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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The extent of agreement among counsellors on practical models of counselling Grimes, Barbara Lynn 1987

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THE EXTENT OF AGREEMENT AMONG COUNSELLORS ON PRACTICAL MODELS OF COUNSELLING by BARBARA LYNN GRIMES B.A., Southwest Texas S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1987 © Barbara Lynn Grimes, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) i i Abstract The present study examined types of p r a c t i c a l models evident in the reported practice of counsellors at the every-day c l i n i c a l l e v e l . It was found that there was one dominant model. The p r a c t i c a l model reported by graduate counselling students was similar to the predominant model indicated by professors. The model found tends to agree with the relationship aspect of counselling as described by Egan (1982) in Stage 1 and Stage 2. However, goal setting and problem-solving techniques found in Stage 2 and 3, respectively; were not apparent^ Twenty-seven individuals, twelve faculty members and f i f t e e n graduate students in the Department of Counselling Psychology at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia participated in the study. Using sixty statements selected from Egan's (1982) developmental model of counselling, each participant was asked to Q-sort the statements according to what was most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of oneself as a p r a c t i s i n g counsellor or as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of oneself as the p r a c t i s i n g counsellor one hoped to be. Participant's results were intercorrelated. The matrix of i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s was submitted to p r i n c i p a l components analysis and then to a varimax rotation. The clearest data r e d u c t i o n was achieved by the f i r s t p r i n c i p a l component without r o t a t i o n . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d one dominant, h y p o t h e t i c a l model of c o u n s e l l i n g used by t h i s sample. A l s o , the s i m i l a r i t i e s of the h y p o t h e t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g model and Egan's (1982) model were w i t h i n Stages 1 and 2. They d i f f e r e d i n s e t t i n g goals and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g techniques. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s v i CHAPTER I: Introduction 1 CHAPTER II: Review of the Literature 7 Summary 29 CHAPTER III: Methodology 31 D e s c r i p t i o n o f S u b j e c t s 31 Q - S o r t S t a t e m e n t s 32 P r o c e d u r e 36 Me t h o d o f a n a l y s i s 37 CHAPTER IV: Results 39 CHAPTER V: Discussion 47 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y 50 T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 51 P r a c t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 52 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 53 C o n c l u s i o n 54 R e f e r e n c e s 56 V LIST OF TABLES Table I: Q-sort statements derived from Egan's (1982) counse l l ing model 34 Table I I : Unrotated p r i n c i p a l components 41 Table I I I : Hypothet ical Q-sort of a l l 27 subjects 44 Table IV: Twenty statements most frequently se lected . . . . . . . 4 6 v i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s I w i s h t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f my c o m m i t t e e , D r . L a r r y C o c h r a n a n d D r . W a l t e r B o l d t , whose s u g g e s t i o n s were i n v a l u a b l e i n t h e w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s . I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k B e t t y Maye, E d , a n d S u s i e f o r t h e i r b e l i e f i n me, a n d my f r i e n d s D u f , Anne, J e s s i c a , R o x a n n , J o a n n e , M a r i o n a n d Ken f o r t h e i r e n c o u r a g e m e n t a n d p a t i e n c e w i t h me. 1 CHAPTER I: Introduction The p r o b l e m o f t h i s s t u d y was t o e x p l o r e c o n s e n s u s among c o u n s e l l o r s f r o m d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s on p r a c t i c a l m o d e l s o f c o u n s e l l i n g . The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h was i n t e n d e d t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e g r o w i n g a r e a o f i n t e r e s t o f s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h a c t u a l l y e x i s t a c r o s s d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . T h i s a r e a was f i r s t e x p l o r e d by d e f i n i n g a n d d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g f r o m p r a c t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l s a n d s e c o n d , by e x a m i n i n g t h e emergence o f p r a c t i c a l m o d e l s o f c o u n s e l l i n g i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . A c c o r d i n g t o P a t t e r s o n ( 1 9 7 3 ) , a g o o d t h e o r y must be c o m p r e h e n s i v e , c l e a r , s u b j e c t t o e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , v e r i f i e d by e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e , s t i m u l a t i n g o f new k n o w l e d g e , a nd u s e f u l i n p r a c t i c e . He b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e r e i s no e x i s t i n g t h e o r y o f c o u n s e l l i n g w h i c h m e e t s a l l t h e s e c r i t e r i a , t h a t " a p p r o a c h " o r " o r i e n t a t i o n " w o u l d be a more a c c u r a t e t e r m . T h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , s u c h a s p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , b e h a v i o u r i s m , a n d e x i s t e n t i a l i s m r e p r e s e n t t h e o r i e s o r w o r l d v i e w s . T h e s e a r e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k s a n d a r e means of t h i n k i n g a b o u t p e o p l e a n d t h e w o r l d ( I v e y , 1 9 8 0 ) . T h e s e o r i e n t a t i o n s a r e made up o f h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s w h i c h t h e c o u n s e l l o r u s e s t o o r g a n i z e a n d s y s t e m a t i z e e v e n t s , p e o p l e , and t h e w o r l d . C o n s t r u c t s a r e h y p o t h e s e s w h i c h a p e r s o n h a s 2 u s e d t o t e s t some i d e a o r b e h a v i o u r on t h e w o r l d a n d i s f o u n d t o be i n some way e f f e c t i v e ( I v e y , 1 9 8 0 ) . T h e s e c o n s t r u c t s a r e t h e n i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l s o f c o u n s e l l i n g w h i c h have a w o r l d v i e w , e x p l a n a t o r y s e t s o f c o n c e p t s t o v i e w human b e h a v i o u r , and a r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r s e t o f i n t e r v e n t i o n t e c h n i q u e s t h r o u g h w h i c h p e o p l e may be h e l p e d ( I v e y , 1 9 8 0 ) . C o n c e p t s r e g a r d i n g human n a t u r e ; t h e g o a l s o f c o u n s e l l i n g t h a t a r e r o o t e d i n t h e v i e w o f human n a t u r e ; a nd t h e t e c h n i q u e s s u b s c r i b e d t o , t e n d t o be d i f f e r e n t f o r e a c h t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l o f c o u n s e l l i n g ( I v e y , 1 9 8 0 ) . D u r i n g t h e l a s t f o u r d e c a d e s t h e u n p r e c e d e n t e d e s c a l a t i o n i n t h e p r a c t i c e o f c o u n s e l l i n g , b o t h i n t e r m s o f t h e many t h e o r e t i c a l a n d t e c h n i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s a n d t h e a d d e d e x p o s u r e a n d r e c e p t i v i t y o f t h e p u b l i c , h a s i n t r o d u c e d a v a r i e t y o f c o u n s e l l i n g a p p r o a c h e s ( C o r s i n i , 1979; G a r f i e l d , 1 9 8 1 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , i n 1959 H a r p e r i d e n t i f i e d 36 " s y s t e m s " o f c o u n s e l l i n g , w h i c h was s u p p l e m e n t e d by an a d d i t i o n a l c o m p i l a t i o n i n 1975 ( H a r p e r , 1 9 7 5 ) . I n 1973 J u r j e v i c h l i s t e d 28 " d i r e c t i v e " c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l s a l o n e ( J u r j e v i c h , 1 9 7 3 ) . And i n 1979 P a r l o f f o b s e r v e d t h a t more t h a n 130 d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s t o c o u n s e l l i n g e x i s t . W i t h t h i s p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f c o u n s e l l i n g a p p r o a c h e s , t h e i s s u e s o f r a p p r o c h e m e n t o r c o n s e n s u s among c o m p e t i n g f o r m s o f c o u n s e l l i n g h a v e begun t o d e v e l o p i n t o a c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d a r e a o f i n t e r e s t ( G o l d f r i e d , 1 9 8 2 ) . Two i s s u e s t h a t a r e 3 p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o t h e t o p i c o f c o n s e n s u s i n t h e p r a c t i c e o f c o u n s e l l i n g a r e ; o n e , t h e f a c t t h a t d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s a p p e a r t o p r o d u c e b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s ; and s e c o n d l y , t h a t e c l e c t i c i s m i s on t h e r i s e . I n an a t t e m p t t o t i e t o g e t h e r t h e r e s u l t s o f s e p a r a t e c o u n s e l l i n g outcome s t u d i e s , S m i t h a n d G l a s s ( 1 9 7 7 ) p r e s e n t e d a m e t a - a n a l y s i s o f 375 s t u d i e s . T h e s e s t u d i e s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e w i d e r a n g e o f t h e o r e t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g o r i e n t a t i o n s c u r r e n t l y i n u s e . The r e s u l t s o f t h e i r m e t a - a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t r e g a r d l e s s of t h e c o u n s e l l i n g o r i e n t a t i o n u s e d , t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f c o u n s e l l i n g r e s u l t e d i n b e n e f i c i a l c l i e n t c h a n g e . The a v e r a g e c l i e n t i n t h e s e s t u d i e s was " b e t t e r o f f t h a n 7 5 % o f t h e u n t r e a t e d c o n t r o l s " ( p . 7 5 4 ) , w h i c h i s i m p o r t a n t d a t a on t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s . They a l s o commented t h a t t h e p r a c t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e o r i e s seemed m i n i m a l and t h a t p e r h a p s t o o much t i m e i s s p e n t i n a r g u i n g w h i c h t h e o r y i s b e s t . I n summary, i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s i s e f f e c t i v e , v i s - a - v i s c l i e n t c h a n g e , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . I n a s u r v e y o f c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s w i t h i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , G a r f i e l d a n d K u r t z ( 1 9 7 6 ) h a v e f o u n d a s t r o n g t r e n d i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f g r e a t e r e c l e c t i c i s m . F i f t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s d e p i c t e d t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n a s one t h a t drew f r o m s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s . The s i n g l e most f r e q u e n t r e a s o n f o r u s i n g more t h a n one o r i e n t a t i o n was m a i n l y 4 p r a g m a t i c i n n a t u r e , i n t h a t t h e use o f p r o c e d u r e s from d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s i s needed i n o r d e r t o d e a l w i t h t h e c l i n i c a l i s s u e s a t hand. Of t h e p r a c t i s i n g c o u n s e l l o r s s u r v e y e d who p r e f e r r e d an e c l e c t i c a p p r o a c h , t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r s u c h i n t e g r a t i o n were c l i n i c a l r a t h e r t h a n t h e o r e t i c a l . In e s s e n c e , t h e r e a l i t i e s o f t h e c l i n i c a l s i t u a t i o n make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e p r a c t i s i n g c o u n s e l l o r t o f u n c t i o n w i t h i n a c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . The f a c t t h a t d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s c a n be e f f e c t i v e w i t h r e g a r d t o c l i e n t c h ange has r e s u l t e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of c o n c e p t u a l frameworks o f a g e n e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l n a t u r e . G e n e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l o r p r a c t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e ls a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s e a r c h f o r c o n n e c t i o n s and u n d e r l y i n g u n i t y w i t h i n and among d i f f e r i n g t h e o r i e s o f c o u n s e l l i n g . They a d d r e s s c o r e c o n c e p t s o r p r i n c i p l e s of change t h a t a p p l y a c r o s s t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s and a r e s t r u c t u r a l frameworks upon w h i c h many d i f f e r e n t t h e o r i e s may be exa m i n e d . They a d d r e s s s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g w h i c h a c c o u n t f o r s u c c e s s f u l t r e a t m e n t among t h e many d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g models a v a i l a b l e . P r a c t i c a l models o f c o u n s e l l i n g move t h e o r y i n t o p r a c t i c e and i n t e g r a t e c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s o f change a t t h e p r a g m a t i c / c l i n i c a l l e v e l . T h e s e p r a c t i c a l models do not depend on any g i v e n s e t o f t e c h n i q u e s or methods and can be u s e d w i t h a l m o s t any p r o c e d u r e . They d e s c r i b e c o m m o n a l i t i e s 5 and d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e many a p p r o a c h e s t o c o u n s e l l i n g a n d s e r v e a s a b r i d g e b e t w e e n t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l s o f c o u n s e l l i n g a n d a c t u a l p r a c t i c e . T h e s e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k s p r o v i d e an o v e r v i e w o f what t r a n s p i r e s b e t w e e n a c o u n s e l l o r a n d a c l i e n t i n c o u n s e l l i n g . They p r o v i d e c l i n i c a l h e u r i s t i c s w h i c h s p e c i f y t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s . As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h i s t o e x p l o r e c o n s e n s u s among c o u n s e l l o r s o f d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s on p r a c t i c a l m o d e l s o f c o u n s e l l i n g . The c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t o r e v e a l t h e s u b j e c t i v e t h e o r y o r t h e o r i e s o f p r a c t i s i n g c o u n s e l l o r s . I n t h e p o r t r a y a l o f t h e s e s u b j e c t i v e t h e o r y o r t h e o r i e s , t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l o r m o d e l s w h i c h emerge w i l l r e v e a l t h e e x t e n t o f a g r e e m e n t among p r a c t i s i n g c o u n s e l l o r s on common s t r a t e g i e s o f c h a n g e w h i c h a r e e n c a p s u l a t e d i n p r a c t i c a l m o d e l s o f c o u n s e l l i n g . The most i m m e d i a t e p r e c u r s o r f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h i s a s t u d y by F i e d l e r ( 1 9 5 0) w h i c h w i l l be d e s c r i b e d more f u l l y i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . He u s e d a Q - s o r t ( S t e p h e n s o n , 1953) t o e x a m i n e t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t e x p e r i e n c e d c o u n s e l l o r s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , a t t e m p t t o c r e a t e a t h e r a p e u t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same f r o m o r i e n t a t i o n t o o r i e n t a t i o n . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , a Q - s o r t was d e v e l o p e d f r o m E g a n ' s (1982) p r a c t i c a l m o d e l o f c o u n s e l l i n g a n d a p p l i e d i n t h e same f a s h i o n . 6 Q - m e t h o d o l o g y was. d e v i s e d by S t e p h e n s o n (1953) i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e method o f t e n u s e d t o s a m p l e l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n s , w h i c h he t e r m e d R - m e t h o d o l o g y . The Q - s o r t a n d p r i n c i p a l c o m p o n e n t s a n a l y s i s a r e metho d s i n c l u d e d u n d e r t h e u s e o f t h e t e r m Q - m e t h o d o l o g y . A Q - s o r t i s a f o r m o f r a t i n g a n d r a n k o r d e r i n g o f s t i m u l i (Brown a nd B r e n n e r , 1 9 7 2 ) . I t i s a t e c h n i q u e w i t h an h e u r i s t i c q u a l i t y a n d a l s o p o i n t s t o w a r d a l t e r n a t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l v i e w s a n d p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h ( K e r l i n g e r , 1 9 7 2 ) . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y were a s k e d t o s o r t 60 s t a t e m e n t s s e l e c t e d f r o m E g a n ' s ( 1 9 8 2 ) p r a c t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l u s i n g t h e c r i t e r i a o f "most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c " a n d " l e a s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c " o f t h e m s e l v e s a s p r a c t i s i n g c o u n s e l l o r s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s o r t was a f o r c e d q u a s i - n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . P a r t i c i p a n t s were t h e n i n t e r v i e w e d t o p r o v i d e f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n o f how t h e y s o r t e d t h e s t a t e m e n t s . The Q - s o r t i s u s e d when t h e e m p h a s i s i s on t h e measurement o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l s , a n d i t a l l o w s one t o make c o m p l e x c o m p a r i s o n s o f s e t s o f m e a s u r e s w i t h i n t h e d a t a o f one i n d i v i d u a l o r s e t o f i n d i v i d u a l s (Brown a n d B r e n n e r , 1 9 7 2 ) . T h u s , t h e Q - s o r t h a s u n i q u e v a l u e i n a l l o w i n g a r e s e a r c h e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s u b j e c t i v e t h e o r i e s o r v i e w p o i n t s o f p e o p l e . 7 CHAPTER II: Review of the Literature I n a p p r o a c h i n g t h e t a s k o f l o o k i n g f o r p o i n t s o f c o m m o n a l i t y among d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , G o l d f r i e d ( 1 9 7 8 , 1980, 1982) c o n c e p t u a l i z e d t h e t h e r a p e u t i c e n t e r p r i s e a s i n v o l v i n g t h r e e l e v e l s o f a b s t r a c t i o n f r o m what i s d i r e c t l y o b s e r v a b l e ; t h e h i g h e s t ; t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e ; a n d t h e l o w e s t . The h i g h e s t l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n i s t h e t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k t o w h i c h t h e c o u n s e l l o r s u b s c r i b e s . A t h e o r y e x p l a i n s t o t h e c o u n s e l l o r why t h e p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f i n t e r v e n t i o n p r o c e d u r e s i s l i k e l y t o work. A c c o m p a n y i n g t h e t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k i s a p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t a n c e on t h e n a t u r e o f human f u n c t i o n i n g . A t t h e l o w e s t l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n a r e t h e s p e c i f i c t h e r a p e u t i c t e c h n i q u e s t h e m s e l v e s , t h e c l i n i c a l p r o c e d u r e s t h a t a r e a c t u a l l y e m p l o y e d d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n p r o c e s s ( f o r e x a m p l e , r e l a x a t i o n t r a i n i n g , r o l e r e v e r s a l , o r f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n ) . I t i s G o l d f r i e d ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t p o i n t s o f c o m p a r i s o n a t a t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l a r e u n l i k e l y t o r e v e a l s i m i l a r i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e l i t t l e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s e n s u s e x i s t s w i t h i n a n y g i v e n o r i e n t a t i o n ( 1 9 7 8 ) . By l o o k i n g f o r s i m i l a r i t i e s a t t h e l o w e s t l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n - - t h e r a p e u t i c t e c h n i q u e s - - a n y s i m i l a r i t i e s t h a t may be f o u n d a r e l i k e l y t o be r e l a t i v e l y t r i v i a l . 8 Co n s i s t e n t with G o l d f r i e d , Corey (1977) found that there i s no common philosophy that u n i f i e s a l l t h e o r e t i c a l models. However, i t i s h i s c o n v i c t i o n that the views of human nature and the b a s i c assumptions that u n d e r g i r d the views of the t h e r a p e u t i c process have s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the way t h e r a p e u t i c p r a c t i c e s are developed. "Our p h i l o s o p h i c a l assumptions are important because they s p e c i f y how much r e a l i t y we are abl e to p e r c e i v e , and they d i r e c t our a t t e n t i o n to the v a r i a b l e s that we are set to see" (p. 185). According to Corey (1977) the f a c t that a c o u n s e l l o r ' s view of human nature i s v i t a l l y r e l a t e d to the view of the nature of the t h e r a p e u t i c process has d e f i n i t e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e r a p e u t i c techniques. Each of the t h e o r e t i c a l models p r o v i d e s d i f f e r e n t ways of understanding the person, and each can pr o v i d e the framework f o r i n c r e a s i n g understanding of behaviour and f o r examining r e a l i t y . In summary, from t h e o r e t i c a l concepts comes the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of c o u n s e l l i n g . In G o l d f r i e d ' s (1978) o p i n i o n , i t i s the l e v e l of a b s t r a c t i o n between these two extremes where there e x i s t s the most promising p o t e n t i a l i n the search f o r commonality. T h i s intermediate l e v e l i s more l i k e l y to r e v e a l the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s or p r a c t i c a l s t r a t e g i e s a s s o c i a t e d with the t h e r a p e u t i c change pro c e s s . In essence, such s t r a t e g i e s f u n c t i o n as c l i n i c a l h e u r i s t i c s that i m p l i c i t l y guide e f f o r t s 9 d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f c o u n s e l l i n g . G b l d f r i e d ' s ( 1 9 7 8) i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n c o n c e r n s a s p e c t s o f c o u n s e l l i n g t h e o r i e s t h a t i n v o l v e i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s o r p r i n c i p l e s o f c h a n g e . I n t h e w o r k s o f Raimy ( 1 9 7 5 ) , B o r d i n ( 1 9 7 6 ) , I v e y ( 1 9 8 0 ) , a n d Egan (1982) a r e p r o p o s e d what a p p e a r t o be c o r e s t r a t e g i e s o f c h a n g e . One c a n v i e w t h e s e a s s i m i l a r t o G o l d f r i e d ' s (1978) " i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n . " Raimy ( 1 9 7 5 ) p r o p o s e d t h e c o n c e p t o f m i s c o n c e p t i o n h y p o t h e s e s . I n h i s b o o k , Misunderstandings of the Self, Raimy s t a t e d " . . . most met h o d s o f t r e a t m e n t i n c l u d e , i n some f a s h i o n a n d u s u a l l y u n d e r d i f f e r e n t l a b e l s , t h e c h a n g i n g o f m i s c o n c e p t i o n s a s one o f t h e i r e s s e n t i a l g o a l s " ( p . i x ) . T h i s i s a c o g n i t i v e a p p r o a c h t o t h e r a p y b a s e d on s e l f - c o n c e p t t h e o r y . The c l i e n t ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s — i d e a s , b e l i e f s , o r c o n c e p t i o n s a b o u t s e l f - - a r e assumed t o c o n t r o l m a l a d j u s t e d a s w e l l a s a d j u s t e d b e h a v i o u r . A c c o r d i n g t o Raim y , t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t i s composed o f more o r l e s s o r g a n i z e d n o t i o n s , b e l i e f s a n d c o n v i c t i o n s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s k n o w l e d g e o f o n e ' s s e l f a n d t h a t i n f l u e n c e o n e ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r s . A p e r s o n ' s b e l i e f s a b o u t s e l f a r e l o n g e n d u r i n g a n d a l s o e x e r c i s e a l m o s t c o n t i n u o u s i n f l u e n c e upon b e h a v i o u r . T h e r e seems t o be a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n Raimy ( 1 9 7 5 ) a n d G o l d f r i e d ( 1 9 7 8) t h a t e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e s u c c e s s o f t r e a t m e n t must be s o u g h t o u t s i d e t h e r e a l m o f t e c h n i q u e . The 10 m i s c o n c e p t i o n h y p o t h e s i s p r o p o s e s t h a t s u c c e s s f u l p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r e a t m e n t o c c u r s when f a u l t y i d e a s o r b e l i e f s a b o u t s e l f a r e m o d i f i e d o r e l i m i n a t e d . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s a p p r o a c h e m p h a s i z e s c h a n g i n g s p e c i f i c a n d c o n c r e t e f a u l t y b e l i e f s i n c o u n s e l l i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o R a i m y , t h e c l i e n t ' s t a s k i n c o u n s e l l i n g i s a r e p e a t e d c o g n i t i v e r e v i e w t h a t w i l l a l l o w h i m o r h e r t o m o d i f y o r e l i m i n a t e m i s c o n c e p t i o n s . Raimy d e f i n e d c o g n i t i v e r e v i e w a s f o l l o w s : " F o r an i n d i v i d u a l t o c h a n g e a c o n c e p t o f any k i n d , he must o r d i n a r i l y be a f f o r d e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o e x a m i n e a n d r e e x a m i n e a l l a v a i l a b l e e v i d e n c e t h a t i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e c o n c e p t " ( p . 6 1 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Raimy ( 1 9 7 5 ) , t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s t a s k i n c o u n s e l l i n g i s t o p r e s e n t e v i d e n c e t o o n e ' s c l i e n t s i n o r d e r t o b r i n g a b o u t c h a n g e s i n t h e i r m i s c o n c e p t i o n s . Raimy p r o p o s e d t h a t i n s u c c e s s f u l t r e a t m e n t , t h e r e c a n be a s many a s f o u r g e n e r a l m ethods f o r c h a n g i n g m i s c o n c e p t i o n s . T h e s e f o u r m e t h o d s a r e : s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n ; e x p l a n a t i o n ; s e l f - d e m o n s t r a t i o n ; a n d v i c a r i a t i o n o r m o d e l i n g . The more s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s ( e . g . f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n , dream i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , empty c h a i r , a n d p s y c h o d r a m a ) o f t h e v a r i o u s t h e r a p i e s a r e v a r i a t i o n s upon o r c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e f o u r g e n e r a l m e t h o d s . Some o f t h e s e m e t h o d s a r e t y p i c a l l y e m p l o y e d i n c e r t a i n t h e o r e t i c a l a p p r o a c h e s b u t some c o u n s e l l o r s u s e a l l f o u r . 11 I n t h e u s e o f s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n , t h e c o u n s e l l o r e n c o u r a g e s t h e c l i e n t t o t a l k a nd t h i n k a b o u t h i m s e l f o r h e r s e l f a n d h i s o r h e r p r o b l e m s . The c o u n s e l l o r a s s umes t h a t t h e c l i e n t c a n l o c a t e h i s o r h e r m i s c o n c e p t i o n s a n d f i n d more a d e q u a t e e v i d e n c e w h i c h w i l l m o d i f y o r e l i m i n a t e them. The c o u n s e l l o r d o e s n o t d i r e c t l y p r o v i d e t h e c l i e n t w i t h e v i d e n c e o r i n f o r m a t i o n ; r a t h e r h i s o r h e r r o l e i s t o p r o v i d e e n c o u r a g e m e n t a n d t o s t r u c t u r e t h e c o u n s e l l i n g s i t u a t i o n so t h e c l i e n t may d i s c o v e r m i s c o n c e p t i o n s f o r h i m s e l f o r h e r s e l f . E x p l a n a t i o n , t h e s e c o n d s t r a t e g y , i s p r o b a b l y t h e most w i d e l y u s e d p r o c e d u r e f o r p r e s e n t i n g e v i d e n c e i n c o u n s e l l i n g , a c c o r d i n g t o Raimy ( 1 9 7 5 ) . When u s i n g e x p l a n a t i o n , t h e c o u n s e l l o r p r o v i d e s t h e c l i e n t w i t h v e r b a l e v i d e n c e i n t e n d e d t o c h a n g e t h e p a r t i c u l a r m i s c o n c e p t i o n . T h e r e a r e a number o f ways i n w h i c h a c o u n s e l l o r e m p l o y s e x p l a n a t i o n . I n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and c o n f r o n t a t i o n , t h e c o u n s e l l o r p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h t h e c l i e n t s u p p o s e d l y d o e s n o t h a v e , o r w h i c h he o r she d o e s n o t r e c o g n i z e a s r e l e v a n t . I n r e f l e c t i n g c l i e n t ' s f e e l i n g s , t h e c o u n s e l l o r a t t e m p t s t o r e s t a t e t h e p e r s o n a l m e a n i n g o r s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e c l i e n t ' s u t t e r a n c e s . I n t h e u s e o f q u e s t i o n i n g , t h e c o u n s e l l o r c a l l s t h e c l i e n t ' s a t t e n t i o n t o e v i d e n c e w h i c h he o r she h a s i g n o r e d o r d o e s n o t r e c o g n i z e . The t h i r d method t h a t Raimy ( 1 9 7 5 ) d i s c u s s e d f o r c h a n g i n g m i s c o n c e p t i o n s i s s e l f - d e m o n s t r a t i o n . T h i s i s a p r o c e d u r e 12 w h e r e b y t h e c l i e n t i s m a n o e u v e r e d i n t o a s i t u a t i o n , e i t h e r r e a l o r i m a g i n e d , i n w h i c h he o r she c a n o b s e r v e f o r h i m s e l f o r h e r s e l f t h a t a m i s c o n c e p t i o n e x i s t s . The u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t t h i s new a w a r e n e s s o f t h e m i s c o n c e p t i o n w i l l e n a b l e t h e c l i e n t t o c h a n g e i t . T h e r e a r e a number o f ways d i f f e r e n t t h e r a p i e s u t i l i z e s e l f - d e m o n s t r a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , i n g e s t a l t t h e r a p y , c l i e n t s a r e a s k e d t o p l a y d i f f e r e n t r o l e s ; i n b e h a v i o u r t h e r a p y , s y s t e m a t i c d e s e n s i t i z a t i o n i s u s e d ; a n d i n p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , p s y c h o d r a m a c a n be u s e d . The f o u r t h g e n e r a l method o f c h a n g i n g m i s c o n c e p t i o n s t h a t Raimy ( 1 9 7 5 ) d i s c u s s e d i s v i c a r i a t i o n o r m o d e l i n g . I n m o d e l i n g , t h e c l i e n t o b s e r v e s one o r more m o d e l s p e r f o r m i n g a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h he o r she b e l i e v e s he o r she i s i n c a p a b l e o f p e r f o r m i n g o r w h i c h he o r she r e g a r d s a s t o o d a n g e r o u s . Raimy s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e many v a r i a t i o n s o f t h i s b a s i c p r o c e d u r e , b u t i n e a c h v a r i a t i o n t h e g o a l i s f o r t h e c l i e n t t o l e a r n f i r s t t h a t he o r she c a n p e r f o r m a p r e v i o u s l y a v o i d e d a c t i v i t y i n h i s o r h e r i m a g i n a t i o n w i t h o u t b e c o m i n g o v e r w h e l m e d by f e a r . T h i s e n a b l e s t h e c l i e n t t o c h a n g e t h e m i s c o n c e p t i o n r e g a r d i n g h i s o r h e r a b i l i t i e s . The c l i e n t i s t h e n e n c o u r a g e d t o a t t e m p t t h e a v o i d e d a c t i v i t y i n r e a l i t y r a t h e r t h a n j u s t i n i m a g i n a t i o n . I n summary, Raimy ( 1 9 7 5 ) p o s t u l a t e d t h e m i s c o n c e p t i o n h y p o t h e s e s a s an i n t e g r a t i v e c o n c e p t f o r c o u n s e l l i n g . T h i s 13 c o r e p r i n c i p l e o r s t r a t e g y o f c h a n g e i s f o u n d w i t h i n most t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . T h i s c o n c e p t , w h i c h o p e r a t e s a t t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n , i s drawn f r o m an e x a m i n a t i o n o f c l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s among d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , a n d t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l l o r a n d c l i e n t r o l e s . One a r e a Raimy d i d n o t e x a m i n e was t h e c o u n s e l l o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e i r i m p a c t on t h e c o u n s e l l o r - c l i e n t s y s t e m . T h i s i s t h e a r e a e x p l o r e d by B o r d i n ( 1 9 7 6 ) . B o r d i n ( 1 9 7 6 ) a r g u e d t h a t v a r i o u s m o d e l s o f c o u n s e l l i n g c a n be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t e r m s o f t h e k i n d s o f w o r k i n g a l l i a n c e s embedded i n them. He d e f i n e d t h o s e e s s e n t i a l c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e t h e r a p e u t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , t h a t r e l a t e d t o s u c c e s s f u l p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c r e s u l t s . T h e s e c o m p o n e n t s a r e t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e w o r k i n g a l l i a n c e b e t w e e n t h e c o u n s e l l o r a n d t h e c l i e n t . The t e r m s o f t h e t h e r a p e u t i c w o r k i n g a l l i a n c e h a v e t h e i r o r i g i n i n p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y , b u t B o r d i n ( 1 9 7 6 ) c o n t e n d e d t h a t t h e y c a n be s t a t e d i n f o r m s g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o a l l t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l s o f c o u n s e l l i n g . He p r o p o s e d , " . . . t h a t t h e w o r k i n g a l l i a n c e b e t w e e n t h e p e r s o n who s e e k s c h a n g e and t h e one who o f f e r s t o be a c h a n g e a g e n t i s one o f t h e k e y s , i f n o t t h e k e y , t o t h e c h a n g e p r o c e s s " ( 1 9 7 9 , p . 2 5 2 ) . The w o r k i n g a l l i a n c e i s b a s e d on s p e c i f i c q u a l i t i e s o f t h e 14 r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c o u n s e l l o r a n d c l i e n t a n d i s made up o f t h r e e c o m p o n e n t s : — G o a l s — a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n c o u n s e l l o r a n d c l i e n t on t h e g o a l s o f t h e c o u n s e l l i n g — T a s k s — s h a r e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l e v a n c e o f t h e t a s k s u n d e r t a k e n i n c o u n s e l l i n g — B o n d s — a warm bond b e t w e e n c o u n s e l l o r a n d c l i e n t A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s p r a c t i c a l m o d e l , t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e s e t h r e e e l e m e n t s i s a common e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r i n a l l f o r m s o f e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g . The s t r e n g t h , r a t h e r t h a n t h e k i n d o f w o r k i n g a l l i a n c e , i s t h e m a j o r f a c t o r i n c h a n g e a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h c o u n s e l l i n g . I n d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e g o a l c o m p o n e n t , B o r d i n ( 1 9 7 6 ) a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t a l t h o u g h v a r y i n g t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s d i f f e r i n t h e i r g o a l s , a l l t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s a g r e e t h a t c o n v e r g e n c e o f g o a l s b e t w e e n t h e c o u n s e l l o r a n d c l i e n t i s i m p o r t a n t . F o r e x a m p l e i n p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t r e a t m e n t i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e c l i e n t be open t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g h i s o r h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s a s a f u n c t i o n , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , o f h i s o r h e r e a r l y c h i l d h o o d and i s w i l l i n g t o work on c h a n g i n g h i m s e l f o r h e r s e l f . H o wever, i f he o r she i s c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e s o u r c e o f h i s o r h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s i s e x t e r n a l t o h i m s e l f o r h e r s e l f ( e . g . s t r a i n e d e c o n o m i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s ) , he o r she c o u l d n o t be c o n c e r n e d w i t h a g o a l w h i c h c o n c e n t r a t e d on c h a n g i n g h i m s e l f o r h e r s e l f . S h o u l d t h i s same c l i e n t e n t e r t r e a t m e n t w i t h a 15 b e h a v i o u r a l c o u n s e l l o r , t h e c o u n s e l l o r a n d c l i e n t m i g h t f i n d a g r e e m e n t on g o a l s t o c h a n g e s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . B o r d i n ( 1 9 7 6 ) p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e t a s k component o f t h e w o r k i n g a l l i a n c e i s a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n a l o n g w h i c h t o s e e k s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . I n h i s d i s c u s s i o n , B o r d i n ( 1 9 7 6 ) e n c o m p a s s e d b o t h c o u n s e l l o r a n d c l i e n t t a s k s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e c l i e n t t a s k s w i t h i n t h e b e h a v i o u r a l m o d e l may i n c l u d e o b s e r v i n g a n d t a b u l a t i n g t h e f r e q u e n c y a n d c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d i n g a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n ( w h e r e a s i n p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , t h e c l i e n t i s a s s i g n e d t h e t a s k o f f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n ) . S i m i l a r l y , c o u n s e l l o r t a s k s m i g h t i n c l u d e b e i n g d i r e c t i v e , p a s s i v e , e m p a t h i c , i n t e r p r e t a t i v e , a n d / o r s e l f - d i s c l o s i n g . The t h i r d component o f t h e w o r k i n g a l l i a n c e i n v o l v e s t h e bon d s b e t w e e n t h e c o u n s e l l o r a n d c l i e n t . A l t h o u g h t h e t y p e o f bon d s v a r i e s , B o r d i n ( 1 9 7 6 ) f o u n d e v i d e n c e o f a g r e e m e n t on t h i s c o n c e p t t h r o u g h o u t v a r y i n g o r i e n t a t i o n s . One bond t h a t seemed u n i v e r s a l t o a l l o r i e n t a t i o n s i s t h a t o f t r u s t b e t w e e n c o u n s e l l o r a n d c l i e n t . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t no m a t t e r how t h e b o n d s a r e v i e w e d , u n i t y o f t h o u g h t on t h i s key component was e v i d e n t . I n summary, B o r d i n ( 1 9 7 6 ) p o s t u l a t e d t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e w o r k i n g a l l i a n c e a s a p r a c t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l . T h i s c o r e p r i n c i p l e o r s t r a t e g y o f c h a n g e i s c o m p r i s e d o f t h r e e 16 c o m p o n e n t s ; g o a l s , t a s k s , a n d b o n d s , a n d a r e a l l i n t e r r e l a t e d a n d emanate f r o m t h e p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . B o r d i n s u m m a r i z e s h i s work i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: A l l g e n r e s o f c o u n s e l l i n g h a v e embedded w o r k i n g a l l i a n c e s a n d c a n be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d most m e a n i n g f u l l y i n t e r m s o f t h e k i n d o f w o r k i n g a l l i a n c e e a c h r e q u i r e s . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a t h e r a p y i s a f u n c t i o n i n p a r t , i f n o t e n t i r e l y , o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e w o r k i n g a l l i a n c e . D i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s t o c o u n s e l l i n g a r e m a r k e d by t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e demands t h e y make on c l i e n t a n d c o u n s e l l o r . The s t r e n g t h o f t h e w o r k i n g a l l i a n c e i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e c l o s e n e s s o f t h e f i t b e t w e e n t h e demands o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f w o r k i n g a l l i a n c e a n d t h e p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c l i e n t a n d c o u n s e l l o r . ( 1 9 7 6 , p. 252) I v e y ( 1 9 7 1 , 1978, 1980) was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s e a r c h f o r c o n n e c t i o n s a n d u n d e r l y i n g u n i t y w i t h i n and among d i f f e r i n g t h e o r i e s o f c o u n s e l l i n g . He d e v e l o p e d a p r a c t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l w h i c h o p e r a t e s a t t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n t o a d d r e s s t h i s c o n c e r n , s e e k i n g a r e a s o n e d a p p r o a c h t o s e l e c t i n g p a r t s o f d i f f e r e n t t h e o r i e s . He e x a m i n e d t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r - c l i e n t i n t e r a c t i o n a n d s u g g e s t e d t h a t w i t h i n a l l t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , c o u n s e l l o r s u t i l i z e a d e c i s i o n a l / p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r o c e s s , u s e c e r t a i n b a s i c s k i l l s , a n d m a n i f e s t c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The number o f c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l s b a s e d upon t h e p a r a d i g m o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g h a v e p r o l i f e r a t e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s . See A n t h o n y ( 1 9 7 9 ) , Brammer ( 1 9 7 3 ) , C a r k h u f f ( 1 9 7 3 ) , Combs ( 1 9 7 8 ) , D a n i s h . & H a u e r ( 1 9 7 3 ) , G azda ( 1 9 7 3 ) , Goodman ( 1 9 7 2 ) , G u e r n e y ( 1 9 7 7 ) , I v e y a n d A u t h i e r ( 1 9 7 8 ) , Kagan ( 1 9 7 5 ) , S c h u l m a n 1 7 ( 1 9 7 4 ) , a n d P a t t e r s o n ( 1 9 7 3 ) . I v e y ( 1 9 8 0) a l s o a s s i g n e d i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s k n o w l e d g e o f d e c i s i o n a l / p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s b a s e d on h i s b e l i e f t h a t a l l c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v i e w s r e f l e c t t h e t h r e e s t a g e s o f a g e n e r i c p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r o c e s s . The f i r s t s t a g e I v e y ( 1 9 8 0 ) d i s c u s s e d i s p r o b l e m d e f i n i t i o n . T h i s i n c l u d e s n o t o n l y t h e c l i e n t ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m , b u t a l s o a l t e r n a t i v e d e f i n i t i o n s o f i t . Work t h e n b e g i n s i n o r d e r t o a r r i v e a t t h e most s u i t a b l e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m . H a v i n g i d e n t i f i e d a n d a g r e e d upon a s u i t a b l e p r o b l e m d e f i n i t i o n , t h e c o u n s e l l o r moves t h e c l i e n t t o t h e n e x t p h a s e o f t h e work. The t a s k o f s t a g e t w o , t h e work p h a s e , i s t o e x a m i n e t h e p r o b l e m ( s ) i n more d e p t h a n d t o g e n e r a t e an a r r a y o f a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s . W i t h i n I v e y ' s ( 1 9 8 0) p a r a d i g m , any one c o u n s e l l o r d o e s n o t s u b s c r i b e t o any one p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . He o r she i n s t e a d d r a w s f r o m a v a r i e t y o f o r i e n t a t i o n s b a s e d on t h e t a s k s a t h a n d . H e n c e , I v e y p r o p o s e d t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s n e e d t o be e c l e c t i c . The c o u n s e l l o r ' s f i r s t t a s k i n s t a g e two work i s t o s e l e c t an a p p r o p r i a t e t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n f r o m t h o s e w i t h w h i c h he o r she i s f a m i l i a r , a n d i t s e n s u i n g t e c h n i q u e s and s k i l l s . N e x t , t h e c o u n s e l l o r and c l i e n t e x a m i n e t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m a n d g e n e r a t e new ways o f l o o k i n g a t i s s u e s , p o t e n t i a l a n s w e r s , a n d s o l u t i o n s i n l i g h t o f t h e 18 c h o s e n t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . The t h i r d s t a g e , t h e d e c i s i o n f o r a c t i o n , i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h e x a m i n i n g t h e a r r a y o f p o t e n t i a l s o l u t i o n s a n d r e f l e c t i n g on t h e a d v a n t a g e s a n d d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f e a c h . The c l i e n t t h e n d e c i d e s on w h i c h s o l u t i o n s a r e most a p p r o p r i a t e , t e s t s t h e s e s o l u t i o n s i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e e n v i r o n m e n t , and e v a l u a t e s t h e s e w i t h t h e c o u n s e l l o r . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t I v e y ( 1 9 8 0) r e c o g n i z e d t h e t h r e e s t a g e s a s ways o f d e s c r i b i n g t h e c o u n s e l l i n g w o r k , b u t d i d n o t assume t h a t t h e y must a p p e a r i n s e q u e n c e o r a t o n l y one p o i n t i n t i m e i n an i n t e r v i e w . I n summary, t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a s p e c t o f t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e c o u n s e l l o r f i r s t l i s t e n s t o t h e c l i e n t a n d p i c t u r e s h i s o r h e r w o r l d c l e a r l y a n d p r e c i s e l y a s i t i s c o n s c i o u s l y p r e s e n t e d . B a s e d on t h e c l i e n t ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e c o u n s e l l o r c a n t h e n : g e n e r a t e a l t e r n a t i v e d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e p r o b l e m p r e s e n t e d ; g e n e r a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s t o t h e p r o b l e m ; h e l p t h e c l i e n t d e c i d e on a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n ; a n d g e n e r a t e a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e p r o p o s e d a c t i o n ' s p o s s i b l e r e s u l t s . What t h e c o u n s e l l o r b r i n g s t o t h i s p r o c e s s i s h i s o r h e r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s k i l l s , q u a l i t i e s , d i m e n s i o n s , and t h e o r i e s o f h e l p i n g ( I v e y , 1 9 8 0 ) . T h u s , t h e c l i e n t e n t e r s t r e a t m e n t e x p e r i e n c i n g some d e g r e e o f d e c i s i o n a l c o n f l i c t , i n w h i c h h i s o r h e r b e h a v i o u r s , t h o u g h t s , a n d / o r f e e l i n g s a r e b l o c k e d . He o r she r e q u i r e s a s s i s t a n c e t o b r o a d e n p e r s p e c t i v e s , t o d e v e l o p 19 new b e h a v i o u r s , a n d t o c h o o s e f u l f i l l i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s . T h i s becomes t h e g o a l o f t h e work i n w h i c h c o u n s e l l o r a n d c l i e n t e n g a g e . I v e y ( 1 9 8 0 ) a l s o e x p l o r e d t h e b a s i c s k i l l s c o u n s e l l o r s u s e i n t r e a t m e n t . The p r o c e s s o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a nd s e l e c t i o n o f s p e c i f i c s k i l l s o f c o u n s e l l i n g i s t e r m e d t h e m i c r o s k i l l s a p p r o a c h w h i c h d e l i n e a t e s t h e c o m p l e x i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v i e w . I t p r o v i d e s a f o r m a t a n d s k i l l i n v e n t o r y f o r t r a i n i n g a n d a l s o p r o v i d e s a c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k f o r e x a m i n i n g t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . As a t r a i n i n g f r a m e w o r k , t h i s a p p r o a c h i s c e n t r a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h i d e n t i f y i n g t h e c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n , a n d w i t h c r e a t i n g a s y s t e m a t i c method o f t e a c h i n g e a c h c o m p o n e n t . As a c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k i t p r o v i d e s an o v e r v i e w o f what t r a n s p i r e s b e t w e e n a c o u n s e l l o r and a c l i e n t . I t p r o v i d e s a s y s t e m a t i c f o r m a t f o r e x a m i n i n g t h e c o m m o n a l i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s o f a l t e r n a t i v e t h e o r i e s o f c o u n s e l l i n g . I v e y ( 1 9 8 0 ) d i v i d e d m i c r o s k i l l s i n t o a t t e n d i n g a n d i n f l u e n c i n g b e h a v i o u r s . A t t e n d i n g b e h a v i o u r s e n compass b o t h "a way o f b e i n g " f o r t h e c o u n s e l l o r and h i s o r h e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s . "A way o f b e i n g " i n c l u d e s t h e t h r e e c e n t r a l c o u n s e l l o r b e h a v i o u r s o f e y e c o n t a c t , a p p r o p r i a t e body l a n g u a g e , a n d v e r b a l u t t e r a n c e s . I v e y f o u n d t h e s e t h r e e a t t e n d i n g b e h a v i o u r s i n a l l t h e o r e t i c a l a p p r o a c h e s he 20 e x a m i n e d . H o w e v e r , c o u n s e l l o r s d i f f e r e d i n what t h e y a t t e n d t o o r r e i n f o r c e i n t h e c l i e n t ' s b e h a v i o u r . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e s t e m s i n t h e d i f f e r i n g t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s a d h e r e d t o . S i m i l a r l y , t h e b a s i c c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s i n v o l v e d i n a t t e n d i n g b e h a v i o u r a r e common t o a l l h e l p i n g m o d e l s . They i n c l u d e : c l o s e d / o p e n q u e s t i o n s , m i n i m a l e n c o u r a g e r s , p a r a p h r a s e s , r e f l e c t i o n o f f e e l i n g s , a n d s u m m a r i z a t i o n s . The c o u n s e l l o r c o m m u n i c a t e s t o t h e c l i e n t an e m p a t h i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g by s k i l l f u l l y a t t e n d i n g . T h i s i n i t s e l f may be s u f f i c i e n t t o e n c o u r a g e p o s i t i v e c l i e n t g r o w t h ( I v e y , 1 9 8 0 ) . H o w e v e r , t h i s p r o c e s s may be s l o w a n d t e d i o u s . I t i s a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t t h e c o u n s e l l o r m i g h t move t o more a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e s e s s i o n a n d engage i n more a c t i v e i n f l u e n c i n g o f t h e c h a n g e p r o c e s s . L i k e h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f a t t e n d i n g , I v e y ( 1 9 8 0) d e s c r i b e d i n f l u e n c i n g b e h a v i o u r s a s b a s i c c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s . They i n c l u d e d i r e c t i o n s , e x p r e s s i n g c o n t e n t , e x p r e s s i n g f e e l i n g , i n f l u e n c i n g summary, i n t e r p r e t i n g , s e l f - d i s c o l o s i n g , a n d d i r e c t - m u t u a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , a l t h o u g h t h e r e were v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n a s f u n c t i o n o f t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , I v e y ( 1 9 8 0 ) f o u n d t h e s e m i c r o s k i l l s b a s i c t o a l l . T h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s d i f f e r e d n o t o n l y a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h s k i l l s were u s e d b u t a l s o t h e d e g r e e o f i m p o r t a n c e a s s i g n e d t o a n y one p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l ( s e e I v e y 1978, pp. 3 2 3 - 3 7 6 ) . 21 I n t h e same way t h a t I v e y ( 1 9 8 0 ) s u g g e s t e d a l l t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s u t i l i z e a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g c omponent an d h a v e a m i c r o s k i l l c o m p o n e n t , he a l s o s t a t e d t h a t w i t h i n a l l o r i e n t a t i o n s t h e r e i s a common t h r e a d he c a l l e d e m p a t h y . I v e y d e l i n e a t e d two l e v e l s o f c o u n s e l l o r empathy: p r i m a r y a n d a d d i t i v e e m p a t h y . Whereas t h e f o r m e r p r i m a r i l y e n c o m p a s s e s a t t e n d i n g b e h a v i o u r a n d s k i l l s , t h e l a t t e r a l s o e n c o m p a s s e s i n f l u e n c i n g b e h a v i o u r a n d s k i l l s . T h u s , I v e y ' s d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c o n c e p t o f empathy i n t e g r a t e s w i t h i n i t h i s c o n c e p t o f m i c r o s k i l l s . I v e y ' s ( 1 9 80) d i s c u s s i o n o f empathy f o c u s e d on i t s s u b c o m p o n e n t s w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t e d a s c r i t i c a l f o r e f f e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g i n t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s r o l e . W h i c h p a r t i c u l a r s u b c o m p o n e n t s a c o u n s e l l o r s t r e s s e s i s r e f l e c t i v e o f h i s o r h e r p a r t i c u l a r o r i e n t a t i o n . T h e s e s u b c o m p o n e n t s i n f l u e n c e t h e q u a l i t y o f c o u n s e l l i n g o u t c o m e s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n : — p o s i t i v e r e g a r d , r e s p e c t , w a r m t h — t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s b e l i e f i n t h e c l i e n t ' s a s s e t s a n d s t r e n g t h s , a n d h i s o r h e r b e l i e f t h a t one c a n make a p o s i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e c l i e n t ' s l i f e — c o n c r e t e n e s s — a s k i n g c l i e n t s f o r s p e c i f i c e x a m p l e s o f e v e n t s i n t h e i r l i v e s — i m m e d i a c y — t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s f o c u s on e i t h e r p a s t , p r e s e n t o r f u t u r e 22 — c o n f r o n t a t i o n — t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s p o i n t i n g o u t o f d i s c r e p a n c i e s b e t w e e n o r among t h e c l i e n t ' s a t t i t u d e s , t h o u g h t s , o r b e h a v i o u r s — c o n g r u e n c e o r g e n u i n e n e s s — t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s s e l f a w a r e n e s s , k n o w l e d g e , and d e c i s i o n t o d i s c l o s e t o t h e c l i e n t I t must be s t r e s s e d a g a i n , t h a t n o t a l l s u b c o m p o n e n t s a r e p r e v a l e n t i n a l l o r i e n t a t i o n s . R a t h e r , a b s e n c e o r d e g r e e o f p r e s e n c e o f a p a r t i c u l a r s u b c o m p o n e n t w i t h i n t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s t h e r a p y s t y l e i s l a r g e l y r e l a t e d t o h i s o r h e r p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . I n summary, I v e y ( 1 9 8 0) a n a l y z e d t h e c o u n s e l l o r - c l i e n t i n t e r a c t i o n . He i d e n t i f i e d c o r e s t r a t e g i e s o f c h a n g e a l o n g w h i c h d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s s h a r e c o m m o n a l i t i e s . The f i r s t d i m e n s i o n I v e y d i s c u s s e d was t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e d e c i s i o n a l / p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r o c e s s . He p o s i t e d t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e s t a g e s o f a c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v i e w r e s e m b l e t h o s e i n a b a s i c d e c i s i o n a l / p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r o c e s s . He i d e n t i f i e d t h o s e s t a g e s a n d s p o k e t o t h e p a r a l l e l s t h e r e i n . The s e c o n d d i m e n s i o n I v e y p r o p o s e d was t h a t o f m i c r o s k i l l c o m p o n e n t s w i t h i n a l l t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . He d e l i n e a t e d t h e r a n g e o f m i c r o s k i l l s a n d s u g g e s t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h a l l s k i l l s a r e n o t f o u n d w i t h i n a l l c o u n s e l l i n g o r i e n t a t i o n s , a l l o r i e n t a t i o n s do have m i c r o s k i l l c o m p o n e n t s t h a t a r e i d e n t i f i a b l e a n d t e a c h a b l e . The t h i r d d i m e n s i o n I v e y e x p l o r e d 23 was t h e p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d ' s k i l l s o f empathy t h a t t h e c o u n s e l l o r b r i n g s w i t h h i m o r h e r i n t o a l l c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v i e w s . A g a i n , I v e y s t r e s s e d t h a t a l t h o u g h n o t a l l o r i e n t a t i o n s s t r e s s t h e same c o m p o n e n t s o f e m p a t h y , empathy i s c o r e t o a l l o f them. B a s e d on I v e y ' s ( 1 9 80) p r a c t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l , Egan ( 1 9 8 2 ) w r o t e b o t h a t h e o r e t i c a l t e x t b o o k and an a c c o m p a n y i n g s t u d e n t t r a i n i n g m a n u a l f o r c o u n s e l l o r s . E g a n ' s c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l i s a problem-management m o d e l , b a s e d on l e a r n i n g and s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e t h e o r y . I t d e s c r i b e s t h e p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g b o t h t h e m a i n t e n a n c e a n d c h a n g e o f b e h a v i o u r . H i s m o d e l i s s y s t e m a t i c and i n t e g r a t i v e (Brammer & S h o s t r o m , 1977) . Egan ( 1 9 8 2 ) p o s i t e d a t h r e e s t a g e p r a c t i c a l m o d e l o f c o u n s e l l i n g w h i c h o p e r a t e s a t t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n . F o r e a c h s t a g e , he i d e n t i f i e d : g o a l s , t a s k s , a n d c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s . E g a n ' s e m p h a s i s i s on c o u n s e l l o r s k i l l s a n d on t h e ways t h e y a r e u s e d i n t h e s t a g e s o f t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s . The g o a l o f t h e f i r s t s t a g e i s i n i t i a l c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m s i t u a t i o n . The two t a s k s w h i c h n e e d t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d i n t h i s s t a g e a r e ; a s s e s s m e n t a n d p r o b l e m i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , a nd i n i t i a l p r o b l e m e x p l o r a t i o n . The c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s n e e d e d t o a c h i e v e t h i s g o a l a r e a t t e n d i n g a n d a c t i v e l i s t e n i n g . B o t h o f t h e s e s k i l l s a r e 24 i n c l u d e d i n E g a n ' s (1982) d i s c u s s i o n o f p r i m a r y e mpathy. Egan u n d e r l i n e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f l i s t e n i n g t o b o t h t h e v e r b a l a n d n o n v e r b a l m e s s a g e s o f t h e c l i e n t . He s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s r o l e i s t o s e e k u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c l i e n t ' s e x p e r i e n c e a n d t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o t h e c l i e n t . Thus t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e c o u n s e l l o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e c l i e n t s h o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c o u n s e l l o r h a s l i s t e n e d c a r e f u l l y t o b o t h t h e v e r b a l a n d n o n - v e r b a l m e s s a g e s . I n t h e f i r s t s t a g e , t h e p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s upon w h i c h t h e c o u n s e l l o r d r a w s a r e r e s p e c t f o r t h e c l i e n t b y : w o r k i n g h a r d w i t h h i m o r h e r ; m a i n t a i n i n g c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y ; r e f r a i n i n g f r o m m a n i p u l a t i o n ; a n d a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h e c l i e n t ' s v a l u e s . Egan (1982) n o t e s t h a t i t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e c o u n s e l l o r t o r e s p e c t t h e c l i e n t ' s v a l u e s e v e n when t h e y d i f f e r f r o m t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s own. I n t h e s e c o n d s t a g e o f t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s , Egan ( 1 9 8 2 ) d e s c r i b e d t h e g o a l a s s e t t i n g g o a l s . The two t a s k s t h a t n e e d t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d i n o r d e r t o meet t h i s g o a l a r e c h a l l e n g i n g c l i e n t s t o d e v e l o p new p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e p r o b l e m s i t u a t i o n a n d s e t t i n g g o a l s . Egan s t r e s s e d t h a t g o a l s a r e s e t w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r a n d c l i e n t ' s d y n a m i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r e s e n t i n g p r o b l e m . The p r i n c i p a l s k i l l s i n t h i s s t a g e a r e t h o s e w h i c h t h e c o u n s e l l o r u s e s t o h e l p c l i e n t s move f r o m d e c l a r a t i o n s o f i n t e n t t o w a r d s c o n c r e t e , s p e c i f i c , a n d m e a s u r a b l e g o a l s . The 25 c o u n s e l l o r l e a r n s t o c h a l l e n g e t h e c l i e n t t o d e v e l o p new a n d p e r h a p s more o b j e c t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e s o r p o i n t s o f v i e w on t h e p r o b l e m s i t u a t i o n . Egan (1982) d e l i n e a t e d t h e s u b c o m p o n e n t s o f c h a l l e n g i n g a s : s u m m a r i z i n g , i n f o r m a t i o n g i v i n g , a d v a n c e d a c c u r a t e e m p a t h y , h e l p e r s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e , c o n f r o n t a t i o n , a n d i m m e d i a c y . Egan ( 1 9 8 2 ) d e f i n e d a d v a n c e d a c c u r a t e empathy a s t h e c o u n s e l l o r g i v i n g more o f s e l f a n d d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c i n g t h e c l i e n t . The s k i l l s i n v o l v e d i n i n f l u e n c i n g i n c l u d e s e l f - d i s c l o s i n g , d i r e c t i n g , a n d i n t e r p r e t i n g . L i k e I v e y ( 1 9 8 0 ) , Egan v i e w s t h e u s e o f a d v a n c e d a c c u r a t e empathy a s a u s e f u l s k i l l i n m o v i n g t h e c l i e n t more r a p i d l y t h r o u g h t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s . A c c o r d i n g t o Egan ( 1 9 8 2 ) , t h e g o a l o f t h e t h i r d s t a g e i s a c t i o n . The t a s k s t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d i n t h i s s t a g e a r e : d i s c o v e r i n g p r o g r a m p o s s i b i l i t i e s ; c h o o s i n g b e s t - f i t p r o g r a m s ; i m p l e m e n t i n g p r o g r a m s ; a n d e v a l u a t i n g t h e h e l p i n g p r o c e s s . The s k i l l s t h e c o u n s e l l o r d r a w s upon i n t h i s s t a g e a r e t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f o r c e - f i e l d a n a l y s i s i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s u c h a s b r a i n s t o r m i n g , s o r t i n g , and w e i g h i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s . T h e s e a r e t h e n f o l l o w e d by s e l e c t i o n o f an a c t i o n p l a n . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t E g a n ' s (1982) c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l p r o p o s e d a d e v e l o p m e n t a l a n d o r d e r e d s e q u e n c e . The c o u n s e l l o r d o e s n o t l e a d i n t o S t a g e 2 work u n t i l t h e g o a l s a n d t a s k s o f S t a g e 1 have been met. The d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e c o u n s e l l o r a n d 26 c l i e n t agree on the problem d e f i n i t i o n d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e s the success of Stage 2 work. S i m i l a r l y , both Stage 1 and Stage 2 work must be completed before Stage 3 goals can be addressed. The p o t e n t i a l f o r success i n Stage 3 i s co n t i n g e n t upon meeting the goals of the p r e v i o u s two stages. As new i n f o r m a t i o n i s rev e a l e d , the c o u n s e l l o r can r e f l e c t the process back to Stage 1. Hence, where necessary, the process can move from Stage 3 to Stage 1, however i n moving on again, the process must evolve from Stage 1 to Stage 2 to Stage 3. In summary, w i t h i n Egan's (1982) p r a c t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g model, one f i n d s an overview of the c o u n s e l l i n g process, d e l i n e a t i o n of the stages of c o u n s e l l i n g and an e x p l a n a t i o n of the c o u n s e l l o r ' s goals and t a s k s . Egan's emphasis i s on c o u n s e l l o r s k i l l s and on the ways they are used i n the stages of the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s . He presented a conceptual framework f o r l e a r n i n g h i s p r a c t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g model as e x e m p l i f i e d i n h i s t r a i n i n g model. Due to the convenience and the terminology, Egan's p r a c t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g model was used i n the present r e s e a r c h . In s t u d y i n g the i d e a l t h e r a p e u t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p , F i e d l e r (1950a, 1950b, 1951) found that experienced c o u n s e l l o r s , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , were more s i m i l a r to each other than they were to in e x p e r i e n c e d c o u n s e l l o r s of t h e i r own o r i e n t a t i o n . F i e d l e r used a 75 statement Q-sort which was d e s c r i p t i v e of the " i d e a l t h e r a p e u t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p . " 27 He concluded that expert counsellors of any t h e o r e t i c a l orientation create a relationship more closely approximating the "ideal therapeutic relationship" than relationships created by nonexperts. The most important dimension which d i f f e r e n t i a t e d experts from nonexperts was related to the counsellors' a b i l i t y to understand, to communicate with, and to maintain rapport with the c l i e n t . Because the therapeutic r e l a t i o n s h i p created by experts of one orientation resembled more clos e l y that created by experts of other orientations than i t resembled relationships created by nonexperts within the same orientations, Fiedler concluded that the nature of the therapeutic relationship was a function of the expertness of the counsellor rather than his or her theoretical orientation or therapeutic technique. These studies are important for the present investigation in two ways. F i r s t , they provide dir e c t empirical support for the exploration of one commonality found within d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l orientations. Second, the u t i l i z a t i o n of the Q-technique which Fiedler employed serves as a paradigm for the present investigation. Stephenson (1953) pioneered the use of the Q-methodology, or Q-technique. He stated that the "Q-technique provides a systematic way to order a person's retrospection, his r e f l e c t i o n s about himself and others, his introjections and projections, and much else of an apparent subjective nature" 28 ( p . 8 6 ) . The Q - s o r t , a d a t a c o l l e c t i n g p r o c e d u r e i n Q - t e c h n i q u e , i s a f o r m o f r a n k o r d e r i n g s t i m u l i ( B l o c k , 1961) a n d i s an i p s a t i v e m e a s u r e m e n t . As Brown ( 1 9 8 0 ) s t a t e d , " f u n d a m e n t a l l y , t h e Q - s o r t t e c h n i q u e i s a m o d i f i e d r a n k - o r d e r i n g p r o c e d u r e i n w h i c h s t i m u l i a r e p l a c e d i n an o r d e r t h a t i s s i g n i f i c a n t f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f a p e r s o n o p e r a t i n g u n d e r s p e c i f i e d c o n d i t i o n s " ( p . 1 9 5 ) . The number o f t i e s a r e s p e c i f i e d f o r e a c h r a n k a n d t h e means a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s a r e t h e same f o r a l l i n d i v i d u a l s (Brown & B r e n n e r , 1 9 7 2 ) . Q - t e c h n i q u e i s u s e d when t h e e m p h a s i s i s on t h e measurement o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l s . I n Q - s o r t i n g , " t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h i n n u m e r a b l e s t a t e m e n t s o f o p i n i o n — o r i g i n a l l y c a l l e d a ' t r a i t u n i v e r s e ' ( S t e p h e n s o n , 1 9 5 0 ) , more r e c e n t l y , a ' c o n c o u r s e ' ( S t e p h e n s o n , 1 9 7 8 ) — a l l r e l a t e d t o a s i n g l e t o p i c " ( B r o w n , 1980, p. 1 8 6 ) . " I n . . . t h e Q - s o r t , one i s d e a l i n g f u n d a m e n t a l l y w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s u b j e c t i v i t y w h i c h t a k e s m e a n i n g i n t e r m s o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t a p e r s o n v a l u e s t r a i t A more t h a n B" ( p . 1 9 ) . The Q - s o r t method a s s e s s e s t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s among Q i t e m o r d e r ( B l o c k , 1961) a n d r e f l e c t s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e amount o f i m p o r t a n c e a t t r i b u t e d t o e a c h t r a i t ( B r o w n , 1 9 8 0 ) . C o r r e l a t i o n s p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s w h i c h r e f l e c t s u b j e c t i v e m e a n i n g w h i l e p r i n c i p a l c o m p o n e n t s a n a l y s i s r e d u c e s t h e d a t a g a t h e r e d t o one o r more c o n t a i n e r s o r t y p e s . 29 S e v e r a l s t u d i e s h ave s u p p o r t e d t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f Q - t e c h n i q u e ( F a i r w e a t h e r , 1981; F r a n k , 1956; H i l d e n , 1958; L i v s o n & N i c h o l s , 1 9 5 5 ) . I n Q - s o r t i n g , a p e r s o n i s g i v e n a s e t o f s t a t e m e n t s o r i t e m s p r e v i o u s l y c u l l e d f r o m an a p p r o p r i a t e u n i v e r s e o f i t e m s . He o r she must o r d e r t h e s e Q s t a t e m e n t s i n t o a d e s i g n a t e d number o f c a t e g o r i e s w i t h an a s s i g n e d number o f s t a t e m e n t s p l a c e d i n e a c h c a t e g o r y ( B l o c k , 1 9 6 1 ) . The t r a i t s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d i n a q u a s i - n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n ( S t e p h e n s o n , 1 9 5 3 ) . A t t h e e n d o f t h e c o n t i n u u m a r e p l a c e d t h e s t a t e m e n t s most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o r most " s a l i e n t " a n d a t t h e o t h e r e n d , t h e s t a t e m e n t s most u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o r most " s a l i e n t " i n a n e g a t i v e s e n s e ( B l o c k , 1 9 6 1 ) . The s t a t e m e n t s p l a c e d i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e c o n t i n u u m a r e r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t a s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Summary I n summary, one a p p r o a c h t o t h e e x p l o r a t i o n o f c o n s e n s u s among c o u n s e l l o r s on common s t r a t e g i e s o f c h a n g e w h i c h o p e r a t e a t t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n i s t h r o u g h Q - t e c h n i q u e . Egan (1982) p r o v i d e s a p u r p o r t e d l y c o m p r e h e n s i v e s e t o f c l i n i c a l h e u r i s t i c s . By h a v i n g c o u n s e l l o r s s o r t s t a t e m e n t s , t h e s u b j e c t i v e t h e o r y o r t h e o r i e s o f c o u n s e l l o r s c a n be p a r t i a l l y r e v e a l e d . The a i m o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t o 30 p o r t r a y t h e s e s u b j e c t i v e t h e o r i e s a n d t o e x a m i n e c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s . F i r s t , t o what e x t e n t do c o u n s e l l o r s s u b s c r i b e t o a s i n g l e t h e o r y w i t h i n E g a n ' s f r a m e w o r k o r m a n i f e s t d i v e r s e t h e o r i e s ? S e c o n d , do e x p e r i e n c e d c o u n s e l l o r s d i f f e r f r o m i n e x p e r i e n c e d c o u n s e l l o r s i n t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n ? T h i r d , what a s p e c t s o f E g a n ' s t h e o r y a r e s a l i e n t a n d what a s p e c t s a r e n e g l e c t e d ? I n g e n e r a l , do s u b j e c t i v e t h e o r i e s r e s e m b l e E g a n ' s t h e o r y and i n what ways? 31 CHAPTER I I I : Methodology Descr ipt ion of Subjects A t o t a l of 27 subjects agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e in th i s study. 15 facul ty members and 15 graduate students at the master's l e v e l , a l l from the Department of Counsel l ing Psychology at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, were considered for p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Thirteen facul ty members were sent a l e t t e r asking them to consider being involved in the present study. Two facul ty members who were on sabbat ica l were not approached. The l e t t e r was followed two weeks l a t er by a telephone c a l l from the inves t iga tor . Twelve facul ty members agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e and one dec l ined . Of the 12 facul ty members, 10 were men and two were women, and they stated to the i r invest igator that they adhered to a var ie ty of t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . The t h e o r e t i c a l or ientat ions represented inc luded, Jungian, Ges ta l t , C l i ent -Centered , T r a i t and Factor , E c l e c t i c , A d l e r i a n , and Rea l i ty Therapy. Through contacts , 15 masters' l eve l graduate students volunteered to p a r t i c i p a t e . Follow-up telephone c a l l s were made by the invest igator to confirm the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of these students. This group consisted of one man and 14 women. The twelve M.A. students were enro l l ed in a two year program and 32 h a d a l r e a d y c o m p l e t e d one y e a r of t r a i n i n g i n t h e Egan ( 1 9 8 2 ) c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l and a one y e a r c l i n i c a l p r a c t i c u m . A t t h e t i m e o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e y were i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e c o n d y e a r o f t h e p r o g r a m w h i c h i n c l u d e d a s e c o n d c l i n i c a l p r a c t i c u m . The t h r e e M.Ed, s t u d e n t s were e n r o l l e d i n a one y e a r p r o g r a m and were c u r r e n t l y u n d e r g o i n g t r a i n i n g i n t h e Egan ( 1 9 8 2 ) c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l a n d a c l i n i c a l p r a c t i c u m . The c l i n i c a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s o f t h e 15 s t u d e n t s e m p h a s i z e d Women, E l e m e n t a r y , C o l l e g e and A d u l t , F a m i l y , a n d S e c o n d a r y c o u n s e l l i n g t r a i n i n g . Q - S o r t S t a t e m e n t s The u n i q u e and c h a l l e n g i n g t a s k o f Q - s o r t c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t o d e f i n e a u n i v e r s e o f s t a t e m e n t s and t o s e l e c t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e o f s t a t e m e n t s f r o m t h a t u n i v e r s e . The u n i v e r s e o f s t a t e m e n t s f o r t h i s s t u d y i s d e s c r i p t i v e of t h e c o m m o n a l i t i e s f o u n d i n t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n a s d e s c r i b e d by Egan ( 1 9 8 2 ) . From E g a n ' s (1982) d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e e i g h t t a s k s and t h e t h r e e s t a g e s o f c o u n s e l l i n g , a 3 by 8 schema was c o n s t r u c t e d t o e n s u r e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e o f s t a t e m e n t s . From t h e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s , a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s a m p l e o f 60 s t a t e m e n t s was c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m E g a n ' s work. The s t a t e m e n t s d e s c r i b e t h e g o a l s , t a s k s , a n d c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s n e e d e d i n 33 e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s t a g e s o f c o u n s e l l i n g . Some o f E g a n ' s l a n g u a g e was m o d i f i e d t o remove any j a r g o n a n d t o be more b r o a d l y a p p l i c a b l e . The 60 s t a t e m e n t s a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 1. E a c h s t a t e m e n t was t h e n t y p e d on an i n d i v i d u a l c a r d f o r use i n s o r t i n g . The i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n t o e a c h p a r t i c i p a n t were a s f o l l o w s : 1. Take t h e d e c k o f c a r d s , r e a d e a c h c a r d s e p a r a t e l y a n d p u t i t down on t h e t a b l e i n f r o n t o f y o u . S p r e a d o u t t h e c a r d s a n d t r y t o f o r m a g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s s t a t e d on t h e c a r d s . You a r e a b l e t o e v a l u a t e i n d i v i d u a l s t a t e m e n t s i n r e l a t i o n t o one a n o t h e r . 2. Now p i c k up t h e c a r d s , make a d e c k , and s h u f f l e t h e c a r d s i n t h e d e c k . 3. Now ( f o r e x a m p l e ) s o r t t h e s e c a r d s t o d e s c r i b e y o u r s e l f a s a p r a c t i s i n g c o u n s e l l o r , o r t h e p r a c t i s i n g c o u n s e l l o r y o u hope t o be, r a n g i n g f r o m t h o s e t h a t a r e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f y o u r s e l f t o t h o s e t h a t a r e l e a s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . 4. P l a c e t h e c a r d s i n t o r o u g h l y t h r e e e q u a l p i l e s a s f o l l o w s : most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ; d o u b t f u l l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ; a n d l e a s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . 5. S o r t t h e c a r d s a s f o l l o w s : 1 2 4 7 9 14 9 7 4 2 1 . 6. a. S t a r t w i t h p i l e one ( t h o s e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f y o u r s e l f ) . b. P l a c e t h e s i n g l e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c a r d t o y o u r f a r l e f t . c . P l a c e t h e n e x t two most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c a r d s n e x t t o i t . d. P l a c e t h e n e x t f o u r most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c a r d s n e x t t o t h e l a s t . e. P l a c e t h e n e x t s e v e n most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c a r d s n e x t t o t h e l a s t f o u r . f . P l a c e t h e n e x t n i n e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c a r d s n e x t 34 T a b l e I : Q - s o r t s t a t e m e n t s d e r i v e d f r o m E g a n ' s ( 1 9 8 2 ) c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l ITEM STATEMENTS 1 D e v e l o p c l i e n t ' s own u n i q u e r e s o u r c e s 2 F o c u s upon ways t o l i v e more e f f e c t i v e l y 3 D i r e c t a t t e n t i o n t o t h e " h e r e a n d now" 4 E x p l o r e a n d c l a r i f y p r o b l e m s i t u a t i o n 5 H e l p s e t r e a s o n a b l e g o a l s 6 I d e n t i f y a n d r e d u c e h i n d e r i n g f o r c e s 7 I d e n t i f y a n d i n c r e a s e f a c i l i t a t i n g f o r c e s 8 G i v e s u p p o r t t o p l a n s o f a c t i o n 9 H e l p d e s i g n a n d i m p l e m e n t a c t i o n p r o g r a m s 10 A c t w i t h r e a s o n a b l e warmth 11 A c t g e n u i n e l y a n d s p o n t a n e o u s l y 12 A c t o p e n l y a n d n o n - d e f e n s i v e l y 13 Show r e s p e c t f o r c l i e n t v a l u e s 14 . O f f e r s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e 15 C o m m u n i c a t e i n c l i e n t ' s l a n g u a g e 16 Use c o n c r e t e n e s s i n e x p r e s s i o n 17 R e f l e c t t h e a f f e c t o f c l i e n t m e s s a g e s 18 A d o p t an open p h y s i c a l p o s t u r e 19 R e a l l y c a r e f o r c l i e n t 20 C o m municate y o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c l i e n t ' s w o r l d 21 Be c o n g r u e n t , c o m f o r t a b l e b e i n g o n e s e l f w i t h c l i e n t 22 I n t e r p r e t v e r b a l a n d n o n - v e r b a l c u e s 23 S ummarize c o m p l e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n 24 O r g a n i z e g o a l s i n t o a p l a n n e d s e q u e n c e 25 Use l e a n s p e e c h t h a t i s t o t h e p o i n t 26 M a i n t a i n g ood eye c o n t a c t 27 E n c o u r a g e r i s k t a k i n g 28 H e l p e v a l u a t e a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s o f a c t i o n 29 S t r i v e f o r a c l o s e , w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p 30 F o c u s r e s o u r c e s where p a y o f f i s g r e a t e s t 31 C u l t i v a t e a more o b j e c t i v e v i e w p o i n t i n c l i e n t 32 T r y t o a l t e r c l i e n t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e 33 H e l p e v a l u a t e a c t i o n s t o w a r d g o a l s 34 C o n f r o n t d i s t o r t i o n s a n d i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s 35 T r y t o overcome r e l u c t a n c e a n d r e s i s t a n c e 36 T e a c h c l i e n t how t o c o o p e r a t e 37 H e l p s e t d i r e c t i o n f o r a c t i o n p l a n s 38 R e s p o n d f r e q u e n t l y 39 R e s p o n d i m m e d i a t e l y t o c l i e n t n e e d s 40 Use r e i n f o r c e m e n t 41 R e s p o n d f r o m c l i e n t ' s f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e 35 42 R e f l e c t t h e c o n t e n t o f c l i e n t m e s s a g e s 43 E n c o u r a g e c l i e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n 44 A s s e s s y o u r s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n t o c l i e n t 45 Be p r a c t i c a l o r p r a g m a t i c 46 M a n i p u l a t e 47 P l a c e demands on c l i e n t 48 D e a l o p e n l y w i t h y o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o c l i e n t 49 S t r e s s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c l i e n t a c t i o n 50 Engage i n " i n f o r m a t i o n g i v i n g " 51 S h a r e h u n c h e s 52 Do n o t make c r i t i c a l j u d g e m e n t s o f c l i e n t 53 C o n t r o l and r e g u l a t e t h e i n t e r v i e w 54 Do n o t g i v e a d v i c e 55 Use p l a n n e d o r h a b i t u a l s t r a t e g i e s 56 Do n o t r i g o r o u s l y f o l l o w a t h e o r y o r e m p l o y t e c h n i q u e s 57 B r a i n s t o r m ways t o a c h i e v e g o a l s 58 E n c o u r a g e t h e c l i e n t t o a c t 59 C h a l l e n g e t h e c l i e n t 60 C o n s i d e r g o a l s r e q u i r i n g a l o n g t i m e f r a m e 36 to i t . g. Repeat with p i l e three (those l e a s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of y o u r s e l f ) . h. Place the d o u b t f u l l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c cards (14) i n the middle. 7. Check the s o r t i n g and make any changes you wish, but r e t a i n the r e q u i r e d number i n each category. Procedure Each p a r t i c i p a n t was given a one and a h a l f to two hour p r i v a t e i n t e r v i e w i n which the Q-sort tasks were performed. The p a r t i c i p a n t was t o l d that the i n v e s t i g a t o r was i n t e r e s t e d i n knowing which d e s c r i p t i o n s drawn from Egan's (1982) model were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of h i s or her d i s t i n c t i v e way of c o u n s e l l i n g . P a r t i c i p a n t s were then asked to r a t e each statement on the Q-sort. For example, "Sort these cards a c c o r d i n g to what i s most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of you as a p r a c t i s i n g c o u n s e l l o r , ranging from those that are most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of you to those l e a s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of you." The i n s t r u c t i o n s to graduate students d i f f e r e d i n that they were asked to s o r t the cards a c c o r d i n g to what was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of them as the p r a c t i s i n g c o u n s e l l o r that they hoped to be. F o l l o w i n g each Q - s o r t i n g , the p a r t i c i p a n t was asked about h i s or her r a t i o n a l e f o r Q - s o r t i n g the way he d i d . Any comments were w r i t t e n down by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . The cards 37 were then s h u f f l e d before the next Q-sort s e s s i o n . Method of a n a l y s i s A f t e r the Q - s o r t i n g was completed, the Q scores were assembled i n t o p a t t e r n s formed by c o r r e l a t i n g every p a r t i c i p a n t ' s s o r t of the statements with every other p a r t i c i p a n t ' s s o r t of statements. T h i s produced a matrix of i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s which was then submitted to p r i n c i p a l component a n a l y s i s with persons as v a r i a b l e s and statements as o b s e r v a t i o n s . A p r i n c i p a l components a x i s s o l u t i o n of three components was f i r s t obtained, and then the p r i n c i p a l components s t r u c t u r e was submitted to varimax r o t a t i o n ( B o l d t , 1980). T h i s p r o v i d e d a way to c o n s t r u c t components based on the way p a r t i c i p a n t s s o r t e d the statements. On t h i s b a s i s , a component rep r e s e n t s a grouping of persons around a common p a t t e r n of s o r t i n g the statements. A component, i n t h i s sense, r e p r e s e n t s a type of h y p o t h e t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g model. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s or l o a d i n g s i n the s o l u t i o n s are each person's c o r r e l a t i o n with each of these h y p o t h e t i c a l types of c o u n s e l l i n g models. P a r t i c i p a n t s were assig n e d to the type of c o u n s e l l i n g model that they were most l i k e , i . e . , the f a c t o r on which they had the h i g h e s t l o a d i n g . 38 A s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a c h o f t h e f a c t o r s o r h y p o t h e t i c a l t y p e s o f c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l s c o n s t r u c t e d by t h e p r i n c i p a l component m o d e l i s a p a t t e r n o f s o r t i n g t h e s t a t e m e n t s . E s t i m a t i o n o f t h e s e p a t t e r n s , i n e f f e c t , i s e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e " h y p o t h e t i c a l s o r t s " o f t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l t y p e s o f c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l s c o n s t r u c t e d . T h i s was done by t a k i n g a w e i g h t e d a v e r a g e o f t h e s o r t s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s most h i g h l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g i v e n f a c t o r a n d n o t a s s o c i a t e d v e r y much w i t h a n y o f t h e o t h e r f a c t o r s ( B o l d t , 1 9 8 0 ) . The more a p e r s o n ' s s o r t i s l i k e t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l , t h e more w e i g h t i t r e c e i v e s on t h e a v e r a g e . T h e s e w e i g h t e d r e s p o n s e s a r e t h e n summed a c r o s s e a c h i t e m s e p a r a t e l y w h i c h p r o d u c e s an i t e m a r r a y o f w e i g h t e d r e s p o n s e s f o r e a c h f a c t o r s e l e c t e d . The a r r a y s o f w e i g h t e d r e s p o n s e s were t h e n c o n v e r t e d t o z - s c o r e s . The a r r a y o f z - s c o r e s f o r e a c h f a c t o r o r t y p e o f h y p o t h e t i c a l t y p e o f c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l i s c a l l e d t h e f a c t o r a r r a y . The a r r a y s o f i t e m z - s c o r e s f o r e a c h f a c t o r a r e t h e n o r d e r e d f r o m most a c c e p t e d t o most r e j e c t e d f o r e a c h f a c t o r . When o r d e r e d t h i s way, t h e f a c t o r a r r a y becomes a h i e r a r c h y o f s t a t e m e n t a c c e p t a n c e f o r e a c h f a c t o r o r t y p e o f h y p o t h e t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l . T h i s p r o v i d e s a means o f d e s c r i b i n g e a c h h y p o t h e t i c a l t y p e o f c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l . 39 CHAPTER IV: Results A p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s was c o n d u c t e d on t h e c ombined s e t o f i n d i v i d u a l Q - s o r t s i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r c l u s t e r s o r t y p e s of h y p o t h e t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l s . F o r Q - s o r t s , a p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s c l u s t e r s p e r s o n s i n t o t y p e s w h i c h s h a r e a common theme o r meaning. W i t h r e g a r d t o t h i s s t u d y , t h e i n t e r e s t i n components o r f a c t o r s i s t h a t e a c h r e p r e s e n t s a t y p e of h y p o t h e t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l . F i r s t , u n r o t a t e d p r i n c i p a l components a r e f o r m e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a m a x i m i z a t i o n o f v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r w i t h i n a d a t a m a t r i x : t h e f i r s t component a c c o u n t s f o r more v a r i a n c e i n a s e t o f h y p o t h e t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e ls t h a n any o t h e r l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n . On t h i s component, a l l p e r s o n s l o a d e d w i t h i n t h e r a n g e o f .66 and .87. The f i r s t u n r o t a t e d component a c c o u n t e d f o r 60% o f t h e v a r i a n c e , and t h e r e m a i n i n g components a c c o u n t e d f o r c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r d e g r e e s o f v a r i a n c e ( 5 % and 4 % ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , o n l y t h e f i r s t p r i n c i p a l component was e xamined. S e c o n d , i n an a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y o t h e r h y p o t h e t i c a l m o d e l s , a v a r i m a x r o t a t i o n was t h e n a p p l i e d t o t h e d a t a . However, v a r i m a x r o t a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n a number o f c a s e s i n w h i c h p e o p l e l o a d e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y upon two or more components, t h u s p r o d u c i n g mixed t y p e s . In c o n t r a s t , t h e f i r s t u n r o t a t e d component c a p t u r e d t h e h i g h e s t l o a d i n g f o r e v e r y p e r s o n i n t h e 40 sample. Thus, the f i r s t u n r o t a t e d component produced the c l e a r e s t d a t a r e d u c t i o n , p r o v i n g the b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n (see T a b l e I I ) . The f i r s t r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n concerned the e x t e n t of consensus among c o u n s e l l o r s of d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s on p r a c t i c a l models of c o u n s e l l i n g . I t appears t h a t t h e r e i s s u b s t a n t i a l agreement among p r a c t i s i n g c o u n s e l l o r s on common s t r a t e g i e s of change t h a t a r e e n c a p s u l a t e d i n p r a c t i c a l models of c o u n s e l l i n g . F u r t h e r , both p r o f e s s o r s of d i f f e r i n g t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s and s t u d e n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of e x p e r i e n c e were unanimously r e p r e s e n t e d on t h i s l o a d i n g . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the ways i n which p r o f e s s o r s d e s c r i b e d t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g agreed w i t h the ways s t u d e n t s would i d e a l l y w i s h t o p e r f o r m i n c o u n s e l l i n g . The second r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n concerned i n what ways the h y p o t h e t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g model resembles Egan's (1982) t h e o r y . In o t h e r words, what a s p e c t s of Egan's t h e o r y a r e s a l i e n t and what a s p e c t s a r e n e g l e c t e d . In an i n d i v i d u a l Q - s o r t , i t i s o b v i o u s what the h i g h e s t and l o w e s t d e s c r i p t o r s a r e . These sta t e m e n t s are the ones deemed most i m p o r t a n t . The l e s s i m p o r t a n t s t a t e m e n t s a r e those t h a t f a l l a t or around the m i d d l e of the rank o r d e r d i s t r i b u t i o n . Thus, the most i m p o r t a n t s t a t e m e n t s d e r i v e d from an i n d i v i d u a l ' s Q-sort are those elements of Egan's c o u n s e l l i n g model t h a t a l l 41 Table I I : Unrotated p r i n c i p a l components UNROTATED FACTOR MATRIX (3 FACTORS): SUBJECTS F 1 F 2 F 3 z 1 0.78 0.37 0.08 z 2 0.69 0.05 -0.21 z 3 0.79 0.03 -0.36 z 4 0.76 0.34 0.31 z 5 0.75 -0.25 -0.11 z 6 0.85 -0.01 0.06 z 7 0.76 0.11 -0.35 z 8 0.83 0.34 0.12 z 9 0.84 0.30 -0.05 z 10 0.68 -0.44 0.42 z 1 1 0.75 0.21 -0.11 z 1 2 0.79 -0.11 0.09 z 13 0.67 -0.29 -0.23 z 1 4 0.80 0.02 0.34 z 1 5 0.80 -0.18 0.22 z 16 0.66 -0.34 -0.14 z 1 7 0.73 0.39 0.09 z 18 0.76 -0.30 0.10 z 19 0.81 -0.02 0.03 z 20 0.84 0.08 -0.20 z 21 0.75 -0.26 -0.16 z 22 0.77 -0.17 -0.01 z 23 0.88 0.10 -0.18 z 24 0.80 -0.24 -0.06 z 25 0.74 0.14 -0.04 z 26 0.83 -0.06 0.24 z 27 0.81 0.01 0.07 PERCENTAGE OF VARIANCE ACCOUNTED FOR BY EACH COMPONENT: F 1 = 60% F 2 = 5% F 3 = 4% 42 p a r t i c i p a n t s s t r e s s e d . A s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f i r s t u n r o t a t e d component i s a p a t t e r n o f s o r t i n g t h e s t a t e m e n t s . I n o r d e r t o e s t i m a t e t h i s p a t t e r n , a w e i g h t e d a v e r a g e o f t h e s o r t s o f a l l 27 p a r t i c i p a n t s was c o n d u c t e d . The more a p e r s o n ' s s o r t i s l i k e t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l , t h e more w e i g h t i t r e c e i v e d i n t h e a v e r a g e . T h i s w e i g h t e d a v e r a g e i s c a l l e d an i t e m f a c t o r a r r a y . N e x t , t h e a r r a y s o f w e i g h t e d i t e m s c o r e s were c o n v e r t e d t o z - s c o r e s . I n an a r r a y , a z - s c o r e i s e q u a l t o t h e w e i g h t e d s c o r e m i n u s t h e mean a n d d i v i d e d by t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n . When o r d e r e d i n t e r m s o f t h e z - s c o r e s , t h e f a c t o r a r r a y becomes a h i e r a r c h y o f s t a t e m e n t a c c e p t a n c e f o r t h e f i r s t u n r o t a t e d c o m p o n e n t . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e I I I , w h i c h l i s t s a l l 60 Q - s o r t s t a t e m e n t s w i t h t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g z - s c o r e s . F o r c o n v e n i e n c e i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e s t a t e m e n t s a r e a l l f r a m e d p o s i t i v e l y . F o r e x a m p l e , "Do n o t e n c o u r a g e t h e c l i e n t t o a c t " was r e f r a m e d t o r e a d " E n c o u r a g e t h e c l i e n t t o a c t . " The z - s c o r e s r a n g e f r o m a p o s i t i v e z - s c o r e o f 1.71 t o a n e g a t i v e v a l u e o f - 1 . 9 8 . I n e x a m i n i n g t h e z - s c o r e r e s u l t s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t some s t a t e m e n t s were more s t r e s s e d t h a n o t h e r s . T h o s e most s t r e s s e d were t h e o n e s c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l . I n o r d e r t o s e l e c t t h e most s t r e s s e d s t a t e m e n t s , an a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n was made t o s e l e c t , 43 b a s e d on z - s c o r e s , t h e t o p t e n a n d b o t t o m t e n s t a t e m e n t s . From an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e 20 most s t r e s s e d s t a t e m e n t s ( s e e T a b l e I V ) , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e y m o s t l y c o n c e r n t h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d s t a g e s o f E g a n ' s ( 1 9 8 2 ) c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l . N i n e s t a t e m e n t s r e f l e c t S t a g e 1, e i g h t s t a t e m e n t s r e f l e c t S t a g e 2, a n d t h r e e s t a t e m e n t s r e f l e c t S t a g e 3 o f E g a n ' s ( 1 9 8 2 ) c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l . 44 T a b l e I I I : H y p o t h e t i c a l Q - s o r t o f a l l 27 s u b j e c t s ITEM Z-SCORES STATEMENTS 1 1 .71 D e v e l o p c l i e n t ' s own u n i q u e r e s o u r c e s 20 1 .60 C o m m unicate y o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c l i e n t ' s w o r l d 29 1 .55 S t r i v e f o r a c l o s e , w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p 21 1 .45 Be c o n g r u e n t , c o m f o r t a b l e b e i n g o n e s e l f w i t h c l i e n t 13 1 .42 Show r e s p e c t f o r c l i e n t v a l u e s 4 1 .37 E x p l o r e a n d c l a r i f y p r o b l e m s i t u a t i o n 27 1 .26 E n c o u r a g e r i s k t a k i n g 3 1 .21 D i r e c t a t t e n t i o n t o t h e " h e r e a n d now" 1 1 1 .15 A c t g e n u i n e l y a n d s p o n t a n e o u s l y 17 1 .08 R e f l e c t t h e a f f e c t o f c l i e n t m e s s a g e s 12 0 .99 A c t o p e n l y a n d n o n - d e f e n s i v e l y 2 0 .96 F o c u s upon ways t o l i v e more e f f e c t i v e l y 7 0 .94 I d e n t i f y a n d i n c r e a s e f a c i l i t a t i n g f o r c e s 19 0 .94 R e a l l y c a r e f o r c l i e n t 10 0 .93 A c t w i t h r e a s o n a b l e warmth 5 0 .89 H e l p s e t r e a s o n a b l e g o a l s 15 0 .73 C o m m unicate i n c l i e n t ' s l a n g u a g e 6 0 .66 I d e n t i f y a n d r e d u c e h i n d e r i n g f o r c e s 52 0 .59 Do n o t make c r i t i c a l j u d g e m e n t s o f c 1 i e n t 8 0 .57 G i v e s u p p o r t t o p l a n s o f a c t i o n 23 0 .54 S u m m a r i z e c o m p l e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n 16 0 .51 Use c o n c r e t e n e s s i n e x p r e s s i o n 22 0 .44 I n t e r p r e t v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l c u e s 54 0 .40 Do n o t g i v e a d v i c e 28 0 .35 H e l p e v a l u a t e a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s o f a c t i o n 30 0 .28 F o c u s r e s o u r c e s where p a y o f f i s g r e a t e s t 9 0 .28 H e l p d e s i g n a n d i m p l e m e n t a c t i o n p r o g r a m s 26 0 .25 M a i n t a i n g ood e y e c o n t a c t 18 0 .21 A d o p t an open p h y s i c a l p o s t u r e 14 0 .20 O f f e r s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e 56 0 .18 Do n o t r i g o r o u s l y f o l l o w a t h e o r y o r em p l o y t e c h n i q u e s 25 0 . 1 1 Use l e a n s p e e c h t h a t i s t o t h e p o i n t 24 0 .02 O r g a n i z e g o a l s i n t o a p l a n n e d s e q u e n c e 46 -0 .08 M a n i p u l a t e 55 -0 . 1 2 Use p l a n n e d o r h a b i t u a l s t r a t e g i e s 45 50 -0 .30 Engage i n " i n f o r m a t i o n g i v i n g " 39 -0 .38 R e s p o n d i m m e d i a t e l y t o c l i e n t n e e d s 38 -0 .42 R e s p o n d f r e q u e n t l y 36 -0 .46 T e a c h c l i e n t how t o c o o p e r a t e 60 -0 .55 C o n s i d e r g o a l s r e q u i r i n g a l o n g t i m e f r a m e 44 -0 .60 A s s e s s y o u r s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n t o c l i e n t 42 -0 .72 R e f l e c t t h e c o n t e n t o f c l i e n t m e s s a g e s 57 -0 .75 B r a i n s t o r m ways t o a c h i e v e g o a l s 37 -0 .75 H e l p s e t d i r e c t i o n f o r a c t i o n p l a n s 53 -0 .81 C o n t r o l a n d r e g u l a t e t h e i n t e r v i e w 35 -0 .84 T r y t o o v e r c o m e r e l u c t a n c e a n d r e s i s t a n c e 47 -0 .85 P l a c e demands on c l i e n t 40 -0 .86 Use r e i n f o r c e m e n t 33 -0 .91 H e l p e v a l u a t e a c t i o n s t o w a r d g o a l s 31 -0 .92 C u l t i v a t e a more o b j e c t i v e v i e w p o i n t i n c l i e n t 45 -1 .05 Be p r a c t i c a l o r p r a g m a t i c T r y t o a l t e r c l i e n t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e 32 -1 . 16 49 -1 .28 S t r e s s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c l i e n t a c t i o n 58 -1 .39 E n c o u r a g e t h e c l i e n t t o a c t 48 -1 .54 D e a l o p e n l y w i t h y o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o c l i e n t 59 -1 .54 C h a l l e n g e t h e c l i e n t 51 -1 .59 S h a r e h u n c h e s 34 -1 .89 C o n f r o n t d i s t o r t i o n s a n d i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s 43 -1 .98 E n c o u r a g e c l i e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n R e s p o n d f r o m c l i e n t ' s f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e 41 -1 .98 46 T a b l e I V : Twenty s t a t e m e n t s most f r e q u e n t l y s e l e c t e d D e v e l o p c l i e n t ' s oun u n i q u e r e s o u r c e s ( S t a g e 1 ) C o m m u n i c a t e y o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c l i e n t ' s w o r l d ( S t a g e 1 ) S t r i v e f o r a c l o s e , w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p ( S t a g e 1 ) Be c o n g r u e n t , c o m f o r t a b l e b e i n g o n e s e l f w i t h c l i e n t s ( S t a g e 1 ) Show r e s p e c t f o r c l i e n t v a l u e s ( S t a g e 1 ) E x p l o r e a n d c l a r i f y p r o b l e m s i t u a t i o n ( S t a g e 1 ) E n c o u r a g e r i s k t a k i n g ( S t a g e 3 ) D i r e c t a t t e n t i o n t o t h e " h e r e a n d now" ( S t a g e 2 ) A c t g e n u i n e l y a n d s p o n t a n e o u s l y ( S t a g e 1 ) R e f l e c t t h e a f f e c t o f c l i e n t m e s s a g e s ( S t a g e 2 ) Be p r a c t i c a l o r p r a g m a t i c ( S t a g e 3 ) T r y t o a l t e r c l i e n t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e ( S t a g e 2 ) S t r e s s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c l i e n t a c t i o n ( S t a g e 2 ) E n c o u r a g e t h e c l i e n t t o a c t ( S t a g e 3 ) D e a l o p e n l y w i t h y o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o c l i e n t ( S t a g e 2 ) C h a l l e n g e t h e c l i e n t ( S t a g e 2 ) S h a r e h u n c h e s ( S t a g e 2 ) C o n f r o n t d i s t o r t i o n s a n d i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s ( S t a g e 2 ) E n c o u r a g e c l i e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( S t a g e 1 ) 47 CHAPTER V : D i s c u s s i o n The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r m a homogeneous g r o u p i n t e r m s o f what t h e y s t r e s s e d i n c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e Q - s o r t t a s k . I n o t h e r w o r d s , i t a p p e a r s t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s f r o m d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s a n d w i t h d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f e x p e r i e n c e e m p h a s i z e common f e a t u r e s i n t h e i r v i e w s o f c o u n s e l l i n g . W i t h i n t h e r a n g e o f s t a t e m e n t s s e l e c t e d f r o m E g a n ' s ( 1 9 8 2 ) c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l , t h e r e s u l t s s t r o n g l y i n d i c a t e a g r e e m e n t on one m a j o r c l u s t e r . T h i s c l u s t e r c o m p r i s e s a h y p o t h e t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l . When F i e d l e r ( 1 9 5 0) s t u d i e d t h e i d e a l t h e r a p e u t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p , he e x a m i n e d Q - s o r t d a t a f r o m b o t h e x p e r i e n c e d a n d i n e x p e r i e n c e d c o u n s e l l o r s a n d f o u n d d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e s e g r o u p s i n how t h e y r e s p o n d e d . He f o u n d t h a t e x p e r i e n c e d c o u n s e l l o r s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , were more s i m i l a r t o one a n o t h e r t h a n t h e y were t o i n e x p e r i e n c e d c o u n s e l l o r s o f s i m i l a r o r i e n t a t i o n s . I n l i g h t o f F i e d l e r ' s ( 1 9 5 0 ) f i n d i n g s , t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r a n t i c i p a t e d f i n d i n g more t h a n one h y p o t h e t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l e m e r g i n g f r o m t h e d a t a . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t a t l e a s t one h y p o t h e t i c a l m o d e l w o u l d e m e r g e . f r o m f a c u l t y Q - s o r t d a t a . S i m i l a r l y , i t was assumed t h a t t h e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t Q - s o r t d a t a w o u l d p r o d u c e a g r e a t e r h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f r e s p o n s e s ; t h a t i s , t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no one h y p o t h e t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l . 48 H o wever, a s h a s been s t a t e d e a r l i e r , o n l y one h y p o t h e t i c a l m o d e l , a s d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e Q - s o r t c l u s t e r s , emerged. The s e c o n d r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n was t o what d e g r e e d o e s t h i s h y p o t h e t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l r e f l e c t t h e d i f f e r e n t c o m p o n e n t s o f E g a n ' s ( 1 9 8 2 ) m o d e l . From an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e 20 most s t r e s s e d s t a t e m e n t s , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e d a t a a r e more c l o s e l y a l i g n e d w i t h d i m e n s i o n s o f E g a n ' s S t a g e 1 a n d S t a g e 2 t h a n w i t h S t a g e 3. F o r e x a m p l e , t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l m o d el seems t o be a l i g n e d w i t h E g a n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f S t a g e 1 i n t h a t some of t h e h i g h l y s t r e s s e d d i m e n s i o n s i n c l u d e : t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s use o f a c c u r a t e empathy; e x p l o r i n g a n d c l a r i f y i n g t h e p r o b l e m s i t u a t i o n ; a n d q u a l i t i e s o f r e s p e c t i n g t h e c l i e n t a n d a c t i n g g e n u i n e l y . B o t h t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l and E g a n ' s c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l a g r e e t h a t t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s a b i l i t y t o l o o k a t t h e w o r l d t h r o u g h t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o r f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e o f t h e c l i e n t a n d h i s / h e r a b i l i t y t o c o m m u n i c a t e t h a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o t h e c l i e n t a r e f u n d a m e n t a l t o c o u n s e l l i n g . B o t h m o d e l s a l s o s t r e s s a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g f r a m e w o r k and t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a c o u n s e l l o r ' s r e s p e c t and g e n u i n e n e s s . A s p e c t s o f E g a n ' s (1982) S t a g e 1 m o d e l t h a t were n o t r e f l e c t e d i n t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l , were t h e v e r b a l a n d n o n - v e r b a l a s p e c t s o f a t t e n d i n g . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n why t h e s e a s p e c t s were n o t a s h i g h l y s t r e s s e d a s o t h e r s . I t c o u l d be an a r t i f a c t o f t h e s t u d y , g i v e n f o r c e d c h o i c e s e l e c t i o n and an a r b i t r a r y c u t - o f f . Then a g a i n , 49 a l t h o u g h t h e s e a r e a s were r a n k e d i m p o r t a n t , t h e y w e re n o t a s s a l i e n t a s t h e f i r s t t w e n t y s t a t e m e n t s . S i m i l a r l y , i n r e v i e w i n g t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l r e f l e c t e d E g a n ' s ( 1 9 8 2 ) d e s c r i p t i o n o f S t a g e 2, t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s were s t r e s s e d : t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s s k i l l o f c h a l l e n g i n g t h e c l i e n t t h r o u g h i m m e d i a c y , c o n f r o n t a t i o n , a n d a d v a n c e d a c c u r a t e empathy ( i . e . s h a r i n g h u n c h e s ) ; a n d d e v e l o p i n g new p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e p r o b l e m . Whereas E g a n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f S t a g e 2 e m p h a s i z e d g o a l s e t t i n g , t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l m o d e l d i d n o t . T h a t i s , s t a t e m e n t s r e f e r r i n g t o g o a l s e t t i n g were s o r t e d a s " D o u b t f u l l y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c " o r l e s s i m p o r t a n t . I n E g a n ' s (1982) d i s c u s s i o n o f S t a g e 3, he d e l i n e a t e d t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s r o l e i n a c t i v e l y f a c i l i t a t i n g c h a n g e t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f s t e p s . Of t h o s e s t e p s , t h e d a t a o n l y r e f l e c t e d a g r e e m e n t on e n c o u r a g i n g t h e c l i e n t t o t a k e a c t i o n . T h e r e was l e s s a g r e e m e n t on E g a n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s t e p s n e e d e d t o f o l l o w t h r o u g h on t h i s a c t i o n . T h a t i s , c o u n s e l l o r s i n t h i s s t u d y d i d n o t e m p h a s i z e t h e d i r e c t i v e o r t h e b e h a v i o u r a l a c h i e v e m e n t c o m p o n e n t s o f p r o b l e m r e s o l u t i o n a n d e v a l u a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y , s t a t e m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g a c t i o n were n o t s t r e s s e d . I n summary, i n b o t h E g a n ' s ( 1 9 8 2 ) m odel a n d t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l m o d e l , c o u n s e l l i n g i s p r e s e n t e d a s a p r o c e s s t h a t i n c l u d e s c h r o n o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . Whereas E g a n ' s model a r t i c u l a t e s t h r e e s t a g e s a n d t h e i r g o a l s , 50 t a s k s , a n d s k i l l s , t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l m o d e l y i e l d s an e m p h a s i s on t h e f i r s t two s t a g e s . One i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f E g a n ' s S t a g e 2 d e s c r i p t i o n was n o t i c e a b l y u n d e r s t r e s s e d i n t h e Q - s o r t d a t a . T h o s e s t a t e m e n t s r e f e r r i n g t o g o a l s e t t i n g were n o t e m p h a s i z e d by s t u d y p a r t i c i p a n t s . F u r t h e r , o f t h e s p e c i f i c c o m p o n e n t s o f S t a g e 3 work o u t l i n e d by E g a n ( 1 9 8 2 ) , o n l y t h o s e r e f e r r i n g t o t h e c l i e n t ' s n e e d f o r a c t i o n and t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s s u p p o r t f o r t h i s a c t i o n were s t r e s s e d . I n t r y i n g t o e x p l a i n t h i s d i v e r g e n c e i n t h e two m o d e l s , two p o s s i b i l i t i e s p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s . I t may be t h a t t h e s t u d y p a r t i c i p a n t s do n o t engage i n f o r c e - f i e l d a n a l y s i s when s u p p o r t i n g c l i e n t p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g ; o r i t may be t h a t t h e y d i d n o t a g r e e w i t h t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e Q - s o r t s t a t e m e n t s d e s c r i b e d t h a t w o r k . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y The c u r r e n t s t u d y i s e x p l o r a t o r y i n n a t u r e . I n d e v e l o p i n g t h e m e t h o d o l o g y , c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n s were made r e c o g n i z i n g t h e l i m i t a t i o n s t h e y p l a c e d on t h e s t u d y o u t c o m e s . F o r e x a m p l e , s t u d y p a r t i c i p a n t s were r e c r u i t e d f r o m one d e p a r t m e n t o f c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y w i t h i n one u n i v e r s i t y . A l l t h e s t u d e n t s were i n s t r u c t e d i n t h e Egan (1982) c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l p r i o r t o o r d u r i n g t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y . F u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n s o f t h e c u r r e n t f i n d i n g s 51 s h o u l d p e r h a p s i n c o r p o r a t e a b r o a d e r p o p u l a t i o n b a s e f r o m w h i c h t o s e l e c t p a r t i c i p a n t s . A n o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t a s k . When p a r t i c i p a n t s were d o i n g t h e a c t u a l Q - s o r t t a s k , s e v e r a l a s k e d what p h a s e o f c o u n s e l l i n g t h e y were t o c o n s i d e r when s o r t i n g t h e Q - s o r t s t a t e m e n t s . The r e s p o n s e f r o m t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r was o n l y t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e m s e l v e s g e n e r a l l y a s a p r a c t i s i n g c o u n s e l l o r o r a s one t h e y h o p e d t o be. S i n c e t h e f o c u s o f ju d g m e n t was g e n e r a l a n d s i n g u l a r , i t p r o b a b l y dampened t h e e m e r g e n c e o f l e v e l s . A n o t h e r q u e s t i o n r a i s e d a r o u n d t h e Q - s o r t t a s k r e l a t e d t o c l i e n t t y p e s a n d p r o b l e m t y p e s . Some p a r t i c i p a n t s a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e y s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r i n g a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e when d o i n g t h e t a s k . D i s c u s s i o n a r o u n d t h i s q u e s t i o n was a l s o n o t e n c o u r a g e d . A g a i n , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s w h e t h e r t h e d a t a w o u l d be d i f f e r e n t i f t h i s q u e s t i o n were a d d r e s s e d . T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h p r o v i d e s s u p p o r t f o r t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e a r e c o m m o n a l i t i e s o f p r a c t i c e among d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . I t c o u l d be t h a t t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l s o f c o u n s e l l i n g r e q u i r e a c o m p l e m e n t a r y p r a c t i c a l m o d e l t o be a d e q u a t e . A t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l m i g h t be an i n s u f f i c i e n t b a s i s f o r g r a s p i n g t h e i d e o l o g y o f m e n t a l h e a l t h / m e n t a l i l l n e s s , o r 52 c h a n g e a n d c h a n g e d y n a m i c s . I t may a l s o be i m p o r t a n t t o a d d r e s s how c o u n s e l l o r s do what t h e y d o . G o l d f r i e d ( 1 9 8 2 ) d i s c u s s e d t h e d i s c o n t e n t m e n t o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n f i n d i n g a n s w e r s w i t h i n one p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n a n d t h e r e s u l t i n g r i s e o f e c l e c t i c i s m w i t h i n t h e f i e l d o f c o u n s e l l i n g . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s s t u d y s u p p o r t s t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l s may n e e d t o e x p a n d t h e i r b o u n d a r i e s t o i n c l u d e more p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . P r a c t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s The f i n d i n g s have d i r e c t r e l e v a n c e t o c o u n s e l l i n g p r a c t i c e i n a t l e a s t two ways. One i s t h a t among f a c u l t y who r e p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s a s h a v i n g d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , t h e r e i s a g r e e m e n t on t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l m o d e l . T h e r e f o r e , i t e m s f r o m E g a n ' s (1982) c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l seem t o u n i f y o r i e n t a t i o n s a t a p r a c t i c a l l e v e l . T h i s t e n d s t o s u p p o r t G o l d f r i e d ' s ( 1 9 8 2 ) h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l d o e s r e v e a l common p r i n c i p l e s o f c h a n g e . S e c o n d , i n a d e p a r t m e n t o f c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y where E g a n ' s ( 1 9 8 2 ) m o d e l i s b e i n g t a u g h t , s t u d e n t s seem t o l e a r n i t . They d i d n o t s o r t a n y d i f f e r e n t l y t h a n f a c u l t y . The d a t a i n d i c a t e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n f a c u l t y a n d s t u d e n t Q - s o r t i n g . T h u s , s t u d e n t c o u n s e l l o r s a p p e a r t o model i n t h e i r f u t u r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s e l v e s , t h e same c o u n s e l l i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r s . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 1. W o u l d t h e same h y p o t h e t i c a l m o d e l f o u n d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y emerge i f f a c u l t y a n d s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e r e c r u i t e d f r o m s e v e r a l g r a d u a t e c o u n s e l l i n g d e p a r t m e n t s w h i c h do n o t t e a c h E g a n ' s ( 1 9 8 2 ) m o d e l ? 2. T h i s s t u d y d e a l t s o l e l y w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s ' b e l i e f s a b o u t an d p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r p r a c t i c e , n o t w i t h t h e i r a c t u a l p r a c t i c e s a n d b e h a v i o u r s . A n o t h e r r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y i s : what d e g r e e a r e c o u n s e l l o r s ' p r a c t i c e s w i t h i n t h e c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n a n d a c r o s s t h e e n t i r e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s a n d b e l i e f s a b o u t t h e i r p r a c t i c e ? A way t o s t u d y t h i s c o u l d be t o c o n t e n t a n a l y z e v i d e o t a p e s o f a c o u n s e l l o r ' s p h y s i c a l a n d v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r s i n a s e s s i o n , a n d t h e n i n t e r v i e w w i t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a n d compare d a t a f r o m i n t e r v i e w s t o c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s d a t a . 3. I f a p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t a n d / o r a p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m w ere s p e c i f i e d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s when s o r t i n g , w o u l d t h e same h y p o t h e t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l be f o u n d ? 4. I s t h i s p h a s e o f c o u n s e l l i n g t o w h i c h t h e p a r t i c i p a n t r e l a t e s , s i g n i f i c a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g how t h e model f o u n d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y c h a n g e s i n t h e c o u r s e o f 54 c o u n s e l l i n g ? I s t h i s m o d e l e f f e c t i v e t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u r s e o f c o u n s e l l i n g o r o n l y i n t h e b e g i n n i n g p h a s e ? As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , a n o t h e r Q - s o r t c o u l d s p e c i f y w h i c h p h a s e o f c o u n s e l l i n g i s t o be c o n s i d e r e d when s o r t i n g t h e s t a t e m e n t s . C o n c l u s i o n The p r e s e n t s t u d y e x a m i n e d t y p e s o f m o d e l s e v i d e n t i n t h e p r a c t i c e o f c o u n s e l l o r s a t t h e e v e r y - d a y c l i n i c a l l e v e l . I t was f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was one d o m i n a n t m o d e l . The m o d e l u s e d by g r a d u a t e c o u n s e l l i n g s t u d e n t s was s i m i l a r t o t h e m o d e l u s e d by p r o f e s s o r s . The m o d e l f o u n d t e n d s t o a g r e e w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p a s p e c t o f c o u n s e l l i n g a s d e s c r i b e d by Egan (1982) i n S t a g e 1 and S t a g e 2. However, g o a l s e t t i n g a n d p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t e c h n i q u e s f o u n d i n S t a g e 2 and 3, r e s p e c t i v e l y , were n o t a p p a r e n t . T w e n t y - s e v e n i n d i v i d u a l s , t w e l v e f a c u l t y members and f i f t e e n g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y . U s i n g s i x t y s t a t e m e n t s s e l e c t e d f r o m E g a n ' s ( 1 9 8 2 ) d e v e l o p m e n t a l m o d e l o f c o u n s e l l i n g , e a c h p a r t i c i p a n t was a s k e d t o Q - s o r t t h e s t a t e m e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o what was most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f o n e s e l f a s a p r a c t i s i n g c o u n s e l l o r o r a s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f o n e s e l f a s t h e p r a c t i s i n g c o u n s e l l o r one 55 h o p e d t o b e . P a r t i c i p a n t ' s r e s u l t s w e r e i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d . The m a t r i x o f i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s was s u b m i t t e d t o p r i n c i p a l c o m p o n e n t s a n a l y s i s a n d t h e n t o a v a r i m a x r o t a t i o n . The c l e a r e s t d a t a r e d u c t i o n was a c h i e v e d by t h e f i r s t p r i n c i p a l component w i t h o u t r o t a t i o n . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d one d o m i n a n t , h y p o t h e t i c a l m o d e l o f c o u n s e l l i n g u s e d by t h i s s a m p l e . A l s o , t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s o f t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l a n d E g a n ' s (1982) m o d e l were w i t h i n S t a g e s 1 and 2. They d i f f e r e d i n s e t t i n g g o a l s and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t e c h n i q u e s . 56 R e f e r e n c e s A n t h o n y , W. A. (1979).T h e principles of psychiatric rehabilitation. A m h e r s t , M a s s . : Human R e s o u r c e D e v e l o p m e n t P r e s s . B l o c k , J . ( 1 9 6 1 ) . 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