UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An investigation of the influence of cross-cultural training on counsellor perception of minority… Margolis, Rhonda L. 1986

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A N INVESTIGATION OF THE I N F L U E N C E OF CROSS-CULTURAL T R A I N I N G ON COUNSELLOR P E R C E P T I O N OF MINORITY CL I E N T P R O B L E M S by RHONDA L. MARGOLIS B.A., University of British Columbia, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Counselling Psychology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1986 © Rhonda L. Margolis, 1986 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (.3/81) i i A b s t r a c t T h i s s tudy e x p l o r e d the i n f l u e n c e of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g on c o u n s e l l o r a t t e n t i o n to c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s i n a c l i e n t ' s p r e s e n t i n g prob lem. The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s were examined: Is t h e r e a d i f f e r e n c e between s t u d e n t s who have taken c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g ( t r a i n e d group) and those who have not ( u n t r a i n e d group) i n a t t e n t i o n to c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s i n a c l i e n t ' s p r e s e n t i n g problem? F u r t h e r , i s there a d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups i n the p e r c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n c e of c l i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n i n d e f i n i n g the c l i e n t ' s problem? A t t e n t i o n to c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s was measured by a s k i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s to w r i t e a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the c l i e n t ' s problem a f t e r v i ewing a v i d e o t a p e of a s i m u l a t e d i n i t i a l c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n . The problem d e f i n i t i o n was l a t e r coded for l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness . An assessment of the d i f f e r e n c e s between t r a i n e d and u n t r a i n e d s tudent s in terms of s i g n i f i c a n c e of c l i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n was a c h i e v e d by c o n d u c t i n g an a n a l y s i s of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' Q - s o r t s of c l i e n t s tatements from most to l e a s t meaningfu l i n d e f i n i n g the c l i e n t ' s p r o b l e m . In a d d i t i o n , the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness S c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n order to a s s e s s the l e v e l of e t h n i c awareness of a l l p a r t i c i -p a n t s . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness were shown, on e i t h e r the problem d e f i n i t i o n or the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness S c a l e , between c o u n s e l l i n g s tudents who had taken a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g course and those who had n o t . The r e s e a r c h e s t a b l i s h e d a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the problem d e f i n i t i o n and the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness measure. The Q - a n a l y s i s of s o r t i n g p a t t e r n s appeared to i n d i c a t e tha t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n of mean ing fu l i n f o r m a t i o n may have e x i s t e d as a consequence of d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness . A l t h o u g h t h i s study d i d not p r o v i d e c o n c l u s i v e ev idence r e g a r d i n g the impact of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g , i t d i d p o i n t to an important a r e a for f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n by e d u c a t o r s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that f i f t y p e r c e n t of a l l the s tudents in the s tudy were a s s e s s e d as be ing low i n c u l t u r a l awareness . The consequences of low c u l t u r a l awareness c o u l d range from a c l i e n t not r e t u r n i n g for therapy a f t e r i n i t i a l s e s s i o n s because he or she does not f e e l tha t the c o u n s e l l o r under -s tands him or h e r , to a m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or m i s d i a g n o s i s of c l i e n t behav iour r e s u l t i n g i n an i n a p p r o p r i a t e c o u n s e l l o r i n t e r v e n t i o n . Such m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y be d e t r i m e n t a l , not o n l y to the c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , but to the c l i e n t ' s w e l l - b e i n g . There i s a need for f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h to determine the impact of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g programs on c o u n s e l l o r p e r c e p t i o n s and i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . I t would a l s o be v a l u a b l e to i n v e s t i g a t e f u r t h e r the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of Q-methodology in c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h and t r a i n i n g . V TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i Acknowledgements x CHAPTER I: Introduction 1 Statement of Purpose 1 Background of the Problem 1 S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study 5 G e n e r a l Research Q u e s t i o n 9 C l a r i f i c a t i o n of Terms 9 CHAPTER II: Review of the Literature 12 The Development of C r o s s - C u l t u r a l C o u n s e l l i n g 12 C r o s s - c u l t u r a l T r a i n i n g Programs 16 Summary 21 Frameworks for C r o s s - C u l t u r a l C o u n s e l l i n g 22 Summary 27 C l i n i c a l T h i n k i n g i n the C o u n s e l l i n g I n t e r a c t i o n 27 Summary . . 34 Chapter Summary 35 CHAPTER III: Methodology 37 Sample 37 Sample C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 37 Procedures 38 P i l o t Study 40 M a t e r i a l s 41 Development of the S c r i p t 42 v i Ins truments 47 C u l t u r a l Awareness in Problem D e f i n i t i o n 47 The Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure 51 Rater T r a i n i n g 54 The Q - s o r t 55 Research Hypotheses 58 Treatment of the Data . . . 5 9 CHAPTER IV: Results 61 H y p o t h e s i s 1 61 H y p o t h e s i s 2 62 H y p o t h e s i s 3 62 H y p o t h e s i s 4 63 A d d i t i o n a l F i n d i n g s 64 Summary 65 CHAPTER V: Discussion 67 Summary 67 D i s c u s s i o n 68 E t h n i c / C u l t u r a l Awareness 69 M e a n i n g f u l n e s s of I n f o r m a t i o n 81 F a c t o r 1 82 F a c t o r 2 85 F a c t o r 3 86 F a c t o r 4 87 F a c t o r 5 88 F a c t o r 6 89 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 91 v i i Summary 92 D i r e c t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Research 93 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C o u n s e l l o r T r a i n i n g 95 References 100 APPENDICES 111 APPENDIX A : C r o s s - c u l t u r a l C o u n s e l l i n g Course O u t l i n e 112 APPENDIX B: Consent Form 114 APPENDIX C : I n f o r m a t i o n Sheet 115 APPENDIX D: C l i e n t S c r i p t 116 APPENDIX E : Q - S o r t Statements 118 APPENDIX F : E t h n i c Awareness Measure 122 APPENDIX G: S c o r i n g f o r E t h n i c Awareness Measure 125 APPENDIX H : Examples of Scores 1 to 4 For Each Case 126 APPENDIX I : Major Steps i n Q - a n a l y s i s 129 v i i i LIST OF TABLES T a b l e I : C u l t u r a l awareness measured by problem d e f i n i t i o n 61 T a b l e I I : E t h n i c awareness measured by Wayne S c a l e 62 T a b l e I I I : L e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness compared w i t h Q - s o r t f a c t o r s 65 T a b l e IV: Q - A n a l y s i s : S i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s and f a c t o r l o a d i n g s f o r each f a c t o r 66 T a b l e V : Comparison of e t h n i c awareness s cores on Wayne S c a l e w i t h c u l t u r a l awareness s c o r e s on problem d e f i n i t i o n 70 T a b l e V I : Most and l e a s t meaningfu l s tatements in d e f i n i n g the c l i e n t ' s problem 83 ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 57 X Acknowledgements I would l i k e to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to my committee members, D r . Marv Westwood, D r . L a r r y Cochran and D r . Wal ter B o l d t , f or t h e i r e n t h u s i a s t i c support of t h i s p r o j e c t . S p e c i a l thanks to Susan A . Rungta for s h a r i n g her i n s i g h t s and encouragement throughout t h i s r e s e a r c h . 1 CHAPTER I: Introduction Statement of Purpose The purpose of t h i s s tudy i s to e x p l o r e the i n f l u e n c e of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g on the a t t e n t i o n p a i d by m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e c o u n s e l l o r s to the r o l e of c u l t u r e in a m i n o r i t y c l i e n t ' s p r e s e n t i n g p r o b l e m . Background of the Problem D u r i n g the l a s t two decades i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n in the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o f e s s i o n has been d i r e c t e d toward r e v i e w i n g c o u n s e l l i n g p r a c t i c e s w i t h e t h n i c m i n o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n s . There have been s e r i o u s concerns r a i s e d in the l i t e r a t u r e about the extent to which c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s meet the needs of c l i e n t s whose c u l t u r a l backgrounds are d i f f e r e n t from the mainstream p o p u l a t i o n (Draguns, 1981; K o r c h i n , 1980; Pedersen , 1977; Sue et a l . , 1974). Much of the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g r e s e a r c h has been devoted to examining d i f f e r e n c e s in c l i e n t responses to c o u n s e l l i n g and b a r r i e r s to e f f e c t i v e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g (Sue & Sue, 1977; V o n t r e s s , 1971). C o n s i s t e n t l y i n the l i t e r a t u r e recommendations have been made for i n c r e a s e d c o u n s e l l o r awareness , knowledge, and s p e c i a l s k i l l s to work w i t h m i n o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n s (Carney & 2 Kahn, 1984; Pedersen et a l . , 1978; Sue et a l . , 1982). C o u n s e l l o r awareness i s d e s c r i b e d as c o u n s e l l o r s c o n f r o n t i n g t h e i r b i a s e s and s t e r e o t y p e s as w e l l as e x p l o r i n g t h e i r own c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e ; s k i l l s are d e f i n e d as v e r b a l , p r o c e s s , and s p e c i a l t e c h n i q u e s ; and knowledge encompasses a broad range i n c l u d i n g h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l customs. I t i s suggested that knowledge of a c l i e n t ' s c u l t u r a l norms and v a l u e s i s important i n h e l p i n g the c o u n s e l l o r see the c l i e n t in h i s or her t o t a l c o n t e x t , to f a c i l i t a t e the c l i e n t ' s t r u s t i n the c o u n s e l l o r , and to decrease the a n x i e t y or d i s c o m f o r t of the c o u n s e l l o r in working w i t h the c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t c l i e n t . The importance of b u i l d i n g t r u s t in the t h e r a p e u t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p has been w e l l documented (Rogers , 1961; Sue & Sue, 1977; T e r r e l l & T e r r e l l , 1984; Truax & C a r k h u f f , 1969; V o n t r e s s , 1971). However, whi l e r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r m a t i o n may be an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t for e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g , there are o ther f a c e t s to the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s worthy of c o n s i d e r a t i o n . In any e f f o r t to determine i f , and how w e l l , the needs of m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s are be ing met i t i s neces sary to look at the purpose of c o u n s e l l i n g . The A . P . A . g u i d e l i n e s (1974) d e f i n e c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y , in p a r t , as a s e r v i c e i n t e n d e d to h e l p persons a c q u i r e or a l t e r p e r s o n a l s o c i a l s k i l l s , improve a d a p t a b i l i t y to changing l i f e demands, enhance e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o p i n g s k i l l s and d e v e l o p a v a r i e t y of p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and 3 d e c i s i o n making c a p a b i l i t i e s . C o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e r v i c e s are used by i n d i v i d u a l s , c o u p l e s and f a m i l i e s of a l l age groups to cope w i t h problems connec ted w i t h e d u c a t i o n , c a r e e r c h o i c e , work, sex, m a r r i a g e , f a m i l y , o ther s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , h e a l t h , a g i n g and handicaps of a s o c i a l or p h y s i c a l n a t u r e . These g u i d e l i n e s sugges t , and a number of w r i t e r s have a f f i r m e d (Draguns , 1981; P e r e z , 1968; Sundberg , 1981; Westwood, 1983), tha t the p r o c e s s of c o u n s e l l i n g i s , at l e a s t i n p a r t , one of p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . I f t h i s i s an a c c e p t e d d e f i n i t i o n , then how the c o u n s e l l o r p e r c e i v e s or d e f i n e s the problem i s e s s e n t i a l to the p r o c e s s . The i s s u e of i d e n t i f y i n g the c l i e n t ' s problem i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t in c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s where the p o t e n t i a l for m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g may be g r e a t e r than in s a m e - c u l t u r e c o u n s e l l i n g s i t u a t i o n s (Bryson & Cody, 1973; C h r i s t e n s e n , 1985; Wayne, 1981). C u l t u r a l v a l u e s a n d / o r norms i n f l u e n c e how people p e r c e i v e s i t u a t i o n s ( H a l l , 1977; L a n d i s & B r i s l i n , 1983). A c o u n s e l l o r and c l i e n t each b r i n g t h e i r l i f e e x p e r i e n c e , i n c l u d i n g t h e i r c u l t u r a l v a l u e s i n t o the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , they may each p e r c e i v e both the purpose of c o u n s e l l i n g and the c l i e n t ' s problem i n a d i f f e r e n t way. There i s ev idence that many m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s f i n d the v a l u e s of c o u n s e l l i n g , b a s i c a l l y a white m i d d l e - c l a s s a c t i v i t y , i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r l i f e e x p e r i e n c e ( P a d u l l a , Ruiz & A l v a r e z , 1975; Sue & Sue, 1977). 4 Some of these " c u l t u r e - b o u n d " v a l u e s of c o u n s e l l i n g d e s c r i b e d by Sue (1977) i n c l u d e i t s o r i e n t a t i o n toward i n d i v i d u a l i s m , i t s emphasis on v e r b a l , e m o t i o n a l and b e h a v i o u r a l e x p r e s s i v e n e s s , the importance i t p l a c e s on s p o n t a n e i t y , openness and i n t i m a c y , and on the g a i n i n g of i n s i g h t . C o u n s e l l i n g has adopted an e g a l i t a r i a n model in which the c o u n s e l l o r i s not i n t r o d u c e d as an e x p e r t but i n s t e a d t r i e s to e s t a b l i s h a sense of m u t u a l i t y i n which the c l i e n t can take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s or her c h o i c e s . Sue and K i r k (1977) suggested t h a t these v a l u e s do not n e c e s s a r i l y h o l d a c r o s s c u l t u r e s . They gave the example t h a t to Westerners i n h i b i t i o n i s f r e q u e n t l y seen as a n e g a t i v e t r a i t w h i l e s p o n t a n e i t y i s a d e s i r a b l e one. They p o i n t e d out that the Chinese c u l t u r e "may view the former c h a r a c t e r i s t i c as showing good c o n t r o l and m a t u r i t y , whi l e i n t e r p r e t i n g the l a t t e r as i n d i c a t i n g bad manners" (p . 478) . Kim (1981) s t a t e d t h a t communicat ion i n A s i a n c u l t u r e s i s "governed by complex v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d i n g age, s t a t u s , f a m i l i a r i t y and concepts of o b l i g a t i o n and shame" (p. 299) . I f c o u n s e l l o r s do not unders tand the c u l t u r e they may d e v e l o p m i s p e r c e p t i o n s about an A s i a n c l i e n t ' s b e h a v i o u r . A m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e c o u n s e l l o r may not unders tand c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t c l i e n t s ' frame of r e f e r e n c e a n d , i n f a c t , may be unaware that a d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s (Wrenn, 1962). Banks (1971) ( c i t e d i n Thomas, 1979) suggested t h a t t h i s l a c k of u n d e r s t a n d i n g may r e s u l t in the 5 c o u n s e l l o r not comprehending i m p l i c i t a spec t s of the problem f o r which the c l i e n t i s s eek ing h e l p . Chess et a l . (1953) contended tha t u n d e r s t a n d i n g a c l i e n t ' s e t h n i c i d e n t i t y and the c o n t e x t w i t h i n which he or she has deve loped and i s f u n c t i o n i n g i s neces sary to p r o v i d e an a c c u r a t e assessment of the p r o b l e m . The growing concern wi th the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g was a d d r e s s e d a t the V a i l Conference on C l i n i c a l Psycho logy i n 1973. Draguns s t a t e d that t h i s c o n f e r e n c e "has e l e v a t e d knowledge of the c u l t u r e s of one ' s c l i e n t s to an e t h i c a l i m p e r a t i v e " (1981, p . 6 ) . The q u e s t i o n t h i s r a i s e s i s what do c o u n s e l l o r s do w i t h t h i s knowledge? Does i n c r e a s e d knowledge r e g a r d i n g c u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s change the way he or she a s se s se s the p r e s e n t e d problem? Does i t a l t e r the i n t e r a c t i o n in any way? S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study There i s concern tha t the l a c k of c o u n s e l l o r awareness of e t h n i c or c u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s in c o u n s e l l i n g i s d e t r i m e n t a l to the t h e r a p e u t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p , the a c c u r a c y of problem r e c o g n i t i o n or d i a g n o s i s , and the outcome of t reatment ( A b e l , 1956; Bustamente, 1957; Chess , 1953; Draguns , 1978; Epperson et a l . , 1983; V o n t r e s s , 1969). The c o u n s e l l i n g p r o f e s s i o n has r e c o g n i z e d the r o l e of c u l t u r e i n the f o r m a t i o n of a t t i t u d e s , 6 b e l i e f s , and behav iour p a t t e r n s and has endeavoured to move away from b e i n g "encapsulated" i n white m i d d l e - c l a s s c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and a s s u m p t i o n s . Toward t h i s end v a r i o u s t r a i n i n g programs have been d e s i g n e d to i n c r e a s e c o u n s e l l o r knowledge of t h e i r own and o ther c u l t u r e s ( C o p e l a n d , 1982; G i b b s , 1984; L a n d i s & B r i s l i n , 1984; McDavis & P a r k e r , 1977; P e d e r s e n , 1977). Whi le t h e r e seems to be agreement about the n e c e s s i t y to d e s i g n t r a i n i n g programs to i n c r e a s e c o u n s e l l o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l e n c o u n t e r s , Carney and Kahn p o i n t e d out t h a t " l i t t l e data has been ga thered on changes tha t occur in white c o u n s e l l o r s as a consequence of t r a i n i n g exper i ence" (1984, p . 1 1 1 ) . A s earch of the l i t e r a t u r e i d e n t i f i e d two s t u d i e s i n which the r e s e a r c h e r s had at tempted to i n v e s t i g a t e the impact of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g i n c o u n s e l l i n g s tudents by u s i n g an empathy s c a l e to measure change i n c o u n s e l l o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s ( C h r i s t e n s e n , 1984; Pedersen et a l . , 1978). A t h i r d r e s e a r c h e r (Wayne, 1981) e x p l o r e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e t h n i c awareness and c o u n s e l l i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s , aga in measured by empathy s c a l e s . Wayne's p a r t i c i p a n t s , however, had not been exposed to a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g program. There d i d not appear to be any r e s e a r c h a d d r e s s i n g e i t h e r the impact of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g on l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness or the p r o c e s s of the c o u n s e l l o r in a t t e n d i n g to the 7 i n f l u e n c e of e t h n i c i t y i n a p e r s o n ' s p r e s e n t i n g p r o b l e m . In f a c t , w h i l e there was some a t t e n t i o n to c l i n i c a l t h i n k i n g in g e n e r a l in the l a t e 1950s and 1960s (Meehl , 1954; M c A r t h u r , 1954; P a r k e r , 1958; Van A t t a , 1966), the emphasis s i n c e tha t t ime has been on t h e r a p e u t i c outcome, u s u a l l y measured by r a t e s of premature t e r m i n a t i o n from therapy (Mendelsohn & G e l l e r , 1963; Neimeyer & G o n z a l e s , 1983; P a u l , 1967; S h i p p , 1983; Sue et a l . , 1974; T e r r e l l & T e r r e l l , 1984). Only r e c e n t l y has there been a re-emergence of c l i n i c a l t h i n k i n g as an area of i n t e r e s t ( .Mart in , 1984; H o l l o n & K r i s s , 1984). However t h i s renewed a t t e n t i o n to c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s in therapy i s not yet e v i d e n t in the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g l i t e r a t u r e . The a u t h o r ' s c u r i o s i t y about how t h e r a p i s t s use i n f o r m a t i o n i n c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g a c l i e n t ' s problem was aroused d u r i n g an i n t e r n s h i p where she had the o p p o r t u n i t y to view o ther c o u n s e l l o r s ' v i d e o t a p e d c l i e n t i n t e r v i e w s . One i n t e r a c t i o n in p a r t i c u l a r was i n t r i g u i n g . In t h i s s i t u a t i o n , a m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e c o u n s e l l o r was working w i t h an A s i a n - C a n a d i a n c l i e n t who was h a v i n g a n x i e t y a t t a c k s . Over s e v e r a l s e s s i o n s the c o u n s e l l o r s a i d she c o u l d not seem to "get a hand le on" the i s s u e . The c o u n s e l l o r had not addressed the c l i e n t ' s c u l t u r a l background w i t h the c l i e n t or in her own h y p o t h e s i s about the p r o b l e m . A f t e r the s u p e r v i s o r r a i s e d the i s s u e , s i m p l y by a s k i n g the c o u n s e l l o r i f the c l i e n t ' s 8 c u l t u r a l background c o u l d be a f a c t o r , there was a n o t i c e a b l e s h i f t i n the c o u n s e l l o r ' s a p p r o a c h . The c o u n s e l l o r i n c r e a s e d her a t t e n t i v e n e s s and responses to s tatements about the c l i e n t ' s f a m i l y ( a c c o r d i n g to r e s e a r c h e r s , a s t r o n g A s i a n v a l u e ) i n s t e a d of s tatements about the a n x i e t y . I t q u i c k l y became c l e a r to both the c o u n s e l l o r and the c l i e n t that the a n x i e t y was a consequence of the c l i e n t ' s c o n f l i c t i n g r o l e s in her t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y and the western c u l t u r e to which she wanted to b e l o n g . There appeared to be a s h i f t i n p e r c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n c e of i n f o r m a t i o n when the c o u n s e l l o r , at the b r i e f prompt ing of her s u p e r v i s o r , took i n t o account the f a c t o r of e t h n i c i t y . The r e s u l t seemed to be an i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g by both c o u n s e l l o r and c l i e n t of the problems the c l i e n t was e x p e r i e n c i n g . The reason for u n d e r t a k i n g t h i s s tudy was to e x p l o r e the impact of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g on c o u n s e l l o r awareness of the e t h n i c f a c t o r i n a c l i e n t ' s p r e s e n t i n g p r o b l e m . The r e s e a r c h i n v o l v e d both the assessment of the l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness i n m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e c o u n s e l l i n g s tudent s and the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of which i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d by the c l i e n t was most s i g n i f i c a n t to the c o u n s e l l i n g s tudent s i n i d e n t i f y i n g the c l i e n t ' s p r o b l e m . 9 G e n e r a l Research Q u e s t i o n T h i s s tudy examines the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . Is t h e r e a d i f f e r e n c e between s t u d e n t s who have taken c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g ( t r a i n e d group) and those who have not ( u n t r a i n e d group) i n a t t e n t i o n to c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s i n a c l i e n t ' s p r e s e n t i n g problem? F u r t h e r , i s t h e r e a d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups in the p e r c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n c e of c l i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n i n d e f i n i n g the c l i e n t ' s problem? C l a r i f i c a t i o n of Terms C u l t u r e : "a c o n v e n i e n t l a b e l f or knowledge, s k i l l s , and a t t i t u d e s that are l e a r n e d and passed on from g e n e r a t i o n to g e n e r a t i o n " (Sundberg , 1981, p . 30); "a c u l t u r a l group i s that p o p u l a t i o n that shares the same w o r l d view tha t would tend to make the same assumpt ions about i t s environment" (Pedersen , 1976, p . 171); the term " c u l t u r e " i s subsumed by the term " e t h n i c i t y , " t h e r e f o r e , when the term e t h n i c i t y i s used the term c u l t u r e i s assumed to be i n c l u d e d . C u l t u r a l E n c a p s u l a t i o n : the c u l t u r a l l y e n c a p s u l a t e d c o u n s e l l o r imposes h i s or her v a l u e s wi thout be ing aware t h a t they may not be a p p r o p r i a t e for a l l c l i e n t s (Wrenn, 1962). "a b l i n d and unques t ioned assumption tha t the c u l t u r e - b o u n d ' t r u t h s ' 10 one h o l d s c o r r e s p o n d to r e a l i t y " (Wayne, 1981, p . 10) . C r o s s - c u l t u r a l C o u n s e l l i n g ; a c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n between persons of d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c backgrounds . Casas (1984) suggested t h a t t h i s term s h o u l d be r e p l a c e d w i t h the term " r a c i a l / e t h n i c m i n o r i t y c o u n s e l l i n g " i n order to d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n from o t h e r s which are a l s o d e s c r i b e d as c r o s s - c u l t u r a l by some a u t h o r s . Pedersen (1977, 1978), f or example, suggested that a l l c o u n s e l l i n g i s c r o s s - c u l t u r a l . H i s d e f i n i t i o n i n c l u d e s age, sex r o l e , l i f e s t y l e , soc ioeconomic s t a t u s , as w e l l as norms, v a l u e s and b e l i e f systems. P a r a d i s (1981) a l s o broadened h i s d e f i n i t i o n of c u l t u r e to i n c l u d e any s i t u a t i o n where the v a l u e s of the c o u n s e l l o r may be d i f f e r e n t from those of the c l i e n t . T h i s s tudy does not adopt t h i s expanded d e f i n i t i o n of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g . E t h n i c Awareness: "an a b i l i t y and a s e n s i t i v i t y to r e c o g n i z e the importance of e t h n i c i t y i n shap ing one's b e h a v i o u r , v a l u e s , and mental h e a l t h ; to be c o g n i z a n t of one ' s s t e r e o t y p e s about d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups ; and to q u e s t i o n whether a problem a c l i e n t p r e s e n t s i n therapy i s i d i o s y n c r a t i c of the person or whether i t has broader c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e " (Wayne, 1981, p . 10) . 11 E t h n i c i t y : " b i o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a such as a c t u a l or assumed common a n c e s t r y , c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e and a t e r r i t o r i a l homeland" ( C h r i s t e n s e n , 1980, p . 12); an e t h n i c group i s "a s o c i a l l y or p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d e f i n e d set of people who have a common c u l t u r e or c u l t u r a l background, o f t en because of s i m i l a r i t y of r a c e , n a t i o n a l i t y , or r e l i g i o n (Aboud & S k e r r y , 1984, p . 3 ) . M a j o r i t y C u l t u r e : " r e f e r s to the p o p u l a t i o n tha t possesses and c o n t r o l s major economic and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g powers i n s o c i e t y and whose c u l t u r e i s t r a n s m i t t e d by major s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s " ( E l l i o t t , 1971, c i t e d i n C h r i s t e n s e n , 1980). M i n o r i t y C u l t u r e : " r e f e r s to a p o p u l a t i o n tha t i s u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g b o d i e s ; whose c u l t u r e i s not the one t r a n s m i t t e d by agents of s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n the s o c i e t y ; and whose members are s u b j e c t i v e l y aware of be ing s o c i a l l y , e c o n o m i c a l l y and (or p a r t i c u l a r l y ) d i s a d v a n t a g e d due to shared p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l or c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " ( E l l i o t t , 1971, c i t e d i n C h r i s t e n s e n , 1980). 12 CHAPTER II: Review of the Literature The Development of C r o s s - C u l t u r a l C o u n s e l l i n g The c o u n s e l l i n g p r o f e s s i o n has always been s e n s i t i v e to human r i g h t s movements t h a t have e v o l v e d i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . D u r i n g the l a s t two decades an i n c r e a s i n g amount of a t t e n t i o n has been d i r e c t e d to s p e c i f i c p o p u l a t i o n s such as women, e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s , and the d i s a b l e d . The l i t e r a t u r e has s i m u l t a n e o u s l y d e s c r i b e d the s p e c i a l needs of these and o t h e r groups ( e . g . e l d e r l y , p o o r , homosexual) and q u e s t i o n e d the a b i l i t y of c o u n s e l l o r s to meet these needs ( L o r i o n , 1974; M i l l e r , 1983; S i n i c k , 1979; Sue et a l . , 1974; Thompson & F i s h b u r n , 1977). There appears to be an i n c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n of the i n t e r r e l a t e d n a t u r e of r o l e s , gender , i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n , c u l t u r a l and s o c i o p o l i t i c a l contex t i n which everyone f u n c t i o n s , as w e l l as a growing awareness of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c o u n s e l l i n g a c t i v i t y and the s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s i n which i t takes p l a c e (Gr i scom, 1979; W o l f e , 1983). R e s e a r c h e r s c a l l f or c o u n s e l l o r s to examine t h e i r own v a l u e s and b i a s e s and to c h a l l e n g e the white middle c l a s s o r i e n t a t i o n which may l i m i t t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s w i th c l i e n t s d i f f e r e n t from themselves ( S c h l o s s b e r g & P i e t r o f e s a , 1973). Sue (1981) s t r e s s e d the p o i n t tha t " c u l t u r a l l y 1 3 different" does not mean " c u l t u r a l l y deficient" when compared w i t h m i d d l e - c l a s s American s t a n d a r d s . I t i s important to note t h a t the c i v i l r i g h t s movement i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , d u r i n g the 1960s, had a major impact on the s e l f - a w a r e n e s s of the psycho logy p r o f e s s i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a major share of the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h has been produced in the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The p r i m a r y focus of t h i s r e s e a r c h has been the e f f e c t s of r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s ( s p e c i f i c a l l y b l a c k c l i e n t / w h i t e c o u n s e l l o r ) on psychotherapy outcome ( G r i f f i t h & J o n e s , 1979; K o r c h i n , 1950; S h i p p , 1983; Sundberg , 1981; Wol fgang , 1984). V o n t r e s s (1971) p o i n t e d out that " d i f f e r e n c e s stem not so much from race as from the i m p l i c a t i o n s of be ing b l a c k in a s o c i e t y tha t a s s i g n s secondary s t a t u s to American Negroes" (p. 12) . The emphasis , t h e r e f o r e , has been p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h i s s u e s of f e a r , s u s p i c i o n , d i s t r u s t and o p p r e s s i o n r e s u l t i n g from s o c i o p o l i t i c a l i n e q u i t i e s . R e c e n t l y , a number of w r i t e r s have expres sed concern wi th the focus on r a c i a l v a r i a b l e s . Aboud and S k e r r y (1984) noted tha t the l a c k of s t u d i e s conducted wi th n o n - b l a c k m i n o r i t i e s makes i t d i f f i c u l t to know whether r e s u l t s are s p e c i f i c to b l a c k s or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of m i n o r i t i e s and Casas (1984) recommended t h a t use of the term " i n t e r r a c i a l therapy" to d e f i n e b l a c k / w h i t e c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s and separate them from other c r o s s - c u l t u r a l e n c o u n t e r s . I t has been suggested 1 4 tha t r e s e a r c h would b e n e f i t from a t t e n t i o n to " s u b t l e r c u l t u r a l dynamics" i n a d d i t i o n to i n t e r r a c i a l i s s u e s (Westwood et a l . , 1981). Another concern which a r i s e s out of the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g l i t e r a t u r e i s the "lumping together" of m i n o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n s . One s h o u l d not assume t h a t the needs of a l l g r o u p s , or i n d i v i d u a l s , c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the mainstream are the same. For example, the s o j o u r n e r may face r e - e n t r y problems on r e t u r n to h i s or her c u l t u r e of o r i g i n ; the immigrant may face l o s i n g the c u l t u r e he or she brought w i t h him or h e r ; and the ind igenous p o p u l a t i o n may s t r u g g l e to r e t a i n or r e g a i n a d y i n g c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . One might t h i n k , from the l i t e r a t u r e , tha t the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o f e s s i o n i s unanimous i n i t s support for the development of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s for c o u n s e l l o r s . However, there are s e v e r a l w r i t e r s who have r a i s e d the concern t h a t by o f f e r i n g c o u r s e s to d e a l wi th s p e c i a l p o p u l a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y c o u r s e s which suggest d i f f e r e n t s t r a t e g i e s i n order to be e f f e c t i v e , a new form of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s be ing promoted ( P a t t e r s o n , 1984; Pedersen , 1983; W i l g o s h , 1983; Wol fgang , 1984). V o n t r e s s (1983) s t r o n g l y c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t group s t e r e o t y p i n g . He s t r e s s e d t h a t i t i s important to r e c o g n i z e w i t h i n - g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s . He used the example tha t not a l l b l a c k s respond to r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n in the same way and thus shou ld not be t r e a t e d 1 5 as though the i d e n t i t y of one b l a c k person i s the same as a l l b l a c k p e o p l e . There i s concern t h a t a t t e n t i o n to one aspec t of a p e r s o n ' s e x p e r i e n c e ( i . e . e t h n i c i t y ) may r e s u l t in l a c k of r e c o g n i t i o n of the t o t a l e x p e r i e n c e of the i n d i v i d u a l . There i s another p o i n t of view on the matter of s p e c i a l c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s , t h a t i s the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t good c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s are u n i v e r s a l l y e f f e c t i v e . Sundberg (1981) s t a t e d , " i t would seem t h a t the v a r i e t y of problems c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l o r s are l i k e l y to encounter i m p l i e s a s t r o n g need for g e n e r i c s k i l l s " (p . 37) . Rogers (1961) and P a t t e r s o n (Watkins & Goodyear , 1984) p e r c e i v e d the core c o n d i t i o n s of genuineness , empathy and r e s p e c t as the f o u n d a t i o n f o r a l l good c o u n s e l l i n g . The s u g g e s t i o n appeared to be that the c o u n s e l l o r o f f e r i n g these c o n d i t i o n s shou ld be a b l e to t r a n s c e n d c u l t u r a l , soc ioeconomic and o ther d i f f e r e n c e s between c o u n s e l l o r and c l i e n t . The major d i f f i c u l t y in a r e t u r n to c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o l e l y on core concepts i s tha t we would be d i s m i s s i n g l e g i t i m a t e concerns about the treatment of c e r t a i n p o p u l a t i o n s . We can no l onger assume tha t a p p r o p r i a t e c o u n s e l l o r r e s p o n s i v e n e s s to " s p e c i a l groups" w i l l occur n a t u r a l l y ( B l i m l i n e & B i r k , 1979). Whi le few c o u n s e l l o r s would d i s a g r e e t h a t the core c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are d e s i r a b l e , i t may a l s o be d e s i r a b l e to i n t e g r a t e these s k i l l s w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s (Kim, 1981 ) . 16 The f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n i l l u s t r a t e s the "growing pa ins" e x p e r i e n c e d by the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g p r o f e s s i o n s i n c e i t s move toward s e l f - a w a r e n e s s i n the 1960s. "An i n t e g r a t e d and coherent response by c o u n s e l l i n g psycho logy to the needs of s p e c i a l p o p u l a t i o n s i s o n l y b e g i n n i n g to emerge" ( L a r s o n , 1982, p . 843) . C r o s s - c u l t u r a l T r a i n i n g Programs The h i s t o r y of i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n to the needs of m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s i s t h o r o u g h l y documented by Casas (1984) . He noted t h a t the e v o l u t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l c u l t u r a l awareness began i n the 1960s when changes i n the American P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n were d i r e c t e d at a s s i s t i n g m i n o r i t y ( i . e . b l a c k ) p s y c h o l o g i s t s and s t u d e n t s , and c o n t i n u e d wi th the V a i l c o n f e r e n c e (1973) which d e c l a r e d : That the p r o v i s i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s to persons not competent in u n d e r s t a n d i n g and p r o v i d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i e s to such groups s h a l l be c o n s i d e r e d u n e t h i c a l ; tha t i t s h a l l be e q u a l l y u n e t h i c a l to deny such persons p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s because the presen t s t a f f i s i n a d e q u a t e l y p r e p a r e d ; t h a t i t s h a l l be the o b l i g a t i o n of a l l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s to employ competent persons or to p r o v i d e c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n for the p r e s e n t s t a f f to meet the s e r v i c e needs of the c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e p o p u l a t i o n i t s erves ( c i t e d in P a r a d i s , 1981, p . 137). A number of years l a t e r the E d u c a t i o n and T r a i n i n g Committee of the A P A ' s d i v i s i o n of C o u n s e l l i n g Psycho logy d e f i n e d the s p e c i f i c c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g competencies which shou ld 1 7 be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a l l graduate c o u n s e l l i n g programs. The f o l l o w i n g l i s t r e p r e s e n t s the f i n a l form of these recommendations made in a recen t p o s i t i o n paper (Sue et a l . , 1982). The C u l t u r a l l y S k i l l e d C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t B e l i e f s / A t t i t u d e s 1. The c u l t u r a l l y s k i l l e d c o u n s e l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t i s one who has moved from be ing c u l t u r a l l y unaware to be ing aware and s e n s i t i v e to h i s / h e r own c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e and to v a l u i n g and r e s p e c t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s . 2. A c u l t u r a l l y s k i l l e d c o u n s e l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t i s aware of h i s / h e r own v a l u e s and b i a s e s and how they may a f f e c t m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s . 3. A c u l t u r a l l y s k i l l e d c o u n s e l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t i s . one who i s c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s tha t e x i s t between the c o u n s e l o r and c l i e n t i n terms of race and b e l i e f s . 4. The c u l t u r a l l y s k i l l e d c o u n s e l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t i s s e n s i t i v e to c i r c u m s t a n c e s ( p e r s o n a l b i a s e s , s tage of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y , s o c i o p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e s , e t c . ) which may d i c t a t e r e f e r r a l of the m i n o r i t y c l i e n t to a member of h i s / h e r own r a c e / c u l t u r e . Knowledges 1. The c u l t u r a l l y s k i l l e d c o u n s e l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t w i l l have a good u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the s o c i o p o l i t i c a l sys tem's o p e r a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s w i t h r e s p e c t to i t s treatment of m i n o r i t i e s . 2. The c u l t u r a l l y s k i l l e d c o u n s e l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t must possess s p e c i f i c knowledge and i n f o r m a t i o n about the p a r t i c u l a r group he / she i s working w i t h . 18 3. The c u l t u r a l l y s k i l l e d c o u n s e l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t must have a c l e a r and e x p l i c i t knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the g e n e r i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c o u n s e l i n g and t h e r a p y . 4. The c u l t u r a l l y s k i l l e d c o u n s e l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t i s aware of i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a r r i e r s which prevent m i n o r i t i e s form u s i n g mental h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . S k i l l s 1. At the s k i l l s l e v e l , the c u l t u r a l l y s k i l l e d c o u n s e l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t must be a b l e to generate a wide v a r i e t y of v e r b a l and n o n v e r b a l r e s p o n s e s . 2. The c u l t u r a l l y s k i l l e d c o u n s e l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t must be a b l e to send and r e c e i v e both v e r b a l and n o n v e r b a l messages a c c u r a t e l y and " a p p r o p r i a t e l y . " 3. The c u l t u r a l l y s k i l l e d c o u n s e l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t i s a b l e to e x e r c i s e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s k i l l s on b e h a l f of h i s / h e r c l i e n t when a p p r o p r i a t e . Sue (1981) r a i s e d the concern that most t r a i n i n g programs to date have s t r e s s e d " c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g , a f f e c t i v e and c o g n i t i v e t r a i n i n g " but have not a d e q u a t e l y addressed the s k i l l s component. Support f o r Sue ' s c r i t i c i s m came from Mohan and Altman (1977) who contended tha t t r a i n i n g models which promote the i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e o r y , s k i l l s and (going beyond Sue) t r a n s f e r , w i l l be most e f f e c t i v e . The w r i t e r s supported t h e i r c o n t e n t i o n from a p e r c e p t u a l psycho logy framework. They argued tha t whi l e s k i l l t r a i n i n g may produce some behaviour changes , "the permanence of the changes w i l l depend on the ex tent to which they are accompanied by meaningfu l and r e l e v a n t changes in p e r c e p t i o n " (p. 47) . T h i s argument 19 r e c e i v e s some support from an e v a l u a t i o n of an a t t r i b u t i o n a l approach to c u l t u r e l e a r n i n g ( A l b e r t & Adamopoulos, 1976). T h i s t r a i n i n g , c a l l e d the " c u l t u r e a s s i m i l a t o r , " "is a programmed l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e des igned to expose members of one c u l t u r e to some of the b a s i c c o n c e p t s , a t t i t u d e s , r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s , customs, and v a l u e s of another c u l t u r e . There i s no s i n g l e c u l t u r e a s s i m i l a t o r ; d i f f e r e n t a s s i m i l a t o r s are needed for each p a i r of c u l t u r e s " ( F i e d l e r et a l . , 1971, p . 95 ) . The t r a i n i n g i s de s igned to h e l p i n d i v i d u a l s l e a r n to e x p l a i n d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p e r s o n a l s i t u a t i o n s from the p e r s p e c t i v e of members of another c u l t u r e . The r e s e a r c h e r s found no ev idence that r a c i a l a t t i t u d e s changed as a r e s u l t of t r a i n i n g , nor d i d the e f f e c t s of the t r a i n i n g appear to t r a n s f e r from the a s s i m i l a t o r p r a c t i c e i n t o b e h a v i o u r . One of the e a r l i e s t models for c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g was P e d e r s e n ' s t r i a d model i n which s i m u l a t e d c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i n t e r v i e w s were used to i n c r e a s e c o u n s e l l o r s k i l l . The " t r i a d " i n t h i s case i s the c o u n s e l l o r , the c l i e n t , and a t h i r d p a r t y r o l e p l a y i n g the problem "from the c l i e n t ' s p e r c e p t u a l wor ld view". Pedersen and a s s o c i a t e s (1978) found tha t people who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the t r a i n i n g were more empath ic , genuine and gave more p o s i t i v e r e g a r d to s i m u l a t e d c l i e n t s than b e f o r e r e c e i v i n g t r a i n i n g . However, the r e s e a r c h e r s p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e i r f i n d i n g s may have been compromised by such t h i n g s as s e l e c t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s , exposure 20 t i m e , p l a c e b o e f f e c t and demand e f f e c t . They recommended f u r t h e r s tudy and b e t t e r c o n t r o l l e d e v a l u a t i o n of the model . A study by C h r i s t e n s e n (1984) a l s o used measures of empathy to determine whether or not a t r a i n i n g program had an e f f e c t on p a r t i c i p a n t s . She d e s i g n e d an e l e v e n - h o u r program to i n c r e a s e s e l f - a w a r e n e s s , a c q u i r e h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l knowledge about m i n o r i t i e s in Canada and l e a r n some approaches r e p o r t e d to be e f f e c t i v e in c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g . Her p a r t i c i p a n t s were r a t e d on t h e i r responses to a c l i e n t i n a l i v e c o u n s e l l i n g s i t u a t i o n . She found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n her t r a i n e d and u n t r a i n e d p a r t i c i p a n t s and suggested that perhaps a reason for t h i s i s t h a t the empathy measure "may be of q u e s t i o n a b l e v a l u e when used to t e s t empathy in c r o s s - c u l t u r a l encounters" (p. 319) . She a l s o suggested the p o s s i b i l i t y tha t the t r a i n i n g program was not "powerful" enough to e l i c i t change. S e v e r a l o ther w r i t e r s have d e s c r i b e d models for t r a i n i n g programs i n c o r p o r a t i n g v a r i o u s combinat ions of a c q u i r i n g c u l t u r a l knowledge, r a i s i n g awareness , "breaking through s t e r e o t y p e s , " and o b t a i n i n g p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e wi th d i v e r s e groups ( G i b b s , 1985; Kahn & C a r n e y , 1984; McDavis & P a r k e r , 1977; P a r a d i s , 1981). These w r i t e r s have not i n v e s t i g a t e d the impact of t h e i r models . However the d i f f e r e n c e s in t h e i r approaches p o i n t to an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n , that i s : not a l l models have the same set of o b j e c t i v e s . R e s e a r c h e r s , 21 t h e r e f o r e , s h o u l d e x e r c i s e c a r e i n any comparat ive assessment of the v a l u e of t r a i n i n g models . T r i a n d i s and B r i s l i n (1984) p r o v i d e d a summary of the v a r i o u s types of c u l t u r e t r a i n i n g d e s c r i b e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e : 1. i n f o r m a t i o n or f a c t o r i e n t e d t r a i n i n g 2. a t t r i b u t i o n t r a i n i n g 3. c u l t u r a l awareness 4. c o g n i t i v e behav iour m o d i f i c a t i o n 5. e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g (go to another c u l t u r e ) 6. i n t e r a c t i o n approach ( i n t e r a c t w i t h another c u l t u r e member) They suggested tha t a combinat ion of these methods i s r e q u i r e d f o r e f f e c t i v e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g . As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , i t does not appear tha t one of these methods a lone w i l l r e s u l t i n l a s t i n g behav iour change . The g a i n i n g of knowledge, awareness and s k i l l s through a v a r i e t y of methods a l o n g wi th e x p e r i e n c e i n t e r a c t i n g wi th members of o ther c u l t u r e s are thought to be e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t s i n the e d u c a t i o n of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l o r s . Summary S ince the c i v i l r i g h t s movement in the 1960s the psycho logy p r o f e s s i o n has i n c r e a s i n g l y made e f f o r t s to address the needs of m i n o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n s . In the l a s t decade , 22 e s p e c i a l l y , c o u n s e l l i n g psycho logy has at tempted to meet the c h a l l e n g e of working e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h d i v e r s e p o p u l a t i o n s by e n c o u r a g i n g c o u n s e l l o r s to examine t h e i r own v a l u e s and b i a s e s , by d e f i n i n g c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g competenc ies and d e s i g n i n g t r a i n i n g models to h e l p c o u n s e l l o r s a c h i e v e these competenc i e s . There i s a need f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on the impact of t r a i n i n g programs because a l t h o u g h the l i t e r a t u r e c o n t i n u e s to c a l l f or c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g , t h e r e i s l i t t l e r e s e a r c h to s u b s t a n t i a t e tha t t r a i n i n g r e s u l t s i n change in c o u n s e l l o r s . Frameworks for C r o s s - C u l t u r a l C o u n s e l l i n g If viewed only in the context of his or her universality a person loses hi s or her individuality; if viewed only in the context of individuality the person loses a sense of connectedness with humanity; if viewed only in the context of group membership an individual is stereotyped. The delicate task in counseling is to integrate all three views when working with clients. ( L a r s o n , 1982, p . 844) The dilemma is to balance the culturally unique with the humanly universal in the counselling process. (Draguns, 1981, p . 3) In us i ng any approach t he intercui tura I counsel or must keep in mind that each ethnic minority student has at least three important sides to his or her character that will be expressed in different degrees depending on the situation: universal, cultural, unique. The same is true of the counselor. (Wolfgang, 1984, p . 428) To assume that general knowledge of a specific cultural group is enough to start a therapeutic 23 intervention can result: in stereotyping and cultural oppression. . . . Information on a client needs to be placed in the context of the client's primary subculture, its values, beliefs, assumptions, expectations, and later in the larger societal context. ( Ibrahim & Kahn, 1985, p . 17) . I m p l i c i t in the above s tatements appears to be a r e c o g n i t i o n of the importance of a t t e n d i n g to p o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l i e n t and c o u n s e l l o r wor ld v i e w s . Sue (1978) d e f i n e d a w o r l d view as "how a person p e r c e i v e s h i s / h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p to n a t u r e , i n s t i t u t i o n s , o ther p e o p l e , e t c . " and suggested tha t a wor ld view i s composed of " a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s , openness , and concepts which may a f f e c t how we t h i n k , make d e c i s i o n s , behave and d e f i n e events" (1978, p . 419) . V a r i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l models r e l a t e d to t h i s concept have been proposed in the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l i t e r a t u r e . Among these a r e : (a) a b e h a v i o u r a l approach which s t a t e d t h a t "much of the key to s u c c e s s f u l c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g might j u s t l i e i n the knowledge of the dominant p a t t e r n s of r e i n f o r c e r s for d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s and p a r t i c u l a r l y the knowledge of c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c r e i n f o r c e r s (Dawis, 1978, p . 466); (b) an i n t r a p s y c h i c a p p r o a c h , in which Sue (1978) suggested a s s e s s i n g c l i e n t w o r l d views u s i n g l o c u s of c o n t r o l and l o c u s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y measures; (c) an e x i s t e n t i a l approach in which Ibrahim and Kahn (1985) adopted Sue ' s n o t i o n of "world views" and used K l u c k h o h n ' s f i v e e x i s t e n t i a l c a t e g o r i e s (human n a t u r e , s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , n a t u r e , time and a c t i v i t y ) to 24 d e v e l o p a s c a l e to as ses s w o r l d v i e w s . Whi l e these w r i t e r s have each at tempted to formula te a t h e o r e t i c a l framework for c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g C h r i s t e n s e n (1985) p o i n t e d out that "there i s no theory of c o u n s e l l i n g which emphasizes e t h n i c , c u l t u r a l , r a c i a l , soc ioeconomic and p r a c t i c a l f a c t o r s , making these an i n t e g r a l p a r t , i f not the b a s i s of the t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . " F u r t h e r , C h r i s t e n s e n c o n s i d e r e d t h i s "a most d e t r i m e n t a l o m i s s i o n s i n c e the theory employed determines what w i l l be a t t e n d e d to d u r i n g c o u n s e l l i n g " (1985, p . 78) . A model which seems best to encompass i n d i v i d u a l , e t h n o c u l t u r a l and s o c i o p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s i s one deve loped by C h r i s t e n s e n (1985). She suggested tha t both c o u n s e l l o r and c l i e n t en ter the c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p e r c e p t u a l f i e l d s which i n c l u d e , a t the c e n t r e , t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e of themselves and at v a r y i n g l e v e l s of awareness , s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s , the l a r g e r s o c i e t y and the u n i v e r s e , i n c l u d i n g p e r c e p t i o n s of t ime- space d imens ions and Man's na ture and p l a c e i n the u n i v e r s e . T h i s o r i e n t a t i o n , based i n p e r c e p t u a l p s y c h o l o g y , i n c l u d e s the concept of d i f f e r i n g wor ld views and goes beyond t r a d i t i o n a l i n t r a p s y c h i c and p e r s o n a l i t y based mode l s . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , i t r e c o g n i z e s the i n t e r a c t i v e na ture of the c o u n s e l l i n g s i t u a t i o n and c o n s i d e r s the p e r c e p t i o n s of both c l i e n t and c o u n s e l l o r as important c o n t r i b u t o r s to the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s . 25 The reader i s r e f e r r e d to C h r i s t e n s e n (1985) f o r a comprehensive review of the h i s t o r y and development of p e r c e p t u a l p s y c h o l o g y . She r e c o g n i z e d L e w i n ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the f o u n d a t i o n s of p e r c e p t u a l psycho logy wi th h i s b e l i e f tha t the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of a p e r s o n ' s " l i f e space" or " p e r c e p t u a l f i e l d " i s fundamental i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r e a t m e n t , and p o i n t e d out that R o g e r ' s c l i e n t - c e n t e r e d therapy was one of the f i r s t w i d e l y a c c e p t e d approaches emphas iz ing the importance of r e c o g n i z i n g the p e r c e p t i o n s of the c l i e n t . A c c o r d i n g to C h r i s t e n s e n , Rogers d e f i n e d "the p e r c e p t u a l f i e l d as the e n t i r e u n i v e r s e , i n c l u d i n g the s e l f , as e x p e r i e n c e d by the i n d i v i d u a l at a g i v e n moment, . . . t h i s " p r i v a t e map" by which the i n d i v i d u a l l i v e s i s h i s / h e r r e a l i t y " (p. 78 ) . Combs and a s s o c i a t e s (1982) adopted a p e r c e p t u a l p s y c h o l o g y framework as an o r i e n t a t i o n wi th p o t e n t i a l v a l u e for h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s to a c h i e v e more e f f e c t i v e "human i n t e r a c t i o n . " They commented on what i s perhaps o b v i o u s , that "people do not behave a c c o r d i n g to the f a c t s as o t h e r s see them, but a c c o r d i n g to the f a c t s as they seem them" (p. 20) and suggested tha t people tend to p e r c e i v e events in terms of t h e i r v a l u e s , which i n t u r n are i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d to the c u l t u r e i n which they move. They suggested tha t "communication i s p o s s i b l e through tha t p a r t of the p e r c e p t u a l or phenomenal f i e l d that i s common to two persons" (p. 38) and that people tend to f e e l more c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h o t h e r s whose 26 p e r c e p t u a l f i e l d s have more i n common w i t h t h e i r own. I t i s a c h a l l e n g e to the c o u n s e l l o r to f a c i l i t a t e the i n t e r s e c t i n g of p e r c e p t u a l f i e l d s . A major u n d e r l y i n g assumpt ion of C h r i s t e n s e n ' s model i s that the " e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g depends on the c o u n s e l l o r ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the c l i e n t and the c l i e n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the c o u n s e l l o r " (p . 76) . She s t r e s s e d , however, tha t "the onus i s on the c o u n s e l l o r to be p e r c e p t i v e i n p i c k i n g up c l u e s as to w h i c h , when, how and at t imes even i f , p e r c e p t i o n s r e l a t i n g to the c o u n s e l l o r ' s or c l i e n t ' s c l a s s , e t h n i c , r a c i a l or c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y shou ld be c o n f r o n t e d " (p . 78) . C h r i s t e n s e n p r o v i d e d a v i s u a l example of her proposed model which i l l u s t r a t e s the s e l f and f a c t o r s i n the environment which make up the p e r c e p t u a l f i e l d s of both c l i e n t and c o u n s e l l o r . She p o i n t e d out tha t at any moment d u r i n g a c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n any one of many p e r s o n a l , e n v i r o n m e n t a l or c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s may c o n s t i t u t e the foreground of the c l i e n t ' s or c o u n s e l l o r ' s g e s t a l t . She a l s o i n d i c a t e d tha t t h i s model encourages an i n t e g r a t i o n of the c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n i t s e l f w i t h i n the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' l i v e s , r a t h e r than i s o l a t i n g the c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n . 27 Summary The p e r c e p t u a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l model of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p s y c h o l o g y i s an a p p e a l i n g one because i t i n t e g r a t e s p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s . I t emphasizes the importance of both c o u n s e l l o r and c l i e n t p e r c e p t i o n s and encourages the c o u n s e l l o r to examine h i s or her v a l u e s and w o r l d views as w e l l as be ing aware of the c l i e n t ' s b e l i e f sys tem. T h i s model p r o v i d e s a framework w i t h i n which to broaden awareness of s e l f and o t h e r s without r e q u i r i n g an assessment of any p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or v a l u e s ( i . e . l o c u s of c o n t r o l ) . I t seems to have p o t e n t i a l as a t h e o r e t i c a l model which c o u l d be used as a b a s i s for c r o s s - c u l t u r a l awareness t r a i n i n g . I t a l s o , as C h r i s t e n s e n n o t e d , "lends i t s e l f to a s tudy of m i c r o a s p e c t s of the c o u n s e l l i n g proces s as d i f f e r e n t s k i l l s , t e c h n i q u e s and b e h a v i o u r s used by the c o u n s e l l o r may be p e r c e i v e d as more or l e s s meaningfu l" (1985, p . 69) . C l i n i c a l T h i n k i n g in the C o u n s e l l i n g I n t e r a c t i o n The p e r c e p t u a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l model for c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g d e s c r i b e d above emphasizes the importance of both c o u n s e l l o r and c l i e n t p e r c e p t i o n s i n the c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n . The model seems to p l a c e a p a r t i c u l a r 28 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the c o u n s e l l o r for p e r c e i v i n g when i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e to d e a l w i t h c u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s . One important " m i c r o - a s p e c t " of the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s i s what the c o u n s e l l o r does w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d by the c l i e n t and how does he or she p e r c e i v e and o r g a n i z e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n ? S ince the 1950s, a l b e i t s p o r a d i c a l l y , the way i n which c l i n i c i a n s o r g a n i z e the i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d to them by c l i e n t s has been addressed i n the l i t e r a t u r e . McArthur (1954) d e s c r i b e d the l i t e r a t u r e on c l i n i c a l p r o c e s s as "piecemeal" and s t a t e d tha t " i n view of the s u p e r i o r i t y of the good c l i n i c i a n to most s i n g l e measures or t e s t s , examinat ion of the c l i n i c a l p r o c e s s e s may w e l l be the most important problem f a c i n g the s c i e n c e of man today" (p. 207) . In response to M c A r t h u r ' s a r t i c l e Meehl (1954) suggested t h a t p a r t of c l i n i c a l p r o c e s s i s a c t u a l l y " t h e o r y - b u i l d i n g " or " h y p o t h e s i z i n g " and recommended s t r o n g l y tha t r e s e a r c h be o r i e n t e d toward u n d e r s t a n d i n g hypotheses r a t h e r than p r e d i c t i n g t h e r a p e u t i c outcomes. I t would appear that M e e h l ' s comments went unheeded. Parker (1958) noted tha t few papers d e a l t w i t h what a c l i n i c i a n "does" to a r r i v e at c o n c l u s i o n s . Van A t t a (1966) p o i n t e d out t h a t s i n c e 1958 no r e s e a r c h on c l i n i c a l t h i n k i n g had been p u b l i s h e d , and that whi l e r e s e a r c h e r s p r i o r to 1958 had c o n f i r m e d the i n t u i t i v e and i n d u c t i v e q u a l i t i e s of c l i n i c a l t h i n k i n g , the s t u d i e s had not p r o v i d e d s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n about c l i n i c i a n s ' 29 i n f e r e n t i a l p r o c e s s e s . D u r i n g 1951-1952 McArthur (1954) at tempted to a n a l y z e the c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s used by c l i n i c i a n s . He engaged "a s e r i e s " of v i s i t i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t s to p r e d i c t the behav iour of c l i e n t s from data c o l l e c t e d ten y e a r s b e f o r e and asked them how they a r r i v e d at t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s . The r e s u l t s were vague. I t appeared t h a t the c l i n i c i a n s were forming a c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the person ( e . g . "he seems to be the s o r t of person who . . . " ) , but none c o u l d say "how" they d i d t h i s . A c c o r d i n g to M c A r t h u r ' s (1954) and P a r k e r ' s (1958) r e p o r t of K o e s t e r ' s (1951) p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l r e s e a r c h , c o u n s e l l o r s were asked to v e r b a l i z e t h e i r thoughts whi l e r e a d i n g c u r r e n t case m a t e r i a l s of t h r e e c l i e n t s . The r e c o r d e d v e r b a l i z a t i o n s were p l a c e d i n s i x c a t e g o r i e s : (a) i n d e t e r m i n a t e re sponse , (b) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of d a t a , (c) comparison and e v a l u a t i o n of d a t a , (d) h y p o t h e s i s based on s y n t h e s i s of d a t a , (e) e v a l u a t i o n of an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or h y p o t h e s i s , and (f) need for a d d i t i o n a l d a t a . A p p a r e n t l y K o e s t e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t the s teps in d i a g n o s i s seemed to be comparison of d a t a , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of d a t a , f o r m u l a t i o n of h y p o t h e s i s and e v a l u a t i o n of same. P a r k e r ' s (1958) r e s e a r c h d i d not support the p r o g r e s s i o n d e s c r i b e d by K o e s t e r . I n s t e a d , i t seemed that c o u n s e l l o r s use these p r o c e s s e s in an i n t e r r e l a t e d way. Parker (1958) r a i s e d s e r i o u s concerns about the v e r b a l r e p o r t i n g method. He suggested t h a t i t i s l i k e l y that the c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t y 30 i n v o l v e d i n d i a g n o s i s may not be a c c e s s i b l e through v e r b a l r e p o r t because s u b j e c t s may be e i t h e r unable to v e r b a l i z e t h e i r p r o c e s s or because they choose not to a r t i c u l a t e tha t i n f o r m a t i o n . D e s p i t e these c o n c e r n s , P a r k e r , f or p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n s , chose to conduct a s tudy u s i n g the v e r b a l r e p o r t method. He was, i n Van A t t a ' s (1966) words, u n s u c c e s s f u l i n a t t e m p t i n g to "account for c l i n i c a l t h i n k i n g w i t h a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d analogy to s c i e n t i f i c p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g " (p. 259) . Parker (1958) h i m s e l f wondered i f a content a n a l y s i s of the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by c o u n s e l l o r s might be more u s e f u l than the method of c l a s s i f y i n g types of r e s p o n s e s . In response to the f a i l u r e of p r i o r r e s e a r c h to " d i s c o v e r the r u l e s of c l i n i c a l t h i n k i n g " Van A t t a (1966) deve loped a method to s tudy how c l i n i c i a n s t h i n k d u r i n g the therapy h o u r . C l i n i c i a n - s u b j e c t s were asked to o r g a n i z e t ime-sampled c l i e n t s tatements i n t o c a t e g o r i e s ( i . e . concept s used i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g a c l i e n t ' s i s s u e s ) and then d e s c r i b e the c l i e n t u s i n g a 100 i tem Q - s o r t . The c l i n i c i a n s ' s t r a t e g y of t h i n k i n g was r e p r e s e n t e d by the p r o c e s s e s used in s e l e c t i n g items and forming the c a t e g o r i e s . The p r o c e s s e s were o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d as the o r d e r of s e l e c t i n g i t ems , the order of c o n s t r u c t i n g c a t e g o r i e s , and the p o i n t at which c a t e g o r i e s were i n i t i a t e d . A l t h o u g h Van A t t a d e s c r i b e d the concepts used by c l i n i c i a n s as "d iverse and i d i o s y n c r a t i c " he s t a t e d tha t h i s r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a c c u r a c y of 31 c l i e n t d e s c r i p t i o n s and both the g r o u p i n g of i tems and s t r a t e g i e s of t h o u g h t . He a d m i t t e d tha t h i s s tatements about concept f o r m a t i o n and thought s t r a t e g i e s were c o n j e c t u r e s but f e l t "that t h i s r e s e a r c h method p r o v i d e d e m p i r i c a l ev idence as a b a s i s for s p e c u l a t i n g how c l i n i c i a n s t h i n k " (p . 265) . In summary, the l i t e r a t u r e on c l i n i c a l t h i n k i n g from 1951 to 1966 i s p r o v o c a t i v e , but i n c o n c l u s i v e . More r e c e n t l y , there has been a renewed i n t e r e s t i n c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r s and i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g in c l i n i c a l p r a c t i c e . M a r t i n (1984) argued that t h e r e i s a need to o b t a i n data on c o u n s e l l o r and c l i e n t c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s d u r i n g c o u n s e l l i n g . He suggested tha t there may be some l i n k between such p r o c e s s e s and the c o u n s e l l o r - c l i e n t i n t e r a c t i o n as w e l l as the c o u n s e l l i n g outcome. H o l l o n and K r i s s (1984) reviewed r e s e a r c h in c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s , p r o d u c t s and proces ses and suggested tha t t h e r a p i s t s ' c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s be examined w i t h a view to matching c l i e n t and c o u n s e l l o r a c c o r d i n g to s i m i l a r i t y i n p r o c e s s i n g s t y l e . They suggested tha t s i m i l a r i t y i n p r o c e s s i n g s t y l e may make j o i n t p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g e a s i e r . The l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to c l i n i c a l t h i n k i n g d u r i n g the l a s t 30 years has p r i m a r i l y been concerned w i t h the " c o g n i t i v e s teps" a c l i n i c i a n takes to a r r i v e at an assessment of a c l i e n t . I t was neces sary to review t h i s l i t e r a t u r e i n order to i l l u s t r a t e the f l u c t u a t i n g i n t e r e s t and sparse r e s e a r c h in the a r e a , as w e l l as to c l a r i f y the focus of t h i s r e s e a r c h 32 s t u d y . Of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e to the p o r t i o n of t h i s study which l o o k s at c l i n i c a l t h i n k i n g i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n s i s a s tudy conducted i n 1978 which d e s c r i b e d a d i f f e r e n t approach to c l i n i c a l i n f e r e n c e . Green and Cochran (1978) l ooked at meaningfu lness of i n f o r m a t i o n in forming an i m p r e s s i o n of a p e r s o n . They p o i n t e d out that in o r d e r to manage the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n which can be generated in even a s h o r t i n t e r v i e w , a c o u n s e l l o r needs to o r g a n i z e or group the items of i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d by the c l i e n t . Working from the assumption " . . . tha t people s t r i v e f o r meaning" (p. 342) , they h y p o t h e s i z e d , and t h e i r r e s u l t s s u p p o r t e d , tha t chunks of i n f o r m a t i o n ( i n the form of c l i e n t s tatements ) " w i l l i n f l u e n c e the o v e r a l l assessment of a c l i e n t to the extent tha t the c a t e g o r i e s are meaningfu l" (p . 341) . Green and Cochran (1978) compared t h r e e d e f i n i t i o n s of m e a n i n g f u l n e s s : "as e x t r e m i t y of judgements ," "as c e n t r a l i t y w i t h i n c o n s t r u c t o r g a n i z a t i o n , " and "as the number of items or c l i e n t s tatements tha t a c a t e g o r y subsumes." The p a r t i c i p a n t s in the s tudy s o r t e d i n t o c a t e g o r i e s 55 c l i e n t s tatements which they thought be longed t o g e t h e r . They then r a t e d each c a t e g o r y on a l i s t of twelve p e r s o n a l i t y d imens ions and gave an o v e r a l l r a t i n g of the c l i e n t based on a l l c a t e g o r i e s . The r e s e a r c h e r s found that each of the t h r e e d e f i n i t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d to m e a n i n g f u l n e s s , but that " r e s u l t s most s t r o n g l y support the c e n t r a l i t y d e f i n i t i o n of m e a n i n g f u l n e s s . . . . That i s , a 33 c a t e g o r y i s mean ing fu l to the ex tent that i t has i m p l i c a t i o n s for o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s " (p. 346) . The importance of t h i s r e s e a r c h for the c u r r e n t s tudy i s the i m p l i c a t i o n tha t " . . . the d i v e r s i t y which makes up a p e r c e i v e d person appears to be o r g a n i z e d i n accordance wi th meaningfu lness" (p. 348) . The c u r r e n t study i s d i f f e r e n t from p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h c i t e d because i t i s concerned wi th the o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n i n terms of i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e or mean ingfu lness to the c o u n s e l l o r , not in assessing what the person is like, but in d e f i n i n g the c l i e n t ' s p r o b l e m . The study focuses on assessment of the problem r a t h e r than a d i a g n o s i s of p e r s o n a l i t y pursuant to the APA (1974) g u i d e l i n e s which p l a c e the p r o c e s s of c o u n s e l l i n g in a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g framework. D e f i n i t i o n of the problem becomes p a r t i c u l a r l y important i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n s when the c o u n s e l l o r and c l i e n t may be a p p r o a c h i n g a s i t u a t i o n from a d i f f e r e n t frame of r e f e r e n c e (Chess et a l . , 1953; Epperson et a l . , 1983). "One of the f u n c t i o n s of c u l t u r e i s to p r o v i d e a h i g h l y s e l e c t i v e screen between man and the o u t s i d e w o r l d . In i t s many forms, c u l t u r e t h e r e f o r e d e s i g n a t e s what we pay a t t e n t i o n to and what we ignore" ( H a l l , 1977, p . 85) . I t would f o l l o w , t h e n , tha t a c o u n s e l l o r ' s c u l t u r a l context may a c t as a f i l t e r d u r i n g a c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n . T h i s f i l t e r may r e s u l t in the c o u n s e l l o r p e r c e i v i n g c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n as more 34 s i g n i f i c a n t i n d e f i n i n g the c l i e n t ' s problem than o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . F u r t h e r , the c l i e n t s tatements which are most mean ingfu l to the c o u n s e l l o r may not be the same s tatements tha t are most mean ingfu l to the c l i e n t . As Banks (1971) ( c i t e d in Thomas, 1979) sugges ted , the l a c k of c o u n s e l l o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a m i n o r i t y c l i e n t ' s c u l t u r a l context may r e s u l t in the c o u n s e l l o r not comprehending i m p l i c i t a s p e c t s of the problem for which the c l i e n t i s s eek ing h e l p . A l t h o u g h r e s e a r c h has been conducted i n v e s t i g a t i n g c o u n s e l l o r s ' l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n (Wayne, 1981), to date no s tudy has looked at c o u n s e l l o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of the r e l a t i v e importance of c l i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n in d e f i n i n g the c l i e n t ' s p r o b l e m . In a d d i t i o n to e x p l o r i n g l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness i n problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , t h i s study employed Q methodology to i n v e s t i g a t e which c l i e n t s tatements were c o n s i d e r e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s to be most and l e a s t meaningfu l in t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n of the c l i e n t ' s p r o b l e m . Summary S i n c e the 1950s at tempts to d i s c o v e r the " r u l e s of c l i n i c a l t h i n k i n g " have not been f r u i t f u l . M e t h o d o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s have f r u s t r a t e d r e s e a r c h e r s in t h e i r e f f o r t s to d e f i n e the " c o g n i t i v e s teps" c l i n i c i a n s take in a s s e s s i n g c l i e n t s . One aspect of c l i n i c a l t h i n k i n g , that of what 35 i n f o r m a t i o n c l i n i c i a n s c o n s t r u e as m e a n i n g f u l , seems to have some promise i n h e l p i n g us beg in to unders tand the c l i n i c i a n s ' p r o c e s s . The c o u n s e l l o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d by the c l i e n t i s e s p e c i a l l y important in a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n where the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f or m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g are i n c r e a s e d by the d i f f e r e n c e s i n wor ld v i e w s . Chapter Summary The c o u n s e l l i n g p r o f e s s i o n has r e c o g n i z e d the need to move beyond e n c a p s u l a t i o n i n a white m i d d l e - c l a s s v a l u e system i n i t s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s . An e f f o r t has been made to d e f i n e competencies necessary f o r e f f e c t i v e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g and to des ign t r a i n i n g programs to d e v e l o p these competenc ie s . However, t h e r e i s some concern about the l a c k of r e s e a r c h to c o n f i r m the assumpt ion that any k i n d of t r a i n i n g w i l l be of some v a l u e . The c o u n s e l l i n g p r o f e s s i o n i s e x p e r i e n c i n g some growing p a i n s i n the area of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g . In a d d i t i o n to i s s u e s of c o u n s e l l o r competencies and t r a i n i n g programs, there i s a l s o a need to p r o v i d e a s t r o n g e r t h e o r e t i c a l base from which to work. The model borrowed from p e r c e p t u a l p s y c h o l o g y appears to meet the need because i t emphasizes the importance of c l i e n t and c o u n s e l l o r p e r c e p t i o n s in the c o u n s e l l i n g 36 i n t e r a c t i o n and i t i n t e g r a t e s p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s which a f f e c t these p e r c e p t i o n s . An area which has been n e g l e c t e d i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g i s t h a t of " c l i n i c a l t h i n k i n g " ; tha t i s , how the c o u n s e l l o r uses i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d by the c l i e n t , s p e c i f i c a l l y , what i n f o r m a t i o n does the c o u n s e l l o r p e r c e i v e as mean ingfu l i n h i s or her c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the c l i e n t ' s i s s u e s . Perhaps i n go ing beyond a t h e o r e t i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the r o l e of p e r c e p t i o n , and i n c o n s i d e r i n g the c o u n s e l l o r ' s a c t u a l p e r c e p t i o n s , we may g a i n some i n s i g h t i n t o c o u n s e l l o r t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s which w i l l a i d in the development of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g programs . 37 CHAPTER III: Methodology Sample The sample for t h i s s tudy c o n s i s t e d of 29 m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n the f i r s t and second year of a M a s t e r ' s program in c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y . Of the o r i g i n a l 35 s tudent s who agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s s t u d y , two were d i s q u a l i f i e d because they were not a c t u a l l y e n r o l l e d i n the M a s t e r ' s program and four were d i s q u a l i f i e d because they were members of a m i n o r i t y e t h n i c g r o u p . Sample C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The median age of the t h i r t e e n female and s i x t e e n male p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the s tudy was 36, w i th ages r a n g i n g from t w e n t y - f o u r to f o r t y - s e v e n . A l l of the p a r t i c i p a n t s were in a M a s t e r ' s l e v e l c o u n s e l l i n g psycho logy program. The m a j o r i t y (seventeen) i n d i c a t e d t h e i r s p e c i a l i t y i n the program as f a m i l y / a d o l e s c e n t ; three s p e c i a l i z e d i n a d u l t c o u n s e l l i n g ; three in r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ; two i n v o c a t i o n a l ; one in women; one i n i n t e r c u l t u r a l ( t h i s person had not taken the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u r s e ) , and two d i d not i d e n t i f y a s p e c i a l i t y . The median number of y e a r s of c l i n i c a l e x p e r i e n c e was three y e a r s , w i t h a range of 0 to 15 y e a r s . T h i s e x p e r i e n c e 38 was v a r i e d , i n c l u d i n g c h i l d c a r e , group work, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , f a m i l y , women, c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , a d o l e s c e n t s , v o c a t i o n a l and g r i e f c o u n s e l l i n g . In terms of t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , t h r e e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e d a psychodynamic o r i e n t a t i o n , s i x had f a m i l y systems, t h r e e had R o g e r i a n , two had r e a l i t y t h e r a p y , one had J u n g i a n , s i x had e c l e c t i c and e i g h t d i d not i n d i c a t e a t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . F o u r t e e n p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e d they had no r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n , f i v e were P r o t e s t a n t , three were C a t h o l i c , three were U n i t e d and four f e l l under the c a t e g o r y of " o t h e r . " Most of the p a r t i c i p a n t s ( twenty-one) i d e n t i f i e d t h e i r e t h n i c background as " C a u c a s i a n , " "WASP," " C a n a d i a n , " or " B r i t i s h . " F i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e d they were second or t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n B r i t i s h , D u t c h , German, and F r e n c h C a n a d i a n . Only one d i d not i n d i c a t e an e t h n i c background . Procedures Of the 29 p a r t i c i p a n t s , ten had completed a 39-hour course (13 s e s s i o n s of 3 hours each) i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g (see Appendix A ) . T h i s course was o f f e r e d as p a r t of the c o u n s e l l i n g psycho logy program's c u r r i c u l u m and the c o u n s e l l i n g s tudents had s e l f - s e l e c t e d i n t o the c o u r s e . The o ther n ine teen s tudents had not taken t h i s c o u r s e . The p a r t i c i p a n t s in both groups were o b t a i n e d through p e r m i s s i o n 39 of course i n s t r u c t o r s . The sample i s not a random one, but i s a sample of convenience w i t h i n which t h e r e appeared to be a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of backgrounds and e x p e r i e n c e . The p a r t i c i p a n t s were approached one week p r i o r to the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the measures . They were asked i f they would be w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r e s e a r c h s tudy t h a t would r e q u i r e t h a t they g i v e t h e i r i m p r e s s i o n s of a c l i e n t ' s p r e s e n t i n g problem i n a s i m u l a t e d i n i t i a l c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n as w e l l as c o m p l e t i n g a form r e q u e s t i n g c e r t a i n demographic i n f o r m a t i o n . They were t o l d t h a t the study would take a p p r o x i m a t e l y one hour and t h i r t y minutes of c l a s s t i m e . At the time of c o l l e c t i n g the d a t a , s t u d e n t s were asked to s i g n a consent form (Appendix B ) . The s tudent s i n each group were asked to imagine themselves i n the r o l e of the c o u n s e l l o r whi l e watching a s i x - m i n u t e e x c e r p t from the b e g i n n i n g of a s i m u l a t e d i n i t i a l c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n . F o l l o w i n g v i e w i n g of the t a p e , the s tudent s were asked to 1) p r o v i d e a b r i e f w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n of the c l i e n t ' s p r o b l e m , 2) s o r t 48 s tatements made by the c l i e n t a c c o r d i n g to which s tatements were most mean ing fu l to them i n d e f i n i n g the c l i e n t ' s p r e s e n t i n g prob lem, 3) d e s c r i b e t h e i r i n i t i a l c l i n i c a l i m p r e s s i o n s of f i v e w r i t t e n case s t u d i e s , and 4) complete a form r e q u i r i n g demographic i n f o r m a t i o n (Appendix C ) . At the end of the procedure a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked to supp ly t h e i r name and address ( s e p a r a t e l y from the da ta c o l l e c t e d ) i f 40 they wished to r e c e i v e a summary of the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . P i l o t Study A s m a l l sample ( f o u r ) of m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e c o u n s e l l i n g s t u d e n t s was o b t a i n e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r a f t e r r e q u e s t i n g v o l u n t e e r s from four c l a s s e s o f f e r e d in the c o u n s e l l i n g psycho logy program. These s tudent s had not taken the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g c o u r s e . The sample c o n s i s t e d of three men and one woman, ages 26 to 36. One p a r t i c i p a n t ' s s p e c i a l i t y was f a m i l y t h e r a p y , two s p e c i a l i z e d i n a d o l e s c e n t c o u n s e l l i n g and one in a d u l t c o u n s e l l i n g . A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i d e n t i f i e d t h e i r e t h n i c background as "WASP" or " E n g l i s h . " Two of the four i n d i c a t e d r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s , A n g l i c a n and C a t h o l i c . Two of the four i n d i c a t e d a f a m i l y systems t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , the o ther two were c l i e n t - c e n t e r e d and psychodynamic . Years of c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e v a r i e d from one to ten wi th a d o l e s c e n t s , a d u l t s and f a m i l i e s . The purpose of the p i l o t s tudy was to determine i f time p lanned for r u n n i n g the s tudy was s u f f i c i e n t , as w e l l as to ' a s se s s the c l a r i t y of the i n s t r u c t i o n s , the i n t e r e s t in the Q - s o r t t a s k , and the t r a n s p a r e n c y of the purpose of the s t u d y . 4 1 The p a r t i c i p a n t response was e n c o u r a g i n g . When asked i n d i v i d u a l l y , the p a r t i c i p a n t s s a i d they had found the i n s t r u c t i o n s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , had enjoyed the Q - s o r t and were c u r i o u s about the purpose of the study which none had guessed . They agreed not to d i s c u s s the s tudy w i t h o t h e r s tudent s u n t i l the data c o l l e c t i o n was c o m p l e t e d . M a t e r i a l s One v i d e o t a p e of an e x c e r p t of an i n i t i a l c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v i e w was p r o d u c e d . A f t e r r e v i e w i n g the l i t e r a t u r e on the e x p e r i e n c e of C h i n e s e - A m e r i c a n s the s c r i p t was w r i t t e n by the i n v e s t i g a t o r w i t h the h e l p of a p r o f e s s i o n a l , female c o u n s e l l o r of Chinese e t h n i c i t y and wi th the input of the young, female Chinese s tudent who r o l e - p l a y e d the c l i e n t (Appendix D ) . The tape p r e s e n t e d a c o n f u s e d , unhappy female c l i e n t of Chinese e t h n i c background who wished to move out of her f a m i l y home and l i v e on her own. The c o u n s e l l o r d i d not appear on the t a p e . I n s t e a d , the p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked to view the tape as i f they were the p e r s o n ' s c o u n s e l l o r l i s t e n i n g to the c l i e n t ' s response a f t e r be ing asked what had brought her to c o u n s e l l i n g . I t was f e l t tha t the p a r t i c i p a n t s would l i k e l y be b e t t e r a b l e to imagine themselves in the r o l e of c o u n s e l l o r i f they were not d i s t r a c t e d by someone e l s e ' s presence or responses to the c l i e n t . As a consequence the 42 tape i s a s i m u l a t e d c l i e n t monologue. The tape was s i x minutes l ong because t h i s was the l e n g t h of time t h a t the s c r i p t development a s s i s t a n t s seemed to be c o m f o r t a b l e t a l k i n g wi thout r e c e i v i n g a c o u n s e l l o r r e s p o n s e . A v i d e o t a p e was produced because i t seemed to be a more r e a l i s t i c s i m u l a t i o n of a c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e than p r o v i d i n g a w r i t t e n case h i s t o r y as Wayne (1981) d i d . The v i d e o t a p e does not s e l e c t the r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i n the way that a w r i t t e n summary of a case does . R a t h e r , i t p r e s e n t s a g e s t a l t of i n f o r m a t i o n which a l l o w s the viewer to determine what i s mean ingfu l to him or h e r . Development of the S c r i p t P r i m a r y among the f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d in the development of the s c r i p t were the stage of the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s which would be r e p r e s e n t e d and the c u l t u r a l v a l u e s which shou ld be embedded i n the s c r i p t , as w e l l as how the v a l u e s shou ld be p r e s e n t e d . Each of these i s s u e s i s b r i e f l y addres sed below. A review of the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d s t r o n g support for the importance of the i n i t i a l c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v i e w . Jacobs et a l . (1972) conducted a study i n which they found that more than one t h i r d of p a t i e n t s who t e r m i n a t e d d i d so a f t e r the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w . Epperson and a s s o c i a t e s (1983) r e p o r t e d s e v e r a l s t u d i e s which i n d i c a t e d tha t 19-25% of c l i e n t s f a i l e d 43 to r e t u r n f o r the next s chedu led c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n a f t e r an i n i t i a l c o n t a c t w i t h a c o u n s e l l i n g c e n t r e . The most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d to c l i e n t t e r m i n a t i o n i s the f i n d i n g by Sue et a l . (1974) tha t A s i a n - A m e r i c a n s , B l a c k s , C h i c a n o s , and N a t i v e Americans t e r m i n a t e d c o u n s e l l i n g a f t e r one c o n t a c t at a r a t e of 50% , c o n t r a s t e d w i t h a r a t e of 30% f o r Anglo c l i e n t s . Epperson et a l . (1983) p o i n t e d out that the p r o c e s s of mutual u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c o u n s e l l i n g g o a l s i s an ongoing one but tha t t h i s p r o c e s s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t to i n i t i a l c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s . They went on to s t a t e that "the important task in the f i r s t s e s s i o n i s to beg in to unders tand the c l i e n t ' s d e f i n i t i o n of c u r r e n t and d e s i r e d s t a t e s and i t seems reasonab le to view the c l i e n t ' s f a i l u r e to r e t u r n f o r s c h e d u l e d c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s a f t e r an i n i t i a l c o n t a c t as ev idence of m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g " (p. 313) . In a s tudy d e s i g n e d to t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s they found found t h a t c l i e n t s were more l i k e l y to s e l f - t e r m i n a t e a f t e r an i n i t i a l c o n t a c t when problem d e f i n i t i o n by the c o u n s e l l o r was not a c c u r a t e . In view of the r e c o g n i t i o n i n the l i t e r a t u r e of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w , p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t r e l a t e s to the i s s u e of problem d e f i n i t i o n , the s i m u l a t e d c o u n s e l l i n g e x c e r p t was i d e n t i f i e d as o c c u r r i n g in the i n i t i a l s e s s i o n . 44 A s e a r c h of the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to the e x p e r i e n c e of C h i n e s e - A m e r i c a n s was conducted in o r d e r to c o n s t r u c t a s c r i p t which would approximate as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e the a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e of a young Chinese s t u d e n t . Sue and Sue (1972) p r e s e n t e d the f o l l o w i n g summary of the t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese f a m i l y mode l : Chinese f a m i l y i s an a n c i e n t and complex i n s t i t u t i o n , and the r o l e s of f a m i l y members have long been r i g i d l y d e f i n e d . Chinese are taught to obey p a r e n t s , to r e s p e c t e l d e r s , and to c r e a t e a good f a m i l y name by o u t s t a n d i n g achievement i n some aspect of l i f e (such as o c c u p a t i o n a l or academic s u c c e s s ) . S ince m i s b e h a v i o u r s r e f l e c t upon the e n t i r e f a m i l y , an i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n s t h a t h i s behav iour has g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e . I f he has f e e l i n g s whose e x p r e s s i o n might d i s r u p t f a m i l y harmony, he i s expec ted to r e s t r a i n h i m s e l f , (p . 638) Fong (1973) o u t l i n e d i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n the t r a d i t i o n a l Ch inese f a m i l y image brought to America by immigrant p a r e n t s and a l s o noted that g r e a t emphasis i s p l a c e d on f a m i l y s o l i d a r i t y and the l i v i n g t o g e t h e r under one roo f of the extended f a m i l y . Sue and K i r k (1972) r e p o r t e d tha t t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese f a m i l i e s s t r e s s o b l i g a t i o n s of c h i l d r e n to p a r e n t s and acceptance of d e c i s i o n s be ing made by e l d e r s , r e s u l t i n g i n l i t t l e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n younger C h i n e s e . Sue and Sue (1972) i l l u s t r a t e d by case s tudy s e v e r a l major c o n f l i c t s e x p e r i e n c e d by many Chinese s t u d e n t s : c o n f l i c t between l o y a l t y to the f a m i l y and p e r s o n a l d e s i r e s for independence , l e a r n e d p a t t e r n s of s e l f - r e s t r a i n t i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which 45 may r e s u l t i n f e e l i n g s of l o n e l i n e s s , and f a m i l y p r e s s u r e to a c h i e v e academic success r e s u l t i n g i n shame and d e p r e s s i o n i f a s tudent f a i l s . (p . 638) They found t h a t Chinese s tudents are f r e q u e n t l y caught between the demands of two c u l t u r e s . Fong (1973) conducted an a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e which showed tha t the " a s s i m i l a t o r o r i e n t a t i o n " of the C h i n e s e i n c r e a s e s as s u c c e s s i v e g e n e r a t i o n s are removed from d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i r e t h n i c c u l t u r e and become " a c c u l t u r a t e d " to Western norms and v a l u e s . He suggested tha t the C h i n a - b o r n s tudent who comes to America at age f o u r t e e n , f or example, i s caught i n more c o n f l i c t than a s tudent who i s born here of Ch inese immigrant p a r e n t s . T h i s person may, i n t u r n , e x p e r i e n c e more c o n f l i c t than her c h i l d r e n w i l l e x p e r i e n c e . He c a u t i o n e d , of c o u r s e , that i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s may d i f f e r . The c u l t u r a l i s s u e s c o n t a i n e d i n the c l i e n t s tatements on the v i d e o t a p e were d e f i n e d by the l i t e r a t u r e and c o r r o b o r a t e d by the two a s s i s t a n t s , who were Chinese women born i n Hong Kong and who moved to Canada as t e e n a g e r s . To a v o i d b l a t a n t l y c u e i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s to c u l t u r a l i s s u e s i n the v i d e o t a p e , as w e l l as to s i m u l a t e as a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e an a c t u a l c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n , an attempt was made to embed the c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and c o n f l i c t s in the c l i e n t s tatements so t h a t they were i m p l i c i t r a t h e r than e x p l i c i t . For example, the s tatements "I'm s c a r e d that i f I l eave t h e y ' l l disown me" and 46 f u r t h e r on "I 've always been t o l d t h a t the f a m i l y should s t i c k together" were used r a t h e r than " i n Chinese c u l t u r e , i t ' s important f o r the f a m i l y to l i v e t o g e t h e r . " In a d d i t i o n , the s c r i p t was d e s i g n e d so tha t s p e c i f i c knowledge about the c u l t u r e i s not e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r for the p a r t i c i p a n t s to i d e n t i f y c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s in the c l i e n t ' s p r e s e n t i n g p r o b l e m . For example, the c l i e n t i n d i c a t e s "I'm l o n e l y a t home and l o n e l y at s c h o o l . I t ' s c o n f u s i n g s w i t c h i n g back and f o r t h . " I m p l i e d i n the l a t t e r statement i s " s w i t c h i n g back and f o r t h " between cultures or between value systems or between expectations of parent s' culture and peers' culture. I t i s expected t h a t a c o u n s e l l o r who i s a t t e n t i v e to the i n t e r p l a y of c u l t u r a l and i n d i v i d u a l i s s u e s w i l l p e r c e i v e the presence of c o n f l i c t between two c u l t u r e s wi thout h a v i n g to be f a m i l i a r w i th the s p e c i f i c v a l u e s of the m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e . A statement by the woman who r o l e - p l a y e d the c l i e n t p r o v i d e d support for the "face v a l i d i t y " of the s c r i p t . She s a i d , a f t e r an i n i t i a l r e a d i n g , " t h a t sounds j u s t l i k e me," and , in f a c t , added to the s c r i p t the words " t h e y ' l l disown 47 Ins truments The data used in t h i s s tudy were 1) the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' b r i e f w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n of the c l i e n t ' s p r o b l e m , coded for l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness , 2) the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' l e v e l of e t h n i c awareness measured by the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness S c a l e , and 3) the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' Q - s o r t of i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d by the c l i e n t from most to l e a s t mean ing fu l in h e l p i n g them d e f i n e the prob lem. C u l t u r a l Awareness in Problem D e f i n i t i o n A review of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l e d c o n s i s t e n t recommendations for i n c r e a s e d c u l t u r a l awareness i n c o u n s e l l o r s . Whi le the t r a i n i n g programs r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e have i n c l u d e d i n c r e a s e d c u l t u r a l awareness as one of t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s , s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have noted tha t there i s no s i n g l e ins trument a v a i l a b l e to measure c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s e n s i t i v i t y in c o u n s e l l o r s ( C h r i s t e n s e n , 1984; P e d e r s e n , H o l w i l l & S h a p i r o , 1978). In response to an "exhaust ive search" of the l i t e r a t u r e in which she found s c a l e s which measured p r e j u d i c e , but none which measured c u l t u r a l awareness , Wayne (1981) deve loped an e t h n i c awareness s c a l e . The s c a l e was des igned "to determine the ex tent to which t h e r a p i s t s are aware of the i n f l u e n c e of 48 the e t h n i c f a c t o r i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e by t h e i r a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y e t h n i c i t y ' s r o l e i n a p e r s o n ' s p r e s e n t i n g problem" (p . 92 ) . Wayne d e s i g n e d a s c o r i n g system from 1 (no e t h n i c awareness) to 4 (h igh e t h n i c awareness) which t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r adopted for the purpose of measuring l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness in d e f i n i t i o n of the c l i e n t ' s p r o b l e m . U s i n g the Wayne Sca le s c o r i n g system (see Appendix G) as a g u i d e , the f o l l o w i n g method of s c o r i n g l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness was employed: 1 = no c u l t u r a l awareness There i s no mention of c u l t u r e or the r e f e r e n c e i s d e r o g a t o r y . 2 = low c u l t u r a l awareness C u l t u r e i s mentioned but not e x p l o r e d . 3 = moderate c u l t u r a l awareness The r o l e of c u l t u r e i n the p r e s e n t i n g problem ( i . e . : c o n f l i c t between two c u l t u r e s ) i s i d e n t i f i e d but the impact i s not e x p l o r e d . 4 = h i g h c u l t u r a l awareness The impact of the c u l t u r a l i s s u e s on the p r e s e n t i n g problem i s e x p l o r e d . T h i s s c o r i n g mechanism d i f f e r s from Wayne's p r i m a r i l y in terms of l e v e l 3. Wayne's example of f o c u s i n g on an i n t r a p s y c h i c f a c t o r such as " h y s t e r i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y " d i d not seem p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t because the UBC c o u n s e l l i n g psycho logy program does not emphasize t r a i n i n g i n c l i n i c a l d i a g n o s i s . For f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the s c o r i n g , examples of p a r t i c i p a n t responses are l i s t e d below: L e v e l 1 The c l i e n t appears to be a f r a i d to make any major d e c i s i o n s f o r h e r s e l f . She l e t s her f r i e n d s or her p a r e n t s make her d e c i s i o n s for h e r . The c l i e n t i s f e e l i n g a d e s i r e to be more independent but tha t independence i s i n c o n f l i c t w i th the wishes of her f a m i l y . Her p a r e n t s want her to s tay home whi l e f r i e n d s say she s h o u l d move i n t o an apar tment . She i s t o r n between her o b l i g a t i o n s and her own wish to move out and d i s c o v e r her d i r e c t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e . L e v e l 2 C l i e n t i s f e e l i n g p r e s s u r e by f a m i l y , s p e c i f i c a l l y her p a r e n t s , to m a i n t a i n t h e i r c u l t u r e a s p e c t s . She i s wanting some d i s t a n c e . She i s r e j e c t i n g her c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e and r e b e l l i n g a g a i n s t her f a m i l y ' s in tended female r o l e . L e v e l 3 C o n f l i c t between e x p r e s s i n g her i n d i v i d u a l i t y and f u l f i l l i n g the e x p e c t a t i o n s of her f a m i l y . F e e l i n g d i f f e r e n t from her p e e r s . T r y i n g to i n t e g r a t e her c u l t u r a l background , and her f u t u r e and presen t g o a l s i n terms of f r i e n d s h i p , e d u c a t i o n . Twenty - three year o l d s tudent l i v i n g i n c r o s s - f i r e between two c u l t u r e s . She has the need to escape the c o n s t r a i n t s of b e i n g the " c h i l d " i n an o r i e n t a l c u l t u r e and i t s v a l u e s , but i s not r e a l l y ready to r e j e c t i t t o t a l l y . She i s a f r a i d of be ing l o n e l y and d i s c o n n e c t e d . L e v e l 4 C l i e n t does not seem to know where she b e l o n g s , who to a s s o c i a t e h e r s e l f w i th—she i s i n a s t a t e of l imbo between two c u l t u r e s . At the moment she seems to l a c k any c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and i s f i n d i n g i t very d i f f i c u l t to l i v e a c c o r d i n g to what her c u l t u r e of o r i g i n ( f a m i l y ) d i c t a t e s , v e r s u s what the mainstream c u l t u r e (peers ) r e t a i n s a p p r o p r i a t e . 50 C l i e n t i s caught between two c u l t u r e s , t r a d i t i o n a l o r i e n t a l f a m i l y system v a l u e s , c u l t u r a l r o l e s and N o r t h American (Canadian) v a l u e s , e x p e r i e n c e s and r o l e models she sees and knows. C l i e n t engages h a l f - h e a r t e d l y i n home a c t i v i t i e s and c u l t u r a l f a m i l y r u l e s , t h i s e s c a l a t e s t e n s i o n i n system yet p a r t l y a r r e s t s t e n s i o n . Over time c o n f l i c t i s coming to a head . C l i e n t seems a l o n e , not f u l l y unders tood by , or u n d e r s t a n d i n g N o r t h American c u l t u r e and her f r i e n d s . C l i e n t seems to want to choose f o r h e r s e l f but has a b e l i e f system tha t t h r e a t e n s her sense of f u t u r e w e l l be ing i f she f o l l o w s her c h o i c e . C l i e n t needs to c l a r i f y through examinat ion where she be longs and who she i s yet t h i s i s counter to her c u l t u r e ( p a r e n t s ' c u l t u r e ) to do so , so she i s l e f t hanging between s e l f , c u l t u r e s and e x p e r i e n c e . The q u e s t i o n that may be r a i s e d in l o o k i n g at examples of these four l e v e l s of awareness i s "how c l e a r l y can one d i f f e r e n t i a t e these l e v e l s ? " For example, s tatement 2 under l e v e l 2 c o u l d p o s s i b l y be r a t e d at l e v e l 1 because a l t h o u g h the response i d e n t i f i e s c u l t u r e as an i s s u e , i t does so s i m p l i s t i c a l l y and i n a c c u r a t e l y . As w e l l , the d i f f i c u l t y of d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between l e v e l s 3 and 4 i s a p p a r e n t . The main d i f f e r e n c e i s tha t l e v e l 4 s tatements e x p l i c i t l y d e a l w i t h c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y w h i l e l e v e l 3 s tatements d e a l i m p l i c i t l y w i t h t h i s i s s u e . I t i s not p o s s i b l e to say d e f i n i t i v e l y that the p a r t i c i p a n t s who wrote the s tatements c l a s s i f i e d at l e v e l 3 were l e s s c u l t u r a l l y aware than those c l a s s i f i e d a t l e v e l 4. T h i s d i f f i c u l t y in c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g l e v e l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y l e v e l s 3 and 4, was handled by c o l l a p s i n g s cores of 1 and 2 to 1 and s c o r e s of 3 and 4 to 4. ( T h i s had to be done, in any event , in o r d e r to c r e a t e the c e l l s to c a l c u l a t e 51 the Ch i Square a n a l y s i s . ) Two female r a t e r s were t r a i n e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r to use t h i s s c o r i n g system. Both r a t e r s were m a j o r i t y - c u l t u r e M a s t e r ' s c a n d i d a t e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g psycho logy s p e c i a l i z i n g in c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g . C a l c u l a t i o n of the Pearson i n t e r - r a t e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r these two r a t e r s y i e l d e d a c o r r e l a t i o n of .94 . A d i s c u s s i o n of the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness S c a l e f o l l o w s . The Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure Wayne (1981) d e s i g n e d an ins trument which at tempted to measure "the t h e r a p i s t ' s e t h n i c awareness in g i v i n g c l i n i c a l i m p r e s s i o n s of the problems p r e s e n t e d i n w r i t t e n form" (p. 92) . U s i n g r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s on e t h n i c i t y and s p e c i f i c e t h n i c groups t o g e t h e r w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n ga thered from p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the "human s e r v i c e s f i e l d , " Wayne d e v i s e d f i v e cases r e p r e s e n t i n g f i v e d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c i n d i v i d u a l s : J a p a n e s e - A m e r i c a n , B l a c k , N a t i v e A m e r i c a n , H i s p a n i c , and Jewish (Appendix F ) . Wayne conducted a p i l o t s tudy u s i n g n i n e p a r t i c i p a n t s working i n the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s to a s se s s "a) the c l a r i t y of the d i r e c t i o n s ; b) the face v a l i d i t y of the measure; c) whether the c l i n i c a l cases were a b l e to e l i c i t responses which would r e f l e c t v a r y i n g l e v e l s of e t h n i c awareness; a) whether the s c o r e s were a b l e to d i s c r i m i n a t e 52 l e v e l s of e t h n i c awareness; and e) the i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y of the judges s c o r i n g " (p. 93 ) . She t r a i n e d two judges to s c o r e the s u b j e c t s ' responses on s c o r e s of 1 (no e t h n i c awareness) to 5 (h igh e t h n i c awareness ) . Wayne's o r i g i n a l i n s t r u c t i o n s had reques ted s u b j e c t s to c o n s i d e r both s o c i o c u l t u r a l and i n t r a p s y c h i c f a c t o r s in t h e i r c l i n i c a l i m p r e s s i o n s . As a r e s u l t of the p i l o t study in which s u b j e c t s f e l t the statement was too l e a d i n g , she r e v i s e d the i n s t r u c t i o n s to have s u b j e c t s s t a t e t h e i r " c l i n i c a l impres s ions" without f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n of how they shou ld do so . Wayne found that the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s c o r e s in response to the cases i n d i c a t e d tha t the measure was a b l e to e l i c i t responses r e f l e c t i n g v a r y i n g l e v e l s of e t h n i c awareness . She suggested t h a t t h i s f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e d that the e t h n i c items i n each case were not so obv ious that an unaware s u b j e c t would be cued to respond to c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s . The i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t , u s i n g K e n d a l l ' s Tau b , was . 6 1 . The judges a p p a r e n t l y had d i f f i c u l t y d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between a score of 4 and 5. As a r e s u l t of the o v e r l a p i n these two s c o r e s , Wayne c o l l a p s e d them i n t o a score of 4 (Appendix G ) . The two judges c l a r i f i e d wi th Wayne the d e f i n i t i o n of "ethnic awareness" and p r o v i d e d her wi th s c o r i n g examples f o r each of the f i v e case s t u d i e s (Appendix H ) . In the s tudy f o l l o w i n g the p i l o t p r o j e c t Wayne a d m i n i s t e r e d the s c a l e to 49 s tudent s e n r o l l e d in a M a s t e r ' s 53 l e v e l c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t e d program. Four judges , of d i f f e r i n g e t h n i c backgrounds , a s s i g n e d s c o r e s of 1 to 4 to each s u b j e c t s ' r e s p o n s e . The Pearson i n t e r - r a t e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t c a l c u l a t e d between p a i r s of judges ranged from r = .886 to r = .930 . Whi le Wayne f e l t s a t i s f i e d at h a v i n g e s t a b l i s h e d the r e l i a b i l i t y of the s c a l e , she p o i n t e d out the l i m i t a t i o n tha t no v a l i d i t y had been e s t a b l i s h e d . She suggested tha t the p o t e n t i a l of the s c a l e was good and recommended f u r t h e r s t u d y . Toward t h i s end, t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r e x p l o r e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s c o r e s on c u l t u r a l awareness in problem d e f i n i t i o n and s c o r e s on the Wayne S c a l e . T h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r had 29 p a r t i c i p a n t s complete Wayne's f i v e case s t u d i e s and t r a i n e d two female r a t e r s to use the s c o r i n g system. (Three of the p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d not compute the s c a l e , one because she d i d n ' t " f e e l good" about making a judgement on the l i m i t e d amount of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d ; the o t h e r two completed on ly one or two out of the f i v e cases but d i d not s t a t e reasons for t h i s . T h e r e f o r e , data f o r 26 p a r t i c i p a n t s was used i n the a n a l y s e s . ) One r a t e r was a m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e M a s t e r ' s c a n d i d a t e i n psycho logy wi th a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t in c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t h e r a p y , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i th n a t i v e I n d i a n s . The other r a t e r was an Indo-Canadian M a s t e r ' s c a n d i d a t e i n c o u n s e l l i n g psycho logy s p e c i a l i z i n g in c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g . C a l c u l a t i o n of the Pearson 54 I n t e r - r a t e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r these two r a t e r s y i e l d e d a c o r r e l a t i o n of .94 . An i tem r e l i a b i l i t y t e s t c a l c u l a t e d for each r a t e r on the f i v e cases on the Wayne S c a l e showed c o r r e l a t i o n s r a n g i n g from r = .73 to r = .85 f o r r a t e r 1, and T = .67 to r = .82 for r a t e r 2. Rater T r a i n i n g The two r a t e r s who were t r a i n e d to use the E t h n i c Awareness Measure s c o r i n g system to a s s e s s l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness in problem d e f i n i t i o n were t r a i n e d t o g e t h e r . The two r a t e r s who were t r a i n e d to use t h i s s c o r i n g system on the E t h n i c Awareness Measure case s t u d i e s were t r a i n e d t o g e t h e r on a s e p a r a t e o c c a s i o n from the f i r s t two r a t e r s . Both t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s were conducted by the i n v e s t i g a t o r and took a p p r o x i m a t e l y two h o u r s . The t r a i n i n g i n c l u d e d a d i s c u s s i o n and d e f i n i t i o n of e t h n i c i t y and e t h n i c awareness; an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the r a t e r s to read the f i v e case s t u d i e s and s c o r i n g examples and address any q u e s t i o n s they had about the r a t i n g s c a l e ; and p r a c t i c e u s i n g the Wayne s c a l e to r a t e the case responses of f i v e m a j o r i t y - c u l t u r e c o u n s e l l i n g s tudents from the p i l o t s t u d y . The r a t e r s who were j u d g i n g the l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness in problem d e f i n i t i o n viewed the v i d e o t a p e on which the p a r t i c i p a n t s based t h e i r problem d e f i n i t i o n . 55 The Q - s o r t "Q Methodology , a t e c h n i q u e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d and deve loped p r i m a r i l y by W i l l i a m Stephenson , r e p r e s e n t s an e f f o r t to plumb the w e l l s p r i n g s of human b e h a v i o r " (Cummins, 1963, p . 96 ) . Stephenson h i m s e l f s t a t e d t h a t "Q-technique p r o v i d e s a s y s t e m a t i c way to handle a p e r s o n ' s r e t r o s p e c t i o n s , h i s r e f l e c t i o n s about h i m s e l f and o t h e r s , h i s i n t r o j e c t i o n s and p r o j e c t i o n s , and much e l s e of an apparent s u b j e c t i v e nature" (from T a l b o t t , 1971, p . 2 ) . T a l b o t t (1971) wrote that the "Q seems to be p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d to the study of d e c i s i o n behav iour where the focus i s on r e p r e s e n t i n g p e r s o n a l c h o i c e s and p r e f e r e n c e s of a l l v a r i e t i e s " (p . 2 ) . These d e s c r i p t i o n s of the Q - s o r t suggested t h a t i t was a s u i t a b l e t echn ique to choose for t h i s s t u d y , p a r t of the purpose of which was to i n v e s t i g a t e c o u n s e l l i n g s t u d e n t s ' c h o i c e s about which i n f o r m a t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t or mean ingfu l to them in i d e n t i f y i n g a c l i e n t ' s p r o b l e m . In a d d i t i o n , Q - s o r t s have the advantage of b e i n g i n t e r e s t i n g to r e s p o n d e n t s , which produces a h i g h degree of involvement in the s o r t i n g p r o c e s s ( K e r l i n g e r , 1964; Lemon, 1973). Lemon (1973) and T a l b o t t (1971) p o i n t e d out tha t there i s some c o n t r o v e r s y over the f o r c e d c h o i c e method of the Q - s o r t . A p p a r e n t l y , some r e s e a r c h e r s have expressed concern tha t t h i s method r e s t r i c t s respondents i n an unreasonable way. 56 A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i t has been suggested t h a t t h i s method r e s u l t s i n p a r t i c i p a n t s more c a r e f u l l y t h i n k i n g through t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . There does not appear to be c o n c l u s i v e ev idence on t h i s i s s u e , and there i s no apparent ev idence to suggest t h a t the Q - s o r t shou ld not be used i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n (Lemon, 1973; T a l b o t t , 1971).) The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of the Q- techn ique was adapted from T a l b o t t (1971) . The Q - s o r t c o n s i s t e d of 48 s tatements made by the c l i e n t i n an excerpt from a s i m u l a t e d i n i t i a l s e s s i o n (Appendix F ) . Each statement was p l a c e d on a s eparate c a r d . Each p a r t i c i p a n t was p r o v i d e d w i t h a set of c a r d s . They were asked to read through a l l the c a r d s to form an i m p r e s s i o n of the i n f o r m a t i o n on the c a r d s , then they were asked to s o r t the c a r d s i n t o two e q u a l p i l e s : h i g h meaningfu lness and low meaningfu lness to them i n i d e n t i f y i n g the c l i e n t ' s p r o b l e m . The p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked to f u r t h e r s o r t the s ta tements , one p i l e at a t i m e , a long a cont inuum of most to l e a s t r e l e v a n t s ta t ements . The continuum was r e p r e s e n t e d by e l even enve lopes taped onto a l a r g e p i e c e of c o n s t r u c t i o n p a p e r . The p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked to c o n s i d e r each statement i n r e l a t i o n to a l l o ther s tatements and to p l a c e a s p e c i f i e d number of c a r d s i n t o each e n v e l o p e . The i n s t r u c t i o n s for the Q - s o r t were typed on the c o n s t r u c t i o n paper so tha t the p a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d r e f e r to them a f t e r the i n v e s t i g a t o r had read them a l o u d . The f i n a l 57 s o r t , r e p r e s e n t i n g a q u a s i - n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , l ooked l i k e the f o l l o w i n g (each x r e p r e s e n t s a c a r d wi th a statement on i t ) . Low M e a n i n g f u l n e s s Score Frequency X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 1 2 3 5 8 10 8 5 3 2 1 High M e a n i n g f u l n e s s (number of statements=48) F i g u r e 1 The a n a l y s i s of the data f a c t o r e d p e o p l e , not i t ems , i n t o groups so t h a t i t would be p o s s i b l e to see i f people f e l l i n t o groups around a common p a t t e r n of s o r t i n g c l i e n t s ta t ements . S ince a l l i n d i v i d u a l s in t h i s s tudy had the same g e n e r a l mean and the same g e n e r a l s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , i n d i c a t i v e of ipsative, r a t h e r than normative s c o r e s , comparing the mean 58 performance between two groups i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e . Q can be used "for comparing the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of groups of i n d i v i d u a l s o n l y when comparing the r e l a t i o n s within groups" ( K e r l i n g e r , 1964, p . 596) . Q i s not i n t e n d e d to be used w i t h l a r g e random samples (Cummins, 1963). A c c o r d i n g to K i t z i n g e r and Rogers (1985) " r a t h e r than randomness, the aim i n s e l e c t i n g respondents in Q-methodology i s to a c h i e v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s ( i . e . breadth and d i v e r s i t y ) " (p . 170) . K e r l i n g e r (1964) sugges ted that one might wish to t e s t the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t two ( s m a l l ) groups of i n d i v i d u a l s " . . . chosen for t h e i r 'known' or presumed p o s s e s s i o n of same s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ( s ) " (p . 598) w i l l a l s o c l u s t e r t o g e t h e r s i m i l a r l y on some o t h e r measure. In t h i s s tudy the two groups c o n s i s t of 19 and 10 p a r t i c i p a n t s e a c h , t h e i r presumed " s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c " be ing low and h i g h c u l t u r a l awareness r e s p e c t i v e l y , and the "other measure" i s degree of meaningfu lness of c l i e n t s tatements in d e f i n i n g a c l i e n t ' s p r o b l e m . Research Hypotheses 1. The p a r t i c i p a n t s who r e c e i v e d c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g w i l l a c h i e v e h i g h e r s cores on l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness i n problem d e f i n i t i o n than those p a r t i c i p a n t s who d i d not 59 r e c e i v e the t r a i n i n g . 2. The p a r t i c i p a n t s who r e c e i v e d c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g w i l l a c h i e v e h i g h e r s cores on the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure than those who d i d not r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g . 3. There w i l l be a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c o r e s on l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness i n problem d e f i n i t i o n and s cores on the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness measure. 4. The p a r t i c i p a n t s who r e c e i v e d c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g w i l l show a s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t p r o f i l e of c l i e n t s tatements p e r c e i v e d to be meaningfu l than the p a r t i c i p a n t s who d i d not r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g . Treatment of the Data 1. A C h i Square t e s t was used to determine i f a g r e a t e r frequency of h i g h s c o r e r s on c u l t u r a l awareness problem d e f i n i t i o n had r e c e i v e d c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g . 2. A C h i square t e s t was used to determine i f a g r e a t e r frequency of h i g h s c o r e r s on c u l t u r a l awareness on the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure had r e c e i v e d c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g . 3. A Pearson Product Moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was c a l c u l a t e d to determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between scores on c u l t u r a l awareness in problem d e f i n i t i o n and the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure . 60 4. Q - a n a l y s i s was c a r r i e d out to determine i f the p a r t i c i p a n t s who r e c e i v e d c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g showed a d i f f e r e n t p r o f i l e of c l i e n t s tatements p e r c e i v e d to be meaningfu l than those who d i d not r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g . (See Appendix I f or an o u t l i n e of the major s teps in Q - a n a l y s i s . ) 61 CHAPTER IV: Results The r e s u l t s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n the order i n which the r e s e a r c h hypotheses were o u t l i n e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . H y p o t h e s i s 1 The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e d tha t there would be a d i f f e r e n c e , between t r a i n e d and u n t r a i n e d g r o u p s , in the l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness demonstrated i n a d e f i n i t i o n of the c l i e n t ' s p r o b l e m . The r e s u l t of a C h i Square t e s t (see T a b l e I below) was X 2 = .018 . The h y p o t h e s i s was t h e r e f o r e r e j e c t e d . T a b l e I : C u l t u r a l awareness measured by problem d e f i n i t i o n Number of P a r t i c i p a n t s T r a i n e d U n t r a i n e d C u l t u r a l Low 5 9 Awareness High 5 1 0 62 H y p o t h e s i s 2 The second h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e d t h a t there would be a d i f f e r e n c e in s c o r e s , between t r a i n e d and u n t r a i n e d g r o u p s , on the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure . The r e s u l t of a C h i Square t e s t (see T a b l e II below) was X 2 = .012 . The h y p o t h e s i s was t h e r e f o r e r e j e c t e d . T a b l e I I ; E t h n i c awareness measured by Wayne S c a l e Number of P a r t i c i p a n t s T r a i n e d U n t r a i n e d C u l t u r a l Low* 6 10 Awareness H i g h * 4 6 *Note: The score for each i n d i v i d u a l was o b t a i n e d by t a k i n g the mean of s cores on the f i v e c a s e s . Three p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d not complete the s c a l e t h e r e f o r e the r e s u l t s are t a b u l a t e d u s i n g n of 26, not 29. H y p o t h e s i s 3 The t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e d t h a t there would be a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between scores on l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness i n problem d e f i n i t i o n and s c o r e s on the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness S c a l e . The r e s u l t of a Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c a l c u l -a t i o n was r = .36 . T h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .05 l e v e l . 63 H y p o t h e s i s 4 The f o u r t h h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e d tha t p a r t i c i p a n t s who r e c e i v e d c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g would show a d i f f e r e n t p r o f i l e of s o r t i n g c l i e n t s tatements than p a r t i c i p a n t s who d i d not r e c e i v e the t r a i n i n g . The Q - s o r t s of the 29 p a r t i c i p a n t s , a l l of whom completed the s o r t c o r r e c t l y , were i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d and the r e s u l t i n g m a t r i x was submit ted to f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . A p r i n c i p l e components a x i s s o l u t i o n was f i r s t o b t a i n e d , and then the p r i n c i p l e components s t r u c t u r e was submit ted to varimax r o t a t i o n which i s in tended to maximize the v a r i a n c e accounted f o r by each p r i n c i p l e component or f a c t o r . On t h i s b a s i s a f a c t o r r e p r e s e n t s a g r o u p i n g of persons around a common p a t t e r n of s o r t i n g the c l i e n t s ta t ements . The r e s u l t i n g s i x f a c t o r s , which accounted f o r 74% of the v a r i a n c e , i n d i c a t e d c l u s t e r s of p a r t i c i p a n t s whose p r o f i l e s c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h the h y p o t h e t i c a l p r o f i l e of the f a c t o r . T h i s h y p o t h e t i c a l p r o f i l e i s a " ' s y n t h e t i c Q s o r t ' . w h i c h i s a c h i e v e d by summing the responses of the i n d i v i d u a l s of a c l u s t e r on every Q s o r t i tem . . . these sums c o u l d then be rank o r d e r e d and f i t t e d i n t o the o r i g i n a l Q d i s t r i b u t i o n " ( K e r l i n g e r , 1964, p . 591) . I t i n c o r p o r a t e s the commonal i t i e s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s w i th the h i g h e s t l o a d i n g s on each f a c t o r (see T a b l e I V , p . 66) . 64 The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that f o r the most p a r t , the f a c t o r s c o n s i s t of mixed p a r t i c i p a n t s from both the t r a i n e d and u n t r a i n e d g r o u p s . There are no c l e a r d i f f e r e n c e s between the t r a i n e d and u n t r a i n e d g r o u p s . However, i t appears t h a t w i t h i n the u n t r a i n e d group there i s a tendency to c l u s t e r in f a c t o r s 5 and 6. A d d i t i o n a l F i n d i n g s Thus f a r i n the r e s u l t s , t h e r e i s no ev idence of a s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d . - For t h i s reason the d e c i s i o n was made to pursue the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n . Is there something about the way t h a t people are c o n s t r u i n g the s tatements of the c l i e n t tha t can be a s s o c i a t e d wi th l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness? T h i s q u e s t i o n can be answered d i r e c t l y in the form of a 2 x 2 t a b l e and t e s t e d by F i s h e r ' s exact p r o b a b i l i t y t e s t (see T a b l e III b e l o w ) . 65 T a b l e I I I ; L e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness compared  w i th Q - s o r t f a c t o r s Q - s o r t F a c t o r s Components 1-4 Components 5 & 6 Number of 4 11 h i g h s c o r e r s on c u l t u r a l awareness Number of low 9 5 s c o r e r s on c u l t u r a l awareness The F i s h e r exact p r o b a b i l i t y t e s t e s t a b l i s h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e at p<.025. Summary In summary, t h i s s tudy showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness , on e i t h e r the problem d e f i n i t i o n or the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness S c a l e , between c o u n s e l l i n g s tudent s who had taken a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g course and those who had n o t . The r e s e a r c h e s t a b l i s h e d a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the problem d e f i n i t i o n and the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness measure. The Q - a n a l y s i s of s o r t i n g p a t t e r n s appeared to i n d i c a t e d i f f e r e n c e s in c l i e n t statement s o r t i n g p r o f i l e s between h i g h s c o r e r s and low s c o r e r s on l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness . 66 T a b l e IVt Q - A n a l y s i s : S i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s and f a c t o r l o a d i n g s f o r each f a c t o r P a r t i c i p a n t F 1 F 2 F 3 F 4 F 5 F 6 1 .01 .16 - . 1 3 .39 - . 2 4 * .71 2 .07 .09 - . 2 7 * .82 - . 1 7 .13 3 .19 .00 - . 1 9 .37 * - . 67 .33 4 .29 - . 2 5 - . 2 4 .42 * - .56 .29 5 .37 .25 - . 3 2 .42 - . 1 3 .37 6 .10 .07 - . 4 7 .13 - . 5 0 * .54 7 .27 .19 - . 1 8 .34 * - .71 .25 8 .24 .21 - . 2 3 .24 - . 4 1 * .50 9 .11 .03 * - .55 .22 - . 3 6 .37 Q f T ] 10 .23 - . 14 - . 3 5 * .47 - . 3 2 * .46 •z. 11 .11 .05 - . 1 4 * .75 - . 3 0 .15 12 .28 .35 - . 2 7 .20 - . 3 1 * .55 fr-iz; 13 .35 .03 - . 1 4 .37 *- .54 .34 14 .03 .29 * - .78 .29 .02 .18 15 .15 .10 * - .51 .45 - . 3 8 .10 16 .17 .12 - . 1 2 .33 * - .68 .37 17 .27 .06 - . 2 4 .02 - . 1 5 * .77 18 .33 .06 - . 44 .35 *- .63 .12 19 .11 .40 * - .55 .14 - . 3 6 .32 20 .01 .54 - . 0 3 .15 * - .60 .32 21 .30 - . 04 * - .63 .26 .35 .19 22 .44 - . 2 9 - . 2 3 .23 - . 2 2 * .57 cs 23 .25 - . 0 1 * - .65 .00 - . 5 3 .34 w 2; 24 * .79 .20 - . 1 5 .03 - . 2 2 .23 t—i <• 25 .14 - . 1 4 - . 2 6 .35 * - . 69 .41 2 26 .25 .17 - . 2 7 .06 * - .76 .00 27 .20 * .81 - . 1 8 .08 - . 0 3 .01 28 4c .75 .12 - . 0 9 .28 - . 2 7 .12 29 .29 .25 - . 1 0 * .52 - . 3 2 .22 *Note: The s o r t i n g p r o f i l e s of these p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e a strong c o r r e l a t i o n with the h y p o t h e t i c a l p r o f i l e of the f a c t o r . 67 CHAPTER V: Discussion Summary The purpose of t h i s s tudy was to e x p l o r e the i n f l u e n c e of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g on how mainstream c u l t u r e c o u n s e l l o r s p e r c e i v e d a m i n o r i t y c l i e n t ' s p r e s e n t i n g prob lem. The s tudy was des igned to examine both "what" c o u n s e l l o r s a t t e n d t o , and "how" they a t t e n d to i t . "What" c o u n s e l l o r s a t t e n d to was measured by a s k i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s to w r i t e a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the c l i e n t ' s problem a f t e r v i ewing a v i d e o t a p e of a s i m u l a t e d i n i t i a l c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n . The d e f i n i t i o n was coded for l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness . "How" they a t t e n d e d was i n v e s t i g a t e d by a s s e s s i n g whether or not t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e between t r a i n e d and u n t r a i n e d c o u n s e l l i n g s tudents i n the p e r c e i v e d r e l e v a n c e of c l i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n in d e f i n i n g the p r o b l e m . T h i s was a c h i e v e d by c o n d u c t i n g an a n a l y s i s of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' Q - s o r t s of c l i e n t s tatements from most to l e a s t meaningfu l in d e f i n i n g the c l i e n t ' s p r o b l e m . In a d d i t i o n , the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness S c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n order to a s se s s the l e v e l of e t h n i c awareness of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d that the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g course would show a h i g h e r l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness in both the problem d e f i n i t i o n and the 68 Wayne S c a l e , and that there would be a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c o r e s on these two measures . I t was a l s o h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s who r e c e i v e d c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g would show a d i f f e r e n t p r o f i l e of c l i e n t s tatements than those who d i d not r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g . The r e s e a r c h was conducted d u r i n g the S p r i n g of 1984 a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The sample c o n s i s t e d of 29 graduate s t u d e n t s who were e n r o l l e d i n a M a s t e r ' s program i n c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study was v o l u n t a r y . The r e s u l t s d i d not show a d i f f e r e n c e i n l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness between the t r a i n e d and u n t r a i n e d g r o u p . In f a c t , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50% of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n each group scored low and 50% s c o r e d h i g h on c u l t u r a l awareness . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d a weak p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s on the problem d e f i n i t i o n and the Wayne S c a l e . A n a l y s i s of Q - s o r t p a t t e r n s suggested a p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e between the p a r t i c i p a n t s who s c o r e d d i f f e r e n t l y on l e v e l s of c u l t u r a l awareness . D i s c u s s i o n The r e s u l t s of the study w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d under two major h e a d i n g s : E t h n i c / C u l t u r a l Awareness (which encompasses Hypotheses 1, 2 and 3) and M e a n i n g f u l n e s s of I n f o r m a t i o n 6 9 ( H y p o t h e s i s 4 ) . E t h n i c / C u l t u r a l A w a r e n e s s Hypothesis 1 — C u l t u r a l Awareness in Problem D e f i n i t i o n T h e l e v e l o f c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s d e m o n s t r a t e d on t h e p r o b l e m d e f i n i t i o n d i d n o t r e f l e c t t h e d i f f e r e n c e one m i g h t h a v e e x p e c t e d b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p who r e c e i v e d c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g a n d t h e g r o u p who d i d n o t ( s e e T a b l e V , p . 7 0 ) . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s : 1. P e o p l e h a v e d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s a n d l e v e l s o f s k i l l i n w r i t t e n c o m m u n i c a t i o n . P e r h a p s t h e d i f f e r e n c e be tween a s c o r e o f 1 a n d 4 i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l o r s t y l e a s much a s t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s . F o r e x a m p l e , p e r h a p s a p a r t i c i p a n t m i g h t h a v e a s s u m e d t h a t i s s u e s o f i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d o b l i g a t i o n s were c u l t u r a l b u t d i d n o t s t a t e t h i s e x p l i c i t l y . P e r h a p s one p a r t i c i p a n t i s more a t t e n t i v e t o d e t a i l t h a n a n o t h e r . T h e manner o f e x p r e s s i o n may n o t i n d i c a t e g r e a t e r a w a r e n e s s a s much a s g r e a t e r v e r b a l a b i l i t y . 2 . P e r h a p s p e o p l e who d i d n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f y c u l t u r a l i s s u e s d i d s o i n t e n t i o n a l l y b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e c h o s e n t o move b e y o n d c u l t u r e a n d f o c u s on t h e i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s 7 0 T a b l e V: Comparison of e t h n i c awareness s c o r e s on Wayne S c a l e  w i t h c u l t u r a l awareness s c o r e s on problem d e f i n i t i o n Wayne Scale Cases Pa r t i c i p a n t Problem £i #2 #3 i i #5 1 4* l * 1 4 I 4 2 4 - — — _ _ 3 1 4 1 4 I 1 4 1 1 1 1 I 1 5 4 1 1 1 I 1 6 4 1 4 4 4 4 7 1 1 1 4 1 1 8 4 1 1 1 1 1 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 4 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 4 1 4 1 1 12 4 4 1 4 4 1 13 1 1 1 1 1 1 14 1 1 • — — — 15 1 1 1 1 _ — 16 4 4 4 4 4 4 17 1 1 1 1 1 1 18 4 4 4 4 4 1 19 4 1 1 4 4 1 20 4 1 4 4 1 4 21 1 1 1 4 1 1 22 4 1 1 4 1 1 23 1 1 1 4 1 1 24 1 1 1 4 1 1 25 4 1 1 4 1 1 26 4 4 1 4 1 1 27 4 4 4 4 4 4 28 1 1 1 4 4 4 29 1 4 1 4 4 4 *Note: S c o r e s of 1 and 2 were c o l l a p s e d t o 1 (Low); S c o r e s of 3 and 4 were c o l l a p s e d t o 4 ( H i g h ) . 71 would be i n keeping wi th the concept of g e n e r i c c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s a l l o w i n g a c o u n s e l l o r to t r a n s c e n d c u l t u r a l i s s u e s (Rogers , 1961; P a t t e r s o n , 1984). 3. Perhaps people chose not to a d d r e s s c u l t u r a l i s s u e s because they were concerned t h a t i n ment ion ing them, they would be u n f a i r l y s t e r e o t y p i n g the c l i e n t as h a v i n g c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s because she i s a member of a p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c g r o u p . T h i s i s an area i n which r e s e a r c h e r s have c a u t i o n e d c o u n s e l l o r s ( V o n t r e s s , 1983). 4. The b r e v i t y of the responses r e s u l t e d i n r a t e r s h a v i n g to make i n f e r e n c e s about the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' i n t e n t . These concerns c o u l d be addressed i n the f u t u r e by i n t e r v i e w i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s to c l a r i f y the i n t e n t o f , or the mot ives f o r , t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . 5. I t i s p o s s i b l e tha t i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s have have a g r e a t e r impact on l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness than one course i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g . The examples below are responses from p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the " u n t r a i n e d g r o u p . " "This i s a problem I have heard from c h i l d r e n in o r i e n t a l f a m i l i e s . Canadian c h i l d r e n (her peers ) have more independence from t h e i r f a m i l i e s than o f f s p r i n g of O r i e n t a l f a m i l i e s ( g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g ) . The problem i s a more u n i v e r s a l one of s e p a r a t i o n / i n d i v i d u a t i o n but a c c e n t u a t e d and e n l a r g e d by the c o n f l i c t between the c u l t u r e s . She i s o l d (23) to be b e g i n n i n g t h i s s e p a r a t i o n , r e l a t i v e to our c u l t u r e . " "I was very s u p r i s e d at her age . She s t a r t e d to a r t i c u l a t e some problems she was hav ing and I i n i t i a l l y thought of some s i m i l a r a d o l e s c e n t 72 k i n d s of t h i n g s . When she t o l d her age, my i m p r e s s i o n s changed to a grea t d e a l of her d i f f i c u l t i e s b e i n g a c u l t u r a l t h i n g — p a r e n t s of the one c u l t u r e , her comparing another and q u e s t i o n i n g the framework of her p a r e n t s . " These responses i n d i c a t e that p a r t i c i p a n t s in the u n t r a i n e d group may have had involvement i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n s , and tha t t h i s c o n t a c t appears to have r e s u l t e d i n g r e a t e r c u l t u r a l awareness than tha t of some p a r t i c i p a n t s who took the c o u r s e , but perhaps d i d not have r e a l - l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s from which to l e a r n . 6. The s t u d e n t s i n the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g course p a r t i c i p a t e d in t h i s s tudy immediate ly f o l l o w i n g the end of the c o u r s e . They had not had an o p p o r t u n i t y to i n t e g r a t e the c l a s s r o o m t r a i n i n g w i t h p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e p r i o r to be ing a s se s sed for l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness . Perhaps i f they had , the r e s u l t s might have been d i f f e r e n t . Hypothesis 2—Wayne Ethnic Awareness Scale L i k e the problem d e f i n i t i o n , the l e v e l of e t h n i c awareness demonstrated on t h i s s c a l e d i d not r e f l e c t the d i f f e r e n c e one might have expected between the t r a i n e d and u n t r a i n e d groups (see T a b l e V , p . 70) . 73 In a d d i t i o n to the p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s o u t l i n e d in the p r e c e d i n g pages , there are s e v e r a l o ther i s s u e s which must be a d d r e s s e d . 1. The Wayne S c a l e asks p a r t i c i p a n t s for " c l i n i c a l i m p r e s s i o n s . " T h i s may r e p r e s e n t a s u b t l e b i a s away from e t h n i c i t y and toward i n t r a p s y c h i c i s s u e s . The f o l l o w i n g examples from both groups i l l u s t r a t e t h i s c o n c e r n . Case #1 A 26 year o l d Japanese -Amer ican female i s r e f e r r e d to the c l i n i c by her d o c t o r . C o m p l a i n t s , p r i m a r i l y s o m a t i c , i n c l u d e headaches , a n x i e t y , and ches t p a i n . She has e x p e r i e n c e d these symptoms for a few y e a r s , but i n the l a s t s i x months they have worsened. As a t eacher f o r three y e a r s , she enjoys her j o b . However, her symptoms have become p a r t i c u l a r l y bad l a t e l y when she has to c o n f r o n t the p r i n c i p a l about a n y t h i n g even though she works more hours than her p e e r s . She a l s o s t a t e s t h a t whenever another teacher makes a recommendation about her t e a c h i n g s t y l e , she t r i e s to change. She t r i e s to c r e a t e something from a l l the comments; i t becomes jumbled; and then she a c c e p t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for f a i l u r e . She i s s i n g l e , d a t i n g , l i v e s a l o n e , and has a few c l o s e f r i e n d s . She i s the o l d e s t c h i l d w i t h two s i b l i n g s - - a s i s t e r , 24, and a b r o t h e r , 18. Responses She has not d e v e l o p e d a s t r o n g sense of s e l f - d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , but i n s t e a d i s d i r e c t e d from the o u t s i d e . In a d d i t i o n , her symptoms i n d i c a t e she i n t e r n a l i z e d her s t r e s s r a t h e r than e x p r e s s i n g i t . A n x i e t y r e a c t i o n which r e l a t e s to an i n a b i l i t y to ac t a s s e r t i v e l y in her l i f e . She seems s e n s i t i v e to o t h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of her and perhaps tends toward be ing " o v e r - r e s p o n -s i b l e " and a tendency to c r e a t e h i g h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s for h e r s e l f c r e a t i n g more p h y s i c a l t e n s i o n s . 74 Case #2 A 17 year o l d B l a c k male i s r e f e r r e d to the s c h o o l p s y c h o l o g i s t because he appears d e p r e s s e d . He i s a s e n i o r in h i g h s c h o o l who p r i o r to t h i s t ime was making e x c e l l e n t grades and i n v o l v e d i n a t h l e t i c s and s c h o o l c l u b s . Now h i s grades are s l i p p i n g , he i s l o s i n g we ight , and he i s g e n e r a l l y d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s . He s t a t e s t h a t he i s f e e l i n g unsupported by h i s f a m i l y and f r i e n d s in h i s d e s i r e to accept a s c h o l a r s h i p f o r c o l l e g e where he wants to major in pre-med. They are i g n o r i n g the t o p i c of c o l l e g e and some of h i s f r i e n d s have been o s t r a c i z i n g him from t h e i r groups . He s t a t e s that he l i k e s the neighbourhood where he l i v e s , has been o f f e r e d jobs i f he s t a y s , and has a g i r l f r i e n d . He i s f e e l i n g a m b i v a l e n t . H i s f a t h e r i s a p a i n t e r , h i s mother a homemaker, and he has two s i s t e r s , 19 and 15, and one b r o t h e r , 13. Responses He may f e e l g u i l t y about h i s d e s i r e to seek p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n s i n c e h i s p a r e n t s do not have h igher e d u c a t i o n and h i s f r i e n d s are t u r n i n g away from h im. Fear of the unknown. I f h i s grades drop he w i l l not have to make a d e c i s i o n . C o n f l i c t about l e a v i n g g i r l f r i e n d , f r i e n d s , e t c . , to seek new way of l i f e . Not sure he can l i v e up to c h a l l e n g e without f a m i l y s u p p o r t . Depressed because of the c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t s , v a l u e s - - h i s own and those of h i s f a m i l y . The d e c i s i o n to r i s k s e c u r i t y of f a m i l y , f r i e n d s and g i r l f r i e n d i s d i f f i c u l t and s t r e s s f u l ; a c h i e v e m e n t - o r i e n t e d and wants to c o n t i n u e h i s e d u c a t i o n . Case #3 A ten year o l d N a t i v e American boy i s taken to the p r i n c i p a l ' s o f f i c e by h i s t e a c h e r . Her c o m p l a i n t s about him are tha t he g i v e s h i s p e r s o n a l t h i n g s away to the o ther c h i l d r e n ; b r i n g s a l a r g e l u n c h to s c h o o l at l e a s t 75 four t imes a week; and she caught him t a k i n g t h i n g s of her desk ( p e n c i l s , markers , t a p e s , e t c . ) , u s i n g them, and then p u t t i n g them i n h i s desk . T h i s l a t t e r compla in has o c c u r r e d at l e a s t three t imes s i n c e s c h o o l s t a r t e d one month ago. When c o n f r o n t e d by the t e a c h e r , he .admits to t a k i n g the o b j e c t s f o r h i s own use . Whi le the m a j o r i t y of the responses i n d i c a t e d h i g h c u l t u r a l awareness (to be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s s e c t i o n ) , there were a number of examples of an i n t r a p s y c h i c r a t h e r than a c u l t u r a l a p p r o a c h . These examples are taken from the " u n t r a i n e d g r o u p . " A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the t r a i n e d group responded to t h i s case w i t h comments about d i f f e r i n g c u l t u r a l v a l u e s around personal /communal p r o p e r t y . Responses He i s l o n e l y and t r i e s to accommodate t h i s by buy ing f r i e n d s and drawing the t e a c h e r ' s a t t e n t i o n to h i m s e l f . Boy d e s p e r a t e l y needs a t t e n t i o n and w i l l attempt to ga in tha t through i n a p p r o p r i a t e a c t s . L o n e l y , i n s e c u r e , needs love and s o c i a l s k i l l s , p o s s i b l y l a c k of love a t home or n e g l e c t . At l e a s t one i n d i c a t o r of s u i c i d e seems p r e s e n t . The c l i e n t seems to want to draw a t t e n t i o n to h i s needs for c o n t a c t / t o t a l k to t e a c h e r . (Note: two people mentioned s u i c i d a l t e n d e n c i e s in response to t h i s s c e n a r i o . ) 76 Case #4 A 20 year o l d H i s p a n i c female i s r e f e r r e d to the c l i n i c by her d o c t o r . Her c o m p l a i n t s i n c l u d e f e e l i n g d e p r e s s e d and a l i t t l e a n x i o u s . The onset of these symptoms o c c u r r e d when she made a d e c i s i o n to move i n t o her own apartment w i th another young woman she works w i t h at a day care c e n t e r . Her p a r e n t s are very upset about the m o v e - - t e l l i n g her she i s w i c k e d . Up u n t i l t h i s t i m e , she had never had a bad argument wi th her f a m i l y . She i s d a t i n g a 25 year o l d H i s p a n i c law s tudent who i s v e r y s u p p o r t i v e . She has two b r o t h e r s , 19 and 25, and two s i s t e r s , 23 and 16. Responses She had to have a l a r g e argument i n o r d e r to l eave but she i s s u f f e r i n g some a n x i e t y d u r i n g her t r a n s i t i o n . May be very h e a l t h y . T r a n s i t i o n from l i v i n g wi th f a m i l y to l i v i n g on own. Poor s e l f image. She i s i n a c r i s i s because of r e j e c t i o n from f a m i l y . L o s s ? She may be m i s s i n g the c l o s e p h y s i c a l and communal e x p e r i e n c e of her own home l i f e and e x p e r i e n c i n g some c u l t u r e shock i n her new l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n . Her behav iour has not been r e s o l v e d w i t h her f a m i l y and she may have underneath f e e l i n g s of g u i l t about t h i s . Case #5 A 20 year o l d Jewish male comes to therapy w i t h c o m p l a i n t s of f e e l i n g a p a t h e t i c and d e p r e s s e d . He r e p o r t s the onset of these symptoms began when h i s 19 year o l d Jewish g i r l f r i e n d broke up wi th him a f t e r f i v e y e a r s of d a t i n g . The reason she gave him was t h a t she f e l t t h e i r l i v e s were go ing i n two d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s : he i s a t h i r d year a r t s tudent a t a p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l ; and she i s a sophomore E n g l i s h major at a l o c a l c o l l e g e . She f e e l s h i s c a r e e r c h o i c e i s an u n d e s i r a b l e one . H i s p a r e n t s , who have been upset from the b e g i n n i n g w i t h h i s d e c i s i o n not to go to c o l l e g e , have t o l d t h e i r son they can unders tand h i s g i r l f r i e n d ' s f e e l i n g s . He has always e x c e l l e d in a r t — w i n n i n g s t a t e awards in grade s c h o o l and 77 h i g h s c h o o l - - a n d i s g e t t i n g honors and be ing r e c o g n i z e d at the p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l f o r h i s a r t i s t i c t a l e n t s . S ince the breakup , he has s t a r t e d to l o s e i n t e r e s t in a r t and to q u e s t i o n h i s v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e . H i s f a t h e r i s a l awyer , h i s mother a homemaker, and he has a s i s t e r , 20, and a b r o t h e r , 18, both of whom are in c o l l e g e . Responses A l o t of d i s t r a c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n h e r e . I would go wi th f e e l i n g s . L o n e l y , f e e l s no i n c l u s i o n — d e p r e s s e d . H i s wants and d e s i r e s are i n t o t a l o p p o s i t i o n to h i s l o v e d ones . F e e l s an e x t e r n a l l ocus of c o n t r o l . There appears to be a s t r o n g e r tendency to use c l i n i c a l , i n t r a p s y c h i c terms to d e s c r i b e the c l i e n t s ' i s s u e s on the Wayne S c a l e as compared to d e s c r i b i n g the v i d e o t a p e d c l i e n t ' s p r o b l e m . The p a r t i c i p a n t s may have responded i n t h i s way both because they were asked to d e s c r i b e " c l i n i c a l i m p r e s s i o n s , " and because the cases were summarized i n a c l i n i c a l f a s h i o n . Wayne d i d not address t h i s i s s u e , presumably because her s u b j e c t s were p a r t i c i p a t i n g in a more c l i n i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d program than t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s . I t i s p o s s i b l e tha t c o u n s e l l i n g s tudents in the study were not c o m f o r t a b l e g i v i n g " c l i n i c a l i m p r e s s i o n s , " and tha t t h i s i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r responses i n some way. I n d i c a t i o n tha t t h i s may have o c c u r r e d came from the f a c t that s e v e r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d not complete the s c a l e i n 78 s p i t e of more than ample time and that one p a r t i c i p a n t wrote : "not enough i n f o r m a t i o n has been g i v e n for me to f e e l good about s h a r i n g i m p r e s s i o n s in a l l these c a s e s . " A l t h o u g h Wayne c o l l a p s e d her l e v e l s from 5 to 4 because r a t e r s had d i f f i c u l t y d i s c r i m i n a t i n g at the top two l e v e l s , there s t i l l appears to be some d i f f i c u l t y for r a t e r s to d i s c r i m i n a t e e f f e c t i v e l y between l e v e l s 2 and 3 . The r a t e r s t r a i n e d for t h i s study spent a d d i t i o n a l t ime c l a r i f y i n g w i t h the r e s e a r c h e r and each o ther how best to d i f f e r e n t i a t e these two l e v e l s . At the end of the t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n they were s a t i s f i e d t h a t the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s were c l e a r . However, i t i s important to note that i f any responses r a t e d at l e v e l 2 "should have been" at l e v e l 3, the c o l l a p s e d s cores i l l u s t r a t e d in T a b l e V (p. 70) c o u l d look q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . A t h i r d concern i s the v a r i a t i o n i n scores a c r o s s the 5 Wayne c a s e s . T h i s may be due to a d i f f e r e n c e i n the t r a n s p a r e n c y of the s c e n a r i o s in terms of l e a d i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s to c o n s i d e r e t h n i c i t y . A more l i k e l y e x p l a n a t i o n i s tha t d i f f e r i n g l e v e l s of knowledge r e l a t e d to s p e c i f i c c u l t u r e s may r e s u l t i n p a r t i c i p a n t s d e m o n s t r a t i n g a h i g h e r l e v e l of e t h n i c awareness . The example which most a p t l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s i s the s t r i k i n g 79 number of p a r t i c i p a n t s who s c o r e d h i g h on Case #3, r e f l e c t i n g the N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e , w i t h which people l i v i n g i n B . C . may w e l l have more f a m i l i a r i t y than the c u l t u r e s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the o ther four s c e n a r i o s . As w e l l , t h i s c u l t u r e may have been s p e c i f i c a l l y d e a l t w i t h i n the c r o s s - c u l t u r e t r a i n i n g c o u r s e , which c o u l d account for a l l the p a r t i c i p a n t s in t h a t group s c o r i n g h i g h on the c a s e . I t may be tha t the Wayne S c a l e a s se s se s knowledge of s p e c i f i c c u l t u r e s more than g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l awareness . The f o r e g o i n g o u t l i n e of concerns may e x p l a i n why the s c a l e may not have i d e n t i f i e d d i f f e r e n c e s , which may a c t u a l l y have been p r e s e n t , between the two g r o u p s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the unaccounted f o r exper i ence /knowledge d i f f e r e n c e s between the p a r t i c i p a n t s combined wi th the p o t e n t i a l l i m i t a t i o n s of the ins trument prevent any c o n c l u s i v e s ta t ements . Hypothesis 3—Comparison of Scores on the Wayne Scale and Problem D e f i n i t i o n The c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s on the Problem D e f i n i t i o n and the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness S c a l e was not as s t r o n g as one might have e x p e c t e d . Keeping in mind the d i s c u s s i o n of Hypotheses 1 and 2 , i t seems l i k e l y that the concerns r a i s e d r e g a r d i n g each of these measures w i l l have c o n t r i b u t e d to the 80 r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two be ing s l i g h t e r than e x p e c t e d . In a d d i t i o n , the c o r r e l a t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g a mean score f o r each p a r t i c i p a n t on the Wayne S c a l e . C o n s i d e r i n g the v a r i a b i l i t y of s c o r e s on the 5 c a s e s , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to compare the s c o r e s on the Problem D e f i n i t i o n w i t h the s cores on i n d i v i d u a l Wayne c a s e s , r a t h e r than a mean score (see T a b l e V , p . 70) . There are s e v e r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s who scored c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h or low a c r o s s a l l measures . A number of p a r t i c i p a n t s had mixed s c o r e s . Of n o t e , as mentioned e a r l i e r , i s the set of h i g h scores on Case #3 and the p r e d o m i n a n t l y low scores in the remainder of the c a s e s . An examinat ion of the cases content r e v e a l s that Case #3 i s a s c e n a r i o r e l a t e d to the N a t i v e Ind ian c u l t u r e . As noted e a r l i e r , i t may w e l l be tha t t h i s c u l t u r e i s the one w i t h which p a r t i c i p a n t s who l i v e in B . C . have the most f a m i l i a r i t y . More p a r t i c i p a n t s s c o r e d h i g h e r on c u l t u r a l awareness i n the r e s e a r c h s c e n a r i o than i n any of the cases except the one r e l a t e d to the N a t i v e c u l t u r e . I t i s p o s s i b l e that the p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d not emphasize c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s in the remain ing c a s e s , which d e a l t w i t h Japanese , J e w i s h , B l a c k and H i s p a n i c c u l t u r e s , because by and l a r g e they have not been exposed to these c u l t u r e s . Perhaps a s c a l e which i n c o r p o r a t e d c u l t u r a l groups more v i s i b l e i n B . C . ( e . g . Eas t I n d i a n , Greek) would y i e l d d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . 81 T h i s r a i s e s an i n t e r e s t i n g i s s u e about the t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l knowledge. Perhaps the s a l i e n c e of c u l t u r a l i s s u e s depends more on exposure t o , or c o n t a c t w i t h , s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l groups than i t does on c l a s s r o o m t r a i n i n g . Perhaps the concept of "gener ic" c r o s s - c u l t u r a l awareness needs to be r e c o n s i d e r e d . The c o n t r o v e r s y over c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c v e r s u s c u l t u r e - g e n e r a l t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n t i a l v e r s u s d i d a c t i c t r a i n i n g i s w e l l documented by L a n d i s and B r i s l i n (1983) . There i s no c o n c l u s i v e ev idence to support a p a r t i c u l a r type of t r a i n i n g over a n o t h e r . I t seems l i k e l y tha t d i f f e r e n t combinat ions of these four v a r i a b l e s would be a p p r o p r i a t e for d i f f e r e n t l y d e f i n e d t r a i n i n g g o a l s . There were those p a r t i c i p a n t s (16, 18, 27) who s c o r e d c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h on a l l the s c e n a r i o s . Perhaps the o n l y way to account for t h i s i s " i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s " i n l e a r n i n g a n d / o r l i f e e x p e r i e n c e . One of the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s s tudy i s t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e s w i th c r o s s - c u l t u r e i n t e r a c t i o n s were not accounted f o r . M e a n i n g f u l n e s s of I n f o r m a t i o n T h i s s tudy was concerned w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n in terms of i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e or meaningfu lness to the c o u n s e l l o r i n d e f i n i n g the c l i e n t ' s p r o b l e m . In o r d e r to 82 * look more c l o s e l y at the s tatements c o n s i d e r e d to be most and l e a s t mean ingfu l to the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d e f i n i n g the c l i e n t ' s p r o b l e m , the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e (Table V I , p . 83) was c o n s t r u c t e d . The t a b l e shows the s i x most and l e a s t mean ingfu l s tatements r e p r e s e n t e d by each of the s i x f a c t o r s r e s u l t i n g from the Q - a n a l y s i s (see T a b l e IV , p . 66) . The r a t i o n a l e for s e l e c t i n g s i x s tatements at e i t h e r end of the cont inuum i s tha t the Q - s o r t r e q u i r e d p a r t i c i p a n t s to d i s c r i m i n a t e most f i n e l y on the f i r s t and l a s t three l e v e l s of mean ingfu lnes s on the cont inuum. These l e v e l s c o n s i s t e d of a t o t a l of twelve s ta tements , s i x at e i t h e r end of the cont inuum (see F i g u r e 1, p . 57) . An a n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s of T a b l e VI r e v e a l e d how the p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n s t r u e d the meaningfu lness of the c l i e n t s t a t e m e n t s . The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n c e n t r e s on the t o t a l meaning scheme of each f a c t o r . That i s , i tems w i l l not be i s o l a t e d f o r e x a m i n a t i o n , but c o n s i d e r e d in the c o n t e x t of the o ther prominent i tems to grasp the p a t t e r n of c l i n i c a l t h o u g h t . F a c t o r 1 The most meaningfu l s tatements here are p r i m a r i l y r e l a t e d to i s s u e s around peer group c o m p a r i s o n s . The c o u n s e l l o r s appear to be a t t e n d i n g to the c l i e n t ' s comparison of the 83 T a b l e V I : Most and l e a s t meaningfu l s tatements i n d e f i n i n g the c l i e n t ' s problem Factor 1 Item Item No. Most Meaningful Statements No. 8 I want to make more decisions on my own. 18 Al Sometimes I fe e l r e a l l y lonely at home. 46 42 Sometimes I f e e l r e a l l y lonely at school 16 too, because my friends don't understand where I'm coming from. 14 I f e e l l i k e I'm growing up late compared 12 to people my own age. 21 I f e e l l i k e I'm missing out on experiences 11 that other people have. 7 I want to come to school to learn, not to 9 get a Job. Least MeanlnRful Statements My g i r l f r i e n d and I went to high school together. Maybe I'd even move back home after a while. Lots of people my age don't l i v e at.home. My mom doesn't l i k e me wearing jeans, she says they're not la d y l i k e . My mom thinks I wear too much makeup. At home, X even have to cook the way my mom wants me to. Item No. 31 Factor 2 Most MeanlnRful Statements I'm scared that i f I leave t h e y ' l l disown Item No. Least MeanlnRful Statements I am in t h i r d year a r t s . 20 But other friends say It's my duty, my 39 re s p o n s i b i l i t y . 41 Sometimes I f e e l r e a l l y lonely at home. 46 42 Sometimes I f e e l r e a l l y lonely at school 34 too, because my friends don't understand where I'm cooing from. 19 Some of my friends think It's weird 48 that I'm s t i l l l i v i n g at home. 30 1 want to be close to my family. 17 It's just that my parents don't understand me. Maybe I'd even move back home af t e r a while. I'm worried about paying rent. I'm not happy with the way things are but I don't know what to do. I want to move out with a g i r l f r i e n d I've known since I f i r s t came here. Item No. 47 31 27 48 Factor 3 Item No. Most MeanlnRful Statements I'm r e a l l y torn. 2 I'm scared that i f I leave t h e y ' l l 1 dlsown me. I want to make more decisions on my own. 18 My parents try to Influence me In a l l 17 my decisions. My parents t e l l me I'm ungrateful for a l l 46 they've done for me. I'm not happy with the way things are but 16 I don't know what to do. Least MeanlnRful Statements I am In t h i r d year a r t s . I am a student at U.B.C. My g i r l f r i e n d and I went to high school together, I want to move out with a g i r l f r i e n d I've known since I f i r s t came here. Maybe I'd even move back home after a while. Lots of people my age don't l i v e at home. 84 Factor 4 Item Item Wo. Most Meaningful Statements No. 47 I'm r e a l l y torn. 18 31 I'm scared that If I leave t h e y ' l l 1 disown me. 14 I f e e l l i k e I'm growing up la t e compared 2 to people my own age. 21 I f e e l l i k e I'm missing out on experiences n that other people have. 33 I t ' s scary. 17 15 I'm twenty-three. 6 Factor 5 Item Item No. Most Meaningful Statements No. 31 I'm scared that i f I leave t h e y ' l l 2 disown me. 8 I want to make more decisions on my own. 18 47 I'm r e a l l y torn. 1 26 Then I f e e l ashamed. 15 43 It's confusing switching back and forth. 25 42 Sometimes I f e e l r e a l l y lonely at school 11 too, because my friends don't understand where I'm coming from. Factor 6 Item Item No. Most Meaningful Statements No. 47 I'm r e a l l y torn. 34 42 Sometimes I f e e l r e a l l y lonely at school 2 too, because my friends don't understand where I'm coming from. 41 Sometimes I f e e l r e a l l y lonely at home. 18 21 1 f e e l l i k e I'm missing out on experiences 17 that other people have. 48 I'm not happy with the way things are but 1 I don't know what to do. 43 I t ' s confusing switching back and forth. 16 Least Meaningful Statements My g i r l f r i e n d and I went to high school together. I am a student at U.B.C. 1 am in t h i r d year arta. My mom thinks I wear too much makeup. I want to move out with a g i r l f r i e n d I've known since I f i r s t came here. My parents want me to take p r a c t i c a l courses at university. Least Meaningful Statements I am In third year a r t s . My g i r l f r i e n d and I went to high school together. I am a student at U.B.C. I'm twenty-three. One of the things my mom wants Is for me to go shopping with her. My mom thinks I wear too much makeup. Least Meaningful Statements I'm worried about paying rent. I am in third year a r t s . My g i r l f r i e n d and I went to high school together. 1 want to move out with a g i r l f r i e n d I've known since I f i r s t came here. I am a student at U.B.C. Lots of people my age don't l i v e at home. 85 e x p e r i e n c e s of o ther people w i t h t h e i r own, f o r example, "I f e e l l i k e I'm growing up l a t e compared to people my own age" and "I f e e l l i k e I'm m i s s i n g out on e x p e r i e n c e s tha t o ther people have ." The l e a s t mean ingfu l s tatements seem to be those r e l a t e d to l i v i n g at home w i t h Mom, for example "My mom d o e s n ' t l i k e me wearing j e a n s , " "At home, I even have to cook the way my mom wants me t o . " The c o u n s e l l o r s a p p a r e n t l y p l a c e d more importance , in d e f i n i n g the c l i e n t ' s p r o b l e m , on the c l i e n t ' s s tatements r e l a t e d to f i t t i n g i n w i t h o t h e r s than on the r e l a t i o n s h i p and c o n f l i c t s w i t h Mom. T h i s r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n about what the c o u n s e l l o r w i l l count as s u c c e s s f u l r e s o l u t i o n to the p r o b l e m . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i n t h i s c a s e , the c o u n s e l l o r would view the c l i e n t moving away from the f a m i l y , be ing l i k e o t h e r s her age, r a t h e r than working out c o n f l i c t s w i t h Mom, as a s o l u t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h i s i s s p e c u l a t i v e , i t p o i n t s to a need f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on the c o u n s e l l o r i n t e r v e n t i o n which may r e s u l t from c e r t a i n ways of c o n s t r u i n g c l i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n . F a c t o r 2 The s tatements c o n s i d e r e d to be most meaningfu l i n t h i s f a c t o r are r e l a t e d to f a m i l y , f o r example "I want to be c l o s e to my f a m i l y , " "I'm s c a r e d tha t i f I l eave t h e y ' l l disown me." The l e a s t meaningfu l s tatements are r e l a t e d to g e n e r a l 8 6 p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s such as moving out w i t h a g i r l f r i e n d and worry about p a y i n g r e n t . The emphasis here appears to be the importance of f a m i l y and the need to remain c l o s e to them i n s t e a d of comparisons to people o u t s i d e the f a m i l y . The focus i s not on f a m i l y p r o b l e m s , but on f a m i l y t i e s . A g a i n , t h i s may have i m p l i c a t i o n s for what the c o u n s e l l o r w i l l c o n s i d e r a s u c c e s s f u l r e s o l u t i o n to the p r o b l e m . In c o n t r a s t to F a c t o r 1, perhaps the c o u n s e l l o r , r e c o g n i z i n g the importance of f a m i l y to t r e a t m e n t , would focus on h e l p i n g the c l i e n t f i n d ways to s tay w i t h i n her f a m i l y sys tem. F a c t o r 3 The most meaningfu l s tatements in t h i s f a c t o r were those r e l a t e d to d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , f or example, "I want to make more d e c i s i o n s on my own" and "my p a r e n t s t r y to i n f l u e n c e me i n a l l my d e c i s i o n s . " The importance of f a m i l y was obv ious h e r e , as i n the p r e v i o u s two f a c t o r s , however the tone i s perhaps more n e g a t i v e . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s a sense of g u i l t about d e s i r i n g independence from f a m i l y , r e f l e c t e d i n the statement "My parent s t e l l me I'm u n g r a t e f u l f o r a l l t h e y ' v e done for me." In a d d i t i o n to f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n , the l e a s t meaningfu l s tatements c e n t e r e d on i s s u e s of moving out , f or example, 8 7 "Maybe I ' d even move back home a f t e r a w h i l e , " "Lots of people my age d o n ' t l i v e at home," "I want to move out w i t h a g i r l f r i e n d I ' v e known s i n c e I f i r s t came h e r e . " The c o u n s e l l o r s are c h o o s i n g as more meaningfu l s tatements which r e f l e c t the c l i e n t ' s c o n f l i c t w i t h p a r e n t a l v a l u e s r a t h e r than the p r e s e n t i n g problem of "moving o u t . " T h i s . m i g h t l e a d these c o u n s e l l o r s to focus more on the u n d e r l y i n g i s s u e s than the immediate concern about "moving o u t . " The consequence of t h i s might be a tendency to h e l p the c l i e n t r e s o l v e p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t w i t h the hope t h a t r e s o l u t i o n of the f a m i l y problems would f o l l o w . F a c t o r 4 T h i s c l u s t e r of mean ingfu l s tatements i s s i m i l a r to F a c t o r 1 i n that i t emphasizes c l i e n t , s tatements r e l a t e d to peer group c o m p a r i s o n s . I t d i f f e r s , however, because i t i n c l u d e s s tatements r e l a t e d to s t r o n g emotion such as "I'm r e a l l y t o r n , " " I t ' s s c a r y , " "I'm s c a r e d that i f I l eave t h e y ' l l disown me." What appears to to be important here i s not s imply a comparison to o t h e r s , but a l s o the f e e l i n g s t h i s comparison p r o v o k e s . The l e a s t mean ingfu l s tatements are r e l a t e d to g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the c l i e n t ' s s tudent s t a t u s and c o u r s e s . There i s a sense that the c l i e n t i s overwhelmed by the idea tha t l i f e i s p a s s i n g her b y , as 88 ev idenced i n a g e - r e l a t e d s tatements such as "I f e e l l i k e I'm growing up l a t e compared to people my own age ," "I f e e l l i k e I'm m i s s i n g out on e x p e r i e n c e s tha t o ther peop le have" and "I'm t w e n t y - t h r e e . " T h i s i s the on ly f a c t o r i n which the statement "I'm twenty - three" was i n c l u d e d i n the most meaningfu l s ta t ements . In the o ther f a c t o r s , t h i s statement was i n c l u d e d w i t h o ther f a c t s i n the l e a s t meaningfu l c l u s t e r . Because the c o u n s e l l o r a t t e n d e d to more e m o t i o n a l s ta tements , there might be a tendency to work w i t h the c l i e n t ' s f e e l i n g s r e l a t e d to "miss ing o u t . " As i n F a c t o r s 1 and 3 f a m i l y i s s u e s might take a secondary r o l e . F a c t o r 5 The l e a s t meaningfu l s tatements are a g a i n the f a c t u a l s tatements r e l a t e d p r i m a r i l y to the c l i e n t ' s s tudent s t a t u s . The c l u s t e r of meaningfu l s tatements d i f f e r s markedly from the p r e v i o u s f a c t o r s . There i s a potency of f e e l i n g i n t h i s c l u s t e r tha t does not e x i s t w i t h i n the o ther statement c l u s t e r s . T h i s c l u s t e r sums up the c o n f l i c t s expressed i n the o ther f a c t o r s . I t i n c l u d e s c o n f l i c t s wi th p a r e n t s ("I want to make more d e c i s i o n s on my own," "Then I f e e l ashamed") and c o n f l i c t s w i t h peers (". . . my f r i e n d s d o n ' t unders tand where I'm coming from") and expres se s a sense of " torn-ness" and c o n f u s i o n . The s tatements emphasize the i n a b i l i t y of t h i s 89 c l i e n t to l i v e c o m f o r t a b l y in e i t h e r w o r l d . The c o u n s e l l i n g focus might be on i s s u e s of i d e n t i t y and b e l o n g i n g . The c o u n s e l l o r might t r y to h e l p the c l i e n t i n t e g r a t e the two p a r t s of h e r s e l f so she does not c o n t i n u e to e x p e r i e n c e f e e l i n g s of be ing t o r n between two w o r l d s . F a c t o r 6 The statement c l u s t e r s i n t h i s f a c t o r are more s i m i l a r to those i n F a c t o r 5 than any o ther f a c t o r s . T h i s f a c t o r , t o o , emphasizes s tatements which sum up the c o n f l i c t of the c l i e n t , in p a r t i c u l a r , the s p l i t r e s u l t i n g from the c o n f l i c t between peer comparisons and f a m i l y . T h i s s p l i t i s s t r o n g l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n the s tatements "Sometimes I f e e l l o n e l y at home," "Sometimes I f e e l l o n e l y at s c h o o l , t o o , because my f r i e n d s d o n ' t unders tand where I'm coming f r o m , " " I t ' s c o n f u s i n g s w i t c h i n g back and f o r t h " and "I'm not happy wi th the way t h i n g s a r e , but I d o n ' t know what to d o . " The c o u n s e l l o r s have s e l e c t e d as most mean ingfu l s tatements c o n t a i n i n g power fu l f e e l i n g s r e l a t e d to the c o n f l i c t and the s p l i t between the v a l u e s of the c l i e n t ' s f a m i l y and her peer group . As i n F a c t o r 5, the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s would l i k e l y focus on r e s o l u t i o n of t h i s s p l i t between two c u l t u r e s . 90 The way tha t meaningfu lness of i n f o r m a t i o n i s c o n s t r u e d may be r e l a t e d to l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness . T a b l e III (p . 65) i l l u s t r a t e s that the h i g h s c o r e r s on l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness were c l u s t e r e d i n F a c t o r s 5 and 6, and the low s c o r e r s were c l u s t e r e d p r i m a r i l y in F a c t o r s 1 through 4. Whi le a l l s i x f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d to some degree f a m i l y and peer i s s u e s , the meaning a t t a c h e d to these i s s u e s appeared to be d i f f e r e n t . F a c t o r s 1 through 4 emphasize p r i m a r i l y content s tatements which i n d i c a t e d areas of c o n c e r n : "I f e e l l i k e I'm growing up l a t e compared to people my own age ," "other f r i e n d s say i t ' s my d u t y , my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , " "My p a r e n t s t r y to i n f l u e n c e me i n a l l my d e c i s i o n s , " "I want to make more d e c i s i o n s on my own." F a c t o r s 5 and 6 emphasize s tatements which sum up o v e r a l l f e e l i n g s of c o n f l i c t and c o n f u s i o n . The concept of a s p l i t between two se t s of v a l u e s i s more s a l i e n t i n F a c t o r s 5 and 6 than i n the f i r s t four f a c t o r s . I t i s p o s s i b l e that the p a r t i c i p a n t s who scored h i g h e r on c u l t u r a l awareness s e l e c t e d as most mean ingfu l s tatements which c a p t u r e d the sense of the c l i e n t ' s c o n f u s i o n about b e i n g caught between two se t s of c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , those of her peers and those of her p a r e n t s . I t i s l i k e l y tha t c o u n s e l l o r awareness of the c l i e n t ' s c o n f l i c t i n g r o l e s in her t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y and the western c u l t u r e to which she wanted to be long would f a c i l i t a t e the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s by i n c r e a s i n g the 91 common u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l i e n t and c o u n s e l l o r . A l t h o u g h t h i s study d i d not i n d i c a t e d i f f e r e n c e s between t r a i n e d and u n t r a i n e d groups in the a r e a of a t t e n d i n g to c u l t u r e in the p r e s e n t i n g p r o b l e m , i t appears tha t the Q - s o r t d i d p i c k up s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s tatements s e l e c t e d as most and l e a s t mean ing fu l by the c u l t u r a l l y aware and l e s s c u l t u r a l l y aware p a r t i c i p a n t s . The f a c t that the Q - a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d such d i f f e r e n c e s seems to be te s t imony to i t s power to e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n about p e r s o n a l c h o i c e s and meaningfu lness of i n f o r m a t i o n . L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study In a d d i t i o n to the p o s s i b l e l i m i t a t i o n s addres sed wi th r e s p e c t to the i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y , the f o l l o w i n g i s a summary of the p r i m a r y concerns which may l i m i t the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y . 1. P a r t i c i p a n t s ' p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s w i th members of m i n o r i t y groups in a c o u n s e l l i n g s i t u a t i o n or other i n t e r a c t i o n s not c o n t r o l l e d . 2. The p a r t i c i p a n t s in the s tudy were not randomly s e l e c t e d . They were drawn from an a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n judged by the i n v e s t i g a t o r to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of M a s t e r ' s l e v e l c o u n s e l l i n g s t u d e n t s . 3. C o u n s e l l o r s responded to v i d e o t a p e s r a t h e r than r e a l - l i f e 92 e x p e r i e n c e s and t h e r e f o r e d i d not have the o p p o r t u n i t y to respond to the c l i e n t or probe for i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s i s p o t e n t i a l l y a problem because we do not know i f the s o r t i n g task e l i c i t s the same type of t h i n k i n g as an a c t u a l c o u n s e l l i n g s i t u a t i o n (Van A t t a , 1966). S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t g e n e r a l i z i n g analogue r e s e a r c h to c l i n i c a l s i t u a t i o n s (Jones , 1979; K a z d i n , 1978). 4. V a l i d i t y for the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure has not been e s t a b l i s h e d . Summary The reason for u n d e r t a k i n g t h i s study was to e x p l o r e the i n f l u e n c e of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g on c o u n s e l l o r a t t e n t i o n to c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s in a c l i e n t ' s p r e s e n t i n g p r o b l e m . The r e s e a r c h e r examined t h i s q u e s t i o n by l o o k i n g both at d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e v e l s of c u l t u r a l awareness i n the t r a i n e d and u n t r a i n e d g r o u p s , and at d i f f e r e n c e s in the p e r c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n c e of c l i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n i n d e f i n i n g the c l i e n t ' s p r o b l e m . There seems to be agreement among w r i t e r s i n the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a r e a , that t r a i n i n g programs are needed to educate c o u n s e l l o r s to handle c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n s more e f f e c t i v e l y . At the same t i m e , concern has been expres sed that t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on the impact of 93 t r a i n i n g e x p e r i e n c e (Carney & Kahn, 1984; C h r i s t e n s e n , 1984). A l t h o u g h t h i s study d i d not p r o v i d e any ev idence of d i f f e r e n c e i n l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness between the t r a i n e d and u n t r a i n e d g r o u p s , the Q - a n a l y s i s d i d p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t a d i f f e r e n c e in p e r c e p t i o n of meaningfu l i n f o r m a t i o n may have e x i s t e d as a r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l awareness . T h i s f i n d i n g c r e a t e s in the i n v e s t i g a t o r an opt imism tha t there may indeed be t a n g i b l e r e s u l t s from the use of Q methodology. D i r e c t i o n s for F u r t h e r Research The r e s u l t s of t h i s study seem to i n d i c a t e tha t l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness has some e f f e c t on the way tha t m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e c o u n s e l l o r s p e r c e i v e the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d to the by m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h us ing Q - a n a l y s i s f o l l o w e d by i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s might be v a l u a b l e in g a t h e r i n g more i n f o r m a t i o n about why c o u n s e l l o r s s e l e c t e d c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n as more meaningfu l than o ther i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s c o u l d p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o what a spec t s of c o u n s e l l o r s ' e x p e r i e n c e ( i . e . c l a s s r o o m t r a i n i n g , l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s , w o r l d v iew, t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n ) are the p r i m a r y d e t e r m i n a n t s of how the c o u n s e l l o r p e r c e i v e s the c l i e n t ' s p r o b l e m . A d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h comparing the same people be fore and a f t e r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g might be a b e t t e r i n d i c a t o r of 94 meaningfu l changes in p e r c e p t i o n than r e s e a r c h u s i n g two d i f f e r e n t groups of p e o p l e . T h i s s tudy r a i s e d the i s sue of whether or not d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r a l awareness can be more r e a d i l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to f i e l d / l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s than to c l a s s r o o m t r a i n i n g . I t might be i n t e r e s t i n g to i n t e r v i e w a n d / o r have c o u n s e l l o r s i n the f i e l d complete a Q - s o r t and compare the r e s u l t s to those of people whose o n l y exposure to c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g has been a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g c o u r s e . Perhaps the i n f o r m a t i o n ga ined from c o u n s e l l o r s in the f i e l d c o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a c l a s s r o o m t r a i n i n g program. The s tudy a l s o u n d e r l i n e d the d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g i n s t r u m e n t s to measure c r o s s - c u l t u r a l awareness e f f e c t i v e l y . F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s area would be a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n to c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g . I t may be important to e x p l o r e the d i f f e r e n c e s between a c h i e v i n g c u l t u r a l awareness and c u l t u r a l knowledge, and to d e v e l o p an ins trument which measures e i t h e r c u l t u r e - g e n e r a l or c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c awareness . The u s e f u l n e s s of each measure c o u l d perhaps be t e s t e d f o l l o w i n g a course d e s i g n e d to meet a p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e . T h i s s tudy p r o v i d e d some i n d i c a t i o n of the p o t e n t i a l f or m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the meaning of behav iour as a r e s u l t of l i m i t e d c u l t u r a l awareness . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o the consequences of such m i s d i a g n o s i s would be v a l u a b l e i n a r g u i n g 95 * for mandatory c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g for c o u n s e l l o r s . In summary, i t would be important to conduct f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g why c o u n s e l l o r s p e r c e i v e t h e i r c l i e n t s ' problems in a p a r t i c u l a r way; to d e v e l o p an ins trument to measure c r o s s - c u l t u r a l awareness; and to determine the impact of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g on c o u n s e l l o r i n t e r v e n t i o n s . I m p l i c a t i o n s for C o u n s e l l o r T r a i n i n g A l t h o u g h t h i s s tudy d i d not p r o v i d e c o n c l u s i v e ev idence r e g a r d i n g the impact of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g , i t d i d p o i n t to an important area for f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n by e d u c a t o r s . The r e s u l t s of the study i n d i c a t e d that 50% of a l l the s tudent s i n the study were a s s e s s e d as be ing low i n c u l t u r a l awareness . Low c u l t u r a l awareness was best i l l u s t r a t e d i n the case of the N a t i v e Ind ian boy who was g i v i n g away h i s p e r s o n a l b e l o n g i n g s and t a k i n g t h i n g s t h a t be longed to o t h e r s . A number of s t u d e n t s d iagnosed t h i s c h i l d as l o n e l y , n e g l e c t e d or s u i c i d a l when in a c t u a l f a c t the boy was behav ing i n accordance w i t h the norms of shared p r o p e r t y taught in h i s own c u l t u r e . The consequences of low c u l t u r a l awareness c o u l d range from a c l i e n t not r e t u r n i n g for therapy a f t e r i n i t i a l s e s s i o n s because he or she does not f e e l t h a t the c o u n s e l l o r 96 unders tands him or h e r , to a m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or m i s d i a g n o s i s of c l i e n t behav iour r e s u l t i n g i n an i n a p p r o p r i a t e c o u n s e l l o r i n t e r v e n t i o n . Such m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y be d e t r i m e n t a l , not o n l y to the c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , but to the c l i e n t ' s w e l l - b e i n g . C e r t a i n l y , i t i s c l e a r that a l l c o u n s e l l o r s working i n a m u l t i - c u l t u r a l environment need to be at l e a s t moderate ly aware of c u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s which might a f f e c t t h e i r c l i e n t s ' l i v e s . I t appears t h a t , i n recen t y e a r s , e d u c a t o r s have at tempted to c r e a t e programs which t r a i n c o u n s e l l o r s to meet the s p e c i a l needs of v a r i o u s s p e c i a l p o p u l a t i o n s . T h i s has r e s u l t e d in a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of s p e c i a l i z e d c o u r s e s (Wantz et a l . , 1979). S p e c i a l i z a t i o n has been promoted by o f f e r i n g s tudent s c o u r s e s and c l i n i c e x p e r i e n c e s d e s i g n e d to deve lop e x p e r t i s e in working wi th one type of c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n ( e . g . women, m i n o r i t i e s , a d o l e s c e n t s , d i s a b l e d ) . In r e a l i t y , of c o u r s e , i n d i v i d u a l s are not members of o n l y one group . The n a t i v e I n d i a n boy, f or example, i s both a c h i l d in a mainstream s c h o o l and a member of a m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e . The c o u n s e l o r who s p e c i a l i z e s in c h i l d or a d o l e s c e n t c o u n s e l l i n g , but i s not c u l t u r a l l y aware, may m i s p e r c e i v e some important a s p e c t s of what i s mean ingfu l i n t h i s c h i l d ' s l i f e . E d u c a t o r s must i d e n t i f y the g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s of t h e i r t o t a l t r a i n i n g package . 97 In r e c o g n i t i o n of a need to make c o u n s e l l o r s aware of m i n o r i t y i s s u e s Cope land (1982) o u t l i n e d four approaches which c o u l d be taken i n c o u n s e l l o r t r a i n i n g programs: a separate course model , an a r e a of c o n c e n t r a t i o n model ( s p e c i a l i z a t i o n through a c o r e c u r r i c u l u m of s e v e r a l c o u r s e s ) , an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y model ( i n c l u d i n g c o u r s e s in p s y c h o l o g y , a n t h r o p o l o g y , economics , e t h n i c s t u d i e s ) , and an i n t e g r a t i o n model ( i n f u s i n g a t o t a l program w i t h awareness of m i n o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n i s s u e s ) . Cope land suggested that the implementa t ion of s e p a r a t e c o u r s e s may be the most a d a p t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e because such c o u r s e s c o u l d be added to e x i s t i n g programs w i t h comparat ive ease . The other a l t e r n a t i v e s would r e q u i r e g r e a t e r f a c u l t y involvement and c o o r d i n a t i o n and the i n t e g r a t i o n model , i n p a r t i c u l a r , would r e q u i r e t o t a l program e v a l u a t i o n . In response to the s u g g e s t i o n tha t the s epara te course model i s p r o b a b l y the best a l t e r n a t i v e , i t must be p o i n t e d out tha t the accommodation of a d d i t i o n a l c o u r s e s may not be f e a s i b l e due to a v a i l a b i l i t y of exper t f a c u l t y and budget c o n s t r a i n t s (Remer, Omvig & Watson, 1978). F u r t h e r , i n l i g h t of the i n c r e a s e d l o b b y i n g for such c o u r s e s , how w i l l a department choose which p o p u l a t i o n warrants a s p e c i a l course? S p i e g e l (1979) warned tha t such c o n f l i c t c o u l d r e s u l t in d i v i s i v e n e s s and t e r r i t o r i a l i t y w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n and suggested tha t t h i s would u l t i m a t e l y be d e t r i m e n t a l to 98 c l i e n t s . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , i n e s t a b l i s h i n g b o u n d a r i e s i n the form of s e p a r a t e c o u r s e s , e d u c a t o r s may be l i m i t i n g the a b i l i t y of c o u n s e l l o r s to t r a n s f e r t h e i r l e a r n i n g from one p o p u l a t i o n to another ( M a r g o l i s & Rungta , 1986). Perhaps , i n s t e a d of encourag ing c o u n s e l l o r s to deve lop knowledge and s k i l l s s p e c i f i c to one group , e d u c a t o r s need to encourage the growth of open, aware c o u n s e l l o r s who have l e a r n e d to c o n f r o n t t h e i r own b i a s e s , and who have come to an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e i r own wor ld view and how i t a f f e c t s t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of o t h e r s . Perhaps e d u c a t o r s sh ou ld be c r e a t i n g a c l i m a t e in which s tudents expand r a t h e r than narrow t h e i r focus of l e a r n i n g . M a r g o l i s and Rungta (1986) suggested that c o u n s e l l o r e d u c a t i o n programs c o u l d o f f e r an i n t e g r a t e d course which would f a c i l i t a t e s tudent s e l f - a w a r e n e s s in c o n j u n c t i o n wi th p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e wi th a v a r i e t y of c l i e n t s . Course content c o u l d i n c l u d e examining common c l i e n t i s s u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h membership in a s p e c i a l p o p u l a t i o n , e . g . i d e n t i t y , s e l f - e s t e e m , need f o r v a l i d a t i o n of p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and a need for empowerment, as w e l l as c o u n s e l l o r c e n t e r e d d i f f i c u l t i e s in working w i t h c l i e n t s d i f f e r e n t from themse lves . The nature of t h i s course c o u l d be such tha t i t would a l low s tudent s to work e f f e c t i v e l y w i th any person they may e n c o u n t e r , r e g a r d l e s s of any s p e c i a l group to which they may b e l o n g . 99 C o u n s e l l o r s working in a m u l t i - c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y face a c h a l l e n g e i n meet ing the needs of c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e c l i e n t s . A t t e n t i o n to e t h n i c i s s u e s should no l onger be a s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d . 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Wolfgang ( E d s . ) , Intercultural counseling and assessment: Global perspectives. New Y o r k : C . J . H o g r e f e . W i l g o s h , L . (1983) . Beyond c o u n s e l l i n g women: Some contemporary i s s u e s . International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 6(2), 125-133. Wolfgang , A . (1984) . I n t e r c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l i n g : The s t a t e of the a r t . In ( E d s . ) , Mul t i cul t ur al i sm in Canada: Sound 110 and educational perspectives. T o r o n t o : A l l y n & Bacon, 418-431 . W o o l f e , R. (1983) . C o u n s e l l i n g i n a w o r l d of c r i s i s : Towards a s o c i o l o g y of c o u n s e l l i n g . International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 6 ( 3 ) , 167-176. Wrenn, C . G . (1962) . The c u l t u r a l l y e n c a p s u l a t e d c o u n s e l l o r . Harvard Educational Review, 32(4), 444-449. W r i g h t , J . , & H u l t o n , B . (1977) . I n f l u e n c e of c l i e n t soc ioeconomic s t a t u s on s e l e c t e d b e h a v i o u r s , a t t i t u d e s and d e c i s i o n s of c o u n s e l l o r s . Journal of Counseling Psychology, 24(6), 527-530. APPENDICES 1 1 2 APPENDIX A : C r o s s - c u l t u r a l C o u n s e l l i n g Course O u t l i n e Course D e s c r i p t i o n and O b j e c t i v e s The c o u n s e l l i n g proces s takes p l a c e i n a s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . F r e q u e n t l y the c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s which shape p e r c e p t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s and behav iour of the c o u n s e l l o r and c l i e n t are not acknowledged. The purpose of t h i s course i s to i n v e s t i g a t e the extent to which the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s and outcome are i n f l u e n c e d by d i f f e r i n g c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s , b e h a v i o u r s and e x p e c t a t i o n s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v o l v e d . Examinat ion of r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i n g the c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s w i l l be one way to pursue t h i s q u e s t i o n . A method for c o n c e p t u a l l y a n a l y z i n g the e x i s t i n g t h e o r i e s of c o u n s e l l i n g in terms of s p e c i f i c s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l v a l u e s w i l l be p r o v i d e d . F i n a l l y , c o n c e p t u a l models f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g p r a c t i c e in m u l t i p l e c u l t u r a l exchanges w i l l be p r o v i d e d . At an a p p l i e d l e v e l , the f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s e x i s t i n t h i s c o u r s e : I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the common problems e x p e r i e n c e d by the c l i e n t and c o u n s e l l o r who come from d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t 113 c u l t u r a l g r o u p s . R e c o g n i z i n g the d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s of s p e a k i n g , f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , mannerisms and n o n - v e r b a l components of an i n t e r v i e w . A c q u i r e a knowledge base of major r e l i g i o n s as they impact on d i s t i n c t c u l t u r e s . L e a r n how to i n i t i a t e c o n t a c t a c r o s s c u l t u r e s i n ways t h a t w i l l enhance t r u s t f o r m a t i o n . Unders tand and i d e n t i f y how c u l t u r a l norms determine e x p e c t a t i o n s and shape i n t e r v i e w b e h a v i o u r . A p p l i c a t i o n of a g r i d to the i n t e r v i e w to determine degree of e t h n i c i t y and p e r s o n a l i t y p r e s e n t . . Ass ignments 1. C r i t i q u e a s s i g n e d r e a d i n g s . 2. Prepare a major paper which a p p l i e s s p e c i f i c knowledge areas of the course to a s e l e c t e d t o p i c . The t o p i c i s to be s e l e c t e d i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the i n s t r u c t o r . 3. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s e l e c t e d c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s f o l l o w e d by e v a l u a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g to the a p p l i c a t i o n of the t h e o r y . 1 1 4 APPENDIX B: Consent Form I v o l u n t a r i l y agree to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . I unders tand t h a t the aim of t h i s s tudy i s to i n v e s t i g a t e the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s use to form i m p r e s s i o n s of t h e i r c l i e n t s ' prob lems , and that the s tudy i s be ing conducted to p a r t i a l l y f u l f i l l the requ irements for a M a s t e r ' s degree at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I f u r t h e r unders tand tha t my involvement i n t h i s p r o j e c t r e q u i r e s tha t I complete a form r e q u e s t i n g c e r t a i n demographic i n f o r m a t i o n and tha t I w i l l be asked to view a v i d e o t a p e d s i m u l a t e d c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v i e w and g i v e my c l i n i c a l i m p r e s s i o n s of a c l i e n t . I am aware tha t I may r e f u s e to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u e s t e d , and that I may withdraw my consent and d i s c o n t i n u e my p a r t i c i p a t i o n at an time wi thout a f f e c t i n g my academic s t a n d i n g . I know my c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y i s a s s u r e d s i n c e , except f o r t h i s consent form which i s handled s e p a r a t e l y , t h e r e i s no reques t for my name on any other forms. I have read the c o n t e n t s of t h i s consent form and u n d ers tan d my p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s p r o j e c t . I acknowledge r e c e i p t of a copy of t h i s form. Date S i g n a t u r e 1 1 5 APPENDIX C: I n f o r m a t i o n Sheet Age Sex E t h n i c Background R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n Year in C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology Program S p e c i a l i t y T h e o r e t i c a l O r i e n t a t i o n ( f a m i l y systems, psychodynamic , e t c . ) Number of Years of C o u n s e l l i n g E x p e r i e n c e Type of C o u n s e l l i n g E x p e r i e n c e 116 APPENDIX D: C l i e n t S c r i p t I am a s tudent at U . B . C . I'm in t h i r d year a r t s . R i g h t now I l i v e at home wi th my f a m i l y . I'm t h i n k i n g of moving out on my own but I'm not s u r e . My p a r e n t s t r y to i n f l u e n c e me in a l l my d e c i s i o n s . They want me to take p r a c t i c a l c o u r s e s at u n i v e r s i t y but I want to come to s c h o o l to l e a r n , not to get a j o b . I want to make more d e c i s i o n s on my own. At home I even have to cook the way my mom wants me t o . I f e e l k i n d of e x c i t e d about hav ing my own p l a c e where I can have f r i e n d s over and do what I want. My mom t h i n k s I wear too much makeup. She d o e s n ' t l i k e me wearing j e a n s . She says t h e y ' r e not l a d y l i k e . My f a m i l y i s so p r o t e c t i v e of me. I f e e l l i k e I'm growing up l a t e compared to people my own age . I'm t w e n t y - t h r e e . L o t s of people my age d o n ' t l i v e at home. I want to move out w i t h a g i r l f r i e n d I ' v e known s i n c e I f i r s t came h e r e . We went to h i g h s c h o o l t o g e t h e r . Some of my f r i e n d s t h i n k i t ' s w e i r d tha t I'm s t i l l l i v i n g at home. But o t h e r f r i e n d s say i t ' s my d u t y , my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I f e e l l i k e I'm m i s s i n g out on e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t o ther peop le have . I see my f r i e n d s d o i n g what they want and I f e e l l i k e my f a m i l y i s b l o c k i n g me. I s tay away from home a l o t . Sometimes when I am home I t e l l my mom I'm too busy to h e l p her—one of the t h i n g s she 1 17 wants i s f o r me to go shopping wi th h e r - - t h e n I f e e l ashamed. My p a r e n t s t e l l me I'm u n g r a t e f u l f o r a l l t h e y ' v e done for me. T h e y ' r e growing o l d . I shou ld spend more time w i t h them and h e l p them take c a r e of the younger ones . I want to be c l o s e to my f a m i l y . I'm s c a r e d tha t i f I l eave t h e y ' l l disown me. Sometimes I t h i n k I'm going to make a mess of my l i f e i f I move o u t . I t ' s s c a r y . I'm w o r r i e d about p a y i n g r e n t . I wonder what people w i l l t h i n k of me. I ' v e always been t o l d tha t the f a m i l y shou ld s t i c k t o g e t h e r . I t would set a bad example to the younger ones i f I l e f t . My p a r e n t s are r e a l l y good to me. I t ' s j u s t tha t they d o n ' t unders tand me. I t ' s hard for me to t a l k to them about what I want. Sometimes I f e e l r e a l l y l o n e l y at home. Sometimes I f e e l r e a l l y l o n e l y at s c h o o l t o o , because my f r i e n d s d o n ' t unders tand where I'm coming from. I t ' s c o n f u s i n g s w i t c h i n g back and f o r t h . Everybody has d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s of me. Maybe i f I move out on my own I c o u l d f i g u r e out what I want to do . Maybe I ' d even move back home a f t e r a w h i l e . I'm r e a l l y t o r n . I'm not happy w i t h the way t h i n g s are but I d o n ' t know what to d o . 118 APPENDIX E : Q - S o r t Statements 1. I am a s tudent at U . B . C . 2. I am in t h i r d year a r t s 3. R i g h t now I l i v e at home w i t h my f a m i l y 4. I'm t h i n k i n g of moving out on my own but I'm not sure 5. My p a r e n t s t r y to i n f l u e n c e me i n a l l my d e c i s i o n s 6. My p a r e n t s want me to take p r a c t i c a l c o u r s e s at u n i v e r s i t y 7. I want to come to s c h o o l to l e a r n , not to get a job 8. I want to make more d e c i s i o n s on my own 9. At home, I even have to cook the way my mom wants me to 10. I f e e l k i n d of e x c i t e d about h a v i n g my own p l a c e where I can have f r i e n d s over and do what I want 11. My mom t h i n k s I wear too much makeup 12. My mom d o e s n ' t l i k e me wearing j e a n s , she says t h e y ' r e not l a d y l i k e 13. My f a m i l y i s so p r o t e c t i v e of me 14. I f e e l l i k e I'm growing up l a t e compared to people my own 1 19 age 15. I'm t w e n t y - t h r e e 16. L o t s of people my age d o n ' t l i v e at home 17. I want to move out w i t h a g i r l f r i e n d I ' v e known s i n c e I f i r s t came here 18. My g i r l f r i e n d and I went to h i g h s c h o o l toge ther 19. Some of my f r i e n d s t h i n k i t ' s w e i r d tha t I'm s t i l l l i v i n g at home 20. But o ther f r i e n d s say i t ' s my d u t y , my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 21. I f e e l l i k e I'm m i s s i n g out on e x p e r i e n c e s tha t o ther people have 22. I see my f r i e n d s d o i n g what they want and I f e e l l i k e my f a m i l y i s b l o c k i n g me 23. I s tay away from home a l o t . 24. Sometimes when I am home I t e l l my mom I'm too busy to h e l p her 25. One of the t h i n g s my mom wants i s f or me to go shopping w i t h her 26. Then I f e e l ashamed 120 27. My p a r e n t s t e l l me I'm u n g r a t e f u l for a l l t h e y ' v e done for me 28. My p a r e n t s are growing o l d 29. I shou ld spend more time w i t h my p a r e n t s and h e l p take c a r e of the younger ones 30. I want to be c l o s e to my f a m i l y 31. I'm s c a r e d that i f I l eave t h e y ' l l disown me. 32. Sometimes I t h i n k I'm go ing to make a mess of my l i f e i f I move out 33. I t ' s s c a r y 34. I'm w o r r i e d about p a y i n g r e n t 35. I wonder what people w i l l t h i n k of me 36. I ' ve always been t o l d that the f a m i l y s h o u l d s t i c k toge ther 37. I t would set a bad example to the younger ones i f I l e f t 38. My p a r e n t s are r e a l l y good to me 39. I t ' s j u s t tha t my p a r e n t s d o n ' t unders tand me 40. I t ' s h a r d for me to t a l k to my parent s about what I want 121 c 41. Sometimes I f e e l r e a l l y l o n e l y at home 42. Sometimes I f e e l r e a l l y l o n e l y at s c h o o l t o o , because my f r i e n d s d o n ' t unders tand where I'm coming from 43. I t ' s c o n f u s i n g s w i t c h i n g back and f o r t h 44. Everybody has d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s of me 45. Maybe i f I move out on my own I c o u l d f i g u r e out what I want to do 46. Maybe I ' d even move back home a f t e r a wh i l e 47. I'm r e a l l y t o r n 48. I'm not happy wi th the way t h i n g s are but I d o n ' t know what to d o . 1 APPENDIX F : E t h n i c Awareness Measure ( W A Y N E ) Di r e c t i o n s : R e c o g n i z i n g the b r e v i t y of the f o l l o w i n g c a s e s , s t a t e your i n i t i a l c l i n i c a l i m p r e s s i o n s of each . P l e a s e t r y to l i m i t each response to f i v e m i n u t e s . * * * * #1 A 26 year o l d Japanese -Amer ican female i s r e f e r r e d to the c l i n i c by her d o c t o r . C o m p l a i n t s , p r i m a r i l y s o m a t i c , i n c l u d e headaches , a n x i e t y , and ches t p a i n . She has e x p e r i e n c e d these symptoms for a few y e a r s , but i n the l a s t s i x months they have worsened. As a t eacher f o r three y e a r s she en joys her j o b . However, her symptoms have become p a r t i c u l a r l y bad l a t e l y when she has to c o n f r o n t the p r i n c i p about a n y t h i n g even though she works more hours than her p e e r s . She a l s o s t a t e s tha t whenever another t eacher makes recommendation about her t e a c h i n g s t y l e , she t r i e s to change She t r i e s to c r e a t e something from a l l the comments; i t becomes jumbled; and then she a c c e p t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for f a i l u r e . She i s s i n g l e , d a t i n g , l i v e s a l o n e , and has a few c l o s e f r i e n d s . She i s the o l d e s t c h i l d w i th two s i b l i n g s - - a s i s t e r , 24, and a b r o t h e r , 18. 1 23 #2 A 17 year o l d B l a c k male i s r e f e r r e d to the s c h o o l p s y c h o l o g i s t because he appears d e p r e s s e d . He i s a s e n i o r i n h i g h s c h o o l who p r i o r to t h i s t ime was making e x c e l l e n t grades and i n v o l v e d in a t h l e t i c s and s c h o o l c l u b s . Now h i s grades are s l i p p i n g , he i s l o s i n g we ight , and he i s g e n e r a l l y d i s i n t e r e s t e d in s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s . He s t a t e s t h a t he i s f e e l i n g unsupported by h i s f a m i l y and f r i e n d s i n h i s d e s i r e to a c c e p t a s c h o l a r s h i p for c o l l e g e where he wants to major in pre -med . They are i g n o r i n g the t o p i c of c o l l e g e and some of h i s f r i e n d s have been o s t r a c i z i n g him from t h e i r g r o u p s . He s t a t e s tha t he l i k e s the ne ighbourhood where he l i v e s , has been o f f e r e d jobs i f he s t a y s , and has a g i r l f r i e n d . He i s f e e l i n g a m b i v a l e n t . H i s f a t h e r i s a p a i n t e r , h i s mother a homemaker, and he has two s i s t e r s , 19 and 15, and one b r o t h e r , 13. #3 A ten year o l d N a t i v e American boy i s taken to the p r i n c i p a l ' s o f f i c e by h i s t e a c h e r . Her c o m p l a i n t s about him are tha t he g i v e s h i s p e r s o n a l t h i n g s away to the o ther c h i l d r e n ; b r i n g s a l a r g e l u n c h to s c h o o l at l e a s t four t imes a week; and she caught him t a k i n g t h i n g s of her desk ( p e n c i l s , m a r k e r s , t a p e s , e t c . ) , u s i n g them, and then p u t t i n g them in h i s desk . T h i s l a t t e r compla in has o c c u r r e d at l e a s t three t imes s i n c e s c h o o l s t a r t e d one month ago. When c o n f r o n t e d by the t e a c h e r , he admits to t a k i n g the o b j e c t s for h i s own use . 124 #4 A 20 year o l d H i s p a n i c female i s r e f e r r e d to the c l i n i c by her d o c t o r . Her c o m p l a i n t s i n c l u d e f e e l i n g depressed and a l i t t l e a n x i o u s . The onset of these symptoms o c c u r r e d when she made a d e c i s i o n to move i n t o her own apartment w i t h another young woman she works w i t h at a day c a r e c e n t e r . Her p a r e n t s are v e r y upset about the m o v e — t e l l i n g her she i s w i c k e d . Up u n t i l t h i s t i m e , she had never had a bad argument wi th her f a m i l y . She i s d a t i n g a 25 year o l d H i s p a n i c law student who i s very s u p p o r t i v e . She has two b r o t h e r s , 19 and 25, and two s i s t e r s , 23 and 16. #5 A 20 year o l d Jewish male comes to therapy wi th c o m p l a i n t s of f e e l i n g a p a t h e t i c and d e p r e s s e d . He r e p o r t s the onset of these symptoms began when h i s 19 year o l d Jewish g i r l f r i e n d broke up wi th him a f t e r f i v e y e a r s of d a t i n g . The reason she gave him was that she f e l t t h e i r l i v e s were go ing in two d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s : he i s a t h i r d year a r t s tudent at a p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l ; and she i s a sophomore E n g l i s h major at a l o c a l c o l l e g e . She f e e l s h i s c a r e e r c h o i c e i s an u n d e s i r a b l e one. H i s p a r e n t s , who have been upset from the b e g i n n i n g w i t h h i s d e c i s i o n not to go to c o l l e g e , have t o l d t h e i r son they can unders tand h i s g i r l f r i e n d ' s f e e l i n g s . He has always e x c e l l e d in a r t — w i n n i n g s t a t e awards i n grade s c h o o l and h i g h s c h o o l — a n d i s g e t t i n g honors and be ing r e c o g n i z e d a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l for h i s a r t i s t i c t a l e n t s . S i n c e the breakup, he has s t a r t e d to l o s e i n t e r e s t in a r t and to q u e s t i o n h i s v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e . H i s f a t h e r i s a lawyer , h i s mother a homemaker, and he has a s i s t e r , 20, and a b r o t h e r , 18, both of whom are i n c o l l e g e . 125 APPENDIX G: S c o r i n g for E t h n i c Awareness Measure no e t h n i c awareness There i s no mention of e t h n i c i t y or the r e f e r e n c e i s n e g a t i v e or d e r o g a t o r y ( e . g . d e s c r i b i n g a N a t i v e American as an "Indian G i v e r " ) low e t h n i c awareness Subjec t i d e n t i f i e s e t h n i c i t y of c l i e n t in r e f e r e n c e . Examples: " T h i s H i s p a n i c woman . . . " "What are the f a m i l y ' s v a l u e s ? " moderate e t h n i c awareness Subjec t q u e s t i o n s r o l e of e t h n i c i t y in p r e s e n t i n g problem b r i e f l y but then c o n t i n u e s w i t h focus of response b e i n g that of the i n t r a p s y c h i c f a c t o r . Example: "I wonder i f t h i s problem i s unique to H i s p a n i c women. T h i s woman's c h a r a c t e r s t y l e , g iven psychodynamic i s s u e s and d e f e n c e s , suggests an h y s t e r i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y . " h i g h e t h n i c awareness Subjec t e x p l o r e s impact of e t h n i c f a c t o r on the p r e s e n t i n g problem and makes a c o n n e c t i o n between the two. Example: "It seems tha t t h i s c o u l d be a c u l t u r a l problem whereby there i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n N a t i v e American and o t h e r American p e r c e p t i o n s of ' p r o p e r t y . ' " 126 APPENDIX H : Examples of Scores 1 to 4 For Each Case CASE #1 1 = T h i s woman needs h e l p to r e j e c t g u i l t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b e i n g a woman who wants to work and s tand up to a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s . 2 = T h i s Japanese woman i s o b v i o u s l y a v e r y r i g i d , p e r f e c t i o n i s t i c o b s e s s i v e . 3 = Is t h i s woman angry? Does she r e c o g n i z e or defend a g a i n s t her anger?Does she f e e l persecuted? Has t h e r e been p e r s e c u t i o n of her or her f a m i l y members i n the pas t ( i . e . WWII E v a c u a t i o n camps)? What i s the q u a l i t y of her r e l a t i o n s h i p s ? Is i t hard to have a c a r e e r i f she i s Japanese -Amer ican? 4 = Her somatic c o m p l a i n t s appear to come as a r e s u l t of r e p r e s s e d anger and problems w i t h a g g r e s s i o n . The Japanese c u l t u r e l o o k s down on outward e x p r e s s i o n s of a n g e r . CASE #2 1 = T h i s young man shou ld be encouraged to pursue p e r s o n a l independence whi le r e t a i n i n g c l o s e p a r e n t a l t i e s . He needs h e l p i n v o c a t i o n a l / c a r e e r assessment t e s t i n g and c o u n s e l i n g . 2 = Why i s h i s f a m i l y mad at him? What are t h e i r v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s about a son l e a v i n g home to go to s c h o o l ? I wonder i f h i s d e p r e s s i o n i s a c t u a l l y anger . 3 = T h i s young man seems to be l i v i n g in a c u l t u r e where t h e r e are not any r e s o u r c e s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g h i s e d u c a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s . H i s d e p r e s s i o n seems to be masking a rage t h a t , l e f t u n t r e a t e d , c o u l d become d i s o r g a n i z i n g . 4 = T h i s young man i s faced wi th the dilemma tha t to succeed i n the whi te -achievement o r i e n t e d wor ld i s to f a i l w i t h i n h i s own c u l t u r e . T h i s becomes compounded by o r d i n a r y development tasks of moving from ado le scence i n t o a d u l t h o o d . The p o t e n t i a l l o s s e s at t h i s time must seem i n o r d i n a t e l y great to h i m . 1 27 CASE #3 1 = I t appears tha t the c l i e n t i s i n need of something he i s not g e t t i n g ( i . e . p h y s i c a l and emot iona l a t t e n t i o n at home). He t h e r e f o r e takes o b j e c t s from o t h e r s and g i v e s food to h i s p e e r s . 2 = T h i s boy seems to have no u n d e r s t a n d i n g of e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g g i v i n g and r e c e i v i n g of p o s s e s s i o n s . I wonder what h i s f a m i l y ' s a t t i t u d e s are about t h i s . 3 = 1 would q u e s t i o n the c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h i s b o y ' s u p b r i n g i n g and h i s environment i n s c h o o l . However, I would suspect he uses g i v i n g to m i t i g a t e h i s f e e l i n g s of i s o l a t i o n , then f e e l s angry at l o s s , and r e t a l i a t e s by t h e f t of t e a c h e r ' s a r t i c l e s . 4 = I t seems t h a t t h i s c o u l d be a c u l t u r a l problem whereby there i s a d i f f e r e n c e in N a t i v e American and other American p e r c e p t i o n s of " p r o p e r t y . " I would set up a meet ing w i t h h i s f a m i l y and the s c h o o l to c l a r i f y the s i t u a t i o n and e d u c a t e . CASE #4 1 = T h i s woman i s s u f f e r i n g from d e p r e s s i o n which stems from i s s u e s of s e p a r a t i o n , g u i l t , and anger at p a r e n t s . I would g i v e a c o n s e r v a t i v e d i a g n o s i s of adjustment r e a c t i o n or r e a c t i v e d e p r e s s i o n . 2 = I would t r y to get t h i s woman to have more p e r s o n a l s e c u r i t y — t o f e e l good about moving and c o n t r o l l i n g her own l i f e . I would d i s c u s s p a r e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s w i th her and p o s s i b l y meet w i th the p a r e n t s as w e l l . 3 = I wonder i f t h i s problem i s unique to H i s p a n i c women. She seems to be d e a l i n g s e x u a l i s s u e s around moving out of the house and l i v i n g w i t h another woman. She might have an h y s t e r i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y . 4 = A move of t h i s s o r t may be l e s s e a s i l y a c c e p t e d by an H i s p a n i c f a m i l y who expect a daughter to s tay wi th the f a m i l y u n t i l she m a r r i e s . He ightened a n x i e t y / d e p r e s s i o n when a t t e m p t i n g to separate i s c e r t a i n l y common enough, but to manage wicked /bad in a d d i t i o n i s s l i g h t l y more c o m p l i c a t e d . 128 CASE #5 1 = T h i s young man needs h e l p in e s c a p i n g from r e p r e s s i n g male sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s wh i l e at the same t ime be ing r e a l i s t i c about e v e n t u a l need to support h i m s e l f . I would a l s o h e l p him g r i e v e the breakup w i t h h i s g i r l f r i e n d . 2 = As the c l i e n t i s e x p e r i e n c i n g a p a t h y , d e p r e s s i o n , and l o s s of i n t e r e s t i n h i s a r t , I would encourage him to t a l k about h i s work. T h i s might p r o v i d e some l e v e l of i n n e r s t r e n g t h and energy . I would ask him i f h i s v a l u e s and c h o i c e s are tha t d i f f e r e n t from h i s f a m i l y ' s . 3 = Academic achievement i s o f t en a h i g h p r i o r i t y i n a Jewish home. H i s d e p r e s s i o n i s r e a c t i v e to the l o s s of h i s g i r l f r i e n d and a l s o s e l f - e s t e e m i s s u e s r e l a t i n g to the c h o i c e of h i s c a r e e r . 4 = Jewish f o l k l o r e encourages a son to be a d o c t o r or l a w y e r . An a r t i s t does not f i t i n t o t h i s and may be seen as a " f a i l u r e . " D y n a m i c a l l y and s y s t e m i c a l l y , one might f u r t h e r suspect t h a t s e p a r a t i o n i s n e i t h e r s u p p o r t e d no d e s i r e d by e i t h e r these i n d i v i d u a l s or t h e i r c u l t u r e . 129 APPENDIX I : Major Steps in Q - a n a l y s i s 1. Respondents are asked to s o r t a deck of c a r d s which have items p r i n t e d on them i n t o a s p e c i f i c number of ranked p i l e s a c c o r d i n g to a m o d i f i e d normal d i s t r i b u t i o n . The s o r t i n g i s done on the b a s i s of some c r i t e r i o n , e . g . B e l i e f - d i s b e l i e f , a g r e e - d i s a g r e e , e t c . 2. A m a t r i x of i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s i s formed by c o r r e l a t i n g every p e r s o n ' s s o r t of i tems w i t h every o ther p e r s o n ' s s o r t of i t ems . 3. T h i s m a t r i x of i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s i s submi t t ed to f a c t o r a n a l y s i s so that persons are v a r i a b l e s and items are o b s e r v a t i o n s . A p r i n c i p l e a x i s s o l u t i o n i s o b t a i n e d . T h i s i s submit ted to a varimax r o t a t i o n which produces o r t h o g o n a l f a c t o r s . On t h i s b a s i s , a f a c t o r r e p r e s e n t s a g r o u p i n g of persons around a common p a t t e r n of s o r t i n g the i t e m s . Hence, a f a c t o r r e p r e s e n t s a type of p e r s o n . 4. Each p a t t e r n of s o r t i n g the items a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each f a c t o r or type of person i s e s t i m a t e d . T h i s i s done by w e i g h t i n g each i tem response of each of the persons most h i g h l y a s s o c i a t e d wi th a g i v e n f a c t o r by the d e g r e e . t o which they are loaded on t h a t f a c t o r . The h i g h e r a p e r s o n ' s l o a d i n g on the f a c t o r , the g r e a t e r i s the we ight . These weighted responses are summed a c r o s s each i tem s e p a r a t e l y . T h i s produces an i tem a r r a y of weighted responses f o r each f a c t o r in the r o t a t e d f a c t o r a n a l y s i s s o l u t i o n s e l e c t e d . The a r r a y s of weighted responses are then c o n v e r t e d to z - s c o r e s . 5. The a r r a y s of i tem z - s c o r e s are o r d e r e d from most a c c e p t e d to most r e j e c t e d for each f a c t o r . T h i s p r o v i d e s a h i e r a r c h y of i tem acceptance for each f a c t o r or type of p e r s o n s . 6. The a r r a y s of items z - s c o r e s f o r each f a c t o r are compared by s u b t r a c t i o n for each p a i r of f a c t o r s . T h i s produces a r r a y s of d i f f e r e n t s c o r e s f o r each p a i r of f a c t o r s . T h i s p r o v i d e s the b a s i s f or d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g one f a c t o r or type of persons from a n o t h e r . (From T a l b o t t , 1971.) 

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