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A comparison of intuitive, inferential, and intuitive-inferential methods of training empathy Demers, Toni-Lee 1984

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A COMPARISON OF I N T U I T I V E , INFERENTIAL, AND INTUITIVE-INFERENTIAL METHODS OF TRAINING EMPATHY  By TONI-LEE DEMERS B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1973  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY (Department  OF GRADUATE  of C o u n s e l l i n g  STUDIES Psychology)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  September, Q  1984  T o n i - L e e Deraers, 1984  OF  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  freely  a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  and study.  f o r extensive  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  copying o f t h i s  understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s gain s h a l l not be allowed  It i s thesis  without my  permission.  Department o f  Cou.vr\S<-\^ -^c^  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (3/81)  C D Q V D W ^  \\ ^  thesis  be granted by the head o f my  department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . for f i n a n c i a l  I further  ~Y'*>^ t V v o l c V ^  Columbia  \ 1VLJ C  r  written  ABSTRACT This  study  compares  presents  three  empathy  the r e s u l t s a g a i n s t  results  from  an  inferential  techniques  each  other  an a t home c o n t r o l group.  based on the idea t h a t empathy and  training  and a g a i n s t the The t r a i n i n g  However,  subjects from  component.  a combination  subjects  Training  testing  38 U n i v e r s i t y education  gain  not  and E n g l i s h .  Columbia (Intuition  Test,  on three measures, the  the C a r k h u f f  Discrimination  and the Kagan A f f e c t i v e S e n s i t i v i t y scores  were  calculated  f o r each  Scale.  group  and  method, and t - t e s t s were used to compare the r e s u l t s .  two of the three improve  training but  scores.  of B r i t i s h  It was found that the i n f e r e n c e t r a i n i n g on  intuitive  N = 10, C o m b i n a t i o n N = 8, C o n t r o l N = 10).  Listening Test  Average  in  of these two methods was  were p r e - and p o s t - t e s t e d  Jones-Mohr Empathy  were  psychology,  N = 8, I n f e r e n c e All  was  c o n s i s t s of both an i n t u i t i v e  expected to be s u p e r i o r i n improving empathy  students  and  was expected to improve empathy as was t r a i n i n g i n  inference.  The  methods  were  empathy  measures and that i n t u i t i o n  training did  on any of the measures.  Combination  was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t  there  inference  empathy  improved  variable  and i n t u i t i o n  when compared to the c o n t r o l ,  results  methods.  ii  when  compared  to the  Speculation thought  that  was o f f e r e d t o e x p l a i n the r e s u l t s .  the d i f f e r e n t  components of the empathy of  the  combination  explained  using  group  anecdotal  testing  methods  construct. on  the  evidence.  tapped  different  The d i s c r e p a n t Carkhuff Further  I t was  results  measure  were  research  was  recommended to c l a r i f y the r e l a t i o n of fantasy and imagery to empathy. I t was a l s o suggested control on  that i t would be important  f o r age and i n t e l l i g e n c e  empathy.  iii  to determine  their  to  effects  Joyce, Lorena,  Resa  TABLE OF CONTENTS p  ABSTRACT  i i  L I S T OF TABLES  v i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER I  CHAPTER  CHAPTER  age  II  III  viii  ESTABLISHING A FRAMEWORK  1  Introduction Statement of the Problem Background of the Problem D i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e C a r k h u f f Model P u r p o s e and I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e Study Hypotheses D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Assumptions Limitations  1 2 2 5 6 7 7 10 10  LITERATURE REVIEW  11  Introduction I l l u m i n a t i o n s from A e s t h e t i c s Lipps' Contribution B i o l o g i c a l Considerations Psychoanalytic Contributions C o n t r i b u t i o n s from S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y C o n c l u d i n g Comments T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s and Research C o n t r i b u t i o n s Subliminal Perception I m p o r t a n c e o f Imagery t o T h e r a p y Theory of C e r e b r a l L a t e r a l i t y H o l t ' s "Imagery: The R e t u r n o f t h e Ostracized"  11 11 12 13 16 19 21  METHODS AND  38  PROCEDURES  METHODS Participants Group L e a d e r s T r a i n i n g Groups Intuition Training Inference Training Combination T r a i n i n g  v  22 23 25 26 32  38 38 38 39 40 41 43  Instrumentation A f f e c t i v e S e n s i t i v i t y Scale D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Empathy Test Jones-Mohr L i s t e n i n g Test V a l i d i t y and R e l i a b i l i t y of the Measures PROCEDURES I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Research Assignment to Groups Design Analysis CHAPTER IV  RESULTS T e s t s of the Hypothesis Hypothesis Hypothesis  CHAPTER V  49 49 50 51 52 54 54 56 57 . . 59 60  Hypotheses I II III  61 61 62 62  DISCUSSION  67  Summary Review of the R e s u l t s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of R e s u l t s Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research Concluding Comments Implications f o r Counsellor Training  67 69 71 75 75 75  REFERENCES  78  APPENDIX A  82  APPENDIX B  105  vi  LIST OF TABLES p  TABLE  1.  Training  TABLE  2.  TABLE  Session  age  I  45  T r a i n i n g Session  II  46  3.  T r a i n i n g Session  III  47  TABLE  4.  T r a i n i n g Session  IV  TABLE  5.  Design  58  TABLE  6.  T-Score Summary  63  TABLE  7.  Computation  TABLE  8.  Data Summary  [Inference  > control]  108  TABLE  9.  Data Summary  [Intuition  > control]  109  TABLE  10.  Data Summary  [Combination > i n t u i t i o n ]  TABLE  11.  Data Summary  [Combination > c o n t r o l ]  TABLE  12.  Data Summary [Combination > i n f e r e n c e ]  .  Summary  vii  48  106  .. 110 ... I l l .. 112  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I e x t e n d my contributed  g r a t i t u d e to the  Dr.  D. A l l i s o n ,  support, and To and  to Dr. R. T o l s m a , C h a i r m a n of  whose i n t e r e s t i n imaging  which t h i s p r o j e c t grew. and  my  provided  the  idea  my  from  I a l s o wish to thank Dr. L. Woolsey committee  members, f o r t h e i r  help,  encouragement.  a l l t h o s e s t u d e n t s who  to a l l t h o s e p r o f e s s o r s ,  helped  have  to the completion of t h i s t h e s i s .  S p e c i a l thanks are due committee,  many i n d i v i d u a l s who  solicit  subjects  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the notably  for  the  Dr.  research  Peggy Brown,  project,  I am  who  truly  grateful. Finally,  I  wish  to  express  my  Brownlee f o r h i s help  and  to Diane S y l v e s t e r who  l e d the v a r i o u s  appreciation  encouragement  viii  with  to  David  statistics  t r a i n i n g groups.  and  CHAPTER I  ESTABLISHING A FRAMEWORK  Introduction Empathy i s g e n e r a l l y and somewhat l o o s e l y taken to r e f e r to n o n v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n and to the a p p r e h e n s i o n of i n n e r e m o t i o n a l s t a t e s . I t s u g g e s t s a somewhat odd and elusive s k i l l , a d i v i n a t o r y a r t , a s i x t h sense, an i n s t i n c t i v e and p r i m i t i v e form of p e n e t r a t i n g to the core of a n o t h e r p e r s o n ( K a t z , 1963, p. 1). Since it  has  Freud  been  predicated  and  assumed upon  empathize  with  Carkhuff,  1963;  1967;  Kagan,  and  dissertations played  by  of t h e i r  the  the  beginnings that  client's and  1967).  from  subjective  Hundreds  have appeared  of  effectiveness to  Due  the p r o p o s a l that components  (Truax  books,  articles  the c r i t i c a l  training  process, f u r t h e r following  as  1979).  Allport  that "the theory of empathy i s a p e c u l i a r  1  role  one  importance  research i n t o study evolved  the empathy c o n s t r u c t c o n s i s t s of  (Goodyear,  and  Consequently,  to the apparent  The  and  Rogers et a l . ,  i n the t h e r a p e u t i c context.  requirements.  is  accurately  world  education programs s t r e s s empathy  basic  psychotherapy,  1971;  emphasizing  components seems necessary.  separate  formal  ability  Mitchell,  of empathy i n the c o u n s e l l i n g its  of  counselling  therapist's  Traux  empathy  counsellor  the  two  (1937) s t a t e s  blend, and  must i n  fact  be  theory given  regarded of  both  as  a  theory  depending  intuition,  of  i n f e r e n c e and  somewhat  on  as  a  the c o l o u r i n g  d i f f e r e n t authors."  i t by  Statement of the Problem In  counsellor  primarily while  training  by s t r e n g t h e n i n g  instruction neglected.  client's  s u b j e c t i v e world,  whichever  skills  the  i n the  largely  programs,  skills  In o r d e r  are  skills  empathy  is  of i n f e r e n t i a l  of i n t u i t i v e  taught empathy  empathy  to m a x i m i z e s e n s i t i v i t y  are to a  a c o u n s e l l o r should have access to  most  appropriate  to  the  client's  immediate needs.  Background of the Problem Some c o n t r o v e r s y the  empathy  evaluated  e x i s t s as to the a c t u a l i m p o r t a n c e of  construct.  the  literature  Two on  G l a d s t e i n (1977) c o n c l u d e d empathy  may  evidence  to support  that  be  educators  empathy  their  empathy  empathy  and  have  there  i s as  beliefs.  reviewed  yet  the p r o p o n e n t s of little  As a r e s u l t ,  Lambert,  i s only  modestly  2  and  suggests  the r o l e of  D e J u l i o , and  r e g a r d i n g the  supported  empirical he  be more c a u t i o u s i n e m p h a s i z i n g  that the hypothesis  and  c o u n s e l l i n g outcome.  that although  in counsellor training.  (1978) concluded of  correct,  articles  that  Stein  importance  the  efficacy  of yet  the  popular  been The  interpersonal s k i l l s  inconclusiveness  across  by  It  exploring (1977),  a  which  this  more  becomes  type  of  the  be  outcomes  meaningless  because  of  empathy,  different  outcome  each  study  is  According  "which  to  type  instrument  of  for  actually Gladstein  empathy  which  type  is of  as t o w h e t h e r o r n o t e m p a t h y i s  empathy  of  the  of the  psychoanalytic  than  training not  i n the  a t t i t u d e s and  do  the  school  advocates  technologies. goals  of  listening  The  empathy, styles  of  of  but the  therapists. is  to  an  the  obstacles  empathic  imaginative  psychoanalytic preventing  experience  Aladdin's  emerges  not  Comparing  and  differently  becomes a p p a r e n t  Empathy  An  problem  i n terms  according  f i n d i n g s may  definitions  variable.  Supporters  recent  difference  various  has  outcome?"(p.77).  a trainable skill.  individual  be  that  There i s a l s o controversy  approach  research  empathy,  possible  question  by  counselling  is  may  different  of  separate  the  measured  use  measures  criteria.  these  studies  studies  different  of  several possible factors.  different  different  rather  models  demonstrated.  explained  the  training  lamp  of  when c o n d i t i o n s a r e  writers,  its activity  cannot the  activity  be  conjured  imagination, ripe.  3  The  and by  is  activated  eliminating  (Assagioli, at but  will  by  rather  the  1965). rubbing empathy  t h e r a p i s t prepares  for  '  the  experience  by l e a r n i n g to suspend  to r e l a x s e l f - c o n t r o l . therapist  operating  rational  judgment and  T h i s i s termed i n t u i t i v e i n an  intuitive  mode  empathy.  would  A  assume  a r e c e p t i v e a t t i t u d e and i n a s t a t e of easy and i m p a r t i a l attention, seek  without  forced concentration,  t o be a c h a n n e l  presents  i s taken  simultaneously  through  which  the t h e r a p i s t would  whatever  i n and i n t e g r a t e d  the c l i e n t  with  a r i s i n g w i t h i n the t h e r a p i s t .  what i s  T h i s happens  through f a n t a s y and imagery. C a r k h u f f , on t h e o t h e r program by  which  rating  of  teaches  their  five-point  counsellors  various  scales.  hand, has d e v e l o p e d t o be  a training  more  empathic  c o u n s e l l i n g responses on a v a r i e t y Empathizers  learn  a counselling  formula: 1) 2) 3)  l i s t e n c a r e f u l l y to the c l i e n t ' s words; determine how you might f e e l i n a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n ; f o r m u l a t e a response a c c o r d i n g to the p a t t e r n : "You feel because, and you'd l i k e to ."  Carkhuff's  approach  demonstrates a d i s c i p l i n e d  a t t e n t i o n to t h e c l i e n t . than  with  empathy."  I t deals with a b s t r a c t i o n s rather  immediate experience.  T h i s i s termed  carefully  to c l i e n t  reasoning  Holmes of t h e mind.  the c l i e n t .  mode would  By a t t e n d i n g  v e r b a l i z a t i o n s and by then  process  using  a  he/she would hope to make sense  from the d i s p a r a t e p i e c e s of the puzzle by  "inferential  A t h e r a p i s t o p e r a t i n g i n an i n f e r e n t i a l  be a c t i n g l i k e a S h e r l o c k  logical  and conscious  presented  to him/her  D i f f i c u l t i e s with the Carkhuff  Model  The C a r k h u f f model i s a t t r a c t i v e i n t h a t i t a l l o w s f o r an a n a l y s i s of the g a i n s t r a i n e e s make i n t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n of the  various  basis  counselling skills.  for therapist  should  not  Carkhuff's  be  accountability,  understated.  focus on s k i l l  At  contributions.  his/her  energies  repertoire the  leaves  on  the  importance same  time  which might a r i s e  Having  the  developing  little  phenomenological  the  of  an  therapist  however,  from  danger l i e s i n t h a t the  of e i t h e r  concentrate  extensive  skills  self  of  more  response  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r him/her to focus  life  a  which  a c q u i s i t i o n c r e a t e s a technology  h e l p i n g which c l o u d s i n s i g h t s dynamic  It therefore provides  or  client.  model might a c t u a l l y  on The  train  t h e r a p i s t s to i g n o r e one of the most p o t e n t t o o l s they have the a b i l i t y to become aware of the array of f e e l i n g s in  the s e l f t h r o u g h  skills  are  being  essential  but  with  the c l i e n t .  Good  i t seems i m p o r t a n t  grounded on the t h e r a p i s t ' s knowledge of s e l f , of  the i n t e r a c t i o n between the two.  inference  and  intuition  The  aroused  therapist  t h a t they of c l i e n t  be and  s u b t l e b l e n d i n g of  that i s r e q u i r e d i n the ebb  and  flow  of t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r a c t i o n i s not suggested  by a s k i l l s model  alone.  1972)  (See The  Counselling Psychologist,  5  Purpose  and  The  Importance  intent  empathy  of t h i s  training  against  each  control  group.  Because models  and  provide Egan termed  been  a training and  second  consistent  against  compare  on  the  purpose  work  of  empathic  results  ability,  by  to  that  removing  the  This were  was  fusion  was  termed  was  sensitivity,  i s most of t h e  effective inference  indicate  1970),  that  that  its  empathy  The  a  scores  i n only  mode would  the  on the  limit  group,  underlying  when he/she and  group."  empathy  third  is  functioning  as f u n c t i o n i n g  the i n t u i t i v e  presented.  which  the " i n t u i t i o n  to improve  However,  empathic group,  This  e x p e r i e n c e s a r e an a i d t o  obstacles  expected  measures.  a therapist  a working  relaxation  mode or i n o n l y  therapist's  d e v e l o p e d by  (Lesh,  achieved  combination  and  research  and  inferential  to  training experience  u n d e r s t a n d i n g , ( F r a n k , 1977)  post-test  (Lambert,  Carkhuff.  empathic  the  training  s t u d y was  exercises  fantasy,  methods  at-home  skills  of t h i s  imagery,  Both  an  demonstrated,  p r e s e n t e d an empathy  improves  1965).  results  group."  w i t h the r e c e n t  (Assagioli,  different  the  from  of the i n t e r p e r s o n a l  1 9 7 8 ) , one  based  three  the r e s u l t s  experience using  group  meditation  to  consistently  the " i n f e r e n c e  The  that  and  Stein,  (1975)  to p r e s e n t  e x p e r i e n c e s and  other  not  Study  s t u d y was  the e f f i c a c y  has  DeJulio,  of the  a  the  theme  was  has d e v e l o p e d  intuitive  modes  such t h a t one i s , a t one t i m e , the background  music  f o r the  other and v i c e versa.  Hypotheses 1.  C o u n s e l l o r s t r a i n e d using i n f e r e n t i a l empathy techniques over an eight-hour t r a i n i n g period w i l l develop a higher degree of empathy than a n o - t r a i n i n g c o n t r o l group.  2.  C o u n s e l l o r s t r a i n e d u s i n g i n t u i t i v e empathy t e c h n i q u e s over an eight-hour t r a i n i n g period w i l l develop a higher degree of empathy than a n o - t r a i n i n g c o n t r o l group.  3.  C o u n s e l l o r s t r a i n e d u s i n g both the i n f e r e n t i a l and the i n t u i t i v e t r a i n i n g techniques over an eight-hour t r a i n i n g p e r i o d w i l l d e v e l o p a h i g h e r degree of empathy than any group alone.  Null  Hypothesis There i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n empathy outcome f o r the four groups r e g a r d l e s s of the empathy t r a i n i n g procedure used as measured by: a) the Jones-Mohr L i s t e n i n g Test b) the Kagan A f f e c t i v e S e n s i t i v i t y S c a l e c) the Carkhuff D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Empathy Test  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Empathy  i s a complex  clarification research. cognitive  of  and  i t s nature  many-faceted i s necessary  concept to  and  meaningful  I t i n v o l v e s , not o n l y the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of both and  communication  affective  of that  information,  understanding  7  but  to the c l i e n t .  also  the  Part of  the c o n f u s i o n around  definitions  of empathy seems to stem  from the f a c t that empathy i s v a r i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d with e i t h e r the  therapist's  involvement emphasizing it  is  of of  as the  will  that  empathizer  empathy  factor.  For  or h i s  aspect of empathy,  accurate  cannot  be  therapists  (Dymond,  prediction  of  measured.  are The  of  the  chief  another's  opinion  that  criterion  for  empathy i s the t e s t i m o n y of the c l i e n t .  have been  conducted,  such as palmar assess of  Many  involvement  effective  however,  1949),  skill.  m a i n t a i n that the emotional i s important  emotional  those  provide the evidence of empathic  the t h e r a p i s t s who the  understanding  crucial  the c o g n i t i v e  assumed  behaviour  cognitive  using p h y s i o l o g i c a l  Studies responses  sweating and v a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n i n an attempt  the degree  the o b s e r v e d  of s i m i l a r i t y and  that  between the  emotional  of the o b s e r v e r ( S t o t l a n d  to  state  et a l . ,  1978). I t would seem though exclusively domain.  The  within  t h a t no d e f i n i t i o n of empathy  either  definition  the c o g n i t i v e  or  the  lies  affective  of empathy formulated by Reik (1949)  p r o v i d e s a s y n t h e s i s of the c o g n i t i v e , i n c l u d i n g the s k i l l s of  i n f e r e n c e and  empathy. 1.  intuition,  and  the a f f e c t i v e  components of  He d e s c r i b e s the process:  Identification T h r o u g h r e l a x i n g c o n s c i o u s c o n t r o l and by e n g a g i n g i n f a n t a s y , the t h e r a p i s t can l o s e h i s s e l f - a w a r e n e s s and become absorbed i n contemplating the other person and h i s 8  experiences. 2.  Incorporation The therapist, through i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n c o r p o r a t e the c l i e n t ' s experience and f e e l were h i s own.  3.  i s able to i t as i f i t  Reverberation What the t h e r a p i s t has i n c o r p o r a t e d echoes on some part of h i s own experience. There i s an i n t e r p l a y between the i n t e r n a l i z e d f e e l i n g s of another and the t h e r a p i s t ' s own experience and f a n t a s y . Self-knowledge i s sharpened and w i t h t h i s comes an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what the o t h e r feels.  A.  Detachment The t h e r a p i s t withdraws from i n t u i t i v e involvement and uses the methods of i n f e r e n c e to analyze h i s i n s i g h t .  Terms used i n t h i s study were d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : Empathy The a b i l i t y to r e c o g n i z e and then to d e s c r i b e the f e e l i n g s t a t e and p r i v a t e meanings of another's e x p e r i e n c e . Cognition The a b i l i t y of the c o u n s e l l o r to p e r c e i v e another's frame of r e f e r e n c e (Goodyear, 1979). Inference A c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s where c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a g e n e r a l c l a s s a r e a t t r i b u t e d t o an i n d i v i d u a l t a k e n as an i n s t a n c e of the c l a s s (Goodyear, 1979). Intuition A n o n - l o g i c a l , g e n e r a l l y unconscious form of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g i n which m a t e r i a l often erupts into consciousness i n a ready-to-use form (Goodyear, 1979).  9  Image Any t h o u g h t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t has a s e n s o r y I t may i n v o l v e s e e i n g , h e a r i n g , smelling, touching or moving (Richardson, 1969).  quality. tasting,  Assumptions In t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i t was assumed t h a t : 1)  E m p a t h y c o n s i s t s o f an a f f e c t i v e and a c o g n i t i v e component. C o g n i t i o n i n c l u d e s the s k i l l s of i n f e r e n c e and i n t u i t i o n .  2)  Empathy i s e s s e n t i a l to p o s i t i v e therapy  3)  Empathy and i n t u i t i o n are r e l a t e d .  4)  Carkhuff  5)  Empathy can be measured.  6)  The i n s t r u m e n t s empathy.  7)  Empathy can be t r a i n e d .  8)  Group empathy s c o r e s a c r o s s groups were s i m i l a r on the pre-tests. T h i s a s s u m p t i o n was c h e c k e d by a n a l y s i s of the p r e - t e s t .  outcome.  training i s inferential.  used  were r e l i a b l e  and v a l i d  measures of  Limitations T h i s study  was l i m i t e d  by s e v e r a l f a c t o r s :  1)  The sample s i z e was s m a l l and t h i s a f f e c t e d g e n e r a l i z ability.  2)  S u b j e c t s were v o l u n t e e r s and were not randomly chosen from the p o p u l a t i o n . As w e l l , s u b j e c t s were not randomly a s s i g n e d t o groups as t h e r e were o n l y enough v o l u n t e e r s to run one group at a time.  3)  B e c a u s e i t was a p r e - t e s t / p o s t - t e s t d e s i g n , t h e r e have been a t r a i n i n g e f f e c t from the p r e - t e s t i n g .  10  may  CHAPTER I I LITERATURE REVIEW  Introduction Empathy i s both a f a s c i n a t i n g and p u z z l i n g Despite  abundant t h e o r i z i n g and d e f i n i n g ,  of empathy r e m a i n s ambiguous. accepted role  definition  empathy  plays  of other  i n an  also  many-faceted concept.  encounter  much r e l e v a n t  of empathy, a v a r i e t y  i l l u m i n a t e subtle  aspects  of t h i s  The f o l l o w i n g r e v i e w f o c u s e s  of a e s t h e t i c s , b i o l o g y ,  psychology.  commonly  between i n d i v i d u a l s .  has p r o v i d e d  c o n t r i b u t i o n s to an understanding fields  nature  and no p a r t i c u l a r agreement as t o the  i n t o the meaning and o p e r a t i o n disciplines  the p r e c i s e  T h e r e i s as y e t no  Although psychotherapy research insight  phenomenon.  on the  of empathy provided psychoanalysis,  by the  and  social  A t h o r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n of each a r e a i s p r o v i d e d  by K a t z (1973). •I I l l u m i n a t i o n s from A e s t h e t i c The  German p s y c h o l o g i s t L i p p s , i n 1897, c o i n e d  " E i n f u l u n g " to d e s c r i b e whereby with  Empathy  the observer  the process  lost  of a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n  self-awareness  the work of a r t he c o n t e m p l a t e d .  11  the term  and seemed Titchner  to fuse  introduced  the  word "empathy" as  term (Bucheimer,  Lipps'  the  original  Contribution  several aspects formulations "feel  the  of " E i n f u l u n g " h e l p s  of the c o n c e p t ( K a t z ,  might be d e s c r i b e d  into"  power of the of  of the  1963).  Lipps' understanding  to  English equivalent  the  object.  imagination,  empathic  empathy  that  outlined  i n four  experience  is entirely  1963). The  as the a b i l i t y  Lipps'  to e l u c i d a t e  theory  key  to h i s  of the  subject  emphasizes  i t underscores the motor and  i t demonstrates an  projective.  His  the  character aspect  theory  can  of be  stages:  a)  an i n d i v i d u a l i s s t i m u l a t e d  b)  he/she a u t o m a t i c a l l y and unconsciously responds by i m i t a t i n g the o b j e c t w i t h h i s / h e r i m a g i n a t i o n and w i t h h i s / h e r muscles.  c)  he/she p r o j e c t s h i m / h e r s e l f i n t o the o b j e c t no l o n g e r aware of h i s / h e r inner i m i t a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s and i n s t e a d a t t r i b u t e s them to the object he/she contemplates.  d)  he/she t h u s e x p e r i e n c e s become the o b j e c t . Aesthetic  coalescing  empathy  various  i n d i v i d u a l enters tense as  by an e x t e r n a l  the  in operation  instances  can  described  as  be  i f he/she  had  illustrated  by  by K a t z (1973).  An  a b e a u t i f u l c a t h e d r a l . Neck m u s c l e s grow  he/she gazes upwards and  of r i s i n g .  object  cue.  this  creates  the  As w e l l , the c h e s t m u s c l e s expand thus  12  sensation allowing  him/her a r e l e a s e from t e n s i o n . describes  the  inspiration, building  church  and  object.  The  t h a t has become p r o j e c t e d underlying  similarity  similarity  i s cued  automatic of  the  as r e a l .  subject  and  object  cornerstone  awe,  The  concept  i s a facet  of  there  is a  When the  stimulus,  explains  the i d e n t i t y  onto an i n a n i m a t e  and object.  onto the o b j e c t  derived  from  of the e m p a t h i c  the  inner  and, i n t h i s way, the  mechanics  of  of the observer similarity  of empathy  forms  the f i e l d  skill  of b i o l o g y  (Katz,  behaviour to the empathic  capacity  approach  the  the the  approach.  1963).  centre This  on the  approach  to imagine and  to v i s u a l i z e . I t a l s o d i r e c t s a t t e n t i o n to the r e l e v a n c e  the  is  to that  between  which  h i g h l i g h t s the importance of the a b i l i t y  nonverbal  an  Considerations  Insights  again  of  reflects  i s that  external  of the b i o l o g i c a l  Biological  origin  an  This  t r a n s f e r from  observed.  assumption  between s u b j e c t  by  i s projected  experienced  Feelings  Each of t h e s e i n s t a n c e s  fundamental  activity  expansive.  beauty are tapped and are a t t r i b u t e d to the  structures.  inner a c t i v i t y  as  Consequently, the i n d i v i d u a l  to i m i t a t e i s r e l a t e d .  demonstrates key  the  aspects  phrase  endeavour  and  As w e l l , the of  empathy the  how  biological which  introjective.  The  contributions  to an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the e m p a t h i c 13  epitomizing  shows  of  are  biological process  might be that of " i n s t i n c t i v e r e v e r b e r a t i o n . " The  origin  capacity,  of empathy  best  primordial  termed  empathy  i s p o s t u l a t e d as an autonomous  p r i m o r d i a l empathy. The c o n c e p t  i s explained  humanity evolved from a s i n g l e The  ability  another's born.  to  is a  and  thus  capacity with  to a p a r t i c u l a r  sense  i n h e r e n t p a r t of human n a t u r e . another's  emotions  Understanding experience. similarity primitive  to  understand  which humans a r e  i s t h e common  i s , therefore, Because  between resonance.  us r e s o n a t e s  of  this  people,  other  developed  human  organ,  but which i s an  The b a s i s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g biological  of  fundamental  When we respond  can be  even  different  though  viewed  to someone,  patterns  may  have  f o r each.  The  the pauper and v i c e v e r s a .  imaginative s k i l l  which makes t h i s understanding  we can v i s u a l i z e  the e x p e r i e n c e  o u r s e l v e s the b i o l o g i c a l  this  f o r e i g n to  experiences  of c h a r a c t e r  as a  something From  can be e n t i r e l y life  similar  biological  to the same c o r e i n the o t h e r .  p r i n c e can u n d e r s t a n d  within  endowment.  independent  empathy  p o i n t of view no human b e h a v i o u r any  a l l of  I t i s an i m a g i n a t i v e and i n t u i t i v e f u n c t i o n t h a t i s  not c o n n e c t e d  in  that  source.  visualize  experience  by the view  of  I t i s the  p o s s i b l e and  of o t h e r s because we have potentiality  f o r the same  experience. Biology  contends  that  humans 14  are s i m i l a r  because  originally  they  Evolution  has  original  were  part  provided  genetic  of  the  same  separateness,  u n i t y has  larger  but  been r e t a i n e d .  whole.  much  of  the  T h i s means t h a t  u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n o t h e r i s r e c a l l i n g s o m e t h i n g t h a t was  once  known. Part  of  the  genetic  endowment, which  p o s s i b l e , i s the a c t u a l p h y s i c a l and body.  This  systems  and  aspect to  makes  sensory s t r u c t u r e of  of empathy i s r e l a t e d to  nonverbal  empathy  behaviour.  For  the  communication  example,  i t is  commonly known that animals have a wide v a r i e t y of cues which make i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n  and  communication  have the  same s e n s i t i v i t i e s ,  maturity  and  nonverbal  socialization.  communication  systems more f u l l y example, manner  reminiscent  The  preserved  of  that  i s conveyed  by  Nonverbal  Another part  of  of the  and  i n the lower animal forms.  of an  the  peacock.  appropriate  his  can  i n an  erect  Approval  shaking  reveal  For  or  of  the  and  its  discrepancies  system i s the  tendency expression  e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e of  Although t h i s 15  of  feelings.  communication  T h i s a c t evokes the  animal i n i t s e l f .  with  communication  animal to i m i t a t e the gesture or emotional  of a n o t h e r . other  vestiges  behaviour  between a person's words and  one  be  intuition  beauty of t h i s language i s i t s r e l i a b i l i t y  universality.  for  I n s t a n c e s of  may  Humans  many have a t r o p h i e d  p r i d e i s communicated by r a i s i n g oneself  disapproval head.  but  possible.  tendency  is  the  strongest  in  such a n i m a l s  humans.  It  individuals identity  is  as  b i r d s and  seen  clearly  t r y out  of  the  fish, in  i t i s also present  playful  the p a r t s of others. Being  person  thus  imitated  psychoanalytic  concept of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  Psychoanalytic  Contributions  The (Katz,  biological 1963).  On  background  i m p o r t a n c e of c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e . to e s t a b l i s h  concept  introduced  he  of sameness with  by  through  Freud  feeling  describes  these  activity  his  various  apparent  that  elements  and  or  others,  the is a  provides  on the  Identification  imitation  with  of r e g r e s s i o n . and  the  formulations  of sameness t h a t  being  the  acknowledges  p e r s o n to comprehend a n o t h e r .  related  to  Identification,  i n v o l v e s the e l e m e n t s of i n t r o j e c t i o n closely  linked  a feeling  empathy. I t i s t h i s b a s i s f o r one  is  where  wrapped i n the  b a s i s of Freud's work i s r e a d i l y this  ability  imitation  in  postulates  a  Freud their  functions. For  example,  component attempt  of the  to  interpreted instinct. attempts  take by This  the  ability  ability  as  instinct  to i n c o r p o r a t e  introject  to i d e n t i f y .  possession Freud  to  a  of an  first  o b j e c t s by  16  of  necessary  Introjection  object  remnant  is a  and, the  appears devouring  as  i s an  such,  is  cannibalistic  when them.  an  infant Once  the  child  learns  to enjoy  he/she has moved from introjection. tendency  objects without  physical assimilation  Psychological  introjection  eating  to p s y c h o l o g i c a l appears  unconscious  w i t h i n c o r p o r a t i o n i s i m i t a t i o n , an  and i m a g i n a t i v e  to mimic develops  mimicking  early  of a n o t h e r .  that  imitation  a path  leads  to empathy.  the d e s i r e to resemble ability  from  form  The i m p e t u s another.  of r e t r o a c t i v e  have p e r s i s t e d  by way of  to mimic i s p r o v i d e d by  to r e g r e s s i s r e l a t e d  person's a b i l i t y  F r e u d (1921)  identification  to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  process and i s an important aspect of empathy. a  The  i n i n f a n c y and forms another  i m p o r t a n t l i n k i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s .  The  i n the  personality.  Closely associated  states  them  f o r one i n d i v i d u a l to i n c o r p o r a t e c e r t a i n aspects of  another's  ability  these  identification  to s l i p  into earlier  i n the unconscious.  Regression i s  which  describes a  identifications  There  are many  that  varieties  of r e g r e s s i o n both p o s i t i v e and negative, but the t r i g g e r f o r such an experience always  appears  or to r e - e x p e r i e n c e something For  Freud,  to be the d e s i r e to recover  that has been  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  process  lost. i s instinctive.  Humans a r e c o m p e l l e d t o i d e n t i f y i n o r d e r t o meet t h e needs to  consume  and t o p o s s e s s ,  i n order  to defend  against  s t r o n g e r f i g u r e s and i n o r d e r to r e c o v e r what they once had in  an e a r l i e r  existence.  On the one hand,  17  identification  h e l p s the i n d i v i d u a l to a c h i e v e a sense  of s e l f and, on the  o t h e r hand, h e l p s to s t a v e o f f the a n x i e t y of dependence, weakness child  and l o n e l i n e s s .  To g i v e an example, c o n s i d e r the  i n r e l a t i o n to the a d u l t .  weakness  H i s / h e r p o s i t i o n i s one of  and h e l p l e s s n e s s i n comparison to the s t r e n g t h and  authority inferior  of  the  feelings,  parent.  In  order  to  overcome  the c h i l d  makes h i m / h e r s e l f as s i m i l a r to  the a d u l t as p o s s i b l e .  He/she does t h i s t h r o u g h  He/she  the  incorporates  him/herself Positive provide  i n the  adult's  the  basis  f o r being  This  in identifying  able  I t a l l o w s a person  to  see  imitation. by  putting  is  empathy.  with  from  others  another's  to l e a r n to be s e n s i t i v e  both the needs of s e l f and to the needs of o t h e r s .  people, i n a d u l t l i f e , thus  easily  experience to  strength  position.  childhood experiences  vantage p o i n t . to  adult's  his/her  empathize  may  be e i t h e r  These p e o p l e  others.  Early  too s t r i c t l y  guarded or too e a s i l y  in adult l i f e  have d i f f i c u l t y  will  will  be capable  his/her  with  d i s r u p t the process causing the ego  therapist thus  have f l e x i b l e ego b o u n d a r i e s  h o p e f u l l y have f l e x i b l e of making a " t r i a l  patient.  18  These and can  traumatic boundaries muddied.  empathizing.  ego b o u n d a r i e s identification"  A  and with  C o n t r i b u t i o n s from S o c i a l  Psychology  C o n t r a s t i n g and b a l a n c i n g the e m o t i o n a l , l a r g e l y unconscious  aspects of empathy  H. Mead and the s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s .  i s the work of George Empathy  i n Mead's v e r n a c u l a r , a l t h o u g h he a t t e m p t e d same p r o c e s s as d i d F r e u d and L i p p s . emphasis  on  the  theorists  the importance the  He chose to p l a c e h i s  concentrated  aspects.  aspects  ideas about empathy  H i s theory  empathy  experience  as a b i o l o g i c a l  the  whereas most on  demonstrates  of the p r o c e s s .  as s o c i a l  and  primarily  of the i m a g i n a t i o n to empathy  projective  emphasizing  to d e s c r i b e the  components of empathy,  had  emotional/intuitive  was not a word  cognitive/intellectual  social/interpersonal other  i n t u i t i v e and  and  the again  underscores  Combining  Mead's  with those t h e o r i e s  endowment p r o v i d e s a  f a i r l y complete p i c t u r e of empathy as both a c o g n i t i v e and an affective  process.  Mead  d i s c u s s e s communication  i n t r o d u c e s empathy i n the guise of experimental Mead  (1934)  defines  role  process by which one person another. in  The a c t i v i t y  the c o n t e x t  a l l o w s a person experience  others  i s used  a  communication  i s i n t e r n a l and i m a g i n a t i v e and emerges  of s o c i a l  experience.  to d e v e l o p  gleaned  as  role taking.  p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the experience of  a sense  r e q u i r e d i n order  Information  taking  theory and  from  to help  Role  taking  of s e l f and p r o v i d e s the  to a d j u s t that s e l f  projecting  into  the i n d i v i d u a l 19  ability  to s o c i e t y .  the p o s i t i o n of  plan  a c t i o n s , make  d e c i s i o n s and process  solve problems.  of i m a g i n a t i v e  The  question  r o l e taking provide  the  techniques  for self-adjustment?  The  has  been termed m i r r o r image psychology.  i s how  does the  the p e r s o n  answer l i e s  with  i n what  A person i s able  a n t i c i p a t e the r e s p o n s e s of a n o t h e r to h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f then a d j u s t able  to  project  then view point  behaviour a c c o r d i n g l y ,  himself/herself  h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f from  also allows  imagination any  his/her  the  into that  to and  because he/she i s  another's position.  position This  and  vantage  i n d i v i d u a l to e x p e r i m e n t i n h i s / h e r  with the v a r i e t y of ways another could respond to  activity  individual's  he/she  might  personality  contemplate.  becomes  a  images of h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f which he  effect,  composite  or she  through the eyes of v a r i o u s peoples.  In  has  of  seen  an  a l l the reflected  Were the i n d i v i d u a l not  a b l e to t a k e the r o l e o f o t h e r s , he/she would never d e v e l o p any  sense of a separate  feedback  that  existence  allows  him/her  and to  would never r e c e i v e control  his/her  the own  behaviour. From the s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l p o i n t of view empathy i s c l e a r l y an a d a p t i v e the  psychoanalytic  On  the one  as  a rehearsal  process. model  This i s in strong  where empathy  hand, empathy i s a c o o p e r a t i v e for appropriate  other  hand, empathy i s a process  order  to p r o t e c t the  self. 20  contrast  i s clearly activity  to  reactive. engaged i n  b e h a v i o u r , whereas, on engaged i n i n s t i n c t i v e l y  the in  The s t a g e i s s e t f o r r o l e t a k i n g when the c h i l d b e g i n s to mimic the p a r e n t s .  The l o n g dependent r e l a t i o n s h i p  ample o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r o l e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . child  G r a d u a l l y the  l e a r n s the meaning of a number of a r o l e s .  he/she assumes h i s / h e r own r o l e while remaining roles  of other  Role the  Eventually aware of the  people.  t a k i n g i s the method by which the c h i l d a s s i m i l a t e s  i m a g e s and s y m b o l s  developed  shares  individuals. connects  of t h e c u l t u r e .  a common  frame  I t i s language  people.  others hear mean  The s e l f  of r e f e r e n c e  which  forms  the bridge  F o r example, when we hear  them we are able to understand  to the other  person.  We  know  how  this  sense  is a skill  r a t h e r than a s k i l l  other that  words the way  what those  words  the other  feels  i n the communication  i n sensing the d i f f u s e  that i s  with  because the words would have a s i m i l a r e f f e c t on us. in  allows  Empathy  of i d e a s ,  emotional  s t a t e of  another.  Concluding In  Comments  t h e sea of s e m a n t i c  definitions commonality. ability  of empathy, Most  there appears  definitions  of t h e e m p a t h i z e r  affective  state  confusion  have  as t h e i r  Following  21  the  t o be an i s l a n d of  to be aware  of a n o t h e r .  surrounding  core,  the  of the i m m e d i a t e a r e the keywords  associated  with  disciplines. as  the  In the  ability  Biology  of  provides  "instinctive biological considers finally, role  empathy from the point of view of the field the an  of a e s t h e t i c s , empathy i s regarded  subject  to  reverberation."  the  "feel  understanding  viewpoint  is  Closely  that  of  the  object.  empathy  connected  through with  psychoanalysis  the  which  c r u x of empathy to be " i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . "  social  psychology  v i e w s the  ability  And  to "take  the  of the other" as c r u c i a l f o r the development of empathy.  expresses  nonverbal  communication. related  to an  nonverbal itself  The  and  literature  instinct  cues and  that  the  the  inferential  suggest  this  of  that  species  intuitive  and  ability  is  for recognizing  flash  Switzer,  the  part  capacities for  whole of empathy. thinking  because i n l a r g e  nonrational  common to the  i n p i c t u r e s (Singer  however, not and  into"  of  Empathy seems a mysterious a b i l i t y it  various  often  1980).  manifests  Intuition i s ,  Without the i n t e r p r e t i v e  therapist,  not c r y s t a l l i z e i n t o i n s i g h t s that can  intuitions  would  be communicated to  the  client.  Theoretical Considerations For the  Research  the p u r p o s e s of t h i s s t u d y ,  ability  feeling  and  to  state  experience.  recognize and  the  Intuition  and  was 22  empathy was  then  private the  Contributions  to  describe  meanings  defined both  as the  of  another's  therapist's  seemingly  immediate awareness of t h i s knowledge. In  attempting  authors there  such as  can  be  experience Horowitz of  to  gain  Berne  a  this  (1949) and  connection  and  the  For  of  elicit  children,"  squelched  by  a  might  gigantic  d i m e n s i o n t h a t i s not The  can  aspect  of  the  The  the  image mode  symbolic  image of This  therapist's  client's  perception.  awarenesss  and  private  meanings track  a child  picture  being  adds  a  communication.  image may world.  represent  The  therapist  hunch.  1979), and  exposed  be c o n n e c t e d  continually  with  bombarded by  a  which are never b r o u g h t to c o n s c i o u s therefore,  phenomenon may  behaviour  increasingly  images may  People are  which,  This  hunch ( T a y l o r , nonverbal  an  Perception  wide range of s t i m u l i  assessed.  the  personal fantasies.  between  and  that  and  p r e s e n t i n the v e r b a l  trigger for therapist  subliminal  images  thumb.  then communicate h i s / h e r  Subliminal  client's  example, "I l i k e to keep  meaning contained i n the  a valid  own  states,  of p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . my  the  association  feeling  understanding,  R e i k (1949) comment  between  therapist's  (1972) notes the  representation,  intuitive  in to  also  are  explain  never the  cues from  23  origin  underscores the  communication. his/her  A  rationally of  the  importance  of  therapist  is  client  such  as  v o i c e t o n e , p o s t u r e , and contained  i n the  communciation  g e s t u r e as w e l l as to the message  verbal  content.  i s dependent  The  upon the e n t i r e  process appears  to be that the v e r b a l and  emanating  the  from  unconscious his/her  client  images  reported  by  then  form  shaped  being  the nonverbal  cues  with  which  the  therapist's  then  arise  on  end  into  i n Perky's In  the  (1910) r e s e a r c h  original  study,  a banana (or a book or a l e a f ) to them.  the  s u b j e c t ' s gaze,  A  allowed to but  out  of  A l l s u b j e c t s d e s c r i b e d t h e i r banana image and  of i t . Perky  not  as  they  concluded  and p a r t l y d e t e r m i n e d personal  (1972).  before  h i s / h e r awareness.  thought  The  l i k e a banana and coloured yellow was briefly  the  form.  appears  to imagine  of  complex.  to d e s c r i b e the image as i t appeared  oscillate  as  claim  Segal  s u b j e c t s were asked and  fantasies  consciousness i n p i c t u r e  Support f o r t h i s and  are combined  and  meaning  had  that  been  they  the s t i m u l u s r e g i s t e r e d  the f i n a l a p p e a r a n c e  image even though  supposing  of the s u b j e c t ' s  the s u b j e c t s were unaware of the  added s t i m u l u s . Segal  et  al.  (1972)  conducted  a  series  eight  experiments  i n an attempt  the r e s u l t s  were not as dramatic as i n Perky's research, the  original  hypothesis was  to r e p l i c a t e the r e s u l t s .  of  supported.  Segal concludes  Although  that  the  c o n s t r u c t i o n of an image i s an a c t i v e p r o c e s s i n w h i c h the observer  c o n s t r u c t s an  image out  24  of  past  experiences  and  memories, but  The  uses concurrent  sensory input  Importance of Imagery to Therapy Imagery  reasons.  is a  tool  capable  simultaneously  more i n f o r m a t i o n verbal  useful  Images are  information  of  as  i s retained  label.  Fantasy  for  and  therapists  processing  opposed  images  have  therapist  likely  imagery at blocked  those times  and  1969).  useful  intensity be  activities the of  lessened  aware  when i n f e r e n t i a l  eyes, l e a n i n g back i n the  flow  the and  in preparation  of i m a g e r y  therapeutic the  activities  they  compared to a  become  to appear  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p at two  window  relaxation  fantasy.  separateness of the  has  such as c l o s i n g out  A  spontaneous  failed  promote and  of  thinking  c h a i r or gazing as  And,  p o s s i b l y understood.  become  Therapist  amounts of  p a r t i c u l a r power  the s o l u t i o n of a p r o b l e m has  (Richardson,  facilitate  to  several  sequentually.  images as  be o b s e r v e d and  i s most  to  for  large  i n the  because images can  be  ) to f l e s h i t out.  As  the can and  well,  the  point  can  that  parties  restored  f o r the o f f e r i n g of t h e r a p i s t i m a g e r y to  the  client. An years,  illustration has  described  by C a r l Rogers who,  i n recent  become i n c r e a s i n g l y aware of h i s f a n t a s i e s and a willingness  (Kirschenbaum, listening  i s provided  1979).  to use He  them as  says,  to a b u s i n e s s e x e c u t i v e 25  for he  has  a communication t o o l example, may  that  suddenly  while have  an  image of  the  s m a l l boy  that he was,  he  small  boy  wants to deny and  t h a t the  shy,  own  would v o i c e the fantasy.  He  inadequate, and  reports  therapist's observation  t h a t the  have e v o l v e d  the  years, a new  called  to  separate  and  The  skills  a different  how  profound i n s i g h t s .  I t seems  because understanding  of  the  another  f e e l i n g s which have  s e v e r a l i n d e p e n d e n t l i n e s of  model of the  one  suggest  a  Laterality  brain.  research  Anatomically,  a n o t h e r v i a a bundle of nerve  that  There i s now each  and  26  fibers  experimental  is functionally  information  i n f e r e n c e may  hemisphere.  strong  hemisphere  t h a t each p r o c e s s e s  of i n t u i t i o n  the  i d e n t i c a l l o o k i n g hemispheres which  the corpus callosum.  evidence  wishing  client.  cortex i s composed of two communicate w i t h  Rogers,  to s e l f i s a v a l i d a s p e c t  process  Theory of C e r e b r a l In r e c e n t  fearful - a child  approach o f t e n b r i n g s  i s p a r t i a l l y an a w a r e n e s s of one's own  The  the  image - not as something true, but as h i s  that attending  been a c t i v a t e d by  within-  c h e r i s h t h i s youngster, r e l a t e d  s u r p r i s i n g depth of r e a c t i o n and c l e a r then,  carries  of whom he i s ashamed.  h i s c l i e n t would love and he  man  differently.  each be r e l a t e d to  The  Research Representative  that  of Joseph  essential  o f t h e work b e i n g  Bogen  duality  humans.  ( 1 9 7 7 ) who  of t h e r i g h t  He w o r k e d  mostly  consisting  of e p i l e p t i c s  surgically  severed  seizures.  These  done i n t h e f i e l d i s  first and l e f t  with  hemispheres i n  a clinical  whose c o r p u s  i n order  e s t a b l i s h e d the  population  callosums  had been  to c o n t r o l the spread  p a t i e n t s appeared  so normal  that  of t h e i r there  doubt as to whether any symptoms ensued from having hemispheres developed received side.  by only This  thus  split-brain  and  patients  the s u b t l e  appear  unaffected  syndrome,  many  split-brin  modality.  patients  An o f t e n  have  been  at a table with  behind  i t can be f e l t  a barrier with  difficulty  r u l e the  studied  of t o u c h and using  placed  such t h a t  but cannot  objects be seen.  the r i g h t hand he has no  t e l l i n g the experimenter what the o b j e c t i s .  27  this  example has the s u b j e c t  one hand,  When t h e s u b j e c t f e e l s a comb w i t h  by t h e i r  s i d e of the body  f o r t h e sense  demonstrated  seated  as  however, can  I t was known t h a t as a g e n e r a l  i s true  life  by both hemispheres at once  The d i s c o n n e c t i o n  This  tasks  information  in daily  s i d e of t h e b r a i n c o n t r o l s the r i g h t vice versa.  had t h e i r  not c r o s s to the other  observable  i s usually perceived  demonstrated.  left  with  one hemisphere could  i s not e a s i l y  commissurotomies. be  However,  by Bogen, i t soon became apparent that  information and  separated.  was  When  the  left  This  hand i s used, the s u b j e c t can o n l y h a z a r d  situation  objectwhich not  i s explained  has been t r a n s m i t t e d  a v a i l a b l e to the l e f t ,  verbally. but  i f the i n f o r m a t i o n to the r i g h t  which i s the  experiments  to give  a verbal  have been c o n d u c t e d many  response.  Cerebral  has always been demonstrated.  work  Knowing that alpha  resting, emitted  of some of the work conducted with  i s the EEG  these  done  such  modalities.  laterality  (1972).  Many  and n o r m a l  using  individuals  respond  clinical  subjects  Representative  hemisphere i s  what the o b j e c t i s ,  with  different  about the  one able to  The s u b j e c t does u n d e r s t a n d  i s unable  a guess.  by G a l i n  and  normal  Ornstein  waves i n c r e a s e when the b r a i n i s  researchers  measured the a l p h a  by each h a l f of the b r a i n .  waves  When the c h a r g e  being  monitor  went up, i t meant that the part of the b r a i n to which i t was attached  was not being  tasks, t h e i r alpha different  activities  used.  While the s u b j e c t s  rhythms were measured. could  be a s s o c i a t e d  did various  By t h i s  with  method,  one or other  of the hemispheres. Using  these  and n u m e r o u s  other  results,  a  general  d e s c r i p t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the two hemispheres has emerged. Right 1.  The f o l l o w i n g l i s t  was d e l i n e a t e d by Banmen (1982):  Hemisphere  i n t u i t i v e judgments, made i n a h o l i s t i c  28  fashion;  2.  imagery ( i n c l u d i n g dreams) and  3.  r e c o g n i t i o n of emotional tone;  4.  spatial orientation;  5.  ability to f o r m whole p i c t u r e s from i n f o r m a t i o n (e.g. r e c o g n i t i o n of f a c e s ) ;  6.  perceptual  7.  t h i n k i n g processes that cannot be v e r b a l l y expressed;  8.  l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t y that i m a g e r y (e.g. puns);  9.  complex mental abstractions;  tasks  that do not  visualization;  fragmentary  require v e r b a l i z a t i o n ;  reflects  associations  holistic that  perspective  do  10.  comprehension of a l a r g e number of words;  11.  v i s u a l memory.  not  or  involve  L e f t Hemisphere 1.  analytical,  2.  abstractions;  3.  v e r b a l i z a t i o n , language;  4.  v e r b a l memory;  5.  most of t h e f u n c t i o n s l i n g u i s t i c process;  6.  processing  sensory input  The  Inferences  and  That  each  l o g i c a l and  raised  half-brain,  the  that  require  i n l i n e a r and  numerical  and  l o g i c a l modes.  Implications  process i n f o r m a t i o n other  sequentual t h i n k i n g ;  outside  after the  bisection, realm  intriguing possibility  29  was  able  of a w a r e n e s s of that  an  to the  independent  stream of consciousness r e s i d e d i n each s i d e . led  to t h e c u r r e n t  and g e n e r a l l y  accepted  This,  i n turn,  view t h a t a d u a l  consciousness does e x i s t i n the normal, i n t a c t b r a i n and that each  hemisphere  cognitive  i s possessed  s t y l e (Sperry,  1969).  controversial possibility the  example,  associated  unique  and  evolved  The i m p l i c a t i o n s  of t h i s  are f a r reaching  i n t e r e s t of p h i l o s o p h e r s For  of a  and have a t t r a c t e d  and s c i e n t i s t s  Deikman (1976) suggested  with the l e f t  that  with  activity,  modes.  attention  boundaries.  i s focused This  with  what  The a c t i v e  with m a n i p u l a t i o n and with  d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c i n g the environment. and  the f u n c t i o n s  and r i g h t hemispheres p a r a l l e l  have been termed t h e a c t i v e and p a s s i v e mode i s concerned  alike.  Thinking  a heightened  i s t h e mode of d o i n g  i s logical  a w a r e n e s s of  and d e s c r i b e s t h e  a c t i v i t i e s and t h e o r i e n t a t i o n of a t h e r a p i s t w o r k i n g i n an i n f e r e n t i a l mode. The  receptive  mode i s c o n c e r n e d  e n v i r o n m e n t a l complex.  Thinking  analytic  i s diffuse.  letting  and a t t e n t i o n things  happen  Goodyear (1979) n o t e s inferential  that  This  associated  with  left  brain  30  rather  than  i s the mode of and  intuitively.  skills.  r e l a t e s each t o a s e p a r a t e h e m i s p h e r e . are  from t h e  the a c t i v i t i e s  cognitive  and i n t u i t i v e  intake  i s synthetic  and d e s c r i b e s  o r i e n t a t i o n of a t h e r a p i s t working  both  with  functions,  empathy These  involves skills  he  Inferential skills whereas  intuitive  abilities  a r i s e from the  complete education analytic of  should  t h i n k i n g and  skills  additional  is  right. give  work i n s c h o o l s  those  1978).  indicated  and  associated  The  two  do  complements  should  learner  might experience the  has  that  framework  for  training.  The  one  divorced  world.  increasing  the  left  set from  Experimental the  (Wolfe  work i n i s o l a t i o n activity  consistent  I f only  is  of  the  and  amount  of  with the  conceptualizing  and  Reising,  each  supports  other.  a l s o have equal access to r i g h t and  These ideas are  verbal  the f a c u l t i e s of the r i g h t b r a i n  with  not  the  the idea that a  equal emphasis to both  the  t i m e d e v o t e d to d e v e l o p i n g help  discusses  to a e s t h e t i c t h i n k i n g .  educated,  ways he  He  A  left  brain  known data and  d i f f e r e n t methods  ideas also provide  therapist  a springboard  skills.  provide of  a  empathy  for further  speculation.  The  Controversy The  f a c t i s t h a t each of the two  functionally  asymmetric,  i.e.,  halves  that  each  of the b r a i n  are  hemisphere  is  endowed w i t h c e r t a i n c a p a c i t i e s t h a t are e i t h e r l a c k i n g or poorly  represented  in  the  other  half.  This  is  called  "lateralization." The neural of  inference substrate  information  i s that each hemisphere has  evolved  its  to s u s t a i n a unique c o g n i t i v e s t y l e and processing.  This 31  own  mode  i s called "specialization."  The  controversy  a r i s e s where the  fact  merges w i t h  the  i n f e r e n c e s , i.e., that l a t e r i z a t i o n i m p l i e s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . Gassaniga theory  and  assumes  underlying is  that  inappropriate  the  for  processing  is  raised  modes a r e  proposed  that  genetically  out of  that s p e c i a l i z a t i o n  neural  says  organization  as  to  where  in cerebral  these  dependent.  Because t h i s against every  brain/right  hemisphere the  neural  the c o g n i t i v e s t y l e of the r i g h t .  An  these  does  be  also f i t s  dichotomania,  behavioural  may  reflect  rather  reflects  and  that  the  in  data,  we  tendency  terms  of  "Imagery:  The  Return of the O s t r a c i z e d "  to left  (1964)  Paradigm  E x p e r i m e n t a l psychology f i r s t emerged i n the 19th a science  concerned  are  brain.  Introspective  as  the  experientially  i . e . , the  dichotomy  is  not  organization  differences theory  incompatible  a l t e r n a t i v e view  lateralization  of  interpret  with  s p e c i a l i z e d c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s , but  differences  cautioned  incompatible  integrated.  expression  Holt's  type  and  which s u s t a i n s  question  localized  (1976) p o i n t  the unique mental f u n c t i o n s of the l e f t  organization The  Ledoux  to s t u d y  themselves  particularly  consciousness. with  the  Early  contents  those contents r e p r e s e n t a t i v e 32  century  psychologists of  the  of the  mind, primary  elements  of  methodology attended later  thought. of  experience  noted,  often with  Gustave  generated  each  to  that  of  surprise,  Fechner,  and  the  then  others.  the p r e s e n c e  i n 1.860,  the types of imagery that had  the  practitioner  of c o n s c i o u s n e s s  his  imagery.  matter  whereby  to h i s p e r s o n a l s t r e a m  Psychologists  classify  subject  introspection  compared  vis ua 1  This  attempted  thus emerged  of to  (Watkins,  1976). T h i s p i o n e e r i n g work was in  1889,  to  assess  Most  continued by F r a n c i s Galton  sent q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to d i f f e r e n t their  scientists  whereas i m a g e r y  ability  t o see  reported was  that  The  exclude  implications  imagery from  of  their  of  experience.  it  seems c e r t a i n to remain The  introspection thereby  was  and  revealed.  activities mind and  I f imagery  Wurzberg  observed  did  not  common among a r t i s t s .  group assumed that a l l others thought did.  o c c u p a t i o n a l groups  images ( R i c h a r d s o n , they  this life,  They  study  have As  well,  experienced are  1969). images,  perhaps by v i r t u e  each  as they  that people  can  of a l a c k  i s n e i t h e r recognized nor  valued,  unstudied.  school the  and  who,  of  psychology  importance maintained  d i d not  of  the  i t s a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s ( H o l t , 1964).  required.  33  subject  t h a t the  provide a f u l l  denigrated matter  consciousness e x p l a n a t i o n of A new  paradigm  Behaviour Paradigm John  Watson  proposed  that  the  of o b s e r v a b l e  p s y c h o l o g i s t s was could  be  verified  study  and  was  province  For example, learning subject  of the  and  the  of the  At  the  various  as i t  been o u t s i d e studied.  s t a t e s of  however,  consciousness,  existence  of  Ossification  phenomena  which  a moratorium  on  1971).  were  investigation  and  imagery  disappeared  as  the most  occurred  not  in  this  even to deny amenable  to  From 1920-1960, t h e r e  inner experience  Mental  of  from the mainstream  when p s y c h o l o g i s t s began to ignore and  (Richardson,  for  objective  to be  same t i m e ,  f a n t a s y were banished  psychological research.  (Klinger,  These  p r o b l e m s t h a t had  s o l u t i o n by b e h a v i o u r i s t i c methods. was  behaviour  i n t r o s p e c t i v e paradigm  motivation.  matter  approach  study  great s t r i d e s were made i n the understanding  notably imagery and of  proper  testable.  o p e r a t i o n a l methods a l l o w e d the  the  i n the U n i t e d  faded  as  a  States  subject  a theoretical  for  construct  1969).  Psychoanalytic  Circles  The s t u d y of i m a g e r y was kept a l i v e d u r i n g t h i s t i m e by a pocket and  of  psychoanalysts  who  t r a n s f e r e n c e phenomena.  a g a i n s t f a n t a s y and  studied  dreams, h a l l u c i n a t i o n s  Even here,  imagery i s e a s i l y 34  however, a p r e j u d i c e detected.  I t i s the  mal-adaptive and not the p o s i t i v e , imagery  t h a t has been  growth enhancing aspect of  r e c o g n i z e d . For t h e most p a r t ,  when  imagery was d e a l t with, i t was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h mental i l l n e s s and  the wish  was t o e x t i n g u i s h ,  and n o t t o c u l t i v a t e , t h e  problem.  Reacceptance of Inner E x p e r i e n c e H o l t (1964) n o t e s t h a t the comeback of i m a g e r y has been b r o u g h t about l a r g e l y by d e v e l o p m e n t s psychology.  Other  research a c t i v i t i e s , which  to cope.  disciplines,  o u t s i d e the f i e l d of  while  pursuing  various  found imagery emerging as a problem with  I t occurred  as a v a r i a b l e  between the  p r o b l e m s they s t u d i e d and t h e s o l u t i o n s they hoped  to f i n d .  Imagery i s p r e s e n t l y h e l d up to p s y c h o l o g i s t s as a l e g i t i m a t e endeavour  coming  as i t now does, backed by "hard" s c i e n c e .  One i n s t a n c e where the occurrence of imagery a practical jet  problem  pilots  bothered imagery. safety  subjects,  done  drivers.  the i n t r u s i o n  These  problem  Work  i s i n the experience of radar operators,  and t r u c k  by  has created  images,  for their  when  people  consciousness  taken  as r e a l i t y ,  are often of  vivid  create a  e x p e r i e n c e r s (Richardson, 1969).  i n sensory  the presence  into  These  deprivation of imagery  showed and  i n "normal"  hallucinations  which might otherwise have been regarded as p a t h o l o g i c a l . 35  Neurology,  too,  has  taken  P e n f i e l d and  Jaspers (1954)  patients  electrically  Short  by  (1953) c l a i m e d  persistent  giant  experience  the  on  an  step  forward  came w i t h  EEG  i n the  the  exposed  those  cortex.  persons  with  while those with normal  culture,  1957).  that  of  everyone  of  inner dreams  Images came more and more to be  n a t u r a l f u n c t i o n i n g of the  which has  quality  reacceptance  discovery  l e s s as the product  imaginal  imagery.  v i s u a l imagery i n t h e i r  s t i m u l a t i n g the  that  v i e w e d as p a r t of the  Our  produced  in  imagers.  (Dement and Kleitman,  l e s s and  interest  alpha are v e r b a l imagers,  alpha are v i s u a l A  an  mind  of aberrant f u n c t i o n i n g .  raised our  us to abandon awareness of  lives,  i s now  urging  d i r e c t our a t t e n t i o n back to the f a c t t h a t the image The  and  atmosphere i n T h i r d Force psychology  i s one that  us  to  lives.  applauds  the r e c o g n i t i o n and b r e a k i n g of o l d h a b i t s thus o p e n i n g  one  to  and  an  outer.  a p p r e c i a t i o n of  P s y c h o l o g i s t s a r e no  t h o s e a s p e c t s of p e r s o n s rather  one's  they  are  total  experience,  longer  tending  attempting  to  modify The  to c o n c e n t r a t e on f i n d i n g ways to h a r n e s s  proceeding reduce  on how  stress,  to study  only  t h a t f i t the e x i s t i n g methods, but  techniques to the study of the person.  human i m a g i n a t i o n  inner  the time  and  i s thus  ripe  the power of the  f o r c o n s t r u c t i v e purposes. f a n t a s y can be used  methods  Research  creatively  to:  is  help  p l a n f o r the f u t u r e , e l i m i n a t e u n d e s i r a b l e 36  habits,  enhance c r e a t i v i t y ,  reduce  boredom  (Singer  study,  imagery  and f a n t a s y  heighten  enjoyment  and S w i t z e r , are being  1980). used  of l i f e ,  And, i n t h i s to help  l e a r n more about t h e m s e l v e s as w e l l as t o l e a r n more s e n s i t i v e to the moods and needs of other  37  and  people  t o become  people.  CHAPTER I I I Methods and Procedures  Methods Participants The  ^  thirty-six  subjects  i n this  v o l u n t e e r s from t h e U n i v e r s i t y were  solicited  courses.  from  study were  of B r i t i s h  psychology,  undergraduate  Columbia.  English,  They  and e d u c a t i o n  P a r t i c i p a t i o n was without remuneration.  Group Leaders The training  same  individual  conditions.  taught  a l l t h r e e o f the empathy  E x t e n s i v e teaching  experience and the  f a c t that she was c o m p l e t i n g a Master's degree i n c o u n s e l l i n g psychology leader  qualified  instead  her f o r the t a s k .  of t h r e e  was  differences in personality  decided  and/or  have no o p p o r t u n i t y to confound no  particular  bias  i n favour  Having  upon  one  i n order  l e a d e r competence  the r e s u l t s . o f any  group that would  The leader had  of the t r e a t m e n t  c o n d i t i o n s and was unaware of the h y p o t h e s e s of the s t u d y . The  experimenter  refrained  from  teaching  so as  not t o  i n t r o d u c e an a d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e of b i a s , but d i d c o n d u c t the pre- and p o s t - t e s t i n g  s e s s i o n s as w e l l 38  as the o r i e n t a t i o n  lectures.  With  just  p o s s i b i l i t y that one by a n o t h e r .  so  groups  was  were  sufficient  training  technique  considered  differently.  s e s s i o n s were taped group  teacher  T h i s r i s k was  were t r e a t e d  each  one  i n order  taught taught  as  As  there could be  existed  the  contaminated  m i n i m a l as the groups  a c o n t r o l , however, a l l  to s a t i s f y the experimenter that per  instructions.  s e q u e n t u a 11y ,  the  t i m e to change g e a r s b e f o r e  Because  the  instructor  had  presenting  another  received  written  method. Prior  to  each  i n s t r u c t i o n s and leader  and  the  session,  the l i s t  the  leader  of e x e r c i s e s  researcher  rehearsed  the  step f o r each o c c a s i o n .  The  teacher's  t h a t of a f a c i l i t a t o r .  Her  job was  for that class. procedures  role  was  step-by-  envisioned  work.  The  choice  of  specific  as  to p r o v i d e a c o n s i s t e n t  framework f o r each c o n d i t i o n , w i t h i n which the students to  The  content  was  left  to  were the  students.  Training The  The  Groups different  t r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n s were:  a) b) c)  i n t u i t i o n t r a i n i n g (N=8) i n f e r e n c e t r a i n i n g (N=10) combination i n t u i t i o n / i n f e r e n c e t r a i n i n g  d)  no treatment c o n t r o l group (N=10)  f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i b e s the d i f f e r i n g  Appendix A f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n of s p e c i f i c 39  (N=8)  treatments.  exercises.)  (See  1.  Intuition Training This  experience  was  designed  to  allow  individuals  remove o b s t a c l e s to t h e i r empathic f u n c t i o n i n g . to  have  students  put  aside  their  l i s t e n i n g to a c l i e n t i n favour personal  images and  critical  of responding  fantasies.  The  training  The  goal  to was  abilities  when  to him/her  with  was  expected  to  f a c i l i t a t e empathy gains on the three outcome measures i n the f o l l o w i n g order: Mohr  Kagan's A f f e c t i v e S e n s i t i v i t y  Listening  Empathy  Test.  participated  Test In  and  order  then  Carkhuff's  to a c c o m p l i s h  this  Scale,  Jones-  Discrimination aim,  students  i n a number of e x e r c i s e s under the headings of:  a)  relaxation  to remove t e n s i o n and anxiety and i n c r e a s e the flow of imagery.  b)  concentration  to p r o v i d e a f o c u s f o r the r a t i o n a l mind thus a l l o w i n g the i n t u i t i v e mind to f u n c t i o n .  c)  observation  to broaden c o n s c i o u s a w a r e n e s s t h a t which has been seen.  d)  receptivity  to provide p r a c t i c e i n n o t i c i n g the flow of f e e l i n g s and images as they emerge w i t h o u t j u d g i n g them or t r y i n g to change them.  Once s t u d e n t s stance  had  required  opportunity  by  some ease i n a s s u m i n g the  these  activities,  to p r a c t i c e the technique.  f a n t a s i e s and each p e r s o n  gained  to the dreams and  practiced  a)  they  of  passive  were g i v e n  In response to  c o n c e r n s of c l a s s  to  the  guided  members,  p r i v a t e f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n where 40  he/she  wrote  down  any  images  or  feelings  aroused  o f f e r i n g these imagees and/or f a n t a s i e s to the concerned.  The  c o u n s e l l o r r e c e i v e d no  and  b)  student-client  feedback  from  the  client. 2.  Inference T r a i n i n g Training  in inferential  i n c r e a s e empathic a b i l i t y used  i n the  study.  it  i s a s c a l e designed  his  t r a i n i n g method.  The with of  feeling  s c o r e s on  to  three scales  to measure the e f f e c t s of  L e s s improvement was  in this  of o t h e r s and an  to  the D i s c r i m i n a t i o n  group  expected  were i n i t i a l l y  to i n t r o d u c e them  In o r d e r to i m p r o v e t h e i r  states,  the  expected  i n c r e a s e most d r a m a t i c a l l y as  by Carkhuff  a lecture/discussion  feelings  also  on  the  on Kagan's measure.  participants  feelings.  was  as measured on  Empathy  Empathy Test were expected  Jones-Mohr Test and  empathy  presented  to the  language  sensitivity  to the  a l s o to s e n s i t i z e them to t h e i r  important  first  step  was  to have  own them  become f a m i l i a r with the ways i n which f e e l i n g s are t y p i c a l l y expressed.  Particular  emphasis  participants  notice  difference  the  was  placed  between  on  having  feeling  and  content. Group  members were exposed  p r e s e n t i n g an overview two  reasons.  to the  of h i s method.  Firstly,  T h i s was  i t provided  41  tape  Carkhuff  made  necessary f o r  students  with  an  understanding of  of i n f e r e n c e t r a i n i n g and  e x e r c i s e s i n which they  provided  After  having  theoretical their  identify  exposed  feelings  Secondly, i t  the  combination  to  this  m a t e r i a l on  the  s t u d e n t s were g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y to  understanding and  the type  the tape.  been  level,  v a r i o u s paper  The  were to be engaged.  a p o i n t of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n w i t h  group which a l s o used  test  i t previewed  by  practicing  the s k i l l s .  Using  pencil  exercises,  students attempted  and  distinguish  feelings  to  e x e r c i s e s were graded  from  e x e r c i s e b u i l d i n g on the s k i l l s  easy  from  content.  to more d i f f i c u l t ,  a c q u i r e d from  to  each  the p r e v i o u s  exercise. The  next  formula:  s t a g e i n the p r o g r e s s i o n was  "You  feel  because  ."  to i n t r o d u c e the  T h i s was  designed  h e l p the s t u d e n t l e a r n t o combine an u n d e r s t a n d i n g the  client  felt  with  what  i t was  that  was  to  of what  causing  the  feeling. The  c u l m i n a t i o n of the group had  each o t h e r ' s s t i m u l u s p r o b l e m s . p a i r s and  s t u d e n t s working  They  worked s o m e t i m e s i n  sometimes i n the l a r g e r group.  In the l a r g e  each member, i n turn, played the r o l e of c l i e n t a p e r s o n a l concern. with primary "yes"  or  responded  C o n s e l l o r s then  a c c u r a t e empathy.  "no"  answer  as  The  feedback.  with  and  practiced  client The  group,  expressed responding  could give only a counsellor  then  a g a i n , a t t e m p t i n g to a c h i e v e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  42  of  the  client's  feelings  by  a  series  successive  approximations.  3.  Combination Although  Training  both the i n t u i t i o n and  expected  to  proposed  that t r a i n i n g  intuitive  be  s u c c e s s f u l at  the i n f e r e n c e groups were  increasing  which combined  empathy,  it  was  the i n f e r e n t i a l  and  c o n d i t i o n s would i n c r e a s e empathy s c o r e s b e t t e r  than e i t h e r c o n d i t i o n a l o n e .  The g a i n s were e x p e c t e d  t o be  roughly e q u i v a l e n t on each measure. The  students  in  this  c o n d i t i o n were  presented  e x e r c i s e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of both other t r a i n i n g first  methods.  hour d e a l t w i t h i n t u i t i o n t r a i n i n g , w h i l e the  hour was The  u l t i m a t e aim  of the  combination  to focus on  and  to  images,  images  The  second  reserved f o r i n f e r e n c e e x e r c i s e s .  to have students l e a r n  to  possible client.  but  also  specific  progression  was  with  was  have  client  to experience  meaning  and  then  their  them cues  method was personal  learn and  to  relate  only  fantasies  relate  these  behaviours.  The  the f a n t a s y ,  to  not  reflect  that  upon i t s  meaning  to  The main p o i n t of d e p a r t u r e from the o t h e r methods  the emphasis placed on suggesting i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and  receiving  the  feedback  interpretations. integrating  the  from  the c l i e n t  Much  imaginal  practice into  43  the  on the accuracy time  was  ongoing  of  these  devoted  context  on  of  to the  counselling offered  a  interaction. personal  visualizing  image  the c l i e n t ' s  meaning  Further,  the  foster  was  counsellor  hoped  the a b i l i t y  a  that  was  image asked  and c l i e n t practice  to d i s c r i m i n a t e  s u b j e c t i v e modes of e x p e r i e n c e . s t u d e n t s would other  client  if a that  counsellor  was  cued  l e a r n to s h i f t  depending on which was  had to  were  between  him/herself.  consider  why  exercises  the  would  the o b j e c t i v e and  I t was f u r t h e r hoped  that  from one mode to the  appropriate  44  what  discrepant.  i n these  easily  i n t e r a c t i o n at the time.  for  by  indicated  then the c o u n s e l l o r e x p l o r e d  the c l i e n t ' s  meanings f o r c o u n s e l l o r It  to  example,  experience and the c l i e n t  t h a t i t was not a c c u r a t e , personal  For  to the c o u n s e l l i n g  TABLE 1 T r a i n i n g Session 1  Hour 1  Combination  Intuition  Inference  relaxation (20 min.)  introduction (5-10 min.)  relaxation (20 min.)  breath concentration (10 min.)  language of feelings, pt. 1 (30 min.)  breath concentration (10 min.)  observation of o b j e c t (5 min.)  cont'd pt. 2 (15 min.)  remembering what you see (20 min.)  concentration on o b j e c t (5 min.)  e x e r c i s e 111 (10 min.)  experience object (5 min.) object f i l l i n g consciousness (15 min.) 10 minute Hour 2  physical, mental, emotional (10 min.)  break  Carkhuff tape (1 hr.)  Now I am aware... (5 min.) images of interpersonal intuition (25 min.)  45  Carkhuff tape (1 hr.)  TABLE 2 Training  Hour 1  Session 2 Intuition  Inference  Combination  relaxation  written paragraph (20 min.)  relaxation  passive d i s c r i mination of feelings (15 min.)  breath concentration  passive d i s c r i mination of content (15 min.)  images of interpsnl. intuition (20 min.)  (20 min.) repeat from session 1  (20 min.)  (10 min.)  active d i s c r i mination of feeling (15 min.) 10 minute break Hour 2  active d i s c r i mination of content (15 min.)  active d i s c r i mination of feeling (30 min.)  communication of f e e l i n g s  active d i s c r i mination of content (30 min.)  (20 min.) stump, c a b i n stream (20 min.)  communication of content (20 min.)  46  TABLE 3 T r a i n i n g Session 3  Hour 1  Intuition  Inference  Combination  relaxation  primary accurate empathy (1 hour)  relaxation  (20  min.)  (20  min.)  breath concentration (10 min.)  repeat from session 1  Now  I am aware  • • •  (10  min.)  p h y s i c a l , emoti o n a l , mental levels of experience (25 min.)  10 minute Hour 2  dream experience (30 min.)  break  personal experiences (1 hr.)  47  stump, cabin stream (50 min.)  TABLE 4 T r a i n i n g Session 4  Hour 1  Intuition  Inference  Combination  relaxation  primary accurate empathy (1 hour)  relaxation  (20  min.)  repeat from session 1  (20  min.)  breath concentration (10 min.) primary accurate empathy (30 min.)  10 minute break Hour 2  personal experience (1 hour)  personal experience (1 hour)  48  personal experience (1 hour)  Instrumentation Each v o l u n t e e r  was  pre- and  p o s t - t e s t e d on  three  empathy  measures.  The  Affective Sensitivity  Scale  Kagan's  Sensitivity  Affective  videotaped well,  consists  of  s e q u e n c e s from a c t u a l c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s .  As  there  feeling  are  the  test  client.  may  items,  be expressing.  describing Using  the  the empathizer must i d e n t i f y from the the  feelings  This test  was  c h o s e n as a measure f o r t h i s  video  experienced  by  the study  i t seems a p p r o p r i a t e to the d e f i n i t i o n of empathy  i n the  study  and  b)  i t i s a test  c o n d i t i o n s of f a c i n g a c l i e n t . "provides  being  the  choices  form,  because a) used  m u l t i p l e choice  s t a t e s the c l i e n t  as a s t i m u l u s , on  67  Scale  a  highly  p r e s e n t i n g the t o t a l  According  realistic, stimuli  yet  most l i k e  the  real  to Kagan, t h i s  test  standardized  from a r e a l - l i f e  mode  of  situation  to  s u b j e c t s i n a manner which should d i f f e r e n t i a t e between  those  s e n s i t i v e and t h o s e not s e n s i t i v e to the a f f e c t i v e s t a t e of another"  (Kagan et a l . , 1967,  a continuum  of emotional  The  nature  of  concern  include  conflicts,  maturity,  p. 36).  obviousness  The  s c e n e s range a l o n g  from  subtle to,blatant.  of the c l i e n t ' s p r o b l e m s a l s o v a r i e s . educational  planning,  serious i l l n e s s  49  and  The  areas  interpersonal  depression.  The  s u b j e c t o b s e r v i n g the tape was that  he  felt  asked to s e l e c t the the  feelings  of  videotaped c l i e n t . A score f o r the t e s t was  the t o t a l  correct  out of 67.  accurately reflected  response  The  the  f o l l o w i n g i s a sample item:  Item I 1. 2. 3.  T h i s e x p l o r i n g of my f e e l i n g s i s good. I t makes me f e e l good. I - f e e l very sad and unhappy. I'm groping and confused; I can't b r i n g i t a l l t o g e t h e r .  The  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Empathy Test The  first  Responses  eight  to  items  Helpee  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , " developed 123), was  "A  Description  test  the  itself  of  Expressions:  An  by  (1969,  Robert  Carkhuff  used as p r e - t e s t i n t h i s s t u d y .  items comprised The  on  The  Helper  index p.  second  114eight  post-test. i s a refinement  of the Truax  Accurate  Empathy S c a l e (Truax and C a r k h u f f , 1967), which i s based the  work  of  paragraphs,  Carl  Rogers.  The  The  tional,  child-rearing,  a r e a s of c o n c e r n  The  problem  four b r i e f  responses  covered  marital, situations  v o l u n t e e r s as a w r i t t e n t e s t , by  test  each e x p r e s s i n g a s p e c i f i c  helpee.  elation.  of  each  consists problem are:  of  social,  being  i n m u l t i p l e choice format.  50  educa-  anger  presented  situation  sixteen  as s t a t e d by a  depression, were  on  to  and the  followed Carkhuff  developed these reponses to be a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e range of p o t e n t i a l helper  responses.  The  sample of  the  four reponses range  from demonstration of l i t t l e  d i s c r i m i n a t i v e empathy to a high  degree  empathy.  of  instructed  discriminative  to s e l e c t what they thought was  to the s t i m u l u s the  total  scoring  The  problem.  number  key  The  correct  i s found  score out  i n Carkhuff  the best  f o r the  of  a  subjects  response  test consisted  possible  (1969,  were  p.  eight.  124-125).  of The The  f o l l o w i n g i s a sample item: "I'm so t h r i l l e d to have found a c o u n s e l l o r l i k e you. I d i d n ' t know any e x i s t e d . You seem to u n d e r s t a n d me so well. It's j u s t great! I f e e l l i k e I'm coming a l i v e again. I have not f e l t l i k e t h i s i n so l o n g . " 1. 2. 3. 4.  The  " G r a t i t u d e i s a n a t u r a l emotion." "This i s q u i t e n i c e , but remember, unless extreme c a u t i o n i s e x e r c i s e d , you may f i n d y o u r s e l f moving i n the o t h e r direction." "That's a good f e e l i n g . " "Hey, I'm as t h r i l l e d to hear you t a l k t h i s way as you are! I'm p l e a s e d t h a t I have been h e l p f u l . I do t h i n k we s t i l l have some work to do yet, though."  Jones-Mohr L i s t e n i n g T h i s t e s t was  can  understand  apparent  that  meanings. seems to delivered  The be  Test  designed to determine how  well a counsellor  the  i m p l i c a t i o n of what a c l i e n t  the  same words  have d i f f e r e n t  meaning  of  the  items  as. much a f u n c t i o n  of  the  way  as  correct  can  i t is a  function  51  of  says.  the  on  the  It i s  intended  this  test  message i s  message's  verbal  content.  For  example,  "Gee!  may  "I'm  happy  see  mean  depending  on  to  to  you,"  the s u b t l e n o n v e r b a l  i n c l u d e d as i t goes beyond state  I t ' s good to see you  extrapolating  or  " I t ' s about  cues.  meaning  time..."  T h i s measure  the r e c o g n i t i o n of the the  again"  of  the  was  feeling client's  experience. Form A was  used  the p o s t - t e s t . A statement  as the p r e - t e s t and  i s read a l o u d t w i c e on the t a p e , each t i m e  of the f o u r p h r a s e s  as  e.g.,  "Let's go  see him  with  to mark intended  again."  "I j u s t can't w a i t . " "I'd l i k e to get something from him." "I never want to see him a g a i n . " "I r e a l l y enjoy seeing him."  Validity  and R e l i a b i l i t y  of the Measures  Kagan A f f e c t i v e S e n s i t i v i t y  The  validity  obtained  by  Scale  of t h i s s c a l e was  of s t u d i e s (Kagan, 1967, was  Ten s e c o n d s i s a l l o w e d  which b e s t r e p r e s e n t s the  meaning of the statement, 1. 2. 3. 4.  used  T h e r e a r e 30 i t e m s on each form of the t e s t .  the same i n t e n d e d meaning. one  Form B was  p. 175-189).  Spearman  rank  (rho's) between t e s t s c o r e s and members s e n s i t i v i t y  i n v e s t i g a t e d by a number  correlation  validity  coefficients  t h e r a p i s t r a n k i n g s of group  to f e e l i n g s . 52  Concurrent  Rho's of .35, .59, and  .64  were  obtained  scores  f o r a group  and r a n k i n g s  effectiveness.  their  A predictive  s c o r e s and l a t e r resulted  by  of d o c t o r a l s t u d e n t s  peer  ratings  i n r . = .49.  supervisors validity  Content  between  test  of c o u n s e l l o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s  Construct  p e r i o d f o r two groups.  was s i g n i f i c a n t ,  test  on c o u n s e l l o r  study  validity  through an i n c r e a s e i n a f f e c t i v e s e n s i t i v i t y training  from  was  indicated  over a six-month  The i n c r e a s e f o r both  groups  one at the .025 l e v e l and the other at .005.  validity  was i n d i c a t e d  by t h e p r o c e d u r e s  used i n  d e v e l o p i n g t h e t e s t , a l o n g w i t h the r e s u l t s of v a r i o u s i t e m a n a l y s i s and other i n t e r n a l a n a l y s i s data. Reliability from  using the Kuder-Richardson  .53 t o .73.  retest  Using  reliability  26 u n d e r g r a d u a t e  coefficient  Formula  20 ranged  students, a t e s t -  was c a l c u l a t e d .  The  Pearson  product moment c o r r e l a t i o n between the two s e t s of scores was .75.  Carkhuff D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Empathy Test C a r k h u f f s (1969) Index of D i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s a refinement of  the Truax  1967). Truax  Accurate  The v a l i d i t y and C a r k h u f f  Empathy data  (1967,  on t h i s Chapter  there i s a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p and  outcome v a r i a b l e s .  Scale  (Truax  scale 3).  and C a r k h u f f ,  i s summarized i n Carkhuff  reports  between the s c a l e and process  Kurtz and Grummon  (1973) i n d i c a t e a  s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e s c a l e and two 53  outcome measures, c l i e n t total  s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n ( r = .47) and t h e  p o s i t i v e Tennessee S e l f Concept Scale (r = .42).  Reliability  data  was p r e s e n t e d  i n Truax  and C a r k h u f f  (1967,  p. 45). C o r r e l a t i o n s f o r 28 s t u d i e s , i n v o l v i n g  variety  of t h e r a p i s t  Pearson  p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n s ranged  while  and p a t i e n t p o p u l a t i o n s , was  Ebel i n t e r c l a s s  the  analysis  .50  t o .95.  reliabilities  of f i n d i n g s  Jones-Mohr L i s t e n i n g  provided  f o r pooled  coefficients  presented. .43 t o .79,  data used i n ranging  from  Test  V a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y measure.  from  a  data were not a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s  A l e t t e r sent to the authors seeking i n f o r m a t i o n  was r e t u r n e d by t h e p o s t o f f i c e  as the author's  forwarding  order had e x p i r e d .  Procedures I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Research  Fifty-two meeting.  First  students  Students  were  f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  on the agenda was to provide these v o l u n t e e r s  w i t h some u n d e r s t a n d i n g was f o l l o w e d  arrived  of t h e empathy c o n s t r u c t , and t h i s  by an e x p l a n a t i o n informed  that 54  of t h e p r o j e c t ' s  the o v e r a l l  intent  purpose. of t h e  research  was t o compare  three d i f f e r e n t  empathy  training  procedures and that i n order to accomplish t h i s aim they were to  be  assigned  (Intuition,  t o one  Inference,  of four  Combination  treatment  conditions  or C o n t r o l ) .  Regardless  of t h e group i n w h i c h they found t h e m s e l v e s , t h e r e would be ample o p p o r t u n i t y f o r them t o i n t u i t and t o s h a r e feelings well,  and the p r i v a t e  the t r a i n i n g  meanings of h i s / h e r  would  another's  experience.  provide a s e t t i n g  As  i n which t h e  students could gain i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i r own thought processes. For  those  training The  i n the no-treatment group  training  experience need  i f they  wished,  would be p r o v i d e d f o r them a t a l a t e r  a  date.  a s p e c t and not the t h e r a p e u t i c a s p e c t of t h e  was emphasized.  not reveal  inappropriate  control,  any  Students  were assured  information  to a t r a i n i n g  objective.  that  they  that  deemed  Confidentiality  discussed and, as per the u n i v e r s i t y ' s i n s t r u c t i o n s ,  they  was  students  were a d v i s e d t h a t they c o u l d l e a v e the p r o j e c t a t any t i m e . Meeting a  total  required  days were s t a t e d and the students were informed of 12 1/2 h o u r s of them.  Week 1 (2 1/2 hours) Week 2 ( 2 hours) Week 3 ( 2 hours) Week 4 ( 2 hours) Week 5 ( 4 hours) questions  a five-week  period  would be  V o l u n t e e r s had to attend a l l s e s s i o n s  t h e i r data to be used.  Any  over  that  for  The time s t r u c t u r e was as f o l l o w s : o r g a n i z a t i o n a l meeting and p r e - t e s t i n g t r a i n i n g session t r a i n i n g session training session t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n and p o s t - t e s t i n g  t h e v o l u n t e e r s had were 55  then  answered.  T h e r e was a f i f t e e n still  interested  minute c o f f e e  break and t h o s e  persons  i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the r e s e a r c h  were  invited  t o r e t u r n f o r a s s i g n m e n t to groups and f o r the p r e -  testing  session.  Assignment to Groups Of  the o r i g i n a l  48 r e s p o n d e n t s ,  break f o r p r e - t e s t i n g . conduct  the four  it  decided  was  conditions  23 r e t u r n e d  As t h i s was an i n s u f f i c i e n t  t r a i n i n g groups to randomly  simultaneously  select  two  and then to randomly a s s i g n  i n t u i t i o n and the c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n s  of  session,  only  18  number to  as planned, the t r a i n i n g  students to them. The were s e l e c t e d w i t h 12  members i n i n t u i t i o n and 11 c o n t r o l members. testing  a f t e r the  students  At the p o s t -  remained,  8 i n the  i n t u i t i o n and 10 i n the c o n t r o l . After  the p o s t - t e s t i n g  solicited  and t h e f o r e g o i n g  treatment  condition  introductory testing  this  session,  session.  session, procedure  new  subjects  was r e p e a t e d .  were The  time was the combination. A f t e r the  a l l 15 students  remained  At the p o s t - t e s t i n g s e s s i o n  f o r the there  pre-  remained  8. Once again inference  the procedure was conducted, t h i s time f o r the  condition.  Eighteen  students  while 10 remained f o r the p o s t - t e s t s .  56  took  the p r e - t e s t s ,  Of t h e t o t a l 81 s t u d e n t s  who i n d i c a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n the  r e s e a r c h , t h e r e were o n l y 36 p e o p l e who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e project  from  beginning  to end. The a t t r i t i o n  rate  accounted f o r i n terms of t i m e t a b l e  c l a s h e s , clashes  exam p e r i o d and f o r some students,  l o s s of i n t e r e s t .  can be  with the  A l t h o u g h t h e r e was n o t enough s t u d e n t s a t any one t i m e t o randomly  assign  planned, particular  them  neither reason  t o one of f o u r  were  groups  the students  as o r i g i n a l l y  selected  f o r any  t o be i n any p a r t i c u l a r group.  I f they  were u n a b l e to come a t t h e t i m e t h e i r group was b e i n g they were dropped from  the research.  taught,  Each of the groups was  t a u g h t f o r f i v e weeks, one group f o l l o w i n g the o t h e r .  Each  was taught i n the same room, on the same day of the week, at the same time and by the same teacher. sessions  A l l the i n t r o d u c t o r y  and a l l p r e - and p o s t - t e s t i n g  sessions  were  conducted by the experimenter. The r e s u l t s of the p r e - t e s t i n g indicated  that  the groups  empathic a b i l i t i e s  prior  were  fairly  similar  in their  to the t r a i n i n g .  Design T h i s s t u d y employed a p r e - t e s t / p o s t - t e s t c o n t r o l group design empathy  (Table  5). The independent v a r i a b l e s were the various  training  procedures and the dependent v a r i a b l e s were  the empathy g a i n s c o r e s .  This design  57  was chosen as i t i s a  TABLE 5 Assignment  Pre-test  Treatment  Post-test  G-l  0-1  8 subjects with 4, 2 hr. intuition s e s s i o n s (X^)  0-2  G-2  0-3  8 subjects no treatment control (X2)  0-4  G-3  0-5  10 s u b j e c t s with 4, 2 hr. combination s e s s i o n s (Xg)  0-6  G-4  0-7  10 s u b j e c t s with 4, 2 hr. inference s e s s i o n s (X^)  5 - week period A - assignment of s u b j e c t s to experimental X - experimental v a r i a b l e manipulated. 0 - o b s e r v a t i o n or t e s t .  58  groups.  classic  d e s i g n f o r change experiments.  The design c a l l s f o r  random a s s i g n m e n t t o groups which was not p o s s i b l e i n t h i s research.  The u s e o f a p r e - t e s t ,  empathic  abilities  training  commenced.  o f t h e group  however,  a l l o w e d the  t o be checked  b e f o r e the  The main problem, not c o n t r o l l e d  for in  t h i s d e s i g n , i s t h e e f f e c t s of t h e p r e - t e s t i n g on the p o s t testing.  Analysis For  each  control;  hypothesis ( i n t u i t i o n > control; inference  combination>  control;  combination)  c o m b i n a t i o n ) i n f e r e n c e ) and on each measures  a  significance scores.  t-test  was  calculated  intuition;  o f the t h r e e to  >  outcome  determine  the  of the d i f f e r e n c e between the means of the gain  The f o r m u l a f o r i n d e p e n d e n t  v a r i a n c e was employed.  The l e v e l  t e s t s was .05.  59  samples  with pooled  of s i g n i f i c a n c e  f o r the t -  CHAPTER IV  Results  Several relative  hypotheses  advanced  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h r e e  methods ( i n t u i t i o n method).  method,  Differences  constituted variable  among  the independent  different  to determine the  d i f f e r e n t empathy t r a i n i n g  inference  was the mean gain  post-test  The  were  method  and combination  the t r a i n i n g  variable  scores  while  obtained  measures from p r e - t e s t  conditions  the dependent  from  subtracting  measures on each of t h r e e  empathy t e s t s . hypothesis  was  stated  such  that  f o r each  group  comparison: Ho: was t e s t e d  Xj - X  against Hj_:  Consequently,  2  <  0  the a l t e r n a t e  Xj_ - T  2  >  the c r i t i c a l  0  region  f o r r e j e c t i o n of Ho: i n  favour of H-^ at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e i s i n the r i g h t hand t a i l test  of t h e s a m p l i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n making a o n e - t a i l e d  appropriate.  Variance and t - t e s t formulas are found i n  Ferguson (1971, p. 151-53). [See Appendix B f o r gain calculation  summaries.] 60  scores and  Tests of the Hypotheses Hypothesis I It  was hypothesized  gain scores (no  t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between the mean  of Group 4 ( i n f e r e n c e t r a i n i n g ) and of Group 2  training  c o n t r o l ) would  T h i s was t e s t e d a g a i n s t mean  gain  greater  score  gain score  the a l t e r n a t e h y p o t h e s i s  o f Group  at the .05 l e v e l  be l e s s than or e q u a l  to zero. that the  4 ( i n f e r e n c e t r a i n i n g ) would be  of s i g n i f i c a n c e than would  of Group 2 (no t r a i n i n g c o n t r o l ) .  the mean  The groups were  compared on each of t h r e e empathy t e s t s u s i n g a t - t e s t f o r independent  samples.  (See Appendix  B f o r gain  score  summary  tables) When t h e i n f e r e n c e v e r s u s were a n a l y z e d found on  the c o n t r o l group g a i n  a statistically  on two of the three  the C a r k h u f f  significant  tests.  Discrimination  d i f f e r e n c e was  The g r e a t e s t gain Empathy  scores  Test,  appeared  t = 2.185.  A l e s s e r gain appeared on the Jones-Mohr L i s t e n i n g Test, 1.831.  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t  Sensitivity control  value  Scale,  t = .065.  required  gain  on the Kagan A f f e c t i v e  F o r 18 d f and p <.05 t h e  f o r t i s 1.734.  For the f i r s t  measures t h e r e f o r e , the a l t e r n a t e hypothesis Inference  training  over an e i g h t - h o u r  i s significantly training  t =  better  can be than  no  two  accepted. training  p e r i o d as measured by C a r k h u f f  61  and  Jones-Mohr.  positive  As  measured  by K a g a n ,  but does not approach s i g n i f i c a n c e  the t value i s (see Table  6 for  a summary of t - s c o r e data from the 15 t e s t s ) .  Hypothesis I I It  was  hypothesized  t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e  g a i n s c o r e s of Group 1 ( i n t u i t i o n (no t r a i n i n g The a l t e r n a t e Group was  c o n t r o l ) would hypothesis  1 (intuition  t r a i n i n g ) and of Group 2  be l e s s than or e q u a l to z e r o .  was  training)  the mean g a i n s c o r e  between the mean  t h a t the mean g a i n s c o r e of was  significantly  of Group  greater  2 (no t r a i n i n g  than  control).  When the i n t u i t i o n v e r s u s the c o n t r o l group g a i n s c o r e s were  analyzed,  d i f f e r e n c e found appeared  there  was  on the Kagan  the c r i t i c a l  accepted  and  significantly training  statistically  on any of the measures. measure,  Mohr, t = .897 and f i n a l l y p <.05,  no  t = 1.387, f o l l o w e d by  v a l u e of t = 1.746.  b e t t e r than  The h i g h e s t t value  C a r k h u f f , t = .706.  consequently  training  Jones-  For 16 df and  T h e r e f o r e , Ho:  intuition  no  significant  training over  an  p e r i o d as measured by any of the empathy  is  i s not  eight-hour tests.  Hypothesis I I I It and  was  hypothesized  of the i n f e r e n t i a l  that a combination  of the i n t u i t i v e  t r a i n i n g techniques over an eight-hour  62  TABLE 6  Jones-Mohr Listening Test  HA:1  G4 > G2  Inference  HA:2  *  t = 1.831  Kagan Affective Sensit. Scale .065  t = 2.185  t =  t =  t = 1.387  > Control  Gl > G2  Intuition  Carkhuff Discrim. Empathy Test  t =  .897  .706  Combination  t =  1.139  t = -.601  t =  .304  * t = 2.634  t = -.085  * t = 2.036  t =  t = -1.622  * t = 1.966  Intuition  HA:3b G3 > G2 Combination > C o n t r o l  HA:3c G3 > G4  18  16  > Control  HA:3a G3 > Gl  df  .57  14  16  16  Combination > Inference  * p < .05  63  Requirec Table Value  1.734  1.746  training  p e r i o d would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  other groups a l o n e .  b e t t e r than any of the  T h i s was s e p a r a t e d i n t o  i t s component  parts. A.  I t was hypothesized  that  the d i f f e r e n c e between the mean  gain score  of Group 3 (combination  (intuition  t r a i n i n g ) would  Alternately,  be l e s s  than  or e q u a l to z e r o .  t h e mean g a i n s c o r e of Group  t r a i n i n g ) would  be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  score of Group 1 ( i n t u i t i o n When t h e c o m b i n a t i o n were  t r a i n i n g ) and of Group 1  analyzed,  there  3  g r e a t e r than  (combination the mean gain  training). versus  was  no  the i n t u i t i o n statistically  d i f f e r e n c e found on any of the measures.  gain scores significant  The h i g h e s t t value  was o b t a i n e d on t h e Jones-Mohr measure, t = 1.139, f o l l o w e d by Kagan, t = .304, and f i n a l l y 14  d f and  Therefore, training  p  <  Ho;  .05  by C a r k h u f f , t = -.601.  the c r i t i c a l  i s accepted  i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  value  of  and c o n s e q u e n t l y better  than  t  =  For  1.761.  combination  intuition  training  as measured on any of the t e s t s . B. gain  I t was hypothesized  that  the d i f f e r e n c e  scores of Group 3 (combination  (no t r a i n i n g Alternately,  c o n t r o l ) would be l e s s t h e mean  training) will  between the mean  t r a i n i n g ) and of Group 2 than  or e q u a l  g a i n s c o r e of Group  be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  64  to z e r o .  3 (combination  g r e a t e r than  Group  2 (no  training  control).  When the combination analyzed  versus  a statistically  significant  two of the three measures. Jones-Mohr, A lesser measure  t = 2.634.  was t = -.085.  to  be a h i g h l y  measured Carkhuff C.  The g r e a t e s t gain was measured by  on Kagan,  at the .01 l e v e l .  t = 2.036.  The Carkhuff  F o r 16 df and p < .05 t h e c r i t i c a l  The combination  effective  by J o n e s - M o h r  method  method  t h e r e f o r e appears  of t r a i n i n g  and Kagan.  empathy  as  The h i g h l y d i s c r e p a n t  score of t = -.085 r e q u i r e s a n a l y s i s .  I t was hypothesized  t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between  gain scores of Group 3 (combination (inference  t r a i n i n g ) would  Alternately,  t h e mean g a i n  t r a i n i n g ) would score  were  d i f f e r e n c e was found on  This i s s i g n i f i c a n t  gain was recorded  value of t = 1.746.  the c o n t r o l gain scores  of Group  be s i g n i f i c a n t l y 4  (inference  When the c o m b i n a t i o n  t r a i n i n g ) and of Group 4  be l e s s score  than  or e q u a l  of Group  greater  3  than  to z e r o .  (combination the mean gain  training).  versus  a statistically  the mean  the i n f e r e n c e gain  were  analyzed  significant  found  on one of the three measures.  scores  d i f f e r e n c e was  On the Kagan measure t =  1.966, on the Jones-Mohr measure t = .57, and on the Carkhuff measure t = -1.622. of  t = 1.746.  inference  F o r 16 df and p < .05 t h e c r i t i c a l  Therefore,  alone  combination  as measured  t r a i n i n g i s better  by Kagan.  The Jones-Mohr  i s p o s i t i v e but does n o t a p p r o a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e . 65  value than value  Again, the  highly d i s c r e p a n t t value requires  of -1.622 on the C a r k h u f f  explanation.  66  measure  CHAPTER V DISCUSSION  Summary It  has been  crucial  to  programs,  effective  counselling elsewhere.  and  others  amongst  these  them.  variations  with  efforts  the backbone  methodological  c o n t r i b u t e a system f o r  an aim to understanding the  the d i f f i c u l t i e s  study  of empathy research,  between empathy and  assessed.  has f o c u s e d on empathy  training.  that perhaps some of the c o n f u s i o n  outcomes of other  Far  a renewed a t t e n t i o n to the empathy  outcome be d e f i n i t i v e l y  The p r e s e n t  the  They  and  to  the p o i n t that  the s t u d i e s forming  i n order that the r e l a t i o n s h i p  was suggested  of empathy  research  to  causing  i n the r e s e a r c h that have been overlooked.  Marks and Tolsma advocate  therapy  their  because of c o n c e p t u a l  t u r n i n g away from  construct  turn  Review  o f empathy  the i m p o r t a n c e  to  to compare  reviews  complexities from  training  training.  on t h e i m p o r t a n c e  to q u e s t i o n  is difficult  analyzing  Counsellor  Marks and Tolsma (1984) underscore  variations  empathy i s  outcome have been i n c o n c l u s i v e , thus  authors  of t h e s e  c o u n s e l l o r s that  counselling.  of r e s e a r c h  counselling  it  by  t h e r e f o r e , e m p h a s i z e empathy  articles  some  assumed  s t u d i e s was the p o s s i b i l i t y 67  It  surrounding that  they  measured  different variables.  I t was proposed  that  empathy  has  both an i n f e r e n t i a l and an i n t u i t i v e component and t h a t  the  various  studies  failed  to acknowledge t h i s ,  particularly  i n t e r m s o f t h e measures used t o a s s e s s empathy. the  theme of empathy being  a u t h o r s have a s s o c i a t e d hemisphere counsellor  be used i n o r d e r  brain's  potential.  The  implication holistic  i n t e r m s of  teaching  t o e n s u r e t h e maximum  Laterality  research  provides  methods  usage of the sanction f o r  empathy by combining the i n t u i t i o n and the i n f e r e n c e  training  methods.  I t was n o t e d  that  counsellor  programs pay most a t t e n t i o n t o d e v e l o p i n g component, of  some  t h e components each t o a s e p a r a t e  has been that  should  teaching  composed of component p a r t s ,  of t h e b r a i n . education  T a k i n g up  this  while n e g l e c t i n g  study  facilitate  stated  empathy  and that  c o u l d f a c i l i t a t e empathy. combination improving Three  the i n f e r e n t i a l  the i n t u i t i o n a l .  that  training  The hypotheses  training in inference likewise,  could  training in intuition  I t was p r o p o s e d , however, t h a t a  of t h e two methods  would prove  t o be b e s t a t  empathy. different tests  were  used  as empathy  measures.  Each of the t e s t s was thought to measure e i t h e r i n f e r e n c e or intuition Listening to i m p l i e d and  to a g r e a t e r Test,  designed  meanings using  inflection  or l e s s e r d e g r e e .  The Jones-Mohr  to measure a l i s t e n e r ' s s e n s i t i v i t y nonverbal c l u e s  was a s s o c i a t e d 68  with  such as voice  intuition.  tone  The Carkhuff  Discrimination  Empathy  problem expression,  Test,  using  was considered  the i n f e r e n t i a l component  a restricted  written  to be most a s s o c i a t e d  of empathy.  The Kagan A f f e c t i v e  S e n s i t i v i t y S c a l e , u s i n g both an a u d i o and a v i d e o was  most  like  a real  both i n t u i t i o n Kagan s c a l e .  situation.  and i n f e r e n c e a b i l i t i e s The u n d e r l y i n g  trained volunteers intuition  life  should  trained  stimulus  I t was assumed were  that  measured by the  i m p l i c a t i o n i s that  inference  do b e t t e r on the i n f e r e n c e measure,  volunteers  should  do  better  i n t u i t i v e measure, and t h a t c o m b i n a t i o n - t r a i n e d should  with  on t h e  volunteers  do w e l l on a l l measures.  Review of the R e s u l t s Hypothesis I C o u n s e l l o r s t r a i n e d using i n f e r e n t i a l empathy techniques over an eight-hour t r a i n i n g p e r i o d w i l l develop a higher degree of empathy than a no t r a i n i n g c o n t r o l group. As measured by: a) b) c)  Jones-Mohr - supported Carkhuff - supported Kagan - rejected  Hypothesis I I C o u n s e l l o r s t r a i n e d using i n t u i t i v e empathy techniques over an eight-hour t r a i n i n g p e r i o d w i l l develop a higher degree of empathy than a no t r a i n i n g c o n t r o l group.  69  As measured by: a) b) c)  Jones-Mohr - r e j e c t e d Carkhuff - rejected Kagan - rejected  Hypothesis III-A C o u n s e l l o r s t r a i n e d using a combination of the i n t u i t i v e and the i n f e r e n t i a l t r a i n i n g t e c h n i q u e s over an e i g h t - h o u r t r a i n i n g p e r i o d w i l l develop a higher degree of empathy than those t r a i n e d using i n t u i t i o n techniques alone. As measured by: a) b) c)  Jones-Mohr - r e j e c t e d Carkhuff - rejected Kagan - rejected  Hypothesis I I I - B C o u n s e l l o r s t r a i n e d u s i n g a combination of the i n t u i t i v e and the i n f e r e n t i a l t r a i n i n g t e c h n i q u e o v e r an e i g h t - h o u r t r a i n i n g p e r i o d w i l l develop a higher degree of empathy than those i n the no t r a i n i n g c o n t r o l group. As measured by: a) b) c)  Jones-Mohr - supported Carkhuff - rejected Kagan - supported  Hypothesis I I I - C C o u n s e l l o r s t r a i n e d using a combination of the i n t u i t i v e and the i n f e r e n t i a l training t e c h n i q u e s over an e i g h t - h o u r t r a i n i n g period w i l l develop a higher degree of empathy than those t r a i n e d using i n f e r e n t i a l techniques a l o n e . As measured by: a) Jones-Mohr - r e j e c t e d b) Carkhuff - rejected c) Kagan - supported  70  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the  Results  Hypothesis I ( i n f e r e n c e i s b e t t e r than The  r e s u l t s were as h y p o t h e s i z e d on the Jones-Mohr  Carkhuff  measures.  requiring  only  inference lends  On  the  t = 1.734  Carkhuff  different  to  the  a s p e c t s of  was  that  the  notion  the  on  the  that  The  inference  t  inference  the  may  be  inferential intuitive  thinking  inference  may  aspects  communication)  and  of  cause the  thus  the  Being  one  to  process  explain  t r a i n e d people not  Hunt (1979) determined Carkhuff  inference.  how  people did not The  result  confirm  the  was  that  improve s i g n i f i c a n t l y  r e s u l t s of the p r e s e n t findings  of  as  is  only  the  in  more  nonverbal  possible  c o r r e l a t i o n between the  measures i n h i s study to be low  unexpected  by  for  to improve on the Kagan measure.  Hypothesis I I ( i n t u i t i o n i s b e t t e r than An  improve  intuition  overlook  it  tap  however, t h a t  trained  (such  do  explained  p o s s i b i l i t y cannot be d i s c o u n t e d ,  i t i s at m e a s u r i n g  the  A surprising  t r a i n e d people did not This  2.185  measure  measures  perhaps the Kagan measure i s b e t t e r at m e a s u r i n g than  =  and  f a c t that  empathy c o n s t r u c t .  i n empathy as measured by Kagan. chance. The  measure,  for s i g n i f i c a n c e .  t r a i n e d group d i d b e s t  support  result  control)  at r =  and  .24.  control)  the on  Kagan  any  intuition-trained of  the  measures.  s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , were u n a b l e to Frank  71  (1977).  She  found  that  training  in  empathy  experiential  scores.  She  used  outcome.  It  is a test  identical  to  the  Several  fantasy a  of  test  between s t u d i e s .  used  explain  ability  T h e r e may to  also  fantasize  of  I t seems l i k e l y ,  fantasy  have been v a s t  t h a t to  in  receptivity  training  period  representative using h i s  would  own  take  of  that a f t e r  empathy scores improve i n one inference  training  was  this  study.  e x e r c i s e s and i n the  to the  than  the  different in  the  training. at  and  concentration  the  Carkhuff,  inference training  test,  almost  become p r o f i c i e n t  more t i m e  available.  is  discrepancy  c o m f o r t a b l e with techniques such as r e l a x a t i o n , and  measure  differences  each group p r i o r  too,  to  the  sequencing of these e x e r c i s e s were d i f f e r e n t studies.  improve  meanings and  to  experiential  did  Sundberg  measure  presented  The  by  implied  Jones-Mohr  r e a s o n s are  techniques  eight-hour  however,  the  d e m o n s t r a t e s on  tape  learning session.  the  empathy  T h i s may  significant,  but  formula,  explain  not  why  intuition  training. Another  point  of  interest  is  that  i n t u i t i o n group, a l t h o u g h e x p r e s s i n g the for  and  interest  questioned of the  i n the  training  i t s relevance to  v a l u e of the  of  empathy.  significance.  The  group,  Perhaps,  72  w i t h the  results  in  the  most a p p r e c i a t i o n  p r o c e s s c o u l d a f f e c t the  v a l u e s were, however, a l l p o s i t i v e approaching  any  members  a  continually prejudgment  results.  The  t  Kagan measure  organized  themselves  i n the order of Kagan, then Jones-Mohr, and f i n a l l y  Carkhuff.  T h i s i s what would be e x p e c t e d i f empathy c o n s i s t s of both the  intuitive  and  inferential  r e s u l t s show a p o s i t i v e  components.  trend, t h i s  Because  the  i s an area where f u r t h e r  research i s important.  Hypothesis I I I (combination  i s better  than  any  of the  other  groups) The  combination  intuition  group  as  group  was  measured  s c a l e ) and  the c o m b i n a t i o n  than  inference  the  (combination) s c a l e . results  were  intuition  not  groups  significantly on  Jones-Mohr  group  group  as  was  significant  both  showed  (the  intuition  significantly  measured  I t i s , perhaps,  g r e a t e r than the  by  the  not s u r p r i s i n g  given  that  better Kagan  that a l l  inference  gains i n empathy.  The  and  results  a g a i n do seem to s u p p o r t the i d e a of empathy b e i n g composed of two  components.  The major f i n d i n g i n the study was group  was  significantly  at not j u s t  the .05 l e v e l ,  Jones-Mohr s c a l e . exceeded  than  the  at the .05  training  control  level  level  on  the also  f i n d i n g i n r e l a t i o n to the combination  group  scale.  the s t u d y a n t i c i p a t e d  significant.  combination  was  that a l l of the Carkhuff measures had  while  no  but a l s o at the .01  Significance  on the Kagan  A surprising was  better  t h a t the  negative t values,  t h a t they would be  positively  An e x p l a n a t i o n can be t e a s e d out a n e c d o t a l l y . 73  The  students i n the combination  discontent  with the Carkhuff  complained  of being  complaint himself  on the tape.  and babied.  They complained  h i s audience  was not e m p a t h i c  to  p o r t i o n of the t r a i n i n g .  students  the value  The most vehement  that the man seemed to  i n contempt and that, t h e r e f o r e ,  to those responded  he was t r y i n g to h i s a t t i t u d e  of t h e t e a c h i n g .  Three  dropped t h e group a f t e r t h e i r e n c o u n t e r very d e v i a n t group member scored almost test,  They  was d i r e c t e d a t C a r k h u f f h i m s e l f as he p r e s e n t e d  be h o l d i n g  result,  spoonfed  c o n d i t i o n expressed c o n t i n u a l  but a f t e r  the t r a i n i n g  to t e a c h .  he  As a  and were b l i n d e d  students  actually  w i t h t h e tape.  One  p e r f e c t l y on the p r e -  only made one c o r r e c t  response.  W i t h o u t h e r d a t a , t h e C a r k h u f f measure would have had a low positive the  mean  t score. gain  Given  the negative  f o r the combination  feelings group  of the group,  on the C a r k h u f f  measure was 0. General  comments on t h e r e s u l t s of t h i s study  that the i n f e r e n c e t r a i n i n g the be  intuition effective.  training  Because  training  i s h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e (.01  empathy as compared to the c o n t r o l .  Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r 1.  has v a l u e on i t s own, but t h a t  needs to be added to the i n f e r e n c e to  Combination  l e v e l ) at improving  indicate  intuition  Research  training  74  d i d not produce  significant  gains  i n empathy and  Frank,  another  relationship  because t h i s c o n t r a d i c t s the f i n d i n g s of study  between  study w i t h longer  could  imagery  be  and  t r a i n i n g periods  done  to  fantasy and  clarify  and  the  empathy.  A  l a r g e r sample s i z e i s  recommended. 2.  I t seems i m p o r t a n t i n r e t r o s p e c t to d e s i g n  would  control  f o r age  and  intelligence.  a study  I t may  older people are more empathic than younger ones due added l i f e more  intelligent  higher 3.  experience. are  I t may more  distinguish  area  empathic  that  or  be  that  to t h e i r  t h o s e who  that  those  are  with  a  be  to  IQ would do b e t t e r with i n f e r e n c e t r a i n i n g .  Another p o s s i b i l i t y  outset  a l s o be  that  the  v i s u a l i z e r s from  of the s t u d y . may  for further research  Counsellors  need t r a i n i n g i n the  the  verbalizers  already  other  would  at  proficient in  the one  as a compensation.  Concluding Comments Implications  for Counsellor  Training  Given s e v e r a l assumptions of t h i s research; i s important to a p o s i t i v e therapy outcome, that be  trained,  measured, the  and  that  the  outcome of  r e s u l t s of  this  the  study provides  that empathy empathy  can  t r a i n i n g can  be  support f o r  the  empathy t r a i n i n g t e c h n i q u e s c u r r e n t l y employed to improve  75  empathy, did  not p r o d u c e s i g n i f i c a n t  measures training of  the i n f e r e n c e method.  and  empathy  t h e r e f o r e cannot stand  method.  intuition  Intuition training  I t i s recommended  training  techniques  gains  on  alone  as an  however,  not be overlooked.  any  of the empathy  that the value  When the i n t u i t i o n  t e c h n i q u e s were combined w i t h the i n f e r e n c e t e c h n i q u e s and then compared a g a i n s t the c o n t r o l , the r e s u l t s were h i g h l y significant  on the Jones-Mohr measure.  The t value  of 2.634  was s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l and p r o v i d e d the h i g h e s t t v a l u e of the s t u d y . at t = 2.036. that  The Kagan measure was a l s o  Thus, c o m b i n a t i o n  i n order  to  maximize  training  significant  s u p p o r t s the i d e a  sensitivity  to  a  client's  s u b j e c t i v e w o r l d , a c o u n s e l l o r s h o u l d have a c c e s s to which ever  skills  are most  a p p r o p r i a t e to the c l i e n t ' s  Ideally,  training  programs w i l l  immediate  needs.  help c o u n s e l l o r s sharpen will is  also  pay a t t e n t i o n  their  be i n i t i a t e d  skills  of s k i l l s  without  individual  will  i n i n f e r e n c e but which  to the i n t u i t i o n a l .  that the c o u n s e l l o r should not r e l y  which  The s u p p o s i t i o n  on any p a r t i c u l a r set  regard to the i n d i v i d u a l c l i e n t and h i s / h e r  problem areas.  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Empathy and c o u n s e l l i n g outcome: An empirical and c o n c e p t u a l r e v i e w . C o__u ji .s_.e 1.1. AniJ. P s y c h o l o g i s t , 6^, ( 4 ) , 70-77. Goodyear, R. (1979). Inference and i n t u i t i o n as components of empathy. C o u n s e l l o r E d u c a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , 18, (3), 214-222. H o l t , R. (1964). Imagery: The r e t u r n of the o s t r a c i z e d . American P s y c h o l o g i s t , 19, (4), 254-264. Horowitz, M. (1972). Image f o r m a t i o n : Clinical o b s e r v a t i o n s and a c o g n i t i v e model. In P. Sheehan (Ed.), The f u n c t i o n and nature of imagery. New York: Academic Press, 281-309. Hunt, I. (1979). Sex s i m i l a r i t y and empathy. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Unpublished  J o n e s , J . and Mohr, L. (1976). The Jones-Mohr Test. La J o l l a : U n i v e r s i t y A s s o c i a t e s , Inc.  Listening  Kagan, N. and Krathrowhl, D. and A s s o c i a t e s . (1967). S t u d i e s in human interaction. EastLansing: Educational P u b l i c a t i o n S e r v i c e s , C o l l e g e of E d u c a t i o n , M i c h i g a n State U n i v e r s i t y . K a t z , R. (1963). Empathy: I t s n a t u r e and uses Illinois: The Free Press of Glencoe. K i r s c h e n b a u m , H. (1979). On York: D e l a c o r t e Press.  becoming  Carl  G1encoe,  Rogers.  K l i n g e r , E. (1971) S t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n s of fantasy. York: W i l e y - I n t e r s c i e n c e .  New New  K u r t z , R. and Gruman, D. (1972). D i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s to the measurement of t h e r a p i s t empathy and their r e l a t i o n s h i p to therapy outcomes. J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 39, ( 1 ) , 106-115 79  Lambert, M., D e J u l i o , S., and S t e i n , D. (1978). Therapist interpersonal s k i l l s : Process, outcome, m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , and recommendations f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 85, (3), 467-489. L e s h , T. (1970). Zen m e d i t a t i o n and the development of empathy i n c o u n s e l l o r s . Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 10, 39-74. Marks, S. and T o l s m a , R. (1984). Empathy r e s e a r c h : Some methodological considerations. U n p u b l i s h e d paper, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Mead, G. (1934). Mind, self U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press.  and  society.  Chicago:  P e n f i e l d W. and J a s p e r s , H. (1954). Epilepsy and the f u n c t i o n a l anatomy of the human b r a i n . B o s t o n : Little Brown. R e i k , T. (1949) L i s t e n i n g w i t h the t h i r d F a r r a r , Straus and Company. Richardson, A.  (1969).  Mental imagery.  New  ear. York:  New  York:  Springer.  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G a r f i e l d ( E d s . ) , Handbook of psychotherapy and b e h a v i o u r change. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Vaughan, F. (1979). Anchor Press. Watkins, Row.  M.  (1976).  Awakening Waking  Intuition.  dreams  W o l f e , D. and R e i s i n g , R. (1978). t e a c h i n g or (can, should, w i l l ) we E n g l i s h J o u r n a l , 67, ( 5 ) , 29-32.  81  New  York:  New  York:  Harper  and  P o l i t i c s and E n g l i s h teach the whole b r a i n ?  APPENDIX A  82  FACILITATING INTUITION Relaxation R e l a x a t i o n helps to reduce the t e n s i o n and anxiety which are b l o c k s to i n t u i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g . R e l a x a t i o n thus h e l p s to c l e a r the mind which i n t u r n f a c i l i t a t e s the flow of imagery. The r e l a x a t i o n technique to be o u t l i n e d i s autosuggestion whereby a p e r s o n m e n t a l l y r e p e a t s the i n s t r u c t i o n s and a l l o w s the s u g g e s t i o n s to work by t h e m s e l v e s . The p r i n c i p l e i s that a person's body w i l l respond to an idea held i n h i s mind. The beauty of the technique i s that i t can be p r a c t i c e d anywhere. For the development of i n t u i t i o n , i t i s best to r e l a x i n a c o m f o r t a b l e s i t t i n g p o s i t i o n with the spine s t r a i g h t . The i d e a i s to be p h y s i c a l l y r e l a x e d and mentally a l e r t . The e x p e r i e n c e of r e l a x a t i o n may be a t i n g l i n g or a p u l s i n g . There may be a f e e l i n g of warmth or coolness, a heaviness or a f l o a t i n g s e n s a t i o n . A f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e p r a c t i c e with t h i s method, i t may be p o s s i b l e to r e l a x deeply j u s t by suggesting to o n e s e l f to do so. Development of t h i s a b i l i t y i s a l o n g - t e r m g o a l as i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l to be able to r e l a x at w i l l i n a therapy s e s s i o n .  83  RELAXATION METHOD I (adapted from Samuels and Samuels, 1975) S i t c o m f o r t a b l y w i t h your back s t r a i g h t . and  inhale  slowly  and d e e p l y .  exhale s l o w l y and c o m p l e t e l y . fall  as you b r e a t h e .  calm, will  Pause f o r a moment.  Then  Allow your abdomen to r i s e and  Do t h i s s e v e r a l  c o m f o r t a b l e and r e l a x e d .  times.  As you r e l a x ,  You now your  feel  breathing  become slow and even. Mentally  are  Close your eyes  say t o your s e l f , "My f e e t a r e r e l a x i n g .  becoming  Rest  more and more r e l a x e d .  f o r a moment.  ankles. then  Rest again.  your  abdomen.  Relax  Rest.  Relax  Relax  your  Rest.  your  your head.  your  forearms,  pelvis.  Rest.  fingers. your  R e l a x your neck.  a l l o w i n g i t t o drop. R e l a x your eyes.  a r e heavy."  s u g g e s t i o n f o r your  Rest. Relax the muscles of your back.  shoulders.  You  the same  feet  In the same way, r e l a x your lower  thighs.  your c h e s t . Rest.  Repeat  My  They  Relax  Relax  R e l a x your  hands.  arms  and  your  R e l a x your jaw,  R e l a x your tongue. R e l a x your  Rest.  your  Rest.  upper Rest.  legs,  cheeks.  R e l a x your f o r e h e a d and the top of  Now j u s t r e s t .  a r e now i n a c a l m ,  Allow your whole body to r e l a x . . relaxed  t h i s s t a t e by counting backwards.  84  s t a t e of b e i n g .  Breathe i n .  Deepen  As you exhale  s l o w l y , say t o y o u r s e l f ,  "Ten, I am f e e l i n g v e r y r e l a x e d . . . "  Inhale,  and as you e x h a l e ,  feeling  more r e l a x e d . . . " B r e a t h e , 8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1,0."  You body  repeat  mentally,  "Nine,  I am  a r e a t a deep and r e l a x e d l e v e l of a w a r e n e s s .  feels  healthy  and your  mind  i s peaceful  Your  and open.  Images are c l e a r and v i v i d . When you want to r e t u r n to o r d i n a r y consciousness am now g o i n g t o move. left  hand and s t r e t c h  When I count my f i n g e r s .  happy and strong, and ready  t o '3', I w i l l  I will  then  to continue with my  say, "I  r a i s e my  f e e l relaxed, activities."  ALTERNATE METHOD This enhancing  relaxation intuition  method i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e t o as i t s u g g e s t s  It can e a s i l y be shortened  activity  or lengthened  and p a s s i v i t y .  depending on how you  f e e l at the time. S i t comfortably and  with your  back s t r a i g h t .  i n h a l e s l o w l y and c o m p l e t e l y .  Close your  Pause, and then  eyes  exhale  slowly. Begin  with your  "I am r e l a x i n g  toes and say to y o u r s e l f : my toes, my toes are r e l a x i n g . "  I am r e l a x i n g my f e e t . My relaxing m y ankles. relaxing m y calves. My r e l a x i n g m y knees. My relaxing m y thighs. My relaxing my pelvis. My r e l a x i n g my buttocks. My 85  My f e e t a r e r e l a x i n g . ankles are r e l a x i n g . calves are relaxing. knees a r e r e l a x i n g . thighs are relaxing. pelvis i s relaxing. buttocks are r e l a x i n g .  I I I I I I I  am am am am am am am  r e l a x i n g my back. My back i s r e l a x i n g . I am r e l a x i n g my stomach. My stomach i s r e l a x i n g . I am r e l a x i n g my chest. My c h e s t i s r e l a x i n g . I am r e l a x i n g my shoulders. My s h o u l d e r s a r e r e l a x i n g . I am r e l a x i n g my arms. My arms a r e r e l a x i n g . I am r e l a x i n g my hands. My hands a r e r e l a x i n g . I am r e l a x i n g my neck. My neck i s r e l a x i n g . I am r e l a x i n g the back of my head. The back of my head i s r e l a x i n g . I am r e l a x i n g my f o r e h e a d . My f o r e h e a d i s r e l a x i n g . I am r e l a x i n g my eyes. My eyes a r e r e l a x i n g . I am r e l a x i n g my mouth. My mouth i s r e l a x i n g . I am r e l a x i n g my jaw. My jaw i s r e l a x e d and I am at peace. (Vaughn, 1979)  86  FACILITATING INTUITION Concentration: C o n c e n t r a t i o n , or one-pointedness of mind i s p r a c t i c e d i n order to remove o b s t a c l e s to i n t u i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g . The paradox i n v o l v e d i s t h a t an e f f o r t of w i l l i s r e q u i r e d i n order to focus the mind and thus a l l o w spontaneous images to a r i s e . The a c t i s one of l e a r n i n g to s u r r e n d e r to experience, r a t h e r than to t r y and c o n t r o l or change i t . C o n c e n t r a t i o n techniques focus the mind on one p a r t i c u l a r p r o c e s s , o b j e c t or sound. The i d e a i s to suspend the o n g o i n g c h a t t e r of the r a t i o n a l mind and to a l l o w the h o l i s t i c , i n t u i t i v e mind to f u n c t i o n . Examples are c o n c e n t r a t i o n on b r e a t h i n g , mandalas or mantras. The p r o c e s s of l e a r n i n g to c o n c e n t r a t e i s a d i f f i c u l t one. I t r e q u i r e s p r a c t i c e and p e r s e v e r a n c e . Pushing o n e s e l f tends to generate r e s i s t a n c e . One must be gentle w i t h o n e s e l f and each t i m e the a t t e n t i o n wanders, one must b r i n g i t back to the object of c o n c e n t r a t i o n . The l o g i c a l e x t e n t i o n of l e a r n i n g to concentrate i s that i n a t h e r a p y s e s s i o n the c o u n s e l l o r can d i r e c t h i s a t t e n t i o n at w i l l to any p e r s o n , s i t u a t i o n or p r o b l e m which he might wish to consider i n t u i t i v e l y .  87  EXERCISE I Breath C o n c e n t r a t i o n  (Samuel & Samuels [1975])  C o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e b r e a t h i n g p r o c e s s  i s a convenient  method of developing one pointedness  of mind as b r e a t h i n g i s  a repetitious  which  or  and rhythmic  activity  continues  whether  not we w i l l i t .  Instructions: Breathe  i n and out as usual without  Now b r i n g your your  any e f f o r t  mind t o c o n c e n t r a t e on your  mind be aware of your  or s t r a i n .  breathing. Let  b r e a t h i n g i n and out.  When you  breathe you sometimes take deep breaths, sometimes not.  This  does not matter.  and n a t u r a l l y .  When  b r e a t h s be aware o f movements and changes.  When  you  take  your on  thoughts  J u s t breathe  stray,  normally  b r i n g them back g e n t l y to c o n c e n t r a t i n g  breathing.  88  Exercise 2 Concentration  on a Small Object  (pencil)  (Samuels & Samuels [1979]) Instructions; P l a c e the o b j e c t i n f r o n t of you where you can e a s i l y all its  of i t . Gaze at the o b j e c t t h i n k i n g o n l y size,  shape,  constitutent  colour  parts.  and  Beyond  o b j e c t only as a whole.  texture  this  acknowledge  awareness to the o b j e c t .  as  analysis,  Notice  well  as  its  think  of  the  Attempt to keep your a t t e n t i o n f i x e d  o n l y on the o b j e c t . As d i s t r a c t i n g awareness,  of i t .  see  them Do  and  t h o u g h t s come i n t o your then  t h i s f o r two  89  simply  return  minutes.  your  FACILITATING INTUITION Observation: o b s e r v a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t to c o u n s e l l o r s as i t may be awareness of nonverbal behaviour which t r i g g e r s i n t u i t i v e images. t h e r e i s much more i n what p e o p l e see than they u s u a l l y notice.  90  EXERCISE I Observation of an  Object  Instructions: Look around the room and choose any o b j e c t . Now, with your body relaxed, n o t i c e the way l i g h t s t r i k e s your object. N o t i c e the h i g h l i g h t s and shadows, the r e f l e c t i o n s , the r a d i o - l u c e n t q u a l i t y and the range of tones i t c r e a t e s . Let your eyes wander over the o u t l i n e of the o b j e c t . Notice s h a r p l i n e s , s o f t l i n e s , the t o t a l shape of the o b j e c t and the s m a l l e r shapes which comprise i t . Notice the t e x t u r e and f i n i s h of the o b j e c t : i s i t rough, smooth, d u l l or s h i n y ? Look f o r the g r a i n i n the surface. Look at the colour of the object; the s u b t l e gradations of tone. i s the c o l o u r b r i g h t or d u l l , f a i n t or dark, uniform or varying? Be aware of the depth and p e r s p e c t i v e i n h e r e n t i n what you are l o o k i n g at. Experience of an  Object  Instructions: Choose another o b j e c t . T h i s time allow thoughts to a r i s e f r e e l y as you f i x your eyes on the d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of the object. T r y not to r e a c t v e r b a l l y or to l a b e l what you see. Just t r y to experience the images and f e e l i n g s that surround the o b j e c t . T h i s should help you to d i s c o v e r more about the object than j u s t l o o k i n g at i t s l a b e l l e d aspects. Allowing  an Object to F i l l  Your Consciousness  Instructions: Move c l o s e to the o b j e c t so t h a t i t f i l l s your v i s u a l field. Then, move even c l o s e r i n o r d e r to c o n c e n t r a t e on a s i n g l e p a r t of the o b j e c t . What your eye f o c u s e s on, and t a k e s i n the d e t a i l s of, b e g i n s to f i l l your whole consciousness as w e l l as your v i s u a l f i e l d . Once you become accomplished at t h i s you w i l l be able to accomplish the same t h i n g by moving i n mentally.  91  Looking at an Object from D i f f e r e n t Viewpoints Instructions: Look at an a p p l e . Look a t i t as s o m e t h i n g to be e a t e n . How does i t t a s t e ? I s i t a v a r i e t y you l i k e ? Is i t f r e s h or stale? J u s t as you a r e a hungry p e r s o n ready to b i t e i n t o the a p p l e , s h i f t your v i e w p o i n t to t h a t of a p a i n t e r about to paint i t . Become aware of the c o l o u r , the t e x t u r e , the l i g h t that i s s t r i k i n g the apple. How d i f f i c u l t or easy w i l l i t be to p a i n t . As you become ready to p i c k up your b r u s h , s h i f t r a p i d l y to the p o i n t of view of a worm, e a t i n g i t s way through the apple. Then, to the p o i n t of view of a m i g r a n t worker p i c k i n g the a p p l e . Then, to a c h i l d bobbing f o r the apple i n a tub. Each time your v i e w p o i n t changes you should become aware of d i f f e r e n t aspects of the apple. Remembering What You  See  Instructions Stare at t h i s tray of o b j e c t s f o r one minute. Close your eyes and see how many of o b j e c t s you can see i n your mind's eye. Do not l i s t the o b j e c t s v e r b a l l y i n your mind as you do t h i s . Look at the o b j e c t s again and see how c l o s e l y what you remembered matched the t h i n g s on the t r a y .  92  FACILITATING INTUITION Receptivity The g o a l i s to l e a r n to be r e c e p t i v e to whatever e n t e r s consciousness, e i t h e r f e e l i n g s or images, and to observe w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r e n c e , i . e . , w i t h o u t j u d g i n g or w i t h o u t t r y i n g to change whatever a r i s e s . F e e l i n g s - a c o u n s e l l o r must be i n touch with h i s / h e r own f e e l i n g s i n o r d e r to be e m p a t h i c . To be a b l e to g i v e f u l l a t t e n t i o n to a c l i e n t r e q u i r e s t h a t the c o u n s e l l o r a c k n o w l e d g e and e x p e r i e n c e h i s / h e r own f e e l i n g s . The process i s c a l l e d " c e n t e r i n g . " The c o u n s e l l o r must know where he/she i s so t h a t h i s / h e r own f e e l i n g s don't i n t e r f e r e with h i s / h e r a b i l i t y to be with the c l i e n t . Images - l e a r n to pay a t t e n t i o n s dreams or f l e e t i n g impressions.  93  to  visions,  daydreams,  EXERCISE 1  (Vaughn  1979)  Awareness of P h y s i c a l , Emotional and Mental L e v e l s of Experience Instructions: Sit  q u i e t l y w i t h your eyes c l o s e d .  Now  become aware of  any p h y s i c a l s e n s a t i o n s w h i c h are p r e s e n t f o r you. the parts of your body which  feel  Notice  tense and those which  feel  relaxed.  N o t i c e t h e p a r t s of your body which move when you  breathe.  Notice where you are holding  on.  b r e a t h i n g w i t h o u t t r y i n g t o change i t .  Be aware of your  I s t h e r e e x t r a work  g o i n g on i n you body w h i c h you don't need r i g h t now? L e t go of i t or l e t i t be.  Pause.  Be aware of any f e e l i n g s which a r e p r e s e n t f o r you Notice  any  happened  feelings  i n the p a s t ,  that  are  related  and  any  feelings  to  something  pertaining  might or might not happen i n the f u t u r e .  now. which  to what  There i s n o t h i n g  you have to do about them, j u s t n o t i c e them and l e t them be. Pause. N o t i c e any t h o u g h t s t h a t a r e g o i n g t h r o u g h your mind at this  time,  trying  without  trying  to push them away.  N o t i c e any images  to h o l d  onto  them  and  without  Pause.  that may  be present i n your mind's eye.  Just l e t them be. Be  aware of s e n s a t i o n s ,  feelings,  94  t h o u g h t s and  images  that are present  f o r you know.  How does i t f e e l t o be you.  Stay w i t h your a w a r e n e s s as l o n g as you l i k e  and come back  when you are ready.  EXERCISE 2  (Stevens  [1971])  T h i s i s an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the stream  of c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  Now I am aware...Now I am aware....  Images of I n t e r p e r s o n a l I n t u i t i o n  (Vaughn  [1979])  S i t o p p o s i t e a p a r t n e r and take a few m i n u t e s to become centered  and q u i e t .  breathing.  Notice  Close  your eyes and be aware of your  any f e e l i n g s ,  any thoughts  that you have.  G i v e y o u r s e l f a m i n u t e t o be aware o f your e x p e r i e n c e  right  now. Open your eyes and give your partner your f u l l a t t e n t i o n . S i m p l y l o o k a t t h i s p e r s o n and n o t i c e how you f e e l b e i n g w i t h him/her.  In a r e c e p t i v e mode, a l l o w t h i s p e r s o n  awareness.  your  C l o s e your eyes and see i f you can get a c l e a r  picture  of your p a r t n e r i n your mind's eye.  partner  long  picture  into  enough  and c a r e f u l l y  of what he or she looks  enough  Look a t your  t o get a  clear  like.  Now e i t h e r w i t h your eyes opened or c l o s e d , n o t i c e what images come to mind when you a r e g i v e n a s u g g e s t i o n . Do not try  to make anything  happen.  I f nothing  95  comes to mind, that  is  okay.  Do  not t r y to i n t e r p r e t  or j u d g e  your images as  they appear, n o t i c e them and l e t them be. I f t h i s person were an animal, what type of animal would i t be? I f t h i s person were a p l a n t , what type of plant would i t be? Landscape? Body of water? (how deep, how c l e a r , how much movement, what temp?) L i g h t , what c o l o u r and i n t e n s i t y ? A g e o m e t r i c a l symbol? Type of music? Tool? Character i n h i s t o r y , who would i t be? Can you v i s u a l i z e your p a r t n e r as a c h i l d , as a v e r y o l d person? What i s the energy space l i k e between you? Take a few m i n u t e s t o be q u i e t and r e c e p t i v e t o any images that may emerge spontaneously as you continue to focus your a t t e n t i o n on your partner. Take as much time as you want to share with your partner the images which have emerged. You can s h a r e any f e e l i n g s you have about the images, but do not a t t e m p t to i n t e r p r e t them.  96  FACILITATING INTUITION Transition  Techniques  The purpose of these e x e r c i s e s i s to provide p r a c t i c e i n a p p l y i n g what h a s been l e a r n e d a b o u t r e l a x a t i o n , c o n c e n t r a t i o n , o b s e r v a t i o n , and r e c e p t i v i t y i n order to l e a r n more about an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r i v a t e world. The i d e a i s to e x p e r i e n c e the f a n t a s y s i t u a t i o n as v i v i d l y and i n as much d e t a i l as p o s s i b l e . One member of the group w i l l d e s c r i b e h i s e x p e r i e n c e i n the f i r s t p e r s o n i n c l u d i n g e v e r y t h i n g he t h i n k s , sees, f e e l s , or h e a r s . The r e s t of t h e group w i l l p i c t u r e what i s b e i n g d e s c r i b e d and w i l l attempt to take note of any thoughts, associations, or images which a r i s e f o r them w h i l e a t t e n d i n g to you. Once the fantasy i s complete, everyone w i l l w r i t e down what they r e c a l l of t h e i r personal i m a g e s , e t c . , and a l s o what t h e s t i m u l u s was t h a t cued it.  0  97  EXERCISE 1 Stump, Cabin  Stream  (Stevens, 1971)  I'd l i k e you t o i m a g i n e t h a t you a r e a t r e e stump i n the mountains.  Become t h i s  your surroundings. t r e e stump.  Take some time  this  y o u r s e l f and  to get the f e e l of being a  What i s your shape?  r o o t s do you have?  being  Visualize  I t might h e l p t o d e s c r i b e y o u r s e l f .  of a stump a r e you? and  t r e e stump.  What k i n d of bark  T r y t o get i n t o  t r e e stump.  What k i n d  the e x p e r i e n c e  of  What i s your e x i s t e n c e as a stump?  What kinds of t h i n g s happen to you as a stump? Near t h i s become t h i s cabin.  stump  there  cabin.  i s a cabin.  Flavour  What a r e you l i k e ,  the e x p e r i e n c e  what a r e your  E x p l o r e your e x i s t e n c e as a c a b i n . you?  I'd l i k e  What happens to you?  you now t o  of b e i n g  this  characteristics?  What do you have i n s i d e  Take some t i m e  t o get i n t o u c h  with what i t i s l i k e being t h i s c a b i n . Near the c a b i n i s a s t r e a m the s t r e a m . of s t r e a m  What k i n d o f e x i s t e n c e do you have?  a r e you?  your experiences? Now,  and I'd l i k e you now t o become  How do you f e e l as a s t r e a m ? What are your  say goodbye  cabin  here.  E x e r c i s e 2 - personal dream  experience  E x e r c i s e 3 - personal problem  experience  98  What a r e  surroundings?  t o the stump,  r e t u r n to your e x i s t e n c e  What k i n d  and s t r e a m  and  FACILITATING INFERENCE (Egan, If  i t is  inferring  important  another's  and  with  typically  expressed.  attend  to  self  as  a  means  f e e l i n g s t a t e , then i t would be  to become f a m i l i a r with emotions  to  1975)  the  the ways you language  The  experience  with  which  purpose of the  of  helpful  a variety emotions  of are  following exercises  i s to help expand awareness of the words which are  expressive  of  to  emotion.  This  d e s c r i b e your own identify  vocabulary feeling  should  s t a t e s and  help  you  consequently  better  help  you  them i n o t h e r s .  EXERCISE 1 Part 1 1.  Becoming F a m i l i a r with the Language of F e e l i n g s  Group d i s c u s s i o n on includes:  the  ways  emotions  By  s i n g l e words: I feel 'ecstatic. '  By  phrases: I'm 'on cloud  are  expressed  nine'.  By e x p e r e n t i a l phrases ( t h i s d e s c r i b e s what i s happening) I 'think he l o v e s me.' By b e h a v i o u r a l statements ( t h i s d e s c r i b e s the a c t i o n you f e e l l i k e taking) I ' f e e l l i k e k i s s i n g everybody.' Note t h a t i n the l a s t expressed  indirectly.  t h r e e examples, the f e e l i n g s  T h i s i s the d i f f e r e n c e between  99  are  feeling  and c o n t e n t .  The formula becomes: I f e e l e c s t a t i c because I t h i n k he l o v e s me and I f e e l like k i s s i n g everyone.  Part 2 1.  Practice  Exercises  The group g e n e r a t e s a l i s t of about 20 e m o t i o n s . Each p e r s o n then spends 15 m i n u t e s w o r k i n g p r i v a t e l y on e x p r e s s i n g t h e e m o t i o n s i n the p r e v i o u s l y l i s t e d f o u r ways. e.g. ANXIETY S i n g l e word: Phrase: E x p e r e n t i a l statement: B e h a v i o u r a l statement:  I I I I  m nervous, m on edge. t h i n k I'm being judged, f e e l l i k e running away.  Exercise 2 Take the l i s t of f e e l i n g s generated and d e s c r i b e what you f e e l when you f e e l these emotions. 1. 2. 3.  How does your body r e a c t ? What happens i n s i d e of you? What do you f e e l l i k e doing?  Exercise 3 Choose an example of one of these emotions and r e c a l l an e x p e r i e n c e where the e m o t i o n p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t p a r t . Write a paragraph about t h i s e x p e r i e n c e . Exercise 4 Review  of the Carkhuff tape.  100  DISCRIMINATION OF FEELINGS AND CONTENT 1.  The group i s given a handout on the d i s t i n c t i o n between the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n of f e e l i n g s . Empathy i n c l u d e s t h e a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e f e e l i n g s and then to d e s c r i b e them.  Exercise 1 Part 1  The P a s s i v e D i s c r i m i n a t i o n of F e e l i n g s  The group i s t o work on t h e f o l l o w i n g been passed around. C i r c l e the a d j e c t i v e s which c o r r e c t l y  e x e r c i s e s which identify  have  feelings.  "I (a group t r a i n e e ) don't know what t o e x p e c t from t h i s group. I've never been i n a group before. I get the f e e l i n g t h a t t h e r e s t of you a r e p r o s , so I'm a f r a i d t h a t I won't do what's r i g h t . I want t o l e a r n to be a h e l p e r , but I am not sure I can do that i n t h i s group." T h i s person  feels:  a f r a i d , inadequate, uncomfortable, i n f e r i o r , h u m i l i a t e d , f o r c e f u l , moody, h e s i t a n t , s p i t e f u l , a n x i o u s , i n s e c u r e , mellow. Part 2  The P a s s i v e D i s c r i m i n a t i o n of Content  T h i s time c i r c l e the statement that r e f l e c t s the content of the s p e a k e r ' s s t a t e m e n t . (What u n d e r l i e s the speaker's feelings.) T h i s person f e e l s uncomfortable and inadequate 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  because:  She t h i n k s she has no t a l e n t ; T h i s i s h e r f i r s t group e x p e r i e n c e and she doesn't know i f she's as t a l e n t e d as the other members; She doesn't want to l e t h e r s e l f down by l e a v i n g ; She f e e l s she's the "low man on the totem p o l e ; " But, a c t u a l l y , the others are j u s t as scared as she i s ; I t ' s very important f o r her to succeed.  101  EXERCISE 2 Part  1  The A c t i v e D i s c r i m i n a t i o n of F e e l i n g s  Read t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s and w r i t e down a number o f a d j e c t i v e s of phrases d e s c r i b i n g how the person f e e l s . Seventh  grade g i r l to teacher, outside  class:  "My c l a s s m a t e s don't l i k e me, and r i g h t now I don't l i k e them! Why do they have t o be so mean? They make f u n of me w e l l , at l e a s t , they make fun of my c l o t h e s . My f a m i l y can't a f f o r d t o buy. what t h o s e s n o t s wear. Gee whiz, they don't have to l i k e me, but I wish they'd stop making fun of me." This person f e e l s  Part 2  The A c t i v e D i s c r i m i n a t i o n of Content  This person f e e l s angry and h u m i l i a t e d  because  THE  COMMUNICATION OF PRIMARY LEVEL ACCURATE EMPATHY  Use  the formula "you f e e l  because  "  EXERCISE 1 Part  1  The Communication of the Understanding  of F e e l i n g s  Imagine y o u r s e l f l i s t e n i n g to the person quoted below and t r y to communicate to t h a t p e r s o n your u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h i s or her f e e l i n g s . Young woman, age 23. "Jane and Sue showed up a t t h e p a r t y i n d r e s s e s and w i t h dates. And there I was alone, and i n s l a c k s . " You  felt  102  Part 2 You  felt  Part 3 Law  The  Communication of the Understanding  embarrassed Primary  of Content  because  Accurate Empathy  (feeling  and  content)  student to school c o u n s e l l o r  "I l e a r n e d y e s t e r d a y t h a t I f l u n k e d out of s c h o o l and t h e r e i s no r e c o u r s e . I've seen everybody, but the door i s shut tight. What a mess! I h a v e no i d e a how I ' l l f a c e my parents. They've paid f o r my c o l l e g e education and t h i s year of law s c h o o l . And now I ' l l have to t e l l them t h a t i t ' s a l l down the drain." You  feel  because  EXERCISE 4 E x p e r e n t i a l P r a c t i c e Using P e r s o n a l Experiences Each s t u d e n t t a k e s a t u r n as the c l i e n t and p e r s o n a l concern. The c o u n s e l l o r s p r a c t i c e r e s p o n d i n g using primary a c c u r a t e empathy.  expresses  to c l i e n t  statements  The c l i e n t r e s p o n d s by g i v i n g 'yes' or 'no' f e e d b a c k c o u n s e l l o r s who then t r y again. ( E x e r c i s e s adapted S k i l l s , 1975.)  from  Gerard  103  some  to the  Egan, E x e r c i s e s i n H e l p i n g  FACILITATING INTUITION / INFERENCE 1.  Carkhuff  tape.  2.  Relaxation  3.  I n t r o d u c t i o n to C o n c e n t r a t i o n  4.  I n t r o d u c t i o n to Observation  5.  I n t r o d u c t i o n to r e c e p t i v i t y (images of i n t e r p e r s o n a l intuition, awareness of p h y s i c a l , emotional, and mental l e v e l s of experience).  6.  P r a c t i c e i n using exercises.  7.  P e r s o n a l experiences or dreams: Volunteers w i l l d e s c r i b e t h e i r s t i u a t i o n and the r e s t of the group w i l l p i c t u r e what i s happening and attempt to note t h e i r own thoughts, i m a g e s or a s s o c i a t i o n s and w r i t e them down. G i v e n the p e r s o n a l images the c o u n s e l l o r s w i l l use Carkhuff's model to r e f l e c t the u n d e r s t a n d i n g they have of the c l i e n t ' s s u b j e c t i v e world.  exercises.  the  (breath e x e r c i s e s ) .  (remembering what you  Carkhuff  104  model t h r o u g h  see).  written  APPENDIX B  105  Table 7 Gain Scores, Mean Gains, Gains Jones-Mohr Gain Group 1 Intuition N = 8  Carkhuff  1 -2 5 3 -6 4 2 6  1 4 25 9 36 16 4 36  13/8  13.1  Control N = 10  -3 -4 -1 6 1 1 0 1 -1 2 2/10 "X = .2  Kagan  (Gain)^  X = 1. 63  Group 2  Squared  6 -2 0 4 -1 -1 0 1  36 4 0 16 1 1 0 1  5 13 -8 4 -4 4 2 5  25 169 64 16 16 16 4 25  7/8  59  21/8  335  1  "£ = .875  9 16 1 36 1 1 0 1 1 4 70  -1 0 2 3 -4 1 -1 0 1 0 1/10  1 = .1  106  1 0 4 9 16 1 1 0 1 0 33  = 2.63  4 -7 -4 -3 1 -1 2 -2 2 2 -6/10 T  = -.6  16 49 16 9 1 1 4 4 4 4 108  Table 7 (continued) Gain Scores, Mean Gains, Gains Jones-Mohr Gain Group 3 Combination N = 8  (Gain)  0 3 7 4 2 2 3 7  0 9 49 16 4 4 9 49  28/8  140  X = 3. 5  Group 4 Inference N = 10  5 1 2 -1 -1 2 7 7 6 -1 27/10 "X = 2.7  Squared  Carkhuff  Kagan  2  3 -1 -7 1 0 1 1 2 0/8  9 1 49 1 0 1 1 4  12 0 4 10 -1 1 -2 4  144 0 16 100 1 1 4 16  "66  28/8  282  X = 0  "X = 3.5  25 1 4 1 1 4 49 49 36 1  3 0 0 2 3 1 1 5 2 1  9 0 0 4 9 1 1 25 4 1  -2 3 -2 0 6 3 -3 -5 -4 -1  4 9 4 0 36 9 9 25 -16 1  171  18/10  54  -5/10  113  "X =  107  1.8  T  = -.5  Table 8 Data Summary Hypotheses I Inference JONES-MOHR NX 2  x  var ( s ) * t* z  1(X ) 2  X var t  KAGAN  2  2  CARKHUFF  G4  KAGAN  - (^ X) /N l  - x  ^/s /N 2  1  +^X 2  2  - (^X) /N 2  -2  2  + s /N 2  1  .1  G2 10 -6 108 -.6  2  2  108  2  .2  G4 10 1 33  Nj_ + N t =  G2 10 2 70  10 -5 113 -.5 11.94 .065  ^(X ) X var t  = ^X  JONES-MOHR  G4  NX  2  G4  10 18 54 1.8 3.028 2.185  NX  s  Control  10 27 171 2.7 9.317 1.831  n ^(X )  CARKHUFF  >  Tabled Data  Summary H y p o t h e s e s I I  Intuition  >  JONES-MOHR G l NX f(X ) X var t 2  CARKHUFF NX 1  X  9  ^(X ) X var t 2  KAGAN NX £  X  9  ^(X ) X var t 2  Control JONES-MOHR  8 13 131 1.625 11.217 .897  G2  10 2 70  Gl  CARKHUFF  8 7 59  G2 10 1 33  875 361 706  .1  Gl  KAGAN  8 21 335 2.625 24.017 1.387  G2 10 -6 108 -.6  109  Table 10 Data Summary Hypotheses I I I Combination  >  Control  PART I JONES  G3  NX  8 28 140 3.5 10.848 1.139  X var t  CARKHUFF  2  KAGAN NX  1(X ) 2  CARKHUFF  8 0 66 0 8.491 -.601  f(X ) X var t  Gl  8 13 131 1.625  G3  NX  X var t  JONES  Gl 8 7 59  G3  KAGAN  8 28 282 3.5 33.134 .304  .875  Gl 8 21 335 2.625  110  Table 11 Data Summary Hypotheses I I I Combination  >  Control  PART I I JONES  G3  NX ^  X  29  CARKHUFF  9 2  var t  NX 1  X  29  £(X ) X var t  .2  CARKHUFF  8 0 66 0 6, 181 085  £(x ) I  KAGAN  10 2 70  G3  NX X  G2  8 28 140 3, 5 6. 975 2, 634  ^(X ) X var t  1  JONES  G2 10 1 33  G3  KAGAN  8 28 282 3.5 18.025 2.036  G2 10 -6 108  111  .1  .6  Table 12 Data Summary Hypotheses I I I Combination  >  Inference  PART I I I JONES  8 28 140 3.5 8.756 .57  NX  1(X9) £  X  2  X var t  CARKHUFF NX 2  X var t  G3  KAGAN  G3  NX  8 28 282 3.5 18.406 1.966  2  G4  10 27 171 2.7  CARKHUFF  8 0 66 0 5.475 -1.622  Kx )  ^(X ) X var t  JONES  G3  G4 10 18 54 1.8  KAGAN  G4 10 -5 113 -.5  112  

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