Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Life role aspirations of high ability female undergraduates McBain, Laura-Lynne 1983

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
UBC_1983_A8 M22_8.pdf [ 6.15MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0054243.json
JSON-LD: 1.0054243+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0054243.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0054243+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0054243+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0054243+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0054243 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0054243.txt
Citation
1.0054243.ris

Full Text

L I F E ROLE ASPIRATIONS OF  HIGH ABILITY  FEMALE UNDERGRADUATES By LAURA-LYNNE MCBAIN B.S.N., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of C o u n s e l l i n g  We a c c e p t t h i s  Psychology)  t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g  to the r e q u i r e d  standard  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia August 1983 © Laura-Lynne McBain, 1983  In presenting  this  thesis i n partial  f u l f i l m e n t of the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that it  freely  the L i b r a r y s h a l l  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  agree that permission f o r extensive for  University  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  for  financial  Counselling Psychology  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main M a l l V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (3/81)  August 31. 1983  Columbia  my  It is thesis  s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department o f  thesis  be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s  gain  further  copying of t h i s  d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . understood that  I  make  written  ii ABSTRACT  T h i s study used a b i o d e m o g r a p h i c a l K e l l y ' s (1955) r e p e r t o r y g r i d t e c h n i q u e  q u e s t i o n n a i r e and a v a r i a n t o f t o examine t h e l i f e  role  a s p i r a t i o n s ( c a r e e r , home and f a m i l y , and p e r s o n a l ) o f a group o f h i g h a b i l i t y women and t o d e s c r i b e how t h e i r r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s seemed t o i n f l u e n c e t h e i r c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s . All  s u b j e c t s were of s i m i l a r h i g h academic s t a n d i n g ( 7 2 % average  o r above) and were e i t h e r i n t h e f i n a l year of the B a c h e l o r o f Commerce Program a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia or i n f i r s t  year Law  (combined Commerce/Law O p t i o n ) . Twenty-nine s u b j e c t s met w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n s m a l l groups t o complete t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  Each s u b j e c t p r o v i d e d  biodemographical  d a t a , i n c l u d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about h e r p r o j e c t e d f i v e - y e a r p l a n s f o r p a i d employment, graduate o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l , r e l a t i o n s h i p s t a t u s , and c h i l d r e n .  style/marital  I n a d d i t i o n , each s u b j e c t completed a 12 x 12  r o l e g r i d w h i l e i m a g i n i n g h e r s e l f i n each of 12 d i f f e r e n t r o l e s d u r i n g the subsequent f i v e years of h e r l i f e .  Twelve r o l e s and 12 c o n s t r u c t s  ( c o n s i d e r a t i o n s judged t o be i m p o r t a n t  i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r s i n the l i f e  r o l e a s p i r a t i o n s o f women) were rank ordered i n terms o f p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e and importance.  Then, each of t h e 12 r o l e s was r a t e d  a c c o r d i n g t o each of t h e 12 c o n s t r u c t s . Group r e s u l t s were r e p o r t e d and d e s c r i b e d on a number of dimensions,  i n c l u d i n g l e v e l and type o f c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s , p r e f e r e n c e  and p r e f e r a b i l i t y ranks of r o l e s , importance and c e n t r a l i t y ranks o f c o n s t r u c t s , o v e r a l l l e v e l of c o n f l i c t , c o n f l i c t between c o n s t r u c t s , and  iii conflict  between  The aspiring for  main  roles. f i n d i n g was t h a t a l l t h e women i n t h e g r o u p w e r e  to relatively  high level  full-time  t h e next f i v e year p e r i o d o f t h e i r  r o l e s were p r o f e s s i o n a l m o t i v a t e d by a d e s i r e mainly  roles.  careers i n business or law  lives.  They a p p e a r e d  T h e i r most t o be most  On t h e w h o l e ,  t h e y seemed t o be a g r o u p  o f c o n f i d e n t a n d i n d e p e n d e n t women who w e r e c o n f l i c t - f r e e a t t i t u d e s toward t h e i r p r o j e c t e d results  strongly  f o r p e r s o n a l g r o w t h , w h i c h t h e y seemed t o c o n s t r u e  i n terms o f achievement.  The  preferred  of this  life  i n their  roles.  study a r e u s e f u l  t o ^ c o u n s e l l o r s and e d u c a t o r s O  o f h i g h a b i l i t y women who a r e s e e k i n g t o c o m b i n e m a n n e r w h i c h a l l o w s f o r maximum d e v e l o p m e n t ' o f  multiple roles potential.  i na  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  LIST OF TABLES  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  vii  DEDICATION  viii  CHAPTER I.  SCOPE AND FOCUS OF THE STUDY  Background of the Problem Statement of the Problem and Purpose of the Study Definition of Terms Research Questions and Rationale Delimitation of the Study Justification of the Study CHAPTER II.  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE  Theories of Career Development Variables Affecting the Career Development of Women Achievement Motivation Achievement, Affiliation, and Power Role Conflict Achievement-Related Encouragement Perceived Compatibility Between Femininity and Competence. • Role Models Self-Estimate of Competence and Expectations of Personal Efficacy Commitment and Investment..... Conclusion CHAPTER III.  METHODOLOGY  Subjects Measuring Instruments  1 1 7 10 12 13 14 16 16 24 24 30 32 33 36 37 38 39 40 42 42 43  Biodemographical Questionnaire Role Grid  43 43  Grid Measures Employed in this Study Data Collection and Procedures  52 56  V  Page CHAPTER I V .  RESULTS  58  Projected Five-Year Plans Professional Relationship Children  and G r a d u a t e S t u d e n t R o l e s Style/Marital Status  R o l e I m p o r t a n c e ( Q u e s t i o n 1) C o n s t r u c t Importance ( Q u e s t i o n 2) I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s Between C o n s t r u c t s C o n f l i c t ( Q u e s t i o n 4)  CHAPTER V.  58  (Question 3)  DISCUSSION OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS  D i s c u s s i o n and C o n c l u s i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . Limitations I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r T h e o r y and P r a c t i c e Recommendations f o r F u t u r e Research  REFERENCE NOTES REFERENCES  58 60 66 66 70 75 86  90 90 99 100 104  110 I l l  APPENDICES A. B. C. D.  E.  Introduction to the Study Biodemographical Questionnaire Role G r i d Verbal I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r Completion of B i o d e m o g r a p h i c a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and R o l e Grid R o l e G r i d C o m p l e t e d b y S u b j e c t #22  119 121 123  126 139  vi LIST OF TABLES Page Table  1  D e r i v a t i o n of C o n s t r u c t s from F a c t o r s D i s c u s s e d i n the L i t e r a t u r e  49 59  Table  2  Graduate o r P r o f e s s i o n a l Programs C o n s i d e r e d  Table  3  Table  4  Subjects' Highest P r o f e s s i o n a l Aspirations f o r Subsequent F i v e Year P e r i o d S u b j e c t s ' Lowest P r o f e s s i o n a l A s p i r a t i o n s f o r Subsequent F i v e Year P e r i o d  63  Subjects' Expected P r o f e s s i o n a l P o s i t i o n s f o r Subsequent F i v e Year P e r i o d  64  Group P r e f e r e n c e Ranks of R o l e s Based on Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of R o l e P r e f e r e n c e Ranks....  68  Group P r e f e r a b i l i t y Ranks of R o l e s Based on Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of R o l e Sums  69  Group Importance Ranks of C o n s t r u c t s Based on Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of C o n s t r u c t Importance Ranks  71  D e r i v i n g C e n t r a l i t y Ranks  73  T a b l e 10  C e n t r a l i t y Ranks of C o n s t r u c t s  74  T a b l e 11  Average I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s Between C o n s t r u c t s  78  T a b l e 12  S t r e n g t h o f R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between C o n s t r u c t s ( P e r s o n a l Growth and Achievement)  80  S t r e n g t h of R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between C o n s t r u c t s ( S e l f - E s t i m a t e of Competence and Success and Affiliation)  81  S t r e n g t h of R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between C o n s t r u c t s ( R o l e Model and Support: P a r e n t s , Other F a m i l y Members)  82  S t r e n g t h of R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between C o n s t r u c t s (Power and Enjoyment)  83  S t r e n g t h of R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between C o n s t r u c t s ( S u p p o r t : P a r t n e r and Support: F r i e n d s , Colleagues, Teachers)  84  S t r e n g t h of R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between C o n s t r u c t s (Commitment/Investment and Degree o f F i t w i t h View of S e l f as a Woman)  85  Table Table  Table Table  Table  5 6  7 8  9  T a b l e 13  T a b l e 14  T a b l e 15 T a b l e 16  Table 17  61  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my deepest a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Dr. L o r e t t e K. Woolsey, who, i n b o t h the p l a n n i n g  and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n stages o f t h i s  s t u d y , by means of c o n f r o n t a t i o n , v a l i d a t i o n , encouragement, and s t r o n g personal  example, g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d t h e maintenance and c o n t i n u i n g  development o f my f e m i n i s t  perspective.  I n a d d i t i o n , I would l i k e t o thank Dr. L a r r y R. Cochran f o r h i s unending p a t i e n c e and c l e a r e x p l a n a t i o n s  (and r e - e x p l a n a t i o n s ! ) o f  r e p e r t o r y g r i d methodology. I am g r a t e f u l t o Dr. Sharon E. Kahn f o r h e r c o n t i n u i n g  support  and a s s i s t a n c e i n k e e p i n g t h i s t a s k t o a manageable s i z e . F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o acknowledge t h e c o o p e r a t i o n  of the  F a c u l t y of Commerce and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia and t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e women who participated i n this  study.  DEDICATION  I would l i k e t o d e d i c a t e t h i s t h e s i s t o my mother, M a r g u e r i t e M c B a i n , who, by her acknowledgement and s u p p o r t o f my s t r e n g t h and a b i l i t i e s , has a s s i s t e d me i n c o n t i n u i n g t o develop my p o t e n t i a l .  1  CHAPTER I  Scope and Focus o f t h e Study  Background o f t h e Problem  The  l i f e r o l e a s p i r a t i o n s o f h i g h a b i l i t y women must n e c e s s a r i l y  be understood  w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t o f what i s p o s s i b l e f o r women t o  achieve w i t h i n a given s o c i e t y .  O p p o r t u n i t i t e s and s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s  f o r women i n Canada form t h e g e n e r a l c o n t e x t i n which t h e l i v e s o f t h e women i n t h i s study a r e embedded. Understanding  women's achievement has become i m p o r t a n t f o r many  reasons - p e r s o n a l , i d e o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l - not the l e a s t of which i s t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t numbers o f women a r e now t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e w o r l d o f achievement o u t s i d e the home. S i n c e t h e 1950's, female p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and the w o r k f o r c e  has s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d ( C a r n e g i e Commission on H i g h e r  E d u c a t i o n , 1973; Labour Canada, 1980;  S t a t i s t i c s Canada 1977,  1981).  However, the l e v e l and scope of women's achievement does not appear t o have undergone as marked a s h i f t .  Women s t i l l tend t o e n t e r a t and t o  remain i n lower s t a t u s and lower p a y i n g p o s i t i o n s (Labour Canada, 1980, 1981)  and t o be u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d  i n t h e h i g h e r e c h e l o n s of almost  every  2  occupation  (O'Leary, 1974; S u t h e r l a n d , 1978).  When measured i n terms o f  t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n management, women s t i l l h o l d l i t t l e d e c i s i o n making power (Bennett  & Loewe, 1975; Economic A n a l y s i s and R e s e a r c h  Bureau, 1979; Labour Canada, 1980; G r e e n g l a s s , Note 1 ) . The q u e s t i o n i s - why a r e women c o n t i n u i n g t o u n d e r a c h i e v e i n almost every o c c u p a t i o n and, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , why a r e they c o n t i n u i n g t o underachieve improved?  i n management?  Greenglass  How can women's achievement be  (Note 1) o u t l i n e d some p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r  the c o n t i n u i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l underachievement o f women: The  q u e s t i o n of why women have not become more v i s i b l e  among t h e h i g h e r l e v e l s o f management has been  addressed  from s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s , and no doubt i s a complex one r e q u i r i n g e x p l a n a t i o n on s e v e r a l l e v e l s . W h i l e o v e r t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n may be a l e s s s a l i e n t f a c t o r today than perhaps i t was i n t h e n o t - t o o - d i s t a n t p a s t , sex s t e r e o t y p i n g , the absence of female r o l e models, mentors, and support  groups, lower s a l a r i e s , and m a s c u l i n e  j o b s t e r e o t y p e s as a r e s u l t o f women's employment s t a t u s , a l l f u n c t i o n as r e a l o b s t a c l e s t o t h e advancement o f women.  ( p . 1)  A f i r s t step i n e x p l o r i n g the q u e s t i o n of how women's achievement can be improved i s an e x a m i n a t i o n  of the f a c t o r s upon which l e v e l o f  o c c u p a t i o n a l achievement i s a s s e s s e d .  The t h r e e i n d i c e s which seem t o  be most c e n t r a l a r e e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s , income l e v e l , and g e n e r a l of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e .  level  F o r example, B l i s h e n and McRoberts (1976)  3  used these v a r i a b l e s ( e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s , income l e v e l , and p r e s t i g e r a n k i n g ) t o c o n s t r u c t a socioeconomic i n d e x f o r o c c u p a t i o n s i n Canada. The r e s u l t was a rank o r d e r i n g o f 500 Canadian o c c u p a t i o n s ( e . g . , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n t e a c h i n g and r e l a t e d f i e l d s r e c e i v e d a rank o f one and h u n t i n g , t r a p p i n g and r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s r e c e i v e d a rank o f 5 0 0 ) . Because e a r n i n g s a r e a s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i c a t o r of s o c i a l v a l u e , and hence, o f women's o p p o r t u n i t i e s , the p r e s e n t author concurs w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g assumption  of F i t z g e r a l d and C r i t e s  (1980):  ...we i n t e r p r e t t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r women's e q u i t y p a r t i a l l y i n economic terms; t h a t i s , women w i l l n o t a c h i e v e e q u i t y u n t i l they have access t o f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s and are not dependent on o t h e r s f o r t h e i r livelihood.  I t i s t h i s dependence, p o s s i b l y more than any  o t h e r f a c t o r , which has kept women from d e v e l o p i n g t o t h e e x t e n t o f t h e i r d e s i r e s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s ,  ( p . 45)  Occupations which a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y male o c c u p a t i o n s ( e . g . o c c u p a t i o n s i n t h e s c i e n c e s , management and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , l a w , m e d i c i n e , and the t e c h n i c a l and s k i l l e d t r a d e s ) tend t o be much h i g h e r i n p r e s t i g e and/or income l e v e l than p r e d o m i n a n t l y female ( e . g . , c l e r i c a l , s a l e s and s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s , n u r s i n g ) .  occupations T h e r e f o r e , as  s t a t e d by B r i t o and J u s e n i u s (1978) "the e x t e n t t o which t h e r e i s an a l t e r a t i o n i n women's o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s f o r the f u t u r e i s of g r e a t importance t o attempts t o improve  t h e i r r e l a t i v e earnings  p o s i t i o n " ( p . 165-166). Other r e s e a r c h e r s have noted t h e importance o f l e v e l o f  4  a s p i r a t i o n t o subsequent o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s a t t a i n m e n t  ( C a n t e r , 1979;  F o t t l e r & B a i n , 1980; H a l l e r , O t t o , M e i e r , & O h l e n d o r f ,  1974).  (1979) suggested performance.  Canter  t h a t a s p i r a t i o n s a c t u a l l y a c t as l i m i t s on  F o r example, a woman w i t h low a s p i r a t i o n s may not g i v e  h e r s e l f t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c h i e v e , o r she may even a v o i d achievement. The f i e l d  of management i s one f i e l d i n which i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r  women t o a c h i e v e e q u i t y , f i n a n c i a l and o t h e r w i s e , w i t h men and t o advance i n accordance w i t h h i g h a s p i r a t i o n s . managerial  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s a r e h i g h e r i n rank than t h e  m a j o r i t y of o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s p a y i n g (Labour Canada, 1980). guarantee  T h i s i s so because  ( B l i s h e n & McRoberts, 1976) and a r e h i g h e r A l t h o u g h e n t e r i n g t h i s f i e l d does not  c a r e e r advancement and h i g h e r s a l a r y , i t does i n c r e a s e one's  chances f o r t h e same (Bogorya,  1982; M i r o n o w i c z ,  1981; V i n e , 1981).  T h i s s t u d y , then, w i l l focus on women who a r e s e e k i n g c a r e e r s i n management. The number of women p l a n n i n g f o r and e n t e r i n g the f i e l d o f management has i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y over t h e past t e n y e a r s . at  F o r example,  the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, the number of women g r a d u a t i n g  from t h e B a c h e l o r o f Commerce Program has s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d from 10% i n 1974 t o 29% i n 1982.  The f i g u r e s a r e s i m i l a r f o r the Masters i n  B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Program, w i t h the percentage  o f women graduates  r i s i n g from 8% i n 1974 t o 32% i n 1982 ( O f f i c e of I n s t i t u t i o n a l A n a l y s i s and P l a n n i n g , Note 2 ) . The p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n does tend t o i n c r e a s e income and t o decrease  t h e wage gap between t h e e a r n i n g s o f  5  women and men.  However, t h e wage gap i s s t i l l s t r i k i n g l y l a r g e even a t  h i g h e r l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n .  F o r example, women w i t h a u n i v e r s i t y degree  e a r n , on average, o n l y 55.9% o f what men w i t h t h e same l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n earn (Labour Canada, 1981). H i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n management does i n c r e a s e a woman's e l i g i b i l i t y f o r more p r e s t i g i o u s p o s i t i o n s and her l i k e l i h o o d of success i n t h e b u s i n e s s w o r l d (Bogorya, 1982; M i r o n o w i c z , 1981; V i n e ,  1981).  However, e d u c a t i o n alone does n o t produce f i n a n c i a l p a r i t y , as the above example demonstrates, n o r does i t guarantee  success.  Another v e r y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l a s p i r a t i o n s and achievements  o f women and men a c a d e m i c a l l y and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y i s t h e s e x  r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s which o c c u r s i n our c u l t u r e .  F i t z g e r a l d and  C r i t e s ( 1 9 8 0 ) , i n t h e i r r e c e n t r e v i e w a r t i c l e summarizing  the s t a t e of  the a r t i n the e v o l v i n g c a r e e r p s y c h o l o g y of women, s t a t e d  that:  ...the p o t e n t i a l c a r e e r development o f women, a l t h o u g h not f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t than t h a t of men, i s a great d e a l more complex due t o t h a t c o m b i n a t i o n of a t t i t u d e s ,  role  e x p e c t a t i o n s , b e h a v i o r s , and s a n c t i o n s known as t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n process.  ( p . 45)  Ohlsen (1968) b e l i e v e d t h a t s o c i e t y ' s a m b i v a l e n t a t t i t u d e  toward  women w o r k i n g o u t s i d e o f t h e home has s o c i a l i z e d g i r l s and women t o be more concerned about success i n l o v e , m a r r i a g e , and f a m i l y than w i t h t h e c h o i c e o f and success i n an o c c u p a t i o n . suggested  H i s i n t e r v i e w s w i t h women  t h a t even i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d women o f t e n p r e f e r r e d n o t t o  work o u t s i d e t h e home as t h i s was seen as a t h r e a t t o success as a homemaker.  6  Horner's of  (1970, 1972) work on f e a r o f success i s another example  t h i s l i n e of thought.  achievement  Her h y p o t h e s i s was t h a t women f e a r success i n  c o n t e x t s because such s u c c e s s c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  r o l e and w i l l thus be f o l l o w e d by n e g a t i v e consequences such as p o t e n t i a l a f f i l l a t i v e l o s s , s o c i a l r e j e c t i o n , and a sense o f b e i n g l e s s feminine. Recent e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s (Monahan, Kuhn, & Shaver, 1974; C h e r r y & Deaux, 1978) and c r i t i c i s m s ( G r e e n g l a s s , 1982) of the f e a r o f s u c c e s s h y p o t h e s i s have suggested t h a t f e a r o f s u c c e s s i s n o t j u s t a female phenomenon, but i s a concern shared by both women and men. R a t h e r than v i e w i n g f e a r o f success as a motive i t may i n s t e a d be viewed as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f men's and women's s t e r e o t y p e d r e a c t i o n s t o o t h e r s ( i . e . , women and men) whose b e h a v i o u r s v i o l a t e t r a d i t i o n a l gender r o l e s ( G r e e n g l a s s , 1982).  Fear of success may a f f e c t women's c a r e e r  a s p i r a t i o n s more than those o f men, though, because many more o c c u p a t i o n s a r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y male, and as s t a t e d e a r l i e r ,  traditionally  male o c c u p a t i o n s tend t o be much h i g h e r i n p r e s t i g e and income l e v e l . The phenomenon of home/career c o n f l i c t i s another o c c u r i n g t o p i c i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  frequently  I t has been seen as a c r u c i a l  factor  a f f e c t i n g women's c a r e e r involvement (Farmer, 1971, 1978; Farmer & Bohn, 1970; H a l l , 1975; H a l l & Gordon, 1973; O'Leary, 1974, 1977; S t a k e , 1979b).  Women have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been seen i n the r o l e s o f w i f e ,  mother, and homemaker and, u n t i l r e c e n t l y , they have l i v e d t h e i r p r i m a r i l y i n these r o l e s .  lives  T h e i r i n c r e a s i n g e n t r y i n t o the p a i d l a b o u r  f o r c e has brought w i t h i t t h e need t o r e - t h i n k t r a d i t i o n a l  role  7  d e f i n i t i o n s and t o j u g g l e time and energy demands f o r m u l t i p l e r o l e s . I t f o l l o w s , then, t h a t any comprehensive u n d e r s t a n d i n g c a r e e r involvement  o f women and  r e q u i r e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f how, and t o what e x t e n t ,  r o l e f a c t o r s a r e o p e r a t i n g i n t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e and p l a n n i n g processes. Past and p r e s e n t sex r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s seem t o have c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e lowered  c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s of women. C o n s i d e r a b l e  numbers of b r i g h t women have e i t h e r chosen no c a r e e r s a t a l l o r c a r e e r s f a r below t h e i r l e v e l o f a b i l i t y ( F i t z g e r a l d & C r i t e s , 1980).  This  c o n s i s t e n t u n d e r u t i l i z a t i o n of women i s a g r e a t l o s s of p o t e n t i a l  both  p e r s o n a l l y , f o r i n d i v i d u a l women, and f o r s o c i e t y . I t seems a p p a r e n t ,  t h e n , t h a t t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s must  c o n s i s t e n t l y be c o n f r o n t e d , r a t h e r than cooperated be f r e e d t o make i n f o r m e d  w i t h , i f women a r e t o  c a r e e r c h o i c e s based on a l l t h a t they a r e and  can be ( F i t z g e r a l d & C r i t e s , 1980).  Statement o f t h e P r o b l e m and Purpose o f t h e Study  Even though t h e m a j o r i t y o f women do n o t a c h i e v e h i g h l y i n c a r e e r s , some women do^ a s p i r e t o and do pursue h i g h e r occupations.  level  A q u e s t i o n t h a t a r i s e s here i s , "What i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e  between women who a s p i r e t o h i g h e r l e v e l c a r e e r s , and thus a i m f o r more n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s as women, and those who don't, t h a t i s , those who have more t r a d i t i o n a l p l a n s f o r lower l e v e l c a r e e r s and f o r p l a c i n g  8  p r i m a r y emphasis on home and f a m i l y r o l e s ? " will  h e l p us t o understand  currently  t h i s question  (and perhaps t o a s s i s t ) those women who a r e  underachieving.  Because women's c a r e e r involvement factors  Answering  i s clearly related to role  ( S t a k e , 1979b) and because women's a t t i t u d e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s ,  opportunities,  and a t t a i n m e n t s a r e changing so r a p i d l y , i t was d e c i d e d  t o do a d e s c r i p t i v e and e x p l o r a t o r y study of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r o l e c o n s t r u a l It  and c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s  of h i g h a b i l i t y women.  seemed i m p o r t a n t t o study those women who had t h e p o t e n t i a l t o  achieve h i g h l y .  Women, l i k e men, a r e n o t a homogeneous group - n o t a l l  women have t h e p o t e n t i a l t o r e a c h top l e v e l p o s i t i o n s .  Therefore, the  s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s study were r e c r u i t e d from a p o p u l a t i o n of women who had both t h e a b i l i t y and t h e l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o pursue l e v e l careers i n business.  high  A l l s u b j e c t s were females of s i m i l a r h i g h  academic s t a n d i n g (72% average o r above) and were e i t h e r i n t h e f i n a l year of the B a c h e l o r of Commerce Program o r i n f i r s t Commerce/Law degree) a t the U n i v e r s i t y  year Law (combined  o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  T h i s sample  p r o v i d e d a f a i r l y homogeneous group i n terms of I n t e r e s t , a b i l i t y socioeconomic  s t a t u s , l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n , and w o r k i n g  level,  environment.  The purpose o f t h i s study was t o gather from these h i g h a b i l i t y women i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r p l a n s f o r t h e next f i v e y e a r s o f t h e i r l i v e s - t o examine t h e i r l i f e  role aspirations  ( c a r e e r , home and f a m i l y ,  and p e r s o n a l ) and t o d e s c r i b e how t h e i r r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s seemed t o i n f l u e n c e  t h e i r career a s p i r a t i o n s .  M u l t i p l e r o l e l i f e p l a n n i n g i n v o l v e s examining  and p r i o r i t i z i n g  9  many d i f f e r e n t r o l e a l t e r n a t i v e s and c o m b i n a t i o n s . e n t e r i n t o t h i s d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . examination  Many c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  To f a c i l i t a t e  the simultaneous  o f many r o l e s and many c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of how these women were p l a n n i n g f o r and c o n s t r u i n g r o l e a l t e r n a t i v e s , a v a r i a n t of K e l l y ' s (1955) r e p e r t o r y g r i d was  chosen as the main i n s t r u m e n t  f o r data c o l l e c t i o n .  life  technique  Each s u b j e c t  p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a 12 x 12 r o l e g r i d i n w h i c h 12 l i f e r o l e s were e v a l u a t e d o r r a t e d on a s e t of 12 c o n s t r u c t s ( c o n s i d e r a t i o n s judged t o be i m p o r t a n t  i n f l u e n c i n g f a t o r s i n t h e l i f e r o l e a s p i r a t i o n s of women).  I f d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n had been found d u r i n g d a t a a n a l y s i s , comparisons would have been made between women w i t h h i g h e r c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s and women w i t h lower  career a s p i r a t i o n s .  S u b j e c t s ' s t a t e d c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s were matched w i t h t h e s o c i o e c o n o m i c index f o r o c c u p a t i o n s  i n Canada ( B l i s h e n & McRoberts, 1976).  An  a r b i t r a r y c u t - o f f p o i n t on t h e s c a l e was t o have been used t o d i s t i n g u i s h between h i g h e r and lower  career a s p i r a t i o n s . Results f o r  the two groups ( h i g h e r a s p i r i n g vs lower a s p i r i n g ) would have been compared t o determine i f t h e r e was a n y t h i n g about t h e i r  role  p e r c e p t i o n s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , and c o n s t r u a l t h a t made a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r career a s p i r a t i o n s . When t h e data were a n a l y z e d  i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s  were a v e r y homogeneous group i n terms o f c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s - they were a l l r e l a t i v e l y h i g h a s p i r i n g and were p l a n n i n g f o r c a r e e r s commensurate w i t h t h e i r l e v e l of education.  T h i s i n i t s e l f was a f a i r l y  significant  f i n d i n g , as these women d i f f e r e d from p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s (see t h e  10  comments of Ohlsen  (1968) and F i t z g e r a l d & C r i t e s (1980) i n r e g a r d t o  b r i g h t and even g i f t e d women c h o o s i n g c a r e e r s w e l l below t h e i r l e v e l o f a b i l i t y ) . The study changed, t h e r e f o r e , from a comparative one t o a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s of h i g h - a s p i r a t i o n women.  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms  The most i m p o r t a n t terms used i n t h i s study have been g i v e n the following operational definitions: 1.  H i g h a b i l i t y women are d e f i n e d as women i n f o u r t h y e a r  Commerce or f i r s t year Law who  had, i n t h e i r p r e v i o u s year of s t u d i e s  ( i . e . , t h e i r t h i r d y e a r i n the B a c h e l o r of Commerce Program a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia) a c h i e v e d a 72% or b e t t e r average. or b e t t e r average was  A  72%  chosen because i n o r d e r t o q u a l i f y f o r graduate  s c h o o l i n Commerce, a p p l i c a n t s must have o b t a i n e d a 72% or b e t t e r average i n t h e i r f i n a l two y e a r s as u n d e r g r a d u a t e s . used i n the study was  t h a t of graduate s t u d e n t .  One  o f the r o l e s  T h e r e f o r e , i t was  n e c e s s a r y t h a t a l l those p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study have the minimum necessary p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r t h i s 2.  role.  L i f e r o l e s have been d i s c u s s e d by H a l l and H a l l (1979) i n  terms of t h r e e main areas of a c t i v i t y : f a m i l y r o l e s , and p e r s o n a l r o l e s . examples:  work or c a r e e r r o l e s , home and  They p r o v i d e d a l i s t of such r o l e s as  p a r e n t , manager, p a r t n e r , n e i g h b o u r , daughter,  sister,  f r i e n d , community member, s e l f (a p e r s o n ) , church member, and a u t h o r . In the p r e s e n t study s u b j e c t s rank o r d e r e d and r a t e d s i x s t a n d a r d r o l e s  11  (daughter, and  f r i e n d , homemaker, mother, p a r t n e r / w i f e , and s i n g l e person)  s i x p e r s o n a l examples of the f o l l o w i n g r o l e t i t l e s or d e s c r i p t i o n s :  community m e m b e r / c i t i z e n , graduate s t u d e n t , p e r s o n a l w e l l - b e i n g enjoyment, p r o f e s s i o n of h i g h e s t a s p i r a t i o n , p r o f e s s i o n of  and  lowest  a s p i r a t i o n , and expected p r o f e s s i o n . 3.  L i f e r o l e a s p i r a t i o n s were determined by a s k i n g s u b j e c t s t o  p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r f i v e - y e a r p l a n s f o r s t u d e n t , p r o f e s s i o n a l , and f a m i l y r o l e s . the l i f e they'd  In a d d i t i o n they were asked to complete  r o l e g r i d w h i l e i m a g i n i n g t h e i r l i v e s (who  be, what they'd  be, and who  they'd  be, where  they'd be doing i t w i t h ) d u r i n g  subsequent f i v e year p e r i o d of t h e i r l i v e s ( i . e . , the p e r i o d from 1983  to May 4.  the May  1988). C o n s t r u c t s were the elements or v a l u e s upon w h i c h the  r o l e s were judged or r a t e d .  The  c o n s t r u c t s used i n t h i s study  life  included:  o p p o r t u n i t y t o meet needs f o r achievement, a f f i l i a t i o n , and power, enjoyment, amount of support  and encouragement from spouse, f r i e n d s ,  c o l l e a g u e s , p a r e n t s , and o t h e r f a m i l y members, presence of a r o l e model, s e l f - e s t i m a t e of competence and  s u c c e s s , and degree of commitment or  investment. 5.  The  l i f e r o l e g r i d i s a r e p e r t o r y g r i d i n which a set of  l i f e r o l e s are r a t e d on a s e t of 12 c o n s t r u c t s . technique others  was  primary  f i r s t d e s c r i b e d by K e l l y (1955) and  ( e . g . B a n n i s t e r & M a i r , 1968;  This technique  The  S l a t e r , 1976;  i s e s s e n t i a l l y a s o r t i n g and  12  repertory grid  f u r t h e r developed  by  Cochran, Note 3 ) .  r a t i n g t a s k which produces  data i n m a t r i x form ( B a n n i s t e r & M a i r , 1968).  The  grid  12  facilitated  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s u b j e c t s '  o v e r a l l construing  of  life  roles.  R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s and  Rationale  A coherent t h e o r y e n a b l i n g the p r e d i c t i o n of women's c a r e e r b e h a v i o u r i s not  possible  of women i n our  society  at t h i s time due  ( F i t z g e r a l d & C r i t e s , 1980).  achievement, a f f i l i a t i o n , and m o t i v e s ) , Denmark, T a n g r i , Following  to the r a p i d l y changing r o l e In regard  to  power ( t h e t h r e e most c e n t r a l human  and McCandless (1978) s a i d :  the r e v i e w of the t h r e e most c e n t r a l motives i n  human p e r s o n a l i t y ,  as they appear i n women, i t i s much  e a s i e r to c r i t i q u e the m a t e r i a l synthesis. difficult  The  than to e f f e c t a  f i e l d i s q u i t e c h a o t i c , and  to d e r i v e  solid  i t is  c o n c l u s i o n s about any  m o t i v e s i n women, l e t a l o n e use  of  these  them as b u i l d i n g b l o c k s  f o r a t h e o r e t i c a l framework of the r e l a t i o n s h i p among them.  (p.  445)  Although c e r t a i n predictions r e l a t i o n s h i p s of some c o n s t r u c t s rank achievement h i g h and p r o f e s i o n a l and  the  to l i f e r o l e p l a n n i n g ( e . g . , women  p e r c e i v e themselves as competent i n  graduate s t u d e n t r o l e s are more l i k e l y to a s p i r e  these r o l e s than those who construing  c o u l d have been made about  don't), predictions  were more d i f f i c u l t , and  about the  perhaps i m p o s s i b l e .  to  overall Therefore,  who  13  r a t h e r than a t t e m p t i n g t o t e s t s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s e s , the p r e s e n t  research  a d d r e s s e d s e v e r a l d e s c r i p t i v e and e x p l o r a t o r y q u e s t i o n s aimed a t e l i c i t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e o v e r a l l c o n s t r u i n g o f l i f e  role  a l t e r n a t i v e s i n terms of s p e c i f i c c o n s t r u c t s . The  four research questions  1.  R o l e Importance.  i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s study were:  How does t h i s group of women rank  l i f e r o l e s i n terms o f p e r s o n a l 2.  C o n s t r u c t Importance.  importance?  How does t h i s group o f women rank  o r d e r c o n s t r u c t s i n terms o f p e r s o n a l 3.  order  importance?  I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s Between C o n s t r u c t s .  F o r t h i s group, how  are c o n s t r u c t s r e l a t e d on average? 4.  Conflict. (a)  Overall Conflict. for  What i s t h e o v e r a l l l e v e l o f c o n f l i c t  t h i s group, i . e . , t o what e x t e n t a r e c o n s t r u c t  r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n harmony o r i n c o n f l i c t ? (b)  C o n f l i c t Between C o n s t r u c t s .  F o r t h i s group, do any o f  the c o n s t r u c t s c o n f l i c t w i t h each o t h e r i n t h e o v e r a l l c o n s t r u i n g of l i f e r o l e a l t e r n a t i v e s ? (c)  C o n f l i c t Between R o l e s . which r o l e s i s c o n f l i c t  As judged by t h e r o l e sums, f o r indicated?  D e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e Study  The  s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s study were a s e l e c t group o f h i g h  women w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r age range.  ability  A l l s u b j e c t s were women o f h i g h  14  academic s t a n d i n g ( i . e . , 72% o r above average i n t h e i r t h i r d year o f t h e B a c h e l o r o f Commerce Program).  A l l but t h r e e of the s u b j e c t s were  e n r o l l e d i n t h e f o u r t h and f i n a l year o f t h e B a c h e l o r o f Commerce Program a t t h e time of the study.  The r e m a i n i n g t h r e e s u b j e c t s were i n  f i r s t y e a r Law (combined Commerce/Law O p t i o n ) .  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e  s u b j e c t s were s i n g l e (26 of the 29 s u b j e c t s ) , were between t h e ages o f 21 and 23, and had no c h i l d r e n a t t h e time o f the s t u d y .  The r e s u l t s ,  t h e n , a r e g e n e r a l i z a b l e o n l y t o v e r y s i m i l a r groups of h i g h a b i l i t y women.  J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e Study  I n t e r e s t i n the c a r e e r psychology women, i . e . , c a r e e r development and c h o i c e and f a c t o r s which i n h i b i t and enhance these proceses i n women, has exploded over the past s e v e r a l years and the r e s u l t i n g e x p a n s i o n o f t h e body o f t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h has begun t o f i l l  t h e many  gaps i n our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of women's o c c u p a t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t ( F i t z g e r a l d & C r i t e s , 1980).  The gaps have o n l y j u s t begun t o be f i l l e d  though, and i n t h i s time of r a p i d s o c i a l change i t i s i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t t o m o n i t o r t r e n d s i n women's c a r e e r c h o i c e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , p r e f e r e n c e s , and a s p i r a t i o n s . up-to-date  Career c o u n s e l l o r s of women must  remain  i n t h e i r own a t t i t u d e s and knowledge i f they a r e t o p r o v i d e  u s e f u l s e r v i c e s t o t h e i r female  clients.  The m a j o r i t y o f work t h a t has been done on women and c a r e e r  15  development has t r e a t e d a l l women as i f they were t h e same, i . e . , had the same o p p o r t u n i t i e s and a b i l i t i e s .  T h i s study takes i n t o account t h e  f a c t t h a t women a r e n o t a homogeneous group - t h a t f a c t o r s such as past achievement, f i e l d and l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n , and everyday w o r k i n g / l i v i n g environment s t r o n g l y a f f e c t women's c h o i c e s .  These f a c t o r s do, i n  r e a l i t y , a f f e c t what i s r e a s o n a b l e t o hope f o r and thus t o p l a n f o r , i n terms o f a c a r e e r .  F o r example, i f a woman does n o t have t h e a b i l i t y  ( e . g . , i n t e l l i g e n c e ) t o pursue a h i g h l e v e l c a r e e r , then i t i s r e a s o n a b l e f o r h e r t o aim f o r a lower l e v e l c a r e e r f o r which she has the prerequisite a b i l i t y .  T h i s study f o c u s e s on h i g h a b i l i t y  women. The  r e s u l t s w i l l be u s e f u l t o e d u c a t o r s and c o u n s e l l o r s o f t a l e n t e d women who  a r e s e e k i n g t o combine m u l t i p l e r o l e s i n a manner which a l l o w s f o r  maximum development o f p o t e n t i a l .  16  CHAPTER I I  Review o f R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e  This review w i l l begin with a d i s c u s s i o n of current theories of c a r e e r development as they p e r t a i n t o women.  F o l l o w i n g t h a t some  s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s b e l i e v e d t o a f f e c t women's c a r e e r i n v o l v e m e n t w i l l be discussed.  T h e o r i e s o f C a r e e r Development  O'Leary (1977) s t a t e d t h a t i n our s o c i e t y "the p r i m a r y r o l e s o f women and men a r e c l e a r l y d e f i n e d : women marry and have c h i l d r e n ; men work" ( p . 119).  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , a woman's p r i m a r y r o l e , t h a t o f  homemaker, has been " o r g a n i z e d  around the n u r t u r a n c e of c h i l d r e n and t h e  support o f t h e e f f o r t s o f the f a m i l y ' s breadwinner" ( Z y t o w s k i , 1969, p. 6 6 1 ) . These r i g i d r o l e d e f i n i t i o n s o f women and men a r e changing as an ever i n c r e a s i n g number of women e n t e r t h e p a i d l a b o u r  force.  These  women must attempt t o s t r i k e a b a l a n c e between f a m i l y and work commitments.  Men, t o o , a r e b e g i n n i n g  t o assume more a c t i v e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e home and f a m i l y sphere.  However, because men were  17  considered  t h e "workers" o f our s o c i e t y and,  working outside  u n t i l r e c e n t l y , they were  the home i n f a r g r e a t e r numbers than women, t h e o r i e s o f  c a r e e r development were developed almost e x c l u s i v e l y on s t u d i e s of men and  t h e i r career  involvement.  E x i s t i n g t h e o r i e s , though male o r i e n t e d , a r e a good s t a r t i n g p o i n t from which t o embark on a s e a r c h c a r e e r development o f women.  f o r v a r i a b l e s relevant to the  As so s u c c i n c t l y s t a t e d by F i t z g e r a l d and  C r i t e s ( 1 9 8 0 ) , " I t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s , regardless  o f sex, share t h e b a s i c human need f o r s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t  through m e a n i n g f u l work" ( p . 46).  They p r e f a c e  t h e i r remarks, though,  w i t h t h e s t a t e d assumption t h a t women's p o t e n t i a l c a r e e r  development  a l t h o u g h n o t f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t than the c a r e e r development of men, i s considerably  more complex due t o t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s and t h e  role expectations, to i t .  a t t i t u d e s , s a n c t i o n s , and b e h a v i o u r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e  The p r e s e n t a u t h o r concurs w i t h t h i s assumption. A quick  l o o k a t some t h e o r i e s of o c c u p a t i o n a l  c h o i c e , f o l l o w e d by  a d i s c u s s i o n o f some o f t h e s p e c i a l i s s u e s o f concern t o women and t h e i r c a r e e r development f o l l o w s . Super (1963b) p o s t u l a t e d  t h a t , i n a d o l e s c e n c e and e a r l y  a d u l t h o o d , t h e r e a r e two major stages i n v o c a t i o n a l development e x p l o r a t i o n and e s t a b l i s h m e n t . stages a r e :  (1) c r y s t a l l i z i n g a v o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e ,  t h i s preference, vocation,  The d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s w i t h i n these  (3) implementing i t ,  (2) s p e c i f y i n g  (4) s t a b i l i z i n g w i t h i n t h i s  (5) c o n s o l i d a t i n g s t a t u s w i t h i n the chosen f i e l d , and ( 6 )  advancing i n t h i s vocation.  S t r o n g l y i n t e r - w o v e n i n t o Super's t h e o r y i s  18  the i d e a t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l implements h i s o r h e r s e l f concept  through  the c h o i c e of an o c c u p a t i o n . Osipow (1975) suggested  t h a t t h e stages and t a s k s d e s c r i b e d by  Super (1963b) may n o t a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e women's c a r e e r development. Adolescent  females may conduct o n l y p s e u d o - e x p l o r a t i o n  p l a n s , and may then d e l a y e s t a b l i s h m e n t  pending  marriage  and maintenance o f a c a r e e r  u n t i l a f t e r c h i l d r e a r i n g has e s s e n t i a l l y been completed.  Inaddition,  F i t z g e r a l d and C r i t e s (1980) p o i n t e d out the f a c t t h a t , f o r women, t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f a s e l f concept through t h e c h o i c e of an o c c u p a t i o n may be extremely  d i f f i c u l t due t o the apparent incongruence  between the r o l e s  o f worker and w i f e / m o t h e r . These b e h a v i o u r s  and a t t i t u d e s , c r e a t e d and r e i n f o r c e d by t h e  s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s , have d i r e c t consequences f o r women's c a r e e r achievement. attainment  S t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s  o f men and women.  Rosenfeld  (1979) v e r y a p t l y summarized  these d i f f e r e n c e s : When one c o n s i d e r s an o c c u p a t i o n a l c a r e e r , one p r o b a b l y t h i n k s of a sequence such as the f o l l o w i n g : a p e r s o n l e a v e s s c h o o l and advances r a p i d l y through a number o f r e l a t e d but s u c c e s s i v e l y b e t t e r j o b s u n t i l he reaches t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l j o b f o r which h i s e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g , and experience  q u a l i f y him.  A d d i t i o n a l education,  training,  e x p e r i e n c e , and s e n i o r i t y may a l l o w advancement l a t e r i n h i s c a r e e r , but h i s most r a p i d advancement w i l l early.  The male pronoun i s used i n t e n t i o n a l l y .  occur A general  19  a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t men have c a r e e r s .  Women may work  o u t s i d e the home a t times - common wisdom goes - but women do n o t r e a l l y have c a r e e r s s i n c e they a r e o c c u p i e d  by and  committed t o t h e i r r o l e w i t h i n t h e home, as i s perhaps i n d i c a t e d by t h e d i s c o n t i n u i t y o f women's employment, (p. 283-284) She went on t o s a y t h a t "women, i n c o n t r a s t w i t h men, have a f l a t l i n e , o r even one going  career  s l i g h t l y down w i t h years s i n c e l e a v i n g s c h o o l "  (p. 2 8 8 ) . Super (1957) made one of the e a r l i e r attempts t o i n c l u d e women i n his  theory b u i l d i n g .  H i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f women's c a r e e r  patterns  i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n s : (1) s t a b l e homemaking, ( 2 ) conventional,  (3) s t a b l e w o r k i n g c a r e e r p a t t e r n , ( 4 ) d o u b l e - t r a c k , ( 5 )  i n t e r r u p t e d , (6) u n s t a b l e pattern.  c a r e e r p a t t e r n , and (7) m u l t i p l e - t r i a l  career  E s s e n t i a l l y , he d e s c r i b e d t h e p a t t e r n s o f women's c a r e e r s a t  the time but d i d not i d e n t i f y o r even d i s c u s s t h e p o t e n t i a l v a l u e of e l u c i d a t i n g separate All  v a r i a b l e s r e l e v a n t t o women's c a r e e r development.  but two of h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e d i s c u s s i o n s of f u l l - t i m e homemaking  and/or v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s o f homemaking and w o r k i n g o u t s i d e t h e home. The  s t a b l e w o r k i n g c a r e e r p a t t e r n and the m u l t i p l e - t r i a l p a t t e r n a r e t h e  o n l y two p a t t e r n s w h i c h do not i n c l u d e t h e homemaking theme. c l a s s i f i e d under t h e m u l t i p l e t r i a l  Women  p a t t e r n work i n a s u c c e s s i o n o f  u n r e l a t e d j o b s and thus never do d e v e l o p a l i f e work.  I n describing the  s t a b l e p a t t e r n , Super s t a t e d t h a t a s m a l l percentage of women have strong career  ( r a t h e r than homemaking) i n t e r e s t and m o t i v a t i o n , and i t  20  i s these women who do develop a f u l l - t i m e l i f e c a r e e r . a l r e a d y seems o b s o l e t e , i n l i g h t of women's p r e s e n t participation rates.  This d e s c r i p t i o n  labour  force  I n Canada, t h e number o f women i n t h e l a b o u r  force  i n c r e a s e d 61.6% i n t h e 10 year p e r i o d from 1969 t o 1979. I n 1979, 48.9% o f t h e women i n Canada were i n t h e p a i d l a b o u r f o r c e . women r e p r e s e n t e d  At t h i s  time,  39.3% of the t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e i n Canada (Labour  Canada, 1980). Two t h e o r i s t s ( P s a t h a s , construct separate  1968; Z y t o w s k i ,  1969) attempted t o  t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r c h o i c e f o r females.  Both  t h e o r i s t s s t r o n g l y emphasized the c e n t r a l i t y of t h e homemaker r o l e i n the l i v e s o f women. P s a t h a s (1968) p r e s e n t e d females'  occupational choice.  a number of f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e The most c e n t r a l o f these f a c t o r s  i n c l u d e d i n t e n t i o n t o marry, time of m a r r i a g e , toward h i s w i f e w o r k i n g . mediated by sex r o l e .  The e f f e c t s o f these f a c t o r s , he b e l i e v e d , a r e  Therefore,  must b e g i n w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n occupational  and husband's a t t i t u d e  the u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of these f a c t o r s  o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between sex r o l e and  role.  Zytowski  (1969) n o t e d t h e c u r r e n t changing r o l e o f women, and  ended h i s a r t i c l e w i t h "the hope t h a t a l t e r e d s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n (would) u l t i m a t e l y r e s u l t i n o b s o l e s c e n c e " (p. 664) of h i s n i n e p o s t u l a t e s c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the p a t t e r n s of women's occupational p a r t i c i p a t i o n . terms about women.  However, he h i m s e l f spoke i n f a i r l y  static  His o r d i n a l scale for occupational p a r t i c i p a t i o n of  women i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n s : ( 1 ) m i l d v o c a t i o n a l p a t t e r n ( v e r y  21  e a r l y or l a t e entry t o the workforce, "feminine"  f o r a b r i e f period of time, i n a  o c c u p a t i o n , e.g., stewardess,  nurse);  (2) moderate v o c a t i o n a l  p a t t e r n ( l o n g e r time span i n t h e work f o r c e and/or employment i n a l e s s " f e m i n i n e " o c c u a t i o n ) ; and (3) u n u s u a l ( e a r l y e n t r y i n t o t h e w o r k f o r c e for  a l e n g t h y o r u n i n t e r r u p t e d time span, i n a n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l  occupation  f o r a woman).  H i s use of the term u n u s u a l t o d e s c r i b e a  p a t t e r n t h a t , f o r a man, would most l i k e l y be l a b e l l e d " t y p i c a l "  casts  such women i n a d e v i a n t r o l e and i s a t best l i m i t i n g i n i t s scope. Terminology more enhancing t o women's a b i l i t i e s would use words such as "full",  "abundant", or " i n t e n s e " and would thus d e s c r i b e t h i s p a t t e r n i n  p o s i t i v e r a t h e r than i n n e g a t i v e o r d e v i a n t Zytowski  terms.  (1969) went on t o c i t e e v i d e n c e t h a t the " u n u s u a l "  p a t t e r n s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e seemingly caused by e x t r a o r d i n a r y , i . e . , t r a u m a t i c , events i n c h i l d h o o d .  The f a r t h e r away from the c u l t u r a l  s t e r e o t y p e t h e woman's o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e i s , t h e more l i k e l y i t i s t h a t she has e x p e r i e n c e d t h i s choice.  p a r t i c u l a r p r e s s u r e s which p r e d i s p o s e  her t o  F o r example, a female may d e c i d e t o become an engineer i n  an attempt t o r e p l a c e a l o s t f a t h e r .  Zytowski  thus d e s c r i b e d women  a c t i v e l y commited t o n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s i n terms i n d i c a t i v e o f pathology.  He d i d not once suggest t h a t a woman's p r e f e r e n c e  f o r such a  c a r e e r might be a p o s i t i v e c h o i c e o f a f u l f i l l i n g c a r e e r t h a t i s v e r y much an e x p r e s s i o n of h e r s e l f concept and a b i l i t i e s . These, t h e n , a r e some o f t h e attempts a t f o r m u l a t i n g a t h e o r y o f c a r e e r development f o r women.  They, and o t h e r c u r r e n t t h e o r i e s o f  c a r e e r c h o i c e , a r e inadequate i n e x p l a i n i n g women's v o c a t i o n a l  behaviour  22  ( F a l k & Cosby, 1978; inadequate (1)  F i t z g e r a l d & C r i t e s , 1980).  f o r a number of  t h e o r i e s are  reasons:  They e x p l a i n age c o h o r t p a t t e r n s as g e n e r a l t r e n d s , r a t h e r  than as outcomes of a p a r t i c u l a r time and (2)  Current  place.  They f a i l t o r e c o g n i z e the s o c i a l , h i s t o r i c a l ,  and  i d e o l o g i c a l f o r c e s i m p i n g i n g on these p a t t e r n s . (3)  They appear t o have i m p l i c i t u n s t a t e d b i a s e s toward an  i d e a l i z e d and r e s t r i c t e d view of women as mothers. (4)  They f a i l t o r e c o g n i z e s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s of p r e j u d i c e and  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n which have l i m i t e d women's c a r e e r c h o i c e s . F a l k and Cosby (1978), upon r e v i e w i n g the major c u r r e n t t h e o r i e s of c a r e e r c h o i c e developed  p r i m a r i l y on men,  c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d some of  the i s s u e s unique t o females w h i c h r e s u l t i n the d i s p a r i t y of  their  c a r e e r development: (1)  The  female a t the e a r l i e s t stage of development i s s o c i a l i z e d  p r i m a r i l y by another  female, u s u a l l y her mother who  often holds  t r a d i t i o n a l views of what c o n s t i t u t e s a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n a l and occupational (2)  attainment.  S o c i e t y tends t o sex-type  p r e s s u r e s e x i s t to express  occupations  i n a manner such t h a t  f e m i n i n i t y to the c h o i c e of c e r t a i n  o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h are r e s t r i c t e d both i n range and s t a t u s as compared to the o p t i o n s open to males. (3)  D u r i n g the a d o l e s c e n t y e a r s the female may  experience  s e r i o u s a t t i t u d i n a l c o n f l i c t between n o t i o n s of success terms of e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t and marriage  and motherhood on the o t h e r .  a  defined i n  on the one  hand  23  (4)  I n f l u e n c e f o r attainment from o t h e r s i n c l u d i n g p a r e n t s ,  t e a c h e r s , p e e r s , husbands, o f t e n tends t o encourage of  and p o s s i b l y  the husband's  marriage-motherhood  r o l e s a t t h e expense  f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t s ,  As p r e v i o u s l y  employer  ( p . 133)  stated, a coherent theory of career choice  e n a b l i n g t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f c a r e e r b e h a v i o u r i n women h a s n o t y e t b e e n developed.  However, s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s w h i c h a f f e c t  the career  development  a n d c h o i c e p r o c e s s e s o f women h a v e b e e n i d e n t i f i e d  i n the  e x p a n d i n g b o d y o f t h e o r y a n d r e s e a r c h o n women's c a r e e r i n v o l v e m e n t (Fitzgerald & Crites,  1980).  Along with concepts presented i n e x i s t i n g  theories, these variables provide useful  c o n s t r u c t s w h i c h may s e r v e a s  g u i d e s i n c u r r e n t e x a m i n a t i o n s o f women's c a r e e r i n v o l v e m e n t . variables 1978;  include role  Farmer  Gilbert,  conflict  & B o h n , 1970; H a l l ,  1979a,  1979b; O ' L e a r y ,  encouragement/discouragement Stake,  1981), i n c l u d i n g  o r home/career  conflict  1975; H a l l & G o r d o n , 1974, 1977; S t a k e ,  from s i g n i f i c a n t  l e v e l o f spouse  (Farmer, 1971,  1973; H o l a h a n  of  S t a k e , 1981);  self-esteem (Astin,  o t h e r s ( F a r m e r , 1978;  support (Gordon  & H a l l , 1974;  1978), i n c l u d i n g  (O'Leary,  self-estimate  competence ( S t a k e , 1979a;1979b) and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p e r s o n a l e f f i c a c y  ( B e t z & H a c k e t t , 1981; H a c k e t t & B e t z , 1981); achievement (Marshall & Wijting, motivation interactive for  &  1979b);  Kundsen, 1974); n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e models 1977;  These  (Farmer, effects  affiliation  1980), i n c l u d i n g 1978; F i t z g e r a l d o f need  inhibited & Crites,  f o r achievement,  achievement  and c a r e e r  1980); i n d i v i d u a l and  need  (Denmark, T a n g r i , & M c C a n d l e s s ,  motivation  f o r power, and need  1978), which i n c l u d e s i n  24  p a r t the concept o f f e a r o f success (Horner, 1970, 1972); sex r o l e concept  (O'Leary, 1977; Ory & H e l f r i c h ,  self  1978; M a r s h a l l & W i j t i n g , 1980;  Y a n i c o & H a r d i n , 1981); p e r c e i v e d c o m p a t i b i l i t y between f e m i n i t y and competence  (O'Leary, 1974; Dewey, 1977; Laws, 1978); and degree of  commitment t o c a r e e r (Hennig & J a r d i m , 1977).  These v a r i a b l e s a r e  d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l i n the s e c t i o n s which f o l l o w .  V a r i a b l e s A f f e c t i n g t h e C a r e e r Development  Achievement  o f Women  Motivation  An examination of the l i t e r a t u r e on achievement reveals a theoretically  motivation  c o n s i s t e n t body o f data which a l l o w s p r e d i c t i o n s  of achievement behaviour as a f u n c t i o n of the s t r e n g t h of achievement motive i n men.  However, t h e achievement d a t a f o r women a r e s p a r s e ,  i n c o n s i s t e n t , and c o n t r a d i c t o r y compared  with the data f o r men (Denmark,  T a n g r i , & McCandless, 1978; F i t z g e r a l d & C r i t e s , O'Leary,  1974; S t e i n & B a i l e y ,  summarized  1973).  1980; G r e e n g l a s s , 1982;  S t e i n and B a i l e y  (1973)  the work o f M c C l e l l a n d e t a l . (1953) who i n i t i a l l y  the most w e l l known theory of achievement m o t i v a t i o n . achievement m o t i v a t i o n as a f a i r l y  proposed  McClelland  viewed  s t a b l e motive t o be competent, t o  s t r i v e f o r success i n any s i t u a t i o n i n which there a r e standards o f excellence.  Support f o r t h i s concept i s found q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t l y i n  s t u d i e s of men but not i n s t u d i e s of women.  25  One and by  theory  p u t f o r t h f o r t h e i n c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s b e t w e e n women  men i s t h a t w h i l e  men's a c h i e v e m e n t b e h a v i o u r i s m o t i v a t e d p r i m a r i l y  a c h i e v e m e n t n e e d s , women's a c h i e v e m e n t b e h a v i o u r i s m o t i v a t e d b y  affiliative basic  needs.  The l i t e r a t u r e  contains  s e v e r a l v a r i a t i o n s on t h i s  theme. Hoffman (1972) t h e o r i z e d  strivings  that while  and by a d e s i r e t o a c h i e v e a s t a n d a r d  m o t i v a t e d p r i m a r i l y by a d e s i r e claimed  that  patterns  men a r e m o t i v a t e d by m a s t e r y  the roots  for love  o f e x c e l l e n c e , women a r e  and s o c i a l  approval.  o f t h i s phenomenon a r e i n c u r r e n t  i n which g i r l s ,  as compared t o b o y s , r e c e i v e  Hoffman  childrearing  less  parental  e n c o u r a g e m e n t f o r i n d e p e n d e n c e , more p a r e n t a l p r o t e c t i v e n e s s , pressure  t o e s t a b l i s h an i d e n t i t y  therefore,  separate from the mother.  engage i n l e s s i n d e p e n d e n t e x p l o r a t i o n s  and  h e n c e do n o t d e v e l o p t h e n e c e s s a r y  own  abilities.  get  what t h e y n e e d by p l e a s i n g  They i n s t e a d  S t e i n and B a i l e y Hoffman's n o t i o n instead  social  has  been d e f i n e d Yet  orientation  o f the environment  and c o n f i d e n c e  i n their and t o  others.  ( 1 9 7 3 ) f o u n d no e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t  t h a t women do i n d e e d s t r i v e  the  Girls,  t o be d e p e n d e n t o n o t h e r s  t h a t women w o r k f o r s o c i a l  t o do s o i n t h e s o c i a l  satisfy  continue  skills  and l e s s  arena.  sphere without  Their  threat  as a p p r o p r i a t e  another explanation  approval.  for excellence,  They  but that  argued they  choose  n e e d s f o r a c h i e v e m e n t may be met i n  of a f f i l i a t i v e  l o s s because t h i s  sphere  f o r women. i s that  of v i c a r i o u s  achievement  ( L i p m a n - B l u m e n & L e a v i t t , 1 9 7 6 ) i n w h i c h a p e r s o n may  achievement needs t h r o u g h a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  a significant  26  o t h e r who i s d i r e c t l y a c h i e v i n g .  An example o f t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n i s  p r o v i d e d by T a n g r i ' s (1975) study of T r a d i t i o n a l s and I n n o v a t o r s . T r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t s i n h e r s t u d y seemed t o have p r o j e c t e d achievement needs onto t h e i r f u t u r e  their  husbands.  H o r n e r ' s (1970, 1972) work on t h e m o t i v e t o a v o i d s u c c e s s o f f e r s another p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n .  To account f o r the f a c t t h a t t h e r e  appeared t o be some d i f f e r e n c e s between women's and men's b e h a v i o u r i n achievement  c o n t e x t s she h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t women f e a r success because  they expect t h a t success i n achievement s i t u a t i o n s , i . e . , i n spheres o t h e r than home and f a m i l y , w i l l  r e s u l t i n n e g a t i v e consequences,  as s o c i a l r e j e c t i o n and t h e f e e l i n g o f l o s i n g one's f e m i n i n i t y .  such Horner  (1972) used a p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e i n w h i c h s u b j e c t s were asked t o w r i t e s t o r i e s i n response t o v e r b a l cues. to the cue, " A f t e r f i r s t  term f i n a l s , Anne f i n d s h e r s e l f a t the top of  her m e d i c a l s c h o o l c l a s s . " first  The females i n t h i s study responded  The cue f o r t h e male s u b j e c t s was, " A f t e r  term f i n a l s , John f i n d s h i m s e l f a t t h e top of h i s m e d i c a l s c h o o l  class."  She found t h a t 65% o f t h e women responded w i t h s t o r i e s h i g h i n  f e a r of success Imagery, compared w i t h fewer than 10% of the men. H o r n e r ' s o r i g i n a l work was f o l l o w e d by b o t h a m u l t i t u d e o f s t u d i e s on f e a r of success and by many arguments  about h e r methodology  and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ( C h e r r y & Deaux, 1978; E s p o s i t o , 1977; F e a t h e r , 1974; I l l f e l d e r , 1980; Lockheed, 1975; Monahan, Kuhn, & Shaver, 1974; Robbins & R o b b i n s , 1973; S t a k e , 1976; T o p o l & R e z n i k o f f , 1979; Tresemer, 1976; Zuckerman & Wheeler, 1975).  Two of these s t u d i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r  have p r o v i d e d s t r o n g e v i d e n c e t h a t f e a r o f s u c c e s s i s n o t a m o t i v e , but  27  is  i n s t e a d a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of people's s t e r e o t y p e d r e a c t i o n s to women,  and to men The  too, who first  achieve i n a g e n d e r - i n a p p r o p r i a t e s e t t i n g .  study, conducted by Monahan, Kuhn, and Shaver  used a p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s i m i l a r t o Horner's.  (1974)  However, i n t h e i r  study, both males and females were asked to t e l l s t o r i e s about both Anne and John.  When t a l k i n g about Anne, the men  t o l d even more s t o r i e s  i n d i c a t i n g f e a r o f success (68%) than d i d the women ( 5 1 % ) .  Stories  about John c o n t a i n e d l e s s f e a r of success imagery, w i t h 21% of the and 30% of the women i n d i c a t i n g n e g a t i v e consequences r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that f e a r of success may  be r e f l e c t i n g  s t e r o t y p e s about a woman's success i n a t r a d i t i o n a l l y i.e.,  f o r John.  men  These  cultural  "male" c a r e e r ,  medicine. C h e r r y and Deaux (1978) extended  t h i s i d e a one  step f u r t h e r .  If  g e n d e r - i n a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour i s the key f o r t r i g g e r i n g f e a r of s u c c e s s imagery,  then the same s h o u l d occur when a man  gender-inappropriate f i e l d . hypothesis.  The  i s successful i n a  r e s u l t s of t h e i r  They found that both men  and women wrote  f e a r of success imagery when w r i t i n g about a man field  f o r men,  stories  this  containing  i n a non-traditional  i . e . , n u r s i n g , and when w r i t i n g about a woman i n a  non-traditional field The  study supported  f o r women, i . e . , m e d i c i n e .  r e s u l t s o f these l a s t  two  s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e that f e a r of  success i s not j u s t a female phenomenon, but i s a concern shared by b o t h men  and women.  Rather than v i e w i n g f e a r of success as a motive, i t can  perhaps be more a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e d as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of men's and women's s t e r e o t y p e d r e a c t i o n s to o t h e r s whose behaviours v i o l a t e  28  t r a d i t i o n a l gender r o l e s ( G r e e n g l a s s , 1982).  Fear o f success may a f f e c t  women's c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s more, though, because many more o c c u p a t i o n s are t r a d i t i o n a l l y male than a r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y female.  I n a d d i t i o n , as  p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , t r a d i t i o n a l l y male o c c u p a t i o n s tend t o be much h i g h e r i n p r e s t i g e and income l e v e l than t r a d i t i o n a l l y female  occupations.  I n summary, then, the data do i n d i c a t e t h a t some, and perhaps t h e m a j o r i t y o f women do work f o r s o c i a l a p p r o v a l , e x p e r i e n c e achievement v i c a r i o u s l y through o t h e r s , s t r i v e f o r success s o c i a l l y , and " f e a r success" i n gender-inappropriate career r o l e s .  However, t h i s s h o u l d n o t  be i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t women's achievement b e h a v i o u r i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f men o r t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s outweigh  the s i m i l a r i t i e s .  Q u i t e c l e a r l y , both women's and men's  achievement and c a r e e r b e h a v i o u r a r e i n f l u e n c e d by sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n , but the i n h i b i t i o n on a woman's c h o i c e i n v o l v e s a w i d e r and more p o w e r f u l range o f o c c u p a t i o n s ( i . e . , t r a d i t i o n a l l y male o c c u p a t i o n s range from welder t o prime m i n i s t e r ) . Not a l l women a r e u n d e r a c h i e v e r s o c c u p a t i o n a l l y . Some women d i s p l a y a p a t t e r n of achievement behaviour t h a t i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same as t h e t y p i c a l p a t t e r n f o r men.  Female a c h i e v e r s , s t a t e Unger and  Denmark ( 1 9 7 5 ) , "have n o t r e s i g n e d ( t h e m s e l v e s ) t o t h e c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d r o l e o f woman as someone who can e x p e r i e n c e success o n l y v i c a r i o u s l y through h e r husband or some o t h e r male f i g u r e " ( p . 136). For example, i n T a n g r i ' s (1975) s t u d y , a l t h o u g h o n e - t h i r d o f h e r sample were T r a d i t i o n a l s who a c h i e v e d v i c a r i o u s l y , o n e - t h i r d were Role I n n o v a t o r s w i t h f a i r l y h i g h , and n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l , o c c u p a t i o n a l  29  a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e i r own. A l s o , i n H o r n e r ' s (1972) o r i g i n a l work, 35% of  t h e women responded p o s i t i v e l y when w r i t i n g s t o r i e s about a woman i n  a n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d and thus d i d n o t d i s p l a y f e a r o f s u c c e s s . S t u d i e s of women who have a c h i e v e d h i g h l y i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l sphere have shown t h a t some women do d i s p l a y achievement b e h a v i o u r e s s e n t i a l l y the same as the achievement b e h a v i o u r of men (Adams, 1979; Birnbaum, 1975; Hennig & J a r d i m , 1977).  Hennig & J a r d i m (1977) s t u d i e d  t w e n t y - f i v e women s u c c e s s f u l i n t o p management p o s i t i o n s i n i n d u s t r y and business across the United States.  By a d o l e s c e n c e t h e s e women had  c l a r i f i e d and s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e i r s e l f concepts and had s e t f o r themselves i d e a l s o f achievement and independence. the  They had r e j e c t e d  t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e d e f i n i t i o n s of f e m i n i n i t y which t h e i r mothers had  t r i e d t o impose and had i n s t e a d a c c e p t e d f e m i n i n i t y and t r a d i t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r m a r r i a g e and motherhood not  on t h e i r own terms.  They d i d  c o n s i d e r t h e i r f e m i n i n e r o l e t o be i n c o n f l i c t w i t h c a r e e r  aspirations.  They planned t o go t o c o l l e g e and b e g i n a c a r e e r , and t o  marry l a t e r .  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note the time d i f f e r e n t i a l  t h i s s t u d y and Super's (1957) t h e o r y .  between  N e a r l y twenty y e a r s had e l a p s e d .  Sex r o l e i d e o l o g y , p a r t i c u l a r l y about women and work, had changed d r a m a t i c a l l y i n t h a t time and s o , a p p a r e n t l y , had the c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s and achievements o f women. T h i s c o n c l u d e s the s e c t i o n on achievement m o t i v a t i o n and i t s i n f l u e n c e on women's a s p i r a t i o n s .  A s e c t i o n on t h e i n d i v i d u a l and  i n t e r a c t i v e e f f e c t s of need f o r achievement, need f o r a f f i l i a t i o n , and need f o r power f o l l o w s .  30  Achievement, A f f i l i a t i o n ,  and Power  Need f o r achievement, need f o r a f f i l i a t i o n , and need f o r power have been d e s c r i b e d as the t h r e e most c e n t r a l m o t i v a t o r s of human behaviour.  As p r i m a r y m o t i v a t o r s they w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e c a r e e r  b e h a v i o u r o f women i n v a r y i n g ways.  T h e i r e f f e c t depends on t h e l e v e l  of each need and on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s  of a l l t h r e e w i t h each o t h e r , w i t h  o t h e r needs, and w i t h the female's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n a l p r e s s (Denmark, T a n g r i , & McCandless, 1978). In a r e c e n t a r t i c l e , H a r r e l l and S t a h l (1981) d e s c r i b e d the use o f a new method f o r measuring M c C l e l l a n d ' s t r i c h o t o m y o f needs - need for a f f i l i a t i o n (nPow).  ( n A f f ) , need f o r achievement (nAch), and need f o r power  An approach commonly used f o r measurement o f nAch, n A f f , and  nPow l e v e l s i n i n d i v i d u a l s i s the Thematic A p p e r c e p t i o n  Test.  R e c o g n i z i n g v a r i o u s problems w i t h t h i s approach, H a r r e l l and S t a h l proposed a new method f o r measuring these t h r e e needs.  They a p p l i e d a  b e h a v i o u r a l d e c i s i o n t h e o r y m o d e l l i n g approach t o examine how i n d i v i d u a l s weight t h e i r n A f f , nPow, and nAch i n a r r i v i n g at j o b c h o i c e decisions.  An i n s t r u m e n t was developed i n w h i c h each s u b j e c t was  directed: ... t o assume t h a t he o r she was s e e k i n g a new p o s i t i o n and t h a t a number of j o b s were a v a i l a b l e . instructed  The s u b j e c t was  t h a t a l l o f t h e s e j o b s were e s s e n t i a l l y a l i k e  as t o pay, b e n e f i t s ,  l o c a t i o n , and so on and d i f f e r e d o n l y  i n t h e degree t o w h i c h t h r e e key a c t i v i t i e s were  31  involved.  These a c t i v i t i e s were: e s t a b l i s h i n g and  maintaining f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s with other  persons  ( n A f f ) , i n f l u e n c i n g the a c t i v i t i e s or thoughts  of a number  of i n d i v i d u a l s (nPow), and a c c o m p l i s h i n g d i f f i c u l t ( b u t f e a s i b l e ) g o a l s and l a t e r r e c e i v i n g d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n about your p e r s o n a l performance (nAch).  The a c t i v i t i e s  occurred e i t h e r r a r e l y , f a i r l y o f t e n , or very often i n each of the v a r i o u s j o b s .  These t h r e e f a c t o r s served as  the i n f o r m a t i o n cues t h a t were p r o v i d e d t o each s u b j e c t on which t o base h i s or her j o b c h o i c e d e c i s i o n s . wording  The  o f t h e t h r e e cues was d e r i v e d from a r e v i e w o f  M c C l e l l a n d ' s ( e . g . , 1961, 1962, 1975, 1979) d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the t h r e e m o t i v e s ,  ( p . 244)  H a r e l l and S t a h l employed t h i s d e c i s i o n making e x e r c i s e i n g a t h e r i n g e m p i r i c a l d a t a from t h r e e groups o f s u b j e c t s -  graduate  s t u d e n t s , s c i e n t i s t s and e n g i n e e r s , and management e x e c u t i v e s . a few s u b j e c t s i n each group were males. a n a l y s i s t o determine  A l l but  Using m u l t i p l e regression  how each s u b j e c t had weighted  the t h r e e needs i n  coming t o a j o b c h o i c e d e c i s i o n , they found t h a t t h e dominant m o t i v e f o r management'executives was need f o r power, whereas f o r graduate  students  and s c i e n t i s t s and e n g i n e e r s the dominant motive was need f o r achievement. The advantage o f H a r r e l l and S t a h l ' s approach i s t h a t the r e l a t i v e importance  of a l l t h r e e needs can be measured  relatively  q u i c k l y and e a s i l y w h i l e s u b j e c t s perform a c o n c r e t e d e c i s i o n making  32  task.  F o r t h e purpose o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , each o f t h e needs a s  described  above w i l l be employed as c o n s t r u c t s  H a r r e l l and S t a h l ' s w o r d i n g w i l l be m o d i f i e d  i n the l i f e r o l e g r i d .  t o ensure b r e v i t y .  Role C o n f l i c t  The  importance of r o l e f a c t o r s t o women's c a r e e r  i n v o l v e m e n t , and  the p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t t h a t may a r i s e when a woman's b e h a v i o u r c o n t r a d i c t s t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s ,  has a l r e a d y  been n o t e d  e x t e n s i v e l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r e v i o u s pages. T r a d i t i o n a l l y women have been taught t o seek p e r s o n a l  fulfillment  p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h m a r r i a g e and f a m i l y r o l e s , and have done so. however, women a r e more l i k e l y  t o see t h e i r c a r e e r  s i g n i f i c a n t sources o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i f e roles accordingly  Now,  r o l e s as b e i n g  f u l f i l l m e n t and a r e p l a n n i n g  ( G r e e n g l a s s & D e v i n s , 1982).  their  The r e s u l t i s an  i n c r e a s i n g number o f women who hope t o have b o t h a demanding c a r e e r and a f a m i l y (Gray, 1980). The  i n c r e a s i n g e n t r y o f women i n t o the p a i d l a b o u r  f o r c e has  meant, f o r most women, the a d d i t i o n of the r o l e of p r o f e s s i o n a l t o an already  f u l l s l a t e o f more t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s ( i . e . ,  homemaker).  w i f e , mother and  Gray (1980) summarized some of t h e problems and c o n f i c t s  encountered by many women who seek t o combine demanding c a r e e r and family r o l e s : In recent  years,  t h e r e have been numerous s t u d i e s  conducted on the s p e c i a l problems of m a r r i e d p r o f e s s i o n a l  33  women.  A survey o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s a r e a shows t h a t  such women f a c e two d i s t i n c t types of problems: ones and p s y c h o l o g i c a l ones. career  practical  The p r a c t i c a l ones i n v o l v e  r e s t r i c t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from f a c t o r s such as l i m i t e d  t i m e , t h e oft-assumed primacy o f t h e husband's c a r e e r , geographical  l i m i t a t i o n s and, i n the case of the woman  p r o f e s s o r , nepotism r u l e s .  The p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems  i n c l u d e g a i n i n g the e m o t i o n a l support of o t h e r s ,  dealing  w i t h c o n f l i c t i n g s o c i e t a l demands, and r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s t h a t a r i s e between r o l e s , ( p . 4 3 ) . A s p i r i n g t o and b e i n g s u c c e s s f u l i n a demanding c a r e e r  require,  as p r e r e q u i s i t e s o r as concomitant a c t i v i t i e s , t h e r e s o l u t i o n of r o l e c o n f l i c t on a t t i t u d i n a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and p r a c t i c a l Accordingly,  recent  research  levels.  on women's r o l e c o n f l i c t has focussed  on  s t r a t e g i e s f o r , and c o r r e l a t e s o f , c o p i n g w i t h and r e s o l v i n g r o l e conflict  (Amatea & C r o s s ,  1981; Farmer, 1971; Farmer & Bohn, 1970;  Gordon & H a l l , 1974; Gray, 1980, 1983; H a l l , 1972; S t a k e , 1979b; V i l l a d s e n & Tack, 1981).  A c h i e v e m e n t - R e l a t e d Encouragement  As p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d ,  a major f a c t o r i n t h e lowered  a s p i r a t i o n s and achievements i n females i s the s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e behaviour.  Women a r e n o t supposed t o be h i g h  for  34  a c h i e v e r s ; men a r e . s o c i a l pressure  Women, then, a r e t h e r e c i p i e n t s of tremendous  to set t r a d i t i o n a l  goals.  Women who a r e s u c c e s s f u l i n h i g h l e v e l c a r e e r s have most o f t e n r e c e i v e d much support  and encouragement t o c o u n t e r a c t  c u l t u r a l discouragement.  the broader  F o r example, s u c c e s s f u l women i n t o p - l e v e l  management p o s i t i o n s i n b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r y r e p o r t e d much c o n s i s t e n t v a l i d a t i o n and support  from t h e i r f a t h e r s f o r t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l and  p r o f e s s i o n a l p u r s u i t s (Hennig & J a r d i m , C o u n s e l l o r s and e d u c a t o r s counteract  o f women a r e i n a good p o s i t i o n t o  some of the c u l t u r a l p r e s s u r e s  achievement.  a c t i n g a g a i n s t women's  Stake (1981) summarized e m p i r i c a l work done by h e r s e l f and  o t h e r s which demonstrated t h e important educators  1977).  r o l e of c o u n s e l l o r s and  i n enhancing female s t u d e n t s ' g o a l - s e t t i n g .  s t u d i e s she reviewed,  I n each o f t h e  s t u d e n t s ' s e l f - a p p r a i s a l s and g o a l s were a f f e c t e d  by t h r e e i n g r e d i e n t s i n t h e achievement s e t t i n g - a s u p p o r t i v e atmosphere, o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e models, and a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g t o r a i s e performance-self-esteem.  The importance o f a s u p p o r t i v e  atmosphere i s d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r here. According  t o Stake ( 1 9 8 1 ) , f e m a l e s , when p r o v i d e d w i t h p o s i t i v e  i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r a b i l i t y t o succeed, s e t h i g h e r g o a l s f o r themselves.  She suggested t h a t one reason f o r lower a s p i r a t i o n s and  g o a l s i n women i s t h a t they b e l i e v e women have l e s s p o t e n t i a l t o achieve.  Thus, when p r o v i d e d w i t h p o s i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r own  and o t h e r women's p o t e n t i a l t o succeed, they i n c r e a s e t h e i r own e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r performance.  35  Stake and L e v i t z (1979) I n t e r v i e w e d  female and male c o l l e g e  s e n i o r s about t h e i r c a r e e r and f a m i l y g o a l s .  Three groups were  i n t e r v i e w e d - a group o f women who had h i g h c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s (plannned to a t t e n d g r a d u a t e , law, o r m e d i c a l  s c h o o l ) ; and two comparisons groups  - men w i t h c a r e e r g o a l s t h a t matched t h e h i g h a s p i r i n g women, and women who expected t o become f u l l - t i m e horaemakers.  S u b j e c t s were i n t e r v i e w e d  r e g a r d i n g t h e p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e  feedback they had r e c e i v e d from  s i g n i f i c a n t people i n t h e i r l i v e s .  Some d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e s were  e v i d e n t between t h e groups.  The c a r e e r women had r e c e i v e d more  encouragement from a number of s o u r c e s i n c l u d i n g f a m i l y members  (other  than m o t h e r s ) , t e a c h e r s , a d v i s o r s and c o u n s e l l o r s , f r i e n d s , as w e l l as p o s i t i v e feedback i n the form of h i g h e r  grades.  Career men r e p o r t e d  more encouragement from t h e i r mothers than d i d t h e c a r e e r women. I n s p i t e of h a v i n g e x p e r i e n c e d sources, women.  l e s s p o s i t i v e feedback from a number o f  t h e men a s p i r e d t o g o a l s t h a t were j u s t a s h i g h as t h e c a r e e r ( I t may be argued here t h a t t h e support these men r e c e i v e d f r o m  t h e i r mothers was a v e r y p o w e r f u l  form o f encouragement).  Stake  c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h i s p a t t e r n of f i n d i n g s suggests t h a t women r e q u i r e more encouragement from s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s as w e l l as from t h e i r own accomplishments b e f o r e  they w i l l s e t h i g h e r c a r e e r g o a l s .  As t h e  s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n f o r women i s t r a d i t i o n a l g o a l - s e t t i n g , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t c a r e e r women were a b l e t o s e t h i g h e r g o a l s , and thus go a g a i n s t t h e c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n , o n l y when they had r e c e i v e d a d d i t i o n a l positive The  support. r e s u l t s o f Lunneborg's (1982) study o f women i n  36  non-traditional architecture,  careers  (e.g., engineering, n a t u r a l science,  law,business  adminstration)  indicated that the careers of  t h e s e women h a d b e e n f o s t e r e d b y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h a n d s u p p o r t parents,  i n addition to a generally strong supportive  c r e a t e d by t h e encouragement o f s i b l i n g s , p e e r s ,  o f both  environment  t e a c h e r s , and other  adults. These statements  are similar  commented on t h e c r i t i c a l  role  t o those  o f F a r m e r ( 1 9 7 8 ) who  of husbands, p a r e n t s ,  teachers,  c o u n s e l l o r s a n d e m p l o y e r s i n i n f l u e n c i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t a woman outside and  Rapoport and Rapoport  parents tend  t h e home a n d r e a l i z e s h e r f u l l  career p o t e n t i a l .  achieves  Epstein  (1973)  ( 1 9 6 9 ) a l s o f o u n d t h a t when t h e a t t i t u d e s o f  a n d h u s b a n d s a r e s u p p o r t i v e o f women's c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s , women  to continue  i n n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l career  roles.  P e r c e i v e d C o m p a t i b i l i t y Between F e m i n i n i t y and Competence  Farmer  (1978) quoted s t u d i e s w h i c h r e p o r t e d h i g h e r  a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v a t i o n i n women who v i e w e d a c h i e v e m e n t a s  measured compatible  w i t h t h e female s e x r o l e and l o w e r measured achievement m o t i v a t i o n i n h i g h a b i l i t y women who w e r e i n c o n f l i c t discussed  roles.  Laws  (1978)  t h e importance of " c o g n i t i v e f e m i n i z a t i o n " of o c c u p a t i o n s and  behaviours.  She s t a t e d t h a t b e c a u s e a d e q u a t e f e m i n i n i t y a n d  marriageability behaviours  about these  a r e so i m p o r t a n t  t o y o u n g women, t h e y w i l l  i n t e r p r e t e d as sex r o l e  incongruent.  n o t engage i n  Our c u l t u r e s t r e s s e s  37  f e m i n i n i t y a t the expense o f competence and i t appears that women w i l l engage i n c a r e e r - d i r e c t e d behaviours only when they are i n t e r p r e t e d by the woman h e r s e l f as a p p r o p r i a t e  f o r her sex r o l e .  Other authors  (e.g.,  Dewey, 1977; O'Leary, 1974) gave evidence to support s i m i l a r i d e a s .  Role Models  Role models p r o v i d e  l i v i n g examples o f what i s p o s s i b l e and  d e s i r a b l e t o hope f o r , to work toward, and t o a c h i e v e .  One reason f o r  women's l i m i t e d c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s and achievements has been the l a c k o f n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e models.  Women have been p r o v i d e d  with many r o l e  models f o r f a m i l y and home r o l e s but have had l i m i t e d numbers o f female occupational  and academic r o l e models.  O'Leary (1977) and A l m q u i s t and A n g r i s t  (1971) noted the  importance of female n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e models i n r a i s i n g the c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s o f women. s t u d i e s which p o i n t e d  As w e l l , Stake (1981) summarized a number o f t o the importance of female o c c u p a t i o n a l  models i n women's g o a l s e t t i n g .  role  What may be most important f o r women i s  to have as models women who s u c c e s s f u l l y combine d e s i r e d c a r e e r and family roles.  However, the sex o f the model seems l e s s r e l e v a n t when  the woman i s u s i n g (Almquist  the model only as an exemplar of an o c c u p a t i o n a l  role  & A n g r i s t , 1971).  The i s s u e of r o l e models r e l a t e s to the s u p p o r t i v e mentioned p r e v i o u s l y .  atmosphere  A woman may d e r i v e much s u p p o r t , encouragement,  38  and a sense o f purpose from a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e model. s t a t e d t h a t r o l e models a r e i m p o r t a n t i n two ways: accomplishments  Stake  (1981)  (1) I n s e e i n g t h e  o f t h e r o l e model the woman v i s u a l i z e s what i t i s  p o s s i b l e f o r h e r t o a c h i e v e ; and (2) The model i s seen as u n d e r s t a n d i n g what i s n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s i n h i s o r h e r f i e l d o f endeavor.  The r o l e  model's encouragement, t h e r e f o r e , has more v a l u e and meaning than encouragement from o t h e r s n o t as knowledgeable.  S e l f - E s t i m a t e s o f Competence and E x p e c t a t i o n s o f P e r s o n a l E f f i c a c y  Stake (1979a; 1979b) examined one aspect of s e l f esteem,  which  she c a l l e d t h e s e l f - e s t i m a t e o f competence o r a b i l i t y t o succeed i n performance  settings.  She measured t h i s w i t h the P e r f o r m a n c e - S e l f -  Esteem S c a l e (PSES) and found t h a t i n g e n e r a l females s c o r e d lower than males.  She suggested t h a t t h i s sex d i f f e r e n c e i n PSES s c o r e s i n d i c a t e s  a n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r lower c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s i n women; women may s e t lower g o a l s because they have l e s s c o n f i d e n c e than men i n t h e i r t o succeed i n h i g h l e v e l c a r e e r s .  ability  H e r c o n c l u s i o n was t h a t one way t o  i n c r e a s e the c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s of women i s t o r a i s e t h e i r performance self-esteem.  F o r example,  Stake and Pearlman  (1980) s u c c e s s f u l l y used  a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g t o i n c r e a s e PSES s c o r e s i n women. A v a r i a t i o n on t h i s theme i s t h e work o f B e t z and H a c k e t t  (1981)  and H a c k e t t and Betz (1981) on s e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s . E x p e c t a t i o n s of  s e l f - e f f i c a c y a r e , i n s h o r t , " e x p e c t a t i o n s o r b e l i e f s t h a t one can  39  s u c c e s s f u l l y perform a g i v e n b e h a v i o r " (Hackett & B e t z , 1981, p. 328). They b e l i e v e d that women f a i l t o r e a l i z e t h e i r f u l l  career p o t e n t i a l  because, l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t of s o c i a l i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s , they do n o t have s t r o n g e x p e c t a t i o n s of s e l f - e f f i c a c y i n r e g a r d t o many c a r e e r - r e l a t e d behaviours.  They quoted  and Jones (1976) who suggested  the work of Krumboltz,  Mitchell,  that i t I s one's e v a l u a t i v e  s e l f - s t a t e m e n t s o f performance o r p r e f e r e n c e s which a r e primary components i n the process of c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making.  Commitment and Investment  A h i g h degree o f c a r e e r commitment has been i d e n t i f i e d as an important Jardim,  v a r i a b l e r e l a t e d t o women's p r o f e s s i o n a l  1977).  success  (Hennig &  The t w e n t y - f i v e s u c c e s s f u l women i n Hennig and Jardim's  study worked hard and e s t a b l i s h e d the p a t t e r n of " g o a l - s e t t i n g , p l a n n i n g , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p r i o r i t i e s and s u b - g o a l s , and commitment to  a course of a c t i o n with d i s t r a c t i n g d i v e r s i o n s i d e n t i f i e d and  avoided"  (p.  112).  Because c a r e e r and f a m i l y r o l e s are demanding i n terms of time, energy, role  and r e s o u r c e s r e q u i r e d , an important  life  consideration i n multiple  p l a n n i n g i s how much of the each of these one i s w i l l i n g t o  i n v e s t i n each r o l e  (Stake, 1979a; Cochran, Note 3 ) . O v e r l o a d and  e x h a u s t i o n may e a s i l y r e s u l t i f a woman attempts demands (O'Leary,  1974).  to meet a l l r o l e  T h e r e f o r e , i n order t o p l a n f o r and t o l i v e  40  out a l i f e t h a t i s o r d e r e d , has meaning and i s g o a l - d i r e c t e d , r o l e p r i o r i t i e s and subsequent p l a n s of a c t i o n must be s e t based on t h e amount o f commitment and investment  one f e e l s t o each r o l e .  Simons (1966) a l s o emphasized the importance  M c C a l l and  of a s s e s s i n g t h e amount o f  commitment and investment t o each r o l e .  Conclusion  A theme r u n n i n g throughout  the preceding l i t e r a t u r e review i s the  l i m i t i n g e f f e c t o f s e x r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n on women's r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s .  F a c t o r s which may c o u n t e r a c t the n e g a t i v e  e f f e c t s o f s e x r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n have been d e s c r i b e d . The p r e s e n t study w i l l focus on the r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f h i g h a b i l i t y women and w i l l examine the p e r c e i v e d importance  and p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s of 12 f a c t o r s which may i n f l u e n c e ,  e i t h e r p o s i t i v e l y or n e g a t i v e l y , t h e i r c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s . M c C a l l and Simmons (1966) p r o v i d e d a u s e f u l summary of f a c t o r s w h i c h determine  t h e prominence o f a r o l e - i d e n t i t y .  These f a c t o r s  i n c l u d e amount of s e l f - and s o c i a l s u p p o r t , one's degree of i n v e s t m e n t i n and commitment t o a r o l e , and t h e i n t r i n s i c and e x t r i n s i c g r a t i f i c a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the r o l e .  I n o r d e r t o keep the number o f  c o n s t r u c t s t o a manageable number, and because f a c t o r s l i k e s e l f - and s o c i a l s u p p o r t , f o r example, appeared t o be of p r i m a r y importance i n  41  c o u n t e r a c t i n g the n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s d e c i d e d to exclude thoroughly (1966).  extrinsic  factors  cover the other f a c t o r s  The  of sex r o l e from t h i s  study and  d i s c u s s e d by M c C a l l and  used i n t h i s  constructs previously discussed i n this to round out the l i s t  i t was  to more Simons  c o n s t r u c t of enjoyment, d i s c u s s e d by M c C a l l and  under i n t r i n s i c g r a t i f i c a t i o n s , was  intuitively,  socialization,  Simons  study a l o n g w i t h  chapter, as enjoyment  11  seemed,  of i n t r i n s i c g r a t i f i c a t i o n s .  42  CHAPTER I I I  Methodology  Subjects  A t o t a l of 29 women v o l u n t e e r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s T h e i r range i n age was from 21 t o 32 y e a r s .  study.  The modal age was 22 y e a r s ;  20, o r 69 %, were 22 years o l d , and t h e r e were two o u t l y e r s aged 29 and 32 y e a r s . (24 %) were  Twenty-two (76%) were Anglo-European Canadians and seven Chinese.  The s u b j e c t s were r e c r u i t e d from a p o p u l a t i o n o f female  students  who had, i n t h e i r p r e v i o u s year of s t u d i e s ( t h i r d year of t h e B a c h e l o r o f Commerce Program), r e c e i v e d a 72% o r above average.  Letters of  r e c r u i t m e n t were sent t o 45 women and f o l l o w - u p phone c a l l s were made t o p e r s o n a l l y request p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study.  A 64% response r a t e was  o b t a i n e d , w i t h 29 women p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the s t u d y .  At the time of t h e  s t u d y , 26 o f t h e s u b j e c t s were i n t h e i r f o u r t h and f i n a l year o f t h e B a c h e l o r of Commerce Program a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and t h r e e were i n f i r s t year Law (combined Commerce/Law O p t i o n ) .  43  Measuring Instruments  The  two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s used i n d a t a c o l l e c t i o n were d e v e l o p e d f o r  the purpose of t h i s s t u d y .  Each of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i l l be  discussed  separately.  1.  Biodemographical  Questionnaire  T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d of a s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s designed gather  standard biodemographical  to  data ( e . g . age, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , e t h n i c  d e s i g n a t i o n ) and t o e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n about each s u b j e c t ' s p r o j e c t e d f i v e - y e a r p l a n s f o r p a i d employment, graduate or p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l , r e l a t i o n s h i p s t y l e / m a r i t a l s t a t u s , and c h i l d r e n . complete l i s t o f i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d by t h i s  2.  questionnaire.  Role G r i d  The  r o l e g r i d used i n t h i s study was  g r i d technique  a v a r i a n t of the  repertory  as f i r s t d e s c r i b e d by K e l l y (1955) and f u r t h e r developed  by o t h e r s ( e . g . , B a n n i s t e r & M a i r , 1968; 3).  See Appendix B f o r the  This technique  produces p r i m a r y  S l a t e r , 1976;  Cochran, Note  i s e s s e n t i a l l y a s o r t i n g and r a t i n g t a s k w h i c h  data i n m a t r i x form ( B a n n i s t e r & M a i r ,  T y p i c a l l y , the r e p e r t o r y g r i d t e c h n i q u e a number of elements (e.g. p e o p l e ,  1968).  involves subjects  roles, political  rating  p a r t i e s ) on a set o f  44  c o n s t r u c t s ( b i p o l a r concepts c o n s t r u c t s may  such as k i n d - u n k i n d ) .  The elements and  be p r o v i d e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r o r , a l t e r n a t i v e l y , may  e l i c i t e d from i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s .  Each s u b j e c t ' s responses  be  are  r e c o r d e d on a g r i d , thus p r o d u c i n g a m a t r i x of c e l l s i n which rows r e p r e s e n t c o n s t r u c t s and columns r e p r e s e n t elements ( B a n n i s t e r & M a i r , 1968).  Subsequently,  a v a r i e t y of s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s may  be  u t i l i z e d t o examine, f o r example, the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the constructs.  Cochran (Note 3) has o u t l i n e d numerous s t a t i s t i c a l  t e c h n i q u e s and methods f o r a n a l y z i n g g r i d d a t a . The  r e p e r t o r y g r i d methodology has been used e x t e n s i v e l y i n b o t h  r e s e a r c h ( e . g . , B a n n i s t e r & M a i r , 1968; M a i r , 1966)  Cochran, 1978,  1981; Long,  and c l i n i c a l c o n t e x t s (e.g. B a n n i s t e r , 1960;  Slater,  1982;  1976;  Cochran, Note 3 ) . The  r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of t h i s methodology have been t e s t e d  i n a wide range of s t u d i e s . not a t e s t , and may  The  g r i d , though, i s a v a r i a b l e  technique,  be c a s t i n many d i f f e r e n t forms w i t h any number of  d i f f e r e n t types of elements and c o n s t r u c t s .  T h e r e f o r e , as s t a t e d by  B a n n i s t e r and M a i r (1968), s i n c e " t h e r e i s no such t h i n g as the  grid,  t h e r e can be no such thing' as the r e l i a b i l i t y of the g r i d " ( p . 156). S p e c i f i c r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s may  be o b t a i n e d , though, f o r each  s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n of the g r i d method and f o r each of the g r i d measures used.  B a n n i s t e r and M a i r (1968) r e p o r t t h a t s t u d i e s o f  c o n s t r u c t r e l a t i o n s y i e l d r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s w i t h i n the range of .60 to  .80. M a i r (1966) conducted  a study i n which she a s s e s s e d the  of g r i d scores as measures of m e a n i n g f u l  validity  r e l a t i o n s between c o n s t r u c t s .  45  She  used a d i c t i o n a r y to s e l e c t synonyms or near synonyms to s e r v e as  constructs.  Because a d i c t i o n a r y i s a n o r m a t i v e i n d e x of commonly  agreed upon meanings, two  a d j e c t i v e s , when used as c o n s t r u c t s  in a grid  completed by a number of p e o p l e , s h o u l d be h i g h l y p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d . The  c o r r e l a t i o n s among c o n s t r u c t s  i n her  study c l o s e l y r e f l e c t e d  n o r m a t i v e meanings, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t c o r r e l a t i o n s between c o n s t r u c t s good measures of r e l a t i o n s between The  above s t u d i e s , and  are  constructs.  o t h e r s summarized by B a n n i s t e r and  Mair  ( 1 9 6 8 ) , i n d i c a t e t h a t g r i d s c o r e s , when used as measures of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c o n s t r u c t s ,  are  s u f f i c i e n t l y r e l i a b l e and  valid  f o r the purpose of t h i s s t u d y . The  p r e s e n t study a l s o made use  of the a d d i t i o n a l g r i d measures  of r o l e p r e f e r e n c e r a n k i n g s , p r e f e r a b i l i t y (based on the rank of average r o l e sums), c o n s t r u c t (derived  Importance r a n k i n g s , c e n t r a l i t y  from i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c o n s t r u c t s ) ,  (e.g., c o n f l i c t r a t i o . )  ordering  R e l i a b i l i t y and  and c o n f l i c t  v a l i d i t y studies  have not  done f o r these measures, a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s precedence f o r t h e i r (Cochran 1978, and  1981;  well-established  exploratory  Cochran, Note 3 ) . and  The  been  use  g r i d method i t s e l f i s sound  appeared t o be v e r y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r  the  purposes of t h i s s t u d y .  As d e s c r i b e d above, the t h r e e major components of the g r i d methodology are elements ( r o l e s , i n t h i s s t u d y ) , rating scale.  Cochran (Note 3) has  t h a t of a rank o r d e r i n g p r e f e r e n c e and  made use  of elements and  importance, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  repertory  constructs,  and  a  of an a d d i t i o n a l component,  constructs  a c c o r d i n g to  T h i s a d d i t i o n a l component, as  46  w e l l as the t h r e e main components, were used i n t h e p r e s e n t study and are d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y on the pages which f o l l o w .  Roles.  I n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a l i s t of r o l e s most r e l e v a n t t o t h e  s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n and t o a d e q u a t e l y  r e p r e s e n t as broad a range o f r o l e s  as p o s s i b l e , 12 r o l e s were chosen from the t h r e e main areas of r o l e a c t i v i t y d e s c r i b e d by H a l l and H a l l (1979): work and c a r e e r r o l e s , home and f a m i l y r o l e s , and p e r s o n a l r o l e s .  The l i s t of r o l e s g i v e n as  examples by H a l l and H a l l i n c l u d e d : p a r t n e r , p a r e n t , manager, a u t h o r , neighbour,  daughter, s i s t e r , f r i e n d , community member, s e l f ( a p e r s o n ) ,  c h u r c h member, and  grandparent.  Role t i t l e s used by o t h e r w r i t e r s and i n v e s t i g a t o r s were a l s o c o n s i d e r e d i n the s e l e c t i o n o f r o l e s f o r t h i s study. d e f i n e d a c a r e e r as the "combination  Super (1980)  and sequence of r o l e s p l a y e d by a  p e r s o n d u r i n g t h e course o f a l i f e t i m e " ( p . 282).  The n i n e major r o l e s  d e s c r i b e d by Super i n c l u d e d : c h i l d ( i n c l u d i n g son and d a u g h t e r ) , student, " l e i s u r i t e "  (one engaged i n a l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t y ) ,  worker, spouse, homemaker, parent and p e n s i o n e r .  citizen,  Combinations of major  l i f e r o l e s used as frameworks i n e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f r o l e c o n f l i c t have i n c l u d e d w i f e r o l e , employee r o l e , mother r o l e , h o u s e w i f e r o l e ( H a l l , 1972) and p r o f e s s i o n a l , spouse, p a r e n t , and s e l f as s e l f - a c t u a l i z e d p e r s o n (Holahan & G i l b e r t , 1979a, 1979b). The for  l i s t o f t w e l v e r o l e s chosen f o r use i n t h i s study was checked  adequacy of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n d i s c u s s i o n w i t h t h r e e f a c u l t y members  from the Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y  at the U n i v e r s i t y of  47  B r i t i s h Columbia and w i t h f o u r graduate s t u d e n t s i n C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , a l l of whom were knowledgeable i n r o l e - r e l a t e d i s s u e s . f i n a l l i s t o f r o l e s r a n k - o r d e r e d and r a t e d  by s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e d  The  six  s t a n d a r d r o l e s ( d a u g h t e r , f r i e n d , homemaker, mother, p a r t n e r / w i f e , and s i n g l e person) and s i x p e r s o n a l examples o f t h e f o l l o w i n g r o l e t i t l e s o r role descriptions:  community m e m b e r / c i t i z e n , graduate s t u d e n t , p e r s o n a l  w e l l - b e i n g and enjoyment, p r o f e s s i o n of lowest a s p i r a t i o n , and expected The not  of highest a s p i r a t i o n ,  profession  profession.  r o l e o f s e l f (a person) o r s e l f as s e l f - a c t u a l i z e d person was  used as a r o l e .  The concept of s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n was i n s t e a d  used  as a c o n s t r u c t upon w h i c h a l l o f t h e r o l e s were e v a l u a t e d (self-actualization  was o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d  as " p e r s o n a l g r o w t h " ) .  S e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n o r p e r s o n a l growth may o c c u r i n any o r a l l o f t h e r o l e s , and n o t j u s t i n the somewhat i l l u s i v e r o l e of s e l f . s i n g l e p e r s o n was i n c l u d e d the  The r o l e o f  as i t was thought t h a t a number of women i n  sample would choose t o remain s i n g l e over the subsequent f i v e year  period,  and n o t t o t a k e on t h e r o l e o f p a r t n e r / w i f e .  Personal  w e l l - b e i n g and enjoyment was chosen as a d e s c r i p t i o n of the r o l e l a b e l l e d " l e i s u r i t e " by Super (1980).  Because a major purpose o f t h i s  study was t o examine c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s , divided  i n t o three l e v e l s of a s p i r a t i o n :  aspiration, profession  Constructs. selected  the p r o f e s s i o n a l profession  r o l e was  of highest  of l o w e s t a s p i r a t i o n , and e x p e c t e d  profession.  The twelve c o n s t r u c t s used i n t h i s study were  d u r i n g a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on c a r e e r development and  48  choice.  I n t h i s r e v i e w , p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n was p a i d t o f a c t o r s  hypothesized content  t o o r e m p i r i c a l l y found t o i n f l u e n c e the process and  o f women's c a r e e r c h o i c e s .  The aim o f s e l e c t i n g c o n s t r u c t s i n  t h i s manner was t o cover a broad range of i s s u e s thought t o be Important by r e s e a r c h e r s on t h e c a r e e r development o f women. list  See T a b l e 1 f o r a  of c o n s t r u c t s and the d e r i v a t i o n of each c o n s t r u c t from i n f l u e n c i n g  f a c t o r s discussed i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  R a t i n g S c a l e and Forms.  S u b j e c t s were r e q u e s t e d  t o r a t e each  r o l e a c c o r d i n g t o each c o n s t r u c t u s i n g a 5-point r a t i n g s c a l e w h i c h employed t h e f o l l o w i n g format: More chance t o a c c o m p l i s h  L e s s chance t o a c c o m p l i s h  c h a l l e n g i n g goals  c h a l l e n g i n g goals  S u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d t h e i r r a t i n g of each r o l e by c i r c l i n g the dot w h i c h best represented  t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f and e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r themselves  w i t h i n the r o l e .  F o r example, i f a s u b j e c t r a t e d a r o l e a c c o r d i n g t o  the above c o n s t r u c t , c i r c l i n g e i t h e r t h e f i r s t o r second dot on t h e l e f t would i n d i c a t e t h a t the s u b j e c t f e l t t h a t the r o l e would p r o v i d e h e r w i t h a l o t more o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c c o m p l i s h more o p p o r t u n i t y , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  c h a l l e n g i n g g o a l s o r somewhat  C i r c l i n g the dot f a r t h e s t t o t h e r i g h t  would i n d i c a t e a g r e a t d e a l l e s s chance t o a c c o m p l i s h c h a l l e n g i n g g o a l s , c i r c l i n g the dot second from the r i g h t would i n d i c a t e somewhat l e s s chance, and c i r c l i n g t h e m i d d l e d o t would i n d i c a t e an inbetween The  dots correspond  t o the n u m e r i c a l  moving from l e f t t o r i g h t .  stance.  r a t i n g s of 2, 1, 0, - 1 , and -2 when  See Appendix C, P a r t C f o r a sample o f t h e  r a t i n g form t h a t was completed f o r each r o l e .  Table 1 Derivation  Influencing  Factors  need f o r a f f i l i a t i o n  of C o n s t r u c t s from F a c t o r s D i s c u s s e d i n t h e L i t e r a t u r e  As S t a t e d i n the L i t e r a t u r e " e s t a b l i s h i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h other persons" ( H a r r e l l & S t a h l , 1981, p. 243) Also:  need f o r power  " i n f l u e n c i n g the a c t i v i t i e s and thoughts of a number o f individuals (Harrell & Stahl, 1981, p. 243) Also:  need f o r achievement  Denmark, T a n g r i , & McCandless (1978)  Denmark, T a n g r i & McCandless (1978)  "accomplishing d i f f i c u l t (but f e a s i b l e ) g o a l s and l a t e r receiving detailed information about your p e r s o n a l performance" ( H a r r e l l & S t a h l , 1981, p. 243) Also:  Constructs more chance f o r warm, f r i e n d l y relations vs l e s s chance f o r warm, f r i e n d l y relations  more chance t o i n f l u e n c e others vs l e s s chance t o i n f l u e n c e others  more chance t o a c c o m p l i s h c h a l l e n g i n g goals vs l e s s chance t o a c c o m p l i s h challenging goals  Denmark, T a n g r i , & McCandless (1978)  contd..  Table 1 contd. Influencing Factors  As S t a t e d i n the L i t e r a t u r e  encouragement/ discouragement from s i g n i f i c a n t people  E p s t e i n (1973); Farmer (1978); Hennig & J a r d i m (1977); Lunneborg (1982); Rapoport & Rapoport (1969); Stake (1981); Stake & L e v i t z (1979)  perceived compatibility between f e m i n i n i t y and competence  Dewey (1977); Farmer (1978); Laws (1978); O'Leary (1974)  Constructs 4.  more s u p p o r t & encouragement from partner/husband vs l e s s support & encouragement from partner/husband  5.  more s u p p o r t & encouragement f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s &/or teachers vs l e s s s u p p o r t & encouragement f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s &/or teachers  from  from  6.  more support & encouragement from p a r e n t s &/or o t h e r f a m i l y members vs l e s s s u p p o r t & encouragement from p a r e n t s &/or o t h e r f a m i l y members  7.  c l o s e r t o how I see m y s e l f as a woman vs f a r t h e r away from how I see m y s e l f as a women  contd.  Table 1 contd.  Influencing Factors  As S t a t e d i n the L i t e r a t u r e  r o l e models  A l m q u i s t & A n g r i s t (1971); O'Leary (1977); Stake (1981)  Constructs 8.  l i k e l y t o know someone who does this well vs u n l i k e l y t o know someone who does this well  s e l f - e s t i m a t e of competence/expectations of p e r s o n a l e f f i c a c y  Betz & Hackett (1981); Hackett & B e t z (1981); Stake (1979)  9.  degree o f commitment/ investment  Henning & J a r d i m (1977); M c C a l l & Simons (1966); Cochran, Note 3  10.  more w i l l i n g t o i n v e s t a l o t of time & energy vs l e s s w i l l i n g to invest a l o t of time & energy  desire f o r personal growth  Holahan & G i l b e r t 1979b)  11.  more o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p e r s o n a l growth vs less opportunity f o r personal growth  amount o f enj oyment d e r i v e d from r o l e  M c C a l l & Simons (1966)  12.  more enjoyment vs l e s s enjoyment  (1979a,  more competent & s u c c e s s f u l vs l e s s competent & s u c c e s s f u l  52  Rank O r d e r i n g o f R o l e s and C o n s t r u c t s .  In order to gather  i n f o r m a t i o n about s u b j e c t s ' r o l e p r e f e r e n c e s and judgements  about  c o n s t r u c t i m p o r t a n c e , s u b j e c t s were asked t o rank o r d e r r o l e s  and  c o n s t r u c t s i n o r d e r of p r e f e r e n c e and i m p o r t a n c e , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  For  example, i n c o m p l e t i n g the n u m e r i c a l rank o r d e r i n g o f r o l e s , a s u b j e c t would mark the most p r e f e r r e d r o l e w i t h a "1" f o r "most i m p o r t a n t " and the  l e a s t p r e f e r r e d r o l e w i t h a "12" f o r " l e a s t i m p o r t a n t " .  See  Appendix C, P a r t A f o r a sample of the form on which r o l e s were rank o r d e r e d and Appendix C, P a r t B f o r a sample c o n s t r u c t rank o r d e r i n g form.  G r i d Measures Employed i n t h i s Study  A v a r i e t y of methods and s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s may be used t o i n t e r p r e t the l i f e r o l e g r i d (see Cochran, Note 3 f o r a r e v i e w of t h e s e measures). review.  The measures used i n t h i s s t u d y were drawn from Cochran's  Each measure i s d e s c r i b e d s e p a r a t e l y here and i s d i s c u s s e d  a g a i n i n Chapter Four i n the c o n t e x t of the r e s u l t s .  P r e f e r e n c e and P r e f e r a b i l i t y .  S u b j e c t s ' rank o r d e r i n g of r o l e s  i n terms of p e r s o n a l importance was an e x p r e s s i o n of t h e i r a c t u a l preferences.  Cochran (Note 4) has c o i n e d the term " p r e f e r a b i l i t y " t o  r e f e r t o "the p o t e n t i a l f o r something to be p r e f e r r e d " ( p . 2 0 ) . p o t e n t i a l may  role  This  be determined by c a l c u l a t i n g a r o l e sum f o r each r o l e .  53  The  r o l e sum  construct.  i s the sum  o f the r a t i n g s of each r o l e a c c o r d i n g t o each  Once c a l c u l a t e d ,  these r o l e sums may  be rank o r d e r e d .  The  r o l e w i t h the h i g h e s t s c o r e , i . e . , the r o l e t h a t i s viewed most p o s i t i v e l y , i s g i v e n a rank of "one". r o l e w i t h the next h i g h e s t s c o r e . r o l e s r e c e i v e a p r e f e r a b i l i t y rank. r e c e i v e s two r a n k s , one  A rank of "two"  T h i s procedure i s c o n t i n u e d u n t i l a l l Each r o l e i n the r o l e g r i d thus  f o r preference  Congruence between these two  i s g i v e n to the  and one  rank o r d e r i n g s may  for p r e f e r a b i l i t y . be checked by v i s u a l  i n s p e c t i o n and by c a l c u l a t i n g a rank o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n (Spearman's c o e f f i c i e n t of rank c o r r e l a t i o n ) .  C o n s t r u c t Importance Ranks and C e n t r a l i t y .  Subjects'  o r d e r i n g of c o n s t r u c t s i n terms of p e r s o n a l importance was e x p r e s s i o n of t h e i r v a l u i n g of c o n s t r u c t s .  rank  a direct  To determine whether or not  the most v a l u e d c o n s t r u c t s a c t u a l l y p l a y e d key r o l e s i n the e v a l u a t i o n of l i f e r o l e a l t e r n a t i v e s , c e n t r a l i t y ranks may compared w i t h the importance  be c a l c u l a t e d  and  ranks.  C e n t r a l i t y i s determined by c o n s t r u c t i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  A  c e n t r a l c o n s t r u c t has many s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s and a p e r i p h e r a l c o n s t r u c t has few and weak r e l a t i o n s (Cochran, Note 3 ) . may  be s a i d t o be the most i m p o r t a n t  a decider.  Thus, a c e n t r a l  c o n s t r u c t i n the meaning scheme o f  As a d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n of the d e r i v a t i o n of c e n t r a l i t y  r a n k s i s p r o v i d e d i n Chapter F o u r , the c a l c u l a t i o n s w i l l not discussed here. r a n k s may  construct  Congruence between importance ranks and  be  centrality  be determined by v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n and by the c a l c u l a t i o n o f a  54  r a n k o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n (Spearman's c o e f f i c i e n t of rank c o r r e l a t i o n ) .  I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s Between C o n s t r u c t s .  The g r i d t e c h n i q u e  f o r t h e assessment of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c o n s t r u c t s . r e l a t i o n s h i p s are important  These  because a c o n s t r u c t ' s meaning i n v o l v e s , i n  p a r t , the other c o n s t r u c t s t o which i t i s r e l a t e d . understanding  allows  A more complete  o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s o r a group's c o n s t r u c t i o n o f  a l t e r n a t i v e s ( i n t h i s case, of l i f e r o l e a l t e r n a t i v e s ) may be developed through the examination The  o f c o n s t r u c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s (Cochran, Note 3 ) .  s t a t i s t i c a l techniques  used t o e v a l u a t e these r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e  d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l i n Chapter Four.  Indicators of Conflict., i n t h i s study:  Three measures of c o n f l i c t were u t i l i z e d  s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c o n s t r u c t s ,  the c o n f l i c t r a t i o , and t h e v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n o f r o l e sums. The  p o l e s of a g r i d a r e a l i g n e d w i t h p o s i t i v e t o p o s i t i v e and  n e g a t i v e t o n e g a t i v e , so any s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between two  constructs defines a c o n f l i c t .  A negative  c o r r e l a t i o n means t h a t  the p o s i t i v e p o l e o f one c o n s t r u c t i s l i n e d up w i t h the n e g a t i v e p o l e o f another c o n s t r u c t (Cochran, Note 3 ) .  F o r example, i n the f o l l o w i n g  i l l u s t r a t i o n , need f o r achievement and need f o r a f f i l i a t i o n a r e i n conflict.  Roles  t h a t p r o v i d e more o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o a c c o m p l i s h  c h a l l e n g i n g goals are construed warm, f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  as p r o v i d i n g fewer o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r  55  s  CD T3  3  4-1 CO  CU 4-> Cfl  3 T) Cfl  !-i O  Positive Characteristic  o •H 4-1 Cfl  !-i •H" (H,  CO Cfl 4J  co OJ Si 60 •H  ts  00  3 O  3  •H  3 O  •H  co  OJ  CO  OJ 4-1  o SM  Cu  TJ  OJ  4J  o  OJ Cu X  W  •r-l 4-1  1  OJ 4-1  T—l  •l-l  !3 T-M cfl 3  CD  3  o  4J  co  r4  r4  Cfl  CM  U  •rA  CU  —^  OJ  CM  c o  Cfl  1—1  Cu co cfl  U OJ 4-1  43  60  3  cfl  co  4-1  3  CO  r4  o  Q) •H  P  OJ  r4  Q) CU  a  cu N  U  OJ Si  4-> O  s  60  3 -H  w  E O  ca  more chance to a c c o m p l i s h  Negative Contrast l e s s chance  2  2  1 1  1  0  0 - 1 - 1 - 1 -2 -2  challenging  to  accomplish  challenging  goals  goals  more chance f o r warm  l e s s chance -2 -2 - 1 - 1 - 1  0  0  1  1  2  2  friendly  f o r warm friendly  relations  relations  F o r example, t h i s p e r s o n says t h a t the r o l e o f g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t a l l o w s her much more chance t o a c c o m p l i s h c h a l l e n g i n g g o a l s ( 2 ) but v e r y  little  chance f o r warm, f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s (-2). The r o l e o f homemaker i s the r e v e r s e .  T h e r e f o r e , c o n f l i c t i s I n d i c a t e d here.  The c o n f l i c t r a t i o i s a measure o f the e x t e n t o f harmony or c o n f l i c t i n construct relationships.  As such, i t i s an i n d i c a t o r o f  c o n f l i c t i n the o v e r a l l construing of l i f e role a l t e r n a t i v e s . i s computed by s q u a r i n g and adding a l l n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s  The r a t i o between  56  c o n s t r u c t s and then d i v i d i n g t h i s sum by the o v e r a l l sum o f squared correlations  between c o n s t r u c t s .  A h i g h score i n d i c a t e s a h i g h degree  of c o n f l i c t and ambivalence w i t h i n a d e c i s i o n  scheme and a low score  i n d i c a t e s a low degree of c o n f l i c t and ambivalence (Cochran, Note 3 ) . The  r o l e sums may a l s o be examined f o r i n d i c a t i o n s  of c o n f l i c t .  R o l e s w i t h p o s i t i v e r o l e sums a r e viewed p o s i t i v e l y and r o l e s w i t h n e g a t i v e r o l e sums a r e viewed n e g a t i v e l y .  The p o s i t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f  r o l e enactment i n c r e a s e as the p o s i t i v i t y of the r o l e sum For  example, a r o l e sum o f 24 would i n d i c a t e e x t r e m e l y  expectations.  increases.  positive  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the n e g a t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s of r o l e  enactment i n c r e a s e as the n e g a t i v i t y  of the r o l e sum i n c r e a s e s .  For  example, a r o l e sum of -24 would i n d i c a t e e x t r e m e l y n e g a t i v e expectations.  C o n f l i c t woud be i n d i c a t e d ,  t h e n , i f an i n d i v i d u a l  planned t o take on, o r was a c t u a l l y i n a r o l e , which was viewed v e r y negatively.  Indications  o f c o n f l i c t , t h e n , may be d e r i v e d by an  e x a m i n a t i o n of the r o l e sums f o r n e g a t i v i t y .  As w e l l , the r o l e sums f o r  each r o l e may be examined t o see i f the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n  of role  p r e f e r e n c e s i s congruent w i t h i t s e l f and w i t h v a l u e p r i o r i t i e s  expressed  i n c o n s t r u c t importance r a n k i n g s and c e n t r a l i t y .  Data C o l l e c t i o n and Procedures.,  The verbal  b i o d e m o g r a p h i c a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e l i f e r o l e g r i d , and t h e  instructions f o r their administration  were t e s t e d  f o r c l a r i t y and  57  ease o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n a b r i e f p i l o t s t u d y .  Four female  graduate  s t u d e n t s i n C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y were used as s u b j e c t s i n the p i l o t study. I n s i x groups r a n g i n g from two t o e i g h t s u b j e c t s (one person t e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y ) , s u b j e c t s completed hour.  was  t e s t i n g i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y one  A f t e r a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the study (Appendix A ) , s u b j e c t s  completed  t h e B i o d e m o g r a p h i c a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( A p p r e n d i x B) and the R o l e  G r i d (Appendix C ) .  S u b j e c t s were guided through these i n s t r u m e n t s by  the r e s e a r c h e r s t a t i n g a l o u d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s and the q u e s t i o n s i n the i n s t r u m e n t and by c l a r i f y i n g s u b j e c t s ' q u e s t i o n s ( s e e Appendix D f o r these v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s ) .  58  CHAPTER IV  Results  The  r e s u l t s of t h i s study are p r e s e n t e d  main s e c t i o n s .  The  i n t h i s chapter i n f i v e  f i r s t s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s the p r o j e c t e d f i v e - y e a r  p l a n s of the 29 s u b j e c t s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l and graduate student r e l a t i o n s h i p s t y l e / m a r i t a l s t a t u s , and c h i l d r e n . s e c t i o n s present  roles,  Each of the l a s t f o u r  the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of each of  the f o u r proposed r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s .  Projected Five-Year  Plans  P r o f e s s i o n a l and Graduate Student R o l e s .  A l l 29 s u b j e c t s  planned  t o work and/or a t t e n d s c h o o l f u l l - t i m e d u r i n g the subsequent f i v e of t h e i r l i v e s .  Twenty-one of the 29 s u b j e c t s (72%) planned  to a t t e n d  g r a d u a t e o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l d u r i n g t h i s time and 8 s u b j e c t s had no p l a n s f o r graduate or p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l .  years  (28%)  A l l s u b j e c t s were  asked w h i c h graduate or p r o f e s s i o n a l programs they would c o n s i d e r e n t e r i n g i f they were to go on. i n Table  2.  The  r e s u l t s of t h i s q u e s t i o n are shown  59  Table 2 Graduate or P r o f e s s i o n a l Programs  Program  Considered  N  %  C h a r t e r e d Accountancy  12  34.3  MBA  12  34.3  Law S c h o o l  6  17.1  MSc  4  11.4  (Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n )  M.A. Total  (Psychology)  _1 35  2.9 a  100.0  T o t a l i s 35 as 6 of the 29 s u b j e c t s were c o n s i d e r i n g 2 d i f f e r e n t program o p t i o n s .  60  Each s u b j e c t was r e q u e s t e d t o t h i n k about t h e type o f p a i d work she was p l a n n i n g  on d o i n g d u r i n g  the subsequent f i v e y e a r s o f h e r l i f e .  She was then asked t o d i v i d e h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s categories:  ( 1 ) the h i g h e s t  a s p i r e , i . e . , the highest  i n t o three  l e v e l p r o f e s s i o n toward which she would  l e v e l p o s i t i o n she'd aim f o r ; (2) t h e l o w e s t  l e v e l p r o f e s s i o n toward which she'd a s p i r e , i . e . , the lowest  level  p o s i t i o n she'd a c c e p t o r s e t t l e f o r ; and (3) t h e p r o f e s s i o n o r p o s i t i o n i n which she r e a l l y expected t o work.  The group r e s u l t s f o r t h i s  task  a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 3, 4, and 5. Each of the s t a t e d a s p i r a t i o n s i n the t h r e e  categories  (highest  a s p i r a t i o n , lowest a s p i r a t i o n , and expected p o s i t i o n ) was matched w i t h the socioeconomic i n d e x f o r o c c u p a t i o n s i n Canada ( B l i s h e n & M c R o b e r t s , 1976)  and was g i v e n a rank w i t h i n t h i s s c a l e .  U s i n g 1971 Canadian  census d a t a , B l i s h e n used income l e v e l , e d u c a t i o n a l  s t a t u s , and a  p r e s t i g e v a r i a b l e t o rank o r d e r 500 Canadian o c c u p a t i o n s . occupational  The s t a t e d  a s p i r a t i o n s o f a l l s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study a l l f e l l  between  the ranks o f n i n e and 63. They were a very homogeneous group i n terms of o c c u p a t i o n a l  aspirations.  They were a l l a i m i n g f o r p o s i t i o n s near  the t o p o f t h e s c a l e w i t h i n f i v e  years.  Relationship S t y l e / M a r i t a l Status.  Twenty-seven s u b j e c t s ( 9 3 % )  were s i n g l e a t t h e time o f t h e study ( i n c l u d i n g one woman who was d i v o r c e d / s e p a r a t e d ) and two s u b j e c t s partner.  (7%) were m a r r i e d o r l i v i n g w i t h a  When asked about t h e i r f i v e - y e a r p l a n s , 12 (41%)  they planned t o remain s i n g l e , 16 (55%)  stated  that  s a i d they planned t o be m a r r i e d  or l i v i n g w i t h a p a r t n e r , and one (3.5%) was u n c e r t a i n .  61 Table 3 Subjects' Highest P r o f e s s i o n a l A s p i r a t i o n s f o r Subsequent F i v e Year P e r i o d  Professional Position  %  N  A r t i c l i n g s t u d e n t / l a w y e r i n q u a l i t y law f i r m  6.9  Commercial l o a n s manager o r p r o j e c t banker i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l department of major bank  3.4  C o r p o r a t e l o a n o f f i c e , I . e . , work a t head o f f i c e of f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n and be i n charge of a p o r t f o l i o of companies  3.4  Foreign  3.4  exchange manager, banking  I n d u s t r i a l relations supervisor, Industry  resource  3.4  M a r k e t i n g manager f o r consumer product i n Western Canada  3.4  M a r k e t i n g manager f o r e n t i r e d i v i s i o n of l a r g e corporation  3.4  Management p o s i t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h l a b o u r law and employee r e l a t i o n s  3.4  Manager, C.A.  firm  24.1  Manager, f i n a n c i a l s e r v i c e s - department i n government or p r i v a t e company  3.4  Manager, p e r s o n n e l d e p a r t m e n t / l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s  2  6.9  Own & o p e r a t e own b u s i n e s s R e t a i l business Computer t e c h n o l o g y , m e d i c i n e  2  6.9  P a r t n e r , c o n s u l t i n g f i r m i n management systems (computers)  information  3.4  contd.  62 Table 3  contd....  Professional Position Partner, C A .  N  % 3  10.3  1  3.4  1  3.4  1  3.4  Western r e g i o n o p e r a t i o n s r e s e a r c h transporational/logistics  _1_  3.4  Total  29  firm  R e g i o n a l manager, p e r s o n n e l d i v i s i o n of major company S e n i o r s t a f f accountant  (CA.)  V i c e - p r e s i d e n t , r e a l e s t a t e s a l e s or l a n d development  T h i s p e r c e n t a g e i s s l i g h t l y l e s s than 100  due t o rounding  99.3  error.  a  63 Table 4 S u b j e c t s ' Lowest P r o f e s s i o n a l A s p i r a t i o n s f o r Subsequent F i v e Year P e r i o d  Professional  Position  %  N  Articling  1  3.4  3  10.3  1  3.4  1  3.4  1  3.4  F i e l d work, o p e r a t i o n s r e s e a r c h  1  3.4  G e n e r a l a c c o u n t a n t , company, i n d u s t r i a l , o r financial institution  3  10.3  Junior o f f i c e r - financial services, government o r p r i v a t e company  1  3.4  Labour r e l a t i o n s o r p e r s o n n e l  3  10.3  Manager, r e t a i l s t o r e i n Vancouver  1  3.4  M i d d l e management m a r k e t i n g p o s i t i o n  2  6.9  Programmer, computer f i r m  1  3.4  S a l e s p e r s o n f o r a consumer product of a r e g i o n  1  3.4  Senior accountant, C A .  3  10.3  Senior i n a public accounting f i r m  1  3.4  Staff CA. , CA.  3  10.3  2  6.9  Branch manager, bank or f i n a n c i a l Commercial l o a n s o f f i c e r , department of a bank Credit  officer,  institution  international  banking  Employment c o u n s e l l o r ,  f e d e r a l government  officer  firm  firm  Work i n b u s i n e s s i n a non-law c a p a c i t y , r e l a t e d , e.g., management t r a i n e e Total  commerce-  29  99.3  T h i s p e r c e n t a g e i s s l i g h t l y l e s s than 100 due t o r o u n d i n g e r r o r .  a  64 Table 5 S u b j e c t ' s Expected P r o f e s s i o n a l P o s i t i o n s f o r Subsequent F i v e Year P e r i o d  Professional Position Accountant  N  %  f o r a company, not v e r y h i g h up  1  3.4  A r t i c l i n g s t u d e n t / l a w y e r i n law f i r m  3  10.3  Branch manager, bank  1  3.4  Commercial banker  1  3.4  Labour/industrial relations  officer  10.3  Loans o f f i c e r , consumer & s m a l l b u s i n e s s l o a n s Manager, C A .  1  firm  3.4 6.9  Manager, o p e r a t i o n s r e s e a r c h - t r a n s p o r t a t i o n / logistics  1  3.4  Manager, r e t a i l o p e r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia  1  3.4  M a r k e t i n g department of consumer product  1  3.4  1  3.4  M i d d l e management, m a r k e t i n g ( p r o b a b l y l i m i t e d t o Western Canada)  1  3.4  P e r s o n n e l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , government or mediums i z e d company  1  3.4  1  3.4  1  3.4  M i d d l e management, f i n a n c i a l  Product  l i n e manager ( o f one  company  firm  product)  Real estate executive S e m i - s e n i o r s t a f f accountant  (CA.)  1  3.4  Senior s t a f f accountant, C A .  firm  1  3.4  1  3.4  Staff CA.  for a firm  contd...  65 Table 5 contd.  Professional  Position  Supervisor,  CA.  Supervisor,  public accounting firm  N  firm  , %  3  10.3  1  3.4  S u p e r v i s o r , some d e p a r t m e n t i n f i n a n c i a l s e r v i c e s - g o v e r n m e n t o r p r i v a t e company  1  3.4  Systems development ( c o m p u t e r s ) , i n a c o n s u l t i n g capacity  1  3.4  29  99.0  Total  T h i s percentage of s l i g h t l y  l e s s than  100 i s due t o r o u n d i n g  error.  a  66  Children.  Twenty-eight s u b j e c t s (96.5%) had no c h i l d r e n a t t h e  time o f t h e study and one s u b j e c t (3.5%) had two c h i l d r e n ( t h i s woman was  32 y e a r s o l d and was s e p a r a t e d / d i v o r c e d ) .  f i v e - y e a r p l a n s , 24 s u b j e c t s (83%)  When asked about  their  s t a t e d t h a t they planned not t o have  any  c h i l d r e n i n t h e next f i v e y e a r p e r i o d .  two  c h i l d r e n s t a t e d t h a t she p l a n n e d n o t t o have any more c h i l d r e n i n  the next f i v e y e a r s .  Three s u b j e c t s (10%)  The s u b j e c t who a l r e a d y had  s t a t e d t h a t they planned t o  have one c h i l d and two s u b j e c t s (7%) s t a t e d t h a t they planned t o have two  c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t h e subsequent f i v e y e a r p e r i o d .  p e r c e n t a g e , then, of s u b j e c t s p l a n n i n g  The t o t a l  t o have c h i l d r e n i n t h e next  five  y e a r p e r i o d was about 20%. The  f o l l o w i n g f o u r s e c t i o n s present  the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f each o f t h e f o u r proposed r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . i n v e s t i g a t i o n s involved various analyses produced by t h e 29 s u b j e c t s . repertory grid  i n the These  o f the 12 x 12 r e p e r t o r y g r i d s  See Appendix E f o r an example o f a  completed by one s u b j e c t .  The s t a t i s t i c a l  u t i l i z e d i n answering each q u e s t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  analyses  s e p a r a t e l y i n each  of t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s .  R o l e Importance ( Q u e s t i o n  The  1)^  r e s u l t s obtained  i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n , "How  does t h i s group o f women rank order l i f e r o l e s i n terms of p e r s o n a l importance?"  are presented  i n this section.  67  The  r o l e p r e f e r e n c e ranks were averaged  r a n k i n g f o r each r o l e f o r the group.  t o o b t a i n an average  These averages were then  rank  o r d e r e d t o o b t a i n a p r e f e r e n c e rank f o r each r o l e f o r the group.  The  r e s u l t s of these c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Table 6. The  s i x most i m p o r t a n t o r most p r e f e r r e d r o l e s f o r t h i s group of  women were, i n order of p r e f e r e n c e :  expected p r o f e s s i o n , p e r s o n a l  w e l l - b e i n g and enjoyment, p r o f e s s i o n of h i g h e s t a s p i r a t i o n , p a r t n e r / w i f e and graduate descending  student.  The s i x l e a s t i m p o r t a n t r o l e s , i n  o r d e r of p r e f e r e n c e , were:  member/citizen,  friend,  daughter,  community  p r o f e s s i o n of lowest a s p i r a t i o n , s i n g l e p e r s o n , mother,  and homemaker. Another way of a s s e s s i n g r o l e p r e f e r e n c e i s t o l o o k a t t h e p r e f e r a b i l i t y r a n k s . A r o l e sum was c a l c u l a t e d f o r each s u b j e c t by a d d i n g up the 12 n u m e r i c a l r a t i n g s g i v e n f o r each r o l e . s c a l e ranged  As the r a t i n g  from 2 t o - 2 , and each r o l e was r a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o 12  d i f f e r e n t c o n s t r u c t s , the range of p o s s i b l e r o l e sums was 24 t o -24.  A  r o l e w h i c h r e c e i v e d a r o l e sum o f 24 would be h i g h l y p o s i t i v e l y v a l u e d and a r o l e which r e c e i v e d a r o l e sum of -24 would be v a l u e d v e r y negatively.  See Appendix E f o r t h e c a l c u l a t i o n of r o l e sums f o r one  subject. A f t e r c a l c u l a t i n g t h e 12 r o l e sums f o r each s u b j e c t , an average r o l e sum f o r the group f o r each of the 12 r o l e s was c a l c u l a t e d .  These  averages were then rank o r d e r e d t o o b t a i n p r e f e r a b i l i t y ranks f o r t h e group.  These f i n d i n g s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Table 7.  68  Table 6 Group P r e f e r e n c e Ranks of R o l e s Based on Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of Role P r e f e r e n c e Ranks  Mean Preference Role  Group Preference  Rank  SD  3.4  1.7  1  3.4  2.2  2  P r o f e s s i o n of h i g h e s t a s p i r a t i o n  4.2  2.5  3  Friend  4.6  2.4  4  Partner/Wife  5.0  2.8  5  Graduate  5.3  3.3  6  6.3  2.5  7  7.9  2.5  8  8.5  2.6  9  9.2  2.2  10  9.7  3.1  11  10.5  1.5  12  Expected p r o f e s s i o n P e r s o n a l w e l l - b e i n g and  enjoyment  student  Daughter Community  member/citizen  P r o f e s s i o n of lowest Single  person  Mother Homemaker  aspiration  Rank  3  Obtained by rank o r d e r i n g the average r a n k i n g s of r o l e s , w i t h "1" b e i n g the most p r e f e r r e d r o l e on average and "12" being the l e a s t p r e f e r r e d r o l e on average.  69  Table 7 Group P r e f e r a b i l i t y Ranks of R o l e s Based on Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of R o l e Sums  Mean Role Role  Sum  3  Group Preferability SD  Rank  P r o f e s s i o n of highest a s p i r a t i o n  15.7  4.7  1  Expected  13.5  5.0  2  12.8  5.3  3  12.6  4.5  4  Partner/Wife  11.1  3.7  5  P e r s o n a l w e l l - b e i n g and enjoyment  10.9  5.6  6  Community m e m b e r / c i t i z e n  8.2  7.1  7  Mother  5.5  10.4  8  3.2  10.3  9  2.7  7.4  10  2.4  5.7  11  -10.3  8.2  12  profession  Friend Graduate  student  P r o f e s s i o n of lowest Single  aspiration  person  Daughter Homemaker  a  ^ a n g e o f p o s s i b l e means was 24 t o -24. ^Obtained by rank o r d e r i n g the r o l e s a c c o r d i n g t o the average r o l e sums. The h i g h e s t mean was ranked " 1 " , i . e . , t h e most p r e f e r a b l e r o l e a c c o r d i n g t o the r o l e sums, and the lowest mean was ranked "12", i . e . , t h e l e a s t p r e f e r a b l e r o l e a c c o r d i n g t o the r o l e sums.  70  A v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n of T a b l e s 6 and 7 r e v e a l s t h a t the p r e f e r a b i l i t y rank o r d e r i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p r e f e r e n c e ordering.  rank  A rank order c o r r e l a t i o n c a l c u l a t e d between these two  o r d e r i n g s produced  a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .82  .01 l e v e l , t w o - t a i l e d t e s t ) .  rank  ( s i g n i f i c a n t a t the  This i s a very high c o r r e l a t i o n  and  i n d i c a t e s a v e r y s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t s ' s t a t e d r o l e p r e f e r e n c e s and p o t e n t i a l p r e f e r e n c e s based on the r a t i n g s of r o l e s a c c o r d i n g to each of the twelve c o n s t r u c t s .  C o n s t r u c t Importance ( Q u e s t i o n 2)  The  r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n ,  "How  does t h i s group of women rank o r d e r c o n s t r u c t s i n terms of p e r s o n a l importance?" The  are p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s  c o n s t r u c t importance  section.  ranks were averaged  r a n k i n g f o r each c o n s t r u c t f o r the group. o r d e r e d to o b t a i n an importance The  t o o b t a i n an average  These averages were then  rank  rank f o r each c o n s t r u c t f o r the group.  r e s u l t s of these c a l c u l a t i o n s are p r e s e n t e d i n Table  8.  F o r t h i s group the s i x most i m p o r t a n t c o n s t r u c t s were, i n o r d e r of  importance:  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p e r s o n a l growth, o p p o r t u n i t y t o  a c c o m p l i s h c h a l l e n g i n g g o a l s ( a c h i e v e m e n t ) , enjoyment, s e l f - e s t i m a t e o f competence and s u c c e s s , o p p o r t u n i t y f o r warm, f r i e n d l y  relations  ( a f f i l i a t i o n ) , and support and encouragement from p a r t n e r .  The s i x  l e a s t i m p o r t a n t c o n s t r u c t s , i n o r d e r of descending i m p o r t a n c e , were:  71  Table 8 Group Importance Ranks o f C o n s t r u c t s Based on Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s o f C o n s t r u c t Importance Ranks  Mean Importance Construct  Rank  Group Importance SD  Rank  P e r s o n a l growth  2.9  1.7  1  Achievement  3.4  2.5  2  Enj oyment  4.2  2.3  3  S e l f - e s t i m a t e o f competence & success  4.6  2.6  4  Affiliation  5.5  2.8  5  Support:  6.5  2.7  6  Support: f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s &/or t e a c h e r s  7.3  2.5  7  Commitment/investment  7.4  3.0  8  Support: p a r e n t s &/or o t h e r f a m i l y members  7.6  2.3  9  partner  Degree o f f i t w i t h view o f s e l f as a woman Power Role model  8.7  3.4  3  10  9.0  2.8  11  11.0  1.4  12  Obtained by rank o r d e r i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e average r a n k i n g s of c o n s t r u c t s , w i t h " 1 " , b e i n g the most i m p o r t a n t c o n s t r u c t on average and "12" b e i n g the l e a s t i m p o r t a n t c o n s t r u c t on average.  72  support  and encouragement from f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s , and/or t e a c h e r s ,  w i l l i n g n e s s t o i n v e s t time and energy i n t h e r o l e (commitment/ investment),  support  and encouragement from p a r e n t s and/or o t h e r f a m i l y  members, degree o f f i t w i t h view o f s e l f as a woman, o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n f l u e n c e o t h e r people (power), and knowing someone e l s e who does w e l l i n the r o l e ( r o l e model). Construct  importance may a l s o be a s s e s s e d  by examining t h e  c e n t r a l i t y ranks of the c o n s t r u c t s as determined by c o n s t r u c t interrelationships.  These i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n depth i n  the next s e c t i o n , I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s Between C o n s t r u c t s  (Question  3),  where t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f variance-in-common s c o r e s , from which c o n s t r u c t r e l a t i o n s are derived, i s described i n d e t a i l . The  d e r i v a t i o n o f c e n t r a l i t y ranks i s shown i n T a b l e 9.  f i r s t step i n d e t e r m i n i n g  The  c e n t r a l i t y was t o add up the mean  variance-in-common s c o r e s f o r each c o n s t r u c t .  The c o n s t r u c t w i t h t h e  h i g h e s t sum ( p e r s o n a l growth) i s the most c e n t r a l c o n s t r u c t i n the g r i d s o f t h i s group.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f each c o n s t r u c t t o t h e most c e n t r a l  c o n s t r u c t was assessed construct.  by i t s variance-in-common w i t h the most c e n t r a l  C o n s t r u c t s were rank o r d e r e d  the most c e n t r a l c o n s t r u c t .  according to t h e i r r e l a t i o n to  The c e n t r a l i t y ranks o f c o n s t r u c t s a r e  shown more c l e a r l y i n T a b l e 10. The  comparison of c e n t r a l i t y ranks (Table 10) w i t h s u b j e c t s '  o r i g i n a l rank o r d e r i n g s of c o n s t r u c t s (Table 8) served as a check on t h e o r i g i n a l importance r a n k i n g s .  A v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n of t h e two rank o r d e r  l i s t s i n d i c a t e s that the l i s t s are very s i m i l a r i n t h e i r o r d e r i n g of  Mean Variance-in-Common  Scores  IH ai  4-»  o u  B  >  - J3 c a)  u  CO a  3  o CO f-l UJ OH Achievement Personal  growth  Support:  partner  Affiliation Support: f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s , teachers Enjoyment Power Support: parents &/or other f a m i l y members Role  model  S e l f - e s t i m a t e of competence & success  X  O OH r-l P. CH r-t o 3 O c o u  o  CH OH  •H O in 3  o. S  ai •• 3 « 60 CU rJ 0)  u  5C u a  3 W CD U U CU co ,n OJ  •• a u r-» O rH  o  CH-H CH B  •o o  a o  fu  3 C O c/i «n  OS  37  16  26  64  26  5  32  23  X  37  23  41  42  38  21  X  22  28  30  21  21  X  24  41  11  12  X  31  34  24  X  27  20  X  17  •HOT CH CO CO 01 o1 CO cu CJ 0 I o CO m 3 H <H t-i co 60 rH 01 CU a co  o  Sums of Mean Variance -inCommon  Relation to Most Central  Scores  Construct  3  c Ranks  53  25  41  348  64  19  51  38  47  421  100  1  12  23  28  41  289  37  9  3  9  22  16  188  23  10  17  34  28  33  326  41  6  3 00  10  35  33  44  336  42  5  23  41  25  35  309  38  7.5  a 3 rt 1 CU  2  o CD 1 H* <  CI  X  7 X  22  22  30  212  21  11  26  13  21  177  19  12  X  37  48  379  51  3  X  40  311  38  7.5  X  396  47  4  Degree of f i t with view of s e l f as a woman Commitment/investment  ^ e a n variance-in-common scores were added f o r each c o n s t r u c t i n t h i s f i r s t step i n d e r i v i n g c e n t r a l i t y c o n s t r u c t with the highest sum ( p e r s o n a l growth) i s the most c e n t r a l c o n s t r u c t . b  b  u  T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of each c o n s t r u c t to the most c e n t r a l c o n s t r u c t was assessed central construct.  C o n s t r u c t s were rank ordered according t o t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o the most  ranks.  Hrt  |H  (0 vO  r? 3 CO  The  by i t s variance-in-common w i t h the  central construct.  i-3 01 cr  u>  T a b l e 10 C e n t r a l i t y Ranks of C o n s t r u c t s  Construct  C e n t r a l i t y Rank  P e r s o n a l growth  1  Achievement  2  S e l f - e s t i m a t e of competence & success  3  Commitment/investment  4  E n j oyment  5  Support: f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s &/or t e a c h e r s  6  Power  7.5  Degree of f i t w i t h view of s e l f as a woman  7.5  Support: p a r t n e r  9  Affiliation Support: p a r e n t s &/or members R o l e model  10 other  11 12  See T a b l e 9 f o r the d e r i v a t i o n of c e n t r a l i t y r a n k s . C o n s t r u c t s are ordered a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r r e l a t i o n to the most c e n t r a l c o n s t r u c t ( p e r s o n a l growth).  75  constructs.  The one c o n s t r u c t t h a t d i d move down i n importance,  a s s e s s e d i n terms of c e n t r a l i t y r a n k s , was  affiliation.  when  I t moved from  f i f t h most i m p o r t a n t c o n s t r u c t , i . e . , one of the s i x most i m p o r t a n t , t o t e n t h most i m p o r t a n t , i . e . , one of the s i x l e a s t i m p o r t a n t c o n s t r u c t s . T h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l i n the next  section,  I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s Between C o n s t r u c t s ( Q u e s t i o n 3 ) . A rank o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n c a l c u l a t e d between the two r e s u l t e d i n a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .73 level, two-tailed test).  lists  ( s i g n i f i c a n t a t the  .01  T h i s i s a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n and i n d i c a t e s a  s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t s ' o r i g i n a l rank o r d e r i n g s of c o n s t r u c t importance  and the rank o r d e r i n g d e r i v e d from g r i d  centrality  ranks. A c e n t r a l c o n s t r u c t has many s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r c o n s t r u c t s and a p e r i p h e r a l c o n s t r u c t has few and weak r e l a t i o n s (Cochran, Note 3 ) .  The more c e n t r a l a c o n s t r u c t i s , the more s t r o n g l y  i t w i l l i n f l u e n c e r o l e p r e f e r e n c e s , and hence the more s t r o n g l y i t w i l l influence l i f e role decisions.  T h i s group of s u b j e c t s , t h e n , appear t o  be s t r o n g l y m o t i v a t e d by a d e s i r e f o r p e r s o n a l growth.  This w i l l  be  d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l i n the next s e c t i o n ( Q u e s t i o n 3 ) .  I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s Between C o n s t r u c t s ( Q u e s t i o n 3 )  The  r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n , "For  t h i s group how this  ;  section.  a r e the c o n s t r u c t s r e l a t e d on average?"  are p r e s e n t e d i n  76  F o r each s u b j e c t t h e r a t i n g s o f r o l e s a c c o r d i n g t o each c o n s t r u c t were c a s t i n g r i d form. subject.  T h i s y i e l d e d one 12 x 12 g r i d f o r each  As t h e same 12 elements ( i . e . , r o l e t i t l e s o r d e s c r i p t i o n s )  were r a t e d by each s u b j e c t a c c o r d i n g t o each of the 12 c o n s t r u c t s , i n f e r e n c e s about the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c o n s t r u c t s f o r each s u b j e c t c o u l d be i n f e r r e d from t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between c o n s t r u c t s . Each s u b j e c t ' s r a t i n g s on each p a i r of c o n s t r u c t s were c o r r e l a t e d u s i n g a P e a r s o n product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n . c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x f o r each s u b j e c t .  T h i s y i e l d e d one  To a s s e s s  the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between c o n s t r u c t s a c r o s s s u b j e c t s the a b s o l u t e v a l u e  (maintaining  sign)  o f each c o r r e l a t i o n f o r each s u b j e c t was squared and m u l t i p l i e d by 100 y i e l d i n g a variance-in-common score f o r each p a i r of c o n s t r u c t s ( s e e Cochran, Note 3 f o r a f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s p r o c e d u r e ) . variance-in-common scores and s t a n d a r d  Average  d e v i a t i o n s were then computed f o r  the group o f 29 s u b j e c t s on each p a i r o f c o n s t r u c t s .  Each o f the  average variance-in-common s c o r e s was t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e u s i n g t h e t - t e s t f o r m u l a o f mean minus zero d i v i d e d by the s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f the mean.  A l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e of jp_ < .05 was accepted  e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e o f t h i s study.  because of t h e  Because 66 s i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t s were  done, the B o n f e r r o n i i n e q u a l i t y f o r m u l t i p l e comparisons (Dunn, 1961; M a r a s c u i l o & L e v i n , 1983) was used i n o r d e r t o s p l i t t h e r i s k o f a Type I e r r o r a c r o s s the 66 t e s t s .  The average variance-in-common s c o r e s a r e  r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 11. Use of variance-in-common s c o r e s i n a n a l y s e s  of r e p e r t o r y g r i d  data, although i t represents a non-standard a p p l i c a t i o n of i n f e r e n t i a l  77  s t a t i s t i c s ( w i t h r e s p e c t t o assumptions of i n d e p e n d e n c e ) , i s j u s t i f i e d by precedent ( B a n n i s t e r & M a i r , 1968; Cochran, 1978, 1981; Cochran, Note 3) and by the e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e  o f t h i s study.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h e  r e s u l t s must, t h e r e f o r e , be made t e n t a t i v e l y , b e a r i n g these c a u t i o n s i n mind. An e x a m i n a t i o n of Table 11 r e v e a l s t h a t almost a l l of t h e c o n s t r u c t p a i r s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d .  Of t h e 66 s i g n i f i c a n c e  t e s t s done o n l y seven c o n s t r u c t p a i r s were found t o be not s i g n i f i c a n t l y related.  The c o n s t r u c t p a i r s w h i c h were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d were:  a f f i l i a t i o n - achievement, a f f i l i a t i o n - power, a f f i l i a t i o n parents  support:  and/or o t h e r f a m i l y members, a f f i l i a t i o n - r o l e model,  a f f i l i a t i o n - s e l f - e s t i m a t e of competence and s u c c e s s , model, and support:  parents  enjoyment - r o l e  and/or o t h e r f a m i l y members - r o l e model.  A more i l l u m i n a t i n g d i s c u s s i o n of these c o n s t r u c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v o l v e s an e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A  simple  guide t o the s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s t o c o n s i d e r a variance-in-common s c o r e over 50 as i n d i c a t i v e of a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , a score between 26 and 49 as moderate, and a score below 25 and s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t as m i l d o r weak.  T a b l e s 12 t h r o u g h 17 show t h e s t r e n g t h of  each c o n s t r u c t ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o each of the other The  constructs.  s t r o n g e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were between p e r s o n a l  growth,  achievement, and s e l f - e s t i m a t e of competence and success (see T a b l e s 12 & 1 3 ) . These t h r e e c o n s t r u c t s were a l l s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r . They were, i n f a c t , the o n l y t h r e e c o n s t r u c t s w i t h such s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( i . e . , w i t h variance-in-common s c o r e s over 5 0 ) .  78 Table 11  Average I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s Between C o n s t r u c t s  OJ  u  OJ  00  .e 4J o  0) 4J  3 to OJ — I 1 r-H  t4  <u S  >  00  tO o.  ffl c  •• u u o o.  U  CO co  16* 22  26* 23  38* 25  21* 25  30* 24  21* 21  24* 25  41* 24  X X  <  O J= o. a a to 3 a) cn 4J  CU  3 o  0 i-' a e 3 to CO "4-1  U  0)  o co v < OJ CM  a 3 co  SD  64* 26  26* 28  5 21  32* 23  23* 24  37* 26  SD  X X  37* 30  23* 29  41* 27  42* 29  X X  22* 24  28* 27  X X  0) •H  CO ca  tO OJ a 6 • •a 4J  4J  c OJ s >N 0 c  •H — I 1 •rH 44  01 4J  01  rH  to  .. co 4J U  • r4 4-1  o to E •rf to 4J tO to O J OJ u 1 cj •4-1 3 r-4 tO  c o  fr  u a  V4  a. B  0 \ i« to 4-1 3 Uto OJ  to •a c OJ  c •u  OJ  M  o a  u 3 o  u c  01  r-1 OJ  •3 0 a  tu 0 3 OJ •H  >  4J • H  3 j-i •H u-i  3 to e O 3  (4-1  CO  0)  to to  o OJ  l-i M-4 60 i-l OJ 0) to  o  53* 25  25* 28  41* 28  19* 18  51* 31  38* 30  47* 28  21* 27  12* 16  23* 24  28* 24  41* 27  11 21  12 25  3 20  9 24  22* 31  16* 20  31* 23  34* 25  24* 24  17* 22  34* 23  28* 36  33* 26  X X  27* 22  20* 26  10 19  35* 31  33* 27  44 23  X X  17* 19  23* 24  41* 25  25* 26  35* 22  7 12  22* 24  22* 29  30* 26  X X  26* 23  13* 18  21* 25  S e l f - e s t i m a t e of competence & success SD  37* 36  48* 28  Degree of f i t w i t h view of s e l f as a woman SD  X X  40* 33  JS u  <  Achievement  Personal  Support:  growth  partner SD  Affiliation SD Support: f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s , teachers SD Enjoyment SD Power SD Support: parents &/or o t h e r f a m i l y members SD Role  model SD  Commitment/investment SD  t*H  OJ  OJ  O  0)  a  X X  Note: F o r each s u b j e c t the 12 c o n s t r u c t s were i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d . The a b s o l u t e v a l u e ( m a i n t a i n i n g s i g n ) of each c o r r e l a t i o n was squared and m u l t i p l i e d by 100 t o compute a variance-in-common score f o r each p a i r of c o n s t r u c t s . Average variance-in-common scores and standard d e v i a t i o n s were then computed f o r the group of 29 s u b j e c t s . The above scores represent these means and standard d e v i a t i o n s . Decimals are rounded o f f to present whole numbers. * S i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l ( t w o - t a i l e d t e s t ) u s i n g the B o n f e r r o n i i n e q u a l i t y procedure (Dunn, 1961; M a r a s c u i l o & L e v i n , 1983) i n which the experiment-wise e r r o r rate f o r a l l 66 s i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t s i s <^ .05 ( i . e . , p r o b a b i l i t y of Type I e r r o r i s < .05).  79  The weakest r e l a t i o n s h i p s were e v i d e n c e d a f f i l i a t i o n , r o l e model, and support members (see Tables  by t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f  from p a r e n t s  and/or other f a m i l y  13 & 1 4 ) . These t h r e e c o n s t r u c t s were, on t h e  whole, o n l y weakly r e l a t e d t o the m a j o r i t y of the other  constructs  and/or n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o a few c o n s t r u c t s . The support and  c o n s t r u c t s o f powers, enjoyment, support  from p a r t n e r ,  from f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s , and/or t e a c h e r s , commitment/investment  degree of f i t w i t h view of s e l f as a woman showed moderate t o weak  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h most o t h e r c o n s t r u c t s ( s e e T a b l e s  15, 16, & 1 7 ) .  As p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , p e r s o n a l growth was on average the most c e n t r a l c o n s t r u c t f o r t h i s group, f o l l o w e d by achievement and s e l f - e s t i m a t e of competence. c o n s t r u c t o f p e r s o n a l growth.  A l l other c o n s t r u c t s r e v o l v e d around t h e As p e r s o n a l growth was v e r y s t r o n g l y  r e l a t e d t o achievement (note the v e r y l a r g e variance-in-common s c o r e o f 64 between these two c o n s t r u c t s ) and s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o s e l f - e s t i m a t e of competence (variance-in-common score of 5 1 ) , i t can be s a i d t h a t on average t h i s group o f women view p e r s o n a l growth predominantly of achievement.  i n terms  T h e i r b e l i e f s about t h e i r a b i l i t y t o succeed s t r o n g l y  i n f l u e n c e t h e c o n t e x t s i n which they choose t o a c h i e v e and thus t o grow as persons.  Their confidence  i n themselves as competent p r o f e s s i o n a l s  was i n d i c a t e d by t h e i r r o l e p r e f e r e n c e s  (Tables 6 & 7) and t h e i r s t a t e d  f i v e year p r o f e s s i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s ( T a b l e s 3, 4, & 5 ) .  Three o f t h e i r  s i x most p r e f e r r e d r o l e s were p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e s ( i . e . , p r o f e s s i o n o f h i g h e s t a s p i r a t i o n , expected p r o f e s s i o n , and graduate s t u d e n t ) and, as a group, they a s p i r e d t o r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l c a r e e r s .  80  Table 12 S t r e n g t h of R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between C o n s t r u c t s ( P e r s o n a l Growth and Achievement)  Variance-in-Common Scores Personal  Growth  Strongly related to  Achievement S e l f - e s t i m a t e of competence  Moderately r e l a t e d to  Commitment/investment Enjoyment Support: f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s , Power Degree of f i t w i t h view of s e l f as a woman Support: p a r t n e r  Weakly related  to  Affiliation Support: parents, Role model  and success  teachers  64* 51* 47* 42* 41* 38*' 38* 37*  other f a m i l y members  23* 21* 19*  Achievement Strongly related to  P e r s o n a l growth S e l f - e s t i m a t e of competence  Moderately r e l a t e d to  Commitment/investment Power Support: f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s , teachers Support: p a r t n e r Role model  41* 37* 32* 26* 26*  Weakly related  Degree of f i t w i t h view of s e l f as a woman Support: p a r e n t s , other f a m i l y members Enjoyment  25*  to  Not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to  and success  Affiliation  64* 53*  16* 23* 5  Note: A strong r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i n d i c a t e d by a variance-in-common score over 50, a moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p by a score between 26 and 49, and a weak r e l a t i o n s h i p by a score under 25 (but s t i l l significantly related). *Signifleant  at the .05 l e v e l using the B o n f e r r o n i  inequality  procedure.  81  Table 13 S t r e n g t h o f R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between C o n s t r u c t s ( S e l f - E s t i m a t e of Competence and Success and A f f i l i a t i o n )  Variance-in-Common Scores S e l f - E s t i m a t e of Competence  and Success  Strongly r e l a t e d to  Achievement P e r s o n a l growth  53* 51*  Moderately related to  Commitment/investment Power Degree of f i t w i t h view of s e l f as a woman Enjoyment Support: f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s , teachers Role model  48* 41* 37* 35* 34* 26*  Support: Support:  23* 22*  Weakly related  to  Not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to  partner p a r e n t s , other f a m i l y members  Affiliation  9  Affiliation Moderately related to  Enjoyment  41*  Weakly related  Support: f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s , teachers P e r s o n a l growth Support: p a r t n e r Degree o f f i t w i t h view of s e l f as a woman Commitment/investment  24* 23* 22* 22*  Support: p a r e n t s , other f a m i l y members Power S e l f - e s t i m a t e of competence and success Achievement Role model  12 11 9 5 3  to  Not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to  16*  Note: A s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i n d i c a t e d by a variance-in-common score over 50, a moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p by a score between 26 and 49, and a weak r e l a t i o n s h i p by a score under 25 (but s t i l l significantly related). * S i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l u s i n g the B o n f e r r o n i i n e q u a l i t y  procedure.  82  Table 14 S t r e n g t h of R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between C o n s t r u c t s (Role Model and Support: P a r e n t s , Other Family Members)  Variance-in-Common Scores Role Model Moderately r e l a t e d to  Achievement S e l f - e s t i m a t e of competence and success  26* 26*  Weakly related  Power Commitment/investment P e r s o n a l growth Support: f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s , teachers Degree of f i t w i t h view of s e l f as a woman Support: p a r t n e r  23* 21* 19* 17*  Enjoyment Support: p a r e n t s , other f a m i l y members Affiliation  10 7 3  to  Not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to  Support:  13* 12*  P a r e n t s , Other F a m i l y Members  Moderately related to  Commitment/investment  30*  Weakly related  Support: f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s , teachers S e l f - e s t i m a t e of competence and success Degree of f i t w i t h view of s e l f as a woman P e r s o n a l growth Support: p a r t n e r Enjoyment Power Achievement  24* 22* 22* 21* 21* 20* 17* 16*  Affiliation Role model  12 7  to  Not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to  Note: A s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i n d i c a t e d by a variance-in-common score over 50, a moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p by a score between 26 and 49, and a weak r e l a t i o n s h i p by a score under 25 (but s t i l l significantly related). • S i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l u s i n g the B o n f e r r o n i i n e q u a l i t y  procedure.  83  Table 15 S t r e n g t h of R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between C o n s t r u c t s (Power and Enjoyment)  Variance-in-Common Scores Power Moderately r e l a t e d to  S e l f - e s t i m a t e of competence P e r s o n a l growth Achievement Commi tment/investment Support: f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s , teachers Enj oyment  41* 38* 37* 35* 34* 27*  Weakly related to  Degree of f i t w i t h view of s e l f as a woman Role model Support: p a r t n e r  25* 23* 21* 17*  Support: p a r e n t s , other f a m i l y members Not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to  11  Affiliation  Enj oyment Moderately R e l a t e d to  Weakly related to Not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to  Commitment/investment P e r s o n a l growth Affiliation S e l f - e s t i m a t e of competence and success Degree of f i t w i t h view of s e l f as a woman Support: f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s , teachers Support: p a r t n e r Power  44* 42* 41* 35* 33*  Achievement  23* 20*  31* 30* 27*  Support: p a r e n t s , other f a m i l y members Role  10  model  Note: A s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i n d i c a t e d by a variance-in-common score over 50, a moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p by a score between 26 and 49, and a weak r e l a t i o n s h i p by a score under 25 (but s t i l l significantly related). *Signifleant  a t the .05 l e v e l u s i n g the B o n f e r r o n i i n e q u a l i t y  procedure.  84  Table 16 S t r e n g t h of R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between C o n s t r u c t s (Support: P a r t n e r and Support: F r i e n d s , C o l l e a g u e s , T e a c h e r s )  Variance-in-Common Scores Support: P a r t n e r Moderately related to  Weakly related  to  Commitment/investment P e r s o n a l growth Enjoyment Degree o f f i t w i t h view of s e l f as a woman Support: f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s , teachers Achievement  41* 37* 30* 28*  S e l f - e s t i m a t e of competence and success Power Affiliation Support: parents, other f a m i l y members Role Model  23* 21* 22* 21* 12*  28* 26*  Support: F r i e n d s , C o l l e a g u e s , Teachers Moderately related to  P e r s o n a l growth S e l f - e s t i m a t e of competence and success Power Commitment/investment Achievement Enjoyment Support: p a r t n e r Degree of f i t w i t h view of s e l f as a woman  41* 34* 34* 33* 32* 31* 28* 28*  Weakly related  Support: p a r e n t s , other f a m i l y members Affiliation Role model  24* 24* 17*  to  Note: A s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i n d i c a t e d by a variance-in-common score over 50, a moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p by a score between 26 and 49, and a weak r e l a t i o n s h i p by a score under 25 (but s t i l l significantly related). •Significant  at the .05 l e v e l u s i n g the B o n f e r r o n i i n e q u a l i t y  procedure.  85  Table 17 Strength of Relationships Between Constructs (Commitment/Investment and Degree of F i t with View of Self as a Woman) Variance-in-Common Scores Commitment/Investment Moderately related to  Weakly related to  Self-estimate of competence and success Personal growth Enjoyment Support: partner Achievement Degree of f i t with view of self as a woman Power Support: friends, colleagues, teachers Support: parents, other family members  48* 47* 44* 41* 41* 40*  Affiliation Role Model  16* 21*  35* 33* 30*  Degree of F i t with View of Self as a Woman Moderately related to  Commitment/investment Personal growth Self-estimate of competence and success Enj oyment Support: partner Support: friends, colleagues, teachers  40* 38* 37* 33* 28* 28*  Weakly related to  Power Achievement Support: parents, other family members Affiliation Role model  25* 25* 22* 22* 13*  Note: A strong relationship i s indicated by a variance-in-common score over 50, a moderate relationship by a score between 26 and 49, and a weak relationship by a score under 25 (but s t i l l significantly related). *Signifleant at the .05 level using the Bonferroni inequality  procedure.  86  Affiliation,  on t h e o t h e r hand, was a c o m p a r a t i v e l y  c o n s t r u c t i n the meaning-schemes o f these women. w h i c h i t was moderately r e l a t e d was enjoyment.  peripheral  The o n l y c o n s t r u c t t o  I t was o n l y weakly  r e l a t e d t o f i v e o f the other c o n s t r u c t s , and was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o support:  p a r e n t s and/or o t h e r f a m i l y members, power,  s e l f - e s t i m a t e of competence, achievement, and r o l e model.  This pattern  o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n d i c a t e s t h a t these women view a f f i l i a t i o n  ( i . e . , the  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r warm, f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) as f u n but n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l f o r g e t t i n g ahead i n achievement c o n t e x t s .  This  p a t t e r n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s becomes even more e v i d e n t when i n f o r m a t i o n from the c o n s t r u c t importance r a n k i n g s ranks (Table 10) i s added.  (Table 8) and from t h e c e n t r a l i t y  Affiliation  was the f i f t h most  important  c o n s t r u c t on average a c c o r d i n g t o t h e o r i g i n a l c o n s t r u c t importance rankings.  T h i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t a f f i l i a t i o n  i s f a i r l y important t o  t h i s group o f women i n t h e c o n t e x t of r o l e s .  However, an e x a m i n a t i o n o f  the c e n t r a l i t y ranks r e v e a l s t h a t a f f i l i a t i o n  dropped i n importance t o  p o s i t i o n number 10. Hence, a l t h o u g h important  they s a i d t h a t a f f i l i a t i o n was  t o them, when they a c t u a l l y performed t h e t a s k of e v a l u a t i n g  r o l e s a c c o r d i n g t o each o f t h e c o n s t r u c t s a f f i l i a t i o n the l e a s t i m p o r t a n t  came out as one o f  considerations.  C o n f l i c t ( Q u e s t i o n 4).  Each o f t h e t h r e e p a r t s o f Q u e s t i o n measurement o f c o n f l i c t .  4 a r e concerned w i t h t h e  The f i r s t p a r t of Q u e s t i o n  4 was concerned  87  w i t h t h e measurement o f o v e r a l l c o n f l i c t i n t h e c o n s t r u i n g o f l i f e alternatives.  role  T h i s p a r t of the q u e s t i o n r e a d , "What i s the o v e r a l l  l e v e l o f c o n f l i c t f o r t h i s group, i . e . , t o what e x t e n t a r e c o n s t r u c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n harmony or i n c o n f l i c t ? " A c o n f l i c t r a t i o was computed f o r each s u b j e c t by s q u a r i n g and a d d i n g a l l the n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between c o n s t r u c t s and then d i v i d i n g t h i s sum by the o v e r a l l sum o f squared c o r r e l a t i o n s between constructs. computed. .069).  S u b s e q u e n t l y , the average c o n f l i c t r a t i o f o r the group was The mean c o n f l i c t r a t i o was .049 ( s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f  T h i s means t h a t about 5% of the variance-in-common among  c o n s t r u c t s was n e g a t i v e o r c o n f l i c t i n g .  T h i s i s a v e r y low l e v e l o f  c o n f l i c t i n d i c a t i n g t h a t f o r t h e group as a whole c o n s t r u c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e q u i t e harmonious.  I t may thus be s a i d t h a t on average  t h i s group i s c o n f l i c t - f r e e i n i t s o v e r a l l c o n s t r u i n g of l i f e alternatives. The any  role  T h e i r d e c i s i o n a l schemes r e f l e c t very l i t t l e ambivalence.  second p a r t of Q u e s t i o n  s p e c i f i c p a i r s of c o n s t r u c t s .  4 was concerned w i t h c o n f l i c t between T h i s q u e s t i o n r e a d , "For t h i s group,  do any o f the c o n s t r u c t s c o n f l i c t w i t h each o t h e r i n the o v e r a l l c o n s t r u i n g o f l i f e r o l e a l t e r n a t i v e s ? " The mean c o n f l i c t r a t i o o f .049 i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was v e r y l i t t l e c o n f l i c t between c o n s t r u c t s i n general.  An e x a m i n a t i o n  o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c o n s t r u c t p a i r s as  measured by the variance-in-common s c o r e s (Table 11) r e v e a l e d t h a t were no n e g a t i v e  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c o n s t r u c t s .  there  T h i s absence o f  n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c o n s t r u c t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were no c o n f l i c t s between s p e c i f i c p a i r s o f c o n s t r u c t s .  This i s another  88  i n d i c a t o r of a c l e a r l y f o r m u l a t e d d e c i s i o n scheme c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e absence of ambivalence  and c o n f l i c t .  The t h i r d p a r t of Q u e s t i o n 4 was concerned actual role conflict.  w i t h p o t e n t i a l or  T h i s p a r t of the q u e s t i o n r e a d , "As judged by the  r o l e sums, f o r which r o l e s i s c o n f l i c t i n d i c a t e d ? "  To answer t h i s  q u e s t i o n the average r o l e sums f o r the group ( T a b l e 7) were examined f o r n e g a t i v i t y and f o r congruence o f t h e o v e r a l l p a t t e r n o f r o l e  preferences  (as per r o l e sums) w i t h i t s e l f and w i t h v a l u e p r i o r i t i e s expressed i n c o n s t r u c t importance  r a n k i n g s and c e n t r a l i t y .  The o n l y r o l e viewed n e g a t i v e l y was t h a t of homemaker (mean r o l e sum was - 1 0 . 3 ) .  T h i s n e g a t i v e s c o r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t on an average t h e  women i n t h i s group expect n e g a t i v e consequences i n the r o l e of homemaker.  As t h i s r o l e r e c e i v e d both p r e f e r e n c e and p r e f e r a b i l i t y  ranks of 12 t h i s n e g a t i v e view of homemaker i s congruent w i t h the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n of r o l e p r e f e r e n c e s . The r e s t of the r o l e s were viewed w i t h v a r y i n g degrees o f positivity.  The r o l e s of p r o f e s s i o n of h i g h e s t a s p i r a t i o n and expected  p r o f e s s i o n were the most p o s i t i v e l y viewed, w i t h mean r o l e sums of 15.7 and  13.5, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The p a t t e r n of r o l e p r e f e r e n c e s a c c o r d i n g to the r o l e sums was  congruent w i t h t h e group's s t r o n g v a l u i n g of p e r s o n a l growth l i n k e d t o achievement.  The two most p r e f e r r e d r o l e s ( p r o f e s s i o n of  h i g h e s t a s p i r a t i o n and expected p r o f e s s i o n ) a r e r o l e s w h i c h w i l l  enable  them to r e a l i z e t h e i r most c e n t r a l v a l u e s ( d e s i r e f o r p e r s o n a l growth and  achievement).  89  These women d i d n o t appear t o a n t i c i p a t e c o n f l i c t i n t h e l i v i n g out of t h e i r most p r e f e r r e d l i f e p l a n s . analyzed,  No m a t t e r how the g r i d was  d i r e c t a t t i t u d i n a l c o n f l i c t c o u l d n o t be found.  However, t h e  makings o f c o n f l i c t may be seen i n comparing the r o l e sums o f p r o f e s s i o n o f h i g h e s t a s p i r a t i o n ( 1 5 . 7 ) , expected p r o f e s s i o n ( 1 3 . 5 ) ,  partner/wife  ( 1 1 . 1 ) , mother ( 5 . 5 ) , and homemaker (-10.3) and s p e c u l a t i n g what  life  w i l l be l i k e f o r these women when they a r e a c t u a l l y s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n these c a r e e r and f a m i l y r o l e s .  As t h e p r e f e r r e d p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e s  r e a l l y do n o t have a r i v a l i n terms of i m p o r t a n c e , c o n f l i c t may occur when a d d i t i o n a l r o l e s , w i t h t h e i r demands f o r l i m i t e d t i m e , energy, and r e s o u r c e s , a r e assumed.  90  CHAPTER V  D i s c u s s i o n o f R e s u l t s and C o n c l u s i o n s  D i s c u s s i o n s and C o n c l u s i o n s  T h i s e x p l o r a t o r y study used a b i o d e m o g r a p h i c a l a v a r i a n t o f K e l l y ' s (1955) r e p e r t o r y g r i d t e c h n i q u e  q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t o examine t h e l i f e  r o l e a s p i r a t i o n s ( c a r e e r , home and f a m i l y , and p e r s o n a l ) o f a group o f h i g h a b i l i t y women i n Commerce and Law and t o d e s c r i b e how t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s seemed t o i n f l u e n c e t h e i r aspirations.  role  career  The most s a l i e n t r e s u l t s , t h e ones w h i c h added most  s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the shape, c o l o u r , and t e x t u r e of the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n o f f i n d i n g s , have been drawn out f o r d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s  chapter.  The women i n t h i s group, almost u n i l a t e r a l l y , were a s p i r i n g t o r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l demanding c a r e e r s f o r t h e next f i v e y e a r p e r i o d o f their lives.  A l l of t h e i r s t a t e d c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s were near the top  o f t h e s c a l e on t h e socioeconomic ( B l i s h e n & McRoberts, 1976). 1970,  1972; Ohlsen,  index f o r occupations  i n Canada  P r e v i o u s t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h ( e . g . H o r n e r ,  1968) had put f o r t h t h e i d e a t h a t even, and perhaps  p a r t i c u l a r l y , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d women w i l l lower t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s f o r success  i n achievement c o n t e x t s because such success  conflicts with  91  t r a d i t i o n a l s e x r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and t h r e a t e n s s u c c e s s i n more a f f i l i a t i v e contexts ( i . e . , love, marriage, f a m i l y ) .  I n a d d i t i o n , the  l i t e r a t u r e had i n d i c a t e d t h a t home/career c o n f l i c t o r r o l e a crucial factor affecting  c o n f l i c t was  women's c a r e e r involvement and t h a t i t o f t e n  c o n t r i b u t e d t o lowered c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s (Farmer, 1971, 1978; Farmer & Bonn, 1970; H a l l , 1975;  H a l l & Gordon, 1973; O'Leary, 1974, 1977; S t a k e ,  1979b). B e a r i n g these f i n d i n g s of p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i n mind, one of t h e o r i g i n a l purposes of t h e p r e s e n t study was, i f p o s s i b l e , t o d i v i d e t h e subjects into aspiring  two groups based on a s p i r a t i o n  vs lower a s p i r i n g ) .  level (i.e.,  higher  Comparisons would then have been made  between the two groups based on a s p e c t s o f r o l e  c o n s t r u a l and c o n f l i c t .  T h i s was, o f c o u r s e , n o t p o s s i b l e because o f u n i f o r m l y h i g h a s p i r a t i o n s of v i r t u a l l y a l l t h e s u b j e c t s . Lowered a s p i r a t i o n s due t o c o n f l i c t w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and home/career c o n f l i c t appeared, from the r e s u l t s  of t h i s  s t u d y , t o be t o t a l l y a l i e n and o u t d a t e d concepts w i t h w h i c h t o approach the  study o f these h i g h a b i l i t y women.  They were an e s s e n t i a l l y  homogenous group i n terms of c o n f l i c t - f r e e  career a s p i r a t i o n s .  seemed t o be "marching t o the beat of a d i f f e r e n t When the g r i d s were examined f o r c o n f l i c t  drum" ( t h e i r own!).  (using negative  between c o n s t r u c t s , the c o n f l i c t r a t i o , and the r o l e of d i r e c t  They  relationships  sums), no e v i d e n c e  a t t i t u d i n a l c o n f l i c t about l i f e r o l e s and more s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  about t h e i r h i g h c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s , c o u l d be found. Another s i g n i f i c a n t  finding  o f t h i s study was t h a t t h e most  92  c e n t r a l v a l u e and m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r f o r these women appeared t o be t h e i r d e s i r e f o r p e r s o n a l growth.  Personal  growth ( o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p e r s o n a l  growth) was on average t h e most c e n t r a l c o n s t r u c t i n t h i s group's r o l e c o n s t r u a l , f o l l o w e d by achievement ( o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c c o m p l i s h c h a l l e n g i n g g o a l s ) and s e l f - e s t i m a t e of competence and success ( l i k e l i h o o d of competence and success i n t h e r o l e ) .  The s t r o n g  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p e r s o n a l growth t o achievement (variance-in-common o f 64) and t o s e l f - e s t i m a t e of competence (variance-in-common of 51) i n d i c a t e d t h a t these women viewed p e r s o n a l growth p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n terms of achievement and t h a t they r e l i e d h e a v i l y on t h e i r own e v a l u a t i o n s o f themselves. T h e i r most c e n t r a l v a l u e s f o r p e r s o n a l growth and achievement, a l o n g w i t h t h e i r b e l i e f s about t h e i r competence and a b i l i t y t o succeed, seemed t o s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e the c o n t e x t s i n which they planned t o achieve  and t o grow as p e r s o n s .  Their confidence  i n themselves as  competent p r o f e s s i o n a l s was i n d i c a t e d by t h e i r r o l e p r e f e r e n c e s and stated career a s p i r a t i o n s .  Three o f t h e i r s i x most p r e f e r r e d r o l e s were  p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e s ( i . e . , p r o f e s s i o n of h i g h e s t a s p i r a t i o n , expected p r o f e s s i o n , and graduate s t u d e n t ) and, as a group, they a s p i r e d t o r e l a t i v e l y high l e v e l careers. p r e f e r r e d r o l e s , although  The r e m a i n i n g  t h r e e of t h e i r s i x most  secondary i n i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e i r p r e f e r r e d  c a r e e r s , were f r i e n d , p a r t n e r / w i f e , and p e r s o n a l w e l l - b e i n g and enjoyment, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t they were p l a n n i n g  l i v e s balancing the  p e r s o n a l and t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l . The next f i n d i n g t h a t i s o f i n t e r e s t i s t h e r e l a t i v e l y p e r i p h e r a l  93  p o s i t i o n of a f f i l i a t i o n  ( o p p o r t u n i t y f o r warm, f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s ) i n  the meaning scheme of t h i s group of women (importance  rank of 5,  c e n t r a l i t y rank of 10, weakly o r n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e other c o n s t r u c t s ) .  T h i s f i n d i n g , combined w i t h t h e  p r e v i o u s l y stated pattern of f i n d i n g s , i s i n contrast t o previous r e s e a r c h and theory which has suggested t h a t a f f i l i a t i v e primary  motivators  B a i l e y , 1973).  f o r women (Hoffman, 1972;  concerns a r e  Horner, 1970, 1972; S t e i n &  T h i s d i s c r e p a n c y may perhaps be accounted f o r by t h e  f a c t t h a t these a r e h i g h l y competent and independent women who want t o , take p l e a s u r e i n , and can a c h i e v e efforts.  t h e i r g o a l s through t h e i r own  B e i n g warm and f r i e n d l y may n o t be s a l i e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r  them because they do n o t have t o e n l i s t the h e l p of o t h e r s t o meet t h e i r needs.  I n a d d i t i o n , most o f these women a r e a t a l i f e  stage and i n l i f e  s i t u a t i o n s where " p r a c t i c a l " ( i n c o n t r a s t t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l ) r o l e c o n f l i c t i s not a strong  factor.  I t seems i m p o r t a n t  t o note here t h a t these comments i n r e g a r d t o  a f f i l i a t i o n do not mean t h a t these women a r e n o t , o r cannot be, warm and friendly.  Observations  of t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h each other and w i t h  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e a d m i n i s t r a t o r j u s t p r i o r t o and a f t e r data s e s s i o n s r e v e a l e d a group of f r i e n d l y , o u t - g o i n g , The  collection  and i n t e r e s t e d women.  f a c t t h a t t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r warm, f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s was  m o d e r a t e l y r e l a t e d t o enjoyment, and t h a t t h e e s s e n t i a l l y  affiliative  r o l e s o f f r i e n d and p a r t n e r / w i f e were among t h e s i x most p r e f e r r e d r o l e s seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t these women do enjoy and v a l u e warm, f r i e n d l y relationships.  I t i s p o s s i b l e , though, t h a t they may have l e a r n e d , i n  94  t h e i r s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t o the w o r l d o f b u s i n e s s , t h a t demonstrated p r o f e s s i o n a l competence and d e s i r e and a b i l i t y t o a c h i e v e a r e more e f f e c t i v e p a s s p o r t s t o success than a r e b e i n g warm and f r i e n d l y . would be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Hennig and J a r d i m ' s  This  (1977) d e s c r i p t i o n of  s u c c e s s f u l women i n b u s i n e s s : Embedded i n the r e l a t i o n s h p s they e s t a b l i s h e d was an i s s u e o f c r i t i c a l importance  t o t h e i r f u t u r e management  success:  they a l r e a d y r e c o g n i z e d , p r o b a b l y w i t h o u t even q u e s t i o n i n g why, t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e t o develop w o r k i n g  relationships  w i t h men on a b a s i s of competence and i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y , t h a t they d i d not need t o base r e l a t i o n s h i p s on p e r s o n a l t i e s or even n e c e s s a r i l y on l i k i n g .  Where two  men might h o l d p o s i t i o n s on a f o o t b a l l team, work t o g e t h e r s u c c e s s f u l l y d u r i n g t h e game and d i s l i k e each o t h e r throughout,  i n q u i t e d i f f e r e n t circumstances  same approach,  they used t h e  (p. I l l )  A n o t h e r f i n d i n g o f note i s the r e l a t i v e l a c k of (importance  importance  rank of 12) and c e n t r a l i t y ( c e n t r a l i t y rank of 12) of t h e  c o n s t r u c t r o l e model (knowing someone e l s e who does w e l l i n t h e r o l e ) . P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has emphasized the importance  of r o l e models t o  women's c a r e e r achievement ( A l m q u i s t & A n g r i s t , 1971; O'Leary, 1977; S t a k e , 1981).  In accounting f o r t h i s discrepancy, s e v e r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s  come t o mind.  The f i r s t i s t h a t the l i s t of 12 c o n s t r u c t s p r o v i d e d i n  t h i s study may indeed have been 12 v e r y i m p o r t a n t c o n s t r u c t s t o t h i s group of women.  When p r i o r i t i z e d , though, knowing someone e l s e who does  95  w e l l i n t h e r o l e may have been seen by t h i s group as t h e l e a s t i m p o r t a n t of  12 v e r y i m p o r t a n t c o n s t r u c t s .  I n a d d i t i o n , knowing someone e l s e who  does w e l l i n t h e r o l e i s a f a i r l y l i m i t e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e concept of  r o l e model.  F o r example, f o r the purpose o f t h e i r s t u d y , Basow and  Howe (1980) d e f i n e d a r o l e model as "someone whose l i f e and a c t i v i t i e s i n f l u e n c e d t h e respondent i n s p e c i f i c l i f e d e c i s i o n s . can  This influence  be e i t h e r p o s i t i v e ( e . g . , t h e s u b j e c t a c t i v e l y wants t o be l i k e  someone) o r n e g a t i v e ( t h e s u b j e c t a c t i v e l y does not want t o be l i k e someone)" ( p . 5 5 9 ) . I f , f o r t h e purpose o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , r o l e model had been o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i n b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e terms and as w a n t i n g o r n o t w a n t i n g t o be l i k e someone, two c o n s t r u c t s would have been used f o r the concept of r o l e model ( i . e . , knowing and w a n t i n g t o be l i k e someone who i s / h a s been i n t h e r o l e ; knowing and n o t w a n t i n g t o be l i k e someone who i s / h a s been i n the r o l e ) .  One or b o t h of these  expanded d e f i n i t i o n s of a r o l e model may have been ranked as more i m p o r t a n t than the d e f i n i t i o n t h a t was used i n t h i s s t u d y . Another p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the r e l a t i v e l a c k of importance of knowing someone e l s e who does w e l l i n the r o l e i s t h a t  this  p a r t i c u l a r group o f women may n o t need o r v a l u e m o d e l l i n g a f t e r o t h e r s . They a r e a h i g h l y c a p a b l e , s e l e c t group o f women.  Itis a  m e t h o d o l o g i c a l m i s t a k e t o r e g a r d women as a homogenous group and i t may be a m i s t a k e t o w r i t e about c a r e e r s f o r "women".  R a t h e r , one might  w r i t e about t h e c a r e e r s of h i g h a b i l i t y women i n b u s i n e s s c a r e e r s . t h e i r s t r e n g t h and c o n f i d e n t s e l f - r e l i a n c e they may be c h a r t i n g own i n d i v i d u a l c o u r s e s i n t o new t e r r i t o r y .  In  their  96  E v i d e n c e t o support t h i s h y p o t h e s i s o f s t r o n g independence and self-reliance  may be found i n an e x a m i n a t i o n of the c e n t r a l i t y ranks o f  c o n s t r u c t s ( T a b l e 10).  The f i v e most i m p o r t a n t c o n s t r u c t s , i n  d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r o f c e n t r a l i t y , a r e : p e r s o n a l growth,  achievement,  s e l f - e s t i m a t e o f competence and s u c c e s s , commitment/investment, and enjoyment.  The n a t u r e o f these c o n s t r u c t s i n d i c a t e t h a t these women  r e l y most h e a v i l y on themselves and t h e i r own b e l i e f s , and make c h o i c e s based p r i m a r i l y on t h e i r own needs.  They appear t o s e t c l e a r g o a l s t o  w h i c h they a r e commited i n arenas w h i c h w i l l meet t h e i r needs f o r p e r s o n a l growth and achievement.  They seem t o do so because they  b e l i e v e they w i l l be competent and s u c c e s s f u l i n these p u r s u i t s and t h a t they w i l l enjoy themselves  i n the process.  Any encouragement, s u p p o r t ,  and m o d e l l i n g t h a t they a n t i c i p a t e r e c e i v i n g from o t h e r s ( c o n s t r u c t c e n t r a l i t y ranks of 6, 9, 11, and 12) seems t o be secondary i n importance t o t h e i r p r i m a r y b e l i e f i n and encouragement o f themselves. The  r e l a t i v e unimportance  o t h e r s i s demonstrated  of support and encouragement from  i n the f o l l o w i n g f i n d i n g s .  The c o n s t r u c t s o f  support and encouragement from f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s and/or t e a c h e r s ( c e n t r a l i t y rank o f 6 ) , support and encouragement from p a r t n e r ( c e n t r a l i t y rank of 9 ) , and support from p a r e n t s and/or o t h e r f a m i l y members ( c e n t r a l i t y rank o f 11) a r e l e s s c e n t r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w h i c h are o n l y m o d e r a t e l y , weakly, o r n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o the o t h e r constructs.  These f i n d i n g s do n o t l e n d support t o t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t  support from s i g n i f i c a n t  o t h e r s i s i m p o r t a n t I n women's c a r e e r  i n v o l v e m e n t and t h a t i t i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n r a i s i n g c a r e e r  97  aspirations Stake, this  (Epstein,  1973; Farmer, 1978; Rapoport  1981; Stake & L e v i t z ,  discrepancy.  The f i r s t  women a r e a s e l e c t , h i g h l y strong beliefs support  i n their  1979).  A number o f f a c t o r s may a c c o u n t f o r  a n d most o b v i o u s , a g a i n , i s t h a t  capable  own a b i l i t i e s ,  career goals.  a n d may c o n t i n u e t o r e c e i v e f r o m  do n o t v a l u e o r r e q u i r e t h e  Alternatively, significant  achievement-related pursuits.  these  g r o u p o f women who, b e c a u s e o f t h e i r  and encouragement from o t h e r s i n o r d e r t o a s p i r e  a t t a i n high level  for  & R a p o p o r t , 1969;  t o and t o  t h e y may h a v e r e c e i v e d ,  others a great deal  I t i spossible  that this  s u p p o r t may  be  t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d e v e n t h o u g h i t may h a v e b e e n a s i g n i f i c a n t  in  t h e development o f t h e i r h i g h Another  w i t h view  finding  of self  o f i n t e r e s t was t h a t t h e c o n s t r u c t d e g r e e o f f i t  a s a woman was r e l a t i v e l y  r a n k o f 12) a n d i n c e n t r a l i t y  and  related  that  t h e s e women h a v e a c h i e v e d a " c o g n i t i v e  occupational aspirations.  behaviour  f o r women.  low i n importance  ( 7 . 5 ) a n d was o n l y  to the other constructs.  ensuring that their  factor  aspirations.  importance weakly  support  moderately  T h i s w o u l d seem t o i n d i c a t e feminization"  of t h e i r  T h e y d i d n o t seem t o be c o n c e r n e d  behaviour  f e l l within  t h e y w o u l d e n j o y d o i n g , what w o u l d s t i m u l a t e t h e i r w o u l d be g o o d a t a s w h o l e human b e i n g s . recent reformulations of the o r i g i n s femininity  or masculinity:  The  characteristics  of s e l f  of their  with  t h e " a p p r o p r i a t e " range o f  What seemed t o be more i m p o r t a n t  c o n f i r m t h e sense  (group  t o them was w h a t  growth,  and what  they  This finding i s consistent with  and development o f a sense o f  t h a t men a n d women u s e t o own g e n d e r i d e n t i t y  f o c u s on  -•• 98  t h o s e a t t r i b u t e s and b e h a v i o u r s they m a n i f e s t , v a l u e , o r are c a l l e d upon t o possess a t t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r stage o f l i f e development, and may o f t e n be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t  than  those they employ i n a s s e s s i n g o t h e r s , even o f t h e same sex and age. Another  (Spence & Sawin, Note 5, p. 41)  i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g i s t h a t the c o n s t r u c t of power  ( o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n f l u e n c e o t h e r people) i s f a i r l y low i n importance ( i m p o r t a n c e rank of 11) and i n c e n t r a l i t y (7.5) and i s o n l y m o d e r a t e l y and weakly r e l a t e d t o t h e most o t h e r c o n s t r u c t s (not s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to a f f i l i a t i o n ) .  T h i s f i n d i n g would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e  o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n f l u e n c e o t h e r people i s n o t an i m p o r t a n t m o t i v a t o r f o r these women.  T h i s may be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the r e s u l t s o f H a r r e l l and  S t a h l * s (1981) study w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e dominant need f o r b u s i n e s s e x e c u t i v e s i n t h e i r study was power and t h a t the dominant need f o r graduate s t u d e n t s was achievement.  The p r e s e n t study used wording v e r y  s i m i l a r t o t h a t of H a r r e l l and S t a h l (1981) f o r power and achievement. However, H a r r e l l and S t a h l l o o k e d o n l y a t the needs f o r  achievement,  a f f i l i a t i o n , and power, and a l l but a few of the s u b j e c t s i n t h e i r were men.  study  I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o do a study s i m i l a r t o t h e p r e s e n t  one w i t h b o t h women and men and t o compare t h e two groups. One  e x p l a n a t i o n which may account f o r t h e r e l a t i v e l a c k o f  importance o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n f l u e n c e o t h e r people t o these women i s t h a t they appear t o be m o t i v a t e d p r i m a r i l y by needs f o r p e r s o n a l growth and achievement.  They seem t o be p l a c i n g primary emphasis on t h e  development o f s u c c e s s f u l c a r e e r s because i t i s p e r s o n a l l y s a t i s f y i n g  99  f o r them t o do so.  L i p s (1981), i n her e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n of power,  emphasized t h a t the d e s i r e to i n f l u e n c e o t h e r s i s o n l y one aspect of the power motive.  Another  one i s h a v i n g an impact  i m p o r t a n t aspect of power i s "the f e e l i n g t h a t on the environment"  (p. 25).  Had  this  a d d i t i o n a l a s p e c t s of power a l s o been used as a c o n s t r u c t , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i t would have been ranked much h i g h e r i n i m p o r t a n c e .  Limitations  S e v e r a l f a c t o r s l i m i t the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of these r e s u l t s  and  suggest a c a u t i o u s and t e n t a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s . The ability.  s u b j e c t group was  l i m i t e d i n age, number, and l e v e l of  The m a j o r i t y of s u b j e c t s were 22 y e a r s of age.  Had  the study  been done on a group of b u s i n e s s women of say age 35, the r e s u l t s have been s i g n i f i c a n t l y  may  different.  The 29 s u b j e c t s who  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study were r e c r u i t e d  on  a v o l u n t e e r b a s i s from a p o o l of 45 p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s w i t h grade averages  of 72% and above.  Borg and G a l l (1979) s t a t e t h a t v o l u n t e e r s  tend to be h i g h e r i n i n t e l l i g e n c e and need f o r achievement than non-volunteers.  The  r e s u l t s of t h i s study may  have been a f f e c t e d by  t h i s f a c t o r , i n t h a t the 16 n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s may  have been somewhat  lower i n i n t e l l i g e n c e and a b i l i t y and lower i n need f o r achievement than the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  The n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s may,  t h e n , have had lower c a r e e r  a s p i r a t i o n s and more c e n t r a l a s p i r a t i o n s f o r more t r a d i t i o n a l combinations.  role  100  The  r e s u l t s , then, are l i m i t e d i n g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y t o very  s i m i l a r groups o f h i g h a b i l i t y women w i t h i n possibly  t o women i n b u s i n e s s c a r e e r s .  The .  the same age range, and  results  a r e a l s o l i m i t e d t o the 12 r o l e s and 12 c o n s t r u c t s  s e l e c t e d f o r use i n t h i s study.  Had d i f f e r e n t r o l e s and c o n s t r u c t s been  used o r had the s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d t h e i r own r o l e s and c o n s t r u c t s , t h e p a t t e r n o f r e s u l t s may have been s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . Another l i m i t a t i o n i s the f a c t t h a t t h i s was a study o f p e r c e p t i o n s and p r o j e c t i o n s i n t o t h e f u t u r e .  I t was an e x a m i n a t i o n o f  what s u b j e c t s b e l i e v e d t h e i r l i v e s would be l i k e d u r i n g the subsequent f i v e year p e r i o d .  Common sense t e l l s us t h a t t h e f u t u r e i s not always  what one e x p e c t s , so data r e l y i n g on such a n t i c i p a t i o n s interpreted  has t o be  accordingly.  I n summary, the r e s u l t s of t h i s study must be regarded as e x p l o r a t o r y and t e n t a t i v e ,  b e a r i n g these l i m i t a t i o n s i n mind.  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Theory and P r a c t i c e  The  results  of t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y and d e s c r i p t i v e  study add t o t h e  body o f t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h on women and c a r e e r development. d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n ,  the r e s u l t s of t h i s study have  l i m i t e d g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y t o o t h e r groups o f women. may  As  That i s , t h e r e s u l t s  be most s a f e l y g e n e r a l i z e d o n l y t o v e r y s i m i l a r groups o f women  (e.g.  s i m i l a r l e v e l and type o f e d u c a t i o n , a b i l i t y l e v e l , age r a n g e ) .  101  A s t r e n g t h o f t h i s study was t h a t i t c o n t r o l l e d f o r a b i l i t y  level  and type and l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n and thus d i d not t r e a t a l l women as i f they were t h e same.  T h i s may be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h a study comparing  female p r o f e s s o r s and s e c r e t a r i e s .  Such a study would have i g n o r e d t h e  i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s o f a b i l i t y l e v e l and s o c i a l m i l i e u . s e c r e t a r i e s undoubtedly  experience very d i f f e r e n t  P r o f e s s o r s and  socialization  p r o c e s s e s as d i r e c t r e s u l t s o f t h e c a r e e r c h o i c e s they have made. p o t e n t i a l s and a t t i t u d e s a r e thus developed  Their  i n v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t ways.  To d a t e , t h e overwhelming m a j o r i t y o f s t u d i e s on women's c a r e e r development have t r e a t e d a l l women as i f they were t h e same.  Now,  perhaps more than any o t h e r time i n h i s t o r y , women a r e n o t a l l t h e same.  W i t h the e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g e f f e c t of the women's movement and i t ' s  r e s u l t a n t i n c r e a s e i n o p p o r t u n i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c e s f o r women, more women, and the author s u s p e c t s p a r t i c u l a r l y more women of h i g h a b i l i t y , are e x p e c t i n g and p l a n n i n g f o r r e w a r d i n g c a r e e r s . For the group of women i n t h i s study and perhaps f o r o t h e r s who, l i k e them, a r e on t h e l e a d i n g edge of s o c i a l change, Super's (1963a) f o l l o w i n g comments a r e d i r e c t l y  applicable:  In e x p r e s s i n g a v o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e , a person puts  into  o c c u p a t i o n a l t e r m i n o l o g y h i s i d e a o f t h e k i n d of person he i s ; t h a t i n e n t e r i n g an o c c u p a t i o n , he seeks t o implement a concept of h i m s e l f ; t h a t i n g e t t i n g e s t a b l i s h e d i n an o c c u p a t i o n he a c h i e v e s s e l f a c t u a l i z a t i o n .  The o c c u p a t i o n  thus makes p o s s i b l e the p l a y i n g of a r o l e a p p r o p r i a t e t o the s e l f concept, ( p . 1)  102  Change a l l t h e "he's", " h i s ' s " , and " h i m s e l f s " i n t h e above q u o t a t i o n to  "she's",  " h e r ' s " , and " h e r s e l f s " and t h e r e s u l t i s a summary of what  t h e women i n t h i s study seemed t o be d o i n g i n t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n o f c a r e e r choices.  P e r s o n a l growth appeared t o be e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t t o them.  I t was, i n f a c t , t h e most c e n t r a l c o n s t r u c t around which a l l o t h e r constructs revolved.  P e r s o n a l growth was viewed p r i m a r i l y i n terms o f  c a r e e r achievement, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t c a r e e r r o l e s a r e c e n t r a l t o t h e i r self  concepts. These r e s u l t s a r e c o n t r a r y t o the t e n e t s of p r e v i o u s t h e o r i e s o f  women's c a r e e r development which p u r p o r t t h a t women's c e n t r a l r o l e s a r e t h o s e of w i v e s , mothers and homemakers ( P s a t h a s , 1968; Super, 1957, Z y t o w s k i , 1969) and t h a t c o n f l i c t i s e x p e r i e n c e d when women move out o f t h e s e r o l e s and p l a c e more emphasis on c a r e e r s ( H a l l & Gordon, 1973; H o r n e r , 1970, 1972; O'Leary, 1974). to  These women c e r t a i n l y do not appear  f e a r success o r t o e x p e r i e n c e c o n f l i c t about t h e i r c h o i c e s .  seem i n s t e a d t o be a c t i v e l y s e e k i n g s u c c e s s .  They  T h e i r chosen c a r e e r r o l e s ,  w h i c h a r e r e l a t i v e l y n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s f o r women, a r e not viewed as gender i n a p p r o p r i a t e . The women i n t h i s study seemed t o demonstrate a p a t t e r n o f c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s and v a l u e s p r o b a b l y more s i m i l a r t o the modal p a t t e r n s f o r men o f s i m i l a r a b i l i t y than t o t h e p a t t e r n s o f o t h e r women. The  r e s u l t s of t h i s study u n d e r s c o r e  t h e importance  of m o n i t o r i n g  c l o s e l y t h e c u r r e n t t r e n d s i n t h e a t t i t u d e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , and a t t a i n m e n t s of women.  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e author s u s p e c t s t h a t a b i l i t y  l e v e l and l i f e c h o i c e s , w i t h t h e i r subsequent d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l  103  e n v i r o n m e n t , have more e f f e c t on l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n  than  does gender. I n a d d i t i o n t o these t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s t h e r e s u l t s have p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l l o r s and e d u c a t o r s o f h i g h a b i l i t y women.  The women o f t h i s study may serve as r o l e models f o r o t h e r women  of h i g h a b i l i t y who a r e c u r r e n t l y u n d e r a c h i e v i n g . apparent  I n f o r m a t i o n about t h e  c o n f l i c t - f r e e g o a l - s e t t i n g o f t h e women i n t h i s study may  encourage o t h e r women t o s e t , and t o b e l i e v e they can a t t a i n ,  higher  career goals. As w e l l , the ease w i t h which these women seemed t o s e t h i g h c a r e e r g o a l s i s i m p o r t a n t u p d a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r c o u n s e l l o r s and e d u c a t o r s who want t o keep a b r e a s t of c u r r e n t t r e n d s and e x p e c t a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e up-to-date The  information to t h e i r  clients.  f i n d i n g s of t h i s study a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the contemporary  view o f working and p r o f e s s i o n a l women which emerged d u r i n g t h e 1970's. Yogev (1983), upon r e v i e w i n g modern t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h i n the f i e l d o f the p e r s o n a l i t y o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and w o r k i n g women, o f f e r e d a framework w i t h which t o understand  the c o n t r a d i c t o r y f i n d i n g s i n t h i s f i e l d .  The  p a t t e r n o f t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h w h i c h emerged i n t h e 1960's viewed p r o f e s s i o n a l women as l a c k i n g f e m i n i n i t y , v i o l a t i n g sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s , and h a v i n g p e r s o n a l i t y d i s t u r b a n c e s .  The contemporary view  which s u r f a c e d d u r i n g the 1970's d u r i n g t h e c o n t i n u i n g p e r i o d of r a p i d change i n women's s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l r o l e s , views p r o f e s s i o n a l women i n a normative  l i g h t and i s i n d i c a t i v e of the r a p i d change i n the a t t i t u d e s  o f and toward working and p r o f e s s i o n a l women.  The r e s u l t s o f t h e  104  p r e s e n t study would seem t o l e n d support t o t h e f o l l o w i n g  statement:  Data on c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s i m p l y t h a t the c a r e e r - m a r r i a g e c o n f l i c t i s r a p i d l y d i m i n i s h i n g i n importance. I t s p e r s i s t e n c e as an i s s u e f o r d i s c u s s i o n i s more f u n c t i o n o f e d u c a t o r s and c o u n s e l l o r s than t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f women themselves, e s p e c i a l l y of young women, ( p . 224)  Recommendations f o r F u t u r e  The research.  Research  r e s u l t s o f t h i s study suggest s e v e r a l d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u t u r e A f t e r compiling the r e s u l t s of t h i s study, the author, having  been brought up t o date i n h e r own a t t i t u d e s about and e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r women's p o t e n t i a l and a c t u a l c a r e e r development, was l e f t w i t h two questions.  Given t h a t these women seemed, r e f r e s h i n g l y , t o c o n t r a d i c t  the f i n d i n g s of p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , one obvious y e t s i m p l e q u e s t i o n was, "How d i d they get t h i s way?". I n a c u l t u r e w h i c h , u n t i l r e c e n t l y a t l e a s t , has s o c i a l i z e d women to p l a c e p r i m a r y importance on the r o l e s of w i f e , mother, and homemaker, these women have managed t o c h a r t r e l a t i v e l y c o u r s e s f o r themselves.  non-traditional  The p r e s e n t study was e x p l o r a t o r y i n n a t u r e and  p r o v i d e d a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s group o f women.  More d e t a i l e d ,  i n - d e p t h s t u d i e s of t h i s p o p u l a t i o n of women a r e suggested more comprehensive  t o develop a  picture of t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g population.  An i n t e r v i e w s t u d y , based on Flanagan's  (1954) c r i t i c a l  incident  t e c h n i q u e , w i t h s u b j e c t s drawn from t h e same p o p u l a t i o n o f women would  105 -  be v a l u a b l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c r i t i c a l e v e n t s , event and p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  characteristics,  w h i c h enhanced and i n h i b i t e d t h e  s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n and c a r e e r development of women l i k e t h e s e . elucidation potential  of f a c t o r s  The  c r i t i c a l t o t h e maximum development o f t h e  o f h i g h a b i l i t y women who a r e a c t u a l l y  using t h e i r  abilities  at a l e v e l commensurate w i t h t h e i r p o t e n t i a l would be i n v a l u a b l e f o r c o u n s e l l o r s and e d u c a t o r s o f o t h e r h i g h a b i l i t y women who a r e c u r r e n t l y underachieving. A second q u e s t i o n a r i s i n g from t h e r e s u l t s of t h e study was, a g a i n put v e r y s i m p l y , " W i l l these women s t a y t h i s way?". o f t h e study they were q u i t e c l e a r l y p l a c i n g attainment  of c a r e e r g o a l s .  They a n t i c i p a t e d  A t the time  primary emphasis on t h e no problems o r c o n f l i c t s  i n t h e l i v i n g out o f t h e i r most p r e f e r r e d l i f e p l a n s . Follow-up year i n t e r v a l s  s t u d i e s done on t h i s same group of women a t say f i v e  c o u l d monitor  t h e i r development and answer the f o l l o w i n g  questions: (1) W i l l they a c t u a l l y  a t t a i n the five-year  c a r e e r g o a l s toward  w h i c h they a r e aiming ( o r w i l l they i n f a c t a t t a i n h i g h e r g o a l s ! ) ? I f t h e y do, what f a c t o r s  enhanced and i n h i b i t e d t h i s g o a l  attainment?  (2) W i l l they c o n t i n u e t o s e t and t o a t t a i n h i g h l e v e l c a r e e r goals?  What f a c t o r s  aspirations  and g o a l  enhance and i n h i b i t t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g h i g h attainment?  (3) W i l l r o l e c o n f l i c t i n c r e a s e when they a c t u a l l y r o l e s planned i n the roles  for?  enter the  F o r example, f o r those p l a n n i n g t o be s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  of p r o f e s s i o n a l ,  p a r t n e r / w i f e , and mother w i l l t h e  e x p e r i e n c e of r o l e c o n f l i c t i n c r e a s e ?  106  P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h (Amatea & C r o s s , 1981; Gray, 1980, 1983) has i n d i c a t e d t h a t women of o t h e r age c o h o r t s who have a c t u a l l y combined t h e r o l e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r woman, w i f e , and mother have e x p e r i e n c e d i n c r e a s e d s t r e s s e s and s t r a i n s when a t t e m p t i n g t o f u l f i l l multiple roles.  the demands o f  Of p a r t i c u l a r note a r e t h e f i n d i n g s o f Rosenbloom  ( c i t e d i n Hennig & J a r d i m , 1977) i n h e r study of women who were s i m u l t a n e o u s l y m a r r i e d and employed i n middle management j o b s . found t h a t " f o r these women c o p i n g w i t h the c o n f l i c t s which between t h e i r m a r r i e d r o l e and t h e i r j o b r o l e was t h e major  I t was  arose energy  absorber o f t h e i r l i v e s " ( p . 119). The m a j o r i t y of t h e women s t a t e d t h a t they had had t o d e c i d e w h i c h o f t h e two r o l e s was t o have p r i o r i t y and then they had had t o l e a r n t o l i v e w i t h t h a t d e c i s i o n . thought  Most o f them  they would e v e n t u a l l y have t o g i v e up one o f t h e r o l e s s i n c e , i f  they remained i n b u s i n e s s they would t r y t o advance as f a r as p o s s i b l e , and would not c o n t i n u e t o have t h e time and energy  t o meet t h e demands  of w i f e and worker. Rosenbloom's study was done i n 1965. N e a r l y twenty y e a r s have e l a p s e d s i n c e then and times - a t t i t u d e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , o p p o r t u n i t i e s have changed.  W i l l t h e women who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t study (and  the women of t h e i r g e n e r a t i o n ) c o n t i n u e t o c o n t r a d i c t t h e f i n d i n g s o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h by s u c c e s s f u l l y combining major l i f e r o l e s w i t h a minimum of c o n f l i c t ?  I t would be v e r y encouraging i f they do and would  i n d i c a t e a very s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t i n s o c i a l sanctions.  I f they do  combine m u l t i p l e r o l e s s u c c e s s f u l l y i t would be i m p o r t a n t t o determine the c o m b i n a t i o n o f i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o their  success.  107  An i m p o r t a n t p o i n t t o note here i s t h a t r o l e c o n f l i c t i s an e x p e r i e n c e t h a t may be viewed  i n a number o f d i f f e r e n t ways.  Is i t  a t t i t u d i n a l , o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l , o r i s i t a p r a c t i c a l problem  of t r y i n g t o  meet t h e demands of m u l t i p l e r o l e s ?  t h a t have  The p r a c t i c a l concerns  u n t i l r e c e n t l y a f f e c t e d t h e m a j o r i t y of women a t t e m p t i n g t o combine a number of c h a l l e n g i n g r o l e s may be changing  too.  We do not know what  the environment w i l l be l i k e f o r t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f women r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s study.  As w e l l as h a v i n g no a t t i t u d i n a l c o n f l i c t they may a l s o  have more e n v i r o n m e n t a l s u p p o r t s (e.g. easy access t o q u a l i t y at t h e i r p l a c e s of employment, f i n a n c i a l a b i l i t y t o pay f o r  daycares housekeeping  and meal p r e p a r a t i o n ) and may thus n o t e x p e r i e n c e r o l e c o n f l i c t on a practical  level.  (4) I f and when r o l e c o n f l i c t does a r i s e how do these women r e s o l v e the c o n f l i c t ? H a l l (1972) developed  a model o f c o p i n g w i t h r o l e c o n f l i c t based  on the behaviour of c o l l e g e educated women.  While h i s model i s v e r y  u s e f u l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g r o l e c o n f l i c t and c o p i n g s t y l e i n g e n e r a l , he d i d n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e a b i l i t y and performance l e v e l s of t h e women beyond t h e rough measure o f c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n .  The p a r t i c u l a r c o n f l i c t s  which  a r i s e f o r h i g h a b i l i t y women i n b u s i n e s s w i l l v e r y l i k e l y c a l l f o r s p e c i f i c c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s n o t d e a l t w i t h w i t h i n t h i s g e n e r a l model. Ward (Note 6) i s c o m p i l i n g the r e s u l t s of a study o f women's i n t e r - and i n t r a - r o l e c o n f l i c t s .  She i s u s i n g a c r i t i c a l  incident  method ( F l a n a g a n , 1954) t o develop a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme f o r both t y p e s o f c o n f l i c t and f o r c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s .  Her sample i n c l u d e d a  108  f a i r l y heterogeneous group o f women.  A s i m i l a r study conducted  w i t h the  p r e s e n t sample o f h i g h a b i l i t y p r o f e s s i o n a l women a t a time when c o n f l i c t s a r e l i k e l y t o a r i s e ( e . g . , w i t h i n t h e f i r s t year o r so o f marriage  or c h i l d b i r t h when the woman i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w o r k i n g  i na  demanding c a r e e r ) c o u l d tease out t h e s p e c i a l c o n f l i c t s and c o p i n g s t y l e s of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group.  The f i n d i n g s o f such a study would be  u s e f u l f o r c o u n s e l l o r s o f h i g h a b i l i t y p r o f e s s i o n a l women who a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g r o l e c o n f l i c t and a r e s e e k i n g e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g i e s f o r conflict  resolution.  Other i n t e r e s t i n g and u s e f u l s t u d i e s w h i c h c o u l d f o l l o w from t h e p r e s e n t study i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g .  U s i n g t h e same o r a v e r y  methodology, a study c o u l d be conducted y e a r ' s g r a d u a t i n g c l a s s i n Commerce.  similar  w i t h a l l t h e s t u d e n t s i n next  S e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t comparisons ( o f  a s p i r a t i o n l e v e l , a b i l i t y l e v e l , r o l e c o n s t r u a l and c o n f l i c t ) c o u l d be made.  F o r example, t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f o r women and f o r men c o u l d be  compared.  The author suspects t h a t the p a t t e r n s of a s p i r a t i o n s and  v a l u e s f o r t h e h i g h e s t a s p i r i n g men and women would be v e r y  similar.  S t u d i e s s i m i l a r t o the p r e s e n t study c o u l d be done on d i f f e r e n t groups of women t o p r o v i d e data w i t h w h i c h t o compare t h e women o f t h i s study w i t h o t h e r groups o f women.  F o r example, women who, when  g r a d u a t i n g from h i g h s c h o o l , e.g., f o u r y e a r s e a r l i e r , had t h e same h i g h marks c o u l d be compared.  Such a study c o u l d compare the r o l e c o n s t r u a l  and c o n f l i c t s o f women who had pursued t h e i r g r a d u a t i o n from h i g h s c h o o l .  d i f f e r e n t l i f e s t y l e options since  The d i f f e r e n t l i f e s t y l e o r c a r e e r  o p t i o n s c o u l d i n c l u d e women who had e n t e r e d and were now g r a d u a t i n g from  109  d i f f e r e n t u n i v e r s i t y programs i n s c i e n c e , s o c i a l work, e d u c a t i o n , and n u r s i n g , women who had done s h o r t e r t r a i n i n g courses ( e . g . , l a b t e c h n i c i a n , l e g a l s e c r e t a r y ) , and women who had become f u l l - t i m e homemakers.  The r e s u l t s of these s t u d i e s would f i l l  a few more gaps i n  our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c a r e e r development o f women o f h i g h a b i l i t y . I n c o n c l u s i o n , the r e s u l t s of t h i s study seem t o have sketched a p i c t u r e o f a group o f s t r o n g , c o n f i d e n t , independent career-committed year plans.  women who a r e  and c o n f l i c t - f r e e i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward t h e i r  They a n t i c i p a t e d no problems o r c o n f l i c t s i n t h e l i v i n g out  of t h e i r most p r e f e r r e d l i f e p l a n s .  I t may be s p e c u l a t e d t h a t c o n f l i c t  w i l l be more l i k e l y t o occur when they a c t u a l l y e n t e r t h e r o l e s for.  five-  planned  However, they may c o n t i n u e t o p l a n f o r and t o get what they want  w i t h a minimum o f c o n f l i c t . I t remains  t o be seen what w i l l happen w i t h and f o r these women  o v e r the next f i v e , t e n , o r f i f t e e n y e a r s of t h e i r l i v e s .  They a r e a  v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g group of women from which we have much t o l e a r n both now,  as they s e t out w i t h t h e i r s t r o n g , independent,  and c o n f i d e n t  a t t i t u d e s , and i n t h e f u t u r e as they develop and m a i n t a i n c a r e e r s and p e r s o n a l l i v e s t h a t a r e , h o p e f u l l y , an e x p r e s s i o n o f a l l t h a t they a r e and can be as g i f t e d human b e i n g s .  110  REFERENCE NOTES  1.  G r e e n g l a s s , E.R. G e n d e r - r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n and management: The Japanese example. Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the meeting o f the Canadian P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , Winnipeg, June 1983.  2.  O f f i c e of I n s t i t u t i o n a l A n a l y s i s and P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. P e r s o n a l communication, J u l y 14, 1982.  3.  Cochran, L.R. Framing c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s : An i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e c a r e e r g r i d . M a n u s c r i p t s u b m i t t e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n , 1983.  4.  Cochran, L.R. I n t e r p r e t i n g c a r e e r judgements. I n L.R. Cochran, Framing c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s : An i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e c a r e e r g r i d . M a n u s c r i p t s u b m i t t e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n , 1983.  5.  Spence, J.T., & Sawin, L.L. Images o f m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y : A reconceptualization. U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , U n i v e r s i t y of Texas a t A u s t i n , 1983.  6.  Ward, V.G. R o l e c o n f l i c t among women s e e k i n g c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g : C r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s o f c o n f l i c t and c o p i n g . M a s t e r s t h e s i s i n p r o g r e s s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1983.  Ill  REFERENCES Adams, J . Women on t o p .  New Y o r k :  Hawthorn Books, I n c . , 1979.  A l m q u i s t , E.M., & A n g r i s t , S.S. R o l e model i n f l u e n c e s on c o l l e g e women's c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s . M e r r i l l - P a l m e r Q u a r t e r l y , 1971, 17, 263-279. Amatea, E.S., & C r o s s , E.G. Competing w o r l d s , competing s t a n d a r d s : P e r s o n a l c o n t r o l f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r woman, w i f e , and raother. J o u r n a l o f t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Women Deans, A d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and C o u n s e l o r s , 1981, kk_ ( 2 ) , 3-10. A s t i n , H.S. P a t t e r n s o f women's o c c u p a t i o n s . I n . J.A. Sherman and F.L. Denmark ( E d s . ) , The psychology o f women: F u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s i n r e s e a r c h . New York: P s y c h o l o g i c a l Dimensions, 1978. B a n n i s t e r , D. C o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e i n thought d i s o r d e r e d s c h i z o p h r e n i c s . J o u r n a l o f M e n t a l S c i e n c e , 1960, 106, 1230-1249. B a n n i s t e r , D., & M a i r , J.M. The e v a l u a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s . York: Academic P r e s s , 1968.  New  Basow, S.A., & Howe, K.G. Role model i n f l u e n c e : E f f e c t s o f sex and s e x - r o l e a t t i t u d e i n c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . P s y c h o l o g y o f Women Q u a r t e r l y , 1980, 4-, 558-572. B e n n e t t , J.E., & Loewe, P.M. human r e s o u r c e s . Toronto:  Women i n b u s i n e s s : A s h o c k i n g waste o f Maclean-Hunter L i m i t e d , 1975.  B e t z , N.E., & H a c k e t t , G. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of c a r e e r - r e l a t e d s e l f - e f f i c a c y expectations t o perceived career options i n college women and men. J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1981, 28, 399-410. Birnbaum, J.A. L i f e p a t t e r n s and s e l f - e s t e e m i n g i f t e d f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d and career-committed women. I n M.T.S. Mednick, S.S. T a n g r i , & L.W. Hoffman ( E d s . ) , Women and achievement. Toronto: John W i l e y & Sons, 1975. B l i s h e n , B.R., & McRoberts, H.A. A r e v i s e d socioeconomic i n d e x f o r o c c u p a t i o n s i n Canada. Canadian Review o f S o c i o l o g y and A n t h r o p o l o g y , 1976, _13_, 71-79. Bogorya, Y. Management e d u c a t i o n i s s t i l l a key t o success and power. Women E x e c u t i v e s N e w s l e t t e r , 1982, 1_ ( 2 ) , 1. Borg, W.R., & G a l l , M.D. E d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h : e d . ) . New York: Longman, 1979.  An i n t r o d u c t i o n ( 3 r d  B r i t o , P.K., & J u s e n i u s , C L . A note on young women's o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r age 35. The V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Q u a r t e r l y , 1978, 27_, 165-175.  112  Canter, R.J. A c h i e v e m e n t - r e l a t e d e x p e c t a t i o n s and a s p i r a t i o n s i n c o l l e g e women. Sex R o l e s , 1979, _5» 453-470. Carnegie Commission on Higher E d u c a t i o n . O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r women i n higher education. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973. C h e r r y , F., & Deaux, K. Fear o f success versus f e a r of gender-inappropriate behavior. Sex R o l e s , 1978, 4^, 97-101. Cochran, L.R. C o n s t r u c t systems and the d e f i n i t i o n o f s o c i a l situations. J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology, 1978, 36,  733-740. Cochran, L . C o n s t r u i n g and a c t i n g toward o t h e r s . P e r s o n a l i t y , 1981, 9^, 37-40.  S o c i a l B e h a v i o r and  Denmark, F.L., T a n g r i , S.S., & McCandless, S. A f f i l i a t i o n , achievement, and power: A new l o o k . In J.A. Sherman and F.L. Denmark ( E d s . ) , The psychology o f women: Future d i r e c t i o n s i n r e s e a r c h . New York: P s y c h o l o g i c a l Dimensions, 1978. Dewey, C R . V o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g w i t h women: A n o n - s e x i s t t e c h n i q u e . In E . I . Rawlings and D.K. C a r t e r ( E d s . ) , Psychotherapy f o r women: Treatment toward e q u a l i t y . S p r i n g f i e l d , 111.: C h a r l e s C Thomas,  1977. Dunn, O.J. M u l t i p l e comparisons among means. S t a t i s t i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1961, 56_, 52-64.  J o u r n a l o f t h e American  Economic A n a l y s i s and Research Bureau. Advancement o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e B r i t i s h Columbia p u b l i c s e r v i c e . P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia: Economic A n a l y s i s and Research Bureau, M i n i s t r y o f I n d u s t r y and S m a l l B u s i n e s s Development, 1979. E p s t e i n , C.F. P o s i t i v e e f f e c t s o f m u l t i p l e n e g a t i v e : E x p l a i n i n g the success of b l a c k p r o f e s s i o n a l women. American J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y ,  1973, 78_, 912-935. E s p o s i t o , R.P. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the motive t o a v o i d success and v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e . J o u r n a l o f V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1977, 10,  347-357. F a l k , W.W., & Cosby, A . C Women's m a r i t a l - f a m i l i a l s t a t u s e s and work histories: Some c o n c e p t u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . J o u r n a l o f V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1978, JL3, 126-140. Farmer, H.S. H e l p i n g women t o r e s o l v e the home-career P e r s o n n e l and Guidance J o u r n a l , 1971, 49, 795-801.  conflict.  Farmer, H.S. What i n h i b i t s achievement and c a r e e r m o t i v a t i o n s i n women? I n L.W. Harmon, J.M. B i r k , L.E. F i t z g e r a l d , and M.F. Tanney ( E d s . ) , C o u n s e l i n g women. Monterey, C a l i f . : Brooks/Cole P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1978.  113  Farmer, H.S., & Bohn, M.J. Home-career c o n f l i c t r e d u c t i o n and the l e v e l of c a r e e r i n t e r e s t i n women. J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1970, _17, 228-232. F e a t h e r , N.T. Fear of success i n A u s t r a l i a n and American s t u d e n t groups: M o t i v e o r s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e ? J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y , 1974, 42, 190-201. F i t z g e r a l d , L.F., & C r i t e s , J.O. Toward a c a r e e r psychology o f women: What do we know? What do we need t o know? J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1980, 27, 44-62. F l a n a g a n , J.C. The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e . B u l l e t i n , 1954, 51_, 327-358.  Psychological  F o t t l e r , M.D., & B a i n , T. M a n a g e r i a l a s p i r a t i o n s o f h i g h s c h o o l s e n i o r s : A comparison o f males and females. J o u r n a l o f V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1980, JL6_, 83-95. Gordon, F.E., & H a l l , D.T. S e l f - i m a g e and s t e r e o t y p e s of f e m i n i n i t y : T h e i r r e l a i t o n s h i p t o women's r o l e c o n f l i c t s and c o p i n g . J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 1974, 59_, 241-243. Gray, J.D. C o u n s e l i n g women who want both a p r o f e s s i o n and a f a m i l y . P e r s o n n e l and Guidance J o u r n a l , 1980, 59_, 43-46. Gray, J.D. The m a r r i e d p r o f e s s i o n a l woman: An e x a m i n a t i o n o f h e r r o l e c o n f l i c t s and c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s . P s y c h o l o g y o f Women Q u a r t e r l y , 1983, 235-243. G r e e n g l a s s , E.R. A w o r l d o f d i f f e r e n c e : Toronto: John W i l e y & Sons, 1982.  Gender r o l e s i n p e r s p e c t i v e .  G r e e n g l a s s , E.R., & D e v i n s , R. F a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o m a r r i a g e and c a r e e r p l a n s i n unmarried women. Sex R o l e s , 1982, j}, 57-71. H a c k e t t , G.,& B e t z , N.E. development o f women. 326-339.  A s e l f - e f f i c a c y approach t o t h e c a r e e r J o u r n a l o f V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1981, 18,  H a l l , D.T. A model o f c o p i n g w i t h r o l e c o n f l i c t : The r o l e b e h a v i o r o f c o l l e g e educated women. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S c i e n c e Q u a r t e r l y , 1972, 17, 471-486. H a l l , D.T. P r e s s u r e s from work, s e l f , and home i n the l i f e stages o f m a r r i e d women. J o u r n a l o f V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1975, 6_ 121-132. f  H a l l , D.T., & Gordon, F.E. Career c h o i c e s of m a r r i e d women: E f f e c t s on c o n f l i c t , r o l e b e h a v i o r , and s a t i s f a c t i o n . J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 1973, 58, 42-48. H a l l , F.S., & H a l l , D.T. The t w o - c a r e e r c o u p l e . Addison-Wesley P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1979.  Don M i l l s , O n t a r i o :  114  H a l l e r , A.O. , O t t o , L.B., M e i e r , R.F., & O h l e n d o r f , G.W. Level of o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n : An e m p i r i c a l a n a l y s i s . A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 1974, 39, 112-121. Harmon, L.W. C a r e e r c o u n s e l i n g f o r women. C a r t e r ( E d s . ) , P s y c h o t h e r a p y f o r women. C. Thomas, 1977.  I n E . I . R a w l i n g s & D.K. S p r i n g f i e l d , 111.: Charles  H a r r e l l , A.M., & S t a h l , M.J. A b e h a v i o r a l d e c i s i o n t h e o r y approach f o r measuring M c C l e l l e n d ' s t r i c h o t o m y o f needs. J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 1981, 66, 242-247. H e n n i g , M., & J a r d i m , A. Anchor P r e s s , 1977.  The m a n a g e r i a l  woman.  Garden C i t y , N.Y.:  Hoffman, L.W. E a r l y c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s and women's achievement motives. J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l I s s u e s , 1972, 28, 129-155. H o l a h a n , C.K., & G i l b e r t , L.A. C o n f l i c t between major l i f e r o l e s : Women and men i n d u a l c a r e e r c o u p l e s . Human R e l a t i o n s , 1979, 3 2 , 451-467. (a) H o l a h a n , C.K., & G i l b e r t , L.A. I n t e r r o l e c o n f l i c t f o r w o r k i n g women: C a r e e r s v e r s u s j o b s . J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 1979, 64, 86-90. (b) H o r n e r , M.S. F e m i n i n i t y and s u c c e s s f u l achievement: A b a s i c i n c o n s i s t e n c y . I n J.M B a r d w i c k , E. Douvan, M.S. Horner, & D. Gutman ( E d s . ) , Feminine p e r s o n a l i t y and c o n f l i c t . Belmont, C a l i f . : B r o o k s / C o l e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1970. H o r n e r , M.S. i n women.  Toward an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a c h i e v e m e n t - r e l a t e d J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l I s s u e s , 1972, 28, 157-176.  conflicts  I l l f e l d e r , J.K. F e a r o f s u c c e s s , s e x r o l e a t t i t u d e s , and c a r e e r s a l i e n c e and a n x i e t y l e v e l s o f c o l l e g e women. J o u r n a l o f V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1980, 16_, 7-17. K e l l y , G. 1955.  The p s y c h o l o g y o f p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s .  K u n d s i n , R.B. (Ed.)  Women and s u c c e s s .  New York: N o r t o n ,  New York: Morrow, 1974.  K r u m b o l t z , J.D., M i t c h e l l , A.M., & J o n e s , G.B. A s o c i a l l e a r n i n g t h e o r y of c a r e e r s e l e c t i o n . The C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1976, 71-81. Labour Canada. Women i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e - P a r t I : P a r t i c i p a t i o n 1978-1979. Ottawa: Labour Canada, Women's Bureau, 1980. Labour Canada. Women i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e - P a r t I I : E a r n i n g s o f women and men 1978-1979. Ottawa: Labour Canada, Women's Bureau, 1981.  115 Laws, J.L. Work m o t i v a t i o n and work b e h a v i o r of women: New p e r s p e c t i v e s . I n J.A. Sherman and F.L. Denmark ( E d s . ) , The p s y c h o l o g y o f women: F u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s i n r e s e a r c h . New York: P s y c h o l o g i c a l Dimensions, 1978. Lipman-Blumen, J . , & L e a v i t t , H.J. V i c a r i o u s and d i r e c t achievement p a t t e r n i n adulthood. The C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1976, b_, 26-32. L i p s , H.M. Women, men, and t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f power. New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1981.  Englewood C l i f f s ,  Lockheed, M.E. Female motive t o a v o i d s u c c e s s : A psychological barrier or a response t o a d e f i a n c y ? Sex R o l e s , 1975, _1» 41-50. Long, H.G. I m p l i c i t c o u n s e l l i n g t h e o r i e s : An e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y . U n p u b l i s h e d masters t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982. Lunneborg, P.W. R o l e model i n f l u e n c e r s o f n o n t r a d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l women. J o u r n a l o f V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1982, ^ 0 , 276-281. Mair, J . P r e d i c t i o n of g r i d scores. 1966, 57, 187-192.  B r i t i s h Journal of Psychology,  M a r a s c u i l o , L.A. & L e v i n , J.R. M u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c s i n t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s : A r e s e a r c h e r ' s g u i d e . Monetery, C a l i f . : B r o o k s / C o l e , 1983. M a r s h a l l , S.J., & W i j t i n g , J.P. R e l a t i o n s h i p s o f achievement m o t i v a t i o n and s e x - r o l e i d e n t i t y t o c o l l e g e women's c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1980, lj>_, 299-311. M c C a l l , G.J., & Simmons, J.L. The Free P r e s s , 1966.  I d e n t i t i e s and i n t e r a c t i o n s . New York:  M c C l e l l a n d , D.C, A t k i n s o n , J.R., C l a r k , R.A., & L o w e l l , E.L. The achievement m o t i v e . New York: A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1953. M i r o n o w i c z , M. Women e x e c u t i v e s : Nowhere t o go but up. The Globe & M a i l , September 24, 1981, p . T l . Monahan, L., Kuhn, D., & Shaver, P. I n t r a p s y c h i c v e r s u s c u l t u r a l e x p l a n a t l ons of t h e " f e a r o f success" m o t i v e . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1974, 29_, 60-64. O h l s e n , M.M. V o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g f o r g i r l s and women. Guidance Q u a r t e r l y , 1968, 1_7_, 124-127.  Vocational  O'Leary, V.E. Some a t t i t u d i n a l b a r r i e r s t o o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s i n women. P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 1974, 81_, 809-826. O'Leary, V.E. Toward u n d e r s t a n d i n g women. B r o o k s / C o l e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1977. Ory,  Monterey, C a l i f . :  J . C , & H e l f r i c h , L.M. A study o f i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s . V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Q u a r t e r l y , 1978, 27, 43-49.  116 Osipow, S.H. The r e l e v a n c e o f t h e o r i e s of c a r e e r development t o s p e c i a l groups: Problems, needed d a t a , and i m p l i c a t i o n s . I n S. P i c o u & R. Campbell ( E d s . ) , Career b e h a v i o r o f s p e c i a l g r o u p s . Columbus, Ohio: C h a r l e s E. M e r r i l l , 1975. P s a t h a s , G. Toward a t h e o r y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e f o r women. S o c i o l o g y and S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , 1968, 52, 253-268. R a p o p o r t , R., & Rapoport, R.N. The d u a l c a r e e r f a m i l y . R e l a t i o n s , 1969, 22_, 3-30.  Human  R o b b i n s , L., & R o b b i n s , E. Comment on: "Toward an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a c h i e v e m e n t - r e l a t e d c o n f l i c t s i n women," J S I , 2 8 ( 2 ) , 1972. J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l I s s u e s , 1973, 29, 133-137. R o s e n f e l d , R.A. Women's o c c u p a t i o n a l c a r e e r s : I n d i v i d u a l and s t r u c t u r a l e x p l a n a t i o n s . S o c i o l o g y o f Work and O c c u p a t i o n s , 1979, 6_, 283-311. S l a t e r , P. The measurement o f i n t r a p e r s o n a l space by g r i d t e c h n i q u e . Volume I : E x p l o r a t i o n s o f i n t r a p e r s o n a l space. Toronto: John W i l e y & Sons, 1976. S t a k e , J . E . E f f e c t of p r o b a b i l i t y o f f o r t h c o m i n g success i n g o a l s e t t i n g : A t e s t o f t h e f e a r o f success h y p o t h e s i s . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1976, 44, 444-448. S t a k e , J . E . The a b i l i t y / p e r f o r m a n c e dimension of s e l f - e s t e e m : I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r women's achievement b e h a v i o r . P s y c h o l o g y o f Women Q u a r t e r l y , 1979, _3. 365-377. ( a ) S t a k e , J . E . Women's s e l f - e s t i m a t e s o f competence and the r e s o l u t i o n o f the career/home c o n f l i c t . J o u r n a l o f V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1979, 14, 33-42. ( b ) S t a k e , J . E . The e d u c a t o r ' s r o l e i n f o s t e r i n g female c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s . J o u r n a l o f t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Women Deans, A d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and C o u n s e l o r s , 1981, 45, 3-10. S t a k e , J.E., & L e v i t z , E. Career g o a l s o f c o l l e g e women and men and p e r c e i v e d a c h i e v e m e n t - r e l a t e d encouragement. P s y c h o l o g y o f Women Q u a r t e r l y , 1979, 4_, 151-159. S t a k e , J.E., & Pearlman, J . A s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g as an i n t e r v e n t i o n t e c h n i q u e f o r low p e r f o r m a n c e - s e l f - e s t e e m women. J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1980, 2_7_, 276-281. S t a t i s t i c s Canada. Degrees, diplomas and c e r t i f i c a t e s awarded by u n i v e r s i t i e s 1975. Ottawa: S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Catalogue no. 81-211, 1977.  117  S t a t i s t i c s Canada. U n i v e r s i t i e s : Enrolment and degrees 1979. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Catalogue no. 81-204, 1981. S t e i n , A.H., & B a i l e y , M.M. o r i e n t a t i o n i n females. Super, D.E. 1957.  The psychology  Ottawa:  The s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f achievement P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 1973, 80_, 345-366. of careers.  New York:  Harper & B r o t h e r s ,  Super, D.E. S e l f concepts i n v o c a t i o n a l development. I n D.E. Super, R. S t a r i s h e v s k y , N. M a t l i n , & J.P. J o r d a n , Career development: S e l f - c o n c e p t t h e o r y . New York: C o l l e g e E n t r a n c e E x a m i n a t i o n B o a r d , 1963:; C a T Super, D.E. V o c a t i o n a l development i n adolescence and e a r l y a d u l t h o o d : Tasks and b e h a v i o r s . I n D.E. Super, R. S t a r i s h e v s k y , N. M a t l i n , & J.P. J o r d a a n , Career development: S e l f - c o n c e p t t h e o r y . New York: C o l l e g e E n t r a n c e E x a m i n a t i o n Board, 1963. ( b ) Super, D.E. A l i f e - s p a n , l i f e - s p a c e approach t o c a r e e r development. J o u r n a l o f V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1980, 16_, 282-298. S u t h e r l a n d , S.L. The unambitious female: Women's low p r o f e s s i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . S i g n s : J o u r n a l o f Women i n C u l t u r e and S o c i e t y , 1978, 3, 774-794. T a n g r i , S.S. I m p l i e d demand c h a r a c t e r of t h e w i f e ' s f u t u r e and r o l e i n n o v a t i o n : P a t t e r n s o f achievement o r i e n t a t i o n among c o l l e g e women. I n M.T.S. Mednick, S.S. T a n g r i , & L.W. Hoffman ( E d s . ) , Women and achievement. Toronto: John W i l e y & Sons, 1975. T o p o l , P., & R e z n i k o f f , M. A c h i e v e r s and u n d e r a c h i e v e r s : A comparative study o f f e a r o f s u c c e s s , e d u c a t i o n and c a r e e r g o a l s , and c o n c e p t i o n of women's r o l e among h i g h s c h o o l s e n i o r g i r l s . Sex R o l e s , 1979, _5, 85-92. Tresemer, D. The c u m u l a t i v e r e c o r d o f r e s e a r c h on " f e a r o f s u c c e s s " . Sex R o l e s , 1976, 2, 217-236. Unger, R.K., & Denmark, F.L. ( E d s . ) . Women: Dependent o r independent v a r i a b l e ? New York: P s y c h o l o g i c a l Dimensions, 1975. V i l l a d s e n , A.W., & Tack, M.W. Combining home and c a r e e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : The methods used by women e x e c u t i v e s i n h i g h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Women Deans, A d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and C o u n s e l o r s , 1981, 45, 20-25. V i n e , I . MBA degree can be t i c k e t t o golden May 11, 1981, p . C I .  future.  The Globe & M a i l ,  Y a n i c o , B . J . , & H a r d i n , S.I. S e x - r o l e , s e l f - c o n c e p t and p e r s i s t e n c e i n a t r a d i t i o n a l vs n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c o l l e g e major f o r women. J o u r n a l o f V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1981, 18, 219-227.  118  Y o g e v , S. J u d g i n g t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l woman: C h a n g i n g r e s e a r c h , c h a n g i n g values. P s y c h o l o g y o f Women Q u a r t e r l y , 1 9 8 3 , J_, 2 1 9 - 2 3 4 . Z u c k e r m a n , M., & W h e e l e r , L . To d i s p e l f a n t a s i e s a b o u t f a n t a s y - b a s e d measure o f f e a r o f s u c c e s s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 1975, 82, 932-946. Z y t o w s k i , D.G. T o w a r d a t h e o r y o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t f o r women. P e r s o n n e l and Guidance J o u r n a l , 1969, 660-664.  119  APPENDIX A  INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY  My name i s Laura-Lynne McBain. completing  I am a graduate  student  my M.A. i n C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y here a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f  B r i t i s h Columbia. experiences  I n t h i s study I hope t o l e a r n more about your  as women i n t h i s time o f r a p i d l y changing r o l e s ,  e x p e c t a t i o n s , and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r b o t h women and men.  As h i g h  ability  women who w i l l , w i t h i n t h e next y e a r , be g r a d u a t i n g and embarking on a new  phase o f your l i v e s , you can p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e  process  o f c a r e e r and l i f e p l a n n i n g .  to e d u c a t o r s  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be h e l p f u l  and c o u n s e l l o r s o f t a l e n t e d women.  I n a d d i t i o n , as you  complete t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , you may d i s c o v e r some i n t e r e s t i n g  things  about y o u r s e l v e s and about where you a r e a t i n terms o f your own p l a n s for  the f u t u r e . Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study would be v e r y much a p p r e c i a t e d .  However, I want t o make i t c l e a r t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t o t a l l y and t h a t a l l i n f o r m a t i o n gathered  i sstrictly  confidential.  voluntary  You may  withdraw from t h e study a t any time o r r e f u s e t o answer any q u e s t i o n s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n or withdrawal  w i l l i n no way a f f e c t your marks o r your  s t a n d i n g w i t h i n your program.  I f you do choose t o p a r t i c i p a t e , your  120  c o m p l e t i o n of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l be assumed t o be your consent t o do so. the  To ensure c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y p l e a s e do not w r i t e your names on any of forms. A l l n e c e s s a r y data w i l l be g a t h e r e d today.  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60 minutes t o complete.  The forms w i l l  take  I w i l l go through the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h you i n a s t e p - b y - s t e p manner, g i v i n g you v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r each q u e s t i o n o r t a s k as we come t o i t .  I w i l l ask  you, f i r s t of a l l , f o r some b i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a and f o r some i n f o r m a t i o n about your p l a n s f o r t h e next f i v e y e a r s of your l i f e .  Then I w i l l ask  you t o t h i n k about and t o rank o r d e r , i n terms of p e r s o n a l importance t o you, 12 s p e c i f i c r o l e s and 12 f a c t o r s w h i c h may i n f l u e n c e your r o l e choices.  F i n a l l y , I w i l l ask you t o r a t e each of the r o l e s i n terms o f  each o f t h e f a c t o r s .  T h i s may seem somewhat ambiguous t o you r i g h t now,  but each t a s k w i l l become c l e a r as I g i v e you more d e t a i l e d instructions. A l t h o u g h some i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t s may be r e p o r t e d , the b u l k of t h e r e s u l t s w i l l be r e p o r t e d on a group b a s i s .  I f you would l i k e t o know  more about the r e s u l t s of t h i s study p l e a s e c o n t a c t me a f t e r C h r i s t m a s and I w i l l p r o v i d e you w i t h more i n f o r m a t i o n . Thank you v e r y much f o r your p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  121 APPENDIX B  BIODEMOGRAPHICAL QUESTIONNAIRE Biographical Information 1.  Do you p l a n t o work i n the p a i d l a b o u r f o r c e i n the 5 y e a r s f o l l o w i n g your g r a d u a t i o n ? Yes  No  I f n o t , what do you p l a n t o do i n s t e a d ? f u l l - t i m e homemaking, e t c . 2.  school,  I f you were t o work d u r i n g the 5 years f o l l o w i n g your g r a d u a t i o n : a.  What would be the h i g h e s t l e v e l p r o f e s s i o n toward which you would a s p i r e ?  Would t h i s be a f u l l - t i m e b.  c.  or a part-time  position?  What would be t h e lowest l e v e l p r o f e s s i o n toward w h i c h you would aspire?  Would t h i s be a f u l l - t i m e  or a p a r t - t i m e  position?  I n what p r o f e s s i o n would you r e a l l y expect t o work?  Would t h i s be a f u l l - t i m e 3.  e.g., t r a v e l ,  or a p a r t - t i m e  position?  Do you have p l a n s f o r graduate or p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l w i t h i n the 5 y e a r s f o l l o w i n g your g r a d u a t i o n ? Yes  No  I f y e s , w h i c h program do you p l a n t o e n t e r ?  I f no, which program would you c o n s i d e r e n t e r i n g i f _ you were t o e n t e r a graduate o r p r o f e s s i o n a l program?  122  4.  Current m a r i t a l status  Single Married Common-Law Divorce/Separated Other  5.  W i t h i n t h e 5 y e a r s f o l l o w i n g my g r a d u a t i o n I p l a n t o be: Single Married Common-Law Divorce/Separated Other  6.  Number o f c h i l d r e n now Do you p l a n t o have c h i l d r e n i n the next 5 y e a r s ? Yes  No  I f y e s , how many? 7.  Your present age  8.  C u r r e n t program o p t i o n  9.  Place of B i r t h Number of y e a r s you've been a r e s i d e n t of Canada What e t h n i c d e s i g n a t i o n would you g i v e y o u r s e l f ? one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : Anglo-European Canadian Chinese East Indian F r e n c h Canadian N a t i v e I n d i a n (Canadian) Other  Please i n d i c a t e  (please i n d i c a t e  __)  123  APPENDIX C  ROLE GRID P a r t A - RQIPS  Importance .  Community member/Citizen Daughter Friend  _  ,  Graduate Student Homemaker  ______  Mother Partner/Wife  _  Personal well-being and enjoyment Profession of highest a s p i r a t i o n P r o f e s s i o n of lowest a s p i r a t i o n  _ .  Note:  P r o f e s s i o n you e x p e c t t o work i n _  S i n g l e person  When rank o r d e r i n g the r o l e s i n o r d e r of p e r s o n a l i m p o r t a n c e , l e t "1" i n d i c a t e most i m p o r t a n t and "12" l e a s t i m p o r t a n t .  124 Part B - Considerations The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of 12 f a c t o r s which may be i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n e v a l u a t i n g l i f e r o l e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . P l e a s e rank them i n order of p e r s o n a l importance t o you, w i t h "1" being most i m p o r t a n t and "12" b e i n g l e a s t i m p o r t a n t . O p p o r t u n i t y to a c c o m p l i s h c h a l l e n g i n g g o a l s O p p o r t u n i t y f o r p e r s o n a l growth Support & encouragement from p a r t n e r O p p o r t u n i t y f o r warm, f r i e n d l y  relations  Support & encouragement from f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s , and/or teachers Enj oyment Opportunity to i n f l u e n c e other  people  Support and encouragement from p a r e n t s and/or o t h e r f a m i l y members Knowing someone e l s e who  does w e l l i n the  role  L i k e l i h o o d of competence and success i n the  role  Degree of f i t w i t h view of s e l f as a woman W i l l i n g n e s s t o i n v e s t time and energy i n the  role  order  125 P a r t C - R a t i n g Form  As a  I expect t h a t I would have/be:  More chance t o accomplish challenging goals  L e s s chance t o accomplish challenging goals  More o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p e r s o n a l growth  Less o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p e r s o n a l growth  More support & encouragement from partner  L e s s support & encouragement from partner  More chance f o r warm, f r i e n d l y relations  L e s s chance f o r warm, f r i e n d l y relations  More support and encouragement from friends, colleagues and/or t e a c h e r s  L e s s support and encouragement from friends, colleagues and/or t e a c h e r s  More enjoyment  L e s s enjoyment  More chance t o influence others  L e s s chance t o influence others  More support and encouragement from p a r e n t s and/or o t h e r f a m i l y members  L e s s support and encouragement from p a r e n t s and/or o t h e r f a m i l y members  L i k e l y t o know someone who does this well  U n l i k e l y t o know someone who does this well  More competent and successful  L e s s competent and successful  C l o s e r t o how I see m y s e l f as a woman  F a r t h e r away from how I see m y s e l f as a woman  More w i l l i n g t o i n v e s t a l o t o f time & energy  Less w i l l i n g to invest a l o t of time & energy  Note: Each s u b j e c t completed one of these forms f o r each of the 12 roles.  126 APPENDIX D  VERBAL INSTRUCTION FOR COMPLETION OF BIODEMOGRAPHICAL QUESTIONNAIRE AND ROLE GRID  I.  I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e Study  " P l e a s e t u r n t o t h e f a c e sheet o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e now as I b e g i n reading."  (Read f a c e sheet o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e , thus i n t r o d u c i n g t h e  study).  II.  Biodemographical  Questionnaire  "Now p l e a s e t u r n t h e page t o t h e page e n t i t l e d B i o g r a p h i c a l Information.  T h i s s e c t i o n asks some v e r y s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s , some o f  w h i c h may r e q u i r e a b i t o f t h i n k i n g .  I ' l l go t h r o u g h the q u e s t i o n s one  by one and ask you t o answer them as I e x p l a i n them.  P l e a s e stop me f o r  c l a r i f i c a t i o n i f what I'm a s k i n g you t o do doesn't make sense a f t e r I've completed the e x p l a n a t i o n f o r each q u e s t i o n . " "Question  #1:  DO YOU PLAN TO WORK IN THE PAID LABOUR FORCE IN THE FIVE  YEARS FOLLOWING YOUR GRADUATION?" " P l e a s e put a check mark b e s i d e e i t h e r YES  o r NO  ".  127  " I f you answered NO t o t h i s q u e s t i o n p l e a s e answer the next q u e s t i o n , which reads:  I F NOT, WHAT DO YOU PLAN TO DO INSTEAD? e . g . ,  TRAVEL, SCHOOL, FULL-TIME HOMEMAKING, e t c . " " I f you answered YES p l e a s e j u s t w a i t a minute u n t i l I e x p l a i n t h e next  question." Pause, t h e n , " I s everyone ready t o go onto q u e s t i o n #2?"  "Question  #2 has t h r e e s e c t i o n s t o i t —  ( a ) , ( b ) , and ( c ) .  What I w i l l  ask you t o do here i s t o t h i n k about the k i n d o f p a i d work you a r e p l a n n i n g on doing d u r i n g the f i v e year p e r i o d immediately  f o l l o w i n g your  g r a d u a t i o n from the B. Com. Program ( i . e . , t h i s S p r i n g ; f o r those not g r a d u a t i n g t h i s S p r i n g , the f i v e year p e r i o d a f t e r May, 1983). you answered NO i n t h e p r e v i o u s q u e s t i o n above, I'd s t i l l answer t h i s q u e s t i o n i n the h y p o t h e t i c a l sense.  Even i f  l i k e you t o  T h e r e f o r e , I have  worded the q u e s t i o n IF YOU WERE TO WORK DURING THE FIVE YEARS FOLLOWING YOUR GRADUATION ... WHAT WOULD BE THE HIGHEST LEVEL PROFESSION TOWARD WHICH YOU WOULD ASPIRE, e t c . . . .  B e f o r e you w r i t e a n y t h i n g down, I'd  l i k e you t o take some time t o t h i n k about your c a r e e r o p t i o n s f o r t h e f i v e year p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g your g r a d u a t i o n .  A number o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s  may come t o mind as you t h i n k about the range o f p o s i t i o n s you'd consider working  in.  I'd l i k e you t r y t o d i v i d e your p r o f e s s i o n a l  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s : (a) The h i g h e s t l e v e l p r o f e s s i o n toward w h i c h you would a s p i r e , t h a t i s , the h i g h e s t l e v e l p o s i t i o n you'd aim f o r ; (b) The lowest l e v e l p r o f e s s i o n toward w h i c h you would a s p i r e , t h a t i s , the lowest l e v e l p o s i t i o n you'd accept o r s e t t l e f o r ;  128  (c)  The p r o f e s s i o n o r p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h you r e a l l y expect t o  w o r k . . . . d u r i n g t h e f i v e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g your g r a d u a t i o n .  I ' d l i k e you  t o be as s p e c i f i c as p o s s i b l e when answering t h i s q u e s t i o n , t h a t i s , I ' d l i k e you t o w r i t e down s p e c i f i c j o b t i t l e s and the g e n e r a l type o f b u s i n e s s o r o r g a n i z a t i o n you'd l i k e t o work i n . I'm n o t i n Commerce, but  I ' d l i k e t o g i v e you some examples of how I t h i n k you might  t h i s question.  answer  F o r (a) WHAT WOULD BE HIGHEST LEVEL PROFESSION TOWARD  WHICH YOU WOULD ASPIRE?, someone who wanted t o work i n banking might answer " r e g i o n a l manager, bank" o r " d i r e c t o r o f r e t a i l b a n k i n g f o r Southwestern B.C.".  F o r (b) WHAT WOULD BE THE LOWEST LEVEL PROFESSION  TOWARD WHICH YOU WOULD ASPIRE?, they might answer " l o a n s manager, bank"; and f o r ( c ) IN WHAT PROFESSION WOULD YOU REALLY EXPECT TO WORK? they might answer "branch manager, bank".  Someone w a n t i n g t o work i n t h e  r e t a i l a r e a might say t h a t t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l p o s i t i o n they'd aim f o r i n f i v e y e a r s i s "manager ( f o r Western Canada) o f department s t o r e  ladies'  wear department"; t h e l o w e s t l e v e l p o s i t i o n t h e y ' d accept o r s e t t l e f o r would be " l a d i e s wear department manager, department s t o r e " ; and t h e p o s i t i o n they r e a l l y expect t o work i n i s "manager of l a d i e s wear f o r the  Vancouver a r e a " .  These a r e j u s t examples.  I want you t o t h i n k  about and t o w r i t e down what f i t s f o r you p e r s o n a l l y .  In addition, f o r  each o f p a r t s ( a ) , ( b ) , and ( c ) p l e a s e p l a c e a check mark b e s i d e e i t h e r full-time BE A FULL-TIME  or part-time .  OR PART-TIME  i n answer t o the q u e s t i o n WOULD THIS POSITION?  P l e a s e take some time  now t o t h i n k about and t o r e c o r d your answers t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . " a few m i n u t e s f o r Ss t o complete t h i s q u e s t i o n i n d i v i d u a l l y .  Allow  Check a t  129  i n t e r v a l s t o be sure people a r e n ' t h a v i n g problems c o m p l e t i n g question.  this  G i v e a one minute w a r n i n g p r i o r t o moving onto q u e s t i o n / / 3 ,  t h e n , "O.K., I'd l i k e t o move on t o q u e s t i o n #3 now."  " Q u e s t i o n #3 r e a d s , DO YOU HAVE PLANS FOR GRADUATE OR PROFESSIONAL SCHOOL WITHIN THE FIVE YEARS FOLLOWING YOUR GRADUATION? check mark b e s i d e e i t h e r YES the second p a r t of Q u e s t i o n #3. a program).  o r NO  Please place a  , then t u r n the page t o  I f you a r e i n Law, mark YES ( a l r e a d y i n  I F you answered YES t o the f i r s t p a r t o f Q u e s t i o n #3,  p l e a s e w r i t e i n the space p r o v i d e d the name o f the graduate o r p r o f e s s i o n a l program you p l a n t o e n t e r .  I F you answered NO the f i r s t  p a r t of Q u e s t i o n #3, p l e a s e w r i t e i n the space p r o v i d e d the name of t h e PROGRAM YOU WOULD CONSIDER ENTERING I F YOU WERE TO ENTER A GRADUATE OR PROFESSIONAL PROGRAM d u r i n g the f i v e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g your  graduation  from your c u r r e n t undergraduate  Q u e s t i o n #3  now.  program.  P l e a s e complete  Pause, t h e n , "O.K., I ' d l i k e t o move on t o Q u e s t i o n #4 now."  "For Q u e s t i o n #4, CURRENT MARITAL STATUS, p l e a s e p l a c e a check mark i n the a p p r o p r i a t e space a f t e r SINGLE, MARRIED, DIVORCED/SEPARATED, COMMON-LAW, OR OTHER."  Pause, t h e n :  " A g a i n , f o r Q u e s t i o n #5, p l e a s e p l a c e a check mark i n the a p p r o p r i a t e space i n answer t o the q u e s t i o n WITHIN THE 5 YEARS FOLLOWING MY GRADUATION I PLAN TO BE — COMMON-LAW, o r OTHER."  SINGLE, MARRIED, DIVORCED/SEPARATED,  Pause, t h e n :  130  "For Q u e s t i o n #6, p l e a s e w r i t e i n t h e space p r o v i d e d , t h e NUMBER OF CHILDREN (you have) NOW. in  Then p l e a s e check e i t h e r YES  o r NO  response t o t h e q u e s t i o n , DO YOU PLAN TO HAVE CHILDREN IN THE NEXT  FIVE YEARS?  I f you answered YES t o t h i s q u e s t i o n p l e a s e w r i t e i n t h e  number o f c h i l d r e n you p l a n t o have d u r i n g t h e next f i v e y e a r s . "  "Question #7.  P l e a s e w r i t e YOUR PRESENT AGE i n t h e space p r o v i d e d . "  "Question #8.  CURRENT PROGRAM OPTION.  P l e a s e e n t e r i n t h e space  p r o v i d e d t h e program o p t i o n you a r e i n i n the B. Com. program." have people w r i t e i n expected  " Q u e s t i o n #9."  (Also  date o f g r a d u a t i o n from c u r r e n t program.)  Read o f f o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  Pause b r i e f l y , t h e n , "When  you have completed t h i s q u e s t i o n p l e a s e t u r n the page t o P a r t A Roles."  III.  Role G r i d  Part A - Roles.  W h i l e you're f i l l i n g  out t h i s page I ' d l i k e you  t o t r y t o imagine your l i f e d u r i n g the f i v e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g t h i s Spring.  There a r e a number of r o l e s which you may be c o n s i d e r i n g as you  t h i n k ahead t o where y o u ' l l be, who y o u ' l l be, what y o u ' l l be d o i n g , and who y o u ' l l be doing i t w i t h .  On t h i s page I have l i s t e d , i n  a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r , 12 r o l e s w h i c h a r e p o s s i b l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  I'm  131  g o i n g t o b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e each o f t h e r o l e s and have you w r i t e i n your own p e r s o n a l  examples f o r s i x of them.  I am aware t h a t you may n o t  choose t o be i n a l l o f these r o l e s i n t h e f i v e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g your graduation,  but I ' d l i k e t o know something about how i m p o r t a n t each o f  t h e s e r o l e s i s t o you." "The  first  r o l e l i s t e d i s COMMUNITY MEMBER o r CITIZEN.  i n c l u d e s a broad range o f a c t i v i t i e s .  This r o l e  Some s p e c i f i c examples a r e  n e i g h b o u r , member o f a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y such as the NDP, member o f a s p e c i f i c a n t i n u c l e a r group, s o f t b a l l coach, p r e s i d e n t  o f a s t u d e n t body,  v o l u n t e e r worker f o r a s p e c i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n .  take a minute t o  Please  t h i n k about one s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y t h a t f i t s i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y and i s p e r s o n a l l y r e l e v a n t t o y o u . When you have thought o f one, w r i t e i t down i n t h e space  provided."  Pause t o g i v e people time t o t h i n k and w r i t e , t h e n : "Next i s DAUGHTER.  T h i s r o l e i n c l u d e s a l l t h a t you t h i n k , f e e l and do as a  daughter.  When t h i n k i n g about t h i s r o l e i t may help t o t h i n k about your  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h your p a r e n t s —  what you do w i t h them; how you f e e l  when you're w i t h them, e t c . " "The  r o l e o f FRIEND i n c l u d e s a l l t h a t you do as a f r i e n d .  When  t h i n k i n g about t h i s r o l e f o r y o u r s e l f i t may help t o t h i n k about your most i m p o r t a n t f r i e n d and what you do w i t h t h a t p e r s o n , how you f e e l when you're w i t h t h a t p e r s o n , and so on." "For personal  t h e r o l e o f GRADUATE STUDENT I'd l i k e you t o use as your example the name of the graduate o r p r o f e s s i o n a l program you  recorded i n the B i o g r a p h i c a l Information  Questionnaire.  F o r example, i f  132  you wrote down t h a t you were c o n s i d e r i n g the M a s t e r o f S c i e n c e i n B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n program, your graduate student r o l e would be M.Sc. Student.  P l e a s e take some time now t o w r i t e i n your  specific  graduate student r o l e i n the space p r o v i d e d . " "HOMEMAKER i n c l u d e s a l l the a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r u n n i n g a home, e.g., a l l types of housework, a r r a n g i n g f o r r e p a i r s , e t c . , b a s i c a l l y a n y t h i n g t h a t you would do as a homemaker." "MOTHER i n c l u d e s a l l t h a t you would t h i n k , f e e l , and do as a mother, e.g.,  p l a y w i t h your c h i l d r e n , worry about them when they get home l a t e ,  h e l p them w i t h schoolwork,  l o o k a f t e r a c h i l d when he or she i s s i c k ,  etc." "PARTNER/WIFE i n c l u d e s a l l t h a t you would do and be as a w i f e o r p r i m a r y p a r t n e r , e.g., a l l t h a t you would do o r be i f you were l e g a l l y m a r r i e d or l i v i n g w i t h a p a r t n e r i n a common-law m a r r i a g e . " "PERSONAL WELL-BEING AND ENJOYMENT i s a c t u a l l y a whole c a t e g o r y o f a c t i v i t i e s which may i n c l u d e hobbies ( e . g . , a n t i q u e c o l l e c t o r ) , growth a c t i v i t i e s  personal  (e.g., j o u r n a l w r i t e r , m e d i t a t o r ) , sports (e.g.,  tennis p l a y e r ) , s o c i a l i z i n g (e.g., party-goer, dancer).  Take a few  minutes t o t h i n k about what you do f o r p e r s o n a l w e l l - b e i n g and enjoyment and then w r i t e down t h e one most i m p o r t a n t  a c t i v i t y t h a t you do i n t h i s  category." "The  next t h r e e r o l e s a r e PROFESSION OF HIGHEST ASPIRATION,  PROFESSION OF LOWEST APIRATION, and PROFESSION YOU EXPECT TO WORK I N . For these I ' d l i k e you t o use the j o b s i d e n t i f i e d i n the B i o g r a p h i c a l Information Questionnaire.  P l e a s e take a minute now t o t r a n s f e r t h e j o b  133  titles  (from q u e s t i o n #2 i n B i o g r a p h i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n ) t o the spaces t o  the r i g h t o f these t h r e e p r o f e s s i o n a l "The  roles."  r o l e o f SINGLE PERSON i n c l u d e s a l l t h a t you would be o r do as a  s i n g l e person.  F o r the purpose of t h i s s t u d y , a s i n g l e person i s  someone who i s not l e g a l l y m a r r i e d o r l i v i n g w i t h a p r i m a r y p a r t n e r i n a common-law m a r r i a g e . " "Now I would l i k e you t o t h i n k about t h e next f i v e y e a r s o f your l i f e and t o c o n s i d e r how i m p o r t a n t each of these 12 s p e c i f i c r o l e s w i l l be t o you d u r i n g t h i s f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d .  That i s , i f e v e r y t h i n g works  out the way you want i t t o , what w i l l be the most and l e a s t r o l e s t o you?  Take some time now t o rank o r d e r these r o l e s i n o r d e r of  p e r s o n a l importance l e a s t important. complete  important  t o y o u , w i t h " 1 " b e i n g most i m p o r t a n t and "12" b e i n g  T h i s may be one o f the most d i f f i c u l t s e c t i o n s t o  as i t ' s o f t e n v e r y hard t o choose between r o l e s , e s p e c i a l l y i f  s e v e r a l are very important.  F e e l f r e e t o experiment  with this a b i t  you may need t o use your e r a s e r s t o t r y out d i f f e r e n t o r d e r i n g s . " a few minutes f o r people t o complete be sure everyone i s a b l e t o do i t .  t h i s task.  —  Allow  Check a t i n t e r v a l s t o  G i v e a one minute w a r n i n g p r i o r t o  moving on t o n e x t s e c t i o n , t h e n , " P l e a s e t u r n the page now, t o P a r t B Considerations." P a r t B - C o n s i d e r a t i o n s . "The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f 12 f a c t o r s which may be i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n e v a l u a t i n g l i f e possibilities.  role  P l e a s e rank o r d e r them i n o r d e r of p e r s o n a l  importance  to y o u , w i t h " 1 " b e i n g most i m p o r t a n t and "12" b e i n g l e a s t i m p o r t a n t . The  t h i r d c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s "support & encouragement from p a r t n e r " -  134  p a r t n e r here means spouse, not b u s i n e s s p a r t n e r .  A g a i n , you may f i n d i t  d i f f i c u l t t o rank order these e s p e c i a l l y i f s e v e r a l seem v e r y important.  However, p l e a s e take some time now t o g i v e each o f these  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a s e p a r a t e n u m e r i c a l r a n k i n g from 1 t o 12." a l l o w s u b j e c t s time t o complete s u r e no one i s s t u c k .  t h i s task.  Pause t o  Check a t i n t e r v a l s t o be  G i v e a one minute w a r n i n g p r i o r t o moving on t o  P a r t C. P a r t C - R a t i n g Form. C.  "Now p l e a s e t u r n t o the f i r s t page of P a r t  T h i s i s the l a s t s e c t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  12 i d e n t i c a l pages.  Part C i s basically  A t the top o f each page i s a sentence  "AS A  I EXPECT THAT I WOULD HAVE/BE".  stem r e a d i n g ,  I n t o each o f  these blank spaces I w i l l ask you t o t r a n s f e r your p e r s o n a l examples o f each o f the r o l e s as l i s t e d i n P a r t A - R o l e s . first  F o r example, f o r t h e  r o l e o f COMMUNITY MEMBER/CITIZEN, i f you had l i s t e d s o c c e r  coach  as your p e r s o n a l example o f t h i s r o l e you would e n t e r the words s o c c e r coach i n the blank space on the f i r s t page of P a r t C. would then r e a d :  The sentence  stem  AS A s o c c e r coach I EXPECT THAT I WOULD HAVE/BE....  P l e a s e r e f e r back t o P a r t A - R o l e s now t o check what your p e r s o n a l example f o r COMMUNITY MEMBER/CITIZEN was,  and then w r i t e t h i s example i n  the blank space on the f i r s t page of P a r t C." complete  t h i s t a s k , then:  DAUGHTER and FRIEND.  Pause w h i l e s u b j e c t s  "The next two pages are f o r the r o l e s o f  These have both been typed i n f o r you, so j u s t  f l i p past these pages f o r now.  The f o u r t h page i s f o r the r o l e o f  GRADUATE STUDENT.  P l e a s e w r i t e i n your p e r s o n a l example now." Pause  w h i l e Ss complete  t h i s t a s k , t h e n , "The next t h r e e pages are f o r t h e  135  r o l e s of HOMEMAKER, MOTHER, and PARTNER/WIFE. for  These have been typed i n  y o u , so j u s t f l i p past these pages f o r now."  Check t o be sure Ss  a r e t u r n i n g pages a p p r o p r i a t e l y , t h e n , "The next page i s f o r t h e PERSONAL WELL-BEING AND ENJOYMENT ROLE. example now."  P l e a s e w r i t e i n your  personal  Pause w i l l Ss complete t h i s t a s k , t h e n , "The next  pages a r e f o r the t h r e e p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e s . b l a n k spaces the j o b t i t l e s  three  Please t r a n s f e r into  these  o f your PROFESSION OF HIGHEST ASPIRATION,  PROFESSION OF LOWEST ASPIRATION, and the PROFESSION YOU EXPECT TO WORK IN."  Pause w h i l e Ss complete t h i s t a s k , t h e n , " F i n a l l y , the l a s t page  of P a r t C i s f o r the r o l e of SINGLE PERSON and t h i s has been typed i n f o r you." "Please I'll  t u r n back t o the f i r s t page of P a r t C now.  The f i n a l  task  be a s k i n g you t o complete i s t o e v a l u a t e o r r a t e each o f t h e 12  r o l e s a c c o r d i n g t o each of 12 c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . complicated  T h i s may seem k i n d o f  and f r u s t r a t i n g a t f i r s t , but I ' l l ask you t o bear w i t h me  as I e x p l a i n i t t o you. I t may take l o n g e r t o complete the f i r s t  couple  o f pages but y o u ' l l speed up as you get more p r a c t i s e . " "Each of the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n P a r t B - C o n s i d e r a t i o n s has been p l a c e d on a continuum i n P a r t C f o r the purpose o f r a t i n g .  F o r example,  OPPORTUNITY TO ACCOMPLISH CHALLENGING GOALS may be seen on a continuum w i t h MORE CHANCE TO ACCOMPLISH CHALLENGING GOALS on one end o f the continuum and LESS CHANCE TO ACCOMPLISH CHALLENGING GOALS on the o t h e r end o f the continuum.  F o r a l l o f the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s the MORE end o f the  continum i s on the l e f t - h a n d s i d e of the page, and the LESS end of the continuum i s on t h e r i g h t - h a n d s i d e o f t h e page.  I f you were r a t i n g the  136  r o l e of s o c c e r coach and you f e l t t h a t t h i s r o l e p r o v i d e d you w i t h many o p p o r t u n i t i e s to accomplish  c h a l l e n g i n g g o a l s you would c i r c l e the dot  under VERY on t h e l e f t - h a n d s i d e of t h e page and c l o s e s t t o the words MORE CHANCE TO ACCOMPLISH CHALLENGING GOALS. little  chance f o r a c c o m p l i s h i n g  I f this role  c h a l l e n g i n g g o a l s you would c i r c l e the  dot under VERY on the r i g h t - h a n d  s i d e of the page and c l o s e s t t o the  words LESS CHANCE TO ACCOMPLISH CHALLENGING GOALS. between i n terms of a c c o m p l i s h i n g  I f the r o l e seems i n  c h a l l e n g i n g g o a l s , c i r c l e the dot i n  the m i d d l e , under t h e word INBETWEEN. slightly  provided  S i m i l a r l y , i f t h e r o l e seems o n l y  t o one end of the continuum or the o t h e r , c i r c l e t h e  a p p r o p r i a t e dot under SOMEWHAT." "In completing  t h i s t a s k i t may h e l p you t o read the sentence stem  f i r s t and then c i r c l e the a p p r o p r i a t e d o t . F o r example, when r a t i n g t h e r o l e of s o c c e r coach, f i r s t read t o y o u r s e l f :  "AS A s o c c e r coach I  EXPECT THAT I WOULD HAVE .... MORE CHANCE TO ACCOMPLISH CHALLENGING GOALS ... LESS CHANCE TO ACCOMPLISH CHALLENGING GOALS." a p p r o p r i a t e d o t . The word HAVE works f o r the f i r s t  Then c i r c l e t h e  eight  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , then the word BE i s most a p p r o p r i a t e .  F o r example, f o r  the n i n t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n the sentence would r e a d , AS A soccer coach I EXPECT THAT I WOULD BE .... LIKELY TO KNOW SOMEONE WHO DOES THIS WELL .... UNLIKELY TO KNOW SOMEONE WHO DOES THIS WELL.  For the tenth  c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the sentence would r e a d , AS A soccer coach I EXPECT THAT I WOULD BE .... MORE COMPETENT AND SUCCESSFUL .... LESS COMPETENT AND SUCCESSFUL." " I want t o emphasize t h a t each page of P a r t C i s t o t a l l y  separate  137  from the r e s t of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  I want you t o e v a l u a t e each r o l e  s e p a r a t e l y as an e n t i t y unto i t s e l f ,  t h a t i s , you are not  r o l e s here —  you are e v a l u a t i n g each r o l e , by i t s e l f , a c c o r d i n g to each  of the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s on the page. yourself — following  comparing  how  A l s o , p l e a s e judge each r o l e f o r  you would be i f you were i n t h i s r o l e i n the f i v e y e a r s  t h i s Spring."  " P l e a s e complete t h i s s e c t i o n now.  F e e l f r e e t o ask me  for  c l a r i f i c a t i o n i f you get s t u c k w h i l e you're doing i t . P l e a s e l e t me know when you get t o the r o l e of SINGLE PERSON. w i t h one  of the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t 1 11 1  There i s a c o m p l i c a t i o n  need to e x p l a i n when you get  to  it." Pause and a l l o w time f o r Ss t o complete t h i s t a s k . necessary.  A s s i s t where  When enough people a r r i v e a t SINGLE PERSON read  these  instructions: " R a t i n g the r o l e of s i n g l e p e r s o n a c c o r d i n g t o 'amount of and  encouragement from p a r t n e r ' i s somewhat c o m p l i c a t e d  support  as i t ' s a b i t  complex t o imagine b e i n g b o t h a s i n g l e person and a p a r t n e r or w i f e a t the same t i m e .  I n doing t h i s i t e m , c o n s i d e r p a r t n e r to be a c u r r e n t  h u s b a n d / p a r t n e r , and e x - h u s b a n d / p a r t n e r , or a h u s b a n d / p a r t n e r - t o - b e . P l e a s e j u s t make a note of how  you  looked at t h i s one, e.g.,  by c r o s s i n g  out the word p a r t n e r and w r i t i n g i n ex-husband, f i a n c e , or whatever t h i n k the case may  be f o r you i n f i v e years time.  f o r b e i n g a b l e t o bend your minds around t h i s one!  I congratulate  you  you  When you've f i n i s h e d  p l e a s e hand your q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and p e n c i l s i n to me.  I'd l o v e t o  d i s c u s s your r e a c t i o n s to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e a f t e r everyone i s f i n i s h e d ,  138  i f anyone i s i n t e r e s t e d i n d o i n g t h a t . participation."  Thank-you v e r y much f o r your  o OS  c  I  OJ QJ «H QJ J-t P-l  Most Important Construct  3 CO  QJ 4-1 CO  a CO  1-1  Positive Characteristic 1. More competent & s u c c e s s f u l  o  U CL,  o a  4J CO  cjj  00 *H  CN  U OJ  c  a.  o  ^5  4-1 1J CO PM  u  QJ  CO C  o  CO VJ OJ CM  CO  •J  CO B QJ B O CO  00  o  r-i  CN t-t  OJ  3 o  3 cO  a VO  r^  60  e  o  CO QJ  Negative C o n t r a s t competent & s u c c e s s f u l  2  2  2  0  0  0  0  -1  0  0  0  0  Less  2. More chance t o accomplish c h a l l e n g i n g goals  2  2  2  0  0  0  0  -1  1  -1  0  0  Less chance t o accomplish c h a l l e n g i n g goals  3. More p e r s o n a l  2  2  2  0  0  0  0  -1  0  -1  0  1  Less p e r s o n a l  A. C l o s e r to view of s e l f as a woman  1  2  2  0  0  0  0  -1  -1  -2  0  0  F a r t h e r away from view of s e l f as a woman  5. More p a r t n e r  2  1  1  1  0  0  0  0  -2  -1  -1  0  Less p a r t n e r  6. More enjoyment  1  2  1  2  2  1  1  -2  0  0  -1  0  Less  7. More o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n f l u e n c e others  0  2  2  0  1  0  1  -1  2  -2  0  0  Less o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n f l u e n c e others  1  1  1  0  0  2  0  0  -2  -1  0  0  Less  2  1  1  0  0  0  1  0  -1  0  0  0  Less f r i e n d , support  10. More chance f o r warm, friendly relations  1  0  0  1  2  2  1  0  1  0  0  0  Less chance f o r warm, friendly relations  11. More w i l l i n g t o i n v e s t time and energy  2  2  2  0  0  0  0  -1  -2  -2  0  0  Less w i l l i n g t o i n v e s t time and energy  12. L i k e l y t o know someone who does t h i s w e l l  2  2  2  1  1  1  0  1  2  1  1  1  U n l i k e l y t o know someone who does t h i s w e l l  18  19  18  5  6  6  -7  -2  -9  -1  2  growth  support  8. More p a r e n t / f a m i l y 9. More f r i e n d , support  Least Important Construct a  support  colleague  Role  4 Sums  3  E a c h r o l e sum i s obtained by t o t a l l i n g the numbers i n each column.  growth  support  enjoyment  parent/family  support  colleague  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
China 6 14
Russia 4 0
United States 3 0
Norway 1 0
France 1 0
City Views Downloads
Unknown 6 4
Beijing 4 0
Ashburn 3 0
Shenzhen 2 14

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0054243/manifest

Comment

Related Items