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A comparison of intuitive, inferential, and intuitive-inferential methods of training empathy Demers, Toni-Lee 1984

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A COMPARISON OF INTUITIVE, INFERENTIAL, AND INTUITIVE-INFERENTIAL METHODS OF TRAINING EMPATHY By TONI-LEE DEMERS B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1984 Q Toni-Lee Deraers, 1984 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C o u . v r \ S < - \ ^ -^c^ ~Y'*>^  t V v o l c V ^ The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date C D Q V D W ^ \\ ^ \ C 1 V L J r DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT This study presents three empathy t r a i n i n g methods and compares the r e s u l t s against each other and against the r e s u l t s from an at home c o n t r o l group. The t r a i n i n g was based on the idea that empathy consists of both an i n t u i t i v e and an i n f e r e n t i a l component. T r a i n i n g i n i n t u i t i v e techniques was expected to improve empathy as was training in inference. However, a combination of these two methods was expected to be superior in improving empathy scores. The su b j e c t s were 38 U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia students from psychology, education and English. (Intuition N = 8, Inference N = 10, Combination N = 8, Co n t r o l N = 10). A l l subjects were pre- and post-tested on three measures, the Jones-Mohr Listening Test, the Carkhuff D i s c r i m i n a t i o n  Empathy Test and the Kagan A f f e c t i v e S e n s i t i v i t y Scale. Average gain scores were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each group and testing method, and t-tests were used to compare the results. It was found that the inference training improved empathy on two of the three measures and that i n t u i t i o n training did not improve empathy on any of the measures. Combination training was highly s i g n i f i c a n t when compared to the control, but t h e r e were v a r i a b l e r e s u l t s when compared to the inference and i n t u i t i o n methods. i i S p e c u l a t i o n was o f f e r e d to e x p l a i n the r e s u l t s . It was thought that the di f f e r e n t testing methods tapped different components of the empathy construct. The discrepant results of the combination group on the Carkhuff measure were explained using anecdotal evidence. Further research was recommended to c l a r i f y the r e l a t i o n of fantasy and imagery to empathy. It was also suggested that i t would be important to control for age and i n t e l l i g e n c e to determine their effects on empathy. i i i J o y c e , L o r e n a , Resa TABLE OF CONTENTS p a g e ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i CHAPTER I ESTABLISHING A FRAMEWORK 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Statement of the Problem 2 Background of the Problem 2 D i f f i c u l t i e s with the Carkhuff Model 5 Purpose and Importance of the Study 6 Hypotheses 7 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 7 Assumptions 10 L i m i t a t i o n s 10 CHAPTER I I LITERATURE REVIEW 11 I n t r o d u c t i o n 11 I l l u m i n a t i o n s from A e s t h e t i c s 11 L i p p s ' C o n t r i b u t i o n 12 B i o l o g i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s 13 P s y c h o a n a l y t i c C o n t r i b u t i o n s 16 C o n t r i b u t i o n s from S o c i a l Psychology 19 Concluding Comments 21 T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s and Research C o n t r i b u t i o n s 22 S u b l i m i n a l P e r c e p t i o n 23 Importance of Imagery to Therapy 25 Theory of C e r e b r a l L a t e r a l i t y 26 Ho l t ' s "Imagery: The Return of the O s t r a c i z e d " 32 CHAPTER I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURES 38 METHODS 38 P a r t i c i p a n t s 38 Group Leaders 38 T r a i n i n g Groups 39 I n t u i t i o n T r a i n i n g 40 Inference T r a i n i n g 41 Combination T r a i n i n g 43 v Instrumentation 49 Aff e c t i v e S e n s i t i v i t y Scale 49 Discrimination Empathy Test 50 Jones-Mohr Listening Test 51 V a l i d i t y and R e l i a b i l i t y of the Measures 52 PROCEDURES 54 Introduction to the Research 54 Assignment to Groups 56 Design 57 Analysis . . 59 CHAPTER IV RESULTS 60 Tests of the Hypotheses 61 Hypothesis I 61 Hypothesis II 62 Hypothesis III 62 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION 67 Summary 67 Review of the Results 69 Interpretation of Results 71 Recommendations for Further Research 75 Concluding Comments 75 Implications for Counsellor Training 75 REFERENCES 78 APPENDIX A 82 APPENDIX B 105 v i LIST OF TABLES page TABLE 1. Training Session I 45 TABLE 2. Training Session II 46 TABLE 3. Training Session III 47 TABLE 4. Training Session IV . 48 TABLE 5. Design 58 TABLE 6. T-Score Summary 63 TABLE 7. Computation Summary 106 TABLE 8. Data Summary [Inference > control] 108 TABLE 9. Data Summary [Intuition > control] 109 TABLE 10. Data Summary [Combination > i n t u i t i o n ] .. 110 TABLE 11. Data Summary [Combination > control] ... I l l TABLE 12. Data Summary [Combination > inference] .. 112 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I extend my g r a t i t u d e to the many i n d i v i d u a l s who have contributed to the completion of this thesis. S p e c i a l thanks are due to Dr. R. Tolsma, Chairman of my committee, whose intere s t i n imaging provided the idea from which th i s project grew. I also wish to thank Dr. L. Woolsey and Dr. D. A l l i s o n , my committee members, for t h e i r help, support, and encouragement. To a l l those students who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the research and to a l l those p r o f e s s o r s , notably Dr. Peggy Brown, who helped s o l i c i t s u b j e c t s f o r the p r o j e c t , I am t r u l y g r a t e f u l . F i n a l l y , I wish to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to David Brownlee for his help and encouragement with s t a t i s t i c s and to Diane Sylvester who led the various training groups. v i i i CHAPTER I ESTABLISHING A FRAMEWORK Introduction Empathy i s generally and somewhat loosely taken to refer to nonverbal communication and to the apprehension of inner emotional s t a t e s . It suggests a somewhat odd and e l u s i v e s k i l l , a d i v i n a t o r y a r t , a s i x t h sense, an i n s t i n c t i v e and primitive form of penetrating to the core of another person (Katz, 1963, p. 1). Since Freud and the beginnings of formal psychotherapy, i t has been assumed that c o u n s e l l i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s p r e d i c a t e d upon the t h e r a p i s t ' s a b i l i t y to a c c u r a t e l y empathize with the c l i e n t ' s s u b j e c t i v e world (Truax and Carkhuff, 1963; Traux and M i t c h e l l , 1971; Rogers et a l . , 1967; and Kagan, 1967). Hundreds of books, a r t i c l e s and d i s s e r t a t i o n s have appeared emphasizing the c r i t i c a l r o l e played by empathy in the therapeutic context. Consequently, counsellor education programs stress empathy training as one of their basic requirements. Due to the apparent importance of empathy in the counselling process, further research into i t s components seems necessary. The following study evolved from the proposal that the empathy construct consists of two separate components (Goodyear, 1979). Al l p o r t (1937) states that "the theory of empathy i s a peculiar blend, and must in 1 f a c t be regarded as theory of i n t u i t i o n , given i t by d i f f e r e n t both a theory of i n f e r e n c e and as a depending somewhat on the c o l o u r i n g authors." Statement of the Problem In c o u n s e l l o r t r a i n i n g programs, empathy i s taught primarily by strengthening the s k i l l s of i n f e r e n t i a l empathy while i n s t r u c t i o n i n the s k i l l s of i n t u i t i v e empathy are l a r g e l y neglected. In order to maximize s e n s i t i v i t y to a client's subjective world, a counsellor should have access to whichever s k i l l s are most appropriate to the c l i e n t ' s immediate needs. Background of the Problem Some controversy e x i s t s as to the a c t u a l importance of the empathy c o n s t r u c t . Two a r t i c l e s have reviewed and evaluated the l i t e r a t u r e on empathy and counselling outcome. G l a d s t e i n (1977) concluded that although the proponents of empathy may be c o r r e c t , there i s as yet l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l evidence to support their b e l i e f s . As a result, he suggests that educators be more cautious i n emphasizing the r o l e of empathy in counsellor trai n i n g . Lambert, DeJulio, and Stein (1978) concluded that the hypothesis regarding the importance of empathy i s only modestly supported and that the efficacy 2 of the popular i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s t r a i n i n g models has not yet been demonstrated. The i n c o n c l u s i v e n e s s of t h e s e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s may be e x p l a i n e d by s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s . Comparing outcomes a c r o s s d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s may be m e a n i n g l e s s b e c a u s e d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s use d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s of empathy, d i f f e r e n t m e a s u r e s o f empathy, and d i f f e r e n t o u t c o m e c r i t e r i a . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t e a c h s t u d y i s a c t u a l l y e x p l o r i n g a s e p a r a t e v a r i a b l e . A c c o r d i n g to G l a d s t e i n (1977), the q u e s t i o n becomes "which type of empathy i s measured by which type of i n s t r u m e n t f o r which type of c o u n s e l l i n g outcome?"(p.77). There i s a l s o c o n t r o v e r s y as to whether or not empathy i s a t r a i n a b l e s k i l l . S u p p o r t e r s of the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c s c h o o l ' a p p r o a c h t h i s p roblem d i f f e r e n t l y than do the a d v o c a t e s of t h e more r e c e n t empathy t r a i n i n g t e c h n o l o g i e s . The d i f f e r e n c e becomes apparent not i n the goals of empathy, but r a t h e r i n terms of the a t t i t u d e s and l i s t e n i n g s t y l e s of the i n d i v i d u a l t h e r a p i s t s . Empathy i s an i m a g i n a t i v e a c t i v i t y and i s a c t i v a t e d a c c o r d i n g to the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c w r i t e r s , by e l i m i n a t i n g the v a r i o u s o b s t a c l e s preventing i t s a c t i v i t y ( A s s a g i o l i , 1965). An empathic experience cannot be conjured at w i l l by rubbing the A l a d d i n ' s lamp of the i m a g i n a t i o n , but r a t h e r empathy emerges when c o n d i t i o n s are r i p e . The t h e r a p i s t prepares f o r 3 the experience by learning to suspend r a t i o n a l judgment and to relax s e l f - c o n t r o l . This i s termed i n t u i t i v e empathy. A t h e r a p i s t operating i n an i n t u i t i v e mode would assume a r e c e p t i v e a t t i t u d e and i n a s t a t e of easy and i m p a r t i a l attention, without forced concentration, the therapist would seek to be a channel through which whatever the c l i e n t p r e s e n t s i s t a k e n i n and i n t e g r a t e d w i t h what i s simultaneously a r i s i n g w i t h i n the t h e r a p i s t . This happens through fantasy and imagery. Carkhuff, on the other hand, has developed a t r a i n i n g program which teaches c o u n s e l l o r s to be more empathic by rating their various counselling responses on a variety of f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e s . Empathizers l e a r n a c o u n s e l l i n g formula: 1) l i s t e n c a r e f u l l y to the c l i e n t ' s words; 2) determine how you might f e e l i n a similar s i t u a t i o n ; 3) formulate a response according to the pattern: "You f e e l because, and you'd l i k e to ." Carkhuff's approach demonstrates a d i s c i p l i n e d and conscious a t t e n t i o n to the c l i e n t . I t deals with a b s t r a c t i o n s rather than with immediate experience. This i s termed " i n f e r e n t i a l empathy." A therapist operating in an i n f e r e n t i a l mode would be a c t i n g l i k e a Sherlock Holmes of the mind. By attending c a r e f u l l y to c l i e n t v e r b a l i z a t i o n s and by then using a l o g i c a l reasoning process he/she would hope to make sense from the disparate pieces of the puzzle presented to him/her by the c l i e n t . D i f f i c u l t i e s with the Carkhuff Model The Carkhuff model i s a t t r a c t i v e i n that i t allows f o r an a n a l y s i s of the gains t r a i n e e s make i n t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n of the various c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s . I t t h e r e f o r e provides a basis for therapist accountability, the importance of which should not be understated. At the same time however, Carkhuff's focus on s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n creates a technology of helping which clouds i n s i g h t s which might a r i s e from more dynamic c o n t r i b u t i o n s . Having the t h e r a p i s t concentrate h i s / h e r e n e r g i e s on d e v e l o p i n g an e x t e n s i v e response repertoire leaves l i t t l e opportunity for him/her to focus on the phenomenological l i f e of e i t h e r s e l f or c l i e n t . The danger l i e s i n that the s k i l l s model might a c t u a l l y t r a i n t h e r a p i s t s to ignore one of the most potent t o o l s they have -the a b i l i t y to become aware of the array of feelings aroused in the s e l f through being with the c l i e n t . Good t h e r a p i s t s k i l l s are e s s e n t i a l but i t seems important that they be grounded on the therapist's knowledge of s e l f , of c l i e n t and of the i n t e r a c t i o n between the two. The s u b t l e blending of inference and i n t u i t i o n that i s required in the ebb and flow of therapeutic i n t e r a c t i o n i s not suggested by a s k i l l s model alone. (See The Counselling Psychologist, 1972) 5 Purpose and Importance of the Study The i n t e n t of t h i s s t u d y was to p r e s e n t t h r e e d i f f e r e n t empathy t r a i n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s and to compare the r e s u l t s a g a i n s t each o t h e r and a g a i n s t the r e s u l t s from an at-home c o n t r o l group. Because the e f f i c a c y of the i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s t r a i n i n g models has not been c o n s i s t e n t l y d e m o n s t r a t e d , (Lambert, D e J u l i o , and S t e i n , 1978), one purpose of t h i s s t u d y was to p r o v i d e a t r a i n i n g e x p e r i e n c e u s i n g e x e r c i s e s d e v e l o p e d by Egan (1975) and based on the work of C a r k h u f f . T h i s was termed the " i n f e r e n c e group." The second group presented an empathy t r a i n i n g experience c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the r e c e n t r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s which i n d i c a t e t h at m e d i t a t i o n improves empathic a b i l i t y , (Lesh, 1970), that i m a g e r y , f a n t a s y , and r e l a x a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s are an a i d to e m p a t h i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g , (Frank, 1977) and t h a t empathy i s a c h i e v e d by r e m o v i n g the o b s t a c l e s to i t s f u n c t i o n i n g ( A s s a g i o l i , 1965). T h i s was termed the " i n t u i t i o n group." Both methods were expected to improve empathy scores on the p o s t - t e s t measures. However, as f u n c t i o n i n g i n only the i n f e r e n t i a l mode or i n only the i n t u i t i v e mode would l i m i t a t h e r a p i s t ' s e m p a t h i c s e n s i t i v i t y , a t h i r d g r o u p , t h e combination group, was presented. The u n d e r l y i n g theme was that a t h e r a p i s t i s most e f f e c t i v e when he/she has developed a w o r k i n g f u s i o n of the i n f e r e n c e and the i n t u i t i v e modes such that one i s , at one time, the background music for the other and vice versa. Hypotheses 1. Counsellors trained using i n f e r e n t i a l empathy techniques over an eight-hour training period w i l l develop a higher degree of empathy than a no-training control group. 2. Counsellors t r a i n e d using i n t u i t i v e empathy techniques over an eight-hour training period w i l l develop a higher degree of empathy than a no-training control group. 3. C o u n s e l l o r s t r a i n e d using both the i n f e r e n t i a l and the i n t u i t i v e t raining techniques over an eight-hour training period w i l l develop a higher degree of empathy than any group alone. Null Hypothesis There i s no difference in empathy outcome for the four groups regardless of the empathy tra i n i n g procedure used as measured by: a) the Jones-Mohr Listening Test b) the Kagan Affective S e n s i t i v i t y Scale c) the Carkhuff Discrimination Empathy Test D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Empathy i s a complex and many-faceted concept and c l a r i f i c a t i o n of i t s nature i s necessary to meaningful research. It i n v o l v e s , not only the understanding of both c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n , but a l s o the communication of that understanding to the c l i e n t . Part of 7 the confusion around d e f i n i t i o n s of empathy seems to stem from the fact that empathy i s variously described with either the t h e r a p i s t ' s c o g n i t i v e understanding or h i s emotional involvement as the c r u c i a l f a c t o r . For those t h e r a p i s t s emphasizing the cognitive aspect of empathy, (Dymond, 1949), i t i s assumed t h a t a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t i o n of another's behaviour w i l l provide the evidence of empathic s k i l l . Many of the therapists who maintain that the emotional involvement of the empathizer i s important are of the opinion that empathy cannot be measured. The c h i e f c r i t e r i o n f o r e f f e c t i v e empathy i s the testimony of the c l i e n t . Studies have been conducted, however, using physiological responses such as palmar sweating and vasoconstriction in an attempt to assess the degree of s i m i l a r i t y between the emotional state of the observed and that of the observer (Stotland et a l . , 1978). It would seem though that no d e f i n i t i o n of empathy l i e s e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h i n e i t h e r the c o g n i t i v e or the a f f e c t i v e domain. The d e f i n i t i o n of empathy formulated by Reik (1949) provides a s y n t h e s i s of the c o g n i t i v e , i n c l u d i n g the s k i l l s of inference and i n t u i t i o n , and the a f f e c t i v e components of empathy. He describes the process: 1. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Through r e l a x i n g conscious c o n t r o l and by engaging i n fantasy, the t h e r a p i s t can lose h i s self-awareness and become absorbed in contemplating the other person and his 8 experiences. 2. Incorporation The t h e r a p i s t , through i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s a b l e to incorporate the client's experience and f e e l i t as i f i t were his own. 3. Reverberation What the therapist has incorporated echoes on some part of his own experience. There i s an interplay between the inte r n a l i z e d feelings of another and the therapist's own experience and fantasy. Self-knowledge i s sharpened and with t h i s comes an understanding of what the other f e e l s . A. Detachment The therapist withdraws from i n t u i t i v e involvement and uses the methods of inference to analyze his in s i g h t . Terms used in this study were defined as follows: Empathy The a b i l i t y to recognize and then to describe the fe e l i n g state and private meanings of another's experience. Cognition The a b i l i t y of the counsellor to perceive another's frame of reference (Goodyear, 1979). Inference A c o g n i t i v e process where c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a general c l a s s are a t t r i b u t e d to an i n d i v i d u a l taken as an instance of the class (Goodyear, 1979). Int u i t i o n A non-logical, generally unconscious form of information p r o c e s s i n g i n which m a t e r i a l o f t e n e r u p t s i n t o consciousness in a ready-to-use form (Goodyear, 1979). 9 Image Any thought r e p r e s e n t a t i o n that has a sensory q u a l i t y . It may i n v o l v e seeing, hearing, s m e l l i n g , t a s t i n g , touching or moving (Richardson, 1969). Assumptions In t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i t was assumed that: 1) Empathy c o n s i s t s of an a f f e c t i v e and a c o g n i t i v e component. Cog n i t i o n i n c l u d e s the s k i l l s of i n f e r e n c e and i n t u i t i o n . 2) Empathy i s essential to positive therapy outcome. 3) Empathy and i n t u i t i o n are related. 4) Carkhuff t r a i n i n g i s i n f e r e n t i a l . 5) Empathy can be measured. 6) The instruments used were r e l i a b l e and v a l i d measures of empathy. 7) Empathy can be trained. 8) Group empathy scores across groups were s i m i l a r on the p r e - t e s t s . This assumption was checked by a n a l y s i s of the pre-test. Limitations This study was limited by several factors: 1) The sample s i z e was small and t h i s a f f e c t e d g e n e r a l i z -a b i l i t y . 2) Subjects were volunteers and were not randomly chosen from the population. As well, subjects were not randomly assigned to groups as there were only enough volunteers to run one group at a time. 3) Because i t was a p r e - t e s t / p o s t - t e s t design, there may have been a training effect from the pre-testing. 10 CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Empathy i s both a f a s c i n a t i n g and p u z z l i n g phenomenon. Despite abundant theorizing and defining, the precise nature of empathy remains ambiguous. There i s as yet no commonly accepted d e f i n i t i o n and no p a r t i c u l a r agreement as to the r o l e empathy plays i n an encounter between i n d i v i d u a l s . Although psychotherapy research has provided much r e l e v a n t insight into the meaning and operation of empathy, a variety of other d i s c i p l i n e s also illuminate subtle aspects of th i s many-faceted concept. The f o l l o w i n g review focuses on the contributions to an understanding of empathy provided by the f i e l d s of a e s t h e t i c s , biology, psychoanalysis, and s o c i a l psychology. A thorough d i s c u s s i o n of each area i s provided by Katz (1973). •I Illuminations from Aesthetic Empathy The German p s y c h o l o g i s t Lipps, i n 1897, coined the term "Einfulung" to describe the process of aesthetic appreciation whereby the observer l o s t self-awareness and seemed to fuse with the work of a r t he contemplated. T i t c h n e r introduced 11 the word "empathy" as the English equivalent of the o r i g i n a l term (Bucheimer, 1963). Lipps' Contribution Lipps' understanding of " E i n f u l u n g " helps to e l u c i d a t e s e v e r a l aspects of the concept (Katz, 1963). The key to h i s formulations might be described as the a b i l i t y of the subject to " f e e l i n t o " the object. Lipps' theory emphasizes the power of the imagination, i t underscores the motor character of the empathic experience and i t demonstrates an aspect of empathy that i s e n t i r e l y p r o j e c t i v e . His theory can be outlined in four stages: a) an i n d i v i d u a l i s stimulated by an external cue. b) he/she a u t o m a t i c a l l y and unconsciously responds by i m i t a t i n g the object with his/her imagination and with his/her muscles. c) he/she p r o j e c t s h i m / h e r s e l f i n t o the object no longer aware of his/her inner i m i t a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s and instead a t t r i b u t e s them to the object he/she contemplates. d) he/she thus experiences the object as i f he/she had become the object. A e s t h e t i c empathy i n operation can be i l l u s t r a t e d by c o a l e s c i n g various i n s t a n c e s described by Katz (1973). An i n d i v i d u a l enters a b e a u t i f u l c a t h e d r a l . Neck muscles grow tense as he/she gazes upwards and t h i s creates the sensation of r i s i n g . As w e l l , the chest muscles expand thus a l l o w i n g 12 him/her a release from tension. Consequently, the in d i v i d u a l d e s c r i b e s the church as e x p a n s i v e . F e e l i n g s of awe, i n s p i r a t i o n , and beauty are tapped and are attributed to the b u i l d i n g s t r u c t u r e s . Each of these i n s t a n c e s r e f l e c t s an inner a c t i v i t y that has become pro j e c t e d onto an inanimate o b j e c t . The u n d e r l y i n g a ssumption i s t h a t t h e r e i s a fundamental s i m i l a r i t y between subject and object. When the s i m i l a r i t y i s cued by an e x t e r n a l s t i m u l u s , the inner a c t i v i t y i s p r o j e c t e d onto the object and, i n t h i s way, i s experienced as r e a l . This e x p l a i n s the mechanics of the automatic transfer from the id e n t i t y of the observer to that of the observed. The concept of s i m i l a r i t y between the subject and object i s a f a c e t of empathy which forms the cornerstone of the b i o l o g i c a l approach. B i o l o g i c a l Considerations Insights derived from the f i e l d of biology centre on the o r i g i n of the empathic s k i l l (Katz, 1963). This approach again highlights the importance of the a b i l i t y to imagine and to v i s u a l i z e . I t a l s o d i r e c t s a t t e n t i o n to the relevance of nonverbal behaviour to the empathic endeavour and shows how the capacity to imitate i s related. As well, the b i o l o g i c a l approach demonstrates the aspects of empathy which are i n t r o j e c t i v e . The key phrase e p i t o m i z i n g the b i o l o g i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s to an understanding of the empathic process 13 might be that of " i n s t i n c t i v e reverberation." The o r i g i n of empathy i s postulated as an autonomous ca p a c i t y , best termed p r i m o r d i a l empathy. The concept of primordial empathy i s explained by the view that a l l of humanity evolved from a single source. The a b i l i t y to v i s u a l i z e and thus to unde r s t a n d another's experience i s a c a p a c i t y with which humans are born. I t i s an im a g i n a t i v e and i n t u i t i v e f u n c t i o n that i s not connected to a p a r t i c u l a r sense organ, but which i s an inherent part of human nature. The basis for understanding another's emotions i s the common b i o l o g i c a l endowment. U n d e r s t a n d i n g i s , t h e r e f o r e , independent of s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e . Because of t h i s f u n d a m e n t a l b i o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t y between people, empathy can be viewed as a primitive resonance. When we respond to someone, something in us resonates to the same core i n the other. From t h i s point of view no human behaviour can be e n t i r e l y f o r e i g n to any other human even though l i f e experiences may have developed d i f f e r e n t patterns of character for each. The prince can understand the pauper and v i c e versa. It i s the imaginative s k i l l which makes this understanding possible and we can v i s u a l i z e the experience of others because we have w i t h i n ourselves the b i o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l i t y f or the same experience. B i o l o g y contends t h a t humans are s i m i l a r because 14 o r i g i n a l l y they were p a r t of the same l a r g e r whole. E v o l u t i o n has provided separateness, but much of the o r i g i n a l genetic unity has been re t a i n e d . This means that understanding another i s r e c a l l i n g something that was once known. Part of the genetic endowment, which makes empathy possible, i s the actual physical and sensory structure of the body. This aspect of empathy i s r e l a t e d to communication systems and to nonverbal behaviour. For example, i t i s commonly known that animals have a wide variety of cues which make instant recognition and communication possible. Humans have the same s e n s i t i v i t i e s , but many have atrophied with maturity and s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Instances of i n t u i t i o n and of nonverbal communication may be v e s t i g e s of communication systems more f u l l y preserved in the lower animal forms. For example, pride i s communicated by raising oneself in an erect manner remi n i s c e n t of that of the peacock. Approval or d i s a p p r o v a l i s conveyed by an appropriate shaking of the head. The beauty of t h i s language i s i t s r e l i a b i l i t y and i t s u n i v e r s a l i t y . Nonverbal behaviour can reveal discrepancies between a person's words and his feelings. Another part of the communication system i s the tendency for one animal to imitate the gesture or emotional expression of another. This act evokes the emotional response of the other animal in i t s e l f . Although this tendency i s strongest 15 i n such animals as b i r d s and f i s h , i t i s also present i n humans. It i s seen c l e a r l y i n p l a y f u l i m i t a t i o n where individu a l s try out the parts of others. Being wrapped in the i d e n t i t y of the person thus i m i t a t e d i s l i n k e d to the psychoanalytic concept of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Psychoanalytic Contributions The b i o l o g i c a l basis of Freud's work i s readily apparent (Katz, 1963). On t h i s background he acknowledges the importance of c u l t u r a l experience. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , or the a b i l i t y to establish a f e e l i n g of sameness with others, i s a concept introduced by Freud through h i s f o r m u l a t i o n s on empathy. It i s t h i s f e e l i n g of sameness that provides the basis f o r one person to comprehend another. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n v o l v e s the elements of i n t r o j e c t i o n and i m i t a t i o n with a c l o s e l y r e l a t e d a c t i v i t y being that of r e g r e s s i o n . Freud describes these various elements and p o s t u l a t e s t h e i r functions. For example, the a b i l i t y to i n t r o j e c t i s a necessary component of the a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y . I n t r o j e c t i o n i s an attempt to take possession of an object and, as such, i s i n t e r p r e t e d by Freud as a remnant of the c a n n i b a l i s t i c i n s t i n c t . T h i s i n s t i n c t f i r s t appears when an i n f a n t attempts to incorporate objects by devouring them. Once the 16 c h i l d l e a r n s to enjoy these objects without eating them he/she has moved from physical a s s i m i l a t i o n to psychological i n t r o j e c t i o n . P s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t r o j e c t i o n appears i n the tendency for one i n d i v i d u a l to incorporate certain aspects of another's personality. C l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with i n c o r p o r a t i o n i s i m i t a t i o n , an unconscious and i m a g i n a t i v e mimicking of another. The a b i l i t y to mimic develops early in infancy and forms another important l i n k i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n process. Freud (1921) st a t e s that a path leads from i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by way of i m i t a t i o n to empathy. The impetus to mimic i s provided by the desire to resemble another. The a b i l i t y to regress i s related to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n process and i s an important aspect of empathy. Regression i s a form of r e t r o a c t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n which describes a person's a b i l i t y to s l i p i n t o e a r l i e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s that have persisted in the unconscious. There are many v a r i e t i e s of regression both positive and negative, but the trigger for such an experience always appears to be the desire to recover or to re-experience something that has been l o s t . For Freud, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n process i s i n s t i n c t i v e . Humans are compelled to i d e n t i f y i n order to meet the needs to consume and to p o s s e s s , i n ord e r to defend a g a i n s t stronger f i g u r e s and i n order to recover what they once had i n an e a r l i e r e x i stence. On the one hand, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n 17 helps the i n d i v i d u a l to achieve a sense of s e l f and, on the other hand, helps to stave o f f the anxiety of dependence, weakness and l o n e l i n e s s . To give an example, consider the c h i l d i n r e l a t i o n to the adult. His/her p o s i t i o n i s one of weakness and helplessness in comparison to the strength and a u t h o r i t y of the parent. In order to overcome his/her i n f e r i o r feelings, the c h i l d makes him/herself as s i m i l a r to the a d u l t as p o s s i b l e . He/she does t h i s through i m i t a t i o n . He/she i n c o r p o r a t e s the a d u l t ' s s t r e n g t h by p u t t i n g h i m / h e r s e l f i n the adult's p o s i t i o n . This i s empathy. P o s i t i v e childhood experiences i n i d e n t i f y i n g with others provide the basis for being able to see from another's vantage point. It allows a person to l e a r n to be s e n s i t i v e to both the needs of s e l f and to the needs of others. These people, i n adult l i f e , have f l e x i b l e ego boundaries and can thus e a s i l y empathize w i t h o t h e r s . E a r l y t r a u m a t i c experience may disrupt the process causing the ego boundaries to be e i t h e r too s t r i c t l y guarded or too e a s i l y muddied. These people i n adult l i f e have d i f f i c u l t y empathizing. A t h e r a p i s t w i l l h o p e f u l l y have f l e x i b l e ego boundaries and w i l l thus be capable of making a " t r i a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n " with his/her patient. 18 Contributions from Social Psychology C o n t r a s t i n g and balancing the emotional, i n t u i t i v e and largely unconscious aspects of empathy i s the work of George H. Mead and the s o c i a l psychologists. Empathy was not a word in Mead's vernacular, although he attempted to describe the same process as did Freud and Lipps. He chose to place h i s e m p h a s i s on the c o g n i t i v e / i n t e l l e c t u a l and the s o c i a l / i n t e r p e r s o n a l components of empathy, whereas most other t h e o r i s t s had c o n c e n t r a t e d p r i m a r i l y on the emotional/intuitive aspects. His theory demonstrates again the importance of the imagination to empathy and underscores the p r o j e c t i v e aspects of the process. Combining Mead's ideas about empathy as s o c i a l experience with those theories emphasizing empathy as a b i o l o g i c a l endowment provides a f a i r l y complete picture of empathy as both a cognitive and an af f e c t i v e process. Mead discusses communication theory and introduces empathy in the guise of experimental role taking. Mead (1934) d e f i n e s r o l e taking as a communication process by which one person participates in the experience of another. The a c t i v i t y i s inte r n a l and imaginative and emerges in the context of s o c i a l experience. Role taking a b i l i t y a llows a person to develop a sense of s e l f and provides the experience required in order to adjust that s e l f to society. Information gleaned from p r o j e c t i n g i n t o the p o s i t i o n of others i s used to help the i n d i v i d u a l plan a c t i o n s , make 19 d e c i s i o n s and solve problems. The question i s how does the process of i m a g i n a t i v e r o l e taking provide the person with the techniques for self-adjustment? The answer l i e s in what has been termed mirror image psychology. A person i s able to a n t i c i p a t e the responses of another to h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f and then adjust his/her behaviour accordingly, because he/she i s able to project himself/herself into another's position and then view himself/herself from that position. This vantage point a l s o allows the i n d i v i d u a l to experiment i n his/her imagination with the variety of ways another could respond to any a c t i v i t y he/she might contemplate. In e f f e c t , an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y becomes a composite of a l l the images of himself/herself which he or she has seen reflected through the eyes of various peoples. Were the i n d i v i d u a l not able to take the r o l e o f others, he/she would never develop any sense of a separate existence and would never receive the feedback t h a t a l l o w s him/her to c o n t r o l h i s / h e r own behaviour. From the s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l point of view empathy i s c l e a r l y an adaptive process. This i s i n strong c o n t r a s t to the psychoanalytic model where empathy i s c l e a r l y reactive. On the one hand, empathy i s a cooperative a c t i v i t y engaged i n as a r e h e a r s a l f o r a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour, whereas, on the other hand, empathy i s a process engaged in i n s t i n c t i v e l y in order to protect the s e l f . 20 The stage i s set fo r r o l e taking when the c h i l d begins to mimic the parents. The long dependent r e l a t i o n s h i p allows ample opportunity f o r r o l e experimentation. Gradually the ch i l d learns the meaning of a number of a roles. Eventually he/she assumes his/her own role while remaining aware of the roles of other people. Role taking i s the method by which the c h i l d assimilates the images and symbols of the c u l t u r e . The s e l f that i s developed shares a common frame of reference with other i n d i v i d u a l s . I t i s language which forms the bridge that connects people. For example, when we hear words the way others hear them we are able to understand what those words mean to the other person. We know how the other f e e l s because the words would have a s i m i l a r e f f e c t on us. Empathy in t h i s sense i s a s k i l l i n the communication of ideas, rather than a s k i l l i n sensing the diffuse emotional state of another. Concluding Comments In the sea of s e m a n t i c c o n f u s i o n s u r r o u n d i n g the d e f i n i t i o n s of empathy, there appears to be an i s l a n d of commonality. Most d e f i n i t i o n s have as t h e i r core, the a b i l i t y of the empathizer to be aware of the immediate a f f e c t i v e s t a t e of another. F o l l o w i n g are the keywords 21 associated with empathy from the point of view of the various d i s c i p l i n e s . In the f i e l d of aesthetics, empathy i s regarded as the a b i l i t y of the subject to " f e e l i n t o " the object. B i o l o g y p r o v i d e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of empathy through " i n s t i n c t i v e r e v e r b e r a t i o n . " C l o s e l y connected with the b i o l o g i c a l v i e w p o i n t i s t h a t of p s y c h o a n a l y s i s which con s i d e r s the crux of empathy to be " i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . " And f i n a l l y , s o c i a l psychology views the a b i l i t y to "take the role of the other" as c r u c i a l for the development of empathy. Empathy seems a mysterious a b i l i t y because in large part i t e x p r e s s e s n o n v e r b a l and n o n r a t i o n a l c a p a c i t i e s for communication. The l i t e r a t u r e suggest that this a b i l i t y i s related to an i n s t i n c t common to the species for recognizing nonverbal cues and that the i n t u i t i v e f l a s h often manifests i t s e l f i n pictures (Singer and Switzer, 1980). Intuition i s , however, not the whole of empathy. Without the interpretive and i n f e r e n t i a l thinking of the therapist, i n t u i t i o n s would not c r y s t a l l i z e into insights that can be communicated to the c l i e n t . Theoretical Considerations and Research Contributions For the purposes of t h i s study, empathy was defined as the a b i l i t y to recognize and then to describe both the f e e l i n g s t a t e and the p r i v a t e meanings of another's e x p e r i e n c e . I n t u i t i o n was the t h e r a p i s t ' s s e e m i n g l y 22 immediate awareness of this knowledge. In attempting to gain t h i s i n t u i t i v e understanding, authors such as Berne (1949) and Reik (1949) comment that there can be a connection between the c l i e n t ' s personal experience and the t h e r a p i s t ' s own images and f a n t a s i e s . Horowitz (1972) notes the association between an image mode of representation, f e e l i n g states, and the symbolic meanings of personal experience. For example, "I l i k e to keep track of my c h i l d r e n , " might e l i c i t the image of a c h i l d being s q u e l c h e d by a g i g a n t i c thumb. T h i s p i c t u r e adds a dimension that i s not present i n the v e r b a l communication. The meaning contained i n the therapist's image may represent a v a l i d aspect of the client's private world. The therapist can then communicate his/her hunch. Subliminal Perception The t r i g g e r f o r t h e r a p i s t images may be connected with subliminal perception. People are continually bombarded by a wide range of s t i m u l i which are never brought to conscious awarenesss and which, t h e r e f o r e , are never r a t i o n a l l y assessed. This phenomenon may e x p l a i n the o r i g i n of the hunch (Taylor, 1979), and also underscores the importance of nonverbal behaviour i n communication. A t h e r a p i s t i s i n c r e a s i n g l y exposed to cues from his/her c l i e n t such as 23 voice tone, posture, and gesture as w e l l as to the message c o n t a i n e d i n the v e r b a l c o n t e n t . The meaning of the communciation i s dependent upon the e n t i r e complex. The process appears to be that the verbal and the nonverbal cues emanating from the c l i e n t are combined with the therapist's unconscious images and f a n t a s i e s which then a r i s e i n t o his/her consciousness in picture form. Support for this claim appears in Perky's (1910) research and r e p o r t e d by S e g a l (1972). In the o r i g i n a l study, subjects were asked to imagine a banana (or a book or a leaf) and then to describe the image as i t appeared to them. A form shaped l i k e a banana and coloured yellow was allowed to o s c i l l a t e b r i e f l y before the subject's gaze, but out of his/her awareness. A l l subjects described their banana image as being on end and not as they had been supposing they thought of i t . Perky concluded that the stimulus registered and p a r t l y determined the f i n a l appearance of the subject's personal image even though the subjects were unaware of the added stimulus. S e g a l et a l . (1972) conducted a s e r i e s of e i g h t experiments in an attempt to replicate the results. Although the re s u l t s were not as dramatic as in Perky's research, the o r i g i n a l hypothesis was supported. Segal concludes that the c o n s t r u c t i o n of an image i s an a c t i v e process in which the observer c o n s t r u c t s an image out of past experiences and 24 ) memories, but uses concurrent sensory input to f l e s h i t out. The Importance of Imagery to Therapy Imagery i s a u s e f u l t o o l f o r t h e r a p i s t s for s e v e r a l reasons. Images are capable of processing large amounts of information simultaneously as opposed to sequentually. And, more information i s retained in the images as compared to a verbal l a b e l . Fantasy and images have p a r t i c u l a r power because images can be observed and p o s s i b l y understood. A t h e r a p i s t i s most l i k e l y to become aware of spontaneous imagery at those times when i n f e r e n t i a l thinking has become blocked and the s o l u t i o n of a problem has f a i l e d to appear (Richardson, 1969). Therapist a c t i v i t i e s such as closing the eyes, leaning back in the chair or gazing out the window can be u s e f u l a c t i v i t i e s as they promote r e l a x a t i o n and f a c i l i t a t e the flow of imagery and fantasy. As w e l l , the intensity of the therapeutic relationship at that point can be lessened and the separateness of the two parties restored in p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the o f f e r i n g of t h e r a p i s t imagery to the c l i e n t . An i l l u s t r a t i o n i s provided by Carl Rogers who, in recent years, has become increasingly aware of his fantasies and has described a willingness to use them as a communication tool (Kirschenbaum, 1979). He says, f o r example, that while l i s t e n i n g to a business executive he may suddenly have an 25 image of the small boy that the man c a r r i e s w i t h i n - the small boy that he was, shy, inadequate, and f e a r f u l - a c h i l d he wants to deny and of whom he i s ashamed. Rogers, wishing his c l i e n t would love and cherish this youngster, related how he would voice the image - not as something true, but as his own fantasy. He r e p o r t s that the approach often brings a surprising depth of reaction and profound insights. It seems c l e a r then, that attending to s e l f i s a v a l i d aspect of the therapist's observation process because understanding another i s p a r t i a l l y an awareness of one's own f e e l i n g s which have been activated by the c l i e n t . The Theory of Cerebral L a t e r a l i t y In recent years, s e v e r a l independent l i n e s of research have evolved a new model of the brain. Anatomically, the cortex i s composed of two i d e n t i c a l looking hemispheres which communicate with one another v i a a bundle of nerve f i b e r s ca l l e d the corpus callosum. There i s now strong experimental evidence to suggest that each hemisphere i s f u n c t i o n a l l y separate and that each processes i n f o r m a t i o n d i f f e r e n t l y . The s k i l l s of i n t u i t i o n and inference may each be related to a d i f f e r e n t hemisphere. 26 The Research Representative of the work being done i n the f i e l d i s t h a t of Joseph Bogen (1977) who f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d the e s s e n t i a l d u a l i t y of the r i g h t and l e f t hemispheres i n humans. He worked m o s t l y w i t h a c l i n i c a l p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g of e p i l e p t i c s whose corpus callosums had been s u r g i c a l l y severed i n order to c o n t r o l the spread of t h e i r seizures. These patients appeared so normal that there was doubt as to whether any symptoms ensued from having had their hemispheres separated. However, with the subtle tasks developed by Bogen, i t soon became apparent that information received by only one hemisphere could not cross to the other s i d e . T h i s i s not e a s i l y o b s e r v a b l e i n d a i l y l i f e as information i s usually perceived by both hemispheres at once and thus s p l i t - b r a i n p a t i e n t s appear unaffected by t h e i r commissurotomies. The disconnection syndrome, however, can be demonstrated. I t was known that as a general r u l e the l e f t side of the br a i n c o n t r o l s the r i g h t side of the body and v i c e versa. T h i s i s true for the sense of touch and many s p l i t - b r i n p a t i e n t s have been studied using t h i s modality. An often demonstrated example has the subject seated at a ta b l e with a b a r r i e r placed such that objects behind i t can be f e l t with one hand, but cannot be seen. When the subject f e e l s a comb with the r i g h t hand he has no d i f f i c u l t y t e l l i n g the experimenter what the object i s . When 27 the l e f t hand i s used, the subject can only hazard a guess. This s i t u a t i o n i s explained i f the i n f o r m a t i o n about the objectwhich has been transmitted to the right hemisphere i s not available to the l e f t , which i s the one able to respond v e r b a l l y . The subject does understand what the object i s , but i s unable to g i v e a v e r b a l response. Many such experiments have been conducted with c l i n i c a l and normal s u b j e c t s u s i n g many d i f f e r e n t m o d a l i t i e s . C e r e b r a l l a t e r a l i t y has always been demonstrated. Representative of some of the work conducted with normal i n d i v i d u a l s i s the EEG work done by G a l i n and Ornstein (1972). Knowing that alpha waves increase when the brain i s r e s t i n g , these researchers measured the alpha waves being emitted by each h a l f of the brain. When the charge monitor went up, i t meant that the part of the brain to which i t was attached was not being used. While the subjects did various tasks, t h e i r alpha rhythms were measured. By t h i s method, dif f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s could be associated with one or other of the hemispheres. Usi n g these and numerous other r e s u l t s , a g e n e r a l description of the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the two hemispheres has emerged. The following l i s t was delineated by Banmen (1982): Right Hemisphere 1. i n t u i t i v e judgments, made in a h o l i s t i c fashion; 28 2. imagery (including dreams) and v i s u a l i z a t i o n ; 3. recognition of emotional tone; 4. s p a t i a l orientation; 5. a b i l i t y to form whole p i c t u r e s from f r a g m e n t a r y information (e.g. recognition of faces); 6. perceptual tasks that do not require verbalization; 7. thinking processes that cannot be verbally expressed; 8. l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t y that r e f l e c t s h o l i s t i c perspective or imagery (e.g. puns); 9. complex mental a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t do not i n v o l v e abstractions; 10. comprehension of a large number of words; 11. v i s u a l memory. Left Hemisphere 1. a n a l y t i c a l , l o g i c a l and sequentual thinking; 2. abstractions; 3. v e r b a l i z a t i o n , language; 4. verbal memory; 5. most of the f u n c t i o n s t h a t r e q u i r e n u m e r i c a l and l i n g u i s t i c process; 6. processing sensory input in linear and l o g i c a l modes. The Inferences and Implications That each h a l f - b r a i n , a f t e r b i s e c t i o n , was able to process i n f o r m a t i o n outside the realm of awareness of the other raised the i n t r i g u i n g p o s s i b i l i t y that an independent 29 stream of consciousness resided i n each side. This, in turn, led to the current and g e n e r a l l y accepted view that a dual consciousness does exist in the normal, intact brain and that each hemisphere i s possessed of a unique and evolved c o g n i t i v e s t y l e (Sperry, 1969). The i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s controversial p o s s i b i l i t y are far reaching and have attracted the i n t e r e s t of philosophers and s c i e n t i s t s a l i k e . For example, Deikman (1976) suggested that the functions associated with the l e f t and right hemispheres p a r a l l e l what have been termed the a c t i v e and passive modes. The a c t i v e mode i s concerned with a c t i v i t y , with manipulation and with d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c i n g the environment. Thinking i s l o g i c a l and a t t e n t i o n i s focused with a heightened awareness of boundaries. This i s the mode of doing and describes the a c t i v i t i e s and the o r i e n t a t i o n of a t h e r a p i s t working i n an i n f e r e n t i a l mode. The r e c e p t i v e mode i s concerned with intake from the environmental complex. Thinking i s s y n t h e t i c rather than a n a l y t i c and a t t e n t i o n i s d i f f u s e . This i s the mode of l e t t i n g things happen and describes the a c t i v i t i e s and orientation of a therapist working i n t u i t i v e l y . Goodyear (1979) notes that c o g n i t i v e empathy i n v o l v e s both i n f e r e n t i a l and i n t u i t i v e s k i l l s . These s k i l l s he r e l a t e s each to a separate hemisphere. I n f e r e n t i a l s k i l l s are associated with l e f t brain functions, whereas i n t u i t i v e 30 a b i l i t i e s arise from the right. He discusses the idea that a complete education should give equal emphasis to both verbal analytic thinking and to aesthetic thinking. If only one set of s k i l l s i s educated, the l e a r n e r i s d i v o r c e d from additional ways he might experience the world. Experimental work in schools has indicated that increasing the amount of time devoted to developing the f a c u l t i e s of the r i g h t b r a i n help those a s s o c i a t e d with the l e f t (Wolfe and R e i s i n g , 1978). The two do not work in i s o l a t i o n and each supports and complements the a c t i v i t y of the other. A t h e r a p i s t should also have equal access to right and l e f t brain s k i l l s . These ideas are consistent with the known data and provide a framework for conceptualizing d i f f e r e n t methods of empathy t r a i n i n g . The ideas also provide a springboard for f u r t h e r speculation. The Controversy The f a c t i s that each of the two halves of the b r a i n are f u n c t i o n a l l y asymmetric, i.e., that each hemisphere i s endowed with c e r t a i n c a p a c i t i e s that are e i t h e r l a c k i n g or p o o r l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n the other h a l f . T h i s i s c a l l e d " l a t e r a l i z a t i o n . " The inference i s that each hemisphere has evolved i t s own neural substrate to sustain a unique cognitive style and mode of information processing. This i s call e d "specialization." 31 The controversy a r i s e s where the f a c t merges with the i n f e r e n c e s , i.e., that l a t e r i z a t i o n i m p l i e s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . Gassaniga and Ledoux (1976) point out that s p e c i a l i z a t i o n t h e o r y assumes t h a t the type of n e u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n underlying the unique mental functions of the l e f t hemisphere i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r and incompatible with the neural organization which sustains the cognitive style of the right. The question i s r a i s e d as to where these incompatible processing modes are i n t e g r a t e d . An a l t e r n a t i v e view i s proposed t h a t says l a t e r a l i z a t i o n does not r e f l e c t genetically specialized cognitive styles, but rather r e f l e c t s l o c a l i z e d differences in cerebral organization and that the expression of these d i f f e r e n c e s may be e x p e r i e n t i a l l y dependent. Because t h i s theory also f i t s the data, we are c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t d i c h o t o m a n i a , i . e . , the tendency to i n t e r p r e t every behavioural dichotomy i n terms of l e f t brain/right brain. Holt's "Imagery: The Return of the Ostracized" (1964) Introspective Paradigm Experimental psychology f i r s t emerged in the 19th century as a science to study consciousness. E a r l y p s y c h o l o g i s t s c oncerned t h e m s e l v e s w i t h the c o n t e n t s of the mind, p a r t i c u l a r l y those contents r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the primary 32 elements of thought. T h i s subject matter generated the methodology of i n t r o s p e c t i o n whereby each p r a c t i t i o n e r attended to h i s personal stream of consciousness and then l a t e r compared h i s e x p e r i e n c e to t h a t of the o t h e r s . P s y c h o l o g i s t s noted, often with s u r p r i s e , the presence of v i s u a 1 imagery. Gustave Fechner, i n 1.860, attempted to c l a s s i f y the types of imagery that had thus emerged (Watkins, 1976). This pioneering work was continued by Francis Galton who, in 1889, sent questionnaires to di f f e r e n t occupational groups to assess t h e i r a b i l i t y to see images (Richardson, 1969). Most s c i e n t i s t s reported that they did not have images, whereas imagery was common among a r t i s t s . As w e l l , each group assumed that a l l others thought and experienced as they did. The i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s study are that people can exclude imagery from their l i f e , perhaps by virtue of a lack of experience. If imagery i s neither recognized nor valued, i t seems certain to remain unstudied. The W u r z b e r g s c h o o l of p s y c h o l o g y d e n i g r a t e d i n t r o s p e c t i o n and the importance of the subject matter thereby revealed. They maintained that the consciousness a c t i v i t i e s observed did not provide a f u l l e xplanation of mind and i t s accomplishments (Holt, 1964). A new paradigm was required. 33 Behaviour Paradigm John Watson proposed t h a t the proper study f o r p s y c h o l o g i s t s was the study of observable behaviour as i t c o u l d be v e r i f i e d and was t e s t a b l e . These o b j e c t i v e o p e r a t i o n a l methods allowed problems that had been outside the province of the i n t r o s p e c t i v e paradigm to be studied. For example, great strides were made in the understanding of l e a r n i n g and motivation. At the same time, however, the subject matter of the various states of consciousness, most notably imagery and fantasy were banished from the mainstream of p s y c h o l o g i c a l research. O s s i f i c a t i o n occurred i n t h i s approach when psychologists began to ignore and even to deny the e x i s t e n c e of phenomena which were not amenable to s o l u t i o n by b e h a v i o u r i s t i c methods. From 1920-1960, there was a moratorium on inner experience i n the United States ( K l i n g e r , 1971). Mental imagery faded as a subject f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n and disappeared as a t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t (Richardson, 1969). Psychoanalytic C i r c l e s The study of imagery was kept a l i v e during t h i s time by a pocket of psychoanalysts who studied dreams, hallucinations and transference phenomena. Even here, however, a prejudice against fantasy and imagery i s e a s i l y detected. I t i s the 34 mal-adaptive and not the positive, growth enhancing aspect of imagery that has been recognized. For the most part, when imagery was dealt with, i t was associated with mental i l l n e s s and the wish was to e x t i n g u i s h , and not to c u l t i v a t e , the problem. Reacceptance of Inner Experience Holt (1964) notes that the comeback of imagery has been brought about l a r g e l y by developments outside the f i e l d of psychology. Other d i s c i p l i n e s , while pursuing various research a c t i v i t i e s , found imagery emerging as a problem with which to cope. I t o c c u r r e d as a v a r i a b l e between the problems they studied and the s o l u t i o n s they hoped to f i n d . Imagery i s presently held up to psychologists as a legitimate endeavour coming as i t now does, backed by "hard" science. One instance where the occurrence of imagery has created a p r a c t i c a l problem i s in the experience of radar operators, j e t p i l o t s and t r u c k d r i v e r s . These people are o f t e n bothered by the i n t r u s i o n i n t o consciousness of v i v i d imagery. These images, when taken as r e a l i t y , create a safety problem for the i r experiencers (Richardson, 1969). Work done i n sensory d e p r i v a t i o n showed i n "normal" s u b j e c t s , the pr e s e n c e of imagery and h a l l u c i n a t i o n s which might otherwise have been regarded as pathological. 35 Neurology, too, has taken an i n t e r e s t i n imagery. Penfield and Jaspers (1954) produced visual imagery in their p a t i e n t s by e l e c t r i c a l l y s t i m u l a t i n g the exposed cortex. Short (1953) claimed that on an EEG those persons with persistent alpha are verbal imagers, while those with normal alpha are vis u a l imagers. A g i a n t step f o r w a r d i n the r e a c c e p t a n c e of i n n e r experience came with the discovery that everyone dreams (Dement and Kleitman, 1957). Images came more and more to be viewed as part of the n a t u r a l f u n c t i o n i n g of the mind and less and less as the product of aberrant functioning. Our culture, which has raised us to abandon awareness of the i m a g i n a l q u a l i t y of our l i v e s , i s now urging us to d i r e c t our a t t e n t i o n back to the f a c t that the image l i v e s . The atmosphere in Third Force psychology i s one that applauds the r e c o g n i t i o n and breaking of old h a b i t s thus opening one to an a p p r e c i a t i o n of one's t o t a l experience, inner and outer. P s y c h o l o g i s t s are no longer tending to study only those aspects of persons that f i t the e x i s t i n g methods, but r a t h e r they are a t t e m p t i n g to modify the methods and techniques to the study of the person. The time i s thus ripe to concentrate on f i n d i n g ways to harness the power of the human ima g i n a t i o n f o r c o n s t r u c t i v e purposes. Research i s proceeding on how fantasy can be used c r e a t i v e l y to: help reduce s t r e s s , plan f o r the f u t u r e , e l i m i n a t e undesirable 36 habits, enhance c r e a t i v i t y , heighten enjoyment of l i f e , and reduce boredom (Singer and Switzer, 1980). And, i n t h i s study, imagery and fantasy are being used to help people l e a r n more about themselves as w e l l as to l e a r n to become more sensitive to the moods and needs of other people. 37 CHAPTER III Methods and Procedures Methods Participants ^ The t h i r t y - s i x subjects in this study were undergraduate volunteers from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. They were s o l i c i t e d from psychology, E n g l i s h , and education courses. P a r t i c i p a t i o n was without remuneration. Group Leaders The same i n d i v i d u a l taught a l l three of the empathy training conditions. Extensive teaching experience and the fact that she was completing a Master's degree in counselling psychology q u a l i f i e d her f o r the task. Having one group leader i n s t e a d of three was decided upon i n order that d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y and/or leader competence would have no opportunity to confound the results. The leader had no p a r t i c u l a r b i a s i n f a v o u r of any of the t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s and was unaware of the hypotheses of the study. The experimenter r e f r a i n e d from teaching so as not to introduce an a d d i t i o n a l source of bias, but did conduct the pre- and p o s t - t e s t i n g sessions as we l l as the o r i e n t a t i o n 38 l e c t u r e s . With j u s t one t e a c h e r t h e r e e x i s t e d the p o s s i b i l i t y that one t r a i n i n g technique could be contaminated by another. This r i s k was considered minimal as the groups were t r e a t e d so d i f f e r e n t l y . As a c o n t r o l , however, a l l sessions were taped i n order to s a t i s f y the experimenter that each group was taught as per i n s t r u c t i o n s . Because the groups were taugh t sequentua 11y , the i n s t r u c t o r had s u f f i c i e n t time to change gears before presenting another method. P r i o r to each s e s s i o n , the leader received w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s and the l i s t of e x e r c i s e s f o r that c l a s s . The leader and the researcher rehearsed the procedures step-by-step for each occasion. The teacher's role was envisioned as that of a f a c i l i t a t o r . Her job was to provide a c o n s i s t e n t framework for each condition, within which the students were to work. The choice of s p e c i f i c content was l e f t to the students. Training Groups The d i f f e r e n t t r a i n i n g conditions were: a) i n t u i t i o n t r a i n i n g (N=8) b) inference t r a i n i n g (N=10) c) combination intuition/inference t r a i n i n g (N=8) d) no treatment control group (N=10) The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i b e s the d i f f e r i n g treatments. (See Appendix A for a description of s p e c i f i c exercises.) 39 1. I n t u i t i o n Training This experience was designed to allow i n d i v i d u a l s to remove obstacles to their empathic functioning. The goal was to have students put aside t h e i r c r i t i c a l a b i l i t i e s when l i s t e n i n g to a c l i e n t in favour of responding to him/her with personal images and fantasies. The training was expected to f a c i l i t a t e empathy gains on the three outcome measures in the following order: Kagan's Affective S e n s i t i v i t y Scale, Jones-Mohr L i s t e n i n g Test and then Carkhuff's D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Empathy Test. In order to accomplish t h i s aim, students participated in a number of exercises under the headings of: a) relaxation to remove tension and anxiety and to increase the flow of imagery. b) concentration to provide a focus f o r the r a t i o n a l mind thus a l l o w i n g the i n t u i t i v e mind to function. c) observation to broaden conscious awareness of that which has been seen. d) r e c e p t i v i t y to provide practice in noticing the flow of feelings and images as they emerge w i t h o u t j u d g i n g them or trying to change them. Once students had gained some ease i n assuming the passive stance r e q u i r e d by these a c t i v i t i e s , they were given the opportunity to practice the technique. In response to guided f a n t a s i e s and to the dreams and concerns of c l a s s members, each person p r a c t i c e d a) p r i v a t e f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n where 40 he/she wrote down any images or f e e l i n g s aroused and b) offering these imagees and/or fantasies to the student-client concerned. The c o u n s e l l o r received no feedback from the c l i e n t . 2. Inference Training T r a i n i n g i n i n f e r e n t i a l empathy was a l s o expected to i n c r e a s e empathic a b i l i t y as measured on the three s c a l e s used i n the study. Empathy scores on the D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Empathy Test were expected to increase most dramatically as i t i s a scale designed by Carkhuff to measure the effects of his t r a i n i n g method. Less improvement was expected on the Jones-Mohr Test and on Kagan's measure. The participants in t h i s group were i n i t i a l l y presented with a lecture/discussion to introduce them to the language of f e e l i n g s . In order to improve t h e i r s e n s i t i v i t y to the f e e l i n g s of others and a l s o to s e n s i t i z e them to t h e i r own f e e l i n g s t a t e s , an important f i r s t step was to have them become f a m i l i a r with the ways in which feelings are t y p i c a l l y expressed. P a r t i c u l a r emphasis was placed on having p a r t i c i p a n t s n o t i c e the d i f f e r e n c e between f e e l i n g and content. Group members were exposed to the tape Carkhuff made presenting an overview of his method. This was necessary for two r e a s o n s . F i r s t l y , i t p r o v i d e d s t u d e n t s w i t h an 41 understanding of inference training and i t previewed the type of exercises in which they were to be engaged. Secondly, i t provided a point of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n with the combination group which also used the tape. A f t e r h a ving been exposed to t h i s m a t e r i a l on the t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l , students were given the opportunity to t e s t t h e i r understanding by p r a c t i c i n g the s k i l l s . Using various paper and p e n c i l e x e r c i s e s , students attempted to i d e n t i f y feelings and to distinguish feelings from content. The exercises were graded from easy to more d i f f i c u l t , each e x e r c i s e b u i l d i n g on the s k i l l s acquired from the previous exercise. The next stage i n the progression was to introduce the formula: "You f e e l because ." This was designed to help the student l e a r n to combine an understanding of what the c l i e n t f e l t with what i t was that was causing the f e e l i n g . The c u l m i n a t i o n of the group had students working with each other's stimulus problems. They worked sometimes i n pairs and sometimes in the larger group. In the large group, each member, in turn, played the role of c l i e n t and expressed a personal concern. C o n s e l l o r s then p r a c t i c e d responding with primary accurate empathy. The c l i e n t could give only a "yes" or "no" answer as feedback. The c o u n s e l l o r then responded again, attempting to achieve an understanding of 42 the c l i e n t ' s approximations. f e e l i n g s by a s e r i e s s u c c e s s i v e 3. Combination Training Although both the i n t u i t i o n and the inference groups were expected to be s u c c e s s f u l at i n c r e a s i n g empathy, i t was proposed that t r a i n i n g which combined the i n f e r e n t i a l and i n t u i t i v e c o n d i t i o n s would increase empathy scores better than e i t h e r c o n d i t i o n alone. The gains were expected to be roughly equivalent on each measure. The students i n t h i s c o n d i t i o n were presented with exercises representative of both other training methods. The f i r s t hour d e a l t with i n t u i t i o n t r a i n i n g , while the second hour was reserved for inference exercises. The ultimate aim of the combination method was not only to have students learn to focus on their personal fantasies and images, but a l s o to have them l e a r n to r e l a t e these images to s p e c i f i c c l i e n t cues and b e h a v i o u r s . The progression was to experience the fantasy, r e f l e c t upon i t s p o s s i b l e meaning and then to r e l a t e that meaning to the c l i e n t . The main point of departure from the other methods was the emphasis placed on suggesting interpretations and on receiving feedback from the c l i e n t on the accuracy of these i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . Much p r a c t i c e time was devoted to i n t e g r a t i n g the i m a g i n a l i n t o the ongoing context of the 43 c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n . For example, i f a c o u n s e l l o r o f f e r e d a personal image to a c l i e n t that was cued by v i s u a l i z i n g the client's experience and the c l i e n t indicated that i t was not accurate, then the c o u n s e l l o r explored what personal meaning the c l i e n t ' s image had f o r him/herself. Further, the c o u n s e l l o r was asked to consider why the meanings for counsellor and c l i e n t were discrepant. I t was hoped that p r a c t i c e i n these e x e r c i s e s would foster the a b i l i t y to discriminate between the objective and s u b j e c t i v e modes of experience. It was f u r t h e r hoped that students would l e a r n to s h i f t e a s i l y from one mode to the other depending on which was appropriate to the counselling i n t e r a c t i o n at the time. 44 TABLE 1 Training Session 1 In t u i t i o n Inference Combination Hour 1 relaxation (20 min.) introduction (5-10 min.) relaxation (20 min.) breath con-centration (10 min.) language of feelings, pt. 1 (30 min.) breath con-centration (10 min.) observation of object (5 min.) cont'd pt. 2 (15 min.) remembering what you see (20 min.) concentration on object (5 min.) exercise 111 (10 min.) experience object (5 min.) object f i l l i n g consciousness (15 min.) 10 minute break Hour 2 physical, mental, emotional Carkhuff tape (1 hr.) Carkhuff tape (1 hr.) (10 min.) Now I am aware... (5 min.) images of interpersonal i n t u i t i o n (25 min.) 45 TABLE 2 Training Session 2 In t u i t i o n Inference Combination Hour 1 relaxation written relaxation paragraph (20 min.) (20 min.) (20 min.) repeat from passive d i s c r i - breath con-session 1 mination of centration feelings (15 min.) (10 min.) passive d i s c r i - images of mination of inte r p s n l . content i n t u i t i o n (15 min.) (20 min.) active d i s c r i -mination of feeling (15 min.) 10 minute break Hour 2 active d i s c r i - active d i s c r i mination of mination of content fee l i n g (15 min.) (30 min.) communication active d i s c r i of feelings mination of content (20 min.) (30 min.) stump, cabin stream (20 min.) communication of content (20 min.) 46 TABLE 3 Training Session 3 Hour 1 In t u i t i o n relaxation (20 min.) repeat from session 1 Inference primary accurate empathy (1 hour) Combination relaxation (20 min.) breath con-centration (10 min.) Now I am aware • • • (10 min.) physical, emot-io n a l , mental l e v e l s of experience (25 min.) 10 minute break Hour 2 dream experience (30 min.) personal experiences (1 hr.) stump, cabin stream (50 min.) 47 TABLE 4 Training Session 4 In t u i t i o n Inference Combination Hour 1 relaxation (20 min.) primary accurate empathy (1 hour) relaxation (20 min.) repeat from session 1 breath con-centration (10 min.) primary accurate empathy (30 min.) 10 minute break Hour 2 personal personal personal experience experience experience (1 hour) (1 hour) (1 hour) 48 Instrumentation Each volunteer was pre- and post-tested on three empathy measures. The Affective S e n s i t i v i t y Scale Kagan's A f f e c t i v e S e n s i t i v i t y S c a l e c o n s i s t s of videotaped sequences from a c t u a l c o u n s e l l i n g sessions. As w e l l , there are 67 m u l t i p l e choice items, d e s c r i b i n g the feeling states the c l i e n t may be expressing. Using the video as a stimulus, the empathizer must i d e n t i f y from the choices on the t e s t form, the f e e l i n g s being experienced by the c l i e n t . This t e s t was chosen as a measure f o r t h i s study because a) i t seems appropriate to the d e f i n i t i o n of empathy used i n the study and b) i t i s a t e s t most l i k e the r e a l conditions of facing a c l i e n t . According to Kagan, this test "provides a h i g h l y r e a l i s t i c , yet standardized mode of presenting the t o t a l s t i m u l i from a r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n to subjects in a manner which should d i f f e r e n t i a t e between those s e n s i t i v e and those not s e n s i t i v e to the a f f e c t i v e s t a t e of another" (Kagan et a l . , 1967, p. 36). The scenes range along a continuum of emotional obviousness from subtle to,blatant. The nature of the c l i e n t ' s problems a l s o v a r i e s . The areas of concern i n c l u d e e d u c a t i o n a l planning, i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t s , maturity, s e r i o u s i l l n e s s and depression. The 49 subject observing the tape was asked to s e l e c t the response t h a t he f e l t a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t e d the f e e l i n g s of the videotaped c l i e n t . A score for the test was the t o t a l correct out of 67. The following i s a sample item: Item I 1. This e x p l o r i n g of my f e e l i n g s i s good. It makes me f e e l good. 2. I - f e e l very sad and unhappy. 3. I'm groping and confused; I can't bring i t a l l together. The Discrimination Empathy Test The f i r s t e i g h t i t e m s on "A D e s c r i p t i o n of H e l p e r R e s p o n s e s t o H e l p e e E x p r e s s i o n s : An i n d e x o f discrimination," developed by Robert Carkhuff (1969, p. 114-123), was used as p r e - t e s t i n t h i s study. The second eight items comprised the post-test. The t e s t i t s e l f i s a refinement of the Truax Accurate Empathy Scale (Truax and Carkhuff, 1967), which i s based on the work of C a r l Rogers. The t e s t c o n s i s t s of sixte e n paragraphs, each expressing a s p e c i f i c problem as stated by a helpee. The areas of concern covered are: s o c i a l , educa-t i o n a l , c h i l d - r e a r i n g , m a r i t a l , depression, anger and e l a t i o n . The problem s i t u a t i o n s were presented to the volunteers as a written test, each s i t u a t i o n being followed by four brief responses in multiple choice format. Carkhuff 50 developed these reponses to be a representative sample of the range of potential helper responses. The four reponses range from demonstration of l i t t l e discriminative empathy to a high degree of d i s c r i m i n a t i v e empathy. The s u b j e c t s were instructed to select what they thought was the best response to the stimulus problem. The score for the test consisted of the t o t a l number c o r r e c t out of a p o s s i b l e eight. The s c o r i n g key i s found i n Carkhuff (1969, p. 124-125). The following i s a sample item: "I'm so t h r i l l e d to have found a c o u n s e l l o r l i k e you. I didn't know any e x i s t e d . You seem to understand me so w e l l . It's j u s t great! I f e e l l i k e I'm coming a l i v e again. I have not f e l t l i k e t h i s i n so long." 1. "Gratitude i s a natural emotion." 2. "This i s quite nice, but remember, unless extreme caution i s e x e r c i s e d , you may f i n d y o u r s e l f moving i n the other d i r e c t i o n . " 3. "That's a good f e e l i n g . " 4. "Hey, I'm as t h r i l l e d to hear you t a l k t h i s way as you are! I'm pleased that I have been h e l p f u l . I do think we s t i l l have some work to do yet, though." The Jones-Mohr Listening Test This test was designed to determine how well a counsellor can understand the implication of what a c l i e n t says. It i s apparent that the same words can have d i f f e r e n t intended meanings. The c o r r e c t meaning of the items on t h i s t e s t seems to be as. much a f u n c t i o n of the way the message i s d e l i v e r e d as i t i s a f u n c t i o n of the message's v e r b a l 51 content. For example, "Gee! It's good to see you again" may mean "I'm happy to see you," or "It's about time..." depending on the s u b t l e nonverbal cues. This measure was includ e d as i t goes beyond the r e c o g n i t i o n of the f e e l i n g s t a t e to e x t r a p o l a t i n g the meaning of the c l i e n t ' s experience. Form A was used as the p r e - t e s t and Form B was used as the p o s t - t e s t . There are 30 items on each form of the t e s t . A statement i s read aloud twice on the tape, each time with the same intended meaning. Ten seconds i s allowed to mark one of the four phrases which best represents the intended meaning of the statement, e.g., "Let's go see him again." 1. "I just can't wait." 2. "I'd l i k e to get something from him." 3. "I never want to see him again." 4. "I r e a l l y enjoy seeing him." V a l i d i t y and R e l i a b i l i t y of the Measures  Kagan Affective S e n s i t i v i t y Scale The v a l i d i t y of t h i s s c a l e was i n v e s t i g a t e d by a number of s t u d i e s (Kagan, 1967, p. 175-189). Concurrent v a l i d i t y was obtained by Spearman rank c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (rho's) between t e s t scores and t h e r a p i s t rankings of group members s e n s i t i v i t y to f e e l i n g s . Rho's of .35, .59, and .64 52 were obtained for a group of d o c t o r a l students from t e s t scores and rankings by t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s on c o u n s e l l o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . A p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y study between t e s t scores and l a t e r peer r a t i n g s of c o u n s e l l o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s r e s u l t e d i n r. = .49. Construct v a l i d i t y was i n d i c a t e d through an increase i n a f f e c t i v e s e n s i t i v i t y over a six-month training period for two groups. The increase for both groups was s i g n i f i c a n t , one at the .025 l e v e l and the other at .005. Content v a l i d i t y was i n d i c a t e d by the procedures used i n developing the t e s t , along with the r e s u l t s of various item analysis and other i n t e r n a l analysis data. R e l i a b i l i t y using the Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 ranged from .53 to .73. Using 26 undergraduate students, a t e s t -retest r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was calculated. The Pearson product moment corr e l a t i o n between the two sets of scores was .75. Carkhuff Discrimination Empathy Test Carkhuffs (1969) Index of Discrimination i s a refinement of the Truax Accurate Empathy Scale (Truax and Carkhuff, 1967). The v a l i d i t y data on t h i s s c a l e i s summarized i n Truax and Carkhuff (1967, Chapter 3). Carkhuff reports there i s a strong relationship between the scale and process and outcome variables. Kurtz and Grummon (1973) indicate a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between the sca l e and two 53 outcome measures, c l i e n t s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n (r = .47) and the to t a l positive Tennessee Self Concept Scale (r = .42). R e l i a b i l i t y data was presented i n Truax and Carkhuff (1967, p. 45). C o r r e l a t i o n s for 28 s t u d i e s , i n v o l v i n g a variety of therapist and patient populations, was presented. Pearson product moment c o r r e l a t i o n s ranged from .43 to .79, while Ebel i n t e r c l a s s r e l i a b i l i t i e s for pooled data used in the analysis of findings provided c o e f f i c i e n t s ranging from .50 to .95. Jones-Mohr Listening Test V a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y data were not available for this measure. A l e t t e r sent to the authors seeking i n f o r m a t i o n was returned by the post o f f i c e as the author's forwarding order had expired. Procedures Introduction to the Research F i f t y - t w o s t u d e n t s a r r i v e d f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l meeting. F i r s t on the agenda was to provide these volunteers with some understanding of the empathy construct, and t h i s was followed by an expl a n a t i o n of the project's purpose. Students were informed that the o v e r a l l i n t e n t of the 54 research was to compare three d i f f e r e n t empathy t r a i n i n g procedures and that in order to accomplish this aim they were to be a s s i g n e d to one of four t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s (Intuition, Inference, Combination or Control). Regardless of the group i n which they found themselves, there would be ample opportunity f o r them to i n t u i t and to share another's feelings and the private meanings of his/her experience. As we l l , the t r a i n i n g would provide a s e t t i n g i n which the students could gain insight into their own thought processes. For those i n the no-treatment c o n t r o l , i f they wished, a t r a i n i n g group would be provided f o r them at a l a t e r date. The t r a i n i n g aspect and not the t h e r a p e u t i c aspect of the experience was emphasized. Students were assured that they need not r e v e a l any i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h e y deemed inappropriate to a tra i n i n g objective. C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y was discussed and, as per the university's instructions, students were advised that they could leave the p r o j e c t at any time. Meeting days were stated and the students were informed that a t o t a l of 12 1/2 hours over a five-week period would be required of them. Volunteers had to attend a l l sessions for their data to be used. The time structure was as follows: Week 1 (2 1/2 hours) organizational meeting and pre-testing Week 2 ( 2 hours) training session Week 3 ( 2 hours) training session Week 4 ( 2 hours) training session Week 5 ( 4 hours) training session and post-testing Any questions the volunteers had were then answered. 55 There was a f i f t e e n minute cof f e e break and those persons s t i l l i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the research were i n v i t e d to return f o r assignment to groups and f o r the pre-testing session. Assignment to Groups Of the o r i g i n a l 48 respondents, 23 returned a f t e r the break for pre-testing. As th i s was an i n s u f f i c i e n t number to conduct the four t r a i n i n g groups simultaneously as planned, i t was decided to randomly s e l e c t two of the t r a i n i n g conditions and then to randomly assign students to them. The i n t u i t i o n and the c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n s were s e l e c t e d with 12 members i n i n t u i t i o n and 11 c o n t r o l members. At the post-t e s t i n g s e s s i o n , o n l y 18 s t u d e n t s remained, 8 i n the i n t u i t i o n and 10 in the control. A f t e r the p o s t - t e s t i n g s e s s i o n , new s u b j e c t s were s o l i c i t e d and the foregoing procedure was repeated. The treatment condition this time was the combination. After the introductory session, a l l 15 students remained for the pre-testing session. At the post-testing session there remained 8. Once again the procedure was conducted, th i s time for the inference condition. Eighteen students took the pre-tests, while 10 remained for the post-tests. 56 Of the t o t a l 81 students who i n d i c a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n the research, there were only 36 people who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the p r o j e c t from beginning to end. The a t t r i t i o n rate can be accounted for in terms of timetable clashes, clashes with the exam period and for some students, loss of in t e r e s t . Although there was not enough students at any one time to randomly as s i g n them to one of four groups as o r i g i n a l l y planned, n e i t h e r were the s t u d e n t s s e l e c t e d f o r any p a r t i c u l a r reason to be i n any p a r t i c u l a r group. If they were unable to come at the time t h e i r group was being taught, they were dropped from the research. Each of the groups was taught f o r f i v e weeks, one group f o l l o w i n g the other. Each was taught in the same room, on the same day of the week, at the same time and by the same teacher. A l l the introductory s e s s i o n s and a l l p r e - and p o s t - t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s were conducted by the experimenter. The results of the pre-testing i n d i c a t e d that the groups were f a i r l y s i m i l a r i n t h e i r empathic a b i l i t i e s prior to the training. Design This study employed a p r e - t e s t / p o s t - t e s t c o n t r o l group design (Table 5). The independent variables were the various empathy tra i n i n g procedures and the dependent variables were the empathy gain scores. This design was chosen as i t i s a 57 TABLE 5 Assignment Pre-test Treatment Post-test G-l 0-1 8 subjects 0-2 with 4, 2 hr. i n t u i t i o n sessions (X^) G-2 0-3 8 subjects 0-4 no treatment control ( X 2 ) G-3 0-5 10 subjects 0-6 with 4, 2 hr. combination sessions (Xg) G-4 0-7 10 subjects with 4, 2 hr. inference sessions (X^) 5 - week period A - assignment of subjects to experimental groups. X - experimental variable manipulated. 0 - observation or test . 58 c l a s s i c design for change experiments. The design c a l l s for random assignment to groups which was not p o s s i b l e i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . The use of a p r e - t e s t , however, a l l o w e d the empathic a b i l i t i e s of the group to be checked before the trai n i n g commenced. The main problem, not controlled for in t h i s design, i s the e f f e c t s of the p r e - t e s t i n g on the post-tes t i n g . Analysis For each hypothesis ( i n t u i t i o n > c o n t r o l ; i n f e r e n c e > c o n t r o l ; combination> c o n t r o l ; combination) i n t u i t i o n ; combination) i n f e r e n c e ) and on each of the three outcome measures a t - t e s t was c a l c u l a t e d to det e r m i n e the significance of the difference between the means of the gain scores. The formula f o r independent samples with pooled variance was employed. The l e v e l of significance for the t-t e s t s was .05. 59 CHAPTER IV  Results S e v e r a l h ypotheses were advanced to d e t e r m i n e the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of three d i f f e r e n t empathy t r a i n i n g methods ( i n t u i t i o n method, inference method and combination method). D i f f e r e n c e s among the t r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e d the independent v a r i a b l e while the dependent variable was the mean gain scores obtained from subtracting p o s t - t e s t measures from p r e - t e s t measures on each of three d i f f e r e n t empathy t e s t s . The hypothesis was stated such that f o r each group comparison: Ho: Xj - X 2 < 0 was tested against the alternate Hj_: Xj_ - T 2 > 0 Consequently, the c r i t i c a l region f o r r e j e c t i o n of Ho: i n favour of H-^  at the .05 l e v e l of significance i s in the right hand t a i l of the sampling d i s t r i b u t i o n making a o n e - t a i l e d test appropriate. Variance and t-test formulas are found in Ferguson (1971, p. 151-53). [See Appendix B for gain scores and ca l c u l a t i o n summaries.] 60 Tests of the Hypotheses  Hypothesis I It was hypothesized that the difference between the mean gain scores of Group 4 (i n f e r e n c e t r a i n i n g ) and of Group 2 (no t r a i n i n g c o n t r o l ) would be l e s s than or equal to zero. This was tes t e d against the a l t e r n a t e hypothesis that the mean gain score of Group 4 ( i n f e r e n c e t r a i n i n g ) would be greater at the .05 l e v e l of significance than would the mean gain score of Group 2 (no training control). The groups were compared on each of three empathy t e s t s using a t - t e s t f o r independent samples. (See Appendix B for gain score summary tables) When the i n f e r e n c e versus the c o n t r o l group gain scores were analyzed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found on two of the three tests. The greatest gain appeared on the Carkhuff D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Empathy Test, t = 2.185. A lesser gain appeared on the Jones-Mohr Listening Test, t = 1.831. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t gain on the Kagan Affective S e n s i t i v i t y S c a l e , t = .065. For 18 df and p <.05 the c o n t r o l value r e q u i r e d for t i s 1.734. For the f i r s t two measures therefore, the alternate hypothesis can be accepted. Inference training i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y better than no tra i n i n g over an eight-hour t r a i n i n g period as measured by Carkhuff 61 and Jones-Mohr. As measured by Kagan, the t value i s positive but does not approach significance (see Table 6 for a summary of t-score data from the 15 tests). Hypothesis II It was hypothesized that the difference between the mean gain scores of Group 1 ( i n t u i t i o n t r a i n i n g ) and of Group 2 (no t r a i n i n g c o n t r o l ) would be l e s s than or equal to zero. The a l t e r n a t e hypothesis was that the mean gain score of Group 1 ( i n t u i t i o n training) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than was the mean gain score of Group 2 (no t r a i n i n g c o n t r o l ) . When the i n t u i t i o n versus the c o n t r o l group gain scores were analyzed, there was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference found on any of the measures. The highest t value appeared on the Kagan measure, t = 1.387, followed by Jones-Mohr, t = .897 and f i n a l l y Carkhuff, t = .706. For 16 df and p <.05, the c r i t i c a l value of t = 1.746. Therefore, Ho: i s a c c e p t e d and c o n s e q u e n t l y i n t u i t i o n t r a i n i n g i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than no t r a i n i n g over an eight-hour training period as measured by any of the empathy tests. Hypothesis III It was hypothesized that a combination of the i n t u i t i v e and of the i n f e r e n t i a l t r a i n i n g techniques over an eight-hour 62 TABLE 6 Jones-Mohr Listening Test Carkhuff Discrim. Empathy Test Kagan Affective Sensit. Scale df Requirec Table Value HA:1 G4 > G2 Inference > Control t = 1.831 * t = 2.185 t = .065 18 1.734 HA:2 Gl > G2 Intuition > Control t = .897 t = .706 t = 1.387 16 1.746 HA:3a G3 > Gl t = 1.139 t = -.601 t = .304 14 Combination Intuition * * HA:3b G3 > G2 t = 2.634 t = -.085 t = 2.036 Combination > Control * HA:3c G3 > G4 t = .57 t = -1.622 t = 1.966 16 16 Combination > Inference * p < .05 63 t r a i n i n g period would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y better than any of the other groups alone. This was separated i n t o i t s component parts. A. It was hypothesized that the difference between the mean gain score of Group 3 (combination training) and of Group 1 ( i n t u i t i o n t r a i n i n g ) would be l e s s than or equal to zero. A l t e r n a t e l y , the mean gain score of Group 3 (combination training) would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than the mean gain score of Group 1 ( i n t u i t i o n training). When the combination versus the i n t u i t i o n gain scores were analyzed, there was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference found on any of the measures. The highest t value was obtained on the Jones-Mohr measure, t = 1.139, followed by Kagan, t = .304, and f i n a l l y by Carkhuff, t = -.601. For 14 df and p < .05 the c r i t i c a l v a l u e of t = 1.761. Therefore, Ho; i s accepted and consequently combination training i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y better than i n t u i t i o n training as measured on any of the tests. B. It was hypothesized that the difference between the mean gain scores of Group 3 (combination training) and of Group 2 (no t r a i n i n g c o n t r o l ) would be l e s s than or equal to zero. A l t e r n a t e l y , the mean gain score of Group 3 (combination t r a i n i n g ) w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than Group 2 (no 64 training c o n t r o l ) . When the combination versus the control gain scores were analyzed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference was found on two of the three measures. The greatest gain was measured by Jones-Mohr, t = 2.634. This i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . A lesser gain was recorded on Kagan, t = 2.036. The Carkhuff measure was t = -.085. For 16 df and p < .05 the c r i t i c a l value of t = 1.746. The combination method therefore appears to be a h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e method of t r a i n i n g empathy as measured by Jones-Mohr and Kagan. The h i g h l y d i s c r e p a n t Carkhuff score of t = -.085 requires analysis. C. It was hypothesized that the difference between the mean gain scores of Group 3 (combination training) and of Group 4 (i n f e r e n c e t r a i n i n g ) would be l e s s than or equal to zero. A l t e r n a t e l y , the mean gain score of Group 3 (combination training) would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than the mean gain score of Group 4 ( i n f e r e n c e t r a i n i n g ) . When the combination versus the i n f e r e n c e gain scores were analyzed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found on one of the three measures. On the Kagan measure t = 1.966, on the Jones-Mohr measure t = .57, and on the Carkhuff measure t = -1.622. For 16 df and p < .05 the c r i t i c a l value of t = 1.746. Therefore, combination t r a i n i n g i s better than inference alone as measured by Kagan. The Jones-Mohr value i s p o s i t i v e but does not approach s i g n i f i c a n c e . Again, the 65 h i g h l y d i s c r e p a n t t value of -1.622 on the Carkhuff measure requires explanation. 66 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION Summary It has been assumed by c o u n s e l l o r s that empathy i s c r u c i a l to e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g . Counsellor t r a i n i n g programs, t h e r e f o r e , emphasize empathy t r a i n i n g . Review a r t i c l e s of r e s e a r c h on the im p o r t a n c e of empathy to c o u n s e l l i n g outcome have been i n c o n c l u s i v e , thus causing some authors to question the importance of empathy to c o u n s e l l i n g and others to turn t h e i r research e f f o r t s elsewhere. Marks and Tolsma (1984) underscore the point that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to compare the studies forming the backbone of these reviews because of conceptual and methodological v a r i a t i o n s amongst them. They c o n t r i b u t e a system f o r analyzing these variations with an aim to understanding the complexities in the research that have been overlooked. Far from turning away from the d i f f i c u l t i e s of empathy research, Marks and Tolsma advocate a renewed attention to the empathy construct in order that the relationship between empathy and therapy outcome be d e f i n i t i v e l y assessed. The present study has focused on empathy t r a i n i n g . I t was suggested that perhaps some of the confusion surrounding the outcomes of other studies was the p o s s i b i l i t y that they 67 measured d i f f e r e n t variables. It was proposed that empathy has both an i n f e r e n t i a l and an i n t u i t i v e component and that the various studies f a i l e d to acknowledge thi s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms of the measures used to assess empathy. Taking up the theme of empathy being composed of component parts, some authors have a s s o c i a t e d the components each to a separate hemisphere of the bra i n . The i m p l i c a t i o n i n terms of counsellor education has been that h o l i s t i c teaching methods should be used i n order to ensure the maximum usage of the brain's potential. L a t e r a l i t y research provides sanction for teaching empathy by combining the i n t u i t i o n and the inference t r a i n i n g methods. I t was noted that c o u n s e l l o r t r a i n i n g programs pay most a t t e n t i o n to developing the i n f e r e n t i a l component, while neglecting the i n t u i t i o n a l . The hypotheses of t h i s study s t a t e d t h a t t r a i n i n g i n i n f e r e n c e c o u l d f a c i l i t a t e empathy and that likewise, training in i n t u i t i o n could f a c i l i t a t e empathy. It was proposed, however, that a combination of the two methods would prove to be best at improving empathy. Three d i f f e r e n t t e s t s were used as empathy measures. Each of the tests was thought to measure either inference or i n t u i t i o n to a greater or l e s s e r degree. The Jones-Mohr Listening Test, designed to measure a listener's s e n s i t i v i t y to implied meanings using nonverbal clues such as voice tone and i n f l e c t i o n was associated with i n t u i t i o n . The Carkhuff 68 D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Empathy Test, using a r e s t r i c t e d w r i t t e n problem expression, was considered to be most associated with the i n f e r e n t i a l component of empathy. The Kagan A f f e c t i v e S e n s i t i v i t y Scale, using both an audio and a video stimulus was most l i k e a r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n . I t was assumed that both i n t u i t i o n and inference a b i l i t i e s were measured by the Kagan s c a l e . The u n d e r l y i n g i m p l i c a t i o n i s that i n f e r e n c e trained volunteers should do better on the inference measure, i n t u i t i o n t r a i n e d v o l u n t e e r s s h o u l d do b e t t e r on the i n t u i t i v e measure, and that combination-trained volunteers should do well on a l l measures. Review of the Results  Hypothesis I Counsellors trained using i n f e r e n t i a l empathy techniques over an eight-hour t r a i n i n g period w i l l develop a higher degree of empathy than a no tr a i n i n g control group. As measured by: Hypothesis II Counsellors trained using i n t u i t i v e empathy techniques over an eight-hour t r a i n i n g period w i l l develop a higher degree of empathy than a no t r a i n i n g control group. a) b) c) Jones-Mohr - supported Carkhuff - supported Kagan - rejected 69 As measured by: a) Jones-Mohr - rejected b) Carkhuff - rejected c) Kagan - rejected Hypothesis III-A Counsellors trained using a combination of the i n t u i t i v e and the i n f e r e n t i a l t r a i n i n g techniques over an eight-hour training period w i l l develop a higher degree of empathy than those trained using i n t u i t i o n techniques alone. As measured by: a) Jones-Mohr - rejected b) Carkhuff - rejected c) Kagan - rejected Hypothesis III-B Counsellors trained using a combination of the i n t u i t i v e and the i n f e r e n t i a l t r a i n i n g t e c h n i q u e over an e i g h t - h o u r training period w i l l develop a higher degree of empathy than those in the no tr a i n i n g control group. As measured by: a) Jones-Mohr - supported b) Carkhuff - rejected c) Kagan - supported Hypothesis III-C Counsellors trained using a combination of the i n t u i t i v e and the i n f e r e n t i a l t r a i n i n g techniques over an eight-hour tra i n i n g period w i l l develop a higher degree of empathy than those trained using i n f e r e n t i a l techniques alone. As measured by: a) Jones-Mohr - rejected b) Carkhuff - rejected c) Kagan - supported 70 Interpretation of the Results Hypothesis I (inference i s better than control) The r e s u l t s were as hypothesized on the Jones-Mohr and Carkhuff measures. On the Carkhuff measure, t = 2.185 requiring only t = 1.734 for significance. The fact that the i n f e r e n c e t r a i n e d group did best on the i n f e r e n c e measure l e n d s s u p p o r t to the n o t i o n t h a t the measures do tap d i f f e r e n t aspects of the empathy co n s t r u c t . A s u r p r i s i n g result was that the inference trained people did not improve i n empathy as measured by Kagan. This may be explained by chance. The p o s s i b i l i t y cannot be discounted, however, that perhaps the Kagan measure i s better at measuring i n t u i t i o n than i t i s at measuring i n f e r e n c e . Being t r a i n e d only i n i n f e r e n t i a l t h i n k i n g may cause one to overlook the more i n t u i t i v e a s p e c t s of the p r o c e s s (such as n o n v e r b a l communication) and thus e x p l a i n how i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r inference trained people not to improve on the Kagan measure. Hunt (1979) determined the correlation between the Kagan and Carkhuff measures in his study to be low at r = .24. Hypothesis II ( i n t u i t i o n i s better than control) An unexpected r e s u l t was that the i n t u i t i o n - t r a i n e d people did not improve s i g n i f i c a n t l y on any of the measures. The r e s u l t s of the present study, t h e r e f o r e , were unable to c o n f i r m the f i n d i n g s of Frank (1977). She found t h a t 71 t r a i n i n g i n e x p e r i e n t i a l fantasy techniques did improve empathy scores. She used a t e s t by Sundberg to measure outcome. I t i s a t e s t of i m p l i e d meanings and i s almost i d e n t i c a l to the Jones-Mohr measure used i n t h i s study. Several reasons are presented to e x p l a i n the discrepancy between studies. The experiential fantasy exercises and the sequencing of these exercises were di f f e r e n t i n the d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s . There may a l s o have been vast d i f f e r e n c e s i n the a b i l i t y to fantasize of each group prior to the training. It seems l i k e l y , too, that to become p r o f i c i e n t at and comfortable with techniques such as relaxation, concentration and r e c e p t i v i t y would take more time than the eight-hour t r a i n i n g p e r i o d a v a i l a b l e . C a r k h u f f , however, the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of i n f e r e n c e t r a i n i n g demonstrates on tape using his own test, that after learning the empathy formula, empathy scores improve in one session. This may explain why i n f e r e n c e t r a i n i n g was s i g n i f i c a n t , but not i n t u i t i o n t r a i n i n g . Another p o i n t of i n t e r e s t i s t h a t members i n the i n t u i t i o n group, although expressing the most a p p r e c i a t i o n fo r and i n t e r e s t i n the t r a i n i n g of any group, c o n t i n u a l l y questioned i t s relevance to empathy. Perhaps, a prejudgment of the value of the process could a f f e c t the r e s u l t s . The t values were, however, a l l p o s i t i v e with the Kagan measure approaching significance. The results organized themselves 72 i n the order of Kagan, then Jones-Mohr, and f i n a l l y Carkhuff. This i s what would be expected i f empathy c o n s i s t s of both the i n t u i t i v e and i n f e r e n t i a l components. Because the results show a positive trend, this i s an area where further research i s important. Hypothesis III (combination i s better than any of the other groups) The combination group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than the i n t u i t i o n group as measured on Jones-Mohr (the i n t u i t i o n scale) and the combination group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e tter than the i n f e r e n c e group as measured by the Kagan (combination) scale. It i s , perhaps, not surprising that a l l r e s u l t s were not s i g n i f i c a n t given that i n f e r e n c e and i n t u i t i o n groups both showed gains in empathy. The results again do seem to support the idea of empathy being composed of two components. The major f i n d i n g i n the study was that the combination group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y better than the no training control at not j u s t the .05 l e v e l , but a l s o at the .01 l e v e l on the Jones-Mohr sc a l e . S i g n i f i c a n c e at the .05 l e v e l was also exceeded on the Kagan scale. A surprising finding i n r e l a t i o n to the combination group was that a l l of the Carkhuff measures had negative t values, while the study a n t i c i p a t e d that they would be p o s i t i v e l y s i g n i f i c a n t . An explanation can be teased out a n e c d o t a l l y . 73 The students in the combination condition expressed continual discontent with the Carkhuff portion of the training. They complained of being spoonfed and babied. The most vehement complaint was d i r e c t e d at Carkhuff h i m s e l f as he presented himself on the tape. They complained that the man seemed to be holding his audience in contempt and that, therefore, he was not empathic to those he was t r y i n g to teach. As a result, students responded to his attitude and were blinded to the value of the teaching. Three students a c t u a l l y dropped the group a f t e r t h e i r encounter with the tape. One very deviant group member scored almost perfectly on the pre-test, but after the t r a i n i n g only made one correct response. Without her data, the Carkhuff measure would have had a low positive t score. Given the negative feelings of the group, the mean gain f o r the combination group on the Carkhuff measure was 0. General comments on the r e s u l t s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e that the i n f e r e n c e t r a i n i n g has value on i t s own, but that the i n t u i t i o n t r a i n i n g needs to be added to the inference to be e f f e c t i v e . Combination training i s highly e f f e c t i v e (.01 level) at improving empathy as compared to the control. Recommendations for Further Research 1. Because i n t u i t i o n t raining did not produce s i g n i f i c a n t 74 gains i n empathy and because this contradicts the findings of Frank, another study c o u l d be done to c l a r i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between imagery and fantasy and empathy. A study with longer t r a i n i n g periods and larger sample size i s recommended. 2. I t seems important i n r e t r o s p e c t to design a study that would c o n t r o l f o r age and i n t e l l i g e n c e . I t may be that older people are more empathic than younger ones due to their added l i f e experience. It may also be that those who are more i n t e l l i g e n t are more empathic or that those with a higher IQ would do better with inference t r a i n i n g . 3 . Another p o s s i b i l i t y f o r f u r t h e r research would be to d i s t i n g u i s h the v i s u a l i z e r s from the v e r b a l i z e r s at the outset of the study. C o u n s e l l o r s already p r o f i c i e n t i n one area may need tr a i n i n g in the other as a compensation. Concluding Comments Implications for Counsellor Training Given several assumptions of this research; that empathy is important to a positive therapy outcome, that empathy can be t r a i n e d , and that the r e s u l t s of the t r a i n i n g can be measured, the outcome of this study provides support for the empathy t r a i n i n g techniques c u r r e n t l y employed to improve 75 empathy, the inference method. Intuition training techniques did not produce s i g n i f i c a n t empathy gains on any of the measures and t h e r e f o r e cannot stand alone as an empathy training method. It i s recommended however, that the value of i n t u i t i o n t r a i n i n g not be overlooked. When the i n t u i t i o n techniques were combined with the i n f e r e n c e techniques and then compared against the c o n t r o l , the r e s u l t s were highly s i g n i f i c a n t on the Jones-Mohr measure. The t value of 2.634 was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l and provided the highest t value of the study. The Kagan measure was also s i g n i f i c a n t at t = 2.036. Thus, combination t r a i n i n g supports the idea t h a t i n or d e r to maximize s e n s i t i v i t y to a c l i e n t ' s s u b j e c t i v e world, a c o u n s e l l o r should have access to which ever s k i l l s are most appropriate to the client's immediate needs. Ideally, t r a i n i n g programs w i l l be i n i t i a t e d which w i l l help counsellors sharpen their s k i l l s in inference but which w i l l also pay attention to the i n t u i t i o n a l . The supposition i s that the counsellor should not rely on any particular set of s k i l l s without regard to the individual c l i e n t and his/her i n d i v i d u a l problem areas. For example, a c o u n s e l l o r must l e a r n to determine when i t would be appropriate to have the c l i e n t focus i n t e r n a l l y as opposed to externally. T r a i n i n g programs also need to take i n t o account the i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s of t h e i r t r a i n e e s . It may be that 76 t h o s e who are a l r e a d y h i g h l y a n a l y t i c may f i n d a balance w i t h i n t u i t i o n t r a i n i n g w h i l e t h o s e who are h i g h l y e m o t i o n a l might b e n e f i t most from an i n f e r e n t i a l approach. 77 REFERENCES A l l p o r t , G. (1937). 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English Journal, 67, (5), 29-32. 81 APPENDIX A 82 FACILITATING INTUITION Relaxation Relaxation helps to reduce the tension and anxiety which are blocks to i n t u i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g . Relaxation thus helps to c l e a r the mind which i n turn f a c i l i t a t e s the flow of imagery. The relaxation technique to be outlined i s autosuggestion whereby a person mentally repeats the i n s t r u c t i o n s and allows the suggestions to work by themselves. The p r i n c i p l e i s that a person's body w i l l respond to an idea held i n his mind. The beauty of the technique i s that i t can be practiced anywhere. For the development of i n t u i t i o n , i t i s best to relax in a comfortable s i t t i n g position with the spine straight. The idea i s to be physically relaxed and mentally a l e r t . The experience of r e l a x a t i o n may be a t i n g l i n g or a pulsing. There may be a fe e l i n g of warmth or coolness, a heaviness or a f l o a t i n g sensation. After considerable practice with this method, i t may be possible to relax deeply just by suggesting to oneself to do so. Development of t h i s a b i l i t y i s a long-term goal as i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y useful to be able to relax at w i l l in a therapy session. 83 RELAXATION METHOD I (adapted from Samuels and Samuels, 1975) S i t comfortably with your back straight. Close your eyes and i n h a l e slowly and deeply. Pause f o r a moment. Then exhale slowly and completely. Allow your abdomen to r i s e and f a l l as you breathe. Do t h i s s e v e r a l times. You now f e e l calm, comfortable and relaxed. As you relax, your breathing w i l l become slow and even. Mentally say to your s e l f , "My fe e t are r e l a x i n g . They are becoming more and more relaxed. My fe e t are heavy." Rest f o r a moment. Repeat the same suggestion for your ankles. Rest again. In the same way, relax your lower legs, then your thighs. Relax your p e l v i s . Rest. Relax your abdomen. Rest. Relax the muscles of your back. Rest. Relax your chest. Rest. Relax your f i n g e r s . Relax your hands. Rest. Relax your f o r e a r m s , your upper arms and your shoulders. Rest. Relax your neck. Rest. Relax your jaw, a l l o w i n g i t to drop. Relax your tongue. Relax your cheeks. Relax your eyes. Rest. Relax your forehead and the top of your head. Now just rest. Allow your whole body to relax.. You are now i n a calm, relaxed s t a t e of being. Deepen this state by counting backwards. Breathe in. As you exhale 84 slowly, say to y o u r s e l f , "Ten, I am f e e l i n g very relaxed..." Inhale, and as you exhale, repeat mentally, "Nine, I am f e e l i n g more relaxed..."Breathe, 8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1,0." You are at a deep and relaxed l e v e l of awareness. Your body f e e l s healthy and your mind i s peaceful and open. Images are clear and v i v i d . When you want to return to ordinary consciousness say, "I am now going to move. When I count to '3', I w i l l r a i s e my l e f t hand and stretch my fingers. I w i l l then f e e l relaxed, happy and strong, and ready to continue with my a c t i v i t i e s . " ALTERNATE METHOD This r e l a x a t i o n method i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a ppropriate to enhancing i n t u i t i o n as i t suggests a c t i v i t y and p a s s i v i t y . It can eas i l y be shortened or lengthened depending on how you fe e l at the time. S i t comfortably with your back straight. Close your eyes and i n h a l e slowly and completely. Pause, and then exhale slowly. Begin with your toes and say to yourself: "I am relaxing my toes, my toes are relaxing." I am r e l a x i n g my f e e t . My feet are r e l a x i n g . I am r e l a x i n g m y ankles. My ankles are r e l a x i n g . I a m r e l a x i n g m y c a l v e s . My calves are r e l a x i n g . I am r e l a x i n g m y knees. My knees are r e l a x i n g . I a m r e l a x i n g m y t highs. My thighs are r e l a x i n g . I am r e l a x i n g m y p e l v i s . My p e l v i s i s r e l a x i n g . I am relaxing my buttocks. My buttocks are relaxing. I am 85 relaxing my back. My back i s relaxing. I am relaxing my stomach. My stomach i s relaxing. I am relaxing my c h e s t . My c h e s t i s r e l a x i n g . I am r e l a x i n g my shoulders. My shoulders are r e l a x i n g . I am r e l a x i n g my arms. My arms are r e l a x i n g . I am r e l a x i n g my hands. My hands are r e l a x i n g . I am r e l a x i n g my neck. My neck i s r e l a x i n g . I am r e l a x i n g the back of my head. The back of my head i s r e l a x i n g . I am r e l a x i n g my forehead. My forehead i s r e l a x i n g . I am r e l a x i n g my eyes. My eyes are r e l a x i n g . I am r e l a x i n g my mouth. My mouth i s r e l a x i n g . I am r e l a x i n g my jaw. My jaw i s relaxed and I am at peace. (Vaughn, 1979) 86 FACILITATING INTUITION Concentration: Concentration, or one-pointedness of mind i s practiced in order to remove obstacles to i n t u i t i v e functioning. The paradox i n v o l v e d i s that an e f f o r t of w i l l i s required i n order to focus the mind and thus allow spontaneous images to a r i s e . The act i s one of l e a r n i n g to surrender to experience, rather than to try and control or change i t . Concentration techniques focus the mind on one particular process, object or sound. The idea i s to suspend the ongoing c h a t t e r of the r a t i o n a l mind and to allow the h o l i s t i c , i n t u i t i v e mind to f u n c t i o n . Examples are concentration on breathing, mandalas or mantras. The process of l e a r n i n g to concentrate i s a d i f f i c u l t one. I t r e q u i r e s p r a c t i c e and perseverance. Pushing oneself tends to generate resistance. One must be gentle with oneself and each time the a t t e n t i o n wanders, one must bring i t back to the object of concentration. The l o g i c a l extention of learning to concentrate i s that i n a therapy s e s s i o n the c o u n s e l l o r can d i r e c t h i s a t t e n t i o n at w i l l to any person, s i t u a t i o n or problem which he might wish to consider i n t u i t i v e l y . 87 EXERCISE I Breath Concentration (Samuel & Samuels [1975]) Concentrating on the breathing process i s a convenient method of developing one pointedness of mind as breathing i s a rep e t i t i o u s and rhythmic a c t i v i t y which continues whether or not we w i l l i t . Instructions: Breathe in and out as usual without any e f f o r t or strain. Now bring your mind to concentrate on your breathing. Let your mind be aware of your breathing i n and out. When you breathe you sometimes take deep breaths, sometimes not. This does not matter. Just breathe normally and naturally. When you take breaths be aware of movements and changes. When your thoughts stray, bring them back gently to concentrating on breathing. 88 Exercise 2 Concentration on a Small Object (pencil) (Samuels & Samuels [1979]) Instructions; Place the object i n f r o n t of you where you can e a s i l y see a l l of i t . Gaze at the object t h i n k i n g only of i t . Notice i t s s i z e , shape, c o l o u r and t e x t u r e as w e l l as i t s c o n s t i t u t e n t parts. Beyond t h i s a n a l y s i s , think of the object only as a whole. Attempt to keep your attention fixed only on the object. As d i s t r a c t i n g thoughts come i n t o your awareness, acknowledge them and then simply r e t u r n your awareness to the object. Do this for two minutes. 89 FACILITATING INTUITION Observation: observation i s important to c o u n s e l l o r s as i t may be awareness of nonverbal behaviour which t r i g g e r s i n t u i t i v e images. there i s much more i n what people see than they u s u a l l y notice. 90 EXERCISE I Observation of an Object Instructions: Look around the room and choose any object. Now, with your body relaxed, notice the way l i g h t s t rikes your object. Notice the h i g h l i g h t s and shadows, the r e f l e c t i o n s , the radio-lucent quality and the range of tones i t creates. Let your eyes wander over the o u t l i n e of the object. Notice sharp l i n e s , s o f t l i n e s , the t o t a l shape of the object and the smaller shapes which comprise i t . Notice the texture and f i n i s h of the o b j e c t : i s i t rough, smooth, d u l l or shiny? Look for the grain i n the surface. Look at the colour of the object; the subtle gradations of tone. i s the colour bright or d u l l , f a i n t or dark, uniform or varying? Be aware of the depth and perspective inherent i n what you are looking at. Experience of an Object Instructions: Choose another object. This time allow thoughts to arise f r e e l y as you f i x your eyes on the d i f f e r e n t aspects of the object. Try not to react v e r b a l l y or to l a b e l what you see. Just try to experience the images and feelings that surround the object. This should help you to discover more about the object than just looking at i t s labelled aspects. Allowing an Object to F i l l Your Consciousness Instructions: Move c l o s e to the object so that i t f i l l s your v i s u a l f i e l d . Then, move even c l o s e r i n order to concentrate on a s i n g l e part of the object. What your eye focuses on, and takes i n the d e t a i l s of, begins to f i l l your whole consciousness as well as your visual f i e l d . Once you become accomplished at this you w i l l be able to accomplish the same thing by moving in mentally. 91 Looking at an Object from Different Viewpoints Instructions: Look at an apple. Look at i t as something to be eaten. How does i t taste? Is i t a v a r i e t y you l i k e ? Is i t f r e s h or stale? Just as you are a hungry person ready to b i t e i n t o the apple, s h i f t your viewpoint to that of a pa i n t e r about to paint i t . Become aware of the colour, the texture, the l i g h t that i s s t r i k i n g the apple. How d i f f i c u l t or easy w i l l i t be to paint. As you become ready to pick up your brush, s h i f t r a p i d l y to the point of view of a worm, eating i t s way through the apple. Then, to the point of view of a migrant worker p i c k i n g the apple. Then, to a c h i l d bobbing for the apple i n a tub. Each time your viewpoint changes you should become aware of d i f f e r e n t aspects of the apple. Remembering What You See Instructions Stare at this tray of objects for one minute. Close your eyes and see how many of objects you can see i n your mind's eye. Do not l i s t the objects verbally in your mind as you do thi s . Look at the objects again and see how closely what you remembered matched the things on the tray. 92 FACILITATING INTUITION Receptivity The goal i s to l e a r n to be r e c e p t i v e to whatever enters consciousness, either feelings or images, and to observe without i n t e r f e r e n c e , i.e., without judging or without trying to change whatever a r i s e s . Feelings - a counsellor must be in touch with his/her own f e e l i n g s i n order to be empathic. To be able to give f u l l a t t e n t i o n to a c l i e n t r e q u i r e s that the c o u n s e l l o r acknowledge and experience h i s / h e r own f e e l i n g s . The process i s c a l l e d "centering." The counsellor must know where he/she i s so that h i s / h e r own f e e l i n g s don't i n t e r f e r e with his/her a b i l i t y to be with the c l i e n t . Images - learn to pay attentions to visions, daydreams, dreams or f l e e t i n g impressions. 93 EXERCISE 1 (Vaughn 1979) Awareness of Physical, Emotional and Mental Levels of Experience Instructions: S i t q u i e t l y with your eyes closed. Now become aware of any p h y s i c a l sensations which are present f o r you. Notice the parts of your body which f e e l tense and those which fe e l relaxed. Notice the parts of your body which move when you breathe. Notice where you are holding on. Be aware of your breathing without t r y i n g to change i t . Is there extra work going on i n you body which you don't need r i g h t now? Let go of i t or l e t i t be. Pause. Be aware of any f e e l i n g s which are present for you now. Notice any f e e l i n g s that are r e l a t e d to something which happened i n the past, and any f e e l i n g s p e r t a i n i n g to what might or might not happen i n the future. There i s nothing you have to do about them, j u s t n o t i c e them and l e t them be. Pause. Notice any thoughts that are going through your mind at t h i s time, without t r y i n g to hold onto them and without trying to push them away. Pause. Notice any images that may be present in your mind's eye. Just l e t them be. Be aware of se n s a t i o n s , f e e l i n g s , thoughts and images 94 that are present f o r you know. How does i t f e e l to be you. Stay with your awareness as long as you l i k e and come back when you are ready. EXERCISE 2 (Stevens [1971]) This i s an introduction to the stream of consciousness. Now I am aware...Now I am aware.... Images of Interpersonal Intuition (Vaughn [1979]) S i t opposite a partner and take a few minutes to become centered and quiet. Close your eyes and be aware of your breathing. Notice any feelings, any thoughts that you have. Give y o u r s e l f a minute to be aware of your experience r i g h t now. Open your eyes and give your partner your f u l l attention. Simply look at t h i s person and n o t i c e how you f e e l being with him/her. In a r e c e p t i v e mode, allow t h i s person i n t o your awareness. Close your eyes and see i f you can get a c l e a r p i c t u r e of your partner i n your mind's eye. Look at your partner long enough and c a r e f u l l y enough to get a c l e a r picture of what he or she looks l i k e . Now e i t h e r with your eyes opened or closed, n o t i c e what images come to mind when you are given a suggestion. Do not try to make anything happen. If nothing comes to mind, that 95 i s okay. Do not t r y to i n t e r p r e t or judge your images as they appear, notice them and l e t them be. If t h i s person were an animal, what type of animal would i t be? If t h i s person were a plant, what type of plant would i t be? Landscape? Body of water? (how deep, how c l e a r , how much movement, what temp?) Light, what colour and intensity? A geometrical symbol? Type of music? Tool? Character in history, who would i t be? Can you v i s u a l i z e your partner as a c h i l d , as a very old person? What i s the energy space l i k e between you? Take a few minutes to be quiet and r e c e p t i v e to any images that may emerge spontaneously as you continue to focus your attention on your partner. Take as much time as you want to share with your partner the images which have emerged. You can share any f e e l i n g s you have about the images, but do not attempt to i n t e r p r e t them. 96 FACILITATING INTUITION Transition Techniques The purpose of these exercises i s to provide practice in a p p l y i n g what has been l e a r n e d about r e l a x a t i o n , concentration, observation, and r e c e p t i v i t y in order to learn more about an individual's private world. The idea i s to experience the fantasy s i t u a t i o n as v i v i d l y and i n as much d e t a i l as p o s s i b l e . One member of the group w i l l d e s c ribe h i s experience i n the f i r s t person i n c l u d i n g everything he thinks, sees, f e e l s , or hears. The r e s t of the group w i l l p i c t u r e what i s being described and w i l l attempt to take note of any thoughts, a s s o c i a t i o n s , or images which a r i s e f o r them while attending to you. Once the fantasy i s complete, everyone w i l l w r i t e down what they r e c a l l of t h e i r personal images, etc., and a l s o what the stimulus was that cued i t . 0 97 EXERCISE 1 Stump, Cabin Stream (Stevens, 1971) I'd l i k e you to imagine that you are a tree stump i n the mountains. Become thi s tree stump. Visualize yourself and your surroundings. Take some time to get the f e e l of being a tree stump. It might help to describe y o u r s e l f . What kind of a stump are you? What i s your shape? What kind of bark and roots do you have? Try to get i n t o the experience of being t h i s tree stump. What i s your existence as a stump? What kinds of things happen to you as a stump? Near t h i s stump there i s a cabin. I'd l i k e you now to become t h i s cabin. Flavour the experience of being t h i s cabin. What are you l i k e , what are your c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ? Explore your existence as a cabin. What do you have i n s i d e you? What happens to you? Take some time to get i n touch with what i t i s l i k e being t h i s cabin. Near the cabin i s a stream and I'd l i k e you now to become the stream. What kind of existence do you have? What kind of stream are you? How do you f e e l as a stream? What are your experiences? What are your surroundings? Now, say goodbye to the stump, cabin and stream and return to your existence here. Exercise 2 - personal dream experience Exercise 3 - personal problem experience 98 FACILITATING INFERENCE (Egan, 1975) If i t i s important to attend to s e l f as a means of i n f e r r i n g another's f e e l i n g s t a t e , then i t would be h e l p f u l to become f a m i l i a r with the ways you experience a variety of emotions and with the language with which emotions are t y p i c a l l y expressed. The purpose of the following exercises i s to help expand awareness of the words which are expressive of emotion. This vocabulary should help you to better describe your own f e e l i n g s t a t e s and consequently help you i d e n t i f y them in others. EXERCISE 1 Part 1 Becoming Familiar with the Language of Feelings 1. Group d i s c u s s i o n on the ways emotions are expressed includes: By single words: I f e e l 'ecstatic. ' By phrases: I'm 'on cloud nine'. By experential phrases (th i s describes what i s happening) I 'think he loves me.' By behavioural statements ( t h i s describes the a c t i o n you f e e l l i k e taking) I 'feel l i k e k i s sing everybody.' Note that i n the l a s t three examples, the f e e l i n g s are expressed i n d i r e c t l y . This i s the difference between feeling 99 and content. The formula becomes: I f e e l e c s t a t i c because I think he l o v e s me and I f e e l l i k e kissing everyone. Part 2 Practice Exercises 1. The group generates a l i s t of about 20 emotions. Each person then spends 15 minutes working p r i v a t e l y on expressing the emotions i n the p r e v i o u s l y l i s t e d four ways. Exercise 2 Take the l i s t of feelings generated and describe what you f e e l when you f e e l these emotions. 1. How does your body react? 2. What happens inside of you? 3. What do you f e e l l i k e doing? Exercise 3 Choose an example of one of these emotions and r e c a l l an experience where the emotion played an important part. Write a paragraph about this experience. Exercise 4 Review of the Carkhuff tape. e.g. ANXIETY Single word: Phrase: Experential statement: Behavioural statement: I I I I m nervous, m on edge. think I'm being judged, fe e l l i k e running away. 100 DISCRIMINATION OF FEELINGS AND CONTENT 1. The group i s given a handout on the d i s t i n c t i o n between the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and the communication of f e e l i n g s . Empathy i n c l u d e s the a b i l i t y to d i s c r i m i n a t e f e e l i n g s and then to describe them. Exercise 1 Part 1 The Passive Discrimination of Feelings The group i s to work on the f o l l o w i n g e x e r c i s e s which have been passed around. C i r c l e the adjectives which correctly i d e n t i f y f e e l i n g s . "I (a group t r a i n e e ) don't know what to expect from t h i s group. I've never been in a group before. I get the fee l i n g that the r e s t of you are pros, so I'm a f r a i d that I won't do what's r i g h t . I want to lear n to be a helper, but I am not sure I can do that in thi s group." This person f e e l s : a f r a i d , inadequate, uncomfortable, i n f e r i o r , h u m i l i a t e d , f o r c e f u l , moody, h e s i t a n t , s p i t e f u l , anxious, insecure, mellow. Part 2 The Passive Discrimination of Content This time c i r c l e the statement that r e f l e c t s the content of the speaker's statement. (What u n d e r l i e s the speaker's feelings.) This person f e e l s uncomfortable and inadequate because: 1. She thinks she has no talent; 2. This i s her f i r s t group experience and she doesn't know i f she's as talented as the other members; 3. She doesn't want to l e t herself down by leaving; 4. She fe e l s she's the "low man on the totem pole;" 5. But, actually, the others are just as scared as she i s ; 6. It's very important for her to succeed. 101 EXERCISE 2 Part 1 The Active Discrimination of Feelings Read the f o l l o w i n g statements and wri t e down a number of adjectives of phrases describing how the person f e e l s . Seventh grade g i r l to teacher, outside class: "My classmates don't l i k e me, and r i g h t now I don't l i k e them! Why do they have to be so mean? They make fun of me -well, at least, they make fun of my clothes. My family can't a f f o r d to buy. what those snots wear. Gee whiz, they don't have to l i k e me, but I wish they'd stop making fun of me." This person feels Part 2 The Active Discrimination of Content This person feels angry and humiliated because THE COMMUNICATION OF PRIMARY LEVEL ACCURATE EMPATHY Use the formula "you f e e l because " EXERCISE 1 Part 1 The Communication of the Understanding of Feelings Imagine yourself l i s t e n i n g to the person quoted below and try to communicate to that person your understanding of h i s or her feel i n g s . Young woman, age 23. "Jane and Sue showed up at the party i n dresses and with dates. And there I was alone, and in slacks." You f e l t 102 Part 2 The Communication of the Understanding of Content You f e l t embarrassed because Part 3 Primary Accurate Empathy (f e e l i n g and content) Law student to school counsellor "I learned yesterday that I flunked out of school and there i s no recourse. I've seen everybody, but the door i s shut t i g h t . What a mess! I have no i d e a how I ' l l f a c e my parents. They've paid for my college education and t h i s year of law school. And now I ' l l have to t e l l them that i t ' s a l l down the drain." You f e e l b e c a u s e EXERCISE 4 Experential Practice Using Personal Experiences Each student takes a turn as the c l i e n t and expresses some personal concern. The c o u n s e l l o r s p r a c t i c e responding to c l i e n t statements using primary accurate empathy. The c l i e n t responds by g i v i n g 'yes' or 'no' feedback to the counsellors who then try again. ( E x e r c i s e s adapted from Gerard Egan, E x e r c i s e s i n Helping S k i l l s , 1975.) 103 FACILITATING INTUITION / INFERENCE 1. Carkhuff tape. 2. Relaxation exercises. 3. Introduction to Concentration (breath exercises). 4. Introduction to Observation (remembering what you see). 5. I n t r o d u c t i o n to r e c e p t i v i t y (images of i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t u i t i o n , awareness of physical, emotional, and mental le v e l s of experience). 6. P r a c t i c e i n using the Carkhuff model through w r i t t e n exercises. 7. Personal experiences or dreams: Volunteers w i l l describe t h e i r s t i u a t i o n and the r e s t of the group w i l l p i c t u r e what i s happening and attempt to note their own thoughts, images or a s s o c i a t i o n s and write them down. Given the personal images the counsellors w i l l use Carkhuff's model to r e f l e c t the understanding they have of the c l i e n t ' s subjective world. 104 APPENDIX B 105 Table 7 Gain Scores, Mean Gains, Gains Squared Jones-Mohr Carkhuff Kagan Gain (Gain)^ Group 1 1 1 6 36 5 25 -2 4 -2 4 13 169 I n t u i t i o n 5 25 0 0 -8 64 3 9 4 16 4 16 N = 8 -6 36 -1 1 -4 16 4 16 -1 1 4 16 2 4 0 0 2 4 6 36 1 1 5 25 13/8 13.1 7/8 59 21/8 335 X = 1. 63 "£ = .875 1 = 2. 63 Group 2 -3 9 -1 1 4 16 -4 16 0 0 -7 49 Control -1 1 2 4 -4 16 6 36 3 9 -3 9 N = 10 1 1 -4 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 0 0 -1 1 2 4 1 1 0 0 -2 4 -1 1 1 1 2 4 2 4 0 0 2 4 2/10 70 1/10 33 -6/10 108 "X = .2 1 = .1 T = -.6 106 Table 7 (continued) Gain Scores, Mean Gains, Gains Squared Jones-Mohr Carkhuff Kagan Gain (Gain) 2 Group 3 0 0 3 9 12 144 3 9 -1 1 0 0 Combination 7 49 -7 49 4 16 4 16 1 1 10 100 N = 8 2 4 0 0 -1 1 2 4 1 1 1 1 3 9 1 1 -2 4 7 49 2 4 4 16 28/8 140 0/8 "66 28/8 282 X = 3. 5 X = 0 "X = 3.5 Group 4 5 25 3 9 -2 4 1 1 0 0 3 9 Inference 2 4 0 0 -2 4 -1 1 2 4 0 0 N = 10 -1 1 3 9 6 36 2 4 1 1 3 9 7 49 1 1 -3 9 7 49 5 25 -5 25 6 36 2 4 -4 -16 -1 1 1 1 -1 1 27/10 171 18/10 54 -5/10 113 "X = 2.7 "X = 1.8 T = -.5 107 Table 8 Data Summary Hypotheses I Inference > Control JONES-MOHR G4 JONES-MOHR G2 NX 10 10 n 27 2 ^(X 2) 171 70 x 2.7 .2 var ( s z ) * 9.317 t* 1.831 CARKHUFF G4 CARKHUFF G4 NX 10 10 18 1 1(X 2) 54 33 X 1.8 . 1 var 3.028 t 2.185 KAGAN G4 KAGAN G2 NX 10 10 -5 -6 ^(X 2) 113 108 X -.5 -.6 var 11.94 t .065 s 2 = ^ X 2 - (^ lX) 2/N 1 +^X 2 - (^X) 2/N 2 Nj_ + N 2 -2 t = - x 2 ^/s 2/N 1 + s 2/N 2 108 T a b l e d Data Summary Hypotheses I I I n t u i t i o n > C o n t r o l JONES-MOHR Gl NX f ( X 2 ) X var t 8 13 131 1.625 11.217 .897 JONES-MOHR G2 10 2 70 CARKHUFF Gl NX 1 X 9 ^ ( X 2 ) X var t 8 7 59 875 361 706 CARKHUFF 10 1 33 G2 .1 KAGAN Gl KAGAN G2 NX £ X 9 ^ ( X 2 ) X var t 8 21 335 2.625 24.017 1.387 10 -6 108 -.6 109 Table 10 Data Summary Hypotheses III NX X var t Combination > Control PART I JONES G3 8 28 140 3.5 10.848 1.139 JONES G l 8 13 131 1.625 CARKHUFF G3 NX f ( X 2 ) X var t 8 0 66 0 8.491 -.601 CARKHUFF Gl 8 7 59 .875 KAGAN G3 KAGAN Gl NX 1(X 2) X var t 8 28 282 3.5 33.134 .304 8 21 335 2.625 110 PART II Table 11 Data Summary Hypotheses III Combination > Control JONES NX ^ X 9 ^ ( X 2 ) X var t G3 8 28 140 3, 6. 2, 5 975 634 JONES G2 10 2 70 .2 CARKHUFF G3 NX 1 X 9 £(x 2) I var t 8 0 66 0 6, 181 085 CARKHUFF G2 10 1 33 .1 KAGAN G3 KAGAN G2 NX 1 X 9 £(X 2) X var t 8 28 282 3.5 18.025 2.036 10 -6 108 .6 111 Table 12 Data Summary Hypotheses III NX £ X 9 1(X 2) X var t Combination > Inference PART III JONES G3 8 28 140 3.5 8.756 .57 JONES G4 10 27 171 2.7 CARKHUFF G3 NX Kx2) X var t 8 0 66 0 5.475 -1.622 CARKHUFF G4 10 18 54 1.8 KAGAN G3 KAGAN G4 NX ^ ( X 2 ) X var t 8 28 282 3.5 18.406 1.966 10 -5 113 -.5 112 

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