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Adult student and tutor perceptions of academic advising at the Open Learning Institute McInnes-Rankin, Ethelyn 1986

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ADULT STUDENT AND TUTOR PERCEPTIONS OF ACADEMIC ADVISING AT THE OPEN LEARNING INSTITUTE by ETHELYN MCINNES-RANKIN B.A.,  U n i v e r s i t y of Winnipeg, 1977  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o-f C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology)  We accept  t h i s t h e s i s as con-forming  to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y 1986 ©  E t h e l y n D. Mclnnes-Rankin, 1986  In  presenting  this  degree at the  thesis  in partial fulfilment  University of  freely available for reference copying  of  department publication  this or  British Columbia, and study.  by  his  or  her  representatives.  P ^ ^ I  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  August  198ft  that the  may be It  thesis for financial gain shall not  rmmcoi i -ir^  requirements  I further agree  permission.  D a t e  the  I agree  thesis for scholarly purposes  of this  Department of  of  ^  for  an  advanced  Library shall make it  that permission for extensive granted  is  by the  understood be  head  that  allowed without  of  my  copying  or  my written  ABSTRACT  Distance  education  is  used  a  being lack  adult  to serve  of i n f o r m a t i o n learner within  survey  of a d u l t  Institute, Columbia,  showed  of academic  tutors aspects tutors  than  O.L.I,  on  institution  in  responses  students.  Results  advising surveyed  students.  ii  to  This  Learning British  important concerns.  more  suggest  There i s  differences  student  seems t o be a c o n c e r n  which  advising the  system.  were s i g n i f i c a n t  student  system  learners.  available  a d v i s i n g and a d u l t  of academic and  of a d u l t  and t u t o r s a t t h e Open  there  and male  isolation,  delivery  a distance education  that  aspects  growing  and r e s e a r c h  a distance education  female  item,  t h e needs  students  between  The  i s a rapidly  of  O.L.I,  that the  were i m p o r t a n t  to  both  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS Page  ABSTRACT TABLE  OF  i i CONTENTS  -  LIST  OF  TABLES  LIST  OF  FIGURES  LIST  OF  APPENDICES  i i i v i i ix x  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.  xi  CHAPTER 1.  THE  NATURE OF  THE  PROBLEM  ...»  Introduction  1  Plan  2  of the Study  Design  of t h e Study  Definition  2  of Terms  4  Counsel l i n g  4-  Academic  7  Advising.............................  Adul t Student Distance  9  Education  10  Summary  2.  1  REVIEW  •  OF  RELATED  »  10  LITERATURE  .  Introduction Student United  Support  12 Services  i n Distance  Education..  Kingdom.  13 13  Australia. United  12  ..  States  17 19  Cein eftCf e& a R i • i i • i i i • t • • • i « > • « • • • • • « • • < • > • • ° « • • a  iii  B  20  Alberta-  Athabasca  University  20  Ontario  »  British  Columbia-  Open  Learning  21 Institute...  22  Summary. Needs  22  of Adult  Student Academic  S t u d e n t s and  Part-Time  Concerns.  23  Advising  29  Summary 3.  THE  DESIGN  The  Problem  Hypotheses  34 AND  DESCRIPTION  OF  THE  STUDY  36 36  and Q u e s t i o n s  Description  37  o-f t h e I n s t i t u t i o n  and t h e  Papulation The  38  Advising  Tutoring  Services.........................  Staff...  •  Populations................................... Students.  42 43  .  Tutors  41  43 43  Sampl i ng  •  44  Students  44  Tutors  45  Formulation Advising  of the Research  Tool....  Factors  46  Concerns. Advising Data  45  Centre Services.....  Analysis  47 48 48  iv  4a  L i m i t a t i o n s o-f t h e Study...  49  Summary.  SO  FINDXNSSa  a  a  B  B  a  a  B  M  B  B  B  a  a  a  B  B  B  a  a  B  B  B  aaa  a  B  a  B  B  S  B  B  B  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Returns  .  a  e  a  SI  51  Overview o-f S t a t i s t i c a l  Procedures  51  Hypotheses and Questions.  52  Aspects o-f A d v i s i n g  53  Adult Student Concerns  58  R e l a t e d Research Questions  65  Students  65  Tutors  78  Question  --  Other F i n d i n g s  5.  B  S3 84  Aspects o-f A d v i s i n g  84  Adult Student Concerns  86  Summary.  88  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS.  S9  Summary o-f Research Problem and Method  89  R e s u l t s and C o n c l u s i o n s  91  Important Aspects o-f Academic A d v i s i n g .  91  Adult Student Concerns  92  A d v i s i n g Centre S e r v i c e s  93  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e R e s u l t s  93  Important Aspects of Academic A d v i s i n g  93  Adult Student Concerns....  94  v  Implications  and  Recommendations..............  Conclusion  101  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES. . . .  96  ..  103  ..  108  A.  Academic  Advising  Student  B.  Academic  Advising  Survey  C.  Student  Letter..  Survey  109  (Tutor)  114 «••  vi  119  LIST OF TABLES Table 1.  Page Tutor Responses t o Important Aspects of Academic A d v i s i n g  54  Student Responses t o Important Aspects of Academic A d v i s i n g  56  One-way ANOVA Comparisons f o r S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e s Between Adult Students and T u t o r s on Important Aspects of Academic A d v i s i n g . . . . .  57  4.  Tutor P e r c e p t i o n s of Adult Student Concerns  59  5.  Student Responses t o Adult Student Concerns  61  6.  One-way ANOVA Comparisons f o r S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e s Between Adult Students and T u t o r s on Adult Student Concerns  63  One-way ANOVA Comparisons f o r S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e s Between O.L.I. Students and T r a n s f e r Students on Important Aspects of Advising  66  One-way ANOVA Comparisons f o r S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e s Between O.L.I. Students and T r a n s f e r Students on Adult Student Concerns...  67  Comparisons of Student Responses. By Gender, t o Important Aspects of Academic A d v i s i n g  69  Comparisons of Student Responses, By Age, t o Important Aspects of A d v i s i n g  71  Comparisons of Students' P e r c e p t i o n s of Important Aspects of Academic A d v i s i n g by Advisor Contact  73  A Comparison of Adult S t u d e n t s ' Concerns, by Gender  74  Comparison of Student Responses, by Age, t o Adult Students' Concerns  76  Comparisons of Adult S t u d e n t s ' Concerns, by Advisor Contact  77  Comparisons of Tutor P e r c e p t i o n s , by Gender, of Important Aspects of Academic A d v i s i n g  79  2. 3.  7.  8.  9. 10. 11.  12. 13. 14. 15.  vii  16.  17. 18.  Comparison of Tutor P e r c e p t i o n s , by Years of Experience, of Important Aspects of Academic A d v i s i n g  80  A Comparison of Tutor P e r c e p t i o n s , by Gender, of Adult Student Concerns  81  Comparison of Tutor P e r c e p t i o n s , by Years of Experience, of Adult Student Concerns  82  viii  LIST OF FIGURES Figure  Page  1.  L e v e l s of A d v i s i n g and C o u n s e l l i n g  2.  Adult Concerns: Tutors/Students.  64  3.  Adult Concerns: Female/Male Students  75  ix  6  LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix  Page  A.  Academic A d v i s i n g  Student Survey.  109  B.  Academic A d v i s i n g  Survey  114  C.  Student L e t t e r  (Tutor)....  119  x  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The  author  contributed towards  students  towards  Learning  costs  and support. Learning  assistance  of t h i s  t h e Open  who p a r t i c i p a t e d  operation Open  t o acknowledge  b y t h e Open  the mailing  expressed  the  wishes  Grateful  Institute  throughout  this  Institute study.  Learning i n this  Appreciation i s s t a f f and  f o rtheir co-  acknowledgement  research  support  administration  Institute  study  Library  xi  the financial  staff  i s made t o  f o r their  project.  CHAPTER The  Nature  of  1  the  Problem  Introduction The Canadian  field  as  Association  for  There  a  special  i s very  little  The  technology  technology,  as  or  services  in distance  advising  delivery  system.  University), in  W.  Australia.  different Learning  from  on  The  to  revealed  with  students the  Canadian in  1985.  education  to  of  the  use  satellite  computer  i s very  little  counselling  previous  advising  students of  the  United  i s  in a  in British  has  available  institutions  significantly  been  adopted  Columbia.  This  by  on  (tutoring  (Open  ( F e r n U n i v e r s i t a t ) and  that  The  face~to-face  education  are  on  primarily  literature  Kingdom  systems  studies  i n Canada.  in distance  delivery  system  no  education  majority  Germany,  Institute  There  a d v i s i n g and  academic  i s from  the  use  first  (CAUCE)  relates  teleconferencing,  in distance  These  was  the  in distance  (e.g.  The  education.  i s concerned  counselling)  within  research  systems).  search  services to  (CADE)  Education  research  education  video  available  and  and  group  i s new.  o r g a n i z a t i o n i n June,  the  relating  exhaustive  American  support  of  delivery  available  literature  Canadian  in distance  research  academic  separate  i n Canada  Education  interest  majority  audio  conferencing  An  education  University Continuing  CADE b e c a m e a  available. of  distance  Association for Distance  established  1983.  of  the  study  Open has  2 been  designed  education academic  have  the design  this  i s a lack  and d e l i v e r y  will  of a d u l t  enlarge part-time  two on  (tutors)  of  contribute to  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  support  services in i t i s hoped  knowledge  that  about t h e  students.  OF T H E  STUDY  of t h e Study  Most States  of  distance  i n distance  will  Additionally,  the scope  of  student  i n the area  research  of student  i n Canada.  aspects  faculty  of a d u l t  f o r u s e by s t a f f  PLAN  Design  as whether  this  i n distance  (tutors) i n a  of research  that  available  education  study  needs  of important  t h e same p e r c e p t i o n s  i t i s hoped  knowledge  distance  as well  students  and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s t o s t u d e n t s  education,  in  have  As t h e r e  advising  the  adult  t h e same p e r c e p t i o n s  institution,  students  needs.  whether  a d v i s i n g a s do t h e f a c u l t y  education and  t o determine  of the research  i s concerned  year adult  with  o l d student. student  on a c a d e m i c  advising  the traditional  An e x c e p t i o n  and f a c u l t y  advising  i n a non-traditional university.  students  aged  University division,  25 y e a r s  and over  i n Minneapolis-St.  eighteen-to-twenty-  i s t h e Ryan  expectations  of  Ryan  Minnesota,  (1980)  study  academic  at Metropolitan  Paul,  i n the United  studied  adult  State an  upper—  a c c r e d i t e d , n o n t r a d i t i o n a l competence-based  institution.  Metropolitan  State  U n i v e r s i t y i s unique i n  that  i t has  members, act  as  no  who  campus  teach,  academic  including  the  approximately  advisors.  libraries 350  courses  and  their  strategies  advisor  options  (3)  student-designed  This  study  different  majority  educational  which  contact  between  whether  there  student  and  academic  replicated  for  with  students.  the  with  the  institution.  students  (1)  include  faculty-designed  the  Ryan  that  of  adult  courses  at  the  of  independent  study,  format.  Institute have  there  any  been  (4)  significant  tutor  of  and  in  the  Institute, are delivered  Metropolitan University  to  in that  they  provide  alternative  However,  provision for  students.  a  enrolled  courses  adults.  i s no  using  Learning  similar  created  tutor perceptions  a d v i s i n g and  Open  Both  are  study  students  university-level  t u t o r s and  are  by  independent  opportunities for  Institute  and  workshops.  education  Learning  institutions  Learning  has  program  distance Open  (5)  population,  University the  and  resources  members  education  to  and  State University  evaluators  assigned  (2)  programs  institutions  own  faculty  community  faculty  available  learning opportunities  internships,  and  faculty  on  Metropolitan  implement  Learning  a  community  teach  permanent  specific  dozen  and  of  in  three  or  guidance  where  of  consultants  design  studies,  develop  as  Students  group  twenty—five  It r e l i e s  part-time  e x p e r t i s e , who act  only  manage o r  special  a  and  This  at  are  the  face-to-face  study  examines  d i f f e r e n c e s between important  student  Open  aspects  perceptions  adult  of of  adult  4 student  concerns  students  University  at  the  Open  Since  the  statement  tions,  and  included next  amongst  formulation  under  topic  Learning  the  of  o-f  will  the  the  be  there  of  the  i s ambiguity  literature  and  distance  "advising"  and  "counselling",  will  be  given  to  hypotheses,  research  DEFINITION Since  how  tool  methods  and  OF in  subsidiary have  in  definition  education  clarify  tutors  Institute.  description  discussed  program  been  Chapter of  ques-  3,  the  terms.  TERMS both  the  academic  literature  as  some d e f i n i t i o n s these  terms  are  to and  used  advising the  terms  examples in  this  study.  Counselling special  kind  students.  of  The  within  helping  Council  conference  Australia  within  three  However, Within  the  the  delivering  areas, term  field  of  field  counselling  the  for  emphasis delivery  the  on of  area  of  per  se,  to  counselling  counselling  and  in  Group  training services.  and  support  for  at  19S5  tasks  not  the  as  lying  defined. for  staff  professional  psychology. North  a  (I.C.D.E.)  i t i s rare  have  as  counselling.  was  education,  psychology  on  counselling  advising  services  professional  focussing  Education  identified  distance  i s viewed  Interest  Distance  tutoring,  'counselling'  in  an  relationship  'counselling'  training of  education  Counsel1ing-Special  International in  distance  America,  Within there  qualifications  This  prerequisite  the is for is  5  illustrated  by P a t t e r s o n ' s  (1967)  definition  of  counselling!  C o u n s e l l i n g or (psychotherapy) i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n v o l v i n g v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n , between a p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d p e r s o n and an i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p of i n d i v i d u a l s v o l u n t a r i l y s e e k i n g h e l p w i t h a problem which i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n n a t u r e , f o r t h e p u r p o s e of e f f e c t i n g a c h a n g e i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l s seeking help. It  is  although the  the  the  education  'counselling'  misnomer f o r as  or  differentiated  United  what  role is  at  not  do  to  term  as  counselling  unless staff  counselling'  precisely be  counselling' are  distinguishes  of  T h i s model this  in  'academic  domains of  a  'counselling'.  which  context  in  is  and s h o u l d  'personal  'counselling'  be a p a r t of  is  more  model  most  of  in  the  advising'  advising,  career  as d e s c r i b e d  in distance  (e.g.  is  distance  t r a i n i n g and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  'personal  what  often  and c o u n s e l l i n g .  Athabasca U n i v e r s i t y , assumed  generical1y  these a c t i v i t i e s  a model  under t h e  In C a n a d a ,  have p r o f e s s i o n a l  of  described  and e d u c a t i o n a l  1.  education  of  that  in fact  counselling'  In t h e  called  is  States f a l l s  mandate t o  1.  is  and what  counselling Figure  advising  used  that,  al1-emcompassing  in Figure  s c o p e of  education  of  study  c o u l d be d e f i n e d  all  developed  this  h a s been  activities  although  (1986)  between l e v e l s  that  'educational  subsumed u n d e r t h e  reproduced  author of  in distance  from t h e  or psychotherapy  Hyde  the  literature,  activities  'advising'  the  of  term ' c o u n s e l l i n g '  distance  called  view  the  in  education  and/or  the  counsellor  Alberta),  personal  distance  education  counselling student  6  LEVELS OF ADVISING AND COUNSELLING Levots of Assiatonca  Type of Aasistsmoa  Ejusmpt©  Training / rWrwiorjpe Required  RECEPTION AND CLERICAL SUPPORT Screening calls and drop-ins, acnedufing iwuiim new* tor appropriate personnel, distributing broChunM and applicatiofts.  Redaction Needs to datarmine which Student Services area will best provide the requested assistance.  "1 donl know who 1 should speak to. Can you hefp me7"  Oertcet Support Needs brochures and application forms.  "Could you please send me a brochure and application tor the Forestry program?*  Requires recaption skills, knowledge of oft ice procedures, clerical and keyboard skills and basic knowledge of Student Services functions and procedures.  CAREER ADVtSJNG Providing prospective students with information about training programs, and referring for further assistance as required.  Career Advising Needs information, knows what he/she wants but not how to achieve it  "1 want to study Electronics. What does the program involve? How do 1 apply? Will t require upgrading T  Irrfurrnation Seailonifr4ighSchool Ltetson/Orienutiort/Toura Needs information about programs, procedures and services at the Institute.  "1 would like to see the campus and team about programs, services and procedures.'*  Referral Needs information about the location and content of training programs available at other institutions and/or needs in-depth counselling assistance.  "What do other programs entail and where could 1 study them? "Who could provide more in-depth assistance?"  Employment Counselling Needs help lo overcome barriers •n searcrttng lor employment.  "1 have had a lot of difficulty in finding and keeping a job" "I don't know how to search tor employment, write a resume ana prepare tor a job interview."  CAREER COUNSELLING Assisting students and prospective students to develop information and decision-matting skills ana explore values, interests, aptitudes, skills and life goals.  Career H eating/Counselling Needs help to explore and evaluate programs or career options and is not sure of his/her interests, values, aptitudes and skills. Special Needs Career Counselling Referred by a community agency and is disaoied or has some special needs mat must be considered when reviewing training and career options.  Requires a professional counsellor training program demonstrated group and individual counselling* skills, extensive knowledge of: career, educational and personal counselling strategies: effective **l can't find a job 1 like; nothing consultation, liaison and advocacy seems to appeal." strategies; standardized testing, **l wish 1 knew where my fife was interpretation ana assessment; going." career, educational, labour market and community resource information, stages of adult oeveiopment; "1 have been referred by the learning styles: and special needs Workers' Compensation Board. 1 of disabled students. was injured in an accident and must now consider a new career direction."  Educational Counselling Needs help to resolve difficulties which interfere with their ability to meet training requirements.  "1 never learned how to study." "I'm having some problems with my course and want to talk to someone about it." "I'm considering withdrawal from my course."  Special Needs Educational Counselling Requires specialized support services and advocacy during training because of special needs due to a dissbility or deficiL  1 am visually impaireo ano may need some assistance with mobility orientation, specialized equipment, and oral exams. Is this available here?"  PERSONAL COUNSELLING Assisting students with crisis intervention, problem solving and referral to agencies.  Personal Counselling Needs help to resolve personal problems which may be intertenng with his/her ability to cope wrth training requirements.  "My marriage Is falling apart." "1 cant concentrate on my course wont. What can 1 do?" "My parents just kicked me put."  CONSULTATION/LIAISON Assisting institute, ertemal agency and other post-secondary personnel to resolve concerns and access information regarding adaptation*, support and referrals tor students and prospective students.  Consuttation/Uaison Needs support, information and assistance regarding career, educational or personal issues whicn may affect the success of a stuoent or prospect rve student  "1 am concerned about the ability of my client to cope with some aspects of the program he/she has applied for." "1 would like to discuss my concerns about the behaviour ana attitude of a student in my class." "What special faciiities/aervices do you have tor my client?"  EDUCATIONAL COUNSELLING Assisting students ana consulting with instruct ora. when appropriate, to optimize learning efficiency and effectiveness.  Requires in-depth knowledge ofi the Institute snd other post- j secondary institutions, career information collection and maintenance skills, (e.g.. Career Resource Centre), interviewing and referral skills, writing and public speaking skills.  Figure 1  7  support  staff duties.  Academic A d v i s i n g Kramer (1984) p o r t r a y e d t h e a c t i v i t y of academic a d v i s i n g as an e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e f o r students.  Advisors  are: . to provide information . t o a s s i s t students with e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . t o monitor or check t h e progress of t h e i n d i v i d u a l student toward f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree^ and . t o help t h e student cope s u c c e s s f u l l y with whatever b u r e a u c r a t i c mazes a p a r t i c u l a r c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y had c r e a t e d . Also, Crockett  (1984) d e f i n e d academic a d v i s i n g as  ...a developmental process which a s s i s t s students i n t h e c l a r i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r l i f e / c a r e e r g o a l s and i n t h e development of e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s f o r t h e r e a l i z a t i o n of these g o a l s . I t i s a decision-making process by which students r e a l i z e t h e i r maximum e d u c a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l through communication and i n f o r m a t i o n exchanges with an a d v i s o r ; i t i s ongoing, m u l t i f a c e t e d , and t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of both student and a d v i s o r . In t h e academic a d v i s i n g l i t e r a t u r e , t h e r e appears t o be some b l u r r i n g of t h e boundaries "developmental a d v i s i n g " and "career  between t h e domains of counselling".  (1979) s t a t e d t h a t i n order t o perform  Walsh  the f u n c t i o n of  developmental a d v i s i n g , a d v i s o r s must l e a r n some unaccustomed roles  ( c o u n s e l l o r , advocate and g u a r d i a n ) .  He s t a t e s :  A d v i s o r s must be p a r t c o u n s e l l o r . They need some background i n c o u n s e l l i n g theory and they must l e a r n c o u n s e l l i n g approaches and techniques t h a t w i l l enhance the development of i n d i v i d u a l s . . . A t t h e same time, they must know t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between themselves and p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e condensed time frame w i t h i n which a d v i s o r s must operate, and they must be a b l e t o i d e n t i f y students who should be r e f e r r e d  8  to p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r s . To the extent t h a t a d v i s o r s p l a y a c o u n s e l l i n g r o l e they w i l l not be simple i n f o r m a t i o n b o o t h s — t h e i r emphasis w i l l be on t e a c h i n g s t u d e n t s a process of g o a l - s e t t i n g and r e a l i z a t i o n . Developmental a d v i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s may  have some o v e r l a p  with c o u n s e l l i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n the area of a s s i s t i n g i n decision-making  and g o a l - s e t t i n g .  students  However, Winston, et a l  (1984) c l e a r l y s t a t e t h a t academic a d v i s i n g does not i n c l u d e personal c o u n s e l l i n g .  In support of t h i s statement,  they  present Shane's (1981) models There are f o u r depths of involvement an a d v i s o r may have with a student: (1) i n f o r m a t i o n a l , where the f o c u s i s upon i n f o r m i n g the student, p r o v i d i n g data, u s u a l l y about d e a d l i n e s , procedures, or p o l i c i e s (communication i s u s u a l l y one-way); ( 2 ) e x p l a n a t o r y , where the f o c u s i s upon h e l p i n g the student understand c o l l e g e e x p e c t a t i o n s , r u l e s , and procedures (communication i s two-way); (3) a n a l y t i c , where the f o c u s i s upon the student and i s d i r e c t e d at h e l p i n g the student analyze o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e i n the c o l l e g e environment and understand himself or h e r s e l f i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o p p o r t u n i t i e s and o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e ; and (4) t h e r a p e u t i c or c o u n s e l l i n g , where the f o c u s i s on v a l u e s , commitments, and emotional p r e f e r e n c e s (often o n l y m a r g i n a l l y connected with c o l l e g e attendance) and may i n v o l v e unusual or s e l f - d e f e a t i n g kinds of behavi o r . It seems q u i t e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a d v i s o r s t o be i n v o l v e d i n the f i r s t t h r e e types of i n t e r v e n t i o n , but the l a t t e r type would r e q u i r e experience, knowledge, and s k i l l s not possessed by most advisors. A d v i s o r s who encounter students who have remedial concerns ( r e q u i r i n g the f o u r t h type of i n t e r v e n t i o n ) , ....can best a s s i s t by r e f e r r i n g students t o a p p r o p r i a t e agencies on the campus t h a t have personnel t r a i n e d t o deal with such concerns. In the United S t a t e s , Winston, et a l (1984) note t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r s are most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned by  9  institutions faculty  or other  The  developmental (1984)  the advisor  of academic  at 0.L.I.  definition  counselling'  to  closely  liaison  Academic  rather  requiring  to professional  advising  t h e Kramer  than the  as described  Students  Learning  and  resembles  advising  process  are referred  a t t h e Open  activities.  of academic  (1979).  role  advising,  most  advisement  o r Walsh  means o f s u p p o r t  advisors.  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  an a c t i v i t y  <19B4)  within  consist  promotion,  the chief  primary  duties  Institute  as  as providing  by  Crockett  'personal  staff  at  other  agenci es. Adult  Student An  adult  returning This and  student  who  age d u p l i c a t e s eliminates  group an  student  1980).  An a d u l t  (whether  degree  used  degree,  for self,  characteristic  Distance  i n t h e Ryan  study  defined  of  (1980)  (1965)  study  definition  (1980)  kind  who of  f o r others,  authority  h a s assumed  and  some  n o t , t o t h e same  adolescents.  suggests  of distance  that  education  t h e main ares  of  i n Goldberg,  as a person  and perhaps  older.  u n i v e r s i t y age  (cited  o r n o t ) some  of p a r e n t a l  of age o r  or  Education  Keegan definition  years  Conference  in this  choice  of independence  as a beginning  i n the traditional  has been  b y h i s own  responsibility  the definition  The Chatham  has been  defined  i s twenty-five  students  o f 18-24.  adult  has been  elements  i n any  10 * The s e p a r a t i o n of t e a c h e r and l e a r n e r which d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t from f a c e - t o - f a c e l e c t u r i n g * The i n f l u e n c e o f an e d u c a t i o n a l organisation d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t from p r i v a t e study  which  * The u s e o f t e c h n i c a l media, u s u a l l y p r i n t , t o u n i t e t e a c h e r a n d l e a r n e r a n d carry the educational content of the course * T h e p r o v i s i o n o f two-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n s o t h a t t h e s t u d e n t may b e n e f i t f r o m o r e v e n i n i t i a t e dialogue, which d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t from o t h e r uses of educational technology * The t e a c h i n g o f s t u d e n t s a s i n d i v i d u a l s and r a r e l y i n groups, with t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of o c c a s i o n a l meetings f o r both d i d a c t i c and s o c i a l i s a t i o n p u r p o s e s * The p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a more i n d u s t r i a l i s e d f o r m o f e d u c a t i o n ( b a s e d on t h e v i e w t h a t d i s t a n c e t e a c h i n g i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by d i v i s i o n of labour; mechanisations automation; a p p l i c a t i o n of o r g a n i s a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s ; s c i e n t i f i c c o n t r o l ; o b j e c t i v i t y of teaching behaviour; mass p r o d u c t i o n ; concentration and c e n t r a l i s a t i o n ) .  SUMMARY This  chapter  definition kinds  of terms.  of a c t i v i t i e s  education Two,  so that  the context  advising  counselling  program  i n the review  education  provided.  between  students  investigated  Open  been  Learning  study  the differences  perceptions  between  distance i n Chapter  of  academic  advising  and  investigated  Institute  advising.  the  provided.  of academic  This  and t u t o r s '  of academic  within  Definitions  have  and  made b e t w e e n t h e  of the l i t e r a t u r e  the a c t i v i t i e s  been  aspects  of t h e problem  i n counselling  c a n be u n d e r s t o o d .  have  adult  important also  involved  between  differences  the nature  A d i s t i n c t i o n has been  and d i s t a n c e  Distinctions  the  has reviewed  This Open  University of the study Learning  11  Institute  University  perceptions In be  o-f  Chapter  reviewed:  needs  of  adult  adult  Two,  student  program  adult  student  concerns.  three  areas  support  learners;  and  students  within  the  and  tutors'  literature  services  in  distance  academic  advising.  will  education;  Review  of  CHAPTER  2  Related  Literature  i Q t r g d u c t i_gn Until  recently,  counselling  adults  literature. that  reasons:  lack  role  noted  providing Within  growing exchange There  have  Open at  Geelong, have  the been  advising  In  scarcity  field  of  of  topic two  Cambridge,  and  Grabowski  (1976)  stated  of  U.K.  by  the and  literature  in  the  emerging  the  distance  and  on  20-22  pre-I.C.D.E.  August,  information  1985. about  services  the  has  been  information learner.  this  topics  September,  conference  These  students  literature,  selected  at  conferences  provision  to  field  learners.  there  distance  workshops  conference,  clear—cut  Mitchell  research the  of  and  education,  for  three  lack  distance need  adult  but  educational  to  and  counselling  stated  Thornton  counselling  9—12  share  He  impoverished,  services  the of  most  literature  international  Australia, to  the  the  Australia,  and/or  within  commitment  University/I.C.D.E.  helped  of  advising  area  serious  recognition on  States,  adequate  of  neglected  i s one  counselling the  a  education.  of  the  field  adult  distinctions.  (1978)  1983  United  in  of  lack  been  adults  areas  community,  the  the  counselling  developing  of  In  has  the  in  of  distance  education. In  the  review  contributions  from  of the  the  literature  12  available  on  three  topics  13  relevant  to  services  in distance education;  part-time In  this  student  the  support  study  are  presented!  concerns;  first  area  of  needs  and  the  by  country  of  United Much  was  of  the  University a  institution  to  serve  After  seven  years  first  students  initial listed  in  part  the  DISTANCE  student  studies  are  EDUCATION  of  planning,  the  at  a  of  Report  and  c o u n s e l l i n g the by  the  Kingdom.  needs  inception, Open  or of the  student  p u b l i c a t i o n s of  The  distance working  adult  Open  the  University  education  class  University  adults.  accepted  i > Personal - c o n t a c t and  " c o u n s e l l i n g " was  i t s  the of  Sewart  f u n c t i o n of  the  included  University's services to  distance.  Tutorial  i n December  ii) This  review,  1971.  conception in the  on  United  the  of  learning  Counselling Senate  IN  correspondence  i t s very  integral  students  and  advising.  literature  i s dominated  i n the  as  an  students  origin.  literature  created  From  support  Kingdom  distance education  Open  adult  academic  S T U D E N T SUPPORT S E R V I C E S  in  of  services in distance education,  categorized  A.  student  the  (1978)  P r o j e c t Working  Services presented  Group to  adult  described  counsellor on  the  with  the  as  University  1969s continuing relationship encouragement.  as  student  To h e l p s t u d e n t s w i t h g e n e r a l s t u d y p r o b l e m s . need not imply s p e c i a l i s t knowledge.  14  i i i ) P e r s o n a l and s o c i a l n e e d s of s t u d e n t , i n c l u d i n g d o m e s t i c and p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s . iv) Help centres.  where  v) Create informally.  necessary  i n running  c o n d i t i o n s i n which  study  students  may  meat  vi) Ensure c o n d i t i o n s whereby r e s o u r c e s of study c e n t r e s - r a d i o , t e l e v i s i o n , l i b r a r y , computer t e r m i n a l s and o t h e r a i d s - a r e a v a i l a b l e t o s t u d e n t s . vii) Create conditions for discussions. v i i i ) G u i d e s t u d e n t s on t h e Open U n i v e r s i t y .  informal  remedial  student  help  available  ix) Keep p e r s o n a l r e c o r d s of s t u d e n t s t h e s e r e c o r d s a r e u s e d a s i n s t r u c t e d by Regional Director. x) M a k e c o n t a c t study centres.  with  students  xi) Prevent drop-outs irregular attendance.  and  unable  f o l l o w up  As  the  counsellor given  a  Open  content  of  course,  the  one  University  developed,  From  tutorial  the  was  specialists:  Open  the  onwards,  course.  After to  to  new  role  to the  another  system  ensure  attend  or  further  was  t u t o r - c o u n s e l l o r s and  of  the  counsellor the  was  subject  first tutor,  c o u n s e l l o r throughout  This  in  University  the  in relation  assigned  initial  career.  1972 role  foundation  student  with  undergraduate part-time  for further  changed.  defined  remained  students  and the  non-  xii) A d v i s e s t u d e n t s on v o c a t i o n a l and education opportunities. x i i i ) Advise courses.  group  foundation but  the  composed course  of  two  tutors.  15  The  role  (1978)  of  as  the  tutor-counsellor  was  described  by  Sewart  followss  When h e c o m m e n c e s h i s s t u d i e s a s t u d e n t i s a s s i g n e d to a tutor—counsellor at t h i s local study c e n t r e . . . T h e t u t o r — c o u n s e l l o r i s a v a i l a b l e on a f a i r l y regular basis at the study centre f o r f a c e t o - f a c e c o n t a c t , and t h i s c o n t a c t w i l l be e x t r e m e l y v a r i e d i n i t s content ranging from the strictly academic c o n t e n t of the c o u r s e t o the b r o a d e r educational c o n t e x t o f t h e s t u d e n t a s an effective u s e r of a complex t e a c h i n g system. As a s u p p l e m e n t t o t h i s f a c e - t o - f a c e c o n t a c t , and as a s u b s t i t u t i o n i n c a s e s where s t u d e n t s c a n n o t o r c h o o s e not to a t t e n d the s t u d y c e n t r e , c o n t a c t between the t u t o r c o u n s e l l o r and t h e s t u d e n t i s m a i n t a i n e d by other means i n c l u d i n g c o r r e s p o n d e n c e and telephone. Indications is  being  further  are  that  the  redefined.  role  of  Robinson  the  tutor—counsellor  (1981)  commented,  Even though c o u n s e l l i n g has been i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d w i t h i n t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m Open U n i v e r s i t y , i t must be s a i d t h a t i t s p r e c i s e n a t u r e and function continues t o be a m a t t e r o f u n c e r t a i n t y and d e b a t e , (p. 157) The  Open  Report  University  (1984)  Teaching  proposed  and  Counselling  Committee  that  t h e u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n be c h a n g e d t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t most p o s t - f o u n d a t i o n students will p r o b a b l y not need the s e r v i c e s of a c o u n s e l l o r i n most of t h e i r l a t e r y e a r s of s t u d y , o n c e t h e y h a v e become e s t a b l i s h e d d i s t a n c e l e a r n e r s . University resources and p a r t - t i m e s t a f f e f f o r t devoted to s t u d e n t s u p p o r t s h o u l d t h e n be d i r e c t e d t o the e a r l i e r y e a r s of a s t u d e n t ' s s t u d y i n the U n i v e r s i t y where i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t i t w i l l be most e f f e c t i v e . Gagan  (1984)  argued  removed  from  must  transferred  be  that  tutor-counsellors elsewhere  i f responsibilities at  the  i f the  Open  were  University,  quality  of  the  to  be  they  support  16 service  was t o  be m a i n t a i n e d o r ,  suggested a system as  study s k i l l s ,  socially,  o-f r e f e r r a l s t o  vocational  still,  specialists  g u i d a n c e and t h e  improved. in areas  University s u r v e y of  (1985)  described the  in  1981  n a t u r e of  as  such the  student.  the  Open  undergraduate papulation i n a national mature s t u d e n t s  He  p r o b l e m s of  m e n t a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d  Woodley  1)  better  sample  foilows:  At t h e Open U n i v e r s i t y men o u t n u m b e r e d women (547. t o 46"/) among t h e u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s accumulating c r e d i t s towards a degree).  (i.e.  2)  72'/. of t h e Open U n i v e r s i t y u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s were between t h e a g e s of 21 and 4 0 .  3)  75% of O . U . u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s p a i d work; 15% were h o u s e w i v e s .  4)  S c i e n c e was t h e most p o p u l a r s u b j e c t f o r O . U . u n d e r g r a d u a t e s (45%). 31% were e n r o l l e d i n A r t s and 24% i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e .  5)  V o c a t i o n a l reasons f o r t a k i n g the course were l i s t e d by 38% o f t h e s t u d e n t s . 24% i n d i c a t e d t h e r e a s o n was i n t e r e s t i n t h e subject. Now t h a t  counsellor  the  context  r o l e and t h e  has been e s t a b l i s h e d ,  of  the  were  Open U n i v e r s i t y tutor—  Open U n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t some r e l e v a n t  in  journal  population  articles  will  be  di scussed. Nicholson that in  a r e of  skills  conflicts  relevance  ( e.g.  techniques reading,  (1977)  of  describes to  deficits  study  O.U. student  counsellor  in literacy,  the  deficits  m a t h e m a t i c s and  management of  c o m p e t i n g demands of  problems  as f o l l o w s :  such as e s s a y w r i t i n g ,  w r i t i n g exams, ( e.g.  the  the  the  note-taking, time);  role  s t u d y and home l i f e  or  17  work  life);  motivational problems  motivation);  problems  with  failure  and  fear  of  personal  personality  problem  in  the  or  decreasing  University  concentration;  anxiety;  low  (1981)  of  of  relationship  fallowing  factors:  demands;  lack  illness.  B.  a  listed  due  of  dealing  identity with  learning).  i n Robinson,  sample  of  the  under—  (problems  problems  with  to  e.g.  (cited  over  1981)  1,000  students  following difficulties  lack  of  time;  study  in  difficulties  o r g a n i s a t i o n of  motivation;  compared  learning  or  (1978)  frequency:  levels  academic  the  problems  f a m i l y commitments;  viewpoints  positive the  of  achieve);  changes  by  adjustment  and  skills;  time  in  and  resources;  isolation.  Sweet student  study  to  (e.g.  reported  order  planning;  need  lifestyle  areas  Open  or  emotional  development  Murgatroyd's of  of  (over—motivation  of  Sweet  time  between work  and  comments, or  reactions to  and  attrition  problems;  characteristics their  the  O.L.I  the  process  pressures domestic  energy; "These  form  non-completer  rankings and  of  found  both  a  groups  on  responsibilities;  interruptions  results of  and of  personal  situations this  O.U.  and  reasons  suggest  adult  or  that  students  instruction  are  either  are  alike  similar."  Australia Gough  and  Coltman  (1979)  questions  about  their  personal  roles  role  and  conf1ict, choice  state  that  "new  competence, of  courses,  students  about  face  changing  scheduling  of  18 time and  and a s s i g n i n g understanding The  South  Graduate Support  a  'the l o n e l i n e s s  Australian College  Diploma  i n Distance  Techniques  Livingston, typical  of p r i o r i t i e s ,  K.  concerns  distance  Pre-enrolment  The  of Advanced Unit  Education  techniques  Education's 7,  (cited  1983) l i s t s  o f an i n d i v i d u a l  learning  Distance Learning Course  P.,  study  of the d i s t a n c e l e a r n e r ' . "  Education  i n Distance  & Northcott,  effective  Student i n Castro,  A.  the following  as s/he p r o g r e s s e s  through  courses  Student's  Concerns  What c o u r s e ? Why? General anxiety. Insecure, not y e t committed, e a s i l y put o f f ; l a c k i n g s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e ; o c c u p a t i o n and f a m i l y l i f e major concerns, l e a r n i n g minor; Specific a n x i e t i e s s what w i l l t u t o r / s t h i n k o f met how much t i m e r e q u i r e d ; how w i l l I r a t e with other students; w i l l I be able to get resources?  Enrolment  W e i g h i n g up t h e d e c i s i o n , f u t u r e unknown Uncertainty, waiting, wanting t o begin.  Fi r s t Despatch  Eagerly awaited/anticipation high. A r r i v a l , r e a l i t y h i t s , d e m a n d knownOrganising study time. Making commitment o r d r o p s o u t .  Integration/ Getting Through  Recurrent choice points H a r m o n i o u s e q u i l i b r i u m (home a n d s t u d y ) or u n s e t t l e d connection; Developing study s k i l l s ; Occasional unforeseen problems, accident, i l l n e s s , f a m i l y c r i s e s , j o b change, e t c . ; Anxiety r e assessment; Written interaction-learning how; U n d e r e s t i m a t i o n of the time r e q u i r e d ; Lack of r e s o u r c e s ; M o t i v a t i o n w a v e r s ; How d o I r a t e w i t h o t h e r students?  19 Withdrawal  L o s s of f a c e ; Sense of f a i l u r e ; Impact on f u t u r e c a r e e r / r e t u r n t o s t u d y ; S u p p o r t f o r t h e r e a s o n s w h i c h may be r e l a t e d tos study - l a c k of satisfaction/ progress; personal crises; outside event; i n a b i l i t y t o cope; i r r e l e v a n c e of c o u r s e c h o i c e ; p e r s o n a l g o a l s have been achieved.  Course Completion  Further study; Future career options; Recognition; Impact of change r e s u l t i n g f r o m a l t e r e d a t t i t u d e s may affect family relationships, occupation.  The  authors  needed  at  C.  note  the  Empire  for  Distance  directed on  materials advised  matters  their  on  as  degree  1974  607.  students  on  of felt  course  the  College/State  degree study  interventions  completion  student  are  stages.  which  program  skills.  full-time  a  course  student  is  member  designer.  The  well  York  with  Center  by  a  self-  information as  advisor,  and  of  advisory  academically  advisor  administrative procedures remain  as  system  out  factual  requirements  faculty  New  i s carried  provides  The  Advisors  support  U n i v e r s i t y of  Orientation  a  programs.  between  their  describes  Learning.  and  as  Data  time;  State  by  functions  degree  and  l e a r n i n g package  policy  institutional  States  <19S2)  the  more  withdrawal  Uni.ted  Worth  that  who  deals  also  with  requirements  students  such for  throughout  program. Empire  State  and  19S2  the  students  most  College  students  indicate that were  important  professional status  717.  women.  were:  (647.) a n d  to to  in  general,  were  studying  The learn  goals  that  (687.) , t o  attain  part-  specific  improve skills  20 useful  on  D.  the  job  Canada  Al_berta-  Athabasca  Athabasca institution  Alberta level  Administration, Athabasca  University.  University i s a  in  undergraduate  a  (587.) .  towards  and  basis.  female,  ages  and  44.  25 for  wanting  categorized  as  (interest,  The  assistance  group  degree  programs;  for  Provision direct  counselling  educational, Hay study  involve  and  referral;  occupational  and  educational  Brindley,  Athabasca  1986).  the  to  of  the  U n i v e r s i t y i n the  area  study  question  have  future  Personal  on  "main  been career  (37%);  development  (Athabasca  Student  University  Services  of  financial,  personal  and  tests),  academic  student  awards;  (McInnes-Rankin  published of  as  provides  psychological  aid;  at  students  (individual-  information the  who  student  services to  financial  Some o f  Most  1983)  career, use  of  the  strategies assistance;  preparedness  and  (21%).  Guidebook,  services;  problems.  of  for  (15%);  Bachelor  adults  between  preparation  University lists  with  are  the  Studies.  u n i v e r s i t y education"  A.U.  Guidelines  60%  at  Arts,  working  responses  self-improvement)  information  social  a  of  General  are  70%  Student  Orientation  Athabasca  and  follows:  t r a n s f e r or  Services  of  education  degrees  Bachelor  Approximately  are  credit  a  Bachelor  population  reason  offers  University students  part-time  of  which  distance  student  research  from  s e r v i c e s has  been  21 related  to  the  communication <Mi s k i man,  nature  1984.);  (Delehanty  projectives completion  education;  effectiveness in distance education counselling  1983;  education  o-f c o u n s e l l i n g i n d i s t a n c e  orientation  and  1983)5  Miskiman,  in  the  distance  use  of  c o u n s e l l i n g ( B r i n d l e y , 1983)5  i n telephone and  programs  attrition  in distance education  <Brindley,  1985). Staffing staff deal  i n Student  ( c o u n s e l l o r s ) and with  student  student  a  lack  counsellors. assess  their  interpretation  of  staff  are  counsellor's role and  goal  planning  assistance to  courses  and  i s to  students  Advisors programs,  Students  referred  by  help and  skills.  policy  the  to  the  the  transfer  institutions  and  with  fees,  student  in  the  as  to  teach  Staff with  who  advisors  on  e n q u i r i e s such  availability,  professional  (advisors).  alternatives,  university  of  examinations.  clarity  post-secondary  administrative course  goal  and  provide  other  envigilate  situation  decision-making Registry  of  The  support  enquiries regarding  f i n a n c e and  indicate  from  Services consists  of  credit  the  registration,  withdrawals,  etc.  Ontario Smith Education  and  in Ontario  distribution general 44  age  Snowden  of  the  population range."  The  (1983)  in their  Universities student  with  the  majority  group  state  of  that  "the  i s similar  largest of  Review  the  to  proportion persons  Distance age  that i n the  enrolled  of 25 in  the to  22 distance main  education  reasons  -for p u r s u i n g  advancement, Career  i s the primary  (1985)  t h e January  majority  surveyed  study  The  are career  and personal  objectives.  motivator.  that  they  University  program  had  difficulty  with  students  would  appear  significant Institute completion  area,  study  that  almost  skills  of adult  where  there  study  with  students  skills.  study  The  program  areas  skills.  817. i n d i c a t e d  that  In they  687. o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y  difficulty  study  o f 962 0.L.I.  i n a l l three  skills.  indicated  concerns  system  (73.157.)  had d i f f i c u l t y  the  program  a total  1985 s e s s i o n r e g a r d i n g  of respondents  indicated  It  university  a r e women-  Columbia  Harries in  universities  educational objectives  advancement  British  i n Ontario  with  time  and time  students  management.  management a r e  i n t h e Open  i s a s i x month  Learning  deadlinef o r  of courses.  Summary Although services  staffing,  counselling, profile of  are differences roles,  part-time vocational  with  students  learner  who i s e m p l o y e d  basis;  tend  full-time  or personal  the exception  delivery  of a d v i s i n g and  systems,  a common t o be one  and t a k i n g c o u r s e s  reasons  on a  f o renrollment are  interest;  o f t h e Open  t o be a s l i g h t  support  a t a d i s t a n c e appears  whose p r i m a r y  reasons  i n student  interpretations  and i n s t i t u t i o n a l  of t h e adult  a person  (since  there  who i s f e m a l e ,  University,  majority);  women  and between  t h e ages  23  of  21  -  40.  Some common  o-f r e a d i n g , times  writing,  motivation  difficulties study  or  i n common  students  at  available concerns  the  needs  with  ADULT  the  skills;  levels); and  of  the  study  competing  adult  needs  of  to  be  lack  management  skills;  demands  students adult  of  anxiety?  of  related  to  at  a  family,  distance  l e a r n e r s and  institutions,  phenomenon  S T U D E N T S AND  (1984)  noncredit  students  noted  adult  a  and  has  adult  have  part-time  review  of  part-time  have  largely  today  significant  change.  Accessibility  unnoticed The to  STUDENT  part-time  universities.  gone  (1985)  PART-TIME  that  courses  i n Canadian  publication, Canada  high  appear  the  student  follows.  and  marks a  or  traditional  Campbell  of  mathematics  isolation;  literature  N E E D S OF  credit  concerns  commitments.  Since much  (low  with  work  or  student  become  recent  the  learners in the  However, on  CONCERNS  this  campus  Secretary  Postsecondary  majority  though i t  of  Education  State in  states  part-time adult students are increasingly b e c o m i n g an i m p o r t a n t c l i e n t e l e f o r p o s t s e c o n d a r y institutions. Canadian research concerning this s t u d e n t body i s i n f r e q u e n t and m o s t l y descriptive. Given the demographic d e c l i n e of the t r a d i t i o n a l 18-24 a g e g r o u p , r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s t h a t f o c u s on t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e n e e d e d , (p.214) Humphreys three  and  distinct  Porter groups  (1978) who  conclude  might  form  that the  there future  exist  24 c l i e n t e l e -for p a r t - t i m e s t u d i e s . T h o s e who w a n t t o upgrade t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s e i t h e r because they a r e not s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n t h e y now h a v e o r b e c a u s e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n h a s b e c a m e o u t d a t e d i n l i g h t of t h e c h a n g i n g knowledge, t h e i n v e s t m e n t o r i e n t e d g r o u p ; t h o s e who w i s h t o t a k e u n i v e r s i t y w o r k f o r t h e i r own p e r s o n a l enrichment, t h e c o n s u m p t i o n o r i e n t e d g r o u p ; a n d t h o s e who had no h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a t a l l , t h e disadvantaged group. These  sentiments  study  i n which  to  professional education. professional  be  used  echoed  mature  to  Of  by  findings  satisfy  the  the  Graves  indicate  that  and  Groves  the  reasons  adults for attending  advancement, reasons  an and  inquiring to  given,  the  given  educational  mind;  supplement  (1980)  to a  secure  narrow  s t r a n g e s t was  previous to  secure  advancement.  Heffernan can  the  p r o f e s s o r s by  programs were:  are  to  (1981)  lists  distinguish  some o f  between  the  adult  characteristics l e a r n e r s and  that  younger  1 earners.  1) A d u l t s t e n d t o be more u t i l i t a r i a n and o r i e n t e d i n t h e i r l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s (job career related concerns).  goalor  2) A d u l t s have l e s s c o n t r o l over t h e i r time and a r e more bound t o a p a r t i c u l a r p h y s i c a l location than are youths. 3) Research i n d i c a t e s t h a t l a r g e numbers of a d u l t s a r e u n c e r t a i n about t h e i r a b i l i t i e s as l e a r n e r s and t e n d t o u n d e r — o r o v e r e s t i m a t e their c a p a c i t i e s as s t u d e n t s . 4) A d u l t s have ambivalent a t t i t u d e s toward educational institutions. T h e y o f t e n n e e d an a d v o c a t e who w i l l h e l p them w i t h t h e i r e n t r y . Heffernan are  also  increasingly  states that  being  portrayed  support as  the  services far critical  adults  elements  25  that  a f f e c t how  adults  opportunities. financial and  support  assistance,  most  note  that  the  system.  traditional motivation own  and  daily such  contact as  restructuring which  are  may  and  suggests  need  to  learnings  emotional  low  aspiration  levels,  time; often  and  always  adults  need when  such  to  towards  no  women's  adults  of  who  self-  their  is  and  non-  as  find  there  family  the  using  uncertainty of  McDonald  unaccustomed  issues  the  services,  and  not  instructors?  attitudes  negative  are  that  support  or  very  include  students  consider  classmates  of  learning  Knights  adult  with  guilt,  from  mentioned  calendars  for  (1980)  independent  psychological  services  in  reading  Olski  methods  benefit  services.  information  straightforward  and  information-guidance-advocacy  educational-orientation  (19S2)  to  Adult  utilize  issues goals,  friends want  a  degree.  K.  Patricia  typically  experienced  dispositional particular time, to  the  and  (1981) by  second  to  Cross  frequently. be A  socially major  adult  and  notes  Cost  and  acceptable  finding  of  the  summarized  learners  adults'  attitudes  particular practices  more  has  institutional.  s i t u a t i o n of  institutions.  may  Cross  The  at  any  refers  to  given  of  higher  s i t u a t i o n a l barriers lead  the  point  self-perceptions,  procedures  time  barriers  situational,  first  lives  and  as  the  the  third  education are  al1  other  and  Brickel1  mentioned  barriers  reasons). Aslanian  in  (1980)  (but  26  research cope  conducted  with  in  1978  some c h a n g e  in  was  that  their  lives.  demographic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , almost  interviewed  pointed  their  reasons  learning learned in  his  the  simply  or  her  of  the a  Only  sake  of  thus  the  job  a  married period  to  of  homemaking  they  or  were  adult  or  who  event  triggered  career  change;  returning  training  as  to  to  reenter  market).  to  (1981)  influence of  change  loss),  (gain  (internal duration stress;  or  the  2)  the  affect  including  timing  3)  the  previous  seem  with  a  or  1)  and  pre-  life  the  that  role source  off-time), and  and  degree  stage), value a  factors  of  post-  institutional),  competence,  status,  factors  negative),  uncertain, the  of  including  or  t r a n s i t i o n of  therefore,  sets  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  (and  socioeconomic  experience would  (on-time  psychosocial  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ) , age  race/ethnicity,  itself,  (interpersonal  and  three  ( p o s i t i v e or  temporary,  supports  how  transition:  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  setting;  individual,  to  t r a n s i t i on  external),  (permanent,  transition physical  or  discusses  adaptation  characteristics  It  their  specific  a  to  learners  said  a  (e.g.  for  of  Every  to  life;  order  circumstances  precipitated,  learning single  in  adult  percent  t r a n s i t i o n pointed  t r a n s i t i o n and  after  the  learning.  signalled,  from  al1  17  learn  Regardless  changing  that  Schlossberg  role  own  life  school  seem  their  learning.  for  because  transition  the  for  to  adults  and  the sex  state  (and of  sex-  health,  orientation,  and  similar  nature.  such  role  as  change,  27 sex,  age  (and l i f e  interpersonal  support,  considered  when  transition  of entry  Although Levinson a  and  theorists  such  determinants timing)  stage  1978),  i t may  as Neugarten  years  behaviour  who  of important  with the  learning. (1972),  1981) h a v e  provided  development  alternative  stress  (social  and  t o be  t o deal  as one of  t o consider (1979)  need  as Gould  (1976,  the adult  and t h e i n f l u e n c e  Schlossberg  learner  t o formal  and Sheehy  institutional  experience  t h e o r i s t s such  be u s e f u l  of adult  timing,  the adult  or re-entry  f o r viewing  stages,  affect,  and p r e v i o u s  assisting  life  (1974,  structure  stage),  the social  clock; life  psychology of  events.  writes:  D i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed t o t h e view that t r a n s i t i o n s a r e i n e x t r i c a b l y bound t o c h r o n o l o g i c a l a g e o r t h a t t h e y f a l l o w an i n v a r i a b l e s e q u e n c e i s B e r n i c e N e u g a r t e n , who e m p h a s i z e s i n s t e a d v a r i a b i l i t y o r what s h e c a l l s " i n d i v i d u a l f a n n i n g o u t . " Neugarten  states:  B e i n g on t i m e o r o f f t i m e i s a c o m p e l l i n g basis f o r self-assessment. Men a n d women c o m p a r e t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e i r f r i e n d s , s i b l i n g s , work c o l l e a g u e s , o r p a r e n t s i n d e c i d i n g w h e t h e r t h e y h a v e made g o o d , but i t i s always with a t i m e l i n e i n mind. It i s n o t t h e f a c t t h a t one r e a c h e s 40, 50, o r 60 w h i c h i s i t s e l f i m p o r t a n t , b u t r a t h e r , "How am I d o i n g for my a g e ? " This  adult  queries, capable  versus  "Am  I  some r e t u r n i n g ground  can be seen  too o l d to return  of l e a r n i n g ? " ;  For testing  perspective  f o r what  stagnation"  i n the adult  to school?"  "Can I c o m p e t e students, Erikson  issues.  For  with  others,  ; "Am  younger  part-time (1963)  learner's  calls  studies  I  still  students?" may  be t h e  "generativity  the issues  may  be  28  more p r a g m a t i c requirements  such  due  as  to  unemployment,  technological  increased  change,  or  skill career  advancement. Adult educational Students  process.  The  peers;  child  Over their  as  a  More t h a n  70%  mature  multiple Nayman  prevalent  were  and  that  Force  Alberta mature  on  the Mature  reviewed  students  lack  of  from  peer  examinations;  such  of  the  essay of  as  men  were a  problems  and  contact. writing;  confidence in  respondents  pressures  reported  family  group  Lack  women m o r e t h a n  time  to  responsibilities;  remediation.  by  (1980)  into as  have  categorized  psychological,  the in a l l  problem.  in  balancing  Factors  self-confidence  Factors  -Midlife transition -Role change c o n f l i c t  age  or  sex  the  most  developmental,  follows:  -Stereotyped a t t i u d e s toward -Fear of f a i l u r e or s u c c e s s -Unrealistic expectations Developmental  Task  encouragement  life;  students  factors  PsYJ=b9i99i<=J§i  by  three-quarters  Patten  concerns  institutional  of  family  problem  of  concerns  responsibilities.  and  -Diminished  lack  of  the  multiple  surveyed  indicated  of  of  University  upgrading  reported  categories  of  complexity  experienced  care;  concerns  habits;  study.  the  a  Report  balancing  disruption  Academic study  at  problems  pressures;  finances,  was  bring  (19S3)  situational time  learners  roles  and  29 -Shi-fts i n physical condition -Change e v e n t s , d i v o r c e , m i d - c a r e e r s h i f t , -Adjustment to academic environment Institutional  retirement  Factors  -Access to s e r v i c e s - D i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t of f u l l - and p a r t - t i m e s t u d e n t s - S c h e d u l i n g of classes -Course l o a d r e q u i r e m e n t s -Educational, v o c a t i o n a l and p e r s o n a l counselling -Financial aid p o l i c i e s -Learning a s s i s t a n c e s k i l l s (reading, study, and communication) All  of  the  consideration advising  or  above  by  factors  staff  need  planning  counselling  The (cited  NACADA  in  advising  publication  Crockett, as  "to  1984)  assist  meaningful  educational  fulfilling  their  for  the  programs  which  further  or  adult  Standards  in  It  considerations."  to  students  goals,  taken  into  delivering learners.  ADVISINB  defines  life  be  programs  services  ACADEMIC  to  Academic  purpose  their  academic  pursuit  will  including  of  Advising  of  assist  them  in  career  states  A d v i s i n g a s s i s t s s t u d e n t i n (1) understanding i n s t i t u t i o n a l s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e t o them, (2) u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o l i c i e s and procedures (3) making d e c i s i o n s based on available information, and (4) e x a m i n i n g t h e i r p r o g r e s s toward the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e i r goals.  McLauglin of  the  research  although to  a  student  body  and  Starr  (1982)  found  on  academic  advising  of  research  on  retention  the  i s developing.  that  a  consists  large of  relationship Most  of  the  proporti  surveys, of  advising  academic  30 advising student report to  be  research i n the  that the  19  i n the  Students  advisee  are  process  on  the  the  traditional  Crockett  1979,  indicated  assigned 1985  to  of  National  creating  needs  ways  that  of  the  i n which  that  each  newsletter  and  faculty  advising delivery  i t appeared  seeking  mode a t  faculty  many older to  age  (1983) continues  a l l types  typically  informed Task  Levit*  advising  Academic  a  college  between  (1985)  To be an e f f e c t i v e professional staff u n d e r s t a n d some o f adult learner: an the  members  Force  on  advisors than  that  NACADA  Advising  average  more e f f e c t i v e l y  wealth  of  Adult  wanted student, meet  a d v i s o r of a d u l t s t u d e n t s , the o r f a c u l t y member s h o u l d the b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  brings a  1  Advising  writes;  adult student classroom  of  advisor.  needs.  Bitterman  a) to  in  also  (NACADA)  since  information were  true  They  February,  with  States,  predominant  Association  and  was  students  The  was  United  "as  institutions" and  deals  experience  b) a d u l t s are very " a p p l i c a t i o n " o r i e n t e d (they w i l l choose a course that i s immediately a p p l i c a b l e to their lives); c) an a d u l t s t u d e n t o f t e n a t t e n d s p a r t - t i m e , b e c a u s e o f h e a v y j o b , home a n d community responsibilities; d) a n x i e t y w i l l o f t e n be p r e s e n t i n t h e a d u l t s t u d e n t who f e e l s he o r s h e i s t o o o l d t o l e a r n , i s e m b a r r a s s e d by a p r e v i o u s m e d i o c r e s c h o o l record; e) he o r s h e i s l i k e l y t o t a k e a d v i c e o r c o u n s e l more s e r i o u s l y t h a n y o u n g e r s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n s i m i l a r c o l l e g e programs;  or  these  31  f) he o r accurate,  she expects c o n c i s e and  McCleneghan all  found  that  information  (1974),  students  and In  university  students  Canada,  advising by  university  services  UBC  SFU  important  at  students  were  considered  than  (1985)  the  asked  most  of  the  requirements; selecting  on  to  (1981)  academic  other  (19B2)  student  survey  discovered  were g i v e n  in their  of  that  more  rating  of  full-time  students.  Also,  than  university  students  male  advising  services  discussing  next of  issues  as  personal  ranked  job  the  these  advising  a at  most  f u n c t i o n s which  on  degree  and  requirements  was  a  getting  to  of  concerns  1ower t h a n  check;  alternatives;  lack  know  or  degree  graduation  career  personal  f u n c t i o n s much  fifty  discussing  discussing  which  f u n c t i o n s they  more t h a n  There  college-age in  by  order)  discussing  147  Colorado  opportunities;  courses.  values  of  advising  focussed  term;  as  what  Those  ( i n rank  discussing  survey  important"  respondents e.g.  a  Northern  indicate  "most  content  such  to  of  important.  courses  discussing  Students  Columbia  r e p o r t e d on  University  opportunities  to  Meldon's  bookstore)  female  Higginson  value  i n comparison  by  academic  were c o n s i d e r e d as  given  the  and  be  service.  students  job  high  part-time students  rated  Kozloff  percent  a  in British  p r o p o r t i o n of  and  placed  (1978),  T a y l o r and  (and  importance  higher  Simono  counselling  services.  academic  most i n f o r m a t i o n t o up-to-date.  each the  priority ; other more  .  32  practical following At the  advising  1984,  the  responses  University of  wanted pp.  discussing  courses  for  the  term.  result  they  f u n c t i o n s of  a  student  from  the  43-47).  of  Michigan,  poll  i n which  advising  The  i n descending  Dean  students  process  foilowing order  Morris  (cited  partial  of  reported indicated  on what  in Crockett,  list  reflects  the  student  importance.  Inf9nfD:§ti.gn Gi.vi.ng -  Be  familiar  with  courses  and  their  content  -  P r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t g o o d c o u r s e s r e l e v a n t t o my interests - Be a s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n - M a k e me a w a r e o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s s u c h a s new classes - Convey n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n - Be f a m i 1 i a r w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d p r o g r a m s o f v a r i o u s graduate schools - M a k e o p p o r t u n i t i e s known Sb.9C.tztsrm -  -  Course  Suggest, but don't impose, c o u r s e s ; don't s i m p l y endorse my choice P o i n t up a l t e r n a t i v e p a t h s o p e n t o me b y t a k i n g c e r t a i n s e t s of c o u r s e s H e l p me w o r k o u t r e g i s t r a t i o n H e l p me t o s e l e c t c o u r s e s a c c o r d i n g t o c o u r s e l o a d a n d the d i f f i c u l t y o f my o t h e r e l e c t i o n s G u i d e me t o c o u r s e s w h i c h w i l l h e l p me t o d e c i d e my areas of interest P u t t h e d e c i s i o n c l e a r l y i n my hands P l a n a s c h e d u l e o f c o u r s e s w i t h me c o n s i d e r i n g my s t r e n g t h s and n e e d s Caution In  many  against  the  of  or  advising  have  between  preferences  aspects  overload  academic  studies that  differences in  Selection  explored  adult  ratings  advising  literature, whether  students of  services.  the  and  there  or  there  college-age  importance Mangano  not  have  and  of  not  been  are  students  various  Corrado  (1981)  33  investigated New  York  the  State  needs  two-year  (twenty-five  years  students  to  staff  (up  were  project  such  experience  emphasise  groups  courses  student  concerns  my  Student  and  math  The  that  degree  as  plan;  provide  career  similar  education  support  the  with  a  job  study,  much  most  work and  and  tended  faculty  of  students  adult  Both  for  for  many and  as  staff  much  more  did. perceived  level  on  ranked  the  important:  be  the  adult  scale  following aware  of  assigned These where  to  me  my  of  progress to  because  results i t was  than  aspects  o p p o r t u n i t i e s known  study  to  improvement;  The  background.  to  speedy  concerns.  skill  faculty  Corrado  Student  life  skills.  be  the  students  and  learning  by  ratings  instructors;  higher  students  and  extra-curricular  f o r study  i n f o r m a t i o n ; and  Mangano  the  students  development  needs  make  or  and  opportunities;  younger  dealt  need  the  (1980)  advising  Needs  improvement;  adults themselves  Adult  faculty  younger  high  at  and  in  age  questionnaires designed  personal-social  Ryan  students.  academic  two  age),  college  than  perceived  the  students  p e r c e i v e d need)  items  the  adult  higher  providing specific  than  Re-entry  of  p r e r e g i s t r a t i on  a  students  gave  procedures.  and  adult  students  vocabulary  those  general  In  on  Adult  years  of  of  traditional  informal, encouraging  important  did  Scale.  expressed  relaxed,  in  Survey  credit;  acti vit i e s  older),  using  greater  registration  colleges.  the  as  satisfactions  twenty-four  staffs  (indicating items  and  surveyed  Satisfaction  and  seem  found  me; of to that  34  reentry and  adult  very  pragmatic  development and my  B's  students tend  needs  i n my  in their (e.g.  courses;  self-confidence";  with  other  to  a a  a  be  task-oriented  assessment  first-order second  order  third-order  of  academically  personal-social  concern  was  "getting  concern  was  "improving  concern  was  "fitting  A'  in  students".) SUMMARY  In  this  services  chapter,  in distance  part-time  student  selected  e d u c a t i o n , needs  concerns  reviewed  in order  to  for  study  adult  this  on  important  a s p e c t s of  education  system,  student advising  were Worth  Kozloff  (19B5);  were  Nicholson  (1979); Mangano Mature Harries refine in the  and  items  Chapter United  on  Report These the  Dlski  studies  to  been  A  review  Kingdom,  the  of  the  Cross  counsellor  role  at  concerns Coltman  (I9B1);  Task  Force  al  (1985)  used  tutor-  (1985);  and  to  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e which  Three.  Shane  student  Sough  Castro, et  adult  academic  (1981);  adult  (1981);  have  basis  distance  Bitterrnan  (1980);  been  p e r c e p t i o n s of  (1978);  Sweet  (1983);  to  and  p e r c e p t i o n s of  in a  (1984);  has  theoretical  Heffernan  Murgatroyd  (1981);  tutor  support  students  advising  tutor  relating  student  adult  relating  (1972);  (1979);  Corrado  (1985).  and  Crockett  (1977);  Students:  and  on  and  advising  student  studies  Neugarten  context  Studies cited  (1982);  of  academic  student  academic  Crookston  (1981);  and  provide a  and  concerns.  literature  on and  develop i s  included  counsellor Athabasca  and  role  in  35 University  i n A l b e r t a , Canada  the  States  United  Chapter  Three,  advisor  and  will  presented.  be  examine  been  tutor  (faculty) The  needs  of  of  of  and  methodology adult  students  be  and  in  In  Institute  population  study  which  will  tutor  academic  described  role  chapter.  Learning  for this  of  advisor  student  student  aspects will  in this  t h e Open  roles  the important  adult  the faculty  set forth  description  distance education  perceptions the  a  has  and  in  advising detail.  and  CHAPTER The  Design  and D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e Study The  There distance since new  education  the f i e l d  very the  little  support  topic  research  education  i n the United  faculty  members.  separated Learning  from  on t h i s  students.  carried  which  There  aspects  considered  Most  i s a need  of academic  important  from  duties.  i s usually  A t t h e Open  staff  activities are  the student,  by t e l e p h o n e  and  f o r further research  t o determine  advising  education  by s t u d e n t s  enrolled  i n distance  and  i n post-secondary  basis.  Little  research  has been  education 36  distance  i n coursework  of t h e p a r t - t i m e  In t h e d i s t a n c e  are  tutors.  part-time  the concerns  Faculty  administrative  of these  are adults, enrolled  Canada.  i s d e l i v e r e d by  advising  courses  in  Additionally, f o r t h e most  advising  education  concerning  fairly  advising, there i s  that,  students;  The m a j o r i t y  students  i s a  i s some  i n Canada.  academic  of  i n Canada  the functions are separated.  out a t a distance  mail.  topic  or tutoring  responsible f o r tutoring  advise  there  academic  academic  In Canada,  Institute,  on  by t h e f a c t o r  States,  teaching  i n the area  i n Canada  Although  States  i s complicated  research  services f o r students  of d i s t a n c e  i n the United  little  part  by  very  Problem  phenomenon o f t h e 1980's.  research  are  has been  3  on a  reported  adult  student  literature in  37 Canada, the  there  concerns  has of  been  the  no  research  part-time  adult  student.  Since  staff  administrators in the  and  student  this  support  concerns  of  perceptions relative  information  services,  adult that  importance  distance be  design  various  both'for  delivery  worthwhile  and  to  t u t o r s have of  the  of  survey  education,  aspects  o-f  education  useful  and  in distance  students  of  tutor perceptions  would  i t seems  students these  on  and  of  the  the  the  advising  process.  In  this  study,  modifications study  there  for  has  the  been  anomalies  p r e v i o u s l y undertaken  States  on  Academic  " Adult Advising  a  Student in a  by  and  replication of  distance  Ryan  (1980)  Advising gain  a  of  the  being  United of  the  Open  about  and  Learning  student  their  question considered  be  to  tutor perceptions  of  of  the  Institute on  students.  the  in order  perceptions  included  for  Institute  and  The  with  potential Two  null  important requested advising hypotheses  formulated.  dyfiQtheses (1)  There  are  no  a  QUESTIONS  in cooperation  advising process.  research  services were  needs  i n the  of  Nontraditional University".  undertaken  information  student  aspects  was  S e r v i c e s of  more  adult  that  study  some  education)  Faculty Expectations  H Y P O T H E S E S AND This  (with  d i f f e r e n c e s between  adult  student  and  38  tutor  perceptions  of  important  aspects  of  academic a d v i s i n g . (2)  There  are  no  perceptions  Bf?L«|ted (1)  there  students  (2)  Are  adult  (3)  Are  student  any  Transfer of  students  academic  to  the  between items  a d v i s i n g and  d i f f e r e n c e s i n responses  concerns  there  tutor  •.L.I.  on  perceptions  concerns?  advising factors  advisor  and  concerns.  d i f f e r e n c e s i n responses  student  academic  or  any  aspects  there  student  adult  student  Questions  and  important of  of  Research  Are  d i f f e r e n c e s between  on  the  or  by  perceptions  b a s i s of  students of  students'  on  adult gender,  age  contact? any  d i f f e r e n c e s i n responses  advising  factors,  members'  gender  or  or  concerns  number  of  on  the  years  on  academic  b a s i s of  served  as  the a  tutor  tutor?  Question (1)  What by  additional  adult  Advising Centre  distance education  s e r v i c e s would  students  i f they  be  used  were  offered? DESCRIPTION  •gen  Learning The  British  Open  OF  THE  INSTITUTION  AND  THE  POPULATION  Institute Learning  Columbia  Institute  Provincial  was  e s t a b l i s h e d by  Government  i n June  1978.  the It  was  39 created number  to provide of  British  traditional  Columbians  institutions  commitments,  geographic  •.L.I. September,  educational  Kelowna  and  was  in Victoria  time  advising staff  time  student  isolation  were  under  contract  Prince  George  i n 1980.  About  program  areas.  time  other  degrees,  programs  vocational education. program  The  Adult  and  Adult  agencies!  study  i n career, of  were  14,000  students  i n 1 9 8 5 - 8 6 was  as  follows:  Basic  full-  parttutors  Education  employed  full-  colleges,  baccalaureate and  in adult between  programs  basic the  main  3 2 . 3 '/.  Technical, Vocational  Basic  7  the University,  technical  of  in centre  part-time  offers  study  in  fourth  universities,  O.L.I,  programs  A  120  domestic  s e t up  there  t u t o r s were  distribution  University Career,  of  districts. of  areas,  areas  majority  educational  school  i n 1979.  i n 1984-85 t o s e r v e  The  were  approximately  enrollments.  or  disability.  courses  1986,  large  attend  work  physical  In  and  to  as  seven p i l o t  T e c h n i c a l - V o c a t i o n a l , and  institutes,  such  or  Career-  by  unable  advising centres  members  course  were  f o r reasons  Regional  Richmond, added  who  offered i t s first 1979.  opportunities f o r the  45.6  Education  V.  2 2 . 1 "/. 100.0  Almost Learning defined  a l 1 of  Institute as b e i n g  the students are part-time  in enrolled  enrolled  with  students.  i n three  the  Open  (Part-time i s  or fewer  courses).  40  The  student  listed  pro-file report  the distribution  f o rt h e January  b y a g e o-f s t u d e n t s Number  Under  20  1986 s e s s i o n as -foilows:  Percent  145  6.3%  Between  21 a n d  30  985  43.0%  Between  31 a n d  40  809  35.3%  Between  41 a n d  50  267  11.6%  Between  51 a n d  60  64  2  Between  61 a n d  70  18  0.8%  5  0.2%  71  and over TOTAL  This  2293  distribution  adult  education  Five)  where  i s similar  i n Canada  the highest  undertaken  more  than  majority  men t o e n r o l l  (56%) of p a r t i c i p a n t s  were  distribution  by sex f o rt h e O.L.I.  Canada, areas  the distribution  i s almost  enrolled Greater were  equal.  students Victoria  from  rural  a t Open  Unlike  were areas;  areas.  that  i n adult education.  c a n be found  54.7% female.  r a t e w a s among  i t was f o u n d  distribution  and  of t h e survey of  i n 1983 (One I n E v e r y  participation  I n t h e same s u r v e y ,  8 fa  100.0%  to the findings  year-olds. likely  B  women.  Learning  A  25-34  women  were  The  similar  Institute.  The  8 6 0 1 s e s s i o n was 4 5 . 3 % m a l e  t h e survey  of students  i n adult between  education i n  rural  and urban  In t h e 8601 s e s s i o n , 4 7 . 6 % o f t h e from  either  3.3% were  t h e Lower from  Mainland  or  out-of-province; 49.1%  ( T h e One i n F i v e  survey  found  that  people  who  pursue  adult  rural  The  lived  in  large  education  cities  than  those  in smaller  more  likely  centres  or  to  in  Services  Prospective  students  advisor  before  enrolling  contact  may  by  majority centre  be  of  has  the a  support about  in  contacts  toll-free  staff  are  are  courses/programs,  admission  initial  planning,  course  is  liaison  and  selection,  are  their  registered advisor. any  with  one  to  credit  an  the  shown  advisor  that  at  at  the In  were  advising  with  told  program  goal  the  setting.  Open  Learning  Until  centres  advising, activities.  majority  of  advisor  19B4,  students  advising  students  assigned to  and  evaluation,  closest 1985,  or  questions  academic  the  longer  use,  Advisors  policies,  students.  were no  can  administrative  region.  students four  role  advising  enrollment  educational  and  prospective  O.L.I,  Instead, of  and  Initial The  Each  students  O.L.I,  advisor  have  geographic  with  of  an  mail.  students  limited  information-giving,  contacts  within  to  on  statistics  assigned  assist  the  promotion,  or  accepted.  in  Advising  were  are  transfer  aid, clarification  Institute  to  which  contact  courses.  telephone.  calls  financial  emphasis  by  WATS l i n e  available  to  Institute  in-person,  are  collect  registration,  encouraged  the  telephone,  station-to-station  at  slightly  areas.)  Advising  The  were  a  contact within  centre  who permanent an  B.C.  advisor  42  All  students  examinations,  financial  Student  Services  Seorge,  Kelowna  of  outreach  planning to  office credit  and  Victoria  student  or  was  19S5.  The  focus  regional  access  to who  are of  to  the  in  i s towards  advisors  All  transferred the  Richmond  also  to  Prince  Institute.  have  records,  referred  centres  the  centralized  Richmond  related  admissions  enrolled students  programs  in  aid  i n Richmond.  and  for  O.L.I,  requiring information  one  program  credit Advising  review  transfer  allocations.  Students  requesting  usually  r e f e r r e d by  course,  "Planning  personal  career/life  advisors  Your  to  Future"  c o u n s e l l i n g are  planning  thB  .  O.L.I,  are  non-credit  Students  referred to  counselling  requiring  local  community  resources.  Tutoring  Staff  Tutors  work  regular  contact  through  the  contact. during  a  level  course. all  and to of  There  a  an  their  i s no  initial  students  course-related  of  telephone  call,  phone  questions  three a  times  mid-course Students  problems  calls  varies  contact  their  and  and  in-person  least  academic  instructed to  kinds  maintaining  discussion.  t u t o r s whenever  are  at  welcoming  student-initiated  Students  by  provision for  pre-examination  phone  homes,  enrolled students  t u t o r s phone  course:  encouraged The  with  mail.  Most  checkup,  p r i m a r i l y from  their  are arise.  in tutor  advisor  each for for  43  content  unrelated  concerns.  PQByl^tigns Students For  purposes  students older form  in  i n t h e 8601  a n d who that  O.L.I,  had  they  degree  study,  indicated  wished (either  o r who  had  university-level surveyed. over was  103  number  students  take  course(s)  male  students  mailed  i n O.L.I.  that  courses  a n d 91  they  female  credit  enquire  was  carried  i f students  encourage  questionnaire  those  had  returned  students  t o complete  who  an  taking  elsewhere  O.L.I,  was  Students  their  hadn't  in  and degree"  140  total "to (49  were call  March,  to  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and  returned  i t and r e t u r n  were  the  A telephone  later,  Arts  Q.L.I,  i n t h e group  elsewhere"  an  General  students)5  students).  o u t a month  in  of  of t h e age 25  towards  the questionnaire i n February.  follow-up  were  and over  credit  towards  a Bachelor  of A r t s  49 f e m a l e  o f t h e a g e 25  for transfer  of age o r  courses  of A r t s ,  of students  and  program  their admission/registration  for transfer  number  university  25 y e a r s  or a Bachelor  "to take  of students  were  a Bachelor  indicated  The t o t a l  (54 m a l e  on  to enroll  courses  i n the group  a l l new  s e s s i o n who  Administrative Studies  Studies)  to  o-f t h i s  their  i t as soon  as  possible. Tutors Active  University  program  t u t o r s who  had t u t o r e d  f o r O.L.I.  44 in  three  or  surveyed. members, made t o  more p r e v i o u s Since  the  the  entire  contact  s e s s i o n s e.g.  total group  those  number was  tutors  o-f t h i s  used. who  8509,  No  8511,  group  was  attempt  d i d not  8601  were  36  was  return  questionnaires.  Sampling Students There  were  approximately  university-level  courses  students  25  years  intended  to  pursue  credit  elsewhere  program,  of  was  i n the  age  an  or  O.L.I,  Since by  do  computer  search  records the  in order  group,  subgroup of  to  "take of  the  group  "take  entire  group  of  research  sample.  courses  towards  portion  of  taking not  the  O.L.I,  and  university  research  to  program  did  not  area,  i t was  Students courses  computer  necessary  identified were  out  Once  generated  one as  selected  who  indicated  for  "general  to  student  elsewhere", as  they  for  students  was  selected  of  that  elsewhere".  students  degree"  list  individual program  in  courses  the  for credit was  take of  students  O.L.I,  sample.  included in this The  students  A  indicated  use  through  program  A l l 103  or  for credit  course(s)  140  had  university  course(s)  registered  session.  the  program  select  university  by  this  students  separate  8601  degree  generated  Datatrieve.  students  o l d e r who  differentiate a  945  of the  out  thB  part  of  the  "taking as  that  the they  interest"  other were were  study.  sample  was  assumed  to  be  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  45  the  Q.L.I,  25 y e a r s  student  of  Institute  age  p o p u l a t i o n of  or o l d e r  who i n d i c a t e  degree or t o  take  in the that  courses  university past  they  for  program s t u d e n t s  and f u t u r e  intend to  transfer  s e s s i o n s of  p u r s u e an  credit  the  O.L.I,  elsewhere.  Tutors The  tutor  representative tutors  research of  the  sample  O.L.I,  p o p u l a t i o n of  t y p i c a l l y h i r e d by t h e  the  future,  the  tutors  was assumed  Institute  whose c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s in this  to  be  u n i v e r s i t y program  i n the  do n o t  past  diverge  and  in  from those  of  sample.  FORMULATION OF THE RESEARCH TOOL Questionnaires on  the  questionnaire  Metropolitan necessary within  the  i n order to  education  through the  (2)  B e i n g aware of  (3)  Clarifying  were:  (!)  that  Fear  for  requirements  of  the  were r e p l i c a t e d  I may be t o o  of  at  for  were  advising  literature. the  were  The i t e m s area  were:  decision-making  institutional  students  Some new i t e m s  were r e p l i c a t e d  my p r o g r e s s  based  some m o d i f i c a t i o n s  setting.  advising"  Placing educational  concerns"  the  review  that  a s p e c t s of  items that  However,  cover  (1)  The  and s t u d e n t s were  o r i g i n a l l y designed  questionnaire  "important  both t u t o r s  University.  a distance  introduced in  for  i n my hands  on my d e g r e e p r o g r a m  policies  and  under t h e  o l d to  procedures  area  go back t o  "adult  school  student  46  (2)  O p p o s i t i o n from f a m i l y  (3)  Poor r e a d i n g , It  should  reading, items,  w r i t i n g o r math  be n o t e d  that  skills  in this  w r i t i n g o r math s k i l l s " ,  "poor w r i t i n g  r e a d i n g or study reading,  members  study,  item,  "poor  was b r o k e n down i n t o  o r math s k i l l s " ;  habits".  the  "lack of  Therefore,  w r i t i n g o r math s k i l i s "  has  the  two  efficient  item,  "poor  been m o d i f i e d  in  this  study. The new i t e m s i n t h e review in  of  academic  distance  advising,  education  Items p e r t a i n i n g included at  the  the  to  request  process;  education  desired of  student  and  on a counselling  services  administrators  regarding desired  questionnaire  advising  adult  were b a s e d  literature.  s t u d e n t s were s u r v e y e d The t h r e e  questionnaire  c a t e g o r i e s were:  adult  student  at  were  O.L.I..  student  services.  important  concerns;  Only  aspects  advising  of  centre  services. Adyisi.ng  Factors  Thirteen of  the  to  advising  respond  were i d e n t i f i e d  as  important  p r o c e s s and s t u d e n t s and t u t o r s  on a f i v e  importance of the  factors  each  questionnaire  point  item to  Likert them.  i n random o r d e r  (1)  Placing educational hands  (2)  B e i n g aware of program  the  Scale  as  to  were the  Advising factors  aspects asked  degree listed  of in  were:  decision-making  into  student's progress  the  student's  on u n i v e r s i t y  degree  47 (3)  Being aware of o t h e r -factors i n the s t u d e n t ' s life besides enrollment i n courses at t h i s institution  (4)  Assisting  (5)  Clarifying  (6)  B e i n g an a d v o c a t e f o r t h e s t u d e n t w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n e.g. a s s i s t i n g s t u d e n t w i t h grounds for extensions  (7)  Relating  (8)  Helping his/her  (9)  M a k i n g l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s known new c o u r s e s , p r o g r a m s )  student  with  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems  institutional  to  the  student  policies  in a  and  procedures  personal  way  s t u d e n t understand t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c a r e e r g o a l s , o r work and O . L . I , c o u r s e ( s ) to  the  student  (10)  Referring student to O.L.I, doesn't o f f e r  other educational i n s t i t u t i o n s what h e / s h e w a n t s  (11)  Helping  study  (12)  Informing  (13)  Helping student scheduling.  student  with  student  about  with  (e.g.  i f  problems  financial  specific  aid  course  selection  and  students  and  Concerns The tutors might  same  in responding have  identified item  Likert  was  as  they  through  added. of  scale  to  the  Fear  being  (2)  Opposition  from  (3)  Isolation course(s)  i.e.  (4)  Anxiety  (5)  Poor  about  writing  too  school.  literature  Concerns  (1)  listed  old  to  family no  math  by  listing  concerns  adults  Thirteen concerns  and  an  open-ended  to  school  were  response  were:  go  back  members  contact  grades or  used  questions  return to the  was  skills  with  other  students  in  48 (6)  Problems  financing  (7)  Time  (8)  D i f f i c u l t i e s balancing setting priorities  (9)  Lack  of  (10)  Fear  of  (11)  Fatigue  (12)  Concerns about time r e q u i r e d t o c o u r s e s on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s  (13)  Lack  pressures  efficient  after  of  for  were  were  offerings centres  response  item  habits  and/or  family  responsibilities complete  post-secondary  a l s o asked  to  respond  Proposed  information each  session  also  included.  was  would  Open  group  before  questions use  i f  s e r v i c e s were:  about  session;  to  asking  these  di al-a~tape  Learning  Institute  advising sessions  deadlines.  An  in  open-ended  Analysis The  statistical  estimate  of  items  advising for  work  offered.  advising  the  study  a d v i s i n g s e r v i c e s they  pre-recorded  Data  or  and  Services  additional  course  reading  responsibilities  self-confidence  Students  services  multiple  failure  Qdvi.si.ng C e n t r e  what  courses  the  Since  and  the  for  LERTAP,  student  Sciences  assumption  quasi-interval  demographic  concerns.  that  was a  data,  information,  Likert  count  to  The  used  SPSS  used  student  relating  (SPSS)  was  was  t u t o r and  questionnaire  adult  Social  continuous report  reliability  on  the  package,  to  to  obtain  responses  aspects  analyze  the  Package data.  represented  instructions cases,  to  of  Statistical  scale  an  were t o  report  49  •frequencies of  mean,  and c o m p l e t e  and s t a n d a r d  important  aspects  A  ANOVA  one-way  significance additional  and  used.  source  of the data  statistical  of responses  to desired  compiled.  for this  Learning  typical  education  institutions  concerns.  Study  necessarily  distance  of  A summary  a d v i s i n g s e r v i c e s was  t u t o r s a t t h e Open  not  a d v i s i n g and s t u d e n t  a t t h e .05 l e v e l  was  statistics  d e v i a t i o n i n t h e c a t e g o r i e s of  of academic  LilDi.tat.ions o f t h e The  the appropriate standard  of  with  was  Institute. adult  programs  i n Canada  study  students  The r e s u l t s  students  at  different  from  enrolled  other staffing  are in  post-secondary and  delivery  systems.  The one  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  session,  been  enrolled  might  have  they  included would  who  t o new  students  1986 s e s s i o n .  a p e r i o d of time  i n only  If students  were  surveyed,  who  had  results  different.  who  had i n d i c a t e d  were t a k i n g c o u r s e s i n t h e sample.  have  relative  over  been  Students that  t h e January  given  had s i m i l a r  importance  had i n d i c a t e d  perceptions  wished  registration  f o r general  I t i s n o t known  of aspects  they  on t h e i r  with  interest whether  respect  were n o t  this  group  to the  of a d v i s i n g t o those t o pursue  form  students  an e d u c a t i o n a l  goal.  50 SUMMARY  This hypotheses the Four  chapter and  has  questions, the  populations, data will  reviewed  describe the  the  design  of  the  study,  description  of  the  setting  collection findings  and of  data  this  analysis.  study.  the and  Chapter  CHAPTER  4  Findings  Qysstignnaire Of were  Returns  t h e 103  returned  questionnaires  as undeliverable.  questionnaires, questionnaires returned.  constitute  from  female  Of  t h e 36  were  from  Overview The obtain Hoyt  was  estimate  t h e Hoyt  48  had no  74  parallels  which  was  2  140  or 34%  with  need  a r e from The  were  Transfer the  of the that  female  61% r e t u r n  t h e number  of  rate  female  58%.  mailed from  t o t u t o r s , 25 male t u t o r s  and  or  69%  14 o r  Procedures statistical  package,  of r e l i a b i l i t y  of r e l i a b i l i t y  estimate  LERTAP,  f o r the  used  questionnaire.  f o r students'  of r e l i a b i l i t y  was  responses  for tutors'  information  was  obtained 51  through  was  responses  0.76. Further  56%  tutors.  computerized  estimate  the  d i d not feel  students.  11 o r 4 4 % w e r e  of S t a t i s t i c a l  an  study,  questionnaires  female  Of  t h e 122 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  male  closely  i n t h e sample,  returned.  0.89;  a r e from  they  students,  remaining  interviews  as they  Df  for this  students  were  The  services.  t h e 101  students,  follow-up  t o them  t o O.L.I,  returned.  to Transfer  applied  48  Of  indicated that  the data  and  students  to  mailed  advising  students  o r 73% were  students  questionnaire O.L.I,  74  In t e l e p h o n e  students,  mailed  t h e use of  52 the  computerized  used  to obtain  standard items and  deviation f o r tutor  adult  student  i n each  frequency  cell  i n each  variance  was  relating  used  was  on t h e L i k e r t  subprogram,  B r e a k d o w n , was  of variance  level  length  of experience.  contact. value, test  on  post  T h e same the basis  for significance  There and  w e r e two  one survey  question.  AND  of  students'  for  The  a  SPSS-X and  differences at the  on  the basis was  of gender used  age and  of a s i g n i f i c a n t  =.05  the  to  or  analyze  advisor overall  F-  Newman-Keuls  level.  QUESTIONS  hypotheses, These  percentage  analysis  level.  of gender,  at the O  null  obtained  cases  items  w e r e made u s i n g  HYPOTHESES  of  scores  procedure  the finding  hoc comparisons  of a d v i s i n g  t o c a l c u l a t e t h e means  i n tutors' responses  Following  number  one-way  for significant  cx=.05  to the  information  to the questionnaire  d i f f e r e n c e a t t h e cx = .05  responses  responses  t o c o m p a r e t h e mean  was  a s t h e mean a n d  s c a l e , and  T h e SPSS-X  used  The SPSS-X  t o aspects  significant  student  such  Additional  Crosstabs,  cell.  tutors' responses  analysis  SPSS-X.  and s t u d e n t  concerns.  t h e subprogram,  obtained  and  package,  descriptive statistics  on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e  through  of  statistical  three  research  questions  were:  d¥B9theses (1)  There  a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t  student  and t u t o r  advising.  d i f f e r e n c e s between a d u l t  perceptions  of important  aspects  of  53 (2)  There  are  student  Related (1)  no  and  Are  there  on  the  Transfer  of  b a s i s of items  aspects  of  advising? by  the  adult  items  perceptions  advisor  student  Are  there  any  on  of a d u l t  on  age  or  perceptions  there any the  on  by a d u l t s t u d s n t s  b a s i s of  items  of  tutors'  tutor  to  the  advisor of  important  differences students'  relating  to  in gender,  perceptions  concerns?  d i f f e r e n c e s i n responses  basis  of  to  Are  contact  adult  gender,  relating  students  of  aspects  concerns.  between to  i n responses  students'  on  or  students  a d v i s i n g and  differences  contact  age  student  concerns?  responses  (3)  and  aspects  there any  Are  adult  d i f f e r e n c e s i n responses  students  student  of  adult  Questions any  important  d i f f e r e n c e s between  tutor perceptions  Research  Q.L.I,  (2)  significant  gender  items  or  number  relating  a d v i s i n g and  to  of  by  years  perceptions  perceptions  of  t u t o r s on served of  adult  the  as  a  important student  concerns? Question What by  additional  students  Asgects  of  Table percentage  i f they  Advising were  Centre  s e r v i c e s would  be  used  offered?  Advising 1  lists  the  frequency  t u t o r means,  i n each  cell  standard  based  on  deviations  and  t u t o r responses  to  54 TABLE 1 TUTOR RESPONSES to IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF ACADEMIC ADVISING  Not important  Items  Very important  Mean  Mean Rank  S.D.  8.5  1.13  3  4  5  0%  24%  36%  32%  3.84  4  8  16  48  24  3.80  10  0.97  Other f a c t o r s  0  20  32  36  12  3.40  13  0.93  Admin i s t r a t ive  4  0  4  40  52  4.36  1  0.93  Clarifying policies  8  4  4  40  44  4.08  5.5  1.23  Advocacy  0  4  16  48  32  4.08  5.5  0.83  Relate p e r s o n a l l y  8  12  24  28  28  3.56  12  1.25  Courses/ career goals  0  12  4  44  40  4.12  4  0.94  Learning opportunities  0  8  8  56  28  4.04  7  0.88  Referral t o other  0  0  12  56  32  4.20  3  0.62  Study problems  4  12  24  28  32  3.72  11  1.16  Financial  aid  4  4  12  64  16  3.84  8.5  0.93  selection  4  0  8  44  44  4.24  2  0.91  1  2  Dec i s ion-rraking  8%  Progress  Course  55 the  thirteen  the  adult student  frequency thirteen results at  the  items  means,  i n each c e l l items  of  a s p e c t s of a h i g h of as 4 . 0 below  advising. 4.4.  for s i g n i f i c a n t  the  means of  on a s p e c t s of  responses Tutor  o u t of  These seven  items  4.0  Helping  3)  Referral  4)  Helping student understand the r e l a t i o n s h i p O . L . I , c o u r s e s and c a r e e r g o a l s o r work  5)  Clarifying  The  institutional  of  other  student  means on t h e  were s i x  out  of  thirteen  These items the  between  important 3.4  items  are  listed scales  and s c h e d u l i n g  between  and p r o c e d u r e s  within the  institution  learning opportunities  4.0  level:  items  items 3.0  to  r e l a t i n g to a h i g h of  (new  rated 4.0  are l i s t e d  below  a s p e c t s of  4.4.  There  o r h i g h e r by i n descending  to  rated  programs)  r a n g e d f r o m a low o f  order to  The  institutions  policies  student  advising  students.  selection  educational  Advocate f o r  courses,  the  with a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems  with course  Informing student  of  on t h e  2)  6)  and  thirteen  A s s i s t i n g student  (Tied)  differences  differences  1)  5)  the  advising items.  r a n k o r d e r down t o  to other  the  means r a n g e d f r o m a low o f  o r h i g h e r by t u t o r s .  student  percentage to  tutors  on p e r c e p t i o n s  T h e r e were s e v e n  in descending  lists  T a b l e 3 shows  showed no s i g n i f i c a n t  t u t o r and s t u d e n t  and  responses  advising.  between  adult students  one-way ANOVA t e s t the  b a s e d on s t u d e n t  ANOVA t e s t s  level  Table 2  standard deviations,  on a s p e c t s of  one-way  CX =.05  means of  on a s p e c t s o-f a d v i s i n g .  rank  56 TABLE 2 STUDENT RESPONSES to IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF ACADEMIC ADVISING  Very important  Not  Mean  Mean Rank  S.D.  Items  important 2 1.7%  3  4  5  Decision-making  1 5.8%  20.7%  33.1%  38.8%  3.98  7.5  1.10  Progress  8.3  3.3  10.7  33.1  44.6  4.02  e  1.20  20.5  22.1  17.2  19.7  20.5  2.98  13  1.44  Admin i s t r a t ive  2.5  5.7  14.8  40.2  36.9  4.03  5  0.99  Clarifying  1.6  4.9  12.3  41.0  40.2  4.13  4  0.93  1.7  4.1  19.8  43.8  30.6  3.98  7.5  0.91  12.3  11.5  23.0  22.1  31.1  3.48  11.5  1.36  Courses/career goals  6.6  9.8  13.1  25.4  45.1  3.93  9  1.25  Learning  2.5  1.6  9.0  28.7  58.2  4.39  1  0.90  2.5  3.3  13.1  20.5  60.7  4.34  2  0.99  Study problems  10.7  9.9  22.3  28.1  28.9  3.55  10  1.30  Financial aid  13.1  9.0  17.2  37.7  23.0  3.48  11.5  1.30  4.1  4.9  12.3  27.9  50.8  4.16  3  1.09  Other factors  policies  Advocacy Relate personally  opportunities  R e f e r r a l to other  Course s e l e c t i o n  57 TABLE 3 ONE-WAY ANOVA COMPARISONS FOR SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ADULT STUDENTS AND TUTORS ON IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF ACADEMIC ADVISING  Mean Students  Tutors  F  Prob.  Dec i s ion -rrakin g  3.98  3.84  .313  .577  Progress  4.02  3.80  .758  .385  Other factors  2.98  3.40  1.99  .161  Adrninistrat ive  4.03  4.36  2.34  .128  Clarifying policies  4.13  4.08  .057  .811  Advocacy  3.98  4.08  .286  .594  Relate personally  3.48  3.56  .067  .796  Courses/career goals  3.93  4.12  .530  .468  Learning opportunities  4.39  4.04  R e f e r r a l to other  4.34  4.20  .431  .513  Study problems  3.55  3.72  .387  .535  Financial aid  3.48  3.84  Course  4.16  4.24  Items  selection  3.10  1.71 .107  .081  .193 .745  58  1)  Make o t h e r  2)  Referring  learning opportunities student  to  other  courses  and p r o g r a m s i f  student  wanted  3)  Helping  student  4)  Clarifying  5)  Assisting  6)  B e i n g an a d v o c a t e  important  policies  within the  of  tutor  academic  significant  at  Overall, thirteen  the  significant  .02  i t e m s as  differences  means on t h e  thirteen  perceptions  the  and s t u d e n t  of  using  r a n k i n g s of the  Spearman r h o  0.69 w h i c h  was  groups r a t e d  important.  As t h e r e  the  null  were no  tutor  and  hypothesis,  between a d u l t  i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s of  the  student  student  "there and  academic  are  tutor  advising"  accepted.  Adult  Student  Concerns  T a b l e 4 shows t h e percentage the  problems  institution  and t u t o r  items,  differences  was  scheduling  procedures  f o u n d between t h e  no s i g n i f i c a n t of  the  level.  both student  advising  and  advising  produced a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t  what  and  with a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  analysis  a s p e c t s of  selection  student  institutions'  OLI d i d n ' t o f f e r  institutional  A correlational  educational  with course  student  known t o  frequency  thirteen  Tutor  means,  i n each  standard deviations cell  i t e m s on p e r c e p t i o n s  means r a n g e d f r o m a low of  T u t o r s r a t e d nine out  of  thirteen  for of 2.3  the adult to  tutor  and  responses  student  to  concerns.  a h i g h of 3.9.  items at  3.0  or above.  In  TABLE 4 TUTOR PERCEPTIONS OF ADULT STUDENT CONCERNS Not important  Items  Very Important  Mean  Mean Rank  S.D.  n  1  2  3  t4  5  Too o l d  25  12 .0%  32 .0%  16 .0%  28 .0%  12 .0%  2. 96  10  1.,27  Opposition  25  32 .0  28 .0  24 .0  12 .0  4 .0  2. 28  13  1.,17  Isolation  25  4 .0  8 .0  32 .0  36 .0  20 .0  3. 60  4  1..04  Grade anxiety  25  0 .0  12 .0  32 .0  48 .0  8 .0  3. 52  5  0..82  Writing/math  24  0 .0  8 .3  20 .8  41 .7  29 .2  3. 92  1  0.,93  Financing courses  23  8 .7  47 .8  43 .5  0 .0  0 .0  2. 35  12  0.,65  Time pressures  24  4 .2  12 .5  20 .8  25 .0  37 .5  3. 79  3  1..22  Multiple r e s p .  24  0 .0  12 .5  25 .0  25 .0  37 .5  3. 88  2  1..08  Reading/study  24  4 .2  16 .7  41 .7  33 .3  4. 2  3. 17  7  0..92  Fear of f a i l u r e  24  4 .2  25 .0  41 .7  20 .8  8. 3  3. 04  9  1..00  Fatigue  24  0 .0  16 .7  29 .2  41 .7  12. 5  3. 50  6  0..93  Length of time  24  12 .5  33 .3  25 .0  25 .0  4. 2  2. 75  11  1..11  Self-confidence  24  8 .3  20 .8  33 .3  25 .0  12. 5  3. 13  8  1..15  60  descending above  rank  order  b y mean,  the five  items  rated  a t 3.5 o r  were:  1)  Poor  writing  o r math  skills  2)  D i f f i c u l t i e s balancing  multiple responsibilities  and  priorities 3)  Time  pressures  4)  Isolation  i . e . no c o n t a c t  with  other  students i n  course(s) 5)  Anxiety  Table to  5  4.1.  grades  lists  the thirteen  concerns. of  about  t h e same a n a l y s i s  items  Student Student  on p e r c e p t i o n s  means r a n g e d  means were  from  higher  f o r student of adult a low o f  than  3.0  on  responses  student 1.7 t o a  high  five  items: 1)  Time  2)  Fatigue  3)  D i f f i c u l t i e s balancing  pressures after  setting 4)  5)  (Tied)  about  Anxiety  student  correlation .05  level.  length  family  responsibilities  multiple responsibilities  of time  on a p a r t - t i m e  A correlational adult  and/or  and  priorities  Concerns courses  work  about  analysis concerns  coefficient  required t o complete  basis  grades of tutor  using  and s t u d e n t  t h e Spearman  o f 0.5B  which  was  rankings  r h o produced significant  of a at the  61 TABLE 5 STUDENT RESPONSES to ADULT STUDENT CONCERNS  Very important  Not Items  important 1  Mean  Mean Rank  S.D.  2  3  4  5  7.4%  9.9%  3.3%  1.70  12  1.17  13  1.09  7  1.38  4.5  1.18  Too o l d  66.9%  12.4%  Opposition  66.9  12.4  10.7  7.4  2.5  1.66  Isolation  29.8  9.9  28.1  20.7  11.6  2.74  8.3  9.9  28.9  31.4  21.5  3.48  Writing/math  29.8  19.8  19.0  19.0  12.4  2.64  :8  1.40  Financing courses  37.2  14.0  19.0  17.4  12.4  2.54  10  1.45  Time pressures  4.1  7.4  16.5  23.1  48.8  4.05  1  1.15  Multiple resp.  7.4  13.2  26.4  28.9  24.0  3.49  3  1.21  Reading/study  29.8  20.7  20.7  19.0  9.9  2.59  9  1.35  Fear of f a i l u r e  18.2  24.8  21.5  17.4  18.2  2.93  6-  1.37  9.1  13.2  14.0  31.4  32.2  3.64  2  1.30  4.5  1.34  Grade anxiety  Fatigue Length of time  13,3  10.0 _  19.2  30.8  26.7  3.48  S e l f - c o n f idence  33.1  25.6  21.5  13.2  6.6  2.35  -  11  1.25  62  Table  6  lists  the  results  significant  differences  and  student  means.  the  f o l l o w i n g seven  1)  Fear  that  3)  Isolation  Cx  = .05  one-way  ANOVA  level  between  differences  were  tests  for  tutor  found  for  items:  (significance Opposition  the  the  Significant  I may  2)  at  of  from  be  too  old  at  the  .00001  family  i . e . no  to  go  back  to  school  level).  members  contact  with  other  students  in  course(s) 4)  Poor  writing  5)  Lack  of  6)  Concerns  It  Lack  about  student students 2.5 of  on  be  a  reading  length  of  part-time  or  study  time  habits  required to  complete  basis  noted  that  on  the  above  items  3 - 6 ,  there  were  significant  differences  means,  that  these  were  and  tutors.  these  items.  items  of  The  differences  the  results  between  real  Means f o r t u t o r s and  that  concern  students  found  tutor  were  to  both  were  i n the  and  above  degree  concern. Figure  significant adult  2  student  graphs  differences  student  significant  the  on  skills  of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e  should  although  math  efficient  courses 7)  or  concerns.  differences,  concerns  exception  of  higher one  between On  the  of  the  comparisons  adult  student  seven  items  the  item.  On  scale the  than  item,  tutors  on  showing  tutors consistently on  and  for  did  rated  adult  students  "concerns  with  about  63  TABLE 6  ONE-WAY ANOVA COMPARISONS FOR SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ADULT STUDENTS AND TUTORS ON ADULT STUDENT CONCERNS  Mean F  Items  Students  Tutors  Too o l d  1.70  2.96  23.33  Opposition  1.66  2.28  6.49  .012  Isolation  2.74  3.60  8.58  .004  Grade anxiety  3.48  3.52  .027  .870  Writing/math  2.64  3.92  18.13  Financing courses  2.54  2.35  .376  .540  Time pressures  4.05  3.79  .984  .323  Multiple resp.  3.49  3.88  2.14  .146  Reading/study  2.59  3.17  4.04  .046  Fear of f a i l u r e  2.93  3.04  .155  .695  Fatigue  3.64  3.50  .268  .606  Length of time  3.48  2.75  6.16  .014  Self-confidence  2.35  3.13  7.95  .006  Prob. .00001  .00001  64  Adult Concerns  Tutors Students 15-1.0 •-  0 5 •• 0.0  1  1  i  1  1  1  2  3  A  5  6  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  Items  Figure 2  65 l e n g t h of  time required  basis",  the  students'  tutors'  mean.  Therefore, significant of  the  accepted  for  null  hypothesis, between  the  " t h e r e a r e no  student  and t u t o r  perceptions  for  seven  i t e m s and  for students  were:  c o n c e r n s " was r e j e c t e d  six  on a p a r t - t i m e  mean was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n  differences  adult student  to complete courses  items.  Related Research Questions A)  Students  The  related research questions  (1)  Are there between  (2)  any s i g n i f i c a n t  O.L.I.  and T r a n s f e r  items  on i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s of  adult  student  Are there basis  of  contact  students' on i t e m s  of  gender,  the  a d v i s i n g and p e r c e p t i o n s o f  by s t u d e n t s  age o r on t h e  r e l a t i n g to  students'  items  r e l a t i n g to  basis  p e r c e p t i o n s of  age,  p e r c e p t i o n s of  comparisons f o r s i g n i f i c a n t intending to  i n responses  gender,  T a b l e 7 and T a b l e 8 l i s t  n=74)  to  of  on  the  advisor  important  advising?  basis  students,  responses  students  i n responses  A r e t h e r e any d i f f e r e n c e s  students  in  concerns?  any d i f f e r e n c e s  a s p e c t s of <3)  students  differences  on  or a d v i s o r contact  on  adult student  the r e s u l t s  differences  p u r s u e an O . L . I ,  and t h e means o f  w i t h Open L e a r n i n g  by s t u d e n t s  Institute  concerns?  one-way ANOVA  between degree  students  for the  of  the  t h e means o f (O.L.I,  taking a course  p u r p o s e of  transferring  66 TABLE 7  ONE-WAY ANOVA COMPARISONS FOR SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN O . L . I . STUDENTS AND TRANSFER STUDENTS ON IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF ADVISING  Mean Items  O.L.I. Students  Transfer Students  F  Prob  Decis ion-rnaking  3.93  4.04  .291  .591  Progress  4.08  3.94  .417  .520  Other Factors  2.74  3.33  Adiriin i s t r a t ive  4.00  4.08  Clarifying policies  4.04  4.27  1.81  .181  Advocacy  3.86  4.15  2.86  .094  Relate p e r s o n a l l y  3.32  3.73  2.61  .109  Courses/career goals  3.81  4.10  1.60  .208  Learning opportunities  4.32  4.48  .853  .358  Referral t o other  4.30  4.40  .285  .594  Study problems  3.35  3.85  4.38  .038  Financial aid  3.27  3.81  5.24  .024  Course  4.08  4.29  1.10  .297  selection  5.05 .206  .026 .651  67  TABLE 8 ONE-WAY ANOVA COMPARISONS FOR SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN O . L . I . STUDENTS AND TRANSFER STUDENTS ON ADULT STUDENT CONCERNS  Mean O.L.I. Students  Transfer Students  Too o l d  1.64  1.81  Opposition  1.55  1.83  1.85  .177  Isolation  2.62  2.94  1.50  .224  Grade anxiety  3.47  3.49  .005  .941  Writing/math  2.55  2.79  .794  .375  Financing courses  2.39  2.77  1.93  .167  Time pressures  4.19  3.83  2.83  .095  Multiple resp.  3.62  3.28  2.38  .125  Reading/study  2.53  2.68  .370  .544  Fear of f a i l u r e  2.86  3.02  .370  .544  Fatigue  3.59  3.72  .279  .598  Length of time  3.63  3.23  S e l f - c o n f idence  2.32  2.38  Items  F .633  2.53 .063  Prob  .428  .115 .803  68  it  t o a degree program e l s e w h e r e  response adult  to  student  significant and  the  weres  i t e m s on i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s  concerns.  students  b e i n g aware o f  about f i n a n c i a l Transfer  students of  between  t h e means o f  These  i n my l i f e ;  means were h i g h e r t h a n O . L . I ,  students'  items.  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  between  student  and T r a n s f e r  Table 9 to  of  adult student lists  between  female students  of  t h e means o f  1)  Clarifying  2)  B e i n g my a d v o c a t e w i t h i n t h e  and 4)  5)  career goals,  Making l e a r n i n g  Referring and  6)  student  responses  male s t u d e n t s  and t h e  Female s t u d e n t s ' means on t h e  by g e n d e r  significant means  means  following  i n s t i t u t i o n e.g.  items:  assisting  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  my c o u r s e s  o r work  o p p o r t u n i t i e s known t o me ( e . g .  new  programs) me t o o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s '  programs i f  Helping  to  extensions  me u n d e r s t a n d t h e  courses,  found  i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s  me w i t h g r o u n d s f o r Helping  responses  T h e r e were  items.  were h i g h e r t h a n male s t u d e n t s '  3)  of  advising.  on s i x  student  were  concerns.  the r e s u l t s  important aspects  differences  items  i n f o r m i n g me  means on t h e s e  p e r c e p t i o n s of  students  a i d ; h e l p i n g me w i t h s t u d y p r o b l e m s .  student  Q.L.I,  in  showed  O.L.I,  on t h r e e a d v i s i n g i t e m s . other f a c t o r s  n~47)  a d v i s i n g and  The one-way ANOVA t e s t s  differences  Transfer  (Transfer  O.L.I,  me w i t h s p e c i f i c  doesn't  offer  what  course s e l e c t i o n  courses  I want  and s c h e d u l i n g  69 TABLE 9 COMPARISONS OF STUDENT RESPONSES, BY GENDER , TO IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF ACADEMIC ADVISING Items  Male Mean S.D.  Female Mean S.D.  F  Prob  Decision-making  3.87  (1.30)  4.04  (0.94)  .681  .411  Progress  4.02  (1.33)  4.03  (1.12)  .001  .980  Other factors  2.77  (1.37)  3.11  (1.48)  1.61  .208  Admin i s trat ive  3.88  (1.06)  4.14  (0.93)  2.04  .156  Clarifying policies  3.85  (1.03)  4.31  (0.81)  7.45  .007  Advocacy  3.69  (0.99)  4.16  (0.80)  8.49  .004  Relate personally  3.40  (1.28)  3.54  (1.42)  Courses/career goals  3.50  (1.34)  4.20  (1.12)  9.80  .002  . 4.13 (1.16)  4.55  (0.64)  6.88  .010  6.27  .014  Learning opportunities  .327  .569  Referral to other  4.06  (1.17)  4.51  (0.82)  Study problems  3.44  (1.38)  3.62  (1.24)  Financial aid  3.21  (1.35)  3.66  (1.24)  3.63  .059  Course selection  3.92  (1.23)  4.32  (0.95)  4.21  .042  .549  .460  70  Table 10 important  l i s t s comparisons o-f student responses by age t o  a s p e c t s of a d v i s i n g .  Dn nine out of  thirteen  items, student means f o r those students aged 40 and above tend t o be lower than student means i n the age-range below 40.  One-way ANOVA comparison of student means i n response t o  items on p e r c e p t i o n s of important  aspects of a d v i s i n g by the  v a r i a b l e , a d v i s o r c o n t a c t , showed a s i g n i f i c a n t between means on two itemss and  difference  h e l p i n g me with study problems  i n f o r m i n g me about f i n a n c i a l  aid.  A post-hoc  a n a l y s i s of  the means f o r the item, h e l p i n g me with study problems r e v e a l e d that t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e a t the .05  l e v e l between the means of students over f o r t y years of age and the means of those students under the age of f o r t y .  The  means of s t u d e n t s under the age of f o r t y were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the means of students over the age of f o r t y on the item, h e l p i n g me with study problems. The same a n a l y s i s of the means f o r the item, informing me about f i n a n c i a l  a i d , r e v e a l e d t h a t there was a s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e a t the .05 l e v e l between the means of students i n the age range, t w e n t y - f i v e t o t h i r t y - f i v e years of age and the means of students i n the age-range of f o r t y t o f o r t y nine years of age.  The means of the students aged twenty-  f i v e t o t h i r t y - f i v e were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the item, i n f o r m i n g me about f i n a n c i a l  a i d , than those i n the age group  f o r t y t o f o r t y - n i n e years of age.  TABLE 10 COMPARISON OF STUDENT RESPONSES, BY AGE, TO IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF ADVISING  Items  25 - 29 years ( n = 44 ) S.D. Mean  30 - 34 years ( n = 30 ) Mean S.D.  35 - 39 years ( n = 31 ) Mean S.D.  40 - 44 years ( n = 12 ) Mean S.D.  45 - 49 years ( n = 5 ) Mean S.D.  Dec i s ion-making  3.95  (1.10)  3.93  (1.11)  4.07  (0.98)  4.25  (1.22)  3.20  (1.30)  Progress  4.20  (0.95)  4.23  (1.30)  3.90  (1.24)  3.50  (1.45)  3.20  (1.30)  Other factors  2.98  (1.45)  2.77  (1.33)  2.97  (1.45)  3.08  (1.56)  4.00  (1.73)  Administrat ive  4.25  (1.08)  3.77  (0.94)  4.03  (0.98)  3.92  (0.79)  4.00  (0.71)  Clarifying policies  4.27  (0.95)  3.97  (1.03)  4.16  (0.82)  4.00  (0.95)  4.00  (0.71)  .578  .679  Advocacy  3.95  (0.89)  3.97  (0.89)  4.00  (0.98)  4.08  (0.79)  3.80  (1.30)  .098  .983  Relate personally  3.57  (1.34)  3.57  (1.28)  3.55  (1.50)  2.75  (1.14)  3.60  (1.67)  .966  .429  Courses/career goals  3.84  (1.06)  3.97  (1.38)  4.06  (1.36)  3.58  (1.38)  4.40  (1.34)  .547  .701  Learning opportunities 4.41  (0.84)  4.50  (0.97)  4.29  (1.01)  4.33  (0.78)  4.20  (0.84)  .270  .897  Referral to other  4.41  (0.92)  4.33  (1.21)  4.26  (0.97)  4.42  (0.67)  4.00  (1.22)  .264  .901  Study problems  3.57  (1.44)  3.67  (1.12)  3.83  (1.05)  2.50  (1.31)  3.40  (1.52)  2 .52  .045  Financial aid  3.75  (1.22)  3.53  (1.20)  3.55  (1.29)  2.67  (1.50)  2.40  (1.34)  2 .69  .035  Course selection  4.39  (0.92)  4.07  (1.14)  4.19  (1.05)  3.50  (1.38)  4.20  (1.30)  1 .69  .158  F  Prob.  .885  .475  1 .76 .802 1 .13  .141 .526 .348  -J  72 Table important No  11  aspects  significant One-way  to  lists  items  differences  ANOVA  Female  o-f s t u d e n t  between  Opposition  2)  Isolation  from  means were  of student  of a d u l t  student  students  means were  family  contact.  found.  responses concerns  a t t h e cx = . 0 5 l e v e l  means on t h e f o l l o w i n g  1)  p e r c e p t i o n s of  a d v i s i n g by a d v i s o r  comparisons  differences  12).  students  of academic  on p e r c e p t i o n s  significant (Table  comparisons  by  showed  on seven  higher  gender  than  items. male  items;  members  i . e . no c o n t a c t  with  other  students i n  course(s) 3)  Anxiety  4)  Poor  5)  Problems  6)  Fear  of  7)  Lack  of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e  Figure  writing  3  failure  comparison  of a d u l t  to perceptions  higher  age-range  that  was  students'  significant fear  of the comparison  13 l i s t s  out of t h i r t e e n  adult  courses  plotted  40-44 were  of  financing  skills  by gender,  response  the  o r math  concerns,  Table  eight  grades  shows t h e r e s u l t s  students'  in  about  I  items,  student  less  than  concerns,  40.  as a l i n e student  student  student  than  difference may  of adult  means  graph. means by a g e  concerns.  Table  14 l i s t s  m e a n s was  be t o o o l d t o go back  On  i n t h e age-range  means f o r t h e same  by a d v i s o r  between  of a d u l t  t o school  where  comparisons  contact. found  items  A  on two  items;  and l a c k o f  73 TABLE 11 COMPARISONS OF STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS OF IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF ACADEMIC ADVISING BY ADVISOR CONTACT  Items  Contact Mean S.D.  No Contact Mean S.D.  Dec i s ion-making  3.97  (1.03)  3.98  (1.20)  .000  .984  Progress  4.05  (1.12)  3.98  (1.34)  .109  .742  Other factors  2.92  (1.43)  3.07  (1.47)  .285  .595  Aa^rtin i s t r a t ive  3.99  (0.99)  4.11  (0.98)  .447  .505  Clarifying policies  4.14  (0.90)  4.11  (0.98)  .033  .856  Advocacy  3.92  (0.82)  4.07  (0.82)  .723  .397  Relate personally  3.47  (1.40)  3.51  (1.31)  .029  .865  Courses/career goals  3.88  (1.27)  4.00  (1.24)  .245  .621  Learning opportunities  4.34  (0.90)  4.47  (0.92)  .576  .449  Referral to other  4.31  (0.96)  4.38  (1.05)  .125  .724  Study problems  3.52  (1.33)  3.59  (1.24)  .084  .772  Financial aid  3.35  (1.32)  3.71  (1.25)  Course s e l e c t i o n  4.19  (1.09)  4.11  (1.09)  F  2.21 .168  Prob.  .140 .683  74 TABLE 12  A COMPARISON OF ADULT STUDENTS' CONCERNS, BY GENDER  Items  Male Mean S.D.  Female Mean S.D.  Too o l d  1.50  (0.97)  1.84  Opposition  1.42  (0.85)  Isolation  2.40  Grade anxiety  F  Prob.  (1.27)  2.43  .122  1.82  (1.21)  4.09  .045  (1.27)  2.97  (1.41)  5.22  .024  3.06  (1.17)  3.75  (1.10)  10.80  .001  Writing/math  2.23  (1.28)  2.92  (1.42)  7.36  .008  Financing courses  2.02  (1.33)  2.88  (1-43)  10.93  .001  Time pressures  3.96  (1.33)  4.11  (1.02)  .496  .483  M u l t i p l e resp.  3.35  (1.22)  3.58  (1.19).  .976  .325  Reading/study  2.38  (1.40)  2.73  (1.30)  1.97  .163  Fear of f a i l u r e  2.46  (1.27)  3.23  (1.36)  9.89  .002  Fatigue  3.42  (1.43)  3.79  (1.20)  2.47  .119  Length of time  3.66  (1.36)  3.36  (1.33)  1.47  .228  Self-confidence  2.02  (1.12) '  2.56  (1.29)  5.63  .019  Adult Concerns  Figure 3  TABLE 13 COMPARISON OF STUDENT RESPONSES, BY AGE, TO ADULT STUDENTS' CONCERNS  30i - 34 years ( n = 30 ) Mean S. D.  35 39 years ( n = 31 ) S.D. Mean  40I - 44 years ( n = 12 ) S. D. Mean  49 years 45 ( n = 5 ) S .D. Mean  Items  25 29 years ( n = 43 ) S. D. Mean  Too o l d  1. 40  (0. 85)  1. 87  (1. 25)  1. 68  (1.14)  2. 50  (1. 78)  1. 60  (0 .55)  Opposition  1. 47  (1. 01)  1. 67  (1. 12)  1. 77  (1.18)  1. 83  (1. 03)  2. 20  (1 .30)  .803  .525  Isolation  2. 56  (1. 24)  2. 60  (1. 40)  2. 90  (1.56)  3. 08  (1. 31)  3. 40  (1 .52)  .837  .504  Grade anxiety  3. 47  (1. 08)  3. 37  (1. 33)  3. 74  (1.18)  3. 25  (1. 14)  3. 20  (1 .30)  .633  .640  Writing/math  2. 72  (1. 45)  2. 47  (1. 38)  2. 74  (1.39)  2. 92  (1- 51)  1. 80  (0 .84)  .751  .559  Financing courses  2. 58  (1. 45)  2. 53  (1. 46)  2. 55  (1.41)  2. 83  (1. 75)  1. 40  (0 .55)  .902  .465  Time pressures  3. 95  (1. 21)  4. 07  (1. 14)  4. 06  (1.03)  4. 25  (1. 14)  4. 20  (1 .79)  .184  .946  Multiple resp.  3. 42  (1. 14)  3. 50  (1. 41)  3. 65  (1.02)  3. 33  (1. 37)  3. 40  (1 .52)  .219  .928  Reading/study  2. 60  (1. 43)  2. 60  (1. 40)  2. 77  (1.33)  2. 17  (1. 03)  2. 20  (1 .30)  .535  .710  Fear of f a i l u r e  2. 93  (1. 16)  2. 90  (1. 63)  3. 16  (1.27)  2. 50  (1. 73)  2. 60  (1 .34)  .581  .677  Fatigue  3. 58  (1. 24)  3. 40  (1. 50)  3. 87  (1.20)  3. 75  (1. 36)  4. 00  (1 .22)  .628  .643  Length of time  3. 33  (1. 51)  3. 52  (1. 21)  3. 55  (1.31)  3. 75  (1. 14)  3. 40  (1 .52)  .287  .886  Self-conf idence  2. 21  (1. 10)  2. 57  (1. 43)  2. 42  (1.26)  2. 33  (1. 44)  1. 80  (0 .84)  .620  .649  i  —  F 2.42  Prob. .053  77  TABLE 14 COMPARISONS OF ADULT STUDENTS' CONCERNS, BY ADVISOR CONTACT  Items  Contact Mean S.D.  No Contact Mean S.D.  Too o l d  1.51  (1.01)  2.05  (1.35)  Opposition  1.70  (1.11)  1.59  (1.06)  .284  .595  Isolation  2.74  (1.38)  2.75  (1.40)  .001  .970  Grade anxiety  3.47  (1.17)  3.50  (1.21)  .021  .885  Writing/math  2.65  (1.35)  2.64  (1.51)  .002  .961  Financing courses  2.45  (1.43)  2.68  (1.49)  .687  .409  Time pressures  3.99  (1.20)  4.16  (1.08)  .621  .432  Multiple resp.  3.44  (1.18)  3.57  (1.26)  .307  .580  Reading/study  2.45  (1.33)  2.82  (1.37)  Fear of f a i l u r e  2.84  (1.31)  3.07  (1.48)  .744  .390  Fatigue  3.62  (1.33)  3.68  (1.27)  .056  .814  Length of time  3.48  (1.34)  3.47  (1.35)  .004  .952  Self-confidence  2.17  (1.19)  2.66  (1.31)  F 6.24  2.04  4.43  Prob. .014  .155  .037  78 self-confidence. an  advisor  students  were  who  B)  Tutors  The  related  had no  One-way (Table  failed  t o show  level  with  aspects means  female tutor  student  for  was  item.  with  six+  comparison  experience, difference  On  t e n items  on t h e i t e m ,  of  student  on o n e i t e m , higher  17).  of  tutor  18 l i s t s  The  the  of adult  lower  of experience.  isolation.  important  by y e a r s o f  were  concerns  =.05  t h e male  out of t h i r t e e n ,  perceptions,  16)  isolation.  on p e r c e p t i o n s  of experience  by  concerns  than  Table  means  means  a t t h e C*  comparison  of a d u l t  of t u t o r  student  items  (Table  on p e r c e p t i o n s  o n e t o two y e a r s  of adult  of t u t o r  differences  (Table  of tutor  tutors'  o f a d v i s i n g and  of experience  t o items  years  to the  aspects  tests  significantly  i n response  any  concerns?"  difference  of t h e breakdown  concerns.  as a tutor  A o n e - w a y ANOVA  on p e r c e p t i o n s  on t h i s  t u t o r s with  anova  student  t o the items  mean  with  t h e means o f  "Are there  of important  any s i g n i f i c a n t  a significant  experience  served  of variance  of a d v i s i n g .  mean  was,  and by y e a r s  regard  tutor  results  tutors  15)  than  had c o n t a c t  by t u t o r s on t h e b a s i s o f  of years  of a d u l t  by g e n d e r  yielded  question  analysis  gender  items  who  contact.  to perceptions  perceptions  of students  on t h e s e  i n responses  o r number  relating to  lower  research  differences gender  T h e means  means f o r than  means  A one-way  by y e a r s o f yielded  A post  a  significant  hoc a n a l y s i s of  79  TABLE 15  COMPARISONS OF TUTOR PERCEPTIONS, BY GENDER, OF IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF ACADEMIC ADVISING  Items  Male Mean S.D.  Female Mean S.D.  Decis ion-making  3.91  (1.22)  3.79  (1.12)  Progress  3.55  (1.13)  4.00  (0.96)  Other factors  3.45  (0.69)  3.36  (1.15)  .061  .807  Administrative  4.45  (0.52)  4.29  (1.14)  .206  .654  Clarifying policies  3.82  (1.25)  4.29  (1.14)  .953  .339  Advocacy  3.91  (0.70)  4.21  (0.89)  .864  .362  Relate personally  3.45  (0.93)  3.64  (1.50)  .132  .719  Courses/career goals  4.09  (0.54)  4.14  (1.23)  .017  .898  Learning opportunities  3.91  (0.94)  4.14  (0.77)  .466  .502  R e f e r r a l to other  4.18  (0.75)  4.21  (0.58) .  .015  .904  Study problems  3.64  (1.29)  3.79  (1.12)  .096  .759  Financial a i d  3.82  (0.60)  3.86  (1.10)  .011  .917  Course  4.27  (0.65)  4.21  (1.12)  . .024  .879  selection  F .069 1.18  Prob. .795 .288  TABLE 16 COMPARISON OF TUTOR PERCEPTIONS, BY YEARS OF EXPERIENCE, OF IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF ACADEMIC ADVISING  0 - 2 years ( n = 3 )  Years of Experience 3 - 5 years ( n := 12 )  6 + years ( n = 10 ) F  Prob  (1.43)  1.29  .295  3.30  (1.16)  2.77  .084  (1.08)  3.00  (0.67)  1.79  .190  4.33  (1.15)  4.50  (0.53)  .341  .715  (1.15)  4.17  (1.11)  3.90  (1.37)  .201  .820  4.33  (0.58)  3.92  (0.90)  4.20  (0.79)  .476  .628  Relate personally  3.67  (2.31)  3.17  (1.19)  4.00  (0.94)  1.23  .313  Courses/career goals  4.67  (0.58)  3.75  (1.22)  4.40  (0.52)  1.89  .174  Learning opportunities  4.00  (0.00)  4.08  (0.79)  4.00  (1.05)  Referral to other  3.67  (0.58)  4.42  (0.51)  4.10  (0.74)  1.97  .164  Study problems  3.67 • (1.15)  4.08  (1.08)  3.30  (1.25)  1.24  .308  Financial aid  3.67  (1.53)  3.92  (1.00)  3.80  (0.63)  Course selection  4.67  (0.58)  3.92  (1.08)  4.50  (0.71)  Items  Mean  S.D.  Mean  S.D.  Mean  S.D.  tecision-making  4.00  (1.00)  4.17  (0.83)  3.40  Progress  4.67  (0.58)  4.00  (0.85)  Other factors  4.00  (1.00)  3.58  Administrative  4.00  (1.00)  Clarifying policies  4.33  Advocacy  .028  .101 1.51  .972  .904 .244  81  TABLE 17  A COMPARISON OF TUTOR PERCEPTIONS, BY GENDER, OF ADULT STUDENT CONCERNS  Female Mean S.D.  F  Prob.  (1.19)  3.14  (1.35)  .646  .430  2.64  (1.36)  2.00  (0.96)  1.88  .184  Isolation  3.00  (1.10)  4.07  (0.73)  8.59  .008  Grade anxiety  3.27  (0.65)  3.71  (0.91)  1.84  .189  Writing/math  4.20  (0.92)  3.71  (0.91)  1.64  .214  Financing courses  2.36'  (0.81)  2.33  (0.49)  .012  .914  Time pressures  3.55  (1.21)  4.00  (1.22)  .828  .373  Multiple resp.  3.82  (1.08)  3.92  (1.12)  .054  .818  Reading/study  3.55  (0.52)  2.85  (1.07)  3.90  .061  Fear of f a i l u r e  2.82  (0.98)  3.23  (1.01)  1.02  .324  Fatigue  3.55  "(1.04)  3.46  (0.88)  .046  .832  Length of time  2.91  (1.30)  2.62  (0.96)  .404  .532  Self-conf idence  3.00  (1.34)  3.23  (1.01)  .230  .636  Items  Mean  Too o l d  2.73  Opposition  Male S.D.  TABLE 18  COMPARISON OF TUTOR PERCEPTIONS, BY YEARS OF EXPERIENCE, OF ADULT STUDENT CONCERNS Years of Experience 3 - 5 years Mean S.D. (n)  Items  0 - 2 years Mean S.D. (n)  Too o l d  (3)  4.00  (0.00)  (12)  3.17  (1.40)  (10)  2.40  (1.08)  Opposition  (3)  3.00  (0.00)  (12)  2.33  (1.23)  (10)  2.00  (1.25)  Isolation  (3)  4.00  (1.00)  (12)  4.17  (0.72)  (10)  2.80  (0.92)  7.73  .003  Grade anxiety  (3)  4.33  (0.58)  (12)  3.33  (0.89)  (10)  3.50  (0.71)  1.91  .171  Writing/math  (3)  4.33  (0.58)  (12)  3.75  (1.06)  ( 9)  4.00  (0.87)  .509  .608  Financing courses  (2)  2.50  (0.71)  (11)  2.36  (0.50)  (10)  2.30  (0.82)  .079  .925  Time pressures  (3)  4.33  (0.58)  (11)  3.64  (1.43)  (10)  3.80  (1.14)  .367  .697  Multiple resp.  (3)  4.33  (1.15)  (11)  3.55  (1.04)  (10)  4.10  (1.10)  1.01  .382  Reading/study^  (3)  2.33  (1.15)  (ID  3.27  (0.90)  (10)  3.30  (0.82)  1.48  .251  Fear of f a i l u r e  (3)  3.33  (1.53)  (11)  2.64  (0.67)  (10)  3.40  (1.08)  1.79  .191  Fatigue  (3)  3.67  (1.53)  (11)  3.36  (0.67)  (10)  3.60  (1.08)  Length of time  (3)  3.33  (1.15)  (11)  2.27  (0.90)  (10)  3.10  (1.20)  2.10  .147  Self-confidence  (3)  3.33  (0.58)  (11)  2.64  (0.92)  (10)  3.60  (1.35)  2.05  .153  (n)  6 + years Mean S.D.  F  Prob.  2.36  .117  .851  .208  .440  .814  oo  83 the  means  f o r the item,  isolation,  significant  difference  tutors  up t o t w o y e a r s  three with  with  to five six+  years  years  years  tutors'  a t t h e .05 l e v e l  of experience  was  means on t h i s  versus  T h e mean  significantly  that  between  of experience  of experience.  of experience  revealed  there  was  t h e means o f  and t u t o r s t h e mean  with  of t u t o r s  of t u t o r s with  lower  a  than  six+  other  item.  Question What  additional  students  Advising  i f they  Forty-five a  telephone  access  students  information each  that  would  they  centres. students  2)  One-to-one advisor  with  other  support  Open L e a r n i n g  group  Aptitude  4)  Assistance also  students  item  by  tutors.  These  1)  Videotapes  to help  2)  Audiotapes  with  would  use  to  course  (26%) i n d i c a t e d in advising  "other",  i n the following servicess  students  taking  t h e same  service/personal contact  course with  (n=3)  the  (n=3)  testing  (n=2)  preparation  (n=2)  p r o f f e r e d comments r e l a t e d  and  they  Institute  t o t h e open-ended  and i n t e r e s t i n exam  that  advising sessions  on a r e g u l a r b a s i s  3)  be used  (dial-a-tape) i n order  Thirty-two  were i n t e r e s t e d  Contact  Students  session. attend  (37%) i n d i c a t e d  service  about  In r e s p o n s e  1)  s e r v i c e s would  were o f f e r e d ?  audiotape  offerings  Centre  to course  design  weres with  lectures  concept  understanding  on k e y c o n c e p t s  along  (n=2) with  print  84 materials 3)  P r o v i d e temporary or emergency alternative tutorial  4)  access.  More e x t e n s i v e t u t o r i a l on weekends.  (as i n l a s t  minute)  (n=l)  time, i n p a r t i c u l a r , t u t o r  access  (n=2)  Other F i n d i n g s A.  Asgiects of A d v i s i n g Students and t u t o r s were asked t o respond  to an open-  ended item at the end of the t h i r t e e n a d v i s i n g items. Student -  responses  and comments were as  T r a n s f e r c r e d i t concerns  (6)  - " E s t a b l i s h i n g proper p r e r e q u i s i t e -  follows;  qualifications".  "To ask q u e s t i o n s t o the student t o f i n d out why  the  student i s a s k i n g c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s concerning h i s / h e r course decisions.  To not simply o n l y answer q u e s t i o n s but t o  v o l u n t e e r i n f o r m a t i o n and a d v i c e . t h i s on the phone and  experienced  I f i n d the phone i n t i m i d a t i n g anyway so  I tend t o f r e e z e up when u s i n g -  I have not  Career c o u n s e l l i n g ( 3 )  it."  "Information r e ; c a r e e r c h o i c e  a s s i s t a n c e and a p t i t u d e t e s t i n g i s important  f o r those of us  who  field  wish t o r e - e n t e r the work f o r c e i n a new  u n c e r t a i n of the a v a i l a b l e -  Support  alternatives."  i . e . "I t h i n k i t ' s important  i n c l o s e c o n t a c t with s t u d e n t s . c o l l e g e a f f e c t s one  but are  f o r a d v i s o r s t o keep  Being f a r away from the  i n more than j u s t a p h y s i c a l sense.  easy t o become discouraged when problems a r i s e . " and  It's  "Showing  85  c o n c e r n of  other  courses  they  if  coursework  factors relate  and I so  i n my l i f e  to d i f f i c u l t y  communicate t h i s  b e s i d e s my e n r o l l m e n t  in  I may be h a v i n g w i t h my or appear to  be  seeking  concern." -Course s e l e c t i o n . my e d u c a t i o n a l course  is  goals  finished,  -"Information telephone  advisors  from a s t u d e n t  -providing relation  to  start  -"to  to  student  and  A l a c k of  with the  "when  i.e.  knowledge  of  in a  the letter  questionnaire.  letter).  the  open-ended  feedback  students'  past  about  i t e m on  academic  course  advising  difficulty  achievement  in  and  (n=4) student  to  the  subject  specialist  regarding  ability  course."  student  if  any p o t e n t i a l  problems appear  to  be l o o m i n g on t h e h o r i z o n " -"helping  to  discouraged,  motivate  a student  who i s  o r f r u s t r a t e d by e i t h e r  concerns" -communicating  issues to  tutors  to  take".  available resources  w h i c h was e n c l o s e d  or c o n t i n u e  notify  as c r e d i t " ,  relate  were:  capabilities -"referring  use  that  p r o v i d e d by a d v i s o r s was n o t e d  realistic  to  to  and t u t o r s " .  responses to  expectations  as w e l l  a d v i s i n g on a n o t h e r  Appendix C f o r Tutor  in f i n d i n g courses  i n content  on how b e s t  available services  (See  "Assist  temporarily blocked,  academic  or personal  86 B.  Adul_t S t u d e n t Students  ended  item  adult  student  relating if  Five  stress  factor  into  of  i n my Three  that  with  A t my  student  -  "Upon  decided  t o work  begun  Should  I  begun wish  requirement at one  toward  will  were  I  my  take  t o continue  o f 40 c o u r s e s cost  O.L.I.,  finding me  how  o f $5,000.  would  student wrote  an extended at 1 or 2 prove  "It  i s  I had  by  more  another  become  to  I  than  since I almost  I have complete.  degree,  a t e n year  would  almost  However,  s i x months  Although  courses  originally  have  Bachelor's  program  t o be  t h e two c o u r s e s  indicates  at the coast  education One  General.  a full  f o r my  "Added  related  was r e i t e r a t e d  the requirements am  interest.  i s not available f o r  It could  Bachelor  of  student  a B.A. c o u r s e  at  wondered  commented,  t o complete  concern  registering  of study  help  with  (one s p e c i f i c a l l y  Another  many y e a r s . This  an approximate year  who w i s h  age, doing  t o meet.  i n the field  concerns  open-  diff iculti es  One s t u d e n t  leading to stress  financial  two c o u r s e s ,  impossible  mentioned  student  exams.  t o an  dealing  and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  about  takes  items  pressures  Another  students  more  insurmountable."  currently  t o respond  goals.  program  time  life  families  semester  have  to career  mentioned  anxiety  study.  per  work  family goals  concern  adults  asked  Two s t u d e n t s  to shiftwork).  mentioned of  concerns.  had a work/study  illnesses". fit  were  a t t h e end of t h e t h i r t e e n  students  related  and t u t o r s  course  O.L.I.  Concerns  the  study  course,  realize meet  that  this  87 cost,  it  is  a l s o beyond my means t o  continue  with  my o r i g i n a l  goal." Some c o n c e r n s distance  education  required  for  design  "some p a r t s  to  -  related  were t h e  distance  specifically difference  education of  course  may n o t  being  able  Tutors' student  to  compare p r o g r e s s  responses to  concerns  the  were a s  the  for  nothing."  value  for  a future  - " c o n c e r n about school  for  5,  subject";  open-ended  material  -"commitment  and  -"not  content -"many  of  who t o  (most)  of  courses  priorities of  enough  detail  concern  about  students.  i t e m s on  course  i n the  20 o r more due t o  about  adult  doing  (program)  "all  of  r e a l l y be o f  (n=2) course  after  being  out  of  years"  lapse  of  time  since  undisturbed place  talk  to  about  to  last  course"  work"  problems that  my s t u d e n t s a r e t a k i n g O . L . I ,  work c u r r e n t l y underway a t  such s t u d e n t s ,  -"All  course  are not  course  related"  complement For  style  interest"  having a q u i e t ,  - " u n s u r e of  this  performance  -"unfamiliar  of  fallows:  " Will  15,  field  visual;  with other  job/promotion?"  10,  to  go i n t o  - " s t u d e n t s s o m e t i m e s e x p r e s s an a n x i e t y this'  the  in learning  from a u r a l  g i v e a good u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  not  to  offered  t r a n s f e r r a b i 1 i t y of are  important.  are problems f o r  above  (adult  student  other  course  institutions.  credits  and/or  Time p r e s s u r e s  and  everyone." concern  items)  to  are  very  supply  88 important  t o some,  less  to others".  SUMMARY In  this  chapter  t h e two  student  and t u t o r  aspects  o-f a d v i s i n g a n d a d u l t  Additional  responses  null  to perceptions student  on  the b a s i s of gender,  tutor  responses  on  was  reported.  students  t o open-ended q u e s t i o n s  advising  and a d u l t  preferences  student  f o r additional  will  on  concerns  important were  contact  and number  Responses important were  be p r e s e n t e d  results,  analyzed.  responses  to the and  of years  aspects  listed.  of  Student surveyed.  c o n c l u s i o n s and  i n Chapter  5.  of  by t u t o r s and  a d v i s i n g s e r v i c e s were  A d i s c u s s i o n of the study implications  o-f  age and a d v i s o r  t h e b a s i s of gender  as a tutor  comparing  concerns  information, d e s c r i b i n g student  study  experience  hypotheses  CHAPTER Summary,  This and of  chapter  findings. these  reviews  the  h a s been  students.  part-time  aspects  very  important  adult  of student  distance  education.  This student  study  academic  student  numbers  of students  compares concerns. Ryan  h a s been  attitudes  isolation  student This  i n order  (1980)  concerning  important  and s t u d e n t ' s This  information i s  t o compare  or physical  whose  disability.  States  traditional  commitments, This  of adult  on a p r e v i o u s  89  aspects of  institution,  t o attend  perceptions  i s based  adult  opportunities f o r large  o f work o r d o m e s t i c  i n the United  students i n  of t h e important  educational  and t u t o r study  i n the area  reported  services to adult  who a r e u n a b l e  because  METHOD  towards  concerns.  perceptions  i s t o provide  geographic  implications  research  advising i n a distance education  institutions  and  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n t h e d e s i g n and  support  mission  by  Canadian  research  was d e s i g n e d  and t u t o r  AND  advising or faculty  f o rs t a f f  delivery  PROBLEM  little  student's  of adult  both  methodology,  a d v i s i n g and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s f o r  Little  of academic  perceptions  interpretations  DF R E S E A R C H  distance education  adult  problem,  a r e presented.  SUMMARY  of  and I m p l i c a t i o n s  the research  Conclusions,  results  There  Conclusions  5  on " A d u l t  study  also  student  study  undertaken  Student and  90 Faculty  E x p e c t a t i o n s o-f A c a d e m i c  Advising i n a Nontraditional  Uni v e r s i t y " . For 8601  t h e purpose  s e s s i o n who  of t h i s  were  study,  25 y e a r s  taking university-level  degree  or taking university-level  more  and t u t o r s  previous  questionnaire academic return  covered  areas:  were  Social  variance scores  Keuls The  aspects as  of the they  services. of t h e academic  i n d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n and  resulting  using  technique  for statistical  were  package,  of r e l i a b i l i t y  the Package f o r  analysis of  to the  difference  a t t h e ox =  made  t h e Newman-  significance  statistical  was  t o c o m p a r e t h e mean  responses  for a significant  postage-paid  follow-up  the Statistical  was u s e d  comparisons  with  from  T h e one-way  and t u t o r s '  Post-hoc  an e s t i m a t e  t o students A telephone  (SPSS-X).  items  computerized  obtain  credit  i n three or  concerns  on a r e v i e w  mailed  was a n a l y z e d  of students'  test  student  services  The d a t a  statistical  level.  O.L.I.  f o r transfer  important  centre  i n February.  Sciences  questionnaire .05  were  i n March.  questionnaires  an  literature.  envelopes  conducted  i n the  a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The  adult  based  support  Questionnaires  the  three  process;  student  student  courses  sent  items  towards  had t u t o r e d f o r O.L.I.  t o s c h o o l , and a d v i s i n g  advising,  return  courses  s e s s i o n s were  advising  Questionnaire  adult  who  students  o f age o r o l d e r and were  either  elsewhere  a l l new  using  a t t h e cac » . 0 5  LERTAP,  was u s e d  level. to  f o r the questionnaire.  91 RESULTS Important  The  Asgects  inital  differences important  new the  aspects  other  3.0  higher  within  between  doesn't  financial students  offer  what  helping  a i d as less  advisor  contact. students'  a i d ;helping  aware  of other  factors  found  i n t h e breakdown  me  There  i n my  study  life.  of t u t o r  my the  o r work;  me  me t o  with  Students  over  of a d v i s i n g was  the  than  no d i f f e r e n c e i n  o f a d v i s i n g by  means  items:  being  problems and  aspects  students'  with  on s i x i t e m s :  and programs i f  study  aspects  rated  were  understand  and h e l p i n g  with  Both  student  means  referring  and s c h e d u l i n g .  on t h r e e  and  goals,  t o me;  courses  of important  means  me  and c a r e e r  important  Transfer  Tutor  means  helping  I want;  me  found.  and p r o c e d u r e s ;  t h e age of f o r t y .  perceptions  financial  courses  selection  student  O.L.I,  my  institutions'  rated  under  policies  a s no  Institute  students'  students'  o p p o r t u n i t i e s known  course  of f o r t y  male  were  Learning  Female  of the  accepted  level  as important.  the institution;  educational  specific  a d v i s i n g " was  t o 4.4. than  a r e no  perceptions  a t t h e c*-.05  institutional  learning  O.L.I,  age  of academic  from  "there  and t u t o r  of a d v i s i n g items  relationship  Advising  a n d t u t o r s a t t h e Open  significantly clarifying  CONCLUSIONS  hypothesis,  student  differences  means r a n g e d  making  research  aspects  students  advocate  o f Academic  between  significant  AND  were  higher  informing  problems; There  was  me  and no  means b y g e n d e r  than  about  being  difference or years of  92  experience  Adul_t  i n ratings  Student The  student for  concerns"  ranged  student  hypothesis,  between  s i x items.  means  student  was  "there  means  1.7  ranged  t o 4.1.  on s i x i t e m s :  fear  to school;  o p p o s i t i o n from  i.e.  no c o n t a c t  with  writing  o r math  habits;  lack  tutor  required was  skills;  t o complete  student  Female student weres  means  student  means  o p p o s i t i o n from  contact  with  other  grades;  poor  writing  courses; were  of f a i l u r e ;  by a g e .  advisor  were  concern  skills;  differences  lower  than  about  poor or  were  length basis". student  significantly  and l a c k  T h e means  isolation  study higher of  time  There and  items.  higher  than  These  items  isolation  problems  of students students  about  financing  of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e .  i n student  who  who  male  i . e . no  i n course(s); anxiety  o r math  than  concerns.  f a m i l y members;  students  no s i g n i f i c a n t  concerns an  fear  on a d u l t  adult  means  between O.L.I.  means w e r e  on s e v e n  Student  student  be t o o o l d t o go  reading  on a p a r t - t i m e  difference  accepted  higher  i n course(s);  "concerns  courses  and  were  I may  of e f f i c i e n t  means on t h e i t e m  of adult  2.3 t o 3.9;  means  that  students  lack  items  f a m i l y members;  of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e .  no s i g n i f i c a n t  Transfer  other  from  Tutor  significant  perceptions  f o r seven  back  than  of a d v i s i n g .  a r e no  and t u t o r  rejected  Tutor  from  means  aspects  Concerns  research  differences  of important  responses  There  to adult  had c o n t a c t  had no c o n t a c t  with with  93 an  advisor  school  on  and  responses  two  lack to  items:  of  concerns  showed  a  Female  tutors rated  Tutors  with  lower  significant  than  Advising More  advising  with  the  service  and  more  In to  results and  tutor  note  that  important advisors. rated  Aspects  two  and  the  shown than  on  group  the  of  experience  this  concern  experience.  OF  THE  means r a n g e d similar  aspects  from  tutor  3.0  to  advising factors  faculty the  the  who  Ryan of  items  are (1980)  academic were  procedures.  in contact  personal  contact  interest  Advising  (1980)  to  audiotape  RESULTS  Ryan  similar  telephone  preparation.  academic  and  to  tutors.  a p t i t u d e and  of  policies  of  male  rated  same c o u r s e ;  aspects  These  back  tutor  f o r s e r v i c e s were  regular basis;  Academic  a  important  tutors.  of  advising sessions  requests  taking a  i n using  and  In  go  isolation.  than  years  student  to  to  years  item,  higher  six  old  breakdown  study,  are  too  experience  a s s i s t a n c e i n exam  this  4 . 4 on  on  than  INTERPRETATION Important  A  gender  concern  less  Other  students  advisor  testing;  or  was  centres.  other  be  Services  interest  with  this  t u t o r s with  (dial-a-tape)  by  difference  years  Centre  I may  self-confidence.  adult  six  fear  not  means r a n g e d advising. study  4 . 7 . seem  It to  be  faculty  and  student  i s interesting  advising higher  advocacy  3.0  These  where  a d v i s o r s and  study,  from  to  equally faculty who  are  than  clarifying  who  are  advisors  O.L.I. university  94  In  the  aspects These  (1980)  advising On  to  the  study,  higher  with  factors  higher  time  and  length this  Adult  Since  Student the  4.00  schedule; reading,  ranged  level)  factor  writing  skills;  Ryan  study  needs  and  I t would  male  tutor  In  colleagues.  in this  study,  rated  advising  years  of  (1980)  study  are  part-time,  the  be  interpreted  appear  the  of  six  are  to  there  aspects  experience  i n the  O.L.I,  most  than  making  advising.  items  more  the  that  f u l l -  with  the  trend  is  studies.  (1980) weres  learning  from  with  on  study,  experienced  advising years  faculty  i n the  more  advisors.  and  female  academic  some  Concerns  Ryan  means f o r t h e  math  ranked  five  this  between  faculty  tutors  experience  i n both  In the  than  faculty progress  In  of  did their  rated  relationship?  aspects  i n f o r m a t i o n i n mind.  similar  student  caring  academic  than  faculty  of  new  than  less  experience.  of  differences  important  faculty  d i d male  o p p o r t u n i t i e s known.  m a j o r i t y of  tutors  and  female  than  awareness  significant  responses  study,  higher  personal  learning no  Ryan  were:  plan;  other  (1980)  advising  items  degree  were  of  Ryan  or  four  3.5  to  how  study, trying to  math  difficulties  to  study;  adult  The  four  highest  f i t school  items  into  fear  of  failure;  In  this  study,  skills.  highest 3.9.  the  student  items  were:  concerns poor  balancing multiple  the  (above adult's  and the  poor tutor  items  writing  or  responsibi1ities  95 and  priorities;  time  pressures  results study  distance  pressures;  d i d not appear  o-f t h i s  where  time  study  education  isolation.  i n t h e Ryan  support  the highest  and  concerns  a t t h e Open  i n concentration; family  organization  of time  study  and  this  significantly  study, higher  planning.  faculty than  response:  fear  of being  opposition  from  f a m i l y members;  skills.  In t h e Ryan  fear  of f a i l u r e  this  study,  concern  significantly  tutors  higher  than  rated  based  t o o o l d t o go  (1980) s t u d y ,  perceived  t o be  a significant  education  literature,  this  lack  of  time;  than  a s an  concern  (1980)  items  t h e mean  back  Since  rating  on  faculty  d i d students.  in  t h e Ryan  to school;  reading,  higher  isolation  Murgatroyd  the following  poor  The  commitments;  In b o t h  rated  students  o-f t h e  were  item,  study.  o-f s t u d e n t s  University  difficulties  and  (19B0)  the -findings  ranked  The  writing,  members  math  also  rated  did students. adult  In  student  isolation  i s  within the distance  by  tutors  reflects  this  viewpoint. In no  t h e Ryan  significant  items In gender, listed failure only  both  on  adult  (1980)  differences student  o p p o s i t i o n from higher  the item,  than  by  of f a c u l t y  (1980)  and  i n student  concerns  the examination i n t h e Ryan  study  study  isolation  was  and  more  faculty rated  study  responses  there to  were  similar  age. tutor female  f a m i l y members;  d i d male  this  responses faculty  isolation  members.  higher  by  In  and  members fear  this  female  by  of  study,  tutors  96 than  male t u t o r s  a t t h e Open  IMPLICATIONS While of  that  pertain  be u s e f u l  with  adult  (1)  t o t h e Open  t o other  students  systems.  i n traditional  rate  students.  of  that  Transfer  with  one  f o rtransfer  advising  assistance  students  with  result  Open  within  Advising  service.  There  i t was  do n o t f e e l  t h e Open  Learning  d i d not feel  a  sense  Learning  were  credit  the  enrolling  elsewhere.  i n only This  t h e same d e g r e e o f  as students Learning  has implications  staffing  from  returned  comments a n d  students  students  may n o t r e q u i r e  Transfer  students  t h e Open  a s most  was t h e  from  students  Institute,  group  a r e suggested!  follow-up,  services  working  non-traditional  written  Transfer  i s  implications  implications  contact  identification  course  and  In both  f o radvising  Institute.  and  347. o f T r a n s f e r  telephone  established  Institute, i t  and f a c u l t y  of questionnaires Only  o-f t h e r e s u l t s  interesting results  questionnaires.  need  staff  The f o l l o w i n g  through  Learning  findings  advising  One o f t h e most return  (2)  RECOMMENDATIONS  some o f t h i s s t u d y ' s  will  delivery  AND  Institute.  s o m e o-f t h e p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s  t h i s study  hoped  Learning  t h e Open  who  are  Institute.  continuing This  for differentiated Learning  were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  Institute  between  female  97 and male s t u d e n t academic  responses to  advising  and a d u l t  T u t o r s and a d v i s o r s higher  d e g r e e of  on s u c h  i t e m s as  fear  failure.  of  discussion  at  development (3)  lack  raise  be a b l e  strategies  that  devised (4)  adult  before  to  assist deal  adult  with  for  time  balancing  students  the  concerns  pressures;  multiple  priorities;  students'  a w a r e n e s s of  and  grade  cope  the  with  student  the  adult  these concerns begins  rate  old to  concerns  go back t o  l a c k of  student, may be  coursework.  such as school  with  fear  an  that  and l a c k  I  of  1ower t h a n s t u d e n t s who had no  This f i n d i n g suggests that  female  need  these  s t u d e n t s who had c o n t a c t  was t o  important for  that  to  and s e t t i n g  to  self-confidence  adult  and  professional  a common c o n c e r n of  plans  may be t o o  contact.  students  O r i e n t a t i o n handbooks and a c t i v i t i e s  The t r e n d f o r advisor  female  self-confidence  by s t u d e n t s !  difficulties  s t r e s s e s as so  of  adult  the  Such i s s u e s c o u l d be t o p i c s  responsibilities  to  be aware of  c o n c e r n of  to  ranked h i g h e s t  anxiety.  to  concerns.  workshops.  selecting  fatigue;  student  tutor/advisor  A d v i s o r s need in  need  i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s of  adult  students  students,  since  self-confidence  (and, this  it  is  in particular, group  was a r e a l  indicated concern)  98 to  have  contact  anxiety (5)  about rated  "helping  me  ended  responses,  goals,  o r work".  students  requested  and a p t i t u d e  states  older  only  •pen the  Learning semester  adult  students course  available  course,  are also  will  to sign  take  time  studies.  To supplement  a  i t i s suggested  course,  could  consider  position deal  counselling, alternative formalised resources Although  values  f o r time,  referral that  fear  offer  the  Since many  up f o r a n o n - c r e d i t away f r o m  that  This  their  credit  of e n r o l l i n g i n  the  Institute  staff  counselling  position as  clarification,  possibility  through  Future.  the option  goal-setting  purposes.  counselling i s  Your  c o u n s e l l i n g i s s u e s such with  literature  r e a s o n -for  a professional  to the staff.  with  students  adding  career The  f o r career  pressed  could  assisting career  and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g .  could  be t o e s t a b l i s h  arrangement  with  local  An a  community  career counselling.  of being  my  In t h e open-  at present  Planning  do n o t want  which  main  item,  between  i s -for v o c a t i o n a l  Institute  students  testing.  students'  t o education vehicle  allay  of a d v i s i n g  the relationship  counselling  The  to  concerns.  understand  that  i n order  highly the aspect  and c a r e e r  returning  (6)  an a d v i s o r  these  Students  courses  with  t o o o l d t o come b a c k t o  99 school  was  cited  literature, concern to  as a concern  students  as not important.  t h e -fact  this  group  enrolled  students.  had  surveyed,  been  would  in this  have  been  o-f s t u d e n t s study  This  rated  result  o-f s t u d e n t s  this  may  be  due  c o n s i s t e d of  If prospective adult i t i s possible that  different.  i n the  Further  students  t h e -findings  research i s  needed. (7)  The  item,  students of  isolation, i n my  O.L.I.  concern  t u t o r s than  students.  I t may  than  students  male  t h e home.  (1983);) between time of  t h e need  than  about  there  students isolation  may  on be  mature  men  feelings  and a  who  are  more  (Mangano Students  differences students,  students' contact.  more  full-time  Mature  and younger  group  i n distance  other  male  studies cited  Force  and f u l l - t i m e  of t h e major  reviewed  that  students  students  and  female  than  a r e employed  Task  with  students,  rather  Previous  f o r peer  concerned  campus  One  adult  students  women be  suggest  O.L.I,  experience  who  <1981)5  Corrado  new  be t h a t  homemakers  contact  seems t o be a c o n c e r n  students  full-time  and  (8)  course(s)  of female  outside  i . e .no  part-  perceptions More  students  of i s o l a t i o n  mature  appear both  education.  concerns  i n the literature  of adult was  time  students  as  barriers.  to on  100  Students  i n distance education  pressures  as  important  part  to  be  that  to  assist  will  allow  Accurate  distance  time  enough  adult  set time the  system  by  time  are  transfer and  information  study.  requirements  i s needed. essential  that  concerned  complete  credit  the  about  and  scheduling.  One  concern  for  This  within  a  involves deadlines  about  courses  course  rated  was  very  poor  learning  awareness  of  their  unrealistic  could  of  highly  skills  by  an  for students  in providing accurate level  this  procedures, for  life  avai1abi1ity  tutors,  i n these  expectations.  current  address  credit  absence  be  their  part-time  skills.  testing  on  of  accurate  diagnostic helpful  a  development,  after  length  challenge  writing/math  to  the on  policies,  provision  returning  students  needs  schedules  for course  providing f o r course  students  An  students  realistic  completion  time  completion.  experience  have  to  rated  concern.  Administrative policies  1iberal  (10)  them  required to  issue  advising  education  students  basis.  important  is particularly  course  Adult  of  course  information  <9>  very  i n f o r m a t i o n on  individual  for  a  also  but  not  Adults may  areas,  lack or  may  It i s suggested i n these  areas  information of  by  skills.  that would  to Since  101  students their both (11)  diagnostic testing  over-estimate  would  l a c k o f s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e was  a concern  by f e m a l e  difference  willing  males.  that  lack  level  could  be h e l p f u l  a formal  This  study  Q.L.I,  a  lack  Since  with  O.L.I.  (23.5%  it  i s suggested  be  t o examine with  there  t h e next  concerns  away  concerns  enrolled  degree  adult  of  students  f o r "general i n S601),  of research of  could  these  a d v i s i n g and a d u l t  t o determine  i f there are  differences.  i n both  learners continue traditional  in  Learning  and c o n c e r n s  t o academic  i n order  and  enrollments area  previous  gender.  students  as taking courses  the attitudes respect  and  l a r g e group  of a l l course that  to  of time  a t t h e Open i s a  more  suggested  the attitudes  and T r a n s f e r  courses  students.  being  i t i s  environment  with  higher  CONCLUSION As  to  of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e  attained, length  has d e a l t students  Institute.  student  male  be due t o f e m a l e s  learning  university-level  interest"  rated  o f s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e be compared  from  enrolled  than  In f u t u r e r e s e a r c h ,  of education  students  students  to self-report  than  any  or  groups.  This  of  t o under—estimate  tend  skills,  The item, as  (12)  may  to participate  and n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l  to a  greater  forms of  102  education, needs to  i t i s important  of these  facilitate  aspires  and  institutions services  practices need  this  shape  the adult  as learners.  exhibits  their student  The  p a t t e r n s such  at post-secondary  this will  assist and  in distance  adult  i n order who  as attending  student  Administrative  whether  papulation.  policymakers services  while  educational  to determine  changing  programs  the  and t a k i n g c o u r s e s  a t home o r a t w o r k .  t o be examined  study  a n d meet  return to education  career—motivated  accommodate  that  further of  success  often  being  in their  working f u l l - t i m e  policies  hoped  their  to learn  part-time, either  students  to differentiate  as  to suit  education.  It i s  they the  needs  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A n i s e f , P. (1985). Accessibility i n Canada. 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W o o d l e y , A. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . O c c u p a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l " c a r e e r s " of d i s t a n c e s t u d e n t s . ICDE T h i r t e e n t h W o r l d Congress Proceedings. Paper 1021. W o r t h , V. (1982). Empire S t a t e C o l l e g e / S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y of New York C e n t e r f o r D i s t a n c e L e a r n i n g s A c a s e s t u d y . (DERG P a p e r s No. 7) M i l t o n K e y n e s , UKs O p e n U n i v e r s i t y , D i s t a n c e E d u c a t i o n Research Group.  108 APPENDICES  A.  Academic A d v i s i n g Student  Survey  B.  Academic A d v i s i n g Survey  (Tutor)  C.  Student  Letter  110  ADVISING STUDENT SURVEY Richmond A d v i s i n g Centre Open Learning I n s t i t u t e This q u e s t i o n n a i r e has been designed to assess your expectations w i t h respect to academic a d v i s i n g . I.  GENERAL INFORMATION  Directions:  Please check the a p p r o p r i a t e responses to questions 1 through 3.  1.  Gender  2.  Age at l a s t birthday (years)  3.  Have you had any contact w i t h an O.L.I. a d v i s o r by telephone, mail or i n a) person? b)  II.  a) b) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i)  Male Female  25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+ YES NO  ADVISING SERVICES  The f o l l o w i n g phrases are used to describe important aspects of a d v i s i n g . Based on your expectations of your needs f o r a d v i s i n g , how important are each of these f a c t o r s to you? DIRECTIONS: Focussing on the r o l e of the a d v i s o r , please i n d i c a t e how important you b e l i e v e each of the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e ments 1 through 13 are by p l a c i n g an "X" i n the bracket t h a t best represents the degree of importance to you. Place an "X" i n the bracket under 1 i f you t h i n k i t i s not important, an "X" under 5 i f i t i s very important. I f you can't decide whether the issue i s important or not, place an "X" under 3. N Q t  V e r y  Important 1 1.  P l a c i n g educational d e c i s i o n making i n my hands.  2.  Being aware of my progress on my degree program.  (  Important  2 )  (  (  )  1  )  (  3 )  (  (  )  3 (  )  2  4 %  4 (  5 )  (  ) 5  )  (  )  Not mportant 1 2  Very mportant 4  5  Being aware of other f a c t o r s i n my l i f e besides my enrollment i n courses at t h i s institution. A s s i s t i n g me with a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems. Clarifying institutional policies and procedures. Being my advocate w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n e.g. a s s i s t i n g me with grounds f o r extensions. Relating, to me .in a personal way. Helping me understand the r e l a t i o n s h i p between my courses and career g o a l s , or work. Making l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s known to me. (e.g. new courses, programs). R e f e r r i n g me to other educational i n s t i t u t i o n s ' courses and programs i f O.L.I, doesn't o f f e r what I want Helping me with study problems. Informing me about f i n a n c i a l a i d . Helping me with s p e c i f i c course s e l e c t i o n and scheduling. L i s t other a d v i s i n g expectations that'you consider  important:  III.  RETURN TO SCHOOL  112  Adults have sometimes expressed concerns about coming back t o school How important i s each of these concerns t o you? DIRECTIONS:  Please respond to items 1 through 13 by p l a c i n g an "X" i n the bracket that best represents the degree of concern t o you. No  1.  Fear t h a t I may be too o l d t o  2.  Opposition from f a m i l y members  3.  I s o l a t i o n i . e . no contact w i t h other students i n my course(s)  4.  Anxiety about grades  5.  Poor w r i t i n g or math s k i l l s  6.  Problems f i n a n c i n g courses  7.  Time pressures  8.  D i f f i c u l t i e s balancing m u l t i p l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and s e t t i n g priorities  9.  Lack of e f f i c i e n t reading or study h a b i t s  10.  Fear of f a i l u r e  11.  Fatigue a f t e r work and/or f a m i l y responsibilities  12:  Concerns about length of time r e q u i r e d t o complete courses on a part-time b a s i s .  13.  Lack o f s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e  at a l l  A great dea  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  -4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  115  ACADEMIC ADVISING SURVEY Richmond A d v i s i n g C e n t r e Open L e a r n i n g I n s t i t u t e  This survey has been designed to assess tutor expectations of advising. I.  ADVISING SERVICES  The items i n this section are designed to describe iirportant aspects of advising. Please read the DIRECTIONS that follow and based on your expectations of what should take place i n advising, respond to items 1 - 1 3 . DIRECTIONS:  Focussing on the role of an advisor, please indicate how important you believe each of the following statements i s by placing an "X" i n the bracket that best represents the degree of importance to you. For example, place an "X" i n the bracket under 1 i f you think i t i s not important, an "X" under 5 i f i t i s very important. I f you can't decide whether the issue i s important or not, place an "X" under 3. Not mportant 1 2  Aspects o f A d v i s i n g 1.  Placing educational decisionmaking i n t o t h e s t u d e n t ' s hands  2.  Being aware o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s p r o g r e s s on degree program  3.  Being aware o f o t h e r f a c t o r s i n the s t u d e n t ' s l i f e b e s i d e s enrollment i n courses a t t h i s institution  4.  A s s i s t i n g student w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems  5.  Clarifying institutional and procedures  6.  Being an a d v o c a t e f o r t h e s t u d e n t w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n e.g. a s s i s t i n g s t u d e n t w i t h grounds f o r extensions  7.  R e l a t i n g t o the student i n a p e r s o n a l way  8.  H e l p i n g s t u d e n t understand t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s / h e r c a r e e r g o a l s , o r work and O.L.I, c o u r s e s  3  Very [mportant 4 5  3  4  3  4  3  4  3  4  3  4  policies  4 4  9.  Making l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s known t o t h e s t u d e n t (e.g. new c o u r s e s , programs).  Not Important 1 2 ( ) (  1 10.  R e f e r r i n g student t o other educational i n s t i t u t i o n s i f O.L.I. doesn't o f f e r what s/he wants  )  (  2 ) (  1 11.  Helping student w i t h study problems  12.  I n f o r m i n g s t u d e n t about financial aid  13.  Helping student with s p e c i f i c c o u r s e s e l e c t i o n and s c h e d u l i n g  14.  L i s t any o t h e r a s p e c t s  II.  RETURN TO SCHOOL  2 (  (  1 (  )  1 (  )  )  3 (  )  Very Important 4 5 ( ) ( )  )  3 (  )  4 ( )  5 ( )  )  3 (  )  4 ( )  5 ( )  4 .  5 ( )  2 ( ) 2 (  3 ( )  ) 3 (  (  )  4 ( )  )  o f a d v i s i n g t h a t you c o n s i d e r  5 ( )  important:  The following adult student concerns about returning to school have been identified i n the literature. Based on your experience as a tutor, how important do you think these concerns are to your students? DIRECTIONS:  Please respond to items 1 through 13 by placing an "X" i n the bracket that best represents the degree of concern.  Concerns 1.  Fear o f being t o o o l d t o go back t o s c h o o l  2.  O p p o s i t i o n from f a m i l y members  3.  I s o l a t i o n i . e . no c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r s t u d e n t s i n cau.cs.e.(s..)  Not a t a l l 2 1 ( ) ( )  A g r e a t deal 3 4 5 ( ) ( ) ( )  1 (  2 ) ( )  3 ( )  4 5 ( ) ( )  1 (  2 ) ( )  3 ( )  4 5 ( ) ( )  Not a t a l 4.  A n x i e t y about grades  5.  Poor w r i t i n g o r math s k i l l s  6.  Problems f i n a n c i n g c o u r s e s  7.  Time p r e s s u r e s  8.  D i f f i c u l t i e s balancing multiple r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and s e t t i n g priorities  9.  Lack o f e f f i c i e n t r e a d i n g o r study h a b i t s  A g r e a t dea  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  5  10.  Fear o f f a i l u r e  11.  F a t i g u e a f t e r work and/or family responsibilities  12.  Concerns about l e n g t h o f t i m e r e q u i r e d t o complete c o u r s e s on a part-time basis  13.  Lack o f s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e  14.  L i s t o t h e r i m p o r t a n t a d u l t s t u d e n t c o n c e r n s not p r e v i o u s l y mentioned  III.  GENERAL INFORMATION  DIRECTIONS;  Please check the appropriate responses to the following questions s  How many y e a r s o f t u t o r i n g e x p e r i e n c e have you had a t t h e Open L e a r n i n g I n s t i t u t e ?  Gender.  THANK YOU f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s  a) b) c) a) b)  0-2 3-5 6+  Male Female  survey.  P l e a s e r e t u r n y o u r completed survey i n t h e e n c l o s e d postage envelope b e f o r e March 10, 1986.  prepaid  APPENDIX  C  Feb Dear  MrsI  yoyld Two in  Survey  have  XXXX  been  2 —  your a  just  a letter  how  helpful  had I r e c e i v e d  the decision from  suggests,  t o return  unaware  was a v a i l a b l e  your  this questionnaire  i t two weeks  the course  I was a l s o  t o accompany  earlier.  course materials  because that  of personal  an A d v i s o r ,  to help  me  such  i n making  decision! am  44  years  and s u f f e r  called  of age and have  physically  schleroderma.  is  anything  me  looking  career  from  Though  but encouraging, forward  change.  out of school  a painful  a  long  arthritic  disease  the prognosis f o r this  illness  p e r i o d s of r e m i s s i o n have  to a future  I am  been  that  on a s m a l l  might  also  disability  found  include  pension  a  subsidized  G.A.I.N. Nearly  outlining the  t o me,  and withdraw  survey  I time  to include  t o express  health reasons.  such  by  compelled  w e e k s a g o I made  and as  Mclnnes-Rankin,  felt  Student  25/86  a year  a course  University  necessary  i n Child  preliminary  Care,  of V i c t o r i a .  photostatic  university  Learning  ago I w a s i n r e c e i p t  credits. courses  Institute  I applied  that  months passed  receive  a telephone  would  program,)  and s e n t  high  school  take  prepare  through t h e way,  and I d i d n o t r e c e i v e  call  pamphlet through  along the grades  and  f o r a d v i c e a s t o what  I could best  Several  (degree  c o p i e s o f my I asked  of a  however,  119  from  t h e Open so t o  a reply.  speak. Idid  someone f r o m t h e  120 university  saying  literature, when t h e receive  cart  nothing  came b e f o r e  had been  the  horse  interest  the  in taking.  2nd y e a r c o u r s e  complied w i t h ,  but  I received  begin sessions Jan.  month l a t e with the having  w i t h my f i r s t  disease  to  t r y to  is  start  added i n s e c u r i t i e s , study, time  (age,  decision  to  quit  o r even  before  t h o u g h and a s k e d  if  M a r c h / 8 6 and u s e  the  ask  for  with t h i s of  time out  the  got  started!  a d d i t i o n a l time to that  end of  if  the  I needed term,  etc)  (if  start  be was  materials  I  too  nearly a  experience  The s t r e s s  of  combined with of  any t y p e  concern that  I might o f f i c i a l l y  I was a d v i s e d one a t  course,  in hospital,  I even  course  This request  The p a i n  with s t r e s s .  length  I had  I would have been  p o o r r e a d i n g and s t u d y h a b i t s ,  I m i g h t be i l l  slowly.  late  the.  4th  and a s k e d t o  instead.  assignment!  intensified  through  that  these replacement  1st.  to  a d v a n c e d f o r my  materials  the  to  I began  material for a  much t o o  to  late  I would  Somehow o r o t h e r  The 4 t h y e a r  that  have  meantime  2nd y e a r c o u r s e  u n d e r s t a n d i n g and 1 r e t u r n e d t h e  I  the  and  one o r two c o u r s e s  and c o u r s e  before  a "-feeler"  To d a t e ,  In t h e  take  to  reorganized,  mail.  regard.  was v e r y e v i d e n t a l l y  transferred  as  by Human R e s o u r c e s ) .  arrived  expressed  material  in this  and a p p l i e d t o  (sponsored  year course also  or program,  issued  more i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e  impatient  Q.L.I  had had o v e r w h e l m i n g r e s p o n s e  w h i c h had o n l y been  courses,  received get  they  at  of  exam  made my I did the  go o v e r  telephone  course the  in  materials  an e x t e n s i o n  I should  I needed  for  one  121 health  reasons)  fee".  The f e e I c o u l d  looking  over  decided  t o send  and a l s o t h a t  I would  not afford  the course  manual,  everything  t o pay a  a t the time  which  back  have  and  "transfer  after  further terrified  t o you and withdraw  me,  I  from  O.L.I. The I have  questionnaire  received  returning  the course  withdrawal  from  an  could  advisor  avoided  much  appropriate the XXXX  future! 2 —  stress etc.  from  the f i r s t  materials  2 —  provided  tailored even  have  for "interest  readable,  rather  lengthy  i f not helpful  Many  thanks  f o r taking  your  questionnaire  was  I known  and a l e t t e r  about  I could  have  started  with  needs  been  i n late,  n o t enough.  Sincerely,  a more  advised only,  worry  dissertation  t o read  have  and e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r  best  purposes"  of  the services  perhaps  f o r others  time  since  me,  t o my  of g e t t i n g assignments Hope t h i s  i n XXXX  Had  and c o u l d  I might  correspondence  Institute  have  course  and o n l y  t h e Open L e a r n i n g  the course.  stress  course  was  t o take the  eliminating the about  i s at  i n similar  exams, least  circumstances.  i t , as simply  answering  

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