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The attitudes of counsellors towards their client : does foreign accent make a difference? Alexander, Linda Jean 1987

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THE ATTITUDES OF COUNSELLORS TOWARDS THEIR C L I E N T DOES FOREIGN ACCENT MAKE A DIFFERENCE?  by LINDA JEAN ALEXANDER B.A.,  The U n i v e r s i t y  A THESIS SUBMITTED  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE Department We  accept to  of C o u n s e l l i n g this  thesis  the r e q u i r e d  STUDIES Psychology  as conforming standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA MAY  ©  1982  1987  L i n d a Jean Alexander,  1987  In  presenting  degree at  this  the  thesis in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department publication  this or of  thesis for by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  It  is  COO  10  S - g U l i kJcV  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6(3/81)  Library shall make  granted  by the  understood  that  this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without  permission.  Department of  an advanced it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  that the  for  x^SHC^Ql^OG/  head of copying  my or  my written  i i  ABSTRACT This  research  counsellors'  addressed  attitudes  the  nature  towards t h e i r  of  mainstream  culturally  different  clients. This all  investigator of  the  conducted  subjects  Counselling  were  Psychology The c o u n s e l l o r s  first  of t h e  in  the second  The  research  control  a client  design  was e x p o s e d situation  and  counsellors  the  was  year  British in  the those  post-test  only  towards by  In e a c h s t u d y client  in  group  was  of  client  of  (mature).  investigated  a  shown  i n each study.  to  Each  a  their  presenting one  group  counselling  exposed  to  viewed  the  presenting two  counsellor  non-accented c l i e n t  a  the  and  a  groups  i n the  of  control  each c o u n s e l l o r  same c l i e n t  in  but w i t h  a  accent.  measure . t h e  clients,  a  constructed the  videotape  e x p e r i m e n t a l group  foreign To  other  of  s t u d y were  attitudes  non-accented  problem  group viewed a  Department  experimental  accent.  which  (novice) while  final  were  in  client.  matched-guise  counselling  program  an  clients  the  foreign-accented A  was  had a f o r e i g n a  i n the  i n the f i r s t  Counsellors'  to  studies  University  s t u d y were i n t h e i r  different  who  The  counselling  group.  culturally  students at  Columbia. year  two s e p a r a t e  attitudes  Semantic utilizing  counsellors  of  counsellors  Differential 50  bipolar  responded  Attitude  adjectives.  to  towards  a  Scale In  written  their was  addition, Interview  Questionnaire attitudes  designed  of  beliefs;  the  t o i n v e s t i g a t e what may  counsellors,  perception  of  the  such  client's  awareness of c u l t u r a l  differences.  In b o t h  counsellors  studies  all  accented  and  positive  attitude  non-accented on  S t u d y One attitude client not  responded than the  in  The  response  to  and  the c l i e n t  in  with  more  positive  who  attitudes  viewed i n the towards  the Interview  level  in  more the  on t h e c l i e n t  suggested  in  towards t h e i r  the  future of  and a t t e n d e d  the  influences  education.  to  did or  the  mainstream  reporting  more  counsellors  t o the e x t e r n a l  or n o t ) .  counselling  clients;  and t h e u t i l i z a t i o n  t r a i n i n g and  of  novice,  reacted the  situation  (accented  areas  accented  a v a r i a b l e which process;  for  with  the  T h o s e more m a t u r e  S t u d y Two were l e s s i n v o l v e d  Recommendations  in  accented  towards the c l i e n t .  influences  accented  Questionnaire,  personal  affinity  in  (p>.05).  client  in  the  non-accented  the  One g e n e r a l l y  counsellors  client,  second study  i n Study  a  an  Scale.  intensity  the  of  overall  Differential  beginner c o u n s e l l o r s on  an  to the accented  counsellors  their  non-accented c l i e n t In  a  counsellors  (p^.001).  differ  Semantic  exposed  with  rated  similarity  motivation  situations  the  However, t h e c o u n s e l l o r s  as:  i n f l u e n c e the  research  attitudes  similarity  of  cousellors  of e x p e r i e n c e  the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l of the matched-guise  are  as  counselling videotape  i v  TABLE OF CONTENTS  L I S T OF TABLES L I S T OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  viii ix X  CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION  1  BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM  1  PURPOSE OF THE STUDY  5  COUNSELLING: DEFINITION, NATURE AND GOALS  5  THE  CULTURALLY DIFFERENT CLIENT  7  Definition  7  o f Terms  W e s t e r n V a l u e s Which Interview  Impact  the Counselling 12  THE MAINSTREAM COUNSELLOR AND THE COUNSELLING RELATIONSHIP  13  LANGUAGE: THE KEY VARIABLE IN THE COUNSELLING RELATIONSHIP  16  SUMMARY  17  CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW  19  INTRODUCTION  19  ATTRIBUTION THEORY  19  ATTITUDE AND LANGUAGE ATTITUDE THEORY  23  ATTITUDE AND EMOTION  27  LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION  28  LANGUAGE AND PERSONALITY  30  DIALECT, RACE AND ACCENT  31  SUMMARY  41  V  CHAPTER THREE: INSTRUMENTATION  AND APPARATUS  ATTITUDE MEASUREMENT: The S e m a n t i c  Differential  42 42  Reliability  44  Validity  45  Attitude Scale  and t h e P r e d i c t i o n  of Behaviour  Construction  46 47  INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE  50  DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION  51  APPARATUS: The M a t c h e d G u i s e V i d e o t a p e s  52  CHAPTER FOUR: METHODOLOGY  58  INTRODUCTION  58  RESEARCH QUESTIONS  59  DESIGN  59  PILOT STUDY  60  POPULATION AND SAMPLE  60  SAMPLE: SELECTION AND RANDOM ASSIGNMENT  62  STUDY ONE  62  Sample C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s :  S t u d y One  STUDY TWO  64 64  Sample C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s :  S t u d y Two  APPARATUS  65 66  Modified  Matched-Guise  V i d e o t a p e : S t u d y One  66  Modified  Matched-Guise  V i d e o t a p e : S t u d y Two  68  PROCEDURE S t u d y One and S t u d y Two INSTRUMENTATION  69 69 71  vi  HYPOTHESIS AND S T A T I S T I C A L ANALYSIS  73  Hypothesis  73  Statistical  Analysis  .. 73  VALIDITY AND R E L I A B I L I T Y : THE SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL Interview  Questionnaire  . 74  Analysis  75  SUMMARY  75  CHAPTER F I V E : RESULTS  77  INTRODUCTION  77  HYPOTHESIS  78  General  A t t i t u d e Towards C l i e n t  SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL: C l i e n t EVIDENCE CONCERNING Questionnaire Difference  Characteristics  THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS:  82  Interview 86  in Attitudes  Counsellor's Client  79  Affinity  89  Towards t h e C l i e n t  Motivation  93 94  SUMMARY  95  CHAPTER S I X : SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS  AND RECOMMENDATIONS  ... 97  SUMMARY OF THE PROBLEM  97  METHODOLOGY AND LIMITATIONS  98  INSTRUMENTATION  100  CONCLUSIONS  101  Major H y p o t h e s i s :  restated  102  STUDY ONE: G e n e r a l A t t i t u d e Towards t h e C l i e n t  102  Research Questions:  104  S t u d y One  vii  Difference  in Attitude  Counsellor's Client The  Versus  Towards  the Client  Accented  Clients  Characteristics  Difference  Affinity  Two  RECOMMENDATIONS  109  111 111  Towards  the C l i e n t  Motivation  Client's  108  109  in Attitude  Counsellor's  The  107  Stronger  Study  106 107  Attitude  Questions:  Client  the C l i e n t  Ethnicity  General  Moderate Sample  Towards  Motivation  Client's  STUDY TWO:  Research  Affinity  105  112  Ethnicity FOR C O U N S E L L I N G  112  113 RESEARCH  REFERENCES  114  117  APPENDIX  A: C o n s e n t  Form  APPENDIX  B: P r e p a r e d  APPENDIX  C: S e m a n t i c D i f f e r e n t i a l A t t i t u d e  APPENDIX  D:  APPENDIX  E: Demographic  Interview  134  Script  Questionnaire Information  136 Scale  142 146 148  viii  L I S T OF T A B L E S Table 1.1  Page P e r c e n t a g e of P o p u l a t i o n  i n Canada by E t h n i c  Origin  2  4.1  Sample C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  4.2  Hoyt's R e l i a b i l i t y Estimates f o r the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Mean A t t i t u d e S c o r e s f o r P u r e M a i n s t r e a m C o u n s e l l o r s from t h e 50-Item S e m a n t i c Differential  81  Mean A t t i t u d e S c o r e s f o r t h e C u l t u r a l l y S e n s i t i v e C o u n s e l l o r from t h e 50-Item Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l  81  Summary o f t - t e s t s f o r D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e A t t i t u d e S c a l e Items ( M a i n s t r e a m ) f o r C l i e n t Characteristics  83  Mean R a t i n g s f o r t h e D i m e n s i o n s : E v a l u a t i o n , P o t e n c y and A c t i v i t y f o r M a i n s t r e a m Counsellors  87  P e r c e n t a g e of S u b j e c t s Experimental Condition  Who A t t e n d e d t o t h e and C l i e n t E t h n i c i t y  88  S t u d y One: T r a i t s U s e d Characteristics  to Describe  S t u d y Two: T r a i t s U s e d Characteristics  to Describe  5.1  5.2  5.3  5.4  5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10  f o r Both S t u d i e s  Client Client 92  Affinity  S t u d y Two: C o u n s e l l o r ' s Client  Affinity  Perception  75  91  S t u d y One: C o u n s e l l o r ' s Client  Counsellor  66  Towards t h e 93 Towards t h e  of C l i e n t M o t i v a t i o n  94 95  ix  L I S T OF  FIGURES  Figure 5.1  Page T o t a l I n d i v i d u a l A t t i t u d e Scores for Mainstream C o u n s e l l o r s  80  X  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to those  people  who p a r t i c i p a t e d in my r e s e a r c h . I thank my Committee Chairman, h i s h e l p f u l advice encouragement  and for remaining  throughout  I would a l s o  D r . Marv Westwood,  this  a constant  I thank D r . B i l l  source  of  project.  l i k e to acknowledge  his challenging analysis  for  D r . Doug Willms  for  of my data and i n v a l u a b l e  guidance.  Borgen for h i s e n t h u s i a s t i c  comments  and suggestions d u r i n g the  i n i t i a l stages of  this  research.  Diane P o l l a r d ' s a s s i s t a n c e enabled me to have access the  students during c l a s s time.  I appreciate her,  as  for her warmth and her generous support d u r i n g t h i s I thank my c o l l e g u e , and sense of humour. of  this  Susan  Rungta, for her  project.  friendship  Working with her has been a  Barbara Underwood  and Bruce  were most understanding and p a t i e n t . available  at a moment's  the q u a l i t y  highlight  of  the  notice  final  Finally, her dependable  I also  analysis  for  extend  in  my  producing  of my d a t a .  I would l i k e to thank my f a m i l y : my mother a s s i s t a n c e at  understanding and  home; my  a c c e p t i n g my  daughter,  absences; and  for h i s u n f a l t e r i n g encouragement  Each one  be  and I am indebted to him  manuscript.  the computerized s t a t i s t i c a l  McGillivray,  Bruce continued to  a p p r e c i a t i o n to Frank Ho, who was i n s t r u m e n t a l  me.  well,  thesis.  My t y p i s t s ,  Richard,  to  adapted t h e i r  and I am e t e r n a l l y  grateful.  schedules  my  for  Zoe,  for  husband,  and confidence  to accommodate  in  mine  1  C H A P T E R ONE  INTRODUCTION  T h i s chapter addresses counsellors' clients.  attitudes  The  discussed  in  different presented.  towards  their  Western-value-based relation  cross-cultural  the background to  client  may  culturally counselling  to b a r r i e r s  setting.  which  in  of  different model  may emerge  D i f f i c u l t i e s which experience  the i s s u e  the  is in  a  culturally  counselling  are  also  A d i s c u s s i o n of the c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p from  the c o u n s e l l o r s '  p e r s p e c t i v e completes  this chapter.  . . . people cannot act or interact at a l l meaningful way except through the medium of . . . [we are part of one] . . . interrelated ( H a l l 1982, p . 188)  in any culture system.  BACKGROUND OF T H E P R O B L E M  A 1981 census  i n metro  2,137,395 i n h a b i t a n t s , 1984).  Canadian  ethnic o r i g i n ,  Toronto i n d i c a t e s  that of  the  41% were born o u t s i d e of Canada (Mayer  figures  of percentages  p u b l i s h e d i n 1961 and 1981,  of  population  suggest that  has been not only an i n c r e a s e  in the number of  a l s o an expansion of c u l t u r a l  heterogeneity  by  there  immigrants but  (see  Table  1.1).  2  Table  1.1:  Percentage of P o p u l a t i o n i n Canada by Ethnic Origin  1961 population=(est) Ethnic  12,000,000  1981population=24,083,500  Origin  Ethnic  British French German Dutch i Scandinavian Other EuropeanOther  This  43.8 30.4 10.3 12.3 4.2  shift  established  is  partly  due  immigration p o l i c i e s .  previous p o l i c i e s were c o n s i d e r e d Canadians.  preferred more  As  British French German Italian Ukrainian  40.2 26.7 4.7 3.1 2.2  Other  23.0  to  a  change  those  Northern Europeans because  they  to a s s i m i l a t e and  affected,  f o r e i g n m i g r a t i o n to (the c o - e x i s t e n c e ethnic  identity)  government on  of ethnic is  social  1976).  mainstream ethnic  and  W.E. attitudes  With  this  In a d d i t i o n , groups who  that a l l  increase  experience  policies  continuing  It  make  to  alter react,  encourage  multiculturalism  maintain t h e i r  is  supported  by  Canadians w i l l  cultural contact  own the  benefit  (Berry, Kalin  in  more  good  conditions  to c u l t u r a l p l u r a l i t y  Canadians  groups  by  encouraged.  the premise  from t h i s approach Taylor  Canada.  earlier that  throughout the world, immigration and refugee to accomodate  in  Porter (1973) s t a t e s  likely  political  Origin  and  variation with  other  (Westwood & Borgen 1986).  Lambert  (1970)  has i n v e s t i g a t e d  of Canadians towards immigrants.  the  fundamental  He r e p o r t s  that,  3  although Canadians "take p r i d e i n approach to several  immigration" (Lambert  important concerns.  subjects in his than lower  study  income  to  differences  and  to the  contact  attitudes  of  the  family.  in  These  or p o s s i b l e  Lambert  f e e l i n g s of t h r e a t .  competition view  ongoing  the  for  immigrant  social  negative a t t r i b u t e s ,  A similar situation the t o t a l  foreign countries is  the c u r r e n t  language  spoken.  to  'melting  illegal  i n the  entry  of  pot.'  as the  groups.  In  dominant ethnic  However,  for numerous  in  interest  populated  immigration and refugee many  where  were born  Of p a r t i c u l a r  H i s t o r i c a l l y , minimally  to  306).  U n i t e d States  maintain E n g l i s h  i n the  intruders  consequently  family who  p o p u l a t i o n has increased over the years  the  305)  as  Canadians,  to c h a r i t y " (p.  1986).  to  negative  finding "it d i f f i c u l t  e x i s t s i n the  (Bar-Lewaw  effort  a change  group.  f a m i l y as w e l l These  (p.  while  p o p u l a t i o n have  groups were absorbed  such a s ,  these  are able  as " p o t e n t i a l  system"  r a i s e t h e i r s i g h t s from c o m p e t i t i o n  40% of  in  On the other hand,  jobs.  assigning  of each  immigrant and c o n t r o l any  being in  the  "anxious,  attributed  situation  of the  into  status  immigrant p a r t i c u l a r l y  the lower wage earner i s p r o t e c t i v e  Lambert s t a t e s ,  have  "friendly"  felt  Canadians, t h e r e f o r e ,  with the  direct  they  and more  turn,  pot  i n the community i s synonomous with higher  income and s t a t u s . regulate  who,  socio-economic  Power and p o s i t i o n  304),  The higher socio-economic  earners,  work  1970 p.  were "benevolent"  threatened and s u s p i c i o u s " relation  r e j e c t i n g the melting  their reasons  policies  particular,  and the  4  Spanish-speaking c u l t u r e numbered, total  150 m i l l i o n  Americans while in  17.5 m i l l i o n were H i s p a n i c s p l u s illegals  (Bar-Lewaw 1986).  Spanish as the f i r s t In Canada, ongoing and 1986)  1984,  estimates  Some c i t i e s  4  m i l l i o n of  of 225 of 3 -  the s t a t u s  million, 12  unresolved  issue.  S.I.  Hayakawa  the fear  of l o s s  of a  attitude,  c a u t i o n s Bar-Lewaw  (Farquharson societies  (p. B1).  Of primary importance in the U n i t e d S t a t e s  l i n g u i s t i c unity  of E n g l i s h .  (1986), c o u l d  escalate  c l a s h r e s u l t i n g in s e g r e g a t i o n with language as i t s S o c i e t a l change,  of  American  t h i s nature, feels  about  how  speakers  in American u n i v e r s i t i e s have become the o b j e c t s of  are u n f a i r l y accent  of  Himmelsback As our different  teaching.  Many students  the  TA  (Schwartz,  Gibbs,  Dietz,  a  the of (TA)  criticism feel  they  s t r u g g l i n g to comprehend course content and Kelly  the and  1985). exposure individual  to and  contact  increases,  so  with  the  ethnically  does  our  need  understanding the r e a c t i o n s to the d i f f e r e n c e s hear.  into  cause.  influences foreign  is  This  R e c e n t l y , f o r e i g n graduate t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s  by the students they are  an  South A f r i c a and S r i Lanka are  to advocates of a monolingual s o c i e t y  English.  utilize  bilingualism is  " b i l i n g u a l and b i c u l t u r a l  in Canada, Belgium,  North  milion  in F l o r i d a  of n a t i o n a l  proven r e c i p e s for d i s a s t e r s "  average  a  language and E n g l i s h as the second.  contends that the  that e x i s t  i n 1950,  The d i f f e r e n c e s  are emphasized  by  that we see or  between e t h n i c a l l y d i s s i m i l a r  cultural  factors  such  as  for  skin  people colour,  5  dress,  gestures,  language and a c c e n t ,  some or none of  which  the other may be aware (Westwood & Borgen 1986).  With 50% of  minority c l i e n t s  the  interview  (Sue  not c o n t i n u i n g c o u n s e l l i n g a f t e r 1981a),  the  influencing  paramount concern to the c o u n s e l l i n g  variables  initial are  of  profession.  PURPOSE OF THE STUDY  It  is  within  this  social  professionals,  in p a r t i c u l a r  In  determine  order  counselling  to  situation,  accented c l i e n t  was  counsellors,  the  influence  counsellor  r e q u i r e some  is  relationship  understanding,  which  permissiveness  includes  increasing c l i e n t  making s k i l l s and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g  of  respect  is a  for the  individual,  on  towards  a an  counselling by  warmth,  acceptance  (Pietrofesa,  E s s e n t i a l l y the  counselling  self-awareness, (Egan 1982;  decision-  Pietrofesa  between c o u n s e l l o r and  client It  and  is  client.  the long range c l i e n t  self-understanding  et  foundation  while encouraging the  et al . (1978) o u t l i n e  self-exploration,  different  i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and b e h a v i o u r a l l y .  a shared l e a r n i n g experience  as  attitude  mutual endeavour which has a  to grow e m o t i o n a l l y ,  Pietrofesa  services.  language  characterized and  process  It  of  By d e f i n i t i o n ,  is  Hoffman and P i n t o 1978).  1978).  provide  GOALS  definition.  Splete,  al.  various  of c o u n s e l l i n g and the c u l t u r a l l y  client a  that  investigated.  COUNSELLING: D E F I N I T I O N , NATURE,  The process  context  action  goals or  6  behaviour  change.  described  in  The  terms  exploration  is  of  therapeutic  process  r e a c h i n g the  facilitated  by  client the  and  to explore behaviours  and  understanding  is  attained  able  information personal change and  about  the  self  growth to o c c u r ,  is  achieved  problem  or cope w i t h  their  Inherent Pedersen  to  culture the  who  the  n o t i o n of  and  which c a l l s  for  Achievement  i s the  be and  and  i n c l u d e s an  rights  values are  third  and  and  most  developed  for  optimistic value  self-identity,  focuses  by  client.  foundation  adjust,  change  presented five  The  above, culture-  the dominant  i s the  is  modus o p e r a n d i  of  second  important  f o r the on  the  importance.  white  First,  value  informal social  which u l t i m a t e l y  a c h i e v e m e n t , a r e of utmost  skills  the  is  as an  future.  for  "object  to  of  man"  The  final  individual result  one  system.  motivation  the m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t  outlook  for  Behaviour  m a j o r i t y of c o u n s e l l o r s .  egalitarian  culture-bound and  ideal  held  problem-solving.  that  1976).  f o u r t h value p e r c e i v e s the world  exploited  western  and  A  an  integrate  in i t s  (1983) summarize  activism: activity  decision-making  action.  counselling  the  to  empowering  (Vontress  to Self-  decision-making  h e l p i n g the c l i e n t  Copeland  These  make up  effect,  environment  (1977) and  bound v a l u e s .  learning  Self-  feelings.  place.  is psychological  t h e u l t i m a t e g o a l of  goals.  t h e acknowledgement  change must t a k e  in  Summarized, c o u n s e l l i n g with  with  through  resolution,  being  are  willingness  self-disclose,  by  goals  whose  i n autonomy  7  THE CULTURALLY DIFFERENT CLIENT Definition  o f Terms  Before  proceeding  definition.  Culture is defined  and shared experiences (e.g.,  habit,  generation  dress,  such  accent) which  & Lambert  "capacity for both (Spiro 1972,  p.  a common c u l t u r e  100).  to  language  on from  one  is  (Aboud & Skerry  out,  'minority' of  The  anthropologists  mean  to  A  or  term the  group  cultural  of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n which  w i t h i n t h i s group,  influences  group  group  belonging to a d i s t i n c t  identity,  between one  share  pigmentation  when the dominant physical  of  generally  & Kim 1984).  or h e r s e l f  of e x t e r n a l  Cook-Gumperz 1982).  category  Race i s in skin  the  needs"  E t h n i c i t y i s the degree to  Their s o c i a l  developed a s a r e s u l t  has  s i m i l a r and  and they become the object  an i n d i v i d u a l s e e s himself  the d i f f e r e n c e s  differences  because  also  is a  1984).  (Gudykunst  (Atkinson & Wampold 1981).  group.  group  or p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y  defined as  them  Culture  Rohner  f r u s t r a t i n g human  ethnic  indicate v i s i b l e  characteristics,  ethnic  learned  a n c e s t r y or  are handed  1980).  An  or b i o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s  singles  warrant  Gudykunst & Kim 1984;  g r a t i f y i n g and  people who are s o c i a l l y  of people  terms  to i n c l u d e commonly  as v a l u e s ,  (Copeland 1983;  Triandis  accepted  some  to the next and maintained by a p a r t i c u l a r u n i f i e d  group of people 1984;  further,  which emphasized  and another  cross-cultural comparisons  is  (Gumperz & is of  used  by  cultures  8  (Gudykunst & Kim 1984) context,  primarily  i n t e r p e r s o n a l contact  mutual n o n i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y 1980).  In c o u n s e l l i n g ,  in the areas of  or p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n  of  language  this  & Lambert  the terms c r o s s - c u l t u r a l ,  interethnic  research those  concepts  Therefore,  cross-cultural,  counselling  is  cultures  differences. a  not only  but  also  Sundberg 1981) beliefs,  with  isolating  style  previous  which  includes  Sue 1977). the  two  motivated  of  with  and p r o c e s s ,  minority  clients  Coupled with the terminate a f t e r  fact  need  i s by i t s  very  that,  of  one i n t e r v i e w ,  nature  (Sue & Sue  view i s not  friendly,  i s not  1985), (Sue  that the bulk seek  who  1977),  & Marks  those who do it  the  and c o u n s e l l o r s  Young  do  and  and  r a t h e r than, g o a l o r i e n t e d  in  1985;  accent.  outwardly  The g e n e r a l l y accepted  more  Sundberg 1981)  liberal  1978;  is  (Wrenn 1962),  counselling  client  involved, (Sue  the  or  (Christensen  1981b), such as  v e r b a l , emotionally  egalitarian-thinking,  across  understanding  1981b;  description  l i m i t e d to being s u c c e s s f u l  introspective  comparisons  and  i n t r i n s i c western c u l t u r e - b o u n d values  internally  intercultural  cross-cultural counselling  (Sue  methods of communication (Sue  are h i g h l y  or  culturally different  life  purposes  interchangeably.  in terms of c u l t u r e - b o u n d values  norms,  The  used  concerned with  relationship  i n d i v i d u a l s who are  are  For the  interethnic  Broadly d e f i n e d ,  professional  and  (Triandis  and i n t e r c u l t u r a l appear to be synonymous. of  historical  & of  counselling. seek help  surprising  c o u n s e l l o r s may u n c o n s c i o u s l y minimize e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s  50% that in  9  counselling and  the  (Carney & Kahn 1984).  clinical  c u l t u r a l l y biased  expectations in  favour  dominant p o p u l a t i o n .  of  of  the  counselling  the  counsellor  North  American  values,  beliefs,  researchers  have  to d i s t i n g u i s h  understood  further,  addressed  differences,  (Jahoda  T r i a n d i s and  1980).  the  issue  Lambert  (1980)  when the d i f f e r e n c e s  are  (p.  5).  They  individual  c o n s i d e r a t i o n the p h y s i c a l life,  notion "culture  f u n c t i o n i n g " (p. 4)  continue to suggest  in  be  from  and  different  communicating and r e l a t i n g to each  understand s i m m i l a r i t i e s and view the  this  a that  must  express that  ignored " . . . people  c u l t u r e s have d i f f i c u l t i e s  of  suggest  similarities  Developing  shapes the aspects of p s y c h o l o g i c a l  other"  the  trends and s t y l e s of  c u l t u r e - b o u n d c o u n s e l l i n g model but some experts  first  white  that members of other c u l t u r e s may c h e r i s h .  Many  i n order  are  It does not take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n  v a r i e t y of world views, expression  T h i s model of  that,  differences,  a  cultural  it  i n order  to  is c r u c i a l  to  context,  taking  environment, means of  sociocultural influences,  individual  into  supporting  i d i o c y n c r a s i e s and  p a t t e r n s of s o c i a l behaviour. When encountering a c o u n s e l l o r population,  in  the  initial  d i f f e r e n t c l i e n t may experience  from the dominant  interview,  the  culturally  some form of c u l t u r e  which Lundstedt (1963) s t a t e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  isolation  working  from  and a  stress. North  Considering American  the  shock,  confusion,  emotional and i n t e l l e c t u a l w i t h d r a w l , v u l n e r a b i l i t y , of  white  feelings  counsellor  culture-bound  model  is of  10  counselling, manifested  it  is  may  mistaking  not  be  the  assessed  frames of conflict  as  "communication  (Alexander, Workneh, culturally  surprising  Klein  different reference  with the  in s e v e r a l  pattern  is  for 1976,  symptoms distress,  the p.  operating  person" 82).  from  different  c u l t u r e - b o u n d approach  in t h i s  socio-economic  may a l s o be d i f f e r e n t  status.  focus  of  control,  it  to be from  in counselling  differ  they expect from  in what  (McDermott & S t a d l e r can a f f e c t (Pedersen that  1985; Neimeyer & Gonzales  r a p p o r t , empathy 1977).  lower  Padilla,  status  clients  a more  problems than  contemplating  cognitive  Blacks styles  client  Ruiz and  c o u n s e l l o r as  addition,  and  prefer  and  other  1983)  which  and  change  (1975)  suggest  advice-giving  p r a c t i c a l solution  from  to t h e i r  their psychological minorities  present  (Copeland 1983), p e r s o n a l i t y  also  experience  growth  Alvarez  towards  Cultures  the c o u n s e l l i n g  of  external  their attitude  (Gibbs 1985).  lower  the causes  an i n t e r n a l or  may i n f l u e n c e  self-disclosure  client,  because of  Whether they a t t r i b u t e  t h e i r economic problems  to  chapter.  The c u l t u r a l l y , e t h n i c a l l y or r a c i a l l y d i f f e r e n t in a d d i t i o n to v a l u e s ,  The  important areas which d i r e c t l y  North American  counselling described e a r l i e r  the  psychological  & Miller  client  that  a  'social' self.  In  different  structures,  and  ways of coping and responding which are in r e a c t i o n to  living  in a s o c i e t y as members of c u l t u r a l l y d i s t i n c t  groups  (Block  1981).  reported  In a p s y c h i a t r i c  f o r e i g n students seek  setting,  medical h e l p  researchers first  and  that  psychological  11  a s s i s t a n c e as a agree t h a t , difference  last  other is  resort  (Alexander  than v i s i b l e  language:  et al . 1976).  differences,  style,  dialect,  an  Many  outstanding  accent  (Pedersen  1977; Westwood & Borgen 1986). Research  in  the  area  s i m i l a r i t i e s and e f f e c t i v e (Atkinson  1983;  p r e f e r to  Terrell  & Terrell  1984)  counsellors  (Mendelsohn & G e l l e r  differences, respect  whose  counsellors  clients  experience  i n terms of mutual  trust  1985).  commitment to are  counselling  who share  a similar  (Pedersen,  H o l w i l l & Shapiro 1978).  Gonzales (1983) l e s s general  cultural  propose  contentment  r e g a r d l e s s of c o u n s e l l o r found i n c o u n s e l l i n g  background  the  role  empathy, counsellors  with t h e i r  client  However, Neimeyer  that non-white with  that  sex  expressing  and general h e l p i n g behaviours than those  is  similar  some r e p o r t  greater c u l t u r a l  difficulty  Others  racially  In a d d i t i o n , have  Black 1981;  and c l i e n t s  1963).  conflicting  (Block  (Hector & Fray  client  cultural  Some report that the  especially  of therapy  found that  counsellors,  c o u n s e l l i n g has been  work with Black  and c o n t i n u a t i o n  longer when  client-counsellor  Sundberg 1981).  clients  have a l s o  of  and  clients  experience  counselling  experience  race and that  no d i f f e r e n c e s  e f f e c t i v e n e s s between  Black and  were White  counsellors. In a d d i t i o n , both White and Black c l i e n t s colloquial  understood the  language of White and Black c o u n s e l l o r s e q u a l l y as  w e l l suggesting be important  client-counsellor  (Bryson  racial  & Cody 1973).  s i m i l a r i t i e s may not Atkinson,  Ponce  and  12  Martinez  (1984) conclude that Mexican-American c l i e n t s  Mexican-American and White c o u n s e l l o r s to c r e d i b i l i t y and to h e l p ) . evident  They if  attractiveness a l s o suggest  attitude  c o n f l i c t e d with t h e i r own. the race of client  as  willingness were  Also,  clinical  to  help the  perceived  as  view), Kadushin  client.  sensitive  In to  only  ethnicity,  (1972) found  that  important to and  fact, the  were  not  was not as  relationship  relation  willingness  differences  of  the s o c i a l worker the  (counsellor's  that  (point  as equal i n  viewed  the  the  worker's  counsellors  client's  who  cultural  background have been found to surpass c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s a  similar  gender,  way  that  they  surpass  and e d u c a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s  socio-economic  in  status,  (Atkinson 1983;  Pomales,  C l a i b o r n & Lafromboise 1986).  Western V a l u e s Which  The differs  Impact  ethnically  t h eC o u n s e l l i n g  dissimilar  considerably  in  participant  terms  of  the  d e s c r i b e the  c u l t u r e s operate  in an a c t i v e  and  problem-solving,  valued.  Secondly,  of  inequality,  of  achievement  heritage The  in f a c t  the e g a l i t a r i a n  a  motivation  or p r e s e r v a t i o n of the  fourth  value views  culture-bound (1977)  Firstly,  way concerning passivity  counselling  Pedersen  contrasts.  is  and  not  all  decision-making  or simply "being"  value c o n f l i c t s  f o r m a l i t y and assigned as  in  five  values h e l d by the dominant p o p u l a t i o n . Copeland (1983)  Interview  roles. not  with  The t h i r d as  is one  value  important  as  family u n i t i n some c u l t u r e s .  the world  not as  an o b j e c t  to  be  13 conquered, but something with which to l i v e mastered by.  This  outlook for the emphasis  on  value  future. the  i s complimented  individual  and  many other  totality  group e x p e r i e n c e .  guarantees  the  with a  fatalistic  The l a s t Western value concerns  c o n t r a d i c t o r y to of  i n harmony and be  autonomy,  c u l t u r e s which This  which  believe group  is  in  the  experience  a c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and depends on e x t e r n a l  than i n t e r n a l sources  the  rather  for purpose and d i r e c t i o n of meaning in  life.  ... if viewed only in the context of ... u n i v e r s a l i t y , a person loses i n d i v i d u a l i t y ... if [only] i n the context of i n d i v i d u a l i t y , the person l o s e s a sense of connectedness with humanity; if viewed only in the context of group membership, an i n d i v i d u a l is stereotyped. (Larson 1982, p. 844).  THE M A I N S T R E A M  COUNSELLOR  Communication centre  difficulties  on the d i f f e r e n c e s  (Gumperz 1982;  client  and  experiences  encounters  Jupp, Roberts & Cook-Gumperz 1982).  There are  Barna (1970) c i t e s  counselling  in  process:  an i n t e r e t h n i c  counsellor confusion,  as a f f e c t i n g  language  context.  undergo  In  culture  of  anxiety  addition, shock  both  as  each  u n c e r t a i n t y about the e x p e c t a t i o n s  doubt regarding  what to  cues'  are  and  receiving  not  do with to  the  differences,  s t e r o t y p e s and a high l e v e l  each o t h e r , they  interethnic  knowledge  non-verbal b e h a v i o u r , experienced  in  in language and c u l t u r a l  s e v e r a l b a r r i e r s which intercultural  AND T H E C O U N S E L L I N G R E L A T I O N S H I P  the  mention  of  'strange direct  14  involvement  in  a  relationship  with  someone  from  another  •world.' The  counsellor's  cultural  attitudes,  biases  s t e r e o t y p e s can i n h i b i t the c o u n s e l l i n g process and  reducing  empathy,  ignoring  information about the c l i e n t ,  important  unconsciously  s u b j e c t s and misunderstanding the c l i e n t ' s 1969).  the  this  is  a misconception  addressed or the c l i e n t misunderstanding society's At  c o u n s e l l o r may  end  make  several  different  1981;  Larson  in  feel  the  is  that  must  the  the 1982)  'errors'  minimizing  especially  where  that a l l of a B l a c k ' s p e r s o n ' s  counsellor,  feeling  when the  " i l l u s i o n of  assumption,  dominated  continuum,  First,  & Kahn  White  the  client.  (Carney  a  i n therapy,  experiences  of  differences  in  have  similarity . . .  c u l t u r a l differences  she  opposite  c o u n s e l l o r experiences (Block  therapists  These r e s e a r c h e r s  may e x p e r i e n c e ,  or  (Vontress  be same  dominant  culture. the  racially  he  and  historical  language  "common ground of  the only path to u n d e r s t a n d i n g . "  blocking  approaching taboo  Alexander et al. (1976) comment that  an inherent b i a s that  by:  and  1984).  White colour  a  majority blindness"  cultural They  White  encountering  and  also  Black Americans are  racial  make  an  concerned,  problems stem from being Black  society guilty  the  (Block  1981).  The  (Kadushin  1972)  about  White the  c u l t u r a l l y u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d , attempts to make amends by making therapy as e f f o r t l e s s as p o s s i b l e Cooper 1973).  for the c l i e n t  S p e c i a l compensations  (Block  1981;  are made and as a r e s u l t  15 progress termed  in therapy this  as  counselling, and mean client. and  is  the  slow.  Vontress  "great  white  where the c o u n s e l l o r  nothing but These  good for  ( i n Block 1981) father  counselling.  while  The  actually  "white  guilt"  which u l t i m a t e l y growth and racial  clinical  d e p r i v e s the  change  or c u l t u r a l  (Cooper  1973).  aspects of  p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems  (Cooper  feelings  "countertransference  and  client  function  political  of  the c l i e n t  for  on  may d i s t o r t  Kadushin  to  issues  the p o t e n t i a l  An overemphasis  1973;  the  effective  phenomenon," when working with m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e s , inappropriately consolidate  of  desires,  inhibiting or  in  omnipotent  take care  ' e r r o r s ' c l o u d the c l i e n t ' s  behaviours  syndrome"  f e e l s they are and w i l l  has  the real  1972;  Kagan  1964). C u l t u r a l encapsulation describe  the  which may be used  who  with  from  c u l t u r a l l y d i s s i m i l a r backgrounds and refuses to adapt  their  into  style  account  or approach  (Pedersen  ambiguity i n l i f e , of pretend r e a l i t y "  people  recognized as they r e l a t e proposes  to  three  counsellor. different  ' r e a l ' and  to take  1977).  As  p.  First clients.  i s the The  a  Other  446)  influences  protection  based on  against  are regarded only  to  the  tendency second  generally  i n terms of  1977).  Kagan  culturally  how  (1964)  encapsulated  to stereotype dimension  cocoon  experiences  c u l t u r e s are not  themselves (Pedersen dimensions  cultural  "surround themselves with a  (Wren 1962,  w i t h i n t h e i r own c u l t u r e .  works  to  clients  counselling  counsellor  i s a concept  ethnically  concerns  the  16  stereotypic  assumptions which  these assumptions defensive, 1977).  are  are not based  challenged,  the  on f a c t .  counsellor  e x h i b i t i n g a need for s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n  Finally,  both Kagan  and Pedersen  becomes (Pedersen  suggest that  c o u n s e l l o r by t r a i n i n g i s t e c h n i q u e - o r i e n t e d and that to perpetuate the c u l t u r a l  encapsulation.  Language: The Key V a r i a b l e  i nthe  As  When  Counselling  the  serves  Relationship  mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , an outstanding and  immediately  n o t i c e a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the c u l t u r a l l y d i s s i m i l a r c l i e n t is  language.  accent have  The research in c o u n s e l l i n g and c l i e n t  is v i r t u a l l y non-existent. focused  on  Black  Most of the  English  and  will  be  discussed  at  length  investigations  accented  r e a c t i o n s to these by the general p o p u l a t i o n . in  foreign  speech  These  Chapter  and  studies  Two.  Most  c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g r e s e a r c h has reviewed the  problem  of  English  racial  differences  between white,  middle-class  speaking c o u n s e l l o r s and Black or H i s p a n i c c l i e n t s 1983;  Sundberg 1981).  It  i s c u r i o u s that accented speech has  been ignored i n c o u n s e l l i n g and yet a communicative r e l a t i o n s h i p . a  look  beyond the  counsellor, s t y l e of  language  counselling especially encourages  language  used  relationship  client's is  is  important  in  Sundberg (1981) has c a l l e d for  visible differences,  to i n v e s t i g a t e  (Atkinson  of  dialect,  utmost  (Sundberg  between c l i e n t s t a t i n g that  importance  1976).  and the  in  the  Language  is  important when the c u l t u r e - b o u n d c o u n s e l l i n g model a  favourable  bias  towards  the  highly  verbal  17  client.  Counselling  is  communication . . . " and client  a  on the b a s i s  of  interaction  (1986),  in an  Asian-Americans,  effective  states  counselling  understanding,  by  English.  suggests  the  the  language  counsellor,  barrier a  broken,  Leong's review was, It  is  the i n t e r e s t  however, of t h i s  of accented E n g l i s h ,  of c o u n s e l l o r s .  then,  this:  Is  there a  mainstream c o u n s e l l o r s  a  negative  of a v i s i b l y d i f f e r e n t  r e s e a r c h e r to i n v e s t i g a t e  without the  attitudes is  forming  of  to  lack  of  accented  and  counsellor  use  research  non-standard E n g l i s h i n t e r r u p t s the flow of c o n v e r s a t i o n the  the  of  Leong  or  in  that  major and  negative,  422).  the c o u n s e l l i n g  that  is  p.  the  dialects  results  He  sullen,  (Sue & Sue 1977,  e x t e n s i v e review of  and  of language a l o n e ,  may be viewed as " . . . u n c o o p e r a t i v e ,  n o n - v e r b a l or repressed"  with  "process  The  v a r i a b l e of  accent and those whose c l i e n t s  culture. the  role  r a c e , on  the  main research q u e s t i o n  difference  towards  attitude.  in  attitude  their clients  who  speak with a f o r e i g n  posed between  have  no  accent?  SUMMARY  By way of summarizing an i n t e r e t h n i c meeting, presented  (developed  t h i s c h a p t e r , an i l l u s t r a t i o n  of  from the c o u n s e l l o r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e  is  from C h r i s t e n s e n : 1985).  The c o u n s e l l o r , a white m i d d l e - c l a s s female, welcomes her c l i e n t , n o t i c i n g the way he l o o k s . She responds to h e r s e l f noting that he looks 'different' and wonders i f he were born h e r e , or i f he were an immigrant or f o r e i g n e r . She remembers her unemployed c o u s i n ' s comment that " a l l the f o r e i g n e r s are taking the j o b s . " She sympathizes with her c o u s i n but  18 wonders i f a l l t h e p e o p l e from poorer countries s h o u l d have an e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o seek a "better l i f e i n Canada." She b e g i n s t o f e e l s o r r y f o r h e r c l i e n t and a n g r y a t h e r c o u s i n and g u i l t y she h a s "so much." The c o u n s e l l o r d e c i d e s h e r c l i e n t needs t o know t h a t n o t a l l o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n wants immigrants to f e e l unaccepted. The c o u n s e l l o r d e c i d e s she will bend o v e r b a c k w a r d s t o e n s u r e h e r c l i e n t i s t r e a t e d e q u a l l y and f a i r l y a s she "goes e a s y on him." She makes an a s s u m p t i o n that life was probably very d i f f i c u l t i n t h e ' o l d c o u n t r y ' and he d i d n ' t have enough money t o f i n i s h h i g h s c h o o l . She i s j a r r e d back t o t h e c o u n s e l l i n g s e t t i n g as she h e a r s an a c c e n t e d " h e l l o " and f e e l s a n x i o u s w o n d e r i n g i f she w i l l be a b l e t o , n o t o n l y communicate effectively, but u n d e r s t a n d h i m .  19  CHAPTER  TWO  LITERATURE  REVIEW  Introduction To u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h is  posed  the research  i n C h a p t e r One, some key a r e a s need  question  t o be  examined.  T h i s c h a p t e r r e v i e w s t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h a r e a s c e n t r a l research  question  accented Theory  client. and  addition,  counsellor  Outlined  Attitude  the  presented.  of  role  introduction  t o the  accent  ultimately  attitude  towards  ATTRIBUTION An is  minority  are  their  Attribution  Theory. are  In  briefly  d i s c u s s e d as  dialect,  the mainstream  race  an and  counsellor's  client.  THEORY  g i v e n a s an i n t r o d u c t i o n upon w h i c h  Attribution characteristics behaviour.  are  emotion  r e v i e w e d on  overview of A t t r i b u t i o n  attitude,  and  influence  towards  Attitude  communication  research  their  section  Language  attitude  Language and  which  in this  and of  attitude  to the  theory to  Through  made t o d e t e r m i n e  this  cannot  be i g n o r e d  t o t h e measurement  research states  others this  Theory  people  assign  explanations  assignment  the causes of  counsellor  i s based.  that as  of  and  process,  for  certain their  an a t t e m p t  a n o t h e r ' s b e h a v i o u r and  is to  20  understand t h e i r t r a i t s and motives. observed, traits,  then an i n f e r e n c e about  motives,  Inferences experiences,  a  are  world  from any other offer  and i n t e n t i o n s made  existing  foundation  of behaviour  as e i t h e r  three d i f f e r e n t Michela  on  beliefs,  the  values,  e x p l a i n i n g the  The  of  cause  of  or i n t e r n a l ,  (1980) d e s c r i b e s these f a c t o r s  a)  consensus: situation?  others  b)  c o n s i s t e n c y : does the i n d i v i d u a l same s i t u a t i o n ?  c)  d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s : does the way to d i f f e r e n t s t i m u l i ?  K e l l y and M i c h e l a continue  react  individual  and  the  same  in  react  motives)  in  i n the  to suggest that people  people are able  i f there  conditions  exist.  when  similar  same  is  External high  relationship.  to give meaning  understanding to present events and i n a d d i t i o n , are able behaviour  the  attribute  i f there e x i s t s a  consensus/high c o n s i s t e n c y / h i g h d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s  future  on  Kelley  low consensus/high c o n s i s t e n c y / l o w d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s .  predict  for  causes  focusing  react s i m i l a r l y  i n t e r n a l causes ( i n d i v i d u a l t r a i t s and  Based on t h i s premise,  and  as:  similarly  causes (other source) are a t t r i b u t e d  and  Attributions  i n d i v i d u a l a t t r i b u t e s the  external  life  attitudes,  f a c t o r s while making a d e c i s i o n .  do  certain  individual's  i n f o r m a t i o n observed.  for  p r e d i c t i n g behaviour.  the possession  first  i s drawn.  based  views,  The behaviour i s  circumstances  and to and  21  Success in forming  accurate a t t r i b u t i o n s  due to c l o s e observation and Davis  (1965) term  when t h i s  effect  patterns  of  is  of a c t i o n s  present,  a given c u l t u r e or s o c i e t y .  an unusual English, In  part,  which produce what  Jones  is  to  as a  The  focus on  tendency,  the  unusual  f a m i l i a r or encouraged by  With t h i s view i n mind,  noncommon e f f e c t ,  behaviour when  compared to  accent  given that  mainstream  it  Standard  a  multicultural  society,  are i n c r e a s i n g l y  with  which  they  such  as  Canada,  encountering members of  are  not  affiliated.  the ethnic  They  are  c o n t i n u a l l y placed in s i t u a t i o n s  which demand a l t e r a t i o n s  t h e i r previously held  of what  impression  of  knowledge  another  preconceived n o t i o n s ,  person which  To understand  the  causal a t t r i b u t i o n s  processes,  stereotypes. distinction  1969).  context,  of  the  Although of being  necessary for " t h i n k i n g and 1984,  p. 27).  these social  1985). people motives  These a t r i b u t i o n s when result  of three  The f i r s t  person,  stereotypes  'bad'  (Forgas  have  to The  by  values,  of events,  (1969).  other  on  the behaviour,  are the  o u t l i n e d by T a j f e l  categorization  based  factors  to e x p l a i n  is occurring.  influenced  fluctuation  of others ( T a j f e l  in an i n t e r e t h n i c  is  are  c o n t e x t s , c u l t u r e and emotional  traits  is  in Canada.  inhabitants groups  in  "noncommon e f f e c t s . "  behaviour which are not  c o u l d be designated  is,  make and made  cognitive  process i s a  which  elicits  achieved  they serve an important  the  function  communication" (Gudykunst & Kim  These s t e r e o t y p e s  introduce  "simplicity  and  22  order where there (Gudykunst  i s complexity and n e a r l y random  & Kim  individual  1984,  p.  82).  1980).  differences"  Stereotypes  process  context  Stereotyping received  culture  assist  i n coping  of  i s erroneous, the  interferes  rather  than  1977).  with the  a  There  1981)  as the  member"  "emotional  (1977) suggest p a r t of  investment  that  c o n t r o l l i n g the e x p r e s s i o n The second c o g n i t i v e causal a t t r i b u t i o n s attitudes  t h e i r own.  Tajfel  relate process  to  other  with  of ethnic their  their  another  investment" Lopez and  in  Cheek and  social  own  differences  People  in  making  information learn  the  "other group" compared  that  people  culture and  balance and  acquiring  i n t e r p r e t i n g how The  final  person's  behaviour.  to  between a  these  cognitive  cope with the everchanging s i t u a t i o n s  e x p l a i n the e t h n i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t that  of  describes  groups.  particular society.  helps people  concludes  Tajfel  of the  suggests  dominant  i n c l u d e s reducing  the a s s i m i l a t i o n of of  ethnically  anxiety.  process  and p r e f e r e n c e s  identification knowledge  is  of  the  information  a "deviant" from the  an  the  stereotype.  c o n v e r s i o n of  "legitimate is  "fuzzy  even when  the  between groups.  evaluations  she  with the  into  m a i n t a i n i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s  about the  when he or  people manage to f i t  situation  person i s viewed as  (Pedersen  the  i n f o r m a t i o n (McCauley, S i t z &  (Wampold, Casas & Atkinson  different  assist  between groups but i n t e r e s t i n g l y ,  categorization general  also  i n s o r t i n g and remembering d e t a i l s  i s confronted with an excess of Segal  They  variation"  to  Tajfel  the purpose behind our search for coherence  is  23  two-fold: a desire  for c o n s i s t e n c y  maintenance of c u l t u r a l In a often  i d e n t i t y and  culture,  counsellor  is  attributions  attributes  are  influence  i n the  formed, and  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  initial  the c o u n s e l l o r  important.  ethnic  cultural if  or  first  problem.  The  stereotypes,  and the  stereotyping  is  the  counselling  accent,  fact  impressions  are  interpret  When communicating  (Gudykunst  based  relationship  for both.  & Kim  1984).  i s presented with  makes a t t r i b u t i o n s  f r u s t r a t i n g and i n e f f e c t u a l client's  is  process  e x p l a i n t h e i r behaviour i n terms  the p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r  accented c l i e n t  here,  i s using the a t t r i b u t i o n s to  of  that c l i e n t  most  dominant  of the c o u n s e l l i n g  interview where  people often  the  where  mainstream,  Of s i g n i f i c a n c e  with s t r a n g e r s ,  of  the  particularly  give meaning to the c l i e n t ' s  Clearly,  situation,  the c o u n s e l l o r a p p l i e s to the c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t  (Young & Marks 1985). that,  from  the  self-image.  cross-cultural counselling  the  client  i n coping s k i l l s and  on  cultural  could  To r e s e a r c h the  the c o u n s e l l o r ' s  an  attitude  be effect  towards  investigated.  A T T I T U D E AND LANGUAGE A T T I T U D E  THEORY  G e n e r a l l y speaking A t t i t u d e and Language A t t i t u d e Theory c o n t a i n the same  components and  thus are  reviewed in  this  t h e s i s as one t h e o r y . The manner in which people communicate and the e f f e c t has on the r e c e i v e r  of the message  the communication process  (Ryan,  influences  the c y c l e  Carranza and Moffie  it of  1977).  24  Part of that process the l i s t e n e r evaluating is either  impression of the speaker  As the  the communication an formed or e l i c i t e d  and  interpreting,  attitude  of  equips  the  which  the message  towards the  from p r e v i o u s l y h e l d  understanding and  listener  sender  attitudes.  under  with  is  a  similar tool  for  p r e d i c t i n g the behaviour  of  speaker. Due to the  fact  d i r e c t l y unobservable task of o f f e r i n g  that a t t i t u d e  (Shaw & Wright  There  is,  1984;  Shaw & Wright attitudes  learned.  Once  1973; Osgood, Suci  1967;  Sherif  attitudes  & Sherif  formed,  affective,  infavourable; interrelated, or e v a l u a t i o n s  evaluative  interactions  and  in which they  are  between person and o b j e c t  has  they are  to  it  (favourable  Attitudes  are  — also  referents  1967).  theories  r e g a r d i n g the nature  The b e h a v i o u r i s t view proposes behaviours  1975;  Essentially,  inasmuch as p o s s e s s i n g s i m i l a r s o c i a l  d i r e c t l y observable  Brown &  and  aspect  (Shaw & Wright  1970;  stable  positive — negative).  There are two d i s t i n c t attitudes.  & Fishman  1970).  has  agreement  & Tannenbaum  to the context  enduring and the r e l a t i o n s h i p  theorists  Lalljee,  previous s o c i a l  are  the  general  1974;  Lemon  i n reference  therefore  of t h i s c o n s t r u c t  (Ageheyisi  Williams  are learned from  are s p e c i f i c  1967),  however,  main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  Davidson & Thomson 1980; Ginsburg  i s c o v e r t and  a global definition  difficult.  regarding i t s  an  receiver  i s based on p r e v i o u s experiences  circumstances  been  the  i s making.  This a t t i t u d e  the  is  that a t t i t u d e s  which manifest  themselves  of are in  25  the "responses  i n d i v i d u a l s make  they are s i n g l e  "behavioural  The a l t e r n a t e ,  m e n t a l i s t view,  most  researchers,  Expanding on attitudes the  the  three  situations"  response" u n i t s  including  represents the  definition  in  author the  (Fasold  the  and  the  the m e n t a l i s t  response  to  of  this  preceding  it"  1984). by  thesis.  paragraph, between  (Fasold  viewpoint, a t t i t u d e  ...  one h e l d  are d e s c r i b e d as the " i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e  stimulus  Reflecting  to s o c i a l  1984).  i s comprised  of  components:  a) a f f e c t i v e :  which r e p r e s e n t s the e m o t i o n a l , p o s i t i v e and negative, therefore ealuative feelings towards the o b j e c t ;  b) c o g n i t i v e :  which is the c o n c e p t u a l i z e s the  c)  which i s the consequence of the a f f e c t i v e and cognitive components and r e s u l t s in the a c t u a l behaviour i n response to the o b j e c t .  behaviour:  way object;  (Ageheyisi & Fishman 1970; Edwards Wright 1967). Shaw and Wright with  that  of  (1967) narrow Osgood,  Suci  the  individual  1982; Lemon 1973;  the concept and  Shaw &  further in  Tannenbaum  line  (1975),  by  i d e n t i f y i n g a s i n g l e component, which s i m p l i f i e s a t t i t u d e an  affective,  processes,  evaluative  reaction,  and i s the antecedent  A t t i t u d e s are  considered  p e r s o n a l i t y and i t  is essential  contructs  occasionally  which  s u b s t i t u t e d as meaning the same  based  as  on  cognitive  the  realm  of b e h a v i o u r . to  be w i t h i n  to d i s t i n g u i s h i t overlap  and  of  from  other  have  been  t h i n g (Shaw & Wright  1967).  26 a) b e l i e f :  represents a p e r c e i v e d connection between an object and i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Davidson & Thomson 1980; Shaw & Wright 1967)  b) v a l u e ;  degree of worth assigned to an o b j e c t 1973; Shaw & Wright 1967; Wren 1962)  c) o p i n i o n ;  conscious, s p e c i f i c v e r b a l i z e d responses of an a t t i t u d e (Lemon 1973; Shaw & Wright 1967)  d) h a b i t ;  strong tendency to act but does not a f f e c t i v e or e v a l u a t i v e component Wright 1967)  e)  s t a b l e and c o n s i s t e n t way of responding which d i s t i n g u i s h e s one i n d i v i d u a l from the next but i s n o n s p e c i f i c and general (Shaw & Wright 1967).  trait;  Nigel attitudes  Lemon which  view h e l d by categories,  (1973)  has  are c o n s i d e r e d  the m a j o r i t y of as f o l l o w s ,  outlined  four  to g e n e r a l l y theorists.  (Lemon  contain (Shaw &  functions represent  Summarizing  of the  these  attitudes provide:  a) a u t i l i t a r i a n a d a p t i v e f u n c t i o n : s o c i a l adjustment which facilitates relationships, positive attitude f u l f i l l s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s need while a negative one frustrates or b l o c k s fulfillment (e.g., holding certain attitudes facilitates i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with c e r t a i n g r o u p s ) . b) an ego-defensive or e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n f u n c t i o n : attitudes, s e r v i n g t h i s f u n c t i o n , are in response to inner c o n f l i c t s , based on m o t i v a t i o n ( e . g . , the need for achievement). c) a value e x p r e s s i v e function: includes a basic assumption that the i n d i v i d u a l has a need to express the s e l f ; this function is the q u a l i t y of the expressiveness of an i n d i v i d u a l a t t i t u d e which in e f f e c t a s s e r t s own identity resulting in s a t i s f a c t i o n and p e r p e t u a t i o n of the attitude.  27  d) a knowledge f u n c t i o n and a p p r a i s a l of o b j e c t : i n order to understand the world, the i n d i v i d u a l needs frames of reference or standards; a t t i t u d e s helps define that. The l a s t relevant  suggested  to an  f u n c t i o n of  interethnic  attitude  exchange.  someone who speaks accented E n g l i s h , and  understanding  judgment process attitudes  is  in  occurs  tapped  stereotype balances object  and  the  p e r c e i v e d may dissimilar  an  and  a  include  cultural  1976).  context,  The r e p e r t o i r e  stereotype  traits  evaluation. a social  (Stiff  is  released.  The  comparison- of  1986).  When  is are  in perceived c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  spoken.  In f a c t ,  responding  similar  ethnically  different  communicating than  if  with  the  in  an  the  person  an  language  of the way someone  or  obvious  the way  people are more aware  when  of The  towards  involved  is  a  characteristics  encounter with someone who speaks with an a c c e n t , difference  with  i n order to give meaning  the p e r c e i v e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s final  especially  When confronted  individual  (Williams  is  they  who  were  is  similar  (Gudykunst & Kim 1984).  ATTITUDE AND EMOTION  It  is  discomfort (Gumperz  suggested when  1982;  involved Gumperz  counselling  situation,  influences  the  (Schauer,  that  many in  &  the  counselling  people  experience  interethnic Cook-Gumperz  emotional process  Seymour & Green 1985).  In  state  some  communication 1982). of  and a recent  In  a  counsellors effectiveness study  Rungta  28  (1987) suggests that upon hearing  a f o r e i g n accented  the c o u n s e l l o r might be more anxious than i f non-accented.  the c l i e n t  thought and  believe  d u r i n g the  affective  goal-oriented  (Sebastian,  Ryan, Keogh & Schmidt 1980;  Wright  and  1967)  that  action  if  ( I z a r d 1979) state,  those  goals  f r u s t r a t i o n and a n x i e t y ,  which  the  e v a l u a t i o n of  form of  1982;  were  Some authors have concluded that emotion  p r e c u r s o r to that  client  a negative  Sebastian,  Ryan,  and  is  several  an i n d i v i d u a l  are  is  Shaw &  blocked,  the  may r e s u l t are manifested the speaker  Keogh & Schmidt  1980;  a  in  (Gumperz  Shaw & Wright  1967) . Language i s used to 'woo' o t h e r s , to seduce them, to impress them and to h e l p them . . . language i s the primary instrument of interpersonal progress. (Berger & Bradac 1982, p . 75)  LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION  A person's is  recognized  1975;  social through  Chaika 1982;  Gumperz 1982;  Honey, 1984;  1980; McKirnan, 1980).  influences  group  membership  (Bourhis,  Giles  & Lambert  Fraser  Katz and B r a l y  Smith & Hamayan 1983;  accent  linguistic  personality,  and e t h n i c  diagnostic  level  1982;  1949; McKirnan & Hamayan Palmer 1973; Ryan  1973;  shown that medical d o c t o r s  to i d e n t i f y  skills  behaviour,  1973; Gumperz & Cook-  Jupp, Roberts & Cook-Gumperz  One study has  their patient's assess  language  Clement 1980;  K a l i n and Rayko 1980;  Taylor  identity  and of  decisions  socio-economic communication  e m o t i o n a l i t y and ( F i e l d i n g & Evered  use  status, ability, it  also 1980).  29  Several studies  have shown  cues to e v a l u a t e  the p e r s o n a l i t y ,  of  the speaker  (Jupp, Roberts  1979; W i l l i a m s 1976). the speaker  to a  maintenance  These  ethnic  certain  characteristics and  Hamayan 1980). law,  which,  prejudice  religion,  (Chaika  1982).  sounds)  Scheflen  and assignments  of the  behaviour. another  by  negative,  (Lambert  1980;  maintained  hear  People  language  ascribing result  in  McKirnan  &  aspects  of  in a l l  education,  are  family,  in  etc.  "terms  of  w i t h which they are a l r e a d y f a m i l a r and  u n c o n s c i o u s l y conform (Chaika 1982).  if  government,  Listeners  intelligence  attitudes.  group from  Language i s  society:  (of  one  speech  group f a c i l i t a t e s  fundamental to s o c i a l  distinguish  a l s o use  education and  evaluations  stereotyped  able to  discrimination  listeners  & Cook-Gumperz 1982;  of p r e v i o u s l y h e l d  Language i s  patterns"  that  to language  r u l e s they  have  learned  In i n t e r e t h n i c communication, where at  least  one of the p a r t i c i p a n t s does not conform to the same language rules,  variations  listeners  attitudes  assigning  of  in  negative  attributes  speaking and may  (Chaika  communications, researchers  and  that  linguistically,  the on  1982;  for any  the  group"  minority (McKirnan,  discrimination  and  Smith  the  in  the  McKirnan,  Jupp, Roberts and Cook-Gumperz  responsibility  others  affect result  l a b e l i n g i n d i v i d u a l s with negative  "firmly places  conclude  of  ( W i l l i a m s 1976)  Smith & Hamayan 1983). s t a t e that  patterns  (1982)  characteristics  breakdown . . . (p.  242).  & Hamayan  prejudice  than r a c i a l l y , based and that  i t may  is  in  These 1983) more inhibit  30  or f a c i l i t a t e influences  social  our  social  Powesland 1975) despite  distance.  To  i l l u s t r a t e how  i n t e r a c t i o n s Howard  Giles  from h i s r e s e a r c h i n B r i t a i n ,  (Giles  has shown  the s t a b i l i t y of a d u l t speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  accommodate t h e i r speech s t y l e p r o n o u n c i a t i o n ) with  As an  i n mind  of  in h i s o f f i c e  a) a l o n e ;  b) with  a  peer  i l l u s t r a t i o n , he  colleague;  with  an  behave,  it  the  In f a c t ,  prediction  of  or  suggests university  c) with  undergraduate  with another maintenance man. with  people  would speak to a j a n i t o r i f he  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n member;  link attitudes  that,  increasing  the reader imagine the v a r i e t y of ways in which a professor  &  ( r e g i o n a l or standard r e c e i v e d  the purpose  reducing s o c i a l d i s t a n c e .  e)  language  were:  a  senior  student;  or  when attempting how  someone  to  will  i s g e n e r a l l y assumed that behaviour i s mediated by  the a t t i t u d e s  which are h e l d .  LANGUAGE AND PERSONALITY  The  research  attitudes follow,  is  scant  in  the  area  towards f o r e i g n accented c l i e n t s .  in this  review,  i n v o l v e subjects  of  counsellor  The s t u d i e s  that  s e l e c t e d from  the  general p o p u l a t i o n . In r e i t e r a t i n g that our c u l t u r a l a f f i l i a t i o n by the way we speak a language and that s t e r e o t y p i n g e t h n i c group a f f i l i a t i o n Fishman 1974; to  isolate  solicited  F a s o l d 1984), the  by  (Chaika 1982;  language  personality cues.  exposed  is a precursor  many researchers have  stereotypic  verbal  it  is  to  Cooper & attempted  characteristics  Scherer  (1972)  and  31  earlier  investigators  research stating isolated  that  from the  listener-speaker incorrect  have  s t r e s s e d the  personality aspects,  (Allport & Cantril  important d i s c o v e r i e s  release correct  information  personality characteristics. c e r t a i n u n i f o r m i t y of r a d i o speakers,  personality  it  mutual  These  Firstly,  concerning  "inner  is  voice and  attitudes).  physical traits  foundation of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  there  of  there to  Finally,  consistently  (as an i n d i c a t o r of  become  part  when r e s e a r c h i n g the  from v o i c e ,  is a  type matched  be rated more  have  does  outer"  In a d d i t i o n ,  of v o i c e  stereotyped  studies,  the p e r s o n a l i t y  inaccurate.  findings  (attitudes)  radio  were made.  seem to  and c o r r e c t l y than o u t e r ,  S a p i r 1927).  They a l s o found that  (i.e.,  inner p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s  the next  may be  (1934) pioneer  some preconception  personality).  1934;  opinion regarding  even i f  features  of p e r s o n a l i t y  there  misunderstanding and the respondent may make  judgments  appears to be  this  unless the s o c i a l aspects of speech are  In A l l p o r t and C a n t r i l ' s several  importance of  of  a  judgments  which are d i s c u s s e d  in  section.  They s p e l l it v - i - n - c - i and f o r e i g n e r s always s p e l l b e t t e r  pronounce it vinchy; than they pronounce.  (Mark Twain: Innocents  Abroad)  DIALECT, RACE AND ACCENT  The  review  demonstrated that  of  the  literature  individuals,  in  at  this  intercultural  point  has  dialogue,  32  possess  preconceptions  different 1986).  speaker's  These  r u l e s and  skills  speaking process the  of language  accent  area,  especially  might dialect  when  dialect  the  the with  experience  The importance  counselling,  cannot  Canada, where the  be  foreign  immigrant may shed p a r t of t h e i r c u l t u r e through the of a s s i m i l a t i o n ,  while  l e a r n i n g to communicate  the new  Canadian w i l l  (Ryan, Carranza & M o f f i e  The manner i n which the respondent may depend in p a r t , how the speaker  (McKirnan et a l . in  are  to be.  1977).  e v a l u a t e s the  Those who  evaluated  in  a  more  with  undoubtedly  c u l t u r a l l y s i m i l a r to the  is perceived  outwardly s i m i l a r  speaker listener,  are viewed positive  1983), while those who 'sound d i f f e r e n t '  a skeptical  and assumed  way  (Jupp, Roberts  to be u n f r i e n d l y  p a r t l y due to the f a c t  that  (Fraser 1973).  This  speech s t y l e s which wander  less desirable  addition, social  occur  in  1982).  response  to  In  hearing  way are  nonstandard  is from  are t y p i c a l l y viewed  (Edwards  as  & Cook-Gumperz  the standard form of p r o n o u n c i a t i o n  which  as  Understanding i s i m p a i r e d ,  P a r t i c u l a r l y in  speak with an accent  1982)  such  which  or  and to make sense of  'dominant language,'  treated  (Westwood & Borgen  with a negative a t t i t u d e .  r e s e a r c h in t h i s  culturally  variables  by an  is unfamiliar.  reacts  over-emphasized.  w e l l as  the  communication d i s i n t e g r a t e s  is established  listener  skills  aspects  i s garbled  which the l i s t e n e r confusion  as  about  of mutual understanding such as  Effective  message r e c e i v e d  of  include  the process  and a c c e n t .  biases  communication  proficiency,  influence  the  and  as  biases speech,  33  include  lack  of  cooperation,  educational opportunities  restrictive  (Edwards 1982;  employment  Giles &  and  Powesland  1975). In t h e i r  review  article,  Brown,  Strong  and  (1975) d e s c r i b e Wallace Lambert's landmark s t u d i e s , in Montreal reviewers  in  the  describe  and h i s c o l l e a g u e s Lambert's s t u d i e s , the same f l u e n t one language,  late  1950s  and  early  listened  The  conducted  1960s.  the matched guise t e c h n i q u e , originated.  which Lambert in  passages read  b i l i n g u a l ( F r e n c h - E n g l i s h ) speaker,  "guise" was to measure the  These  b i l i n g u a l subjects,  to audiotaped  then in the n e x t .  Rencher  by  first  in  The purpose of matching  influence  of  speech and to  the  ensure  the s u b j e c t s were responding to language alone when asked evaluate  the  personality  They measured semantic  d i r e c t i o n and  differential  (positive  and  researchers  found  better-looking, more  Similarly,  of  composed  adjectives.  guise  as  more  more dependable, than  French Canadian  guise  intelligent,  rated  dependable,  c h a r a c t e r than evaluations  but,  the  of the  French  speakers. with  of  and  his  subjects rated  intelligent,  French-speaking  s u b j e c t s rated  the  English  likeable  and  guise.  The  French guise was  the  taller,  k i n d e r , more ambitious the  a  bipolar  Lambert  speaking g u i s e as kinder and more r e l i g i o u s speaking  the  of a t t i t u d e  that E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n  character  the  intensity  instrument  negative)  English-speaking  having  characteristics  to  and  guise.  the  French-  than the  English-  guise as  as  more  having  more  French  Canadians'  lower than the  English  34  Canadians'  rating  of  the same.  Lambert, Hodgson,  Gardner  "minority  reaction,"  group  and  d e v a l u i n g t h e i r own e t h n i c  White E n g l i s h .  effects  Typically,  standard  Black  guise  as  and  is  in  to  by  be  characterized  a by  the U n i t e d States  of spoken the  design  involves  versus  using  Most often the  listeners  rate  more  competent  and  (Bishop 1979; Buck 1968; Tucker & Lambert  an  results  the  White  intelligent  1969).  (1969) while i n v e s t i g a t i n g  to v a r i o u s r e g i o n a l d i a l e c t s  have  Black E n g l i s h  White  being  Tucker and Lambert  interpreted  group.  audiotaped matched guise t e c h n i q u e . i n d i c a t e that  was  Fillenbaum (1960)  which  Most accent a t t i t u d e s t u d i e s concentrated on the  This  i n the United S t a t e s ,  reactions found that  network t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t e r s who spoke a ' r e g i o n l e s s '  more  standard speech were r a t e d more f a v o u r a b l y , while M i s s i s s i p p i speakers were r a t e d l e a s t f a v o u r a b l e . E l l e n Bouchard number of  studies  Ryan  and a s s o c i a t e s  i n v e s t i g a t i n g the  have  conducted  listener's  r e a c t i o n s to Spanish accented A m e r i c a n - E n g l i s h . p.  60) demonstrated  "suffer  alienation  evaluative Ryan  that S p a n i s h - s p e a k i n g Mexican and  discrimination  a  because  (1973,  Americans of  their  accented speech and experience negative b i a s i n t h e i r p u r s u i t of e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l success."  Similarly,  Alberto  Rey (1977) r e p o r t s that h e a v i l y accented Cuban speakers rated least categories  employable, by  actual  employers, for  all  when compared to m i l d l y accented White and  accented Black-American E n g l i s h  speakers.  It  were job  medium  was found  in  35  one study that degree the speakers. negatively  of accent  i n f l u e n c e d the e v a l u a t i o n  The stronger Spanish-accented E n g l i s h i s  stereotyped  than  Spanish-accented E n g l i s h T h i s was a l s o  standard  (Ryan,  English  Carranza  of more  and  mild  & Moffie  found by Brennan and Brennan (1981),  1977).  especially  on the dimension of group s o l i d a r i t y . In another (1980)  study,  induced  negative  i n t r o d u c i n g a noise audiotaped guises.  Spanish-accented  The  and  partners  association  accented speaker, In  a  interference  ...  standard  guise  was  rated  Carranza  negative  study  having lower  in a t t i t u d e s ; friendly"  affect  with  the  arousal  Mexican-American  and  i n v o l v i n g high c u l t u r e mobility associated  Spanish language  home than E n g l i s h Ryan  language use as:  which i n v o l v e s  as  e x p l a i n the r e s u l t s may be due, of  on  English  less successful,  and l e s s  by  situation,  and  less similar  present when  higher for use at  c o n t e x t s of  judges,  Carranza and Ryan (1975) found that  l o y a l t y " was  school.  arousal  in  Schmidt  less  (p.  203).  in  part,  with  the  r e s u l t i n g i n the unfavourable e v a l u a t i o n .  related  adolescents,  and  less trustworthy,  social class,  These i n v e s t i g a t o r s  Ryan, Keogh  English  Spanish-accented  d e s i r e a b l e as  to the  affect  or no noise  "lower i n t e l l i g e n c e , status,  Sebastian,  with  status,  standard  f r i e n d s h i p , intimacy  lower s t a t u s e t h n i c group.  some "accent was  rated  which was p r e f e r r e d  describe  (dominant),  bilingual  the  in  two  different  which means  situations  the i n f l u e n c e speech  and  and  upward  solidarity,  and membership with  the  36  As  previously  indicates  their  listener.  For  mentioned,  ethnic the  origin  speaker,  " m o t i v a t i o n a l component" the s o c i a l  group  countries,  such  languages  means  communicate  1975).  facilitate  the more  status  to  accent  have  they  and  desire  often  An  to  T.  to  speaks the  in  Wolck  both to  order  employment,  states  in  learns  dwelling,  (1976)  to  (Brown,  fluency  language  (Apte 1970;  or  ...  important to develop an element of  speech."  more a t t e n t i o n  awareness of  which  may  1973). that  "90%  this  listener  to what i s  process  pays a t t e n t i o n  rate,  hesitation,  while  comparing  s a i d and i n t e r p r e t  different  and makes judgments about  speaker  an a e s t h e t i c  but,  as  and  the speech  pronounciation similar  or  hearing accents  not  1973).  speaker  i n a d d i t i o n , a)  dimension  word.  interpretation,  ultimately  suggests that  pinpointing  characteristics  aspects,  readily  the spoken  to  to themselves (Palmer  elicits  of  i t more  linguistic  Howard G i l e s (1970) only  is  conscious  of  grammatical the  . . . the  of  T h i s author suggests that people pay  because of the comparative a c c e s s i b i l i t y During  to  simply  communication i s nonverbal and l a r g e l y unconscious" and i t "...  a  multilingual  individual  urban  Hall  belong  b i l i n g u a l or  of e d u c a t i o n ,  lifestyle  Although Edward  social  prestigious  rural  a better  and  dialect  opportunity.  from  person  and I n d i a ,  reach the d e s i r e d goals progressing  a  In some  as Peru  in  way  inasmuch as d e c l a r i n g membership  to which  Strong & Rencher  the  status  and  personality  the l i s t e n e r  experiences  of p l e a s a n t n e s s  or  unpleasantness;  37  b) a c o m m u n i c a t i v e interaction; inherent  who  were  alter of  and  in  Powesland  accent.  interested accent  position  in  that  t o be  (RP),  certain  accents from  broader  than and  there doesn't  foreign  and  Britain,  class  would  standard  way  minorities their  and  and  any  'correct'  p r e s t i g e may  by  stating  own  speech  in  Britain  accented  speakers.  the  third Britain  standard and  t o summarize t h a t  review  research  from  the  more  accents.  B l a c k and  his  Within  more p r e s t i g i o u s  as  i t i s better  towns.  least  such  European French,  Scottish  second  t o be  regard t h e i r  a c c e n t s , and  w h i c h were r a t e d  Powesland c o n t i n u e appear  received  while  industrial  of  or  class,  considered  the U n i t e d S t a t e s , a c c e n t  Giles  with the  in  considered f i r s t  large  favourable  accept  The  a c c e n t s which d e v i a t e d the  Canadians  Giles  people, social  value  standard,  26).  a c c e n t s , were  Giles  prestige  article,  above t h e i r  more i n l i n e  (p.  were  than  review  historically  in rising  propnounciation  conclude  a  In  of  verbal  society"  were t h e a c c e n t s  ethnic  amount  in  t h e r e f o r e , a marker  regional  regional  the  level  " p r o n o u n c i a t i o n became,  pronounciation Irish  or d i s c o m f o r t  rates  (1975) s t a t e d  their  British  c)  the  speaking;  and  comfort  but  than  on  colleagues  speaking  ranked  as  in  socialy  study  in  a c c o r d i n g to  Mexican-American. that,  Canada, less  They French  desirable  reluctant  to  Canadian. have  investigating  could perceive differences  of  t h e o t h e r hand, a r e  French  In a  be  way  although  conducted  evaluative  to determine  between m i l d  extensive  reactions if  or b r o a d  to  listeners  accent  and  38  how these d i s t i n c t i o n s that l i s t e n e r s  would be r a t e d ,  were able  broad r e g i o n a l a c c e n t s .  to  d i s t i n g u i s h between  A l l subjects,  same r e g i o n , r a t e d the a e s t h e t i c , of  the  broader  version.  accent  Giles  less  (1972b)  stereotyped as having  G i l e s (1972a)  even  found  mild  and  those from  the  comfort and p r e s t i g e  favourable  reported  than  that  RP  more i n t e l l i g e n c e and  values  the  milder  speakers  were  self-confidence  (competence)  but l e s s p e r s o n a l i n t e g r i t y and kind-heartedness  or  (social  humour  non-standard  attractiveness)  accents.  persuasiveness  and  Powesland 1975)  The  accented  indicated  results speech  when of  compared  to  studies  on  two  (Giles  1973a;  Giles &  that the q u a l i t y  of the  argument  presented was evaluated by a l l l i s t e n e r s more p o s i t i v e l y when spoken by an RP speaker than speakers with r e g i o n a l However, where a c t u a l a t t i t u d e change involved,  listeners  were more  with whom they f e l t (accent  accents.  towards the t o p i c  e a s i l y persuaded  by  was more c u l t u r a l l y s i m i l a r to  was  someone  themselves  loyalty).  Giles,  Baker  & Fielding  v o c a l s t i m u l a t i o n only too a r t i f i c i a l  (1975)  in r e s e a r c h , arguing  and l i m i t i n g .  i n v e s t i g a t o r s used  c r i t i c i z e the  a matched  speaker was f a c e - t o - f a c e  with  In  their  1975  guise technique the l i s t e n e r .  that  use  of  i t may  be  study,  these  i n which They  the  attempted  to determine a c t u a l stereotyped a t t i t u d i n a l behaviour towards the speaker by using length as an  the respondents' w r i t t e n  i n d i c a t i o n of that  were c o n s i s t e n t  with most p r e v i o u s  behaviour.  communication Their  r e s e a r c h : the RP  findings speaker  39  was  rated  more  intelligent  and  ( i n d i c a t i n g a d e s i r e to i n t e r a c t )  subjects  wrote  more  about the RP speaker  than  the r e g i o n a l accented speaker. In r e l a t e d B r i t i s h s t u d i e s , between London 1967)  and,  and Y o r k s h i r e  although  accented l i s t e n e r s prestige  scales,  both  rated  accent l o y a l t y was  accents Scottish  and  were l o y a l  with regards to_ s o c i a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s  continues towards  to  be  accents.  E n g l i s h and Lambert  Wallace  In  to a  investigate study  standard Canadian  (1962)  accented guise  reported  regional  lower on to t h e i r  many region  (Cheyne 1970).  Lambert's matched  used  & Woosley  English  the S c o t t i s h accent  the l i s t e n e r s  In Canada,  (Strongman  reported  guise  technique  listener  attitudes  comparing English,  that G e n t i l e  Jewish  accented  Anisfeld, listeners  Bogo  and  rated  the  lower on a l l t r a i t s while the Jewish  listeners  r a t e d the accented guise as more humourous, e n t e r t a i n i n g , and kind.  They  were  also  able  e t h n i c a l l y Jewish more often accent l o y a l t y  on dimensions  to  indentify  the  than the G e n t i l e s . of s o c i a l  accent Once  as  again,  attractiveness  and  group s o l i d a r i t y appears to be p r e s e n t . In  addition,  to  the  above,  Canada, U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t a i n , a n a t i o n a l of accent.  a country  familiar  i s the circumstance  encounters someone  Although the s i t u a t i o n s  situations  foreign  where the dominant  English  Spanish or  accent r e q u i r e some adjustment and f i l t e r i n g of situations  are  the  norm  where  with a  speaking person hears a French Canadian,  these  in  in  these  regional  information,  countries  and  40  therefore  more  encountered.  familiar  than  Therefore i t  r e p o r t e d here i n d i c a t e an f o r e i g n accented  is  when  a  foreign  no s u r p r i s e  that the  unequivocal negative  speakers on  accent  is  studies  bias  towards  several c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  For  example, B r i t i s h e r s i t was r e p o r t e d , viewed m i n o r i t y speakers of  English  as i n e f f i c i e n t  t h e i r work performance 1982).  and speak  When c o n s i d e r e d  suitable  who make  for only the lower s t a t u s jobs  listeners  Kalin,  rated foreign  Rayko  all  job c a n d i d a t e s ( K a l i n & Rayko  & Love  accented speakers  dimensions  of  (Mishra  accented were 1978;  1980).  American  (Italian,  Eastern  European and Norwegian) lower than American E n g l i s h speakers on  about  discrimination  Canadians over f o r e i g n  the f o r e i g n accented  K a l i n & Rayko 1980;  excuses  incorrect English  for job s u i t a b i l i t y ,  was shown to favour E n g l i s h speakers and that  workers  accented  socio-intellectual  status,  a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y and dynamism (Mulac, Hanley & P r i g g e 1974). In a r e l a t e d study, the f o r e i g n standard, negatively supports  Palmer (1973) r e p o r t e d  speaker of  English deviates  phonologically evaluated. this  notion  stereotyped sets  or  Williams  stating  of a t t i t u d e s  from the  grammatically,  Frederick by  that as soon  as  that  accepted they  are  p.  126)  (1973, "people  anchor p o i n t s  as  employ  for  their  e v a l u a t i o n s of whatever i s presented to them as a sample of a p e r s o n ' s speech." way r a t h e r than consideration.  E s s e n t i a l l y people t a k i n g the  respond i n an  overall  individual characteristics  into  41  SUMMARY Clearly,  the  communication, verbal  communication  listeners  of  the  characteristics purpose  understanding  which  stereotype  repertoire.  b a s e d on this  others,  the  yielding  to subsequent  s u c h as  perceived  similar  the  standard from  a  ..."  beliefs,  the  develops  stereotypical  but  (Delia  attitude. cut  to  sometimes  1972,  attitudes,  an  various  "short  disproven,  information  hearing  attributes  is  upon  upon  elicited  she  elicited  relied  language,  listener  or  stereotype  from is  The  he  on  reveals that  deviates  s p e a k e r as  of  literature  accent  a negative  attitude  impression  of  a t t i t u d e and  pronounciation,  The  review  p.  286)  values  and  status. From a c o u n s e l l i n g p e r s p e c t i v e , One,  this  type  of  negative  therapeutic  process.  investigates  the  accented  client.  enhance t h e and  offer  negative individual.  attitudes  existing some  a t t i t u d e can The  It i s  outlined in be  research of  research,  towards  inspire as  to  undertaken  the  towards  the  further  why  Chapter  detrimental  counsellors  a n t i c i p a t e d that  explanation  attitudes  as  results  to  the here  their will  investigation  people  culturally  react  with  different  42  CHAPTER  THREE  I N S T R U M E N T A T I O N AND  A T T I T U D E MEASUREMENT: T h e S e m a n t i c It are  i s generally  relatively  evaluative  three  " t e n d e n c i e s of a p p r o a c h reactions  A t t i t u d e s may (positive  who  or  not  As  only  of  notion  a point the  of o r i g i n ,  researcher  attitudes Also  (Osgood  favourable  about),  (actions  towards  or  suggest i t s  be d e s c r i b e d  d i r e c t i o n of an  intensity  which  or  1970).  evaluation of  zone on a b i p o l a r  the  as  as " f a v o u r a b l e  and Tannenbaum  of an e x t e n s i o n  quantify  "latent  (beliefs  w i t h b o t h d i r e c t i o n and  feeling, continuum  i s composed  of  i n t e n s i t y , enables  affective  measurement  of  et a l . 1970).  pertinant  characteristics attitude  to  an  cognitive  have a  from a n e u t r a l  in  1970)  Suci  also  a  and  & Fishman  or a v o i d a n c e " (Osgood,  react  attitude  s u c h , a t t i t u d e s may  n e g a t i v e ) but  This  to  and b e h a v i o u r a l  which o r i g i n a t e s affect.  a t t i t u d e s are learned  consider  (Agheyisi  (feelings about),  unfavourable"  that  components:  attitude object).  Differential  predispositons  Most  variable"  s t r u c t u r e has  the  enduring  manner.  psychological  affective  accepted  APPARATUS  which  measurement.  to  scale  make  up  These  and u n f a v o u r a b l e ,  construction the  affective  include  the  are nature  extremity  the i n t e n s i t y of the f e e l i n g  the of of of  43  the respondent and the degree involved  (i.e.,  object  to which the respondent  relevance)  (Lemon 1973; Shaw & Wright  with  1967).  feels  the a t t i t u d e  The semantic  differential  adequately measures the d i r e c t i o n and i n t e n s i t y of With the added f l e x i b i l i t y  of s e l e c t i n g  to the p a r t i c u l a r needs of  a study,  attitude.  adjectives  this  object  suitable  instrument  becomes  r e l e v a n t to most study p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s technique chosen  due  to  cross-cultural which  for  its  the  extensive  research.  resulted  in  adjective  meaning  Osgood  Repeatedly,  emerged: e v a l u a t i o n powerless)  and  more  (good  activity  traditional  of  and  pairs  three or  that  or  1969).  attitude  e v a l u a t i v e component appears  was  development  in  appear (Tanaka,  dimensions  bad),  (fast  attitude  presented  across c u l t u r e s  1969; Lemon 1973; Osgood to  use  This research  u n i v e r s a l i t y of 1969).  measurement  potency  slow)  have  Oyama & meaning  (powerful  (Kumata  of  to  of  compared  measurement  to c o r r e l a t e  the  more h i g h l y  than  the potency or a c t i v i t y dimension (Lemon 1973; Osgood et 1970).  However, s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s  Osgood et al. 1970) should attitude  be  taken  into  EPA were  attitudes.  dimensions  considered  when  Therefore  (i.e., to  1970; Lemon  of the dimensions  consideration  towards the o b j e c t .  differential of  c a u t i o n that a l l  (Heise  or  & Schramm  In a d d i t i o n , when scales  concepts  analyzing  a l l of the  al . 1973;  (EPA) the  semantic  the composite t e s t mean score) represent  the  counsellors'  44  There are differential  several over  other  bipolar adjectives used with (Heise  advantages  are "simple  In  using  standardized  adults, children  1970).  in  people  from  adjectives  and  research  Finally, purpose. in  to a  particular  the semantic  This is essential  the  present  study  towards  foreign  accented  researcher found r e f e r r e d to  for  clients.  testing  the  attitudes  is  and i t s  able  population.  counsellor  in  its  such  as  attitudes  reviewing  other  for p r e j u d i c e and b i a s ,  most  part,  towards  Jews,  what  was  Blacks  to  suitable  disguised  In  be  cultures  when measuring a t t i t u d e s  investigating  attitude questionnaires,  other  which are  d i f f e r e n t i a l may be  The  and can  the experimenter  c o n s t r u c t the s c a l e s e l e c t i n g relevant  semantic  instruments.  and economical"  or  addition,  the  this  available  and  Russians  though such d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s a s ,  "Would you l i v e next door to  one?" or  daughter marry  "Would  investigator  you l e t  considered  your this  method  of  one?"  measurement  r e l e v a n t to the c o u n s e l l i n g p o p u l a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y their attitudes  This  towards the f o r e i g n accented  not  i n terms of  client.  Reliability  Test-retest  reliability  been e x t e n s i v e l y (1970). .87 to  conducted  They have .93.  s t u d i e s for by Osgood  r e p o r t e d high  (Heise  and  his  coefficients  have  researchers ranging  from  The semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l i s c o n s i d e r e d to be  s t a b l e and r e l i a b l e instrument even small  random e r r o r  1970).  when the sample s i z e  T e s t s for i n t e r n a l  consistency  of  a is the  45  subscales of e v a l u a t i o n ,  potency and a c t i v i t y  l e s s r i g o r o u s although Lemon acceptable,  reporting  .76  for e v a l u a t i o n ,  .66  for  (1973) suggests they are  split-half  .56  to  appear to  .75  reliabilities  for potency  be  still  from .70  to  and from .58  to  activity.  Validity  that  When measuring  attitudes,  the e v a l u a t i v e  dimension of the  face v a l i d i t y . "  In  a d d i t i o n they  dimension was compared  with the  and Guttman-type s c a l e s , attitude,  .74  -  Osgood  .82,  with t h i s a s s e r t i o n the  semantic  respectively  stating  that  the  sematic  to  either's  the  this  Thurstone  that  1967).  "in essence, whatever the e v a l u a t i v e  factor  based upon thorough  testing,  the  i n measuring  criteria  of  He  to t e s t the p r e d i c t i v e  and  sometimes low c o r r e l a t i o n s  of  the  a  attitude.  between  d i f f e r e n t i a l and t r a d i t i o n a l s c a l e s c o u l d be relevance  the  concurs  "satisfies  p.  of  109)  i n attempting  concurrent v a l i d i t y ,  when  & Wright  Lemon (1973,  v a l i d instrument"  adds, however,  "reasonable  that  (Shaw  measure,  230).  differential  r e l i a b l e and  report  state  i t c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y as a mesure  Thurstone and Guttman s c a l e s (p.  s c a l e has  more t r a d i t i o n a l  Osgood et al. (1970) concluded that  measures as w e l l "  (1970)  et al.  attitude  object  to  due the  respondents. Lemon c a u t i o n s differential operating  as  within  a  that even though he regards the reliable the  and  boundaries  valid of  semantic  instrument, a  single  it  is  evaluative  46  component,  and should  be used in  one other  instrument  in  m u l t i - f a c e t e d " concept  Attitude  order  of  c o n j u n c t i o n with at to  It  strictly  behave a c c o r d i n g  is a d i f f i c u l t  researchers  state  to what  measure  some suggest that most peoples' disposition  and o u t s i d e  and  that a t t i t u d e s  &  actually  even though  correspond to  Byrne  should  a  to i n f e r behaviour  (Fasold 1984)  reactions  (Baron  influences,  they are  task t h e r e f o r e  from a s e l f - r e p o r t  attitudinal  "complex  of Behaviour  Depending upon the s i t u a t i o n  feeling.  the  attitude.  and t h eP r e d i c t i o n  person may not  tap  least  1977). not be  their  Several viewed  as  causes or p r e d i c t o r s of behaviour but as "communicative acts" which imply 1984).  the  Others  measurement  evaluations consider  i s to  same object  colleagues  the  that  inferences  w i l l be  (1970)  Brown  single  measure a t t i t u d e s  n a t u r a l l y follows that  that  (Lalljee,  towards  that  that  this  p r e d i c t i o n of dominant  "part  contribution behaviour. of  between s i t u a t i o n s 233).  Wiggins  suggesting behaviour,  a  the  is  attitudes  They  describe  intervening  and behaviour"  and F i s h b e i n causal  it  towards his  contribute  to  in  to a the  attitude  state  the  which  person accurate as  the  mediates  (Osgood et  al . 1970,  p.  (1969) recommends  prudence  in  relationship  c a u t i o n i n g that  of  Osgood and  object  limited  Ginsburg  o b j e c t s and  r e g a r d i n g behaviour  understanding the m e a n i n g of the a t t i t u d e and  function  made (Lemon 1973).  state  and  "behaviour  between  attitude  toward a given  and object  47  is a function  of many  only one" (p.  100).  Scale  v a r i a b l e s , of which  attitude  ...  Construction  Based on a review of u s i n g the  the language and a t t i t u d e  audiotaped matched  differential  i s too small to  published factor  semantic  bipolar adjective pairs  When  research  f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of  recommends choosing a n a l y t i c work  were  attitudes  the sample s i z e i n  provide an a c c u r a t e  (1970)  studies  and  research i n v e s t i g a t i n g counsellor  towards accented c l i e n t s .  d a t a , Heise  guise technique  instrument, f i f t y  s e l e c t e d for t h i s  the  the a d j e c t i v e s  s t a t i n g the  pairs  from  selected  would be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of each of the EPA dimensions. was the case i n the present Essentially persons  "good-bad  the or  dimension represents  "strength of the stimulus"  (Shuy & W i l l i a m s  loading  1973).  g e n e r a l l y because affective  (28 it  other  items)  to  included  the  of the  evaluative  attitude  et al . 1970;  potency  (11  (Fasold  speaker  a) obscure  the  by a  component of  1984;  Shaw & Wright  items) and  of  dimension  on g u i d e l i n e s e s t a b l i s h e d  on  of  to  the  a judgement  i s c o n s i d e r e d most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  f a c t o r s of  the  the s c a l e s were c o n s t r u c t e d with  items)  characteristic  were  reaction  while the a c t i v i t y  Based  1970; Lemon 1973; Osgood The  reflects  dynamic q u a l i t i e s "  Osgood and h i s c o l l e a g u e s higher  dimension  pleasant-unpleasant  i n d i c a t e s the "perceived  This  investigation.  evaluative  s t i m u l u s " ; the potency the  is  Heise 1967).  activity  intent  the  of  (11 the  48  instrument and b) to complete counsellor's  overall  produced  Lambert  (1967)  listeners distinct  rated  listeners  that  Using  "accent  personal  loyality"  integrity  in  of  design  dynamics,  uneducated;  r e g i o n a l accented  listeners  but  (1981),  attractiveness  rated  "standard  Carranza and Ryan  in  t h e i r work  Strong and  Rencher  and  in  culture(educated-  (friendly-unfriendly;  trustworthy-untrustworthy).  (1975) terms of  competence  s i m i l a r to e v a l u a t i o n and  described speaker (strength, potency.  with  successful-unsuccessful;  and s o l i d a r i t y - s t r e s s i n g  kind-cruel;  bipolar pairs tolerance)  status-seeking  intelligent-ignorant;  wealthy-poor) good-bad;  as  had  standard  categories  such  and  and  Spanish-Americans i n a d d i t i o n to EPA, r e f e r to more specific  humor;  Britain,  i n the s o c i a l  and Brennan  kindness)  sense  matched guise  p r o n o u n c i a t i o n speakers as more competent. (1975) and Brennan  three  (intelligence;  regional dialects  He r e p o r t e d that  Canada,  on  (reliability,  (1971),  but  (French-English)  speakers  (sociability;  Giles  analyses  In  competence  the same  speakers of  pronounciation. demonstrated  bilingual  personal i n t e g r i t y  categories,  rate  the  paralleling  bilingual  categories:  attractiveness  personality  often  EPA c o m p o s i t i o n .  audiotaped  better-looking).  and  from the  personality  social  of the study some f a c t o r clusters  found  self-confidence), and  focus  adjective  sometimes d i f f e r e n t  information r e g a r d i n g  attitudes.  Depending on the have  the  their  Brown,  categories  benevolence confidence)  of  (kindness, which  Zahn and Hopper  are  (1985),  49  conducting r e s e a r c h  on  language  Speech E v a l u a t i o n Instrument. model  of  speaker  competence,  developed  T h i s contained a three  evaluation:  social  attractiveness  attitudes,  superiority  status,  (social  factor  (intellect,  speaking  competency),  attractiveness,  t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s , benevolence)  the  solidarity,  and dynamism (speaker's  social  power, a c t i v i t y l e v e l and s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n ) . For  the  present  research,  c o n s t r u c t e d was composed of  the  final  50-item  a d j e c t i v e s chosen from  f a c t o r a n a l y t i c s t u d i e s which produced c a t e g o r i e s the EPA dimensions.  scale  previous  typical  Most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were s e l e c t e d  of from  a pool of a d j e c t i v e s which were the product of Osgood and h i s colleagues' 1975).  thesaurus r e s e a r c h  Other  adjectives  e a r l i e r which had different  (Osgood, Suci and  were  chosen  from  investigated attitudes  or accented  Tannenbaum  studies  towards  culturally  speakers.  The concept chosen for the c o u n s e l l o r s i n t h i s was the "Evaluation  of the  negative)  to put an X  on each s c a l e  to i n d i c a t e both the d i r e c t i o n  and i n t e n s i t y  research  Client's Characteristics."  study p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked bipolar adjectives  cited  ( n e u t r a l to extreme)  towards the c l i e n t  they had j u s t  bipolar adjectives  were  each  of t h e i r  end of  feeling  a  the sequence throughout.  To prevent  and For  polarity  response bias of  the purposes  the  scales  of numerical  or order was  The  bipolar  continuum i n d i c a t i n g extreme o p p o s i t e s of a p a r t i c u l a r characteristic.  of  (positive-  viewed on v i d e o t a p e .  p l a c e d at  The  client effects  randomized  analysis,  each  50  adjective positive  p a i r was assigned e v a l u a t i o n to  the numerical value from one  seven for  negative  evaluation  for (four  r e p r e s e n t i n g the n e u t r a l p o i n t ) . In  c o n s t r u c t i n g the  ascertains  semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l Heise  "actual q u a l i f i e r s "  "slightly" affect  the  such as  "very," "quite"  way in which  study p a r t i c i p a n t s  He c o n s i d e r s  these q u a l i f i e r s  the a t t i t u d e  object.  the s u b j e c t s  to make f i n e r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s in t h e i r  than i f of  there were no g u i d e l i n e s .  the q u a l i f i e r s used for t h i s  Below i s a  :  :  :  Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l both  enable  responses  :  :  very closely related :  bad  i n s t r u c t i o n s and accompanying  administered  to the  participants  in  studies.  INTERVIEW  QUESTIONNAIRE  A post elicit  hoc  interview  counsellors'  client.  The  dispositions of  rate  research.  —:  See Appendix C for the complete  and  representation  neutral or very quite only not at only quite closely closely slightly all slightly closely related related related related related related good  (1970)  which  unbiased and  questions  was  not  reflected  completely  and others  designed  genuine r e a c t i o n s general  towards the c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t  were  differential  questionnaire  covered  in  which were designed  to  to the  attitudinal  i n d i v i d u a l some the  semantic  to support  it.  51  These  dispositions  s i m i l a r i t y or  dissimilarity  (affi11iation), future  the  process);  and  the  and  client  an open-ended  the  client of  (involvement);  on  between  the  p e r c e p t i o n of  or h e r s e l f  perceived  in and enjoyment  influences  the c o u n s e l l o r s '  In a d d i t i o n ,  them  c u l t u r a l differences  (cultural  m o t i v a t i o n to help himself  counsellors'  to engage  with  awareness of  client  the between  a willingness  participation  counsellors' and  included  counselling the  (clinical  "other comments"  them  client's  judgement).  questions  was  included.  DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION  In order to o b t a i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e counsellors, analysis  study  who  participants  were  sample of mainstream  were not  considered " c u l t u r a l l y  included  in  the  sensitive."  The  demographic data provided the c r i t e r i a for the d e f i n i t i o n the  "mainstream  cultural  counsellor"  influences.  in  the  Such q u e s t i o n s  domain  of  before  18  Evidence supports the notion that years of  f o r e i g n accent country,  age,  but beyond that age,  a dominant i n f l u e n c e  if  over h i s  lose  immigrants' c u l t u r e  or her l i f e  if  immigrating their  adopt the c u l t u r e of the the  of  i n Canada,  individuals generally  and e f f e c t i v e l y  familial  asked the b i r t h p l a c e  both mother and father and t h e i r age on a r r i v a l applicable.  of  (Seliger,  host  remains Krashin  and Ladefoged 1975). In a d d i t i o n , The goal  of  the  the c o u n s e l l o r ' s demographic sheet  b i r t h p l a c e was was  to  gather  queried. enough  52  i n f o r m a t i o n about the s u b j e c t s the  criteria  established  to determine whether they  to  be  considered  as  fit  "pure"  mainstream c o u n s e l l o r s .  APPARATUS: The M a t c h e d G u i s e  In  its  purest form,  Videotapes  the matched-guise  technique r e q u i r e s  the same p e r f e c t l y b i l i n g u a l person to read e x a c t l y passage i n one  language,  then the  other.  that t h i s method of r e s e a r c h " e l i c i t s the l i s t e n e r s Tucker  1966)  more p r i v a t e  only the  voice  In  is  responses  considered  which  essence,  listeners  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  close  order for t h i s to  a  real  audiotape  stimulus,  was  speech  styles  counselling  situation  as  of  the  avoided  same.  because  A  real  of  experimental  fatigue  behaviour,  and  p r e s e n t a t i o n from one subject to the R e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e suggests  controlling  content,  r e a c t i o n s to 1973; Lee  elicit may  reading s t y l e  1971).  To  to the  to them. as a  relevant  client,  appearance,  to  of  possible,  a r i s e n regarding the  attempts  1969)  s t u d y ' s p a r t i c i p a n t s to experience  problems which might have  its  and  are r e a c t i n g  videotape of a c l i e n t p r e s e n t i n g a problem was more than an  expose  (Tucker & Lambert  audiotaped speaker who sounds s i m i l a r or d i f f e r e n t In  same  r e a c t i o n s " (Lambert, Frankel  and s t e r o t y p e d a t t i t u d e s  towards the speaker.  It  the  as  the  control  individual's  instability  of  next.  that the matched-guise,  reactions  only  inadvertantly (Fasold  s t a n d a r d i z e the  to  speech  in by  elicit  listeners'  1984; G i l e s  & Bourhis  p r e s e n t a t i o n used  in  53  this  research,  Ryan (1973)  i t was necessary  contends  that  to hold the content  reading  essential  to c o n t r o l for v a r i a t i o n s  grammar.  Brown  constant"  puts  reactions,  et  emphasis on  prepared  i n syntax,  (1975) add  al .  the  a  that  Others  support  this  the  notion,  reactions  simply  from  because  speech may  deviations  encourage  responses  ( G i l e s & Bourhis 1973). content-relevant  to that  monologue with  Before proceeding f u r t h e r ,  accent,  so  English,  it  and l a t e r study.  accents  are  to  expressions  In e f f e c t ,  dialect  and  c l e a r to  the  It  present  sounds,  Essentially, considered  features  (Wells  (Giles  and  characteristics  1982) Bourhis  rhythmic,  to  for n a t i v e be  intonational  speakers  "patterns  of speech (Berger  and  phonological,  syntactic  and  1968; Wells 1982).  to and  clarify  working d e f i n i t i o n  to  plus c e r t a i n 1973),  reader  Often d i a l e c t  is essential a  he  foreign  There does not appear  p r o n o u n c i a t i o n " which i n c l u d e the usage of p a r t i c u l a r or consonant  accent  speech.  is  heard.  are used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y .  for t h i s  grammatical  facial  g l o b a l d e f i n i t i o n of a c c e n t .  these two terms accent  defined  what the c o u n s e l l o r s  be a d e f i n i t e  in  speakers,  and not  suitable  natural  to be  of  T h e r e f o r e , the a c t o r accompanied h i s  to mimic spontaneous,  accents need  especially  standard  and a p p r o p r i a t e p h o n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  accent  content  listeners'  to accented  the  is  vocabulary and  "holding  quatifying  r e s e a r c h which i n v e s t i g a t e s  exactly  script  which are p e c u l i a r to the v o c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  the speaker.  attempted  constant.  of of of  vowels prosodic phonetic lexical Accents  54  are "deviations standard 1970). p.  from the expected  pronounciation  (Bezooijen  Accent has a l s o been  1) as " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  geographic  English,  sex,  of  class  relation  to  Ajirotutu  1982).  pitch,  "learned  reflecting  it  rhythm  and  intonation  cultural  pattern"  standard  1985).  or  linguistic  in v o c a b u l a r y , syntax,  A foreign result  of  the  ethnolinguistic language  (Danesi  pronounciation  (Giles  accent  situation  1985).  and l e x i c a l  (Kess  f o r e i g n accented  is  1976)  the 1975)  phonology  which  occurring  Chaika  at  the  "most  1973;  to  from speak  (Rey 1977) Chaika (Wells  features  of  speech  the  dominant  interference especially Kess  1982),  reflects  the  different  1982;  speech.  be  a  product of  phonetic  individuals'  the  i s a v a r i a t i o n of  to  the  language  (Ryan  G i l e s and Bourhis 1973),  and  al .  et  considered  attempt It  with  part of  Berger 1968;  where speakers  background  phonological  i n terms  G i l e s and Bourhis 1973).  is generally  from the s p e a k e r ' s n a t i v e terms of  1970;  of  Black  or m i n o r i t y groups w i t h i n  Generally, dialect  reveived  levels"  some  (Hansell  (Brown  l a r g e r community (Berger and Bradac 1982; Danesi  (1982,  of e d u c a t i o n . "  d e f i n e d as p r e p r e s e n t i n g  variations  Giles  may be t y p i c a l  has been i n v e s t i g a t e d  are t y p i c a l of c e r t a i n e t h n i c  1982;  1985;  from the standard p r o n o u n c i a t i o n  D i a l e c t has been speaker's  ...  or l e v e l  in the U n i t e d S t a t e s , is different  Hout  an i n d i v i d u a l b e l i n g i n g to  age group  of how i t  and  1968)  d e s c r i b e d by J . C . Wells  region or s o c i a l  the speaker's  or f a m i l i a r " (Berger  in 1976;  syntactical In  addition,  differences,  55  from  the  standard,  melody, tempo,  in  prosodic  rhythm and  characteristics  pause  (Mulac,  Hanley  such and  as,  Prigge  1 974) . Therefore, operational  f o r the  definition  purpose  of t h i s  of f o r e i g n  research a  accent  i s taken  refined  to  include  b o t h p h o n o l o g i c a l ( p r o n o u n c i a t i o n ) and P r o s o d i c v a r i a t i o n  in  speech  speakers  of  changes  in  which a r e  English.  phrasing,  language  psychological areas  of  components familiar  of  and  immediacy  (Gumperz  variables  not taboo;  and i n t e n s i t y  of  evaluative  and B r a d a c  Firstly,  the  which  presentation,  in a  semantic  used  of the speaker's  and  words which  which:  were common  appropriate emotion;  rather  reflect  the  feelings;  phonological  and  in a  variables, manner  and n o t c o l l o q u i a l than  had an a v e r a g e  vocabulary;  spoke  used  features,  dysfunctional rather  correct  than  the  grammar.  which Berger  grammar.  utilizing  disturbed or  was  words  expressed words  of  impoverished  Paralinguistic  and Bradac  level  content  i n nature;  advanced  three  are  order to control  actor  and  which  In  as the  they  syntactic  v o c a b u l a r y u s u a g e ; use a n d t h e use o f good o r bad language  as  social  of  controlled  overall  (1982) o u t l i n e  include  t h e words  f o r these  length,  and  were c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t  Berger  language,  vowel  1982).  and manner  which a r e  concern.  intonation,  and d e c e l e r a t i o n  t h i s accent  sense.  non-native  loudness, duration),  register  attributions  in  includes  pausing, a c c e l e r a t i o n  composing  several elicit  (pitch,  i n speech  In  found  Prosodic variation  volume, s t r e s s  shifts  typically  suggest  and elicit  56  sterotypes  or  psychological  intonation,  volume, rate  categorizations,  of speech  To c o n t r o l for these language the non-accented being  an  standard  Eastern  and phonetic  speech with  as was the case  syntactic  language.  Both the accented study matched.  fourteen segments of recorded  to accomplish  the  relatively  videotapes this,  in  each  each  of  the  h i s problem  accented.  L a t e r the segments were s p l i t and e d i t e d i n t o  two  separate,  fourteen  and  segment  videotapes:  The videotapes  as a u t h e n t i c  were  while  version,  was the  were r a t e d  non-accented  and  then  non-accented.  the  variation  viewed,  were  the c l i e n t p r e s e n t i n g  separately:  mimicked  with the semantic  and non-accented  In order  variation.  only  When  variables  equal on both tapes, of  the  accent.  phonological  features  pitch,  v a r i a b l e s , the a c t o r  European  p a r a l i n g u i s t i c and  are  one  accented  reviewed and the  the c o n t e n t ,  accents  speech  speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , e m o t i o n a l i t y and n o n - v e r b a l were judged as e s s e n t i a l l y and non-accented)  the  w i t h i n each s t u d y .  study were 26 minutes l o n g . demonstration,  same for each tape  given by  r e s e a r c h e r , of  videotapes  to i l l u s t r a t e  the  following chapter.  the second study was  In  first  two minute expect  addition,  seconds was e d i t e d on to  how much  make a c o u n s e l l i n g response.  (accented  what to  and what the p a r t i c i p a n t s were expected to do. the a c t u a l response time of 30  behavior  The tapes in the  This included a b r i e f  this  style,  time the  subject had  This is discussed  in d e t a i l  The t o t a l videotape running time 20 minutes with the  same format as  the to in for in  57  S t u d y One. procedures attitudes  The  next  designed  chapter presents for  towards t h e i r  this accented  the methodology  investigation client.  of  and  counsellor  58  CHAPTER FOUR  METHODOLOGY  INTRODUCTION  This research  investigated  c u l t u r e c o u n s e l l o r s towards review of l i t e r a t u r e  the  attitudes  (Chapter Two)  suggested that  speaker.  negative a t t i t u d e  towards the f o r e i g n accented  counsellor attitudes client,  this  These stereotypes  the  difference  towards  researcher designed  they  can prolong  a  individual.  between  the accented  The  majority  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s when  hear an accented  investigate  dominant-  a foreign-accented c l i e n t .  individuals attribute stereotypic  To  of  or  majority  non-accented  then conducted two  studies  in the department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  r e s u l t s of the  first  during  March and  study were  April,  c o n t r a r y to the  1986.  literature  r e p o r t e d , which r e v e a l e d that people have negative towards  the  investigator,  culturally therefore,  or deny the r e s u l t s This design,  chapter  the p i l o t  This  conducted a second study to  confirm  first.  describes study,  attitudes  individual.  of the  different  The  the  the  questions,  the  p o p u l a t i o n and the sample,  the  apparatus  and  procedures,  hypotheses,  and the s t a t i s t i c a l  the  research  instrumentation,  analyses  for each of the  the two  59  separate  investigations.  'matched-guise' counselling Procedures rationale is  videotapes  problem  is  section.  to Chapter  of  the  included  For  and d e v e l o p m e n t  referred  In a d d i t i o n ,  a  the p r o d u c t i o n of client  in  the  detailed  presenting  his  Apparatus  and  description  of the i n s t r u m e n t s  the  used,  of  the  the reader  Three.  RESEARCH QUESTIONS Both  studies address  four research q u e s t i o n s :  a)  Is there a difference in attitude between mainstream c o u n s e l l o r s t o w a r d s t h e i r c l i e n t s who have no a c c e n t and t h o s e whose c l i e n t s speak w i t h a f o r e i g n a c c e n t ?  b)  Do c o u n s e l l o r s d i f f e r i n t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n of towards the a c c e n t e d or non-accented client?  c)  Do c o u n s e l l o r s w i t h a c c e n t e d v e r s u s n o n - a c c e n t e d clients d i f f e r i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of the c l i e n t ' s motivation to h e l p him o r h e r s e l f ?  d)  Do t h e c o u n s e l l o r s , i n t h e a c c e n t e d comment on culture as possibly counselling process?  affinity  client situation, influencing the  DESIGN The control  research design  was an e x p e r i m e n t a l ,  group with matching  later).  For  each  research questions psychology  students.  study,  for certain this  by c o m p a r i n g Separately,  group viewed a videotape  post-test  variables  writer  e a c h member  of a non-accented  (discussed  investigated  two g r o u p s  of  only  the  counselling of the  client  first  presenting  60  a counselling second  problem.  group viewed  with a f o r e i g n The attitude Scale,  a videotape  subject  i n the  o f t h e same c l i e n t  q u e s t i o n of  measured by  developed  Questionnaire  each  speaking  accent.  principal was  Conversely,  by  the mainstream  a Semantic this  addressed  Differential  researcher.  the  counsellor's Attitude  An  remaining  Interview  three  research  questions.  PILOT  STUDY To  test  the experimental  procedure  measures employed, a  pilot  from  counselling  an u n d e r g r a d u a t e  volunteered  to  adjustments the  participate.  was  run with  psychology Based  on  videotape  presentation Alterations  i n order  and  c o u r s e who  their  were  semantic  made t o  t o make them c l e a r e r  the  six subjects had  comments,  were made t o v e r b a l a n d w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s  espectively. items  study  and r e l e v a n c e of  for  differential,  some  questionnaire  t o understand.  P O P U L A T I O N AND S A M P L E The  population  counsellors operational who i s  from  under  the  definition  d e s c r i b e d as  ethnically someone who indigenous  investigation  dominant of  the mainstream  from  the m a j o r i t y  and l i n g u i s t i c a l l y . is  Caucasian,  t o North  mainstream  America  culture.  culture,  of An  racially,  this characterizes  English  (principally  that  c o u n s e l l o r i s one  Basically,  speaks  was  with  an  Canadian),  accent  and  who  61 had  parents  America.  who  spoke w i t h  This set  provide a link literature,  of d e f i n i n g  between t h e  which  mainstream  styles  criteria  previous  investigated  population  population.  speech  These  at  strict  typical was  the  large, guidelines  the  would  of  the  this  author  the  counselling inclusion  in this  general  to the  of  for subject  t h a t t h e samples  representative  in  attitudes  and  North  established  s t u d i e s reviewed  were e s t a b l i s h e d t o e n s u r e be  of  research  population  of  mainstream c o u n s e l l o r s . For  the f i r s t  study,  drew t h e s u b j e c t s  the p o p u l a t i o n of c o u n s e l l i n g psychology the  first  year  s u b j e c t s met years All  of  the p r e r e q u i s i t e  previous  experience  were c u r r e n t l y  based  this  base  skills  for  practical training  requires that  c o u n s e l l o r with  in  is  designed  these  they  their  situation.  at  learning  c o u n s e l l i n g techniques,  clients.  with  point  skills  in their  being audiotaped  of  three  activities.  (CNPS 5 7 8 ) . a  as  learn  part  being  Briefly  theoretical  students  both  fellow classmates.  students  comfortable  this  The  these  experientially-  to present  experience  and v i d e o t a p e d ,  the classroom  course  were i n  A l l of  requirement  i n a t h e o r y and  training  of  progam.  admission  acquisition.  application  which a r e a u d i o and  course  level  who  in counselling-related  enrolled  counsellor s k i l l s  described,  and  the Master's  students  from  of a  the their client  Their sessions,  a r e reviewed  both  privately  Therefore  this  group  of  addition  to  training,  in  i s familiar and v i e w i n g  and  relatively  videotapes  of  62  This  researcher  second term (March, would  be  1986),  in  comparatively  acquisition, For  conducted  competence,  the  second  of  samples  regarding  skills  level.  this  investigator  then,  skills acquisition, the  samples  selection,  video,  r e - r e c o r d e d for pronounced  the  accent  differences  of  than  final  the  the  g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the  study  two  results  be l i m i t e d .  chapter of the  counsellor-in-  an  with  a Due  samples  and three  In a d d i t i o n  with  first.  higher  competence  of  who  required  d i f f e r e d in  level  client  second  between  at l a r g e , may  a  the  students  at a c o n s i d e r a b l y  t r a i n i n g education and c l i n i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . matched-guise  drew  year and a l l coursework  Essentially, subject  during  the  c o u n s e l l i n g psychology  They were,  ways: method of  ensure  homogeneous  had completed t h e i r second  comfort l e v e l .  order to  study,  and more mature l e v e l  investigation  and comfort  s u b j e c t s from a pool of  i n the program.  the  accent,  was  stronger,  more  to  in  the  major  each  to the c o u n s e l l i n g  T h i s i s addressed  the  study,  profession  later  in  the  of  the  thesis.  SAMPLE: SELECTION AND RANDOM ASSIGNMENT  STUDY ONE  Of the counsellor  40 students skills  weeks p r i o r to for v o l u n t e e r s  e n r o l l e d in  training  course,  the r e s e a r c h , to  participate  the in a  five 30  course  sections  participated. instructors  study d u r i n g c l a s s  Two called time  63  and  without  told,  was  credit.  The  purpose  t o norm t y p i c a l The  following  s t u d e n t s of  the  forthcoming  that  entered  participants  unmonitored  would  counselling  responses  reactions  norming t y p i c a l  wish  assignment,  be  took  be  were f r e e  group  for  The  instructors,  class random  in  were  not  tape.  Of  instructor  who  the  then  this  stating  a  closed,  presenting  make  a p p r o p r i a t e ; and  that  for  asked  a  to  the  purpose  the c l a s s  indicated  a  had  they  an a l t e r n a t e  who  the  level  training,  of been  did  not  non-credit  consent  form  (see  one  skill,  ethnicity, the  group  participants  only  to either  an  s u b j e c t s were matched of  performed of w h i c h  30  the  study.  sex,  aware  switched  assignment.  be  As  signed  group,  cross-cultural  accented  reminded  were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d  formalized  matching,  felt  t o do  who  p a r t i n the  or c o n t r o l  each  would  training  study,  alone  audioptaped  before, those  c l a s s members  experimental  they  were  weeks l a t e r  d e s c r i b e d the  viewing,  which they  volunteers  A p p e n d i x A)  class  and  Two  they  in a  instructors  c o u n s e l l o r responses.  to p a r t i c i p a t e  across  the  activity.  that  would  t h e week  The  study,  room, a 26 m i n u t e v i d e o of a c l i e n t problem;  informed  week  the c l a s s  counselling  these  the  c o u n s e l l o r reponses  situation.  researcher  of  previous  and  accent.  assignment would  i n the  s u b j e c t from  and  view  the  study,  the  the  initial  64  Sample C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : S t u d y One The  sample  female) i n  comprised  14  counsellors  the "non-accented"  g r o u p and  male and 12 f e m a l e ) i n t h e " a c c e n t e d " the  male  and  16 c o u n s e l l o r s  group.  minority,  o r who  a c c e n t e d and t h e r e f o r e criteria  data  were  research.  established not  Two s u b j e c t s  category  the  major a n a l y s i s .  ranging  a  f r o m 25  8  t o 41  non-accented  situation.  years),  years of  "pure"  from  represented  Fourteen 24 t o 45  the  the  from t h e s e two g r o u p s .  Their of  this  5  years),  counsellors  y e a r s o f age  from  female),  = 32.50  counsellors  into  excluded  and  age (mean  of  d i d not f i t  findings  male  pure mainstream  situation.  STUDY  (3  (4  were  g r o u p , who f e l l  mainstream  accented data  major  s e n s i t i v e , were a l s o  counsellors  the  ranging  the  i n the accented  represented  female),  in  of c u l t u r a l l y  result,  sensitive,"  as "mainstream c o u n s e l l o r . "  included  the  As  had one o r b o t h p a r e n t s who  "culturally  7  Six subjects i n  n o n - a c c e n t e d g r o u p who were e i t h e r a c c e n t e d , a member  a visible  the  (7  in  the  (4 male and (mean =  counsellors  The major a n a l y s i s o f t h e s t u d y  10  33.15 i n the  included  TWO This  completed coursework  researcher their and  contacted  second year practicum  counselling in  s t u d e n t s who  t h e program,  experiences.  had  a l l required The  telephone  65  s o l i c i t a t i o n was  random  telephone  In a d d i t i o n ,  list.  department  bulletin  and  .board  from  a  published  a notice  department  was p l a c e d  requesting  on  participation,  i n s t r u c t o r s made s i m i l a r announcements to c l a s s e s in The  telephone  call,  which  included  a  brief  and  session.  standardized  d e s c r i p t i o n of the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t , was the only contact s u b j e c t s had  with  the researcher  prior  E i g h t y - t h r e e percent  (28)  part,  This investigator  participated.  c o u n s e l l o r s to then matched ethnicity  either  cross-cultural  subjects  the  the s u b j e c t s and  counsellor  of those  were  was  not matched  to  course.  not  take  a  and  sex,  formalized regarding  therefore  variable.  the  group,  for  Information  accessible on t h i s  accented  two groups  exposure  counselling  agreed to  randomly assigned  across the  the  participation.  who had  non-accented or  previous  skill  to  the  Two  the  subjects  were moved from the accented to the non-accented group.  Sample C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s :  In  the  counsellors and  second  accented  study  the  sample  (3 male and 9 female)  17 c o u n s e l l o r s  group.  S t u d y Two  (5 male  did  not  and 12 female)  mainstream c o u n s e l l o r , data were not  the  i n the  "accented"  group and seven from definition  of  analysis.  the  "pure"  the major a n a l y s i s . fill  out the a t t i t u d e  In  addition,  questionnaire  c o r r e c t l y and t h i s r e s e a r c h e r e l i m i n a t e d that c o u n s e l l o r all  12  o u t l i n e d above in Study One, and t h e i r  i n c l u d e d in  one p a r t i c i p a n t d i d not  fit  of  i n the "non-accented" group  F i v e from the non-accented group  consisted  from  66  The  final  sample  comprised 6 s u b j e c t s years of age  in  the  (1 male  and 5  (mean = 36.30 years)  while 9 s u b j e c t s  (mean = 38.00 years)  4.1  illustrates  the  study,  female)  therefore,  from  26 to  i n the non-accented  (4 male and 5 female)  age  45  group,  from 29 to 49 years of  made up the accented group.  Table  sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e p r e s e n t i n g  "pure" mainstream c o u n s e l l o r two  second  population investigated  the  in  the  studies.  Table 4 . 1 :  Sample C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s for Both Studies Study One  Characteristic  NonAccented  M:F r a t i o  Accented  3:5  Mean age  Study Two NonAccented  4:10  32.50  33.15  Accented  1 :5  4:5  36.30  38.00  APPARATUS  M o d i f i e d M a t c h e d - G u i s e V i d e o t a p e : S t u d y One  This r e s e a r c h e r p o r t r a y the c l i e n t . in h i s  mid-thirties,  unemployed.  hired  a  male  professional  H i s c h a r a c t e r was moderately married,  with  The a c t o r developed the  teenaged  not f l u e n t l y  Eastern European  bilingual  languages.  but had  (see  to  depressed,  children  14-segment s c r i p t  was r e l e v a n t to h i s own p e r s o n a l experience He was  actor  and  which  Appendix B ) .  previously  studied  67  The  client  were v i s i b l e shirt  and  f a c e d t h e camera  to the  and  counsellors.  h i s h e a d and He  wore  c a s u a l j a c k e t , p r e s e n t i n g the  a  shoulders  conservative  image of an  "average"  Canadian. In t h e exactly  first  the  study,  same d i a l o g u e ,  other with a moderately present t o an  an  two  audiotape  of  European a c c e n t . understanding  a As  were  without  accent  with the  s t r o n g E a s t e r n European a c c e n t .  To  man  accent,  the c o n t e n t  the a c t o r had  speaking  intended,  an  made and  authentic foreign  one  videotapes  with a  t h e r e was  listened  strong no  Eastern  difficulty  of t h e a c t o r ' s s u b s e q u e n t  in  recorded  speech. In  keeping  with  accented  speech,  stress)  and  exaggerated which are  prosodic  on  recorded  to ensure was  equal  stress  only  when  he  on  actor  pronounciation  of e a c h  often  the  than  emphasis.  in  Below  vowels u n d e r l i n e d .  as  volume,  For  t h e a c t o r spoke  make  and  syntax,  excerpt  He  his He  guise with  between  example,  on  in a clipped elongated  a point.  slurred  were  characteristics  semantics  the a c c e n t .  syllable.  an  (intonation,  t h a t the o n l y d i f f e r e n c e  non-accented is  foreign  General  each s y l l a b l e .  wished t o  the  such  of  (pronounciation)  tape.  language,  videotape,  with  videotape,  of  speech  non-accented  features  the a c c e n t e d  typical  definition  variations  phonological  were h e l d c o n s t a n t the  the o p e r a t i o n a l  For  but  with  manner  some v o w e l s  the  words, elongated  the  accented  with  less  vowels  more  inconsistent  elongated,  drawn-out  68  Example: n o n - a c c e n t e d  speech:  . . . things a r e n ' t so great r i g h t now. My l i f e , f a m i l y , e v e r y t h i n g seems to be f a l l i n g apart . . . accented  my  speech:  . . . things aren't so great r i g h t now. My l i f e , f a m i l y , e v e r y t h i n g seems to be f a l l i n g apart . . . This  investigator  p e r f o r m e r ' s change pitch,  intonation  recording  20  in  minutes  each segment twice:  of  control  once  which may accented  the  behaviour,  have a l t e r e d  to  20  from  minutes  of  the a c t o r recorded  the non-accented,  then  immediately  The tapes were l a t e r e d i t e d  two separate and complete c l i e n t Each  for  non-verbal  To c o n t r o l for t h i s ,  the accented g u i s e .  one non-accented.  to  emotionality,  and s t r e s s ,  non-accented speech.  after,  attempted  my  presentations:  e d i t e d v e r s i o n was  one  into  accented,  26 minutes  long  which i n c l u d e d a two-minute demonstration. In  an e f f o r t  to present c o n t i n u i t y  simulated c l i e n t - c o u n s e l l o r  encounter,  statements d e p i c t i n g the c l i e n t ' s  and r e l e v a n c e each of the  in  a  fourteen  problem p i c k e d - u p where the  p r e v i o u s statement had ended.  Modified  Matched-Guise  The exactly  V i d e o t a p e : S t u d y Two  accented and non-accented the  difference moderate,  same manner was  that  intelligible  ( s t r e s s and  as i n  the a c t o r  client  the f i r s t altered  Eastern European  pronounciation),  was videotaped study.  The  h i s accent one to  l e s s understandable  a  in only  from  a  stronger one.  In  69  addition, resulted  the a c t o r in  a  running time study,  reduced the  faster  both  counselling  in  the  subjects  responses at c e r t a i n videotapes,  beep at the beginning of p i t c h beep which  f o r each  were  script. in the  asked  intervals.  were  The second  These  make  intervals, pitch  t h i r t y seconds and a s l i g h t l y  higher  of the  s i g n a l l e d by  to  a low  i n d i c a t e d the  simulate the presence  screen  of the  which  total.  studies,  e d i t e d onto the  same one  delivery  of emotion  in each of the two f i n i s h e d tapes,  was 20 minutes  For  paced  intensity  end of  client,  interval)  t h i r t y seconds.  the a c t o r ' s  was e d i t e d  To  image  to appear  (the  on  the  r a t h e r than having the p a r t i c i p a n t s respond to a black  television  monitor.  An  s u b j e c t s to the end of (presenting  problem)  second response  off  signal  to  alert  30 seconds i n c l u d e d the c l i e n t  fading down to  time)  where he had l e f t  additional  the c l i e n t  the image  interval  and fading up to the c l i e n t  (30  picking  up  i n the p r e v i o u s segment.  PROCEDURE  S t u d y One a n d S t u d y Two  Individually, investigator Clinic  at  television anonymity  each  subject  was  i n t o a small c o u n s e l l i n g U.B.C. playback  of  the  This and  was  tape  recorder.  researcher asked each c o u n s e l l o r  by  room i n the  room  participants'  taken  set  up  with  To  measurement  this  Education a  video  ensure  the  scores,  this  to p i c k a random number from  70  a hat which  was then  recorded on each  of the  instruments.  Then t h i s w r i t e r t o l d each person he or she would be watching a 26 minute videotape initial  of a c l i e n t  interview and  at the  demonstration of what to the f o l l o w i n g set  p r e s e n t i n g a problem i n  beginning of the  expect.  an  v i d e o was  Each p a r t i c i p a n t  a  received  of s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s :  You w i l l be viewing a videotape of a client p r e s e n t i n g a problem in the i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w . There are fourteen segments which are s i g n a l l e d by a beep at the beginning and a beep at the end of thirty seconds. During t h i s time, you are asked to make a c o u n s e l l i n g response. What I want you to be aware of i s that I have attempted to simulate a r e a l client p r e s e n t i n g a problem. With t h i s i n mind I would l i k e you to respond to the c l i e n t as you would i f this s i t u a t i o n were r e a l . The  subjects  audiotaped.  were  reminded  This i n v e s t i g a t o r  the  responses  sequence of  problem. events  example of the length of and  explanation,  regarding the with  the  expected  beeps,  the  30 seconds.  this  researcher  procedure to  demonstration to do.  or  follow.  finished,  encouraged one had what  an  introduction questions difficulty they  were and  not to stop e i t h e r  of  f i n i s h e d and not to say anything about  the  a f t e r he or she  left  the c o u n s e l l i n g room.  each person was t o l d to r e p o r t to the t e s t i n g  to complete the  the  and  s t a r t e d the videotape  tape r e c o r d e r , i n s t r u c t i n g the subject  experience  image  A f t e r the  No  of  illustrated  client  understanding  This investigator  the machines u n t i l  of two segments  The demonstration  with  be  presented the two minute video  demonstration (the w r i t e r was the c l i e n t ) a counselling  would  questionnaires.  When room  71  Once i n  the t e s t i n g  s u b j e c t s and i n s t r u c t e d paper  forms  to  them that  respond  approximately f i f t e e n reminded not to t a l k with anyone.  room, another  to  i n the  Anxiety  was the  last  then  the  (Appendix C ) ,  form to  require They  were  experience  1987), the  Spielberger's Client  be f i l l e d o u t .  and  for  Evaluation  Semantic  Questionnaire (Appendix  The other  person for  with a s e l e c t i o n  E)  investigator  each instrument and  paid  understood  Upon completion of the measures,  thanked each each one  other  State-Trait  to make c e r t a i n a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s  what they were to do.  presented  (Rungta  Information sheet  gave s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s  researcher  and  confidential  then the Interview  A Demographic  careful attention  would  or d i s c u s s the  study  administered  Inventory,  (Appendix D ) .  four pen  time.  ensured a  the  for each p a r t i c i p a n t .  first  Differential  it  their  room  As p a r t of a concurrent researcher  that  of  This s t i p u l a t i o n  unique experience  there were  and  minutes  r e s e a r c h e r met  the  their participation  and  of gourmet cookies  and  sweets.  INSTRUMENTATION This  writer  measured  counsellor  attitude  constructed  i n accordance  Suci,  and  taps the  with  the a  respondents  semantic  question  differential  with Osgood's g u i d e l i n e s  Tannenbaum, 1975). affective  principal  component  to make e v a l u a t i v e  Essentially, of  attitude  judgements  this by  about a  of  scale, (Osgood,  instrument asking  the  "concept"  72  (the a t t i t u d e  object).  They  rate  the a t t i t u d e  object  by  i n d i c a t i n g the d i r e c t i o n and i n t e n s i t y of t h e i r f e e l i n g on positive-negative adjectives.  continuum  For the  overall  on the  four.  neutral position Evaluative  positive)  to  midpoint. items  The  196  (E)  ranged  this  50X7=350.  ranged  with  scale  origin  positive) with  the  The p o i n t 50X4=200.  from  112 as the  of  28  of The  (most  (neutral)  (A) and Potency ( P ) , each c o n s i s t e d of 11 from  remaining  11  (most  research  perception  c o u n s e l l o r ' s expressed the c o u n s e l l i n g process  positive)  to  77  (most  (neutral) midpoint.  of  questions client  c o u n s e l l o r ' s f e e l i n g of a f f i l i a t i o n  Questionnaire.  was 50X1=50,  value of  dimension  with 44 as the  counsellor's  had a  (most negative)  Activity  and  negative)  score being  The p o i n t of  minimum (most  50-item s c a l e  maximum (most negative)  28-item  The  analysis,  assigned a value  end assigned seven.  value of  bipolar  bipolar adjective  of the continuum  represented a  o r i g i n or  relevant"  statistical  the 7 - p o i n t  end  one and the negative  score  "concept  purpose of  researcher c o n s t r u c t e d with the p o s i t i v e  of  a  awareness of  concerning motivation,  with the c l i e n t and cultural  were i n v e s t i g a t e d  influences  by the  the the the on  Interview  73  H Y P O T H E S I S AND S T A T I S T I C A L  ANALYSIS  Hypothesis T h e r e a r e no attitude  towards the c l i e n t ,  a videotape client  statistically  of  European a c c e n t e d  In vs.  who v i e w e d  towards c l i e n t s ,  bipolar  to  further  this  semantic this  differences  researcher  conducted a  differential subjected  pairs  to  a  the  f o r each study  mean  t-test  to  also  by u t i l i z i n g  Activity  (A) d i m e n s i o n s  The  objective  was t o i n v e s t i g a t e  counsellor's  items).  scores  of  establish  of the  as a  the In each which offer  between  group  a t - t e s t o f t h e means  and  dimension  (50  examined  g r o u p s c o r e s on t h e E v a l u a t i o n  Evaluation  t - t e s t of  differences.  the t o t a l  the  attitudes  s i g n i f i c a n t , and thereby  i n t o between-group  investigation  scores  for  of  Eastern  (non-accented  i n mainstream c o u n s e l l o r  were s t a t i s t i c a l l y  insight  This  speaking  a v i d e o t a p e o f an  t e s t - f o r between-group  writer  adjective  descriptors  English  viewed  Analysis  accented) d i f f e r e n c e s  addition,  Standard  who  in  client.  each study,  g r o u p mean  between c o u n s e l l o r s ,  a non-accented,  and c o u n s e l l o r s  Statistical  significant differences,  ( E ) , P o t e n c y (P)  semantic  the strength "true"  differential. and  indicator  relevance of  the  as  the  attitude.  Because of method o f sample  experimental selection,  control level  issues  such  of p a r t i c i p a n t  education  74  and  skill,  and the s t r o n g e r - a c c e n t e d videotape  the second study Therefore,  the  was not semantic  i n Study  a true r e p l i c a t i o n  of the  differential  from  data  Two, first.  the  two  s t u d i e s were not combined for the the main a n a l y s i s .  V A L I D I T Y AND R E L I A B I L I T Y :  T h i s w r i t e r found, that the task scale is a and  construct  the  in a review  of e s t a b l i s h i n g  c h a l l e n g i n g one.  emphasized, to  THE S E M A N T I C  validity  However, Shaw and Wright measurement,  of r e l a t e d  literature,  v a l i d i t y of any the most p a r t ,  been  research.  experimenter's  attitude  For  have  in a t t i t u d e  the  DIFFERENTIAL  touched  attitude predictive but  not  T h i s may be p a r t i a l l y  due  particular  upon,  research  objectives.  (1967) r e p o r t , in t h e i r c r i t i q u e that  validation  of  the  scales  of is  predominently in the form of content and concurrent v a l i d i t y . An item a n a l y s i s , of  the  constructed  counsellor subjects of  0.92  for the  subscale  addition,  resulted this  semantic (n=58),  in  E=0.88,  investigator  r e l i a b i l i t y were found. detail.  consistency  scale  produced a r e l i a b i l i t y The r e l i a b i l i t y  estimated f o r these  the mainstream c o u n s e l l o r s  greater  differential  composite t e s t .  (EPA) was  estimates  to determine the i n t e r n a l  conducted an  and  all  estimate of  c o u n s e l l o r s and  P=0.73  (n=37) and  for  A=0.73.  item a n a l y s i s  each the In for  s i m i l a r estimates  of  Table 4.2 d e s c r i b e s the a n a l y s i s  in  75  Table 4.2:  H o y t ' s R e l i a b i l i t y Estimates for the Semantic Di f ferent i a l  Semantic Differential Dimension  T o t a l Sample (n=58)  Mainstream Sample (n=37)  E v a l u a t i o n (28 items) Potency (11 items)  0.88  0.87  0.73  0.73  Activity  0.73  0.73  0.92*  0.92*  0.81  0.81  (11  items)  Composite A t t i t u d e Scale (50 items) Cronbach's alpha  Interview Questionnaire  To  address  counsellor's  the  Analysis  research  perception  c o u n s e l l o r ' s expressed counsellor's  client  a f f i l i a t i o n to  awareness  counselling process,  of  questions  of  this  cultural  regarding  motivation, the c l i e n t , influences  w r i t e r examined the  the the  and  the  on  the  questionnaire  data for r e c u r r e n t themes or c o n t e n t . Frequency  counts  and  the  assignment  of  positive,  negative and n e u t r a l values to statements or ideas q u a n t i f i e d this data.  For example,  motivation  was scored  yes(+)  or  no(-).  SUMMARY  T h i s chapter has d e s c r i b e d the general attitudes  research  question  the method of of  investigating  mainstream  towards f o r e i g n accented c l i e n t s .  This  counsellors' researcher  76  conducted two s t u d i e s at the  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  d u r i n g March and A p r i l  The t o t a l  1986.  final  representative  sample of mainstream c o u n s e l l o r s c o n s i s t e d of 37 psychology s t u d e n t s . i n v o l v e d viewing  Their p a r t i c i p a t i o n  videotapes  c o u n s e l l i n g problem and  of a  client  counselling  in t h i s who  making c o u n s e l l i n g responses  saw a f o r e i g n - a c c e n t e d c l i e n t  responses,  which  (unknowingly)  Interview statistical  audiotaped,  indicated their attitude  responding to a Semantic Questionnaire. analyses  on  and making the  One group  participants  towards the c l i e n t  author  both instruments  are r e p o r t e d in the next c h a p t e r .  a  counselling  D i f f e r e n t i a l A t t i t u d e Scale and This  a  during  while the other group viewed  A f t e r viewing were  research  presented  designated a p p r o p r i a t e pauses in the p r e s e n t a t i o n .  non-accented c l i e n t .  Columbia  conducted and t h e i r  by an  several results  77  CHAPTER F I V E  RESULTS  INTRODUCTION This  chapter  presents  d a t a c o l l e c t e d from the to  the  hypothesis  analyses  relevant  between  the  spoke  general  consensus  (evaluation),  measured  the an  The  instrument  in  t h i s research  "polar  personality terms"  (positive  or  research  or  by  questions.  the  the  A  brief  attitudes  are  Fishman  towards  to  the  judgement measure t h e  indicated negative)  the  the  In  i s most  evaluative  The  direction  while  1970).  often object  (positive-negative).  adjectives  characteristics.  (overt  attitude  semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l  These b i p o l a r  The  affective  behavioural  a f f e c t i v e component  feeling  towards  English.  composed of  and  and  differences  consellors  non-accented  (knowledge),  the  a  the  pertinant  followed  investigated  (Ageheyisi  designed was  findings  first,  mainstream  evaluative  adjectives.  clients'  of  i s that  cognitive  with  representing  bipolar  studies  accented  studies,  the  The  a n a l y s e s of  chapter.  two  components  attitudinal  reported  attitudes  who  statistical  studies.  t o e a c h of  the  clients  action)  two  are  summary c o m p l e t e s t h i s Primarily,  the  of  judgement  composed o f  50  related  to  the  response  to  the  the  intensity  attitude of  the  78  r e s p o n d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s was measured by t h e d i s t a n c e point  of o r i g i n ( n e u t r a l  qualified closely  by  origin.  affective  p a i r s , while  comprised As  each.  the second  study  subjects  reported  mainstream c o u n s e l l o r  "very  the scales  1  of  (E),  attitude)  was  or "not a t a l l r e l a t e d " p o i n t s a i d t o best  attitude, (P) a n d  was n o t a  consisted  picture  of  of data,  of  28  which  attitude,  r e p l i c a t i o n of the  analyses are reported  population  measure  A c t i v i t y (A),  true  i n the analyses  clearer presentation  of  and  4  the o v e r a l l  the r e s u l t s of t h e  "quite"  with  Potency  11 p a i r s  was  (negative  of  t o enhance  The d e g r e e o f i n t e n s i t y "only,"  dimension  component  the  loading  7  the " n e u t r a l "  were i n c l u d e d  For  to  The E v a l u a t i v e  adjective  All  The e q u a l  attitude)  representing  first,  descriptors:,  related."  (positive  the  the  zone).  from  represent  unless otherwise  separately. the  'pure'  specified.  the groups a r e s y m b o l i c a l l y  represented as f o l l o w s : STUDY 1  GROUP I (NA,) GROUP I I (A,)  = non-accented c l i e n t = m i l d l y accented c l i e n t  STUDY 2  GROUP I I I ( N A ) = n o n - a c c e n t e d c l i e n t GROUP IV ( A ) = s t r o n g e r a c c e n t e d c l i e n t 2  2  HYPOTHESIS T h e r e a r e no attitude  statistically  towards t h e c l i e n t ,  v i d e o t a p e of a non-accented, and  counsellors  European  significant differences,  between c o u n s e l l o r s standard English  who v i e w e d a  speaking  who v i e w e d a v i d e o t a p e o f an a c c e n t e d  speaking  client.  in  client Eastern  79  T h i s researcher t e s t e d the  with a  the  attitude  Differential  A t t i t u d e Scale and an Interview Q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  Towards  their client  by measuring  counsellors'  General Attitude  towards  hypothesis  Semantic  Client  Study One Group I (NA,) who viewed the non-accented c l i e n t , had a Semantic  D i f f e r e n t i a l A t t i t u d e mean  The scores  ranged from 175  of  Group II  10.63.  (n=14) had a mean  scores  ranged from 121  22.70.  The d i f f e r e n c e  attitude  was  score of  to 200 with between  groups was 32.68, or about  percent confidence  to 205 with a standard  1.7  level  accented  158.07 while  the  a standard d e v i a t i o n  the mean  scores  for the  times the standard  statistically  190.75. deviation  ( A , ) , who viewed the moderately  client  This difference  score of  (n=8)  significant  (t(19.5)=4.58,  of two  deviation. at  the  99  p<.00l).  Study Two Group III  (NA ) who viewed the non-accented c l i e n t  (n=6)  2  had a mean a t t i t u d e  score of  163.17.  The scores  ranged  107 to 205 with a standard d e v i a t i o n for the group, of  from 37.19.  Group IV ( A ) , who viewed the stronger accented c l i e n t , 2  mean of  163.11 while the scores  standard d e v i a t i o n mean a t t i t u d e 0.06,  or  scores  of 32.34.  had a  ranged from 110 to 209 with a between  the  f o r these two groups of c o u n s e l l o r s  was  approximately  0.002  The d i f f e r e n c e s  times  the  pooled  deviation.  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  (p=.998).  Figure  5.1  s t u d i e s while Table 5.1  graphs presents  this  significant  information  the s t a t i s t i c a l  standard  for  results.  both  80  Study One t(19.5)=4.58 P<.001  Group I (NA,) 1  Study Two t ( 1 3 . 0) = 0.0031 p>.05  Group II (A,)  Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l  Composite  Group III (NA ) 2  Group IV (A ) 2  Score  F i g u r e 5 . 1 : T o t a l I n d i v i d u a l A t t i t u d e Scores for Mainstream Counsellors  81  Table  5.1: Mean A t t i t u d e S c o r e s f o r P u r e M a i n s t r e a m C o u n s e l l o r s from t h e 50-Item Semantic Differential Study  Nonaccented (n = 8 ) Min/Max Score Mean Std  1 2  Dev  Std  1 2  Dev  Accented (n=14)  Two  2  Nonaccented (n = 6 )  Accented (n=9)  121-200  190.75  158.07  163.17  163.11  1 0.63  22.70  3 7 . 19  32.34  107-205  1 1 0-209  p<.00l p>.05  5.2: Mean A t t i t u d e S c o r e s f o r t h e C u l t u r a l l y S e n s i t i v e C o u n s e l l o r from t h e 50-Item Semantic Differential Study  Mean  Study  1  175-205  t(19.5)=4.580, t(13.0)=0.003,  Table  One  One  Study  1  2  Nonaccented (n=6)  Accented (n=2)  187.17  139.50  175.40  177.38  30.41  25.96  35.48  1 1 .55  t ( 6 . 0 ) = 3 . 5 8 , p<.05 t ( 1 1 . 0 ) = - 0 . 1 1 , p>.05  Nonaccented (n=5)  Two  Accented (n=8)  82  Of of  supplemental i n t e r e s t ,  the  statistical  at t h i s p o i n t , are the  analyses  sensitive"  counsellors  analyses.  This  done  who were  researcher  the a t t i t u d e  the  "culturally  not i n c l u d e d  i n the  conducted t - t e s t s  scores on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l in  on  between the  to t e s t  two groups,  r e s u l t s were s l i g h t l y more extreme, the mainstream c o u n s e l l o r s ,  in  results  of  for  major  the  mean  differences  i n each study.  The  but p a r a l l e l e d those  both s t u d i e s .  These  of  results  did  not change the f i n d i n g s of the c e n t r a l analyses and Table  5.2  summarizes t h i s  information.  i n t e r p r e t i n g the " c u l t u r a l l y  Caution must be used  sensitive"  small sample s i z e s as the d i f f e r e n c e s  SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL: C l i e n t  To  test  i n the  due to  may be due to chance.  significance  adjective pairs,  of  this  differences investigator  performed a t - t e s t of the mean scores of each s c a l e item each study.  Alpha was  p a i r s which  produced t h i s  They are  set  Table 5.3 presents c o n s t r u c t e d for attitude  at  and only those  to the  (E), A c t i v i t y  the complete l i s t  use  in  this  towards t h e i r c l i e n t .  r e s u l t s of  .05  s i g n i f i c a n c e are  presented a c c o r d i n g  dimensions of E v a l u a t i o n  the t - t e s t  for  the  Characteristics  for the s t a t i s t i c a l  between groups,  results  when  adjective  reported  semantic  here.  differential  ( A ) , and Potency of b i p o l a r  investigation  of  (P).  adjectives counsellor  T h i s t a b l e a l s o presents  significant differences  a d j e c t i v e p a i r s between the groups.  for  in  the the  Table  5.3:  Summary o f  t-tests  for Differences  In t h e  Attitude  Study •ne Mean Group I Group II NA (n.=8) A i (n=14)  Tral t  Scale  Items  t  1  EVALUATIVE  for Client  Characteristics  Study Two Mean Group I I I Group IV N A ' (n=6) A> (n=9)  t  DIMENSION  t r u s t w o r t h y - u n f a 1thful optimistic-pessimistic competent-1ncompetent Intel 11gent-un1ntel11gent k1nd-cruel al t r u l s t i c - e g o t l s t l c graceful-ackward sens 111ve-1nsens111ve friendly-unfriendly happy-sad sociable-unsociable honest-d1shonest successful-unsuccessful s1ncere-1ns i ncere grateful-ungrateful capable-1ncapable clean-d1rty unself1sh-self i sh pol1te-rude ref1ned-vulgar i nterest1ng-bor1ng educated-uneducated cooperat 1ve-uncooperat1ve know1egeab1e-1gnorant careful-sloppy p 1 eas i ng-d1sp1eas1ng comfortable-uncomfortable ski 1led-unskl1 l e d optlmlstlc-pesslmlstlc *p<.05 **p<.01  (Mainstream)  2 .75 6 .00 3 .88 3 . 13 2 .38 3 .85 4 .88 1 .88 2 .75 6 . 75 3 .38 2 .88 5. .25 2 .50 3. .25 3. .50 2. 38 3. ,50 2. .25 3. ,25 3. 0 0 3. 0 0 2. 25 3 . 50 3 . 63 3. 00 5. 38 3 . 38 6. 00  2 .00 4 .57 2 .71 2 .57 1 .86 3 .50 4 .29 1 .86 2 .36 6 .07 2 .93 1 .86 4.. 0 0 1 .36 , 3. ,43 2. 36 1 ,64 . 2. 43 1 .86 2. 71 2. 71 3 . 35 2. 71 2. 57 2. 57 2. 71 4 . 71 3 . 14 4 . 57  2 .75 2 .49* 2 . 15* 1 .47 1 .32 0 .71 1 .09 0 .08 1 .03 2 . 17* 1 . 17 2 .38* 2 .SO* 2 .58* - 0 .34 2 .51* 1 .47 1 .99 0,.76 1 .,2 0 0 , .49 - 0 , .78 - 1 . .05 3. . 5 6 * 2. , 7 2 * * 0 . ,63 1 .07 0 . 40 2. 4 9 *  1 .50 6 .OO 3 . 33 2 . 17 2 .OO 3 .50 4 .83 1 .83 2 . 17 6 .83 3 . 17 1 .50 4 .00 1 .83 3 . 17 2 . 17 1 .83 3 . 17 1 .83 . 2 . 17 2. .83 2 .83 1 .83 3. . 0 0 2. . 33 2. 67 5. . 16 2. 33 6. 0 0  1 .50 4 .33 2 . 78 2 .44 1 .56 4 . 22 4 .44 1 .89 2 . 22 6 .OO 2 .67 1 .89 3 .89 1 .33 2 .44 1 .89 2 .OO 1 .89 , 2. . 1 1 3. . 1 1 2. 89 4. 22 2. 22 3. 1 1 2. 56 3 . OO 5. 1 1 4. 00 4 . 33  0 .42 0 . 10 0 .63 -o .72 0 . 75 - 0 .68 0 .51 -o . 12 - 0 . 13 1 . 77 0 .99 - 0 .83 0 . 1 1 1 . 15 1 .49 , o .79 - 0 26 1. ,61 - 0 . 49 - 2 . 07 - 0 . 07 - 1 .43 - O . 76 - 0 . 14 - 0 . 31 -o. 58 0 . 06 -2 . 47* 0 . 10  Table  Trait  5.3 continued  S t u d y One Mean Group I Group II NA (n=8) A . (n=14)  t  1  ACTIVITY  DIMENSION  express 1ve-unexpress1ve energetic-lethargic 1nvolved-w1thdrawn c o n t r o l 1ed-emot1onal 1ndustrlous-1azy active-passive adaptive-rigid mot 1 v a t e d - u n m o t 1 v a t e d calm-exc1table quick-slow p e a c e f u 1 - h o s t 11e  POTENCY  1 .86 4 .50 3 .25 6 .00 3..25 4 .88 4,.25 3 . 13 4..63 4..50 4 .00  1. 5 0 3 .93 2 .93 5 .64 1 .93 2 .71 3 .29 2 .57 5, CO 4. .07 3. .99  1 ..5 0 0 . .95 0 . ,54 0 . 88 4 . 19*** 3. . 9 8 * * * 1 .46 0 . 95 - 0 . ,65 1. ,20 0 . 10  1 .67 4 .00 3..67 5, CO 2 , CO 3,.67 3,. 5 0 2, . 17 4 ,. 17 3.. 5 0 3. , 5 0  1 .33 3 .78 3.1 1 5 .56 2 . 33 3 .56 4 .00 3 .1 1 5 .89 4 .00 4 ,. 0 0  1 .. 25 0 . , 22 0 . 52 -o. 61 - 0 . 57 o., 1 1 - 0 . ,52 - 1 . ,24 -2 . 65* - 0 . 77 - 0 . 82  5 .25 3 .63 4 .75 4 . 13 4,.50 2. .88 5, .25 4 .38 , 4..63 5, .88 3 .75  3 .86 2 ,79 3 .64 2 .64 3,.43 2. .21 4, .71 3. . 14 4. . 14 5, .50 3. 64  2 .05* i 1 .98 . 2 .25* 3.. 3 4 * * 1 .34 , 1 .99 , 0 . .76 2. . 3 7 * 1 .32 0 . 88 0 . ,20  4 .50 3 .67 4 . 17 2 .83 5 . 17 3,. 0 0 4, .83 3 .50 4 .50 5, .33 2 .83  3 .89 3 .22 3 .56 2 .33 4,.22 2, .67 4 .67 3..33 4 , OO 5, ,56 3. 44  0 . ,55 0 . 43 0 . 69 0 . 89 0 . 89 0 . 49 O. 19 O. 19 0 . 82 - 0 . 26 - 0 . 75  DIMENSION  leader-follower strong-weak dom1nant-subm1ss1ve mascul1ne-femlnlne tough-fragl1e deep-shallow humourous-ser1ous p r e d se-vague a g g r e s s 1 v e - d e f e n s 1ve conf1dent-unsure self-unalIke-self-alIke *p<.05 **p<.01 ***p<.001  Study Two Mean Group III G r o u p IV NA" (n=6) A , (n=9)  85 I  Study One These b i p o l a r  adjectives  The more c o n s e r v a t i v e  were s i g n i f i c a n t  p a i r s (p<.01) are  at  p^0.05.  designated with  an  asterisk. E A P *optimistic-pessimistic *industrous-lazy leader-follower competent-incompetent *active-passive dominant-submissive happy-sad *masculine-feminine honest-dishonest precise-vague successful-unsuccessful sincere-insincere capable-incapable knowledgeable-ignorant careful-sloppy When compared to Group I ( N A , ) , Group II more o v e r a l l p o s i t i v e items.  intensity  The d i f f e r e n c e s  items were not  on a l l but four of the  between NA  statistically  (A,) responded  1  and A,  on these  s i g n i f i c a n t and  with scale scale  may have  been  due to chance. Study Two Two b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e p a i r s produced p^.05 skilled-unskilled  (E) and c a l m - e x c i t a b l e  (A )  in both c a s e s , had l e s s p o s i t i v e  2  than  item s c o r e s , those  of  statistically  Group  III  significant,  (NA ). 2  the  (A).  significance: The Group  Although  intensity  these  r e s u l t s may again  IV  were  be due  to  direction  of  chance. Group IV attitude  (A ) 2  scored  towards the c l i e n t  i n t e n s i t y on  24  items  though only two were  in  the  positive  but responded with l e s s  (48%)  than  statistically  Group III significant  positive  (NA ). 2  (p<.05),  Even the  86  considerably intensity One. for  cannot  Table each  higher  number  be  5.4  assumed  presents  dimension  differences  EVIDENCE  also  of  traits  to  the  (EAP)  be  rated with  due  means  with  to chance  and  the  less as  standard  t-test  for  positive in  Study  deviations  between-group  reported.  CONCERNING  THE  RESEARCH  QUESTIONS:  Interview  Questionnaire The  questionnaire  providing  insight  inadequate  and  and of  small  major  On  into  difficult  sample  data.  sizes  the  between  the  internally  focused  counsellors  i n the  removed manner.  These  variety  there  approach  studies. tended  to  The  f i n d i n g s are  a  toward  on  of  proved responses  complex to  the  beginning  the  reacted  of  appears  respond  while  study  questions  group produced  clinical  second  f o l l o w i n g data as  Essentially,  (NA,)  The  purpose  be  a  accented and  a  more  set  less  personal, experienced  i n a more d i s t a n t discussed  further  and in  VI.  presented  they there  responses  client.  score.  level  the  research  each  two  counsellors  The  to  for  s u r f a c e , however,  experienced  Chapter  the  in  d i f f e r e n c e i n the  client  their  constructed  This  reported  counsellor.  from  the  relate  to  was  no  to whether  was he  true (or  in  she)  Interview each  Questionnaire  research  d i f f e r e n c e between they both would  enjoyed studies. refer  the  question.  the  groups  in  with  the  working Only client  are  one  subject  to  another  87  Table  5.4: Mean R a t i n g s f o r t h e D i m e n s i o n s : E v a l u a t i o n , Potency and A c t i v i t y f o r Mainstream Counsellors Study Nonaccented  One  Study  Two  Accented  Nonaccented  Accented  2.89  2.93  2.91  97.50  80.86  82.00  81 .55  9.29  1 2.72  22.39  14.50  EVALUATION (28 i t e m s ) Mean o f  Item  Mean Std  Dev  T-test  3.48  t ( 2 0 . 0 ) = 3 . 23,  p<.0l  t ( 1 3 . 0 ) = 0 . 047,  p>.05  POTENCY (1 1 i t e m s ) Mean o f  Item  Mean Std  Dev  4.45  3.61  4.03  49.00  39.71  44.33  40.89  5.90  6.45  10.17  8.48  t ( 2 0 . 0 ) = 3 . 34,  T-test  p<.0l  3.72  t ( 1 3 . 0 ) = 0 . 71 , p > . 0 5  ACTIVITY (11 i t e m s ) Mean o f Mean Std  Dev  T-test  Item  4.02  3.41  3.35  44.25  37.50  36.83  40.67  4.64  5.96  5.78  1 1 .96  t ( 2 0 . 0 ) = 2 . 78,  p<.0l  t ( l 3 . 0 ) = - 0 .72,  3.70  p>.05  88  In response comments,"  to  the  question  12 of the 22 s u b j e c t s  asking  (55%)  for  "additional  in Study One  remarked  on the a r t i f i c i a l i t y of the experimental s i t u a t i o n and 12 the  15 s u b j e c t s  (80%)  indicates  the  (accented  situation)  condition  of - c o u n s e l l o r s  Table  both In  addition,  percentage of c o u n s e l l o r s who  attended  It appears that the d i f f e r e n c e between the  counsellors  who  significant.  attended  to  the  artificial  However, when s t a t i s t i c a l l y  i t was not s i g n i f i c a n t at p<.05  Table 5.5:  2  Study Two  Accented  Nonaccented  Accented  62  42  83  67  n/a  43  n/a  78  Of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Study One who viewed the video,  43% of Group II  accented  ( A ) mentioned c u l t u r e as an important t  v a r i a b l e to c o n s i d e r in the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s , Group IV ( A ) d e s c r i b e d i t s 2  tested  Percentage of Subjects Who Attended to the Experimental C o n d i t i o n and C l i e n t E t h n i c i t y  Nonaccented  Culture  i n both  (x (1df)=1.35).  Study One  Artificiality  5.5  studies  in the accented and nonaccented s i t u a t i o n s ,  studies is  Nature of Comment  in  who commented on c u l t u r e .  the  to a r t i f i c i a l i t y . of  Study Two mentioned i t .  percentage  i t also presents  number  in  of  relevance.  while 78% of  Again when t e s t e d  no  89  statistical It  is  interesting  reported  that  counsellors analysis  to  note,  however,  (x (1df)=2.70). 2  that  who  mentioned  significance  relatively  culture p<.02.  reached  r e s u l t s found small  were  in  sensitive  included  It  (1987)  Rungta  when t h o s e m a i n s t r e a m and c u l t u r a l l y  non-significant the  found a t p < . 0 5  s i g n i f i c a n c e was  is  i n the  possible  the  t h i s a n a l y s i s , were due  "pure" mainstream  sample s i z e s i n  to each  group.  Difference In  i n Attitudes  response  describe  to  outstanding  categories  and  Although  tallied  9  negative positive,  2  statements no n e u t r a l I I I (NA ) 2  they  neutral  and 9 scored  3  2  statements.  The  power, rated  f o r each group.  Some  negative the  and  neutral  complexity  of the  the  combinations counsellors'  (NA,) s u b j e c t s  responded  influences)  I I (A,)  negative  general  were  (family  w h i l e Group  to  integrity,  These  represented  Group I  the  of  interpretation, a l l  w h i l e G r o u p IV ( A )  10 n e g a t i v e  tallied  increased  S t u d y One,  positive,  sense  positive,  this  because  In  Two G r o u p negative  combined  counsellors  personal  influences.  then  and the subsequent  attitude. with  family  or n e g a t i v e l y ,  r e s p o n d e n t s made  were  were:  emotionality,  cooperativeness,  analyses  asking  characteristics,  emerged  attractiveness,  statements.  question  client  which  positively  the  and  responded with  descriptions.  p o s i t i v e , no  In  neutral  were  11  Study  and  made 6 p o s i t i v e , 4 n e u t r a l categories  11  difficult  13 and to  90  quantify  as  dimensions One)  they  were  on t h e  and T a b l e  Semantic  5.7  The o r i g i n a l the  with  generated  by  client  the  purpose.  They had to  adequately population. the  from  "client  the b i p o l a r  the  5.6  (Study  to  compare  Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l a d j e c t i v e  the  described  variety  of  in  no  complex  as  influence  question  item or  descriptors  result,  a  it  for  this  respondents' not  counselling  comparison  between  A t t i t u d e S c a l e and  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  was their  c o n v e r s e l y were  statistical  c o n s t r u c t e d Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l  i t e m on t h e I n t e r v i e w  on t h e  the  responses  a d j e c t i v e s were w e l l d i s g u i s e d i n either  EPA  data.  r e s e a r c h was  characteristic"  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  As a  summarize t h i s  of t h i s  with  Table  characteristics  Judging  apparent  reaction  Two)  significant  the  questionnaire.  (Study  aligned  Differential.  intention  statistically  pairs  not c l o s e l y  not p o s s i b l e .  this  Table 5.6:  Positive  Traits  Study One: T r a i t s Used to D e s c r i b e C l i e n t Character i s t i c s  Example  Frequency Group I Group II (NA,) (A,)  Personal Integr i t y  Honesty; s i n c e r i t y ; warmth; p r i d e  4  8  Attractiveness  Powerful eye contact; f a c i a l expressions; engrossed by h i s speech; neat appearance  5  3  Family c l o s e r  2  nil  Emotionality  S e v e r e l y depressed; intense emotion & dispair; crying; distress; suicidal  9  2  Sense of Power  Lack of c o n t r o l ; unable to recognize own resources; lack of self-confidence; need for e x t e r n a l approval  2  3  Cooperativeness  H o s t i l i t y ; stubborn; annoyance  nil  4  Neutral  Traits  Family Influences Negative  Traits  92  Table  Positive  5.7: Study Two: T r a i t s Used to Characteristics  Traits  Describe C l i e n t  Frequency Group III Group IV (NA ) (A )  Example  2  2  Personal Integrity  Honesty; P r i d e ; strong sense of personal responsibility  1  4  Optimism (general)  F a i t h ; a b i l i t y to see p o s i t i v e s i d e ; Sense of humour  2  1  nil  4  2  nil  Neutral  Traits  Optimism re Family Influence Negative  Powerful connection with f a m i l y ; love for family  Traits  A t t r a c t iveness  Overweight;  Emotionality  Sadness; despondency  3  nil  Sense of  Power  S e l f blaming; out of control; hopelessness; s e l f blaming; f a i l u r e ; hopelessness; v i c t i m ; poor me  8  8  Cooperativeness  D i f f i c u l t to ask for outside help; r i g i d  nil  2  blobby  93  Counsellor's Affinity  Towards  In Study One, g e n e r a l l y the c l i e n t l o s s of  in having  and  for  Table 5.8:  5.8  i d e n t i f i e d more with  the  of  control  than  with  (NA ) were  and 5.9  all  2  (Study  Two)  information.  Study One: C o u n s e l l o r ' s A f f i n i t y Towards the C l i e n t  Category of Identification P o s i t i v e family support Unemployment Depression, l o s s of control Anger, frustration Optimism  2  (A,) In  (Study One)  Nonaccented  1  Group II level.  responses of Group III  See Tables  a summary of t h i s  loss  with  depression,  on a more personal 2  unemployment while the different.  However,  Group IV ( A )  depression  identified  unemployment,  frustration.  identification  Study Two, those in client's  most c o u n s e l l o r s  experienced  c o n t r o l , and  described their  the Client  Accented  1  2  External(E)/ Internal(I) Influences (+/- r a t i n g )  Frequency  E+ E-  2 2  E+ E-  2 5  I-  5  I-  5  nil nil  nil nil  I1+  5 1  External/ Internal (+/-)  Frequency  ( N A , ) : one subject r e p o r t e d no i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with client Group II ( A , ) : no s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d any c u l t u r a l , e t h n i c or b e l i e f s i m i l a r i t y with c l i e n t Group I  94  Table  5.9: S t u d y Two:  Counsellor's Nonaccented  Category of Ident i f i c a t ion  Affinity  Towards t h e C l i e n t Accented  1  2  External(E)/ Internal(I) Influences (+/- r a t i n g )  Frequency  EE-  1 2  EE-  1 3  I-  1  I-  7  I-  1  nil  Family pressures Unemployment Depression, l o s s of control Anger, f r u s t r a t ion  Frequency  External/ Internal (+/-)  nil  two s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d no i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with c l i e n t : one s u b j e c t r e p o r t e d :no i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with c l i e n t  'Group I I I (NA ): 2  2  Group I V (A ) 2  Client  Motivation  In b o t h s t u d i e s client this  was m o t i v a t e d  information.  S t u d y One  a l l of  to help himself  T h o s e who  (NA,=1, A,=3)  would a i d  the  client  (internal  influences).  responses  again  immediate c o n c e r n job-finding  the c o u n s e l l o r s  on t r e a t m e n t  to regain In  his  Study treatment  were c o n c r e t e  skills.  and T a b l e  5.10  that  of  the  self-worth conditional  strategies  practical  in  s t r a t e g i e s which  sense Two  the  presents  made a c o n d i t i o n a l r e s p o n s e  focused  emphasized  felt  but  s o l u t i o n s such  of as  95  Table 5.10:  C o u n s e l l o r P e r c e p t i o n of C l i e n t  Study One Nonaccented Accented Yes  Yes+Cond,  6  1  1  Yes  Study Two Nonaccented Accented  Yes+Cond  1 1  Motivation  3  Yes  Yes+Cond  Yes  Yes+Cond  4  2  7  2  Yes + C o n d i t i o n :  Group I (NA,) Group II (A,)  : theme: overcome f e e l i n g of hopelessness : needs to work through g r i e f and resentment, r e g a i n c o n t r o l , get emotions out Group III ( N A ) : needs concrete p l a n s ; p r a c t i c a l solutions Group IV ( A ) : needs s k i l l s development; group experience re f i n d i n g job 2  2  SUMMARY  In the f i r s t difference  study,  in a t t i t u d e  this  researcher found a  between the mainstream c o u n s e l l o r s who  were i n the non-accented c l i e n t presented  with  the  intensity  A t t i t u d e S c a l e than  those i n  client  client.  on the  (p<.00l).  rated a l l positive In  exposed  but 4%  i n t e n s i t y of the  significant  to the  of the  second difference  Semantic  Group I (NA,)  responses r e f l e c t e d a p o s i t i v e The c o u n s e l l o r s  Group  m i l d l y accented c l i e n t  positive  non-accented  s i t u a t i o n and those who  accented  c o u n s e l l o r s who viewed the with more  significant  Overall, attitude  II  (A,)  rated  who viewed their  client  client characteristics  him  Differential the  combined  towards the  accented  were  client. situation  with  more  attitude. study,  this  in a t t i t u d e  researcher between the  found two  no  groups  96  (NA  and  2  A )  respondents accent)  of m a i n s t r e a m  2  e v a l u a t e d the  with a  accented  characteristics  with  ( N A ) t on  48%  2  In r e a c t i o n Study  One  those  i n Study  the  client  (non-accented  of t h e  scale  to the  Two  on  intensity  felt  did  Group  items. counsellors  client  All  but  with  one  less  client  was  in  while  personal  subject  t o work w i t h t h e c l i e n t  the  client  i n a p e r s o n a l i z e d manner  part.  a l l  stronger  the  than  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the  wanted t o c o n t i n u e  and  group) r a t e d  2  d e s c r i b e d the  their  counsellors  (A  Again,  However, t h e c o u n s e l l o r s  less positive  g e n e r a l l y responded  involvement studies  client  favourable a t t i t u d e .  exposed to the  III  c o u n s e l l o r s (p>.05).  in and  motivated  both a l l of  to  help  himself. The  main  difference  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was (nonaccented  not  versus  in  responses  significant accented)  but  to  between more  beginner  c o u n s e l l o r s with  compared  to  experienced counsellors  accented c l i e n t .  The  difference  by  on  internal  an  external the next  emphasis  a mild  appeared (novice  (mature c o u n s e l l o r s ) i n f l u e n c e s .  statistical chapter.  treatment  of the data are  the  Interview two  between  studies:  more  the  groups the  accented with t o be  a  client stronger  highlighted  counsellors) The  two  versus  findings  interpreted  in  from the  97  CHAPTER SIX  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS T h i s chapter conducting t h i s  presents a  the r a t i o n a l e  research i n v e s t i g a t i n g counsellors*  towards accented c l i e n t s . its  summary of  In  sections  the  results  relation  to  the  Recommendations  of  are d i s c u s s e d .  each  hypothesis  for  future  attitudes  a d d i t i o n , the methodology  l i m i t a t i o n s for both s t u d i e s  study and  are  In  in  and  separate  interpreted  research  research  for  in  questions.  the  field  of  c o u n s e l l i n g conclude t h i s c h a p t e r .  SUMMARY OF THE PROBLEM The  l i t e r a t u r e review i n Chapters  the fundamental  attitudes  of mainstream  their ethnic counterparts is in c u l t u r e and language. has not been  1 and 2 r e v e a l s Canadians  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r  Although the exact  reported, it  i s assumed that  and  discontinue  of m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s  counselling  after  one  towards  differences  number i n Canada the m a j o r i t y  c o u n s e l l o r s belong to the dominant c u l t u r e group. s t a t e s that over 50%  that  become  of  Sue (1981) discouraged  session  with  a  mainstream c o u n s e l l o r .  The q u e s t i o n of c u l t u r a l and language  differences,  becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y important.  Vontress  therefore, (1969)  b i a s e s and s t e r e o t y p e s  s t a t e s that negatively  the c o u n s e l l o r s ' i n f l u e n c e the  cultural  counselling  98  process p a r t i c u l a r l y call  blocking  for counsellors  differences the  by  to  to prevent  dominant c u l t u r e ' s  address  the  ethnically different  empathy.  Most  cultural  researchers  and  same m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g  client  society  already  language  in  therapy  experiences  i n the  ( A l e x a n d e r , Workneh  and  Miller  1976). Language  is  relationship.  Its  cross-cultural attempted  the  counselling  between t h e c o u n s e l l o r  their  variable  importance  t o go beyond  investigate  key  the  counselling  emphasized  in  the  situation.  This  research  the obvious v i s i b l e  racial  differences  and  the a t t i t u d e s  foreign accented  is  in  h i s or her  client  and s o u g h t  of mainstream c o u n s e l l o r s  to  towards  client.  METHODOLOGY AND LIMITATIONS Design To  investigate  their  foreign  group  design  practical  the  accented was  clients,  chosen.  reasons.  Simply,  c o u n s e l l i n g psychology and  attitudes a  This  of  counsellors  post-test design  the  only  was  control  chosen  representative  s t u d e n t s was  towards  for  sample  not a v a i l a b l e f o r a  of pre  post-test situation. Two  half  separate  studies  of the c o u n s e l l o r s  client  presenting  other  half  delivering  of the  a the  same  were c o n d u c t e d .  viewed a v i d e o t a p e  14-segment  of a  counselling  counsellors script,  F o r both  but  viewed  non-accented problem.  the  speaking  studies,  same  with  The client  a  Middle  99  European  accent,  counsellors designated  were  asked  pauses.  r e s e a r c h was viewing  w h i c h was  and  to  They  t o norm responding  stronger make  had  counsellor  to the  videotape  a  Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l  for  this  Interview might  the c l i e n t ' s  research.  In  Sample Two  attitude  analysis.  and  The  the  accent  own  who  The  After each  characteristics  they  on  constructed  responded  to  at v a r i a b l e s  an  which  client.  of  the c l i e n t , this  first  and  study  concerns  experience.  volunteered,  to  Because  took  a client  of the  part during  data  participated  i s t h a t the  data  method  could  c o u n s e l l o r s i n the  phone and  limitation  the  the  study,  r e s e a r c h i n t e r m s of  were n o v i c e c o u n s e l l o r s , t h e i r  other  i n each  of  second  on  subjects in  with a stronger,  not  their the less  accent.  Another  sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  i n v o l v e s the  provide  of  education  were e x p o s e d  intelligible  to  the  the c l i e n t ,  towards the a c c e n t e d  t o t h e more e x p e r i e n c e d  study  analysis  of  at  p u r p o s e of  responses.  directed  limitation  were c o n t a c t e d by  time.  second  of  i n the  and  compared  study  first  level  participants  be  responses  between t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  were c o n s i d e r e d l i m i t a t i o n s  time  The  Characteristics  participants  class  study.  Attitude Scale  addition,  major d i f f e r e n c e s  selection,  the  personality  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h was  influence their  told  typical  judged  second  counselling  been  counsellor 50-item  i n the  a  samples'  representative  which  i n f l u e n c e d the  homogeneity. sample  of  data  In b o t h s t u d i e s , "pure"  mainstream  100 counsellors, their  a number o f s u b j e c t s  'cultural  subjects  were c o n s i d e r e d  not  included  the  second  ratio  sensitivity.'  in  study f o r the  h e l p but wonder the  white  further  research  cultural their  differences,  sample  findings  not  interpreted  Table  counsellor do w e l l  known) i n if  any,  5.2  and  regarding  page 82  Because  of  such a  cannot  In  to include  a l l subjects  t h e major  analysis  as a n c i l l i a r y  chapter.  The  large  the predominance  i s diminishing.  reduced  the  therefore  s e n s i t i v e one  of fact, (with  reporting  findings.  in this  the c u l t u r a l l y  in this  s t u d y 26%  of  41% were e x c l u d e d from  same r e a s o n .  s i z e s were c o n s i d e r a b l y  any  and  Canada a t l e a s t ,  might  variables  analysis  because  s e n s i t i v e and  were c u l t u r a l l y  i f , in  mainstream  In t h e f i r s t  culturally  i n t h e major  both groups  were e l i m i n a t e d  As  the  investigation,  s e n s i t i v e group  were  reader i s r e f e r r e d  f o r a summary of t h e a n a l y s i s  for  to this  group.  INSTRUMENTATION The to  semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l  measure  (SD) d e v e l o p e d by  counsellors'  attitudes  foreign-accented  client  instrument.  s e l e c t i o n of b i p o l a r  language  The  attitude  a u d i o t a p e and  proved to  studies  the  which  had  adjectives used  adjective  pairs  adjectives  based  Osgood's  on  were s e l e c t e d (1975)  author  towards reliable  semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l .  number o f  Study.  be a  this  the In  their  and  was  valid  based  on  matched-guise addition,  from  "landmark"  a  pool  a of  Thesaurus  101 The each  t-test  of  the  differences. adjectives in  the  of  adjective  pairs  However,  when  were compared  possibility adjectives  i n mind may  not  that  instrument  of  i s used  from one  the  study  the  instruments and  there  "giving  investigator to c u r t a i l  in their  feels  was it  that  ambiguity  perhaps  and  get  enough  emerges has  of  for the  when  a  the  bipolar  this  standardized  adjectives  may  be  regarding  away."  In  future  more t o  Information  However, i n  concern  all  to with  Demographic  purpose. a  similarity  oriented  it  found  next.  I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and  were a d e q u a t e  little  restriction  bipolar  to  differential  differential  findings  on  significant  alluded  The  because, a l t h o u g h  inconsistent  direct"  are  clinically  these  technique,  was  semantic  have been  contruction  The  there  the  some  descriptive adjectives  population.  generalizability  the  the  for scores  semantic  These d i f f e r e n c e s  counselling  sheet  to  produced the  Interview Questionnaire,  in c a t e g o r i e s .  this  between-group d i f f e r e n c e s  being  "too  retrospect,  this  research  the  designing  might  do  well  point.  CONCLUSIONS For discussed attitude are  each in  study t e r m s of  towards the  interpreted  counsellor's  the the  explanation mainstream  accented c l i e n t .  as  attitude.  variables  which  of  the  findings  counsellor's The  research  might  is  general questions  influence  the  1 02  Major H y p o t h e s i s : There attitudes a  a r e no s t a t i s t i c a l l y towards  videotape  client,  restated  of  and  t h ec l i e n t ,  differences  between c o u n s e l l o r s  non-accented,  counsellors  Eastern-European  significant  Standard  who  viewed  a  who  English  i n  viewed  speaking  videotape  of  an  accented c l i e n t .  STUDY ONE (NA, vs A , : Novice C o u n s e l l o r s )  General In  thefirst  attitude  videotape client. intensity  viewed  those  T h e A,  level  The accented  of  between  the  rated  on t h e Semantic  Client  was a s i g n i f i c a n t  Differential  Attitude  overall  attitude  towards  direction  of attitude.  The s i g n i f i c a n t  study  t h e n , was t h e l e v e l  of positive  group  rating  positively  more  client (A,)  positive  Scale  h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d  o r n o t , was i n t h e p o s i t i v e  a l l  (NA,)  (SD)  at the  significance.  counsellors'  continuum  with  in  mainstream  the foreign-accented  the c l i e n t  The n u l l  difference  those  non-accented  who v i e w e d  group  t h e NA, g r o u p .  P<.001  the  the client  who  and  Towards  study there  towards  counsellors  than  Attitude  b u t 4% o f  t h ec l i e n t  t h a n t h e NA, g r o u p .  the client,  on t h e b i p o l a r  difference  intensity  with  in  this  t h e A,  characteristics  more  1  The  literature  stereotypes, ethnically  biases  or  to  behaviour  and  assist they These  enduring  mediate  and  client's the  i n the  counsellor In  greater  understanding  or  the  foundation  are  elicit a  first  the  in  attitudes  positive  m e a s u r e d by  themselves.  a  affiliation  to  this  about  of  These  stereotypes  and  interpreting  and  Language  is also  in turn  towards  relatively  behaviour. It  are  a  is a  clue  to  signal  is a to  stereotypical attitude.  study,  to  attitude  semantic  which  hold  i n d i v i d u a l s who  become s t a b l e part  people  for attitudes  counselling process.  cultural  that  to  form  minorities.  revealed  prejudices  different  function  essential  review  03  explain  towards  the  differential,  the  significantly  accented  several  client,  possibilities  exist. 1.  It is possible  that  aware of  biased  and  2.  their  over-compensated  extremely  favourable  T a k e n one  step  novice  by  rating this  further, these that  may  adjust  their  had  to  attitudes  or  f o r m new  behaviour  of  s o m e o n e , who  A  third  the  from  ones t o  themselves  in a  accented  were  clients  client  in  an  c o u s e l l o r s , aware have v i s i b l e  of  differences,  pre-established understand  looked  the  and  biases  negative  explain  same a s ,  but  the spoke  themselves.  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  counsellors  counsellors  way.  groups  have  group of  a t t i t u d e s towards m i n o r i t y  towards m i n o r i t y  differently 3.  this  in  the  S t u d y One  helping  role  more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e may they  be may  that  as  they  attempt  to  of view keep  104  negative a t t i t u d e s  i n abeyance  i n order to be  effective  counsellors. 4.  A f o u r t h p o s s i b i l i t y may i n v o l v e the notion of the  "Great  White  novice  Father"  syndrome  (Vontress  c o u n s e l l o r s may have f e l t group of  the dominant  stress their t o t a l l y this 5.  they  1969).  The  were from the  c u l t u r e and  privileged  may have  "unconditional positive  wanted  to  regard"  for  client.  A fifth  e x p l a n a t i o n of  counsellors  felt  the f i n d i n g s  the s o c i a l  may suggest  pressure  these  to respond  in  a  d e s i r e a b l e way, thus r a t i n g the c l i e n t more f a v o u r a b l y . 6.  I t may a l s o  be simply  differences attention  in  that  a f u n c t i o n of the novice  the p e r c e p t i o n  counsellors  paid  of more  to the d i a l o g u e .  Research Q u e s t i o n s : Study One The Interview answers  to  the  Questionnaire research  p a r a l l e l s the major the mainstream The remaining  attitude  questions.  hypothesis  counsellors'  of  may or  towards  the  may not client.  designed The  first  towards t h e i r  provide insight i n f l u e n c e the  between  mainstream c o u n s e l l o r s  versus the non-accented  situation.  provide question regarding client. into  the  counsellor's  Interpretation  q u e s t i o n n a i r e f i n d i n g s i n Study One i s d i s c u s s e d differences  to  no d i f f e r e n c e s  attitude  research questions  v a r i a b l e s which  was  of  i n terms  in the  the of  accented  1 05 A)  Difference  in  Attitude  I s t h e r e a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e a t t i t u d e between m a i n s t r e a m c o u n s e l l o r s towards their clients who have no accent and t h o s e c o u n s e l l o r s whose c l i e n t s speak w i t h a f o r e i g n a c c e n t ? The item  novice  counsellors'  asking  them  characteristics integrity,  to  Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l for  both  counsellor  family  influences.  scores,  i t was  negative  and  neutral  equally.  Differences  in  the  the  number  showed up  s e n s e of  power and  A major explaining  these  counsellors, attended  to  results  the  client  as  a v i c t i m of  a  versus  counsellor  of  be  the  system."  'personal and  questionnaire  that  the  s i t u a t i o n appear  character as  groups  A,=7).  more i n t e r n a l l y  It appears "the  to  accented  strength  obvious d i s t r e s s .  client  on  favourable  (NA,=9 v s A,=2)  from  appears  that  fairly  (NA,=2 vs  emerged  exposed to the  They e m p h a s i z e d h i s his  which  the  positive,  following categories:  cooperativeness  theme  to  distributed  two  (NA,=4 vs A,,=8); e m o t i o n a l i t y  power,  find  study,  of  in  integrity'  of  Compared  were  r e s p o n s e s made between t h e i n the  sense  first  unfavourable S t u d y One  personal  s u r p r i s i n g to  statements in  client  categories:  emotionality,  groups  questionnaire  outstanding  several  attractiveness, and  to the  describe  produced  cooperativeness  response  focused  while  novice to  have  level.  downplaying  though they viewed  the  106  B)  Counsellor's  A f f i n i t y Towards the  Do c o u n s e l l o r s d i f f e r in their towards the a c c e n t e d or non-accented Generally, identified loss in  of  the  with  having  control  and  accented  more p e r s o n a l , Several 1.  most of  explanation  of  i n the  the  nonaccented question) 2.  A  second  of  attitudes.  It  influencing  attitude  cultural In  acknowledged  reduced the  once by  became the  client's  reaction  in  and  and  that  these  a  to  a  they  did  not  much  as  the  research  the  notion  explains  that positive  s o m e t h i n g more b a s i c i s ,  be  One  due  personal.  that  similarity cuts  of  experience  counsellors,  This  counsellor's  feelings  behaviour  thereby  through  is of any  evident.  similarity  Study  familiar.  on  novice  first  depression)  w h i c h may  the  be  as  the  values  that  by  Although  challenges  the  counsellors client  may  emotionality  i s suggested  differences  depression,  the  situation  (unemployment and  addition,  client"  this  (evidenced  beliefs  study  level.  a n s w e r s were more  similarity  first  those  with  closeness.  explanation  experience  3.  group  their  for  client's  the  affinity  exist:  accented  emotional  to  However,  focused to  in  of  unemployment,  identified  reasons appear  counsellors  attend  frustration.  situation  expression client?  respondents  experienced  internally  A possible  feeling  the  Client  the  familiarity of  "unknown may  uncertainty  generating  was  a  have about more  107 favourable the 4.  a t t i t u d e and p o s s i b l y  difference  A  final  This  may  training model  they  of helping  have  which  help  i n that  himself.  This  may  his  The  stake want in  (success  turn,  of t h e i r  been  were  novice  of t h e  client.  level  exposed  to a  of  formalized counselling  expression.  them  between  on  the  two  was m o t i v a t e d t o  i n Group  self-worth  I I (A,)  the accented  (internal  who  client  influences).  follows:  or failure  allows  focused  counsellors  they  the c l i e n t  counsellors  of as  no d i f f e r e n c e s felt  response  sense  novice  t o ensure  state  the  accented versus non-accented c l i e n t s of the client's motivation to help  three  be e x p l a i n e d  These  explain  emphasizes emotional  a l l subjects  made a c o n d i t i o n a l regaining  to  Motivation  S t u d y One, t h e r e  groups,  to  on t h e e m o t i o n a l  Do c o u n s e l l o r s w i t h d i f f e r i n the perception him o r h e r s e l f ? In  offered  been a p r o d u c t  where  C) C l i e n t  i s  focus  have  less attention  i n accent.  comment  counsellors'  paying  may  of the  perceive t o view  feel  they  have  counselling  the client the client  something at process)  as motivated more  and  which,  positively.  D) T h e C l i e n t ' s E t h n i c i t y Do c o u n s e l l o r s i n t h e a c c e n t e d c l i e n t s i t u a t i o n comment on c u l t u r e a s p o s s i b l y i n f l u e n c i n g t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s ? Forty-three situation  percent  i n the f i r s t  of the  study  counsellors  identified  i n the  culture  as a  accented variable  108  which might i n f l u e n c e  the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s .  to comments r e g a r d i n g the a r t i f i c i a l i t y  mentioned i t  20% of them commented on both c u l t u r e  study's  while  in Group  e x p l a n a t i o n may  Study One, a t t e n d i n g and ignored  session.  This  responses  positive  attitude  STUDY TWO  (NA  Unlike  on  the c o u n s e l l o r s ,  in  the  2  One,  their  questionnaire  and  Semantic  their  second  difference  study  revealed  no  towards  the  in a t t i t u d e  between the two groups of mature  curious  that  Differential for both  more  Client  2  is  internally  Counsellors)  vs A ) and the n u l l hypothesis It  counselling  might e x p l a i n  the  significant  accented c l i e n t  of the  the  than was the case with the NA, group.  Study  statistically  diverse  and the  were more i n v o l v e d with  General A t t i t u d e Towards the  2  (A,)  remarked on  the c o n t r i v e d nature  v s A : Mature  2  be that  to c u l t u r e  involvement  focused  (NA  I (NA,)  Group II  artificiality.  A possible  client  62%  42% i n  (i.e.,  it  artificiality)  that  the study  videotaped c l i e n t ) (only  was found  of  When compared  was r e t a i n e d .  the standard  Attitude  counsellors  deviations,  Scale,  were  in  the  considerably  studies.  S t u d y One  S t u d y Two  nonaccented=10.63 accented =22.70  nonaccented=37.19 accented =32.34  None of the groups  (NA,, A, N A , or 2  t h i s d i v e r s i t y may have been s i z e s used to represent  the  A ) are comparable 2  a f u n c t i o n of the  small  and  sample  "pure" mainstream c o u n s e l l o r .  109  In  Study  the c l i e n t , semantic  Two,  the c o u n s e l l o r s '  accented  o r n o t , was  differential  statistical  scale.  method of and  sample  education  s i z e s may the  the  and  Because  intensity  f o r the  thus  the  interpreted One  is  the  finding results are  in  were r e a c t i n g  m o d e r a t e and  Study  The  more  were s i m i l a r f o r Group  existed Two:  IV  the  must  addressing  no to  (i.e.,  experience  small  sample  be  in  interpreted  e x a m i n e d more c l o s e l y  in  Clients  first  favourably  understandable  Study  One:  study,  to  than  Group  (A )=163.11.  between  Group  Two  of no d i f f e r e n c e  III  While  2  Study  One:  in  the  the d i f f e r e n c e s  novice  which  study.  Attitude  scores  ( A ) = 1 5 8 . 0 7 and  Study  1  major  differences  (NA,)=190.75 and  these  was  second  the  Group I  (NA ) = 1 6 3 .17, 2  II  the  an a c c e n t  However, t h e g r o u p mean S e m a n t i c D i f f e r e n t i a l  Two:  were of  interpretations.  possible  respondents  and  the  in relation  of c o u n s e l l o r  Moderate versus S t r o n g e r Accented It  findings  of a c c e n t ) .  These d i f f e r e n c e s  following  of  selection, level  study,  cautiously.  the p o s i t i v e s i d e  between S t u d y  a l s o account  second  towards  on  s i g n i f i c a n c e they are  the d e s i g n d i f f e r e n c e s  overall attitude  may  be  Study  explained  by  i n sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  Sample C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s In first  the  year  first  study  the n o v i c e  of t h e M a s t e r ' s  a counsellor  skills  counsellors  program and  t r a i n i n g course.  currently In  were i n  the  enrolled  in  the second  study,  1 10 however, the y e a r and  mature  all  considerably  coursework  higher  e x p e r i e n c e and Several between  counsellors  level  of as  possibilities novice  They  skills  a  their  had  second  achieved  acquisition,  a  clinical  counsellor.  exist regarding  and  (Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l  completed  required.  confidence  the  had  mature  the  differences  counsellors'  mean s c o r e s )  towards the  attitudes non-accented  client. 1.  S t u d y One  (NA,)  inadequate  in dealing  on  the  the 2.  counsellors  videotape  form of  and  nonaccented  in  the  same  considerably  (NA,)  higher  transference  skills  client  counsellors the  S t u d y Two  mentioned  was  of  in their  client.  This  level  educational  the  It  they  which  however,  nature  d i f f e r e n c e may  in  counsellors it.  the  is  of (NA ) 2  This  was  (compared  possible to the  were not  resulted  the  Group  I  as  able  to  again  in  a  a t t i t u d e towards the  client.  commented more  on  experiment  Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l  and  in  artificiality  distracting  and  of a n e g a t i v e 2  presented  i n both non-accented groups  positive  of  on  situations).  (NA ),  artificial  the  counsellors  their  Group I I I  S t u d y One  of  environment  novice  utilize  83%  to the  feeling  evaluation.  situation  accented  artificial  the  been  emotional c l i e n t  s i t u a t i o n commented  s e t t i n g , while  have  t r a n s f e r r e d that  of  the  the  the  a less positive  Sixty-two percent  to  with  might  be  clinical  often  but  were  evaluation  r e l a t e d to t h e i r experience.  the  Also  more of  the  higher they  .111  3.  may  have  felt  but  more c o n f i d e n t  did  not t r a n s f e r any negative  The n o v i c e less  d i s t r a c t e d more by  responded first  to  study  difference  study,  with  task  empowering  this  needed work this  groups  was  skills  to  the  mainstream  i nwhich  warm,  the counsellors i ntheir  they  i n the  genuine  way  state.  In  were  more  responses.  i n t h esecond  2  evident  i n the Both  counsellors  important A  appeared  t h e s e more e x p e r i e n c e d  task  accented  trait  explanation counsellors  t r a i n i n g t o go beyond t h e empathy  t h e more p r a c t i c a l  client  appeared  negative  possible  less  a n d more w i t h t h e  o f power."  o f mature  2  study  crisis  was  o f "sense  (NA =8 a n d A = 8 ) .  i ntheir  which  the c l i e n t .  Counsellors  i n a  emotional  t h e most  f i n d i n g i sthat  confident  a l l of  items.  him. This  category  nonaccented  and  i nAttitude  the c l i e n t ' s  characteristic  suggest  situation  d e l i c a t e emotional  however,  mature c o u n s e l l o r s  of  powerless  w a s t h e mood  responded  and task-oriented  involved  and  between  on t h e c l i e n t ' s  A) D i f f e r e n c e The  may h a v e f e l t  the questionnaire  confrontative  therefore  Study Two  generally  second  setting  attitude t o the c l i e n t .  i n t h e two s t u d i e s  concentrating the  and  i na l e s s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards  major  counsellors  skills  i n a non-interactional  Research Questions: The  their  (NA,) c o u n s e l l o r s  confident  resulted  regarding  the contrived  oriented  stage  to that for felt  stage of of the  1 12  helping as  a  process. "victim"  responsibility say  In a d d i t i o n , but  more  they  as  f o r change and  d i d not  someone  they  view  who  the  has  client  to  take  were c o n f i d e n t enough  to  that.  B)  Counsellor's A f f i n i t y  Within  the  counsellors  identified  w h i l e Group IV  (A )  experience  in  experience. similar client  terms  experience,  C) All  they  depression  a  yet may  educational  and  c o u n s e l l o r s i n the  of  minimal again  be  clinical  they  A l s o , they their  with  similarity  attitude,  with  more  shared  i t with may  a the  have  felt  role  than  the  first  study.  Motivation in  to help himself.  responses  was  on  Study The  implementing  skills.  The  Two  viewed  "plans  action"  of  e x t e r n a l focus  experienced  with  skills  direct  suggestions i n Study  One.  for  client  their  have been a p r o d u c t  their  the  emphasis of  mature c o u n s e l l o r s may  counsellors  and  need t o r e l i v e  confident  mature  2  that although  d i d not  motivated  in  (NA )  counsellors,  counsellors.  and  with  positive  have f e l t  counsellors  job-finding  III  unemployment  their  internally-focused  Client  with  these  of  effective  more c o m f o r t a b l e novice,  by  They may  t o be  Group  identification  resulting  involvement  explained  both  This  and  study  Client  mature c o u n s e l l o r s i d e n t i f i e d  2  the d e p r e s s i o n .  personal  second  Towards the  and  the  techniques.  treatment  conditional such  expressed of  than  as  by  as  these  confidence  They were more the  novice  11 3  D)  The  Client's  Seventy-eight accented  mentioned who  may  i t i n the  most  likely  I t was  first  and  study  be  that  culture  They  (accent)  feeling  terms  as a v a r i a b l e between  e x p l a i n e d by less  may  they have  that  vs  stronger accent  in  second  the  identified a  cultural  of  in  explanation  i n v o l v e d on  discounted  similarity  than  i n S t u d y One  were more  those  (43%  intelligible A  the who  and  i n S t u d y Two  the  in  those  i n S t u d y One  situation  novice c o u n s e l l o r s  summary, t h e d i f f e r e n c e s general  findings,  level  placements).  For  Counselling  Psychology  their  skills  by  faculty  students  personal  differences  experience  member. the  In  videotaped  example,  and  most then  between t h e  may  of c l i n i c a l  have  in  the  The  was  more  the  of  the  counsellors practice which  is  counsellors  self-referrals  cases  the  counselling the  in  practicum  year  are  by  to  (i.e.,  clients  reviewed  studies, due  first  run c l i n i c other  two  been  experience  Program, b e g i n n e r  in a university  and  referred.  In  situation  h e a v i e r and  counsellors'  fellow  culture  the  t o the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s .  of  a  mature c o u n s e l l o r s i n  difference  same  be  because  level.  important  the  therefore unavoidable.  the  less  In  The  i t i n the a c c e n t e d  S t u d y Two.  may  of  commented on  process.  mentioned  78%)  percent  situation  counselling  Ethnicity  faculty  supervised are  fellow  or  agency  sessions  are  supervisor  and  students. the  counsellors  second having  year  completed  of  the  their  program,  clinical  the  experience  mature i n the  11 4  first  year,  are placed  in  organization  where  counsellor.  The s u p e r v i s i o n  interviews  takes  counsellors' cope w i t h  they  "working"  on  within  the  develops  a  professional counselling  agency.  r a p i d l y as  the  The  mature  they adapt  cross-cultural  results  RESEARCH  of  this  f o r both  investigation,  counselling  these  two  studies  counselling  field  of  have research  with  counselling  and i t s  importance  process  counsellor-client t o be c o n t i n u e d  cultural differences  i n the  accented c l i e n t ,  area  Canada.  influence  of both  foreign  attitude,  as t h e  attitude  counselling is  establish  a  personality  the  exist.  of c o u n s e l l o r  Future  research and r e g i o n a l of the  Research  needs  interview  is  pivotal  to  towards settings  investigate  a c c e n t s on  counsellor  of the when  attitudes  could  of  emphasized  particularly in multi-cultural  as  of  is  the  that  i s t h e p r i m a r y component  It  and  connected  Language  phases  some  research  language a t t i t u d e s .  such  and  and t r a i n i n g .  Foremost,  the  or  i n the " r e a l world."  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e made education  by  agency  and review of t h e i r  RECOMMENDATIONS FOR C O U N S E L L I N G Based  w i t h an  are supervised  place  confidence  a practicum  counsellor  i n the the  the  initial  subsequent  relationship. also  recommended  Semantic  that  Differential  characteristics  cross-cultural  counselling  and  research pool  relevant  of to  be c o n d u c t e d categories the  language a t t i t u d e s .  field Some  to for of of  1 15 those  i t e m s may  w h i c h emerged relevant  B a s e d on similarlity research. readily  or  the of  influences  the  The training  r e s u l t s of  other  immigration  matched-guise videotape could to increase  cultural  for public  feel  that  whether  is  more it  counselling  social  be  sensitivity.  by a s k i n g  workers,  working  is essential. utilized  and  in a  a  First, training  I t could  the viewer:  in  be u s e d  towards "How  the  do y o u  person?" the  major  f i n d i n g s of  have a g e n e r a l l y client,  these  further  the education  awareness of p r e j u d i c e  d i f f e r e n t simply  accented  of  and t h a t  the  workers,  communication  culturally  the  and  trained professionals  the  counsellors  area  warrants  of e x p e r i e n c e  attitude  where i n t e r p e r s o n a l  B a s e d on  other  distance,  the  to the c o u n s e l l o r  job  about  beliefs  two r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s c o n c e r n  e m p l o y e r s and any  i n a campaign  that the  accent.  of c o u n s e l l o r s ,  situation  studies,  similarity  counsellor's  final  his  w i t h a t l e a s t one  these  not  information  p r o c e s s more t h a n  to generalize  values.  be t h a t  accessible  p o o l of  standardized  i n c l u d e measures of s o c i a l  experience  I t may  This  i t i s suggested  be a d m i n i s t e r e d  measurement w h i c h m i g h t similarity  Also,  categories  a more  the researcher  readily.  Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l  Questionnaire.  might p r e s e n t  and would e n a b l e  h e r f i n d i n g s more  belief  from t h e p e r s o n a l i t y  from t h e I n t e r v i e w  characteristics  instrument or  be s e l e c t e d  future  attitudes  this  research,  more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s should are  similar  outside  that  towards consider their  1  professional  world  or  whether  social  desirability  is  16  an  influence. In a d d i t i o n to f u r t h e r experimental s t u d i e s being it  is  recommended that  gather  survey  research a l s o be conducted  information r e g a r d i n g  Canadian  counselling  subjects  in  this  s e n s i t i v e " the  the e t h n i c  profession.  study  were  notion of  done,  the  composition of  Because  eliminated "pure  many as  of  to the the  "culturally  mainstream"  counsellor  needs to be addressed. Although counsellor's findings,  this  study  attitudes  especially  attitudinal  is  towards  in  it  focus  on  f o r e i g n accented c l i e n t s ,  the  Study One,  expectations  hoped  this  refinements  such  respondents  and  non-accented  research as:  professionals  and  be  to  the no  i n t h i s manner  replicated  sample s i z e , subjects  Since  held  more both  with  some  homogeneous accented  and  so does  our  personally  and  situations.  As the technology contact  commonly  in counselling  can  larger  exposing  its  visible differences.  study has examined accent  is  in  challenge  among  p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d r e s e a r c h on other  narrow  with  professionally  people  of communication advances from  other  as c o u n s e l l o r s .  needs to expand represents  to the  reminds us  "...  Now more than e v e r ,  and i n v e s t i g a t e the  challenge  counselling process. people  cannot  meaningful way except through the are p a r t of one]  cultures  ...  interrelated  ...  that  As H a l l interact  research culture  (1982:188) ...  in  any  medium of c u l t u r e  ...  [we  system."  1 17  REFERENCES  Aboud, F . E . & S k e r r y , attitudes: a Cross-Cultural  S.A. (1984). The development critical review. Journal Psychology,  75(1),  of of  3~34.  A g e h e y i s i , R. & Fishman, J . A . (1970). Language attitude studies: a brief summary of methodological approaches.  137-157.  Anthropological  Linguistics,  12(5),  Alexander, A . A . , Workneh, F . , Klein, M . H . , & M i l l e r , M.H. (1976). Psychotherapy and the f o r e i g n student. In P. Pedersen, W . J . Lonner and J . G . Draguns (eds.), Counselling  across  cultures  (pp 82-89).  Honolulu,  Hawaii: U n i v e r s i t y Press of Hawaii.  Allan,  J . A . B . & Nairne, J . E . (1981). 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Harvard  Young,  R.A.  &  counselling.  current  trends  The c u l t u r a l l y encapsulated  Educational  Marks,  at t r i but i o nal  Zahn,  attitudes:  Washington, D . C : Georgetown  Review,  52(4),  S.E.  (1985).  processes  in  and  University counselor.  444-449.  Under s t andi ng cr os s- cul t ur a I  Manuscript submitted for p u b l i c a t i o n .  C. & Hopper, R. (1985). Measuring language attitudes: the speech evaluation instrument. Journal  113-123.  of  Language  and  Social  Psychology,  4(2),  APPENDIX A  CONSENT  FORM  135  CONSENT FORM  Title:  C o u n s e l l o r Responses to C l i e n t s in a T r a i n i n g Situation.  R e s e a r c h e r : Linda Alexander I v o l u n t a r i l y agree to p a r t i c i p a t e in t h i s research p r o j e c t which w i l l take 35 minutes of my time. I understand that the aim of t h i s study i s to i n v e s t i g a t e counsellors' t y p i c a l responses to c l i e n t s in a t r a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n . I am aware that the study i s being conducted to p a r t i a l l y fulfill the requirements for a M a s t e r ' s Degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. I f u r t h e r understand they my involvement i n t h i s p r o j e c t requires that I complete a form requesting certain demographic i n f o r m a t i o n , as w e l l as answering q u e s t i o n s which d e a l with the experience. In a d d i t i o n I am aware that my responses to the simulated c l i e n t interview will be audiotaped. I have been assured that the information c o l l e c t e d from t h i s study w i l l remain c o n d f i d e n t i a l and not be used for evaluative purposes. I understand that on completion of the p r o j e c t , the audiotape w i l l be destroyed and the remaining data remain anonymous. I am aware that I may withdraw my consent and d i s c o n t i n u e my p a r t i c i p a t i o n at any time without i n f l u e n c i n g my c l a s s standing in any way. I am aware that the i n s t r u c t o r s of the course at no time, present or f u t u r e , w i l l be made aware of my performance. I have read the contents of this Consent Form and understand my p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s project. For my part I agree to uphold the e t h i c of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and not discuss t h i s p r o j e c t u n t i l I have been a d v i s e d i t has been completed. I acknowledge r e c e i p t of t h i s Consent Form.  Date  Signature  1 36  APPENDIX  PREPARED  THE  B  SCRIPT  CLIENT'S PRESENTATION  OF H I S  PROBLEM  PREPARED  Segment  SCRIPT  1  I don't know i f you can h e l p me. A f r i e n d of mine s a i d you c o u l d ... I d o n ' t know. I f e e l awkward and s i l l y coming here. But I f e l t that I had to do something before i t ' s too late. Things aren't so great right now. My l i f e , my family, everything seems t o be f a l l i n g a p a r t ... I f e e l so h e l p l e s s ... I d o n ' t seem t o be a b l e t o do a n y t h i n g to stop i t from h a p p e n i n g . I'm not a drunk. I don't do any drugs. I t ' s just that I can't seem t o do anything r i g h t anymore. E v e r s i n c e I l o s t my j o b .  Segment  2  ... W e l l ... I've been out of work now f o r a l m o s t two y e a r s ... 22 months tomorrow. I've l o o k e d e v e r y w h e r e f o r a j o b but f o r some r e a s o n nobody wants t o hire me. I t r y to t h i n k o f why I c a n ' t g e t work. It's a l m o s t a s t h o u g h t h e r e ' s someone ... someone's making sure I don't get a j o b . I am not s t u p i d . I've done a l l k i n d s of work. I've worked a t a l l k i n d s o f j o b s . I've g o t e x p e r i e n c e i n a l m o s t e v e r y t h i n g . Why ... i s what I d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d ... Why i s t h i s h a p p e n i n g to me?  Segment  3  ... My f r i e n d t o l d me that I looked depressed ... t h a t I s h o u l d n ' t do a n y t h i n g f o o l i s h . Of c o u r s e I am d e p r e s s e d ... who w o u l d n ' t be ... but s u i c i d e has never e n t e r e d my m i n d . I could n e v e r do anything like that. I have never been a coward and I am determined to see t h i s thing right through to the end. Besides my family needs me, I could never d e s e r t them....  1  Segment  4  T h i n g s u s e d t o be so good f o r u s . The w i f e and I we used t o p l a n f o r the f u t u r e . We s c r i m p e d ... p u t money i n t o savings plans. The c h i l d r e n ' s college money has been s p e n t ... I f e l t l i k e a t h i e f taking it. But what c o u l d I do, t h e b i l l s had t o be paid. I d i d n ' t want t o l o s e t h e h o u s e .  Segment 5 We s t a r t e d s e l l i n g things ... s t a r t e d o u t w i t h a garage s a l e s e l l i n g items we d i d n ' t want ... just s e l l i n g i t e m s t h a t we had t o s e l l . I t ' s f u n n y though ... I had a ... I u s e d t o have a stamp collection t h a t I t h o u g h t was w o r t h t h o u s a n d s ... When I took i t i n t o s e l l i t t h e man l a u g h e d a t me and s a i d fifty d o l l a r s tops. Can y o u b e a t t h a t ?  Segment 6 My f a m i l y ' s v e r y s u p p o r t i v e o f me b u t t h e r e a r e some t h i n g s that they j u s t don't u n d e r s t a n d . Number one i s money. They a l l know how t o spend i t ... no that i s n ' t f a i r ... i t i s n ' t true. I t ' s me. I g e t so f r u s t r a t e d I want t o blame someone ... I s h o u l d have seen i t c o m i n g , I have no one t o blame b u t my self. I g e t so a n g r y . ..  38  139  Segment 7 I t h o u g h t t h a t b e i n g o u t o f work was j u s t a t e m p o r a r y t h i n g so I b o r r o w e d a couple of d o l l a r s h e r e and there. Now I d o n ' t have the courage t o face them u n t i l I c a n pay them b a c k . I owe e v e r y b o d y i t seems. I tried t o work some o f i t o f f . But i t seems everybody's h u r t i n g they j u s t want t h e money. I won't t a k e c h a r i t y , n o t a s l o n g a s I c a n work that's why ... t h a t ' s why I am h e r e . I need h e l p ... I need t o g e t c o n t r o l of m y s e l f .  Segment 8 I am so b i t t e r I'm a n g r y a t my p r e v i o u s e m p l o y e r f o r l e t t i n g me go and I'm mad a t t h e government f o r c a u s i n g me t o l o s e my j o b , and most o f a l l I'm mad a t m y s e l f f o r a l l o w i n g t h i s t h i n g t o happen t o me.  Segment 9 One good t h i n g t h a t h a s come o u t o f a l l o f t h i s i s t h a t we a r e much c l o s e r f a m i l y . I t was d e c i d e d that h i d i n g t h e p r o b l e m s f r o m t h e k i d s wasn't a good i d e a . The o t h e r day t h e k i d s and I w a l k e d down t o the f r e e w a y w i t h some g a r b a g e b a g s . . We c o l l e c t e d beer b o t t l e s and pop b o t t l e s and w h a t e v e r e l s e we could find that would b r i n g i n some money. My youngest found a stone g i n g e r beer b o t t l e . My w i f e g o t so e x c i t e d about i t , she c o l l e c t s b o t t l e s . I t was nice to see her l a u g h i n g f o r a change.  1 40  S e g m e n t 10 It's difficult to think positive after so many disappointments. In f a c t , I have t h e f e e l i n g t h a t I am d o i n g s o m e t h i n g t h a t d e l i b e r a t e l y p r e v e n t s me from g e t t i n g the j o b . I f there was s o m e t h i n g t o h e l p me relax. I d o n ' t mean d r u g s , I j u s t want t o f e e l good about m y s e l f .  Segment 11 The o t h e r day I f o u n d t h a t somebody had l e f t a box o f g r o c e r i e s on the porch. I suppose the neighbours meant w e l l . I t was bound t o g e t a r o u n d . But i t made me f e e l t e r r i b l e . I a p p r e c i a t e t h e i r g e n e r o s i t y but i t made me f e e l a n g r y t o know t h a t t h e y know t h a t I am n o t a b l e t o p r o v i d e f o r my f a m i l y .  S e g m e n t 12 I t wasn't v e r y l o n g ago t h a t I f e l t t h a t t h o s e p e o p l e on w e l f a r e were j u s t t a k i n g a d v a n t a g e o f t h e system. I was so wrong. I c a n i m a g i n e how h a r d i t must have been f o r them when I d o n ' t even have t h e c o u r a g e to go m y s e l f .  S e g m e n t 13 My y o u n g e s t son r e f u s e d t o go to school today. It seems a l l o f h i s f r i e n d s have Chex. T h a t i s some kind of a r u n n i n g shoe t h a t costs eighty dollars a pair. None o f t h e k i d s go t o p a r t i e s , t h e y can't a f f o r d a show. They f i g h t among t h e m s e l v e s , start screaming a t each o t h e r and t h a t i n t u r n s t a r t s a chain reaction. Pretty soon t h e w i f e and I g e t i n t h e r e s c r e a m i n g t o o . We have a v e r y t o u g h t i m e and I am n o t p a i n t i n g t h e p i c t u r e w i t h a b l a c k b r u s h ... i t r e a l l y i s t h i s desperate....  141  S e g m e n t 14  Yet s t i l l o u t o f o u r d i f f i c u l t y has come a r a l l y i n g and c r a z y k i n d o f humour t h a t h a s a t made t h e most i m p o s s i b l e ... b e a r a b l e . Without c r a z y , happy f a m i l y of mine I don't think I have made i t t h i s f a r .  great times this could  APPENDIX C  SEMANTIC D I F F E R E N T I A L A T T I T U D E  SCALE  1 43  E V A L U A T I O N OF C L I E N T C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S DIRECTIONS In r e s p o n s e t o t h e c l i e n t y o u h a v e j u s t s e e n , mark each p a i r of opposite adjectives as a separate and independent j u d g m e n t , on the basis of what t h e y mean t o you. Work q u i c k l y , i t i s your f i r s t and immediate impression that is most i m p o r t a n t . T h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s show how t o r a t e the pa i r s : neutral or very quite only not a t only quite very closely closely slightly a l l slightly closely closely related related related related related related related 1.  I f you feel that the c l i e n t characteristic i s very c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o one end o f t h e s c a l e , y o u s h o u l d p l a c e your check as f o l l o w s : X fair : : : : : : unfair OR X fair : : : : : : unfair 2.  I f you feel that the c l i e n t characteristic i s quite c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o one end o r t h e o t h e r o f t h e s c a l e ( b u t not e x t r e m e l y ) , y o u s h o u l d p l a c e your check as f o l l o w s : X fair : : : : : : unfair OR X fair : : : : : : unfair  3.  I f t h e c l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c seems o n l y s l i g h t l y related t o one s i d e as opposed to the other side (but Is not r e a l l y n e u t r a l ) , then you should check as f o l l o w s : X fair : : : : : : unfair OR X fair : : : : : : unfair  4.  I f y o u c o n s i d e r t h e c l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t o be neutral on t h e s c a l e , e q u a l l y associated, or i f the scale i s completely i r r e l e v a n t , then you should place your check in the middle: X fair : : : : .: : unfair  Now, p l e a s e rate each pair of opposite adjectives as they best describe, i n y o u r own o p i n i o n , t h e c l i e n t y o u have j u s t seen. Once a g a i n , p l e a s e work q u i c k l y , i t i s y o u r f i r s t and i m m e d i a t e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t i s most i m p o r t a n t .  144  CLIEHT CHARACTERISTICS very closely related  expressive follower  quite closely related  only sligntly related  neutral or only not i t i l l a l l g n t l y related related  quite closely related  very closely related  •-inexpressive leader  trustworthy  unfaithful  pessimistic  optimistic  competent  incompetent  lethargic  energetic  unintelligent involved  intelligent withdrawn  weak  strong  kind  cruel  emotional  controlled  dominant  submissive  feminine  masculine  egotistic graceful  altruistic awkward  insensitive  sensitive  industrious  lazy  unfriendly happy  friendly sad  fragile  tough  shallow  deep  humourous  serious  unsociable  sociable  active  passive  adaptive  rigid  145  vary cloeely related  quit* cloaely related  only neutral or only silently not at all illgncly relacad related related  quite cloeely relaced  very cloaaly relacad  vague  :  :  dishonest  :  :  — •'.  honest  successful  :  :  —  unsuccessful  motivated  :  :  sincere  :  :  '  insincere  defensive  :  :  '•  aggressive  grateful  :  :  -•'  ungrateful  incapable  :  :  *  capable  unsure  :  :  •'—-  confident  clean  :  :  :  .  dirty  selfish  :  :  •'.  unselfish  polite  :  :  :  rude  vulgar  j-  '•.  :  precise  , unmotivated  .  :  — •'. '•  refined  interesting  :  :  uneducated  :  :  —  cooperative  :  :  —-  ignorant  :  :  :  •'-  knowledgeable  careful  :  :  ;  •  sloppy  displeasing  :  :  ;  calm  :  :  slow  boring educated  :  -  :  -  :  uncooperative  pleasing excitable  :  .  ;  comfortable  :  :  - —-  unskilled  :  :  '•  peaceful  :  :  self-alike  :  :  :  -  quick uncomfortable skilled  :  hostile  :  self-unalike  APPENDIX D  INTERVIEW  QUESTIONNAIRE  147  INTERVIEW  QUESTIONNAIRE  1.  Other than the c l i e n t ' s p r e s e n t i n g p r o b l e m , what client characteristics stood out f o r you the most?  2.  D i d you i d e n t i f y explain.  3.  How m o t i v a t e d d o y o u t h i n k t h i s to help himself?  4.  Would you enjoy  with  working  this  with  client  in  client  this  a n y way? will  other Please  be i n  trying  client?  not a t a l l somewhat moderately considerably a great deal 5.  I f you were given a c h o i c e , would you continue t h i s c l i e n t i n c o u n s e l l i n g or would you refer t o counsellor?  6.  Do y o u h a v e a n y o t h e r c o m m e n t s counselling experience?  regarding  this  t o see another  particular  APPENDIX  DEMOGRAPHIC  E  INFORMATION  149  DEMOGRAPHIC I N F O R M A T I O N  Age: Sex:  M  Place  F of Birth:  Birthplace  of Parents:  Mother Father  * I f o t h e r than Canada, age when s/he e m i g r a t e d  Upbringing:  Rural  Urban  Cultural/Ethnic Area  of Concentration  affiliation  (CNPS):  Family Adolescent College & Adult Elementary Women Other  Clinical  Experience  Number o f Y e a r s : Setting  & Client  Population:  

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