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Preparing for counselling : developing and testing an affective awareness training program for the mentally… Sproul, Grace Yuen-Yee Tse 1985

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PREPARING FOR COUNSELLING: Developing and Testing An Affective Awareness Training Program for the Mentally Disabled by Grace Yuen-Yee Tse Sproul B.A. (Psychology), Simon Fraser University, 1974 Diploma (Special Education), University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Counselling Psychology We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1985 (c) Grace Yuen-Yee Tse Sproul 1985 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Counselling Psychology The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e March 31',' 1986 ABSTRACT Th i s t h e s i s s t a r t s with the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t i f m e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d i n d i v i d u a l s are to e s t a b l i s h a p l a c e f o r themselves i n the community and s u c c e s s f u l l y cope w i t h the accompanying s t r e s s , they must, w i t h i n t h e i r own range o f c a p a b i l i t i e s , (1) l e a r n t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i r emotions, and (2) l e a r n t o express these emotions i n s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e ways. The t h e s i s then attempts t o explore whether t h i s i s a r e a l i z a b l e g o a l . A review o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s t h a t , i n s p i t e o f i t s importance to the mainstreaming p r o c e s s , the emotional development o f m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s has r e c e i v e d scant a t t e n t i o n toy p s y c h o l o g i s t s , s p e c i a l educators, or c o u n s e l l o r s . Some o f the reasons f o r t h i s are e x p l o r e d i n c l u d i n g an examination o f the p r e v a l e n t " c o g n i t i v e d e t e r m i n i s t i c " viewpoint which assumes t h a t emotional awareness presupposes h i g h e r l e v e l s o f c o g n i t i v e development than the m e n t a l l y handicapped are commonly capable o f demonstrating. The t h e s i s notes the recent view of r e s e a r c h e r s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and psychotherapy t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r a l e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s by the m e n t a l l y handicapped must develop out o f awareness o f f e e l i n g s ; i t cannot come about through e f f o r t s t o manipulate manifest b e h a v i o r alone. Perhaps more imp o r t a n t l y , i t i s argued t h a t a f f e c t i v e development takes p l a c e i n tandem with c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s , not n e c e s s a r i l y as a consequence o f them. Based on evidence t h a t a f f e c t i v e awareness t r a i n i n g f o r m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s can and should be pursued along w i t h c o g n i t i v e and l i f e s k i l l s t r a i n i n g , the t h e s i s focuses on t a k i n g up the c h a l l e n g e o f d e v e l o p i n g and f i e l d t e s t i n g "An A f f e c t i v e Awareness T r a i n i n g Program f o r the M e n t a l l y D i s a b l e d . " A G e s t a l t approach to d e v e l o p i n g awareness o f o n e s e l f and one's environment was u t i l i z e d as the t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r p r e p a r i n g the 46 l e s s o n s which make up the content o f the " A f f e c t i v e Awareness T r a i n i n g Program." The r e s e a r c h e r adapted f r e e l y from the work o f others t o c r e a t e a unique i n s t r u c t i o n a l program designed e s p e c i a l l y t o meet the needs and a b i l i t i e s o f T r a i n a b l e M e n t a l l y Retarded (TMR) students. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h i s program i n t e a c h i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f , and improving a b i l i t y t o empathize with, e x p r e s s i o n s o f the f i v e primary emotions of joy, sadness, f e a r , anger, and s u r p r i s e , was then t e s t e d by the r e s e a r c h e r u s i n g 12 TMR s u b j e c t s l i v i n g i n an i n s t i t u t i o n ( s i x i n the c o n t r o l group, s i x i n the treatment or experimental group). The t e s t instrument f o r measuring changes i n pre-treatment, post-treatment, and r e t e n t i o n l e v e l performance, was a s e r i e s o f 15 s p e c i a l l y prepared video v i g n e t t e s . Each v i g n e t t e focused on one emotion and there were t h r e e d i f f e r e n t v i g n e t t e s p o r t r a y i n g each emotion. The t h e s i s concludes t h a t the experimental group, who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the a f f e c t i v e awareness t r a i n i n g program, changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e and empathize with e x p r e s s i o n s o f the f i v e primary emotions. - i v -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am indebted t o many people f o r the encouragement and a s s i s t a n c e they so f r e e l y o f f e r e d d u r i n g the time I was p r e p a r i n g t h i s t h e s i s . P r o f e s s o r John A l l a n was most h e l p f u l t o me as my s u p e r v i s o r and mentor. Woodlands' s t a f f were always encouraging and s u p p o r t i v e . I would l i k e t o thank Susan Poulos, Manager, Pat Woodward, D i r e c t o r o f T r a i n i n g and S p e c i a l Education, and O l i v e Y e l l a n d , p r i n c i p a l , Woodlands School. There are many ot h e r s at Woodlands, too numerous t o mention, t o whom I owe my s i n c e r e thanks. I would l i k e t o e s p e c i a l l y express my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o A l i c e G i i l c k , my former t e a c h i n g aide whose support was i n v a l u a b l e d u r i n g the time I was c a r r y i n g out t h i s r e s e a r c h . Many thanks t o Sabrina Yan f o r s e c r e t a r i a l a s s i s t a n c e . L a s t l y , but not l e a s t , my deepest a p p r e c i a t i o n t o my f a m i l y and e s p e c i a l l y my husband L a r r y , who provided me w i t h encouragement, p a t i e n c e and guidance throughout t h i s venture. - V -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS i v TABLE OF CONTENTS v LIST OF TABLES v i i i Chapter I. SCOPE AND FOCUS OF THE STUDY 1 Background 1 Purpose and Importance o f the Study 4 Statement o f the Problem 5 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 5 Awareness 5 Primary emotional s t a t e s 6 Empathy 7 Men t a l l y handicapped 7 Research Questions and R a t i o n a l e 8 L i m i t a t i o n s and Key Assumptions 8 J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f the Study 9 I I . REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 10 P r i o r Research on the To p i c 10 C o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s f o r the ment a l l y handicapped .. 10 H i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e 11 A f f e c t i v e needs o f the m e n t a l l y handicapped 14 Responding t o the a f f e c t i v e needs o f m e n t a l l y handicapped c l i e n t s 16 P s y c h o l o g i c a l Theory and C o u n s e l l i n g f o r the M e n t a l l y Handicapped 21 Overview 21 The p s y c h o a n a l y t i c model 22 The b e h a v i o r a l model 24 The developmental model 27 G e s t a l t Awareness Approaches i n C o u n s e l l i n g the M e n t a l l y D i s a b l e d 30 The t h e o r e t i c a l and t h e r a p e u t i c core o f G e s t a l t therapy 30 The g o a l s o f the G e s t a l t t h e r a p e u t i c process 34 G e s t a l t approach t o classroom guidance 35 S p e c i f i c Techniques U s e f u l i n C o u n s e l l i n g M e n t a l l y Handicapped I n d i v i d u a l s 36 D i r e c t i v e n e s s 37 Ver b a l techniques 37 Non-verbal techniques 38 S e t t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e l i m i t s 41 - v i -Chapter Page I I . REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE (Continued) Understanding the Development o f A f f e c t 42 Methods o f E v a l u a t i o n 44 P h i l o s o p h i c a l i s s u e s 45 Methods o f measurement 48 Summary 49 I I I . RESEARCH METHOD 51 Subjects 51 T e s t Instrument 52 E s t a b l i s h i n g B a s e l i n e Behaviors f o r Subjects 55 Lesson P l a n A c t i v i t i e s 56 Video V i g n e t t e s 57 D e f i n i t i o n o f F i v e Primary Emotions 59 Design and Procedure 60 Method 60 Re-test 61 IV. RESULTS 62 A n a l y s i s ' 62 P r e - t e s t s c o r e s : Experimental t o c o n t r o l group 64 P o s t - t e s t s c o r e s : Experimental to c o n t r o l group .... 64 R e t e n t i o n - t e s t s c o r e s : Experimental t o c o n t r o l group 64 Experimental group: Pre- t o p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s 65 C o n t r o l group: Pre- t o p o s t - t e s t scores 65 Experimental group: Post- and r e t e n t i o n -t e s t s cores 67 Experimental group: Pre- and p o s t - t e s t combined Ql + Q2 scores 67 Experimental group: Post- and r e t e n t i o n - t e s t combined Ql + Q2 s c o r e s 69 P r e - t e s t combined Ql + Q2 s c o r e s : Experimental t o c o n t r o l group 69 P o s t - t e s t combined Ql + Q2 s c o r e s : Experimental to c o n t r o l group 69 R e t e n t i o n - t e s t combined Ql + Q2 s c o r e s : Experimental to c o n t r o l group 70 Experimental group: U n i t I p r e - to post-t e s t scores 70 Experimental group: U n i t II p r e - to p o s t -t e s t s cores 71 - v i i -C h a p t e r Page V. DISCUSSION 72 I n c r e a s e i n Awareness o f t h e E x t e r n a l W o r l d 72 I n c r e a s e i n Awareness o f t h e I n t e r n a l W o r l d 73 I n c r e a s e i n Awareness o f t h e F e e l i n g s o f O t h e r s 74 I n c r e a s e i n A b i l i t y t o E m p a t h i z e 75 I n c r e a s e i n Awareness o f F e e l i n g s W i t h i n O n e s e l f 76 I n c r e a s e i n S e l f - e s t e e m 77 I n c r e a s e i n S o c i a l S k i l l s 78 I n c r e a s e i n Language S k i l l s 79 I n c r e a s e i n t h e Use o f C r e a t i v e S k i l l s 79 I n c r e a s e i n t h e E x p r e s s i o n o f P o s i t i v e A f f e c t 80 C o n c l u s i o n 83 REFERENCES 87 APPENDIX A: S t a f f O b s e r v a t i o n R e c o r d S h e e t 98 APPENDIX B: A f f e c t i v e Awareness T r a i n i n g Program Lessons ... 101 LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1: 63 Comparison of Experimental Group on Pre-, Post-, and R e t e n t i o n Scores w i t h C o n t r o l Group Pre-, Post-, and R e t e n t i o n T e s t Scores f o r Question 1 and Question 2 Table 2: 66 Comparison of Experimental Group P r e - t e s t scores w i t h P o s t - t e s t s c o r e s and P o s t - t e s t w i t h R e t e n t i o n T e s t Scores f o r Question 1 and Question 2 and Comparison of C o n t r o l Group P r e - t e s t scores w i t h P o s t - t e s t scores Table 3: 68 Comparison o f Experimental Group on Pre-, Post-, and R e t e n t i o n - T e s t f o r Aggragated Question l / Q u e s t i o n 2 s c o r e s and f o r C o n t r o l Group on Pre-, Post-, and R e t e n t i o n T e s t f o r Aggragated Question l / Q u e s t i o n 2 scores Table 4: 70 Comparison of Experimental Group on U n i t I Pre- and U n i t I Post- t e s t s c o r e s , and on U n i t II Pre- and U n i t II Post-t e s t scores - 1 -Chapter I. Scope and Focus of the Study Background With the c u r r e n t momentum towards e d u c a t i o n a l mainstreaming of the handicapped, i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f m e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l not o n l y be l i v i n g i n the community but w i l l be f o l l o w i n g i n d i v i d u a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l programs i n r e g u l a r schools (Neely, 1982; Lombana, 1982). While mainstreaming i s a p o s i t i v e attempt to redress our s o c i e t a l treatment o f a devalued group, i t i s now recognized t h a t t h i s movement alone w i l l not n e c e s s a r i l y reduce the f e e l i n g s o f h u r t and anger t h a t m e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d people are l i k e l y t o experience when they move out i n t o the community (Matson, 1984; Lewis & Maclean, 1982). Most me n t a l l y d i s a b l e d i n d i v i d u a l s are inadequately prepared to cope with t h i s change and l a c k the s k i l l s t o i n t e r a c t w i t h others i n the community or t o defend themselves a g a i n s t abuse or p r e j u d i c e (Matson, 1984) . For the m e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d , l e a r n i n g t o r e c o g n i z e or express f e e l i n g s i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s has not been i d e n t i f i e d as a p r i o r i t y g o a l even though i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o the g a i n i n g o f s o c i a l acceptance ( P e e l l e , 1982). I f m e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d i n d i v i d u a l s are t o s u c c e s s f u l l y e s t a b l i s h a p l a c e f o r themselves i n the community, two c r i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n a l t a s k s f o r them w i l l be l e a r n i n g t o re c o g n i z e t h e i r emotions, and l e a r n i n g t o express these emotions i n s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e ways. T h i s t h e s i s e x p l o r e s these i s s u e s . In s p i t e o f i t s importance t o the mainstreaming process, the emotional development o f m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s has - 2 -r e c e i v e d s c a n t a t t e n t i o n i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l and c o u n s e l l i n g l i t e r a t u r e . I n p a r t t h i s p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t s a g e n e r a l u n d e r l y i n g b u t u n s t a t e d a s s u m p t i o n t h a t e m o t i o n a l a w areness p r e s u p p o s e s h i g h e r l e v e l s o f c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t t h a n t h e m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d a r e c a p a b l e o f d e m o n s t r a t i n g ( z i g l e r i n L e w i s & M a c l e a n , 1 9 8 2 ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e c e n t r a l f o c u s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t o r s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s and c o u n s e l l o r s w o r k i n g w i t h t h e m e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d , h a s t e n d e d t o w a r d s a p p l i e d b e h a v i o r a n a l y s i s and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f b e h a v i o r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m s ( B a e r , W o l f & R i s l e y , 1 9 6 8 ) . E f f o r t s t o u t i l i z e e m o t i o n a l and s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g i e s a r e c o n s p i c u o u s l y a b s e n t . R e c e n t l y , however, r e s e a r c h e r s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and p s y c h o t h e r a p y h a v e n o t e d t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r a l e x p r e s s i o n o f f e e l i n g s b y t h e m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d must d e v e l o p o u t o f a wareness o f f e e l i n g s ; i t c a n n o t come a b o u t t h r o u g h e f f o r t s t o m a n i p u l a t e m a n i f e s t b e h a v i o r a l o n e . More i m p o r t a n t l y , r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e a r g u e d t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t o f a f f e c t , i . e . , e m o t i o n s and f e e l i n g s , d e v e l o p s i n tandem w i t h c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s , n o t n e c e s s a r i l y as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f them ( L e w i s & Rosenblum, 1 9 7 8 ) . Hence, i t i s i n c r e a s i n g l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t a f f e c t i v e a w a r e n e s s t r a i n i n g f o r m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d i n d i v i d u a l s c a n and s h o u l d be p u r s u e d a l o n g w i t h c o g n i t i v e and l i f e s k i l l s t r a i n i n g . G e n e r a l l y , m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d i n d i v i d u a l s h a v e ha d no e x p o s u r e t o a f f e c t i v e a w a reness t r a i n i n g . W h i l e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s h a v e b e e n c a l l e d upon t o a s s i s t i n t h e m a i n s t r e a m i n g - 3 -of the handicapped ( A l l a n , 1981, 1982), so f a r t h e i r involvement has been mainly i n the areas of t e s t i n g , l a b e l i n g , a s s i s t i n g i n the development o f I n d i v i d u a l i z e d E d u c a t i o n a l Programs ( l E P s ) , c o o r d i n a t i n g the mainstreaming process, and v o c a t i o n a l and p a r e n t a l c o u n s e l l i n g (De B l a s s i e & Cowan, 1976; Lombana, 1982; Webster, 1977). L i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been g i v e n t o the need f o r c o u n s e l l o r s t o be i n v o l v e d w i t h the s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustment o f the m e n t a l l y handicapped student i n t o the community and the l o c a l s chool system. The importance o f s o c i a l adjustment i n the process of s u c c e s s f u l i n t e g r a t i o n can h a r d l y be overemphasized (Charles & McGrath, 1962; Skaarvrevik, 1971). One key t o t h i s adjustment i s to be found i n the handicapped student's a b i l i t y t o make meaningful c o n t a c t with h i s or her i n n e r s e l f and w i t h o t h e r s . For normal c h i l d r e n , the process o f growth and development w i t h i n the f a m i l y f r e q u e n t l y leads t o the a c q u i r i n g of i n s i g h t i n t o s e l f and others which may be enhanced and strengthened through s c h o o l programs. For the m e n t a l l y handicapped, o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p o s i t i v e m o d e l l i n g i n the a f f e c t i v e domain are r a r e l y p r o v i d e d e i t h e r i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g from which many come or from the homes t o which a few may be a t t a c h e d . L a c k i n g p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n experience or developed communication s k i l l s , the me n t a l l y d i s a b l e d i n d i v i d u a l i s primed t o experience c o n s i d e r a b l e f r u s t r a t i o n and s t r e s s i n h a n d l i n g emotions and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . For the handicapped then, a f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n as p a r t o f the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m becomes c r i t i c a l . - 4 -P u r p o s e and I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e S t u d y I n d i v i d u a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l p rograms f o r t h e m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d g e n e r a l l y p r o v i d e c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l t r a i n i n g i n t h r e e b r o a d a r e a s : a c a d e m i c s k i l l s ( s u c h as l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n and number c o n c e p t s ) , v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s ( s u c h as s o r t i n g and m a t c h i n g ) , and l i f e s k i l l s ( s u c h as d r e s s i n g and c o o k i n g ) . I t i s i m p l i c i t l y assumed t h a t s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s p r o g r a m w i l l e q u i p m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d i n d i v i d u a l s f o r i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o t h e community, t h i s b e i n g t h e s t a t e d g o a l o f most s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l a . I t i s b e c o m i n g c l e a r , however, t h a t c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l t r a i n i n g a l o n e f a i l t o a d d r e s s t h e need o f m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d p e o p l e f o r a f f e c t i v e a w a reness w h i c h i s a c r u c i a l f i r s t s t e p t o w a r d s d e v e l o p i n g s k i l l i n e x p r e s s i n g e m o t i o n s u s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r . T h i s s k i l l i s e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t i f t h e m e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d a r e t o i m p r o v e t h e i r c h a n c e s o f s o c i a l a c c e p t a n c e and m i n i m i z e t h e p r o b a b i l i t i e s o f s o c i a l r e j e c t i o n b y t h e r e g u l a r community. I f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e t h a t m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d i n d i v i d u a l s c a n , t h r o u g h t r a i n i n g , d e v e l o p g r e a t e r a f f e c t i v e a w a r e n e s s , t h e n t h e p o t e n t i a l need f o r i n c l u d i n g a f f e c t i v e a w a r e n e s s t r a i n i n g i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l programming o f m e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s w i l l h a v e been opened f o r d i s c u s s i o n . C u r r e n t l y t h e need i s n o t a d d r e s s e d s i n c e t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r m e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s t o d e v e l o p a f f e c t i v e a w a r e n e s s h a s n o t b e e n s c i e n t i f i c a l l y s t u d i e d . - 5 -Statement o f the Problem Can m e n t a l l y handicapped people be taught awareness of f e e l i n g s as a f i r s t step i n l e a r n i n g how t o express t h e i r f e e l i n g s i n s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e ways? The working hypothesis to be t e s t e d i s t h a t s e v e r e l y m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s , ( i . e . , those t e s t e d as having an IQ between 25-50), who have undergone a s t r u c t u r e d a f f e c t i v e awareness t r a i n i n g program w i l l be able t o c o r r e c t l y r e c o g n i z e and i d e n t i f y the f i v e primary emotional s t a t e s o f "joy", "sadness", "anger", " s u r p r i s e " , and " f e a r " as expressed i n d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f video v i g n e t t e s with a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r degree o f success then a c o n t r o l group who have not r e c e i v e d such a f f e c t i v e t r a i n i n g . The s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s i s w i l l be s t a t e d i n the n u l l form, namely, t h a t a f f e c t i v e awareness t r a i n i n g w i l l have no e f f e c t on the a b i l i t y o f the experimental and c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s t o c o r r e c t l y r e c o g n i z e and i d e n t i f y the f i v e primary emotions expressed i n the video v i g n e t t e s . I t i s assumed i n t h i s study t h a t being able t o recognize and i d e n t i f y primary emotions when expressed by o t h e r s i s i n d i c a t i v e o f a f f e c t i v e awareness. T h i s p e r s o n a l awareness i s considered p r e r e q u i s i t e t o developing a p p r o p r i a t e behavior i n response t o f e e l i n g s . D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Awareness. The term "awareness" i s the s t a t e o f n o t i c i n g and o b s e r v i n g what one i s doing, p l a n n i n g , and f e e l i n g . The e x e r c i s e s t h a t are developed i n t h i s t h e s i s p a r a l l e l the zones o f - 6 -awareness d e s c r i b e d by Stevens (1971), namely: 1. Awareness o f the o u t s i d e world. T h i s r e f e r s t o the a c t u a l sensory c o n t a c t with o b j e c t s and events i n the here and now. 2. Awareness o f the i n s i d e world. T h i s r e f e r s t o the a c t u a l sensory c o n t a c t with i n n e r events i n the present such as muscular t e n s i o n s , movements, and p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of f e e l i n g s , d i s c o m fort, w e l l - b e i n g , and so f o r t h . 3. Awareness of f a n t a s y a c t i v i t y . In t h i s t h e s i s t h i s r e f e r s to the mental a c t i v i t y i n v o l v e d i n t h i n k i n g , p l a n n i n g , i n t e r p r e t i n g , and guessing. Primary emotional s t a t e s . T h i s term r e f e r s t o c e r t a i n fundamental emotional s t a t e s which precede others i n a developmental sequence. They are u s u a l l y l a b e l l e d primary because "each one i s assumed to have a s p e c i f i c i n n a t e l y determined n e u r a l s u b s t r a t e , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c neuromuscular e x p r e s s i o n and a d i s t i n c t i v e s u b j e c t i v e q u a l i t y " ( I z a r d i n Lewis & Michalson, 1983, p.33). P l u t c h i k (1962) p o s t u l a t e d e i g h t emotions, namely, acceptance, d i s g u s t , anger, f e a r , joy, sadness, s u r p r i s e , and expectancy. Other i n v e s t i g a t o r s l i k e Darwin (1872), I z a r d (1977), Tomkins (1963), Ekman (1972) have i d e n t i f i e d t en emotions, namely, i n t e r e s t , joy, s u r p r i s e , d i s t r e s s , anger, d i s g u s t , contempt, f e a r , shame, and g u i l t . A l l o f the e a r l i e s t emotional s t a t e s i n an organism are d e r i v e d from the g e n e r a l s t a t e s o f p l e a s u r e and d i s t r e s s , and each one o f them i s b e l i e v e d t o have an adaptive f u n c t i o n . The - 7 -adaptive f u n c t i o n s are t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a s u b j e c t i v e language t h a t people use t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r f e e l i n g s . In t h i s r e s e a r c h o n l y f i v e of the primary emotional s t a t e s , (anger, f e a r , joy, sadness, and s u r p r i s e ) have been s e l e c t e d t o be s t u d i e d . These have been chosen on the f o l l o w i n g b a s i s : (a) they appear i n a l l o f the models o f emotional development; (b) they have been observed i n the f a c i a l e x pressions o f i n f a n t s w i t h i n the f i r s t year of l i f e , as w e l l as i n the f a c i a l e xpressions of even s e v e r e l y m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s ; (c) they have o f t e n been used as i n d i c e s of i n f a n t s ' c o g n i t i v e development, and (d) they are comparatively easy t o measure and d e f i n e u sing Haviland's (1975) coding system. Empathy. I t can be d e f i n e d as "an emotional response to another's c o n d i t i o n . I t r e q u i r e s the a b i l i t y t o imagine o n e s e l f i n another person's p l a c e and i n t h a t way t o know what the person i s t h i n k i n g , f e e l i n g , or p e r c e i v i n g based on p e r s o n a l experiences i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s " (Lewis & Michaelson, 1983, p. 234). M e n t a l l y handicapped. The American A s s o c i a t i o n on Mental D e f i c i e n c y d e f i n e s a m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l as someone who experiences " s i g n i f i c a n t l y sub-average g e n e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g r e s u l t i n g i n or a s s o c i a t e d with concurrent impairments i n adaptive behavior and manifested d u r i n g the developmental p e r i o d " (Kidd, 1983, pp.243-244). T r a i n a b l e M e n t a l l y Retarded (TMR). T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was developed by Gearheart (1972). The IQ scores o f TMR students range between 25 and 50 w i t h a standard d e v i a t i o n of not more - 8 -than f i v e p o i n t s when measured by s t a n d a r d i z e d i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s . In terms o f a b i l i t i e s , t h i s group of i n d i v i d u a l s are u s u a l l y assessed as capable o f developing s e l f - h e l p s k i l l s , simple academic s k i l l s , and s o c i a l adjustment s k i l l s . Research Questions and R a t i o n a l e B a s i c a l l y the resea r c h problem can be broken down i n t o two qu e s t i o n s : 1. Can m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s develop a keener awareness o f t h e i r i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l worlds through a program of sensory s t i m u l a t i o n e x e r c i s e s i n v o l v i n g a s t r u c t u r e d s e r i e s o f he a r i n g , seeing, s m e l l i n g , t a s t i n g , and touching a c t i v i t i e s ? 2. Can such a sharpened awareness then be t r a n s l a t e d by men t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o a g r e a t e r awareness of f e e l i n g s t a t e s , both ones own and o f oth e r s , measured i n terms o f a b i l i t y t o c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y f i v e primary emotional s t a t e s when exposed t o them? L i m i t a t i o n s and Key Assumptions T h i s p r o j e c t w i l l o n l y attempt t o t e s t r e c o g n i t i o n and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the f i v e primary emotions f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n an a f f e c t i v e awareness t r a i n i n g program s p e c i a l l y designed f o r ment a l l y handicapped students. Although o b s e r v a t i o n s w i l l be made on b e h a v i o r a l e x p r e s s i o n o f emotion by the s u b j e c t s , i t i s not the i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t t o go beyond the f i r s t s t ep o f determining whether t r a i n i n g i n a f f e c t i v e awareness can a c t u a l l y be r e f l e c t e d i n an improved a b i l i t y t o c o r r e c t l y r e c o g n i z e and i d e n t i f y primary emotions when they are presented to the s u b j e c t . - 9 -J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f the Study I n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s i n v o l v i n g awareness and a p p r o p r i a t e e x p r e s s i o n o f emotions have been i d e n t i f i e d by P e e l l e (1982) as a c e n t r a l f a c t o r i n the s u c c e s s f u l community placement and adjustment o f the m e n t a l l y handicapped. An e s s e n t i a l f i r s t s t e p i n the development o f c o u n s e l l i n g programmes aimed a t promoting more e f f e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n of emotional s t a t e s by the me n t a l l y d i s a b l e d i s to determine whether the mentally d i s a b l e d are, i n f a c t , capable o f developing a f f e c t i v e awareness. - 10 -Chapter I I . Review o f Related L i t e r a t u r e T h i s chapter provides some background f o r understanding the c u r r e n t s t a t e o f c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s f o r the m e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d . A f t e r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h a t h i s t o r i c a l l y there has been l i t t l e concern w i t h c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s f o r the m e n t a l l y handicapped, a t t e n t i o n t u r n s t o e v a l u a t i n g the b a s i s i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l theory, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n developmental, p s y c h o a n a l y t i c , and b e h a v i o r a l models, f o r paying a t t e n t i o n t o the development o f a f f e c t i v e awareness among the mentally d i s a b l e d p o p u l a t i o n . The s e c t i o n concludes w i t h an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a p p l y i n g G e s t a l t theory t o the development of a f f e c t i v e awareness among the mentally handicapped. P r i o r Research on the T o p i c  C o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s f o r the mentally handicapped. Even a cu r s o r y search o f the l i t e r a t u r e or an i n f o r m a l s e s s i o n with s p e c i a l education teachers o r c o u n s e l l o r s q u i c k l y r e v e a l s t h a t c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s a c t u a l l y aimed at m e n t a l l y handicapped students, e s p e c i a l l y the lower l e v e l f u n c t i o n i n g group, e.g., TMR and Profound, are r a r e and g r o s s l y neglected (Matson & B a r r e t t , 1982). Acc o r d i n g t o Lombana (1982), the dearth o f a t t e n t i o n has developed from a number o f widespread myths t h a t permeate a l l s t r a t a o f s o c i e t y , p r o f e s s i o n a l and layman a l i k e , namely: 1. I t has been assumed t h a t the s o c i a l emotional needs o f r e t a r d e d people are e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from those o f normal people. Retarded i n d i v i d u a l s have been viewed as not needing c o u n s e l l i n g because o f a f a l s e assumption t h a t they experience l e s s emotional p a i n than do oth e r people. 2. Many people have assumed t h a t because of t h e i r d e f i c i t s i n v e r b a l s k i l l s , r e t a r d e d persons would be unable t o b e n e f i t from c o u n s e l l i n g . - 11 -3. C o u n s e l l i n g has been seen as b e n e f i c i a l o n l y t o persons who can e a s i l y engage i n a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g ; i n s i g h t and self-awareness have not been viewed as p o s s i b l e f o r m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d people. 4. Work wit h r e t a r d e d people has been viewed as slow, and time-consuming, and w i t h l i t t l e hope o f success. Many t h e r a p i s t s have c o n s i d e r e d i t to be a s e l f - d e f e a t i n g process (p.151). Awareness and r e s o l u t i o n o f these b i a s e s and misconceptions are necessary p r e r e q u i s i t e s t o working w i t h m e n t a l l y handicapped people. In order t o understand the l a c k o f c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s f o r m e n t a l l y handicapped people, however, i t i s u s e f u l t o understand how t h i n g s have developed i n h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . H i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Up u n t i l at l e a s t the 17th century, mental r e t a r d a t i o n and mental i l l n e s s appear t o have been t r e a t e d as much the same t h i n g . A c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n doesn't appear t o have been made u n t i l around 1690 when John Locke, the E n g l i s h p h i l o s o p h e r , noted "Herein seems t o be the d i f f e r e n c e between i d i o t s and madmen, t h a t madmen put wrong ideas together and reason from them but i d i o t s make very few or no p r o p o s i t i o n s and reason s c a r c e a t a l l " (Lewis & Maclean i n Matson & B a r r e t t , 1982, p.3). While Locke's o b s e r v a t i o n seems t o have had l i t t l e impact on the p r o v i s i o n o f b e t t e r s e r v i c e s f o r e i t h e r the me n t a l l y i l l or the men t a l l y r e t a r d e d , i t a r t i c u l a t e d a r a t i o n a l e f o r i g n o r i n g the mental h e a l t h needs of s e v e r e l y m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s who f r e q u e n t l y came to be regarded as l i t t l e more than dogs, t o be p i t i e d and, a t times, cared f o r . Z i g l e r (1973) noted t h a t s o c i e t a l a t t i t u d e s towards the me n t a l l y handicapped were s t i l l predominantly founded upon a " c o g n i t i v e d e t e r m i n i s t i c " viewpoint which p o s i t e d t h a t " c o g n i t i v e d e f i c i e n c y makes ones impervious t o those environmental events - 12 -known t o be c e n t r a l i n the genesis o f the p e r s o n a l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s o f normal i n t e l l e c t " (p.327). Thus, the r a t i o n a l e f o r not a t t e n d i n g t o the a f f e c t i v e needs of the m e n t a l l y handicapped developed f u r t h e r , s i n c e , i n the absence of the p o t e n t i a l f o r reasoning and complex thought, t h e r e c o u l d be no p o t e n t i a l f o r emotional development, the assumption being t h a t c o g n i t i v e d e f i c i e n c y makes one "impervious" t o emotions. Beginning i n the l a t e 1950s and e a r l y 60s, however, a t t i t u d e s towards the men t a l l y handicapped began t o change. P o l i t i c a l support and f i n a n c i a l a i d f o r the development of s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s f o r the m e n t a l l y handicapped began t o become more "accep t a b l e " and more "worthwhile". T h i s r e f l e c t e d both a growing economy and s i g n i f i c a n t advances i n a p p l i e d behavior a n a l y s i s which attended the growth o f psychology as a p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d o f study f o l l o w i n g the Second World War. Mental r e t a r d a t i o n came to be r e d e f i n e d as r e f l e c t i n g b l o c k s i n the development of age-appropriate i n t e l l e c t u a l and adaptive b e h a v i o r . P s y c h o l o g i s t s , i n seeking out a r o l e f o r themselves separate from t h a t o f p s y c h i a t r i s t s , began t o suggest t h a t some of the maladaptive behavior o f the men t a l l y r e t a r d e d c o u l d be changed through s p e c i a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n and b e h a v i o r a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs. Subsequently, p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n s p e c i a l e ducation and psychology began t o take the l e a d i n d e l i v e r y o f "education and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s " f o r the men t a l l y r e t a r d e d . In a t t e n d i n g t o the needs o f t h e i r new " c l i e n t s " , p s y c h o l o g i s t s sought t o u t i l i z e the predominant "developmental - 13 -c o u n s e l l i n g " m o d e l . The r e s u l t was a t e n d e n c y , o v e r t i m e , t o f o c u s on p r o v i d i n g c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s f o r " n o r m a l " p e o p l e who a p p e a r e d t o be e x p e r i e n c i n g " d e v e l o p m e n t a l " p r o b l e m s s i n c e work w i t h t h i s g r o u p p r o d u c e d " r e s u l t s " w h i c h c o u l d be "documented" r e l a t i v e l y q u i c k l y . As a c o n s e q u e n c e , i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t m e n t a l h a n d i c a p s who d i d n o t a p p e a r c a p a b l e o f b e i n g s t e e r e d t o w a r d s a " n o r m a l " d e v e l o p m e n t a l c o u r s e were o f t e n e x c l u d e d f r o m c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s . I f s e r v i c e s were p r o v i d e d , t h e y were m a i n l y i n t h e f o r m o f c r i s i s i n t e r v e n t i o n and t r e a t m e n t p r o v i d e d on an i n t e r m i t t e n t b a s i s b y r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o u n s e l l o r s , s c h o o l p s y c h o l o g i s t s and s p e c i a l e d u c a t o r s ( H o h e n s h i l , 1 9 7 9 ) . As f a r a s c a n be d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e , t h e s i t u a t i o n i n Canada a p p e a r s t o h a v e been l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t . The r e a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i m p a c t o f t h e s h i f t i n a t t e n t i o n t o w a r d s t h e m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d , however, was t h e h i g h l i g h t i n g o f " d e v e l o p m e n t a l d e l a y s " , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e c o g n i t i v e and s o c i a l s k i l l a r e a s . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e a f f e c t i v e domain was v i r t u a l l y i g n o r e d s i n c e t h i s was c o n s i d e r e d t o " d e v e l o p " a t a " l a t e r s t a g e " . S u b s e q u e n t l y , s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s f o r m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d s t u d e n t s i n t h e 1950s and 1960s f o c u s e d m a i n l y on c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t , i . e . , s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n a c a d e m i c and p r e - a c a d e m i c s k i l l s . Then, w i t h t h e o n s e t o f m a i n s t r e a m i n g i n t h e 1970s, and t h e movement o f i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f l o w e r l e v e l f u n c t i o n i n g m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d s t u d e n t s i n t o t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l system, a n o t h e r s h i f t t o o k p l a c e as e m p h a s i s changed f r o m a c a d e m i c s k i l l - 14 -a c q u i s i t i o n t o t r a i n i n g i n " l i f e s k i l l s " , such as t o i l e t i n g , r e c o g n i t i o n o f s i g n s , and b a s i c food p r e p a r a t i o n . Up u n t i l the present, however, s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m s have p a i d scant a t t e n t i o n t o the a f f e c t i v e needs o f the m e n t a l l y handicapped ( B r o l i n & Gysbers, 1979). A f f e c t i v e needs o f the m e n t a l l y handicapped. The general tendency to p e r c e i v e mentally handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s as not having emotional needs or problems s i n c e they a p p a r e n t l y "make very few or no p r o p o s i t i o n s and reason scarce a t a l l " i s c o n t r a d i c t e d by s t u d i e s of emotional d i s t u r b a n c e among the m e n t a l l y handicapped. Both Lewis and Maclean ( i n Matson & B a r r e t t , 1982, p.3), and Szymanski and Tanguay (1980) argue t h a t there are no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the symptoms d i s p l a y e d by m e n t a l l y handicapped and non-mentally handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s e x p e r i e n c i n g severe emotional d i s t r e s s . On the o t h e r hand, they note t h a t m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s seem p a r t i c u l a r l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o p s y c h i a t r i c d i s t r e s s . Other s t u d i e s seem to support t h i s view. An e a r l y U.S. study found t h a t o f 8,000 m i l i t a r y r e c r u i t s t e s t e d as having an IQ of l e s s then 75, 44% o f males and 38% of females were c o n s i d e r e d t o e x h i b i t p s y c h i a t r i c problems (weaver, 1946). Another e a r l y study done i n Canada r e p o r t e d t h a t 47% o f the army r e c r u i t s t e s t e d as e x p e r i e n c i n g mental handicaps were c l a s s i f i e d as e m o t i o n a l l y u n s t a b l e (Dewan, 1948). T h i s was i n c o n t r a s t t o 20% o f inductees diagnosed as e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d i n a non-mentally handicapped c o n t r o l group. - 15 -In the I s l e of Wright s t u d i e s (Rutter, T i z a r d & whitmore, 1970; Rutter, 1971; and Rutter, T i z a r d , Yule, Graham & Whitmore, 1976), now regarded as c l a s s i c s , p r o v i d e some o f the b e s t data on the experience o f emotional d i s t r e s s among the m e n t a l l y handicapped p o p u l a t i o n . R u t t e r and h i s c o l l e a g u e s found t h a t 30% o f the nine, ten, and eleven year o l d i n t e l l e c t u a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n (N=2199) were r a t e d as e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d by t h e i r p arents while 42% were r a t e d as e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d by t h e i r t e a c h e r s . T h i s represented a symptom r a t e f i v e t o s i x times the r a t e found i n a randomly s e l e c t e d non-mentally handicapped c o n t r o l group (where the emotional d i s t u r b a n c e r a t e was o n l y 5.4%). Emotional d i s t u r b a n c e was determined by s t a n d a r d i z e d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h parents and by p s y c h i a t r i c examination. The use o f c o n t r o l groups, m u l t i p l e measures, and r i g o r o u s e f f o r t s t o e s t a b l i s h r e l i a b l e and v a l i d measuring instruments has made t h i s study i n t o something of a c l a s s i c . A study c a r r i e d out i n south London i n 1976 (Corbett, 1977) surveyed 140 n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c h i l d r e n t e s t e d as having an IQ of l e s s than 50 and determined t h a t 43% appeared t o show symptoms o f emotional d i s t u r b a n c e . In a d i f f e r e n t study c a r r i e d out i n the same year (Szymanslci, 1977), 54% o f 132 c h i l d r e n who had been r e f e r r e d t o a developmental d i s a b i l i t i e s c l i n i c i n a g e n e r a l p e d i a t r i c h o s p i t a l were co n s i d e r e d to be e x p e r i e n c i n g emotional d i f f i c u l t i e s which i n t e r f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with t h e i r g e n e r a l a b i l i t y t o l e a r n . S t u d i e s such as these c l e a r l y demonstrate t h a t the emotional needs and problems of mentally - 16 -h a n d i c a p p e d i n d i v i d u a l s a r e as r e a l and as s i g n i f i c a n t as f o r t h e " n o r m a l " p o p u l a t i o n . The a f f e c t i v e needs o f m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d c l i e n t s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e r e seem t o h a v e b e e n more s t u d i e s on p s y c h o t h e r a p y w i t h m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d c l i e n t s p u b l i s h e d b e f o r e s e r v i c e s f o r t h e m e n t a l l y i l l and t h e m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d were s e p a r a t e d t h a n a f t e r . A l r e a d y i n 1934, a r e s e a r c h e r named C h i d e s t e r r e p o r t e d on t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f p s y c h o t h e r a p y w i t h a h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d . G l a s s m a n i n 1943 n o t e d i n c o m p a r i n g t h e outcome o f p s y c h o t h e r a p y between matched g r o u p s o f c h i l d r e n t h a t " t h e d u l l n o r m a l ones d i d a t l e a s t as w e l l a s , i f n o t b e t t e r t h a n , t h e b r i g h t o n e s " ( S z y m a n s k i i n S z y m a n s k i & Tanguay, 1980, p . 1 3 2 ) . T h o r n e w r i t i n g i n 1948 e m p h a s i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f h a v i n g c l e a r o b j e c t i v e s and r e p o r t e d " u n q u a l i f i e d s u c c e s s " when " s y s t e m a t i c c o u n s e l i n g and p s y c h o t h e r a p y " were a p p l i e d i n an u n c o n t r o l l e d s t u d y o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n d i v i d u a l s . I n 1962, C h e s s r e p o r t e d on t h e s u c c e s s f u l l outcome o f p s y c h o t h e r a p y w i t h 29 m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n . S e l a n (1976) r e p o r t e d on s u c c e s s f u l o u t p a t i e n t m e n t a l h e a l t h p rograms f o r h a n d i c a p p e d a d o l e s c e n t s and a d u l t s l i v i n g i n t h e community, however no s p e c i f i c d a t a were g i v e n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , one i s l e f t w i t h t h e i m p r e s s i o n a f t e r r e a d i n g t h e s e v a r i o u s s t u d i e s t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r s and t h e i r work e x i s t e d i n some s o r t o f a vacuum c u t o f f f r o m t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f work b e i n g done w i t h e i t h e r t h e m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d o r t h e e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d . I t i s r e l e v a n t h e r e t o n o t e S z y m a n s k i ' s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e d e a r t h o f a t t e n t i o n t o t h e e m o t i o n a l needs o f t h e m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d i s - 17 -t h e r e s u l t o f a t l e a s t t h r e e l e v e l s o f i g n o r a n c e : 1. I g n o r a n c e o f what m e n t a l l y ' h a n d i c a p p e d ' p e o p l e a r e l i k e . 2. I g n o r a n c e o f how e f f e c t i v e t r e a t m e n t may be i n a l l e v i a t i n g t h e i r [ t h e m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d ] m e n t a l h e a l t h p r o b l e m s . 3. I g n o r a n c e o f what t o e x p e c t f r o m p r o f e s s i o n a l s (Cushna, i n S z y m a n s k i & Tanguay, 1980, p . 4 ) . The v i e w t h a t i g n o r a n c e i s t o blame f o r t h e l a c k o f a t t e n t i o n b e i n g g i v e n t o t h e e m o t i o n a l needs o f t h e m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d f i n d s c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and c o u n s e l l i n g c i r c l e s . I t i s f r e q u e n t l y a r g u e d t h a t c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t s l a c k t r a i n i n g i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s p e c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d p e r s o n s , w h i l e on t h e o t h e r hand t h e t h e o r e t i c a l framework and s t r a t e g i e s employed by s p e c i a l e d u c a t o r s o r b e h a v i o r a n a l y s t s o f t e n i g n o r e t h e e m o t i o n a l needs o f m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d c l i e n t s . L e b s o c k and De B l a s s i e (1975) f o u n d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 54% o f s e v e r a l h u n d r e d c o u n s e l l o r s s u r v e y e d f e l t i n a d e q u a t e t o d e a l w i t h e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n due t o l a c k o f t r a i n i n g . Lombana (1980) d i d a s u r v e y among F l o r i d a s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s f i v e y e a r s l a t e r and f o u n d t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n h a d n o t i m p r o v e d . B u t l a c k o f a p p r o p r i a t e t r a i n i n g does n o t seem t o be t h e s o l e r e a s o n f o r t h e d e a r t h o f c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m s f o r t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d . I n g e n e r a l , s t a f f p r o b a b l y r e c e i v e more p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g t o d a y t h a n e v e r b e f o r e . On t h e o t h e r hand t h e r e i s s t i l l l i t t l e i n t h e way o f c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m s , c o u n s e l l i n g m a t e r i a l s , o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h f o c u s i n g on t h e s o c i a l and e m o t i o n a l needs o f t h e m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d . - 18 -One r e a s o n i s t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f d e v e l o p i n g d e f i n i t i o n s , d i a g n o s t i c c r i t e r i a , and s t a n d a r d i z e d a s s e s s m e n t methods i n t h e f i e l d o f s o c i a l and e m o t i o n a l h e a l t h ( G u i d u b a l d i , K e l i k & M u r r a y , 1979; James & S n a i t h , 1 9 7 9 ) . T h e r e a r e few good measures o f s o c i a l and e m o t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t . I n most p u b l i s h e d a s s e s s m e n t i n s t r u m e n t s , t h e s o c i a l and e m o t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s a r e b a s e d on p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s o r r a t i n g - s c a l e a p p r o a c h e s , e.g., t h e T h e m a t i c A p p e r c e p t i o n T e s t ( M u r r a y , 1943), and t h e P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e ( P i e r s & H a r r i s , 1 9 6 9 ) . The V i n e l a n d S o c i a l M a t u r i t y S c a l e ( D o l l , 1965), and t h e A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r S c a l e ( N i h i r a k , F o s t e r , S h e l l h a a s , L e l a n d , 1975), f r e q u e n t l y u s e d w i t h t h e m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d , h a v e few i t e m s a t t h e l o w e r end o f t h e s c a l e , m aking a c c u r a t e a s s e s s m e n t d i f f i c u l t . Use o f t h e s e a s s e s s m e n t t e c h n i q u e s w i t h m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d i n d i v i d u a l s who h a v e a w i d e v a r i e t y o f p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l , and c o g n i t i v e l i m i t a t i o n s t e n d s t o c o n f o u n d t h e e v a l u a t i o n , m aking t h e t a s k o f i n t e r p r e t i n g and t r a n s l a t i n g t h e a s s e s s m e n t d a t a i n t o i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s o r r e m e d i a l p r o g r a m s e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t . M o r e o v e r , as an i n d i v i d u a l becomes l e s s a b l e t o r e l a t e i n a v e r b a l manner, i n t e r n a l e m o t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t i s i n c r e a s i n g l y i n f e r r e d f r o m complex p a t t e r n s o f o b s e r v e d b e h a v i o r . The t a s k o f a s s i s t i n g h a n d i c a p p e d p e o p l e t o a c h i e v e s o c i a l , e m o t i o n a l , and b e h a v i o r a l g o a l s p o s e s a r e a l c h a l l e n g e t o c o u n s e l l o r s . Kameen and M c i n t o s h (1979) b e l i e v e t h a t "some a f f e c t i v e b e h a v i o r s , s u c h as s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s k i l l s c a n be t a u g h t . ... O t h e r s , s u c h as p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t , a r e much more - 19 -d i f f i c u l t t o teach" (p.240). Nonetheless, they argue t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s are i n a "unique p o s i t i o n " t o "design a f f e c t i v e l y o r i e n t e d i n t e r v e n t i o n programs" f o r the handicapped. The presen t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s designed t o make a c o n t r i b u t i o n i n t h i s area. C o u n s e l l i n g m e n t a l l y handicapped students i s a profound c h a l l e n g e t o even the most emphatic and prepared c o u n s e l l o r . M e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d i n d i v i d u a l s do experience d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h reasoning and g e n e r a l l y have a low l e v e l o f v e r b a l mastery. A d r i v e towards independence and achievement i s o f t e n l a c k i n g . A sh o r t a t t e n t i o n span and maladaptive behavior p a t t e r n s are common (Lombana, 1982). N e v e r t h e l e s s , the range o f emotional needs and problems o f the men t a l l y d i s a b l e d i n d i v i d u a l does not appear t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n (Lombana, 1982; Matson, 1984; Vash, 1975). More i m p o r t a n t l y , these problems appear t o evolve out of d i f f i c u l t i e s i n coping w i t h s t r e s s r a t h e r than being an i n h e r e n t c o n d i t i o n o f the i n t e l l e c t u a l d e f i c i t (Matson, 1984; Z i g l e r , 1973). There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t m e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d i n d i v i d u a l s are f r e q u e n t l y faced w i t h extremely s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s . Among d i s a b l e d groups, the men t a l l y handicapped are g e n e r a l l y viewed more n e g a t i v e l y than other groups. They f r e q u e n t l y experience o v e r t r e j e c t i o n , d e v a l u a t i o n , and f a i l u r e . Response p a t t e r n s o f apathy, withdrawal and a c t i n g out f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e a sense o f low s e l f - e s t e e m (McDowell, Coven, & Eash, 1979; Lombana, 1982). Subsequently, emotional, b e h a v i o r a l and p s y c h i a t r i c d i f f i c u l t i e s tend t o b l o c k m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s from r e a l i z i n g - 20 -what i n t e l l e c t u a l p o t e n t i a l t h e y do h a v e . As a d u l t s , m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d i n d i v i d u a l s a r e on t h e whole p o o r , j o b l e s s , and d e v o i d o f f a m i l y s u p p o r t s , coming f r o m f a m i l i e s w i t h a d i v o r c e r a t e t h r e e t i m e s t h e norm ( S t e r n l i c h t & D e u t s c h , 1 9 7 2 ) . The e n s u i n g s o c i a l and e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s o f t h e m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d a r e o f t e n c i t e d as t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r u n s u c c e s s f u l p l a c e m e n t i n v o c a t i o n a l and community e n v i r o n m e n t s ( M u l l i n s & Hays, 1980; S t u t t e r , 1 9 8 0 ) . W h i l e c o u n s e l l i n g i s n o t g o i n g t o " c u r e " m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t a t t e n d i n g t o t h e a f f e c t i v e n e e d s o f m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d i n d i v i d u a l s may be an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e i r l e a r n i n g t o l i v e i n d e p e n d e n t l y i n t h e community. I n s p i t e o f t h e c l e a r need f o r and v a l u e o f a f f e c t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t t r a i n i n g , t h e m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d h a v e c o n t i n u e d t o be m o s t l y e x c l u d e d f r o m f o r m a l l y o r g a n i z e d c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m s . I n p a r t t h i s no d o u b t stems f r o m t h e l a c k o f demand f o r s u c h s e r v i c e s b y t h e m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d who as a d e v a l u e d g r o u p l a c k t h e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , a w a r e n e s s , and p o l i t i c a l and f i n a n c i a l c l o u t t o p u s h f o r s u c h s e r v i c e s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n t e n d s t o be r e i n f o r c e d b y e c o n o m i c arguments w h i c h g i v e n g r e a t e r p r i o r i t y t o p r o v i d i n g c o u n s e l l i n g and p s y c h o t h e r a p y t o a " b r i g h t n e u r o t i c " who may make a l a r g e r e c o n o m i c c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f s o c i e t y t h a n t o m e e t i n g t h e e m o t i o n a l needs o f a m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d i n d i v i d u a l whose p o t e n t i a l e c o n o m i c c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s o c i e t y may a l w a y s be l i m i t e d . B u t a n o t h e r o b s t a c l e t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m s f o r t h e m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d l i e s w i t h t h e - 21 -p s y c h o a n a l y t i c and b e h a v i o r a l t h e o r i e s i n which much of e d u c a t i o n a l and c o u n s e l l i n g p r a c t i c e i s roo t e d . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Theory and C o u n s e l l i n g  f o r the M e n t a l l y Handicapped In reviewing the r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e , i t was found t h a t t h e r e were very few formal t h e o r i e s concerning the development of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e i n m e n t a l l y handicapped people. The two dominant p s y c h o l o g i c a l models f o r e x p l a i n i n g and t r e a t i n g abnormal behavior o f the m e n t a l l y handicapped have been the p s c y h o a n a l y t i c model (Freud, 1966) and the b e h a v i o r a l model (Agras, Kazdin & Wilson, 1979). The adequacy and v a l i d i t y o f these models when a p p l i e d to the m e n t a l l y handicapped have been assumed based on the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t the emotional d i s o r d e r s manifested by men t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s do not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from those found among the normal p o p u l a t i o n (Menolascino, 1969; P h i l i p s , 1967). T h i s assumption must be questioned, however, when c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s given t o the b a s i c c o g n i t i v e d e l a y s , the emotional d e p r i v a t i o n , and the le a r n e d h e l p l e s s n e s s experienced by many m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s which may lead them t o adapt and respond t o environmental events i n ways which cannot be well-u n d e r s t o o d by using the normal p o p u l a t i o n as the r e f e r e n c e p o i n t ( E l l i s , 1979; Seligman, 1975). I t may not be accurate t o conclude t h a t the dynamics l e a d i n g t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s i n me n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s are i d e n t i c a l t o those i n normal i n d i v i d u a l s even though the p o t e n t i a l e t i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s appear - 22 -to be s i m i l a r . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s c o n f u s i o n , the t h e o r e t i c a l models commonly used i n t r y i n g t o understand the behavior o f m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r p o t e n t i a l t o b e n e f i t from c o u n s e l l i n g may, i n f a c t , serve as o b s t a c l e s t o the development of e f f e c t i v e t h e r a p e u t i c programs f o r the m e n t a l l y handicapped. T h i s caveat needs t o be kept i n mind i n l o o k i n g at the models themselves. The p s y c h o a n a l y t i c model. Freud (1966), the Godfather of modern psychology, c o n s i d e r e d i n t r a p s y c h i c c o n f l i c t between th r e e t h e o r e t i c a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d components o f the mind, i . e . , the i d , the ego, and the superego, t o be a t the r o o t of a l l abnormal b e h a v i o r . Abnormal behavior was a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the c o n f l i c t which remained hidden and unconscious, the t h e r a p i s t ' s job being t o a s s i s t the c l i e n t i n f i n d i n g l i b e r a t i o n from the hidden powers warring i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s psyche. In Freud's view the p e r s o n a l i t y system i s d r i v e n by a g i v e n amount o f psychosexual energy, the i d , which i s governed, c o n t r o l l e d , and r e g u l a t e d by an ego which i s considered to be the seat o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and r a t i o n a l i t y . From a Freudian p o i n t o f view the ego o f a m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l w i l l f a i l t o develop adequately as a consequence o f i n t e l l e c t u a l d e f i c i t s apparent i n the r e t a r d e d development of reasoning f a c u l t i e s (Konarski & C a v a l i e r i n Matson & B a r r e t t , 1982). Hence the c a p a b i l i t y o f m e n t a l l y handicapped people to move through the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c stages o f development towards p s y c h o l o g i c a l m a t u r i t y i s o b s t r u c t e d or a t the very l e a s t s e v e r e l y r e t a r d e d - 23 -and extremely slow s i n c e t h i s process depends t o a l a r g e extent on a b i l i t y t o reason. With a weak ego m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s may be expected t o be poor a t c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n , t o have l i m i t e d a b i l i t y t o t e s t r e a l i t y o r a n t i c i p a t e consequences, and t o have a tendency t o f i x a t e u s i n g p r i m i t i v e defense mechanisms (Konarski & C a v a l i e r i n Matson & B a r r e t t , 1982). While presumably the i d remains i n t a c t i n m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s (Pearson, 1942), the development of the superego i s a f f e c t e d by the weak development of the ego. Subsequently, the immature superego tends t o go to one extreme or the other, being e i t h e r extremely p e r m i s s i v e and l a x or extremely harsh and c r i t i c a l . The r e s u l t , i n t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , i s a r i g i d , i m p u l s i v e , and dependent p e r s o n a l i t y which i s trapped i n s e r v i n g i n n e r f e e l i n g s and d r i v e s r a t h e r than c o n t r o l l i n g them through a str o n g ego (Robinson & Robinson, 1965). From the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c viewpoint, the men t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l i s h i g h l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o a l l forms o f psychopathology, b e g i n n i n g from b i r t h . S t e r n l i c h t and Deutsch (1972) p o s t u l a t e a number of p o t e n t i a l e g o - c r i p p l i n g experiences r i s i n g i n the l i f e o f the m e n t a l l y handicapped c h i l d l e a d i n g t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e . For example, parents of m e n t a l l y handicapped c h i l d r e n o f t e n show o v e r t r e j e c t i o n , p r o v i d e l i t t l e love and support, experience g u i l t over the c o n d i t i o n o f the c h i l d , and tend t o f o s t e r dependency b e haviors i n the c h i l d . Recent f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t parents o f a m e n t a l l y handicapped c h i l d g e n e r a l l y view the c h i l d n e g a t i v e l y (Waisbren, 1980), and not - 24 -i n f r e q u e n t l y abuse the c h i l d ( F r o d i , 1981). C l e a r l y the m e n t a l l y handicapped c h i l d i s l i k e l y t o be c o n f r o n t e d w i t h experiences l e a d i n g t o severe a n x i e t y and i n s e c u r i t y . Without support i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t such c h i l d r e n grow up demonstrating symptoms such as r i g i d and s t e r o t y p i c b e h a v i o r , emotional withdrawal, f l a t emotional responses, d e p r e s s i o n , i m p u l s i v e sexual and a g g r e s s i v e behavior ( S t e r n l i c h t & Deutsch, 1972). Because o f the poor p o t e n t i a l f o r s t r o n g e r ego development i n m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s , p s y c h o a n a l y t i c theory would seem to imply t h a t c o u n s e l l i n g programs f o r t h i s group are l i k e l y to have l i t t l e , i f any, e f f e c t . S t e r n l i c h t (1966) supports t h i s view when he notes t h a t psychotherapy i s o f l i t t l e use t o the m e n t a l l y handicapped p o p u l a t i o n because they l a c k the i n t e l l i g e n c e f o r i n s i g h t , have l i t t l e understanding of cause and e f f e c t i n b e h a v i o r , do not a p p r e c i a t e the needs o f o t h e r s , and can not understand the purpose o f therapy (Lewis & Maclean i n Matson & B a r r e t t , 1982, p.27). I t may be added t h a t many o f the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e r a p i s t s are t r a i n e d i n v e r b a l l y loaded, i n t e l l e c t u a l l y o r i e n t e d t h e r a p e u t i c techniques which are u n l i k e l y t o work very w e l l with m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s who cannot respond to the need of the t h e r a p i s t f o r complex v e r b a l feedback. The b e h a v i o r a l model. The b e h a v i o r a l model subsumes a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t approaches which share the same assumptions and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The two fundamental assumptions are: (1) human beh a v i o r i s rooted i n s c i e n t i f i c a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s , and (2) s c i e n t i f i c methodology can be used t o - 25 -e v a l u a t e t h e r a p e u t i c outcomes of i n t e r v e n t i o n e f f o r t s (Konarski & C a v a l i e r , 1982). B e h a v i o r i s t approaches i n c l u d e Skinner's (1953) a p p l i e d b e h a v i o r a l a n a l y s i s , Eysenck (1959) and Wolpe's (1958)neo-behaviorist m e d i a t i o n a l model, Bandura's (1977a, 1977b) s o c i a l l e a r n i n g theory and Beck (1976), E l l i s (1970), and Meichenbaum's (1977) c o g n i t i v e behavior m o d i f i c a t i o n . Among these b e h a v i o r i s t approaches, the most commonly used approach with the m e n t a l l y handicapped i s a p p l i e d b e h a v i o r a l a n a l y s i s (Baer, Wolf & R i s l e y , 1968). The c e n t r a l t e n e t s of t h i s approach are : (a) the a p p r o p r i a t e focus o f study i s observable behavior, (b) b e h a v i o r i s a f u n c t i o n of i t s consequences, and (c) the primary area o f i n t e r v e n t i o n i s the c o n d i t i o n s m a i n t a i n i n g the presence or absence o f the behavior i n q u e s t i o n . In the b e h a v i o r a l approach, the development o f a c h i l d ' s motor, p e r c e p t u a l , communicative, i n t e l l e c t u a l , emotional and s o c i a l a b i l i t i e s i s a f u n c t i o n o f p r o g r e s s i v e changes i n the c h i l d ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the environment (Konarski & C a v a l i e r , 1982). B e h a v i o r a l r e p e r t o i r e s r e s u l t from a complex environmental c o n d i t i o n i n g . P e r s o n a l i t y development depends on d i s c r i m i n a t i v e s t i m u l u s h i s t o r y and reinforcement schedule h i s t o r y . Put i n another way, t h i s approach argues t h a t a l l l e a r n i n g takes p l a c e as a r e s u l t o f p o s i t i v e and negative reinforcements f o l l o w i n g a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n . Success i n g o a l attainment serves as a p o s i t i v e reinforcement and leads to e x p e c t a t i o n o f f u r t h e r successes, g r e a t e r e f f o r t s , growing s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , and u l t i m a t e l y growth towards independence and p s y c h o l o g i c a l - 26 -m a t u r i t y . F a i l u r e , on the other hand, i s a negative r e i n f o r c e r and repeated f a i l u r e becomes g e n e r a l i z e d i n t o e x p e c t a t i o n o f f u r t h e r f a i l u r e , d e c r e a s i n g e f f o r t , growing h e l p l e s s n e s s and u l t i m a t e l y expressions o f p a s s i v i t y and o f f - t a s k b ehavior. Since m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s g e n e r a l l y have a demonstrated h i s t o r y o f repeated f a i l u r e , they have not been programmed f o r success. In other words, maladaptive b e h a v i o r r e s u l t s from inadequate reinforcement and poor stimulus d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Consequently the f o c a l task i n working w i t h m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s i s seen as p r o v i d i n g p o s i t i v e reinforcement o f d e s i r e d b e h a v i o r s . Furthermore, a p p l i e d b e h a v i o r a n a l y s i s of mental r e t a r d a t i o n focuses on the processes t h a t prevent, l i m i t , or d e l a y the formation of stimulus-response r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S ince the focus i s on something which can be observed, there has been frequent u t i l i z a t i o n o f b e h a v i o r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n approaches w i t h m e n t a l l y handicapped students i n attempts t o change maladaptive behavior and develop b e t t e r coping s k i l l s ( B o r n s t e i n , Bach, & Anton, 1982). There are c o u n t l e s s demonstrations i n the l i t e r a t u r e o f the u t i l i t y o f a p p l y i n g operant c o n d i t i o n i n g p r i n c i p l e s t o the h a b i l i t a t i o n o f m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s . For a r e c e n t review see Schroeder, Mulick and Schroeder (1979). However, the t y p i c a l p a t h o l o g i c a l behavior p a t t e r n s which u t i l i z e behavior therapy are dependency (Gavalas & B r i g g s , 1966), s e l f - i n j u r i o u s b e h a v i o r s (Baumeister & R o l l i n g s , 1976), a g g r e s s i v e behaviors (Nordquist & Wahler, 1973), - 27 -and s t e r e o t y p e d behaviors which are h i g h l y c o n s i s t e n t and r e p e t i t i o u s (Forehand & Baumeister, 1976). Because o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f d e f i n i t i o n and measurement, b e h a v i o r a l approaches have not been aimed d i r e c t l y a t the a f f e c t i v e development o f handicapped students. D e s p i t e the widespread a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s technology, there are a number of i s s u e s t o be c o n s i d e r e d . F i r s t o f a l l i s the problem o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n and maintenance o f treatment g a i n s . Bates and Wehman (1977) reviewed 56 s t u d i e s u s i n g behavior management procedures w i t h m e n t a l l y handicapped people and found t h a t o n l y 29% provided maintenance and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n d ata. In a d d i t i o n o n l y t h r e e out o f the 56 s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d follow-up o f longer than three months. Another i s s u e i s the d i f f i c u l t y o f r e p l i c a t i n g and comparing treatment technology i n s i n g l e - s u b j e c t designs (Bates and Wehman, 1977). Yet another i s s u e i s the e f f i c a c y o f v a r i o u s behavior management procedures i n v a r i o u s s e t t i n g s . So f a r most o f the programs have been conducted i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l o r classroom s e t t i n g s . With the movement towards n o r m a l i z a t i o n , i t i s important t o demonstrate the e f f i c a c y o f these procedures i n home or workshop environments used by p r o f e s s i o n a l s or par e n t s . The developmental model. U n d e r l y i n g v i r t u a l l y a l l p r a c t i c e of c o u n s e l l i n g psychology i s the understanding t h a t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s e x i s t i n an environment which i s shaped, i n p a r t , a t l e a s t , by our stage i n the l i f e c y c l e . Out o f t h i s comes the id e a t h a t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s have c e r t a i n developmental tasks which - 28 -must be mastered a t c e r t a i n p o i n t s i n the l i f e c y c l e i n order f o r s u r v i v a l and "happiness" (Ivey & Simek-Downing, 1980). Developmental p s y c h o l o g i s t s take t h i s a s t e p f u r t h e r t o argue t h a t s u c c e s s f u l accomplishment of a g e - r e l a t e d tasks i s the prime f a c t o r i n the development o f p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e . Consequently i t may be surmised t h a t s i n c e m e n t a l l y handicapped c h i l d r e n are c o n s t a n t l y a s s a u l t e d by d i f f i c u l t i e s i n mastering even very b a s i c developmental t a s k s , such as c o o r d i n a t i o n and communication s k i l l s , they w i l l probably experience d e l a y s i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l growth. Slowness i n mastering b a s i c t a s k s coupled w i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l immaturity leads i n t u r n t o s o c i a l r e j e c t i o n by peers, p a r e n t s , and s o c i e t y . T h i s r e j e c t i o n c o n f r o n t s the c h i l d with h i s / h e r own inadequacies and leads t o "deep f e e l i n g s o f h u r t , d e s p a i r , rage, r e g r e s s i o n , dependency, l a c k o f m o t i v a t i o n , s o c i a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e behavior, poor peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and impulse d i s o r d e r s . " (Wells, 1984,p.6). I m p l i c i t i n developmental theory i s the view t h a t the s o l u t i o n t o these manifest emotional problems l i e s not i n d e a l i n g w i t h the emotional s t r e s s symptoms o f the m e n t a l l y handicapped; i n s t e a d a t t e n t i o n i s focused on g i v i n g the m e n t a l l y handicapped person t r a i n i n g and support towards s u c c e s s f u l mastery o f b a s i c motor and communication s k i l l s s i n c e these are c o n s i d e r e d p r e r e q u i s i t e to p s y c h o l o g i c a l growth. P o t e n t i a l l y developmental psychology theory may p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r developing c o u n s e l l i n g programs a p p r o p r i a t e t o the m e n t a l l y handicapped s i n c e , i n theory, the m e n t a l l y handicapped - 29 -do not have a s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t s e t o f developmental h u r d l e s from anyone e l s e — t h e y simply progress through them more slo w l y . To date however, developmental t h e o r y has not been u t i l i z e d t o develop an a f f e c t i v e development c o u n s e l l i n g program f o r the m e n t a l l y handicapped. Instead the theory has tended t o serve as a r a t i o n a l e f o r j u s t i f y i n g the l a c k o f c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s f o r the m e n t a l l y handicapped s i n c e p s y c h o l o g i c a l growth i s p e r c e i v e d as f o l l o w i n g achievement o f b a s i c c o o r d i n a t i o n and communication s k i l l s . I t i s i n c r e a s i n g l y r ecognized however, t h a t the t h r e e areas o f c o g n i t i v e , s k i l l and a f f e c t i v e development are i n t e r - r e l a t e d i n such a way t h a t one cannot be seen as a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o the other; r a t h e r they enhance one another (Lewis & Rosenblum, 1978). Hence any r a t i o n a l e f o r not a t t e n d i n g t o the p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g needs of m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s d e r i v e d from o l d e r views o f developmental theory i s i n c r e a s i n g l y l e s s t e n a b l e . - 30 -G e s t a l t Awareness Approaches  i n C o u n s e l l i n g the M e n t a l l y D i s a b l e d  The t h e o r e t i c a l and t h e r a p e u t i c core o f G e s t a l t therapy. The core o f the G e s t a l t model i s awareness. P e r l s (1951, 1969) b e l i e v e s t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i s grounded i n awareness and t h a t awareness by i t s e l f i s not o n l y c u r a t i v e and n o u r i s h i n g but i s the o n l y b a s i s f o r knowledge and communication. In G e s t a l t therapy, awareness means being aware o f what one i s doing, p l a n n i n g , t h i n k i n g , and f e e l i n g ( E n r i g h t , 1970). A person i s i n s e p a r a b l e from h i s environment. To l i v e e f f e c t i v e l y a person must develop a growing awareness of both s e l f and environment (Passons, 1975). Three k i n d s or zones o f awareness have been d e s c r i b e d by Stevens (1971): 1. Awarness o f the o u t s i d e world. T h i s i s a c t u a l sensory c o n t a c t w i t h o b j e c t s and events i n the p r e s e n t . What I now a c t u a l l y see, hear, s m e l l , t a s t e , or touch. 2. Awareness of the i n s i d e world. T h i s i s a c t u a l sensory c o n t a c t with i n n e r events i n the p r e s e n t . What I now a c t u a l l y f e e l from i n s i d e my s k i n — i t c h e s , muscular t e n s i o n s and movements, p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f f e e l i n g s and emotions, d i s c o m f o r t , w e l l - b e i n g , and so f o r t h . 3. Awareness o f f a n t a s y a c t i v i t y . T h i s i n c l u d e s a l l mental a c t i v i t y beyond prese n t awareness o f ongoing experience. A l l e x p l a i n i n g , imagining, i n t e r p r e t i n g , guessing, t h i n k i n g , comparing, p l a n n i n g , remembering the past , a n t i c i p a t i n g the f u t u r e and so f o r t h (pp.5-6). From the G e s t a l t p e r s p e c t i v e , development o f awareness of f e e l i n g s and emotions i s a c r u c i a l step towards p s y c h o l o g i c a l growth and development. Acco r d i n g t o Passons (1975), f e e l i n g s serve t o " m o b i l i z e the person ...[and] p r o v i d e an o r i e n t a t i o n or - 31 -e v a l u a t i o n f u n c t i o n to s e l e c t i v e l y d i r e c t the person's behavior i n a c q u i r i n g and manipulating the environment t o meet the needs u n d e r l y i n g the f e e l i n g s " (pp.183-184). By being aware o f one's f e e l i n g s the person can then take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r them and need not be threatened by them. L e a r n i n g t o experience t h i s p a r t o f o n e s e l f b u i l d s a sense of confidence and s t r e n g t h . In F e e l i n g and P e r c e p t i o n i n Young C h i l d r e n , Chaloner (1963) argues t h a t t o be able t o f e e l i s an i n n a t e a b i l i t y and t h a t awareness of one's f e e l i n g s develops from b i r t h . Even a s m a l l i n f a n t o n l y a few days o l d , has a responsiveness t o the e x t e r n a l world i n terms of i t s being hot or c o l d , and has a responsiveness to the i n t e r n a l world d e v e l o p i n g from the d i s c o m f o r t o f hunger. The f e e l i n g of p l e a s u r e and s e c u r i t y i n the e x t e r n a l world comes about through c o n t a c t w i t h mother's warmth and the food she g i v e s the i n f a n t . I t i s from these fundamental " f e e l i n g s " t h a t f a n t a s i e s and images b e g i n t o evolve and awareness and p e r c e p t i o n s develop. In other words, these f e e l i n g s remain b a s i c t o our t h i n k i n g processes i n l a t e r l i f e a f f e c t i n g the a t t i t u d e s we h o l d towards o u r s e l v e s and towards o t h e r people and t h i n g s . By about s i x months, the c h i l d appears to be f a m i l i a r with love, hate, anger, f e a r and joy. These i n t e n s e f e e l i n g s are being m o d i f i e d n a t u r a l l y through p a r e n t a l n u r t u r i n g , guidance, a widening i n t e r e s t , and a r e a c t i o n t o a f f e c t i v e language. Before c h i l d r e n can t a l k they u s u a l l y express t h e i r f e e l i n g s through - 32 -t h e i r b e h a v i o r . Y e l l i n g , h i t t i n g or s t r u g g l i n g are i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f i n t e n s e f e e l i n g s l i k e anger. Being a b l e t o t a l k i s a c h i l d ' s f i r s t measure of s e l f - c o n t r o l and a l s o the beginning o f a g r e a t e r understanding o f both i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l r e a l i t i e s . However, l e a r n i n g t o t a l k i s based e s s e n t i a l l y on the stimulus r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t generate the d e s i r e t o communicate and understand. Chaloner i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o i n t by studying c h i l d r e n who moved from an i n s t i t u t i o n a l t o a home-like environment. By having o p p o r t u n i t i e s to develop c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h any a d u l t s i n the home-like environment these c h i l d r e n learned t o t a l k . In a d d i t i o n t h e i r a c t i n g out b e h a v i o r s were d r a s t i c a l l y reduced. The crux of the argument t h a t Chaloner i s t r y i n g t o convey i s t h a t understanding and awareness o f one's f e e l i n g s can make f o r " g r e a t e r human happiness with l e s s d i s t o r t i o n o f p o t e n t i a l and p e r s o n a l i t y " ( p . 5 - 6 ) . Chaloner's book i s r e l e v a n t t o the problem o f why the development o f a f f e c t i v e e ducation f o r the handicapped i s so important. By examining the development o f f e e l i n g s and p e r c e p t i o n s among the normal p o p u l a t i o n , a b e t t e r understanding o f why m e n t a l l y handicapped people l i v i n g i n an i n s t i t u t i o n are unable t o reach beyond an elementary stage o f s o c i a l development becomes apparent. M e n t a l l y handicapped c h i l d r e n , l i k e normal c h i l d r e n , experience i n t e n s e f e e l i n g s . However, u n l i k e normal c h i l d r e n whose i n f a n c y i s f o r t i f i e d by tenderness and nurturance, very o f t e n m e n t a l l y handicapped c h i l d r e n experience an i n f a n c y - 33 -marked by r e j e c t i o n and abuse. The parents of a m e n t a l l y handicapped c h i l d , h u r t and d i s a p p o i n t e d , and d r a i n e d by the c h i l d ' s c o n s t a n t demands and s p e c i a l needs, are f r e q u e n t l y unable t o develop meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e i r handicapped o f f s p r i n g ( C r i s t i a n i and Sommers, 1978; Hansen, 1971). Without a l o v i n g and secure r e l a t i o n s h i p , the a g g r e s s i v e and angry f e e l i n g s t h a t the c h i l d experiences, e s p e c i a l l y upon being r e j e c t e d , f a i l t o be c h a n n e l l e d i n t o any c o n s t r u c t i v e a c t i v i t y o r p l a y , and the e n e r g i e s which c o u l d be d i r e c t e d towards achievement, e x p l o r a t i o n , and experiment become d i s s i p a t e d and/or trapped i n a never ending c y c l e o f h u r t and a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o r . In a d d i t i o n , the s t i f l i n g o f self-awareness and the narrowing o f p e r c e p t i o n c o n t r i b u t e t o the r e t a r d a t i o n o f language development. And without language, the o n l y way f o r the m e n t a l l y handicapped c h i l d to handle negative f e e l i n g s i s t o suppress them or t o m a n i f e s t them i n u n c o n t r o l l a b l e a n t i - s o c i a l b e h a v i o r . And so a v i c i o u s c i r c l e o f r e j e c t i o n , l e a d i n g t o an impoverished a f f e c t i v e environment, l e a d i n g t o f u r t h e r developmental d e l a y and t o a n t i - s o c i a l behavior, l e a d i n g t o f u r t h e r r e j e c t i o n , and so on and on, becomes e s t a b l i s h e d . With t h i s understanding i n mind, one can more f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e why so many o f the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d m e n t a l l y handicapped are l o v e - s t a r v e d , confused, a g g r e s s i v e , and s o c i a l l y r e t a r d e d i n t h e i r development ( S t e r n l i c h t & Deutsch, 1972) . A s i g n i f i c a n t argument p o s t u l a t e d i n Chaloner's book i s t h a t d e s p i t e the important i n f l u e n c e o f one's e a r l y environment, - 34 -awareness of f e e l i n g s can be developed, even a t l a t e r stages, through the development o f a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p with a s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r . T h i s suggests t h a t the development o f a c o u n s e l l i n g program f o r me n t a l l y handicapped students can p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n r e s t o r i n g awareness of f e e l i n g s and dev e l o p i n g awareness of s e l f among such students. Obviously we cannot expect the m e n t a l l y handicapped c h i l d t o accomplish the v a r i o u s developmental t a s k s on schedule. I t may be p o s s i b l e to make the process a l i t t l e l e s s b e w i l d e r i n g , w h i l e enhancing the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r f e e l i n g s o f s e l f - w o r t h and happiness t o develop, by working t o i n t r o d u c e a f f e c t i v e education f o r the handicapped i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m . The goals o f the G e s t a l t t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s . These have been s u c c i n c t l y summarized by Zinker (1977) who argues t h a t through a process o f a c t i v a t i n g awareness one i s able t o : 1. Move toward g r e a t e r awareness o f o n e s e l f , one's body, one's f e e l i n g s , one's environment; 2. Learn t o take ownership o f one's experiences, r a t h e r than p r o j e c t i n g them on t o o t h e r s ; 3. Learn t o be aware o f one's needs and t o develop s k i l l s to s a t i s f y them without v i o l a t i n g o t h e r s ; 4. Move toward a f u l l e r c o n t a c t w i t h one's sensations, l e a r n i n g t o s m e l l , t a s t e , touch, hear and s e e — t o savour a l l aspects o f o n e s e l f ; 5. Move toward the experience o f one's power and a b i l i t y t o support o n e s e l f , r a t h e r than r e l y i n g on whining, blaming, or g u i l t - m a k i n g i n order t o m o b i l i z e support from the environment; 6. Become s e n s i t i v e t o one's surroundings, y e t a t the same time wear a coat o f armour f o r s i t u a t i o n s which are p o t e n t i a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e or poisonous; 7. Learn t o take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r one's a c t i o n s and t h e i r consequences; 8. F e e l comfortable with the awareness o f one's fanta s y l i f e and i t s expressions (pp.96-97). - 35 -In o r d e r t o a t t a i n these goals, G e s t a l t methods i n t e g r a t e both phenomenology, t h a t i s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r n a l experience, and behaviorism, t h a t i s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n c r e t e behavior ( Z i n k e r , 1977). T h i s i s done i n a c a r e f u l l y graded and timed manner w i t h procedures t h a t a l l o w f o r s y s t e m a t i c review and r e v i s i o n . In other words, the l e a r n i n g experience i s t a i l o r e d t o meet the needs and a b i l i t i e s o f the c l i e n t . In d e a l i n g w i t h m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s t h i s i s an important f a c t o r . One o f the unique q u a l i t i e s o f G e s t a l t therapy then i s i t s a b i l i t y t o b r i d g e c o g n i t i v e t h e r a p i e s and behavior m o d i f i c a t i o n approaches and so approach the development of a f f e c t i v e awareness i n a h o l i s t i c way adjus t e d t o the needs and a b i l i t i e s o f the c l i e n t . G e s t a l t approach t o classroom guidance. Remer and Schrader (1981) i n an a r t i c l e t i t l e d " G e s t a l t approach t o classroom guidance" suggest an approach which may be u t i l i z e d i n the development o f a program of a f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n f o r the m e n t a l l y handicapped. T h e i r a r t i c l e focuses on u s i n g G e s t a l t therapy as a means f o r developing awareness o f o n e s e l f and one's environment wi t h an aim t o i n c r e a s i n g one's i n d i v i d u a l sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Remer and Schrader p r e s e n t i n t h e i r a r t i c l e an overview of some G e s t a l t e x e r c i s e s they have developed f o r use with elementary school c h i l d r e n i n the r e g u l a r school classroom. The e x e r c i s e s have been or g a n i z e d i n t o t h r e e separate u n i t s . The - 36 -goal o f U n i t One i s to teach the s k i l l s necessary f o r i n c r e a s i n g awareness o f one's e x t e r n a l world. The g o a l o f U n i t Two i s to teach the s k i l l s necessary f o r i n c r e a s i n g awareness o f one's i n t e r n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . The go a l o f U n i t Three i s to teach one how t o be more aware of one's own emotions and how to communicate and express these emotions. The t h r e e u n i t s are developmental, i . e . , they are s e q u e n t i a l l y arranged t o b u i l d on one another. A l l the u n i t s have been f i e l d t e s t e d w i t h classroom groups ranging from k i n d e r g a r t e n through e i g h t h grade. The authors r e p o r t e d an i n c r e a s e d awareness o f emotions and an improved a b i l i t y t o communicate and express emotions on the p a r t o f the students and teachers d u r i n g the f i e l d t e s t i n g p e r i o d . For each e x e r c i s e there are i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the c o u n s e l l o r and outcomes w r i t t e n i n b e h a v i o r a l terms f o r both the student and t e a c h e r . An important p o i n t demonstrated i n t h i s a r t i c l e i s t h a t these c o u n s e l l i n g a c t i v i t i e s can be implemented w i t h i n the d a i l y schedule o f the classroom. I t was t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s p r o p o s a l t o use Remer and Schrader's e x e r c i s e s as a model t o be adapted f o r dev e l o p i n g a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o the development o f awareness and the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f emotions among m e n t a l l y handicapped students. Some S p e c i f i c Techniques U s e f u l In C o u n s e l l i n g M e n t a l l y  Handicapped I n d i v i d u a l s . Some o f the techniques which can be e f f e c t i v e l y used i n c o u n s e l l i n g work w i t h m e n t a l l y handicapped students and which have been i n c o r p o r a t e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of - 37 -the a c t i v i t i e s o f the G e s t a l t a f f e c t i v e awareness t r a i n i n g program f o r the men t a l l y handicapped which I have developed are reviewed below. D i r e c t i v e n e s s . I t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted t h a t therapy with handicapped people should be d i r e c t i v e because they have reduced c o g n i t i v e , conceptual, and communication a b i l i t i e s . In a d d i t i o n , very o f t e n m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s are c o n d i t i o n e d t o expect f a i l u r e and c r i t i c i s m from o t h e r s , and sometimes depend upon and t h r i v e on support and rei n f o r c e m e n t . In order t o b r i n g about the op t i m a l t h e r a p e u t i c gains, i t i s necessary t o p r o v i d e d i r e c t i o n and support. D i r e c t i v e n e s s i n t h i s context means s e t t i n g s t r u c t u r e and l i m i t s and m a i n t a i n i n g the focus o f the t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r a c t i o n on r e l e v a n t i s s u e s . At the same time o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r spontaneous p r o d u c t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n should be encouraged. V e r b a l techniques. The language used w i t h mentally handicapped students should be p r e c i s e , c o n c r e t e , and adapted t o t h e i r l e v e l o f understanding. Concrete examples are u s e f u l , e.g., "Red l i k e an apple." Due t o t h e i r l i m i t e d v e r b a l a b i l i t y and t h e i r s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o s u g g e s t i b i l i t y , answers i n the form of two o p p o s i t e s , e.g., " c o l d o r hot", are sometimes necessary f o r any s t r u c t u r e d q u e s t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , due to t h e i r poor con c e p t u a l s k i l l s , e s p e c i a l l y s k i l l s i n p r o j e c t i n g i n t o the past and f u t u r e , much o f the v e r b a l therapy has t o have a 'here-and-now' focus. For example, a m e n t a l l y handicapped student may not be able t o r e c a l l the f e e l i n g s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a - 38 -past event, i n which case i t i s b e t t e r t o r e c r e a t e t h a t s i t u a t i o n i n the p r e s e n t and then t a l k immediately about the emotions aroused. Thus, the t h e r a p e u t i c process i s e s s e n t i a l l y a r e a l i t y -o r i e n t e d , t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g experience. In many of the l e s s o n s i n the s t r u c t u r e d awareness program developed by t h i s r e s e a r c h e r , i t may be noted t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e ways of e x p r e s s i n g and h a n d l i n g the f i v e primary emotions have t o be taught t o the students c o n c r e t e l y through p l a y - a c t i n g , puppet p l a y , or i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with peers or teacher, a l l supported by empathy and reinforcement a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r l e v e l s of f u n c t i o n i n g . In a d d i t i o n the students have to be g i v e n the language. When e x p l o r i n g a new t o p i c , a s t e p - l i k e approach has to be used. As i n any t e a c h i n g to the m e n t a l l y handicapped, r e p e t i t i o n i s a must. An e c l e c t i c approach u s i n g v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n s and p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f success i s necessary. Since the m e n t a l l y handicapped student o f t e n expects f a i l u r e , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r o v i d i n g successes based on the student's s t r e n g t h s i s an important p a r t o f the t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s . Non-verbal techniques. Non-verbal techniques, such as p l a y , r o l e - p l a y i n g , a r t and music a c t i v i t i e s , s i l e n c e , and other non-verbal communication are a l s o i n t e g r a l p a r t s of the t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s . The important r o l e of p l a y i n a person's development and as an approach i n therapy dates back at l e a s t as e a r l y as the 1940s. Researchers l i k e A x l i n e (1947) and K l e i n (1955) were pi o n e e r s i n p l a y therapy. A v a l u a b l e review of these e a r l y - 39 -c o n t r i b u t i o n s can be found i n Schaefer's (1976) book, T h e r a p e u t i c  Use o f C h i l d ' s P l a y . G e n e r a l l y p l a y or psycho-drama has been used as a t e a c h i n g - s t i m u l a t i o n t o o l , t h a t i s , f o r t e a c h i n g communication, b e h a v i o r a l , and s o c i a l s k i l l s (Leland & Smith, 1965; M o r r i s o n & Newcomer, 1975). D i r e c t i v e n e s s i s u s u a l l y needed i n p l a y w i t h the m e n t a l l y handicapped s i n c e they may not have the i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l t o f a n t a s i z e . A f i r m s t r u c t u r e around r e a l i t y - b a s e d s i t u a t i o n s t h a t are important t o the students l i v e s can p r o v i d e the necessary impetus f o r both c o g n i t i v e and c r e a t i v e growth. R o l e - p l a y i n g , a d e r i v a t i v e o f psychodrama techniques i n t r o d u c e d by Moreno (1964) i s a method i n which problems and s i t u a t i o n s are acted out by an i n d i v i d u a l or by a group. I t i s e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l f o r working w i t h m e n t a l l y handicapped students s i n c e i t does not depend on v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s alone. Lombana (1982) summarized a number o f advantages o f using r o l e - p l a y i n g as a c o u n s e l l i n g s t r a t e g y w i t h the m e n t a l l y handicapped. 1. I t g i v e s the student an o p p o r t u n i t y t o express d i f f e r e n t types o f b e h a v i o r s and a t t i t u d e s with a minimum o f p e r s o n a l t h r e a t . 2. A c t i n g h e l p s to b r i n g out the c o n f l i c t s , f e e l i n g s , f e a r s and wishes t h a t the student may not be a b l e t o v e r b a l i z e . 3. Assuming a r o l e t h a t i s d i f f e r e n t from one's own can h e l p the student develop an understanding and acceptance o f a v a r i e t y o f viewpoints. 4. R o l e - p l a y i n g g i v e s the student a chance t o demonstrate what he or she would a c t u a l l y do r a t h e r than merely d i s c u s s i n g what one might do. 5. I t p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n t r o d u c i n g a v a r i e t y of r o l e s and experiences i n t o the student's world w i t h i n i n s h o r t p e r i o d o f time. - 40 -6. In a group s i t u a t i o n , the audience has an o p p o r t u n i t y to observe a number o f d i f f e r e n t responses t o a g i v e n problem or s i t u a t i o n . 7. Threatening s i t u a t i o n s can be r e - c r e a t e d and acted out by the c o u n s e l o r , g i v i n g the student a chance t o experiment w i t h d i f f e r e n t types o f responses.(p.167) A r t and music are a l s o an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the a f f e c t i v e awareness t r a i n i n g program f o r m e n t a l l y handicapped students which t h i s r e s e a r c h e r has developed. The value o f the c r e a t i v e a r t s , such as music, dance, a r t , and drama, as t h e r a p e u t i c d e v i c e s have been recognized f o r some time. A number o f r e c e n t p r o j e c t s u s i n g such t o o l s w i t h m e n t a l l y handicapped students have been d e s c r i b e d as having very p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s . Spero and Weiner (1973) have r e p o r t e d on a program they developed which used music, dance, a r t , and drama with m e n t a l l y handicapped students. They noted success i n the areas o f i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n span, i n c r e a s e d s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , and g r e a t e r e x p r e s s i v e a b i l i t y . Rubin and Klineman (1974) have d e s c r i b e d an a r t therapy program w i t h b l i n d m e n t a l l y handicapped people. Through a r t , the students were ab l e t o r e l e a s e f e e l i n g s of anger and d i s t r e s s and r e s o l v e some l o n g - s t a n d i n g emotional problems. A p p r o p r i a t e use o f music has a l s o been found to improve the speech, sense o f rhythm, p h y s i c a l c o o r d i n a t i o n , and calm the tense bodies o f m e n t a l l y handicapped students (Levey, 1970; Weisbrod, 1972). Goodenough and Goodenough (1970) have s t r e s s e d the value o f music i n emotional development, s e l f - c o n c e p t , a t t e n t i o n span and s o c i a l awareness of b l i n d students. - 41 -In s h o r t , a r t , music, and drama have been demonstrated to be v i a b l e and v a l u a b l e treatment m o d a l i t i e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g the m e n t a l l y handicapped s i n c e they c r e a t e a non-threatening atmosphere i n which the handicapped can f e e l f r e e t o express themselves w i t h no f e a r of f a i l u r e or c r i t i c i s m . N e v e r t h e l e s s , l i k e r o l e - p l a y i n g , i n o r d e r t o ensure a s u c c e s s f u l l e a r n i n g experience f o r m e n t a l l y handicapped students, the t h e r a p e u t i c process r e q u i r e s permissiveness w i t h i n an e s t a b l i s h e d s t r u c t u r e . Other non-verbal techniques such as u s i n g body language, gross m o t i l i t y , and v o c a l i n t o n a t i o n , are a l s o important means of communication, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s having l i m i t e d v e r b a l a b i l i t i e s . Many of the non-verbal expressions are u n i v e r s a l , o t h e r s may be i d i o s y n c r a t i c . Thus o b s e r v a t i o n d u r i n g normally s t r u c t u r e d as w e l l as u n s t r u c t u r e d p e r i o d s may be necessary i n order t o come to an understanding o f the b e h a v i o r a l r e p e r t o i r e of m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s . When working with m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s , s i l e n c e i n the t h e r a p e u t i c s e s s i o n does not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t r e s i s t a n c e . Most o f t e n i t r e f l e c t s the student's not knowing what t o say, f e a r of saying something t h a t i s i n a c c u r a t e , b a s i c p a s s i v i t y , and/or dependency. S i l e n c e should not be allowed t o continue too long but i t should be broken with communication and empathy and support. S e t t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e l i m i t s . T h i s i s a necessary procedure i n c o u n s e l l i n g work wit h m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s , not because the c l i e n t s are more a g g r e s s i v e , but because the l i m i t s - 42 -p r o v i d e c l e a r g u i d e l i n e s f o r s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e behavior i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . T h i s reduces the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d i s r u p t i v e behavior and channels the students' e n e r g i e s towards success. L i m i t s should be s e t i n c l e a r , b r i e f , c o n c r e t e form and without c r i t i c i s m . Understanding the Development o f A f f e c t . In order to a p p r e c i a t e the v a l u e of s t r u c t u r e d a f f e c t i v e awareness a c t i v i t i e s as a f i r s t s t ep i n p r e p a r i n g m e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d i n d i v i d u a l s t o l e a r n how to express t h e i r f e e l i n g s with a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r , i t i s necessary t o c o n s i d e r the g e n e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r the development of a f f e c t . A f f e c t i v e development subsumes a s e t o f behaviors and a set of c o n d i t i o n s or s i t u a t i o n s i n which these b e h a v i o r s occur as a r e s u l t o f some i n t e r n a l s t a t e commonly r e f e r r e d t o as f e e l i n g s (Lewis & Rosenblum, 1978). A f f e c t i v e development i s embedded i n "the c h i l d ' s t o t a l s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and p h y s i c a l maturation" (Lewis & Rosenblum, 1978, p.10). I t can s t a r t as e a r l y as t h r e e t o four weeks of l i f e . A l r e a d y a t t h a t stage, "organized, non-random p a t t e r n s of f a c i a l b e h a v i o r " have been observed and i t i s b e l i e v e d these " r e f l e c t the o p e r a t i o n o f at l e a s t p r i m i t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l , p e r c e p t u a l , a t t e n t i o n a l , and c o g n i t i v e processes t h a t are a l r e a d y i n t i m a t e l y l i n k e d t o a f f e c t " ,(Oster, 1978, p.73). The process o f a f f e c t i v e development i s very much a s o c i a l - c o g n i t i v e one, i n v o l v i n g f o u r e s s e n t i a l elements: (Lewis & Rosenblum, 1978): - 43 -1. The p r o d u c t i o n o f some a l t e r a t i o n o f an i n t e r n a l p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t a t e ( i . e . , a f f e c t i v e s t a t e ) which may be somatic o r n e u r a l i n c h a r a c t e r ( i . e . , a f f e c t i v e r e c e p t o r s ) or some combination o f both r e s u l t i n g from e i t h e r i n t e r n a l or e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i ( i . e . , a f f e c t i v e e l i c i t o r s ) . The i n t e r n a l s t i m u l i may range from p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t i m u l i , e.g., low blood sugar, t o complex c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t y , e.g., s o l v i n g a problem. The e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i may range from concrete ones i n the environment, e.g., a sudden n o i s e , t o s o c i a l ones, e.g., the appearance o f a loved one. The c a p a c i t y o f these e l i c i t o r s t o evoke responses may be e i t h e r l e a r n e d o r unlearned. 2. The above a c t i v i t y r e s u l t s i n a c o r r e l a t e d change i n s u r f a c e e x p r e s s i v e behavior which may i n v o l v e the face, body, v o i c e , and a c t i v i t y t h a t accompany the a f f e c t i v e s t a t e . T h i s s u r f a c e e x p r e s s i v e behavior may be i n f l u e n c e d by g e n e t i c and/or p r i o r experience. 3. The s u r f a c e e x p r e s s i o n o f a f f e c t then b r i n g s the organism's responses i n t o two p e r c e p t u a l spheres: the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f s e l f and the p e r c e p t i o n o f others i n h i s / h e r s o c i a l network. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r process can be le a r n e d o r unlearned as many aspects o f expr e s s i o n s are under p o t e n t i a l conscious c o n t r o l and serve as a communication f u n c t i o n t o oth e r members of the s p e c i e s . 4. The a f f e c t i v e e xpressions t o g e t h e r w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f s e l f and with the p e r c e p t i o n o f others l e a d t o the i n d i v i d u a l ' s conscious or unconscious i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n , i . e . , a f f e c t i v e experience. T h i s c o g n i t i v e process i s i n f l u e n c e d by a v a r i e t y o f p r i o r s o c i a l e x p e r i ences, i . e . , nature o f e l i c i t i n g s t i m u l i and the app r o p r i a t e n e s s o f p a r t i c u l a r e x p r e s s i o n s a r t i c u l a t e d and l a b e l l e d f o r the i n d i v i d u a l by others (p.2-3). T h i s model o f "normal" a f f e c t i v e development has important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r m e n t a l l y handicapped people. The most s i g n i f i c a n t element i s the concept o f l e a r n i n g and u n l e a r n i n g . Based on t h i s model, one can assume t h a t many o f the i n a p p r o p r i a t e expressions and behaviors o f m e n t a l l y handicapped people can be unlearned and new, more a p p r o p r i a t e a f f e c t can take p l a c e i f one f o l l o w s the same process o f normal development. In f a c t r e c e n t r e s e a r c h tends t o r e i n f o r c e t h i s p o s i t i o n . I t has g e n e r a l l y been found t h a t r e g a r d l e s s o f the extent o f c o g n i t i v e - 44 -r e t a r d a t i o n , the organized nature o f development o f m e n t a l l y handicapped i n f a n t s bears s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y t o t h a t o f normal babies ( C i c c h e t t i & Sroufe, 1978; Emde, Katz & Thorpe, 1978). The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n the hands o f the parents or care t a k e r s o f the m e n t a l l y handicapped person. These care g i v e r s need t o assume more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h e l p i n g the i n f a n t s t o extend or s t i m u l a t e themselves, t o generate a f f e c t and t o become e m o t i o n a l l y engaged i n the s i t u a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n they have t o l e a r n t o accept g r e a t e r delays i n the development o f f u l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a f f e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n depending upon the degree o f mental handicap. With t h i s understanding o f the nature o f the development of a f f e c t , i t becomes c l e a r t h a t m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s , e s p e c i a l l y those who are i n i n s t i t u t i o n s , may develop g r e a t e r a f f e c t i v e awareness through a s t r u c t u r e d awareness t r a i n i n g program. Methods o f E v a l u a t i o n . T h i s s e c t i o n d e a l s with v a r i o u s i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o e v a l u a t i n g or measuring the r e s u l t s o f the s t r u c t u r e d awareness t r a i n i n g program which t h i s r e s e a r c h e r has developed f o r use with m e n t a l l y handicapped students. Some p h i l o s o p h i c a l q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g e v a l u a t i o n i n g e n e r a l are d i s c u s s e d . Of p a r t i c u l a r concern are que s t i o n s o f o b j e c t i v i t y , v a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y . The v a r i o u s dimensions o f measurement t h a t are found t o be r e l e v a n t i n implementing the program are a l s o d i s c u s s e d . The methods of e v a l u a t i o n used have been based l a r g e l y on the work o f Stamatelos and Mott (1983) . - 45 -P h i l o s o p h i c a l i s s u e s . L i k e s e l f - c o n c e p t , awareness of one's f e e l i n g s i s an a b s t r a c t c o n s t r u c t which i s d i f f i c u l t t o measure. There are c u r r e n t l y r e a l l y no o b j e c t i v e instruments a v a i l a b l e f o r measuring the c o n s t r u c t with the normal p o p u l a t i o n , l e t alone with the m e n t a l l y handicapped person. In a d d i t i o n , whenever one t r i e s t o measure such broad i s s u e s , s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g o b j e c t i v i t y are r a i s e d , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h regard t o s p e c i f i c concerns such as v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y . In order t o i l l u s t r a t e the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f o b t a i n i n g o b j e c t i v e data, l e t ' s c o n s i d e r the concept o f s e l f - c o n c e p t i n which the awareness o f one's f e e l i n g s i s a p a r t . In R.C. Wylie's book The S e l f Concept (1961), the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n measuring v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o s e l f - c o n c e p t are d i s c u s s e d . Wylie pres e n t s a t a b l e o f the instruments which have been used t o measure s e l f - c o n c e p t and commented, " f o r t w o - t h i r d s of a l l instruments i n the t a b l e , no r e l i a b i l i t y i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e i n p u b l i s h e d sources. For 80% of a l l instruments r e f e r r e d t o i n the t a b l e , no i n f o r m a t i o n on c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y f o r i n f e r r i n g the phenomenal s e l f i s a v a i l a b l e i n p u b l i s h e d sources" (p.88). Twenty some years l a t e r the same dilemma o f o b t a i n i n g a c c u r a t e measurements of a b s t r a c t c o n s t r u c t s s t i l l e x i s t s . However, t h i s does not mean t h a t complex i n f e r r e d concepts l i k e happiness, sadness, sense of t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n and so on should be ignored i n terms o f treatment because o f the l a c k o f " s c i e n t i f i c " , " o b j e c t i v e " measurement. Ign o r i n g these i s s u e s does not e r r a d i c a t e the problem nor t h e i r impact on the l i v e s o f the m e n t a l l y - 46 -handicapped. F o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e are techniques o f measurement, well-grounded i n t r a d i t i o n and i n pragmatic r e a l i t y , such as " p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n " which u t i l i z e phenomenological models seeking t o understand and evaluate the world from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the c l i e n t . P a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n should not be c o n s i d e r e d as a p u r e l y s u b j e c t i v e r e p o r t i n g o f the r e s e a r c h e r . G l a s e r and Strauss (1967) d i s c u s s the dynamic t e n s i o n which must be e s t a b l i s h e d between the r e s e a r c h e r ' s r o l e o f observer and p a r t i c i p a n t by abandoning any preconceived or a p r i o r i hypotheses. They a l s o s t a t e t h a t one r e s u l t of t r a d i t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e or q u a n t i t a t i v e approaches o f t e n i s "a f o r c i n g o f data as w e l l as a n e g l e c t of r e l e v a n t concepts and hypotheses t h a t may emerge" (p.54). In c o n t r a s t Wilson (1977) emphasizes t h a t phenomenological or "ethnographic r e s e a r c h ... seeks t o d i s c o v e r the meaning s t r u c t u r e s o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n whatever forms they are expressed" (p.255). Wilson c a r r i e s on t o e x p l a i n t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h i s "multi-modal" and t h a t the f o l l o w i n g are a l l r e l e v a n t k i n d s o f d a t a : 1. Form and content of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . 2. Form and content of v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s between r e s e a r c h e r and p a r t i c i p a n t s . 3. Nonverbal behavior o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . 4. P a r t i c i p a n t s ' p a t t e r n s o f a c t i o n and nonaction. 5. Traces, a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s , a r t i f a c t s , documents, (p.255) B l a t t (1977), Jacobs (1981), and Heshusius (1981) have a l l p o i n t e d out the importance of u s i n g phenomenological techniques t o understand the world of the m e n t a l l y handicapped. B l a t t - 47 -(1977) s t a t e s t h a t the p e r c e p t i o n s o f the m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l have been long n e g l e c t e d because very o f t e n they are "not expected t o t h i n k " (p.8). An important aspect o f the phenomenological-measurement approach i s the b e l i e f i n the value of a u t h e n t i c i t y or genuiness i n the expressions o f c l i e n t s . In o t h e r words, whatever the c l i e n t expresses, e i t h e r v e r b a l l y or n o n - v e r b a l l y , i s accepted and c o n s i d e r e d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t and necessary 'data' without d i s p u t e . Wilson (1977) h o l d s the view t h a t one "cannot understand human behavior without understanding the framework w i t h i n which the s u b j e c t s i n t e r p r e t t h e i r thoughts, f e e l i n g s and a c t i o n s " (p.249). In working w i t h the m e n t a l l y handicapped, such a process i s a c r i t i c a l one and i s o f t e n m i s s i n g i n the s e r v i c e - d e l i v e r y system. Phenomenological techniques i n themselves may not n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d t o the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n or change i n s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r s as would q u a n t i t a t i v e l y o r i e n t e d d e s i g n s . However, phenomenologically o r i e n t e d techniques are not aimed d i r e c t l y a t m o d i f i c a t i o n o f behavior but r a t h e r are a p r e r e q u i s i t e step t o f u r t h e r growth and awareness. I t i s important, n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h a t even when the r e l a t i v e i s s u e s o f a u t h e n t i c i t y and o b j e c t i v i t y are r e s o l v e d , the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f such a technique s t i l l remains a q u e s t i o n of v a l u e s . In t h i s p r o j e c t , the methods of measurement have i n c l u d e d both phenomenological, q u a l i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s as w e l l as e m p i r i c a l , q u a n t i t a t i v e ones based on a more r i g o r o u s s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h method. In t h i s way, i t was hoped t h a t the data c o l l e c t e d might be enhanced. - 48 -Methods o f measurement. The methods of measurement used i n t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t have been adapted from Stamatelos and Mott (1983). The e v a l u a t i o n techniques u t i l i z e both the phenomenological, q u a l i t a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s w i t h d i f f e r e n t degrees of o b j e c t i v i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , and v a l i d i t y , as w e l l as d i f f e r e n t degrees o f t h e r a p e u t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e . The c r i t i c a l dimensions o f measurement ac c o r d i n g t o Stamatelos and Mott (1983, p.36) are as f o l l o w s : Individual vs Group Data i s taken on one person o n l y (e.g. i n d i v i d u a l t e s t scores on the v i d e o v i g n e t t e s ) . Data i s taken on more than one person a t a time (e.g., casenotes r e g a r d i n g the whole c l a s s , i . e . , the teacher w r i t e s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the events of the s e s s i o n , i n l i g h t o f the students' needs and p a s t h i s t o r y ) . Simple Variable vs Complex Variable Target b e h a v i o r i s i n d i s t i n c t (e.g. a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o r ) . Target b e h a v i o r i s c l e a r and d i s t i n c t (e.g. t o i d e n t i f y the f i v e primary emotions). Objective Variable Target b e h a v i o r i s e x t e r n a l vs Target b e h a v i o r i s i n f e r r e d from e x t e r n a l behavior and i s assumed t o occur w i t h i n the person (e.g. "awareness"). Subjective Variable and d i r e c t l y observable (e.g. v e r b a l i z e the word "happy"). Standardized Instrument Measuring t o o l has been t e s t e d w i t h a sample of the intended p o p u l a t i o n a g a i n s t whose scores the r e s u l t s are compared (e.g. i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s ) . vs Nonstandard!zed Instrument Measuring t o o l t h a t has been designed f o r the s p e c i f i c p o p u l a t i o n b e i n g evaluated (e.g. video v i g n e t t e s ) . - 49 -One Observer Data i s taken by one person o n l y (e.g. t e a c h e r takes d a t a ) . Participant Observer Data-keeper a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the events or processes b e i n g evaluated (e.g. t e acher p a r t i c i p a t e s i n l e s s o n s and then w r i t e s c a s e n o t e s ) . Self-Reports Included Students' statements, d e s c r i p t i o n s , and e x p l a n a t i o n s are i n c l u d e d as v a l i d data (e.g. product a n a l y s i s o f students' responses i n l e s s o n s ) . Direct Measurement Target behavior i s d i r e c t l y measured (e.g. the students can i d e n t i f y the f i v e primary emotions i n the v i d e o v i g n e t t e s ) . vs Multiple Observers Data i s taken by more than one person w i t h r e s u l t s compared or pooled (e.g. teacher and s t a f f take d a t a ) . vs Nonparticipant Observer Data-keeper does not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the process or events being e v a l u a t e d (e.g. s t a f f who keep records o f the students e x p r e s s i o n s o f the f i v e primary emotions). vs Self-Reports Excluded Students' statements, d e s c r i p t i o n s , and explanations are not i n c l u d e d as v a l i d data (e.g. students' a b i l i t y t o use words l e a r n e d i n l e s s o n s ) . vs Indirect Measurement Target behavior i s i n d i r e c t l y measured by d i r e c t l y measuring ot h e r behavior t h a t i s assumed to be r e l a t e d (e.g. students' a b i l i t y t o name the f i v e primary emotions d u r i n g c l a s s l e s s o n s ) . Summary Reviewing the h i s t o r i c a l background to the development of c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s f o r the m e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d has n e c e s s i t a t e d a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the impact of p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y on the needs of the m e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d . Study o f the emotional development o f the m e n t a l l y handicapped has been a n e g l e c t e d area. Now, however, i t i s w i d e l y recognized t h a t a f f e c t i v e awareness i s c r i t i c a l t o the s a t i s f a c t o r y s o c i a l adjustment o f m e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o the mainstream o f the community. - 50 -The g o a l of t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t was t o develop and t e s t a c u r r i c u l u m u n i t which would h e l p m e n t a l l y handicapped students develop awareness o f t h e i r f e e l i n g s . In the process the b a s i s was l a i d f o r d e v e l o p i n g a c o u n s e l l i n g s t r a t e g y f o r a s s i s t i n g m e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d students to l e a r n how to express t h e i r f e e l i n g s i n a p p r o p r i a t e , s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e behavior. The f i r s t step, however, was d e v e l o p i n g a f f e c t i v e awareness. - 51 -Chapter I I I . Research Method T h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t examines changes i n emotional awareness of m e n t a l l y handicapped s u b j e c t s f o l l o w i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an a f f e c t i v e awareness c o u n s e l l i n g program e s p e c i a l l y designed f o r use w i t h TMR s t u d e n t s . The program c o n s i s t e d o f 48 u n i t s or s e s s i o n s each l a s t i n g 45 minutes ( f o r a t o t a l o f 34 and one h a l f hours o f c o n t a c t time) and was modelled a f t e r G e s t a l t awareness t r a i n i n g e x e r c i s e s used with normal s u b j e c t s . The o v e r a l l goals of the p r o j e c t were t o determine: (1) whether TMR students c o u l d be r e s p o n s i v e t o t r a i n i n g i n emotional awareness, and (2) the degree t o which the program which had been e s p e c i a l l y developed was e f f e c t i v e i n f a c i l i t a t i n g such emotional awareness. Changes i n a s u b j e c t ' s awareness o f emotions a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program were measured by (a) changes i n a b i l i t y t o c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y the primary emotion ( j o y , sadness, s u r p r i s e , anger, or f e a r ) being expressed i n each o f f i f t e e n s p e c i a l l y prepared v i d e o v i g n e t t e s , and (b) changes i n a b i l i t y t o empathize as i n d i c a t e d by being a b l e t o c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y the emotional response a p p r o p r i a t e t o the s i t u a t i o n p o r t r a y e d i n each v i d e o v i g n e t t e . Subjects The s u b j e c t s were twelve students ( e i g h t females, four males) l i v i n g i n an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r the m e n t a l l y handicapped. These twelve students were s e l e c t e d from the T r a i n a b l e M e n t a l l y Retarded (TMR) s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . Of the twelve students, s i x were randomly assigned to the experimental group ( f o u r females and two males) and r e c e i v e d t h i r t y - f o u r and - 52 -one h a l f hours of i n s t r u c t i o n i n a s p e c i a l l y developed a f f e c t i v e awareness t r a i n i n g program, while the other s i x ( f o u r females and two males) were assigned to a c o n t r o l group and r e c e i v e d no s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n a program o f t h i s type though they d i d r e c e i v e an equal amount o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l c l a s s time w i t h the r e s e a r c h e r aimed a t other c u r r i c u l u m a c t i v i t i e s . Because o f time c o n s t r a i n t s and the e x p l o r a t o r y nature o f t h i s study, i t was not p o s s i b l e t o i n c r e a s e the number o f groups though i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the s m a l l e r the sample s i z e , the g r e a t e r the need f o r c a u t i o n i n g e n e r a l i z i n g treatment r e s u l t s . As f o r the s i z e of each group, Lombana (1984) has suggested t h a t no more than e i g h t mentally handicapped students should be i n c l u d e d i n a s i n g l e teaching group. I d e a l l y a c c o r d i n g t o L a s s i t e r (1974), the r e d u c t i o n o f group s i z e t o f o u r members appears to i n c r e a s e v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n , decrease a n x i e t y , and encourage emotional content of exchanges. Tes t Instrument Each s u b j e c t i n both the experimental and the c o n t r o l group was g i v e n a p r e - t e s t , a p o s t - t e s t , and a r e t e n t i o n - t e s t (given s i x weeks a f t e r the p o s t - t e s t ) u s i n g as the t e s t instrument a s e r i e s of f i f t e e n e s p e c i a l l y prepared video v i g n e t t e s . In each case the t e s t was administered and scored by the r e s e a r c h e r a s s i s t e d by an a i d e . The f i f t e e n v i d e o v i g n e t t e s were prepared by a group o f normal students s t u d y i n g i n the drama department o f a l o c a l community c o l l e g e . F i v e emotions were s e l e c t e d , namely - 53 -the primary ones o f "joy", "sadness", "anger", " s u r p r i s e " , and " f e a r " ( P l u t c h i k , 1962). Three d i f f e r e n t v i g n e t t e s were prepared f o r each of these primary emotions. Each v i g n e t t e d e p i c t e d o n l y one primary emotion. The v i g n e t t e s were presented t o each s u b j e c t i n a s e t o rder which had been randomly a r r i v e d a t p r i o r t o t e s t i n g . In order t o i n c r e a s e the v a l i d i t y o f the t e s t instrument, the f i f t e e n v i d e o v i g n e t t e s were f i e l d t e s t e d u s i n g s i x normal i n d i v i d u a l s ( f o u r females and two males) whose ages ranged from 17 t o 25. In the same manner as was l a t e r used w i t h the mentally handicapped s u b j e c t s , each viewer was asked two q u e s t i o n s a f t e r viewing each v i d e o v i g n e t t e , namely,: 1. "what f e e l i n g i s the main s u b j e c t i n the v i d e o expressing?" 2. "what f e e l i n g would you have i f you were t h a t person i n t h a t s i t u a t i o n ? " The s i x normal s u b j e c t s who served t o f i e l d t e s t the v i g n e t t e s c o u l d a l l c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y and empathize w i t h each o f the primary emotions i n each o f the v i g n e t t e s without any d i f f i c u l t y . Two more video-tapes were prepared which served as the instruments f o r p r e - and p o s t - t e s t s on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of l e a r n i n g a f t e r the completion o f U n i t I and U n i t II o f the A f f e c t i v e Awareness T r a i n i n g Program. The U n i t I v i d e o t e s t instrument c o n s i s t e d of two p a r t s . In p a r t one, the a c t o r i n the v i d e o p o i n t e d one by one t o : - 54 -1. The 2. The 3. The 4. The 5. The In 1. The 2 . The 3. The 4. The 5. The f i n g e r s and asked "What do the f i n g e r s do?" The U n i t II v i d e o t e s t instrument a l s o c o n s i s t e d o f two p a r t s concerned w i t h examining the q u e s t i o n of " t e n s i o n " and " r e l a x a t i o n " o f the v a r i o u s body p a r t s . In p a r t one, the a c t o r i n the video shows a tensed and then a r e l a x e d body, a tensed and then a r e l a x e d l e g , tensed and then r e l a x e d s h o u l d e r s , a tensed and then a r e l a x e d arm, and a tensed and then a r e l a x e d f a c e . The students are then asked t o i m i t a t e the a c t i o n s . In p a r t two o f the video, the above noted a c t i o n s are again presented but i n a s e t randomly determined order and the students are asked t o i d e n t i f y whether the body p a r t shown i n the video was tensed or r e l a x e d . - 55 -The students are then asked t o i m i t a t e the a c t i o n s . In p a r t two o f the vi d e o , the above noted a c t i o n s are again presented but i n a s e t randomly determined order and the students are asked t o i d e n t i f y whether the body p a r t shown i n the vi d e o was tensed or r e l a x e d . E s t a b l i s h i n g B a s e l i n e Behaviors f o r Subje c t s . I t was deci d e d t o c o l l e c t b a s e l i n e behavior data on the s u b j e c t s t o be used as a phenomenological measuring t o o l f o r understanding, i n t e r p r e t i n g and s u b s t a n t i a t i n g the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f s u b j e c t s ' t e s t instrument r e s u l t s . F i v e r e g u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f members i n v o l v e d w i t h the s u b j e c t s on a day-to-day b a s i s v o l u n t e e r e d t o r e c o r d o b s e r v a t i o n s on the s u b j e c t s b e g i n n i n g two weeks b e f o r e the implementation o f the A f f e c t i v e Awareness T r a i n i n g Program. Each v o l u n t e e r was given a b r i e f t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n and a d e t a i l e d r e c o r d i n g sheet (see Appendix A) and was requested t o note o b s e r v a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e q u e s t i o n s : 1. Has the student ever expressed f a c i a l l y any o f the f i v e primary emotions (joy, sadness, anger, s u r p r i s e , f e a r ) ? I f yes, d e s c r i b e the f e e l i n g expressed and the i n c i d e n t . 2. Has the student ever expressed v e r b a l l y , i n s i g n s or i n symbols any o f the f i v e primary emotions ( j o y , sadness, anger, s u r p r i s e , f e a r ) ? I f yes, d e s c r i b e the f e e l i n g expressed and the i n c i d e n t . 3. Can the student i d e n t i f y e i t h e r v e r b a l l y , i n s i g n s o r i n symbols any o f the f i v e primary emotions ( j o y , sadness, anger, s u r p r i s e , f e a r ) when expressed by others? I f yes, d e s c r i b e the f e e l i n g expressed and the i n c i d e n t . The same v o l u n t e e r s t a f f again recorded t h e i r o bservations on the same type o f r e c o r d i n g sheets f o r a two-week p e r i o d - 56 -immediately f o l l o w i n g the p o s t - t e s t a t the end o f the A f f e c t i v e Awareness T r a i n i n g Program and agai n f o r a two-week p e r i o d immediately f o l l o w i n g the r e t e n t i o n - t e s t a d m i n i s t e r e d s i x weeks a f t e r the p o s t - t e s t . Lesson Plan A c t i v i t i e s O r i g i n a l l y i t was planned t h a t the a c t i v i t i e s t o be used i n the A f f e c t i v e Awareness T r a i n i n g Program would be adapted from Remer & Schrader*s b o o k l e t (1978) as w e l l as o t h e r r e l e v a n t sources. while t h e i r work c e r t a i n l y p r ovided the stimulus, i t proved necessary i n the end t o e s s e n t i a l l y develop a unique i n s t r u c t i o n a l program designed e s p e c i a l l y t o meet the needs and a b i l i t i e s o f TMR students. The main headings o f the 46 lessons subsequently developed were: U n i t I: Awareness of the E x t e r n a l World 1. Awareness o f d i f f e r e n t body p a r t s . 2. Awareness o f d i f f e r e n t f a c i a l p a r t s . 3. Awareness of the f i v e senses. 4. S i g h t Awareness I: Seeing i s b e l i e v i n g . 5. S i g h t Awareness I I : Seeing i s b e l i e v i n g . 6. S i g h t Awareness I I I : V i s u a l s i z e , shape r e l a t i o n s h i p . 7. S i g h t Awareness IV: I t ' s good to see wi t h eyes. 8. Taste Awareness I: Sweet as honey. 9. Taste Awareness I I : More food. 10. Hearing Awareness I : Hear no e v i l . 11. Hearing Awareness I I : I t ' s good to hear with ears. 12. Hearing Awareness I I I : Soundings 13. T a c t i l e Awareness I: Keeping a f i n g e r on t h i n g s . 14. T a c t i l e Awareness I I : Touching and F e e l i n g . 15. T a c t i l e Awareness I I I : Touch awareness without s i g h t . 16. Smell Awareness I: S m e l l i n g l i k e a r o s e . 17. Smell Awareness I I : Nose power. 18. Choosing Awareness: I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s - 57 -U n i t I I : Awareness o f the I n t e r n a l World 1. Concept o f t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n . 2. E x p l o r i n g t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n . 3. T e n s i o n and anger. 4. R e l a x a t i o n and joy. 5. Tension and f e a r . 6. A c t i v i t i e s i n d u c i n g t e n s i o n or r e l a x a t i o n . 7. Tension and sadness. 8. Tension and s u r p r i s e . 9. Tension and r e l a x a t i o n : The f i v e emotions. 10. Choosing awareness: Tension and r e l a x a t i o n . U n i t I I I : Awareness of the F i v e Primary Emotions 1. F e e l i n g s : What are they? 2. Happiness and Joy I. 3. Happiness and Joy I I . 4. Happiness and Joy I I I . 5. Sadness I. 6. Sadness I I . 7. Sadness I I I . 8. Anger I: Angry as a f i s t . 9. Anger I I . 10. Anger I I I . 11. S u r p r i s e I: Jump l i k e a jack-in-the-box. 12. S u r p r i s e I I . 13. S u r p r i s e I I I . 14. Fear I : Scared as a mouse. 15. Fear I I . 16. Fear I I I . 17. What are the f i v e primary emotions? 18. We a l l have f e e l i n g s . In t o t a l then, 46 l e s s o n s (see Appendix B) were taught, each s e s s i o n l a s t i n g f o r 45 minutes. Each s e s s i o n i n c l u d e d a review segment. A l l o f the experimental s u b j e c t s were g i v e n a l l of the l e s s o n s i n the o r d e r noted above. Video V i g n e t t e s The p r e p a r a t i o n of the video v i g n e t t e s has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d i n a p r e l i m i n a r y f a s h i o n under the t i t l e T e s t  Instrument. The a c t u a l content o f the v i g n e t t e s i s examined here. In an e f f o r t t o make the pre-recorded v i d e o v i g n e t t e s , which were used as the t e s t instrument i n t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t , - 58 -as r e l i a b l e and v a l i d as p o s s i b l e , each of the f i v e emotions was p o r t r a y e d i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t types o f s e t t i n g s and s i t u a t i o n s which would g e n e r a l l y be f a m i l i a r t o men t a l l y handicapped students l i v i n g i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . The contents o f each video are d e s c r i b e d below: In order t o d e p i c t joy, the f o l l o w i n g three v i g n e t t e s appeared i n the v i d e o : 1. A teacher i s p r a i s i n g a student f o r good performance at a task. The student has a happy f e e l i n g on h e r f a c e . 2. The parents o f a student are t a k i n g him/her home f o r a v i s i t . The student looks very j o y f u l . 3. A student i s a t t e n d i n g a b i r t h d a y p a r t y and looks f u l l of joy. In o rder t o d e p i c t sadness, the f o l l o w i n g three v i g n e t t e s appeared i n the v i d e o : 1. A student cannot go with the other students f o r an o u t i n g . The student looks very sad. 2. A student i s misbehaving i n a group a c t i v i t y and so i s i s o l a t e d from the group. The student looks sad. 3. A student i s p a r t i n g from h i s par e n t s . The student has a sad look. In order t o d e p i c t s u r p r i s e , the f o l l o w i n g three v i g n e t t e s appeared i n the v i d e o : 1. A student e n t e r s a room t o f i n d a s u r p r i s e b i r t h d a y p a r t y has been o r g a n i z e d . A s u r p r i s e d look comes t o the student's f a c e . 2. A student opens a box to f i n d a c a t i n s i d e , what a s u r p r i s e d l o o k l 3. A student s i t s down on a c h a i r t o f i n d t h a t t h e r e i s a brush on i t . The student jumps up with a v e r y s u r p r i s e d look. In o r d e r t o d e p i c t anger, the f o l l o w i n g three v i g n e t t e s appeared i n the vide o : 1. A student i s e a t i n g a p i e c e o f t o a s t when another student grabs i t and s t u f f s i t i n her mouth. The f i r s t student looks v e r y angry. 2. A student f e e l s f r u s t r a t e d and angry a t not be i n g able t o put a p u z z l e together. The student looks angry. 3• A student i n a temper tantrum throws a p l a t e o f food on the f l o o r . The student has an angry look on h i s f a c e . - 59 -In order t o d e p i c t f e a r , the f o l l o w i n g three v i g n e t t e s appeared i n the v i d e o : 1. A student t r i e s t o walk ac r o s s a balance beam r a i s e d above the ground. The student looks f e a r f u l . 2. A student t r i e s c l i m b i n g a l a d d e r . The student looks f e a r f u l . 3. A student t r i e s t o take a l i d o f f a steaming pot. The student l o o k s anxious and a f r a i d . D e f i n i t i o n o f F i v e Primary Emotions The f i v e emotions were d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s w i t h a b e h a v i o r a l component showing s p e c i f i c f a c i a l f e a t u r e s ( H a v i l a n d , 1975): s u r p r i s e : express f e e l i n g s o f astonishment and amazement. mouth: 0 shaped, v e r t i c a l s t r e t c h , jaw drops, eye brows: r a i s e d moderately and s u s t a i n e d , eye d i r e c t i o n : up eye openness: b i t wide, p u p i l and i r i s v i s i b l e . joy: demonstrate f e e l i n g s o f p l e a s u r e and s a t i s f a c t i o n by h a v i ng a smile on the face, mouth: corners r a i s e d , eye brows: re l a x e d , no t e n s i o n , eye d i r e c t i o n : ahead. eye openness: normal; no t e n s i o n ; p u p i l v i s i b l e . sadness: express f e e l i n g s o f unhappiness and d e j e c t i o n , mouth: corners lowered. eye brows: o u t s i d e c o r n e r s down (not r a i s e d , eye d i r e c t i o n : down eye openness: narrow; l i d more than h a l f down, h o r i z o n t a l t e n s i o n . f e a r : anger: express f e e l i n g s of r e l u c t a n c e , apprehension or f e a r . mouth: l i p s r e t r a c t e d ; open or c l o s e d mouth; l i p s narrow; t e n s i o n v i s i b l e i n lower f a c e , eye brows: r a i s e d extreme; v i s i b l e forehead w r i n k l e s , eye d i r e c t i o n : up eye openness: wide; v e r t i c a l s t r e t c h i n corners; white of eyes v e r y v i s i b l e . express f e e l i n g s o f d i s p l e a s u r e , h o s t i l i t y , or rage. mouth: pursed. eyebrow: i n s i d e comes down. eye d i r e c t i o n : down t o the s i d e . eye openness: b i t narrow; p u p i l p a r t l y hidden. - 60 -Design and Procedure T h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t had t h r e e separate components corresponding t o the three u n i t s taught i n the s t r u c t u r e d A f f e c t i v e Awareness T r a i n i n g Program, namely: 1. Awareness of the e x t e r n a l world. The key concepts i n t h i s u n i t were the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the f i v e senses and t h e i r f u n c t i o n s . 2. Awareness o f the i n t e r n a l world. The key concepts i n t h i s u n i t were the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the v a r i o u s body p a r t s and the development o f the students' a b i l i t y t o tense and r e l a x v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the body. 3. Awareness o f the f i v e primary emotions. The key concepts i n t h i s u n i t were the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f "joy", "sadness", "anger", " s u r p r i s e " , and " f e a r " . The word " i d e n t i f i c a t i o n " used throughout t h i s p r o j e c t means l a b e l l i n g through v e r b a l means or through symbols or s i g n language. Method A s e r i e s o f G e s t a l t based s e q u e n t i a l awareness t r a i n i n g e x e r c i s e s (the f o r t y - s i x lessons) were in t r o d u c e d t o the experimental group, each l e s s o n l a s t i n g f o r t y - f i v e minutes so t h a t each s u b j e c t ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the t r a i n i n g e x e r c i s e s amounted to t h i r t y - f o u r and one h a l f hours. While the i d e a f o r the development o f the program was drawn from the work o f Remer and Schrader (1978), the m a t e r i a l was so completely, reworked, adapted and expanded i n order to meet the needs and a b i l i t i e s o f - 61 -the TMR s u b j e c t s , t h a t i n the end i t was r e a l l y a completely o r i g i n a l s e t o f r e s e a r c h e r developed m a t e r i a l s . A complete set of the l e s s o n p l a n s used appears i n Appendix B. The awareness t r a i n i n g e x e r c i s e s were c a r r i e d out four times a week, f o r t y - f i v e minutes f o r each l e s s o n f o r a p e r i o d o f eleven weeks u s i n g three modes o f communication, namely v e r b a l expressions, s i g n language and symbols, i n o r d e r t o tap a l l bases o f communication with the m e n t a l l y handicapped s u b j e c t s . Observations o f the students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the s t r u c t u r e d a f f e c t i v e awareness t r a i n i n g program were made. As f o r the c o n t r o l group, the same amount of time was spent w i t h them using the same schedule i n performing some other i n t e r p e r s o n a l a c t i v i t i e s such a p l a y i n g games or working on ot h e r c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . The experimental and the c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s were a l l given a p r e - and a p o s t - t e s t u s ing the f i f t e e n video v i g n e t t e s and the qu e s t i o n s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r (see T e s t Instruments). The experimental s u b j e c t s were a l s o g i v e n a pre- and pos t t e s t f o r each o f U n i t I and U n i t I I , again u s i n g the s p e c i a l l y prepared v i d e o tapes d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r under the s e c t i o n on T e s t Instruments. Re -test At the end o f the treatment p e r i o d , i . e . , when i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l the f o r t y - s i x lessons was completed, the twelve s u b j e c t s were r e t e s t e d u s i n g the same f i f t e e n v ideo v i g n e t t e s t h a t were used i n the p r e - t e s t . S i x weeks a f t e r t h i s , the same twelve s u b j e c t s were a g a i n r e t e s t e d f o r r e t e n t i o n using the same f i f t e e n v i d e o v i g n e t t e s t h a t were used i n the pre- and p o s t t e s t s . - 62 -Chapter IV. R e s u l t s A n a l y s i s The s t a t i s t i c a l t o o l used t o analyze the e f f e c t o f the treatment, i . e . , the A f f e c t i v e Awareness T r a i n i n g Program, on the TMR s u b j e c t s was a s p e c i a l repeated measures a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) t e s t , c a l l e d the Cochran Q T e s t (Hays, 1963), with one grouping (G n) f a c t o r (treatment: n=15 video v i g n e t t e t e s t s ) , and one t r i a l (X n) f a c t o r (measurement o c c a s i o n : n=3 times f o r pre-, p o s t - , and r e t e n t i o n t e s t ) ( K i r k , 1978) . The Cochran Q Test i s a p p r o p r i a t e s i n c e the experiment i n v o l v e s repeated o b s e r v a t i o n s where the dependent v a r i a b l e , i . e . , the s u b j e c t ' s response to the q u e s t i o n f o l l o w i n g viewing o f the v i d e o v i g n e t t e , can take on o n l y one o f two v a l u e s , namely 1 f o r c o r r e c t or 0 f o r i n c o r r e c t . In order t o examine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the A f f e c t i v e Awareness T r a i n i n g Program, the scores o f the s u b j e c t s a f t e r t a k i n g the t e s t were compared i n the f o l l o w i n g broad domains: - experimental vs c o n t r o l group on p r e - t e s t s c o r e s , - experimental vs c o n t r o l group on p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s , - experimental vs c o n t r o l group on r e t e n t i o n - t e s t s cores, - pre- vs p o s t - t e s t scores o f the experimental group, - p o s t - vs r e t e n t i o n - t e s t scores o f the experimental group, and - u n i t I vs u n i t II scores of the experimental group. Comparable IQ scores f o r the 12 s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study were not a v a i l a b l e , however, assessment notes from the s u b j e c t s f i l e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l l the s u b j e c t s were considered t o be w i t h i n the - 63 -TMR category r e c e i v i n g scores between 20 and 50 on e i t h e r the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t o r the V i n e l a n d S o c i a l M a t u r i t y S c a l e . The age range o f the s u b j e c t s was from 17 to 25 years w i t h a mean age of 22.5 years and a standard d e v i a t i o n o f +2.13 y e a r s . Table 1 Comparison of Experimental Group (E) on Pre- ( E l ) , Post- (E2), and R e t e n t i o n T e s t (E3) Scores w i t h C o n t r o l Group (C) Pre- (cT), Post - (C2), and Re t e n t i o n Test (C3) Scores f o r Q u e stion 1 (Ql) and i Question 2 (Q2) V a r i a b l e Frequency T o t a l Cochran Q D.F P r o b a b i l i t y Score Cases 0 1 E1Q1 78 12 90 1.1429 1 .2850 C1Q1 82 8 90 E1Q2 87 3 90 2.2727 1 .1317 C1Q2 82 8 90 E2Q1 24 66 90 50.2758 1 .0000 C2Q1 78 12 90 E2Q2 24 66 90 52.2667 1 .0000 C2Q2 80 10 90 E3Q1 26 64 90 54.0000 1 .0000 C3Q1 80 10 90 E3Q2 26 64 90 54.0000 1 .0000 C3Q2 80 10 90 Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4 show the s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s achieved through a computer a n a l y s i s o f the da t a . I t should be noted t h a t a l l the computations are o n e - t a i l e d t e s t s , w i t h the sample c o n s i s t i n g o f a t o t a l o f twelve s u b j e c t s , s i x i n the experimental - 64 -or treatment group and s i x i n the c o n t r o l group. Due t o the s m a l l number i n each grouping, d i f f e r e n c e s i n gender response were not examined. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the experimental and c o n t r o l groups i n  regard t o t h e i r p r e - t e s t scores. The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e would be i n i t i a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e between the experimental and the c o n t r o l group w i t h regard to t h e i r a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y or empathize with the f i v e primary emotions was supported by the a n a l y s i s o f the scores which show f o r both Question 1 and 2 a p r o b a b i l i t y s u b s t a n t i a l l y g r e a t e r than .01 o f the two groups not being s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n t h e i r s c o r e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the experimental and c o n t r o l groups i n  regard t o t h e i r p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the experimental and the c o n t r o l group w i t h regard t o t h e i r a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y or empathize w i t h the f i v e primary emotions a f t e r the experimental group had r e c e i v e d the treatment was r e j e c t e d s i n c e the a n a l y s i s o f the scores suggested a p r o b a b i l i t y o f l e s s than .01 t h a t the scores o f the two groups were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r both q u e s t i o n 1 and q u e s t i o n 2. I t may be i n f e r r e d t h a t the experimental group made a s i g n i f i c a n t change a f t e r treatment w h i l e the c o n t r o l group, which r e c e i v e d no treatment, d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y change t h e i r responses. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the experimental and c o n t r o l groups i n  regard t o t h e i r r e t e n t i o n - t e s t s c o r e s . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t there would be no d i f f e r e n c e between the experimental and the c o n t r o l - 65 -group wi t h regard t o t h e i r r e t a i n i n g the a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y or empathize w i t h the f i v e primary emotions a f t e r the experimental group had r e c e i v e d the treatment was r e j e c t e d s i n c e the a n a l y s i s o f the scores suggested a p r o b a b i l i t y o f l e s s than .01 t h a t the r e t e n t i o n - t e s t scores o f the two groups were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r both q u e s t i o n 1 and q u e s t i o n 2. I t may be i n f e r r e d t h a t the experimental group r e t a i n e d the change they made a f t e r treatment ( a t l e a s t f o r the s i x week i n t e r v a l between the p o s t - t e s t and the r e t e n t i o n - t e s t ) w h i l e the c o n t r o l group, which r e c e i v e d no treatment, d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y change t h e i r responses. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the pre- and post - t e s t s cores o f the experimental group. The hypothesis t h a t t h e r e would be no d i f f e r e n c e between the pre- and p o s t - t e s t scores o f the experimental group, i . e . , t h a t they would undergo no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y or empathize w i t h the f i v e primary emotions, was r e j e c t e d by the a n a l y s i s o f the scores which showed f o r both Question 1 and 2 a p r o b a b i l i t y s u b s t a n t i a l l y l e s s than .01 of the pre - and p o s t - t e s t scores not bei n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the pre - and post - t e s t scores o f the c o n t r o l group. The hypothesis t h a t there would be no d i f f e r e n c e between the p r e - and post - t e s t scores o f the c o n t r o l group, i . e . , t h a t they would undergo no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y or empathize w i t h the f i v e primary emotions, was accepted by the a n a l y s i s o f the scores which showed f o r both - 66 -Question 1 and 2 t h a t there was a p r o b a b i l i t y not g r e a t e r than .01 t h a t the p r e - and post - t e s t scores were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . Table 2 Comparison of Experimental Group (E) P r e - t e s t ( E l ) scores with P o s t - t e s t (E2) scores and P o s t - t e s t (E2) wit h R e t e n t i o n t e s t (E3) scores f o r Question 1 (Ql) and Question 2 (Q2) and Comparison of C o n t r o l Group (C) P r e - t e s t (Cl) scores w i t h P o s t - t e s t (C2) scores V a r i a b l e Frequency Score 0 1 T o t a l Cases Cochran Q D.F P r o b a b i l i t y E1Q1 E2Q1 78 24 12 66 90 90 52.0714 1 .0000 E1Q2 E2Q2 87 24 3 66 90 90 63.0000 1 .0000 E2Q1 E3Q1 24 26 66 64 90 90 .2500 1 .6171 E2Q2 E3Q2 24 26 66 64 90 90 .2500 1 .6171 C1Q1 C2Q1 82 78 8 12 90 90 4.0000 1 .0455 C1Q2 C2Q2 82 80 8 10 90 90 2.0000 1 .1573 - 67 -The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p o s t - and r e t e n t i o n - t e s t scores o f  the experimental group. The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e would be no d i f f e r e n c e between the po s t - and r e t e n t i o n - t e s t scores o f the experimental group, i . e . , t h a t they would undergo no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y or empathize w i t h the f i v e primary emotions even a f t e r a lapse o f s i x weeks, was accepted by the a n a l y s i s of the scores which showed f o r both Question 1 and 2 no s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t the p o s t - and r e t e n t i o n - t e s t scores were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . In other words, i t may be i n f e r r e d t h a t the experimental group r e t a i n e d what they had l e a r n e d . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the pre- and po s t - t e s t combined  Question 1 + Question 2 scores o f the experimental group. The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e would be no d i f f e r e n c e between the p r e - and pos t - t e s t scores o f the experimental group, i . e . , t h a t they would undergo no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y or empathize wi t h the f i v e primary emotions, was r e j e c t e d by the a n a l y s i s o f the scores which showed f o r a combined Question 1 and 2 score a p r o b a b i l i t y s u b s t a n t i a l l y l e s s than .01 of the p r e - and p o s t - t e s t scores not being s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the pre- and p o s t - t e s t combined  Question 1 + Question 2 scores o f the c o n t r o l group. The hy p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e would be no d i f f e r e n c e between the pre- and p o s t - t e s t scores o f the c o n t r o l group, i . e . , t h a t they would undergo no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y or empathize wi t h the f i v e primary emotions, was accepted by the a n a l y s i s of the scores which showed f o r a combined Question 1 and - 68 -2 score t h a t t h e r e was not a p r o b a b i l i t y o f l e s s than .01 t h a t the p r e - and p o s t - t e s t scores were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . Table 3 Comparison o f Experimental Group (E) on Pre- ( E l ) , Post- (E2),  and R e t e n t i o n T e s t (E3) f o r Aggragated Question l / Q u e s t i o n 2  scores and f o r C o n t r o l Group on Pre- ( C l ) , Post- (C2), and" Retention T e s t (C3) f o r Aggragated Question l / Q u e s t i o n 2 scores V a r i a b l e Frequency T o t a l Cochran Q D.F. P r o b a b i l i t y Score Cases 0 1 E1Q1/Q2 E2Q1/Q2 165 48 15 132 180 180 115.0336 1 .0000 E2Q1/Q2 E3Q1/Q2 48 52 132 128 180 180 .5000 1 .4795 C1Q1/Q2 C2Q1/Q2 164 158 16 22 180 180 6.0000 1 .0143 C2Q1/Q2 C3Q1/Q2 158 160 22 20 180 180 2.0000 1 .1573 E1Q1/Q2 C1Q1/Q2 165 164 15 16 180 180 .0400 1 .8415 E2Q1/Q2 C2Q1/Q2 48 158 132 22 180 180 102.5424 1 .0000 E3Q1/Q2 C3Q1/Q2 52 160 128 20 180 180 108.0000 1 .0000 - 69 -The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p o s t - and r e t e n t i o n - t e s t combined  Question 1 + Question 2 scores of the experimental group. The hy p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e would be no d i f f e r e n c e between the p o s t -and r e t e n t i o n - t e s t scores o f the experimental group, i . e . , t h a t they would undergo no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y o r empathize w i t h the f i v e primary emotions even a f t e r a lapse of s i x weeks, was accepted by the a n a l y s i s o f the scores which showed f o r a combined Question 1 and 2 score there was no s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t the p o s t - and r e t e n t i o n - t e s t scores were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . In other words, i t may be i n f e r r e d t h a t the experimental group r e t a i n e d what they l e a r n e d . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the experimental and c o n t r o l group on  combined Question 1 + Question 2 p r e - t e s t s c o r e s . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups on t h e i r p r e - t e s t scores was accepted, the a n a l y s i s o f the data p r o v i d i n g no evidence a t the .01 l e v e l o f s i g n f i c a n c e t h a t there was any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the scores o f the two groups. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the experimental and c o n t r o l group on  combined Question 1 + Question 2 p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e would be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups on t h e i r p o s t - t e s t scores was r e j e c t e d , the a n a l y s i s of the data p r o v i d i n g evidence a t the .01 l e v e l o f s i g n f i c a n c e t h a t there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the scores o f the two groups on the p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s . - 70 -The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the experimental and c o n t r o l group on  combined Question 1 + Question 2 r e t e n t i o n - t e s t s c o r e s . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e would be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups on t h e i r r e t e n t i o n - t e s t scores was r e j e c t e d , the a n a l y s i s o f the data p r o v i d i n g evidence a t the .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the scores of the two groups on the r e t e n t i o n - t e s t s c o r e s . Table 4 Comparison o f Experimental Group (E) on U n i t I Pre- (UIA) and  U n i t I Post- (UIB) t e s t s cores, and on U n i t II Pre- (UIIA) and U n i t II Post- (UIIB) t e s t scores V a r i a b l e Frequency T o t a l Cochran Q D.F. P r o b a b i l i t y Score Cases 0 1 UIA 29 32 61 27.0000 1 .0000 UIB 2 59 61 UIIA 92 28 120 88.0000 1 .0000 UIIB 4 116 120 The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r e - and post-• t e s t scores on U n i t I taken by the experimental group. The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e would be no d i f f e r e n c e between the pre- and p o s t - t e s t scores of the experimental group, i . e . , t h a t they would undergo no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y the f i v e sense organs o f the body and the f u n c t i o n o f each a f t e r i n s t r u c t i o n , was r e j e c t e d by the a n a l y s i s of the scores which showed a p r o b a b i l i t y s u b s t a n t i a l l y l e s s than .01 o f the p r e - and p o s t -t e s t scores not being s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . - 71 -The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r e - and p o s t - t e s t scores on U n i t  II taken by the experimental group. The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t there would be no d i f f e r e n c e between the pre- and p o s t - t e s t scores of the experimental group, i . e . , t h a t they would undergo no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y and t o i m i t a t e t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n , was r e j e c t e d by the a n a l y s i s o f the scores which showed a p r o b a b i l i t y o f l e s s than .01 t h a t the p r e -and p o s t - t e s t scores were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . In other words, i t may be i n f e r r e d t h a t the experimental a c q u i r e d the concepts o f t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n taught i n the l e s s o n s . Chapter V. D i s c u s s i o n T h i s chapter p r o v i d e s a d i s c u s s i o n o f the r e s u l t s and the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the study. The d i s c u s s i o n i n c l u d e s i n s i g h t s drawn both from the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s and from i n f o r m a t i o n gathered through o b s e r v a t i o n s o f the students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the s t r u c t u r e d A f f e c t i v e Awareness T r a i n i n g Program. Observations made by other s t a f f r e c o r d i n g s u b j e c t s behavior o u t s i d e o f the treatment s i t u a t i o n , both d u r i n g and a f t e r the treatment p e r i o d , are a l s o i n c l u d e d . Increase i n awareness o f the e x t e r n a l world. The s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s suggests the experimental s u b j e c t s underwent a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y the f i v e sense organs and t h e i r f u n c t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o Z i n k e r (1977), by a c h i e v i n g t h i s sense awareness one i s abl e t o "move toward g r e a t e r awareness of o n e s e l f , one's body, one's f e e l i n g s , one's environment" (p. 96-97). In r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s change, Subject 2 (S2) was observed d u r i n g the follow-up p e r i o d t o be l i s t e n i n g t o some music wi t h a r a t h e r p l a i n t i v e , melancholy, slow mood. The s t a f f i n i t i a t e d a c o n v e r s a t i o n and asked S2 how l i s t e n i n g t o t h i s music made the s u b j e c t f e e l t o which the su b j e c t responded, "sad". Z i n k e r (1977) a l s o argues t h a t i n c r e a s e i n awareness moves the i n d i v i d u a l "toward a f u l l e r c o n t a c t w i t h one's s e n s a t i o n s , l e a r n i n g t o s m e l l , t a s t e , touch, hear, and see ... t o savour a l l aspects o f l i f e . " - 73 -During the follow-up p e r i o d , Subject 3 (S3) was i n the k i t c h e n on the ward w h i l e cookies were being baked. S3 clapped her hands, smiled and rubbed her tummy while s a y i n g "mm, mm, mm." When the s t a f f asked her how she f e l t she responded "happy." Increase i n the awareness of the i n t e r n a l world. The s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the r e s u l t s o f the p r e - and p o s t - t e s t f o r U n i t II suggests t h a t the experimental s u b j e c t s d i d be g i n t o grasp the concepts o f t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the body. Outside o f the s t r u c t u r e d treatment environment, the f o l l o w i n g i n c i d e n t was observed i n a n a t u r a l environment d u r i n g the experimental p e r i o d . Subject 4 (S4) was shopping i n a b i g , crowded m a l l w i t h a s t a f f member and some oth e r students. For some unknown reason S4 became very anxious and s t a r t e d t o repeat a statement a number o f times. On seeing her c o n d i t i o n , the s t a f f person asked her how she was f e e l i n g . The s u b j e c t responded "tense." The s t a f f then grasped the o p p o r t u n i t y t o h e l p the s u b j e c t r e f l e c t upon the attendant f e e l i n g s . Another i n c i d e n t i l l u s t r a t i n g the growth i n the awareness o f the i n t e r n a l world was observed a f t e r the follow-up p e r i o d with the same s u b j e c t . S4 was pac i n g up and down the steps o f the school w h i l e w a i t i n g f o r a van which was l a t e coming t o p i c k up the students. The s t a f f member who was w i t h S4 asked, "How are you f e e l i n g ? " t o which S4 responded "tense." - 74 -Increase i n the awareness of f e e l i n g s o f o t h e r s . The s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the p r e - and p o s t - t e s t s o f Questions 1 and 2 f o r the experimental group suggest a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the s u b j e c t s ' a b i l i t y t o c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y and empathize w i t h the f i v e primary emotions p o r t r a y e d i n the v i d e o v i g n e t t e s . We may i n f e r t h a t t h i s change was brought about as a r e s u l t o f the A f f e c t i v e Awareness T r a i n i n g Program. T h i s view f i n d s f u r t h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n when the experimental group i s compared with the c o n t r o l group which d i d not r e c e i v e any i n s t r u c t i o n and appears not t o have undergone any s i g n i f i c a n t change i n a b i l i t y t o c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y or empathize with the f i v e primary emotions p o r t r a y e d i n the v i d e o v i g n e t t e s . The students i n the experimental group not o n l y seem t o have ac q u i r e d the a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y and empathize with the f i v e primary emotions but the r e s u l t s suggest t h a t , a t l e a s t over a s i x week p e r i o d , the s u b j e c t s were able t o r e t a i n what they had learned, i . e . , t h e i r scores d i d not d e p r e c i a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y . U l t i m a t e l y an i n t e r v e n t i o n program i s no b e t t e r than the extent to which the e f f e c t s i t i s designed t o generate are maintained i n the s u b j e c t ' s n a t u r a l environment. The A f f e c t i v e Awareness T r a i n i n g Program seems t o have been f a i r l y s u c c e s s f u l i n a c h i e v i n g t h i s , though w i t h the small number o f s u b j e c t s and the l i m i t e d range o f responses, any attempts a t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n must be t r e a t e d w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e c a u t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a few o b s e r v a t i o n s o f the s u b j e c t s ' behaviour lend support t o the s t a t i s t i c a l evidence. One day a f t e r the - 75 -r e t e n t i o n t e s t p e r i o d , w h i l e w a i t i n g a t the bus stop, Subject 1 (SI) suddenly b u r s t i n t o t e a r s f o r no apparent reason. Subject 4 (54) immediately c a l l e d the a t t e n t i o n o f one o f the s t a f f members by sayin g , "SI i s c r y i n g . " When S4 was asked how SI was f e e l i n g , S4 r e p l i e d , "She's sad." On another o c c a s i o n d u r i n g the r e t e n t i o n p e r i o d , Subject 5 (55) n o t i c e d a smile on a s t a f f member's f a c e . S5 then signed on her own i n i t i a t i v e , "You're happy." Increase i n the a b i l i t y t o empathize. Empathy i s an a b i l i t y t o imagine o n e s e l f i n another person's p l a c e , and, at l e a s t p a r t l y based on one's own past experience, having some i d e a o f how the oth e r person may be f e e l i n g . The s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f pre- and p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s f o r q u e s t i o n 2 w i t h the experimental group and between the experimental group and the c o n t r o l group on que s t i o n 2 p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s , suggests t h a t the s u b j e c t s i n the experimental group d i d make a s i g n f i c a n t change i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y w i t h the emotion being experienced by the i n d i v i d u a l i n each o f the video v i g n e t t e s . On a number o f o c c a s i o n f o l l o w i n g the t r a i n i n g program, s u b j e c t s were observed t o empathize i n ways which had not been p r e v i o u s l y observed. For example. Subject 5 (S5) n o t i c e d one of the s t a f f members had a bandaged f i n g e r and took the i n i t i a t i v e to s i g n "hurt" and "sad." On another o c c a s i o n S2 and S6 were on an o u t i n g together with o t h e r students. S6 expressed f e a r when asked t o feed the ducks. S2 was then asked how S6 was f e e l i n g and responded, "scared." - 76 -Increase i n the awareness of f e e l i n g s w i t h i n o n e s e l f . To be able t o i d e n t i f y the f i v e primary emotions i n others as w e l l as to empathize w i t h other people who show those emotions o b v i o u s l y r e f l e c t s the a b i l i t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l t o i d e n t i f y those f e e l i n g s w i t h i n o n e s e l f . The comparison o f the t o t a l scores (obtained from Question 1 and 2) between pre and post t e s t s i n the experimental group shows a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t . The comparison o f the t o t a l scores between the post t e s t s o f both the experimental group and the c o n t r o l group suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the s t r u c t u r e d emotional awareness program i s e f f e c t i v e i n i n c r e a s i n g the awareness of f e e l i n g s among the T.M.R. students. The r e s u l t s o b tained from the comparison o f the t o t a l scores of post and r e t e n t i o n t e s t among the experimental group students and the comparison of the t o t a l r e t e n t i o n scores between the c o n t r o l and the experimental groups suggest t h a t the students have a c q u i r e d and r e t a i n e d the s k i l l s l e a r n e d i n the s t r u c t u r e d A f f e c t i v e Awareness t r a i n i n g Program. The f o l l o w i n g examples i l l u s t r a t e the i n c r e a s e d awareness o f f e e l i n g s i n o n e s e l f among the students i n a n a t u r a l environment. In September, S4 was having c o f f e e w i t h a group o f students. One of the students took her cup away. I n i t i a l l y she expressed her d i s p l e a s u r e t o the s t a f f . When the s t a f f responded by a s k i n g how she f e l t , she immediately turned t o t h a t student and s a i d , "I am angry." T h i s i n c i d e n t not o n l y i l l u s t r a t e d the f a c t t h a t she was aware o f her own f e e l i n g s when her cup was taken away, i t a l s o - 77 -i n d i c a t e d h er i n c r e a s e d a b i l i t y t o take charge o f her l i f e , t o "take ownership o f one's experiences" and "move toward the experience o f one's power and a b i l i t y t o support o n e s e l f " ( z i n k e r 1977, p. 96-97). One day a t the end o f June, Sg was on the r o l l e r c o a s t e r . When asked t o repeat the a c t i v i t y again, S6 r e p l i e d , "Don't want to go." When questioned f u r t h e r "Why not?", he r e p l i e d , "scared." Through the G e s t a l t t h e r a p e u t i c process, Sg became " s e n s i t i v e t o [ h i s ] surroundings, y e t a t the same time [wore] a coat o f armour f o r s i t u a t i o n s which are p o t e n t i a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e or poisonous." (Zinker 1977, p. 96-97) In a d d i t i o n t o the i n c r e a s e i n the a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y the f i v e primary emotions s p e c i f i c a l l y designed by the s t r u c t u r e d A f f e c t i v e Awareness T r a i n i n g Program, there were other s e r e n d i p i t o u s gains i n many oth e r areas i n c l u d i n g gains i n such d i v e r s e areas as s o c i a l i z a t i o n , v e r b a l s k i l l s , c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s , e t c . These gains may not be n e c e s s a r i l y measurable nor can they be q u a n t i f i e d but they can be co n s i d e r e d as gains i n the t h e r a p e u t i c process as w e l l as a u t h e n t i c e x p r e s s i o n s o f the su b j e c t ' s i n n e r p e r c e p t i o n s o f s e l f and the world around. Increase i n Self-esteem. The importance o f s e l f - e s t e e m i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e can h a r d l y be over-emphasized s i n c e i t appears t o be a key f a c t o r i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s sense of success or f a i l u r e as a human b e i n g . Since many o f the T.M.R. i n d i v i d u a l s , e s p e c i a l l y those who l i v e i n an i n s t i t u t i o n have been s u b j e c t e d t o a long h i s t o r y o f lear n e d h e l p l e s s n e s s , i t i s understandable t h a t many o f them have a low s e l f - e s t e e m (Lombana - 78 -An i n c r e a s e i n s e l f - e s t e e m was observed d u r i n g the experimental p e r i o d . The f o l l o w i n g examples i l l u s t r a t e the i n c r e a s e i n awareness of one's accomplishment. S i r e a l l y enjoys s t i t c h e r y work. One day i n June w h i l e she was working on i t she b u r s t out, "I am happy". Immediately t h i s f e e l i n g was being r e f l e c t e d by the s t a f f u s i n g the word "proud." S4 was asked t o measure one cup of sugar one day i n June. She stopped measuring when the sugar reached the one cup mark. She smiled and looked a t the s t a f f member. The s t a f f member was s u r p r i s e d and p l e a s e d w i t h the student's performance and commented on her achievement. Increase i n S o c i a l S k i l l s . According t o Trower, Bryant and A r g y l e (1978) t h e r e i s s t r o n g evidence t o suggest t h a t people who s u f f e r from p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s o r d e r s — p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r s o n a l i t y and emotional d i s o r d e r s — a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s o c i a l inadequacy. Kagan and Moss (1962) d i d some l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s and found that c h i l d h o o d d e f i c i e n c i e s i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s were c a r r i e d i n t o adulthood. P h i l l i p s (1978) suggests t h a t i f needed s o c i a l s k i l l s are not l e a r n e d , the p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s o r d e r s may "remain and l a t e r ones w i l l be more l i k e l y t o develop or become exacerbated. As and when s o c i a l s k i l l s are l e a r n e d , a t whatever time i n l i f e , they are a b a s i s f o r present adequacy and p r e v e n t i o n o f f u t u r e inadequacy" (p. 141). Thus i t was e x c i t i n g t o see t h a t c e r t a i n s o c i a l s k i l l s were b e i n g a c q u i r e d by the students as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r involvement i n the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . - 79 -S i was about 10 minutes l a t e coming t o the program one day i n A p r i l . When she a r r i v e d , S3 spontaneously s a i d , " S i come on" waving her arm t o i n v i t e S i t o j o i n . A group o f students were having a c o f f e e break one day i n June. Someone i n the group looked k i n d o f sad, S3 who s a t next t o her rubbed her back on seein g her f a c e . Such i n c i d e n t s as these c l e a r l y demonstrated the f e e l i n g o f warmth or p o s i t i v e regard f o r others t h a t was developing among the students. Increase i n Language S k i l l s . Although the s t r u c t u r e d A f f e c t i v e Awareness T r a i n i n g Program d i d not measure the i n c r e a s e i n v o c abulary and concepts d i r e c t l y , the i n f o r m a t i o n noted under r e s u l t s i n each o f the l e s s o n s provide evidence o f student growth i n t h i s a r e a . There was a d e f i n i t e i n c r e a s e i n the use o f language d u r i n g the treatment p e r i o d . For example the word awareness was new t o a l l the students. But by l e s s o n 18, i n U n i t I, a l l o f them had both the e x p r e s s i v e and r e c e p t i v e understand-i n g o f the word "awareness". Many of the a c t i v i t i e s i n the program f a c i l i t a t e d and s t i m u l a t e d v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f a f f e c t as w e l l . Increase i n the use o f c r e a t i v e s k i l l s . The area o f c r e a t i v e growth has o f t e n been neglected o r taken a second p l a c e to academic or l i f e s k i l l s t r a i n i n g among the T.M.R. students. As mentioned i n the l i t e r a t u r e review many p r o f e s s i o n a l s f e e l t h a t c r e a t i v e growth i s a c q u i r e d a t a h i g h e r l e v e l o f c o g n i t i o n - 80 -and so t h e r e i s l i t t l e room w i t h i n the c u r r i c u l u m f o r growth i n c r e a t i v i t y among the c o g n i t i v e l y delayed i n d i v i d u a l . In f a c t S t a b l e r , S t a b l e r , & Kanger (1977) has suggested t h a t many ment a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s p a i n t i n a more a b s t r a c t , unique and i m a g i n a t i v e s t y l e . " My o b s e r v a t i o n i s t h a t c r e a t i v i t y can emerge w i t h m e n t a l l y handicapped students i n a s u i t a b l e s t r u c t u r e d , though at the same time p e r m i s s i v e and p o s i t i v e environment. C r e a t i v e s k i l l s among the students have been observed i n music, a r t , dance, drama and pro b l e m - s o l v i n g throughout the r e s u l t s s e c t i o n o f the 46 l e s s o n s i n the s t r u c t u r e d A f f e c t i v e Awareness T r a i n i n g Program. Increase i n the e x p r e s s i o n o f P o s i t i v e A f f e c t . Out o f the f i f t y - n i n e o b s e r v a t i o n s made by the v a r i o u s s t a f f 30 o f them were r e l a t e d t o the e x p r e s s i o n o f happiness. One o f the students i n the experimental group who used t o add "not" onto a l l o f the negative f e e l i n g s l i k e anger, f e a r , sad, le a r n e d t o express negative f e e l i n g s without denying them. She no longer f i n d s i t necessary t o deny them because she has been encouraged t o express negative f e e l i n g s . In a d d i t i o n , other people l e a r n e d t o accept her f e e l i n g s , i n c l u d i n g n e gative ones without c r i t i c i s m or put down. - 81 -Conclusion T h i s p r o j e c t has attempted t o t e s t r e c o g n i t i o n , and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the f i v e primary emotions, namely, "joy", "sadness", "anger", " f e a r " and " s u r p r i s e " . Although the s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s appeared t o be s i g n i f i c a n t , i t i s important t o note t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t d i d not p l a n t o go beyond the f i r s t s tep o f determining whether t r a i n i n g i n a f f e c t i v e awareness f o r T.M.R. s u b j e c t s c o u l d a c t u a l l y be r e f l e c t e d i n an improved a b i l i t y on the p a r t o f the s u b j e c t s t o c o r r e c t l y r e c o g n i z e and i d e n t i f y the f i v e primary emotions. Since t h i s i s a pi o n e e r p i e c e o f r e s e a r c h , the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y o f the t e s t i n g t o o l s have not been w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . In a d d i t i o n , the q u e s t i o n of o b t a i n i n g accurate measurements o f a b s t r a c t c o n s t r u c t s s t i l l e x i s t s . Although g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s a p p r a i s e d i n a n a t u r a l environment, the d u r a t i o n o f the changes i n the n a t u r a l environment have been assessed. U l t i m a t e l y , i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e s u l t s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h the above f a c t o r s have t o be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . On the oth e r hand, t h i s study w i l l have an important impact on our p e r c e p t i o n s o f m e n t a l l y handicapped people. Even s e v e r e l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s , when given the o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n , can f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y . In a d d i t i o n , i t can no longer be b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s group o f people experience no emotions, or awareness o f f e e l i n g s . Not o n l y do they have f e e l i n g s , when given the o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n these s k i l l s , they can l a b e l and express t h e i r f e e l i n g s i n s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e ways. T h i s r e s e a r c h b r i d g e s the gap between th e o r y and p r a c t i s e . - 82 -For years r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l s have been espousing the importance o f a f f e c t i v e domain o f the cu r r i c u l u m , l i k e the area o f s e l f - c o n c e p t , among m e n t a l l y handicapped people. T h i s study w i l l make a c o n t r i b u t i o n by h e l p i n g t o f u r t h e r c l a r i f y f a c t o r s which serve t o promote the development of p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t . In a d d i t i o n i t opens up p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h a t complex i n f e r r e d concepts l i k e f e e l i n g s can be examined. T h i s study a l s o demonstrates the need t o change some o f the c o u n s e l l i n g techniques used w i t h mentally handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s . One can no longer use the t r a d i t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g techniques which are h e a v i l y dependent on v e r b a l interchange and i n s i g h t a l o n e . One has to use a m u l t i - s e n s o r y approach t o g e t h e r with techniques explored w i t h v a r i o u s groups and people w i t h v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f a b i l i t i e s . In other words, i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n does not take p l a c e o n l y i n the c o g n i t i v e and s k i l l domains o f the c u r r i c u l u m , i t has t o apply t o the a f f e c t i v e domain as w e l l . As mentioned a t the begin n i n g o f the r e s e r c h , t h i s study s e t s up a model which can be used t o prepare the mentaly handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s f o r f u r t h e r c o u n s e l l i n g as the awareness o f one's emotion and s e l f i s the p r e - r e q u i s i t e step i n e x p l o r i n g other problems i n l i v i n g . L a s t but not l e a s t , by encouraging and g u i d i n g m e n t a l l y handicapped people i n g e t t i n g i n touch w i t h what they are doing, how they are doing and f e e l i n g , they can then make c h o i c e s , change and grow. - 83 -C o n c l u s i o n T h i s t h e s i s s t a r t e d with the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t i f mentally d i s a b l e d i n d i v i d u a l s are to e s t a b l i s h a p l a c e f o r themselves i n the community and s u c c e s s f u l l y cope wi t h the accompanying s t r e s s , they must, w i t h i n t h e i r own range o f c a p a b i l i t i e s , (1) l e a r n t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i r emotions, and (2) l e a r n t o express these emotions i n s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e ways. Based on evidence t h a t a f f e c t i v e awareness t r a i n i n g f o r m e n t a l l y handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s can and should be pursued along w i t h c o g n i t i v e and l i f e s k i l l s t r a i n i n g , the t h e s i s then focused on t a k i n g up the c h a l l e n g e of d e v e l o p i n g and f i e l d t e s t i n g "An A f f e c t i v e Awareness T r a i n i n g Program f o r the M e n t a l l y D i s a b l e d . " F o r t y - s i x l e s s o n s were then prepared as the content o f t h i s program, using a G e s t a l t approach t o developing awareness of o n e s e l f and one's environment. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h i s program i n t e a c h i n g r e c o g n i t i o n of, and improving a b i l i t y t o empathize with, e x p r e s s i o n s of the f i v e primary emotions o f joy, sadness, f e a r , anger, and s u r p r i s e , was then t e s t e d u s i n g 12 TMR s u b j e c t s l i v i n g i n an i n s t i t u t i o n ( s i x i n the c o n t r o l group, s i x i n the treatment or experimental group). The t e s t instrument f o r measuring changes i n pre-treatment, post-treatment, and r e t e n t i o n l e v e l performance, was a s e r i e s o f 15 s p e c i a l l y prepared video v i g n e t t e s . Each v i g n e t t e focused on one emotion and there were th r e e d i f f e r e n t v i g n e t t e s p o r t r a y i n g each emotion. - 84 -From the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s comparing the performance of the experimental group and the c o n t r o l group, i t seems p o s s i b l e to conclude t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l s i n the experimental group, who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the a f f e c t i v e awareness t r a i n i n g program, changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e and empathize with e x p r e s s i o n s o f the f i v e primary emotions. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n must remain t e n t a t i v e because of the s m a l l sample s i z e and the need f o r more study i n t o the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f the t e s t instrument. N e v e r t h e l e s s , documented o b s e r v a t i o n o f the s u b j e c t s performance by a number o f q u a l i f i e d s t a f f lends c o n s i d e r a b l e weight t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the A f f e c t i v e Awareness T r a i n i n g Program developed by the r e s e a r c h e r d i d i n f a c t have a very s i g n i f i c a n t and d u r a b l e impact on the behavior o f the experimental s u b j e c t s , l e a d i n g them towards g r e a t e r awareness of t h e i r own emotional s t a t e s and a growing s e n s i t i v i t y towards the f e e l i n g s t a t e s o f o t h e r s . In a d d i t i o n t o the q u e s t i o n o f the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y o f the t e s t i n g t o o l s , the q u e s t i o n o f o b t a i n i n g a c c u r a t e measurements of a b s t r a c t c o n s t r u c t s s t i l l remains. I t should a l s o be noted t h a t although the experimental s u b j e c t s a b i l i t y t o r e t a i n and g e n e r a l i z e gains i n emotional awareness has been t e s t e d s i x weeks a f t e r the end o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program, the longer term d u r a t i o n of the changes i n the n a t u r a l environment has y e t to be assessed. U l t i m a t e l y , i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e s u l t s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h these f a c t o r s have t o be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . - 85 -On the oth e r hand i t should be noted t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t d i d not p l a n t o go beyond the f i r s t step o f determining whether t r a i n i n g i n a f f e c t i v e awareness f o r TMR s u b j e c t s c o u l d a c t u a l l y be r e f l e c t e d i n an improved a b i l i t y on the p a r t o f the s u b j e c t s t o c o r r e c t l y recognize and i d e n t i f y the f i v e primary emotions. By demonstrating the p o t e n t i a l o f mentally d i s a b l e d i n d i v i d u a l s t o a c t u a l l y grow i n a f f e c t i v e awareness and emotional s e n s i t i v i t y , i n s p i t e o f s e r i o u s c o g n i t i v e d i s a b i l i t i e s , t h i s study adds, i n a t e n t a t i v e but no l e s s r e a l way, t o the growing body o f evidence debunking the " c o g n i t i v e d e t e r m i n i s t i c " viewpoint, which i t may be r e c a l l e d has suggested t h a t the me n t a l l y d i s a b l e d are in c a p a b l e o f " r e a l " f e e l i n g s because of poor c o g n i t i v e development. We can no longer b e l i e v e without t h i n k i n g about i t t h a t mentally d i s a b l e d i n d i v i d u a l s experience emotions or f e e l i n g s i n some s o r t o f p r i m i t i v e a n i m a l - l i k e way. I t i s apparent t h a t , when given the o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n , even s e v e r e l y m e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d i n d i v i d u a l s can begin t o i d e n t i f y f e e l i n g s and demonstrate an a b i l i t y t o r e l a t e t o such f e e l i n g s i n meaningful, s o c i a l l y a cceptable ways. In a sense t h i s r e s e a r c h has t r i e d t o b r i d g e the gap between th e o r y and p r a c t i c e by demonstrating i n a p r a c t i c a l way how c o u n s e l l i n g theory can be a p p l i e d t o developing emotional awareness among a devalued group — the mentally d i s a b l e d . In the process, an e f f o r t has been made t o demonstrate how m u l t i - s e n s o r y c o u n s e l l i n g techniques can be used e f f e c t i v e l y with - 86 -the m e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d who are unable t o perform w e l l when presented w i t h approaches which are h i g h l y dependent on v e r b a l interchange and a r t i c u l a t e d i n s i g h t s . F i n a l l y , w h i l e t h i s r e s e a r c h has been demonstrated i n a p r e l i m i n a r y f a s h i o n t h a t m e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d i n d i v i d u a l s can l e a r n t o r e c o g n i z e emotions, t h i s i s r e a l l y o n l y the f i r s t step i n the development o f a c o u n s e l l i n g program f o r the m e n t a l l y handicapped. The next step w i l l i n v o l v e f o c u s i n g on developing a program which w i l l a s s i s t the m e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d t o t r a n s l a t e t h a t awareness i n t o an a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h emotions i n s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e ways. When these two processes become i n t e g r a t e d , then the men t a l l y d i s a b l e d may have an enhanced chance f o r s u c c e s s f u l l y coping w i t h the s t r e s s o f community l i v i n g and the community i n t u r n may l e a r n t o cope more s u c c e s s f u l l y with m e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d i n d i v i d u a l s . - 87 -R E F E R E N C E S - 88 -REFERENCES Agras, W.S., Kazkin, A.E., & Wilson, G.T. (1979). Behavior therapy;  Toward an applied c l i n i c a l science. San Francisco: Freeman. Allan, J . (1981). Mainstreaming i n the elementary schools: Facts, problems and solutions. B.C. Counsellor, 2_, 15-27. Allan, J. (1982). 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EMOTIONS b e i n g a t t e n d e d t o t JOY, SADNESS, ANCER, SURPRISE, PEAR. JOT: exn—asea feelings of pleasure and aatlafactlon by having a anile. Muth: oomera ralaed. Eye brouat neIrani, no tension. Eye direction! ahead. E>e openoesai noraal, no term Ion; pupil vlalble . SATtESS: expreaaea fotllnjOJ of unhupptneaa and dejection. Huth: coroere Lowered. Eye broua: outside comere doun. Eye direction: doun. Eye openneea: narrow; l i d nore than half down, horizontal Lena Ion, ArCRR: expreaaea feellnga of displeasure, hosti l i ty, or rage. Hauth: pursed. Eyebrow: lnalda coaea doun. Eye direction: doun to the aide. Eye openneaa: bit narrow; pupil partly hidden. SHOWX: expreaaea feellnga of aatonlsh-ent and «-ax—ent. Hkith: 0 ahaped, vertical atratdi, jaw dropa. /auatalned. Eye brouB: ralaed Moderately aid Eye direction: up Eye openneaa: bit wide, pupil a i r i s vlalble. PEAR: expreaaea feellnga of reluctance, apprehension or fear. Mxithi l i p retracted; open or closed •outh; 11 pa narrow; tension v ia l hie l a lower face. Eye brows: ralaed axtreae; visible forehead wrinkles. Eye direction: up. Eye openneaa: wide; vertical atretch In oomera; whites of ayes very vlalble . Area 1 Baa the student ewer expressed facially any of the 5 feelings above7 Area 2 lbs the atudent ever expreaaad verbally, In or In ayabola any of the 5 feellnga above? Area 3 Can the etudent Identify either verbally, In alf^ia, or In ayabola any of the 5 feelings above uhen expressed by otheraf I f yea, please describe the feeling expressed and the de Lulls of the Incident as specifically aa possible. 1 1 Student Nasal _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Datet Recorder: _ , F e e l i n g Expressed: Area : De ta i l ed d e s c r i p t i o n o f i n c i d e n t : _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Student Nanet Datet Recorder: F e e l i n g E x p r e s s e d : A r e a : D e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f I n c i d e n t ! Student Nsaet Datet Recorder! Fee l ing Expressed: A r e s : De t a i l ed d e s c r i p t i o n o f Inc iden t ! Student Naaei Peal i n g Expraaaedi Dates Arees Recorders Detailed deecrtptlon of Incidents Studant Neaet Datei Recorder: Paallng Expresaedt Areas Detailed description of Incidents Student Naaci Datai Recorders Paallng Expreaeeds Araat Detailed daacrlptlon of Incidents Studant Kaaai Datai Recorders Peeling Expraaaedi Areet _ Detailed description of Incidents Student Naaes Dates Recorders Peeling Eapreeeedi Areet Detailed description of Incidents Student Naates _ _ _ Peeling Expressed: Dates Arees Recorders Detailed description of Incidents - 101 -APPENDIX B: Affective Awareness Training Program for the Mentally Disabled 46 Lesson Plans (Adapted freely and creatively from the work of Remer & Schrader (1978), Cartledge & Milbum (1980), Dinkmeyer (1971), Stamatelos & Mott (1983), Sternlicht & Hurwitz (1981), and Zebroff (1971).) T I T L E I U n i t t . AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Les s o n 1. Awareness o f t h e d i f f e r e n t body p a r t e . Timet 45 minutes O b l e c t l v e a P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e a u l t a E v a l u a t i o n 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n ! Ground Rules D e v e l o p a aensa o f mutual t r u s t and p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s a f e t y among e t u d e n t a . 2 . F a m i l i a r i z e t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e word "awareness". 3 . I n c r e a s e s t u d e n t s s e l f -c o n c e p t s i n t h e a r e a o f awareness o f t h e i r p h y s i c a l s e l v e s . 4. Review t h e word "awareness" and t h e v a r i o u s body p a r t e . E x p l a i n t h e ground r u l e s f o r t h i s s p e c i a l t i m e . 1. S t u d e n t s have t o s i t i n a c i r c l e . 2 . S t u d e n t s have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . 3 . S t u d e n t s have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 4. No one w i l l be a l l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f o r o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . ' H i g h l i g h t " f u n " and " l e a r n i n g " d u r i n g t h l a p e r i o d . E x p l a i n t o s t u d e n t s t h a t i t l a a time t o l e a r n about t h e m s e l v e s . I n t r o d u c e t h e word "awareneas". Equate the word w i t h "pay a t t e n t i o n t o " . Have each o f t h e atudenta p o i n t t o t h e word and e x p l a i n what i t means. Dentonstratei Have s t u d e n t s f o l l o w you by t o u c h i n g head, hand, stomach, f e e t , f i n g e r s , and t o e s . Repeat t o u c h i n g o f t h e v a r i o u s body p a r t s w h i l e s a y i n g t h e rhymei " J e l l y i n t h e head, j e l l y i n t h e head, w i g g l e , waggle, w i g g l e , waggle, j e l l y i n t h e head." D i v i d e atudenta i n dyads. F o r each p a i r o f s t u d e n t s , have one l i e on paper and have t h e o t h e r t r a c e t h e o u t l i n e o f t h e body. Then have them r e v e r s e r o l e s . A f t e r w a r d s have them p o i n t out the v a r i o u s body p a r t s on t h e drawing. Review t h e main c o n c e p t s t a u g h t i n t h e l e s s o n . Emphasize what a good Job each o f t h e atudenta d i d . C a r d w i t h "aware-n e s s " p r i n t e d i n c a p i t a l l e t t e r a . Long wide r o l e o f p a p e r . T h i c k f e l t non-permanent i n k f e l t p ens. A l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s t r i e d t o v e r b a l i z e t h e word. S 3 a S) had problems i n v e r b a l i z i n g i t , i . e . , not c l e a r , 8 5 s i g n e d . 8 4 p i c k e d up t h e rhyme v e r y q u i c k l y . By t h e 3 r d round, ehe c o u l d f o l l o w on h e r own 6 2 and 8 4 c o u l d t r a c e I n d e p e n d e n t l y . They a l l c o u l d I d e n t i f y t h e i r body o u t l i n e s b e f o r e t h e i r name was p u t on. 8 j a a l d , " I f a me". & 3's was not f a m i l i a r w i t h " s h o u l d e r s " . S 6 I d not know " s h o u l -d e r s " . Took about 45 minutes due t o t h e f a c t t h a t S^, S 3 , 8 5 and Eg needed a s s i s t a n c e In t r a c i n g t h e o u t l i n e o f t h e i r b o d i e s • J e l l y rhymes I s a c a t c h y rhyme. The e t u d e n t e l i k e d i t and e n j o y e d t h e m o t i o n s . They a i l s m i l e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e l e s s o n s . P o i n t o u t i n t e r e s t i n g f e a -t u r e s o f t h e v a r i o u a drawings as t h e y a r e made ( e . g . How, l o o k a t 8 2 ' a p i c t u r e . See how l o n g h i s l e g a a r e . ) T I T L E ! U n i t I . AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Le s s o n 2. Awareness o f d i f f e r e n t f a c i a l p a r t s . Time i 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Ground Rules f a c i l i t a t e c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and mutual communication p a t t e r n 2. Review "awareness'* and the v a r i o u s body p a r t s . 3. I n c r e a s e awareness o f s e l f -image t h r o u g h t h e i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n o f v a r i o u s f a c i a l p a r t s . 4. F a c i l i t a t e awareness o f v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f one's f a c i a l p a r t s . 5. Review major c o n c e p t s i n the l e s a o n . Review ground r u l e s . 1. S t u d e n t s have t o a i t i n a c i r c l e . 2. S t u d e n t s have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . 3. Students have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 4. Nobody w i l l be a l l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f and o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . Use f l a s h c a r d t o review meaning o f "awareness". Use " j e l l y " rhyme t o r e v i e w v a r i o u s body p a r t s . Have each o f t h e s t u d e n t s t o u c h eyes, nose, mouth, e a r . G i v e a de m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g sequence o f a c t i v i t i e s ! S i t y o u r a e l f i n f r o n t o f a m i r r o r . Put a dot o f s h a v i n g cream on nose, and a c l i p - o n e a r r i n g on the e a r , t h e frame o f a p a i r o f g l a s s e s on nose, and c h o c o l a t e pudding on l i p s . Then i d e n t i f y t h e v a r i o u s body p a r t s as you l i c k t he c h o c o l a t e pudding, wipe t h e s h a v i n g cream, t o u c h the eyes I n s i d e t h e g l a s s e s frame and remove the e a r r i n g . G i v e each student a s e t o f c u t out f a c i a l p a r t s , i . e . , f a c e , 2 eyes, nose, mouth, h a i r . Have each o f them put a f a c e t o g e t h e r . Ask s t u d e n t s t o show t h e i r work and I d e n t i f y t h e . f a c i a l p a r t s i n d i v i d u a l l y . Have s t u d e n t s v e r b a l i z e t h e c o n c e p t s . Always g i v e p o s i t i v e feedback about p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F l a s h c a r d M i r r o r , s h a v i n g cream, e a r r i n g , frame o f e y e g l a s s e s and c h o c o l a t e p udding. C o n s t r u c t i o n paper and g l u e . &2 c o u l d remember t h e word awareness. O t h e r s t u d e n t s remem-b e r e d t h e meaning o f t h e word, i . e . , t h e y p a i d a t t e n t i o n . They a l l e n j o y e d t h i s a c t i v i t y as i t used a m u l t i - s e n s o r y a p proach. They c o u l d do t h i s i n d e p e n d e n t l y . Important t o r e v i e w ground r u l e a and hence a e t up e x p e c t a -t i o n and p r o p e r b e h a v i o u r . T I T L E : U n i t I . AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Lesson 3. Awareness o f t h e f i v e s e n s e s . Timet 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r ocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Review ground r u l e s and word "awareness". 2. Develop s t u d e n t s ' s e l f -c oncept and s e n s o r y awareness th r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g the f u n c t i o n s o f v a r i o u s body p a r t e . 1. Students have t o s i t i n a c i r c l e . 2. Students have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . 3. Students have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 4. Nobody w i l l be a l l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f and o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . P r e s e n t t o each o f the s t u d e n t s : - a viewmaater - a walkman r a d i o - a b o t t l e o f v i n e g a r - c a n d i e s I n s i d e a bag - a p i e c e o f v e l v e t and r e s p e c t i v e l y ask t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1) What are your eyes f o r ? ( a f t e r l o o k i n g i n t h e viewmaater) Ans: "The eyes a r e f o r l o o k i n g . " 2) What are your e a r s f o r ? ( a f t e r l i s t e n i n g t o t h e r a d i o ) Ans: "The e a r s are f o r h e a r i n g / l i s t e n i n g . " 3) What i a your nose f o r ? ( a f t e r s m e l l i n g t h e v i n e g a r ) Ans: "The nose i s f o r s m e l l i n g . " 4) What are your hands f o r ? ( a f t e r f e e l i n g t h e candy i n the bag) Ans: "The hands are f o r t o u c h i n g . " 5) What i s your mouth f o r ? ( a f t e r e a t i n g some candy from t h e bag) Ans: "The tongue i s f o r t a s t i n g . " G i v e the s t u d e n t s the answers and have them r e p e a t a f t e r you. Viewmaater Walkman r a d i o B o t t l e o f v i n e g a r Candies A p i e c e o f v e l v e t The s t u d e n t s gave 100% a t t e n t i o n as the a c t i v i t i e s were f a s t - p a c e d and i n t e r e s t i n g . Concept o f t a s t i n g and t o u c h i n g were d i f f i c u l t as t h e y t e n d e d t o a s s o c i a t e t a s t i n g w i t h e a t i n g . Review i s a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e r o u t i n e . They were a l l s m i l i n g . Change q u e s t i o n t o — What do you u s e y o u r "eyea" f o r 7 To a v o i d t h e c o n -f u s i o n between " e a t i n g " and " t a s t -i n g " , u s e tongue I n s t e a d o f mouth f o r i n t r o d u c i n g the c o n -c e p t o f " t a s t i n g " . T I T L E : U n i t I . AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Le s s o n 3. Awareness o f t h e f i v e s e n s e s . (Continued) O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 3. I n c r e a s e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s t o r e c o g n i z e t h e f u n c t i o n s o f v a r i o u s body p a r t s . 4. Review t h e major concepts i n t h e l e s s o n . Have t h e s t u d e n t s r e p e a t t h e f u n c t i o n s o f the body p a r t s . Repeat t h e same procedure a g a i n w i t h : - b i n o c u l a r s - a h e a r i n g a i d e - a b o t t l e o f perfume - c o l d s p h a g e t t l i n a sack - a cake Show them a s e t o f f i v e p o s t e r s w i t h t h e body p a r t s , f u n c t i o n s and p i c t u r e s of t h e s i g n language f o r t h e i r f u n c t i o n on them. Then ask the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1) What a r e th e s e ? ( r e f e r t o p i c t u r e ) 2) Touch your own eyes, e a r s , noBe, tongue and and w i g g l e your f i n g e r s . 3) What do you do w i t h your eyes, e a r s , nose, tongue, and f i n g e r s ? Have s t u d e n t s v e r b a l i z e t h e c o n c e p t s . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . B i n o c u l a r a H e a r i n g a i d e a B o t t l e o f perfume C o l d s p a g h e t t i Cake By t h e end o f t h e l e s s o n a l l o f t h e s t u -d e n t s c o u l d say t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e f i v e f a c i a l p a r t s w i t h v e r b a l prompting. The use o f b i n o c u -l a r s was v e r y good and i n t e r e s t i n g aa t h e y e n l a r g e d t h e o b j e c t s s e e n . A l s o e f f e c t i v e i n i n t r o -d u c i n g "seeing**. In o r d e r t o make t h e s t u d e n t s more aware o f t h e i r f i v e senses engage thoae body p a r t s w i t h a c t i v i -t i e s , e.g., w i g g l e your f i n g e r s , b l i n k your eyes, e t c . In a d d i t i o n t r y t o a p p l y t h e f u n c t i o n o f each s e n s e , e.g., t o u c h something w i t h y o u r f i n g e r s and ask "What do you do w i t h y o u r f i n g e r s ? " T I T L E I U n i t I . AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Le s s o n 4. S i g h t Awarenessi S e e i n g l a b e l i e v i n g Timet 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Review ground r u l e s and word "awareness** • 1. S t u d e n t s have t o s i t i n a c i r c l e . 2 . S t u d e n t s have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . 3 . S t u d e n t a have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 4. No one w i l l be a l l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f o r o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . Review i a a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e r o u t i n e . 2 . I n c r e a s e awareness o f s e l f -image and s t i m u l a t e e x p r e s s i o n . Have t h e atudents p o i n t t o t h e i r own eyes and say " e y e s " . D i v i d e t h e group i n t o dyads and touch each o t h e r ' a eyes. Use e i t h e r v l e w m a s t e r / b i n o c u l a r a t o r e v i e w t h e f u n c t i o n o f the ey e s . Have each o f the s t u d e n t s say, " I see w i t h my eyes." A l s o use p o s t e r s from l a s t l e s s o n f o r r e v i e w . P o s t e r s from p r e v i o u s l e s s o n . The s t u d e n t s were a b i t h e s i t a n t In t o u c h i n g one a n o t h e r ' a eyes as eyes a r e v e r y s e n s i -t i v e . The s t u d e n t s might f e e l f r e e r t o t o u c h i f t h e y knew one a n o t h e r b e t t e r . 3 . I n c r e a s e t h e s e n s o r y awareness i n t h e v i s u a l a r e a . Demonstratet Have each o f the s t u d e n t s wear an eye mask throughout t he l e s s o n . Repeat t h e sentence, " I see w i t h my e y e s . " Eye mask made f r o m c l o t h and two ru b b e r bands f o r p u t t i n g o v e r t h e e a r s . A l l o f t h e s t u d e n t a were W i l l i n g t o p u t I t on a f t e r d e m o n s t r a t i o n . However, t h e y d i d n ' t f i n d i t c o m f o r t a b l e t o keep o n . On l y two o f t h e s t u d e n t s were w i l l i n g t o wear t h e mask thro u g h o u t t h e l e s s o n . 4. Improve s t u d e n t s ' v i s u a l a b i l i t y and v i s u a l memory 1. Demonstrate! P r e p a r e a t r a y o f f a m i l i a r o b j e c t s ! b u t t o n , p e n c i l , p u r s e , s c i s s o r s , cup, a p p l e . Cover w i t h a l a r g e c l o t h . Remove t h e c o v e r f o r a minute w h i l e each o f t h e s t u d e n t s l o o k s a t t h e o b j e c t s . Replace t h e c o v e r . Ask t h e s t u d e n t s , " T e l l me one t h i n g you saw." Co n t i n u e t he a c t i v i t y u n t i l t h e s t u d e n t s have named as many o b j e c t s as p o s s i b l e . P e n c i l B u t t o n P e n c i l S c i s s o r s Cup A p p l e A u d i t o r y memory t a a k was d i f f i c u l t f o r 8 j S 3 . A l l t h e o t h e r s c o u l d remember a t l e a s t one t h i n g . D i d n ' t name a l l t h e items on t r a y as i t p r e s e n t e d a p r o b l e m t o a l l o f t h e s t u -O n l y w i t h prompting c o u l d t h e y do more tha n two i t e m s . TITLE> U n i t I . AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD L e s s o n 4. S i g h t Awareness• Seeing i s b e l i e v i n g ( Continued) O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n S. Review t h e major c o n c e p t s i n th e l e s s o n . 2. Demonstate: " In P l a i n S i g h t " Show the s t u d e n t s a v a r i e t y o f items t h a t can be worn. The it e m s a r e i e a r r i n g s , brooch, g l a s s e s , b e l t , n e c k l a c e , p e n c i l ( i n t h e p o c k e t / o r b e h i n d t h e e a r ) . Take each s t u d e n t o ut o f t h e room, one a t a time and ask them t o choose and wear one o f the items a v a i l a b l e t o be worn and then r e -t u r n t o the c i r c l e . The i t e m s h o u l d be worn i n p l a i n s i g h t . When each student has an ite m and they have a l l r e t u r n e d t o t h e c i r -c l e then have t h e s t u d e n t s t a k e t u r n s p o i n t -i n g out one o f the s e l e c t e d items b e i n g worn by another s t u d e n t . C o n t i n u e t i l l a l l items have been i d e n t i f i e d . Have them v e r b a l i z e t h e c o n c e p t s . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . E a r r i n g s Brooch G l a s s e s B e l t N e c k l a c e P e n c i l They c o u l d a l l do I t and found i t f u n . Depending on t h e a b i l i t y l e v e l o f t h e a t u d e n t a , i t may be n e c e s s a r y i n g i v i n g t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n , t o aak t h e s t u d e n t s where each o f t h e ite m s might u s u a l l y be worn. T I T L E ) U n i t I . AWARENESS OP THE EXTERNAL WORLD L e s s o n 5. S i g h t Awarenessi S e e i n g i s b e l i e v i n g Timet 45 m i n u t e * O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Review ground r u l e s and word "awareness". 2. Review t h e f u n c t i o n o f the e y e . 3. H e i g h t e n v i s u a l a c u i t y t h r o u g h awareness o f c o l o u r s o f eyes and h a i r . 1. Students have t o s i t i n a c i r c l e . 2. Students have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . 3. Students have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 4. No one w i l l be a l l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f o r o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . Have each o f the s t u d e n t s p o i n t out t h e i r eyes and say " I see w i t h my eyes." Demonstrate: Have each o f t h e s t u d e n t s look a t h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f i n t h e m i r r o r . Ask them t o choose the c o l o u r o f eyes c l o s e s t t o t h e i r s . Ask them t o choose t h e c o l o u r o f y a r n c l o s e s t t o t h e i r h a i r c o l o u r . P a s t e them on t h e f a c e t h a t was p r e p a r e d i n the l a s t l e s s o n . C u t - o u t eyes w i t h a v a r i e t y . o f c o l o u r s D i f f e r e n t c o l o u r e d y a r n The s t u d e n t s were r e l a x e d and appeared t o be w i t h u s . Thus t h e a c t i v i t i e s r a n v e r y smoothly. The change o f l o c a t i o n , from t h e c i r c l e t o t h e t a b l e seemed t o p r o v i d e a n a t u r a l break f o r them. S j and S4 knew t h e c o l o u r a o f t h e i r e y e s . O t h e r s needed p r o m p t i n g t o a c h i e v e t h e t a s k . They a l l chose a c o l o u r e d y a r n f a i r l y c l o s e t o t h e i r own h a i r c o l o u r . Review l a a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e r o u t i n e . Encourage t h e s t u d e n t s t o e x p l o r e t h e room and p r o v i d e l o g i c a l g u i d a n c e , e.g., i t c a n ' t be t h e c h a l k -b o a r d because i t i s something t h a t i a r e d . T I T L E t U n i t I . AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Leason 5. S i g h t Awarenessi S e e i n g l a b e l i e v i n g ( Continued) O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v s l u a t i o n 4. Improve s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s t o d i s c r i m i n a t e and d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s v i s u a l s t i m u l i . 5. A p p l y s e n s o r y awareness i n immediate environment. 6. Review the major concepts i n t h e l e s s o n . G i v e each s t u d e n t a cup, sugar and water. Then g i v e t he s t u d e n t s t h e fo o d c o l o r i n g t o "mix" w i t h t he "sugar water" g i v i n g o ut one a t a t i m e . A f t e r l e t t i n g t h e s t u d e n t s add a few drops o f c o l o u r i n g , ask them t o d e s c r i b e t h e c o l o u r t h a t has been c r e a t e d . A f t e r a d d i t i o n a l amounts o f c o l o u r i n g have been I n t r o d u c e d , l e t t h e s t u d e n t s d r i n k i t a t t h e end o f t h e m i x i n g . Demonstrate... " I am t h i n k i n g o f something t h a t i s r e d " o r any o t h e r c o l o u r t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s know. Show a r e d c o l o u r c h i p / p a p e r t o ens u r e under-s t a n d i n g . Have each o f the s t u d e n t s look around t h e room and choose an o b j e c t which has the c o l o u r mentioned. Have them v e r b a l i z e t h e c o n c e p t s . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A l l o f them e n j o y e d p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s a c t i v i t y . They were p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o what t h e y were d o i n g and l a u g h e d a p p r o p r i -a t e l y . They c o u l d n o t v e r b a l i z e t h e change i n c o l o u r s . They a l l drank t h e water e x c e p t S 3 . A l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s d i d t h i s a c t i v i t y e x t r e m e l y w e l l . S 6 t o o k a b i t l o n g e r t o f i n d and l o c a t e an o b j e c t t h a t was r e d . i S i n c e t h e y c o u l d not d e s c r i b e t h e p r o c e s s o f change on t h e i r own, t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d a i d v e r b a l l y as much as p o s s i b l e , b u t a t t h e same time g e t t h e s t u d e n t s t o work as much a s p o s s i b l e . Remember, t h e o b j e c -t i v e o f t h i s a c t i v i t y i s not t h e s t u d e n t s ' d e s c r i p -t i v e a b i l i t y b u t t h e i r v i s u a l s e a r c h -i n g and s e n s i t i v i t y . T I T L E I U n i t I . AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD L e s s o n 6. S i g h t Awareness: V i s u a l s i z e , shape r e l a t i o n s h i p Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Review ground r u l e s and word "awareness". 1. Students have t o s i t i n a c i r c l e . 2. Students have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . 3. Students have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 4. No one w i l l be a l l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f o r o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . Sg was s i c k t o d a y . Review i s a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e r o u t i n e . 2. Review t h e d i f f e r e n t body p a r t s . Use t h e " J e l l y rhyme" t o review head, hand, f i n g e r s , stomach, and f e e t / t o e s . A l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s e n j o y t h i s rhyme and so i t would be used thro u g h o u t t h e e x p e r i -ment f o r r e v i e w i n g t h e v a r i o u s body p a r t s . T h i s i s an e x c e l -l e n t a c t i v i t y a s i t i n t e g r a t e s k i n e s t h e t i c , a u d i -t o r y , and v i s u a l i n p u t . I n a d d i t i o n , w i g g l i n g t o g e t h e r as a group i n c r e a s e s a s e n s e o f group i d e n t i t y and mutual t r u s t . 3. Review t h e f u n c t i o n o f the eye. Have each o f t h e s t u d e n t s look through a p a i r o f b i n o c u l a r s and say, "I see w i t h my e y e s . " B i n o c u l a r s By a c t u a l l y d o i n g i t , t h e y become aware o f t h e f u n c t i o n . 4. Enhance " s t u d e n t s " a b i l i t i e s i n v i s u a l a c u i t y — a l z e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n " b i g and s m a l l . " Demonstrate: " J a r r i n g " Have 6 d i f f e r e n t s i z e d j a r s and an e q u a l number o f a p p r o p r i a t e l i d s . Then have each o f t h e s t u d e n t s determine which l i d f i t s which j a r . S i x d i f f e r e n t s i z e d j a r s Food r e i n f o r c e m e n t was put i n each o f t h e s i x j a r s . I t gave t h e s t u d e n t s added m o t i v a -t i o n t o p e r f o r m t h e t a s k . O t h e r t h a n S4 and S5, a l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s d i d t h e t a s k e a s i l y . T I T L E : U n i t I . AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Less o n 6. S i g h t Awareness: V i s u a l s i z e , shape r e l a t i o n s h i p ( Continued) O b l e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 5. I n c r e a s e awareness o f s e l f -image i n t h e a r e a o f body s i z e — " t a l l and s h o r t . " 6. I n c r e a s e s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t i e s i n v i s u a l a c u i t y — shape d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . 7. Review the major c o n c e p t s i n t h e l e s s o n . Demonstrate... "Sequencing* U s i n g a s e t o f 8 R u s s i a n d o l l s which f i t one i n s i d e o f t h e o t h e r , have t h e s t u d e n t s a r r a n g e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r s i z e s . Demonstrate... "B e i n g s h o r t and b e i n g t a l l " Have t h e s t u d e n t s arrange themselves a c c o r d i n g t o h e i g h t . Have each s t u d e n t i d e n t i f y who i s s h o r t and who i s t a l l . Have each o f the s t u d e n t s put t h e i r r i g h t hand on a p i e c e o f paper and then t r a c e i t . Emphasize t h e word " l o o k " and v e r b a l i z e " l o o k i n g a t my r i g h t hand" a f t e r i t i s t r a c e d . Then mix a l l the t r a c i n g s o f hands t o g e t h e r and have each student i d e n t i f y h i s / h e r own. Have them v e r b a l i z e t h e c o n c e p t s . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Set o f 8 R u s s i a n d o l l s which f i t one i n s i d e o f t h e o t h e r . S ) , S 2 and S 5 p e r f o r m e d t h e t a s k w i t h no d i f -f i c u l t y a t a l l . S 3 fumbled around but d i d i t e v e n t u a l l y . S 4 asked f o r c o n s t a n t r e a s s u r -ance t h r o u g h o u t t h e t a s k a l t h o u g h she d i d not appear t o f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o do. The s t u d e n t s found i t a b i t d i f f i c u l t t o do. They found i t e a s i e r when t h e y were compared t o j u s t one o t h e r p e r -s o n . The t a l l e s t i n t h e c l a s s was used as a y a r d s t i c k . Other t h a n S 2 who chose h i s hand on t h e second t r i a l , a l l t h e o t h e r s f o u n d t h e i r own hand e a s i l y . S 4 l i k e d t he a c t i v i t y and r e q u e s t e d t o do i t a g a i n . I f t ime p e r m i t s , t h e s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be asked, "How does b e i n g s h o r t f e e l ? " "How does b e i n g t a l l f e e l ? " Make s u r e t h a t t h e same c o l o u r f e l t pen i s used f o r t r a c i n g a l l o f t h e hands. T I T L E 1 U n i t I . AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Le s s o n 7. S i g h t Awareness: I t ' s good t o see w i t h e y e s . Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Review ground r u l e s and word "awareness". 1. S t u d e n t s have t o s i t i n a c i r c l e . 2. Students have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . 3. S t u d e n t s have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 4. No one w i l l be a l l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f o r o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . Sg was s i c k t o d a y . Review i s a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e r o u t i n e . 2. Review t h e f u n c t i o n o f the e y e s . Have each o f the s t u d e n t s look through a p a i r o f b i n o c u l a r s and s a y , " I see w i t h my eyes." B i n o c u l a r s By a c t u a l l y d o i n g i t , t h e y become aware o f t h e f u n c t i o n . 3. Improve s e n s o r y awareness i n t h e a r e a o f eye-hand c o o r d i n a t i o n . " R i n g i n g the b e l l " Hang a b e l l suspended on a s t r i n g above s h o u l d e r h e i g h t . One by one have the s t u d e n t s t a k e a cane and, s t a r t i n g from t h e o p p o s i t e end o f the room, walk b r i s k l y toward the b e l l and t r y t o h i t i t w i t h the cane. Or you may have t h e s t u d e n t run and h i t t h e b e l l . B e l l S t r i n g Cane The s t u d e n t s a l l e n j o y e d i t e s p e c i a l l y when t h e y were encour-aged t o r u n f a s t and t o h i t h a r d . G e n e r a t e e n t h u s i a s m when d o i n g t h e a c t i v i t y . 4. A p p l y and expand t h e s t u d e n t s ' v i s u a l a b i l i t i e s i n under-s t a n d i n g t h e environment. Have the s t u d e n t s walk around t h e room and choose an o b j e c t t h e y would l i k e t o d e s c r i b e a l o n g t h e v a r i o u s dimensions d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s few l e s s o n s : s i z e , shape and t e x t u r e . S} chose a t o y dog. 65 chose a p i e c e o f paper. 6j chose a n e c k l a c e . 53 chose a book. Sg chose an empty box o f g r a n o l a . 54 chose a t o y t o p . T I T L E : U n i t 1. AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Le s s o n 7. S i g h t Awareness: I t ' s good t o see w i t h e y e s . (Continued) O b j e c t i v e s P rocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 5. To i n c r e a s e s t u d e n t s ' s e n s i -t i v i t i e s towards own emotions. 6. To r e v i e w "awareness". 7. Review t h e major c o n c e p t s i n t h e l e s s o n . Ask s i m p l e s t e p - l i k e s t r u c t u r e d q u e s t i o n s : What Is t h e name o f the o b j e c t t h a t you chose? What does i t do? What can you do w i t h i t ? Do you l i k e o r d i s k l i k e i t ? What do you l i k e o r d i s l i k e about i t ? (e . g . I s i t the c o l o u r red?) How does i t make you f e e l ? Now t h a t you have r e a l l y l o o k e d a t and d e s c r i b e d t he o b j e c t , have your f e e l i n g s about i t changed? Read The Eye Book and have t h e s t u d e n t s r e p e a t a f t e r t he t e a c h e r . Have s t u d e n t s v e r b a l i z e t he c o n c e p t s . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The Eye Book by Leo L e S i e g A l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s c o u l d answer t h e ques-t i o n s u s u a l l y when t h e answers a r e g i v e n i n t h e form o f p o l a r i t i e s , e.g. How does i t make you f e e l — w a r m o r c o l d , good o r bad, happy o r sad? 51 - "wear I t " , " r e d " , " l i k e i t " , "warm". 52 " "bark", "brown w i t h w h i t e s p o t s " , " l i k e i t " , "good". 53 - " l o o k a t t h e book","good". 64 - " p l a y w i t h I t " , " p u r p l e " , "good". S 5 - " p r i n t " , " w h i t e " , " l i k e i t " . Sg - " l i k e g r a n o l a b a r " " e a t i t " , " t a s t e i t " , "good". S t u d e n t s e n j o y e d book and p e r f o r m i n g a c t i o n s s u g g e s t e d by s t o r y . A c c e p t whatever l e v -e l v e r b a l d e s c r i p -t i o n each s t u d e n t i s ca p a b l e o f . T h i s i s an e x c e l l e n c e s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n about e v e n t s i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s . I n f a c t , n e a r l y a l l o f them chose t he ob-j e c t s t h e y r e a l l y l i k e d . T I T L E J U n i t 1. AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD L e s s o n B. T a s t e Awarenesst Sweet as Honey Timet 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Review ground r u l e s and word "awareness". 1. Studenta have t o s i t i n a c i r c l e . 2. Students have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . 3. Students have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 4. No one w i l l be all o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f o r o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . Review i s a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e r o u t i n e . 2. E n a b l e Btudents t o l o c a t e t h e mouth, t h e tongue and t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r f u n c t i o n . Demonstrate! Use a m i r r o r and have each o f t h e studentB ex-p l o r e t he i n s i d e o f t h e mouth and t h e n d e s c r i b e how I t t a s t e s . Then have t h e s t u d e n t s s a y / s i g n " I t a s t e w i t h my tongue." M i r r o r In terms o f d e s c r i b i n g t h e t a s t e i n s i d e t h e mouth, d e s c r i p t i v e words had t o be p r o -v i d e d f o r t he s t u d e n t s . " I s i t b l a n d o r i s i t sweet7" Four o f t h e Btudents s a i d "no t a s t e " and two Bald "Bweet". The word " b l a n d -n e s s " needed t o be s i m p l i f i e d f o r e a s y u n d e r s t a n d i n g . "No t a s t e needs t o be UBed t o e x p l a i n t h e c o n c e p t . 3. I n c r e a s e awareness o f t h e sen-s o r y body p a r t s — mouth and tongue. Demonstratet Use p l a y dough and have each o f t h e s t u d e n t s form a mouth and a tongue s t i c k i n g o u t . Then p a s t e t he mouth and tongue on t o a f a c e . P l a y dough Paper P h y s i c a l guidance was needed t o a s s i s t them i n making a mouth and tong u e . However t h e y know where i t s h o u l d be l o c a t e d . 4. Develop I n c r e a s e d s e n s o r y awareness of t a s t e . Use a v a r i e t y o f foods which r e p r e s e n t f i v e d i f f e r e n t t a s t e s i sweetness - honey sourness - v i n e g a r s a l t i n e s s - s a l t b i t t e r n e s s - b i t t e r c h o c o l a t e blandness " p o r r i d g e Have each o f the s t u d e n t s t r y t h e f i v e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f foo d and d e s c r i b e t h e t a s t e . Honey V i n e g a r S a l t B i t t e r c h o c o l a t e P o r r i d g e A l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s c o u l d r e a d i l y i d e n t i f y s a l t i n e s s and s o u r n e s s . They a l l had t h e t e n -dency t o g i v e t h e name of t h e f o o d r a t h e r t h a n i t s t a s t e . T I T L E i U n i t 1. AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Les s o n B. T a s t e Awareness> Sweet as Honey (Continued) O b j e c t i v e s P rocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 5. E n a b l e s t u d e n t s t o r e c o g n i z e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t a s t e and I d e n t i f y them a c c o r d i n g l y . 6. Review t h e major c o n c e p t s i n the l e s s o n . Demonstrate: B l i n d f o l d each o f the s t u d e n t s and have them i d e n t i f y t h e f o o d by t a s t e — u s i n g p i c k l e s , whipping cream, b l a c k c o f f e e , c a k e s , and s a l t y p o t a t o c h i p s . Have s t u d e n t s v e r b a l i z e t he c o n c e p t s . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r - p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P i c k l e s Whipping cream B l a c k c o f f e e Cakes P o t a t o c h i p s As above, t h e y t e n d e d t o g i v e t h e name o f t h e o b j e c t r a t h e r t h a n t h e t a s t e . They a l s o found I t u n c o m f o r t a b l e t o be b l i n d f o l d e d even though t h e y were c o m p l i a n t . I n c a r r y i n g o ut t h i s a c t i v i t y , maybe i t i s b e s t t o show e a c h o f t h e s t u d e n t s t h e f o o d s u b s t a n c e s and have them i d e n t i f y what t h e y a r e b e f o r e b l i n d f o l d i n g . T h i s w i l l reduce t he a n x i e t y . In a d d i -t i o n , a t t h e end o f each t r i a l . I t i s b e t t e r t o g i v e t h e s t u d e n t s t h e des-c r i p t o r s i n p o l a r -i t y . " I s i t sweet o r s o u r ? " T I T L E : U n i t 1. AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Le s s o n 9. T a s t e Awareness Time• 4 5 m i n u t e s O b j e c t i v e s P rocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Review ground r u l e s and word "awareness"• 2. Review t h e l o c a t i o n o f the tongue and l t a f u n c t i o n . 3. I n c r e a s e awareness o f d i f f e r e n t common t a s t e s . 4 . H e i g h t e n t h e sense o f t a s t e t h r o u g h d i f f e r e n t i a l sweet-n e s s . 1. Students have t o s i t i n a. c i r c l e . 2. StudentB have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . 3. Students have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 4 . No one w i l l be a l l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f o r o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . Ask each o f the s t u d e n t s t o s t i c k o ut h i s / h e r tongue and t h e n t o u c h i t . "What i s t h i s ? " "What do you use you r tongue f o r ? " Have t h e s t u d e n t s l o o k through a s e l e c t i o n o f magazines w i t h p i c t u r e s o f foo d s . When the word "sweetness" i s g i v e n , each o f t h e s t u d e n t s has t o look f o r something t h a t Is sweet. The a c t i v i t y Is completed when the 5 d i f f e r e n t t a s t e s a r e g i v e n . Demonstrate... Have 3 cups o f orange J u i c e o f v a r y i n g degrees o f sweetness. Have them arrange them In a sequence s t a r t i n g from t h e sw e e t e s t . A s e l e c t i o n o f magazines w i t h p i c -t u r e s o f f o o d s . Orange J u i c e Cups S t i c k i n g o u t t h e tongue made t h e s t u d e n t s v e r y much aware o f i t s l o c a -t i o n and f u n c t i o n . They a l l e n j o y e d t h e a c t i v i t y v e r y much. S t u d e n t s c o u l d i d e n t i f y sweet and sou r f o o d Items mora r e a d i l y t h a n o t h e r s . Guidance was g i v e n when n e c e s s a r y . S 5 performed t h i s a c t -i v i t y w i t h no prompt-i n g a t a l l . As f o r t h e o t h e r s , t h e y were asked t o I d e n t i f y t h e "sweet-e s t " one f i r s t , t h e n t h e "not sweet a t a l l " one, and t h e n t h e one " i n between" t h e two. Review i s a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e r o u t i n e . I f t ime p e r m i t s , a c o l l e g e c o u l d be made o f d i f f e r e n t f o o d items t h a t t a s t e a l i k e . I n s t e a d o f u s i n g t h e word "sweetest", i t i s b e t t e r t o use " v e r y v e r y sweet" t o d e s c r i b e t h e i n t e n -s i t y . 1 h-1 <y\ 1 T I T L E : On I t 1. AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD L e s s o n 9. T a s t e Awareness ( C o n t i n u e d ) O b j e c t i v e s P rocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 5. D e v e l o p I n c r e a s e d sensory awareness t h r o u g h e x p l o r a t i o n o f one'a f e e l i n g s 6. Review t h e major concepts I n t h e l e s s o n . Demonstrate: P r e s e n t t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h a t r a y o f f o o d on which t h e 5 d i f f e r e n t t a s t e s are r e p r e s e n t e d . Have each o f t h e s t u d e n t s choose one foo d i t e m t h a t t h e y l i k e and t o d e s c r i b e t h e f e e l i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . Have s t u d e n t s v e r b a l i z e t he c o n c e p t s . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . FOOd A l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s chose sweet f o o d i t e m s e x c e p t one who chose a s o u r p i c k l e . The f e e l i n g words t h e y u s e d were "good", "happy" and "warm", " t r e p p y " and "warm". T h i s a c t i v i t y c a n be expanded t o I n c l u d e f o o d t h e y don't l i k e and t o e x p l o r e t h e f e e l i n g s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them. T I T L E ! U n i t 1. AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Le s s o n 10. H e a r i n g Awareness! "Hear no E v i l " Tiraei 45 m i n u t e s O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Review ground r u l e s and word "awareness". 1. Students have t o s i t i n a c i r c l e . 2. S t u d e n t s have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . 3. Students have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 4. No one w i l l be a l l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f o r o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . Review i s a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e r o u t i n e . 2. E n a b l e s t u d e n t s t o l o c a t e the e a r s and t h e f u n c t i o n o f the e a r s . U s i n g the f a c e made i n l e s s o n s i x , have each of t h e s t u d e n t s put the c u t - o u t e a r s on. S t r i n g s may be used t o a c c e n t t h e contour o f the e a r s . At t h e end, have t h e s t u d e n t s v e r b a l i z e "I hear w i t h my e a r s . " C u t - o u t e a r s G l u e S t r i n g s 3. I n c r e a s e s e n s o r y awareness i n a u d i t o r y a r e a . Have the s t u d e n t s i d e n t i f y the sounds i n t h e c a s s e t t e t a p e . They a r e sounds r e c o r d e d i n t h e environment, e.g. a i r p l a n e , dog, t e l e p h o n e , c a r , vacuum. P i c t u r e s a r e used f o r those who have l i m i t e d v e r b a l a b i l i t i e s . Radea t a p e o r "home-made" r e c o r d i n g A l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s (except one) c o u l d I d e n t i f y t h e sounds a c c u r a t e l y and e a s i l y d u r i n g t h e f i r s t t r i a l . Sg needed t o l i s t e n t o each sound a t l e a s t t w i c e b e f o r e i d e n t i f y -i n g t h e sounds. 4. E n a b l e s t u d e n t s t o d i f f e r e n t i -a t e between music and n o i s e . P r e p a r e some c a s s e t t e t a p e s w i t h r e c o r d i n g s o f music such as J a z z , c l a s s i c and p o p u l a r , a l t e r -n a t i n g w i t h r e c o r d i n g s o f n o i s e s , such as honking horns, d i s h e s b r e a k i n g , sawing , e t c . Have t h e s t u d e n t s l i s t e n t o the r e c o r d i n g s and t e l l whether the r e c o r d i n g s are music o r n o i s e . I f time p e r m i t s , have t h e studentB t r y d a n c i n g t o n o i s e r e c o r d i n g s — p o i n t out how easy i t I s t o dance t o music, and how d i f f i c u l t i t i s t o dance t o n o i s e . C a s s e t t e t a p e s A f t e r t h e f i r s t two t r i a l s , most o f t h e s t u d e n t s c o u l d d i f -f e r e n t i a t e between n o i s e and music. P o i n t o u t t o t h e s t u d e n t s t h a t music i s u s u a l l y m e l o d i -ous (one c a n s i n g t o i t ) , r h y t h m i c a l ( c l a p t o i t ) , and s t r u c t u r e d ( l i n e o f music can be r e -peated) . T I T L E I U n i t 1. AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Less o n 10. H e a r i n g Awareness: "Hear no E v i l " ( C ontinued) O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 5. E x p l o r e a v a r i e t y o f sounds u s i n g one's own body. 6. Review t h e major c o n c e p t s i n t h e l e s s o n . Demonstrate: Have each o f t h e s t u d e n t s c l a p hands, snap f i n g e r s , c l i c k tongue, whisper, t a p f e e t , s h u f f l i n g w i t h t h e f e e t , growl w i t h t h r o a t and thump t h e c h e s t . Have s t u d e n t s v e r b a l i z e the c o n c e p t s . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t was d i f f i c u l t f o r some o f t h e s t u d e n t s t o get c l o s e t o a n o t h e r person and t o w h i s p e r . P o s s i b l y t h e y have n o t dev e l o p e d mutual t r u s t i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . S 2 had d i f f i c u l t y i n g r o w l i n g w i t h h i s t h r o a t . When i t was sugg e s t e d t h a t he s h o u l d t o u c h t h e t e a c h -e r ' s t h r o a t , he grabbed i t w i t h s u c h f o r c e t h a t i t n e a r l y s t r a n g l e d t h e t e a c h e r . T I T L E : U n i t 1. AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Le s s o n 11. H e a r i n g Awareness: " I t ' s good t o hea r w i t h e a r s . " Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Review ground r u l e s and word "awareness". 1. Students have t o s i t i n a c i r c l e . 2 . Students have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . 3 . Students have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 4. No one w i l l be a l l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f o r o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . Review I s a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e r o u t i n e . 2 . Review t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e e a r s and t h e i r f u n c t i o n . While p u l l i n g on t h e i r own e a r s , have t h e s t u d e n t s v e r b a l i r e / s i g n , " I hear w i t h my e a r s . " 3 . D e v e l o p an a l e r t n e s s t o sound. Demonstrate: " B l i n d B e l l " B l i n d f o l d a l l t he s t u d e n t s but one and have the o t h e r s s c a t t e r e d about. The student who i s not b l i n d f o l d e d c a r r i e s a b e l l l o o s e l y around t h e neck so t h a t i t w i l l r i n g w i t h every s t e p . The b l i n d f o l d e d s t u d e n t s t r y t o c a t c h t he one w i t h t h e b e l l . The s t u d e n t who succeeds then g e t s t h e next t u r n b e i n g " I t " and wears the b e l l w h i l e t h e o t h e r s a r e b l i n d f o l d e d . B e l l The s t u d e n t s e n j o y e d t h e a c t i v i t y a l t h o u g h t h e y d i d n ' t l i k e t o be b l i n d f o l d e d v e r y l o n g . I f t h e s t u d e n t s f e e l u n c o m f o r t a b l e about b l i n d f o l d i n g , i t ' a b e s t t o show them t h e c o n f i n e d space t h e y w i l l be r u n n i n g around i n . A t t h e same t i m e , r e a s s u r e them t h e y w i l l n ot get h u r t . 4. D e v e l o p a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a -t i o n between " h i g h " and "low" p i t c h . Demonstrate: Have each o f t h e s t u d e n t s p l a y a h i g h and t h e n a low note on the piano/xylophone. L a b e l t h e note as i t i s p l a y e d . Then ask them t o p l o y a h i g h o r low note upon r e q u e s t . P i a n o Xylophone S 3 who has always been o b s e r v e d t o be m u s i c a l had no problem i n p e r -f o r m i n g t h i s t a s k . O t h e r s had t o p e r f o r m two o r t h r e e t r i a l s i n o r d e r t o come t o some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o n c e p t • T I T L E • U n i t 1. AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Le s s o n 11. H e a r i n g Awareness: " I t ' s good t o hea r w i t h e a r s . " ( Continued) O b j e c t i v e s P r ocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 5. D e v e l o p an a b i l i t y t o d i s -c r i m i n a t e f e e l i n g s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p i t c h o f t h e v o i c e . 6. Review t h e major concepta i n t h e l e s s o n . Demonstrate: Have t h e s t u d e n t s make a sound a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e words " l o u d " , " s o f t " , " s u r p r i s e " , "angry", "happy" and "sad", and r e c o r d them s i m u l t a -n e o u s l y . The s t u d e n t s have t o i d e n t i f y them a f t e r w a r d s . Have s t u d e n t s v e r b a l i z e t he c o n c e p t a . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T ape r e c o r d e d Tape The f i r s t h a l f o f t h e a c t i v i t y was v e r y d i f -f i c u l t f o r a l l o f them. I t c o u l d p o s s i b l e be due t o a l a c k o f under-s t a n d i n g o f t h e words. E i s m i l e d when t r y i n g t o make an angry v o i c e . S u r p r i s e and s a d were a g a i n d i f f i c u l t f o r a l l o f them t o p o r t r a y . Whereas f o r t h e second h a l f o f t h e a c t i v i t y other' than Sg, a l l o f them c o u l d I d e n t i f y t h e i r v o i c e s on t h e ta p e t h e f i r s t t r i a l . S 5 d i d i t w i t h a s s i s -t a n c e as she was h a r d -o f - h e a r l n g . T I T L E l U n i t 1. AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Le s s o n 12. H e a r i n g Awareness Timet 45 minutes O b j e c t I v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Review ground r u l e s and word "awareness". 2. Review t h e l o c a t i o n o f the e a r s and t h e i r f u n c t i o n . 3. I n c r e a s e awareness o f sounds i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . 4. Improve a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a -t i o n baaed on p i t c h . 1. S t u d e n t s have t o s i t i n a c i r c l e . 2. S t u d e n t s have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . 3. S t u d e n t s have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 4. No one w i l l be a l l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f o r o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . Have each o f t h e s t u d e n t s take t u r n a l i s t e n i n g t o t h e music from a headphone. Have them v e r b a l i z e a f t e r w a r d s , " I hear w i t h my e a r s . " Demonstratet Have t h e s t u d e n t s t r y a hand a t making t h e f o l l o w i n g sounds: - knock on the door - knock on a box o f c e r e a l - Bcratch a f i n g e r on a p i e c e o f sand paper - t a p on t h e t a b l e w i t h a f o r k - cut papers w i t h s c i s s o r s Then ask t h e s t u d e n t s t o c l o s e t h e i r eyes and see i f any one can d i s t i n g u i s h the sounds as you c a r r y out t h e above a c t i o n s randomly. Demonstrate: "Water G l a s s Sounds" Use 3 water tumblers o f the same s i z e and shape and f i l l e ach w i t h water t o a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l . The amount o f water i n a g l a s s r e g u l a t e s the sound when the g l a s s i s tapped w i t h a spoon. Ask t h e s t u d e n t s t o arrange them from the h i g h e s t t o t h e l o w e s t . Headphone Box o f c e r e a l Sand p a p e r F o r k 3 t u m b l e r s A l l o f them e n j o y e d p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e a c t i v i t y and guessed t h e sounds a c c u r a t e l y . T h i s a c t i v i t y was a b i t d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e s t u d e n t s even though t h e p r i n c i p l e i s t h e same as t h e one i n t a s t e . P o s s i b l y t h e c o n c e p t o f h i g h i s not t h o r o u g h l y u n d e r s t o o d and i n a d d i t i o n t h i s s e n s o r y c h a n n e l i s n o t as o f t e n s t i m u l a t e d i n a g u i d e d manner. Review i s a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e r o u t i n e . ho M I n s t e a d o f u s i n g t u m b l e r s , p o s s i b l y t h e use o f c r y s t a l g l a s s e s may p r o v i d e b e t t e r q u a l i t y sounds, e a s i e r f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . T I T L E : U n i t 1. AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD L e s s o n 12. H e a r i n g Awareness ( C o n t i n u e d ) O b j e c t i v e s P rocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 5. E x p l o r e and u n d e r s t a n d one's f e e l i n g towards sounds. 6. Review t h e f u n c t i o n o f the e a r s . 7. Review t h e major concepts i n t h e l e s s o n . Use t h e above t u m b l e r s and ask the s t u d e n t s t o choose t h e p i t c h t h e y are c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h . "Which p i t c h do you l i k e / d i s l i k e ? " "How does t h a t make you f e e l — c o m f o r t a b l e , uncomfortable, warm, c o l d , happy, sad?" Read The Ear Book and have Btudents r e p e a t some o f t h e p h r a s e s s a c t l o n a . Have s t u d e n t s v e r b a l i z e t he c o n c e p t s . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The E a r Book by A l P e r k i n s Most o f t h e s t u d e n t s p r e f e r r e d t h e lower p i t c h as i t d i d not h u r t t h e i r e a r s . The r e s p o n s e s were "good", " c o m f o r t a b l e " , "warm* and " s a d " . The s t u d e n t s seemed t o e n j o y l i s t e n i n g a t t h e end o f t h e l e s s o n as I t d i d not r e q u i r e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n — p o s s i b l y l e e s s t r e s s f u l and demanding. T I T L E I U n i t 1. AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Le s s o n 13. T a c t i l e Awareness: Keeping a F i n g e r on Things Timet 4 5 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Review ground r u l e s and 1. Students have t o s i t i n a c i r c l e . Review i s a word "awareness". 2 . Students have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f 3. Students have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . t h e r o u t i n e . 4 . No one w i l l be a l l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f o r o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . 2 . I d e n t i f y hand and f i n g e r s Demonstrate: and t h e i r f u n c t i o n s . " F e e l i n g Box" Most o f t h e s t u d e n t s S i was l a t e a r r i v -Have each o f the Btudents use one hand o n l y t o c o u l d guess s p a g h e t t i . i n g . S 3 i n v i t e d S i f e e l 4 d i f f e r e n t s e p a r a t e t e x t u r e d objects S i l k As f o r " f l o u r " , many t o J o i n t h e c i r c l e h i d d e n i n a box, e.g. s i l k , f r o g ( p o i n t e d f o r F r o g f l o w e r h o l d e r thought t h a t i t was w i t h h e r l i m i t e d f l o w e r arrangement), c o l d s p a g h e t t i and f l o u r . S p a g h e t t i " s u g a r . " " S i l k " was v o c a b u l a r y . S 3 s a i d A f t e r t o u c h i n g each item, the s t u d e n t has t o F l o u r u s u a l l y l a b e l l e d as a "Come i n By." I t guess what i t i s and what the o b j e c t f e e l s a " d r e s s " . was a good i n d i c a -l i k e . Reveal the o b j e c t a f t e r w a r d s . A t t h e t i o n t h a t a sense end o f t h e a c t i v i t y , have the s t u d e n t s v e r b a l - o f m u t u a l i t y had i z e , " I touch w i t h my hands." d e v e l o p e d among t h e s t u d e n t s . 3. E n a b l e s t u d e n t s t o r e c o g n i z e Have t h e s t u d e n t s e x p l o r e the f o l l o w i n g items Hot s I c y water S 2 chose t h e f r o g even Pay a t t e n t i o n t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n v a r i o u s and f i n d an object t h e y l i k e . A l s o have them Pudding though he e x p r e s s e d s t u d e n t s ' r e a c t i o n s t e x t u r e s and t o I d e n t i f y t h e l a b e l the f e e l i n g s a r o u s e d . Bran f l a k e s " f e a r " towards t h e t o e a c h o b j e c t . f e e l i n g s a r o u s e d . hot water • i c y water Sand paper object; u s i n g b a s i c r e f l e c t -s t i c k y pudding - d r y bran f l a k e s Rounded s t o n e chose b r a n f l a k e s . i v e t e c h n i q u e s . c o u r s e sand paper - smooth v e l v e t V e l v e t She l i k e d t o e a t i t p o i n t e d f r o g » rounded stone Sponge and v e r b a l i z e " n i c e s l i m y soap - c o a r s e d r y sponge Soap f e e l i n g " heavy l e a d • l i g h t paper L e a d S 5 c h o s e a p a p e r and Paper wanted t o w r i t e on F r o g f l o w e r h o l d e r i t . She e x p r e s s e d (used above) a "good" f e e l i n g towarda i t . T I T L E : U n i t 1. AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Less o n 13. T a c t i l e Awareness: Keeping a F i n g e r on Th i n g s (Continued) O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 4. I n c r e a a e s e n s i t i v i t y i n t a c t i l e a r e a s . 5. Review t h e major concepts i n the l e s s o n . Demonstrate... "Alphabet T r a c e " S l o w l y t r a c e a c i r c l e o r a s t r a i g h t l i n e on the bock o f each s t u d e n t by t r a c i n g w i t h your index f i n g e r . Then have t h e st u d e n t guess whether i t was a c i r c l e o r a l i n e t h a t you t r a c e d . I f time p e r m i t s , r e p e a t u s i n g l e t t e r s o f t h e alp h a b e t o r numbers. Have s t u d e n t s v e r b a l i z e t he c o n c e p t s . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Bf and S3 b o t h wanted t h e s t o n e . I t was " c o l d " and "smooth". 65 c h o s e a p i e c e o f v e l v e t and e x p r e s s e d "smooth" and " n i c e " f e e l i n g . A l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s g u e s s e d e i t h e r a c i r c l e o r a l i n e . Some s a i d , " I " I n s t e a d o f a l i n e . O t h e r s s a i d , "0" i n s t e a d o f a c i r c l e . T I T L E : U n i t 1. AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Less o n 14. T a c t i l e Awareness: Touching and F e e l i n g T i n e : 4 5 mlnutea O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Review ground r u l e s and the word "awareness". Review t h e l o c a t i o n and f u n c t i o n o f t h e hands. 3. E x p l o r e t h e t a c t i l e s e n s a t i o n u s i n g o t h e r p a r t e o f the body, 4. I n c r e a s e s e n s o r y awareness i n t a c t i l e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . 1. Students have t o s i t i n a c i r c l e . 2 . Students have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . 3 . Students have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 4 . No one w i l l be a l l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f o r o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . Have each of the s t u d e n t s t r a c e both hands. Then ask them t o I d e n t i f y r i g h t and l e f t . A f t e r w a r d s , have the s t u d e n t s v e r b a l i z e , " I t o u c h w i t h my hands." Demonstrate: Have t h e s t u d e n t s e x p l o r e t he sense o f to u c h u s i n g o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e body. - t o u c h the cheeks on a g l a s s . - rub back t o back. - pare f e e t on t h e f l o o r . - elbow on the c a r p e t . - rub nose a g a i n s t arm. G l a s s Demonstrate: "Texture Bag" Have a v a r i e t y o f t e x t u r e d m a t e r i a l s , such as s c o u r i n g pad, f e a t h e r d u s t e r , smooth f a b r i c , b u t t o n , t o y b l o c k , h a r d - b o i l e d egg, a t y r o f o a m peanuts ( p a c k i n g m a t e r i a l ) In a bag. Pass the bag around t h e group. S c o u r i n g pad F e a t h e r d u s t e r Smooth f a b r i c B u t t o n Toy b l o c k H a r d - b o i l e d egg St y r o f o a m peanut S 3 s p o n t a n e o u s l y ex-p r e s s e d f e e l i n g o f " c o l d " and "smooth" when she t o u c h e d h e r f a c e t o t h e g l a s s . S2 and Sg e x p r e s s e d "rough" when elbow t o u c h e d t h e c a r p e t 8 j , £ 4 and S 5 e x p r e s s e d " c o l d " when nose was rubbed. S 2 * S 4 , S 5 and Sg spon-t a n e o u s l y e x p r e s s e d f e e l i n g o f " c o l d " when f e e t were on t h e f l o o r . The s c o u r i n g pad waa not s e l e c t e d by any o f t h e s t u d e n t s . T h r e e o f t h e s t u d e n t s chose t h e egg. One chose t h e c l o t h and two chose t h e s t y r o f o a m p e a n u t s . Review Is a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e r o u t i n e . Encourage spontane-ous e x p r e s s i o n s , b o t h v e r b a l and non-v e r b a l . M ON W h i l e t h e s t u d e n t s a r e c h o o s i n g an ob-j e c t , d e s c r i b e t h e ite m s u s i n g words l i k e c o a r s e , r o u g h , bumpy, ha r d , s o f t , f u z z y and s t i c k y s o j T I T L E I U n i t 1. AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Le s s o n 14. T a c t i l e Awareness: Touching and F e e l i n g ( C o n t i n u e d ) O b j e c t i v e s P rocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 5. D e v e l o p an awareness o f o t h e r s t h r o u g h t o u c h . 6. Review t h e major c o n c e p t s i n t h e l e s s o n . Ask each s t u d e n t t o p i c k o ut t h e "smoothest" — v e r y v e r y smooth, without l o o k i n g . A f t e r everyone has e x p l o r e d t h e Item, ask each one t o say which one t h e y t h i n k i s smooth. Demonstrate... Have s t u d e n t s from dyads s i t t i n g and f a c i n g one a n o t h e r . Have them: - rub one another's hands, - touch one another'a l e g s , - touch one another's f a c e . Have Btudents v e r b a l i z e t he c o n c e p t a . Always g i v e s t u d e n t a p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The s t u d e n t s e x p r e s s e d "warm" when r u b b i n g one a n o t h e r ' s hands. S^ was h e s i t a n t t o t o u c h h e r p a r t n e r ' s l e g when she d i s c o v e r e d i t was k i n d o f h a i r y . When t o u c h i n g one a n o t h e r ' s f a c e 2 dyads s m i l e d . O t h e r s were a b i t h e s i t a n t as t h e y had not had much c l o s e p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t w i t h one a n o t h e r . The " f e a r " was b e i n g r e f l e c t e d by t h e t e a c h e r . t h a t t h e y w i l l be f o c u s i n g on t e x t u r e r a t h e r t h a n t h e o b j e c t . T I T L E I U n i t I . AWARENESS OP THE EXTERNAL WORLD Le s s o n IS. T a c t i l e Awarenessi Touch awareness w i t h o u t s i g h t T imei 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n j 1. Review ground r u l e s and t h e word "awareness". 1. Students have t o s i t In a c i r c l e . 2. Students have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . 3. Students have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 4. No one w i l l be a l l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f o r o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . Review i s a n e c e s s a r y p a r t of t h e r o u t i n e . 2. Review t h e l o c a t i o n and f u n c t i o n of t h e hands. Have each o f t h e s t u d e n t s move t h e i r thumb s l o w l y a c r o s s a l l o f the f i n g e r s i n one hand. Repeat i t w i t h t h e o t h e r hand. Have the s t u d e n t s v e r b a l i z e , " I t o u c h w i t h my hands." 3. I n c r e a s e t a c t i l e a c u i t y . Demonstrate! "Blowing out the c a n d l e " P l a c e a b u r n i n g c a n d l e on a t a b l e . B l i n d f o l d t he student and t u r n him/her around 3 t i m e s . The s t u d e n t s must t r y t o blow out t h e c a n d l e by s e n s i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e h e a t . B u r n i n g c a n d l e The s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i -p a t e d i n t h e a c t i v i t y w i t h e n t h u s i a s m . They a l l wanted t o be t h e f i r s t one. They were a l s o a b i t more c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h b l i n d f o l d i n g as they had been exposed t o i t f a i r l y f r e q u e n t l y d u r i n g t h e e x p e r i -mental p e r i o d . A t t h e Bame time , t h e y a r e d e v e l o p i n g a sense o f truBt among t h e group members. 4. Heig h t e n s e n s o r y awareneas through t o u c h . Demonstrate! "Guessing by Touch" Form s t u d e n t s I n t o dyads. Have each o f the s t u d e n t s touch one another's f a c e . P o i n t out t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s among the s t u d e n t s . Then have one s t u d e n t b l i n d f o l d e d . The b l i n d f o l d e d s t u d e n t has t o guess t h e names of the c l a s s m a t e s by touch o n l y . B l i n d f o l d S i n c e t h e s t u d e n t s had had e x p e r i e n c e t o u c h i n g one a n o t h e r y e s t e r d a y , t h e y were a l l a b i t r e l a x e d t o d a y when p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s a c t i v i t y . The a c t i v i t y f a c i l i -t a t e s s o c i a l i n t e r -a c t i o n and t o u c h i n a n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g way. T I T L E I U n i t I . AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Le s s o n 15. T a c t i l e Awareness: Touch awareness w i t h o u t s i g h t ( C o n t i n u e d ) O b j e c t i v e s P r ocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 5. E x p l o r e one's f e e l i n g t h r o u g h t h e t a c t i l e c h a n n e l . 6 . Review t h e major c o n c e p t s i n t h e l e s s o n . Demonstrate: "The Magic t o u c h " Have each o f the s t u d e n t s walk around the room and choose an o b j e c t which t h e y would l i k e t o d e s c r i b e . "What i s t h e name o f t h e o b j e c t ? " "Do you l i k e / d i s k l i k e i t ? " "How does I t f e e l ? " "How does i t make you f e e l ? " Have s t u d e n t s v e r b a l i z e the c o n c e p t s . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S 4 c o u l d guess everyone o t h e r t h a n Sj« When asked, she r e p l i e d , "a boy". Sg c o u l d not remember t h e names o f 3 o f t h e f e m a l e s t u d e n t s . However, he c o u l d i d e n t i f y whether t h e p e r s o n was a boy o r a g i r l . Sg chose a r e c o r d which he l i k e d . He d e s c r i b e d i t aa "smooth", " c i r c l e " , " a i n g " and " n i c e " . 5 2 chose a t e l e p h o n e . He des-c r i b e d i t as "smooth", " l i s t e n and t a l k " , " n i c e " , "phone Mum and Dad". S-) chose a b a l l . She d e s c r i b e d i t i n t h e s e words, "throw b o l l " , "orange", " c i r c l e " and " n i c e . " 5 3 chose a book. She d e s c r i b e d i t i n t h e s e words, " l i k e i t " , "cows and p i g s " , "smooth". 5 4 chose a J a r o f jam. She s a i d " l i k e I t " , " c o l o u r i s r e d " , " j e l l y i s smooth". 6 5 chose a g l a s s . She responded "smooth", " w h i t e " , " d r i n k " . The responses r e f l e c t e d a p a t t e r n t h a t I f t h e y knew one another b e f o r e t h e commencement o f t h e experiment, t h e y c o u l d i d e n t i f y t h e p e r s o n . The a c t l v i y g ener-a t e d l o t a o f spon-taneous e x p r e s s i o n . The responses o f t h e s t u d e n t s demon-s t r a t e d t h a t l e a r n -i n g was t a k i n g p l a c e . T I T L E I U n i t I . AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Lesson 16. O l f a c t o r y ( S m e l l ) Awarenessi S m e l l i n g l i k e a Rose Timet 4 5 minutes O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1• Review ground r u l e s and word "awareness". 1. Students have t o s i t i n a c i r c l e . 2. S t u d e n t s have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . 3 . Students have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 4 . No one w i l l be a l l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f o r o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . Review i s a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e r o u t i n e . 2. I d e n t i f y t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e nose and i t s f u n c t i o n . E x p l a i n t o the st u d e n t s t h a t we are g o i n g t o e x p l o r e the sense o f s m e l l . Demonstrate t h e proc e s s o f s m e l l i n g , i . e . t a k i n g t h e a i r through the nose, and have a l l o f them copy the p r o c e s s . 3 . D e v e l o p i n c r e a s e d awareness i n t h e o l f a c t o r y a r e a . Demonstrate... "Nosey* Hide a s t r o n g s c e n t e d o b j e c t i n a c o r n e r o f the room and see i f the s t u d e n t s when b l i n d f o l d e d can i d e n t i f y where i n the room i t I s . Mouthwash B l i n d f o l d B l i n d f o l d was not used. A l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s can t r a c e t l o c a t e t h e Bme l l w i t h no a s s i s -t a n c e . 4 . D e v e l o p i n c r e a s e d s e n s o r y awareness by I d e n t i f y i n g a v a r i e t y of s m e l l s . Expose the s t u d e n t s t o a v a r i e t y o f o b j e c t s w i t h d i s t i n c t o d o u r s i - p l e a s a n t / n i c e s m e l l t perfume, c h o c o l a t e , orange r i n d - S t r o n g f r a g r a n c e : t o b a c c o , v i n e g a r , pepper - Odor which a l e r t s dangeri g a s o l i n e , b u r n t f o o d , b u r n t p i p e r Orange r i n d Perfume C h o c o l a t e Tobacco V i n e g a r Pepper G a s o l i n e Burnt p a p e r / f o o d A l l o f them f u l l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h l a a c t i v i t y . S 3 spon-t a n e o u s l y s a i d , " L o t s o f f u n " . A l l o f them can a s s o c i a t e " b u r n t p a p e r / f o o d " and "gaso-l i n e " as "bad". S. Improve s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s t o d i s c r i m i n a t e and d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s s m e l l s . Have a s e l e c t i o n of magazines w i t h p i c t u r e s of foods and o t h e r common h o u s e h o l d items ( e.g. b l e a c h ) . Have the s t u d e n t s t o f i n d p i c t u r e s t h a t are r e l a t e d t o t h e v a r i o u s s m e l l s , e.g. p l e a s a n t , s t r o n g f r a g r a n c e and odour which a l e r t s danger. Magazines A l l of t h e s t u d e n t s can f i n d p i c t u r e s o f t h i n g s w i t h a n i c e f r a g r a n c e . Three o f them were a b l e t o i d e n t i f y p i c t u r e s o f o b j e c t s w i t h s t r o n g f r a g r a n c e . The odour The p i c t u r e s t h a t were s e l e c t e d c o u l d be c u t o u t and made i n t o a c o l l a g e . The sequence i n which a c t i v i t y 4 p r e c e d e d 5 was v e r y u s e f u l LO O T I T L E I U n i t I . AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Les s o n 16. O l f a c t o r y ( S mell) Awareness: S m e l l i n g l i k e a Rose Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r ocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 6. Review t h e major c o n c e p t s In t h e l e s s o n . Have s t u d e n t s v e r b a l i z e t h e c o n c e p t s . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . which a l e r t danger had t o be g u i d e d . because t h e c o n c r e t e o b j e c t s u s e d i n 4 c o u l d be used t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e d i f -f i c u l t c o n c e p t , e.g. odour which a l e r t s d a n ger. T I T L E I U n i t I . AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Lesson 17. S m e l l Awareness: Nose power Time: 4 5 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P rocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Review ground r u l e s and word "awareness". 1 . S t u d e n t s have t o s i t In a c i r c l e . 2 . S t u d e n t s have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . 3 . S t u d e n t s have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 4 . No one w i l l be a l l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f o r o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . Review I s a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f th e r o u t i n e . 2 . Review f u n c t i o n o f t h e nose. P r e s e n t t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h an o b j e c t w i t h odour. When t h e s t u d e n t s f i n i s h s m e l l i n g i t , ask them "What do you do w i t h your nose?" 3 . H e i g h t e n t h e eense o f s m e l l In d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i o u s o b j e c t s . Demonstrate... " T r i c k e d Yon" B l i n d f o l d t he s t u d e n t . P l a c e a f r u i t at t h e nose w h i l e t he st u d e n t e a t s a d i f f e r e n t f r u i t . Ask t he s t u d e n t s t o I d e n t i f y t he one he/she i s e a t i n g . The st u d e n t may guess t h a t t he eaten f r u i t Is t h e s m e l l e d f r u i t e s p e c i a l l y ones w i t h s i m i l a r t e x t u r e such as "apple and p e a r " . Apple Pear 8 , , S 2 « S 5 , Sg c o u l d I d e n t i f y t h e a p p l e as w e l l as t h e p e a r . 4 . Recognize and i d e n t i f y common s m e l l s i n t h e environment. Demonstrate... "Nose power* Rub/spray 4 v a r i e t y o f s m e l l on t o p o f 4 paper boxes. I f the s t u d e n t can i d e n t i f y t h e s m e l l on t o p o f the box, he/she can get t o reach f o r the p r e s e n t i n s i d e t he box. The 4 f r a g r a n c e s were d i s p l a y e d as cue t o the g u e s s i n g game. Onion B l e a c h Perfume Ammonia The g o o d i e s i n s i d e t h e box were s t r o n g m o t l v o t o r s f o r b o t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n and l e v e l o f p e r f o r -mance. 5 . E x p l o r e s t u d e n t a f e e l i n g s i n s m e l l . Have everyone g et up and move around t h e room s m e l l i n g o b j e c t a . Have atudenta p i c k up an o b j e c t t h a t they l i k e and another one they do not l i k e . Ask them t o d e s c r i b e the f e e l i n g s t h a t t h e y have on s m e l l i n g t h e o b j e c t . S m e l l s t h e y l i k e d : - cinnamon — "good" Bj - perfume - "good" 5 3 - f l o w e r s - "good" 5 4 - o n i o n - "not s a d " - " c o m f o r t a b l e " T I T L E : U n i t I . AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Le s s o n 17. S m e l l Awareness: Nose power Time: 4 5 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P rocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 6. Review t h e major c o n c e p t s i n t h e l e s s o n . Have s t u d e n t s v e r b a l i z e t h e c o n c e p t s . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S 5 - f l o w e r s - " p r e t t y " Sg - perfume - "makes me f e e l good" S m e l l s t h e y d i d n o t l i k e : 51 - on i o n - "yak" 5 2 - mouthwash -"don't l i k e i t " 5 3 - g a s o l i n e - "bad" 5 4 - mouthwash - "don't l i k e i t " 5 5 - o n i o n - " t e a r s " Sg - mouthwash - "yak" Mouthwash i s o f t e n u s ed as p a r t o f a s e l f - c a r e r o u t i n e i n t h e morning a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . I f t i m e p e r m i t s s h o u l d ask t h e s t u d e n t s , "What does t h e s m e l l remind you o f ? T I T L E I U n i t I . AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Less o n 18. C h o o s i n g Awarenessi I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n Sensory Awareness Time: 4 5 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P rocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Review ground r u l e s and 1. Stu d e n t s have t o s i t i n a c i r c l e . Review i s a word "awareness". 2 . Students have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f 3 . S t u d e n t s have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . t h e r o u t i n e . 4 . No one w i l l be a l l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f o r o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . 2 . Review t h e word awareness. Show t h e f l a s h c a r d t o t h e s t u d e n t s and ask. F l a s h c a r d F o u r o f t h e s t u d e n t s "What i s t h i s word?" c o u l d say t h e word "What does i t mean?" "awareness" c l e a r l y . Two o f them s i g n e d t h e meaning o f "pay a t t e n t i o n " . 3 . I d e n t i f y t he 5 s e n s o r y areas Demonstrate... S i n c e t h e y know how and t h e i r f u n c t i o n s . " I am aware o f . . . " t o p l a y " m u s i c a l Have each s t u d e n t walk around t he group w i t h P o s t e r s They e n j o y e d t h e game c h a i r s " , i t was not music p l a y i n g . When t h e music s t o p s , t h e Music even though g u i d a n c e d i f f i c u l t f o r them s t u d e n t has t o touch one o f the 5 s e n s o r y a r e a s was needed. t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e and then v e r b a l i z e the f u n c t i o n o f t h a t s e n s o r y game. However, c h a n n e l . t h e r e was a te n d e n c y f o r them t o f o l l o w o t h e r s t u d e n t s . t o u c h i n g t h e same s e n s o r y a r e a . 4 . I n c r e a s e awareness o f Demonstrate... S^ - young woman To d i s c u s s t he d i f -i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s Show t h e p i c t u r e of young and o l d woman and P i c t u r e o f young S 2 " young woman f e r e n c e s o f t h e two i n awareness. ask each o f the st u d e n t s what t h e y s e e . D i s - and o l d woman S 3 - o l d woman women, t h e o u t l i n e s cuss d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n . s 4 ~ young woman of each one have t o S 5 - o l d woman be a c c e n t u a t e d w i t h Sg - o l d woman c o l o u r . T I T L E : U n i t I . AWARENESS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD Lesson 18. C h o o s i n g Awareness: I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n Sensory Awareness Time: O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 5. E x p l o r e and a p p l y t h e v a r i o u s s e n s o r y a r e a s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i r environment. 6 . Review t h e major c o n c e p t s i n t h e l e s s o n . Have s t u d e n t s walk around the room. When the t e a c h e r s a y s , " s t o p " , they a l l have t o s t a t e what they are aware of a t t h a t moment i n space. E x p l o r e t h e o b j e c t . Have s t u d e n t s v e r b a l i z e the c o n c e p t s . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 51 - "hanger", " c o a t s " , "smooth", "no", " t i n k " , " t i n k " , "no" 5 2 - " t e l e p h o n e " , " t a l k and l i s t e n " , "smooth", " t o o t -t o o t " , "no s m e l l " , "no t a s t e " 5 3 - "paper", " w r i t e " , "smooth", "no s m e l l " , " t a g - t a g " , "no t a s t e " 5 4 - " c o o k i e s " , " e a t i t " , "rough", "sweet", "good s m e l l " , " c r u n c h " 5 5 - "door knob", "open", "smooth", "no s m e l l " , "knock knock", "no t a s t e " Sg " " s k a t e s " , " s k a t -i n g " , "smooth", "no s m e l l " , "no sound", "no t a s t e " As i n o t h e r a c t i v i -t i e s , t h e s t u d e n t s i n most c a s e s c o u l d p r o v i d e t h e answer o n l y when t h e answers were g i v e n i n p o l a r i t i e s , e.g. smooth o r rough T I T L E : U n i t I I . AWARENESS OF THE INTERNAL WORLD Less o n 1. Concept o f T e n s i o n and R e l a x a t i o n Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P rocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Review ground r u l e s and word "awareness". 2. I n c r e a s e awareness o f t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n t h r o u g h g r o s s motor a c t i v i t i e s . 3. C r e a t e t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n t h r o u g h b r e a t h i n g e x e r c i s e s . 1. Students have t o s i t i n a c i r c l e . 2. Students have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . 3. Students have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 4. No one w i l l be al l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f o r o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . Demonstrate... "Use t he s i g n language f o r " r e l a x a t i o n " t o i n t r o d u c e t he co n c e p t . ( R e l a x a t i o n i n s i g n l a n g u a g e — c r o s s two arms and reBt them on t h e c h e s t . A s i g n e d l e t t e r R s h o u l d be formed i n both hands.) Meanwhile have them sway t h e i r b o d i e s r h y t h m i c a l l y . As t h e y are swaying, each o f t h e s t u d e n t s s h o u l d v e r b a l i z e , " I am r e l a x e d . " As f o r the concept o f t e n s i o n ( i n s i g n language t e n s i o n s i s expr e s s e d by fo r m i n g two f i s t s ) . Have the s t u d e n t s r a i s e t h e i r f i s t s i n t o t h e a i r r h y t h m i c a l l y . Simultaneous-l y have them v e r b a l i z e , " I am t e n s e . " Demonstrate... Have the s t u d e n t s take t u r n s d e m o n s t r a t i n g deep i n h a l a t i o n and e x h a l a t i o n . Encourage the s t u d e n t s t o t a k e deep b r e a t h s and t o extend the arms out t o the s i d e s i n l a r g e sweeping move-ments. As the student i s r e t a i n i n g t he b r e a t h f o r a count o f 1-5 seconds, ask another s t u d e n t t o f e e l t h e muscles i n the demonstrator's s h o u l d e r s . Meanwhile, the demonstrator s h o u l d say, " I am r e l a x e d . " V i s u a l a i d -f l a s h c a r d s w i t h words and p i c t u r e s of "sign language S t u d e n t s found i t d i f f i c u l t t o v e r b a l i z e t h e s t a t e m e n t s and t o sway t h e i r b o d i e s and t o r a i s e t h e i r f i s t s i n t o t h e a i r r h y t h -m i c a l l y . I t took a number o f t r i a l s b e f o r e t h e y u n d e r s t o o d what was r e q u i r e d o f them. I t was d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o main-t a i n e i t h e r o f t h e p o s i t i o n s — i n h a l a t i o n o r e x h a l a t i o n f o r 5 seconds. P h y s i c a l guidance was needed t h r o u g h o u t t h e a c t i v i t y . Review i s a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e r o u t i n e . S i g n e d l e t t e r R i s not used i n t h i s c a s e as i t r e q u i r e d f i n g e r m a n i p u l a t i o n which many o f t h e s t u d e n t s f i n d I t d i f f i c u l t t o do. T h i s a c t i v i t y s h o u l d be done s l o w l y and e x a g e r r a t e d f o r emphasis. Ask t h e s t u d e n t s t o I m i t a t e as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e . T I T L E I U n i t I I . AWARENESS OF THE INTERNAL WORLD Le s s o n 1. Concept o f T e n s i o n and R e l a x a t i o n Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 4. I n c r e a s e t h e awareness o f the movement o f t h e a i r i n b r e a t h i n g . 5. Review c o n c e p t s o f t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n . Demonstrate... Repeat the above p r o c e d u r e s . T h i s time t h e t e a c h e r c o v e r s the s t u d e n t s n o s t r i l s — e i t h e r r i g h t o r l e f t w h i l e t h e student i s i n h a l i n g and e x h a l i n g . ABK. t h e s t u d e n t s t o " Demnstrate a t e n s e body" " Demonstrate a r e l a x e d body" Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The s t u d e n t s seemed t o be a b l e t o e x a g g e r a t e t h e p r o c e s s a l o t b e t -t e r t h a n t h e p r e v i o u s a c t i v i t y . I n a d d i t i o n i t might have i n c r e a s e d t h e i r awareness o f t e n -s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n . I t would be b e t t e r t o r e a s s u r e t h e s t u d e n t s t h a t c l o s -i n g one n o s t r i l w i l l n ot c r e a t e any p r o b -lem i n b r e a t h i n g . T h i s w i l l e l i m i n a t e r e s i s t a n c e and a n x i -e t y i n s t u d e n t s . T I T L E : U n i t I I . AWARENESS OF THE Lesson 2. E x p l o r e t e n s i o n I N T E R N A L WORLD and r e l a x a t i o n i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the body. Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Review ground r u l e s and 1. Students have t o s i t i n a c i r c l e . Review i s a word "awareness". 2. Students have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f 3. Students have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . t h e r o u t i n e . 4. No one w i l l be a l l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f o r o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . 2. I n c r e a s e awareness o f t e n s i o n Use f l a s h cards w i t h t h e word " t e n s e " and F l a s h c a r d s and r e l a x a t i o n o f t h e whole " r e l a x e d " w r i t t e n on them w h i l e d e m o n s t r a t i n g body. the a c t i v i t i e s . R e l a x a t i o n was a b i t Check t h e p e r f o r -T e n s i o n — Have the s t u d e n t s s t a n d up s t r a i g h t e a s i e r t o p e r f o r m . mance o f each o f and s t i l l , c h e s t out, head up and eyes l o o k i n g t h e s t u d e n t s so as s t r a i g h t ahead. Have them v e r b a l i z e , " I am t o e n s u r e a c l e a r t e n s e . " u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f R e l a x a t i o n — Have t h e Btudents droop t h e i r t h e c o n c e p t s . head down w h i l e i n a s t a n d i n g p o s i t i o n . F l o p s h o u l d e r s and dangle arms s i m u l a t a n e o u s l y . Have them v e r b a l i z e , " I am r e l a x e d . " 3. E x p l o r e t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n Have the Btudents s i t on t h e i r c h a i r s . While Adapted from R.J. They e n j o y e d t h e a c t i v -u s i n g o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e body. they are s i t t i n g . I n s t r u c t them t o do t h e f o l - McBrien's a r t i c l e i t i e s as t h e pace was R e l a x a t i o n and t e n -l o w i n g . Pass a m i r r o r around as t h e s t u d e n t s " U s i n g R e l a x a t i o n f a s t , and t h e r e was s i o n c o u l d o n l y be are p e r f o r m i n g the a c t i o n s . methods w i t h f i r s t enough v a r i a t i o n s e x p e r i e n c e d i f t h e y Head grade boys." w i t h i n t h e a c t i v i t y t o m a i n t a i n the v a r i o u s T r y t o touch your h a i r w i t h your eyebrows. c a p t u r e t h e i r a t t e n - p o s i t i o n s f o r a Relax your eyebrows. t i o n . B e i n g a b l e t o count o f 1-5 Squeeze your eyes s h u t . see what t h e y were s e c o n d s . Relax and open them. d o i n g gave them v i s u a l W r i n k l e up your nose. feedback and t h u s Relax and r e t u r n i t t o normal c o n d i t i o n . c r e a t e d l i g h t - h e a r t e d -P r e s s your tongue a g a i n s t t h e r o o f o f your ness i n t h e p r o c e s s . mouth. Relax and r e t u r n i t t o normal c o n d i t i o n . S h o u l d e r s and Back L i f t your s h o u l d e r s and t r y t o touch the e a r s . Relax and r e t u r n them t o normal p o s i t i o n . T I T L E : U n i t I I . AWARENESS OF THE INTERNAL WORLD Les s o n 2. E x p l o r e t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e body. Time: 45 minutes O b i e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 4. Review c o n c e p t s o f t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n . Hands and Arms Make two f i s t s and h o l d them i n t h e a i r . R e l a x and drop them t o t h e s i d e s . Stomach Hake you r stomach as h a r d as p o s s i b l e and p u l l i t i n . Relax and r e t u r n i t t o normal c o n d i t i o n . Upper Leqs L i f t t he l e g s and f e e t o f f the f l o o r and p r e s s t h e knees t o g e t h e r . R e l a x and r e s t them on the f l o o r . Lower l e q s and f e e t P r e s s the a n k l e s t o g e t h e r and t h e f e e t a g a i n s t t h e f l o o r . Relax and r e t u r n them t o normal c o n d i t i o n . Have t h e s t u d e n t s e xpress t e n s i o n and r e l a x a -t i o n u s i n g any p a r t o f t h e i r b o d i e s . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P romptings had t o be g i v e n t o a l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s . T I T L E : U n i t I I . AWARENESS OF THE INTERNAL WORLD L e s s o n 3. T e n s i o n and R e l a x a t i o n : S p e c i f i c f o c u s on t e n s i o n when a s s o c i a t e d w i t h anger. Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P rocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Review ground r u l e s and word "awareness". 2. Develop awareness o f t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n t h r o u g h v i s u a l a r t . 3. S u s t a i n t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n u s i n g l a r g e body muscles. 1. S t u d e n t s have t o s i t i n a c i r c l e . 2. S t u d e n t s have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . 3. S t u d e n t s have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 4. No one w i l l be al l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f o r o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . T e n s i o n — Have the s t u d e n t s form a f i s t w i t h t h e i r l e f t hand and t r a c e i t w i t h t h e i r r i g h t ( r e v e r s e when l e f t i s the dominant hand). L a b e l t e n s i o n when f i n i s h e d . R e l a x a t i o n — Have t h e s t u d e n t s e x t e n d t h e f i n g e r s and t r a c e them. (Use t h e same hand as above.) L a b e l r e l a x a t i o n when f i n i s h e d . Use r e d f e l t pen f o r t e n s i o n and green f e l t pen f o r r e l a x a t i o n . Have the s t u d e n t s v e r b a l i z e " t e n s e " and " r e l a x e d " w h i l e d o i n g t he a c t i v i t y . Use f l a s h c a r d s . Demonstrate... " S i t - U p " L i e on your back, knees bent j u s t enough t o pe r m i t t h e whole f o o t t o touch t he f l o o r . P l a c e your hands on t h e t h i g h s . L i f t y o u r head s l o w l y and r a i s e your upper body o f f t h e f l o o r , s l i d i n g t he hands up the l e g s . H o l d t he p o s i t i o n f o r a count o f 1-5 seconds. S l o w l y lower t he body and r e l a x . Demonstrate..• "The Bow" L i e f a c e down on abdomen, hands by t h e s i d e s . Bend the knees and b r i n g them c l o s e t o the but-t o c k s . Grasp the a n k l e s , one a t a t i m e . L i f t your knees o f f the f l o o r w h i l e l i f t i n g head back a t t h e same time. H o l d t he p o s i t i o n f o r a count o f 1-5 seconds. S l o w l y r e l a x and r e s t . Paper o r scrapbook Red f e l t pens Green f e l t pens F l a s h c a r d s adapted from K. Z e b r o f f ' s book "The ABC o f Yoga" P h y s i c a l g u i d a n c e was needed f o r t r a c i n g . They c o u l d a l l I d e n t i f y t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n a t t h e end o f t h e a c t i v i t y . P h y s i c a l a s s i s t a n c e was needed. The i n s t r u c t o r needed t o p u l l t h e s t u d e n t s up. The bow was an e f f e c -t i v e e x e r c i s e f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t e n s i o n . 2 o f t h e s t u d e n t s s a i d s p o n t a n e o u s l y . O t h e r s s a i d "Ugch"? Review i s a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e r o u t i n e . S 3 was away. T I T L E : U n i t I I . AWARENESS OF THE INTERNAL WORLD Le s s o n 3. T e n s i o n and R e l a x a t i o n : S p e c i f i c f o c u s on t e n s i o n when a s s o c i a t e d w i t h anger. Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s r E v a l u a t i o n 4. I n c r e a s e t h e t e n s i o n s e n s a t i o n by a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h anger. 5. H e i g h t e n t h e awareness o f t e n s i o n t h r o u g h imagery. 6. Review c o n c e p t s o f t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n . Demonstrate... Have s t u d e n t s s i t i n f r o n t o f a m i r r o r . Have them w r i n k l e t h e f o r e h e a d , c l e n c h t h e t e e t h and t i g h t e n the f i s t s . Demonstrate... Have the s t u d e n t s imagine t h a t they a r e angry. Have them make an angry f a c e by r e p e a t i n g t h e above p r o c e d u r e . Ask them t o r e t a i n t he t e n -s i o n and t h e n break a s t i c k . Meanwhile, have them v e r b a l i z e " I am t e n s e . " Have t h e s t u d e n t s express t e n s i o n and r e l a x a -t i o n u s i n g any p a r t of t h e i r b o d i e s . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e s feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . m i r r o r Most o f t h e s t u d e n t s found i t d i f f i c u l t t o t e n s e t h e i r f a c e so we d e c i d e d t o g i v e them a d d i t i o n a l c u e s . We put a s t i c k e r on t h e f o r e h e a d so t h a t t h e y c o u l d f e e l t h e movement o f t h e m u s c l e s . They a l s o had t o b i t e i n t o a p e n c i l i n t h e mouth. The t e e t h mark h e l p e d them t o u n d e r s t a n d a t e n s e d s e n s a t i o n . The s t u d e n t s a l l e n j o y e d b r e a k i n g t h e s t i c k s . S i and S3 had problems making an angry f a c e . They thou g h t I t was f u n t o b r e a k t h e s t i c k s . T I T L E I U n i t I I . AWARENESS OF THE INTERNAL WORLD Le s s o n 4 . Awareness o f T e n s i o n and R e l a x a t i o n : S p e c i f i c Focus on r e l a x a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h J o y Time: 4 5 minutes O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Review ground r u l e s and word "awareness". 2. I d e n t i f y t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n . 3. S u s t a i n t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n u s i n g l a r g e m u s c l e s . 1 . Students have t o s i t I n a c i r c l e . 2. Students have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . 3. Students have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 4 . Nobody w i l l be a l l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f and o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . Demonstrate... Have the s t u d e n t s c u r l up the t o e s o f t h e l e f t f o o t . T r a c e w i t h r e d f e l t pen. Have t h e s t u d e n t s extend t o e s o f t h e r i g h t f o o t and t r a c e w i t h green f e l t pen. Have the s t u d e n t s v e r b a l i z e " t e n s e " and " r e l a x e d " w h i l e d o i n g t h e a c t i v i t y . Use f l a s h c a r d s . Demonstrate... T e n s i o n — "Arm and Leg S t r e t c h " Stand s t r a i g h t h e e l s t o g e t h e r . Bend l e f t l e g a t t h e knee, b r i n g i n g i t c l o s e t o the b u t t o c k s . G rasp l e f t f o o t w i t h l e f t hand. Bend backward from the w a i s t . L e t the head drop back. H o l d t h i s p o s i t i o n f o r 5 seconds. Repeat on t h e o t h e r s i d e . Demonstrate... R e l a x a t i o n — " C u r l i n g L e a f " K n e e l w i t h l e g s t o g e t h e r . Rest b u t t o c k s on the h e e l s and the top o f the hands on t h e f l o o r , p o i n t i n g back. Lower head s l o w l y t o the f l o o r , the hands s l i d i n g g e n t l y back palms up, t o l i e b e s i d e t h e body. Rest head, t u r n e d t o t he s i d e , on t h e f l o o r and r e l a x c o m p l e t e l y w i t h c h e s t a g a i n s t the knees. H o l d f o r 5 seconds. Paper o r scrapbook Red and green f e l t pens S 2> S 3 , and Sg had problems c u r l i n g t h e t o e s . In o r d e r t o convey t h e concept o f t e n s i o n t o them, a pen was used t o s c r a t c h t h e s o l e o f t h e i r f e e t . With p h y s i c a l s u p p o r t , t h e s t u d e n t s c o u l d s t a n d and g r a s p t h e i r h e e l s . S 4 , S 5 and Sg c o u l d I d e n t i f y t h e t e n s i o n i n t h i g h s s p o n t a n e o u s l y . S 3 always r e l a x e s i n t h i s p o s e . She f o u n d i t r e l a x i n g and so she c o u l d I d e n t i f y r e l a x a t i o n when ask e d . Review i s a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e r o u t i n e . T h i s a c t i v i t y c a n enhance t h e s t u d e n t ' s awareness o f t e n s i o n q u i t e r e a d i l y . T I T L E : U n i t I I . AWARENESS OF THE INTERNAL WORLD Le s s o n 4 . Awareness o f T e n s i o n and R e l a x a t i o n : S p e c i f i c Focus on r e l a x a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h J o y T i n e : 4 5 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 4 . H e i g h t e n t h e awareness o f r e l a x a t i o n when a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f e e l i n g o f j o y / h a p p i n e s s . 5 . Review t h e c o n c e p t s o f t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n . Demonstrate... Have t h e s t u d e n t s s i t i n f r o n t o f a m i r r o r . U s i n g c i r c u l a r motions, massage the fo r e h e a d , t h e eyes, t he cheeks and the c h i n . Ask the s t u d e n t s how t n e y f e e l : t e n s e o r r e l a x e d . Demonstrate... When the s t u d e n t s are i n a r e l a x e d s t a t e , put two s t i c k e r s on t h e i r cheeks and ask them t o s m i l e , p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y t o t h e movement o f t h e s t i c k e r s on the cheeks. Ask the s t u d e n t s t o : "Show me a t e n s e d f a c e . " "Show me a r e l a x e d f a c e . " R e i n f o r c e t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n by g i v i n g them p o s i t i v e feedback and g o o d i e s . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . M i r r o r S t i c k e r s Four o ut o f s i x c o u l d i d e n t i f y r e l a x a t i o n w i t h o u t any prom p t i n g . The s t u d e n t s e n j o y e d the a c t i v i t y . S 4 who u s u a l l y g r i m a c e s when asked t o s m i l e , gave a v e r y r e l a x e d n a t u r a l s m i l e . V e r b a l and v i s u a l promptings were neces-s a r y t o gu i d e t h e s t u d e n t s . W h i l e t h e s t u d e n t s a r e massaging t h e i r f a c e s , p o i n t o ut smoothness, r e l a x a -t i o n and warmth. Encourage everyone t o e x p l o r e t he f a c e v i s u a l l y and thr o u g h t o u c h . The s t u d e n t s p e r -formed b e t t e r when t h e s t a t e m e n t s a r e c o n c r e t i z e d : "Show me a t e n s e , angry f a c e . " "Show me a r e l a x e d happy f a c e . " T I T L E : U n i t I I . AWARENESS OF THE INTERNAL WORLD Less o n 5. Awareness of T e n s i o n and R e l a x a t i o n : Focus on T e n s i o n A s s o c i a t e d w i t h F e a r . Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Review ground r u l e s and word "awareness". 2. D i s c r i m i n a t e between t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n . 3. I n c r e s e s t u d e n t s ' awareness o f t e n s i o n i n s e l f and o t h e r s . 4. S u s t a i n t e n s i o n and r e l a x a -t i o n u a i n g l a r g e muscles. 1. Students have t o s i t i n a c i r c l e . 2. Students have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . 3. Students have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 4. Nobody w i l l be a l l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f and o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . Use t he "hands" and " f e e t " used i n the p r e v i o u s two l e s s o n s . Ask t h e s t u d e n t s t o i d e n t i f y t e n s e and r e l a x e d hands and f e e t . Demonstrate... " E l e c t r i c i t y " Have a l l but one s t u d e n t s t a n d i n a c i r c l e . Have one student i n t h e c i r c l e s t a r t s q u e e z i n g the hand o f another and see whether the one s t a n d i n g i n the middle can guess where t h e squeeze i s . Have t h e s t u d e n t who i n i t i a t e d t h e squeeze and the one who r e c e i v e d i t d e s c r i b e the f e e l i n g . Have the stud e n t s v e r b a l i z e " t e n s e " and " r e l a x e d " w h i l e d o i n g t he a c t i v i t y . Use f l a s h c a r d s . Demonstrate... "COBRA" L i e on your stomach, hands by your s i d e , f e e t t o g e t h e r . B r i n g t h e hands, palms down, under the s h o u l d e r s , a s h o u l d e r ' s w i d t h a p a r t . L i f t L i f t head SLOWLY, l o o k i n g up a t the c e i l i n g . C o n t i n u e l i f t i n g t h e t r u n k u n t i l you can go no f u r t h e r and s t i l l keep the p u b i c a r e a on t h e f l o o r . H o l d t h i s p o s i t i o n f o r 5 seconds. F l a s h c a r d s F l a s h c a r d s I t was n e c e s s a r y t o go around t h e c i r c l e g i v i n g i n d i v i d u a l a s s i s t a n c e a t t h e f i r s t t r i a l . By t h e second and t h i r d t i r a l , t h e y c o u l d a l l u n d e r s t a n d t h e game and I d e n t i f y t e n s i o n when squeezed and b e i n g squeezed. A l l t h e s t u d e n t s c o u l d I d e n t i f y t e n s i o n i n t h i g h s and neck. Review i s a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e r o u t i n e . T I T L E : U n i t I I . AWARENESS OF THE INTERNAL WORLD Less o n 5 . Awareness of T e n s i o n and R e l a x a t i o n : Focus on T e n s i o n A s s o c i a t e d w i t h F e a r . Time: 4 5 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 5 . H e i g h t e n t h e awareness o f t e n s i o n when a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f e a r . 6 . Review c o n c e p t o f t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n . Demonstrate... "Camel" K n e e l i n an u p r i g h t p o s i t i o n , k e e p i n g t h e l e g s t o g e t h e r , t o e s p o i n t e d back. P l a c e hands on t h e w a i s t and bend s l o w l y backward, p u s h i n g t h e p e l v i s forward. L e t t h e head hang back. H o l d t h i s p o s i t i o n f o r 5 seconds. Demonstrate... Have each o f the s t u d e n t s s i t i n f r o n t o f a m i r r o r . P a i n t t h e s t u d e n t s ' f a c e w h i t e . Then use b l a c k p a i n t t o a r c h the eyebrows and draw a c i r c u l a r mouth. Use an I n d i a n mask as an example. Ask s t u d e n t s t o imagine f e a r . Have s t u d e n t s show a " t e n s e " and a " r e l a x e d " f a c e . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . M i r t o r Powdered w h i t e and b l a c k p a i n t mix w i t h hand l o t i o n Sg was c a p a b l e o f c r e a t i n g a s c a r y f a c e , w i t h eyebrows a r c h e d , eyes widened and mouth widened. S^« S^, S 5 , and Sg c o u l d demonstrate a t e n s e and a r e l a x e d f a c e w i t h o u t p r o m p t i n g . S i e s p e c i a l l y made tremendous p r o g r e s s . B e f o r e , she used t o g i g g l e ad l a u g h . Today she was a b l e t o e x p r e s s them a p p r o p r i a t e l y . The s t u d e n t s were a b i t t i m i d t o have t h e whole f a c e p a i n t e d . However, on s e e i n g how i t was done t o t h e i n s t r u c -t o r s , t h e y r e l a x e d and c o m p l i e d . T I T L E ; U n i t I I . AWARENESS OF THE INTERNAL WORLD L e s s o n 6. Awareness o f t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n : Focus on a c t i v i t i e s t h a t i n d u c e e i t h e r t e n s i o n o r r e l a x a t i o n . Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Review ground r u l e s and 1. S t u d e n t s have t o s i t i n a c i r c l e . Review i s a word "awareness". 2. S t u d e n t s have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f 3. S t u d e n t s have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . t h e r o u t i n e . 4. No one w i l l be a l l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f o r o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . 2. Review c o n c e p t o f t e n s i o n . Use t he game " e l e c t r i c i t y " from t he p r e v i o u s A l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s l e s s o n . were w i l l i n g t o squeeze hard t o d a y t o e x p r e s s t e n s i o n . Have t h e s t u d e n t s v e r b a l i z e " t e n s e " and 3. S u s t a i n t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n r e l a x e d " w h i l e d o i n g t h e a c t i v i t y . Use f l a s h F l a s h c a r d s S3 and Sg needed v e r b a l o f arms, s h o u l d e r s , and l e g s . c a r d s . prompting i n i d e n t i f y -Demonstrate.•. i n g t he t e n s e arms and While s t a n d i n g , bend t h e elbows and b r i n g them s h o u l d e r s . t o s h o u l d e r h e i g h t . C u r l hands i n t o a f i s t and move outward. H o l d t h i s p o s i t i o n f o r a count o f 1-5 seconds . Ask the st u d e n t t o i d e n t i f y t he p a r t which i s t e n s e . Other t h a n S5 who had H o l d i n g t h e p o s i t i o n Demonstrate... misshaped f e e t , a l l f o r a c o u n t o f 5 Have s t u d e n t s squat on t o e s w i t h knees a p a r t , c o u l d s q u a t on t o e s . seconds u s u a l l y and arms hanging s t r a i g h t forward between the They c o u l d r e a d i l y h e i g h t e n e d t he s t u d -knees f o r b e t t e r b a l a n c e . H o l d t h i s p o s i t i o n I d e n t i f y t e n s i o n I n e n t ' s awareness o f f o r a count o f 5 seconds. Ask the s t u d e n t s t o t h e i r t h i g h s . t e n s i o n i n v a r i o u s i d e n t i f y t he body p a r t s t h a t f e e l t e n s e . p a r t s o f the body. 4. I n c r e a s e t h e awareness of Demonstrate... Muscles b u i l d e r i s an a c t i v i t i e s t h a t i n d u c e t e n s i o n Ask s t u d e n t s how t h e y f e e l when engaged i n t h e e f f e c t i v e t o o l t o b r i n g and r e l a x a t i o n . f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s : I c e p a t about t e n s i o n i n t h e As many o f t h e s e - f e e l c o l d i c e p a t on f a c e : Heat p a t muscles. R o c k i n g c h a i r a c t i v i t i e s a re n o v e l - f e e l heat p a t on s h o u l d e r s : Cymbol and s o f t music c r e a t e t o t h e s t u d e n t s , i t - l i s t e n t o a l o u d , sudden n o i s e (cymbol n o i s e ) S o f t music a r e l a x i n g atmosphere. i s i m p o r t a n t t o h e l p - l i s t e n t o s o f t , melodious musici R o c k i n g c h a i r S3 s p o n t a n e o u s l y s a i d , t h e s t u d e n t s t o - rock on the r o c k i n g c h a i r Muscles b u i l d e r " I l i k e I t . " l a b e l t h e e x p e r i -- s t r e t c h the arras u s i n g arm muscle b u i l d e r ence. T I T L E : U n i t I I . AWARENESS OF THE INTERNAL WORLD . L e s s o n 6. Awareness of t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n : Focus on a c t i v i t i e s t h a t i n d u c e e i t h e r t e n s i o n o r r e l a x a t i o n . Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 5. D e v e l o p an awareness o f t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n i n o t h e r s . 6. Review awareness o f t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n i n o t h e r s . P r e s e n t t o s t u d e n t s a v a r i e t y o f p i c t u r e s from magazines, showing p e o p l e i n e i t h e r a t e n s e o r a r e l a x e d s t a t e . Put a l l the p i c t u r e s on a t a b l e and have t h e s t u d e n t s walk around the t a b l e l o o k i n g a t each p i c t u r e . Once they have had a chance t o s t u d y each p i c t u r e , have them s i t down. H o l d up one p i c t u r e a t a time and ask the c l a s s t o i d e n t i f y whether the p e r s o n i s i n a t e n s e o r a r e l a x e d s t a t e . D i s c u s s : "What i s t h e p e r s o n d o i n g ? " "How does the p e r s o n f e e l 7 " "How would the muscles be f e e l i n g 7 " Use the same p i c t u r e s used above. Have the s t u d e n t s choose: - a p i c t u r e o f someone f e e l i n g t e n s e i - a p i c t u r e o f someone f e e l i n g r e l a x e d . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P i c t u r e s from magazines P i c t u r e s from 'magazines Due t o t h e l i m i t e d e x p r e s s i v e a b i l i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t s , t h e answers a r e u s u a l l y g i v e n i n a v a r i e t y o f o p p o s i t e p a i r s so t h a t t hey can choose t h e answer. In a d d i t i o n , when i t i s p o s s i b l e , have t h e s t u d e n t s t r y t o r o l e p l a y t h e a c t i v -i t y and t h e n t o i d e n -t i f y t he m u s c l e B s t a t e . Sg and S3 needed v e r b a l prompting t o i d e n t i f y t h e c o r r e c t p i c t u r e s . O t h e r s c o u l d a l l do i t a t t h e f i r s t t r i a l . In c a r r y i n g o u t t h i s a c t i v i t y , i t i s Important t o i d e n -t i f y t h e b a s i c c r i t i c a l elements o f t h e p i c t u r e . S i n c e t h e s t u d e n t s l a c k t h e a f f e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n c o n c e p t s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e t e a c h e r t o p o i n t p o i n t them o u t . T I T L E : U n i t I I . AWARENESS OF THE INTERNAL WORLD Lesson 7. Awareness o f t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n : S p e c i f i c Focus on t e n s i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s a d n e s s . T i n e : 45 minute s O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Review ground r u l e s and 1. Students have t o s i t i n a c i r c l e . Review i s a word "awareness". 2. Students have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f 3. Students have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . t h e r o u t i n e . 4. No one w i l l be a l l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f o r o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . 2. Arouse t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n Demonstrate..• F o r m i n g a f i s t and th r o u g h i n p u t k i n e s t h e t i c . T e n s i o n : Sj and Sg needed p o u n d i n g s e r v e d as a Have the s t u d e n t s pound on t h e drum as ha r d as prompting i n i d e n t i f y - v i s u a l cue t o s t u d -t h e y can. As t h e y a r e pounding, ask, "How Drum i n g t e n s i o n . e n t s i n terms o f do your muscles f e e l ? " i d e n t i f y i n g t e n s i o n . R e l a x a t i o n : The s t u d e n t s had t o be Have the s t u d e n t a c l o s e t h e i r eyes and g e n t l y t a u g h t t o g e n t l y t o u c h c a r e s s t h e i r own f a c e s . Then ask, "How do t h e i r own f a c e s so as the muscles i n your f a c e f e e l ? " t o a r ouse a f e e l i n g o f r e l a x a t i o n . 3. S u s t a i n t e n s i o n and r e l a x a - Have the Btudents v e r b a l i z e " t e n s e " and t i o n u s i n g v a r i o u s p a r t s of " r e l a x e d " w h i l e d o i n g t he a c t i v i t y . Use f l a s h F l a s h c a r d s t h e body. c a r d s . Demonstrate... "The L i o n " S i t i n a k n e e l i n g p o s i t i o n , p l a c i n g t h e hands A l l t h e s t u d e n t s c o u l d I n s t e a d o f a s k i n g on the t h i g h s , palms down. Spread f i n g e r s I d e n t i f y t he t h i g h s as t h e s t u d e n t t o have and s l i d e them f o r w a r d t i l l t h e t i p s t o u c h t he b e i n g t e n s e d , e s p e c i a l - t h e tongue t o u c h f l o o r . Bend your body forward, b u t t o c k s o f f l y when one t r i e s t o t h e c h i n , i t i s the h e e l s , arms s t r a i g h t . Open your eyes as b r i n g t h e knees t o t h e e a s i e r t o ask them wide as p o s s i b l e . S t i c k your tongue out as f l o o r . t o make a "aah" f a r as i t w i l l go, a t t e m p t i n g t o to u c h t h e sound with t h e t i p o f your c h i n . H o l d f o r 15 seconds. S i t tongue s t i c k i n g o u t . back, p u l l In your tongue and r e l a x c o m p l e t e l y . Now widen t h e t h i g h s and attempt t o b r i n g t he kneeB t o the f l o o r by p u l l i n g up on t h e t o e s . Hold the p o s i t i o n f o r 5 seconds. Relax by s t r e t c h i n g t h e l e g s o ut and s h a k i n g them i f you wish. T I T L E I U n i t I I . AWARENESS OF THE INTERNAL WORLD Less o n 7. Awareness o f t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n : S p e c i f i c Focus on t e n s i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s a d n e s s . Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 4. I n c r e a s e awareness o f t e n s i o n e l i c i t e d from s a d n e s s . 5. Develop s e n s i t i v i t i e s t o t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n . Demonstrate... Use 1 egg white and s l i g h t l y beat i t . Smear i t on the f a c e and l e t i t d r y . Then ask t h e s t u d e n t s t o make a sad f a c e w i t h the l i p s and eyes t u r n e d down. Ask the s t u d e n t t o pay p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o the muscles. Are t h e muscles going up o r down? Do t h e y f e e l t e n s e o r r e l a x e d ? Demonstrate... Use t h e p i c t u r e s from p r e v i o u s l e s s o n s . Have t h e s t u d e n t s choose one p i c t u r e d e p i c t i n g t e n -s i o n and the o t h e r r e l a x a t i o n . A f t e r w a r d s have them t r y t o r e c r e a t e t h e t e n s i o n and r e l a x a -t i o n . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Egg w h i t e P i c t u r e s from magazines None o f t h e s t u d e n t s r e s i s t e d i n h a v i n g t h e i r f a c e s smeared w i t h egg w h i t e . In f a c t , t h e y c o u l d a l l r e s p o n d t o t h e ques-t i o n s w i t h a c c u r a c y . They c o u l d a l l t h e c o r r e c t p i c t u r e s d e p i c t i n g t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n . However t h e y f o u n d I t d i f f i c u l t t o p i n p o i n t e x a c t l y t h e t e n s e and r e l a x e d body p a r t s and t h u s had problems r e c r e a t i n g them. P h y s i c a l g u i d a n c e was p r o v i d e d when n e c e s s a r y . T I T L E : U n i t I I . AWARENESS OF THE INTERNAL WORLD Lesson 8. Awareness o f T e n s i o n and R e l a x a t i o n : S p e c i f i c Focus on t e n s i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u r p r i s e and f e a r . Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Review ground r u l e s and word "awareness". 2. I d e n t i f y t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n t h r o u g h music. 3. S u s t a i n t e n s i o n and r e l a x a -t i o n i n back and l e g s . 1. S t u d e n t s have t o s i t i n a c i r c l e . 2. Students have t o pay a t t e n t i o n . 3. Students have t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 4. No one w i l l be a l l o w e d t o h u r t o n e s e l f o r o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y . P l a y a p i e c e o f e x c i t i n g A f r i c a n m u s i c / l a t e r a p i e c e o f Chopin w a l t z e s and have t h e s t u d e n t s l i s t e n t o them. At the end o f each p i e c e , ask th e s t u d e n t s : "What k i n d o f p i c t u r e do you have In your mind -- da n c i n g , drumming, s l e e p -i n g o r r o c k i n g on a r o c k i n g c h a i r ? " "How does t h e music make you f e e l ? " Have t h e st u d e n t s v e r b a l i z e " t e n s e " and " r e l a x e d " w h i l e doing t he a c t i v i t y . Use f l a s h c a r d s . Demonstrate... "Spread l e g s t r e t c h " S i t on the f l o o r , l e g s o u t s t r e t c h e d and as f a r a p a r t as p o s s i b l e . P l a c e hands on l e g s and s l o w l y s l i d e them down toward the t o e s . Keep l e g s s t r a i g h t . Bend forward from the w a i s t and gra s p t h a t p a r t o f the l e g you can c o m f o r t a b l y r e a c h . L e t your head hang down and bend t h e elbows t o g i v e a good forward s t r e t c h . H o l d f o r 5 seconds. Relax, s l o w l y r e t u r n . A f r i c a n music C h o p i n w a l t z e s F l a s h c a r d s The Imagery a r o u s e d In t h e s t u d e n t s h e l p e d them t o I d e n t i f y e i t h e r t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n . Promptings had t o be used w i t h a l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s . P h y s i c a l g u i d a n c e was needed f o r t h e e x e r -c i s e s . Review i s a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e r o u t i n e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o s e l e c t t h e music I n which t h e mood i s o b v i o u s so t h a t t h e ntude n t a can e a s i l y I d e n t i f y t h e f e e l i n g a r o u s e d . The l e n g t h o f l i s t e n i n g t i m e f o r t h e s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be based on t h e I n d i v i d u a l ' s needs and a t t e n t i o n s p a n . T I T L E : U n i t I I . AWARENESS OF THE INTERNAL WORLD Les s o n 8. Awareness o f T e n s i o n and R e l a x a t i o n : S p e c i f i c Focus on t e n s i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u r p r i s e and f e a r . Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 4. H e i g h t e n t h e awareness of t e n s i o n i n f a c i a l muscles t h r o u g h t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f s u r p r i s e / f e a r . 5. Review c o n c e p t s o f t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n . Demonstrate... "Hands-to-Wall" Stand s t r a i g h t , f a c i n g a w a l l . P l a c e palms a g a i n s t the w a l l , f i n g e r s p o i n t i n g toward each o t h e r and b a r e l y t o u c h i n g . Move an arm's l e n g t h away from t h e w a l l . Keeping your body I n a p e r f e c t l y s t r a i g h t l i n e t hroughout, s l o w l y bend t h e elbows. P r e s s o n l y t h e palms a g a i n s t t h e w a l l and s l o w l y l e a n forward. H o l d f o r 5 s e c o n d s . Return and r e l a x . Demonstrate... Have s t u d e n t s form dyads and s i t f a c i n g one a n o t h e r . Have both s t u d e n t s r a i s e t h e i r eye-brows, open the eyes wide, s t i c k the tongue o u t and say "aah" s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . Repeat a g a i n b u t t h i s time one student i s t o observe t h e o t h e r and then ask the p a r t n e r , "How do t h e muscles i n your f a c e f e e l ? " Have t h e s t u d e n t s demonstrate a t e n s e o r r e l a x e d l e g upon r e q u e s t . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . " H a n d - t o - w a l l " was good t o i l l u s t r a t e t e n s i o n o f t h e c a l f m u s c l e s . A l l t h e s t u d e n t s can i d e n t i f y t e n s i o n i n t h a t p a r t o f t h e body. The s t u d e n t s found i t f u n , g i g g l e d and laughed t h e whole t i m e . However, t h i s i n t e r -f e r e d w i t h t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e s . They c o u l d i d e n t i f y t h e t e n s i o n i f t h e "aah" was p r o l o n g e d . Four o u t o f s i x s t u d -e n t s c o u l d do i t the f i r s t t i m e t h e y were asked. The o t h e r s had t o be prompted. In o r d e r t o become aware o f the t e n s i o n i n t he f a c e , t h e s t u d e n t s have t o s a y "aah" f o r a count o f 5 s e c o n d s . TITLE] U n i t I I . AWARENESS OF THE INTERNAL WORLD Le s s o n 9 . Awareness o f T e n s i o n and R e l a x a t i o n : Focus on the 5 p r i m a r y emotions. Timet 4 5 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1 . Ground r u l e s . 2 . Review c o n c e p t s of t e n s i o n Demonstrate... A e r o b i c e x e r c i s e The s t u d e n t s had t o be and r e l a x a t i o n . Have t h e s t u d e n t s jump on t h e spot f o r a music encouraged t o keep on d u r a t i o n o f 60 seconds u s i n g a e r o b i c e x e r c i s e jumping. Sometimes, msuic. As they are jumping, ask "How do your h o l d i n g t h e i r hands 3 . Review t h e emotion "anger." l e g s f e e l — t e n s e o r r e l a x e d ? " gave them c o n f i d e n c e t o c o n t i n u e . Demonstrate... Have s t u d e n t s l i e on t h e i r b a cks. Ask them t o They found t h e make " a n g e l In the snow" and then ask, "How a c t i v i t y " Angel i n t h e does t h e body f e e l — t e n s e o r r e l a x e d ? " snow" t o be r e l a x i n g a f t e r t h e 60 seconds e x e r c i s e . They c o u l d a l l i d e n t i f y r e l a x a t i o n i n t h e i r b o d i e s . 3 . S u s t a i n t e n s i o n and Demonstrate... r e l a x a t i o n i n the c h e s t , neck " F i s h " and l e g s . L i e on t h e back, l e g s o u t s t r e t c h e d , arms by t h e s i d e , palms down. Push down on t h e elbows, r a i s e the c h e s t o f f the f l o o r and a r c h the back. At the same ti m e , p u l l t he head under. S h i f t the weight so t h a t t h e b u t t o c k s bear t h e weight. H o l d t h e p o s i t i o n f o r a count o f 5 seconds. 4 . D e v e l o p an awareness o f Demonstrate... t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n Have t h e s t u d e n t s do t h e f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s : They c o u l d a l l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e 5 primary - j o y - s m i l e and r o c k I n a r o c k i n g c h a i r i d e n t i f y r e l a x a t i o n e motions. - sadness - p r e t e n d t o c r y w i t h l i p s and eyes w i t h t h e r o c k i n g c h a i r l o o k i n g down. Hake a c r y i n g n o i s e . a c t i v i t y . S 2 and S 3 TITLE1 U n i t I I . AWARENESS OF THE INTERNAL WORLD Less o n 9. Awareness o f T e n s i o n and R e l a x a t i o n : Focus on t h e 5 p r i m a r y e m otions. Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 5. Review concepts o f t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n . - anger - form a f i s t - f e a r - s t a n d on a h i g h s t o o l and scream w i t h eyes and mouth opened - s u r p r i s e - h i d e b e h i n d a c h a i r and jump up s a y i n g " a h l " At t h e end o f each a c t i v i t y , as the s t u d e n t s : "How do your muscles f e e l ? " Have t h e s t u d e n t s demonstrate a tense o r a r e l a x e d a c t i v i t y . c o u l d not p r e t e n d t o c r y . S5 who i s not p h y s i c a l l y c o o r d i n a t e d found s t a n d i n g on a s t o o l t o be a f r i g h t e n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . The i n c i d e n t was used t o i l l u s t r a t e f e a r and t e n s i o n . The s t u d e n t s seemed t o be a b l e t o empathize her f e e l i n g s . was a l s o p a r a l y z e d w i t h f e a r , and r e f u s e d t o e x p r e s s i t v e r b a l l y . I n s t e a d she abused h e r s e l f by h i t t i n g h e r head. As soon as she came back o n t o t h e ground, she v e r b a l i z e d , " I am s c a r e d . " Si« S2, and S3 went t o t h e r o c k i n g c h a i r and r o c k e d . 54 w r i n k l e d h e r f a c e . 55 made a f i s t . Sg s m i l e d and s a i d " r e l a x e d " . T I T L E ; U n i t I I . AWARENESS OF THE INTERNAL WORLD Le s s o n 10. C h o o s i n g awareness: T e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n . Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Ground r u l e s . 2. Review t h e words "awareness," " t e n s e , " " r e l a x e d . " Show the f l a s h c a r d s t o the s t u d e n t s and ask. A l l t h e s t u d e n t s "What i s t h i s word?" "What does i t mean?". c o i f l d i d e n t i f y t h e word "awareness" and i t s meaning. A l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s c o u l d I d e n t i f y t h e word " t e n s e " and 5 out o f 6 c o u l d i d e n t i f y " r e l a x e d " and I t s meaning. 3. I n c r e a s e awareness o f t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n u s i n g v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e body. F o l l o w t h e same a c t i v i t i e s as appeared i n L e s s o n 2. A l l t he s t u d e n t s c o u l d l e s s o n 2, i t e m 3. i d e n t i f y t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n i n t h e T h i s time, as each o f the s t u d e n t s i s v a r i o u s body p a r t s d e m o n s t r a t i n g one o f the a c t i v i t i e s , ask "How w i t h v e r y l i t t l e a re the muscles f e e l i n g — t e n s e d o r r e l a x e d ? " prompting. I f promptings were g i v e n . t h e y were i n t h e f o r m o f v e r b a l promptings r a t h e r t h a n p h y s i c a l p r o m p t i n g s . 4. E x p l o r e s t u d e n t ' s awareness P r e s e n t t o s t u d e n t s a v a r i e t y o f p i c t u r e s from P i c t u r e s from S\ chose a p i c t u r e o f and p r e f e r e n c e s o f body s t a t e magazines showing people i n e i t h e r a tense or magazines. someone " c r y i n g , " r e l a t e d t o t e n s i o n and r e l a x e d s t a t e . Put a l l the p i c t u r e s on a w a l l " t e n s e . " When as k e d r e l a x a t i o n . and have t h e s t u d e n t s look at them. Then ask "Do you l i k e t o c r y ? " . each s t u d e n t t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : "Choose she r e p l i e d "no." T I T L E : U n i t I I . AWARENESS OF THE INTERNAL WORLD Le s s o n 10. C h o o s i n g awareness: T e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n . Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n t h e p i c t u r e you l i k e b e s t . " "How do t h e muscles i n t h a t person f e e l ? " "How does t h a t p erson f e e l ? " "How would you l i k e your body t o f e e l — t e n s e o r r e l a x e d 7 " When asked t h e l a s t q u e s t i o n , she chose a p i c t u r e o f someone s l e e p i n g and s a i d " r e l a x e d . " 5 2 a l s o chose a p i c t u r e o f someone " c r y i n g , " and s a i d " t e n s e . " When as k e d 5 3 chose a p i c t u r e o f someone w i t h a f i s t up, f e e l i n g " t e n s e . " When t h i s s t u d e n t i s u p s e t , she u s u a l l y l i k e s t o p u t h e r f i s t up, t o o . She chose t h e p i c t u r e o f someone s l e e p i n g when she responded t o t h e l a s t q u e s t i o n . S^ chose t h e " s l e e p i n g " p i c t u r e . She l i k e s t o "Bleep." I t made f e r f e e l " r e l a x e d . " S 5 chose t h e p i c t u r e o f someone swimming. T h i s p e r s o n was " r e l a x e d " and "happy." TITLEJ U n i t I I . AWARENESS OF THE INTERNAL WORLD Les s o n 10. C h o o s i n g awareness: T e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n . Timei 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n !f. Review t h e major c o n c e p t s i n th e l e s s o n . Have them v e r b a l i z e t he c o n c e p t s . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i -c i p a t i o n . Sg chose a p i c t u r e o f a m u s i c i a n e x p r e s s i n g a " t e n s e " f a c e . L a t e r he chose a " r e l a x e d " " s l e e p i n g p i c t u r e . " I t made him f e e l "good." I TITLE) U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS Lesson 1 . F e e l i n g s i What a r e they? Timet 4 5 minutes O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1 . Ground r u l e s . 2 . D e f i n e t h e word " f e e l i n g . " 3 . I n c r e a s e t h e awareness o f the f i v e p r i m a r y emotions through body movements. D e f i n e f e e l i n g s as "something t h a t you f e e l deep i n s i d e y o u r s e l f . " Then show the p i c t u r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e f i v e p r i m a r y emotions, c u t from magazines, d e p i c t i n g : "joy/happy," "sad," "angry," " s c a r e d / a f r a i d , " " s u r p r i s e . " Have a l l the s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e i n making a " F e e l i n g s Wheel." Then I n t r o d u c e " F e e l i n g s Song": " F e e l i n g s , f e e l i n g s , we a l l have f e e l i n g s , t h e y s i t deep i n s i d e a l l of us. F e e l i n g s , f e e l i n g s , we a l l have f e e l i n g s , l e t U B name them one by one." A t the end o f the song, have t h e s t u d e n t s name the f i v e emotions, u s i n g t h e " F e e l i n g s Wheel" t o i l l u s t r a t e them. Demonstrate... P l a c e a mat on the f l o o r . Have each s t u d e n t demonstrate the f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s ) - Anger - stomp f e e t on the mat - Joy - h i p p l t y - h o p on t h e mat - Fear - s t a n d s t i l l on t h e mat - Sadness - move w i t h a slow motion on t h e mat - S u r p r i s e - Jump up and down on t h e mat P i c t u r e s d e p i c t i n g the f i v e e m o tions. B i g p i e c e o f c a r d -board. A hand as a d i a l . G lue S t a p l e r " F e e l i n g s Wheel" Mat F l a s h c a r d s f o r each o f the f i v e p r i m a r y emotions. A l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s c o u l d f i n d p i c t u r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h a p p i n e s s on t h e i r own. S 4 l i k e s music and s o she c o u l d e a s i l y p i c k up t h e t u n e , even though i t was n o v e l t o h e r . A l l o f them c o u l d r e p e a t t h e names o f t h e f i v e e m o tions. A l l c o u l d I d e n t i f y t h e f e e l i n g o f anger. Joy was d i f f i c u l t t o e x p r e s s as i t r e q u i r e d good g r o s s motor c o o r d i n a t i o n . Those who c o u l d not v e r b a l l y f o l l o w t h e song, moved t h e i r b o d i e s o r c l a p p e d t h e i r hands. Naming t h e f i v e emotions i s a way t o f a m i l i a r i z e t h e Btudents w i t h feelings words. T I T L E : U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS Lesson 1. F e e l i n g s : What a r e t h e y ? Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 4. I n c r e a s e awareness o f t h e f i v e emotions through music and f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . 5. Review t h e major concepts i n the l e s s o n . Demonstrate... Use t h e tune o f " I f you are happy and you know i t . " S u b s t i t u t e c l a p p i n g your hands w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g v e r s e s : - "happy . . . . then s m i l e " - "sad . . . . shed a t e a r " - "angry . . . . make a f i s t " - " s u r p r i s e d . . . . say a h l " - " a f r a i d . . . . say I am s c a r e d " As t h e y a r e s i n g i n g t he song, ask the s t u d e n t s t o e xaggerate the f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . Pass around a m i r r o r t o p r o v i d e feedback. Have s t u d e n t s v e r b a l i z e t h e concepts, u s i n g the " F e e l i n g s Wheel." Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . M i r r o r F e e l i n g s Wheel S4 has a ha r d t i m e s m i l i n g w i t h o u t e n l a r g i n g h e r e y e s , w r i n k l i n g h e r nose and showing h e r t e e t h . ( G r i m a c i n g i s a r e s u l t o f t a k i n g d r u g s f o r a p r o l o n g e d p e r i o d o f time and i s an i r r e v e r s i b l e s i d e e f f e c t . ) By a s k i n g h e r t o r e l a x h e r f a c e and massage i t , she was a b l e t o s m i l e i n a n a t u r a l way. M i r r o r was used t o r a i s e h e r awareness o f h e r own f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n . Encourage s t u d e n t s t o g i v e one a n o t h e r feedback on t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e s . T I T L E I U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS L e s s o n 2. Happiness and Joy I Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Ground r u l e s . 2. F a m i l i a r i z e s t u d e n t s w i t h the con c e p t o f " f e e l i n g . " 3. I n t r o d u c e t h e f e e l i n g o f Joy and h a p p i n e s s . 4. I n c r e a s e awareness o f f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n on s e l f and o t h e r B . S i n g " F e e l i n g s " song. Have t h e s t u d e n t s name the f i v e emotions. Demonstrate... S i n g t h e song " I f you a r e happy and you know i t t h e n s m i l e . . . " Demonstrate... Use t h e p i c t u r e o f a happy clown f a c e t o I l l u s t r a t e what a happy e x p r e s s i o n I s l i k e . Ask t h e s t u d e n t t o reproduce t h a t f a c e . Then use the " L e t ' s Make Faces" game t o make a happy f a c e . Ask the s t u d e n t s t o s e l e c t t he a p p r o p r i a t e f a c e , eyes and mouth t o i l l u s t r a t e h a p p i n e s s . Everyone ( o t h e r t h a n t h e h a r d - o f -h e a r l n g s t u d e n t ) c o u l d s i n g t h i s song as i t was f a m i l i a r t o them. P i c t u r e showing a happy clown f a c e . Make-up k i t . " L e t ' s Make F a c e s " game by T r e n d E n t e r p r i s e s I n c . S 4 i n s t e a d o f making a grimace when asked t o s m i l e , w a i t e d f o r me t o shape h e r f a c e . T h i s i n d i c a t e s an i n c r e a s e d awareness o f s e l f and emotions. They c o u l d a l l choose t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f a c i a l p a r t s t o d e p i c t h a p p i n e s s . In s e l e c t i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e eyes and mouth w i t h which t o i l l u s t r a t e a p a r t i c u l a r emotion, i t i s im p o r t a n t not t o g i v e t h e s t u d e n t s more than 3 s e t s t o choose from. T h i s can v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a b i l i t i e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s . T I T L E : U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS L e s s o n 2. Happiness and Joy I Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 5. D e v e l o p s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e ways o f e x p r e s s i n g h a p p i n e s s . 6. Expand s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r emotions u s i n g s i m i l e s . Use a v a r i e t y o f p i c t u r e s d e p i c t i n g h a p p i n e s s . Have the s t u d e n t s d i s c u s s the v a r i o u s ways o f e x p r e s s i n g happiness u s i n g t h e p i c t u r e s as c u e s . Generate an open d i s c u s s i o n f o c u s i n g on t h e s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e b e h a v i o u r . L i s t on t h e behaviour board. Demonstrate... Show p i c t u r e s o f a b i r d i n a cage and another w i t h the b i r d f l y i n g i n the s k y . Ask s t u d e n t s which p i c t u r e i s "happy." Have the s t u d e n t s p r e t e n d t o be a b i r d f l y i n g around f r e e l y . A f t e r w a r d s have them complete the sentence: " I am as happy as a b i r d f l y i n g i n the sky." P i c t u r e s from magazines. Two p i c t u r e s o f b i r d s . One i n a cage and one f l y i n g i n t h e s k y . The p i c t u r e s were v e r y u s e f u l i n terms o f p r o v i d i n g t h e cues f o r s t u d e n t s . S t u d e n t s were a b l e t o demonstrate t h e f o l l o w i n g b e h a v i o u r s , w i t h guidance: " b i g s m i l e " "hands i n t h e a i r " " h i p p i t y hop" "round e y e s " " t e e t h showing" "people around" I t was d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o i d e n t i f y t h e b i r d i n t h e sky as the happy one. Many a n a l o g i e s had t o be drawn t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e c o n c e p t . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e y e n j o y e d t h e motion o f f l y i n g around. Three o f t h e s t u d e n t s c o u l d r e p e a t "happy as a b i r d . " O t h e r s J u s t s a i d t h e key words. A l l o f them s m i l e d o r g r i n n e d . S i n c e t h e use o f s i m i l e i s an a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t , i t i s somewhat more d i f f i c u l t f o r s t u d e n t s t o g r a s p . A c t i n g o u t a s i t u a t i o n h e l p s t o e l i c i t a s i m i l e . T I T L E I U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS L e s s o n 3. Happiness and Joy I I Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Ground r u l e s . Space i s an im p o r t a n t f a c t o r t o 2. F a m i l i a r i z e t he s t u d e n t s w i t h S i n g t h e " F e e l i n g s Song." c o n s i d e r i n t h e c o n c e p t o f f e e l i n g . Have s t u d e n t s name the f i v e emotions. c a r r y i n g o u t a c t i -v i t i e s 4 and 5. R e s t r i c t i o n i n 3. Review t h e emotion Use t h e song " I f you a r e happy and you know movement may s t i f l e " h a p p i n e s s . " i t . t hen s m i l e " f o r re v i e w . c r e a t i v i t y . 4. S t i m u l a t e t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f Demonstrate... S t r a u s s w a l t z e s They were a l l w i l l i n g V i r t u a l l y any h a p p i n e s s t h r o u g h music. P l a y S t r a u s s w a l t z e s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e happy P o l k a music t o move around o t h e r movements t h a t t h e moods. Have t h e s t u d e n t s dance t o the p i e c e t h a n Sf > s t u d e n t s can c r e a t e o f music, f i r s t i n d i v i d u a l l y , t h e n as a group. o r i m i t a t e a r e u s i n g v a r i o u s movements l i k e : t w i r l i n g w i t h T w i r l i n g around w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e t o hands i n the a i r , l y i n g on t h e f l o o r moving hands i n t h e a i r and s t i m u l a t e t h e f e e t and hands, moving i n c i r c l e s and l y i n g on t h e f l o o r e x p r e s s i o n as l o n g s p r i n g i n g from t h e f l o o r . moving hands and f e e t as t h e movements were t h e movements enhance t h e i r most o f t h e s t u d e n t s awareness o f t h e adopted. p a r t i c u l a r m o t i o n . 5. I n c r e a s e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s Demonstrate... P a i n t The s t u d e n t s were Use d e s c r i p t o r s t o t r a n s l a t e happiness i n t o Have t h e s t u d e n t s c l o s e t h e i r eyes and see a S t r a u s s w a l t z e s c o m p l i a n t and d o c i l e . l i k e "hopping". a r t f o r m s . happy f a c e i n t h e i r minds. U s i n g S t r a u s s The a r t c r e a t e d was "jumping". w a l t z e s as backdrop, ask t h e s t u d e n t s t o p a i n t r i g h i d and c o n f o r m i n g . " r u n n i n g " t o expand w i t h t h e i r t o e s and f e e t . i . e . f o l l o w i n g what t h e s t u d e n t ' s o t h e r s were d o i n g . I m a g i n a t i o n . T I T L E t U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS L e s s o n 3. Happiness and J o y I I Timet 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 6. H e i g h t e n awareness t h r o u g h rhythm. 7. I d e n t i f y happy emotions i n o t h e r s . Demonstrate.•• Beat t h e d r u m s / s l i d e the f i n g e r s a c r o s s t he drum t o c r e a t e a happy, f a s t r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n . Have the s t u d e n t s hop, jump w i t h arms swi n g i n g i n a i r . T r y t o c r e a t e a rhythmic p a t t e r n i n accordance t o t h e i r movements. P r e s e n t t he s t u d e n t s p i c t u r e s o f p e o p l e , showing a v a r i e t y o f emotions s t a t e s ! happy, sad, angry, s u r p r i s e and f r i g h t . Have t h e st u d e n t s choose a p i c t u r e o f someone f e e l i n g happy, e t c . Ask t h e s t u d e n t s : "How i s t h e pe r s o n f e e l i n g ? " "How can you t e l l t h a t t h e pe r s o n i s sad, e t c . ? " Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Drums P i c t u r e s S5 found i t h a r d t o c o o r d i n a t e arm and l e g movements. Never-t h e l e s s , she wore a s m i l e on h e r f a c e . A l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s c o u l d i d e n t i f y t h e c o r r e c t p i c t u r e . U s u a l l y " s m i l e " was an i n d i c a t o r f o r h a p p i -n e s s . T I T L E I U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS L e s s o n 4. Happiness and J o y I I I Timet 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P rocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Ground r u l e s . 2. F a m i l i a r i z e t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h S i n g " F e e l i n g s Song." t h e c o n c e p t o f f e e l i n g . Have t h e s t u d e n t s name the f i v e emotions. 3. Review t h e emotion Use photos o f s t u d e n t s taken on v a r i o u s P h o t o s . The s t u d e n t s showed U s i n g p i c t u r e s o f " h a p p i n e s s . " o c c a s i o n s t o i l l u s t r a t e h a p p i n e s s . Have t h e much i n t e r e s t i n p e o p l e t h e y know o r s t u d e n t s choose one and d e s c r i b e ! l o o k i n g a t t h e p i c t u r e a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h "Who i s i n t h e p i c t u r e ? " o f p e o p l e whom th e y c r e a t e s a s e n s e o f "What i s t h e person d o i n g ? " c o u l d i d e n t i f y . They comradeship and "How can you t e l l t h a t t he p e r s o n i s happy?" c o u l d i d e n t i f y p e o p l e i n t i m a c y . I t a l s o " I f you were In t h a t a l t u a t i o n , how would you at " r e s t a u r a n t s , " "a h e l p s t h e s t u d e n t a f e e l 7 " p a r t y , " " p l a y i n g t o e l i c i t s p e e c h . b i r d , " " w i t h Santa," as t h e y can f e e l i n g " r e l a x e d " and i d e n t i f y t h e m s e l v e s "happy." i n t h e s i t u a t i o n s . 4. S t a t u e - b u i l d i n g . I n c r e a s e "Warm-up phase" s t u d e n t s g e n e r a l e x p r e s s i v e Ask s t u d e n t s t o imaging g o i n g out f o r a S i n c e t h i s was the The warm-up phase a b i l i t y . p i c n i c . With t h i s mental p i c t u r e , t h e y walk f i r s t t i m e f o r t he e s t a b l i s h e s an i n c i r c l e s u n t i l t h e word " s t o p " i s h e a r d . s t u d e n t s t o be atmosphere i n wh i c h i n v o l v e d i n a s t a t u e - everyone has " B u i l d i n g t h e s t a t u e " b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y , something t o Each s t u d e n t i s shaped i n a p a r t i c u l a r way. p h y s i c a l guidance was c o n t r i b u t e . I n u s i n g f a c e , hands, f e e t and t o r s o t o e x p r e s s n e c e s s a r y . a d d i t i o n , i t th e emotion. Repeat t he pr o c e d u r e two o r I n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g p r o v i d e s t h r e e t i m e s u n t i l t hey can reproduce t h e t o t h e i r ways o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e " a c u l p t u r e " on t h e i r own. e x p r e s s i n g h a p p i n e s s s t u d e n t s t o was c o l l e c t e d b e f o r e - p a r t i c i p a t e . hand. T h e i r happy f e e l i n g was T I T L E t U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS L e s s o n 4. Happiness and J o y I I I Timet 45 minut e s O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 5. D e v e l o p a sense o f independence and problem s o l v i n g s k i l l s . "Group s h a r i n g " Ask each s t u d e n t s t o d e s c r i b e t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a c t i n g o u t t h i s f e e l i n g . P o i n t o ut t h e d i f f e r e n t ways o f e x p r e s s i n g t h e emotion among the group members. P r e s e n t t o s t u d e n t s a v a r i e t y o f p i c t u r e s showing a warm and happy i n t e r a c t i o n between two o r more p e o p l e . Show the group one p i c t u r e a t a time and i n s t i g a t e d i s c u s s i o n s , u s i n g : "What i s t h i s p e r s o n d o i n g i n t h e p i c t u r e ? " "How i s t h i s p e r s o n f e e l i n g ? " "How does t h i s p e r s o n e x p r e s s emotion?" A t t h e end o f each d i s c u s s i o n , ask t h e s t u d e n t s t he v a r i o u s ways o f e x p r e s s i n g t h e emotion. "When I am happy, I want t o ...." Always g i v e Btudents p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P i c t u r e s " s c u l p t u r e d " a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r n a t u r a l way o f e x p r e s s i n g t h e em o t i o n . - jumped up and down s m i l i n g 52 - s m i l e d 53 - hands i n a i r s m i l i n g 54 - s m i l e d and sang 55 - s m i l e d and c l a p p e d hands Sg - s m i l e d G e n e r a l l y a l l o f t h e answers needed t o be prompted. Most o f t h e s t u d e n t s answered t h e word " s m i l e " t o t h e l a s t s t a t e m e n t , "When I am happy, I want t o s m i l e . " I t was Important t o e l i c i t o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e s l i k e " s i n g , dance, hug and t a l k t o o t h e r s . " T I T L E : U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OP THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS L e s s o n 5. Sadness I Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Ground r u l e s . 2. F a m i l i a r i z e t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f f e e l i n g . 3. I n t r o d u c e t h e f e e l i n g of " s a d n e s s . " 4. I n c r e a s e awareness o f f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n o f sadness on s e l f and o t h e r s . S i n g " F e e l i n g s " song. Have the s t u d e n t s name the f i v e emotions. Demonstrate... S i n g song u s i n g " I f you a r e happy" tu n e . S u b s t i t u t e "happy" w i t h "sad": " I f you a r e s a d and you know i t shed a t e a r ( r e p e a t 3 t i m e s ) and you r e a l l y want t o Bhow i t . I f you a r e Bad and you know i t shed a t e a r . " Demonstrate a sad f a c e . D i s c u s s t he s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s on a sad f a c e . Use p a i n t t o draw t e a r drops and a downward l o o k i n g mouth on t h e s t u d e n t s ' f a c e s . Then use " L e t ' s Make F a c e s " game t o make a sad f a c e . Ask the s t u d e n t s t o s e l e c t t he a p p r o p r i a t e f a c e , eyes and mouth w i t h which t o i l l u s t r a t e s a d n e s s . B l a c k powdered p a i n t mixed w i t h hand l o t i o n . " L e t ' s Make F a c e s " game by T r e n d E n t e r p r i s e s I n c . c o u l d name "angry", " a f r a i d , " and "happy," Ind e p e n d e n t l y . S3 c o u l d name " s a d " and " s u r p r i s e " w i t h o u t prompting. A l l t h e s t u d e n t s were w i l l i n g t o have t h e i r f a c e s p a i n t e d . S3 and Sg c o u l d n o t a e l e c t a s a d l o o k i n g mouth f o r t h e f a c e . T I T L E t U n i t I I I . AWARENESS Or THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS L e s s o n 5. Sadness I Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t l o n 5. D e v e l o p s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e ways o f e x p r e s s i n g sadness. 6. Expand s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o d e s c r i b e emotions u s i n g s i m i l e s . Use a v a r i e t y o f p i c t u r e s d e p i c t i n g sadness. Have t h e s t u d e n t s d i s c u s s t h e v a r i o u s ways o f e x p r e s s i n g sadness u s i n g t h e p i c t u r e s as cue s . Generate an open d i s c u s s i o n and focus on the s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e b e h a v i o u r s . L i s t t h e b e h a v i o u r s on the b o a r d . Demonstrate... Use the same two p i c t u r e s as In Lesson 1, i t e m 6. Ask s t u d e n t which b i r d i s a sad b i r d . Have the s t u d e n t s s t a n d i n a v e r y s m a l l c i r c l e and not be a l l o w e d t o move. A f t e r w a r d s have t h e s t u d e n t s complete t h e se n t e n c e , " I am as sad as t h e b i r d i n the cage. Have the s t u d e n t s express a s a d emotion. Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P i c t u r e s from magazines. Two p i c t u r e s o f b i r d s . One i n a cage and one i n t h e s k y . With guidance t h e y were a b l e t o g e n e r a t e t h e f o l l o w i n g b e h a v i o u r s : " t e a r s i n the e y e s " "head down" " f a c e down* "mouth down" sometimes " a l o n e " "hands o v e r f a c e " " c r y i n g " T h i s time 4 out o f 6 Btudents c o u l d i d e n t i f y t h e one i n t h e cage as t h e s a d one. S<| p u t h e r head down 5 2 c o v e r e d h i s f a c e w i t h hands 53 f o l l o w e d s u i t 54 p r e t e n d e d t o c r y 55 made a sad f a c e Sg p r e t e n d e d t o c r y T h i s i a a good way t o h e i g h t e n s t u d e n t ' s awareness o f emotions and t o expand e x p r e s s i v e a b i l i t i e s w h i l e k e e p i n g t h e t a s k r e l a t i v e l y s t r u c t u r e d and s i m p l e . T I T L E I U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS L e s s o n 6. Sadness I I Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r ocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Ground r u l e s . 2. F a m i l i a r i z e t h a a t u d e n t a w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f " f e e l i n g . " 3. Review t h e emotion "sadness." 4. S t i m u l a t e t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f sadness t h r o u g h music. S i n g " F e e l i n g s " song. Have t h e s t u d e n t s name the f i v e emotions. Use t he song " I f you a r e s a d ..." P a i n t t h e s t u d e n t s f a c e s w i t h t e a r drops a g a i n so as t o h e l p them focus on t h e f e e l i n g "sadness." Demonstrate... P l a y t h e p a r t o f Swan Lake which b e s t I l l u s t r a t e s t h e mood. Have t h e s t u d e n t s dance t o t he p i e c e o f music, f i r s t i n d i v i d u a l l y , t hen as a group u s i n g v a r i o u s movements l i k e : k n e e l i n g down, swaying i n slow motion, c u r l i n g i n t o a b a l l , r o l l i n g , c o v e r i n g eyes/head. P a i n t A d a g i o from "Swan Lake" by T c h a i k o v s k y . A l l o f them c o u l d name a t l e a s t one emoti o n , which was "happy." was r e l u c t a n t t o p e r f o r m many o f t h e movements. P o i n t o u t t o t h e c l a s s t h a t " s t i l l n e s s " can be a n o t h e r way o f e x p r e s s i n g s a d n e s s . I t I s i m p o r t a n t t o t e a c h t h e B t u d e n t s t o p e r f o r m some o f t h e s e movements b e f o r e i n t r o d u c i n g music. W i t h t h e r e p e r t o i r e o f B k i l l s t a u g h t , t h e y can c r e a t e t h e i r own e x p r e s s i o n . Music and c o l o r evoke moods n a t u r a l l y . When u s i n g i n t e g r a t e d a r t s approach, i t I s i m p o r t a n t t o emphasize t h e mood t h a t i s evoked r a t h e r t h a n t h e form. T I T L E : U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OP THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS L e s s o n 6. Sadness I I Timet 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 5. I n c r e a s e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s i n t r a n s l a t i n g sadness i n t o a r t form. 6. Improve e x p r e s s i v e a b i l i t i e s 7. I d e n t i f y s a d emotions i n o t h e r s . Have t h e s t u d e n t s c l o s e t h e i r eyes and see a sad f a c e i n t h e i r minds. U s i n g T c h a i k o v s k y ' s "Swan Lake" as backdrop, ask t h e s t u d e n t s t o p a i n t w i t h t h e i r f i n g e r s . Demonstrate... Beat t he drams a t a slow b u t r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n t o c r e a t e a mood. Have t h e s t u d e n t s walk/crawl w i t h head down, d r a g g i n g t h e i r f e e t . T r y t o c r e a t e t he r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n i n accordance t o t h e i r movements. P r e s e n t t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h p i c t u r e s o f people showing a v a r i e t y o f em o t i o n a l s t a t e s : happy, sad, angry, s u r p r i s e , and f r i g h t . Have the s t u d e n t s choose a p i c t u r e o f someone f e e l i n g s a d . Ask the s t u d e n t s : "How i s t h e pe r s o n f e e l i n g ? " "How can you t e l l t h a t t h e pe r s o n i a sad?" Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P a i n t "Swan Lake" A v a r i e t y o f drums P i c t u r e s They were a l l e a g e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e . The s t u d e n t s were a b i t r e l a x e d i n t h e i r body movements. S4 d e c i d e d t o p r e t e n d t o c r y as she was moving s l o w l y w i t h t h e music . S f , Sg t r i e d v e r y h a r d not t o s m i l e as t h e y were c r e a t i n g t h e a r t . R e f l e c t t h e i r f e e l i n g s . A l l t h e s t u d e n t s c o u l d f i n d t h e c o r r e c t p i c t u r e . By, S 2 , S 4 , Sg s a i d -" t e a r s " on f a c e . S3 - s a i d " c r y " 85 - p o i n t e d t o " t e a r s " Use d e s c r i p t o r s l i k e "down* and "slow" t o a s s i s t t h e s t u d e n t s i n e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r own i m a g i n a t i v e c o n c e p t s . Comment on t h e " s o f t , " "slow" b e a t o f t h e rhythm and t h e mood i t c r e a t e s . The q u e s t i o n s a s k e d have t o be s p e c i f i c and c o n c r e t e . T I T L E : U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS L e s s o n 7. Sadness I I I Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P rocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Ground r u l e s . 2. F a m i l i a r i z e t h e s t u d e n t s with S i n g " F e e l i n g s " song. t h e c o n c e p t o f " f e e l i n g s . " Have the s t u d e n t s name t h e f i v e emotions. 3. Review c o n c e p t o f "sadness." P r e s e n t a v a r i e t y o f p i c t u r e s d e p i c t i n g P i c t u r e s Two s t u d e n t s c o u l d sadness i n v a r i o u s t y p e s o f s i t u a t i o n s . name t h r e e emotions. Ask each s t u d e n t t o choose one and d e s c r i b e : "What i s happening i n t h i s p i c t u r e ? " S i - f l o w e r p o t was "How i s t h e p e r s o n f e e l i n g ? " "broken", " c r y " "How do you know t h a t t h e p e r s o n i s f e e l i n g S 2 - t o e s " h u r t , " sad?" " c u t " " I f you were i n t h a t s i t u a t i o n , how would you S 3 - t o e s " h u r t " , f e e l ? " "head down" - b e i n g h i t by another p e r s o n . "bad," " s a d " S 5 - " h u r t , " "head down" Sg - p l a n e c r a s h . p e o p l e "dead," " c r y " 4. S t a t u e b u i l d i n g : i n c r e a s e "Warm-up phase" S t u f f e d a n i m a l s When t h e s t u d e n t s were An e x p e r i e n t i a l s t u d e n t s ' g e n e r a l e x p r e s s i v e Ask each s t u d e n t t o i d e n t i f y one f a v o u r i t e ' asked t o s c u l p t u r e a c t i v i t y c a n be a b i l i t i e s . a n i m a l . Have them imagine t h e p e t l y i n g i n sadness, S3, S4 and Sg u s e d i n t h e warm-up f r o n t o f them i s dead. put t h e i r handB o v e r phase so as t o t h e i r f a c e s on t h e i r p r e p a r e t h e own i n i t i a t i v e . s t u d e n t s f o r a c t i o n . T I T L E : U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OE THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS L e s s o n 7. Sadness I I I Timet 45 m i n u t e s O b j e c t i v e s P rocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 5. D e v e l o p a s e n s e o f independence and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s . Have t h e s t u d e n t s walk around i n c i r c l e u n t i l t h e word " s t o p " i s heard. " B u i l d i n g t h e s t a t u e " Each s t u d e n t i s "shaped" i n a p a r t i c u l a r way u s i n g t h e f a c e , hands, f e e t and t o r s o t o express the emotion. Repeat the procedure two o r t h r e e times u n t i l t h e y can reproduce the " s c u l p t u r e " on t h e i r own. "Group s h a r i n g " Ask each s t u d e n t t o d e s c r i b e t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a c t i n g out t h i s f e e l i n g . P o i n t out the d i f f e r e n t ways o f e x p r e s s i n g t h e emotion among the group members. P r e s e n t t o s t u d e n t s a v a r i e t y o f p i c t u r e s showing someone b e i n g u p s e t . Show the group one p i c t u r e a t a time and f a c i l i t a t e a d i s c u s s i o n : "What i s t h e p e r s o n i n the p i c t u r e d o i n g ? " "How i s t h e p e r s o n f e e l l n g 7 " "How does t h e p e r s o n e x p r e s s the emotion?" At t h e end o f the d i s c u s s i o n ask the s t u d e n t s the v a r i o u s ways o f e x p r e s s i n g t h e emotion: "When I am sad, I want t o . . . " Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P i c t u r e s A l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s responded t o t h e l a s t s tatement w i t h t h e word " c r y , " o r " t e a r s . " P r o v i d e a l t e r n a t i v e s t h r o u g h g u i d e d q u e s t i o n s and p i c t u r e s , such as "go t o one's bedroom," "be a l o n e , " " s h a r e i t w i t h o t h e r B . " T I T L E : U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS L e s s o n 8. Anger I : Angry as a f i s t Time: 45 minutes O b l e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Ground r u l e s . 2. F a m i l i a r i z e t h e s t u d e n t s with th e c o n c e p t o f f e e l i n g s . 3. I n t r o d u c e t h e f e e l i n g o f "anger." S i n g " F e e l i n g s " song. Have the s t u d e n t s name t h e f i v e emotions. Demonstrate... S i n g song, u s i n g " I f you a r e happy" tune. S u b s t i t u t e "happy* w i t h "anger": " I f you a r e angry and you know i t make a f i s t ( r e p e a t 3 times) and you r e a l l y want t o show i t . I f you a r e angry and you know i t make a f i s t . " "Making a f i s t " i s r e i n f o r c e d n o t because i t i s a s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e way o f e x p r e s s i n g anger, b u t because o f t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : 1. i n s i g n language anger l e e x p r e s s e d i n the form o f making two f i s t s 2. i t i s an e x p r e s s i o n which th e s t u d e n t s can i d e n t i f y r e a d i l y 3. i t a l s o h e l p s t h e s t u d e n t s t o e l i c i t t h e emotion T I T L E : U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS Les s o n 8. Anger I : Angry as a f i s t T i n e : 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r ocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 4. I n c r e a s e awareness o f f a c i a l Demonstrate... an angry f a c e . e x p r e s s i o n o f anger on s e l f Have t h e c l a s s d i s c u s s the s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s and o t h e r s . on an angry f a c e . B l a c k p a i n t mixed Darken and a r c h the eyebrows on s t u d e n t s ' w i t h hand l o t i o n . f a c e s . Then use t h e " L e t ' s Make F a c e s " game t o make an angry f a c e . Ask the s t u d e n t s t o " L e t ' s Make F a c e s " s e l e c t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f a c e , eyes and mouth game by T r e n d which i l l u s t r a t e a nger. E n t e r p r i s e s I n c . 5. Develop s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e Use a v a r i e t y o f p i c t u r e s d e p i c t i n g anger. • P i c t u r e s from The b e h a v i o u r s In g e n e r a t i n g t h e ways o f e x p r e s s i n g anger. Have t h e Btudents d i s c u s s t h e v a r i o u s ways o f magazines. g e n e r a t e d were: l i s t o f b e h a v i o u r s . e x p r e s s i n g anger u s i n g t h e p i c t u r e s as cues. i t i s h e l p f u l t o Generate an open d i s c u s s i o n and f o c u s on t h e " a r c h e d eyebrows" p r o v i d e o p p o s i t e s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e b e h a v i o u r s . L i s t them on " f i s t " d e s c r i p t i o n s t o a board. " h i t t i n g " s t u d e n t s : e.g. "Are "stomping f e e t " t h e eyes b i g o r " s m a l l e y e s " s m a l l when you f e e l . " s t a n d s t i l l " a n g r y ? " "tense" - " h o t " " k i c k i n g " 6. Expand s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s t o Demonstrate... The f i s t has always d e s c r i b e t h e i r emotions u s i n g Use a p i c t u r e o f someone f e e l i n g angry and P i c t u r e been used t o a s s o c i a t e s i m i l e s . waving w i t h a f i s t . anger and s o t h e Have t h e s t u d e n t s i m i t a t e t h e b e h a v i o u r s i n s t u d e n t s c o u l d a l l p i c t u r e . A f terwards have t h e s t u d e n t complete p r o v i d e t h e s i m i l e t h e s e n t ence, " I am as angry as the f i s t . " r e a d i l y . T I T L E I U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS Lesson 9 . Anger I I Times 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Ground r u l e s . 2 . F a m i l i a r i z e t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e concept o f f e e l i n g s . Review the emotion "anger." 3* S t i m u l a t e t h e e x p r e s s i o n of anger t h r o u g h m u s i c . 4 > I n c r e a s e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s i n t r a n s l a t i n g anger i n t o a r t f o r m . S i n g " F e e l i n g s " song. Have the s t u d e n t s name the f i v e emotions. Use t he song, " I f you a r e angry ..." Demonstrate... S e l e c t t he p a r t o f the " R i t e s o f S p r i n g " which b e s t i l l u s t r a t e s t h e mood. Have the s t u d e n t s dance t o t h e p i e c e o f music, f i r s t i n d i v i d u a l l y , then as a group, u s i n g v a r i o u s movements l i k e stomping f e e t , k i c k i n g and waving t he f i s t s around. Demonstrate... Have the s t u d e n t s c l o s e t h e i r eyes »«d imagine b e i n g "mad" o r "angry." U s i n g t h e " R i t e s o f S p r i n g " as backdrop, ask the s t u d e n t s t o form f i s t s , d i p them i n t o p a i n t and pound them on the paper. "The R i t e s o f S p r i n g " by S t r a v i n s k y ( s e l e c t i o n s ) . The " R i t e s o f S p r i n g . " V i b r a n t c o l o r e d p a i n t . Stomping t h e f e e t was d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e .students t o p e r f o r m . However, Staking t h e s t u d e n t s EC l i f t them h i g h In t h e & l r and d r o p them on '.the f l o o r seemed t o have h e l p e d . The t a s k was e a s y and t h e y a l l appeared t o show p l e a s u r e I n t h e p r o c e s s and t h e p r o d u c t . They c o u l d a l s o I d e n t i f y t h e f e e l i n g s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t he p a i n t i n g s a f t e r w a r d s . T I T L E : U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS Le s s o n 9. Anger I I Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P rocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 5> Improve e x p r e s s i v e a b i l i t i e s t h r o u g h s i m p l e rhythm and c o n c r e t e o b j e c t s . Demonstrate... L i k e n anger t o b a l l o o n s , cymbols and v o l c a n o e s . Demonstrate the p r o c e s s o f g r a d u a l l y b u i l d i n g up the energy and i t s u l t i m a t e e x p l o s i o n . B a l l o o n s : blow up a number o f b a l l o o n s i n f r o n t o f the s t u d e n t s . Form t h e s t u d e n t s i n t o dyads and have them pop t h e b a l l o o n s whatever ways t h e y want t o . Cymbolst Have the student p l a y i t l i g h t l y and s l o w l y a t the s t a r t and then g r a d u a l l y I n c r e a s e volume and speed. Anger i s e x p r e s s e d as a l o u d bang. V o l c a n o : Draw i t on the b o a r d and then e x p l a i n the p r o c e s s . The e r u p t i o n i s e xpressed by h a v i n g t h e s t u d e n t s throw r e d p a i n t on i t . B a l l o o n s Cymbols P i c t u r e o f a v o l c a n o T h r e e o f t h e s t u d e n t s were h e s i t a n t i n p o p p i n g t h e b a l l o o n s . However, t h e y e n j o y e d f i g h t i n g o v e r t h e b a l l o o n s . The s t u d e n t s c o u l d i d e n t i f y one p r o c e s s when t h e y were a s k e d t o p o s i t i o n t h e cymbol around t h e stomach a r e a . As t h e e n e r g y g a t h e r e d f o r c e , t h e cymbolv. «ent up as w e l l . The bang was performed i n t h e a i r . I t was h a r d t o judge whether t h e s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t o o d what a v o l c a n o e i s . However, t h e y were f a s c i n a t e d w i t h t h e drawing and the e x p l a n a t i o n s , and e s p e c i a l l y found i t f u n t o throw r e d p a i n t on t h e b o a r d . T I T L E t U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS L e s s o n 9. Anger I I Timet 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n £ . I d e n t i f y angry emotions i n o t h e r s . P r e s e n t t he s t u d e n t s w i t h p i c t u r e s o f people Showing a v a r i e t y o f e m o t i o n a l s t a t e s : happy, sad, angry, s u r p r i s e and f e a r . Have t h e s t u d e n t s i d e n t i f y a p i c t u r e o f someone f e e l i n g angry. Ask t h e s t u d e n t s : "How i s t h e p e r s o n f e e l i n g ? " "How can you t e l l t h a t t he pe r s o n i s angry?" " I f you were i n t h a t s i t u a t i o n , how would you f e e l ? " Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P i c t u r e s S-|, S3, S5 chose a p i c t u r e o f someone h a v i n g hands i n f i s t s . 64 chose an angry f a c e . S 2 « Sg chose someone t h r o w i n g and b r e a k i n g g l a s s e s . TITLE) U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS Lesson 10. Anger I I I Timet 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a , l u a t i ^ n 1. Ground r u l e s . 2. F a m i l i a r i z e t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h S i n g " F e e l i n g s " song. t h e concept o f f e e l i n g s . Have t h e s t u d e n t s name t h e f i v e emotions. 3. Review t h e emotion "anger." Use t h e song " I f you a r e angry ..." 4. I n c r e a s e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s Demonstrate... Toy animals The t e a c h e r ' s a i d e was t o use p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n i n P r e s e n t a v a r i e t y o f animals t o the s t u d e n t s . v e r y t a l e n t e d and was d e s c r i b i n g anger. Some o f t h e animals are c r o c o d i l e , l i o n , b e a r . a b l e t o a c t o u t t h e g o r i l l a , l e o p a r d , t i g e r and o t h e r s such as movements and sounds c h i c k e n , sheep and b i r d . Ask s t u d e n t s o f t he a n i m a l s v e r y i n d i v i d u a l l y t o p i c k one animal which v i v i d l y d u r i n g i l l u s t r a t e s anger b e s t . Ask them t o c l o s e d e m o n s t r a t i o n . Her t h e i r eyes and p r e t e n d t h a t they a r e one o f performance c a p t u r e d t h e s e a n i m a l s . Encourage t h e s t u d e n t s t o move t h e i r a t t e n t i o n . I n and make sounds l i k e t h e animal chosen. a d d i t i o n , a l l t h e s t u d e n t s c o u l d choose an "angry" a n i m a l w i t h o u t any prom p t i n g . S^, S 2 , S3, S5 chose a bear. S 4 , Sg chose a c r o c o d i l e . 5. S t a t u e - b u i l d i n g t I ncrease "Warm-up phase" Garbage c a n . S i - h i t h e r head and S3 chose t h e s t u d e n t s ' g e n e r a l e x p r e s s i v e Have t h e s t u d e n t s stomp on the f l o o r , punch Couch. S 2 " punch t h e couch a c t i v i t i e s which a b i l i t i e s . t h e couch, k i c k t he garbage can, scream a t t h e S3 - h i t h e r head on t h e y n o r m a l l y do t o p o f t h e v o i c e , h i t one's head o r h i t ' s t h e f l o o r when t h e y a r e one's head on the f l o o r . A f t e r p e r f o r m i n g t h e S4 - scream a n g r y . I t was above a c t i o n s , have t h e stud e n t s walk around S5 - k i c k t h e garbage i m p o r t a n t t o make i n c i r c l e s u n t i l t hey hear the word " s t o p . " can . them aware o f an Sg - k i c k t h e garbage a l t e r n a t e way o f T I T L E I U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS Les s o n 10. Anger I I I T i m e i 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 6. D e v e l o p a sense of independence and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s . " B u i l d i n g the s t a t u e " Have t h e s t u d e n t s choose one o f the above a c t i v i t i e s and a c t i t o u t . " G r o u p - s h a r i n g " Ask each o f the s t u d e n t s t o d e s c r i b e t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a c t i n g o u t t h i s f e e l i n g . P o i n t out the d i f f e r e n t ways o f e x p r e s s i n g the emotion among t h e group members. P r e s e n t t o s t u d e n t s a v a r i e t y o f p i c t u r e s d e p i c t i n g p e o p l e i n anger. Show the group one p i c t u r e a t a time and f a c i l i t a t e a d i s c u s s i o n : "What i s the p e r s o n In the p i c t u r e d o i n g ? " "How i s t h e p e r s o n f e e l i n g ? " "How does the p e r s o n express the emotion?" A t the end o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n ask t h e s t u d e n t s t h e v a r i o u s ways o f e x p r e s s i n g the emotion: "When I am angry, I want t o . . . " Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P i c t u r e s can A l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s made a f i s t when c o m p l e t i n g t h e s t a t e m e n t . I t was Important t o r e f l e c t b o t h t h e c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e components o f t h e b e h a v i o u r , e.g. "You a r e v e r y angry and you want t o h i t t h e p e r s o n who provokes you." e x p r e s s i n g anger, o t h e r t h a n a b u s i n g one's s e l f p h y s i c a l l y . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o v a l i d a t e t h e s t u d e n t s ' f e e l i n g s . A t t h e same time i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o t e a c h them t h e s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e ways o f e x p r e s s i n g a n g e r . T I T L E : U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS Lesson 11. S u r p r i s e I : Jump l i k e a j a c k - i n - t h e - b o x ' Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Ground r u l e s . 2. F a m i l i a r i z e t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f " f e e l i n g s . " 3. I n t r o d u c e t h e f e e l i n g o f s u r p r i s e . 4. I n c r e a s e awareness o f f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n o f s u r p r i s e on " s e l f and o t h e r s . S i n g t h e " F e e l i n g s " song. Have the st u d e n t s name t h e f i v e emotions. Demonstrate... S i n g song u s i n g " I f you are happy" tu n e . S u b s t i t u t e "happy" w i t h " s u r p r i s e " : " I f you a r e s u r p r i s e d and you know i t , s a y aahl ( r e p e a t 3 times) and i f you r e a l l y want t o show i t . I f you a r e s u r p r i s e d and you know i t s a y aaah." Demonstrate a s u r p r i s e l o o k . Have t h e c l a s s d i s c u s s t he s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s on t he demonstrator's f a c e . Then draw a c i r c u l a r mouth around s t u d e n t s ' mouths. Then use the " L e t ' s Make Faces" game t o make a s u r p r i s e l o o k . Ask t h e st u d e n t s t o s e l e c t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f a c e , eyes and mouth which i l l u s t r a t e s u r p r i s e . B l a c k powdered p a i n t mixed w i t h hand l o t i o n . " L e t ' s Make F a c e s " game by T r e n d E n t e r p r i s e s I n c . The c i r c u l a r mouth was v e r y e f f e c t i v e i n e l i c i t i n g t h e s u r p r i s e e m o t i on. T I T L E : U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE PIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS Lesson 11. S u r p r i s e I : Jump l i k e a j a c k - i n - t h e - b o x Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 5. Develop s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e ways o f e x p r e s s i n g s u r p r i s e . 6. Expand s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r emotions u s i n g s i m i l e s . 7. Review t h e major concepts i n t h e l e s s o n . Use a v a r i e t y o f p i c t u r e s d e p i c t i n g s u r p r i s e . Have t h e s t u d e n t s d i s c u s s the v a r i o u s ways o f e x p r e s s i n g anger u s i n g the p i c t u r e s as c u e s . G e n e r a t e an open d i s c u s s i o n and f o c u s on t h e s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e b e h a v i o u r s . L i s t them on b o a r d . Demonstrate... Use a J a c k - i n - t h e - b o x t o s t i m u l a t e t h e s t u d e n t s ' comparisons. Have t h e s t u d e n t s k n e e l down and jump i n t o the a i r . A f t e r w o r d s have the s t u d e n t s complete t h e sentence " I am as s u r p r i s e d as J a c k - i n - t h e - b o x . " Have t h e s t u d e n t s e x p r e s s a s u r p r i s e emotion. Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P i c t u r e s from magazines. J a c k - i n - t h e - b o x . The v a r i o u s ways o f e x p r e s s i n g s u r p r i s e were: "round mouth* " r a i s e d eyebrows" " b i g e y e s " " t e n s e " "hands i n a i r " "not moving" " a a h l " S i n c e t h e s t u d e n t s were f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e o b j e c t , t h e y were a b l e t o draw t h e comparison w i t h l i t t l e p r o m p t i n g . They e n j o y e d jumping i n t o t h e a i r . T h r ee o f t h e s t u d e n t s s a i d " a a a h l " on t h e i r own. O t h e r s needed prompting. T I T L E t U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS L e s s o n 12. S u r p r i s e I I Timet 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Ground r u l e s . 2. F a m i l i a r i z e t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h S i n g t h e " F e e l i n g s * song. S3 was away t o d a y . t h e c o n c e p t o f " f e e l i n g s . " Have the s t u d e n t s name t h e f i v e emotions. 3. Review t h e emotion Use the song " I f you are s u r p r i s e d ..." " s u r p r i s e . " 4. S t i m u l a t e t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f Demonstrate... "The Seventh They a l l f o l l o w e d t h e s u r p r i s e t h r o u g h music. S e l e c t t h e p a r t o f "The Seventh Trumpet" which Trumpet" by Donald example g i v e n and b e s t i l l u s t r a t e s t he mood. Have t h e s t u d e n t s E r b . e n j o y e d jumping. dance t o t h e p i e c e o f music, f i r s t i n d i v i d u a l l y then as a group, u s i n g v a r i o u s movements l i k e c u r l i n g I n t o a s m a l l b a l l and t h e n jumping up i n t o the a i r e x t e n d i n g t h e v a r i o u s l i m b s . 5. I n c r e a s e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s Demonstrate... "The Seventh The t a s k was d i f f i c u l t i n t r a n s l a t i n g s u r p r i s e i n t o Have t h e s t u d e n t s c l o s e t h e i r eyes and imagine Trumpet" by Donald f o r them t o do. They an a r t form. b e i n g " s u r p r i s e d . " U s i n g the above music as E r b . c o u l d not seem t o backdrop, ask the s t u d e n t s t o p a i n t w i t h t h e i r P a i n t v i s u a l i z e what t h e f i n g e r s . f e e l i n g i s . T I T L E : U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS LesBon 12. S u r p r i s e I I . Time: 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 6. I n c r e a s e t h e awareness o f s u r p r i s e t h r o u g h t h e use o f c o n c r e t e o b j e c t s . 7. I d e n t i f y s u r p r i s e emotion i n o t h e r B . A c t i v i t i e s : 1. Ask the s t u d e n t s t o s m e l l a b o t t l e o f f i s h f e r t i l i z e r by p u t t i n g t he nose c l o s e t o i t . 2. P o i n t t o one s t u d e n t w i t h a water gun. When i t i s squeezed i t s q u i r t s a n other p e r s o n i n t h e group. 3. Take t h e i c e pack q u i c k l y o ut o f a bag and put i t on the s t u d e n t s ' f a c e s . P r e s e n t t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h p i c t u r e s o f p e o p l e showing a v a r i e t y o f em o t i o n a l s t a t e s : happy, sad, angry, s u r p r i s e and f e a r . Have t h e s t u d e n t s i d e n t i f y a p i c t u r e o f someone b e i n g s u r p r i s e d . Ask the s t u d e n t s : "How i s t h e p e r s o n f e e l i n g ? " "How can you t e l l t h a t t h e person I s s u r p r i s e d ? " "Why i s i t s u r p r i s i n g ? " " I f you were i n t h a t s i t u a t i o n , how would you f e e l ? " Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A b o t t l e o f f i s h f e r t i l i z e r . Water gun Ice pack P i c t u r e s from magazines. The f i s h f e r t i l i z e r was v e r y pungent and so t h e y f o u n d t h e s m e l l t o be q u i t e u n e x p e c t e d and o f f e n s i v e . They e n j o y e d t h e water gun and l i k e d t o be s q u i r t e d . Most o f t h e s t u d e n t s c o u l d n ot i d e n t i f y t h e major element which e l i c i t e d t h e emotion. The i n s t i t u t i o n i s a v e r y p r o t e c t e d environment. P o s s i b l y t h e s t u d e n t s a r e seldom exposed t o s i t u a t i o n s i n which t h e emotion i s e l i c i t e d . Even i f th e f e e l i n g I s evoked, no one would have t a u g h t them t o l a b e l i t . T I T L E i U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS L e s s o n 13. S u r p r i s e I I I Timet 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Ground r u l e s . 2. F a m i l i a r i z e t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h S i n g t h e " F e e l i n g s " song. S5 c o u l d name a l l S t h e c o n c e p t o f " f e e l i n g s . " Have t h e s t u d e n t s name the f i v e emotions. e m o t i o n s . S 2 and S4 name 4. S j needed p i c t u r e s as cue. Sg named 3. 3. Review t h e emotion Use t h e song " I f you a r e s u r p r i s e d ..." " s u r p r i s e . " 4. R e i n f o r c e t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f Demonstrate... Sg became aware o f t h e s u r p r i s e t h r o u g h drawing. U s i n g c i r c l e s , draw a f a c e , two eyes and c i r c l e o f h i s mouth mouth. Have t h e Btudents copy them. Ask them Paper crayons and rounded i t t o t o I d e n t i f y t he e x p r e s s i o n v e r b a l l y and t o ex p r e s s s u r p r i s e . e x press i t f a c i a l l y . T h i s was a t a s k which he c o u l d not p e r f o r m i n t h e p r e v i o u s two l e s s o n s . 5. S t a t u e b u i l d i n g — I n c r e a s e "Warm-up phase" s t u d e n t s ' g e n e r a l e x p r e s s i v e Have the st u d e n t a walk around i n c i r c l e s . a b i l i t y . P l a y t h e cymbols l o u d l y and u n e x p e c t e d l y . Have t h e s t u d e n t s " s t o p " and " f r e e z e " . T u r n i n g t h e body The word " f r e e z e " " B u i l d i n g t h e s t a t u e " around t o t h e s o u r c e was a d i f f i c u l t T r y t o s c u l p t u r e t h e i r emotions b a s i n g on o f t h e n o i s e seemed t o c o n c e p t . "Stop" t h e i r n a t u r a l r e a c t i o n t o an unexpected l o u d be t h e common response and "don't move" n o i s e . among t h e s t u d e n t a . seem t o convey t h e mesage b e t t e r . "Group S h a r i n g " Ask each o f the s t u d e n t s t o d e s c r i b e t h e ex p e r i e n c e o f a c t i n g o u t t h i s f e e l i n g . P o i n t T I T L E I U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS Les s o n 13. S u r p r i s e I I I Time: 45 minute s O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 6. Develop a sense o f Independence and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s . o u t t he d i f f e r e n t and s i m i l a r ways o f e x p r e s s i n g t h e emotion among the group members. Use t he f o l l o w i n g " r e a l - l i f e " s i t u a t i o n s : Have the s t u d e n t s s i t on t h e bench o u t s i d e o f th e c l a s s r o o m . Have one s t u d e n t e n t e r a t a t i m e . The s t u d e n t w i l l be s u r p r i s e d by someone Jumping b e h i n d an o b s t a c l e . Another a c t i v i t y i n v o l v e s s t u d e n t s f o r m i n g i n t o dyads, s t a n d i n g w i t h t h e i r back f a c i n g one another. Have them wear l o o k i n g masks. On t u r n i n g around t h e y s h o u l d both say " s u r p r i s e " . At the end o f each a c t i v i t y , ask the s t u d e n t s t he f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . "How d i d you f e e l when . . . ? " Complete t h e sentence, "When I am s u r p r s e d I ..." Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A v a r i e t y o f masks A l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s c o u l d i d e n t i f y t h e emotion s u r p r i s e . In c o m p l e t i n g t h e s e n t e n c e , t h e s t u d e n t s needed v i s u a l cue. i . e . t o p r o v i d e a s u r p r i s e l o o k . The answers g e n e r a t e d were " a a h l " , "round mouth", " b i g e y e s " . E m o t i o n a l , " r e a l - l i f e " s i t u a t i o n s t h a t a r e s t i l l f r e s h on s t u d e n t s ' minds work b e s t i n e l i c i t i n g a f f e c t i v e s t a t e m e n t s . T I T L E I U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS Lesson 14. F e a r I : Scared as a mouse Timet 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r ocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Ground r u l e s . 2. F a m i l i a r i z e t h e Btudents w i t h t h e concept o f " f e e l i n g s . " S i n g the " F e e l i n g s " song. Have the s t u d e n t s name the f i v e emotions. A l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s c o u l d name at l e a s t 3 e m o t i o n s . 3. I n t r o d u c e t h e f e e l i n g o f " f e a r " . Demonstrate... S i n g song u a i n g " I f you a r e happy" t u n e . S u b s t i t u t e "happy" w i t h " f e a r " . " I f you a r e a f r a i d and you know i t say I am s c a r e d ( r e p e a t 3 times) and you r e a l l y want t o show i t . I f you a r e a f r a i d and you know i t say I am s c a r e d . " 4. I n c r e a s e awareness o f f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n o f f e a r i n s e l f and. o t h e r s . Demonstrate a f r i g h t e n e d l o o k . Have t h e Btudents d i s c u s s t h e s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s on the demonstrator's f a c e . Then p a i n t the whole f a c e white l e a v i n g t h e eyes and mouth i n c i r c u l a r shapes not p a i n t e d . Then use " L e t ' s Make Faces Game" t o make a f r i g h t e n e d l o o k . As t h e s t u d e n t s t o s e l e c t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f a c e , eyes and mouth which i l l u s t r a t e f e a r . White powdered p a i n t mixed w i t h hand l o t i o n . " L e t ' s Make F a c e s Game* by T r e n d E n t e r p r i s e s I n c . 5. Develop 10018117 a c c e p t a b l e ways o f e x p r e s s i n g f e a r . Use a v a r i e t y o f p i c t u r e s d e p i c t i n g f e a r . Have the s t u d e n t s d i s c u s s the v a r i o u s ways o f e x p r e s s i n g f e a r u s i n g the p i c t u r e s as c u e s . The b e h a v i o u r * a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f e a r were " s h a k i n g " , "round e y e s " , "mouth opened" T I T L E I U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS Les s o n 14. F e a r I t S c a r e d as a mouse Timet 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P rocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 6. Expand s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s t o e c r l b e t h e i r emotions u s i n g s i m i l e . 7. Review t h e major concepts i n l e s s o n . Generate an open d i s c u s s i o n and f o c u s on t h e s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e b e h a v i o u r s . L i s t them on b o a r d . Demonstrate... Use a p i c t u r e o f a mouse b e i n g chased by a f i e r c e l o o k i n g c a t . Have the s t u d e n t s a c t aa mice b e i n g chased by t h e t e a c h e r , the c a t . A f t e r w a r d s , have the s t u d e n t s complete t h e s e n t e n c e , " I am as s c a r e d as t h e mouse." Have t h e s t u d e n t s e x p r e s s f e a r . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P i c t u r e o f a mouse b e i n g chased by a c a t . " s c r e a m i n g " "white f a c e " " c o l d " " t e n s e " " h o l d i n g o n t o someone" The a c t i v i t y g e n e r a t e d l o t s o f e n t h u s i a s t i c r e s p o n s e s from t h a s t u d e n t s . S h r i e k i n g and l a u g h t e r were hear d d u r i n g t h e a c t i o n p e r i o d . They a l l needed t o be prompted and shaped i n e x p r e s s i n g f e a r . T I T L E I U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS Les s o n 15. Fear I I Timet 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Ground r u l e s . 2. F a m i l i a r i z e t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f " f e e l i n g s . " G i v e e v e r y s t u d e n t a hug and ask them how i t makes them f e e l . Then s i n g " F e e l i n g " song. Have t h e s t u d e n t s name the 5 emotions. S^, S3 and Sg a l l s a i d "happy". S 4 B a l d "not a n g r y " . S 2 and 85 needed p r o m p t i n g . 3. Review t h e emotion " f e a r " . Use t h e song, " I f you are a f r a i d . . . " 4. S t i m u l a t e t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f f e a r t h r o u g h music. Demonstrate... S e l e c t the p a r t o f the O v e r t u r e s t o t h e motion p i c t u r e Jaws which i l l u s t r a t e t he mood b e s t . Have t h e s t u d e n t s dance t o the p i e c e o f music f i r s t i n d i v i d u a l l y , t h e n as a group, u s i n g v a r i o u s movements l i k e t s h a k i n g the f e e t , hugging o n e s e l f , c u r l i n g i n t o a b a l l . O v e r t u r e t o t h e motion p l c u t r e Jaws. S3 was v e r y good a t e x p r e s s i n g f e a r by s h a k i n g h e r arms and l e g s . S4 and S5 i m i t a t e d t h e movements v e r y c l o s e l y t o o . 5. I n c r e a s e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s i n t r a n s l a t i n g f e a r i n a r t form. Demonstrate... Have t h e s t u d e n t s c l o s e t h e i r eyes and imagine b e i n g " s c a r e d " . U s i n g t h e above music as backdrop, ask the s t u d e n t s t o c r e a t e a p i c t u r e u s i n g "shaky" hands and f i n g e r s . P a i n t O v e r t u r e t o t h e motion p i c t u r e Jaws. They a l l d i d a b e a u t i f u l Job s h a k i n g as t h e y p a i n t e d t h e p i c t u r e . 6. D e v e l o p an awareness o f body r a c t i o n s t o f e a r u s i n g " r e a l - l i f e " s i t u a t i o n s . Demonstrate... Use p i c t u r e s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n s and have t h e s t u d e n t s t o a c t t h e n o u t . 1. Someone I s b e i n g chased by a v i c i o u s l o o k i n g dog. 2. Someone has t o walk a c r o s s a s u s p e n s i o n b r i d g e . P i c t u r e s F o r scene one, t h e s t u d e n t s t e n d e d t o l a u g h even though i n r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s t h e y have been o b s e r v e d t o be a f r a i d o f dogs. T I T L E : U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS Les s o n 15. Fear I I T i m e i 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r ocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n As t he s t u d e n t s are a c t i n g o ut the p i c t u r e s , ask them: "How do you f e e l when you . . . ? " "How does your body feel7" "What do you do when you a r e a f r a i d ? " "What made you f e e l s c a r e d ? " Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F or scene two, the s t u d e n t s have t o walk a c r o s s a beam suspended by two c h a i r s . S j , S3 and S5 were f r i g h t e n e d and so t h e i r r e a c t i o n s were used i n a d i d a c t i c l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . S1S3 r e f u s e d t o walk, and S5 walked but screamed t h e whole t i m e . TITLES U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS Les s o n 16. Pear I I I T i n e : 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Ground r u l e s . 2. F a m i l i a r i z e t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h the oonaept of "fe e l i n g s , " 3. Review t h e emotion " f e a r " . 4. I n c r e a s e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s t o use p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n In d e s c r i b i n g f e a r . 5. S t a t u e b u i l d i n g - i n c r e a s e s t u d e n t s ' g e n e r a l e x p r e s s i v e a b i l i t y . S i n g " F e e l i n g " song. Have t h e s t u d e n t s name the S emotlom• Use the song, " I f you a r e angry..." Demonstrate... P r e s e n t a v a r i e t y o f f e a r f u l l o o k i n g t o y animals l i k e snake, c i c a d a , dragon, c r o c o d i l e a n d s d i d e r t o s t u d e n t s . Have each o f t h e s t u d e n t s choose one and p r e t e n d t o be " i t " . Encourage the s t u d e n t s t o move and make sounds l i k e t he animal chosen. Ask t h e o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s how t h e y f e e l on s e e i n g such an a n i m a l . "Warm-up phase" Have t h e s t u e n t s shake knees and f e e t , hug o n e s e l f , h o l d onto someone, and c o v e r t h e f a c e . A f t e r p e r f o r m i n g t h e above a c t i o n s , have t h e s t u d e n t s walk around I n c i r c l e s u n t i l t h e word " s t o p " I s g i v e n . " B u i l d i n g the s t a t u e " Have the s t u d e n t s choose one o f the above a c t i v i t i e s and a c t I t o u t . "Group S h a r i n g " Aak each o f the s t u d e n t s t o d e s c r i b e t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a c t i n g o u t t h i s f e e l i n g . P o i n t out the d i f f e r e n t ways o f e x p r e s s i n g t h emotion among the group members. G i a n t c i c a d a . Snake Dragon C r o c o d i l e • Spider S3and Sg d i d not l i k e any o f t h e r u b b e r a n i m a l s . They apont a n e o u s l y e x p r e s s e d , "I don't l i k e them", "I am s c a r e d " . Most o f t h e s t u d e n t s p r e f e r r e d t o shake knees and f e e t t o i l l u s t r a t e f e a r . T I T L E : U n i t I I I . AWARENESS O F T H E F I V E P R I M A R Y EMOTIONS L e s s o n 1 6 . F e a r I I I T i m e : 4 5 m i n u t e s O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 6 . D e v e l o p a s e n s e o f i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d p r o b e l m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s . P r e s e n t t o s t u d e n t s a v a r i e t y o f p i c t u r e s d e p i c t i n g p e o p l e i n f e a r . S h o w t h e g r o u p o n e p i c t u r e a t a t i m e a n d f a c i l i t a t e a d i s c u s s i o n . " W h a t i s t h e p e r s o n d o i n g I n t h e p i c t u r e ? " " H o w i s t h e p e r s o n f e e l i n g ? " " H o w d o e s t h e p e r s o n e x p r e s s t h e e m o t i o n ? " " W h a t made t h a t p e r s o n . . . 7 A t t h e e n d o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n , a s k t h e s t u d e n t s t h e v a r i o u s w a y s o f e x p r e s s i n g t h e e m o t i o n , " W h e n I am s c a r e d , I w a n t t o . . . " A l w a y s g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e f e e d b a c k a b o u t t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P i c t u r e s V e r b a l p r o m p t i n g w a s n e e d e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e s t a t e m e n t . By - " h o l d o n t o o t h e r s " 5 2 - " I ' m s c a r e d " 53 - " s h a k e h e r h e a d " 54 - " I ' m s c a r e d " 55 - " s c r e a m " 5 6 - " I ' m s c a r e d " L i k e " S u r p r i s e " f e a r a s a n e m o t i o n i s s e l d o m e l i c i t e d i n a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t . A s a r e s u l t , b o t h t h e a f f e c t i v e a n d t h e c o g n i t i v e c o m p o n e n t s o f f e a r i s n o t w e l l d e v e l o p e d a m o n g t h e s t u d e n t s . T I T L E I U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OP THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS Lesson 17. What are t h e f i v e p r i m a r y emotions? Timet 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1. Ground r u l e s . 2. F a m i l i a r i z e t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f f e e l i n g . 3. R o l e - p l a y i n g . I d e n t i f y t h e 5 p r i m a r y emotions. S i n g " F e e l i n g " song. Have the s t u d e n t s name the f i v e emotions. Have the s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e v a r i o u s v i g n e t t e s . Have t h e s t u d e n t s i d e n t i f y t h e emotion t h a t i s a r o u s e d . "Happiness/Joy" Someone i s s i t t i n g i n a r o c k i n g c h a i r , s m i l i n g , l i s t e n i n g t o a s o f t p i e c e o f music and d r i n k i n g soda pop. "Sadness" Someone has a sad l o o k on t h e ' f a c e because h e r l o v e l y n e c k l a c e i s bro k e n . The beads are a l l o v e r t h e f l o o r . "Anger" Someone i s f e e l i n g angry because he i s b e i n g y e l l e d a t c o n s t a n t l y . S u r p r i s e i Someone has a s u r p r i s e d l o o k on t h e f a c e when he/she i s caught s t e a l i n g f o o d from t h e r e f r i g e r a t o r . R o cking c h a i r S o f t s o o t h i n g Music Soda pop Beaded n e c k l a c e S5 c o u l d name the 5 emotions i n d e p e n d e n t l y . S j , S3 and S4 c o u l d name 4. Sg c o u l d name 3. S\ c o u l d name 2. A l l t h e s t u d e n t s c o u l d i d e n t i f y h a p p i n e s s and sadness w i t h o u t any p r o m p t i n g . 3 c o u l d i d e n t i f y anger, 2 c o u l d i d e n t i f y s u r p r i s e and 3 c o u l d i d e n t i f y f e a r . T I T L E I U n i t I I I . AWARENESS O F T H E F I V E P R I M A R Y EMOTIONS L e s s o n 1 7 . W h a t a r e t h e f i v e p r i m a r y e m o t i o n s ? Timet 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s P r ocedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 4. I n c r e a s e t he awareness o f s e l f i n the a r e a o f emotions. " F e a r " Someone has a f r i g h t e n e d l o o k on t h e f i a c e when he/she p i c k s o ut a w l g g l y worm from a l u n c h bag. Have the s t u d e n t s complete t he f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e s . "When I am happy, I ..." "When I am sad, I ..." "When I am angry, I ..." When I am s u r p r i s e d , I ..." When I am s c a r e d , I ..." Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Wlggly worm Lunch bag Most o f t h e answers needed t o be prompted w i t h a v i s u a l c u e . I.e. Demonstrate a happy l o o k and ask them t o complete t h e s e n t e n c e s . T I T L E t U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF T H E F I V E P R I M A R Y EMOTIONS L e s s o n 1 8 . We a l l h a v e f e e l i n g . T i m e t 45 m i n u t e s O b j e c t i v e s P r o c e d u r e s M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 1 . G r o u n d r u l e s . 2 . F a m i l i a r i z e t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f f e e l i n g . 3 . S t a t u e b u i l d i n g — i n c r e a s e s t u d e n t s ' g e n e r a l e x p r e s s i v e a b i l i t y . 4. D e v e l o p a n a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y f e e l i n g s w h i c h a r e a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e v a r i o u s s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . S i n g t h e " F e e l i n g " s o n g . H a v e t h e s t u d e n t s name t h e 5 e m o t i o n s . U s e a n i n s t a t j m a t i c c a m e r a a n d t a k e p i c t u r e s o f a l l t h e s t u d e n t s i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e 5 e m o t i o n s . A f t e r w a r d s , m i x u p a l l o f t h e p i c t u r e s a n d a s k t h s s t u d e n t s t o p i c k u p t h e i r own p i c t u r e s i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e c o r r e c t e x p r e s s i o n . H a v e e a c h o f t h e s t u d e n t s i d e n t i f y t h e a p p r o p r i a t e e m o t i o n f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s : 1 . E a t i n g o u t a t a r e s t a u r a n t w i t h a f r i e n d . 2 . C u t o n e ' a f i n g e r w i t h a k n i f e . 3 . N e a r l y r u n o v e r b y a c a r . 4. S o m e o n e h i t s y o u f o r n o o b v i o u s r e a s o n . 5. A c a t j u m p s o n t o y o u r l a p w h e n y o u a r e s l e e p i n g . 6 . R e c e i v e p r a i s e f o r g o o d w o r k . 7 . L o s e t h e money y o u w a n t t o b u y c h o c o l a t e w i t h . 8 . Y o u t o u c h a h o t s t o v e a c c i d e n t a l l y . I n s t a n m a t i c c a m e r a Sy, S 2 , S3 a n d S5 g o t 3 o u t o f 5. S4 a n d S g g o t 4 o u t o f 5. M o s t o f t h e s t u d e n t s e n j o y e d h a v i n g t h e i r p i c t u r e s t a k e n . V e r y l i t t l e p h y s i c a l s h a p i n g w a s n e c e s s a r y f o r s t a t u e b u i l d i n g . I t w a s a n i m p r o v e m e n t i n i t s e l f . T h e y a l s o e n j o y e d l o o k i n g f o r t h e i r o w n p i c t u r e s . T h e c o n c e p t s o f s u r p r i s e a n d f e a r w e r e n o t w e l l a c q u i r e d b y t h e s t u d e n t s . T h e s t u d e n t s ' e n t h u s i a s t i c r e s p o n s e s i n l o c a t i n g t h e i r o w n p i c t u r e s i s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f i n c r e a s e a w a r e n e s s o f s e l f . T I T L E : U n i t I I I . AWARENESS OF THE FIVE PRIMARY EMOTIONS Les s o n 18. We a l l have f e e l i n g s Timet 45 minutes O b j e c t i v e s Procedures M a t e r i a l s R e s u l t s E v a l u a t i o n 5. Review t h e 5 emotions. 9. No one l i s t e n s t o you when you t r y t o t a l k . 10. You c o u l d not f i n d your way home. Have t h e s t u d e n t s s i n g " I f you a r e happy..." u s i n g the 5 emotions. E x a g g e r a t e t h e e x p r e s s i o n s on f a c e . Always g i v e s t u d e n t s p o s i t i v e feedback abnout t h e i r performance. Most o f t h e s t u d e n t s c o u l d remember o r f o l l o w t h e v e r s e s i n t h e song. 

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