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The experience of unemployment for university graduates under 25 years of age Hatch, Wendy E. 1985

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THE EXPERIENCE OF UNEMPLOYMENT FOR UNIVERSITY GRADUATES UNDER 25 YEARS OF AGE by WENDY E. HATCH B.A., York University, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Counselling Psychology) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1985 ©Wendy E. Hatch, 1985  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s for  s c h o l a r l y purposes may  department o r by h i s o r her  be granted by the head o f representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s for  f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be  allowed without my  permission.  Department of  Counselling  Psychology  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  Sept-  1 3  >  1 9 8 5  •  written  Abstract An exploratory study was conducted to discover significant events and feelings attached to those events during the experience of unemployment for university graduates under 25 years of age. Twelve university graduates of mixed sex, under the age of 25 were interviewed.  The phenomenological/critical incident  methodology adapted by Amundson and Borgen (1984) was utilized. The experience was found to be comprised of two segments: the initial holiday period, and the downward trend. Idiosyncratically occurring positive and negative critical incidents were identified. Job search activities were found to be most closely aligned with middle class professionals rather than less educated youth findings. The subjects were found to channel their energy into new areas of interest and activity, particularly further education in spite of feelings of disillusionment. These results may aid counsellors in understanding the experience of unemployed university graduates, and lead to more effective therapeutic interventions for this population.  ii  T a b l e o f Contents  Page  ABSTRACT...  i i  LIST OF TABLES.  v i  LIST OF FIGURES  viii  LIST OF APPENDICES  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  CHAPTER I  CHAPTER I I  1.  xiii  INTRODUCTION  1  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  Unemployment E f f e c t s Upon  6  University  Graduates 2.  7  Unemployment E f f e c t s Upon  'School  Leavers'  8  3.  Unemployment E f f e c t s Upon Youth  4.  Unemployment E f f e c t s Upon Professionals,  Managers and M i d d l e  Class Populations 5.  14  17  G e n e r a l i z e d P o p u l a t i o n Models o f t h e E x p e r i e n c e of Unemployment  iii  21  6. Effects of Educational Status Upon the Experience of Being Unemployed: Related Research and Assumptions Summary of Literature Review  25 30  CHAPTER III METHOD  31  Subjects  31  Methodological Approach  32  Data Collection  35  The Pi lot Interview  37  The Interview  39  Data Analysis  41  1. Protocol Analysis and 2. A) Rating Sheet Record of Emotional Shifts 2. B) Reliability Check  42 43  3. A) Establishment of Categories of Critical Incidents  45  3. B) Reliability Check  46  4. A) Establishing a Holistic Description  47  4. B) Validity Check  49  CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  51  CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  119  iv  REFERENCES APPENDICES  List of Tables Page 1. Demographic Information  33  2. Frequency of Job Search Methods Utilized Previous to School End  54  3. Frequency of Emotions Accompanying the Initial Negative Experience, and Corresponding Events  57  4. Time-frame Frequency of Initial Unemployment Feeling  60  5. Positive Critical Incident Categories: Number of Co-researchers Experiencing One or More Instances  63  6. Positive Critical Incident Categories: Total Number of Instances Across all Co-researchers  64  7. Negative Critical Incident Categories: Number of Co-researchers Experiencing One or More Instances  65  vi  8. Negative Critical Incident Categories: Total Number of Instances Across all Co-researchers  67  9. Frequency of Job Search Methods Utilized Post School End  84  10. Frequency of Jobs Applied for or Cons idered  86  11. Frequency of Employment Status Categor ies  91  12. Frequency of Types of Educational Involvement  93  v i i  List of Figures Page  1. Unemployment Experience Periods  viii  99  List of Appendices Page A. Pilot Interview Questions  139  B. Subject Consent Form  142  C. Modified Interview Questions  144  D. Co-researcher Diagram Sheet  147  E. Rating Sheets  149  E-l. Rating Sheet Form  150  E-2. Completed Rating Sheet Example, Co-researcher #302  152  E-3. Completed Rating Sheet Example, Co-researcher #308  161  E-4. Completed Rating Sheet Example, Co-researcher #311  169  F. Summary Example, Co-researcher #302  175  G. Selected Quotes in Positive Critical Incident Categories  182  G-l. Further Education  183  G-2. Money  185  G-3. Support and Similarity  187  ix  G-4. Hobbies/Involvement/Activity  189  G-5. Trips  191  G-6. Increased Optimism Through Trends or Opportunities  193  G-7. Getting Interviews and Successful Interviews  195  G-8. Got a Job  197  G-9. End of School  199  G-10. Relaxation  201  G-l 1. Graduation  203  G-12. Job Offers  205  G-13. Co-Workers or Clients  207  G-14. New Year  209  G-15. Encouraging Advice  211  G-16. Postponing Job Search  213  G-17. Quitting Jobs  215  H. Selected Quotes in Negative Critical Incident Categories  217  H-l. People Negatives.  218  H-2. Working Negatives  222  H-3. Money  225  H-4. Discouragement  227  H-5. Devalued University Degree  229  H-6. Self Doubt/Guilt  231 x  H-7. Nothing New Available  233  H-8. No Success  235  H-9. Stagnation/Boredom  237  H-10. Exams and Papers  239  H-ll. No Response  241  H-12. CEC Irritation  243  H-13. Getting the Run Around  245  H-14. End of Temporary/Contract Work....247 H-15. No Job Offer  249  H-16. Dressing Up  251  H-17. Cynicism Due to Nepotism  253  H-18. Indecisive  255  H-19. Developmental Hold-Up  257  Acknowledgements A number of people have directly contributed to the completion of this thesis. I would first like to acknowledge Dr. Dale Fogle, Director of Counselling Services at Wilfrid Laurier University, for his continual support, advice, and direct help, without which this thesis would never have been completed. In particular, I would like to thank him for the time he sacrificed and the good humour he displayed in participating in the two reliabi1ity checks . Two others participated in the "hands on' aspects of the thesis: Jane Bamford allayed my technological paranoia concerning the use of a word processor; and Judith Lahkowski produced immaculately typed table and rating sheets. I would like to extend my appreciation to all of the staff in both the Counselling and Health Services departments for their good humour and support throughout the completion of this thesis. I would also like to thank Pamela Hatch for her supportive ear and acute comments and observations during our discussion periods related to the thesis. Finally, I would like to acknowledge the vitally important on-going support offerred by my husband Peter. The unshaking belief, the lunches, the dinners, the back rubs, the hugs, the photocopying, and the ever-flexible schedule he offerred throughout the thesis were invaluable. xdi  I INTRODUCTION The proof was never positive, but...the sequence seemed so obvious that it hardly needed testing: first you went to college, and then you got a good job...during the golden years of the 1950's and 1960's, when good education and a good job seemed so securely conjoined...co1 lege graduates in swelling numbers poured out of the gates of academia, usually to enter a welcoming world of work where they fitted neatly into wellpaying jobs with promising futures. The hardest decision confronting the new laureate was which job offer to accept. Now this gratifying correlation between the rate at which we produced college graduates and the capacity of the economy to absorb them is no longer indisputable. The golden age was fortuitous and ephemera 1...1arge numbers of college graduates are seeking the kinds of jobs that the job market no longer offers to all of them...For the new degree holder, the transit from education to work, once, negotiated so easily, has become a passage perilous for expectations and self-esteem. (Guzzardi, 1 9 7 6 , p. 126) In 1982, Canada's annual average unemployment rate reached the highest recorded figure since 1938-39 (Deaton, 1983). With extensive unemployment predicted as a permanent part of North American economy (Hepworth, 1980), it is imperative that the helping professions expand their understanding of this phenomenon in order to aid all parts of the effected population to deal with the resulting change in lifestyle (Amundson and Borgen, 1984). Although research has examined the problem of unemployment since the 1930's, various studies have noted that the literature to date has usually dealt with isolated aspects of the social or psychological effects of unemployment, without attempting to gain a comprehensive or systematic understanding of the phenomenon (Amundson and Borgen, 1984; Feather, 1982; Swinburne, 1981).  1  2 Jahoda (1980) suggests concentrating upon specific groups in the social structure rather than disguising potentially important life circumstances through generalized results. A scanning of the recent literature produces various specific social structure groups that form a divergent trend away from the blue-collar worker studies of the depression. Recessionary unemployment has given rise to unemployed youth (Sen, 1982; Warr, 1978; Folk, 1969), school leavers (Gurney, 1980a, 1980b; Zsigmond et al., 1978), college graduates (Guzzardi, 1976; Spekke, 1976); university graduates (Feather & Bond, 1983; Zsigmond et al., 1978). and managers and professional staff (Swinburne, 1981; Hartley, 1980; Powell, 1973). The educated middle class and professionals have now joined the ranks of the unemployed. The youth category is particularly effected by unemployment. Although only 21.4% of the Canadian labour force is within the 15 to 24 year old category, this age group comprises approximately 36% of the unemployed labour force (Survilla, 1985). Sen (1982, p. 4) speaks of youth unemployment as "not only a continuing feature of the Canadian economy, but is in fact becoming i ncreas i ngly worse". The golden years myth referred to by Guzzardi (1976) in the introductory quote has been destroyed. A degree is no longer insurance against future unemployment (Picot, 1980; Spekke, 1976). Whether the public is aware of the diminishing economic  3  returns on education or not, they are still flocking to post-secondry degree programs. "Degree-holders doubled between 1961 and 1971...and then rose another 75% by 1977...Their numbers are projected to almost double again by 1995" (Picot, 1980, p. 30-41).  "The proportion of the labour force with 'some' or a  completed post-secondary education is projected to rise to 40.6°/ by 1990" (Picot, 1980, p. 15), and one in four people are predicted to be university or college graduates by 1995 (Picot, 1980). More specifically, as these factors relate to the youth category, in 1980 it was predicted that 29% of the labour force in Canada within the youth age group would have some post-secondary education (including university graduates) by 1985 (Picot, 1980). With the increasing threat of unemployment facing this large, young, educated group it is surprising to find that only one study (Feather & Bond, 1983) in the, 1iterature offers any insight into this new population's experience of unemployment. No comprehensive, in-depth studies have been done. With the increasing number of university and college graduates facing potential unemployment, the issue of job loss invariably initiating unemployment is called into question. The unemployed university graduate may progress directly from 'student' status rather than 'employed worker' status to his status of'unemployed'. Some research has commented upon this divergence  4 (Tiggemann & Winefield, 1984; Showier & Sinfield, 1981; Gurney, 1980a, 1980b; Jahoda, 1980; and Hill, 1977), but the subjects studied were "school leavers' (usually high school drop-outs or graduates) rather than university graduates, with the resulting age and developmental differences possibly contributing to the results. Kirsh (1983) lists multiple factors which influence the effects of unemployment. Some of the listed factors are: formal support availability (counselling, social services), economic class, reason for the job loss, age, phase of family life cycle, and educational level. By focusing research upon unemployed university graduates in the youth category (age 15 to 24 years) we are isolating reason for job loss (graduation), age, phase of family life cycle, and educational level as contributing factors which may be used in follow-up comparison studies. It is hypothesized that formal support availability and economic class may also be somewhat constant within the focused group. If we, as counsellors, are to contribute to the maintenance of our unemployed client's physical and psychological wellness, as Shifron et al. (1983) suggests is the proper counselling goal in a recessionary economy, then we must know more about the experience of being unemployed specific to our particular populations.  In asking the question  what is the meaning of  unemployment for university graduates under 25 years of age?'.  5  this study attempts to focus on a new and urgently needed body of knowledge pertinent to the current and future Canadian economy. This study is a continuation and follow-up of the in-depth research conducted by Amundson and Borgen (1984) which isolated data within the non-university graduate sample. It is hoped that the results of this study may enable a comparison to be made between the general 'youth' category and university graduates within the youth age group.  II REVIEW OF LITERATURE A review of the literature relating to the experience of being unemployed for university graduates under age 25 can be seen to incorporate six categories, five of which are only peripherally related. The first could be labelled unemployment effects upon university graduates--the only directly relating research, although the mean age of the subjects in the study to be discussed was older than the youth category. The second category, a step away in relevance, covers the unemployment effects upon 'school leavers', and the third encompasses effects upon youth (age 15 to 24 years). The fourth category encompasses the other somewhat related categories to university graduates: unemployment effects upon managers and professionals, the middle class or white collar workers, and social class effects in general upon the experience of unemployment. Category five presents the major models researched concerning the comprehensive phases of the unemployment experience for generalized groups, one of which was the incentive for this study. And finally, category six presents some attributes of the educated, middle class population which may be seen to be potential influencing factors upon the experience of unemployment for this study's group.  6  7  General assumptions and biases of the author are clearly stated in order that they may be noted for their potential effect upon the study, both during the interview and upon later data analys i s. 1. Unemployment Effects Upon University Graduates Feather and Bond (1983) recently completed a study of time structure and purposeful activity among employed and unemployed university graduates. Their results show that unemployed university graduates spend their time in a less organized, less purposeful manner than employed university graduates. The authors suggest that this is not a surprising result based upon the fact that most work, by definition, instills goals, structures, and routine upon workers. While this is not a particularly useful finding due to its results being relative to an employed population rather than a differing unemployed population, the authors did draw some inferences concerning how a university background may have contributed to the incidental measures of their study. In addition to time structured behaviour being examined, the authors also measured self-esteem and the presence or absence of depressive symptoms. It was found that "those who used their time purposefully and in a structured way (whether they were employed or unemployed) were more likely to report higher self-esteem and less depressive symptoms"  8  (Feather and Bond, 1983, p. 250).  The authors suggest that the  educational experience itself as well as the past record of achievement (university graduation) may aid in downplaying the initial shock of unemployment as well as maintaining high self-esteem.  It was suggested that the duration of these  protective effects was still unknown. It was also noted that the graduates presumably brought to the experience their skills "in structuring time and in developing a sense of purpose and autonomy" (Feather & Bond, 1983, p. 251) acquired through their educational experience. Thus, it may be inferred that university graduates may potentially experience unemployment with greater initial resources of self-esteem, and time structuring ability than other populations, allowing them some protection against the initial shock and continuing depressive aspects of the experience. This will be discussed further in section six to follow. 2.  Unemployment Effects Upon 'School Leavers' The category of 'school leavers' differentiates itself from  all other research concerning unemployment due to the fact that the subjects are school leavers rather than workers who become unemployed. This has produced a dispute in the literature concerning whether there are issues of loss involved in the change of status, rationalizing a bereavement model, or whether  9 there is rather an impediment quality (or frustrated progression as Gurney, 1980b describes it) about the change. Hill (1977, p. 17) puts forward evidence for both the loss and the impediment views as well as suggesting a 'maybe' clause for loss by adding the view that results vary "according to the relation [of the subject] to the lost object". These results referred to a generalized population of subjects. Relating this to the present study's population, this would suggest that a sensation of loss might occur if the student status had been valuable in some way to the subjects or if the subjects had been committed to their roles as students.  Hill (1977) also suggests that the sensation  of loss might be influenced by how ready each student was to leave school. These findings suggest the usefulness of questions relating to commitment to student status during school, and readiness to leave school. Such questions have been included in this study (see questions one, six, and seven in the interview sect ion of part III). Despite the two previous influencing factors Hill (1977) states that unemployed school leavers do experience the loss of a containing framework which offered pattern and meaning to life. It cannot be argued that attending classes regularly and submitting the required assignments that most university degrees require does offer some pattern to life, although the degree of regularity may be open to question. University programmes and  10 individual schedules vary widely but it is clear that most do not require anywhere near the routine, repetitive constraint of most work situations. The loss of meaning would seem to be related to the value placed upon the student status. Showier and Sinfield (1981) do not ascribe the bereavement view to school leavers. They emphasize the similarity of the onslaught of unemployment to school holidays, with the accompanying sense of freedom and release. The holiday spirit is thought to last until the school leaver's friends begin to find employment, causing discomfort due to the friends' increased financial gains. Marsden (1982) echoes this viewpoint of unemployment growing out of a holiday for school leavers, and Gurney (1980a) mentions that the experience of leaving school may be a liberating experience creating a longer initially hopeful phase within the unemployment experience for school leavers. However, Gurney did state that there is confusion concerning whether most school leavers put off the job-search until after giving themselves a holiday, or whether many become concerned about finding work before leaving school and begin the job-search early. It is expected that the methodology utilized in this study will provide some exploratory evidence concerning this confusion for the unemployed university graduate population. Gurney (1980a) holds that because school leavers do not have developed vocational identities, the experience of 'lack' of a  11 job is different from "loss of a job. A sense of "maintaining 1  the status quo" (Gurney, 1980a, p. 181) is applied to job lack. Hill (1977), Gurney (1980a), and Tiggemann and Winefield (1984) support the 'impediment to development' or 'frustrated progression ' view of unemployed school leavers change in status. Hill maintains that they are frozen in their progression towards an adult identity, and in their sexual development. It is mentioned that unemployed school leavers usually remain in the parental home, without adequate money for dating or the possibility of marriage. Although it was not mentioned, it is this author's opinion that the real impediment to sexual development may be the lack of privacy in the parental home. Casual observation of society would suggest that the majority of recent university graduates do still live in the parental home suggesting the possibility of the previous factor being related to the population examined in this study. Gurney (1980a) reports that self-esteem is also impeded but not decreased when school leavers are unemployed. Both Gurney (1980a) and Tiggemann and Winefield (1984) stress the lack of forward movement but also the lack of trauma or back-slipping. Tiggemann and Winefield (1984) state that "the school leaver who fails to obtain a job is presumably in much the same posit ion...as he or she was as a pupil, with little objective change" (Tiggemann & Winefield, 1984, p. 40).  It is rather those  12  who find jobs who experience change. Amundson and Borgen  (1982)  have popularized the concept of  bereavement within the dynamics of unemployment through their incorporation of Kub1er-Ross's model of grief within their own model of the 'emotional roilercoaster' characterizing the experience of unemployment for a general population of the unemployed. They caution, however, that the grieving process may not apply at least in its entirety for those who initiate job loss. It was hypothesized that such a group may move more quickly through the process to acceptance and job-search activities.  The grieving process is predicated upon the change  in self-concept which occurs at various points within the experience of unemployment.  The changes from 'worker' to  'unemployed worker' and finally to 'unemployed person' are obviously less applicable to a population of unemployed university graduates. The self-concept changes may be hypothesized to be from 'student' to 'graduate' (when the person realizes he/she is through school and is beginning to distance him/herself from the experience). An important difference to note is that this changed self-concept is not necessarily affected by the unemployment experience. He/she will continue to be a 'graduate' whether employed or not, suggesting some informal support for the 'past record of achievement' effect which Feather and Bond  (1983)  suggested.  It is not known whether unemployed  13 university graduates incorporate a self-concept of 'unemployed person' or not. Since there had previously not been a developed concept of 'employed worker' the serious lack of the 'worker' aspect, noted by Amundson and Borgen (1982) for the general unemployed population, may not be present for unemployed university graduates. Gurney (1980a) mentions the factors of maturity and centrality of self components as potentially influencing aspects to school leavers' experience of unemployment. Again, anecdotal evidence suggests that the majority of recent university graduates are only on the brink of adulthood, struggling to establish some semblance of order to their self components. This observation, however, is not supported by any research findings, and should be viewed accordingly. Gurney suggests that findings concerning the self-esteem of unemployed school leavers should be expected to be different from the literature concerning unemployed adults. However, he studied a population of 15 to 19 year olds which may confound the comparison of such data to the probable age group of this study. Although this study is limited to the youth category (age 15 to 24 years), the required university graduate status would suggest that the majority of subjects will be 20 years old or older. Finally, Kirsh (1983) notes studies by Ross (1977) and Lester (1970) which found unemployed school leavers to be highly  14 correlated with drug use, suicide, vandalism, and crimes of violence. In summary, the findings in the unemployed school leaver literature emphasize the difference between the experience of student and worker status preceding unemployment and the possibly conflicting results of this difference. It should be noted, however, that none of the literature on school leavers included university graduates, and the majority of studies included populations between the ages of 15 and 20.  The suitability of  the findings are therefore questionable. 3. Unemployment Effects Upon Youth The literature concerning youth's experience of unemployment offers conflicting results. The majority of writers mention unemployed youths' lack of an established sense of personal identity, conjectured to be related to lack of an established occupational identity (Kirsh, 1983; Roberts, et al., 1982), or the difficulty of developmental tasks which may be impeded by unemployment at this age (Kirsh, 1983; Hill, 1977). In particular, Hill (1977) mentions the impediment to development of sexual identity coupled with the prolonged stay at the parental home. Anecdotal evidence suggests that unemployed university graduates may be similarly prolonged in their stay at the parental home, which may potentially contribute to other  15 developmental impediments. The evidence for unpleasant effects of unemployment upon youth far outweighs the evidence for pleasant effects. Both Kirsh (1983) and Marsden (1982) comment upon unemployed youths' state of boredom and lack of purpose or goals. Gurney (1980b) cites Eisenberg and Lazarsfeld's 1938 reports of unemployed youth losing ambition and becoming drifters.  Turtle et al. (1979)  report that unemployed Australian youth withdraw socially, yet Macky and Haines (1982) found that young unemployed New Zealanders increased time spent socializing with friends. Kirsh (1983) and Feather (1982) report increased depression and lower self-esteem for unemployed youth when compared with employed or student youth. Kirsh also cites that unemployed youth express psychological and financial fears, while Warr (1978) found that they had lower anxiety scores than employed youth. Results from both Warr (1978) and Roberts et al. (1982) suggest that youth unemployment is not the tragedy that other reports imply. Warr (1978, p. 119) goes so far as to describe the youth in his sample as "carefree in their attitude to work and... content to remain unemployed". Roberts et al. (1982, p. 4) state that their sample's self confidence and respect "were rarely devastated". Kirsh (1983) maintains that unemployed youth harbour anger and resentment toward themselves, parents, teachers, employers, government, and other institutions. Gurney (1980b) cites  16  E i senberg and Lazarsfeld's 1938 reports of increased irritability, increase in female prostitution, and criminality and homelessness as results of unemployment in youth. Kirsh (1983, p. 36) also reports that unemployed youth "blame themselves for not staying in school". Sen (1982) states that statistically it is known that youth tend to remain in the school system when economic conditions are unfavourable. The implication of these results may be that continuing on in the school system (i.e. for a master's degree or a more marketable college degree or diploma) may be an attractive alternative to unemployment for unemployed university graduates. Yet Kirsh (1983) also reports that unemployed youth experience increased disillusionment with themselves and their society.  Embarking  upon a long-term plan of education or retraining may be particularly difficult for a disillusioned university graduate who may feel resentment concerning the golden myth of education-equa1s-good-job he was raised with. Concerning unemployed youth activity, Macky and Haines (1982) found that while there was no obvious decrease in activity for their subjects, daytime sleeping, T.V. watching, radio listening, hobbies, and housework all increased. Concerning job search activity, Roberts et al. (1982) found that unemployed youth often refused jobs because they were too far from home, offered insufficient pay, or were unsuitable in  17 some other way.  In an in-depth interview study Borgen and  Amundson (1984) found that unemployed youth were unknowledgeable and lacking perseverance in the job search, and engaged in few job search activities.  However, rather than reflecting the  "carefree" attitude reported by Warr (1978), this sample experienced negative feelings related to unjust treatment by employers, Canada Employment and Immigration Commission, the school system, and lack of money. Positive feelings were engendered by sports activities, volunteer or temporary work, and personal support offered by family and friends. The varying results make it difficult to extract any firmly related factors to the population of this study, but it is hypothesized that continuing to graduate school may be seen as either a hopeful alternative, or a lost option causing regret to unemployed university graduates. 4. Unemployment Effects Upon Professionals, Managers, and Middle Class Populations The most important finding within this area of the literature was the mention of intellectual awareness of the unemployment situation in the job market as a potentially supportive belief which resulted in lack of shame (Swinburne, 1981; Hartley, 1980), and decreased anger and depression (Powell and Driscoll, 1973). It may be that job market experiences while previously employed developed this awareness for some of the  18  subjects, but other research findings concerning the highly educated suggest that education rather than work experience may result in this awareness (Hyman, Wright & Reed, 1975, cited by Picot, 1980). (See also section six for further discussion of this point). Swinburne (1981) found that the degree of control felt in the loss of the job was an important factor with increased sense of control being related to less devastated reactions to unemployment. It could be said that university graduates have somewhat more control than job losers for they can be flexible regarding graduation date and can certainly anticipate the event long before it happens. Swinburne also found that continuing involvement of any kind in their previous job aided managers and professionals in blurring the sharpness of termination. University graduates often have a two month wait after the end of classes before graduation ceremonies take place, and often are in contact with professors for months after classes end concerning the return of final essays.  It may be hypothesized that these  'blurring' termination events may soften the initial shock of unemployment for university graduates. Structured activity during unemployment was also found to increase self-esteem (Hartley, 1980) and to prevent apathy (Swinburne, 1981). The ability to structure time was found to be related to the "degree of se1f-dIrection in previous work"  19 (Swinburne, 1981, p. 53). It is possible to surmise that a successful university education would have developed the skill of self-direction in most graduates, thus making these results pertinent to the population in this study. Swinburne (1981) reports shock as the most common initial reaction for unemployed managers and professionals. It can be inferred from Daniel's (1970) results (cited by Kirsh, 1983) that shock would be more common for white collar than for blue collar workers, due to white collar expectations of predictable occupational progression and general unfami 1iarity with job loss. In a study which examined how the factor of social status mediated the experience of unemployment, Goodchilds and Smith (1963) utilized education as part of their composite of social class. This study found that unemployment was increasingly debilitating as status level rose. Yet Powell and Driscoll (1973, p. 20-21) report that unemployed middle class professionals were able to maintain a sustained, organized job search after an initial holiday period of enjoying themselves and avoiding the job search. This may have been due to what these authors claim is "vitally important": the supportive cushion of monetary savings. This is one factor that is clearly dissimilar to most recent university graduates. Most graduates are not only not in the position to have extensive savings, but in these days of rising tuitions and decreasing  20  government aid, are at best broke, and are more likely to be heavily in debt. In general, despite the possibility of initial shock, results suggest that the middle class or professional unemployed are more likely to be adaptable to the experience of unemployment than other groups. Kirsh (1983) describes five factors which comprise the buffer effect that middle class status offers to the experience of unemployment. The first buffer is stated as educational resources and professional training which allow increased latitude in the job search.  University graduates  obviously share this advantage. Secondly, easy access to helping professions is another factor shared by the middle class in general and university graduates in particular. Most campuses are staffed by various helping professionals and free service is usually available to all students, and graduates. The third buffer Kirsh lists is that of professional networks which may aid either directly or supportively in the job search.  University  graduates have their own networking systems, but their direct usefulness in the job search can only be conjectured.  The fourth  buffer is the possibility of the unemployed middle class having a spouse with potentially high earning power. It is not known how applicable this factor is to the population in this study. The fifth factor is the possibility of outside interests such as hobbies and leisure pursuits being mobilized during unemployment.  21 It is hypothesized that this factor may have a strong ameliorating effect upon the experience of unemployment for university graduates. As Kirsh (1983, p. 19-20) puts it, "being...middle class serves to enhance the individual's adaptability to the personal crisis of unemployment".  Since anecdotal evidence suggests that  the majority of university graduates are middle class, it would seem likely that this factor of adaptability to the experience will exist for university graduates as well, but the effect of the fallen golden myth of good-education-equals-good-job may undermine this adaptability. Section six further examines the potential effects of an educated status upon the unemployment experience. 5. Generalized Population Models of the Experience of Unemployment Various models of the experience of unemployment have been put forth since the depression years. Hepworth (1980) and Harrison (1976) have summarized some of these models as encompassing four general stages: shock, optimism, pessimism, and fatalism. Levine (1978) put forth the following three stage model to cover the unemployment experience of lower middle class youth: optimism, ambiguity, and despair. Three other models have attempted to portray the more in-depth experience of being unemployed and have offered some  22 variations which had previously not been noted within a model. Powell and Driscoll (1973) put forth the following four stage model of the experience of unemployed middle class highly skilled and professional people: 1) relaxation and relief, 2) concerted effort, 3) vacillation and doubt, and 4) malaise and cynicism. Hill (1976) speaks of the initial holiday period experienced by some and both Hill (1976) and Amundson and Borgen (1982) discuss the sense of initial denial that anything had happened. It would seem that the factors surrounding the onslaught of unemployment for recent university graduates would more likely contribute to this type of holiday/denial initial reaction. The sense of completion and excitement of graduation, coupled with the approaching summer which most school leavers long for, as well as the possibility for some of a graduation/celebration trip to Europe or other location supports a hypothesis of an initial holiday period/denial reaction similar to a combination of Powell and Driscoll's (1973) relaxation and relief and Amundson and Borgen's (1982) denial stages. Hopson and Adams (1976) reported a seven stage model consisting of immobilization, minimization, depression, acceptance, testing, search for meaning, and internalization. It is the sixth stage, search for meaning, which stands out in significance to a population of potentially disillusioned unemployed university graduates. Kirsh (1983, p. 5) explains  23  this stage as a time when the unemployed person "attempts to establish a useful conceptual framework for understanding the 'new' self and new situation". Whether this will occur as a separate stage for unemployed university graduates is unknown, but it would seem reasonable to expect some search for meaning to occur for people who have recently spent three, four, or five years of their life examining meaning within some discipline of knowledge. Again, the disillusionment concerning the fallen from grace myth of education-equa1s-good-job  may encourage some  seeking for meaning within such a population. Briar (1978) mentions feelings of worthlessness as a common occurrence in the experience of unemployment, and Hill (1976) reports that the unemployed are often expected to take on the majority of cleaning, tidying, and shopping chores when living with others. Kelvin (1981) reports that a self-perception of being 'deviant', '1ooked-down-upon', and ineffective is common as the unemployed feels cut off from 'normal' patterns of life. Both Kelvin (1981) and Hill (1976) state that social isolation is one of the major effects of unemployment.  If a recent university graduate is  confronted with an increasingly worthless, isolated, menial role and/or self-view, he/she may begin to seriously question the value of having spent the previous years in school if this is all that can be expected upon graduation. A sense of having 'wasted' time may initiate a search for meaning.  24 Amundson and Borgen (1982) report a nine sub-stage model of the experience of unemployment utilizing a combination of Kubler-Ross's model of grieving and a job burnout model. The job loss/grieving process consists of denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance, and the job search/burnout stage follows with enthusiasm, stagnation, frustration, and apathy. This study subsumes a wide variety of populations, and is thought to be a more in-depth, comprehensive account of the process due to its choice of methodology (see section III for further discussion of this point). The job loss/grieving phase does, however, assume job loss rather than school leaver status. (For implications of this general assumption in the literature see section 2., part II above). It may be that the anger, bargaining, and depression stages described by Amundson and Borgen may relate more to a search for meaning related to disillusionment with the educational value myth for unemployed university graduates. The acceptance might then encompass acceptance not only of being unemployed, but of the value of the graduates' life experiences to date. This stage might be seen as a combination acceptance/coming to terms with where I am' stage 1  with the accompanying existential quest.  25 6. Effects of Educational Status Upon the Experience of Being Unemployed: Related Research and Assumptions Bakke (1940, p. 315) stated that "the same initiative and skill displayed prior to unemployment will, until modified by habitual experience, tend to characterize the individual's efforts after he loses his job...He comes to a new problem with the tools of adjustment presented to him by his life experience to date". Similarly, Feather and Bond (1983, p. 250) state that "the unemployed have to fall back upon their own resources". Jahoda (1980) suggests that research should focus on the specific life circumstances of particular groups.  Given that this study  is focusing upon university graduates under the age of 25, it would seem reasonable to attempt to understand what this labelled category brings to the experience of unemployment. In other words, what are the life experiences, or the particular attributes that a university graduate possesses in comparison with other sections of the labour force? Warr (1978) cites North American research positively correlating educational level with positive well-being. Guzzardi (1976) states that life expectations and educational level are positively correlated. Picot (1980) reports that highly educated people are more likely to be geographically mobile, less easily influenced, more independent in thought, more adaptable to change, and more capable of understanding complex issues than the less educated.  26 Feather and Bond (1983) suggest that successful graduates have acquired skills in structuring time and in developing a sense of purpose and autonomy, which bears significance in light of the Hepworth (1980, p. 139) finding that "the best single predictor of mental health during unemployment was whether or not a man felt his time was occupied". Concerning use of time, Picot (1980) reports that time spent reading books, magazines, and newspapers, attendance at museums, art galleries, libraries, films, live theatre, opera, dance, and classical music performances all increase with education, while television watching decreases. Hyman, Wright and Reed (1975, cited by Picot, 1980, p. 65) state that the better educated have a more comprehensive knowledge of the contemporary world and "are more likely to seek out knowledge and be attuned to sources of information". This would seem to reinforce Kirsh's (1983) middle class factor of easy access to 'helping' professions including job counsellors and therapists. Briar (1978, p. 67) found that a certain number of his sample, even those already possessing bachelor and graduate degrees, responded to unemployment by returning to schoo1--either for retraining possibilities or to acquire the "enervated student image". Thus we are studying a population which is initially thought  27 to be higher in well being, more mobile, more independent, more adaptable to change, more skilled in time structuring, and more likely to spend time in cultivated activities or higher education than the less educated. Jahoda's 1980 (p. 12) report warns us, however, that some similarly described academics "flounder, feel lost and waste their time" when on sabbatical, and Seabrook (1982, p. 142) guotes a 21 year old male university drop-out from England as saying "no matter how intelligent you are, its the feeling that gets you, a sense of being useless". Seabrook (1982) also found that the negative experience of unemployment seemed to cut across all educational levels. Marsden (1982) quotes a description of what brought an unemployed person 'down': a situation in which acquaintances made casual comments about how easy the unemployed's day was, or inquired whether the unemployed had found work. The unemployed mentions his embarrassment at these comments and inquiries. It is this author's opinion that the population studied would react with similar embarrassment and agony to questions relating to what good a university degree was going to do them on the job market. It is the experience of this author that as a university degree is increasingly used as an assumed entry level prerequisite, those without such a requirement are becoming increasingly defensive and bitter to those with a degree, and  28  react gleefully when such a ticket is seemingly devalued. Coupled with the potential search for meaning and disillusionment previously hypothesized for the population of this study, such guestions may trigger deep depressive reactions, resentment, and/or anger. In summary it is found that the population of this study may potentially be more likely to structure their unemployed time with ease, f i l l it with numerous activities, and be familiar with and avail themselves of social services of an informational or supportive nature. This group may also be more likely to view graduate school as an alternative to unemployment, although their world knowledge may present them with conflicting ideas concerning the value of an advanced degree when seen in light of the market value of an undergraduate degree. The increased comprehensive knowledge of the world may result in the lessening of shame and shock experienced in personal unemployment due to a greater understanding of the social and economic causes of unemployment and the widespread nature of the problem, or could increase disillusionment when seen in light of the increasing devaluation of education. It is this author's opinion that a review of personal assumptions concerning this population is required due to the phenomenological methodology utilized. The following are the author's unsupported assumptions, based upon professional  29  counselling experience within three different universities, about the population studied (not including those previously stated elsewhere): University graduates are: - less aware of unemployment personally (although more aware of it intellectually) or within their social group, so are more likely to be frightened of the unknown components, and, unlikely to know how to play the 'system' for benef its. - more likely to be stigmatized by unemployment because of the seemingly 'wasted' time spent in their education. - more likely to be sources of disappointment to self and relatives because of the nature of being so close yet so far from parental expectations (a university graduate, but unemployed). - more likely to be frustrated because of high expectations about a fulfilling job preventing them from accepting any job. - more likely to experience less hopelessness than other groups because of the possibility of career change, retraining, or simply graduate school to f i l l up time and provide meaning to life. - less likely to be bored because of greater orientation toward learning for learning's sake.  30  - less likely to be financially desperate due to middle class family support. - more likely to evaluate past years with a view to 'what I should have done' because of the 'wasted' time prejudice of others. Summary of Literature Review Due to the many conflicting research findings and the variety of sub-areas of contributing research (school leavers, youth, professionals, managers and middle class, generalized models, and educational attributes), it is not possible to form firm hypotheses although many potential hypotheses have been suggested. An exploratory study would seem to be the most reasonable approach if a comprehensive knowledge is to be acqu i red. This study will therefore attempt to answer the question 'what is the meaning of unemployment for university graduates under 25 years of age?' without any preformed hypotheses.  Ill METHOD Subjects Due to the methodology utilized in this study, subjects will be considered to be co-researchers and will be discussed under this name. For the purpose of co-researcher selection in this study the term 'unemployed' is defined as lack of full-time, on-going employment in the field each co-researcher was educated in, or in a chosen related field. Volunteer co-researchers were referred to the author from the pool of those registered with the University of British Columbia on-campus Canada Employment Centre. A minimum of three months of unemployment was stated to the Canada Employment Centre employees as a prerequisite for co-researcher status in order for the co-researcher to have some experience to comment on. Confusion arose related to the three-month prerequisite due to some of the graduates' early application to the CEC previous to the completion of their exams. In light of the small number of referrals in total and the difficulty which the author had in contacting the referrals, the prerequisite of three months minimum unemployment was lessened to 2.5"months. The CEC employees were also informed that co-researchers  31  32 were required to be under 25 years of age. Twelve unemployed University of British Columbia graduates under the age of 25 were contacted and interviewed. Table 1 displays demographic information for the sample. The percentage of male and female co-researchers roughly approximates the general mixed sex population of university graduates. The age category was limited to 'under 25' in order to limit results to the youth (age 15 to 24 years) category to be comparable to youth or other sub-groups within the youth category. The co-researchers ranged from 2.5 to 38 months of unemployment. The six Bachelor of Arts degree co-researchers majored in geography, psychology, archeology and religious studies, english, and economics (n=2). The three Bachelor of Applied Science degree co-researchers all majored in mechanical engineering. The two Bachelor of Science co-researchers majored in physics, and biology. Methodological Approach Swinburne (1981, p. 47) states that "learning about the consequences of unemployment entails understanding sensitive thoughts and feelings which do not lend themselves to survey techniques, hence the need for small-sample depth studies".  TABLE 1 Demographic  NI  Age (M)  12  23  Sex  Information  Marital Status  7 female  12  single  5 male  (including 1 engaged)  Time Unemployed (Mo) (M)  14  Degree Completed  6  B.A.  3  B.A.Sc  2 B.Sc. 1  B.Ed.  34 Amundson and Borgen (1984, p. 4-5) similarly mention the need for a chosen methodology "to encourage subjects to freely discuss some intensive negative feelings they were having regarding being unemployed", and suggested that "rapport building" was a necessary component of such a study. The following eight characteristics of phenomenological research as described by Giorgi (1975, p. 99-101) meet the above mentioned methodological requirements:  "1. Fidelity to the  phenomenon as it is lived...2. Primacy of life world...3. Descriptive approach...4. Expression of situation from viewpoint of subject...5. Situation as unit of research implies structural approach. . .6. Biographical emphases ... 7. Engaged researchers...8. Search for meaning. Fischer (1979, p. 116) states that phenomenological psychology is a "comprehension of experience as it is lived—existentially/ behaviorally/reflectively", and that "faithful descriptions of particular kinds of experiences...can be researched for their common structure". The phenomenological research methodology can be said to be the best way to allow co-researchers to tell their own story, through emphasis upon the value of the co-researcher's own viewpoint of the situation, and upon non-directive interviewer behaviors. Flanagan's (1954) critical incident technique similarly  35 emphasizes a subject's viewpoint of a situation and a non-directive interviewer approach.  The approach is designed to  elicit helpful or hindering concrete situations to a designated process, and establish a verifiable classification system of these incidents. Amundson and Borgen (1984) utilized this additional methodology to establish high and low points in the process of unemployment. This study utilizes the combination phenomenological/ critical incident approach adapted by Amundson and Borgen (1984) in order to acquire an in-depth understanding of the experience of unemployment in an environment designed to facilitate such disclosures from co-researchers. This approach borrows some aspects of the phenomenological method but emphasizes critical incident technique. A small sample (N=12) was interviewed to acquire comprehensive understanding of the phenomena, and an interview technique utilized because it is thought.to be the "most satisfactory data collection procedure" (Flanagan, 1954, p. 340). Data Col lection Referring employees of the University of British Columbia Canada Employment Centre were instructed that this study is to increase understanding of the experience of unemployment for university graduates under 25 years of age. It was explained  36  that the study is a follow-up to similar research conducted by Dr. Norman Amundson and Dr. William Borgen of the Counselling Psychology Department at the University of British Columbia, in which subjects were drawn from a similar pool and interviewed in the same manner. It was also explained that the present study is in fulfillment of requirements for a University of British Columbia M.A. thesis in Counselling Psychology, chaired by Dr. Borgen. Referring CEC employees were instructed to mention these facts to suitable referees and ask permission to refer their names to the author. Names and phone numbers of volunteer co-researchers were acquired by this referral system. The author contacted the volunteers by telephone, restated the explanation offered by the CEC employees, and reemphasized University of British Columbia affiliation and lack of affiliation with the CEC. It was then explained that involvement in the study would require an initial tape-recorded interview about their experience of being unemployed (lasting approximately one hour) and the possibility of an additional short phone call follow-up to check the accuracy of the researcher's findings against their own experience. It was stated that involvement was entirely voluntary and could be terminated at any point in time. Confidentiality of the results was emphasized as well as use of the results for research purposes only. The volunteer was then asked if he/she was  37  willing to participate in the study and, if so, a date, time, and place for the interview was established. The researcher suggested that the interview take place at the co-researcher's home in order to facilitate a relaxing atmosphere and hopefully greater ease in discussing potentially painful events.  In the  case of difficulty coordinating the researcher's and co-researcher's time, or any hesitation on the part of the co-researcher, a classroom in the Counselling Psychology building at the University of British Columbia was utilized for the interview. The Pilot Interview The pilot interview was adapted from that used by Amundson and Borgen (1984). (Refer to Appendix A for pilot interview questions). One pilot interview was held in order to assess the clarity of the questions, to establish the co-researcher's perception of and feedback on the interview as a whole, and to allow the interviewer a chance to become familiar with the interview itself. Results from the pilot interview were not included in data analysis. Upon completion of the interview the co-researcher was asked: 1. "Were there any parts of the interview which you found confusing, unclear, or difficult in  38 any other way?" 2.  "Did you at any time feel swayed or influenced by my comments to adapt your answers in any way?"  3.  "In general what was your perception of the interview?"  4.  "Do you have any further comments or suggestions relating to the improvement of such an interview for the purpose of facilitating your description of the experience of unemployment?"  The pilot co-researcher spoke at great length about his unemployment experience and appeared to have no difficulty with any aspect of the interview. In response to the overview questions at the end of the interview the co-researcher indicated that he had found the first question to be "a lot".  He mentioned  that he would have preferred something shorter and more explicit to start off with. He stated that he hadn't felt swayed or influenced at all by the researcher and that he "was controlling the interview...[which] was good". He did state that he was afraid he was giving data that perhaps wasn't relevant and would have preferred more direct and explicit "prodding". He appreciated being able to tell his own story. In response to this overview and dialoguing with fellow researchers certain changes of order and content were made to the  39  interview. In order to clearly ascertain the beginning of the experience and commence with a brief and explicit question, question five was re-ordered to question one.  Question eight,  concerning a diagram of the experience was made more explicit in instruction, emphasizing a depiction of a life-line and reordered to question two as a first step in describing the whole experience. Question one then followed as question three emphasizing the personal story-telling aspect of the answer. Questions two and three followed as questions four and five, written in a more relaxed dialogue fashion. Question four continued as question six, once again in a slightly more relaxed fashion. Question six and seven, unchanged, became questions seven and eight, and questions nine through 11 remained the same. The Interview Each interview commenced with the researcher presenting a subject consent form to be signed by both the co-researcher and researcher. The date and the co-researcher's phone number were also recorded on the form. (Refer to Appendix B for a copy of the subject consent form). An identifying code number was listed on the top right corner of the consent form. The tape-recorder was then turned on and the tape labelled by the corresponding number assigned to represent that co-researcher on the subject consent form.  40 The researcher then began the interview consisting of 11 questions previously discussed and modified based upon the pilot interview. (Refer to Appendix C for the modified interview questions). After each question the co-researcher was allowed to answer in as much detail as possible. The interviewer encouraged this by utilizing the non-directive style suggested by Amundson and Borgen (1984). This interviewer approach consisted primarily of minimal facilitating comment such as "uhuh", "yes", and "I see", with some use of open-ended questions, paraphrasing, linking, and summarizing as required to facilitate co-researcher elaboration. Care was taken not to sway the co-researcher in any way. Preceding question two the co-researcher was supplied with a sheet of unlined paper and a pen in order to diagram his or her life-line of the experience. At the extreme left of the sheet the phrase "still in school" was written and at the extreme right "present time" was written. (Refer to Appendix D for a copy of the co-researcher diagram sheet). Each interview question section was ended by asking the co-researcher if they had anything that they would like to add. The interviewer then verbally noted the sex of the co-researcher, and thanked him or her for participating in the interview. It was then explained that a small percentage of co-researchers would be selected at a later date for a follow-up validity check  of the results of data analysis and that he or she may be contacted in the future by telephone for this short follow-up procedure. Data Analysis The data analysis format utilized in this study was developed by Amundson and Borgen (1984), and consists of four steps: 1. Protocol Analysis, or summary of the taped interviews to the essence of the meaning units. 2. A) Listing all emotional shifts and related situational factors on a rating sheet developed by Amundson and Borgen (1984). (Refer to Appendix E-l for a copy of the rating sheet form, and Appendixes E-2 through E-4 for examples of completed rating sheets). B) Reliabi1itv Check of the rating sheet categories and the number of shifts recorded. 3. A) Sorting emotional shifts via themes and resulting establishment of categories of critical incidents.  42 B) Reliabi1ity Check of the established categor i es. 4. A) Establishing a holistic description of the experience by a combination of category analysis, rating sheet analysis, co-researcher diagram sheet analysis, and individual question analysis. B) Validity Check of the final outcome by a follow-up phone call interview with a selection of three co-researchers (onequarter of the subject sample). 1. Protocol Analysis and 2.A) Rating Sheet Record of Emotional Shifts Steps 1. and 2. A) were combined as it was found that sentences containing significant reference to the experience could in all cases be categorized under one of the six rating sheet categories. In each case the actual co-researcher quotes (when suitable) were placed on the rating sheet. Although a separate interview question opens up discussion of when each co-researcher initially felt unemployed, for ease of comparison of results the rating sheet column entitled 'time' is defined as the number., of months following each co-researcher's final exam, otherwise referred to as 'school end'. Condensed summaries were written for the first three  43  analysed interviews. (Refer to Appendix F for a summary example). After careful consideration and discussion with the author's thesis advisor it was determined that the written summaries were a duplication in prose form of the rating sheets and that in-depth analysis of trends would not be aided by their presence.  The revised methodology therefore omits the written  summaries and relies upon more detailed quote-filled rating forms than were initially envisioned. 2. B) Reliability Check One quarter of the co-researcher's rating sheets were checked for reliability of number of shifts recorded, time sequence of shifts, emotions mentioned in each shift, and the accompanying event/behaviour noted for each shift. A psychologist known to the author was trained in the method of transcribing a rating sheet and instructed to complete rating sheets for one quarter of the co-researchers studied. The co-researchers selected for the reliability check were chosen randomnly. The resulting rating sheets, which will be referred to as 'checked' rating sheets, were compared to the corresponding author's rating sheets. It became evident upon comparison of the results that the checked rating sheets included only shifts which could be defined as differing emotions. For example, the author included a shift  44  from a feeling of being "down" to an additional lowering of similar emotion, substantiated due to the change of degree mentioned or implied. The checked rating sheets collapsed or combined such categories but would mention the time-frame when the feeling increased (or decreased). In each case therefore the number of shifts recorded in the checked rating sheets was substantially lower. While the author recorded 20, 17, and nine shifts for the pertinent rating sheets, the checked rating sheets included six, six, and eight shifts correspondingly. Only three of the checked rating sheet shifts were found to differ in time sequence from the author's findings. All of the three events were mentioned by one co-researcher who had been less exact in details than the majority of the co-researchers. The checker stated that the events had been slightly ambiguous in time-frame and that he had estimated when they had occurred. Only one emotion listed in the checked rating sheets was found to differ from the author's results. The author described one of co-researcher number 303's implied emotions as 'dread' while the checker labelled the same emotion as 'pessimism'. The author also listed four additional emotions corresponding to described situations which the checker did not include. The checker did, however, in each case include the attached situation but did not attempt to describe the implied emotion. Each of these four instances occurred in what has previously been  45  described as the checker's collapsed or combined categories. These often involved many events in the co-researcher's life, contributing to confusion when listing both events and corresponding emotions. All events/behaviours were recorded similarly by the author and the checker. 3. A) Establishment of Categories of Critical Incidents An emotional shift index card was created to represent each circumstance which helped or hindered each co-researcher's experience of being unemployed. These cards were based upon a careful scanning of all rating sheets and included the co-researcher's code number on the front lower right, the actual quote concerning the experience in the centre of the back, and the time-frame (number of months of unemployment) in which it happened on the upper left of the back. These cards were then analysed and events which helped the experience marked with a positive symbol, and events which hindered the experience marked with a negative symbol on the front of the card. The cards were then sorted into two separate piles of positive and negative exper iences. Each of the two piles was then separately analysed and sorted by similarity of themes to establish categories of  46 meaning. Each category was named by an appropriately descriptive label, attempting to capture the essence of the category. Each category had to be mentioned by at least three of the 12 co-researchers (25%). 3. B) Reliabi1itv Check A goal of 80% accuracy of category sorting was set to be obtained by one colleague who sorted 25% of the emotional shift cards. Forty-two positive experience cards and 42 negative experience cards were sorted representing 10 of the 17 positive categories and 10 of the 19 negative categories correspondingly. The author explained the 10 categories in each of the two sorting attempts and answered any questions the sorter had at that time. The author then observed the sorter and made note of any comments the sorter made while sorting. The sorter mentioned various points of indecision or confusion during sorting and upon completion was invited to make any adjustments he wished to be satisfied with the exercise. In both cases the sorter mentioned the points of confusion once again and changed two cards. The sorter achieved 100% accuracy sorting the positive experience cards after changing the two cards initially placed in other categories, and 88% accuracy in the negative experience card categories after changing two cards. The 12% inaccuracy  47 resulted from misplacing five negative experience cards due to some overlap in the co-researchers' quotes seeming to imply two potential categories. The sorter was comfortable with the possibility of placing the cards in error in the corrected categories. Although the sorter initially expressed an opinion that there seemed to be a "fine line between" two of the positive categories, each of the categories was sorted with 100% accuracy. 4. A) Establishing a Holistic Description Rating Sheet and Individual Question Analysis Careful analysis of the contents listed across all columns of the rating sheet and analysis of interview questions one, six, seven, and eight for all co-researchers resulted in 11 tables further delineating the experience and the typical university graduate experiencer of unemployment. Category Analysis Each of the 36 categories of critical incidents were analysed to determine whether there were patterns of time when the majority of the emotional shift cards occurred within each category.  48 Rating Sheet and Co-researcher Diagram Sheet Analysis The emotional shift cards based upon the rating sheets were re-sorted solely by time-frame in order to determine whether there were any discernable patterns of time or order of positive or negat i ve fee 1 i ngs. All of the co-researchers' life-line diagrams of the experience were replicated on one sheet of graph paper to aid scaled time comparability of the results. This was to counter the overblown effects of a 2.5 month diagram in comparison to a 38 month diagram, both of which originally utilized a line one page long. These diagrams were analysed visually in conjunction with the reorganized emotional shift cards. The 'job search' column of the rating sheets was also analysed across all co-researchers to determine the possibility of patterns.. The various preceding analyses were combined to result in an exhaustive written description of the experience, attempting to be faithful to all of the co-researchers' stories and to convey the depth and breadth of their experience of unemployment. A shorter condensed narrative was written to communicate the essence of the experience.  49  4. B) Validity Check Three co-researchers were chosen to be contacted for a follow-up validity check of the condensed narrative description of the experience. The co-researchers were chosen on the basis of their verbal ability which had been noted at the conclusion of each of their interviews, and in order to represent both the recent occurrence and the longer term prototypes of the exper i ence. Each of the chosen co-researchers were contacted by telephone. The author re-introduced herself by name and reminded each co-researcher of the past interview and the topic of study. The co-researchers were then reminded of being notified at the end of the past interview that they may be contacted in the future for a follow-up telephone procedure. The author then requested their continued involvement for the duration of a short telephone conversation. In all cases the co-researchers remembered the author and the past interview and indicated their willingness to continue with the follow-up procedure.  The author  then briefly explained the data analysis procedure which had resulted in preliminary forms of the exhaustive and the condensed narrative descriptions and requested the co-researchers to listen carefully to the condensed description and to be prepared to comment upon it. The condensed description was then read to the co-researchers and comments solicited. The author then thanked  50  the co-researchers for their involvement in both the follow-up procedure and the past interview. In all cases the condensed description was reacted to favourably with such comments concerning accuracy as "it seems to cover everything pretty well", "it's quite right on. I think you summed it up quite well...It brings back what I was feeling", and "it sounds pretty like you hit it right on the nai1...that s the 1  way people feel". None of the co-researchers suggested any required additions or changes. It was of interest to note that all three of those contacted one year following the interview were employed full-time, two of whom were in fields directly related to their degree. Based upon the confirming results of the telephone validity check, the condensed description was left unaltered.  IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The results of data analysis form the following four separate sections resulting in a holistic description of the unemployment experience for university graduates under 25 years of age:  12 aspects of the experience, summary patterns and graph  of the experience, the exhaustive holistic description of the experience, and the condensed narrative description. The first section resulted from rating sheet, individual interview question, and category analyses. The second section evolved from rating sheet, co-researcher diagram sheet, and category analyses. 1. Aspects of the Experience The following 12 aspects of the experience will be presented and discussed: previous history of employment, the university experience, job search pre-'school end', initial future expectations, initial negative experience, onset of initial unemployment feeling, positive and negative critical incident categories, job search post 'school end', effects of knowledge of the unemployment situation, present status, living situation, and future expectations at interview time.  51  52 Previous History of Employment Although the interview contained no direct question concerning previous employment, 50% of the sample commented upon the topic throughout the interviews. Five co-researchers mentioned having extensive summer and/or part-time job experience in the past including the summer preceding graduation. Another co-researcher was similarly experienced excluding having worked the summer preceding graduation. Of those mentioning experience, two had specifically been employed in sales and one had worked at the power mill.  The remaining half of the sample did not  indicate lack of experience in any way. This result may indicate support for the author's assumption that university graduates are less aware of unemployment personally. The University Experience Approximately 83% of the co-researchers indicated a very positive evaluation of the university experience with such comments as "I'm a better person for it", "I really grew a lot", "really enjoyed it", and "I'm never going to be that lucky again". Two of those who were very positive spoke of it glowingly as "a little story tale...sort of rosy", and "the whole romantic vision--I had it".  Fun, socializing and personal growth  were emphasized in the very positive evaluations. One  53 co-researcher indicated a mixed evaluation. She mentioned enjoying the experience but wanting to get out of school for "personal reasons" which she did not elaborate upon. Another co-researcher indicated a negative evaluation due to disappointment and academic difficulty: "not really what I was dreaming about... so I was disappointed...a few courses were difficult for me and I had to struggle through". Based upon Hill's 1977 suggestion that loss is due to the relation of the subject to the lost object, these positive evaluations of the university experience should increase the sense of loss that the graduates feel. One co-researcher did speak of a sense of loss of her school friends, of the intellectual stimulation of education, and of the flexible time structure inherent in a university. Most, however, were avidly anticipating graduation and employment which may have superseded the experience of loss. Job Search Pre-'School End' Table 2 refers to the frequency of job search methods utilized previous to 'school end'.  Approximately 58% of the  sample followed through on some aspect other than simply 'thinking' of it. Co-researchers indicated that these actions took place from November to March, with a range of from one to four job search methods per person and an average of  TABLE 2 Frequency  of  Job  S e a r c h Methods  n_ 1  Note.  Utilized  Previous  to  School  Method Nothing  4  Thought of i t  1  W r o t e resume  1  A t t e n d e d on-campus c a r e e r d a y  2  Looked  5  C h e c k e d on-campus CEC j o b p o s t i n g b o a r d  5  Applied f o r jobs  i n paper  C a t e g o r i e s are n o n - e x c l u s i v e .  End  J  55  approximately one method per person (of those engaging in action categories). The majority of those who did not follow through with some job search method indicated that they preferred to concentrate on academic responsibilities and found it difficult to spare the time or be organized enough to meet application dead 1i nes. Initial Future Expectations Seven of the co-researchers began their experience of unemployment with high expectations concerning the possibility of finding work, earning money, looking forward to graduation, and making an impact upon the world. One such co-researcher described her views as "all these visions and dreams of doing these great accomplishments", and another as "full of high hopes". These initially high expectations confirm Guzzardi's 1976 finding that educational level is positively correlated with life expectations. Four co-researchers, however, could be described as having low expectations in that they were well aware of the job search difficulty ahead of them and not too hopeful. One co-researcher in this category stated: "I realized that I was going to have a hard time finding anything that would make me be in a category other than underemployed", and another stated simply that he knew there was "nothing out there". One co-researcher could be described as having mixed expectations  56  comprised of an awareness of the scarcity of jobs and an accompanying complacency: "when I came out it was a common feeling among engineers... and for the other faculties I'm sure...that jobs were scarce. So most of the people sort of accepted it...You just sort of let it go at that". Initial Negative Experience At some point in each graduate's description of the experience an initial significant negative experience was mentioned which, in the majority of cases, ended the 'holiday period' (to be discussed further in section 2 . of this chapter: summary patterns in the experience) for each of them. Table 3 displays the frequency of emotions accompanying the initial negative experience and the corresponding events for each experience. Only two of the initial significant negative experiences occurred before the end of the 'holiday period'. These appear in the first two entries in the 'event' column of table 3 . One co-researcher experiencing shock stated: "Your world is coming apart day by day. As soon as you hit reality it's like 'bang'!". A co-researcher who experienced depression stated: "I thought I had quite a few practical skills... and there was nothing...absolutely nothing". Another co-researcher who was discouraged explained that it was due to "having all  57 TABLE 3 Frequency Negative  of  Emotions  Experience  Accompanying  and C o r r e s p o n d i n g  Loss  -Loss  of  time  4  Shock  Initial Events  Event  Emotion  1  the  school  (stimulation,  structuring)  -"Rude Awakening" the  friends,  leaving school,  entering  " B i g , Bad W o r l d "  -Things  not  available  -Didn't  get job a p p l i e d f o r ,  then  nothing  avai1 able -Discouragement  from p o t e n t i a l  and run around l i k e  1  "Hitting  employer Reality"  Pressure  -Notified  l o a n was  Regret  -Most  s t u d e n t s were w o r k i n g  top  and he r e g r e t t e d of-town  Discouragement  due  he h a d n ' t  out-of-town  tried for  out-  jobs  -Temporary jobs  in field  were  (table  terrible  continues)  58  Emotion  Event  -Working living -Job  3  Depression  i n unrelated menial up t o  s e a r c h i n g and n o t  anywhere  finding  a  -Bleak  a d v i c e and h e l p f r o m  expectations -Nothing  not  getting  l o o k i n g and not  positive  and  expectations  -Tired  -No  job  answers  back,  job  CEC  s e l f doubt  and  shattered  available  -Nobody i n t e r e s t e d  i n degree  m a k i n g h i m come "Down t o  or  experience  Reality"  59 these expectations after finishing school and not living up to them". These results do not support Swinburne's (1981) findings that the initial reaction to unemployment is shock. In this sample four co-researchers did react with shock although it was an initial reaction for only two of them. The majority of university graduates experienced their first significant negative experience after the initial 'holiday period', and experienced a wider range of initial emotions than shock at this time. A greater number of co-researchers were found to have experienced discouragement than shock as an initial significant negative emotion. Onset of Initial Unemployment Feeling The majority (approximately 83%) of graduates experience some sense of being unemployed at some time either before or during the unemployment experience. Table 4 refers to the time-frame frequency of the graduates' initial unemployment feeling. Although the median time at which the graduates first felt unemployed was at graduation, some had felt unemployed as early as two or three months before graduation, and some expressed that they still did not feel unemployed at the time of the interview. One co-researcher explained that he felt unemployed a few weeks before his final exam "because I hadn't  TABLE 4 Time-Frame Frequency o f  Initial  Unemployment  Time e x p e r i e n c e d  n  2  2 - 3 months b e f o r e  graduation  1  2 weeks b e f o r e f i n a l  1  End o f  1  M i d May  3  Graduation  1  September  1  Much l a t e r  2  Never  exam  exams  (25  months)  Feel  61 had a job planned so I was getting worried already and had been financially strapped. These results offer preliminary data in response to the author's question of whether unemployed university graduates incorporate a self-concept of "unemployed person' or not. This sample would suggest that the majority of graduates do incorporate such a self-concept across a wide range of times during the experience of unemployment. Positive and Negative Critical Incident Categories Seventeen positive incident categories were identified comprising events which helped the co-researchers throughout the unemployment experience. These 17 categories were labelled as follows: further education, money, support and similarity, hobbies/involvement/activity, trips, increased optimism through trends or opportunities, getting interviews and successful interviews, got a job, end of school, relaxation, graduation, job offers, co-workers or clients, new year, encouraging advice, postponing job search, and quitting jobs. Five emotional shift cards did not fit into any of the categories. Nineteen negative incident categories were identified comprising events which hindered the co-researchers in being unemployed. These negative categories were labelled as follows: people negatives, working negatives, money, discouragement,  62 devalued university degree, self-doubt/guilt, nothing new available, no success, stagnation/boredom, exams and papers, no response, CEC irritation, getting the run around, end of temporary/ contract work, no job offer, dressing up, cynicism due to nepotism, indecisive, and developmental hold-up.  Twenty-five  emotional shift cards did not fit into any of the categories. Some of these cards formed two tentative categories labelled 'missing school' and 'wasted time' in the initial sorting but these categories were abandoned when it became apparent that a minimum of 25% of the sample was not represented in each. Table 5 identifies the total number of instances the positive incident categories were found to have been experienced across all co-researchers, and table 6 displays the number of co-researchers who experienced each positive incident category. Tables 7 and 8 display similar data for the negative incident categories. Overall 187 negative critical incidents and 133 positive critical incidents were identified. The positive and negative incidents were found to have occurred in an idiosyncratic manner throughout the entire unemployment experience. Each of the categories will now be presented in detail. (See Appendixes G-l. to G-17. for selected quotes of the positive critical incident categories. See Appendixes H-l. to H-19. for selected quotes of the negative critical incident categories).  TABLE 5 Positive  Critical  Incident  Categories:  Experiencing  One o r More  n_  Money  7  Trips  7  S i m i l a r i t y and  7  Further  7  Got  7  Hobbies/i nvolvement/acti vi ty  6  Increased Optimism  6  End o f  6  Relaxation  5  Co-researchers  Instances  Category  8  5  Number o f  a  support  education  job  through  trends  or  opportunities  school  Getting  interviews  and s u c c e s s f u l  Graduation  5  Job  offers  5  Co-workers  4  New  3  Encouraging  3  Postponing  3  Quitting  or  clients  Year advice job  job  search  interviews  TABLE 6 Positive  Critical  Incident  Instances  Categories:  Across a l l  ji  of  Category  Further  11  Money  11  Support  11  Hobbi e s / i n v o l v e m e n t / a c t i v i t y  10  Trips  10  Increased optimism through  10  Getting a  education  and s i m i l a r i t y  interviews  8  Got  7  End o f  7  Relaxation  6  Graduation  school  Job  6  Co-workers  offers  4  New  3  Encouraging  or  clients  Year  -Postponing Quitting  advice job-search  job  trends or  and s u c c e s s f u l  job  6  3  Number  Co-Researchers  17  3  Total  opportunities  interviews  65  TABLE Negative  Critical  7  Incident Categories:  Experience  One o r More  n_  Number o f  Co-Researchers  Instances  Category  9  People  negatives  9  Self  7  Devalued  7  Discouragement  7  Nothing  new a v a i l a b l e  7  Working  negatives  7  Money  6  Stagnation/boredom  5  No  5  No r e s p o n s e  4  CEC  4  Getting  3  End o f  3  Indecisive  3  Developmental  3  Exams a n d p a p e r s  doubt/guilt university  degree  (jobs)  success  irritation the  run  around  temporary/contract  work  hold-up  (table  continues)  66  Category  n  3  D r e s s i n g up  3  No j o b  offer  TABLE 8 Negative  Critical  Incident  Categories:  Instances Across a l l  n_  Number  of  Co-Researchers  Category  33  People  18  Working  13  Money  13  Discouragement  10  Devalued  10  Self  negatives negatives  university  degree  doubt/guilt  8  Nothing  8  No  7  Total  new a v a i l a b l e  (jobs)  success  Stagnation/boredom  6  Exams a n d  papers  6  No  6  CEC  4  Getting  4  End o f  temporary/contract  4  No j o b  offer  3  Dressing  3  C y n i c i s m due t o  response irritation the  run  around work  up nepotism (table  continues)  Category  n  3  Indecisive  3  Developmental  hold-up  69 Positive Critical Incident Categories Further Education 'Further education' includes the aspects of considering, deciding upon, enrolling in, engaging in, or reflecting upon some type of further education. It includes both full and part-time education, and represents university and college courses, manpower training courses, and miscellaneous personal development courses. Reasons mentioned for the desire to engage in further education were to decrease "wasted time", to increase skills, marketability, or future salary, and to include something to look forward to in their lives. These results support Briar's 1978 finding that a return to school may be for retraining purposes or to acquire the "enervated student image" (Briar, 1978, p. 67). They may also be somewhat supportive of the author's assumption that university graduates would tend to be less bored because of greater orientation toward learning for learning's sake. The extensiveness of this category does suggest an orientation toward learning but unfortunately boredom did still occur. Further education as a positive experience also supports Hartley's 1980 finding that structured activity increased self-esteem and prevented apathy. Co-researchers in this study definitely felt better about themselves when considering or  70  engaging in further education. This category suggests lack of support for Kirsh (1983) and Marsden's (1982) findings of youth being without purpose or goals. Both the further education category and the hobbies/ involvement/activity category to be described later in the text suggest that university graduates easily form temporary or alternative goals and purposes throughout the unemployment experience. This would tend to support Feather and Bond's (1983, p. 251) observation that graduates would presumably bring their university developed skills "in structuring time and in developing a sense of purpose and autonomy" to the experience. The extensiveness of this category does suggest support for the author's assumption that further education would be preferred to unemployment without it. Money Thi.s category represents positive experiences related to being paid for a temporary or full-time job or by the U.I.C. with an emphasis on either relief or enjoyment of being able to purchase items, do certain activities, or repay loans. Support and Similarity This category includes support from parents, boyfriends/ girlfriends, and friends, similarity of friends who are also  71 job-searching, and understanding or lack of blame from anyone. Hobbies/Involvement/Act ivity This category includes such hobbies/involvement/activity as singing in a music group, community work, working on cars, sports, learning a computer language, and even some aspects of the job search. The activities noted were seen as positive because they increased one's sense of involvement, increased energy, stimulated thought, immersed one into something, developed skills, or simply were personally enjoyable. This category would seem to imply support for Hartley's (1980) finding that structured activity increased self-esteem and prevented apathy, and Kirsh's 1983 listing of interests, hobbies and leisure pursuits being mobilized to act as a buffer for the middle class unemployed. Trips The 'trips' category includes both the planning and the travelling aspects of vacations to Europe, the Middle East, Mexico, New York, Japan, Hong Kong or Calgary. These vacations ranged in length from one week to several months and included aspects of escape, learning, fun, excitement, morale boosting, celebration of graduation, and suppression of discomfort with the unemployment experience.  72  The high popularity and use of trips for this sample supports Picot's 1980 finding that the highly educated are geographically mobile. Increased Optimism Through Trends or Opportunities This category includes such circumstances as the job market picking up, the possibility of contract work being extended, news of others being hired, news of opportunities in one's field, and awareness of advantageous times to apply for jobs. Getting Interviews and Successful Interviews This category includes a sense of satisfaction and optimism due to receiving and or completing interviews successfully. There may also be a sense of being rewarded for one's effort in the job search and optimism that one is being seriously considered and has a chance at some job. Got a Job This category includes both full-time and contract positions related to one's field, and temporary unrelated positions. Getting a job was experienced as positive due to the feeling of relief it engendered, the fact that it filled time or made one feel useful, and because it instilled hope for the future in that what happens once may occur a second time.  73  End of School The "end of school' category includes celebratory feelings of getting out of school, being finished, a sense of completion, and expectation of something new.  Relief at being done with  exams and essays is also mentioned. Re 1 axat i on The 'relaxation' category emphasizes traditional aspects of summertime: spending time at the beach swimming and sunbathing, and socializing with friends at parties and barbecues. A sense of fun as well as absence of serious worries is noted. One component of this category would seem to suggest support for Macky and Haines 1982 finding of increased socializing with friends. Graduat ion This category is described as being a "high point", and a "peak", resulting in positive personal feelings. An enjoyment of the whole month leading up to graduation, the ritual and speech aspects of the ceremony itself, and the sense of "payoff" and resulting high expectations are all included in this category. This category seems to contribute to a 'blurring' effect similar to that mentioned by Swinburne (1981). Many seemed to feel that their university experience continued on until the  74  graduation ceremony, resulting in a continuing involvement similar to that of Swinburne's managers. Job Offers 'Job offers' highlights the sense of excitement of being able to choose one's path and the possibility of further offers for full-time rather than contract or part-time work. A sense of satisfaction due to the experience and money about to be gained is also noted. Co-workers or Clients Enjoyment of or similarity to co-workers, clients, or employers is noted. New Year This category emphasizes the increased possibility of being hired because of new jobs starting and the resulting increased incentive and expectations based upon the start of a new year. Encouraging Advice This category includes advice from others, such as specific recommendations for resume revision, suggestions to contact others, and positive comments concerning presently used job search techniques. The resulting sense of having a chance in the  75  future is also included. Postponing Job Search This category includes the initial postponing of job search due to complications with graduation necessitating writing an additional exam as well as the intermittent periods of choosing to take time off from the job search in order to reevaluate one's career goals. A feeling of relief accompanied the postponement. Quitting Jobs This category involves the termination of employment because conditions were intolerable or in order to enroll full-time in an educational course. In all cases a positive feeling of relief was noted. Negative Critical Incident Categories People Negatives The 'people negatives' category is comprised of the following sub-sections and occasionally their resulting negative emotions: friends' enquiry as to how the job search is going and the resulting sense of pressure; peoples' complaints about the laziness of youth and yet their lack of attempt to offer youth a chance to work when hiring and the co-researchers' resulting anger; peoples' lack of understanding of how difficult the job  76  search is in the present day and resulting feelings of bitterness; lack of understanding in general from friends and boyfriends; romantic break-ups; concern for various family members and resulting depression and fatigue; friends who are similarly depressed and discouraged about the prospects of one's field and resulting personal increased discouragement; a sense of competition with each year's new graduates and with experienced professionals in one's field; a sense of envy, dissimilarity from and/or isolation from one's friends due to their involvement in work or education, their choice of accepting employment in a field other than their trained field, or their absence; a sense of letting professors down because of lack of accomplishment in one's field; and irritating job search advice from relatives and friends resulting in a feeling of pressure. This category supports Marsden's 1982 finding that having people enquire about one's job search success is a negative experience, and Kelvin's 1981 finding of social isolation as a negative experience. Working Negatives 'Working negatives' includes negative aspects of both full and part-time, and related an unrelated work to one's field. These negative aspects include such things as competitiveness, low wages, poor treatment, sore feet, lack of security, the need  77  to present a false image via dress and appearing to be happy, lack of ability to schedule free time due to varying shift work, physical demands of work resulting in exhaustion, lack of breaks, lack of stimulation, overwork, and lack of possibility for future promot ion. Money 'Money' involves depression or pressure from such things as lack of money for repayment of one's student loan, concern for interest on loan mounting, money or unemployment insurance running out, lack of money for buying things, having to borrow money, or having to apply for unemployment insurance or welfare. This category supports Kirsh's (1983) report of the increased financial fears of the unemployed. D i scouragement This category is comprised of the following aspects: discouraging advice from an employment counsellor concerning one's choice of job search techniques; research implying lack of feasibility of getting into certain fields; lack of encouragement at Career Day; newspaper articles mentioning negative aspects of the economy and businesses shutting down; being labelled 'overqua1ified'; comments from a potential employer concerning the huge number of applications received for a position;  78 opportunities in the United States which are off limits to Canadians; and the overwhelming difficulty of getting volunteer work in one field suggesting the impossibility of acquiring paid work. Devalued University Degree This category covers negative feelings related to one's university degree. Aspects such as the uselessness and wasted years of going to university, the lack of value of a B.A., the similarity between a B.A. and a high school diploma, the greater value of a college diploma, and the similarity of status between a university grad and a high school grad are mentioned. Employers' lack of interest in one's degree is also noted. This category does suggest support for the author's assumption of increased stigmatization due to the 'wasted time' spent in the graduates' education. One co-researcher was angry when a journalist asked her is she thought higher education would help her get a job. She felt that this devalued the university experience. This supports the author's prediction that having people inquire about what good a university degree is going to do one contributes to a negative experience. It is interesting to note the extensive use of further education as a positive experience in light of this devalued university degree category. It would seem that, although aware  79 of the decreasing value of a degree in general, co-researchers may translate this caution to being related to a 'first' or undergraduate degree or a more general (i.e. not career-related) degree only. Self Doubt/Guilt 'Self doubt/guilt' involves some sense of things being one's own fault and a resulting lowering of self-esteem. It includes comparing oneself to others, and wishing that one could change some aspect of one's job search to date such as looking elsewhere, looking longer, looking harder, behaving differently in an interview, or restricting oneself less. This category would tend to differentiate the unemployed university graduate youth from the youth studied by Borgen and Amundson (1984, p. 61) who tended to "blame others for misfortunes", and support Kirsh's (1983) findings of youth turning anger toward themselves. Nothing New Available This category emphasizes the lack of any new positions to apply for including the bleak and unchanging job posting boards at the Canada Employment Centre, and newspaper want ads. This category in combination with the CEC irritation category is similar to the negative critical incident category  80 labelled "C.E.I.C.(No jobs available, discouraging conversation with counsellor)" (1984, p. 19) identified for the males, females and immigrants group in Borgen and Amundson's study. No Success 'No success' includes failure to acquire a job offer, an interview, or an information/contact interview, and the resulting sense of rejection. St agnat ion/Boredom This category covers the boring routine of part-time work, the lack of anything new to experience, the sense of being 'on hold', and having too much free time on one's hands and nothing to do. This category supports Kirsh (1983) and Marsden's (1982) findings of youths' state of boredom while unemployed. Exams and Papers 'Exams and papers' includes the sense of being under pressure or stress due to final exams or heavy assignments. No Response This category includes the lack of feedback received after sending in applications, letters, or resumes, and the resulting  81 feelings of discouragement and irritation and sense that society doesn't care. CEC Irritation This category is comprised of irritation caused by lack of helpfulness, bad treatment, restrictive rules, lack of follow-up, and insensitive comments from Canada Employment Centre counsellors. The anger expressed in this category supports Kirsh's 1983 finding of anger being directed toward institutions and aspects of government. This category is similar to the negative critical incident category labelled "hassles with C.E.I.C." (1984, p. 31) identified for the males and females group in the 1984 Borgen and Amundson study. Getting the Run Around The 'run around' comprises multiple visits or phone calls necessitated by unclear messages concerning when someone was available, when interviews would be held, whether a job was actually available, or when final hiring decisions would be made. End of Temporary/Contract Work This category includes disappointment at not acquiring any  82  extended work, loosing one's source of income, and having to rush quickly into another job search. No Job Offer This category concerns being informed that one did not acquire the position that one expected to get due to a personal invitation to an interview, or a highly successful interview. It also includes having an offer withdrawn due to lack of funds. Dressing Up 'Dressing up' emphasizes the false image or self-marketing aspect of putting on conventional job search clothes and trying not to look too desperate. Cynicism Due to Nepotism This category includes a feeling of cynicism due to observations or assumptions that people are hired by relatives or contacts. It also includes cynicism related to one's own hiring in this manner as being the only possible way. Indecisive This category includes indecision relating to choosing a career area in which to focus one's job search, choosing which educational program to apply for, or whether to accept short-term  83 positions or wait for more long-term jobs to become available. Developmental Hold-Up This category includes postponing the goals of getting married or moving away from one's parental home, and supports the findings of Tiggemann and Winefield (1984), Gurney (1980a), and Hill (1977), who advocate an 'impediment to development' view of unemployed youth. One co-researcher laughed and explained that she "couldn't afford to get married", when asked the question of marital status. Job Search Post 'School-End' Almost invariably in this sample some kind of minimal job search was engaged in almost immediately after the end of school concurrent with the initial 'holiday period' (to be discussed further in section 2. of this chapter: summary patterns in the experience). More extensive job search, however, began at the termination of the initial 'holiday period'. Throughout the experience a possible 16 methods of positive job search were identified, with a minimum of three and an average of approximately five methods utilized per graduate. Table 9 presents the frequency of job search methods utilized post 'schoo 1-end'. Included in this table is a further method entitled 'applying for anything (desperate/unfocused)'. This is  TABLE 9 Frequency  of  Job S e a r c h Methods U t i 1 i z e d  n  Job  s e a r c h method  7  CEC  7  Newspaper want ads  6  Sending out  5  Cold  5  Post School  u n s o l i c i t e d resume  calls  Networking  5  Applying  for anything  5  Part-time  4  Regular  3  Considering related or a l t e r n a t i v e  3  Writing/rewriting  3  Clarifying/reevaluating  3  Education  2  Job  2  R e s e a r c h i n g c o n t a c t names and s o u r c e s  1  Keeping organized  1  Volunteer  1  University  work  (desperate/unfocused)  ( r e l a t e d and  unrelated)  follow-up fields  resumes goals  to i n c r e a s e m a r k e t a b i l i t y  s e a r c h workshops  track of  work career  day  contacts  made  End  85 not considered a positive job search method in that it did not encourage confidence in either the job searchers or the potential employers. Lack of clear goals and apparent desperation are not often cited as guarantees or even possible aids in finding work. Given that Kirsh (1983) cites educational resources, and easy access to helping professions as typical buffers that the unemployed middle class utilize, it is interesting to note the low usage of the university career day, and job search workshops, and the non-existence of helping profession usage (i.e. career counsellors). It may be that the personal nature of consulting with a counsellor prevented co-researchers from mentioning such an activity, although other similarly personal topics such as relationship break-down and self-doubt were discussed openly. A wide variety of types of jobs were applied for during the university graduates' unemployment experience, ranging from professional to menial positions. Table 10 presents the frequency of jobs applied for or considered. Pay scales referring to temporary work experience during unemployment were mentioned within the interview, and ranged from minimum wage to nine dollars per hour in one instance, with the great majority being on the 'low' end of the scale. During the interview only one co-researcher mentioned having turned positions down and it was a situation in which she had never applied for the position. She was offerred a full-time  TABLE 10 Frequency  of  Jobs  Applied  For  or  Considered  Job  5  Secretarial/clerical  5  Anything  4  Sales  4  Engineer  3  (mechanical or e l e c t r i c a l )  Temporary/unrelated  2  Researcher  1  Statistics  analyst  1  Biomedical  field  1  Physics  1  Principal  1  Teacher  1  Museum p o s i t i o n s  1  Activity  1  Self-employed  1  Technician  1  Store c l e r k / c a s h i e r  related  planner tutor  (table  continues)  Job  n  1  Military  1  Cocktail  1 1  waitress  Dishwasher Factory  worker  88 within her field. These job search results differ from those of Roberts, Duggan and Noble (1982) who found that youth often turned jobs down due to long distances from their homes, insufficient pay or other forms of unsuitabi1ity. It was noted, however, that four of the co-researchers in this study had limited their job search to the lower mainland area due to their preference for this area. These results also differ from those found by Borgen and Amundson (1984). Unlike the youth in this study who utilized a wide range of methods of job search and persisted in searching throughout long periods of unemployment, the youth studied by Borgen and Amundson "demonstrated a lack of job search skills, [and] a lack of persistence in seeking work" (Borgen and Amundson, 1984, p. 60). This study's results seem most comparable to those of Powell and Drisco1 1 ( 1973) who found that middle class professionals were able to maintain a sustained, organized job search after an initial holiday period involving avoidance of the job search. Although the university graduates in this study experienced "energy slumps" which interrupted their job search they invariably returned and continued to expand in their use of different methods.  89 Effects of Knowledge of the Unemployment Situation Contrary to Swinburne's 1981 and Hartley's 1980 findings, the majority of the unemployed in this study did not find awareness of the unemployment situation to be a supportive belief contributing to lack of shame, or decreased anger and depression (Powell and Driscoll, 1973). On the contrary, the majority of this sample found an awareness of the unemployment situation to have a negative effect. Three co-researchers found what seemed to be a contradiction to the unemployment situation in that most of their friends had either found employment or were returning to school, leaving the co-researchers feeling like they were the only ones left unemployed. Two co-researchers became more depressed due to their awareness of the extensive unemployment situation, and one co-researcher experienced an increased sense of dread at the onslaught of the experience due to his knowledge. This awareness encouraged another co-researcher to postpone his job search due to his expected lack of success, while a different co-researcher was seemingly denied support due to all of her unemployed friends having no patience with her complaints about the job search because she had been more successful (in attaining some intermittent contract positions) than they had. Another co-researcher didn't feel supported by his awareness of the situation due to the lack of awareness demonstrated by others, particularly those "over forty", who criticized him for not  90 finding work as if he couldn't possibly be trying or he would have found something by then. Awareness of the situation did seem to minimize shame for two co-researchers who explained that: ' "it's not you that can't get a job. It's the economy forcing it on you".  "I don't think  I feel unemployed yet at least mentally speaking.  I don't think  it's my fault I haven't got a job yet...There are two types of people: one, the person who can't find work because of themselves, and the other, the people who can't find work because of the economic situation". In each case, however, the co-researcher was "very disappointed...real low" despite his seemingly decreased shame. Present Status The overwhelming majority (92%) of the co-researchers were involved in some aspect of employment or education at the time of the interview. Table 11 presents the co-researchers' employment status. This table actually represents employment status to be put into effect within 10 days following the interview. Because the interviews were held in early summer, many of the job offers were finalized between the time of arranging the interview and when it actually took place. One co-researcher had been full-time employed for only three days at the time of the interview, and another was to start one day following the  TABLE Frequency of  n  11  Employment S t a t u s C a t e g o r i e s  Employment  status  2  F u l l - t i m e work,  related  1  Summer w o r k ,  related  3  Summer w o r k ,  unrelated to  2  Part-time work,  to  to  field  field field  unrelated to  field  92 interview. The latter had confirmed his offer one day preceding the interview. Three of the four co-researchers employed for the summer were to begin work within 10 days following the interview. Table 12 presents the co-researchers' educational involvement. All involvement represented is part-time with the exception of one co-researcher who was attending a CEC training course full- time. Two-thirds of the sample were currently involved or were considering future involvement in education of some kind. This extensive involvement in education and/or employment during the unemployment experience would seem to differentiate the university graduate youth from youth who "avoid making responsible commitments" (Borgen and Amundson, 1984, p. 61). Living Situation Although no separate interview question concerned this topic, co-researchers revealed their living situation in the interview responses and in making arrangements as to where the interview could be held. Three-quarters of the sample were currently living in the parental home. One co-researcher had moved out on her own after 7.5 months of unemployment despite concern at supporting herself while unemployed. Only two co-researchers had lived away from their families for the complete unemployment experience.  TABLE Frequency  ri  Note.  of  Types  of  12  Educational  Educational  involvement  2  University  1  College  1  Manpower  1  Miscellaneous courses  4  Future Categories  training  course  plans are  Involvement  non-exclusive.  94  These results may somewhat support the author's assumption that a university graduate would be less likely to be financially desperate due to middle class family support, although different aspects mentioned concerning money were found to be substantial enough to form a negative critical incident category. Future Expectations Despite the downward trend of the unemployment experience approximately 83% displayed positive or hopeful future expectations at the time of the interview. One of the remaining two co-researchers expected no change: "what I expect to happen is a lot more waiting and a lot more putting my wishes on hold...I don't think there's going to be much change in my lifestyle...".  The final co-researcher expressed mixed  expectations comprised of pessimistic feelings concerning employment possibilities and cautiously optimistic feelings concerning returning to university for further education. Some of those who presented positive or hopeful expectations seemed to interpret the question in terms of 'wants' rather than the intended 'predictions'. Others expressed somewhat unrealistic or fantasizing hopes. Three of those expressing positive/hopeful expectations relied heavily upon educational possibilities in themselves or as methods to improve their marketability. One of these co-researchers expressed positive  95 views but did so in such a dispirited voice that it was difficult to believe in the validity of her words. Another co-researcher within the positive/hopeful category seemed without any internal locus of control and emphasized the difficulty predicting future results in this matter. It would seem that the graduates wanted to be hopeful despite some internal sense of disbelief warning them that they might be disappointed.  Even one of those who had  recently obtained full-time work directly within his field and might therefore be labelled a success seemed to have incorporated some caution even in the face of success.  In discussing his  expectations in relation to going back to school for his M.B.A. in two or three years he states: "I would expect to get accepted but I may not".  This co-researcher had been the top of his class  in mechanical engineering, yet had seemingly incorporated the awareness that past results do not necessarily predict future outcomes. He had been unemployed for 13.5 months, without any related or unrelated work whatsoever in the interim. In contrast to Warr's 1978 (p. 119) finding that youth were "content to remain unemployed", this sample invariably either implied or directly stated a desire for employment. 2. Summary of Patterns in the Experience The experience was found to consist of two major segments: the initial holiday period, and the downward trend.  96  The Initial Holiday Period The initial holiday period follows the end of classes and exams and commences with the high expectations discusssed previously in the initial future expectations section. The initial holiday period was found to be characterized by the occurrence of five types of positive critical incidents, and three types of negative critical incidents. The five distinguishing positive critical incident categories are 'end of school', 'graduation', 'postponing job search', 'relaxation', and 'trips', and the three negative critical incident categories are 'CEC irritation', 'discouragement', and 'money'. These categories have been previously discussed in this chapter. All but three of the eight distinguishing categories were found to be unique to the initial holiday period.  'CEC irritation' was not  found to occur after the September following graduation perhaps because the graduates became more accepting of CEC practices and personalities or because as autumn commences the graduates utilized the CEC less as they improvised additional job search methods. The 'discouragement', 'money', and 'trips' categories continued to appear in the graduates' unemployment experience after the initial holiday period. The holiday period is a positive, hopeful period full of celebrations, relaxation, social activities and trips, climaxing in the graduation ceremony. It is not, however, entirely idyllic as the 'discouragement', 'CEC  97  irritation', and 'money' categories of incidents imply. Although serious job search efforts were not found to commence whole-heartedly until after the initial holiday period, the period does include occasional intermittent job search attempts which produce the majority of the negative incidents. Initially, however, the impact of these negative incidents is considerably dulled by the overwhelming sense of relief at being out of school, and the distracting aspects of summertime. As one graduate put it, "it was still summer so it was really hard to get really worried". Two groups differing in length of holiday period emerged upon analysis. One group consisted of four co-researchers who had been unemployed for 2.5 months. The holiday period for this group ranged from a few days to four weeks in length, averaging approximately three weeks. The second group included eight co-researchers who ranged from 13.5 to 38 months of unemployment. The holiday period for this group ranged from one to seven months, and averaged approximately 3.5 months in length. The existence of these two groups may be due to the methodology utilized which stresses one's remembrance of a time past. It may be that more recent negative occurrences have a more significant place in one's memory rendering the longer holiday period group more aware of recent (long-term) negative occurrences and less aware of the difficulties of their first  98 summer in their period of unemployment. These are presently only conjectures and indicate topics for future research. The Downward Trend The remainder of the university graduates' experience of unemployment was found to take the form of a downward trend, punctuated by negative and positive incidents (discussed previously in this chapter) and occasional 'blips' or dramatic upward shifts. These incidents and 'blips' or shifts occur in an idiosyncratic manner throughout the experience with no observable patterns of time-frame or order. The 'blips' or dramatic upward shifts were found to occur on the following five occasions: after being invited to an interview, after an important interview, after a job offer, at the new year, and when starting a new educational program. 'Blips' may be distinguished from similar positive critical incidents by the greater level of significance and duration of the 'blip' experience. Figure 1 is a visual representation of the experience of unemployment. Comparison of Results to Borgen and Amundson's 1984 Findings Three of the six groups described in Borgen and Amundson's 1984 in-depth study of the experience of unemployment are notable in relation to the university graduate population of this study.  Time Figure  1.  Unemployment  Experience Periods  100 The three pertinent groups are a) youth, b) males, females and immigrants, and c) males and females. Although the Borgen and Amundson (1984) youth sample was similar to the sample in this study in age, marital status, and average number of months unemployed, the results suggest some major differences. Initially the samples were differentiated by educational level. The youth in the Borgen and Amundson study were high school graduates with "little or no post-secondary education" (1984, p. 57). University graduates were found to be more knowledgeable, flexible, and creative in their job search endeavours. Although the university graduates complained of being unprepared for the job search they eventually either researched or experimented with alternative methods, and kept going throughout long periods of unemployment in spite of occasionally hampering "energy slumps". Contrary to Borgen and Amundson's 1984 youth, university graduates found many areas such as trips, further education, part-time work, hobbies/invo1vement/activity, and the job search itself in which they channelled their energy. The university graduates' extensive involvement in some aspect of employment or education at the time of the interview supports their ability to make responsible commitments--another factor lacking in the Borgen and Amundson youth sample. University graduates tended to internalize blame rather than  101 blaming others and were characterized by feelings of disappointment, disillusionment, discouragement, and frustration rather than the helplessness and anger characterizing Borgen and Amundson's 1984 less educated youth. Both youth groups were found to be developmentally held up, and both were found to be pressured in the job search by parents. The university graduates, however, experienced much less pressure than the high school graduates in Borgen and Amundson's 1984 study. Both the negative and the positive factors identified for Borgen and Amundson's youth were similar to categories found in this study, although this study included a greater number of factors in each case. In contrast to the youth of Borgen and Amundson's 1984 study (p. 58), the youth in this sample could not be depicted to go 'up' in their experience regardless of any substitution for work (i.e. hobbies, activities, leisure) other than further education. Even in the case of further education, however, the mood of the co-researchers could at best be described as temporarily up, as if they were still in wait of a long-term solution to their situation. The males, females and immigrants group in Borgen and Amundson's 1984 study was generally older, more often married with dependents, and unemployed for a shorter period of time than  102 the university graduate sample in this study. The university graduates' initial high future expectations concerning the possibility of finding work, earning money, and making an impact upon the world is similar to the "initial enthusiasm phase characterized by optimism" (1984, p. 21) identified for the Borgen and Amundson group. Although the males and females group in the Borgen and Amundson (1984) sample was also generally older, more often married with dependents, and unemployed for a shorter period of time than the university graduate sample in this study, the results suggest some similarities.  The males and females group  was comprised of unemployed people who had previously held upper middle class occupations, and had anticipated their job loss. The university graduates were similar in that they expected a change of status. Both samples reacted to the loss with relief, and both engaged in a holiday period previous to extensive job search. The males and females group engaged in minimal job search prior to job loss even though they were expecting job loss. This result is somewhat similar to the university graduates' job search pre-'school end'. Although b8% of the graduates did follow through on some job search pre-'school end', the activities engaged in were fairly minimal.  103 3. Exhaustive Holistic Description The university graduate approaches the on-coming experience of unemployment usually armed with extensive previous summer and/or part-time work experience in such positions as sales or factory work although he or she may have been unemployed in the summer previous to graduation. The university experience is usually seen to have been a very positive period in the graduates' life, characterized by fun, socializing with friends, and personal growth, although some graduates may have been disappointed by some aspect of the experience such as course difficulty demanding continuous struggle. The graduates' job search for employment usually begins before the end of school, sometime between November and March, and may include as many as four of five possible job search actions such as writing one's resume, attending the on-campus Career Day, checking the newspaper for job opportunities, checking the on-campus Canada Employment Centre job posting board, or actually applying for positions. Although the graduates may average approximately one job search activity before school ends, there are some who may only think about the job search rather than take action, and a very small number who may admit to not even thinking of it due to school pressure. Near the end of classes and exams most graduates express  104 quite high, positive expectations of the future including expecting to find a job, looking forward to graduation, having "visions and dreams of doing these great accomplishments", and "high hopes". Some may express low expectations relating to their awareness of the unemployment situation and knowledge of how difficult the job search may be, and a smaller number may express mixed expectations, admitting to an awareness of the negative aspects of the situation but seemingly accepting it. These preliminary high expectations of the future represent the beginning of what may be called the graduates' initial holiday period which follows the end of classes and exams and is the first major segment of their experience of unemployment. The initial holiday period may vary in length from a few days to seven months, averaging approximately three weeks in length for those interviewed after 2.5 months of unemployment, and averaging approximately 3.5 months in length for those interviewed after anywhere from 13.5 to 38 months of unemployment. The initial holiday period may be characterized by the occurrence of five types of positive critical incidents and three types of negative critical incidents. The five distinguishing positive critical incident categories are 'end of school', 'graduation', 'postponing job search', 'relaxation', and 'trips', and the three negative critical incident categories are 'CEC irritation', 'discouragement', and 'money'.  105 The 'end of school' category includes celebratory feelings of getting out of school, being finished, a sense of completion, an expectation of something new, and feelings of relief at being done with exams and essays.  It is like "seeing the end of your  last year at university...[feeling] good just to be getting out of school. I guess a little bit proud... about completing it...try something different". 'Graduation' emphasizes a "high point" or "peak", positive personal feelings, an enjoyment of the whole month leading up to the ceremony, the ritual and speech aspects of the ceremony itself, and the sense of "payoff" and high expectations resulting from graduating.  This category is like "feeling pretty good  about everything... compensated for all...[the] years of study". 'Postponing job search' may occur due to complications with graduation or as intermittent time-off periods taken to re-evaluate career goals. One graduate stated that "at regular intervals I felt it was time to feel better—think of what I want to do...before examining real possibi1ities--if I could, what would I want to be". 'Relaxation' emphasizes traditional aspects of summertime: spending time at the beach swimming and sunbathing, and socializing with friends at parties and bar-b-q's. A sense of fun is stressed. One graduate stated that she was "happy because it was summertime...al1 the fun and excitement that you have".  106  'Trips' includes planning and travelling aspects of vacations to such places as Europe, the Middle East, Mexico, New York, Japan, Hong Kong, or Calgary, ranging in length from one week to several months. This may include a sense of escape, learning, fun, excitement, morale boosting, or celebration. One example of this category is the following quote: "I picked up my spirits and said 'well, why not go on a trip?' So we went to Mexico. That really cheered everybody up". 'CEC irritation' is caused by lack of helpfulness, bad treatment, restrictive rules,, lack of follow-up, and insensitive comments from CEC counsellors. One graduate stated that the CEC counsellors treated her "like dirt", and another described the counsellors as "unfeeling". 'Discouragement' includes discouraging advice from an employment counsellor concerning choice of job search techniques, research implying lack of feasibility of getting into certain fields, lack of encouragement at Career Day, newspaper articles mentioning negative aspects of the economy and businesses shutting down, being labelled 'overqual ified', comments from a potential employer concerning the huge number of applications received for a position, opportunities elsewhere which are off-limits, and the difficulty obtaining a volunteer job suggesting the impossibility of obtaining paid work. One graduate stated: "Every time you read the paper you read about  107 another depressing thing...and you think 'oh shit', especially if it's something related to what you're looking for". Another stated that a potential employer warned her: hopeful.  "don't be too  I have 100 applications sitting there".  'Money' includes depression or pressure from lack of money for repayment of one's student loan, concern for mounting interest on loan, money or unemployment insurance running out, lack of money for buying things, having to borrow money, or to apply for unemployment insurance or welfare. simply:  One graduate stated  "I don't have a cent...[and] I have nowhere to borrow  the money from". Five of the eight previously mentioned categories of incidents were found to occur only in the initial holiday period. Incidents within the categories of 'discouragement', 'money', and 'trips' continued to appear in the graduates' unemployment experience after the initial holiday period. The initial holiday period may be seen as a positive, generally hopeful period full of celebrations, relaxation, social activities, and trips, climaxing in the graduation ceremony. It is not, however, entirely idyllic, as the 'discouragement', 'CEC irritation' and 'money' categories of incidents imply. Although serious job search efforts do not commence whole-heartedly until after the initial holiday period, the period does include occasional, intermittent job search attempts which produce the  108  majority of the negative incidents mentioned. Initially, however, the impact of these negative incidents is considerably dulled by the overwhelming sense of relief at being out of school, and the distracting aspects of summertime. As one graduate put it, "it was still summer so it was really hard to get really worried". Most graduates may first 'feel' unemployed at some time during the experience, including such times as from two to three months before graduation, two weeks before one's final exam, at the end of exams, in mid May, at the graduation itself, in September, or much later (after 25 months). Although the median time at which the graduates first felt unemployed was at graduation, some expressed that they had never felt unemployed. Although the initial holiday period may have included some slight worries or irritations, at some point in each graduates's description of the experience an initial significant negative experience was mentioned which, in the majority of cases, ended the holiday period for each of them. Emotions such as loss, shock, pressure, regret, discouragement, and depression may be expressed in relation to such experiences as realizing that things were not available as expected, being notified that one's student loan would be due, receiving bleak advice, experiencing self-doubt, realizing that one's degree is not value, and in general having one's expectations shattered. One graduate  109  related her discouragement to "having all these expectations after finishing school and not living up to them". Another graduate stated: "Your world is coming apart day by day. As soon as you hit reality it's like 'bang'!" This initial negative experience was found to begin the overall downward pattern that the rest of the unemployment experience is characterized by. This downward trend is punctuated by positive and negative incidents which accordingly affect one's emotions. Positive incidents which may occur to temporarily uplift one throughout the experience are such things as receiving money either from paid employment or unemployment insurance, being emotionally supported by or considering oneself similar to friends or relatives, engaging in some kind of hobby, involvement, or activity, experiencing increased optimism through trends or opportunities, getting even a temporary job, enjoying one's co-workers, receiving encouraging advice, or quitting jobs. Negative incidents which may occur to temporarily render one downcast throughout the experience are such things as being asked how the job search is going, hearing about the laziness of youth, knowing that people misunderstand the present difficulty level of job searching, lack of understanding from people, romantic break-ups, concern for family members, being with similarly depressed unemployed people, feeling a sense of competition with  110  each new year's graduates and professionals in one's field, feeling dissimilar to or isolated from one's friends, feeling one has 'let down' one's mentors, receiving job search advice from friends or relatives, experiencing negative aspects of part-time or contract work such as competitiveness, low wages, poor treatment, physical demands, lack of breaks, or lack of stimulation, running out of money, having to borrow money or apply for UIC or welfare, receiving discouraging advice, hearing discouraging trends, being labelled over-qualified, realizing the low value of a university degree, experiencing some sense of self-doubt in one's job search capabilities or choice of methods, realizing that there is nothing available, experiencing no success in the job search, feeling bored, having time on one's hands, feeling as if things are on 'hold', being pressured by exams or papers, receiving no response from applications, letters, or resumes, getting the 'run around', not getting extended work or a job offer when expected, having to dress up and present a false image, feeling cynical due to observations of nepotism, feeling indecisive concerning career goals, job search methods, or educational programs, and postponing marriage or moving out of the parental home. The previous positive and negative incidents may occur during the initial holiday period or may extend in an idiosyncratic manner throughout the complete unemployment  Ill  exper ience. An awareness of the extensive national unemployment situation will most likely hinder rather than help one's unemployment experience in that some graduates may find what seems to be a contradiction to this information. Many of the graduates' friends may be either employed or going back to school, leaving the graduates to feel as if they are the only ones left unemployed. Others may become more depressed or experience a sense of dread because of this awareness, and some may be encouraged to postpone their job search due to expected lack of success. Other graduates who have attained some intermittent work may be denied support from friends who are less fortunate who feel that the graduates have been relatively successful, and some graduates will be bitter towards people who are ignorant of the unemployment situation and who insist on seemingly contradictory data--if the unemployed were more energetic they would surely be working. Awareness of the situation may in occasional cases minimize shame when it is viewed that unemployment is "the economy forcing it on you". Reduction of shame will most likely not, however, reduce disappointment or depression. Throughout the experience 'blips' or occasional dramatic upward shifts may occur representing more significant and longer lasting positive incidents. These 'blips' may include receiving  112 job offers, considering or engaging in further education, getting interviews or having successful interviews, or becoming renewed in energy by the new year. Throughout the experience a possible 16 methods of positive job search may be utilized, with a minimum of three and an average of approximately five methods utilized per graduate. Positive methods include use of the CEC, writing and rewriting resumes, newspaper want ads, sending out unsolicited resumes, contacting people for information interviews, networking, considering related or alternative fields, keeping notes on contacts organized by index cards, regular follow-up, clarifying or reevaluating goals, researching contact names and sources, job search workshops, volunteer work, part-time work, university Career Day, and education to increase marketability. Another less positive job search method entitled 'applying for anything (desperate/unfocused)' may also be attempted at some time in the experience but it is usually disbanded after a short time. A wide variety of types of jobs may be applied for ranging from professional positions such as engineer, researcher, and analyst to less exacting employment such as cocktail waitress, dishwasher, and factory worker. Many may apply for sales and secretaria 1/clerica 1 positions and, as suggested in the desperate/unfocused job search category, some will go through a period of applying for anything.  113 Pay scales for part-time or contract work attained during the unemployment experience may include minimum wage, very low, low, or commission wages, and, in some rare cases, a substantial rate per hour for factory work. Rarely will any positions be turned down except in an occasional case when an unrelated part-time position is offerred to be extended to full-time which would impede the job search for a related position. During unemployment most graduates may be involved in some aspect of employment and/or education. Some may find a full-time position related to their field, ending their unemployment experience. Others may be offerred summer work either related or unrelated to their field, and some may attain part-time or contract work. Most graduates will be engaged in or planning some form of education at either a university, a college, a Canada Employment Centre training course, or an adult continuing education centre. Most will be involved only part-time but some will contemplate full-time education in order to step out of the unemployment experience. Most graduates live in their parents' home for the duration of the unemployment experience although that is a source of frustration for some. Some may have been on their own since university and may attempt to maintain that living situation. In  114  rare cases a graduate may move out of the parental home to live alone during the unemployment experience due to a pressing need for independence. Despite the downward trend of the unemployment experience most graduates display positive or hopeful future expectations when asked. Some may also expect "no change", and some may have mixed expectations comprised of pessimistic feelings concerning employment possibilities and cautiously optimistic feelings concerning returning to university for further education. The positive expectations may be an expression of 'wants' rather than "predictions', and may include unrealistic hopes, or rely heavily upon educational possibilities as methods to improve marketability. A sense of wanting to be hopeful despite some inner sense of disbelief is conveyed. Most hopes, however, contain a guarded cautiousness, seemingly based upon disillusionment developed since their graduation. 4. Condensed Narrative Description The university graduate approaches the experience of unemployment armed with extensive previous summer and/or part-time work experience, and a very positive view of the university experience just completed. The graduate will most likely have started his or her job search sometime between January and March preceding graduation by  115 either looking at the newspaper employment advertisements or checking the on-campus employment centre job posting board. Near the end of exams the graduate will feel "full of high hopes" about his or her future. These positive feelings mark the onslaught of the initial holiday period within the experience of unemployment. This period may last from approximately three weeks to 3.5 months, and is characterized as a positive, generally hopeful period full of celebrations, relaxation, social activities, and trips, and climaxes in the graduation ceremony. Some initial job search activities commence resulting in some minor irritations. Most graduates first experience the sense of 'feeling unemployed' near the date of the graduation ceremony, but the initial holiday period may offer sufficient distractions to minimize this effect. The initial holiday period was found to end with the graduate's first significant negative experience usually related to some aspect of disillusionment with the job search, or reminder that one's student loan is soon due.  These experiences  produce feelings of discouragement or depression and a sense of being "brought... down to reality". This initial negative experience was found to begin the second stage of the unemployment experience--that of the downward trend characterized by more extensive and persistent job search,  116 occasional significant 'blips' or dramatic upward shifts, and punctuations of positive and negative incidents. A wide variety of types of jobs may be applied for ranging from professional to menial positions. Sales and secretarial/ clerical positions are popular.  Salaries earned from part-time  or contract work during the experience are usually quite low, and rarely will a position be turned down. A wide range of job search methods may be utilized by the graduates including the CEC and newspaper want ads. Many will also go through a desperate period of applying to anything. 'Blips' represent significant upward shifts occurring when graduates receive job offers, get interviews or have successful interviews, consider or engage in further education, or become renewed in energy by the new year. Positive categories of incidents occurring over the downward trend are such things as receiving money either from paid employment or unemployment insurance, being emotionally supported by or considering oneself similar to friends or relatives, engaging in some kind of hobby, involvement or activity, experiencing increased optimism through trends or opportunities, getting even a temporary job, enjoying one's co-workers, receiving encouraging advice, or quitting jobs. Negative categories of incidents include being asked how the job search is going, hearing about the laziness of youth, knowing  117  that people misunderstand the present difficulty of job searching, lack of understanding from people, romantic break-ups, concern for family members, being with similarly depressed people, feeling a sense of competition with each new year's graduates and professionals in one's field, feeling dissimilar to or isolated from one's friends, feeling one has 'let down' one's mentors, receiving job search advice from friends or relative, experiencing negative aspects of part-time or contract work such as competitiveness, low wages, poor treatment, physical demands, lack of breaks, or lack of stimulation, running out of money, having to borrow money or apply for UIC or welfare, receiving discouraging advice, hearing discouraging trends, being labelled over-qualified, realizing the low value of a university degree, experiencing some sense of self-doubt in one's job search capabilities, or choice of methods, realizing that there is nothing available, experiencing no success in the job search, feeling bored, having time on one's hands, feeling as if things are on 'hold', being pressured by exams or papers, receiving no response from applications, letters, or resumes, getting the 'run around', not getting extended work or a job offer when expected, having to dress up and present a false image, feeling cynical due to observations of nepotism, feeling indecisive concerning career goals, job search methods or educational programs, and postponing marriage or moving out of the parental home.  118 These positive and negative incidents may occur in an idiosyncratic manner throughout the experience. Generally, awareness of the national unemployment situation has negative rather than positive effects upon a graduate. Throughout the experience most graduates will be involved in some aspect of employment and/or education. Employment may be in the form of part-time, summer or contract work. Education may include university, college, CEC training courses, or adult education courses, usually on a part-time basis. The aspects of considering and planning educational involvement for the future are also common. Most graduates live in the parental home throughout the unemployment experience, and express positive or hopeful future expectations when asked.  These hopeful expectations seem to  represent more of an expression of 'wants' rather than predictions, and include seemingly unrealistic hopes and heavy reliance upon education to improve marketability. Most include a cautious element which is in marked contrast to their initial future expectations at the onset of the experience.  CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION This study has contributed to in-depth knowledge of the experience of unemployment for university graduates under 25 years of age. The experience was found to be comprised of two segments: the initial holiday period, and the downward trend. Two groups were identified as experiencing differing lengths of the initial holiday period. This is tentatively explained as a possible result of the methodology which emphasizes remembrance of a past experience and may result in augmentation of recent occurrences and suppression or blurring of distant occurrences. Idiosyncratica1ly occurring positive and negative critical incidents were identified. Job search activities were found to be most closely aligned with those of middle class professionals (Powell and Driscoll, 1973) and differentiated from the less educated youth studied by Borgen and Amundson (1984). In spite of the disillusionment that university graduates do experience, and the greater number of negative rather than positive critical incidents, it is found that they are skilled in channelling their energy into new areas of interest and activity, particularly further education. The balance of this chapter will be a discussion of this study's theoretical implications, implications for counselling, limitations of the study, and implications for further research.  119  120 Theoretical Implications This study's sample could be described, in terms of career development theory, as being blocked at the transition period between Super's (1957) exploration and development stages due, to a large extent, to the environmental factor of high unemployment. The final exploration stage task of entering an occupation to fulfill one's interests and abilities is seemingly on 'hold' for the unemployed university graduates. Many theorists do acknowledge environmental factors as a part of career development (Jordaan, 1974; Crites, 1974; Tiedeman and O'Hara, 1963; and Super, 1957), and some note the effect which environmental factors may have upon the individual (Sarason et al., 1975; and Dudley and Tiedeman, 1977). Career development theories, however, do seem to imply that successful completion of one stage's goals will lead to entry into the next higher stage. Although the environmental factors which may prevent this progression may be noted, their importance does not seem to be emphasized comparative to other individually based factors such as preference or abilities.  If it is true, as Osipow (1983, p.  209) states that "according to Dudley and Tiedeman, the major notions involved in the process of decision making in careers include. . . [that ] career development is built on ego identity continuously differentiating based on experience", then one could conclude that the university graduate's unemployment experience  121 would quite possibly effect ego identity and therefore career development — a substantial potential effect brought about by an environmental factor. The career development theories and career maturity measures to date seem to be based upon a belief that extensive awareness concerning job search techniques, and information about one's own occupational area coupled with interest and motivation will result in an individual securing suitable employment. Results from this study coupled with awareness of current economic patterns suggest that this bias may be outdated and irrelevant to the newly graduating job seeker. One co-researcher in this study highlights the present situation: Co-researcher #308 graduated from an engineering faculty near the top of his class. He had an impressive resume of summer and part-time employment related to his specialty field. He presented as a cheerful, well-spoken, optimistic, and confident young man, and had demonstrated persistence and competence in his 13.5 month job search. To all intents and purposes this graduate was not only highly employable but possessed traits considered highly attractive to employers.  Unfortunately, he graduated in  1983 when the engineering field experienced a sharp loss of work, and consequently was competing with unemployed established professionals for junior positions even in related fields. As Super (1957, p. 114) stated, "the opportunities must be there too".  122 With extensive unemployment predicted as a permanent part of North American economy (Hepworth, 1980), it would seem that career development theories may need to extend or enlarge the importance of the environmental factors previously mentioned. For example, Crites's (1974, p.305) model of vocational maturity includes "items on...trends in occupations, and future employment opportunities". Based upon results from this study a measure of career maturity should also include items concerning awareness of the state of the economy, extensive job search techniques, related fields of work, and methods of coping with potentially prolonged periods of unemployment and job search. Without advanced awareness of these areas a new graduate in the 1980's would not be expected to even compete with his peers in job search let alone successfully attain a position related to his/her career goals. Given that many graduates who do possess such skills and awareness still do not secure employment without a prolonged job search, it would seem that the concept of career maturity should be expanded not only to an awareness of such a possibility but also to include awareness of methods of lifestyle which may enhance the experience of unemployment. Healy (1982, p. 5) states that "a position becomes part of a career if it is a work position, if it prepares the person for a work position or enhances the person's work, or if it is a direct consequence of  123 working". The unemployed- enhanced-1ifestyle could be considered an aspect of career maturity in that is may prepare the person for a work position rather than allow him/her to sink downward into the category of the long-term unemployed. The fact that a number of employable graduates remain unemployed for a prolonged job-search may indicate the emergence of a new career pattern. Super (1957) has described four male and seven female career patterns, none of which included an expressed period of unemployment. The lack of such content and the use of words such as "directly" (Super, 1957, p. 73) in describing the transition from school to work seem dated in view of the new graduates' difficulty in securing employment even after a lengthy period of time. Just as career development theories in the past have incorporated the existence of re-entry career women, and potential mid-life career changes, it would seem inevitable that they should acknowledge the existence and effects of the most prevalent and unavoidable environmental factor of the day--high unemployment. Implications for Counselling The results of this study concerning the two segment aspect of the unemployment experience and the positive and negative critical incidents may aid counsellors to understand their  124 unemployed university graduate clients and to plan counselling interventions suitable to the particular period which the client is experiencing.  Careful observation of a client's energy level  and seeming disillusionment may indicate whether he/she is currently in the holiday period or the downward trend. A client currently in the holiday period may seem full of energy and in good spirits but may evade committing him/herself to extensive job search at that time. A client seemingly disillusioned about university and his/her job prospects may have just experienced the first significant negative experience, usually due to some job search attempt, and may be beginning the downward trend. A client totally lacking in self-confidence or energy may be experiencing an "energy slump" typical of the downward trend. It may be that counsellors should not expect an extensive number of graduates during the holiday period immediately following graduation given that extensive job search for this sample did not begin until the onslaught of the downward trend. This information may be useful in long-term program and caseload planning.  Unfortunately, the length of the holiday period seems  to vary individually. Further research is warranted in this area. If clients do appear during the holiday period interventions may include preparing the client for the realities of the job search in terms of methods, potentially prolonged length, and  125 most of all coping mechanisms. Coping mechanisms could rely heavily upon information from positive critical incident categories such as time out for trips, further education, seeking out support from peers in similar situations, getting a part-time job in another unrelated field, spending time at hobbies, involvements, or activities, getting to know co-workers (if employed at all), looking forward to potential hiring times for one's field, taking time out to reevaluate career goals, postponing the job search at times, and quitting jobs that are not aiding job search or morale. Negative critical incident categories such as people negatives, self doubt/guilt, devalued university degree, discouragement, nothing new available, and working negatives to name only a few, could also be utilized as a way of normalizing what may come and as a springboard for brainstorming coping methods. These positive and negative critical incident categories may similarly be used as normalizing information and/or as a vehicle to discuss coping methods for clients currently experiencing the downward trend. It is also hoped that the predominantly negative tone of the downward trend will alert counsellors to the potential severity of this experience despite this populations's optimism, and skills in job search and coping.  It is this author's fear that  observation of the initial holiday period may bias some  126 counsellors concerning the motivation of unemployed graduates. Results from this study suggest that the initial holiday period may be a time in which the graduates ease their transition from school to work in order to begin serious job search with renewed energy and attention. If it is true as Azrin et al. (1980, p. 144) suggests that "perhaps the job-finding difficulty has been with the nature of the job-finding assistance offered and not with the job-seeker", the results from this study may contribute to more accurate job-finding assistance on the part of counsellors working with the university graduate population.  It is hoped that these  results may increase the counsellors' ability to. aid the unemployed "in developing adaptive strategies" (Shifron et al., 1983, p. 528). Limitations of the Study The results of this study are based upon a mixed sex, unmarried, undergraduate degree, University of British Columbia sample. The mean age of the sample is 23 years old. A married sample may not yield similar results due to potential variations in source of support (spouse rather than parent) and developmental issues (getting married and starting a family rather than moving away from parents). A graduate degree sample may also yield differing results due to the smaller class size  127 and increased specialty focus which usually distinguishes a graduate program from an undergraduate program. These differences may potentially lead to increased support and networking with both peers and professors. A graduate degree sample may also feel increased cognitive dissonance due to a greater investment of time and money than an undergraduate degree sample. Increased school loans may also limit a graduate degree sample from pursuing further education as an alternative to unemployment. This sample may also have attained the most advanced degree possible in their field and therefore feel increased disillusionment in being of no use to society when so highly skilled, or increased fear at having specialized and perhaps limited their employment possibilities.  This sample may  also experience a different developmental hold-up pressure in that, unlike the unemployed undergraduate who is anxious to get started in a career, a most likely older unemployed graduate is feeling societal pressure to be established in a career. An older undergraduate sample may be similarly affected by differing developmental pressures.  Different university samples may result  in slight variations due to the potentially higher expectations and greater parental pressure accompanying attendance at prestigious universities. Non British Columbia university samples may also produce slightly differing results in that British Columbia experienced the third highest provincial  128 unemployment rate in Canada for 1984 ("The Canadian labour market," 1985). Results from non-Canadian samples may also differ in countries which experience a radically different unemployment rate from Canada. This result may be expected due to the increased/decreased students' and general population awareness of the unemployment situation. In respect to methodological limitations, the establishment of the critical incident categories is a function of who acts as the sorter. The reliability of the categories, when each is explained to an additional sorter, has, however, been verified in this study. Implications for Further Research Further research exploring possible reasons for the differing length of holiday periods is warranted. Research isolating one time segment of the experience, for example the initial three months of unemployment may be useful when examined from the point of view of samples presently in their fourth month of unemployment compared to samples presently in their tenth (or further along) month of unemployment. This would explore the methodological trait of remembering a past experience and potentially identify consequences of this trait. This study's sample consisted of four co-researchers who had been unemployed for 2.5 months and eight co-researchers ranging  129 from 13.5 to 38 months in length of unemployment. It could be that the two groups of differing holiday period length were a function of these two groupings of overall length of unemployment. Future research studies should endeavour to select samples representing more evenly distributed lengths of unemployment to explore the question of differing lengths of hoiiday period. Given Healy's (1982, p. 14) statement that "a career builds on what a person has done, is doing, and hopes to do", it would seem logical to assume that the graduate's delayed entry into the work world would have some effect upon their career development. If a new career pattern of delayed entry is evident, further research concerning what follows may be of merit. It is not known whether this delayed entry may cause changes in career goals, changes in needs (i.e. increased need for security), or long-term assaults upon confidence or, more generally, ego identity. Osipow (1983, p. 215) cites one of Sarason et al.'s (1975) points concerning maturation:  "beginning a lifetime in a  field which is actually a second, third, or even lower choice, as many people do, is tragic because it impinges drastically on one's sense of self-worth. People who cannot pursue their 'primary' interest--an increasing number--are likely to be very frustrated and unhappy". It could be hypothesized that people who spend three or more years of their life pursuing their  130 primary interest academically and then find that they must 'begin their life', so to speak, unemployed may be at least frustrated and unhappy and potentially more deeply affected. Longitudinal studies of university graduates throughout their period of unemployment and continuing past their entry into the work force may reveal some of these areas of unknown information.  Ref erences  Amundson,  N.,  &  Borgen,  unemployment: Guidance  Amundson, A  Job  Journal,  N.  &  W. loss  60,  Borgen,  foundational  (1982). and  job  The  dynamics  search.  The  of  Personnel  and  562-564.  W.  study.  (1984). Dept.  Experiencing  of  Counselling  unemployment: Psychology  Report.  A z r i n ,  N.H.,  V.A.  P h i l i p ,  (1980).  program  with  Vocational  Bakke,  E.  New  of  &  on  K.H.  The  N.  their  &  the  B e s a l e l , job  club  of  worker.  Press.  (1984).  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New York College  Entrance Examination Board. Tiffany, D.W.,  Cowan, J.R. & Tiffany, P.M.  (1979).  The unemployed: A social-psychological portrait. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.  Tiggemann, M. & Winefield, A.H.  (1984). The effects  of unemployment on the mood, self-esteem, locus of control, and depressive affect of school-leavers. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 57, 33-42. Warr, Peter.  (1978). A study of psychological well-  being. British Journal of Psychology. 69, 111-121. Zsigmond, Z., Picot, G., Clark, W. & Devereaux, M.J. ( 1978). Out of school — into the labour force (Catalogue 81-570E). Ottawa: Statistics Canada.  Appendix P i l o t  Interview  139  A Questions  140 Pilot Interview Questions 1. Please describe in as much detail as possible your experience of being unemployed, including how you came to be unemployed, what you thought about when it happened and your thoughts since, any feelings you have ever had during the time you have been unemployed, and job search activities that you have tried. 2. Thinking back over your experience of unemployment please describe what you consider to be your lowest points during this time. Starting with the first low point, tell me exactly what happened and why it was so difficult for you at the time. 3. Now turning to the positive high points of the experience, start with the first high point and tell me again exactly what happened and why it was so helpful for you at the time. 4. What was the university experience like for you? 5. Could you please tell me again when it was that you first felt unemployed?  6. Were you thinking of trying to get work at a before graduation? 7. What are your expectations about the future right now? 8. Could you please attempt to draw your own diagram of the overall experience any way you want to, right now on this paper? 9. Could you please tell me your age? 10. What is your present marital status?' 11. How long have you been unemployed?  Appendix B Subject Consent Form  142  Subject  Consent  Form  143 I I  also  free  agree  to  understand  to  withdraw  involvement  in  Commission.  I  that  for  participate that at  may  have  at  I  understand  about  one  hour  contacted  for  a  time  or  affects  am a l s o  I  a  research project  participation in  any  no way  in  aware  refuse  that  the  time  concerning  that  this  project  short  my  permission to  have  that  the  contents  of  research  purposes  only.  selected  number  the  i s  the  This  this  w i l l of  interview  taped  be wiped  w i l l  being  Thesis  Title:  Researcher  The  Experience  25 Y e a r s Thesis  Committee:  and  Dr. Dr.  of  am  that  my  Employment  w i l l  answer  any  talk  unemployed,  audio-taped kept  with  a  is  to  completion  Unemployment  with and  questions  be of  an  the  I  may  date.  I  be also  understanding used  labelled with the  interviewer  that  later  c o n f i d e n t i a l and  interviewer  of  and  I  Canada  for a  randomnly  r e s e a r c h e r ' s M.A.  Telephone  Hatch,  that  the  me t o  Signature  Wendy E.  question,  conversation at  be  unemployed.  project.  interview upon  being  is voluntary,  any  require  telephone  interview  to  answer  interviewer  experience  follow-up  give  and  my  to  study  my r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  any  about  this  about  Number  Date  for  University  Graduates  Under  Age.  W i l l i a m Borgen, Counselling Psychology Dept., U.B.C. Norman Amundson, C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y D e p t . , U.B.C.  thesis.  Appendix C Modified Interview Questions  144  145 Modified Interview Questions 1. Could you please tell me when it was that you first felt unemployed? 2. Could you draw a picture of what your experience of unemployment has been like right now? For example, if you could see your life as some kind of a line starting here when you were still in school, and ending here for right now in time, what would you draw in between? 3. Now I'd like you to tell your own story of your unemployment experience. Just like any story there's always a beginning, middle and end. Could you begin with before you felt unemployed and discuss how you came to realize that you were unemployed, and continue to described your experience in terms of thoughts, feelings, actions, and job search. 4. Could you describe what you consider to be your lowest points during unemployment? For example, starting with the first low point you can remember, what happened exactly and why was it diff icult for you?  146 5. Now the high points during the whole time. Starting with the first high point you can remember, and why it was helpful to you. 6. What was university like for you? 7. Were you thinking of trying to get work at all before graduation? 8. What are your expectations about the future right now? 9. You are how old? 10. What is your present marital status? 11. How long have you been unemployed?  Appendix D -researcher Diagram Sheet  147  S T I L L IN SCHOOL  PRESENT TIME  00  Appendix E Rating Sheets  149  Appendix E-l Rating Sheet Form  150  Number Emotions  Timfe (months)  Accompanying Events/Behaviors Including those (pos. and neg.) leading to a change in emotion  Coping Strategies  Future Expectation  Job Search Strategies  1  U1  Appendix E-2 Completed Rating Sheet Example Co-researcher #302  152  Number  302  Time (months)  Emotions 1.  Apri 1  "Excited" "Pretty  Excited"  "Pretty  High"  -0  Accompanying Events/Behaviors Including those (pos. and neg.) leading to a change in emotion - " I t ' s p r e t t y high d u r i n g exams. F u l l o f a n x i e t y b e c a u s e exams a r e 3 hours long b u t . . . y o u j u s t think 'Wow, I ' m c l o s e t o t h e e n d ! ' . . . y o u do p r e t t y a m a z i n g t h i n g s d u r i n g exam p e r i o d . "  Coping Strategies  HIGH  J o b Search Strategies  Future Expectation - " j u s t coming out of u n i v e r s i t y . . . y o u feel very p o s i t i v e bec a u s e w h e n I l o o k b a c k a t my work s c h e d u l e i t ' s v e r y positive. I mean I ' v e w o r k e d a l o n g t i m e , and I t h i n k I y o u come o u t o f s c h o o l w i t h I t h i n k a s o r t o f FALSE HOPE.  2. .  "Up a L i t t l e "Excited"  Bit"  3 r d week o f - f i n i s h e d exams -"I w a s n ' t one i n t o g r a d u a t i o n April c e r e m o n i e s . . . I was more e x c i t e d 0  HIGH  -"I thought I'm going to get a j o b t h a t ' s g o i n g t o l a s t me ( f u l l - t i m e , not j u s t summer).'  -"I to  d i d n ' t even begin."  know  -"I  did start  -"I w a s n ' t o p t i m i s t i c to the p o i n t t h a t I t h o u g h t wow, I'm g o i n g t o go o u t t o f i n d a career of the century. Because y o u ' r e not going to wit! a R.A. anvmore. And t h a t ' s  w a s n ' t o u t every day or zne w e e k . . . m a y b e went out once or twice a week." - " I d i d n ' t r e a l l y know how t o g o a b o u t i t . If you d o n ' t have the t r a n s p o r t a -  looking  where for  a  s o m e t h i n g you have t o r e a l i z e t i o n . . . y o u t h i n k 1 we 1 1 , when y o u ' r e g o i n g t h r o u g h should I phone?'...go in university. B e f o r e , maybe 4 p e r s o n a n d t h e y g e t an imagj o r 5 y e a r s ago a B . A . was impression of y o u . . . I t ' s something. B u t now I g e t o u t hard to get to a l l these and I t h i n k i t ' s n o t h i n q . It s Dlaces." nothing. I t ' s a piece ot - " Y o u s i t down a n d y o u make paper. I m e a n t h e r e ' s s o man; t h i s p o s i t i v e map. Okay, people out there with a B.A. I ' l l g o t o 20 p l a c e s e v e r y It i s something. I t ' s an 2 days. I t g e t s down t o a c h i e v e m e n t , b u t I d o n ' t t h i n l • w e l l I made i t t o 6 p l a c e s i t ' s the achievement that i t in a week...This i s just was. I r e a l l y t h i n k , 1 mean, going too slow. You've w h a t do I k n o w ? . . . I t h i n k my got a l l these p l a c e s you p s y c h o l o g y d e g r e e h e l p e d me want t o g o , a l l these t o g e t t h e j o b a t t h e c o m m u n i •y h o p e f u l . . . p o s s i b l e t h i n g s . c e n t r e but then sometimes I I t j u s t d o e s n ' t work that t h i n k my e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r wav.  t h i n g s h e l p e d me m o r e . . . w h i c h i s s o r t o f a b i t d i s h e a r t e n i n 1." - " Y o u h a v e a l l t h e s e h o p e s . Yo i t h i n k , w e l l I want to u t i l i z e my d e g r e e . I want a good pay inn  inh  I' VP n o t t n n a v mv  cn  CO  Number  302  Time (months)  Emotions  3.  "Evening Off" "Relaxed"  TtTTweeF" of  April-  May 0-1  Accompanying Events/Behaviors Including those (pos. and neg.) leading to a change in emotion  contact her  a p p l i c a t i o n was h o p e f u l  she  should  1/2  "Shocked" "Despairing"  beginning of 1/2  May  i n one company  up  beginning  demand  5.  packing  of  May  Future Expectation  an  phone  Job Search Strategies  loan off. L e t ' s be p o s i t i v e You want to g e t o u t , change the world o r whatever. After a while you think w e l l , that'; j u s t not p o s s i b l e . "  - " J u s t t a k e il o r J w e e k s o t t atter finishing school. You deserve i t . . . Y o u ' v e s t i l l got your graduatioli c e r e m o n i e s . . . T h e f i r s t 2 weeks i t ' p g r e a t - no a n x i e t y a b o u t e x a m s , papers, nothing. J u s t l a y b a c k on the b e a c h . " -"You're s t i l l from s c h o o l . "  "Excited" "Hopeful" "Wow"  Coping Strategies fmnsr efferMvel  Hopeful  occassional  job  search  things  suggesiea and Hopeful  a c e r t a i n man a n d  interview  c o n t a c t she was r e f e r r e d t o i n (4) 'don't w a s n ' t e n c o u r a g i n g : "He s a i d I have 100 a p p l i c j be t o o h o p e f u l . I m e a n , when tions si t t i n g here; y o u ' v e g o t someone s a y i n g t h a t and  i iur J  you've j u s t given your sp hour - i t ' s l i k e wow! Why d o n ' t y o u j u s t c u t me o f f a n d s a v e t h e breathe •got r u n a r o u n d t r y i n g t o s e e h i m : " T h e l a d y t o l d me ' I ' l l p h o n e y o u t o m o r r o w <Sl 2 ! U U , dllU I U J U n ' L get a phone c a l l , so I t h o u g h t oka; I'll just wait. I phoned her a t 4 : 0 0 and she w a s n ' t t h e r e , so t h i s o t h e r l a d y s a i d ' p h o n e h e r a t home a t 5 : 0 0 , a n d t h e r e ' s n o o n e a t homi  -kept phoning anyway  back  on her  to  check  outcome  " T h a t ' s when I r e a l l y s t a r t e d g o i n g down h i l l b e c a u s e I w a s c o u n t i n g on t h a t j o b . "  -"I kept t r y i n g to get hold o f h i m and they keep g i v i n g you the run-around. Finally I j u s t went i n t h e r e . " -"I m u s t have gone back 3 times and I kept phoning.  Number  2QZ  Time (months)  Emotions  Accompanying Events/Behaviors Including those (pos. and neg.)  Coping Strategies  Future Expectation  Job Search Strategies  and t h e n y o u ' d phone h e r and they'd say s h e ' s a t t h e d e n t i s t r i g h t now. I t ' s l i k e 'phone h e r tomorrow a t 3 : 0 0 , ' and I ' d say 'well i t ' s g e t t i so l a t e . I'm g o i n g t o m i s s t h e interviewing. So f i n a l l y , I g o t a h n l H n f h o r a n d she ^ a v * ; ' i n s f rnmfl i n and see h i m ! So I go i n t o s e e him and I'm w a i t i n g t h e r e and ' w e l ' he's not here y e t . Come b a c k a t 4 0 0 . ' So y o u g o b a c k a t 4 : 0 0 a n d h e f i t s you i n b e t w e e n , y o u know, Mary and J o e , b u t i t ' s j u s t l i k e , y o u know--  -  h e ' s g o t and t h e resumes, and you k n o w , I t h i n k my c r e d e n t i a l s a r e p r e t t y g o o d b u t , when y o u ' v e g o t 1 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e a p p l y i n g f o r t h e same j o b o f c o u r s e t h e r e ' s g o i n g t o be someone  6.  " W e n t down a l i t t l e bit" "Started going downhi11" 1 hr5W  Oily  Mid-May  -found  better."  out  (needed  1  she d i d n ' t  another  -didn't  graduate  go t o  graduation  course)  I or d  loop" "Depressed"  7.  "Frustrated"  End  of  -upset  that  the.employment  May  demanded  she put h e r s e l f  1  category  -  she wanted  centre i n one  t o be  flexible. ~?fi^m 8.  "Confused" "You r e a l l y g e t into turmoil"  End May 1  of  r  e  v  e  n  a  P  n o n e  c  a  ^  f  -she f i r s t went to j o b s o t t the board a t the employment c e n t r e - " I was k e p t p r e t t y busy."  r o m  - " T h e r e ' s a l l these l i t t l e ' c o m p a n y -"I thought - 'no I have t o -"I t h o u g h t , wow, I'm w o r k i n g Sat. n i g h t f o r 4 hours - so j o b s - weeks ones - and I thought get something t h a t ' s going what?" ' s h o u l d I t a k e t h i s o n am I g o i n g t o be m o r e permanent.'" to g e t a phone c a l l t h e n e x t week, - " A f t e r a w h i l e I was j u s t LOW and I f i n d i t r e a l l y h a r d to q u i t s o r t of taking anything."  en  Number  _3J__  Emotions  Time (months)  Accompanying Events/Behaviors Including those (pos. and neg.) leading to a change in emotion on  Coping Strategies {most e f f e c t i v e ! -worked  someone.  9.  " V e r y , Very Angry" "I g o t pretty bottom, pretty bottom"  10.  "Helpless" "Pressured"  MayJune 1/2 2 1/2  May June 1/2 - 2  -"I c a n ' t go b a c k t o Can't afford i t . "  school  "...my  -"My roommate was l o o k i n g f o r a j o b a t t h e same tim< so I f o u n d t h a t very supportive." L Q W  loan  nowhere  -  and to  I'm the  borrow  like  $7,000  thing the  is  in  I  have  money  from  -  l i k e , I have n o w h e r e . " , , ^ got l o a n repayment pamphlet and l o a n w a s a l w a y s i n t n e DaCk 0T HeT mind.  days  it's how  you  just am  I  don't  like going  nave  wow, to  any  you  pay  -"You keep " A s y o u go y o u s a y , w e l l , I Eaton's don't think there is anything gone b a c k It's s o r t of l i k e your world i s c o m i n g a p a r t day by d a y . As s o o n a s y o u h i t reality  iuy  think  going back. I must've 10 t i m e s . "  'Bang .—r uun'i 1  you're  for  i t .  owe  $7,000.  really  It's  like, I  don't  prepared wow, have  I a  job."  money  just  this  "I h a d a r e s u m e and a l e t t e r of recommendation. I even pushed to get interviews." "Most p l a c e s went back 3 or 4 t i m e s . "  U'5  " T h e t h i n g i s I h a v e t o o many r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s so I found m y s e l f g e t t i n g b a c k up a g a i n s t t h e w a l l . When y o u c a n ' t e v e n budget because  Job Search Strategies  radio  - " p u t t i n g o u t 60 a p p l i c a t i o n s and then always s a y i n g . . . i f I wasn't w i l l i n g to a c c e D t $ 3 . 6 5 an h o u r I c o u l d n ' t get a job because they j u s t s a i d ' w e l l , t h e r e ' s 100 h i g h school students looking for a job a t t h e same p l a c e . ' Si) 1 UUII I need t o take y o u . " - " t h e r e ' s a l l these p l a c e s and I t h o u g h t I had l e a d s on them t h e n y o u go back and y o u f i n d o u t they h i r e d t h e i r n i e c e and they h i r e d i e i r aaugi  hole  (2  at  month)  the 1/2  part-time  per  - " t h o u g h t , w e l l , i f I have to look in Sept. a g a i n I have t o , but r e a l i z e d wow, I h a v e t o l o o k i n Sept. I have t o go t h r o u g h this again."  station  Future Expectation  think month's  rent?"  11.  "Worried"  bus s t r i k e was on she w o r r i e d a b o u t get around  s p o r a d i c a l l y and how s h e w o u l d  -"hnal ly, 1 just I've got to get Doesn't matter i going to l a s t a I've got to get  realized a job. f it's week something.  •"I d o n ' t t m n K r m g d l l l g " to f i n d a job t h a t ' s going to last for a year. And i f I'm going to f i n d i t i t ' s going t o be o u t i n S u r r e y and t h e n t h e r e ' s . . . t h e buses  - " I ' d go o u t t o r S o r b hours a day and w o u l d n ' t m a n a g e t o g e t t o 10 p l a c e s (because of buses).  cr>  Number  302  Emotions 12.  "Distraught" "Degraded" "Uncaring"  Accompanying Events/Behaviors Including those (pos. and neg.) leading to a change in emotion  Time (months)  -"I had t o one t h i n g do."  go t o w e l f a r e I d i d n ' t want  Coping Strategies (mnat ef f erM  and t h a t ' s to have to  -"I  tried  not  about...the  to  Future Expectation  vel think  - " E v e n b e i n g on w e l f a r e i t ' s $300 a month - t h a t ' s not enough to l i v e o n . . . i t ' s expensive to l i v e . "  connotations  that are connected -"I was o n l y o n i t f o r one month an|l w e l f a r e . " they w e r e n ' t r e a l l y hopeful either,  Job Search Strategies  with  a b o u t me . f i n d i n g a , j o b . I found IT. v e j - y d e g r a d i n g b e c a u s e o f the s o r t of annotations that are connected with w e l f a r e . " She a p p l i e d t o w e l f a r e w i t h 754 i n h e r p o c k e t and $ 1 2 . 0 0 i n t h e bank and c o u l d n ' t pay h e r phone b i l l . "At that p o i n t you j u s t begin not to  13.  "Low M o r a l e " "Upset" "Nervous"  -employment c o u n s e l l o r asked her i f f e l t a c o c k t a i l waitress job wasn't a else s t e p down f o r h e r : "I was a p p l y a  cocktail  waitress  she to  didn't  know  what  do  j u s t had anything  to  get  something,  -was  trying for anything  LOW  or  s o m e t h i n g a n d he s a i d ' w e l l , nave you had e x p e r i e n c e a t t h a t ? ' and I s a i d ' w e l l no n o t e x a c t l y . . . 1 1 v « worked i n a r e s t a u r a n t but I s a i d j u s t l o o k a t my c r e d e n t i a l s - l o o i at what I've done. I think I could handle something iiKe m a t . WITT he g o e s ' w e l l i s n ' t t h i s a s t e p down a n y w a y s ? Why a r e y o u e v e n applying for this job? Isn't t h i s j u s t a s t e p down f r o m t h e p o s i t i o n y o u ' v e been i n ? ' And yeah, this, start gets l a bal1  14.  "Uncomfortable" "Guilty"  i t ' s so'true DutTReW*?""*'" w h a t a r e y o u do d o ? You do applying for...your morale ower...At t h e e n d I was j u s of nerves."  feeling  like  self  protecting  by  curricular I  was  being  s h e was  hours: too  limiting  her "I  picky  her  extra  don't about  think the  b...I.have a lot of.responsibim m u s i c , s o . I mean I c a n  -was s i n g i n g w i t h a - " T h a t was one g o o d to  keep  of #1." -decided J n r t  that  group thing  up...It's  -hopeful  sor  i t was v a l i d (career omnt i n n a l l y )  in  music  for  long-term  career  -wouldn't on  Friday  evenings  take or  anything Saturday  Number  3D?  Accompanying Events/Behaviors Including those (pos. and neg.) leading to a change in emotion  Time (months)  Emotions  Coping Strategies  Future Expectation  Job Search Strategies  work a l o t o f e v e n i n g s and I c a n w o r k w e e k e n d s b u t t h e r e w e r e some hours I'd f i n d hard to w o r k . . . I f e l t maybe I ' m b o x i n g m y s e l f i n but I j u s t t h o u g h t 'I d o n ' t want to f i n d a job t h a t ' s going to take un mw 1 i f p r n m n l p t p l v a n d t . h p n I h a v e t o d r o p a l l my o t h e r e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r things because t h o s e . . . I'm working towards a c a r e e r i n them - r a d i o a n d p r o m o t i o n s . . . . "  15.  - g o t s t i r c r a z y b e c a u s e n o t b u s y anc needed to get out but never had money t o do t h i n g s : "I g e t very s t i r c r a z y a n d I f o u n d I ' d come home a n d c o u l d n ' t s t a y h e r e . I'd  "Bored" "Frustrated"  Yotl OO t o a b a r  hawp t-n nn n u t . a  drink...well  and  I'm  just  the  house."  I  don't  trying  to  have get  a  cent  out  of  -"You j u s t s t a r t phoning -"My Mom's a l w a y s p o s i t i v e ana Mom a l l t h e t i m e a n d y o u i t ' s great but i t ' s pretty get 'Don't worry dear'... distant. Sounds p r e t t y far Moms a r e a l w a y s o p t i m i s t i c : o f f . " 'You'll get a j o b : "  - s a l e s people would phone w i t h magazine deals which would remind her of her loan - i t was r a i n i n g " t h a t made i t w o r s e too."  16.  "Depressed"  17.  "Ecstatic" "Excited" "Happy" " L i k e Wow"  End  "A b i t w o r r i e d " "Pessimistic"  Beginning  of  June 2  1/4  -"that's job." -"got -"the  when  I  found  out  I  a 2-month l o n g summer f e l l o w I work w i t h i s  t h e - c e l e b r a t e d by b u y i n g t h i n g • - " I ' m a l r e a d y s p e n d i n g money - " I ' m r e a l l y i n t o my j o b " . . and I d o n ' t have i t y e t and "I l i k e a l o t o f t h e r e ' s so much s t u f f I n e e d job." responsibility." great." -"I'm pretty lucky. I l u c k 3d HIGH  got  II  out." 18.  of  July  -was a f r a i d job would f a l l -through- - k e p t phoning contact d i d n ' t feel real because hadn't started yet: "I had t h e i n t e r v i e w a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f June and I hea -d t h a t I had t h e j o b l i k e n o t u n t i l  in  to  make  -distrustful  -contacted  employer  regularly  Co  Number  302  Emotions  Time (months)  Accompanying Events/Behaviors Including those (pos. and neg.) leading to a change in emotion  Coping Strategies  Job Search Strategies  Future Expectation  t h e l a s t week ( e n d o f J u n e ) a n d I kept phoning back and I k e p t w a n t i n g t o know when I came i n a n d t h e n I w a n t e d t o f i n d o u t who I w i s working w i t h , so t h a t I even foun I t h a t was s t i l l s o r t o f , I was s t i  hit wnrriprl hprnii'if, I t.hnuaht, ' W e l l , i t ' s n o t r e a l l y i n my h a n d , y e t l i k e e v e n a f t e r when I f o u n d out I thought i t ' s not r e a l l y in my h a n d s y e t b e c a u s e I h a v e n ' t ev^n s h o w n my f a c e - s o m e t h i n g m i g h t happen. So y o u g e t a b i t m o r e pessimistic1 you do have  July 2 1/2  20.  "Scared"  LllUy  i,ay  - s h e w i l l be w o r k i n g w i t h l o w i n c o r r s p e o p l e and f e e l s u n d e r s t a n d i n g due to her welfare e x p e r i e n c e : "The p e o p l e I'm w o r k i n g w i t h a r e r e a l l ) low income so i t ' s s o r t o f wow, ma now w e rr e e yy oo uu ' rree a So ou , m an n ., Ii kKnow wh ne a ti . . and  July 2 1/2  W H WlltJII a job."  money  makes  the  world  go  'I an  don't  really  think  there's  art  rounc  s c a r e d t h i n k i n g o f how much i n t e r e s t she w i l l have t o pay b e f o r e p a y i n g o f f h e r l o a n : "I t h i n k about  -"I guess t h i n g as  t h e r e i s no s u c r free money."  p a y i n g o f f my l o a n n o w . It's goin< t o be $ 1 1 3 . 0 0 a m o n t h , b u t that's g o i n g t o be f o r 4 - 5 y e a r s . By t h e time I pay i t o f f I ' v e p a i d them $4-5,000 extra. I t ' s j u s t l i k e wor That s c a r v . . . . " 21.  "Dread" "Slightly "Optomistic"  July  I'm  2  I'll s t a r t again in Sept I'm already thinking about it...wow, I ' m g o i n g t o be l o o k i n g a g a i n . "  1/2  not  looking  forward  to'Sept.  • " I ' l l t r y t o s a v e up Sept." -"At l e a s t I'm m a k i n g f o r the time b e i n g . "  for money  -"pretty optimistic dumb b e c a u s e I w a s i n May t o o , b u t I j all the u n i v e r s i t y a r e g o i n g back and  - It's so optimistic ust think students a l l the  -"I still have t h a t little p i l e o f resumes so t h e y ' l l start off again (in Sept.).  CO  Number  302  Time  Accompanying Events/Behaviors I n c l u d i n g t h o s e ( p o s . and n e g . )  Coping  Strategies  Future  fmosr effpr-MVP!  (months) -"I  really  that  don't  again."  want  to  go  t h r o u g h - " F o r now d o n ' t e v e n t h i n k about Sept. L i v e by t h e month."  ,  Expectation  - " I ' m r e a l l y h o p i n g I do a g r e a t j o b a n d some g r e a t g r a r t o r g r e a t p r o g r a m w i l l c o m e uf  month to month. You t h i n ! ' I go t o s c h o o l f o r 8 m o n t h s - I go home f o r 4 months and I w o r k , and I go b a c k t o s c h o o l i n S e p t and y o u r whole l i f e i s  and t h e y ' l l i n c o r p o r a t e m e . " - " T h e r e m i g h t e v e n be more anxiety then...summer a lot ( f times kind of loses you. Yoi t h i n k ' w e l l , i t ' s t h e summer. Y o u c a n go t o t h e b e a c h ' . "  of s c h o o l . . . I t ' s l o t e a s i e r t o be  Search  Strategies  -high school students are goir 9 back so h o p e f u l l y t h e r e w i l l II be o p e n i n g s . We'll j u s t see,  - " I t ' s r e a l l y hard to think l i k e t h a t t o o , a f t e r goinc t o s c h o o l f o r 4 y e a r s , be-  planned for those-4 years Just like "bang". It's not that e a s y . . . c a n ' t faT back o n . . . t h e r e ' s a l o t o opportunities f o r student: h u t n n t whpn v n n ' r p n u t  Job  •  just a a studen  cn o  Appendix E-3 Completed Rating Sheet Example Co-researcher #308  161  Number  inP,  Time (months)  Emotions 1.  "Content"  before graduation -0  ?  Accompanying Events/Behaviors Including those (pos. and neg.)  Coping Strategies  Job Search Strategies  Future Expectation - " i t was an a c c e p t e d f e e l i n g that t h e r e was g o i n g t o be a j o b a n d j u s t wai t . "  -"And y o u s a y , w e l l , I guess I ' l l j u s t l o o k a r o u n d i n t h e summer time."  -"When there  I w a s in school... were  recruiters for  o u t - o f - t o w n jobs b u t I w a n t e d to g e t a j o b in town because my l o n g - t e r m g o a l was  to  save  up money  so I  could attend one o f these schools (Stanford, MIT, Harvard) and so I didn't l o o k for a n o u t - o f - t o w n job.  2.  "Not Overly Concerned"  May ' 8 3 0  - " Y o u g r a d u a t e . . . i t ' s sort OT MoT in your mind...you're really e n j o y i n g t h e m o n t h . . . Y o u have y o u r ceremonies then you s t a r t saying w e l l , y e a h , maybe I s h o u l d l o o k for a job."  success so d i d n ' t waste h i : time: "There were a few that looked hard f o r jobs a n d came up e m p t y a n d t h a t j u s t qave us more i n c e n t i v H o t 10 ItlUk - W d s U I I l l y U U ! time type o f t h i n g . You h e a r a b o u t f r i e n d s who r e a l l y look f o r j o b s . k n o c l on d o o r s , s e n t o u t 1 0 0 s o f l e t t e r s and they don'thavi  -nothing - " W h e n I came o u t i t w a s a common f e e l i n g a m o n g e n g i n e e r s s u c c e s s a n d f o r o t h e r f a c u l t i e s I'm s u r e . . . t h a t j o b s were s c a r c e . So m o s t o f t h e p e o p l e s o r t o f '  arrpnted of  it...You  l e t i t go a t  iust  becaUS? 6T l a T K M l of friends.  sort  that."  o f my f r i e n d s d i d n ' t l o o k f o r a j o b I guess I g o t caught into that."  3.  "Slightly "Happy"  Guilty"  - c o p y i n g what f r i e n d s do Summer ' 8 3 - f e e l i n g s l i g h t l y g u i l t y a b o u t n o t (or not do) l o o k i n g y e t a n d r e g r e t t i n g t h a t he 1-3 d i d n ' t look i n t o out-of-town j o b s : - w e n t on month l o n g t r i p t c J a p a n a n d Hong Kong "The f i r s t s e m i - l o w w a s d u r i n g the summer. You j u s t f e e l that - w e l l y n u <;hmiiri n p r a i o b . T h e r e w e r e p e o p l e who d i d o b t a i n j o b s b u t t h e o b t a i n e d them o u t - o f - t o w n and I w a s n ' t w i l l i n g t o go o u t - o f - t o w n at f i r s t . Gut then y o u s t a r t e d r e q r e t t i n g maybe I s h o u l d ' v e went o u t - o f - t o w n because most o f t h e  LUW 1  -not looking - " S i n c e I had a t r i p planned i n A u g . - i t was f o r a month - I w a s n ' t i n t o l o o k -  i n g f o r a job quite y e t .  started  I  w n ' H n n mv rp<;nmp  i n t h e summer b u t j u s t d a w d l i n g a f e w t h i n g s down I never r e a l l y got into i t until after I g o t b a c k f r c m my t r i p . "  CTl  ro  Number  308  Emotions  Time (months)  Accompanying Events/Behaviors Including those (p'os. and neg.) leading to a change in emotion  Coping Strategies (most effectived  Future Expectation  Job Search Strategies  top s t u d e n t s g o t a j o b and I g r a d u a t e d p r e t t y w e l l o n t o p o f th< c l a s s . . . T h a t was one r e g r e t I had during the summer." " A l l i n a l l because you are j u s t out and a l l your f r i e n d s are s o r t of n o t even l o o k i n q f o r a j o b i t s o r t o f d i d n ' t make t h a t t i m e t h a low i n s e m i - l o w . But...in thebacl of y o u r mind y o u ' r e always think ing I should have.a job - or I should get a job soon. Wouldn't i t be n i c e i f I g e t a j o b a t t h e end o f t h e summer." - " b u t I was h a p p y b e c a u s e i t was summertime - o u t o f s c h o o l after 5 y e a r s . . . b e c a u s e of a l l the fun and e x c i t e m e n t t h a t y o u have i n n t r i p s - i t was j u s t a partial low. - E v e r y b o d y j u s t s o r t o f had a good summer s i n c e y o u ' d b e e n i n s c h o o l for 5 years and studying hard." -"I was c o l l e c t i n g UIC and t h e y w e r i g o i n g t o extend i t f o r 1 year so t h a t T s why 1 d e c i d e d back t o U B C . "  4.  5.  "Hopeful" "Energized"  early Sept. 4  "Very Discouraged"  Sept. 4  '83  '84  n o t TO QB  • " I g u e s s a s I s t a r t e d w r i t i n g my resume y o u g e t s o r t o f y o u r hopes up s i n c e y o u ' v e n o t r e a l l y l o o k i n g yet. S o y o u g e t g e a r e d up a n d y o u s t a r t d o i n g more and m o r e . . . . " •"I f o u n d i t v e r y d i s c o u r a g i n g b e c a u s e t h e y d i d n ' t r e p l y t o my l e t t e r s because they must've just f e l t they wanted to r e c r u i t and a e t new g r a d u a t e s . , I did obtain one i n t e r v i e w b u t l a t e r on t h e y  HIGH —1 • " I t ' s a p r e t t y good t i m e f o r you because y o u f e e l y o u c a n get a j o b . " •"I h a d t o d o s o m e t h i n g c o n s t r u c t i v e so I borrowed my b r o t h e r ' s A p p l e 2...so I s t a r t e d to work on t h e computer and i n c r e a s e my.. s k i l l s a t t h e same t i m e a s  - w r i t i n g h i s resume a n d starting search:  - " . . . w r i t i n g my resume a n a — getting i t and g e t t i n g everything the r e c r u i t the r e c r u i t  word processed copies and and started at ing office. Now ing office is  CO  Number  308  Emotions  T*ise (mor.chs)  Accompanying Events/Behaviors Including those (pos. and neg.) leading to a change in emotion came b a c k a n d s a i d t h e y d i d n ' t have any j o b s . Alot of the recruiters j u s t look a r o u n d . . . a n d n o t r e a l l y hire. He t o o k a l o n g t i m e t o t e l l me - u n t i l J a n . b e f o r e h e t o l d me he was j u s t l o o k i n g . Maybe i t was a n i c e w a v o f s a v i n a 'We d o n ' t h a v e a job for you.'" - " f e l t unemployed summer."  after  Coping Strategies looking...good ...good for  f o r employer  schools  in  Future Expectation  f o r charact  Job Search Strategies g e n e r a l l y f o r p e o p l e who have j u s t graduated and they s a i d I would have t o contact employers directly so t h a t ' s what I d i d . " -got one i n t e r v i e w : "After s e n d i n a o u t a c e r t a i n number  ?r  and.,  future."  o f letter-I d i d n ' t s e n d o u t a s many b e c a u s e I , a t t h e time, didn't really believe i n s e n d i n g o u t l e t t e r s on speculation. I knew that's the way b u t w i t h t h e econony and knowing t h a t f r i e n d s h a d  the  one i n t e r v i e w - s o I d i d n ' t bother d o i n g t h a t much. I d i d send l e t t e r s o f s p e c u l a t i o n t o companies I wanted but b a s i c a l l y k e p t E d IF16 paper a n d a d s t h a t were a d vertised i n other media."  6.  "Discouraged" "Very Disappointei " "Slightly Depressed" " Q u i t e Low" "Rea.1—Low"  Dec. 7  ' 8 3 - " Y o u g e t a l i t t l e a i s c o u r a g e a De- " 1 s o r t o r put it a w a y at L0W_2 cause y o u ' v e been o u t l o o k i n g f o r times...during Xmas." a j o b a n d t h e r e i s n ' t a n y i t seems - " I h a d a l o t o f f r i e n d s and - " l o o k i n g f o r a j o b a n d i s n ' t any i t seems." and n o t even an i n t e r v i e w sometime; " people t h a t supported y o u -"I d i s l o c a t e d my a r m e a r l y i n D e c . a n d k n e w t h a t t h e e c o n o m y -"very d i s c o u r a g e d " iust b e f o r e s k i s e a s o n . I ' d b o u g h t just wasn't l e t t i n g a n e w new s k i s . I had t o recuperate from that." -sent f o r GRE b r o c h u r e s - t h i n k i n g o f school next year.  -^Tsappoi'nte'u' h e -yet  hadn't  found  a job  f r i e n d s w o r k i n g i n other t i e l d - f e l t i t was u n f a i r - n o t h i m b u t t h e economy - t h o u g h t a l o t : "When I a l r e a d y a p p l i e d f o r c e r t a i n jobs andn o t aettina anv r e s p o n s e . And I g e t  g r a d u a t e work, -considered school  there  - p r e t t y well the w n o i e m o l l i r . of Dec. I d i d n ' t r e a l l y l o c k f o r a job. I couldn't type (dislocated arm). -"If there were paper would  -apphed W i r  f o r next  year - t r i e d t o enjoy Xmas-3 things helped: 1. UIC 2. t a k i n g 1 t r i p s " 3 . 1 i v i n g a t home ( n o money p r e s s u r e )  ads I  apply." J I W ! , IIUlll  pjLt!!  .  Number  308 Time (months)  Accompanying Events/Behaviors I n c l u d i n g those (pos. and neg.) l e a d i n g to a change i n emotion  Coping S t r a t e g i e s (most e f f p p M v p d  Future E x p e c t a t i o n  Job Search S t r a t e g i e s  when  very disappointed companies d o n ' t even r e p l y b u t t h e r e ' s a l o t t h a t do t h a t t h e s e days s i n c e i t ' s an e m p l o y e r ' s m a r k e t . PI u s . . . t h e f a c t t h a t Xmas i s c o m i n g a n d t h e f a c t t h a t I t h o u g h t I ' d have a j o b l o w . " . . . I heard about friends, p e o p l e i n my c l a s s g e t t i n g j o b s n o t in t h e i r f i e l d . I d i d n ' t want to do t h a t s i n c e I d i d h a v e UIC a n d I did want to l o o k f o r an e n g i n e e r i n 1 job."  -'it  w a s aiTTicu.ii..  you WOUIU !> 11  and t h i n k by y o u r s e l f sometime and w o n d e r why-why t h i s s h o u l d h a p p e n to you a t your y e a r . You f e e l t h a i it's not f a i r . I t ' s not you that can't get a j o b . I t ' s t h e economy discouraged...I a l o t . "  7.  8.  "Sad" "Disappointed" "Depressed"  "Hopeful"  thought  about  i t  -relied  on o t h e r  trienos  May-Dec. '83 0-7  - h i s g i r l f r i e n d was busy w o r k i n g i n summer a n d a t s c h o o l u n t i l D e c . - " a f t e r a w h i l e when i t g o t d e p r e s s i n g y o u n e e d s o m e o n e t o t a l k t o anc she's not around."  Jan. 8  - s t u d i e d and wrote u w u -rationalized that people HIGH,, - d i d n ' t look as hard because - " o n e o f my c l o s e f r i e n d s g o t a j o b ' d i d n ' t r e a l l y h i r e u n t i l w a s s t u d y i n g f o r GMAT - " s t a r t i n g to look up" - g i r l f r i e n d was o u t o f s c h o o l a n d J a n . a n y w a y : "I j u s t p u t -"between Dec. and J a n . I " g e t t i n g m o r e h o p e f o r f i n d i n t e v e r y t h i n g was l o o k i n g better i t off saying ' W e l l , d e c i d e d n o t to l o o k so h a r e a job soon" -got interviews f o r a l l 3 jobs r e a l l y h i r e s i n w i n t e r and 1. b e c a u s e had o t h e r things . a p p l i e d f o r i n Dec. t h e v do h i r e i n J a n . 1 T h a t ' s - f e ^ S t i r V f l w s ^ a y b y ^ ' f l 1 to do and - g o t t!.na i n t e r V I t ! W t . fUF 1 2 UP U l b l l i supposedly the market." end up w i t h a j o b . " 2 . b e c a u s e I was d i s c o u r a g e d -"started getting high again" - " k e p t my m i n d o n s t u d y i n g f r o m O c t . to N o v . for the GMAT-instead of worrying about interviews."  '84  nobody  cn  Number  308  Emotions 9.  "Very  Happy"  Time (months) late Feb. '84 9  Accompanying Events/Behaviors Including those (pos. and neg.) leading to a change i n emotion  Coping S t r a t e g i e s  - g o t an o f f e r from one o f the comp a n i e s who i n t e r v i e w e d h i m - " I t was a f a i r l y good j o b . . . I need the e x p e r i e n c e and t h e m o n e y . . . t h a t was a good t i m e . . . t h e y sort of dragged t h e i r feet t i l F e b . "  Future E x p e c t a t i o n -"I  felt  Job Search S t r a t e g i e s  I had a j o b . "  - " A f t e r t h e y to i d me t h e y s a i d t h e y had t r o u b l e s - s a i d ' w e ' l l g e t back t o y o u on y o u r s t a r t d a t e 1 s o r t o f thing. Just enjoy yourself. I d i d n ' t e n j o y t h a t b u t I ' f e l t I hac a j o b s o - b u t I couldn't plan any  nIOi c l i 1 p s . 10.  "Very Discouraged"  March ' 8 4 - o f f e r withdrawn due t o l a c k o f fund; " A f t e r t h e y g o t b a c k t o me I w a s 10 very d i s c o u r a g e d . . . t h a t I d i d not qet t h e j o b . " - 3 T h e o t h e r ones I d i d n ' t g e t any  LOW3 -"I planned another trip i n A p r i l b e c a u s e my g i r l -"very friend got her holidays."  - h a d t o compete w i t h unemployed, qualified,experienced engineers: " t h e r e were a l o t o f people t h a t were o v e r q u a l i f i e d f o r these positions. People 50-60 years o l d  discouraged"  - " I was s t i l l looking. I wa.s averaging 2 o r 3 . . . s o l i d a p p l i c a t i o n s a week m e a n i n g advertisements o r companies I t h o u g h t . . . c o u l d be h i r i n c . . an/4 T rn 3 n n 1 IQH f n r a 1 -~ + of e l e c t r i c a l firms because I d i d have background i n e l e c t r i c a l b u t they s e e m e d to have enough e l e c t r i a n s t o hear from. T h a t was n o t v e t y aood."  p o s i t i o n s . . . s o I was s t i l l looking]' -applied for electrical engineering as w e l l -planned a t r i p -"started getting  very  discouraged  again. 11.  "More Discouraged" "Low" "Isolated"? "Unproductive".'  April '84 - May 11-12  1  - " I was g o i n g on a t r i p s o I said I'm going t o put i t - " D u r i n g my t r i p I g u e s s i n t h e b a d o f f . " - " a f t e r I c a m e . b a c k f r o m my o f my m i n d o n c e i n a w h i l e y o u ' r e t-rm I decided f o r sure to attend Stanford-theirM.Sc. a job.'" program." - " t h e r e was a new c r o p o f g r a d u a t e s -considered alternatives c o m i n g o u t a n d I w o u l d have t o be - " I d e c i d e d I'm n o t g o i n g t c a g a i n s t them t o . " be unemployed f o r a n o t h e r yp*r S n L ' . l l g n hack._tQ_ -UIC r a n o u t - h a d employed  been  1 year  since  LOW4  -"I started j u s t applying f o r jobs i n the paper and definite ads."  -"I'm pretty well low" - " o n e w o r s t t i m e . . . b e c a u s e i n - - " W h e n the w e a t h e r g e t s d e c i s i o n . . . t h e most d i f f i c u l t b e t t e r I p l a y more t e n n i s  time." so I t e n d t o l o o k l e s s . " - l o n g - t e r m c o n f i d e n t : "I felt -"I didn't worry about gett-'nj f a i r l y confident because Id i d a job because I said ' W e l l , quite w e l l . . . I felt I could I'll go back t o s c h o o l ' . " g e t a j o b w h e t h e r they ( n e w  01  Number  308  Accompanying Events/Behaviors Including those (pos. and neg.) leading to a change i n emotion  Time (months) -"I  was  the  only  one  not  doing  Coping S t r a t e g i e s fmost  Future Expectation  efferMvpl  any-  school. That s o r t of got because t h e y ' r e j u s t g o i n g to t h i n g a t t h a t t i m e . . . m o s t o f my me up a g a i n . " ' put you w i t h everybody else. f r i e n d s e i t h e r had a j o b or...were - d i d n ' t a p p l y f o r MBA b e T h e y ' l l j u s t be i n t e r v i e w i n g cause I needed w o r k i n g i n s c h o o l . . . j u s t c o l l e c t i n g UIC an more people." -"I s t i l l felt confident i n a way s o r t o f t h o u g h t i f I d i d n t e x p e r i e n c e a n d d i d n ' t want to chance b e i n g r e throughout the e n t i r e time c o l l e c t i t I w o u l d ' v e went back to •jprtpH* "T knnw T r a n n n t  -"I a l s o had t o w e i g h t a k i n g an M . S c . o r a n MBA s o t h a t w a s difficult - s t a r t e d t o s t u d y f o r GRE ( l a t e  May  t a k e t h e MBA a t these later. I t ' s j u s t t h a t I had s c h o o l s u n t i l I've worked to w a i t u n t i l the jobs they gave to e x p e r i e n c e d people 2 y e a r s and I d i d n ' t feel were gone." like applying d i r e c t l y and g e t t i n g a d e f e r r e d -"If I d o n ' t g e t a j o b by Sept. I ' m g o i n g t o go b a c k acceptance. I wanted to tn c r h n n l " work f i r s t b e r o r e lappin because I d i d n ' t - I guess I d i d n ' t want to f e e l any r e j e c t i o n at t h i s timemeaning, i f they rejectee me t o o , w e l l w h a t d o y o u do? tverythings i n g you so I f e l t would'nt try that  12.  "Very O p t i m i s t i c and Confident" yet "Indecisive about GRE"  l a t e May ' 8 4 - " g o t a c a l l f r o m t h e p r e s e n t e m p l o y e r - h e g a v e me a n i n t e r v i e w . I s a r l y June f e l t I did r e a l l y w e l l i n the 12 1 / 2 13 i n t e r v i e w and I f e l t I had an e x c e l l e n t chance of g e t t i n g the job  rejectI yet."  - " M a y b e when I g e t o u t from -"I thought about what that course-it should give would happen i f I didn't me a g o o d c h a n c e o f getting get the j o b - I guess I would probably have starte d a j o b . " -"I f e l t I had an e x c e l l e n t attending school at UBC. rhanre nf npttina a iob"  b e c a u s e they had to h i r e a g r a o u a t ^ think about i t u n t i l I was r e q u i r e d by t h e g o v e r n m e n t beheard from t h i s job." cause i t ' s a government granted -made a l t e r n a t i v e plans position." but held off - d e c i d e d t o c a l l down t o c h e c k h i s p o s s i b i l i t y of getting into "I d e c i d e d I b e t t e r c a l l down ( S t a n f o r d ) to see i f I could get i n t o the program. And I c a l l e d down...and they s a i d the program': g e t t i n g quite f u l l because they  (due  to  interview)  HIGH3 -"highest  high"  Job  Search S t r a t e g i e s  Number  JOB.  Emotions  Accompanying Events/Behaviors Including those (pos. and neg.) l e a d i n g to a c h a n g e i n emotion  Time (months)  Coping S t r a t e g i e s (most  Future Expectation  pffp.rHvt^  Job  Search S t r a t e g i e s  have a 1 irrTrted~"s~pace7~.7T~called d o w n a f t e r my i n t e r v i e w a n d f o u n d o u t t h e p r o g r a m was f u l l s o I d e c i d e d n o t t o w r i t e t h e GRE yet p l u s I f e l t I had t h i s j o b . For some r e a s o n I was s u r e * . . " - " T h a t was a v e r y d i f f i c u l t t i m e f o r me b e c a u s e I c o u l d n ' t d e c i d e I was n o t w i l l i n g l e t a n o t h e r y e a r go b y w i t h o u t e m p l o y m e n t . At that t i m e I had t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r t o w r i t e t h e GRE, w h e t h e r t o w a i t t o see i f I got the j o b . . . b u t because t h a t p r o g r a m was f u l 1 . . . T T e c T a ' e " not to w r i t e - j u s t w a i t f o r the job and s e e from t h e r e  13.  "Great"  June  "Relieved"  13  '84  "I  did  obtain  on J u n e -"feeling  "Happy"  the  job  ana  i  sr.arr.ea  18th." of  got  re l i e f . . . I  that  I  fits  in with  the  job  was  because  my g o a l s  of  happy  •good, in  as  with  planned my  "that  tits  goals"  that  going  to  school." 14.  "Regret" "Very Disappointe'  July 14  '84  "I s t i l l reget the fact that I I should've gotten a job e a r l i e r . s t i l l don't think i t ' s f a i r that t h e economy had t o do t h a t t o a lo1 o f t h e g r a d u a t e s and I f e e l s o r r y f o r t h e 1984 g r a d u a t e s t h a t S r 5 g o i n g t o h a v e t o go t h r o u g h t h e same t h i n g . . . i t w a s n ' t f a i r t h a t the economy f o r c e d y o u not to get a job." "I  am s t i l l  that in Wd L - y t ! d I ' because i t s o r t of wastes a year for me...an entire year! 1 didn't  get  very  disappointed  a j6b  "I w i l l w o r k f o r 2 - 3 y e a r s o b t a i n my P . E n g . S t a t u s . The 2 - 3 y e a r s depends on i f there is a chance for a supervisory position within a short-time s n i t w o u l d h e l p me i n o b t a i n ing entrance to S t a n f o r d , M i l H a r v a r d MBA P r o g r a m . Also a f i n a n c i a l m a t t e r - h o w many y e a r s i t w i l l t a k e me t o s a v e the m o n e y . . . I would expect to g e t a c c e p t e d b u t I may n o t If may  I  don't try  get  accepted...1  again...."  co  Appendix E-4 Completed Rating Sheet Example Co-researcher #311  169  311  Number  Emotions .  Time (months)  Accompanying Events/Behaviors Including those (pos. and neg.) l e a d i n g to a change i n emotion  Coping S t r a t e g i e s  - " . . . I n e v e r b o t h e r e d much u n t i l I Januarys t a r t e d n o t i c i n g from other people April '83 t h e r e ' s n o t much - t h e r e ' s n o t j o b -0 out there t h i s y e a r . . . . So I started..." - " T h e f a c t t h a t . I , d i d not want, to . IPAVP T o w e r m a i n l a n d - I t h i n k T o s i  Confident Unworried  Job  Future Expectation  fmnst efferMve^  -"I  figure  anytime  I  can  I want.  mentality  going  get  a  job  That  was  through  - " e s p e c i a l l y around Jan. Y o u g o t o the e m p l o y m e n t You check t h e there. " centre. bulletin board. You start l o o k i n g i n the paper." my  -"I 3 I I in  most of t h e m . . . . I h a d a few e m p l o y e r s t h a t I managed t o g e t i n t e r v i e w s and mention that..."  .  Spring mid A p r i l '83 0  "High" "Felt Good" "Proud" "Excited"  Search S t r a t e g i e s  think  I  only  applied  far  jobs because t h a t ' s a l l f o u n d t h a t came up t h a t was v a g u e l y interested ."  HIGH-) -"I had hopes o f graduating and f i n d i n g a j o b and m a k i n g a l i t t l e b i t of money.... I f e l t that 5 y r s . of engineerina a r e f i n a l l y a n i n a to nav  - " S e e i n g the end o f y o u r l a s t y e a r at u n i v e r s i t y . I think i t ' s ahigr for almost a n y o n e . . . . I f e l t good f i r s t t o be g e t t i n g o u t o f s c h o o l . I guess a l i t t l e b i t proud...about completing i t . b u t more j u s t to t r y something d i f f e r e n t - see what the real w o r l d . . . . " - a s t h e end c a m e . . . f e l t b e t t e r and better. - u p l i f t when he was " f o r e s e e i n g t h e  off. And one o t t h e m a i n reasons I went i n t o engineering, believe i t or not, was the f a c t that jobs were available."  end."  .  "Disappointed" "Down "High"  in  the  Dumps"  mid  April  '83  to  of 0-1  May 1/2  end  -2  days  after  Europe. s i c k . . . i t cause  we  My  last  exam  I went  grandfather  was  more  thouaht  to  was  see  he w a s  to  fairly  him  going  beto  die." - I was riisannointed t h a t 1 went to E u r o p e on t h a t k i n d o f a s i t u a t i o r I ' d l i k e t o go and e n j o y i t . . . i t w a s n ' t r e a l l y an e n j o y a b l e trip." - T h e n I was i n a h u r r y t o g e t b a c k b e c a u s e I knew t h a t j o b s w e r e h a r d t n a e t and I f i g u r e d everybody  HIGH,  -"I nn  tPll  e on a t r i p and t h e n - I ' d planned on g o i n g t o Europ b a c k a n d h a v i n g sonu - I w a s p l a n n i n g o n g o i n g i n S e p t . w h i c h was graduation... f i g u r e d I c a n a l w a y s go w o r k a s u m m e r , make somemone; a t r i p latpr " d o i n a a n v t h i n q and qo i n Sept B u t , my g r a n d f a t h e r w a s s i c k . -"I was p l a n n i n g on a f t e r v i s i t i n g my g r a n d f a t h e r - t a k i a l e i s u r e l y tour through E u r o p e a n d j u s t k i n d o f bum around. It got to the point  -"going coming work."  - n i l except for contacting o l d j o b e m p l o y e r who o f f e r e d t o t a k e him when he g o t b a c k .  o  Number  311  Emotions  Time (months)  Accompanying Events/Behaviors Including those (pos. and neg.) leading to a change i n emotion e l s e had got the jump on i t . " -"It wasn't a holiday t r i p . I t was different. I t was s t i l l n i c e t o g e t away f r o m t h e s t u d y i n g , and e d u c a t i o n and j u s t r e l a x so a p a r t o f i t was o k a y . . . i f I was t h i n k i n g n f MW n r a n H f a f h p r I was rtnun i n the dumps."  4.  "High"  end  of  "Great"  May  '83  1  1/2  -"Graduation You're  "Down" "Shock" "Low"  June '83 11/2 2 1/2  a  it's fairly  quite awhile." -"Graduation - just feels  5.  on  quite high great.  a  peak.  point  Coping S t r a t e g i e s (most  Job Search S t r a t e g i e s  Future Expectation  effprrivel  where  I  apply  for  was  had  this  to  come  jobs  plus  one  so  I  figured  on  a  trip  back  waiting I  to  there for  me  can always  go  later."  HIGH3  for  Everyone  great."  - " r e a l i z i n g t h a t I ' d gone t h r o u g h 5 y e a r s o f e n g i n e e r i n g a n d n o i m m e d i a te jobs a v a i l a b l e . " -"came back from t r i p t o part-time work a t the power h o u s e - work g r e a t , b u t i t w a s s o CIU55U 10 graduating. Y o u ' r e s o r t o f s e t on f i n d i n g a job i n your designated f i e l d here. Even t h o u g h I was w o r k i n g f a i r l y s t e a d y i t was still a b i t of a drop i n y o u ' r e enthusia m." - " i h e r e j u s t w e T f c i n ' l L f l d t llldiiy J u b s I t was q u i t e a s h o c k t o f i n d that t h i n g s were not a v a i l a b l e . I want to stay i n the lower m a i n l a n d . . . because I f i g u r e I ' v e gone through 5 years of u n i v e r s i t y . I've done  L0W2 -And  you  find  out  -  hey,  no j o b s o u t there." - " i t d i d n ' t look l i k e going to get one."  I  there s was  -"I put a resume i n every place I could think of... between working."  Number  311  Emotions  Time (months)  Accompanying Events/Behaviors Including those (pos. and neg.) leading to a change i n emotion the work.  I  where  I want  -"feels  life  haven't not  got  quite  want to has a  as  to  a  Future Expectation  Job  Search S t r a t e g i e s  job  live." no  job. low  have  Coping S t r a t e g i e s (most p f f p r M v p ^  purpose. You  come  I down-  as when y o u ' r e  in  s c h o o l b e c a u s e y o u ' r e h a p p y t o be n u t r,f c r h n n l Ann t n p n vnn s t a r t r e a l i z i n g t h a t y o u r l i f e ' s g o t no purpose r e a l l y because you d o n ' t have a j o b . And i t m i g h t d r o p a l i t t l e b i t and t h e n you s t a r t to get used to i t . . . I kind of mellowe 1 out and I s t a y e d i n t h a t k i n d o f a low  6 •  "Angry" "Frustrated"  summer  2 1/2 4 1/2  for  quite  awhile...."  '83 - w a s h i r e d f u l l - t i m e f o r a m o n t h . - " H a v i n g the o t h e r income i s hard t h a t much h a r d e r t o l o o k f o r w o r k . A l o t o f t i m e s my D a d w o u l d h a v e t o  - " W h e n i w o r k o n my c a r it's kind of a hobby. I d o a b i t o f r a c i n g . . .1 completely forget about everything...that's kind of a nice get-away from  p u s h me o u t t h e d o o r . " -"I did slowlv realize i t . It i t a l 1. 1 r e a l ly enjoy d i d n ' t s t a r t c l i c k i n g i n u n t i l the e n d o f t h e s u m m e r w h e n y o u h a d mor e that." f r e e t i m e t o you and to s t a r t -"it was s t i l l summer s o t h i n k i n g obout i t . " i t was r e a l l y h a r d t o g e ' -argued with f a t h e r concerning job r e a l l y worred about - so . s p a r r h t p r h n i n i i P - f a t h e r w o u l d ask many o t h e r t h i n g s t o d o go t o t h e b e a c n , s w i m . . . h i m w h e t h e r h e h a d d o n e f o l l o w up h a r d t o r e a l l y s i t down v i s i t s on a l l h i s l e t t e r s and initial calls: "I s a i d I ' m s u p p o ; ed a n d s a y I ' v e r e a l l y g o t a problem h e r e . " to be a p r o f e s s i o n a l , I s h o u l d n ' t be b u g g i n g p e o p l e . . . I r e a l i z e h e ' s riaht. But I d o n ' t t h i n k i t shou" d be t h a t w a y f o r s o m e b o d y w i t h a university education, shouldn't have t o beg f o r a j o b . " - " h a t e d j o b s e a r c h i n g : "The t h i n g I h a t e d t h e m o s t i s g o i n g o u t and t . r v i n g t.n s e l l y o u r s e l f . . . ! f e e l  - " p u t t i n g on a s u i t g o i n g downtown and ing around banging doors."  and walkon  Number  311  Emotions  Time (months)  Accompanying Events/Behaviors I n c l u d i n g those (pos. and neg.) l e a d i n g to a change i n emotion  Coping S t r a t e g i e s  t h a t I have p r o v e n m y s e l f by g o i n g to u n i v e r s i t y a n d . . . g e t t i n g the marks...."  - " I p i c k e d u p my s p i r i t s and s a i d 'Wei1 , why n o t go o n a t r i p ? ' "  Future E x p e c t a t i o n  Job Search S t r a t e g i e s  -"My p a r e n t s have always been w i l l i n g t o h e l p . I  "Not Good" "Down" "Uneasy"  -"When I got l a i d o f f . . . i t dropped alittle bit." - " L o o s i n g the o n l y source o f income that I h a d . . . I ' d kind of gotten used t o w o r k i n g and h a v i n g t h a t bi-weekly cheque. When y o u l o o s e  Sept. '83 1 1/2 5 1/2  - " I p i c k e d u p my s p i r i t s a n d s a i d ' W e l l , why n o t go on a t r i p ? ' " -"My parents have always been w i l l i n g t o h e l p . I had o t h e r t h i n g s t o r e l y  t h a t y o u r e e l n o " WO JJUUU. on - " i n Sept. I g o t . l a i d o f f completel. ' • • " i f b r o u g h t me r i g h t d o w n . I felt a l i t t l e b i t uneasy b e c a u s e t h a t was my o n l y s o u r c e o f i n c o m e . " .  "Up" "Cheered-up" "Good"  L0W3  - money, p r o p e r t y I had to I ' d sell."  - " 3 o f us a t work d e c i d e d t o t a k e o u r l a s t p a y c h e q u e s a n d go o n a trip. S o we f i g u r e s W h e r e ' s t h e money g o i n g t o be w o r t h a n y t h i n g Mexico. S o we w e n t t o M e x i c o .  Sept. '83 5 1/2  A n d we f e l t g o o d . But then the m o n e y r a n o u t s o we h a d t o c o m e home. L u c k i l y when I g o t b a c k home t h e y w e r e w i l l i n g t o r e h i r e pn t h a t - J u s t part-time." - h a s worked p a r t - t i m e s i n c e then tc present. .  "Okay" "Happy"  mid July 15  -"You r e a l l y have t o s e l l -"I s t i l l plan on going bac < _ - " T h e r e ' s p r o b a b l y a j o b o u t y o u r s e l f now p r o b a b l y there waiting f o r me." I f I d o n ' t g e t a j o b I want more t h a n a n y o t h e r time. " - " I ' d l i k e t o g e t an e n g i n e e r t o g o b a c k a n d g e t my - " l a t e l y I've g i v e n t h a t ing j o b . . . i n order to get m a s t e r ' s degree - not f o r fhnunht un f ^ t a v i n n i n orrereO). ' a J u U - j u s i b u m e l l i i n y Lu acredited...and...mayDe i a lower mainland). I've do - a n o t h e r g o a l . . . . " - " I t ' s s o f a r away f r o m g r a d , now 1 i k e i t . . . a t l e a s t then I a p p l i e d t o anyone anywhere. - g i v i n g up h o p i n g f o r l o c a l y o u ' v e a l m o s t g i v e n up on - n o t w o u l d know. If I didn't The f e w t h a t h a v e s h o w n u : work o r j u s t e n g i n e e r i n g r e a l l y g i v e n up on w o r r y i n g a b o u t l i k e i t I w o u l d be c o n t e n t 100's of people are a p p l y i t and j u s t kind of flow with t o w o r k a t my j o b f o r t h e i n g f o r a n d I'm n o t b y f a w h a t e v e r ' s g o i n g and t r y and enjoy r e s t o f mv l i f e . I reallv 1 IL." ••  -"When you always m i g h t be l a i d o f b e c l o s i n g down all of i t that I  '84  1  t h i n k - hey I f o r they might I've got to take can ( e x t r a work  Number  311 Time  Accompanying Events/Behaviors I n c l u d i n g t h o s e (pos. and neg.)  Coping  Strategies  Future  want to - " I t ' s more t h a n a p a r t - t i m e j o b novi - f o c u s i n g o n m o n e y h e ' s it is earning b e c a u s e a l o t of p e o p l e a r e g o i n g on h o l i d a y s and I h a v e t o f i l l in. - f o c u s e s on p r i d e i n compar y It's nothing r e a l l y that I could -input into operations r e l y o n b u t I'm d o i n g okay.,.you - liking fellow workers have t o l o o k a t s t a b i l i t y and l o n g term s o r t ot t h i n g . " - " R i g h t now I f e e l h a p p y t o b e w o r k ing. A n d I e n j o y t h e w o r k I do there. I ' d a l m o s t be h a p p y i f the} g a v e me a g u a r a n t e e d f u l l - t i m e j o b and I w o u l d f o r g e t a b o u t e n g i n e e r i r . . . I ' m n o t unhappy t o have gone t h r o u g h i t . I t opens up y o u r e y e s to e v e r y t h i n g . I ; m n o t t o o unhappy r i g h t n o w . . . B a s i c a l l y , i t ' s been up h e r e b e c a u s e I ' m w o r k i n g now, m a k i n a a l o t o f money s o m o n e y ' s not a problem, b o r i g n t now i m on a f a i r l y l e v e l plateau...I've a c t u a l l y b e e n m a k i n g m o r e money t h a n whe I was f u l l - t i m e . . . t h e r e ' s a l w a y s someone t a k i n g d a y s off." -"I'm i n a p o s i t i o n where I get working with the . . . s o I get a l o n g -"Here I've got a l a l l my m a r k s . I speak f o r i t s e l f  g r o u p I work w i t h really well." l my e d u c a t i o n , think that should but I quess i t  doesn't, m a t ' s what bo"rleTea m the most - having to e s s e n t i a l l y beg f o r a j o b and I t r y n o t t o and I d o n ' t t h i n k I w i l l s o maybe I'll never get a j o b . "  get "  Expectation that  Job  Search  gotten job-wherever - " I t ' s where y o u ' v e whatever you  Strategies  to that point got to take can g e t . "  - " R i g h t now I ' m g o i n g t o an a p p l i c a t i o n i n f o r a biomedical o u t f i t . . . I  put i t ' s know  nothing about biomedical field - slight interest in it. I t ' s not the s o r t of t h i n g t h a t r i g h t now I w a n e do b u t i f I g e t t h i s j o b I'll take i t . "  Appendix F Summary Example Co-researcher #302  175  176  Co-researcher #302 Summary "It's pretty high during exams. [You're] full of anxiety because exams are three hours long but...you just think 'wow, I'm close to the end'.  You're pretty excited... You do pretty  amazing things during exam period... Just coming out of university...you feel very positive 'cause when I look back at my work schedule it's very positive. I mean, I've worked a long time and I think I have a very good resume. So you come out of school with I think a sort of false hope". When you finish exams you go "up a little bit".  "I wasn't  one into graduation ceremonies...I was more excited just to be finished...I thought I'm going to get a job that's going to last me...I wasn't optimistic to the point that I thought, wow, I'm going to go out to find a career of the century. Because you're not going to with a B.A.  anymore. And that's something you have  to realize when you're going through university. Before, maybe four or five years ago, a B.A. was something. But now I get out and I think it's nothing. It's nothing. It's a piece of paper. I mean there's so many people out there with a B.A.  It is  something. It's an achievement, but I don't think it's the achievement it was.  I really think, I mean, what do I know?...I  think my psychology degree helped me to get the job at the community centre, but then sometimes I think my extracurricular things helped me more...which is sort of a bit  177 disenchanting...You have all these hopes. You think, well, I want to utilize my degree. I want a good paying job. I've got to pay my loan off.  Let's be positive. You want to get out,  change the world or whatever. After a while you think well that's just not possible... I didn't even know where to begin...I did start looking for a job immediately...but I wasn't out every day of the week...Maybe out once or twice a week...I didn't really know how to go about it". After finishing exams you "just take two or three weeks off... You deserve it..it's great--no anxiety about exams, papers, nothing.  'ust lay back on the beach... You're still  packing up things from school". Near the beginning of May I was pretty hopeful because a contact in one company suggested my application was pretty good and that I should try to see this certain man.  "I kept trying to  get hold of him and they keep giving you the run around. Finally I just went in there. I must have gone back three times and I kept phoning ...and finally I see him and he says 'don't be too hopeful. I have 100 applications sitting there'...They really gave me the run around and then that. That's when I really started going downhill because I was counting on that job". I "went down a little bit" more when I found out I hadn't really graduated. There was some kind of mix up and it turns out I need another course.  178 Sort of the rest of May and all of June I was job hunting, going to the "jobs off the board at the employment centre first. "I was kept pretty busy. I got pretty bottom, pretty bottom". I was upset that I had to categorize myself at the employment centre because I wanted to stay flexible.  "I never even got a  cal 1 from them". I was really confused trying to figure out - "there's all these little temporary jobs, week ones. I thought, should I take this or am I going to get a phone call the next week, and I find it really hard to guit on someone". But, "I thought - no. I have to get something that's going to be more permanent", but "after a while I was just sort of taking anything". . I worked part-time at the Radio station, maybe two days per month, but I'd think, wow, I'm working Saturday night for four hours.  So what?"  I remember "putting out 60 applications and then them always saying...if I wasn't willing to accept $3.65 an hour I couldn't get a job because they just said 'well, there's 100 high school students looking for a job at the same place, so I don't need to take you'". I knew I couldn't go back to school because I couldn't afford it and I remember getting "very, very angry". "There's all these places and I thought I had leads on them. Then you go back and you find out they hired their niece or they hired their daughter... Most places I went back three or four t imes.  179 I got the loan repayment pamphlet in early June and since then the loan was always on my mind. I couldn't borrow money from anywhere. "As you go on you say, well I don't think there is anything. It's sort of like your world is coming apart day by day. As soon as you hit reality it's like 'bang'! I don't think you're really prepared for it.  It's like, wow. I owe $7,000. I  don't have a job". The bus strike was on sort of sporadically and I was always worried about getting around. "I'd go out for five or six hours a day and wouldn't manage to get to 10 places". I finally "realized I've got to get a job. Doesn't matter if it's going to last a week. I've got to get something". I knew if I had found a longer term job it would've been out in Surrey or something and then you've got the bus problem again. I finally "had to go on welfare and that's one thing I didn't want to have to do...I tried not to think about...the connotations that are connected with we 1fare...Even being on welfare--it's $300 a month. That's not enough to live on". I tried for a job as a cocktail waitress at the employment centre and the counsellor asked me if it wasn't a step down. "Yeah, it's so true, but...what're you to do?...Your morale gets lower...At the end I was just a ball of nerves". I was feeling kind of uncomfortable because I wouldn't take anything that was on a Friday or Saturday evening because all the  180  way through I was singing with a group and I didn't want to have to give that up. "That was one good thing -- to keep that up... It's  sort of number one...I'm working towards a career in them --  radio and promotions". I got kind of stir crazy because I wasn't working. I'd come home and couldn't stay...I'd have to go out. You go to a bar and they're hammering at you to buy a drink...well I don't have a cent, and I'm just trying to get out of the house". It gets so that "you just start phoning Mum all the time and you get "don't worry dear'. Mums are always optimistic.  'You'll get a  job!'...It's great but it's pretty distant. Sounds pretty far off". Salespeople would phone and offer me these magazine deals and I'd say I'll buy your magazine if you'll pay off my loan. It was raining too, and "that made it worse". At the end of June "like wow...I found out I got the job"-a two month summer job. "The fellow I work with is great...I'm already spending money and I don't have it yet there's so much stuff I need...I'm really into my job...I like a lot of responsibi1ity...I'm pretty lucky. I lucked out". "I kept phoning back and I kept wanting to know when I come in and then I wanted to find out who I was working with so that I even found that there was still sort of--I was still a bit worried because I thought well, it's not really in my hands  181 yet... because I haven't even shown my face. Something might happen. So you get a bit more pessimistic". I'll be working with low income people "so it's sort of wow. Man I know where you're at". I get scared now thinking of how much interest I'll have to pay on my loan by the time I pay it off--probably four or five years.  "I guess there's no such thing as free money".  "I'm not looking forward to September... I'm already thinking about it...I'm going to be looking again...I really don't want to go through that again...At least I'm making money for the time being...I'll try to save up for September... For now don't even think about September. Live by the month. It's really hard to think like that too, after going to school for four years... Your whole life is planned for those four years...It's just a lot easier to be a student...I still have that little pile of resumes so they'll start off again...I'm pretty optimistic. It's so dumb because I was optimistic in May too, but I just think all the university students... and all the high school students are going back so hopefully there will be openings...I'm really hoping I do a great job and some great grant or great program will come up and they'll incorporate me...There might even be more anxiety then... summer a lot of time kind of looses you. it's the summer. You can go to the beach".  You think, well,  Appendix G Selected Quotes in Positive Critical Incident Categories  182  Appendix G-l Further Educat'  184  Further Education "I took nine units through the year... because I had so much free time". "I took one evening class at U.B.C. so that sort of gave me something to look forward to. That's always good for your morale". [Part-time university]:  "that was being in a productive  environment... there's just no point in wasting any more time". "I think this course will help me a great deal find a job when I finish". "I decided I'm not going to be unemployed for another year so I'll go back to school. That sort of got me up again". "...had my first class today...I think I'm going to make some really good f r i ends". "The day I got my marks...it started me thinking that I could come back and take my masters... opened up another option to me". "Already I'm thinking about going back to school ... just to keep a bright spot in the future". [Taking classes at university]:  "I feel like a student. I don't  feel unemployed any more. Back in the swing of things".  185 Appendix G-2 Money  186  Money "When I found out I had a job I was happy, really happy because we needed the money and I wanted to buy all kinds of nice things and food and pay my mother back the money I owed her". "I'd never been paid before so it was a great experience". "It was fun at first to have enough money to buy anything you want". [Collected U.I.C.]:  "that was a bit of relief".  "...happy to be working... making a lot of money so money's not a problem". [Just offerred a job]: "I'm already spending money and I don't have it yet. There's so much stuff I need". [Part-time job]: "It helped only because it gave me gas mi 1 eage". "Pay is decent. do".  I can afford to do the things I've wanted to  Appendix G-3 Support and Similarity  188  Support and Similarity "My roommate was looking for a job at the same time so I found that very supportive". "You just start phoning Mum all the time and you get 'don't worry dear'...Mums are always optimistic". "It was supportive too because a couple of the people aren't employed--same kind of situation I'm in...good to be with them". "My boyfriend and my parents said 'oh there's a job out there for you somewhere'...My parents and friends all realize how hard it is...". [Closest friend also unemployed]:  "I remember both of us  commiserating. It's so nice to have someone--crying on each other's shoulders". "To me friends are really important...having someone you could bounce things off... it's not so bad you know...that guy that didn't hire you is a schmuck". "It can help out a lot... somebody who can understand what's happening. They don't blame you for it--'You're just a lazy bum' ".  189  Appendix G-4 Hobbies/Involvement/Acti vity  190 Hobbies/Involvement/Activity [Played tennis and other sports]: "taking time out for things I like to do". "I joined another group for children of holocaust survivors ... it's very satisfying". "When I work on my car...I completely forget about everything... that's kind of nice to get away from it all.  I really enjoy  that". "I had to do something constructive so I borrowed my brother's Apple II...so I started to work on the computer and increase my...  ski11s...good for character ... good for employer and...for  schools in future". "...community work. I work with Soviet dissidents... it was a place to put your energy...getting involved ... got you busy and thinking". "I guess as I started writing my resume, you get...geared up and you start doing more and more".  Appendix G Tr i ps  192 Trips "I took it easy...went to Calgary...said to myself 'I deserve it'...You got to have some time to celebrate momentous occasion". "I picked up my spirits and said 'well, why not go on a trip?' So we went to Mexico. That really cheered everybody up". "took a trip...good experience...excitement... I had fun and also learned a lot". "Went on a trip to the Middle East: I was away from my job and I was learning things. I was seeing things which I had studied about so it was very satisfying...great for your morale". [Went to Europe]: "That was the good time...a very pleasant exper ience". [Europe]:  "a nice escape".  Appendix G-6 Increased Optimism Through Trends or Opportuniti  Increased Optimism Through Trends or Opportunities "One of my close friends got a job". [During contract work]: "There were some indications of more work in the future". "The job market was picking up slightly through the government career access program".  Appendix Getting  Interviews  and  G-7  Successful  Interviews  196  Getting Interviews and Successful Interviews [Seven interviews]: "It provided a reward for my effort". "They seemed impressed with my background". "Got a call from the present employer. He gave me an interview. I felt I did really well on the interview and I felt I had an excellent chance". "The first interview was a high...it went very well...I was really enthusiastic about working there". "thought, well, if I had all these interviews maybe I'll end up with a job". "had an interview with Philips Cable at that time and they said "come on down'...so I said 'great'".  Appendix G-8 Got a Job  198  Got a Job [Got a job tutoring]: "What I was doing was a bit useful...I was using my skills for something". [Temporary job]: "Sort of actively filling all of your time". "I got a job!" [Contract work]: "Sort of proved that I could actually do it. If I did it once it can happen a second time". [Full-time job]: "did obtain the job...feeling of relief".  Appendix G-9 End of School  End of School "...very re 1ieved... after all those years and glad to be out of school". "You just think wow.  I'm close to the end".  "...a period of relief after the essays are in and the final exams are f inished". "I was...excited just to be finished". "Seeing the end of your last year at university...I felt good just to be getting out of school. I guess a little bit proud... about completing it...try something different--see what the real world. "It was kind of a nice feeling...because school was finished". "Out of school after five years".  Appendix G-10 Relaxation  202  Relaxation "I was happy because it was summertime...all the fun and excitement that you have... Everybody just sort of had a good summer". "went to a lot of bar-b-g's in June...did a lot socia 1ly...had a lot of fun". "had some people over". "no anxiety about exams, paper, nothing. Just lay back on the beach". "I didn't really do anything...I went to the beach, called a few f r iends". "It was still summer so it was really hard to get really worried about--so many other things to do--go to the beach, swim..." "spending a lot of time sunbathing"  Appendix G-ll Graduat ion  204  Graduat ion "...looking forward to graduation throughout the month". "feeling pretty good about everything at graduation...made me feel better... sort of compensated for all my years of study... the payoff". "Got dressed up in our caps and gowns...one of the professors gave a really good speech". "You graduate...you're really enjoying the month...you have your ceremon i es". "Graduation--it's quite a peak...just great...you're on a fairly high point". "Ready to take the world by its...all these visions and dreams of doing these great accomplishments".  Appendix GJob Offers  206  Job Offers "It was a fairly good job...I need the experience and the money". "So many offers...good feeling when you're offerred a job". "I had all these offers...! got a job pretty quickly".  Appendix G-13 Co-Workers or C1ients  208  Co-Workers or Clients "The people I worked for...they were kind of neat". [Co-workers]: "really well qualified people...laid off architect... woman in her Ph.D.". "I like working with the guys I work with".  Appendix G-14 New Year  New Year "a new year was started. There would be more jobs so I tried aga i n". "When the new year came in I was so looking forward to the new year, because last year was so rotten for me". "A little bit more incentive to get you going again". "well, nobody really hires in winter and they do in January. That's supposedly the market".  Appendix G-15 Encouraging Advice  212  Encouraging Advice "He revised it and gave me some points as to how to clean up the resume, make it look really sharp...quality of paper you should use, presentation...he also provided a recommendation". [Following supportive comments concerning presently used job search techniques]: "If anything comes up he may remember me".  Appendix G-16 Postponing Job Search  214  Postponing Job Search "At regular intervals I felt it was time to feel better--think of what I want to do...before examining real possibi1ities--if I could, what would I want to be sort of thing". "Could postpone my graduation date".  Appendix G-17 Quitting Jobs  216 Quitting Jobs [Relieved to]: "get out of there". "quit job...that was a high...when I did leave I did feel like I had dropped 10 pounds off my shoulders".  217 Appendix H Selected Quotes in Negative Critical Incident Categories  218 Appendix H-l People Negatives  219  People Negatives "After a while when it got depressing you need someone to talk to and she's not around". [Friend announces she's going to grad school and arranges for another friend to take her job]: "That was kind of low because she's all excited and happy because of going to grad school and this other girl is working her job". "Two of my closest friends went to Japan". "At school I had two professors that I really studied closely with and I always felt I was sort of letting them down". "I heard about friends, people in my class, getting jobs not in their field.  I didn't want to do that".  "There were a lot of people that were overqualified for these positions — people 50, 60 years old who applied for these junior positions". "Most of my friends either had a job...or were in school". "There was a new crop of graduates coming out and I would have to be against them too". "When you are out of work you are on your own...you're very isolated".  220 "I was worried about everyone else's opinion of me". "Most of my girlfriends are unemployed and teachers from '81 graduates, so most of my friends are all really despondent and 'oh God, what a system. Why didn't we become dental hygienists?', and all this kind of thing 'cause it's really guite di scouraging". "romantic ending... knew that guy for about five years", "my brother had a lot of problems". [Father got cancer]: "really quite worried about that". [Grandfather was i l l ] :  "If I was thinking of my grandfather I  was down in the dumps". [Boyfriend]: "he got tired of listening to the complaints". "They think surely you can always get a job. Right [sarcastic voice]. They don't realize just how difficult it is at times... 40 and up, they don't understand the problem. Very few of them have any concept that you really might be trying but nothing is happening. And the others figure, well, you're not really trying, otherwise you'd have a job".  221 "This is what bothers me:  people are always complaining 'oh, you  know these young people...they're not working; they're lazy; they're bums. When I was that age I was working', kind of thing... they don't hire a young person". [Referring to friends]:  "The only thing that bothered me was  every time I'd see them they'd ask me how the job hunt was going. So if one more person asks me that I'm going to scream...It's really tiring to have to exp1 ain... people... don't understand that the sheer number of times you're asked--it's a lot of pressure".  222  Appendix H-2 Working Negatives  223  Working Negatives "I can't be me...you have to be happy". "Starting my job was low...because I was used to having little breaks in between at school and I didn't have any breaks. And I was tired". "There's no areas you can promote to...it was dead...felt I was going into a noman's land". "Really difficult to schedule things because I was on call as well as doing mixed shifts...physica1ly...hard--rea1ly tired after a while". "A pretty terrible time". "I was just a temporary worker there. I knew that I could be terminated at any time so I was still concerned about finding a ful1-time job". "When you always think--hey I might be laid off or they might be closing down". "tired. . . sick of everything...burning out". "really boring job...got so boring, so routine--it was just mind destroying... the day to day kind of got to you after a while".  224  "It's not a very intellectual job". "conditions were really bad". "if it's been a hard day and my feet hurt". [Described what she was treated like]:  "a dispensable,  replaceable piece of machinery". "working environment wasn't very good--so competitive...I wasn't very happy".  Append i x  226  Money "I'm like $7 ,000 in the hole [student loan] and...I have nowhere to borrow the money from". "I certainly don't feel I'm getting paid what I'm worth". [Having to borrow money from parents]: "I don't like to be more of a burden". "You go to a bar and they're hammering at you to buy a drink...well I don't have a cent and I'm just trying to get out of the house". "I had to go on welfare and that's one thing I didn't want to have to do".  Appendix H-4 D i scouragement  228  D i scouragement "I asked her what they did with the applications and she said they do job search...and she said 'don't count on getting a job through that. You pretty well have to get one from the board'. So there was a bit of a decline at that point". "She said 'that's a bad route. Few people find it by the want ads'. That sort of discouraged me there 'cause it looked like the best route initially". "When I'd investigate as far as the opportunities... it would seem I couldn't do any". "He said 'don't be too hopeful. I have 100 applications sitting there'". "Every time you read the paper you read about another depressing^ thing...this place is shutting down--and you think 'oh shit', especially if it's something related to what you're looking for". [When labelled overqualified]:  "like you can't loose for  winning". "There are a lot of jobs available for someone with my background in the States ...simply out of reach". [At Career Day]:  "didn't find any help".  229  Appendix H-5 Devalued University Degree  230  Devalued U n i v e r s i t y Degree  "Nobody's r e a l l y brought one  interested  in what I've  down to r e a l i t y . . . a t  times  done or the degree...  I've  felt  t h a t I was  no  b e t t e r o f f because of g e t t i n g the degree".  "It's  g e t t i n g to the p o i n t where a B.A.  school  diploma".  "School  was  u s e l e s s and  i t doesn't  "Maybe four or f i v e years think  a B.A.  was  me".  something...now...I  i t ' s n o t h i n g . . . i t ' s a p i e c e of paper.  many people  "Feeling  "I'm  ago  help  i s comparable to a high  just  out t h e r e with  a B.A.".  l i k e a high school  training...I  student...I  feel  t h a t maybe a l l  have been wasted...I'm back to when I was  school--without  experience...without  feel  I can't  any  in u n i v e r s i t y " .  have more of an o p p o r t u n i t y to  u n i v e r s i t y grads...I  thought  knew t h a t I would have gone to B.C.I.T. i n s t e a d " .  u n i v e r s i t y degree doesn't  in high  s o r t of p r o f e s s i o n a l  use what I learned  out B.C.I.T. graduates  get jobs a c t u a l l y than  "My  so  l i k e I went to school f o r n o t h i n g " .  these years  "I found  I mean, t h e r e ' s  really  help".  gee,  if I  231  Appendix H-6 Self Doubt/Guilt  232  Self Doubt/Guilt [After an interview]:  "Kept going over it, over and over, why  didn't they hire me?". "hey—what am I doing?". "start to wonder about yourse1f...maybe somehow it's my fault". "There was a point...where I thought perhaps I wasn't using the right technique in finding work". "I felt...maybe I'm boxing myself in". "You always think maybe if I had looked harder. Maybe if I'd spent one more day--always questioning". "There were people who did obtain jobs but they obtained them out of town and I wasn't willing to go out of town at first. But then you started regretting--maybe I should've went[SIC] out of town".  Appendix H-7 Nothing New Avai Table  234  Nothing New Available "hadn't been anything for such a long time". "You get a little discouraged because you've been out looking for a job and there isn't any it seems". "not getting anywhere...looking really hard". "Unfortunately the board doesn't change that much and the want ads are pretty bleak". "no immediate jobs avai lable...there just weren't that many...it was quite a shock to find that things were not available". "The job boards, everything they have is pretty bleak. Everything they have listed I would be underemployed".  Appendix H-8 No Success  236  No Success "I tried looking for jobs but I didn't get any.  I got a lot of  rejection letters...companies saying they would keep my letter on file". "You hand out your first few resumes and get the few rejection slips.  Your fantasies sort of fade a bit".  "was rejected in a lot of places". "You go to a place where you don't get to talk to anybody". "I got very few interviews...no one would give me a chance".  Appendix H-9 Stagnation/Boredom  238  St agnat ion/Boredom "I get very stir crazy and I found I'd come home and couldn't stay here". "everything was on hold". "feeling a bit depressed in a way because you know...what happens-- nothing new now". "work...the old routine which is really depressing...boring, mundane...".  Appendix H-10 Exams and Papers  Exams and Papers "stress in the initial period". "There were assignments...kind of get a little rough at times"  Appendix H-11 No Response  242  No Response "It really bothered me because you'd send the resumes to apply for a job and you wouldn't hear from them...you really feel that society doesn't care about me". "still hadn't heard anything". "I found it very discouraging because they didn't reply to my letters".  243 Appendix H-12 CEC Irritation  244  CEC Irritation "going to Manpower--oh depression. I didn't like the way I was treated... they didn't give me any help at all...they treated me like dirt". "the local CEC.... people who work there...unfee1ing". "never even got a phone call from them". "I was applying for a cocktail waitress... and he goes 'well, isn't this a step down anyways?'". "I haven't hear anything...not even if they've received my resume so I'm not very happy...as far as their employment practices...".  Appendix H-13 Getting the Run Around  246  Getting the Run Around "A lot of the recruiters just look around...and not really hire...he took a long time to tell me--until January [from September] before he told me he was just looking". "most places I went back three or four times...you keep going back". "The lady told me 'I'll phone you tomorrow at 2:00', and I didn't get a phone call...so I phoned her at 4:00, and she wasn't there so this other lady said 'phone her...at 5:00', and there's no one at home".  247 Appendix H-14 End of Temporary/Contract Work  End of Temporary/Contract Work "When I got laid off... loosing the only source of income that had". "I think of it as being fired".  Appendix H-15 No Job Offer  No Job Offer "being told you were on a short list but, sorry, we can't offer you a job at this time. Good luck and all that". "after they got back to me I was very d1scouraged...that I did not get the job".  Appendix H-16 Dressing Up  Dressing Up "The thing I hated the most is going out and trying to sell yourself...putting on a suit and going downtown". "It was hard to get dressed up and look nice to go to a place where there were no jobs".  253  Appendix H-17 Cynicism Due to Nepotism  254  Cynicism Due to Nepotism "Then a little bit of depression too when the only way I found a job was through my mother". "people with almost no experience either know someone or just luck and get a job in my field". "There's all these places and I thought I had leads on them, then you go back and you find out they hired their niece...or their daughter".  255  Appendix H-18 Indec i s i ve  256  Indec i s i ve "I...had to weigh taking an M.Sc. or an M.B.A. so that was difficult". "There's all these little temporary jobs--week ones, and I thought should I take this or am I going to get a phone call the next week?". "fear...not...able to decide what I want to do...there's so many choices to make--fear of making the wrong choice".  Appendix H-19 Developmental Hold-Up  258  Developmental Hold-Up "can't afford to move out". "I just wanted to move out...that's another low point...I don't have a job. How can I support myself?  How can I move out? But  I really felt that I needed to". "You go day by day. You can't make plans because you don't have any work. I'm planning on getting married, had been for some time, but it was all on hold. I would have liked to move out of the house too for some time but again that was all on hold too. That's frustrating".  

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