home o r p r o f e s s i o n a l l y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , s u d d e n l y f a c e p r e s s u r e t o p r o v e t h e m s e l v e s a g a i n . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e y f a c e a p a i n f u l s o c i a l v u l n e r a b i l i t y i n l e a r n i n g new c u l t u r e norms ( A l e x a n d e r , 1 9 7 6 ) . I n s t e a d o f m a k i n g c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i r h o s t c o u n t r y p e e r s , f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s o f t e n t u r n t o o t h e r s l i k e t h e m s e l v e s , f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s , t o p r o v i d e n e c e s s a r y s u p p o r t . T h i s c r e a t e s b a r r i e r s t o i n t e r - c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t and s u p p o r t s a n e g a t i v e i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e h o s t c o u n t r y ( D i l l a r d a n d C h i s h o l m , 1 9 8 3 ) . A l e x a n d e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) r e p o r t e d t h e i r r e s e a r c h s h o w i n g t h a t t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f n o n - W e s t e r n , o r T h i r d W o r l d , s t u d e n t s . . . " f e e l v u l n e r a b l e and a t r i s k d u r i n g much o f t h e i r t i m e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s " ( p . 8 3 ) . The p r o b l e m s r e p o r t e d by f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s o v e r t h e l a s t 30 y e a r s have r e m a i n e d e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same ( H u l l , 1978; - 10 -F a s h e h , 1 9 8 4 ) . On t h e b a s i s o f c o n s i s t e n c y o f m e n t i o n a nd e x p r e s s e d i m p o r t a n c e i n v a r i o u s s t u d i e s , t h e most i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m s a p p e a r t o be l a n g u a g e d i f f i c u l t i e s , f i n a n c i a l p r o b l e m s , a d j u s t m e n t t o a new e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m , h o m e s i c k n e s s , a d j u s t i n g t o s o c i a l c u s t o m s a nd nor m s , and f o r some s t u d e n t s , r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ( C h u r c h , 1 9 8 2 ) . T h e r e h a s been some d i s a g r e e m e n t among r e s e a r c h e r s w h e t h e r f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s i n t h e k i n d s o f p r o b l e m s t h e y f a c e a t u n i v e r s i t y . The o f f i c e o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t A f f a i r s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e O f f i c e o f I n s t i t u t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f T e n n e s s e e , c o n d u c t e d a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s u r v e y o f t h e f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d d u r i n g t h e 1971 w i n t e r t e r m ( J o h n s o n , 1 9 7 1 ) . The s u r v e y was d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e b o t h e m p i r i c a l and a t t i t u d i n a l i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y . P r o b l e m s o f f o r e i g n a n d d o m e s t i c s t u d e n t s a r e c o m p a r e d . O n l y i n t h e c a s e s o f f o o d , h o m e s i c k n e s s a nd s e p a r a t i o n f r o m f a m i l y were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o u n d . D o m e s t i c s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d more p r o b l e m s t h a n f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i n d e a l i n g w i t h f o o d . ( F o r e i g n : 34%; d o m e s t i c : 5 4 % ) . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s may have b e e n more p r e p a r e d - 1 1 -t o d e a l w i t h u n f a m i l i a r f o o d w h i l e d o m e s t i c s t u d e n t s were u n p r e p a r e d f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l f o o d . The d i f f e r e n c e s d i s c o v e r e d i n t h e two i t e m s r e l a t e d t o d e t a c h m e n t f r o m f a m i l y were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e d i r e c t i o n e x p e c t e d ( H o m e s i c k n e s s : f o r e i g n , 5 0 % ; d o m e s t i c , 27%; S e p a r a t i o n f r o m f a m i l y : f o r e i g n , 5 3 % ; d o m e s t i c , 2 0 % ) . The g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e i n v o l v e d and t h e f r e q u e n t l y s t r o n g e r f a m i l y t i e s c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o t h i s d i f f e r e n c e . T h i s p a p e r by J o h n s o n ( 1 9 7 1 ) s u g g e s t s s e v e r a l r e a s o n s why f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d so few p r o b l e m s . B e c a u s e f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s e x p e c t t o e n c o u n t e r some p r o b l e m s , t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n o f what c o n s t i t u t e s a p r o b l e m may be d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f d o m e s t i c s t u d e n t s . The r e s u l t t h a t o n l y 46% o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d " l a c k o f good f r i e n d s " a s a p r o b l e m d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h e y have good f r i e n d s ; i t c o u l d mean t h a t i t i s n o t a p r o b l e m b e c a u s e t h e i r main g o a l i n t h i s c o u n t r y i s t o s t u d y . A n o t h e r f a c t o r w h i c h may c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e a c k n o w l e d g m e n t o f few c u r r e n t p r o b l e m s by t h e s e s t u d e n t s i s t h a t t h e s e p r o b l e m s have b e e n a l l e v i a t e d by a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s o r p r o g r a m s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o a d j u s t m e n t . - 12 -The o n l y p r o b l e m s r e p o r t e d i n J o h n s o n ' s ( 1 9 7 1 ) s t u d y by more t h a n h a l f t h e f o r e i g n and more t h a n h a l f t h e d o m e s t i c s t u d e n t s were " E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e p r o f i c i e n c y , " ( f o r e i g n , 60%; d o m e s t i c , 63%) and "My a b i l i t y t o g e t a l o n g f i n a n c i a l l y h e r e , " ( f o r e i g n , 5 5 % ; d o m e s t i c , 6 0 % ) . A f o u r c h o i c e r e s p o n s e was a v a i l a b l e f o r e a c h i t e m : " v e r y i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m , " " i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m , " " s o m e t i m e s a p r o b l e m , " and " n o t a p r o b l e m . " S i n c e a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e i n d i c a t e d E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y a s " v e r y i m p o r t a n t , " and s i n c e t h e r e s p o n s e s f o r b o t h f i n a n c e s and l a n g u a g e d i d n o t d i f f e r g r e a t l y f r o m t h o s e o f d o m e s t i c s t u d e n t s , J o h n s o n a g r e e d w i t h B a r b a r a J . W a l t o n ( 1 9 6 7 ) t h a t t h e f o r e i g n s t u d e n t must be a p p r o a c h e d a s "More s t u d e n t t h a n f o r e i g n . " I t must be n o t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e g i v e n t o d o m e s t i c s t u d e n t s , t h e i t e m " E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e p r o f i c i e n c y " was c h a n g e d t o r e a d " a b i l i t y t o c o m m u n i c a t e e f f e c t i v e l y . " A n o t h e r a u t h o r who s u b s c r i b e s t o W a l t o n ' s t h e o r y i s M e r t o n J . Kahne ( 1 9 7 6 ) who b e l i e v e s t h e f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s h o u l d be v i e w e d "more a s a s t u d e n t t h a n a s a f o r e i g n e r " ( p . 3 6 ) . He r e c o g n i z e s t h a t c r i s e s among i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s a r e c o n c e i v e d o f a s c o m i n g f r o m t h r e e p l a c e s : l a n g u a g e c o m p e t e n c e , d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u s t o m s a n d v a l u e s , - 13 -and u n f a m i 1 i a r i t y w i t h c u l t u r a l c u e s . Kahne l a m e n t s t h a t t h e b u r d e n i s a l w a y s on t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t . I n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s u s u a l l y p o s s e s s a much w i d e r r a n g e o f l a n g u a g e c o m p e t e n c y t h a n most o f t h e i r N o r t h A m e r i c a n h o s t s , t h e y l e a r n more a b o u t t h e h o s t c u l t u r e t h a n t h e i r h o s t s do a b o u t t h e i r s a n d i t i s o u r u n f a m i 1 i a r i t y w i t h any b u t o u r own c u l t u r a l c u e s t h a t l e a d s t o m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . An o n g o i n g s t u d y o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t a d a p t a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n ( K l e i n , 1971) came t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t W a l t o n ' s t h e o r y was c o r r e c t b e c a u s e so many f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s d i d have s u c c e s s f u l a c a d e m i c e x p e r i e n c e s and p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s . She d o e s n o t a g r e e w i t h t h e i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t t h e f o r e i g n s t u d e n t ' s p r o b l e m s a r e m i n i m a l : B e h i n d t h e i r f a c a d e o f a c a d e m i c p r o g r e s s we f i n d many s t u d e n t s u n f o r t u n a t e l y w a l l e d o f f f r o m A m e r i c a n l i f e , e x i s t i n g f r o m day t o day w i t h t h e d e s p a i r i n g s e n s e o f d r u d g e r y ( K l e i n , 1971 p. 8 8 ) . R e s e a r c h by Owie ( 1 9 7 8 ) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e l e v e l o f s o c i a l a l i e n a t i o n among f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . He d e f i n e d s o c i a l a l i e n a t i o n a s p o w e r l e s s n e s s , m e a n i n g l e s s n e s s , n o r m a l n e s s , - 14 -i s o l a t i o n and s e 1 f - e s t r a n g e m e n t . The f i n d i n g s f r o m t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s u g g e s t t h a t t h e l e v e l o f s o c i a l a l i e n a t i o n among f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i s h i g h e r t h a n t h a t e x p e c t e d t o o c c u r by c h a n c e . A s t u d y ( P e r k i n s , 1977) done a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f G e o r g i a i d e n t i f i e s some s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s o f d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l g r o u p s . T h i s p a p e r c i t e s some e a r l i e r s t u d i e s ( B r e u d e r , 1972, R i s i n g & Copp, 1968; S h a rma, 1973; and G a i t h e r & G r i f f i n , 1971) w h i c h c o n c u r w i t h J o h n s o n t h a t E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e p r o f i c i e n c y was t h e m a j o r p r o b l e m i n a d j u s t i n g t o a c a d e m i c l i f e f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y by f i n a n c e s . Some s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g n o t o n l y t h e p r o b l e m s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s i n g e n e r a l b u t a l s o o f p a r t i c u l a r n a t i o n a l g r o u p s have f o u n d t h a t a l t h o u g h i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s do have some p r o b l e m s i n common, t h e y a l s o have p r o b l e m s p e c u l i a r t o t h e i r own i n t e r n a t i o n a l g r o u p s . C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s most f r e q u e n t l y n o t e d E n g l i s h as a p r o b l e m , w h i l e t h e I n d i a n s most f r e q u e n t l y n o t e d f i n a n c e s a n d d a t i n g ( P e r k i n s , 1 9 7 7 ) . - 15 -R a t h e r t h a n l o o k i n g f o r s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s we nee d t o f o c u s on t h e p r o b l e m s o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n g e n e r a l who a t t e n d a u n i v e r s i t y . K l e i n ( 1 9 7 1 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t we s p e a k o f " r o l e s h o c k " r a t h e r t h a n " c u l t u r e s h o c k " i n o r d e r t o t a p more d i r e c t l y t h e way t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n c u l t u r e s i s a c t u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d a s p r o b l e m a t i c . The c u l t u r e s a r e i n v o l v e d o n l y a s t h e y c o e x i s t a n d c o n f l i c t w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x p e r i e n c e , a n d i t i s t h a t p e r s o n a l , p r i v a t e , l i f e - s h a r e d e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e f o r e i g n s t u d e n t and t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n h i s l e a v i n g h i s home and a d a p t i n g i n a new c u l t u r e t h a t d e s e r v e o u t a t t e n t i o n . ( K l e i n , 1971, p. 88) lb£_EE2££SS_o f _Adj_us t ment S t u d e n t s who v i s i t a f o r e i g n c o u n t r y t o a t t e n d u n i v e r s i t y f i n d t h e m s e l v e s i n a p o s i t i o n where t h e f a m i l i a r norms o f h i s home c u l t u r e no l o n g e r a p p l y . W h i l e t h e h o s t c o u n t r y may be i n d u l g e n t t o t o u r i s t s , t h e r e i s an e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t s t u d e n t s w i l l c o n f o r m t o c e r t a i n b e h a v i o r s . - 16 -The l e a r n i n g i s complicated by the f a c t that even d e c l a r e d o f f i c i a l norms are not taken l i t e r a l l y by the host. The extent to which the encounter with the host s o c i e t y enables the student to l e a r n i t s norms i s c r u c i a l f o r h i s adjustment. Since almost a l l s o j o u r n e r s e v e n t u a l l y solve the problems with housing, food, and language d i f f i c u l t i e s ( K l i n e b e r g & H u l l , 1979), the d i f f e r e n c e seems to be in how the problems were s o l v e d . Some attempts have been made to p r e d i c t s o j o u r n e r adjustment from background or demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s o j o u r n e r . Church (1982) r e p o r t e d s e v e r a l authors d e c l a r i n g success in t h i s area but that the r e s u l t s were sometimes c o n t r a d i c t o r y and u n r e p l i c a t e d . The most widely s t u d i e d background v a r i a b l e s are n a t i o n a l i t y , s t a t u s , language p r o f i c i e n c y , age, e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , and previous c r o s s - c u l t u r a l e xperience. There have been a number of p u b l i c a t i o n s which d e s c r i b e stages of adjustment that s o j o u r n e r s go through in a f o r e i g n country. C r o s s - c u l t u r a l adjustment, and the a c c u l t u r a t i o n which goes with i t , u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s the formation of some - 17 -e n t i r e l y new r o l e b e h a v i o u r s i n t h e s t a t u s p o s i t i o n s a c q u i r e d i n a new s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o v e r s e a s ( C h u r c h , 1 9 8 2 ) . The l e a r n i n g o f t h e s e r o l e b e h a v i o u r s seems t o f o l l o w a p a t t e r n . T h i s p a t t e r n o f a d j u s t m e n t by a c c u l t u r a t i o n a n d a d a p t a t i o n a s L y s g a a r d showed ( L y s g a a r d , 1 9 5 5 ) , a n d a s t h e G u l l a h o r n s show i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n , h a s i n many c a s e s t h e g e n e r a l i z e d o v e r a l l f o r m o f a c u r v i l i n e a r t r e n d ( L u n d s t e d t , 1 9 6 9 ) . S e v e r a l a u t h o r s ( A d l e r , 1975; O b e r g , 1960; S m a l l e y , 1963) have d e s c r i b e d t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f s o j o u r n e r s a s a s e r i e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s w h i c h o c c u r f r o m t h e t i m e a s t u d e n t a r r i v e s i n t h e h o s t c o u n t r y u n t i l t h e y r e t u r n home. S t a g e m o d e l s e a c h have d i s t i n c t i n d i c a t o r s f o r e a c h s t a g e o f a d j u s t m e n t , i n d i c a t o r s w h i c h may v a r y w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s o r a c c o r d i n g t o c u l t u r e , may i n d i c a t e a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l o f a d j u s t m e n t . These p r o b l e m s make s t a g e d e v e l o p m e n t d i f f i c u l t t o use w i t h o u t k n o w i n g a g r e a t d e a l a b o u t t h e c u l t u r e i n v o l v e d . O b e r g ( 1 9 6 0 ) d e s c r i b e d f o u r s t a g e s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by ( 1 ) f a s c i n a t i o n and o p t i m i s t ( 2 ) h o s t i l i t y t o w a r d h o s t c o u n t r y - 18 -( 3 ) i n c r e a s e d l a n g u a g e k n o w l e d g e and s u p e r i o r i t y t o w a r d h o s t p e o p l e , a n d ( 4 ) a d j u s t m e n t c o m p l e t e , c u s t o m s a c c e p t e d and e n j o y e d . A d l e r ( 1 9 7 5 ) v i e w e d t h e a d j u s t m e n t a s a t r a n s i t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e r e f l e c t i n g " a movement f r o m a s t a t e o f low s e l f -and c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s t o a s t a t e o f h i g h s e l f - a n d c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s . " ( p . 15) I n 1955, L y s g a a r d c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y o f 200 N o r w e g i a n s t u d e n t s who had p r e v i o u s l y s t u d i e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . H i s U-Curve t h e o r y d e s c r i b e s a d j u s t m e n t a s a f u n c t i o n o f t i m e i n t h e new c u l t u r e . From a p e r i o d o f e l a t i o n a n d o p t i m i s m , t h e s t u d e n t g o e s t h r o u g h a p e r i o d o f d e p r e s s i o n f o l l o w e d by a g r a d u a l r e c o v e r y ( L y s g a a r d , 1 9 5 5 ) . The U-Curve h y p o t h e s i s h a s b e e n s t u d i e d by many r e s e a r c h e r s a nd t h e r e have b e e n s e v e r a l s u g g e s t e d r e v i s i o n s . One r e v i s i o n ( G u l l a h o r n & G u l l a h o r n , 1963) e x t e n d e d t h e t i m e l i n e t o i n c l u d e t h e p e r i o d a f t e r t h e s t u d e n t r e t u r n e d home. The U-Curve t h e n became a W-Curve t o i n c l u d e a new l o w p e r i o d b e f o r e a r e t u r n t o a d j u s t m e n t . A n o t h e r s t u d y w h i c h i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e U-Curve was done by K l i n e b e r g a n d H u l l ( 1 9 7 9 ) i n an a t t e m p t t o e i t h e r a f f i r m o r r e f u t e t h e U-Curve h y p o t h e s i s . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t : - 19 -" . . . i n t e r m s o f t h e h a r d d a t a a n a l y s e s p e r f o r m e d f o r t h e p r e s e n t i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a l m o s t no s u p p o r t was f o u n d f o r t h e " U - C u r v e " h y p o t h e s i s . " ( K l i n e b e r g and H u l l , 1979, p.180) E v i d e n c e d o e s n o t s u p p o r t t h e t h e o r y t h a t a l l s t u d e n t s go t h r o u g h t h e s e p h a s e s o r t h a t t h e t i m e p u r p o r t e d f o r t h e p h a s e s i s c o n s i s t e n t . More r e c e n t l y t h e c o n c e p t o f s o j o u r n e r a d j u s t m e n t h a s been f o c u s e d on a p r o g r e s s i o n o f s o c i a l l e a r n i n g . D a v i d ( 1 9 7 6 ) v i e w e d a d j u s t m e n t a s a r e m o v a l o f p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t ( e . g . , f r i e n d s , c u s t o m s , f o o d ) a n d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a v e r s i v e s t i m u l i ( e . g . , new l a n g u a g e , f o o d , s o c i a l b e h a v i o r ) . To a v o i d a v e r s i v e s t i m u l i i n t h e h o s t c u l t u r e , t h e s o j o u r n e r s h o u l d l e a r n how t o a v o i d o r n e u t r a l i z e a v e r s i v e s t i m u l i . D a v i d ' s a r t i c l e b r e a k s down t h e p r o b l e m s o f i n t e r - c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t i n t o t h e i r c o m p o n e n t s , w i t h some p a r t s h a v i n g a r e i n f o r c i n g a n d some a p u n i s h i n g e f f e c t . A s t u d y r e c e n t l y c o n d u c t e d by W o n g - R e i g e r ( 1 9 8 2 ) t e s t s a model o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a d a p t a t i o n w h i c h p r o p o s e s t h a t t h e - 2 0 -changes encountered in moving ac r o s s c u l t u r e s p r i m a r i l y a f f e c t s three domains: s o c i a l norms, behaviors and s e l f - c o n c e p t . To adapt, the f o r e i g n e r must engage in three p r o c e s s e s : l e a r n i n g the c u l t u r a l norms he l d by the s o c i a l groups in h i s new environment, a c q u i r i n g and preforming c u l t u r a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e b e h a v i o r s , and r e d e f i n i n g s e l f - c o n c e p t to incorporate new s e l f - a t t r i b u t e s . S c h i l d (1961) had e a r l i e r w r i t t e n of l e a r n i n g "new behaviors which are g o a l - a c h i e v i n g in the new environment..." The three ways he suggests that t h i s l e a r n i n g of behaviors a p p r o p r i a t e to the h o s t - s o c i e t y takes place are by " o b s e r v a t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n and e x p l i c i t communication" (p. 4 3 ) . Observation i s a passive process of watching others behavior. In order to s u c c e s s f u l l y achieve personal goals in the host s o c i e t y , a passive stance is not a p p r o p r i a t e . By t r y i n g out d i f f e r e n t types of behavior and responding to the r e a c t i o n s of the h o s t s , one l e a r n s by p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The t h i r d way of l e a r n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour i s to r e c e i v e e x p l i c i t communication from hosts as to what are the a p p r o p r i a t e behaviors in a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . - 21 -S c h i l d c o n c l u d e s w i t h f o u r h y p o t h e s e s w h i c h emerge f r o m h i s f i n d i n g s : a ) I n t e r m s o f s c o g e o f l e a r n i n g , o b s e r v a t i o n i s s u p e r i o r , b) I n t e r m s o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a g i v e n l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n seems s u p e r i o r , c ) I n t e r m s o f e a s e o f l e a r n i n g , i . e . t h e s p e e d w i t h w h i c h t h e s i t u a t i o n c a n be s t r u c t u r e d , e x p l i c i t c o m m u n i c a t i o n seems most e f f e c t i v e , d) As f o r t h e more d u r a b l _ e _ c h a n g e o f a t t i t u d e s , i t a p p e a r s p o s s i b l e t o r a n k t h e t h r e e ways i n o r d e r o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s , a n d t o s u g g e s t p a r t i c i p a t i o n as t h e most e f f e c t i v e means f o r i n d u c i n g c h a n g e , t h e n o b s e r v a t i o n , a n d o n l y i n t h i r d p l a c e , e x p l i c i t c o m m u n i c a t i o n . ( S c h i l d , 1961 p. 53) P r o 2 r a m s _ t o _ A _ i d _ A d j u s t merit The e x t e n t t o w h i c h s o j o u r n i n g s t u d e n t s c a n be e x p e c t e d t o a d j u s t t o t h e c u l t u r e o f t h e h o s t c o u n t r y i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e . The n a t i o n a l i t y o f t h e h o s t c o u n t r y a nd t h a t o f t h e s o j o u r n e r a r e f a c t o r s ( K l i n e b e r g & H u l l , 1 9 7 9 ) . O t h e r f a c t o r s s t u d i e d have b e e n l a n g u a g e p r o f i c i e n c y , a g e , - 22 -n a t i o n a l i t y , e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l a nd p r e v i o u s c r o s s - c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e . A r e c e n t s t u d y done by K a t h r y n M i c k l e ( 1 9 8 5 ) showed t h a t Hong Kong s t u d e n t s , t h e l a r g e s t s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n i n C a n a d a , s u f f e r f r o m h i g h e r t h a n n o r m a l s t r e s s . M i c k l e s t u d i e d Hong Kong s t u d e n t s a t two C a n a d i a n u n i v e r s i t i e s and f o u n d t h a t t h e y a r e u n d e r a g r e a t d e a l o f p r e s s u r e t o s u c c e e d a t s c h o o l . A number o f s t u d i e s have b e e n done w h i c h p r o v e t h a t m o v i n g f r o m one c u l t u r e t o a n o t h e r c a u s e s s t r e s s , a n x i e t y and o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s ( S u r d a m , 1984; W o n g - R i e g e r , 1982; P e r k i n s , 1977; K a h n e , 1976; J o h n s o n , 1971) I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e s e i s s u e s , a v a r i e t y o f t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s have b e e n d e v e l o p e d t o e n a b l e t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o c o p e . The p r o g r a m s w h i c h a r e d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t i n t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f f o r e i g n e r s have been s p o n s o r e d by g o v e r n m e n t , i n d u s t r y and c o l l e g e s . Some o f t h e p r o g r a m s c o n s i s t o f b r i e f m e e t i n g s t o e x t e n s i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s w h i c h l a s t f o r s e v e r a l months. The A m e r i c a n P e a c e C o r p s c o n d u c t an e x t e n s i v e o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m . - 23 -A handbook on c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g ( W i g h t , 1969) s u r v e y s a l a r g e number o f a p p r o a c h e s w h i c h have b e e n p r o p o s e d t o overcome p r o b l e m s o f i n t e r a c t i o n a c r o s s c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s . Most o f t h e s e a p p r o a c h e s have n o t b e e n s u b j e c t e d t o r i g o r o u s e v a l u a t i o n and l i t t l e i s known a b o u t t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s ( F e i d l e r , 1 9 7 1 ) . I t i s g e n e r a l l y assumed t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n a n d c o n t a c t b e t w e e n f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s a n d h o s t c o u n t r y s t u d e n t s i s a good and p o s i t i v e t h i n g i n i t s e l f ( H u l l , 1 9 7 8 ) . Some ( O w i e , 1982; A n t l e r , 1970) have t a k e n t h a t n o t i o n e v e n f u r t h e r a n d have assumed t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n a n d c o n t a c t w i l l a l s o i n c r e a s e p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s b e t w e e n p e o p l e f r o m d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c g r o u p s . F o r w h a t e v e r r e a s o n , c o n t a c t w i t h n a t i v e s t u d e n t s i s an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f a s u c c e s s f u l s o j o u r n . Many r e s p o n d e n t s i n H u l l ' s s t u d y o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s ( H u l l , 1978) r e f e r r e d t o t h e i r d e s i r e f o r more m e e t i n g s a n d i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h A m e r i c a n s . Some s t u d i e s have f o u n d a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s a t i s f i e d f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s a n d f r e q u e n c y o f s o c i a l c o n t a c t w i t h A m e r i c a n s ( D e u t s c h & Won, 1 9 6 3 ) . The a d v o c a c y o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t a s a means f o r b r o a d e n i n g i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e r e m a i n s w i d e s p r e a d a n d i s s u p p o r t e d by Hofman & Zak ( 1 9 6 9 ) . - 24 -A g a i n and a g a i n , when a s k e d f o r s u g g e s t i o n s t o i m p r o v e t h e s o j o u r n e x p e r i e n c e , s t u d e n t s a s k f o r h e l p i n m e e t i n g a n d i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h l o c a l i n d i v i d u a l s . " J u s t t o have a r e c e p t i o n l i n e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e y e a r t o s h a k e hands w i t h t h e P r e s i d e n t i s n o t e n o u g h , : s a i d one r e s p o n d e n t . " I n e e d someone t o h e l p me g e t i n v o l v e d w i t h o t h e r s t u d e n t s o r i n c l u b s w i t h l o c a l s t u d e n t s ; I know t h a t I s h o u l d be a b l e t o do t h i s s o r t o f t h i n g m y s e l f , b u t I n e e d h e l p , " s a i d a n o t h e r . "The h o s t f a m i l y seems t o have w o r k e d f o r a f r i e n d o f m i n e , b u t a l l my h o s t f a m i l y d i d was i n v i t e me f o r d i n n e r once and d r o v e me a r o u n d t h e c i t y . I w a n t e d t o be a b l e t o t a l k t o them and t o f e e l f r e e t o d r o p i n b u t we d i d n o t seem t o have a n y t h i n g i n common." ( K l i n e b e r g & H u l l , 1979, p.63) - 25 -Soc ia l in teract ion is seen by many authors as a most important variable in the adjustment process for sojourners . Klineberg and and Hull reported that: . . . those foreign students s a t i s f i e d and comfortable with the ir interact ions with loca l people and the loca l culture during the ir sojourn w i l l report broader and more general s a t i s f a c t i o n with the i r to ta l sojourn experience, both academically and non-academical 1 y . Contact, we are convinced, is a complex variable that in i t s e l f can generate more contact which, in turn general izes as a pos i t ive or negative experience through the to ta l sojourn. We are not prepared to argue that contact is the s ingle and most important variable in the transnat ional coping process, but i t is c e r t a i n l y a very important and major variable in that process." (Klineberg & H u l l , 1979, p.178) The q u a l i t y of the experience abroad, what the sojourner learns about the host country, and p a r t i c u l a r l y the development of meaningful re la t ionsh ips with members of that - 26 -c o u n t r y d e p e n d upon o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d e v e l o p i n g c o n t a c t s and on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e c o n t a c t s . Some f a c t o r s w h i c h m i g h t p r e d e t e r m i n e t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e s e c o n t a c t s a r e : t h e s o j o u r n e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s o f h i s n a t i o n a n d t h e h o s t n a t i o n , c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two c o u n t r i e s ; t h e s o j o u r n e r ' s commitment t o h i s own c o u n t r y ; and t h e g o a l s w i t h w h i c h he comes t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e ( M i s h l e r , 1966, p. 5 5 2 ) . Many f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s come t o a new c o u n t r y t o s t u d y w i t h no k n o w l e d g e o r a d i s t o r t e d n o t i o n o f what t h e y w i l l e n c o u n t e r . Toward t h i s e n d , a number o f o r g a n i z e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s ' s e r v i c e s i n many campuses h e l p new s t u d e n t s t o a l l e v i a t e some o f t h e i r i n i t i a l p r o b l e m s t h r o u g h a g g r e s s i v e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m s , n e t w o r k o f h o s t f a m i l i e s , p i c n i c s a n d o t h e r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . S t i l l , i n c o n g r u e n c e b e t w e e n s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n a n d s o c i a l r e a l i t y may f o r c e some f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i n t o s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n . Counse 1^ 1 j_ng_and_the_Xnterna P r o g r a m s w h i c h a i d i n a d j u s t m e n t a s d e s c r i b e d c a n be s t r e n g t h e n e d when t h e y i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n s f o r s u p p o r t t h r o u g h c o u n s e l l i n g . - 27 -The n e e d o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g a s s i s t a n c e i s o f t e n g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t ( D i l l a r d & C h i s h o l m , 1 9 8 3 ) . T h i s v i e w i s t r u e p a r t i c u l a r l y o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s f r o m A f r i c a n and E a s t e r n c u l t u r e s ( A l e x a n d e r , 1 9 7 6 ) . These s t u d e n t s u n d e r - u t i 1 i z e p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g b e c a u s e o f a s t r o n g a d h e r e n c e t o t h e i r c u l t u r a l v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n t h a t r e s t r a i n s them f r o m s e e k i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p . P s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s w i t h i n t h o s e c u l t u r e s i s u s u a l l y h a n d l e d w i t h i n a s o c i o c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t by f a m i l y members and p e e r s . H ence, some i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s may w a i t l o n g e r p e r i o d s o f t i m e t h a n A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s b e f o r e s e e k i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e . ( D i l l a r d and C h i s h o l m , 1983, p. 102) C o u n s e l l o r s ' l a c k o f k n o w l e d g e o f t h e p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s t h a t c u l t u r a l v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n s c a n have on c l i e n t s b e h a v i o u r may l i m i t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s . - 28 -B e c a u s e o f l a n g u a g e and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s a n d b e c a u s e most c o u n s e l l o r s have n o t b e e n t r a i n e d t o work w i t h them, f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s f r e q u e n t l y do n o t r e c e i v e t h e q u a l i t y o f s u p p o r t t h e y n e e d ( W o l f g a n g , 1 9 7 5 ) . These s t u d e n t s a r e o f t e n h e s i t a n t t o s e e k h e l p and t h e c o u n s e l l o r who i s n o t aware o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e t i c e n c e i s h e s i t a n t t o s e e k them o u t , o r t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i r n e e d s . B e c a u s e o f t h e number o f s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d by f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s , K l i n g e r ( 1 9 6 7 ) c o n c l u d e d t h a t a s p e c i a l a d v i s o r be a s s i g n e d t o f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . The d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f s u c h a p e r s o n , a c c o r d i n g t o K l i n g e r , a r e v a r i e d and e x t e n s i v e . T h i s p e r s o n ' s d u t i e s w o u l d i n c l u d e d e a l i n g w i t h a c a d e m i c c r e d e n t i a l s , e x p l a i n i n g l o c a l a c a d e m i c methods ( a t t e n d a n c e , t e s t i n g , c r e d i t s , g r a d i n g ) , d i a g n o s i n g a c a d e m i c d i f f i c u l t i e s , l e g a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s ( p a s s p o r t s , work p e r m i t s , income t a x ) , p e r s o n a l f i n a n c e s and s o c i a l l i f e ( d a t i n g , m o r a l v a l u e s , f a m i l y i s s u e s , r e l i g i o n s ) . The a d v i s o r i s e v e n e x p e c t e d t o a c t a s a s u b s t i t u t e p a r e n t a t t i m e s s u c h a s g r a d u a t i o n t o l e t t h e s t u d e n t know t h a t someone c a r e s . - 29 -The word " p e e r " r e f e r s t o someone who i s an e q u a l . I t u s u a l l y r e f e r s t o someone who s h a r e s r e l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e s , s i m i l a r l i f e s t y l e s a n d o f t e n a s i m i l a r a g e . The t e r m " p e e r f a c i l i t a t o r " o r " p e e r h e l p e r " i s u s e d t o d e s c r i b e someone who h e l p s a f e l l o w e q u a l . A p a p e r by J o h n F l a c k ( 1 9 8 5 ) p r o v i d e d t h e r a t i o n a l e a n d o u t l i n e d a p r o g r a m s u i t a b l e f o r p e e r h e l p e r s t o a s s i s t i d e n t i f i e d h i g h r i s k a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h e i r t r a n s i t i o n f r o m e l e m e n t a r y t o s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l . F l a c k s u g g e s t s p l a n n i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s a s w e l l a s a c t i v i t i e s f o r a r e t r e a t t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n f o r h e l p e r p e e r s . Many o f t h e s e e x e r c i s e s c o u l d be u s e d o r m o d i f i e d t o s u i t a t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m f o r h o s t n a t i o n a l p e e r s i n a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p e e r p r o g r a m . T h e r e a r e many r e a s o n s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a p e e r h e l p e r p r o g r a m , some o f w h i c h a r e : 1. P e e r h e l p e r s c a n p r o v i d e an e x t e n s i o n t o c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s when p r o f e s s i o n a l s c a n n o t meet t h e n e e d s . 2. P e e r h e l p e r p r o g r a m s p r o v i d e an i n f o r m a l a p p r o a c h t o a s s i s t a n c e . - 30 -3. A p e e r h e l p e r p r o g r a m i s a d e v e l o p m e n t a l a p p r o a c h t o g u i d a n c e a n d c o u n s e l l i n g t h r o u g h t h e t e a c h i n g o f l i f e s k i l l s . 4. P e e r h e l p e r s d e v e l o p p e r s o n a l l y t h r o u g h t h e t r a i n i n g a n d r e a l l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s . ( C a r r and S a u n d e r s ( 1 9 8 0 ) i n F l a c k ( 1 9 8 5 ) p .52. T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t s t u d e n t s have b e e n u s e d a s p e e r f a c i l i t a t o r s f o r more t h a n two c e n t u r i e s t o s u p p l e m e n t a n d a i d t e a c h e r s . O l d e r c h i l d r e n were a l l o w e d t o a s s i s t t h e t e a c h e r a n d t u t o r t h e y o u n g e r s t u d e n t s . ( M y r i c k & Bowman, 1981, i n F l a c k 1 9 8 5 ) . I n 1979, a p r o g r a m ( C a r r , 1980) was e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a w h i c h e x t e n d e d t h e p e e r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e y o n d t u t o r i n g t o p e e r c o u n s e l l i n g . C a r r a n d S a u n d e r s ( 1 9 8 1 ) d e f i n e p e e r c o u n s e l l i n g a s a l e a r n e d s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h s t u d e n t s l i s t e n t o and h e l p f a c i l i t a t e t h e g r o w t h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f o t h e r s t u d e n t s . M y r i c k & Bowman ( 1 9 8 1 ) g r o u p p e e r f a c i l i t a t o r s i n t o f i v e c a t e g o r i e s : s t u d e n t a s s i s t a n t s , s m a l l g r o u p l e a d e r s , s p e c i a l f r i e n d s , p e e r t u t o r s a n d p e e r c o u n s e l l o r s . ( F l a c k , 1 9 8 5 ) . - 31 -S t u d e n t a s s i s t a n t s c a r r y o u t d u t i e s f o r t h e s c h o o l s t a f f w h i c h i n d i r e c t l y a s s i s t o t h e r s t u d e n t s . G r o u p l e a d e r s a s s i s t t h e t e a c h e r by p r o v i d i n g l e a d e r s h i p a n d s e r v e a s r o l e m o d e l s t o o t h e r s t u d e n t s . S p e c i a l f r i e n d s p r o v i d e c o m p a n i o n s h i p t o t h e i r p e e r s . P e e r t u t o r i n g p r o v i d e s s t u d e n t s w i t h h e l p i n t h e i r s t u d i e s a n d o f t e n e n h a n c e s p o s i t i v e g r o w t h i n s e 1 f - c o n c e p t , m o t i v a t i o n , s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r a n d a t t i t u d e among p r o b l e m l e a r n e r s . I n a d d i t i o n , i t a l s o f o s t e r s s i m i l a r , y e t a t h i g h e r l e v e l s , d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e p e e r t u t o r ( E n d s l e y , 1980, i n F l a c k , 1 9 8 5 ) . P e e r c o u n s e l l i n g i s a s i t u a t i o n where s t u d e n t s l i s t e n t o and h e l p f a c i l i t a t e g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t o f o t h e r s t u d e n t s by u s i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s t o f a c i l i t a t e s e l f e x p l o r a t i o n a n d d e c i s i o n m a k i n g ( C a r r & S a u n d e r s , 1 9 8 1 ) . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l p e e r p r o g r a m w i l l i n c o r p o r a t e t h e r o l e o f s p e c i a l f r i e n d , p e e r t u t o r a n d p e e r c o u n s e l l o r . A s u r v e y (Westwood, 1985) o f Hong Kong s t u d e n t s t a k e n a f t e r t h e y had r e t u r n e d home f r o m c o m p l e t i n g u n i v e r s i t y s t u d i e s i n C a n a d a , shows t h a t many s u f f e r e d f r o m r a c i a l - 32 -d i s c r i m i n a t i o n w h i l e t h e y were i n t h i s c o u n t r y . The s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t 70 p e r c e n t c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s t h e v i c t i m s o f some f o r m o f r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o Westwoo'd, much o f t h e p e r c e i v e d r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n stemmed f r o m t h e l a c k o f c o n t a c t b e t w e e n Hong Kong s t u d e n t s and n o n - C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s . O n l y 9.6 p e r c e n t o f t h e f o r m e r s t u d e n t s s a i d t h e i r p e e r g r o u p h e r e c o n s i s t e d o f n o n - C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s . I n 1985, G o r d o n K r i n g e x a m i n e d t h e p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d by f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e p e e r p r o g r a m w h i c h t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n . H i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were s i x f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r s t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t t o l i f e i n C a n a d a . The c a t e g o r i e s and t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s a r e : A s s o c i a t i o n w i t h C a n a d i a n s 86% G e t t i n g P r a c t i c a l H e l p f r o m C a n a d i a n s 86% K n o w i n g t h a t C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t e s a r e C o n c e r n e d A b o u t my W e l l - b e i n g 7 1 % K n o w i n g t h a t t h e P e e r i s t h e r e t o G i v e S u p p o r t 7 1 % B e i n g Welcomed upon A r r i v a l 5 7 % F e e l i n g P a r t o f A G r o u p 86% - 3 3 -These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p e e r p r o g r a m h a s b e e n b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e v i s i t i n g s t u d e n t s . No r e s e a r c h i s a v a i l a b l e w h i c h e x a m i n e s a p e e r p r o g r a m f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e h o s t n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t . Summary A g r e a t d e a l o f r e s e a r c h h a s been done t o e x a m i n e t h e p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d by f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s when t h e y a r r i v e i n a f o r e i g n c o u n t r y . A l t h o u g h i t i s a g r e e d t h a t s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s a m a j o r f a c t o r i n t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s , few s t u d i e s have b e e n done t o e x a m i n e p r o g r a m s w h i c h a r e d e s i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n o f f o r e i g n a n d h o s t n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . Most p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h h a s e m p h a s i z e d m a i n l y t h e r e a c t i o n o f t h e v i s i t o r s , a n d has t e n d e d t o n e g l e c t t h o s e o f t h e h o s t p o p u l a t i o n ( K l i n e b e r g and H u l l , 1979, p. 1 8 9 ) . F l a c k ( 1 9 8 5 ) p r o v i d e d a r a t i o n a l e and t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m f o r h e l p e r p e e r s w h i c h c o u l d be a d a p t e d f o r t h e t r a i n i n g o f u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s t o a i d f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . - 34 -Brammer ( 1 9 7 8 ) e x a m i n e d t h e " h e l p i n g s y s t e m s " i n s e v e r a l c u l t u r e s and t h e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o them. He a l s o e x a m i n e d t h e i s s u e o f why p e o p l e h e l p o t h e r s and how t o meet h e l p e r n e e d s . A s u r v e y o f p e e r h e l p e r s (Brammer, 1977) i n d i c a t e d t h a t h e l p e r s g a i n more t h a n t h o s e b e i n g h e l p e d . The r e a s o n s f o r h e l p e r g a i n a r e : i n c r e a s e d s t a t u s , i m p r o v e d s e l f - i m a g e a s a w o r t h w h i l e p e r s o n , and g r e a t e r a w a r e n e s s a b o u t t h e p r o b l e m b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . (Brammer, 1978, p. 478) S t u d i e s done by K r i n g ( 1 9 8 5 ) and Westwood ( 1 9 8 6 ) a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n d i c a t e q u i t e c l e a r l y t h a t f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s c a n b e n e f i t f r o m s u c h a p r o g r a m as t h e p r o g r a m u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n . T h i s s t u d y w i l l e x a m i n e t h e p r o g r a m f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e h o s t n a t i o n a l s who were i n v o l v e d i n a i d i n g t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . - 35 -Chapter 3 M e t h o d Chapter_Overv iew T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l d e s c r i b e the i n t e r n a t i o n a l peer program and the procedure of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The word "peer" r e f e r s to someone who i s an e q u a l . In t h i s paper the term "host peer" w i l l r e f e r to the Canadians who a c t e d as f a c i l i t a t o r s to a i d the adjustment of the f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . " I n t e r n a t i o n a l peer" w i l l r e f e r to the f o r e i g n s tudent s in the peer p a r t n e r s h i p . Q § . s i 2 n _ a n d _ £ m g i e m ^ n t a t j. on_o f _a_Peer_Procjram A program des igned by D r . M. Westwood, S c o t t Lawrance and R o r r i McBlane (1984) was prepared to a s s i s t f o r e i g n s tudents wi th t h e i r e n t r y in to the Canadian env ironment . T h i s program, r a t h e r than v iewing o r i e n t a t i o n as a s i n g l e week-long event at the b e g i n n i n g of the academic y e a r , u t i l i z e s a proces s view in which o r i e n t a t i o n beg ins before the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s tudent s leave home and c o n t i n u e s u n t i l t h e i r d e p a r t u r e from Canada. - 36 -The p r o g r a m e m p h a s i z e s t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s , t h r o u g h t h e d e t a i l e d p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n C a n a d i a n and I n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s and r e s e a r c h . These s e r v i c e s a nd r e s e a r c h c o m p o n e n t s a r e d e l i v e r e d v i a t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p o r i e n t a t i o n , s m a l l g r o u p w o r k s h o p s , s t u d e n t " p e e r " s y s t e m , and i n - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m m i n g f o r t h e p e e r s . A. Components o f t h e p r o g r a m f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s 1. P r e - D e p a r t u r e I n f o r m a t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n on i m m i g r a t i o n , f i n a n c i a l m a t t e r s , and t h e o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m a r e s e n t o v e r s e a s t o t h e homes o f s t u d e n t s who have been a c c e p t e d f o r s t u d y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 2. R e a c h - O u t Community and s t u d e n t v o l u n t e e r s a r e l i n k e d t o t h o s e a c c e p t e d s t u d e n t s t o s t a r t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . I n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s a r e i n f o r m e d a b o u t t h e f o o d , c l i m a t e and t h e w e a t h e r h e r e a s w e l l a s t h e u p d a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m . 3. R e c e p t i o n G r e e t i n g and s e r v i c e s a r e p r o v i d e d a t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t upon t h e i r a r r i v a l . F r e e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s a r r a n g e d t o t a k e them t o a t e m p o r a r y h o m e s t a y s i t u a t i o n i n t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y . - 37 -4. O r i e n t a t i o n A two week l o n g i n f o r m a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d . 5 . P e e r P r o g r a m As an e x t e n s i o n t o t h e o r i e n t a t i o n , t h e p e e r p r o g r a m i s an e i g h t month l o n g p r o g r a m w h i c h l i n k s e a c h i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t t o a m a t c h e d C a n a d i a n h o s t p e e r . The r o l e s o f t h e C a n a d i a n p e e r a r e ( a ) c u l t u r a l i n t e r p r e t e r s , ( b ) f a c i l i t a t o r s , ( c ) r e f e r r a l a g e n t s , ( d ) c o n f i d a n t e s and ( e ) f r i e n d s . 6. C o n t i n u i n g S u p p o r t S e r v i c e s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e d u r a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s ' s t a y i n t h e u n i v e r s i t y u n t i l t h e i r d e p a r t u r e . B. H o s t s t u d e n t r e c r u i t m e n t , p r e p a r a t i o n and t r a i n i n g . H o s t p e e r s were r e c r u i t e d f r o m t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y . The s t u d e n t s were s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e i r b a c k g r o u n d and t r a i n i n g i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and human r e l a t i o n s . Once t h e s t u d e n t s have v o l u n t e e r e d , t h e y a r e s c r e e n e d and t r a i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : - 38 -1. C o m m u n i c a t i o n s s k i l l s ( s e n s i t i v i t y , e m p a t h y , l i s t e n i n g , p e r c e p t i o n c h e c k i n g and p a r a p h r a s i n g ) . 2. C o n c e p t u a l k n o w l e d g e o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e ( t y p i c a l s t a g e s o f a d j u s t m e n t , f e e l i n g t o n e s o f v a r i o u s s t a g e s , s i g n s o f d i s t r e s s ) . 3. I n f o r m a t i o n on c o m m u n i t y r e s o u r c e s ( m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , p l a c e s t o s h o p , h o u s i n g , r e s t a u r a n t s ) . 4. I n f o r m a t i o n on U n i v e r s i t y p r o c e d u r e and r e s o u r c e s ( r e g i s t r a t i o n , c o u n s e l l i n g , m e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e , h o u s i n g , b a n k i n g , e t c . ) . C. O r i e n t a t i o n P r e c e d i n g t h e f i r s t week o f c l a s s e s , i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s a r e f o r m a l l y i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e p e e r p r o g r a m . I n t e r n a t i o n a l and h o s t p e e r s meet f o r a f u l l d ay o f a c t i v i t i e s . The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s m e e t i n g were t o : 1. I n t r o d u c e t h e b a c k g r o u n d and t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e p e e r p r o g r a m t o b o t h t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t and t h e i r C a n a d i a n p e e r s . 2. M o t i v a t e them t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 3. H e l p them d e v e l o p an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f " c u l t u r e s h o c k . " 4. C o l l e c t b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m them t o a s s i s t t h e m a t c h i n g o f p e e r p a r t n e r s . - 39 -S m a l l g r o u p s a r e a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e o f t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m . T h e i r use i s i n t e g r a t e d w i t h and c o m p l i m e n t a r y t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e d u r e . The t r a d i t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m p r o v i d e s a l l s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h e y w i l l n e e d i n s u c h a r e a s a s i m m i g r a t i o n , h o u s i n g , f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , a n d r e g i s t r a t i o n . The s m a l l g r o u p a p p r o a c h i s s e e n a s t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e l e a r n i n g c o n t e x t f o r s t u d e n t s who, i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g a n x i e t y and d i s o r i e n t a t i o n . I n i t i a l l y , a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o p r o v i d i n g a n e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h p a r t i c i p a n t s w o u l d f e e l i n c l u d e d . The s m a l l g r o u p becomes an i n t e g r a l e l e m e n t i n t h e welcome, so e s s e n t i a l i n s e t t i n g t h e t o n e o f t h e s o j o u r n e r ' s s t a y . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t i s o f t e n e a g e r , e v e n a n x i o u s , t o make c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r s . H i s o r h e r i n i t i a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e h o s t c u l t u r e i s o f t e n b e s e t w i t h a n x i e t y , c o n f u s i o n , and a g r e a t d e a l o f s t r e s s . C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s c a n t h e n b e g i n t o a n s w e r i n d i v i d u a l q u e s t i o n s a s w e l l a s g e t t o know t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s i n d i v i d u a l l y . T h r o u g h t h i s i n i t i a l - 4 0 -p h a s e o f i n f o r m a t i o n g i v i n g , a nd c o n t a c t f o r m a t i o n , t h e c l i m a t e i s s e t f o r p a i r i n g up t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s w i t h t h e p e e r s . A f t e r a s e r i e s o f s m a l l g r o u p a c t i v i t i e s , d e s i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g and d e c r e a s e a n x i e t y and t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e y have s h a r e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , s t u d e n t s a r e a s k e d t o c h o o s e a p a r t n e r o r "buddy" and " p e e r . " D. O n - g o i n g i n d i v i d u a l m e e t i n g s H a v i n g met and e s t a b l i s h e d i n i t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e g r o u p s , t h e m a tched c o u p l e w i l l m a i n t a i n c o n t a c t t h r o u g h o u t t h e a c a d e m i c y e a r . T h i s o n g o i n g i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t p r o v i d e s e a c h p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t w i t h a l o c a l r e s o u r c e p e r s o n who c a n a l s o a c t a s c u l t u r a l i n t e r p r e t e r and r o l e m o d e l . D e p e n d i n g on i n t e r e s t , n e e d s , l i f e s t y l e , t i m e c o m m i t m e n t s o f b o t h p a r t i e s , many t y p e s o f c o n t a c t a r e p o s s i b l e . E. E v a l u a t i o n and R e s e a r c h A s t u d y o f t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p e e r p r o g r a m was c o n d u c t e d by G. R. K r i n g ( 1 9 8 5 ) . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y have been d i s c u s s e d i n t h e r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e . The c u r r e n t s t u d y w i l l r e v i e w t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s . - 41 -P r o c e d u r e A. Sample A l i s t o f 30 s t u d e n t s who had s i g n e d up f o r t h e p e e r p r o g r a m was p r o v i d e d by t h e o r g a n i z e r o f t h e p r o g r a m . Out o f t h e 30 s t u d e n t s who had a c t e d a s p e e r s , 17 o f t h e s u b j e c t s were i n t e r v i e w e d . The s t u d e n t s who were n o t i n t e r v i e w e d e i t h e r h a d no c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i r a s s i g n e d p e e r o r were n o t a v a i l a b l e due t o t h e n a t u r e o f when t h e c o n t a c t was made. S e v e n t e e n s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y . They were a l l U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s t u d e n t s who were r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e F a c u l t y o f G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y . A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s had t a k e n o r were t a k i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n c o u n s e l l i n g t e c h n i q u e a n d most had a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g . T h e r e were s e v e n m a l e s and t e n f e m a l e s w i t h an a v e r a g e age o f 37 y e a r s . The b r e a k d o w n o f a g e s f o l l o w s : A g e _ g r o u g #_o f _ g a r t j_c_i g a n t s 26 30 1 31 35 4 36 40 9 41 45 1 46 50 2 - 42 -B. D a t a C o l l e c t i o n The p r o c e d u r e i n v o l v e d two s t e p s o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . I n t h e f i r s t s t e p , s e v e n i n d i v i d u a l p r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d w i t h h o s t - n a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t h e p r o g r a m . These i n t e r v i e w s t o o k p l a c e o v e r a two week p e r i o d a t the o f f i c e s o f t h e C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y D e p a r t m e n t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The p u r p o s e o f t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s was t o e x a m i n e t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f s i g n i f i c a n t i n c i d e n t s f r o m t h e p r o g r a m o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e p e e r s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n v i t e d t o e x p l a i n how t h e y g o t i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o g r a m , what a c t i v i t i e s t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n w i t h t h e p r o g r a m and w i t h t h e i r p e e r and t h e i r g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n s o f t h e p r o g r a m . These i n t e r v i e w s were t a p e d and t r a n s c r i b e d . The p r o c e d u r e f o r t h i s p a r t o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d a s " c o n v e r s a t i o n " by F l a n a g a n ( 1 9 5 4 ) f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s . U s i n g t h e c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e ( F l a n a g a n , 1954) t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s y i e l d e d a r e a s o f c o n c e r n and memorable i n c i d e n t s w h i c h became t h e f o c u s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s u s e d i n t h e s e c o n d s t e p o f t h i s r e p o r t . On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e p r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r v i e w s , t h e s u b s e q u e n t q u e s t i o n s f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g were d e v e l o p e d ( A p p e n d i x A ) . These were t h e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h were g i v e n t o t h e h o s t - n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s i n t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e s t u d y . - 43 -The s e c o n d s t e p i n v o l v e d i n t e r v i e w i n g t h e h o s t - n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s u s i n g a f r a m e w o r k f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p e r c e p t i o n s f r o m s t e p one. S e v e n t e e n i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d ( s e e A p p e n d i x A ) . The s e v e n p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n t h e f i r s t s e t o f i n t e r v i e w s and t e n o t h e r s who had a l s o b e e n i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o g r a m were i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i v i d u a l l y . The s e v e n t e e n i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d o v e r a p e r i o d o f t h r e e weeks. E a c h i n t e r v i e w l a s t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 - 40 m i n u t e s . P a r t i c i p a n t s were i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w was t o i n v e s t i g a t e ways t o i m p r o v e t h e p r o g r a m f o r f u t u r e y e a r s t o make i t more e f f e c t i v e and r e w a r d i n g f o r b o t h t h e C a n a d i a n and I n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . R e s p o n s e s w o u l d n o t be i d e n t i f i e d a s t o s o u r c e . The r e s p o n s e s were t h e n a n a l y s e d u s i n g t h e c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e . C o n t e n t a n a l y s i s i s a p h a s e o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g i n w h i c h c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s c a t e g o r i z e d t h r o u g h o b j e c t i v e and s y s t e m a t i c p r o c e d u r e i n t o d a t a t h a t c a n be s u m m a r i z e d and c o m p a r e d . The a n s w e r s g e n e r a t e d by s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s s t u d y e x p l o r e t h e c o m m o n a l i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s r e s p o n s e s . The a n a l y s i s o f c o n t e n t w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e r e l a t i v e e m p h a s i s o r f r e q u e n c y o f v a r i o u s r e s p o n s e s ( A s h e r , 1984; S h a p i r o , 1966; A l l p o r t , 1 9 4 2 ) . - 44 -C. S o r t i n g P r o c e s s S i n c e t h r e e o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s had fewer t h a n 5 c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e i r p e e r s , the answers t o the q u e s t i o n s were t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y and the comments made by t h e s e t h r e e p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l o n l y be n o t e d where t h e y were i n v o l v e d -d u r i n g t h e o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . R e s p o n s e s t o e a c h q u e s t i o n were r e c o r d e d on s e p a r a t e p i e c e s o f p a p e r and s o r t e d a c c o r d i n g t o s i m i l a r i t y o f c o n t e n t . E a c h c a t e g o r y was t h e n g i v e n a t i t l e w h i c h summarized the common theme. An i n d e p e n d e n t r a t i n g s c h e c k was c o n d u c t e d t o compare the l e v e l o f a g r e e m e n t . The p e r c e n t a g e o f i n t e r r a t o r agreement was 90%. D. D a t a A n a l y s i s The number of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n e a c h c a t e g o r y was c o u n t e d and c a l c u l a t e d as a p e r c e n t a g e o f the number o f p e o p l e i n the s a m p l e . A number o f g r a p h s were c r e a t e d t o show more c l e a r l y the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f e a c h o f the r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r i e s . - 45 -Q2Qtent_Anal_y.s_.Ls The method u s e d f o r a n a l y z i n g t h e d a t a f r o m t h i s s t u d y was c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s . C o n t e n t a n a l y s i s i s a p h a s e o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g i n w h i c h c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s c a t e g o r i z e d t h r o u g h o b j e c t i v e and s y s t e m a t i c p r o c e d u r e s i n t o d a t a t h a t c a n be s u m m a r i z e d and c o m p a r e d . The a n s w e r s g e n e r a t e d by s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s s t u d y e x p l o r e t h e c o m m o n a l i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s r e s p o n s e s . The a n a l y s i s o f c o n t e n t w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e r e l a t i v e e m p h a s i s o r f r e q u e n c y o f v a r i o u s r e s p o n s e s ( A s h e r , 1 9 8 4 ) . A g r e a t d e a l o f d a t a h a s b e e n g a t h e r e d a b o u t i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s and t h e i r r e a c t i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e h o s t n a t i o n a l s w i t h whom t h e y make c o n t a c t . T h e r e has n o t , h o w e v e r , b e e n a s t u d y done o f t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e s e h o s t n a t i o n a l s t o t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e as a p e e r t o a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t . C o n t e n t a n a l y s i s i s u s e d a s an e x p l o r a t o r y t e c h n i q u e t o d i s c o v e r t h e a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e h o s t n a t i o n a l s i n a p e e r s i t u a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o D r . M. Westwood ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) , i f p r o g r a m s w h i c h have a a c o n t i n u o u s c o n t a c t f e a t u r e ( o r o n e - o n - o n e ) a r e t o c o n t i n u e , t h e p r o g r a m must be r e w a r d i n g and b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e h o s t n a t i o n a l a s w e l l as t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t . T h i s s t u d y i s d e s i g n e d t o e x a m i n e a s p e c t s o f t h e p e e r p r o g r a m f r o m t h e h o s t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . - 46 -Summary The s a m p l e i n v o l v e d s e v e n t e e n s t u d e n t s f r o m t h e F a c u l t y o f G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y . The a v e r a g e age was 37 y e a r s . D a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n v o l v e d two s t e p s . The f i r s t s t e p was t o i n t e r v i e w s e v e n h o s t - n a t i o n a l p e e r s a nd t h e n , u s i n g t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n method o f c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e , t o d e v e l o p a s e t o f q u e s t i o n s f o r a s e c o n d i n t e r v i e w . The s e c o n d i n t e r v i e w i n v o l v e d t h e o r i g i n a l s e v e n p a r t i c i p a n t s a s w e l l a s t e n o t h e r s . T h i s i n t e r v i e w i n v o l v e d a s k i n g t h e same q u e s t i o n s o f e a c h p a r t i c i p a n t . The r e s p o n s e s were s o r t e d a c c o r d i n g t o c o m m o n a l i t y o f c o n t e n t a n d t h e n a n a l y s e d u s i n g t h e c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e . - 47 -C h a p t e r 4 Arxalys i s of Data T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l show t h e q u e s t i o n s a s k e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w , t h e c a t e g o r i e s c r e a t e d by t h e r e s p o n s e s a n d t h e number o f r e s p o n s e s o f a s i m i l a r n a t u r e . T h e r e were t h r e e p a r t i c i p a n t s whose i n t e r n a t i o n a l p e e r s were n o t w i l l i n g t o c o n t i n u e t h e p a r t n e r s h i p p a s t t h e o r i e n t a t i o n s e s s i o n . These h o s t p e e r s a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t want o r d i d n o t n e e d t h e p e e r p r o g r a m . These h o s t p e e r s had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e o r i e n t a t i o n s e s s i o n and d i d have some comments a b o u t the p r o g r a m i n g e n e r a l . These comments w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d a t a b u t t h e y w i l l n o t be i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e m a r k s made by t h o s e who f u l l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e p r o g r a m . The q u e s t i o n s u s e d f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w s were t h e same f o r a l l 14 h o s t - n a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a n t s . The q u e s t i o n s and t h e a n a l y s i s o f e a c h have been r e a r r a n g e d i n t o an o r d e r w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e m a j o r o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s s t u d y . 1. The C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s were q u i t e w i l l i n g t o a d m i t t h a t t h e a s s o c i a t i o n had made an i m p a c t on them b u t were n o t a s c o n v i n c e d t h a t i t had b e e n a s s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e i r I n t e r n a t i o n a l p e e r . O n l y t w e n t y - o n e p e r c e n t f e l t t h e y had n o t b e e n t o u c h e d i n any s i g n i f i c a n t way by t h e e x p e r i e n c e . - 48 -Q: D e s c r i b e the impact t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n had on you. a) Made me aware of d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e . Number: 9 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 9/14 64% b) Made me more aware of my own c u l t u r e and va lues Number: 3 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 3/14 21% c) No s i g n i f i c a n t impact Number: 3 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 3/14 21% d) F e e l i n g of g u i l t at not be ing able to do enough. Number: 2 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 2/14 14% e) the p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t Number: 1 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 1/14 7% IMPACT THIS ASSOCIATION HAD ON YOU }0. w E S * ; ? ** - 49-2. F a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o w a r d t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r o g r a m have b e e n d o c u m e n t e d by G o r d o n K r i n g ( 1 9 8 5 ) . I n t h a t s t u d y o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s , t h e y r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e p e e r p r o g r a m was a m a j o r f a c t o r i n t h e i r s u c c e s s f u l a d j u s t m e n t t o C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e . The n e x t q u e s t i o n w i l l s e r v e a s a measure o f w h e t h e r t h e C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s were aware o f how i m p o r t a n t t h e i r r o l e was t o t h e v i s i t i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . Q. What do you t h i n k t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t w o u l d s a y was t h e most i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e p e e r p r o g r a m t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o w a r d h i s / h e r a d j u s t m e n t ? P l e a s e d e s c r i b e . a) Someone t o c a l l ( i n f o r m a t i o n & s e c u r i t y ) Number: 8 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 8/14 5 7 % b) P e r s o n a l c o n t a c t Number: 6 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 6/14 43% - 50-3. The I n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s t u d y h a d been a s k e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e i m p a c t t h i s p r o g r a m h ad on them ( K r i n g , 1 9 8 5 ) . I n o r d e r t o compare t h e r e s p o n s e s t o s e e i f the C a n a d i a n s were aware o f t h e i m p a c t t h e y made on t h e i r b u d d i e s , t h e s e s t u d e n t s were a s k e d t o d e s c r i b e what i m p a c t t h e y t h o u g h t t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n h a d had on t h e s e f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . The c o m p a r i s o n w i l l be made i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n . Q. D e s c r i b e what you t h i n k t h e i m p a c t y o u r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h an I n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t had on h i m / h e r . R e s p o n s e s : a) Someone t o c a l l ( s e c u r i t y ) Number: 10 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 10/14 7 1 % b) V e r y l i t t l e Number: 3 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 3/14 2 1 % c ) None Number: 1 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 1/14 7% A l t h o u g h 7 1 % o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t h o u g h t t h e y h a d b e e n u s e f u l as someone t o c a l l o n , 28% t h o u g h t t h e y had l i t t l e o r no i mpact. - 5 1 -4. I n o r d e r t o l e a r n what t h e C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s g o t o u t o f t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e p r o g r a m , t h e y were a s k e d what t h e y f o u n d r e w a r d i n g a b o u t b e i n g a p e e r . S e v e r a l s t u d e n t s f o u n d more t h a n one r e w a r d i n g f e a t u r e so t h e r e was a t o t a l o f 25 r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e p e e r g r o u p . Q. Was t h e r e a n y t h i n g you f o u n d r e w a r d i n g a b o u t b e i n g a p e e r ? a ) F r i e n d s h i p a nd p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t were l i s t e d by 7 1 % ( 1 0 ) o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s as a r e w a r d i n g f e a t u r e o f b e i n g a p e e r . Number: 10 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 10/14 7 1 % b) When s t u d e n t s were a s k e d t o s a y what t h e y f o u n d r e w a r d i n g a b o u t b e i n g a p e e r , 5 3 % r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y h ad e n j o y e d l e a r n i n g a b o u t a new c o u n t r y o r c u l t u r e . Number: 9 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 9/14 6 4 % c ) I n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t 5 0 % ( 7 ) s a i d t h a t t h e p r o g r a m i n t e r e s t e d them b e c a u s e i t o f f e r e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o h e l p o t h e r s , o n l y 14% ( 2 ) m e n t i o n e d b e i n g a b l e t o h e l p o t h e r s as a r e w a r d i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e p r o g r a m . Number: 2 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 2/14 14% - 5 2 -H O S T C A N A D I A N S ' E X P E R I E N C E / P E E R P R O G R A M A N T I C I P A T E D REWARD A C T U A L R E W A R D A L e a r n i n g about a new c u l t u r e B F r i e n d s h i p and p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t C H e l p i n g o t h e r s The g r a p h shows the d i f f e r e n c e between the a n t i c i p a t e d and a c t u a l r e w a r d s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p e e r program as e x p e r i e n c e d by the h o s t - C a n a d i a n p e e r s . - 53-5. Peers were asked i f they found a n y t h i n g d i f f i c u l t about be ing a p e e r . Q. Was there a n y t h i n g you found d i f f i c u l t about b e i n g a peer? S i x t y - f o u r percent (9) r e p o r t e d a d i f f i c u l t y w i th time and f e l t g u i l t y because they d i d n ' t have enough time to make the c o n t a c t s they knew they were expec ted to make. They weren' t sure how much time they were expected to put i n t o the p r o j e c t and twenty-n ine percent r e p o r t e d a f e e l i n g of g u i l t from not be ing able to f u l f i l l what they thought was expected of them r e g a r d i n g the amount of time devoted to t h e i r f o r e i g n p e e r . One person r e p o r t e d a problem w i t h the d i f f e r e n c e in age between him and h i s buddy. A l though he was c o m f o r t a b l e wi th t h i s age d i f f e r e n c e and h i s p e r c e p t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p , he f e l t h i s peer would have l i k e d someone c l o s e r in age to h i mse1f. - 54-The p a i r i n g o f m a l e / f e m a l e p a r t n e r s was m e n t i o n e d u n d e r s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t q u e s t i o n s a s a p o s s i b l e p r o b l e m . The s e x u a l o v e r t o n e s c a u s e d t e n s i o n i n t w e l v e p e r c e n t o f t h e p a r t n e r s h i p s . One p e r s o n , h o w e v e r , s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e y t h o u g h t t h e i r p e e r w o u l d have p r e f e r r e d someone o f t h e o p p o s i t e s e x . T r y i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d and be s e n s i t i v e t o a s p e c i f i c c u l t u r e c a u s e d c o n c e r n as d i d the c o n f u s i o n o v e r t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . One h o s t p e e r was a s s i g n e d two p e e r p a r t n e r s and f e l t o v e r - b u r d e n e d b e c a u s e o f i t . One p e r s o n r e p o r t e d no d i f f i c u l t y i n b e i n g a p e e r . - 55-6. A f t e r t h e o r i e n t a t i o n s e s s i o n , t h e p e e r p a r t n e r s were l e f t t o a r r a n g e t h e i r n e x t m e e t i n g . The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary o f how t h a t c o n t a c t was made and t h e g e n e r a l a t m o s p h e r e o f t h e c o n t a c t . Q. D e s c r i b e t h e i n i t i a l c o n t a c t w i t h y o u r p a r t n e r . How d i d you f e e l a b o u t i t ? E x p l a i n . a) C o n t a c t e d by phone: 9/14 ( 6 4 % ) b) Met o r a r r a n g e d t o meet a f t e r t h e o r i e n t a t i o n : 3 ( 2 1 % ) c ) F i r s t a f t e r m e e t i n g t o o k p l a c e b e f o r e o r t h e o r i e n t a t i o n : 2 ( 1 4 % ) - 56-FIRST CONTACT: a) P o s i t i v e 7/14 ( 5 0 % ) - f e l t v e r y c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e i r f i r s t m e e t i n g - t h e s e c o n t a c t s e n d e d w i t h p l a n s f o r an o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t y s u c h a s d i n n e r , r e g i s t r a t i o n , h i k i n g , e t c . o r o t h e r s p e c i f i c p l a n s t o meet a g a i n b) U n c o m f o r t a b l e 7/14 ( 5 0 % ) - some f e l t t h e i r r o l e was n o t c l e a r a n d had t o e x p l a i n i t t o t h e i r i n t e r n a t i o n a l p e e r - some r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e phone c o n v e r s a t i o n was s t r a i n e d - o t h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t p e e r s d i d n ' t seem i n t e r e s t e d - 57-7. A n o t h e r a r e a e x a m i n e d was the number and n a t u r e o f t h e c o n t a c t s made b e t w e e n p e e r s and t h e i r b u d d i e s . Q. Were t h e r e any o t h e r c o n t a c t s ? I f s o , how many? How o f t e n ? What was t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n t a c t ? Number o f Number o f c o n t a c t s o c c u r r e n c e s N a t u r e o f c o n t a c t s 6-15 10 ( 7 1 % ) S o c i a l ( 3 ) A s s i s t i ng ( 5 ) S o c i a l and A s s i s t i n g ( 2 ) 16+ 4 ( 2 9 % ) S o c i a l and a s s i s t i n g As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , o n l y t h e f o u r t e e n p e e r s who met s i x o r more t i m e s a r e b e i n g d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s p a r t o f t h e s t u d y . The g r e a t e s t number o f c o n t a c t s were r e c o r d e d by p a r t n e r s who had a s o c i a l as w e l l a s p r a c t i c a l ( a s s i s t i n g ) r e l a t i o n s h i p . S i x t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f t h e p e e r s r e p o r t e d a s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i r b u d d i e s ; a l l o f t h e s e p e o p l e met s i x o r more t i m e s d u r i n g t h e y e a r . The a v e r a g e number o f c o n t a c t s was a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w e l v e . NATURE OF THE CONTACT BETWEEN PEERS TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONSES 14 - 58-8. The program was examined to f i n d the r e d e e m i n g f e a t u r e s w hich s h o u l d r e m a i n and what f e a t u r e s heed t o be c h a n g e d . Q. What do you c o n s i d e r the p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s of the program? a) P r o v i d e d h e l p to i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s Number: 11 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 11/14 79% b) L e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t y f o r h o s t s Number: 9 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 9/14 64% R e s p o n d e n t s saw the program as b e i n g more r e w a r d i n g f o r the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s than f o r t h e m s e l v e s , a l t h o u g h a l m o s t 71% t h o u g h t t h e y had r e c e i v e d some b e n e f i t . POSITIVE/NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF THE PROGRAM pp V \ \ \ \ \ V \ ' Miss A HELPING B LEARNING C ORIENTATION D UNDERSTANDING E FOLLOW-UP & CLOSURE P O S I T I V E 1 1 9 D NEGATIVE NEGATIVE 3 4 2 - 59-9. The n e x t q u e s t i o n a s k e d a b o u t n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o g r a m . I t i s f o l l o w e d by a q u e s t i o n a s k i n g f o r s u g g e s t e d c h a n g e s t h a t c o u l d be made t o t h e p r o g r a m . Q. What do you c o n s i d e r t h e n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o g r a m ? a) O r i e n t a t i o n ( p a r t i c u l a r l y s e l e c t i o n o f p a r t n e r s ) Number: 3 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 3/14 2 1 % b) L a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h o s t ' s r o l e Number: 4 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 4/14 29% c ) No f o l l o w - u p o r c l o s u r e Number: 2 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 2/14 14% d) None Number 3 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 3/14 2 1 % Many o f t h e comments made i n r e s p o n s e t o t h i s q u e s t i o n were s u g g e s t i o n s f o r c h a n g e . These comments w i l l be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e n e x t q u e s t i o n . - 60-10. R e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d f o r s u g g e s t i o n s w h i c h w o u l d change t h e p r o g r a m . Q. I n t e r m s o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p r o g r a m , c o u l d you s u g g e s t any c h a n g e s w h i c h w o u l d b e n e f i t : a) t h e h o s t n a t i o n a l s b) t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s Changes t o b e n e f i t h o s t s : a) O r i e n t a t i o n ( e s p e c i a l l y m a t c h i n g p r o c e s s ) Number: 4 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 4/14 29% b) More s u p p o r t f o r p e e r s Number: 12 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 12/14 86% c ) F o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s a n d c l o s u r e Number: 4 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 4/14 29% d) More i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t a s p e c i f i c c u l t u r e Number: 2 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 2/14 14% - 6 1 -Changes s u g g e s t e d t o imp r o v e t h e p r o g r a m t o b e n e f i t i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s : a ) O r i e n t a t i o n ( e s p e c i a l l y m a t c h i n g p r o c e s s ) Number: 7 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 7/14 50% b) F o l l o w - u p and c l o s u r e Number: 4 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 4/14 29% c ) H e l p p e e r u n d e r s t a n d h i s / h e r r o l e Number: 1 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 1/14 7% SUGGESTED CHANGES TO THE PROGRAM 1 5 r 1 A SUPPORT FOR HOST PEERS B ORIENTATION PROGRAM C FOLLOW-UP AND CLOSURE D INFORMATION - 6 2-The f o l L o w i n g g r a p h s show t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f the s u g g e s t e d p r o g r a m c h a n g e s as' p r o p o s e d by the h o s t - n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . The c hange most f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d by the h o s t - n a t i o n a l s was t o im p r o v e the s u p p o r t t h e y were g i v e n . I m p r o v e m e n t s i n the o r i e n t a t i o n was s e e n as a b e n e f i t to b o t h p a r t i e s , as were f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s and c l o s u r e . The h o s t s w a n t e d more i n f o r m a t i o n about, s p e c i f i c t o p 1 c s a n d t h o u g h t t h a t t h e f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s n e e d e d to have a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of e a c h p e r s o n ' s r o l e . CHANGES TO PROGRAM TO BENEFIT HOSTS T o t a l Number of Responses 22 CHANGES TO PROGRAM TO BENEFIT FOREIGN STUDENTS T o t a l Number of Responses .12 - s a -i l . No s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g was g i v e n t o t h e p e e r s t o p r e p a r e them f o r t h e p e e r p a r t n e r s h i p p r o g r a m . They were a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e r e was a n y t h i n g t h e y c o u l d t h i n k o f t h a t w o u l d have made them more e f f e c t i v e . Q. How do you f e e l a b o u t t h e a d e q u a c y o f y o u r t r a i n i n g f o r t h i s p r o g r a m ? F e l t p r e p a r e d a n d c o u l d n ' t s u g g e s t f u r t h e r p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e m s e I v e s . Number: 8 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 8/14 5 7 % F e l t r e a s o n a b l y c o n f i d e n t b u t made s u g g e s t i o n s w h i c h w o u l d have i m p r o v e d t h e i r p r e p a r e d n e s s : Number: 6 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 6/14 4 3 % The f o l l o w i n g s u g g e s t i o n s were made: - o r i e n t a t i o n c o u l d have b e e n more t h o r o u g h t o e x p l a i n t h e p r o g r a m a n d s h a r e w i t h o t h e r b u d d i e s i d e a s o f what t o do w i t h t h e i r p e e r s . - i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t a s p e c i f i c c u l t u r e - g o o d k n o w l e d g e o f V a n c o u v e r and s p e c i f i c p r o g r a m s a v a i l a b l e t o f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s ( m e d i c a l , f i n a n c i a l , e t c . ) - 64-12. I n o r d e r t o r e c r u i t C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s t o t h e p r o g r a m , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o know what m o t i v a t i o n t h e y have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . Q. What a s p e c t o f t h e p r o g r a m i n t e r e s t e d you most? R e s p o n s e s : a) C u r i o s i t y a n d i n t e r e s t i n o t h e r c u l t u r e s . Number: 10 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 10/14 7 1 % b) An o p p o r t u n i t y t o h e l p . Number 7 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 7/14 5 0 % c ) To l e a r n a b o u t c r o s s c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g . Number: 4 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 4/14 29% Some p a r t i c i p a n t s h a d more t h a n one r e a s o n f o r w a n t i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e . The most f r e q u e n t r e s p o n s e t o t h i s q u e s t i o n was t h e c u r i o s i t y a n d i n t e r e s t i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s a n d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n a b o u t t h e o t h e r p e r s o n ' s c u l t u r e a n d c o u n t r y . F i f t y p e r c e n t ( 5 0 % ) o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s c o n s i d e r e d " h e l p i n g o t h e r s " t o be an i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p r o g r a m . T w e n t y - n i n e p e r c e n t ( 2 9 % ) o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s w a n t e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n more a b o u t c r o s s c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g . - 65-13. One task of the program o r g a n i z e r s was to l o c a t e Canadian students who would be i n t e r e s t e d and w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the peer program and whose i n t e r e s t s would s u s t a i n them through the academic year. The r e c r u i t i n g focus was on students who were e n r o l l e d In the masters program in C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology. The program was a d v e r t i s e d by the i n s t r u c t o r of the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l counsel 1ing c o u r s e . Q. How d i d you decide to become a buddy to an I n t e r n a t i o n a l student? Responses: a) I n s t r u c t o r i n Cross C u l t u r a l C o u n s e l l i n g course. Number: 9 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 9/14 64% b) Someone came to my summer school c l a s s and asked f o r v o l u n t e e r s . Number: 3 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 3/14 21% - 66-c> Message on b u l l e t i n board in C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology-o f f i c e . Number: 1 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 1/14 7% d) Already had helped the student and decided to continue the r e l a t i o n s h i p as a peer. Number i P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 1/14 7% The i n s t r u c t o r who teaches the course i n C r o s s - C u l t u r a l C o u n s e l l i n g to the graduate students in C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology was the most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned source f o r r e c r u i t i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r the program. The C r o s s - C u l t u r a l course brought him into c o n t a c t with students who had a s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t in people from other c u l t u r e s . The other most s u c c e s s f u l method of r e c r u i t i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r the program, mentioned by 21% of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , was someone going to the summer courses to d e s c r i b e the program. Some of these summer students would be r e t u r n i n g f o r a f u l l year of s t u d i e s i n the coming winter s e s s i o n . - 67-14. The o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e p e e r p r o g r a m i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e Method c h a p t e r . P a r t o f t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e o r i e n t a t i o n was t o i n t r o d u c e s t u d e n t s t o t h e p r o g r a m and t o e a c h o t h e r . S t u d e n t s were a s k e d i f t h e y had a t t e n d e d t h e o r i e n t a t i o n a n d how i t h a d a s s i s t e d them a s a p e e r . Q. D i d you a t t e n d t h e o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m a t I n t e r n a t i o n a l H ouse? I f " y e s " , how d i d i t a s s i s t y o u ? R e s p o n s e s : YES 14 ( 1 0 0 % ) A l l o f t h e 14 p e e r s who met w i t h t h e i r p a r t n e r s s i x o r more t i m e s d i d a t t e n d t h e o r i e n t a t i o n s e s s i o n . One f e l t i t was a n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e , t h r e e were u n c e r t a i n o f any b e n e f i t s a n d t w e l v e had p o s i t i v e comments t o make r e g a r d i n g t h e o r i e n t a t i o n . - 68-The s p e c i f i c value s t u d e n t s saw in the o r i e n t a t i o n were: a) l e a r n r o l e of buddy and p o s s i b l e problems Number: 7 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 7/14 50% b) c o n t a c t w i th o t h e r Canadian peers Number 3: P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 3/14 21% c) u n c e r t a i n of b e n e f i t s of o r i e n t a t i o n Number: 3 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 3/14 21% d) n e g a t i v e - d i d n ' t f i n d i t h e l p f u l Number: 1 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 1/14 7% - 6 9 -15. A m a j o r a r e a o f c o n c e r n r e g a r d i n g t h e o r i e n t a t i o n s e s s i o n was t h e s e l e c t i o n o f p a r t n e r s f o r b u d d i e s . S i x t y - t w o p e r c e n t ( 6 2 % ) o f t h e h o s t - c o u n t r y s t u d e n t s who a t t e n d e d t h e o r i e n t a t i o n f e l t c o n f u s e d a b o u t what was e x p e c t e d o f them d u r i n g t h i s p r o c e d u r e o r t h e y p e r c e i v e d i t a s l a c k i n g s t r u c t u r e . Q. How d i d you f e e l a b o u t t h e way t h e p a r t n e r s were s e l e c t e d ? R e s p o n s e s were c o d e d as p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e . a) P o s i t i v e 9 9/14 = 64% b) N e g a t i v e 5 5/14 = 29% Those who f e l t f u z z y o r u n s u r e o f t h e p r o c e d u r e : Number: 10 7 1 % Some s u g g e s t i o n s were made i n r e s p o n s e t o a l a t e r q u e s t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h i m p r o v i n g t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e p r o g r a m . I n s p i t e o f some c o n f u s i o n , 40% f e l t i t w o r k e d o u t w e l l f o r them a nd were s a t i s f i e d i n the e n d . - 70-16. F o l l o w i n g up on t h e q u e s t i o n o f s e l e c t i n g p a r t n e r s , t h e q u e s t i o n was a s k e d a b o u t t h e c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f t h e p a r t n e r s . F i f t y - n i n e p e r c e n t r e s p o n d e d p o s i t i v e l y , 29% n e g a t i v e l y a n d 13% were n o t s u r e a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . C o m p a t i b i l i t y was d e f i n e d a s t h e a b i l i t y t o c o m m u n i c a t e and g e t a l o n g . Q. How d i d you f e e l a b o u t t h e c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f t h e p a r t n e r s e l e c t e d f o r you? a) P o s i t i v e 9 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 9/14 64% b) N e g a t i v e 4 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 4/14 29% c ) W e r e n ' t s u r e 1 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 1/14 14% 17. P a r t i c i p a n t s were a s k e d i f t h e y w o u l d be i n t e r e s t e d i n v o l u n t e e r i n g a g a i n f o r t h i s p r o g r a m and t h e i r r e a s o n s . Q. Would you v o l u n t e e r a g a i n f o r t h i s p r o g r a m ? Why? R e s p o n s e s : Y e s : Number: 8 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 8/14 57% No: Number: 3 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 3/14 2 1 % Maybe: Number: 3 P a r t i c i p a t i o n : 3/14 2 1 % - 71-Some r e a s o n s f o r a n s w e r i n g " y e s " : To l e a r n a b o u t a n o t h e r c o u n t r y . To i n c r e a s e my c i r c l e o f f r i e n d s . I t was a way t o l e a r n a b o u t a n o t h e r c u l t u r e . I am c o m m i t t e d t o c o m m u n i c a t i n g c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y . Some o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r a n s w e r i n g "no": I t t o o k t o o much t i m e . Not e n o u g h g r o u p s u p p o r t . Those who s a i d "maybe" i n d i c a t e d t h a t i f c e r t a i n c h a n g e s were made t o t h e p r o g r a m t h e y w o u l d be i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g a g a i n . - 72 -Chapter 5 D i scsuss i on The objective of t h i s study has been to examine the perceptions of the host-nationals who participated in the peer program designed to aid the adjustment of foreign students at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. The previous chapter analysed the answers which these host-nationals gave to a series of questions r e l a t i n g to t h e i r experiences with the program. This chapter w i l l point out the perceived positive and negative aspects of the program and the suggestions for improving the program to benefit both the host-nationals and foreign students. The value of this peer program in aiding the adjustment of foreign students at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia has been documented in a study done in 1985 (Kring). This study indicated that, " a l l of the international students perceived the peer program to be instrumental as a f a c i l i t a t i n g factor to t h e i r adjustment" (Kring, 1985, p.58). Kring (1985) reported that 86% of the students interviewed indicated that they believed "that association with Canadians was a major factor in their adjustment." When the host nationals were asked what they thought the - 73 -international students would say was the most important part of the program that contributed toward his/her adjustment, 43% mentioned "personal contact", and 57% indicated that they thought th e i r association had l i t t l e or no impact on the international student. They did not seem to recognize that the simple warmth of their association would be so s i g n i f i c a n t . There is l i t t l e doubt that the peer program was important to the international students. The host nationals were not only unaware of how s i g n i f i c a n t t h e i r role had been, but did not report the same level of reward. Perhaps just knowing how important they were to the international student the Canadian hosts would feel appreciated and rewarded. Feedback needs to be a part of the program. If the peer program is to continue at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, the program w i l l need to become as rewarding to the host nationals as i t presently is to the international students. The program depends upon volunteers who have either a job or university program which takes up many hours of th e i r time. Many have families and friends who occupy t h e i r leisure hours. Motivation to maintain contact with th e i r buddy should provide some rewards. - 74 -When the Canadian students volunteered for the peer program, they were motivated by three reasons. Curiosity and interest in other cultures was mentioned by seventy-one percent (71%) of those interviewed. These people saw association with one person from another country as a method of learning about a whole country and i t s culture; to learn about the differences: ...to learn about A f r i c a and have a c i r c l e of friends from A f r i c a . To find out about parts of the world I didn't know about just by the way he was. and the s i m i l a r i t i e s : ...being a world c i t i z e n . An opportunity to help was also a motivating factor in becoming involved in the program; i t was mentioned by f i f t y percent (50%) of the participants interviewed. I know the d i f f i c u l t i e s you can encounter in a strange place because I have t r a v e l i e d . - 75 -Because many of the Canadian peers were recruited through the cross-cultural counselling course, i t is not surprising to find that twenty-nine percent (29%) were involved in the program because they wanted to learn more about th i s f i e l d . After the year was over, sixty-four percent (64%) indicated that they had enjoyed learning about a new country or culture: It expanded my awareness of another culture. It broadened my experience. Fourteen percent (14%) reported that they f e l t s a t i s f a c t i o n by being able to help. These r e s u l t s can be compared with the results of the question on what motivation students had to j o i n the program ( c u r i o s i t y and interest in other cultures: 7l%> opportunity to help: 50%). The most frequent answer to the question of what they found rewarding about being a peer was "friendship and personal contact," mentioned by 71% of the Canadian hosts. They may not have been in the program because they were looking for friends, yet t h i s was a major reward. - 7 6 -As well as becoming more aware of other cultures, some <21%) of the host-nationals thought that they learned something of the i r own values or culture: It made me look at my own values and culture. l_§_Q_Q__f°______E£°2£§ m. Canadian host-nationals in the peer r e l a t i o n s h i p were a l l graduate students in the counselling psychology program and a l l reported that they f e l t prepared or reasonably comfortable with the adequacy of their t r a i n i n g to assume this r o l e . I had taken the cross- c u l t u r a l course. It pointed out what to be aware of. However, in spite of fe e l i n g reasonably confident, 41% of the participants indicated that further t r a i n i n g would be helpful and made suggestions for t h i s t r a i n i n g . These suggestions w i l l be discussed in the next chapter. - 77-QLi^Qtat j_on At the time of the orientation, a l l 17 interviewees were s t i l l f u l l participants in the program, the comments in this section w i l l r e f l e c t views of a l l who were interviewed. Several suggestions were made concerning tr a i n i n g which would have made the peers more e f f e c t i v e . The orientation session received a number suggestions which were mentioned with the desire to make that part of the program more comfortable to peers and buddies. Because It was the only formal meeting of peers, buddies and program organizers, i t became an important vehicle for Information and personal contact. The orientation was designed, in part, to explain the program and the role of peers and buddies. The Canadian peers reported that even though they attended the orientation, they were s t i l l unsure of their role and remained, throughout the program, unaware that they were doing what was expected of them. The International students were also not clear what the peer's role was and the peer would have to explain. I don't think he knew what my role was. I f e l t l i k e I was interrogating him. She didn't know much about what I was to do. - 78-A more thorough explanation at the orientation and perhaps even a written role description would help everyone understand t h e i r r o l e s . The other suggestions for peer preparation and readiness were more s p e c i f i c : Information about a s p e c i f i c culture. A good knowledge of the c i t y . Knowledge of support agencies and services available (medical, f i n a n c i a l , s o c i a l , etc. ) The orientation program at International House was attended by 16 of the 17 students Interviewed. The one who did not attend had a previous family commitment who, l a t e r in the interview, commented that he should have been there to understand cert a i n aspects of the program. This partnership was one which did not continue a f t e r the f i r s t couple of phone c a l l s because the student claimed not to need the help offered. Perhaps by not being able to meet face-to-face, these partners missed a v i t a l part of the pairing of partners. - 79-The orientation meeting was the one time that a l l peers (except one) were together, where the program was explained and they met their buddies. Of the students who did attend, 12 (75%) had positive comments regarding the assistance i t offered them as a peer. Four (25%) were uncertain of any assistance they received from attending. There were 17 comments as one student l i s t e d two ways the orientation was of assistance. Sixty-three percent (63%) of the host nationals who attended the orientation thought i t had assisted them by teaching them t h e i r role and what problems to anticipate. Nineteen percent (19%) were assisted by meeting other Canadian participants in the program. Both of these points were brought up as not complete enough and i t was suggested that they needed reinforcement throughout the year. A major area of concern regarding the orientation session was the selection of partners. Sixty-two percent (62%) of the Canadian students who attended the orientation f e l t confused about what was expected of them during t h i s procedure or they perceived i t as lacking structure. - 80-We never r e a l l y did cle a r up who was with whom. We were fuzzy about the process so ended up sharing three buddies with two peers. In spite of some confusion, sixty-two percent (62%) f e l t i t worked out well for them and were s a t i s f i e d in the end. Q2S_§_ifeIIi_I_2l_.E££E§_§S^_i_^i e.§ What factors were involved to make a peer partnership successful? The host nationals mentioned several factors which contributed towards the success of th e i r p a r t i c u l a r partnership. - I l i v e d close to my buddy - my buddy's English was good - I had been to my buddy's country - I was not her only support here; she had r e l a t i v e s (I wouldn't be over-burdened) - my buddy's family had immediate needs ( i t made me feel useful) Some of these contributing factors could be measured before the pairing in order to meet the needs of the individuals from each group. A peer who wants to feel useful should not be paired with a buddy who has other support a v a i l a b l e . A t o t a l of 64% of the Canadian peers were s a t i s f i e d with the compatibility of their partner. Twenty-nine percent (29%), however, did not consider t h e i r partner as "compatible." The reasons they suggested were: - age difference - d i f f i c u l t y with male/female re l a t i o n s h i p - the students were here to study, not s o c i a l i z e Qi£ii£iiiJii£§_2i£!!i_l£i22_§_E e.e-£ The most d i f f i c u l t part of being a peer was finding enough time to do a s a t i s f a c t o r y job. Most of the host Canadians already had f u l l s o c i a l , family and leisure a c t i v i t i e s to which they had added a course of studies in graduate work at the university. They wanted to participate - 82-but often ended up feeling g u i l t y because they were not able to spend the time they wanted to or f e l t they should. I f e l t I wasn't making enough contacts and f e l t g u i l t y about the lack of time. I wondered how much more I could extend myself. It required more time than I was prepared to put in. Sixty-four percent reported that they either knew they weren't spending enough time or were unsure i f they were spending enough time with th e i r buddy. One person reported that the age difference between him and his buddy created a problem for him to f i l l the role of peer. Although he was comfortable with the age difference, he thought his buddy would have preferred someone closer to his own age. Graduate students in the Counselling Psychology - 83-program have completed th e i r undergraduate program and several years in the work force; foreign students are often much younger. I didn't have trouble r e l a t i n g to age differences, but they did. Sex The pair i n g of male and female became uncomfortable for several reasons. One peer found that her own reaction made communication d i f f i c u l t . The male/female rela t i o n s h i p made i f d i f f i c u l t for me to keep c a l l i n g him - I had no experience at t h i s . One peer thought that the two young women who were her buddies would have "l i k e d someone of the opposite sex." This problem could be solved by simply asking in a pre-selection questionnaire about the type of peer which they would prefer. - 84-Cu1ture One of the suggestions for peer t r a i n i n g was that there be some s p e c i f i c information about the culture of the buddies. One peer reported that he had a problem trying to understand how to best f i l l his role of peer without i n t e r f e r i n g with his buddies very formal manner. He was not open; so very p o l i t e . I didn't want to inter f e r e . The Canadian students interviewed were asked two questions which were designed to test t h e i r perception of how the international students viewed the peer program and the contribution the peers had made to the i r adjustment. The answers indicated that the Canadian students were not aware that they had contributed in any s i g n i f i c a n t way. Canadian students were asked to describe what they thought the International student would say was the most important part of the peer program that contributed toward his/her adjustment. The two categories of answers were: someone to c a l l on for information and assistance <57%) and a personal contact or friend (43%). - 85-One person covered both these categories with his answer: Knowing there was someone that was there to ask questions of and help them find answers. Someone she could become friends with. When asked to describe what "impact the peer association had on the international buddy, 21% thought there was l i t t l e or no impact. Providing a sense of security by knowing there was someone to c a l l was the response of 79% of the Canadian peers. It was nice to know she had someone to turn to - to phone or to ask questions at our meet ings. In his study of seven international students involved in the peer program, Kring (1985) reports that: It becomes obvious from the findings of thi s study that s o c i a l interaction between the international student and the host - 86-natlonals is one of, i f not the major factor(s) in the adjustment process. It also becomes obvious through examining the p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates that a l l of the International peers perceived the peer program to be instrumental as a f a c i l i t a t i n g factor to the i r adjustment. The l o g i c a l conclusion, simply stated, seems to be that the international students through their r e l a t i n g of s p e c i f i c incidents believe that s o c i a l interaction with Canadians Is necessary for adjustment, and that the peer program is the vehicle for providing that interaction. Kring's (1985) study involved only international students who had had six or more contacts with their Canadian peer. This study involves a l l of the Canadian peers who had six or more contacts with their international peer. It can be concluded that the partners who continued to meet were able to f a c i l i t a t e the adjustment of the international students. What happened to those partnerships that were not sustained? More attention should be given to support for host peers who are not able to get t h e i r partnership going. - 87 -Ch a p t e r 6 Summary airica Re co mme ndat i oris A p e e r - p a i r i n g p r o g r a m was u s e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o match f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s w i t h C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a i d i n g t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s t o C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e . S e v e n t e e n C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e program were i n t e r v i e w e d a n d t h e i r r e s p o n s e s s u b s e q u e n t l y a n a l y s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r v i e w s on t h e p r o g r a m . I t a p p e a r s t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h a f o r e i g n s t u d y e x p e r i e n c e i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o w h e t h e r t h e v i s i t i n g s t u d e n t s f e e l t h a t t h e y have made good f r i e n d s i n t h e h o s t c o u n t r y . T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h a t o f s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d by Rao ( 1 9 7 9 ) . F a c i l i t a t i n g s u c h c o n t a c t i s c r u c i a l t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e w h o l e e x c h a n g e e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s was v e r i f i e d by K r i n g ( 1 9 8 5 ) when he r e p o r t e d t h a t 86% o f t h e f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s he i n t e r v i e w e d r e g a r d e d t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h C a n a d i a n s a s a m a j o r f a c t o r i n t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t . B e f o r e c o m i n g t o a f o r e i g n c o u n t r y t o s t u d y , s t u d e n t s saw t h e i r m a j o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t h e i r a c a d e m i c w o rk. The r e a l i t y o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e made them aware t h a t c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e was more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e y h a d e x p e c t e d . - 88 -The p r o g r a m s t a t e s t h a t " t h e i n n o v a t i o n i n h e r e n t i n t h e p r o g r a m i s t a p p i n g t h e human r e s o u r c e s w h i c h e x i s t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n c a m p u s e s i n s u c h a f a s h i o n t h a t h o s t n a t i o n a l s s t a n d t o g a i n a s much a s do t h e v i s i t i n g s t u d e n t s . " I t was t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p r o g r a m f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e h o s t C a n a d i a n s . Q u e s t i o n s were d e s i g n e d t o r e v e a l a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o g r a m w h i c h were s u c c e s s f u l i n m e e t i n g t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s a nd n e e d s o f t h e h o s t C a n a d i a n s and t o s o l i c i t s u g g e s t i o n s w h i c h c o u l d i m p r o v e t h e p r o g r a m f o r b o t h t h e C a n a d i a n a n d t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . E s s c i i i i l s a R e c r u i t i n g f o r t h e p r o g r a m was m a i n l y done on a p e r s o n a l b a s i s i n a r e a s where o n l y g r a d u a t e c o u n s e l l i n g s t u d e n t s w o u l d be f o u n d . T h i r t y v o l u n t e e r C a n a d i a n s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e p e e r p r o g r a m . An a t t e m p t was made t o l o c a t e a n d i n t e r v i e w a l l t h i r t y o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s . S e v e n t e e n were l o c a t e d a n d a l l a g r e e d t o be i n t e r v i e w e d . A l l b u t one o f t h e h o s t n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e p r o g r a m were w i l l i n g a n d / o r e a g e r t o be i n v o l v e d . - 89 -Q c i ^ Q t ^ t i o n An o r i e n t a t i o n s e s s i o n was h e l d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y t e r m . The p u r p o s e o f t h e o r i e n t a t i o n was t o i n t r o d u c e f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s and h o s t n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s t o e a c h o t h e r and t o e x p l a i n t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e p r o g r a m . T h i s p u r p o s e was a c h i e v e d f o r a m a j o r i t y o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s b u t t w e n t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t ( 2 8 % ) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y d i d n ' t f i n d t h e o r i e n t a t i o n h e l p f u l o r were u n c e r t a i n o f any b e n e f i t . The s e l e c t i o n o f p a r t n e r s c a u s e d t h e most c o n c e r n w i t h t h e o r i e n t a t i o n . S e v e n t y - o n e p e r c e n t ( 7 1 % ) o f t h e h o s t - c o u n t r y s t u d e n t who a t t e n d e d t h e o r i e n t a t i o n f e l t c o n f u s e d a b o u t what was e x p e c t e d o f them d u r i n g t h i s p r o c e d u r e o r t h e y p e r c e i v e d i t a s l a c k i n g s t r u c t u r e . I n s p i t e o f t h i s c o n f u s i o n , t h e p a i r i n g o f b u d d i e s and p e e r s w o r k e d o u t w e l l f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s who c o n t i n u e d w i t h t h e p r o g r a m . - 90 -R e _ _ r d _ _ _ _ _ s _ e c The C a n a d i a n h o s t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y e n j o y e d l e a r n i n g a b o u t a new c o u n t r y o r c u l t u r e and b e i n g a b l e t o h e l p o t h e r s . They a l s o e n j o y e d t h e f r i e n d s h i p o f t h e i r i n t e r n a t i o n a l b u d d i e s . I n some c a s e s t h e C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s were made more aware o f t h e i r own c u l t u r e s a nd v a l u e s a s w e l l a s b e i n g a b l e t o l e a r n a b o u t t h o s e o f t h e i r i n t e r n a t i o n a l b u d d y . Q i l i i £ _ I _ i £ S _ 2 l _ B _ _ n g _ a _ P e e r A l t h o u g h t h e h o s t C a n a d i a n s w a n t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r o g r a m , by t h e end o f t h e y e a r many o f them r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t have t h e t i m e a v a i l a b l e t o them t h a t t h e y t h o u g h t was e x p e c t e d . T h i s p u t a g r e a t d e a l o f p r e s s u r e on them and r e s u l t e d i n f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t . The most d i f f i c u l t p a r t o f b e i n g a p e e r was f i n d i n g e n o u g h t i m e t o do a s a t i s f a c t o r y j o b . A f t e r t h e i n i t i a l o r i e n t a t i o n , s t u d e n t s were l e f t on t h e i r own t o c o n t a c t and m a i n t a i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e i r i n t e r n a t i o n a l b u d d y . The h o s t C a n a d i a n s e x p r e s s e d d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s a n e e d f o r more c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p r o g r a m - 91 -o r g a n i z e r s a n d t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s who were w o r k i n g w i t h t h e p r o g r a m . Some were s t i l l u n s u r e o f t h e s p e c i f i c g o a l s a n d p u r p o s e o f t h e p r o g r a m and wond e r e d i f t h e y were d o i n g what was e x p e c t e d o f them by t h e p r o g r a m and by t h e i r i n t e r n a t i o n a l b u d d i e s . S u p p o r t f r o m p r o g r a m o r g a n i z e r s was a v a i l a b l e on r e q u e s t b u t few o f t h e C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s a s k e d f o r a s s i s t a n c e . Ee.££e.B£l°D_2i_£!}e._l!SESE£§ri£e._2i_ll3£iE_B2le. T h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t more t h a n h a l f t h e h o s t n a t i o n a l s d i d n o t b e l i e v e t h e y p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . RECOMMENDATIONS: £ 2 Q £ X n u a t i o n _ o f _ t h e _ P r o g r a m The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y done by K r i n g ( 1 9 8 5 ) a n d o f t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e a ne e d f o r a p r o g r a m f o r f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s t o c o n t i n u e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . L i t e r a t u r e on t h e s u b j e c t o f p r o b l e m s e x p e r i e n c e d by f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s w o u l d s u p p o r t t h e nee d f o r a p r o g r a m o f o r i e n t a t i o n w h i c h w o u l d a i d t h e a d j u s t m e n t p r o c e s s f o r f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . - 92 -§§.i£.££l2!l_§H2,_Ee.£EMitiri2_o f _Hos t _ P e e r s P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y were a l l g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y b u t some o f them r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g t r a i n i n g was n o t n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e r o l e t h e y f i l l e d and t h a t o t h e r s c o u l d a l s o be e f f e c t i v e p e e r s f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . I n o r d e r t o a t t r a c t s t u d e n t s i t w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o a d v e r t i s e a n d e x p l a i n t h e p r o g r a m . P o s t e r s c o u l d be p r e p a r e d ( A p p e n d i x C) and p l a c e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e campus t o i n i t i a t e i n t e r e s t and p r o v i d e an a d d r e s s where more d e t a i l s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d . V o l u n t e e r s f o r t h e p r o g r a m s h o u l d be i n t e r v i e w e d a n d s h o u l d be p r e p a r e d t o make a commitment t o t h e p r o g r a m . U n d e r g r a d u a t e s who a r e i n c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t e d o r q u a l i f y i n g c o u r s e s f o r t h e C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y p r o g r a m c o u l d be a p l a c e o f r e c r u i t m e n t . C r e d i t f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o u l d be g i v e n . QEi2£tation_Process The o r i e n t a t i o n s e s s i o n s h o u l d p r o v i d e a c o m p l e t e a nd t h o r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e p r o g r a m a nd t h e r o l e o f a l l t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . More d i r e c t i o n n e e d s t o be g i v e n by t h e p r o g r a m l e a d e r s t o t h e p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i n g p a r t n e r s . P a r t i c i p a n t s must n o t be l e f t i n a n u n c o m f o r t a b l e p o s i t i o n where t h e y f e a r t h e y w i l l o f f e n d p e o p l e who do n o t g e t " c h o s e n . " - 93 -C l o s e s c r u t i n y o f t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o w a r d c o m p a t i b i l i t y and l a c k o f c o m p a t i b i l i t y w o u l d a i d i n d e v e l o p i n g a b e t t e r s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s f o r c h o o s i n g p a r t n e r s . A l o n g e r p e r i o d o f g e t t i n g - t o - k n o w one a n o t h e r w o u l d a l s o i m p r o v e t h e c h a n c e s o f more c o m p a t i b l e p a r t n e r s . A weekend r e t r e a t w o u l d f a c i l i t a t e t h i s p r o c e s s . M a n u a l _ o r _ H a n d b o o k A w r i t t e n manual o r handbook w o u l d h o l d much o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h p r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a n t s n e e d t o know. The o r i e n t a t i o n s e s s i o n c o v e r s more i n f o r m a t i o n t h a n c a n be a b s o r b e d i n a s h o r t t i m e . A w r i t t e n manual w o u l d g i v e them s o m e t h i n g t o r e f e r t o l a t e r . A handbook c o u l d c o n t a i n t h e f o l l o w i n g : a ) P u r p o s e o f t h e p r o g r a m . b) R o l e d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r t h e h o s t p e e r s , t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s a n d t h e p r o g r a m o r g a n i z e r s a n d p r o v i d e a p l a c e f o r names and phone numbers. c ) S e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e ( e . g . s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s , p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a v a i l a b l e a n d how t o a c c e s s i t , how t o use pay t e l e p h o n e , e t h n i c r e s t a u r a n t s , e t c . ) d) S u g g e s t i o n s o f a c t i v i t i e s t o s t i m u l a t e b o t h t h e h o s t a nd p e e r a b o u t what i s a v a i l a b l e . - 94 -Program o r g a n i z e r s should check at an e a r l y date to see i f the p a r t n e r s have been communicating and, i f not, attempt to f a c i l i t a t e a meeting. A meeting should be h e l d w i t h i n the f i r s t two months with j u s t the program le a d e r s and the host peers so a free d i s c u s s i o n can take place to review progress, compare and share e x p e r i e n c e s . Regular s o c i a l events should be planned f o r hosts and peers to f a c i l i t a t e an exchange of info r m a t i o n among host peers r e g a r d i n g a c t i v i t i e s or j u s t f o r mutual support. S o c i a l events such as pot-luck d i n n e r s and dances c o u l d become a r e g u l a r monthly event f o r program p a r t i c i p a n t s . A s p e c i a l event to mark the end of the term c o u l d be used to say good-bye and provide c l o s u r e to the p a r t n e r s h i p . Host peers c o u l d be l e f t with a f e e l i n g of co n t i n u e d o b l i g a t i o n i f the i n t e r n a t i o n a l student remains on the campus and no formal ending has been e s t a b l i s h e d to the r e l a t i o n s h i p . - 95 -M e e t i n g s w h i c h i n c l u d e the i n t e r n a t i o n a l b u d d i e s c o u l d be d e s i g n e d t o h e l p the h o s t p e e r s r e c o g n i z e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e i r r o l e t o w a r d the w e l l - b e i n g o f the f o r e i g n s t u d e n t . The s i t u a t i o n would need t o be c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d so as n o t t o p u t the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t on the s p o t , y e t p r o v i d e a c c u r a t e f e e d b a c k t o the h o s t on the i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t h e y a r e making t o w a r d th e a d j u s t m e n t o f the f o r e i g n s t u d e n t i n t h i s c o u n t r y . E££29rii£i2Q_2£_£2E£Ei2ii£i2Q The h o s t p e e r s s h o u l d be g i v e n r e c o g n i t i o n f o r t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n . C o u r s e c r e d i t c o u l d be o f f e r e d t o r e c o g n i z e the time and e f f o r t i n v o l v e d i n m e e t i n g s , k e e p i n g j o u r n a l s and a s s i s t i n g w i t h the r e s e a r c h i n v o l v e d . A s p e c i a l e v e n t a t the end o f the term c o u l d be used t o p r e s e n t a c e r t i f i c a t e r e c o g n i z i n g the c o n t r i b u t i o n (Append i x D ) . §2EE2E£_i2£_lQ£§r^§£i2G§I_§iH2'£Q£§ The f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s c o u l d b e n e f i t from the same m e e t i n g s w h i c h were s u g g e s t e d f o r the h o s t p e e r s . R e g u l a r s o c i a l e v e n t s and d i s c u s s i o n s o f a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o g ram w h i c h were o f s p e c i a l b e n e f i t t o them would a i d o t h e r p e e r s i n h e l p i n g t h e i r b u d d i e s f e e l more c o m f o r t a b l e . - 96 -F o r e i g n s t u d e n t s who a r e n o t a b l e t o r e t u r n home f o r C h r i s t m a s s h o u l d be g i v e n some s u p p o r t and s u g g e s t i o n s o f what t h e y c a n do d u r i n g t h e C h r i s t m a s b r e a k f r o m c l a s s e s . F a m i l i e s c o u l d be l o c a t e d i n t h e c o m m u n i t y who w o u l d l i k e t o s h a r e a t r a d i t i o n a l C a n a d i a n C h r i s t m a s w i t h a g u e s t f r o m a n o t h e r c o u n t r y . I f t h e y p r e f e r , t h e y c o u l d be m a t c h e d up w i t h a f a m i l y f r o m t h e i r own c o u n t r y . l r a m j _ n g _ f o r _ H o s t 2 N a t i o n a l _ _ P e e r s W h i l e 5 9 % o f t h e h o s t - n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s i n t h e p r o g r a m r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y f e l t p r e p a r e d f o r t h e i r r o l e a n d c o u l d n o t make a n y s u g g e s t i o n s t o imp r o v e t h e p r o g r a m , t h e o t h e r 4 1 % s u g g e s t e d c h a n g e s w h i c h w o u l d have h e l p e d them. T h r o u g h o u t t h e i n t e r v i e w s , i t was a p p a r e n t t h a t many o f t h e h o s t p e e r s were u n c e r t a i n o f t h e i r r o l e , d i d n o t know i f t h e y were d o i n g what was e x p e c t e d o f them a nd d i d n o t f e e l t h e y were d o i n g "enough.". Some o f t h e u n c e r t a i n t y c o u l d be c l e a r e d up by t h e manual o r by t h e r e g u l a r m e e t i n g s . T r a i n i n g i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s h o u l d a l s o be p r o v i d e d f o r a l l h o s t - n a t i o n a l s . R e c r u i t i n g e a r l y i n t h e s p r i n g i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e f a l l - w i n t e r t e r m c o u l d a l l o w t i m e t o meet t h e s t u d e n t s a n d d i s c u s s c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o g r a m . - 97 -E v a l u a t i o n E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m s h o u l d be done e a c h y e a r t o s e a r c h f o r s u g g e s t i o n s on how t h e p r o g r a m c o u l d be i m p r o v e d . B o t h t h e h o s t p e e r s and t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l p e e r s s h o u l d be i n v i t e d t o make s u g g e s t i o n s . £____e.__Be.§e.§_£_ F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d on o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h i s p r o g r a m . F o r e i g n s t u d e n t s who j o i n e d t h e p r o g r a m and c o n t i n u e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r r e p o r t e d t h a t i t was a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t a n d i t d i d h e l p make t h e i r s o j o u r n a p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e . What h a p p e n e d t o the s t u d e n t s who j o i n e d t h e p r o g r a m b u t d i d n o t c o n t i n u e t o meet w i t h t h e i r p e e r s ? What a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o g r a m c o u l d be c h a n g e d t o meet t h e i r n e e d s ? T h e r e a r e many f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a who d i d n o t become i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e p r o g r a m . What methods c o u l d be u s e d t o a d v e r t i s e t h e p r o g r a m so more s t u d e n t s were aware o f i t a n d what w o u l d a t t r a c t them t o t h e p r o g r a m ? B a s e d upon t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h c o u l d be c o n d u c t e d u s i n g a c o n t r o l g r o u p and an e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p where i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s a r e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o h o s t p e e r s o r were matched c a r e f u l l y a c c o r d i n g t o c o u r s e s - 98 -and y e a r o f s t u d y o r on the b a s i s o f a s h a r e d s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . A l l h o s t - n a t i o n a l s w o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o k e e p a d i a r y o f t h e i r c o n t a c t s and r e p o r t b o t h t h e f r e q u e n c y and q u a l i t y o f t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n . A f o l l o w - u p q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i m i l a r t o t h e q u e s t i o n s a s k e d i n t h i s s t u d y c o u l d be u s e d t o compare t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f b o t h h o s t and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . C o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s c o u l d be c o n d u c t e d on t h e p e r s o n a l i t y and m a t u r i t y o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s a n d t h e i r a b i l i t y t o a d j u s t t o t h e s o j o u r n w i t h o r w i t h o u t t h e p e e r p r o g r a m . S t u d i e s c o u l d be done on t r a v e l e r s f r o m d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s t o compare how t h e y a d a p t t o o u r c u l t u r e . R e s e a r c h c o u l d a l s o be done on f i r s t - t i m e s o j o u r n e r s a s c o m p a r e d t o e x p e r i e n c e d s o j o u r n e r s o r s t u d e n t s who a r e w e l l - t r a v e l l e d t o compare t h e i r e a s e o f a d j u s t m e n t a n d n e e d f o r a p e e r . O b s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t t h e s t r e s s o f t h e r e t u r n - h o m e p h a s e o f t h e s o j o u r n m i g h t s u g g e s t t h a t r e s e a r c h c o u l d be c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e how t h e r e - e n t r y i s e x p e r i e n c e d by s t u d e n t s who have had p e e r s u p p o r t i n t h i s c o u n t r y c o m p a r e d t o t h o s e who d i d n o t . An o b j e c t i v e o f t h e p e e r p r o g r a m c o u l d be t o a i d i n t h i s r e - e n t r y p r e p a r a t i o n . - 99 -£2_2l___o_ L i k e a l l s t u d i e s o f t h i s n a t u r e , i t i s t o be n o t e d t h a t i n i t i a l f i n d i n g s h e l p r e s e a r c h e r s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s f o c u s more c l o s e l y on f a c t o r s w h i c h a s s i s t i n a i d i n g t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s a s w e l l a s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e a n d l e a r n i n g o f t h e h o s t n a t i o n a l . T h i s s t u d y was a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e some f a c t o r s w h i c h w o u l d make t h e p r o g r a m more r e w a r d i n g t o t h e h o s t n a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e p r o g r a m . I t was a b l e t o show t h a t t h e h o s t n a t i o n a l s were n o t aware o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e r o l e t h e y p l a y e d i n t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . S u g g e s t i o n s were made w h i c h c o u l d be i m p l e m e n t e d i n t o t h e p r o g r a m i n t h e f u t u r e a n d i t r e v e a l e d some q u e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e s t u d y w h i c h c o u l d p r o v i d e more i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t f o r e i g n s t u d e n t a d j u s t m e n t . - 100 -REFERENCES Alexander, A.A.; Workneh, F.J Klein, M.H. & M i l l e r , M.H. (1976). Psychotherapy and the foreign student, Counsellng_Across_Cultures, Pederson, P., The University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu. A l l p o r t , G.W. ( 1942). The_use_of_p.ersonal_documents__n E2X__2l22_£__._Sc.ie-Q£e.• Social Services Research Council, New York. Antler, L. (1970). 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Lonner, Swets & Z e i t l i n g e r B.V., Amsterdam, 109-116 Wong-Rieger, D. (1982). Mismatches in s e l f - i d e n t i t y and the adaptation of Asian students to l i v i n g in a North America c i t y , Diyersity_&_Unj.ty_iri_Cross-C ES_£iJ2l29Z» e d ' R« Rath, H. S. Asthana, D. Sinha, JTBTP. Sinha, Swets & Z e i t l i n g e r B.V., Lisse - 1 0 5 -A p p e n d i x A I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i - 106 -Q U E S T I O N S T O A S K C A N A D I A N P E E R S z 1. How did you decide to become a peer to an International student? 2 What aspect of the program interested you most? 3 . Did you attend the orientation program at International House? If "No": Why not? If "Yes": How did i t a s s i s t you? 4. How did you feel about the way the partners were selected? 5 . How did you feel about the compatibility of the partner selected for you? 6. Describe the i n i t i a l contact with your partner? How did you feel about i t ? Explain. 7. Were there any other contacts? If so, how many? How often? Describe the nature of the contacts. If there were no further contacts made, what was the reason? 8 . Was there anything you found d i f f i c u l t about being a peer? 9 . How do you feel about the adequacy of your tr a i n i n g for this program? What would you need to be effect i v e ? 10. Was there anything you found rewarding about being a peer? - 107 -11. D e s c r i b e what you t h i n k t h e i m p a c t y o u r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h an I n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t h a d on h i m / h e r . 12. D e s c r i b e t h e i m p a c t t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n had on y o u . 13. What do you c o n s i d e r t h e p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o g r a m ? 14. What do you c o n s i d e r t h e n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o g r a m ? 15. I n t e r m s o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p r o g r a m , c o u l d you s u g g e s t any c h a n g e s w h i c h w o u l d b e n e f i t : a ) t h e h o s t n a t i o n a l s b) t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s 16. What do you t h i n k t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t w o u l d s a y was t h e most i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e p e e r p r o g r a m t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o w a r d h i s / h e r a d j u s t m e n t ? P l e a s e d e s c r i b e . 17. W ould you v o l u n t e e r a g a i n f o r t h i s p r o g r a m ? Why? - 108 -Appendix B Graphs - 109 -N U M B E R O F R E S P O N S E S HOST CANADIANS' EXPERIENCE-PEER PROGRAM to u CO z a CL cn W D_ LL O C_ Iii CO z D 2 ANTICIPATED REWARD El ACTUAL REWARD A L E A R N I N G A B O U T A NEW C U L T U R E B F R I E N D S H I P A N D P E R S O N A L C O N T A C T C H E L P I N G O T H E R S NATURE OF CONTACTS BETWEEN PEERS POSITIUE/NEGATIUE ASPECTS OF PROGRAM 15r co : • POSITIUE 0 NEGATIVE A HELPING 5 LEARNING C ORIENTATION D UNDERSTANDING E FOLLOW-UP AND CLOSURE CHANGES TO PROGRAM TO BENEFIT HOSTS TOTAL # OF RESPONSES 22 -2223 54.55V. SUPPORT 18.185s ORIENTATION 18.185c CLOSURE 9.09V. INFORMATION ABOUT DIFFERENT CULTURES CHANGES TO BENEFIT FOREIGN STUDENTS TOTAL # OF RESPONSES 12 CHANGES TO PROGRAM 15r TYPE OF CHANGES TO BENEFIT: • HOST PEERS S3 FOREIGN PEERS A MORE SUPPORT B ORIENTATION C FOLLOW-UP AND D MORE INFORMATION FOR HOST PEERS SESSION CLOSURE -ABOUT DIFFERENT CULTURES -ABOUT THE ROLE OF HOST PEER - 116 -Appendix C R e c r u i t i n g P o s t e - 117 -W E R N A T I Q N A L SSISlDGRAM ^Volunteers Needed to serve as peers to visiting students Contact Counselling Psychology 228-5259 - 1 1 8 -•a peer to •a visiting istudent • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •serve as O • • • • • • • • • • For more • X information: t • + • • • Counselling + • Psychology Dept • • 228-5259 t INTERNATIONAL PEER PROERAM Volunteers needed to serve as peers for foreign students Contact Counselling Psychology 578C Toronto Road 225-5253 - 120 -Appendix D C e r t i f i c a t e s of R e c o g n i t i o n BEST FRIENDS CERTIFICATE GORDON and KEIKO INTERNATIONAL FRIENDS University of B.C. 1985 / 1BBB BEST FRIENDS CERTIFICATE University of EM). 986 11987 Participation INTERNATIONAL PEER PROGRAM GORDON FERGUSON University of B.C. 1986 / 1907 Ul 

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