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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Parental involvement in career development of children Palmer, Sylvia 1986

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PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN CAREER DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN By SYLVIA PALMER B.Ed. U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a 1965 M.A. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1982 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y ) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA F e b r u a r y , 1986 ©Sylvia Palmer, 1986 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of /g^^jUc^ f^L^rA*J,jy //Cbsr.aA^ The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN CAREER DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN The purpose of the study i s t o determine the extent t o which a program f o r parents t o a s s i s t t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t c h i l d r e n i n c a r e e r development, f a c i l i t a t e s the a d o l e s c e n t ' s l e v e l of c a r e e r m a t u r i t y and p e r c e p t i o n s of f a m i l y cohesion and a d a p t a b i l i t y . The study d e s i g n employed an experimental and c o n t r o l group. The treatment c o n s i s t e d of a s t r u c t u r e d program designed f o r parents t o a s s i s t i n the c a r e e r development of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The sample f o r the study c o n s i s t e d of 40 vo l u n t e e r f a m i l i e s from f i v e s c h o o l s . Each f a m i l y had a c h i l d i n grade t en or e l e v e n . A f o u r week time p e r i o d was allowed f o r the treatment p o r t i o n of the study. F a m i l i e s were p r e t e s t e d and p o s t t e s t e d on the Career P l a n n i n g , Career E x p l o r a t i o n , D e c i s i o n Making, and World of Work Information Scales of the CDI (Super e t a l . , 1980), FACES (Olson e t a l . , 1978), and a q u e s t i o n n a i r e measuring changes i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y and dya d i c f o r m a t i o n . Each f a m i l y i n the experimental group was i n t e r v i e w e d to determine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the program from t h e i r own viewpoint. A m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e with repeated i i measures was used f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found f o r t h e a d o l e s c e n t s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y , f a m i l y c o h e s i o n , and c a r e e r m a t u r i t y and d y a d i c f o r m a t i o n i t e m s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t t r e a t m e n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r f a m i l y a d a p t a b i l i t y . One s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t , t h a t o f - t r e a t m e n t by s c h o o l , i n d i c a t e d t h e r e was a s l i g h t tendency f o r s t u d e n t s o f one s c h o o l t o improve more th a n s t u d e n t s i n o t h e r s c h o o l s . I n t e r v i e w s were conducted w i t h t h e p a r e n t s i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group t o u n d e r s t a n d s p e c i f i c changes i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y , f a m i l y a d a p t a b i l i t y and c o h e s i o n , and d y a d i c f o r m a t i o n b r o u g h t out by t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e v a r i a b l e s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page TITLE PAGE i ABSTRACT ... i i LIST OF TABLES v i i i LIST OF FIGURES i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS X Chapter 1 . INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose o f Study 1 Background • 2 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f Study 6 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 9 2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 11 C a r e e r Development T h e o r i e s . . . . . 11 I n s t r u m e n t s f o r Me a s u r i n g V o c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y 21 P a r e n t C h i l d R e l a t i o n s h i p s 26 I n s t r u m e n t s f o r Me a s u r i n g F a m i l y Bonding and F l e x i b i l i t y . . . . 35 The I n f l u e n c e o f F a m i l y on A d o l e s c e n t C a r e e r Development.. 39 C a r e e r Development Programs That Produce Change 44 Program Used i n t h e Study 51 Statement of Hypotheses 57 3. METHODOLOGY 61 Design 61 Sample 62 Treatment 63 Instrumentation 66 A n a l y s i s of Data 72 4. RESULTS 75 Q u a n t i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s . 75 Item A n a l y s i s 76 S t a b i l i t y . . . . 77 Assessment of FACES 77 M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s 78 Q u a l i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s 85 Indepth Interviews w i t h F a m i l i e s 86 Telephone Interviews with F a m i l i e s 98 C l i n i c a l Assessment of Two F a m i l i e s .105 5. SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS 110 Summary ...110 L i m i t a t i o n s of Study 115 T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 117 v i P r a c t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 118 Recommendations f o r Future Research 121 C o n c l u s i o n . . . . . 123 REFERENCES 125 APPENDIX A: P r e l i m i n a r y Q u a l i t a t i v e Study 134 B: Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r C o u n s e l l o r s 148 C: L e t t e r t o Parents 149 D: L e t t e r t o Parents 150 E: L e t t e r t o C o u n s e l l o r s 151 F: CDI 152 G: FACES 162 H: Parent Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 168 I: Student Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 169 J : I n t e r v i e w s . . . 170 K: Treatment by School E f f e c t s f o r Students 172 L: Summary of M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s on Parent S c o r e s . . . . 173 M: Summary of U n i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s on Parent Scores 174 N: Combined Observed Means f o r Parents on Outcome V a r i a b l e s 175 v i i 0-1:Summary o f Student Mean and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n S c o r e s on t h e CDI, FACES, and Q u e s t i o n n a i r e S c a l e s A c c o r d i n g To S c h o o l s 176 0-2:Summary o f P a r e n t Mean and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n Scores on FACES and Q u e s t i o n n a i r e S c a l e s A c c o r d i n g t o S c h o o l s 177 P: D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C h i l d P e r c e p t i o n s o f F a m i l y Types A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C i r c u m p l e x Model 178 Q: D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P a r e n t P e r c e p t i o n s o f F a m i l y Types A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C i r c u m p l e x Model . 179 R: P r e t r e a t m e n t I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among Dependent V a r i a b l e s . 180 v i i i LIST OF TABLES 1. D e s c r i p t i o n o f Samples W i t h i n S c h o o l s 63 2. Summary o f M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s on Student S c o r e s 80 3. Summary o f U n i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s on Student S c o r e s 81 4. Summary o f Means and St a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f Dependent V a r i a b l e s 83 5. A d o l e s c e n t FACES S c o r e s C l a s s i f i e d A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C i r c u m p l e x Model...... 86 i x LIST OF FIGURES 1. C i r c u m p l e x Model o f F a m i l y Systems 69 2. Treatment E f f e c t On S t u d e n t s on Outcome V a r i a b l e s 82 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I owe a debt o f g r a t i t u d e t o t h e f o l l o w i n g p e o p l e : Dr. L a r r y Cochran, my mentor, t e a c h e r , and f r i e n d , whose knowledge, p a t i e n c e , and encouragement l e d me th r o u g h what seemed l i k e an i m p o s s i b l e maze. He has t a u g h t me, by example, t h e t r u e meaning o f wisdom. My v e r y d e a r f r i e n d , I r i s Lukey, who l i v e d t h e maze w i t h me and J i m , who never a l l o w e d me t o l o o k back. CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION The c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s make can have f a r - r e a c h i n g e f f e c t s on t h e i r l i v e s . When a p e r s o n becomes d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h a j o b , t h a t p e r s o n i s a p t t o become d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h l i f e i n g e n e r a l (Osguthorpe, 1976). The s t u d e n t , g r a d u a t i n g from h i g h s c h o o l , i s f a c e d w i t h h a v i n g t o d e c i d e whether t o seek some k i n d o f p o s t - s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t r a i n i n g o r move d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e work f o r c e . These c a r e e r d e c i s o n s a r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t , y e t s t u d e n t s have d i f f i c u l t y e x p l a i n i n g how t h e y make them (Anderson e t a l . , 1965, Trudeau-Brosseau e t a l . , 1982). Many p a r e n t s would l i k e t o a s s i s t i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s c a r e e r p l a n n i n g but do not know how ( L e a , 1967, B r a t c h e r , 1982, B r i g h o u s e , 1985). Much has been w r i t t e n , s t u d i e d and r e s e a r c h e d about c a r e e r development b u t t h e r e i s l i t t l e r e s e a r c h showing how t h e p a r e n t s can h e l p i n t h e i r c h i l d ' s c a r e e r development ( L e a , 1976, Osguthorpe, 1976, Osipow, 1983). Purpose o f Study The aim o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t t o which a program d e s i g n e d f o r p a r e n t s t o a s s i s t t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t c h i l d r e n i n c a r e e r p l a n n i n g , f a c i l i t a t e s the c h i l d r e n ' s c a r e e r m a t u r i t y , d y a d i c f o r m a t i o n and 1 2 i n f l u e n c e s p e r c e p t i o n s of f a m i l y a d a p t a b i l i t y and cohesion. The program, A Parent's Guide t o Career C o u n s e l l i n g , (Cochran & Amundson, 1984) i s comprised of three separate modules, each having a number of u n i t s . Each u n i t i s completed by a c o l l a b o r a t i o n between the parent and c h i l d c o o p e r a t i n g t o accomplish a p a r t i c u l a r c a r e e r t a s k . The parent, a c t i n g as a f a c i l i t a t o r , h e l p s the c h i l d complete each t a s k . An example of a task would be t o generate a number of c a r e e r o p t i o n s or to determine what the i n d i v i d u a l wants from a c a r e e r (Cochran & Amundson, 1984). Background According t o the authors (Cochran & Amundson, 1984), the program i s based upon two areas of r e s e a r c h : c a r e e r development of the a d o l e s c e n t and p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 1) Career Development Theory In terms of c a r e e r development theory, the authors (Cochran & Amundson, 1984) base t h e i r program on the comprehensive model of Donald Super and h i s c o l l e a g u e s from Columbia U n i v e r s i t y (Super, 1957, 1960, 1964, 1980, 1984). Super (1957) regards c a r e e r development as a set of stages which f o l l o w one a f t e r another. To move from one stage to the next, an i n d i v i d u a l must accomplish a 3 number of c a r e e r development t a s k s . The degree t o which a p e r s o n a c c o m p l i s h e s t h e s e t a s k s i s a f u n c t i o n o f the adequacy w i t h which th e b e h a v i o r s a p p r o p r i a t e t o each st a g e have been performed. Super (1957, 1960, 1964, 1979) has r e l i e d upon e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h t o d e t e r m i n e what th e s e c a r e e r r e l a t e d b e h a v i o r s a r e t h a t w i l l h e l p an i n d i v i d u a l f u l f i l l a d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e . Super's (1957) r e s e a r c h i s based on a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y i n which he and numerous o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s ( J o r d a a n , 1979, Myers, 1969, Thompson, 1979) e m p i r i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d c e r t a i n b e h a v i o r s o f i m p o r t a n c e f o r l a t e r c a r e e r p r o g r e s s . These b e h a v i o r s ( e.g. c a r e e r p l a n f u l n e s s , d e c i s i o n making c a p a c i t i e s , c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n , and knowledge o f t h e work w o r l d ) s u p p o r t t h e g e n e r a l aim o f c a r e e r development such as h e i g h t e n i n g s e l f awareness, c a r e e r awareness and i m p r o v i n g d e c i s i o n making competencies. Career m a t u r i t y a s s e s s e s t h e r a t e and l e v e l o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s development w i t h r e s p e c t t o c a r e e r p r o g r e s s . Super's (1953) l o n g t e r m aim i s t o d e v e l o p a t e s t o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y which would measure t h e e x t e n t t o which a p e r s o n completes c a r e e r t a s k s a p p r o p r i a t e l y . The i n s t r u m e n t t h a t has been d e r i v e d from Super's r e s e a r c h i s t h e Career Development I n v e n t o r y (Super e t a l . , 1979) which i s d e s i g n e d t o gauge c a r e e r m a t u r i t y by a s s e s s i n g 4 the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a p a b i l i t y t o perfor m the t a s k s o f a develo p m e n t a l s t a g e . 2.) P a r e n t C h i l d - R e l a t i o n s h i p s Research has shown t h a t the f a m i l y i s i n f l u e n t i a l on the c h o i c e o f a c h i l d ' s c a r e e r (Anderson e t a l . , 1965, A u s t e r & A u s t e r , 1981, B r a t c h e r , 1982, Osipow, 1983). One i m p o r t a n t t h e o r y t h a t t i e s f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s t o c a r e e r development i s t h a t o f B r o n f e n b r e n n e r (1979). I t i s h i s model t h a t t h e a u t h o r s (Cochran & Amundson, 1984) use t o e x p l a i n t h e f a m i l y p o r t i o n o f t h e i r program. From B r o n f e n b r e n n e r 1 s (1979) p e r s p e c t i v e , f a m i l y members wo r k i n g i n dyads on a common t a s k i n c r e a s e t h e i n t e n s i t y of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . The i n t e n s i t y of the d y a d i c r e l a t i o n s h i p i s p r o g r e s s i v e , moving the dyad from a b a s i c o r most s i m p l e form ( o b s e r v a t i o n a l ) t o the n e x t l e v e l ( j o i n t a c t i v i t y ) and f i n a l l y t o t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l f o r m a t i o n ( p r i m a r y ) . The o b s e r v a t i o n a l dyad ( l e v e l one) o c c u r s when two persons b e g i n t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o one an o t h e r ' s a c t i v i t i e s . When members p e r c e i v e themselves as d o i n g something t o g e t h e r t h e dyad t r a n s f o r m s i n t o a j o i n t a c t i v i t y dyad. Dyad members a r e l i k e l y t o d e v e l o p more e n d u r i n g f e e l i n g s toward one a n o t h e r . When thes e f e e l i n g s o c c u r the dyad i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a p r i m a r y o r h i g h e s t form o f dyad. P r i m a r y dyad members c o n t i n u e t o i n f l u e n c e one a n o t h e r ' s b e h a v i o r even when a p a r t . That i s , the 5 t h e d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e o f t h i s dyad i s t h a t members keep one a n o t h e r i n mind, even when not p r e s e n t . The second key i n g r e d i e n t t h a t emerges from B r o n f e n b r e n n e r 1 s (1979) t h e o r y i s a l s o c e n t r a l t o f a m i l y t h e o r y (Cochran & Amundson, 1984), namely t h e s t r e n g t h o f bonding and t h e a d a p t a b i l i t y o f t h e f a m i l y . P r i m a r y dyad f o r m a t i o n i s thought t o l e a d t o i n c r e a s e d c o h e s i o n and f l e x i b i l i t y i n a f a m i l y , s i n c e i t i s r e g a r d e d as a c o r e c o n d i t i o n f o r p e r s o n a l development. B r o n f e n b r e n n e r (1979) d e f i n e s development a s , " t h e p r o g r e s s i v e , mutual accommodation between a growing human b e i n g and t h e chan g i n g p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e immediate s e t t i n g s i n wh i c h t h e d e v e l o p i n g p e r s o n l i v e s . T h i s p r o c e s s i s a f f e c t e d by r e l a t i o n s between t h e s e s e t t i n g s ( p . 2 1 ) " . The p a r e n t g u i d a n c e program used i n t h i s s t u d y , (Cochran & Amundson, 1984) f o c u s e s on t h e p a r e n t - c h i l d dyad w o r k i n g on c a r e e r t a s k s . A c c o m p l i s h i n g c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s as i d e n t i f i e d by Super (1957) i n a d y a d i c c o n t e n t assumes t h a t an o b s e r v a t i o n a l dyad may s h i f t t o a h i g h e r l e v e l . The h i g h e r l e v e l dyad, w i t h i t s i n c r e a s e i n i n t e n s i t y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p , w i l l s u p p o r t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s more a d e q u a t e l y t h a n a lower l e v e l dyad. The e x p e r i m e n t a l program i s d e s i g n e d t o promote p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s and c a r e e r development. The 6 p a r e n t - c h i l d dyad i s g i v e n a common t a s k which i s d e s i g n e d t o move i t from an o b s e r v a t i o n a l t o a j o i n t a c t i v i t y dyad. I n s t r u c t i o n s i n t h e program on how t o communicate w i l l h o p e f u l l y promote t h e warmth and t r u s t n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e h i g h e r l e v e l p r i m a r y dyad around t h e i s s u e o f c a r e e r s . S i g n i f i c a n c e o f Study There seems t o be no s i n g l e t i m e a t which an i n d i v i d u a l makes a c a r e e r c h o i c e , b u t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n p e r i o d s when d e c i s i o n s a r e made which narrow t h e range o f c h o i c e s and th u s i n f l u e n c e t h e c a r e e r p a t h ( G i n z b e r g e t a l . , 1951; Super, 1957). One such p e r i o d i s a d o l e s c e n c e . I t i s t h e r e f o r e i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e a d o l e s c e n t t o r e c e i v e c a r e e r a s s i s t a n c e i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d , i n t e r p r e t and cope w i t h t h e s w i f t l y c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f the p r e s e n t work w o r l d (Super e t a l . , 1 9 6 1 ) . H i g h r a t e s o f unemployment and r a p i d changes i n t e c h n o l o g y ( L ea, 1976, P e t e r s & Hansen, 1977, S e l z e t a l , . 1980, Brown e t a l . , 1984, Borgen & Amundson, 1984) demand o f s t u d e n t s t h e f l e x i b i l i t y t o be ready f o r j o b s h i f t s . P a r e n t s have always shown an i n t e r e s t i n p e r f o r m i n g t h e t a s k o f a s s i s t i n g t h e a d o l e s c e n t i n h i s o r her c a r e e r development, but have r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a s s i s t a n c e (Osguthorpe, 1976). Lea (1976) and Osguthorpe (1976) show 7 t h a t p a r e n t s s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n the c a r e e r development o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n , but t h e r e has been l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n t o show how t h i s c o u l d be done. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o acknowledge two o f t h e reasons why p a r e n t s might want t o be i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r c h i l d ' s c a r e e r development. 1) Research (Osguthorpe, 1976, Lea, 1976, B u r k h a r d t e t a l . , 1977, D a v i s & K e n d e l , 1981) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f p a r e n t s a r e eager t o h e l p i n a c o n s t r u c t i v e way over a l o n g term, r a t h e r than coming i n a t the l a s t s t a ge o f c a r e e r p l a n n i n g and a g r e e i n g w i t h what the o t h e r " e x p e r t s " a d v i s e . Many p a r e n t s know t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s l o n g b e f o r e a c t u a l p o s t secondary c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s a r e made and remain i n t e r e s t e d throughout t h e c h i l d r e n ' s c a r e e r growth. Teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s know the c h i l d f o r a s h o r t e r p e r i o d o f time and t h e r e f o r e may l a c k t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e n d u r i n g q u a l i t y o f the p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p . The e n d u r i n g q u a l i t y o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a p t t o have more impact on the c h i l d ' s l i f e (Osguthorpe, 1976). I n knowing t h e i r c h i l d r e n as t h e y do, p a r e n t s can be o f c o n s i d e r a b l e h e l p i n c a r e e r p l a n n i n g . 2) The h i g h r a t e o f y o u t h unemployment (Cunningham, 1983, H e r r , 1984, Borgen & Amundson, 1984), c u t b a c k s i n s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g ( H o l s t e a d , 1 9 8 3 ) , and t h e u n c e r t a i n t y 8 o f the 80's makes p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n more c a r e e r c o n s c i o u s t h a n ever b e f o r e . P a r e n t s as w e l l as t h e i r c h i l d r e n , a r e i n f l u e n c e d s t r o n g l y by t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes and t h e economic c l i m a t e and a r e concerned about the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f j o b s and t h e adequacy o f j o b p r e p a r a t i o n (Osguthorpe, 1976). One g o a l o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l program (Cochran & Amundson, 1984) i s t o encourage s t u d e n t s t o be more f l e x i b l e i n t h e i r c a r e e r p l a n n i n g t o e n a b l e them t o adapt t o c u r r e n t economic and s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o a r e c e n t B r i t i s h Columbia i n f o r m a t i o n survey (Appendix B ) , c o u n s e l l o r s welcome p a r e n t a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g . T h i s s u r v e y i n v o l v e d 102 c o u n s e l l o r s i n 31 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t on a v e r a g e , c o u n s e l l o r s a r e o n l y a b l e t o devote 15.8% o f t h e i r time t o c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g and t h i s i s done m o s t l y i n l a r g e groups. T h i s l e a v e s many s t u d e n t s t o seek a s s i s t a n c e i n c a r e e r p l a n n i n g e l s e w h e r e . Few p a r e n t s seem t o r e c o g n i z e t h e f u l l e f f e c t t hey have on t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s c a r e e r development (Cochran, 1984, p e r s o n a l communication). P a r e n t a l b e h a v i o r (Anderson e t a l . , 1965, Osguthorpe, 1976, Brown, 1984) i s l i k e l y t o i n f l u e n c e t h e c h i l d ' s l i f e i n t e r e s t s , g o a l s and v a l u e s , a l l o f which have an e f f e c t on s h a p i n g the c h i l d ' s 9 l i f e p u r s u i t s . Many parents r e c o g n i z e t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g a f a m i l y atmosphere conducive to the development of c a r e e r i n t e r e s t s and would l i k e t o encourage t h e i r c h i l d r e n to develop t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i t i e s and make good d e c i s i o n s but do not know how. The program, A Parent's Guide to Career C o u n s e l l i n g (Cochran & Amundson, 1984) has been developed to a s s i s t parents i n t h i s t a s k . D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms Career: The course of events which c o n s t i t u t e a l i f e . Super (1957) d e f i n e s c a r e e r as a sequence of work or work r e l a t e d p o s i t i o n s or o c c u p a t i o n s , p a i d or unpaid, t h a t people have d u r i n g t h e i r l i v e s . Career Development: The process people undergo, c o n s c i o u s l y or u n c o n s c i o u s l y , as they i n t e r a c t with t h e i r environment and develop the a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s to e x p l o r e , p l a n f o r , and p a r t i c i p a t e i n the world of work. I t i s a process by which one develops and r e f i n e s such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as s e l f , c a r e e r i d e n t i t y and c a r e e r m a t u r i t y (Herr and Cramer, 1984). Developmental Stage: A stage i n a time p e r i o d " c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c e r t a i n t a s k s which the i n d i v i d u a l i n t h a t stage encounters and w i t h which he must s u c c e s s f u l l y cope before he progresses to the next stage" ( P i e t r o f e s a et a l . , 1975, p.146). 1 0 Developmental Task: A t a s k which a r i s e s a t o r about a c e r t a i n p e r i o d i n t h e l i f e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , s u c c e s s f u l achievement o f which l e a d s t o h a p p i n e s s and su c c e s s w i t h l a t e r t a s k s ( H a v i g h u r s t , 1 956, p . 2 ) . O b s e r v a t i o n a l Dyad: T h i s o c c u r s when one member i s p a y i n g c l o s e and s u s t a i n e d a t t e n t i o n t o t h e a c t i v i t y o f the o t h e r , who i n t u r n , acknowledges t h e i n t e r e s t b e i n g shown ( B r o n f e n b r e n n e r , 1979, p. 5 8 ) . J o i n t A c t i v i t y Dyad: T h i s o c c u r s when t h e two p a r t i c i p a n t s p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s as d o i n g something t o g e t h e r . A j o i n t a c t i v i t y dyad enhances r e c i p r o c i t y , b a l a n c e o f power, and a f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s ( B r o n f e n b r e n n e r , 1979, p. 5 8 ) . P r i m a r y Dyad: T h i s dyad c o n t i n u e s t o e x i s t p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l l y f o r b o t h persons even when they a r e not t o g e t h e r ( B r o n f e n b r e n n e r , 1979, p.58). CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o p r e s e n t a r e v i e w o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e and r e s e a r c h as i t p e r t a i n s t o t h e two main a r e a s b e i n g examined i n t h i s s t u d y : p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s and a d o l e s c e n t c a r e e r development. The r e v i e w i s p r e s e n t e d i n f i v e main s e c t i o n s . These a r e : 1) C a r e e r Development Theory e m p h a s i z i n g Super's t h e o r y o f c a r e e r development. 2) B r o n f e n b r e n n e r ' s E c o l o g i c a l Model o f Dy a d i c F o r m a t i o n s e m p h a s i z i n g p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 3) P a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e on a d o l e s c e n t c a r e e r development. 4) P a r e n t C a r e e r C o u n s e l l i n g Programs. 5) Statement o f Hypotheses. CAREER DEVELOPMENT THEORIES The c a r e e r development p r o c e s s t h a t p e o p l e undergo as t h e y i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e i r environment and d e v e l o p t h e a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s t o e x p l o r e , p l a n f o r and p a r t i c i p a t e i s l i f e l o n g (Super, 1980, 1984). Moreover, i n a c u l t u r e t h a t depends on and r e a c t s s t r o n g l y t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes, an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c a r e e r 11 12 development t h e o r y and t h e p r o c e s s o f how t o a s s e s s one's c h o i c e s and t h e i r consequences i s e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t . A c c o r d i n g t o T o l b e r t ( 1 9 7 4 ) , c a r e e r development t h e o r i e s can be grouped i n t o f i v e major a r e a s : s o c i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l , t o p o l o g i c a l , needs, and d e v e l o p m e n t a l . The proponents o f t h e " s o c i o l o g i c a l " v i e w p o i n t suggest t h a t c i r c u m s t a n c e s beyond t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n t r o l c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o c a r e e r c h o i c e . The s o c i o l o g i c a l t h e o r y emphasizes t h r e e i n t e r a c t i n g s o c i a l f a c t o r s ( b i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , p h y s i c a l environment and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e ) which i n f l u e n c e t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l development (H e r r and Cramer, 1984). These f a c t o r s t r a n s m i t c u l t u r a l norms and v a l u e s t o an i n d i v i d u a l w hich i n t u r n a f f e c t s o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . The s o c i o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s i n c l u d e t h o s e o f B l a u e t a l . (1956), Caplow (1959) and Low (1981). The " p s y c h o a n a l y t i c " t h e o r y o f c a r e e r development views s e l e c t i o n o f an o c c u p a t i o n as a s u b l i m a t i o n o f b a s i c i m p u l s e s and s y m b o l i c g r a t i f i c a t i o n r e l a t i n g back t o t h e f i r s t f i v e y e a r s o f l i f e . The t h e o r y e x p l a i n s a person's o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e i n terms of u n c o n s c i o u s f a c t o r s and b a s i c need g r a t i f i c a t i o n ( H e r r & Cramer, 1984). 1 John H o l l a n d (1959) i s a proponent o f t h e " t o p o l o g i c a l " t h e o r y which i s based on the b e l i e f t h a t the c h o i c e o f an o c c u p a t i o n i s an e x p r e s s i v e a c t which r e f l e c t s a person's p e r s o n a l i t y . Four assumptions c o n s t i t u t e t h i s t h e o r y : 1) t h e r e a r e s i x p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s i n t o w hich most p e o p l e can be c a t e g o r i z e d , 2) t h e r e a r e s i x d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t s , each o f which i s dominated by one of t h e p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s , 3) p e o p l e s e a r c h f o r work which a l l o w s them t o e x e r c i s e t h e i r s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s , 4) a p e r s o n ' s b e h a v i o r i s d e t e r m i n e d by the i n t e r a c t i o n between h i s o r h e r p e r s o n a l i t y p a t t e r n and t h e p a t t e r n o f h i s o r her environment. The s i x p e r s o n a l i t y and environment t y p e s a r e : r e a l i s t i c , i n v e s t i g a t i v e , a r t i s t i c , e n t e r p r i s i n g , s o c i a l and c o n v e n t i o n a l . H o l l a n d (1959) m a i n t a i n s t h a t one o f t h e s e s i x t y p e s d e t e r m i n e s t h e p r i m a r y d i r e c t i o n o f one's v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e . Another c a t e g o r y o f c a r e e r development i s the "needs" t h e o r y whose major c o n t r i b u t o r i s Roe (1957). Her model emphasizes t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f needs as suggested by Maslow (1969). Because o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e , i n d i v i d u a l s d e v e l o p c e r t a i n need and seek s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e s e needs t h r o u g h o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . Roe l i n k e d c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h c a r e e r i n t e r e s t s . The emphasis o f her t h e o r y i s 14 t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s a f f e c t how p e o p l e i n t e r a c t and t h a t p e r s o n a l v a r i a t i o n s a r e a f u n c t i o n o f e a r l y c h i l d h o o d f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . O c c u p a t i o n a l s e l e c t i o n i s d e t e r m i n e d by e a r l y c h i l d - r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s which a f f e c t t y p e s o f needs and t h e ways i n which p e o p l e seek t o s a t i s f y them. The f i f t h c a t e g o r y f o c u s e s on t h e " d e v e l o p m e n t a l " t h e o r y i n which Super (1957, 1960, 1964, 1984) has t a k e n the most comprehensive v i e w . He views t h e v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e p r o c e s s as o n - g o i n g , becoming more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d w i t h age and v a r y i n g w i t h one's v i e w o f r e a l i t y . T h i s s t u d y f o c u s e s on a program t h a t , a c c o r d i n g t o the a u t h o r s , has t h e t h e o r e t i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g s o f Super's (1957) t h e o r y . Super f o l l o w s t h e G i n z b e r g , G i n s b u r g , A x e l r a d , and Herma (1951) model o f c a r e e r development w h i c h i s d e s c r i b e d as a p r o c e s s w i t h t h r e e c l e a r l y d e f i n e d p e r i o d s : F a n t a s y , T e n t a t i v e , and R e a l i s t i c . T h i s p r o c e s s b e g i n s a t age 12 and c u l m i n a t e s i n an o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e i n one's e a r l y t w e n t i e s . G i n z b e r g and h i s a s s o c i a t e s d e s c r i b e t h e p r o c e s s as a s e r i e s o f e x p e r i e n c e s and i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d up t o t h a t p o i n t . T h e i r t h e o r y p a r a l l e l s the p h y s i c a l development of young p e o p l e and emphasizes t h e t u r b u l e n c e o f a d o l e s c e n c e . Super's (1957) t h e o r y d e s c r i b e s change as an o c c u r r e n c e which i s p r o g r e s s i v e and n o r m a t i v e . Career 15 development e v o l v e s i n a ccordance w i t h a g r a d u a l , p r e d i c t a b l e p r o c e s s . Growth o c c u r s as t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r o g r e s s e s from one s t a g e o f development t o a n o t h e r w i t h each s t a g e c o n s i s t i n g o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s . C a r e e r t a s k accomplishment would i n d i c a t e t h a t , a t v a r y i n g p o i n t s i n one's c a r e e r growth, th e i n d i v i d u a l s h o u l d demonstrate s p e c i f i c c a r e e r r e l a t e d b e h a v i o r s w h i c h a c c o m p l i s h t a s k s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s t a g e . Super (1957) i d e n t i f i e s t h e s t a g e s o f v o c a t i o n a l development a s : Growth ( b i r t h t o 14 y e a r s ) , E x p l o r a t i o n (ages 1 5 - 2 4 y e a r s ) , E s t a b l i s h m e n t (ages 25 - 44 y e a r s ) , Maintenance (ages 45 - 64 y e a r s ) , and D e c l i n e (ages 65 t o d e a t h ) . The model's f i r s t s t a g e (Growth) i s dominated by t h e i n f l u e n c e s o r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t p e o p l e which a f f e c t t h e c h i l d ' s c a r e e r c h o i c e s . The development b e g i n s w i t h t h e f i r s t phases o f t h e e x p l o r a t i o n o f s e l f w i t h i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . A major f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y i n v o l v e s t h e second s t a g e , namely t h a t o f a d o l e s c e n c e which i n v o l v e s e x p l o r a t i o n . T h i s s t a g e encompasses t h e ages of 15 t o 24 y e a r s . E x p l o r a t i o n d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e i n v o l v e s t r y i n g new r o l e s and e n t e r i n g a v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n s t o c o n f i r m o r c o n t r a d i c t a s i m i l a r i t y between the s e l f c o n c e p t and t h e model he o r she s e e s . The i n d i v i d u a l seeks i n f o r m a t i o n about h i m s e l f and t h e environment. The s u b s t a g e s f o r t h i s phase i n c l u d e : t h e T e n t a t i v e s t a g e 16 ( 1 5 - 1 7 ) , T r a n s i t i o n s t a g e ( 1 8 - 2 1 ) , and the T r i a l - L i t t l e Committment s t a g e (22-24). By age 17, the t a s k s o f the T e n t a t i v e s t a g e i n c l u d e p l a n n i n g and c r y s t a l l i z i n g one's g o a l s . I n t e r e s t s , needs and v a l u e s a r e a l l c o n s i d e r e d , t e n t a t i v e c h o i c e s a r e made and p o s s i b l e f i e l d s o f work a r e i d e n t i f i e d . S p e c i f i c a t i o n o f a v o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e i s t h e t a s k o f t h e T r a n s i t i o n s t a g e (18-21). The o l d e r a d o l e s c e n t i s expected t o c o n v e r t a g e n e r a l i z e d c h o i c e i n t o a s p e c i f i c one and implement t h e s t e p s n e c e s s a r y f o r s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g o r e d u c a t i o n i f n e c e s s a r y . By ages 22-25 ( T r i a l - L i t t l e Committment s t a g e ) , t h e t a s k i s t o implement a c h o i c e and c o n v e r t t h e v o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e i n t o r e a l i t y . The E s t a b l i s h m e n t s t a g e which b e g i n s i n t h e mid t w e n t i e s , i s an i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a r e e r c h o i c e . He o r she seeks t o e n t e r permanent employment. The e x p e c t a t i o n i s t o pursue s e l f r e a l i z a t i o n by f i n d i n g and s e c u r i n g a p l a c e i n a chosen o c c u p a t i o n . Towards the l a t t e r p a r t o f t h i s s t a g e , t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n s o l i d a t e s h i s o r her s k i l l s and e x p e r t i s e and i n c r e a s e s h i s o r h e r sense of s e c u r i t y and c o m f o r t i n t h e chosen c a r e e r . The Maintenance s t a g e b e g i n s i n t h e m i d - f o r t i e s and r e p r e s e n t s a time when an i n d i v i d u a l e i t h e r keeps a b r e a s t o f t h e s k i l l s needed f o r the p r e s e n t c a r e e r o r r e - e s t a b l i s h e s o n e s e l f i n a new c a r e e r . The t a s k i s t o 17 p r e s e r v e a c h i e v e d s t a t u s and g a i n s . The D e c l i n i n g s t a g e (age 64 on) p a r a l l e l s t h a t o f l i f e i n g e n e r a l and r e p r e s e n t s a s l o w i n g o f pace and d e c r e a s i n g i n v o l v e m e n t ; a p r e l u d e t o r e t i r e m e n t . Super bases h i s t h e o r y on a l o n g i t u d i n a l C a r e e r P a t t e r n Study which he and h i s c o l l e a g u e s (Super & O v e r s t r e e t , 1960, Super & J o r d a a n , 1963, Super, K o w a l s k i & G o t k i n , 1967, Super & Bohn, 1970, Super, Thompson & Lindeman, 1979) conducted from 1950 t o 1971. The Study, which i n v o l v e d 142 grade n i n e boys, was d e s i g n e d t o g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f and d e v e l o p t e c h n i q u e s t o a s s e s s and p r e d i c t v o c a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r . T h i s s t u d y would h e l p d e t e r m i n e t h e s p e c i f i c c a r e e r r e l a t e d b e h a v i o r s and s k i l l s s u g g e s t i v e o f t a s k m astery. Super (1957) devel o p e d one o f the b a s i c assumptions w h i c h u n d e r l i e s the concept o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y : " v o c a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r changes s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i n c e r t a i n ways w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age" ( p . 5 7 ) . Super and O v e r s t r e e t (1960) t e s t e d t h e c o n c e p t s o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y and i d e n t i f i e d f i v e d i m e n s i o n s r e l a t e d t o i t . These were: 1) o r i e n t a t i o n t o v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e , 2) i n f o r m a t i o n and p l a n n i n g about a p r e f e r r e d o c c u p a t i o n , 3) c o n s i s t e n c y o f v o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s w i t h i n f i e l d s , w i t h i n l e v e l s and w i t h i n f a m i l i e s , 4) 18 c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f t r a i t s , and 5) wisdom o f v o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t o n l y two d imensions ( o r i e n t a t i o n t o c h o i c e t a s k s and use o f r e s o u r c e s ) were r e l e v a n t t o grade n i n e boys. They c o n c l u d e d t h a t v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y i n n i n t h grade boys i s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r degree o f i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l s t i m u l a t i o n s . The a u t h o r s s t a t e d t h a t n i n t h grade boys a r e not ready t o make sound c u r r i c u l a r c h o i c e s a t t h i s t i m e and t h a t c u r r i c u l a r d e c i s i o n s s h o u l d be postponed u n t i l the t e n t h o r e l e v e n t h grade. J o r d a a n (1963), a t t e m p t i n g t o d e f i n e e x p l o r a t o r y v o c a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r , found t h a t t h e environment and p e r s o n a l t r a i t s o f an i n d i v i d u a l may f a c i l i t a t e t h i s b e h a v i o r . F o r example, p a r e n t s can f a c i l i t a t e e x p l o r a t o r y b e h a v i o r by p r o v i d i n g e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t and an atmosphere c o n d u c i v e t o c a r e e r development. Super (1963) proposed t h a t v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y assumes d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which depend upon the p e r s o n ' s l i f e s t a g e of development. A f u r t h e r s t u d y (Super & Bohn, 1970) found a c o r r e l a t i o n between v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y and p e r s o n a l development. S u b j e c t s who s c o r e d h i g h i n v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y were a l s o more achievement o r i e n t e d , i n d e p e n d e n t , and s o c i a b l e . I n Super's r e p o r t o f t h e C a r e e r P a t t e r n Study (1 9 6 4 ) , he found t h a t 18 y e a r - o l d p a r t i c i p a n t s s t i l l 19 had not c o m p l e t e l y c r y s t a l l i z e d t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e . A t e n y e a r f o l l o w u p (Super, K o w a l s k i & G o t k i n , 1967) found t h a t d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s engaged i n f l o u n d e r i n g b e h a v i o r but by t h e age o f t w e n t y - f i v e , e i g h t y p e r c e n t were engaged i n s t a b i l i z e d b e h a v i o r . T h i s was c o n f i r m e d by Super and J o r d a a n (1982). A s t u d y done by Super, Thompson, Lindeman, J o r d a a n and Myers (1979) showed t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l i s s u c c e s s i v e l y f a c e d w i t h v o c a t i o n a l t a s k s . The way t h e i n d i v i d u a l d e a l s w i t h each t a s k d e t e r m i n e s how t h i s p e r s o n w i l l d e a l w i t h f u t u r e t a s k s . When a p e r s o n f a c e s a v o c a t i o n a l t a s k , he o r she can a p p l y r e l e v a n t b e h a v i o r s t o s u c c e s s f u l l y complete t h e t a s k . Super e t a l . (1979) i d e n t i f y v o c a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r s a s : c a r e e r p l a n n i n g , c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n , o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and g a i n i n g knowledge about th e work w o r l d and about th e s e l f . These c a r e e r r e l a t e d b e h a v i o r s can t h e n be used t o make d e c i s i o n s as the need a r i s e s . Two i n v e n t o r i e s were d e v e l o p e d by Super and h i s a s s o c i a t e s as a r e s u l t o f t h e C a r e e r P a t t e r n Study: The Work V a l u e s I n v e n t o r y (Super, 1957) which r e l a t e s one's p e r s o n a l v a l u e s t o t h o s e v a l u e s e x p r e s s e d i n a c a r e e r i s a b i o g r a p h i c a l , s e m i s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w t ype of i n v e n t o r y . The I n d i c e s o f V o c a t i o n a l Development 20 (Super & O v e r s t r e e t , 1960) was revamped t o d e v e l o p a p r a c t i c a l means o f measuring v o c a t i o n a l development. I t became a s t a n d a r d q u e s t i o n n a i r e c a l l e d t h e C a r e e r Development I n v e n t o r y (Super e t a l . , 1979). T h i s i n v e n t o r y y i e l d s t h r e e s c a l e s d e s i g n e d t o measure a r e a s o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y : p l a n n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n , r e s o u r c e s f o r e x p l o r a t i o n , and d e c i s i o n making. With r e s p e c t t o t h e c a r e e r development p r o c e s s , Super (1957) c o n s i d e r s the i n f l u e n c e o f t h e f a m i l y t o be v e r y i m p o r t a n t . P a r e n t s a r e seen as h a v i n g a g r e a t impact on t h e c h i l d ' s s e l f concept which e v e n t u a l l y a f f e c t s c a r e e r c h o i c e . The f a m i l y p r o v i d e s t h e c h i l d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o i d e n t i f y w i t h v a r i o u s a d u l t r o l e models and t o a c q u i r e i n f o r m a t i o n and s k i l l s r e l e v a n t t o o c c u p a t i o n s . To i l l u s t r a t e f u r t h e r , Super (1957) s t a t e s : F a c t o r s which have so f a r been g i v e n l i t t l e s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y but which appear t o a f f e c t v o c a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r and development a r e : r e l i g i o u s background, atmosphere o f home (warm, h o s t i l e , broken) •, p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s toward t h e i n d i v i d u a l ( a c c e p t a n c e o r r e j e c t i o n ) , and p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s toward s c h o o l i n g ( p . 5 2 ) . 21 Summary Of the f i v e major t h e o r i e s on c a r e e r development, Super (1957) t a k e s t h e most comprehensive and e m p i r i c a l l y grounded view. Super bases h i s r e s e a r c h on a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y ( C a r e e r P a t t e r n Study, 1957) which views v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y as t h e accomplishment o f a s e r i e s o f v o c a t i o n a l t a s k s i n an o r d e r l y sequence o f l i f e s t a g e s . V o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y can be a s s e s s e d by d e t e r m i n i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s v o c a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s a t t a i n e d . Super's c o n s t r u c t o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y has become a major c o n c e p t i n t h e c a r e e r c h o i c e p r o c e s s . C a r e e r m a t u r i t y i s a f a c t o r t o be a s s e s s e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s s t u d y . I n s t r u m e n t s f o r M e asuring V o c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y What i s t h e v a l u e o f knowing how v o c a t i o n a l l y mature a s t u d e n t i s ? Super and O v e r s t r e e t (1960) s t a t e d t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s t a g e o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e degree o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v o c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o Super and O v e r s t r e e t (1960), a measure o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y can h e l p i n t h e e x p l o r a t o r y s t a g e o f v o c a t i o n a l development t o determine i f t h e i n d i v i d u a l can cope a d e q u a t e l y w i t h t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t a s k b e i n g f a c e d . The measures o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y most f r e q u e n t l y used ( H i l t o n , 1974) are:The C a r e e r M a t u r i t y I n v e n t o r y ( C r i t e s , 1961), The C o g n i t i v e V o c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y T e s t (Westbrook, P a r r y - H i l l , & Woodbury, 1971), and The C a r e e r Development I n v e n t o r y (Super e t a l . , 1979). H i l t o n (1974) d e s c r i b e s t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s as t h e most l i k e l y t o be s e l e c t e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r program e v a l u a t i o n p u r p o s e s , a. The C a r e e r M a t u r i t y I n v e n t o r y (CMI) C r i t e s (1961) used Super's C a r e e r P a t t e r n Study t o d e v e l o p the V o c a t i o n a l Development I n v e n t o r y which was l a t e r renamed the C a r e e r M a t u r i t y I n v e n t o r y . C r i t e s d e s c r i b e s t h e m a t u r i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s v o c a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r as shown by t h e degree of s i m i l a r i t y between h i s o r her b e h a v i o r and t h a t o f t h e o l d e s t i n d i v i d u a l s i n h i s o r her v o c a t i o n a l l i f e s t a g e . V o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y i n c l u d e s f o u r f a c t o r s : a) c a r e e r c h o i c e a t t i t u d e s , b) c a r e e r c h o i c e c o m p e t e n c i e s , c) r a t i o n a l i t y o f c a r e e r c h o i c e , and d) c o n s i s t e n c y o f c a r e e r c h o i c e . These f a c t o r s a r e r e l a t e d t o Super's f i v e c o n s t r u c t s f o r t h e measurement o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . The CMI c o n s i s t s o f two s e c t i o n s : t h e A t t i t u d e S c a l e and t h e Competency S c a l e . The Competency S c a l e i s a more r e c e n t development and does not have the p s y c h o m e t r i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y c o m p l e t e l y d e t e r m i n e d . I t i s used p r i m a r i l y w i t h s t u d e n t s i n t h e f i f t h t h r o u g h t h e t w e l f t h grades and ta k e s t h r e e hours t o a d m i n i s t e r . b. The C o g n i t i v e V o c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y T e s t (CVMT) The CVMT was d e v e l o p e d by Westbrook, P a r r y - H i l l , and Woodbury (1971) i n o r d e r t o measure t h e c o g n i t i v e domain o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . I t d e a l s w i t h a c q u i r i n g and u s i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n used i n c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n programs and i s d e s i g n e d f o r use i n grades s i x t h r ough n i n e . A l t h o u g h t h e d a t a c o n c e r n i n g t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n group f o r t h e CMVT showed sound s t a n d a r d i z e d p r o c e d u r e s , l i t t l e f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h has been done t o show v a l i d i t y . Two hours a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . c. C a r e e r Development I n v e n t o r y (CDI) The most comprehensive r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y has been done by Super e t a l . (1960). Most o f t h e r e s e a r c h concerned The C a r e e r P a t t e r n Study, a 20 y e a r l o n g i t u d i n a l p r o j e c t , d e s i g n e d t o t e s t v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y c o n c e p t s s u g g e s t e d by Super's (1957) t h e o r y . The CDI answers two q u e s t i o n s : a) I s v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y a m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l c o n s t r u c t r a t h e r than a s i n g l e v a r i a b l e and b) i s v o c a t i o n a l development a pr o c e s s o f a c q u i r i n g , c l a r i f y i n g , and im p l e m e n t i n g a s e l f concept t h r o u g h p r e p a r a t i o n f o r and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e w o r l d o f work. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n a l and f a c t o r i a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a from t h e C a r e e r P a t t e r n Study showed f i v e i n d i c e s t o be r e l a t e d t o a s i g n i f i c a n t d egree: "1) Concern w i t h c h o i c e , 2) A c c e p t a n c e of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h o i c e s and p l a n n i n g , 3) S p e c i f i c i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n about th e p r e f e r r e d o c c u p a t i o n , 4) S p e c i f i c i t y and e x t e n t o f p l a n n i n g , and 5) Use o f r e s o u r c e s i n o r i e n t a t i o n (Super & O v e r s t r e e t , 1960, p. 6 2 ) " . Super and O v e r s t r e e t (1960) c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s e f i v e i n d i c e s were o f p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e secondary s c h o o l p e r i o d . The CDI i s an o b j e c t i v e , m u l t i f a c t o r , 120 i t e m , s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r i n g i n v e n t o r y . Four t y p e s o f d a t a can be o b t a i n e d from th e CDI: 1) I n d i v i d u a l s c a l e s c o r e s , which q u a n t i f y s p e c i f i c elements o f c a r e e r development, 2) Responses r e l a t i n g t o t h e p l a n n i n g and use o f r e s o u r c e s , 3) Two f a c t o r s c o r e s , which q u a n t i f y a t t i t u d i n a l and c o g n i t i v e d i m e n s i o n s , and 4) A c o m p o s i t e s c o r e which r e f l e c t s a g l o b a l measure o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y (Super e t a l . , 1979). A copy o f t h e CDI a p p e a r s i n Appendix F. The CDI (High S c h o o l Form) was o r g a n i z e d e x p l i c i t l y around Super's (1957) model o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y which assumes the b a s i c d i m e n s i o n s o f p l a n n i n g , e x p l o r a t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n , d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and r e a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n . The p l a n n i n g and e x p l o r a t i o n a l components a r e a t t i t u d i n a l i n n a t u r e . The i n f o r m a t i o n and d e c i s i o n making components a r e c o n s i d e r e d c o g n i t i v e . T h i s form i s d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n t h e " I n s t r u m e n t " p o r t i o n o f t h e s t u d y . S e v e r a l o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s a r e a v a i l a b l e but perhaps l e s s s u i t e d f o r program e v a l u a t i o n p u r p o s e s . Two o f these a r e : R e a d i n e s s F o r V o c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g (Gribbons & Lohnes, 1968), and The V o c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y S c a l e (Westbrook, 1971). There i s l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n about th e use o f t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s i n r e s e a r c h and l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . Summary There a r e t h r e e main i n s t r u m e n t s used t o measure v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y : t h e C a r e e r M a t u r i t y I n v e n t o r y , t h e C o g n i t i v e V o c a t i o n a l M a t u r i t y T e s t and t h e C a r e e r Development I n v e n t o r y . An advantage o f u s i n g t h e Career Development I n v e n t o r y i s t h e e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h t h a t has gone i n t o i t s development compared w i t h o t h e r c a r e e r m a t u r i t y i n s t r u m e n t s . I t i s a l s o a m u l t i f a c t o r i n s t r u m e n t which can be a d m i n i s t e r e d i n about s i x t y minutes compared t o t h e CMI and t h e CVMT which t a k e s t h r e e and two hours r e s p e c t i v e l y . 26 PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIPS A l t h o u g h t h e r e was a g r e a t d e a l o f r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e about th e f a m i l y p r i o r t o 1960, i t wasn't u n t i l t h e e a r l y 1960's t h a t s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h on f a m i l y dynamics became f o r m a l i z e d . The s t u d y o f how f a m i l y members i n t e r a c t w i t h each o t h e r i n response t o s t i m u l i from t h e environment began a t t h e M e n t a l I n s t i t u t e i n P a l o A l t o (Bateson e t a l . , 1956). I t was here t h a t mental i l l n e s s began t o be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n terms o f e n t i r e systems of persons r a t h e r t h a n i s o l a t e d i n t r a p s y c h i c p r o c e s s e s . The s t u d y o f s c h i z o p h r e n i a (Bateson e t a l . , 1956) i n a s i n g l e s e r i e s o f e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s seemed i n a p p r o p r i a t e , so i n d i v i d u a l s were ob s e r v e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f d a i l y , s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s o f t e n w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s . One t h e o r y t h a t r e f l e c t s t h i s approach i s t h e G e n e r a l Systems Theory (Von B e r t a l a n f f y , 1968). The G e n e r a l Systems Theory propounded by von B e r t a l a n f f y ( 1 968), p r o v i d e s t h e b a s i s o f many at t e m p t s t o d e s c r i b e a c i r c u m s c r i b e d domain o f f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n ( O l s o n e t a l . , 1983). I t seeks t o encompass t h e t o t a l i t y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , c l a i m i n g t h a t a whole system v a r i e s q u a l i t a t i v e l y from a group o f p a r t s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e system as a whole cannot be a d e q u a t e l y c o n c e p t u a l i z e d u n l e s s the dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p s among system components a r e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . B e r t a l a n f f y 27 contended t h a t by i d e n t i f y i n g redundant i n t e r a c t i o n between components, a system can be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p p a t t e r n s o b s e r v e d . A p p l i e d t o t h e human e x p e r i e n c e , t h i s would suggest t h a t a t t e m p t s d e s i g n e d t o u n d e r s t a n d human b e h a v i o r might b e t t e r be s e r v e d i f f o c u s i s s h i f t e d from a t t e m p t i n g t o e x p l a i n b e h a v i o r i n ac c o r d a n c e w i t h human n a t u r e toward i d e n t i f y i n g p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o r e x h i b i t e d by i n d i v i d u a l s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o t h e r s . Young (1979) d e s c r i b e s t h e G e n e r a l Systems Theory as h a v i n g two b a s i c t y p e s o f systems: open and c l o s e d . The c l o s e d system r e p r e s e n t s s e p a r a t i o n from t h e environment, i s o l a t i o n from e x t e r n a l s t i m u l a t i o n and i n t e r n a l c o n f u s i o n . The c l o s e d system cannot adapt t o change. The open system, on t h e o t h e r hand, i s d e s c r i b e d as h a v i n g c o n t a c t w i t h and a d a p t i n g t o t h e environment. Young c l a s s i f i e s t h e f a m i l y as a s o c i a l u n i t r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e l i v i n g - o p e n system which i s d e f i n e d by the f o l l o w i n g s i x e s s e n t i a l p r i n c i p l e s : 1) a system i s a whole composed o f i n t e r r e l a t e d p a r t s ; 2) a change i n one p a r t l e a d s t o a change i n a l l p a r t s ; 3) a system i s the p r o d u c t o f t h e dynamic i n t e r a c t i o n among t h e p a r t s ; 4) a system w i l l seek and m a i n t a i n h o m e o s t a s i s ; 5) a system w i l l r e s i s t change; but 6) an open system can accommodate change. 28 Beavers (1977) d e s c r i b e s t h e l i v i n g - o p e n system as h a v i n g the c a p a c i t y t o e x e r c i s e v a r y i n g degrees of independence, b e i n g a b l e t o e x e r t power o v e r i t s e l f and b e i n g a b l e t o s e l e c t among o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e environment. Olson e t a l . (1983) d e s c r i b e t h r e e a s p e c t s o f f a m i l y b e h a v i o r ( c o h e s i o n , a d a p t a b i l i t y and communication) t h a t appear as u n d e r l y i n g d i m e n s i o n s f o r f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g i n an open system. The f a m i l y c o h e s i o n , a d a p t a b i l i t y and communication c o n c e p t s have been p r e v i o u s l y r e s e a r c h e d by i n d i v i d u a l s o b s e r v i n g f a m i l y problems from a g e n e r a l systems v i e w ( O l s o n e t a l . , 1983). O l s o n (1983) h y p o t h e s i z e s t h a t t h e c e n t r a l l e v e l s of c o h e s i o n and a d a p t a b i l i t y a r e most v i a b l e f o r f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g . Communication i s c r i t i c a l t o t h e movement on t h e o t h e r two d i m e n s i o n s . P o s i t i v e communication s k i l l s (empathy, r e f l e c t i v e l i s t e n i n g ) e n a b le f a m i l i e s t o share w i t h each o t h e r t h e i r c h a n g i n g needs and p r e f e r e n c e s as t h e y r e l a t e t o c o h e s i o n and a d a p t a b i l i t y ( O l s o n e t . a l , 1983). Olso n (1980) d e f i n e s c o h e s i o n as "the degree t o which an i n d i v i d u a l i s s e p a r a t e d from o r c o n n e c t e d t o h i s o r her f a m i l y (p. 5 ) . " Most r e s e a r c h (Wynne e t a l . , 1958, L e v i n g e r , 1965, S t i e r l i n , 1979, O l s o n e t a l . , 1983) a d d r e s s e s t h e extremes of c o h e s i o n g i v i n g more a t t e n t i o n t o d y s f u n c t i o n a l f a m i l i e s . A b a l a n c e on the c o h e s i o n d i m e n s i o n r e l a t e s t o more adequate h e a l t h y f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g . O l s o n (1978) s t r e s s e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a d a p t a b i l i t y i n f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g . He d e f i n e s a d a p t a b i l i t y as "the a b i l i t y o f a f a m i l y system t o change i t s power s t r u c t u r e , r o l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , r e l a t i o n s h i p r u l e s i n response t o s i t u a t i o n a l and d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t r e s s (p. 1 2 ) . " O l s o n e t a l . (1983) i d e n t i f y f o u r s t a g e s i n t h e f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e , one o f w hich i s t h e " F a m i l y w i t h A d o l e s c e n t s " . I t i s t h i s s t a g e which shows the g r e a t e s t d e c r e a s e i n f a m i l y a d a p t a b i l i t y because a d o l e s c e n t s view f a m i l i e s as l e s s f l e x i b l e a t t h i s s t a g e . There i s w i d e s p r e a d consensus on t h e i mportance of communication i n f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( W a t z l a w i c k e t a l . , 1967, M i l l e r e t a l . , 1975, S a t i r , 1972). Most r e s e a r c h a d d r e s s e s the s p o u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o n l y (Olson e t a l . , 1983). Communication i s an i m p o r t a n t i n g r e d i e n t i n f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g (Olson,1979) because i t f a c i l i t a t e s movement on the c o h e s i o n and a d a p t a b i l i t y d i m e n s i o n s . S t e i n b e r g (1981) examined t h e impact of p h y s i c a l changes o f a d o l e s c e n t s on f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s and found s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e way a d o l e s c e n t s i n t e r a c t w i t h p a r e n t s . A d o l e s c e n t s (Cooper e t a l . , 1982) e x p e r i e n c i n g f a m i l y s u p p o r t may f e e l f r e e r t o e x p l o r e 30 i d e n t i t y i s s u e s . Barnes and O l s o n (1985) r e p o r t a d o l e s c e n t s p e r c e i v e l e s s openness and more problems i n i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l communication t h a n t h e i r p a r e n t s . They found t h a t f a m i l i e s w i t h good p a r e n t c h i l d communication had h i g h e r l e v e l s o f f a m i l y s a t i s f a c t i o n , namely c o h e s i o n and a d a p t a b i l i t y . A model t h a t a d d r e s s e s a s p e c t s o f c o h e s i o n , a d a p t a b i l i t y and communication i n "normal" f a m i l i e s i s t h a t o f B r o n f e n b r e n n e r (1979). The s e n i o r a u t h o r o f The P a r e n t ' s Guide t o C a r e e r C o u n s e l l i n g (Cochran & Amundson, 1984) program i n d i c a t e s t h a t h i s t h e o r y ( B r o n f e n b r e n n e r , 1973) s e r v e s as a n o t h e r b a s i c b u i l d i n g b l o c k i n t h e i r approach. B r o n f e n b r e n n e r t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t t h e environment i n w hich the f a m i l y members l i v e . He d e f i n e s development as t h e way i n which a p e r s o n p e r c e i v e s and d e a l s w i t h h i s o r her environment. H i s i s a t h e o r y o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s and t h e i r i m p a ct on t h e d e v e l o p i n g p e r s o n . E n v i r o n m e n t a l e v e n t s and c o n d i t i o n s o u t s i d e t h e immediate s e t t i n g c o n t a i n i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l can i n f l u e n c e b e h a v i o r and development w i t h i n t h a t s e t t i n g . Human development i s seen as a " p r o g r e s s i v e accommodation t h r o u g h o u t t h e l i f e span, between t h e growing organism and t h e c h a n g i n g environment i n which i t a c t u a l l y l i v e s and grows ( B r o n f e n b r e n n e r , 1977, p. 513)." 31 B r o n f e n b r e n n e r 1 s (1979) model i s c o n c e i v e d as a s e t o f n e s t e d s t r u c t u r e s which he r e f e r s t o as systems. The innermost s t r u c t u r e ( t h e microsystem) i s t h e immediate s e t t i n g c o n t a i n i n g t h e d e v e l o p i n g p e r s o n . The microsystem d e a l s w i t h i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e immediate s e t t i n g . The s t r u c t u r e s u r r o u n d i n g t h e m i c r o s y s t e m i s c a l l e d t h e mesosystem and c o n t a i n s t h e s e t t i n g s beyond the immediate s e t t i n g and t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s between them. (Example: f o r a c h i l d , t h i s would i n c l u d e t h e r e l a t i o n s among home, s c h o o l and neighborhood peer g r o u p s ) . The t h i r d s t r u c t u r e ( t h e exosystem) c o n t a i n s events o c c u r r i n g i n s e t t i n g s i n which t h e p e r s o n i s not even p r e s e n t b u t whi c h have an e f f e c t on t h e d e v e l o p i n g p e r s o n . (Example: a s c h o o l c l a s s a t t e n d e d by an o l d e r s i b l i n g ) . The o u t e r s t r u c t u r e ( t h e macrosystem) c o n t a i n s the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n s common t o a c u l t u r e o r a s u b c u l t u r e . A p e r s o n ' s a c t i v i t i e s may be c o n f i n e d t o e x p e r i e n c e s i n and o f t h e immediate s e t t i n g b u t they can t a k e on a h i g h e r o r d e r o f c o m p l e x i t y t h r o u g h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s w i t h p e o p l e . B r o n f e n b r e n n e r ' s model p r o v i d e s a framework t o und e r s t a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n f a m i l i e s ( m i c r o s y s t e m ) . He uses d y a d i c f o r m a t i o n s t o d e s c r i b e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . These f o r m a t i o n s range from t h e immediate 32 dyad and move p r o g r e s s i v e l y toward a more complex one t o d e s c r i b e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . There must be an e s t a b l i s h e d r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r a dyad t o e x i s t . When t h i s o c c u r s the dyad can have t h r e e f u n c t i o n a l forms which become p r o g r e s s i v e l y complex: 1) The o b s e r v a t i o n a l dyad o c c u r s when one dyad member pays c l o s e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e o t h e r ' s a c t i v i t y who i n t u r n acknowledges t h e i n t e r e s t shown. T h i s e v o l v e s i n t o t h e ne x t form o f dyad. 2) The j o i n t a c t i v i t y dyad o c c u r s when members o f the dyad p e r c e i v e t hemselves as d o i n g something t o g e t h e r . A j o i n t dyad e x h i b i t s r e c i p r o c i t y which m o t i v a t e s the members t o p e r s e v e r e and t o engage i n p r o g r e s s i v e l y more complex p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n which can c a r r y o v e r t o o t h e r t i m e s and p l a c e s . A dyad can c o n t a i n a member t h a t i s more i n f l u e n t i a l t h a n t h e o t h e r , but t h e power can s h i f t when t h e o t h e r member i s g i v e n c o n t r o l o v er t h e s i t u a t i o n . B r o n f e n b r e n n e r (1979) s t a t e s , " T h i s t r a n s f e r o f t e n t a k e s p l a c e s p o n t a n e o u s l y as a f u n c t i o n o f a c t i v e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g p e r s o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e environment (p. 5 8 ) . " As members engage i n i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e y d e v e l o p more pronounced f e e l i n g s toward one a n o t h e r . T h i s e v o l v e s i n t o t h e next form. 3) The p r i m a r y dyad o c c u r s when t h e members a r e 33 not t o g e t h e r b u t a r e i n each o t h e r ' s t h o u g h t s and c o n t i n u e t o i n f l u e n c e one a n o t h e r ' s b e h a v i o r even when a p a r t . B r o n f e n b r e n n e r 1 s (1979) model p r o v i d e s a key t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a l changes i n p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I f one member o f the dyad undergoes a p r o c e s s o f development, t h e o t h e r member i s a p t t o as w e l l . I t i s a p r o g r e s s i v e model wh i c h b e g i n s w i t h o b s e r v i n g a n o t h e r member, t h e n moving t o a more complex, m e a n i n g f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p which i n v o l v e s f e e l i n g s and an awareness o f t h e o t h e r member even i n h i s o r her absence. The f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n p r o c e s s e x e r t s an i n f l u e n c e on many f a c t o r s i n t h e l i f e o f an i n d i v i d u a l (Young, 1984). The i n t e r a c t i o n between any two members of a f a m i l y i n v o l v e s t h e e m o t i o n a l and p h y s i c a l c l i m a t e s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e e n t i r e f a m i l y and t h e degree o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between members o f t h e f a m i l y . T h i s s t u d y f o c u s e s p r i m a r i l y on t h e j o i n t a c t i v i t y dyad. Through a s e r i e s o f s t r u c t u r e d a c t i v i t i e s , t he p a r e n t and c h i l d a r e a b l e t o work t o g e t h e r t o h e l p t h e c h i l d t o a c c o m p l i s h a c a r e e r t a s k . As r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t e n s i f y , B r o n f e n b r e n n e r ' s model would i n d i c a t e a movement from t h e j o i n t a c t i v i t y dyad t o a p r i m a r y one. T h i s movement c o v e r s c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s t h a t B r o n f e n b r e n n e r sees as i m p o r t a n t t o a c h i e v i n g t h i s g o a l . As f a m i l y members pay f u l l a t t e n t i o n t o the t a s k , each i s a b l e t o g i v e and t a k e w i t h o u t f e a r o f g i v i n g o f f e n s e . B r o n f e n b r e n n e r (1979) views t h e h e a l t h y p e r s o n a l i t y development o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y s e t t i n g as r e q u i r i n g a b a l a n c e o f p a r e n t a l s u p p o r t and c o n t r o l . A h e a l t h y f a m i l y environment promotes bonding and f l e x i b i l i t y . As a dyad p r o g r e s s e s t o a h i g h e r form, t h e r e i s a p t t o be an i n c r e a s e i n bonding between f a m i l y members and t h e y s h o u l d be more a b l e t o e f f e c t i v e l y adapt t o s i t u a t i o n a l and r e l a t i o n s h i p changes. Summary Over t h e p a s t decade, a body o f f a m i l y t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h has been g e n e r a t e d which demonstrates t h e s a l i e n c e o f c o h e s i o n and a d a p t a b i l i t y i n d e s c r i b i n g the h e a l t h y f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g . B r o n f e n b r e n n e r ' s (1979) t h e o r y o f f a m i l y development i s viewed as a l i v i n g open system s t r i v i n g t o m a i n t a i n a s t a t e o f i n t e r n a l b a l a n c e . T h i s b a l a n c e depends upon t h e i n d i v i d u a l b e i n g a b l e t o adapt t o changes w i t h i n the f a m i l y s e t t i n g t h rough e f f e c t i v e communication and f a m i l y c o h e s i o n . 35 I n s t r u m e n t s f o r Measuring F a m i l y Bonding and F l e x i b i l i t y How can t h e concept o f d y a d i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s , f a m i l y bonding and c o h e s i o n be measured? A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e few i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t a r e used i n measuring f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Four o f t h e more common measurements a r e d e s c r i b e d . a. F a m i l y Concept T e s t (FCT) Van d e r Veen (1976) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y members r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r f a m i l y ' s a t t i t u d e s , f e e l i n g s , and e x p e c t a t i o n s . The FCT was c o n s t r u c t e d t o measure t h e s e p e r c e p t i o n s . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e s c o r e s d i s c l o s e two f a c t o r s : f a m i l y i n t e g r a t i o n and a d a p t i v e c o p i n g which c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l t h e c o h e s i o n - a d a p t a b l i l i t y d i m e n s i o n s mentioned e a r l i e r . There appears t o be l i t t l e f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h t o show v a l i d i t y . b. F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s T e s t (FRT) The F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s T e s t (Bene, 1965) d e f i n e s t h e components o f r e c a l l e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n d i v i d u a l s engage i n a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e r e c o l l e c t i o n o f p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s . The t e s t n e c e s s i t a t e s i n d i v i d u a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n whereby t h e s u b j e c t g i v e s t h e examiner i n f o r m a t i o n about f a m i l y members. C a u t i o n i s recommended because t h i s i s done v e r b a l l y and i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t can produce examiner b i a s . 36 c. F a m i l y Environment S c a l e (FES) FES (Moos & Moos, 1976) a s s e s s e s t h e s o c i a l c l i m a t e o f a l l t y p e s o f f a m i l i e s and f o c u s e s on the i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among f a m i l y members, d i r e c t i o n s o f p e r s o n a l growth which a r e emphasized i n the f a m i l y , and system maintenance i n t h e f a m i l y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p d i m e n s i o n s i n c l u d e s u b s c a l e s o f c o h e s i o n , e x p r e s s i v e n e s s , and c o n f l i c t and a s s e s s th e e x t e n t t o which f a m i l y members f e e l t h a t t hey b e l o n g t o and a r e proud o f t h e i r f a m i l y . The s u b s c a l e s o f t h e p e r s o n a l growth d i m e n s i o n a r e independence, achievement o r i e n t a t i o n , i n t e l l e c t u a l - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n , a c t i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , and m o r a l - r e l i g i o u s emphasis. These measure t h e emphasis w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y on d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s t h a t may be f o s t e r e d by t h e f a m i l y . The system maintenance d i m e n s i o n i n c l u d e s o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l . They o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about the o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y . The i n s t r u m e n t w h i l e p r e s e n t i n g e m p i r i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n (Fuhr e t a l . , 1981, B e l l & B e l l , 1982) appears t o l a c k c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y on t h e c o h e s i o n d i m e n s i o n s ( R u s s e l l , 1980). d. F a m i l y A d a p t a b i l i t y and C o h e s i o n E v a l u a t i o n S c a l e s (FACES) B r o n f e n b r e n n e r (1979) r e f e r s t o t h e b o n d i n g and f l e x i b i l i t y o f f a m i l i e s as p a r t o f d y a d i c f o r m a t i o n . When dyads move t o h i g h e r , more complex f o r m s , t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e i n c o h e s i o n and a g r e a t e r a b i l i t y t o adapt t o change. A measure which f o c u s e s on t h e s e two d i m e n s i o n s i s O l s o n ' s (1979) F a m i l y A d a p t a b i l i t y and C o h e s i o n E v a l u a t i o n S c a l e s . O l s o n d e l i n e a t e s two a s p e c t s o f f a m i l y b e h a v i o r , c o h e s i o n and a d a p t a b i l i t y , t h a t appear as t h e u n d e r l y i n g d i m e n s i o n s f o r many c o n c e p t s d e s c r i b i n g f a m i l y dynamics. A b a l a n c e d degree o f c o h e s i o n and a d a p t a b i l i t y i s most f u n c t i o n a l t o f a m i l y development. O l s o n d e f i n e s f a m i l y c o h e s i o n as "the e m o t i o n a l b o n d i n g members have w i t h one a n o t h e r and t h e degree o f autonomy a p e r s o n e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e f a m i l y system ( p . 5 ) . " The v a r i a b l e s used t o measure f a m i l y c o h e s i o n a r e : e m o t i o n a l b o n d i n g , b o u n d a r i e s , c o a l i t i o n s , t i m e , space, f r i e n d s , d e c i s i o n making, and i n t e r e s t s and r e c r e a t i o n . O l s o n i d e n t i f i e s t h e second d i m e n s i o n i n h i s model as a d a p t a b i l i t y . O l s o n (1974) d e f i n e s a d a p t a b i l i t y as " t h e a b i l i t y o f a f a m i l y system t o change i t s power s t r u c t u r e , r o l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , r e l a t i o n s h i p r u l e s i n r e s p o n s e t o s i t u a t i o n a l and d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t r e s s ( p . 1 2 ) . " The v a r i a b l e s used t o measure a d a p t a b i l i l t y a r e : f a m i l y power, n e g o t i a t i o n s t y l e s , r o l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and r e l a t i o n s h i p r u l e s . FACES ( O l s o n , B e l l & P o r t n e r , 1979) i s a s e l f - r e p o r t i n s t r u m e n t which measures c o h e s i o n and 38 a d a p t a b i l i t y i n f a m i l i e s . I t i s used by c o u n s e l l o r s who are i n t e r e s t e d i n a s s e s s i n g f a m i l i e s i n terms o f t h e i r a d a p t a b i l i t y and c o h e s i o n l e v e l s . The i n s t r u m e n t i n i t s e n t i r e t y i s p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix G. One c o m p l i c a t i o n however, i n t h e use o f FACES i s t h a t e x c e s s i v e l y h i g h l e v e l s o f c o h e s i o n and a d a p t a b i l i t y a r e not p o s i t i v e . B a l a n c e d f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g i n v o l v e s t h e m i d d l e range o f s c o r e s . Extreme s c o r e s a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f imbalanced f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g . On t h e d i m e n s i o n o f a d a p t a b i l i t y , f l e x i b l e f u n c t i o n i n g might become c h a o t i c i n extreme and s t r u c t u r e d f u n c t i o n i n g might become r i g i d . On t h e d i m e n s i o n o f c o h e s i o n , a con n e c t e d f a m i l y might become enmeshed and a s e p a r a t e d f a m i l y might become d i s e n g a g e d . S i n c e t h e extremes o f each s c a l e o f FACES a r e r e g a r d e d as p r o b l e m a t i c , t h e s c a l e s cannot be i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y used as measures o f improvement. R a t h e r , c a u t i o n must be t a k e n t o see t h a t improvements a r e w i t h i n t h e m i d d l e range w i t h o u t c r o s s i n g o v er i n t o t h e p r o b l e m a t i c extremes. Summary The measuring o f f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s has been s u p p o r t e d by s e v e r a l s t u d i e s (Walsh, 1983) u s i n g p r o j e c t i v e i n s t r u m e n t s r a t h e r t h a n o b j e c t i v e ones. FES and FACES a r e two i n s t r u m e n t s s u p p o r t i n g f a m i l y r e l a t i o n - 39 s h i p s in. which s c o r i n g and r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d a r e o b j e c t i v e . FACES seems p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l s u i t e d t o t h i s s t u d y of d y a d i c f o r m a t i o n s i n the f a m i l y and c a r e e r m a t u r i t y because t h e i n s t r u m e n t r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y t o f a m i l y c o h e s i o n and a d a p t a b i l i t y and i s o b j e c t i v e . THE INFLUENCE OF FAMILY ON ADOLESCENT CAREER DEVELOPMENT The l i t e r a t u r e w hich a d d r e s s e s t h e e f f e c t s o f f a m i l i e s on a c h i l d ' s c a r e e r c h o i c e s i s e x t e n s i v e and v a r i e d . The d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a such as s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n , f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n , and p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s can a f f e c t v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . T h i s s e c t i o n a d d r e s s e s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p a r e n t s as p r i m a r y m o t i v a t o r s on t h e a d o l e s c e n t c h i l d ' s c a r e e r development. B r a t c h e r (1982) noted t h a t t h e systems model can be used i n e x a m i n i n g c a r e e r c h o i c e s . H i s b a s i c assumptions were: 1) t h e f a m i l y i s t h e p r i m a r y e m o t i o n a l system o f a p e r s o n ; 2) t h e f a m i l y has i n f l u e n c e d and w i l l c o n t i n u e t o i n f l u e n c e t h e c o u r s e and outcome o f i t s members' l i v e s ; 3) r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y t e n d t o be r e c i p r o c a l and p a t t e r n e d ; and 4) each f a m i l y member a f f e c t s and i s a f f e c t e d by e v e r y o t h e r f a m i l y member. P a r e n t s a r e among t h e p r i m a r y s o c i a l i z i n g a g ents i n our s o c i e t y . As s u c h , t h e y a r e i n key p o s i t i o n s t o i n f l u e n c e t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s v a l u e s and b e h a v i o r s . The impact o f p a r e n t a l g u i d a n c e i s as s t r o n g i n c a r e e r development as 40 i t i s i n a l l o t h e r a r e a s o f human growth (Osipow, 1983). B i r k (1979) r e p o r t s t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p o r t p a r e n t s as the most r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r c a r e e r s e l e c t i o n . M i t c h e l l (1979) found t h a t s e v e n t e e n y e a r o l d s t a l k e d o v e r t h e i r f u t u r e c a r e e r p l a n s w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s a l m o s t t w i c e as f r e q u e n t l y as t h e n e x t p e r s o n . R o b e r t s (1979) found t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f grade t e n s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r p a r e n t s were t h e i r most i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f h e l p when making v o c a t i o n a l p l a n s . P a r e n t s a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n h e l p i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i t h c a r e e r p l a n n i n g ( S c h u l e n b e r g e t a l . , 1984). Burke e t a l . (1979) conducted a s t u d y which examined p a r e n t a l impact upon t h e c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s o f c h i l d r e n . When asked who th e y t h o u g h t had t h e most i n f l u e n c e upon a c h i l d ' s c a r e e r growth, t h e c h i l d r e n responded t h a t b o t h p a r e n t s were i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r s . G u l i c k ' s (1978) s u r v e y i n d i c a t e d t h a t 92% o f t h e p a r e n t s viewed themselves as key peopl e i n t h e c a r e e r development o f c h i l d r e n . N i n e t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e p a r e n t s wanted t o work w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n and t h e s c h o o l i n e x p l o r i n g c a r e e r o p t i o n s o f i n t e r e s t . The i n f l u e n c e o f p a r e n t s i n t h e development o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s o c c u p a t i o n a l p l a n s was r e p o r t e d i n a stud y by Anderson, Mawby and O l s o n (1965). Based on the more g e n e r a l p o s t u l a t e t h a t b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s o f youth a r e a consequence o f p a r e n t a l a s p i r a t i o n s f o r 41 t h e i r c h i l d r e n , Anderson e t a l . ( 1 9 6 5 ) o f f e r t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o p o s i t i o n s : 1) P a r e n t s a r e t h e major r e f e r e n c e group i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s o f y o u t h ; and 2) Young peop l e te n d t o f o l l o w t h e e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s f o r m u l a t e d f o r them by t h e i r p a r e n t s . S c h o f f n e r and K l e i m e r (1973) s u g g e s t f o u r a r e a s o f p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e r e g a r d i n g c a r e e r development: p a r e n t s s e r v i n g as r o l e models, as m o t i v a t o r s o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t s and a c t i v i t i e s , as i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e r s , and as p r o v i d e r s o f a d e v e l o p m e n t a l environment. Werts (1967) found t h a t p a r e n t s p r o v i d e work r o l e models w i t h which c h i l d r e n can i d e n t i f y and t h a t c e r t a i n o c c u p a t i o n s ( e n g i n e e r i n g , a r c h i t e c t u r e , c h e m i s t r y and botany) o f f a t h e r s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s i m i l a r c a r e e r c h o i c e s o f sons. As m o t i v a t o r s , p a r e n t s p r o v i d e t h e encouragement n e c e s s a r y t o pursue i n t e r e s t s and r e c o g n i z e s u c c e s s e s o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . By p r o v i d i n g an environment t h a t i s warm and t r u s t i n g , p a r e n t s can encourage t h e i r c h i l d ' s c a r e e r development t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e i r c h i l d i s a b l e t o make e f f e c t i v e c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s ( S c h o f f n e r & K l e i m e r , 1973). " I f p a r e n t s p r o v i d e a harmonious atmosphere i n t h e home, the c h i l d can be b e t t e r p r e p a r e d i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The way t h e c h i l d r e a c t s 42 w i t h f a m i l y members i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e way he may a c t w i t h co-workers ( S c h o f f n e r & K l e i m e r , 1973, p. 424)." Grandy and Stahman (1974) e x p l o r e d whether p a r e n t s p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r some v o c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s w h i l e d i s c o u r a g i n g o t h e r s . T h e i r sample c o n s i s t e d o f male and female e x p r e s s e d o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s and t h e o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e i r p a r e n t s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t sons w i t h p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s s i m i l a r t o t h e i r f a t h e r ' s chose s i m i l a r o c c u p a t i o n s . M o r t i m e r (1976) r e p o r t e d on t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n , f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and a d o l e s c e n t son's v o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . The s t u d y was conducted t o d e t e r m i n e i f a s p e c t s o f t h e f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n would be e x p r e s s e d i n t h e f a t h e r - s o n r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h would a f f e c t the son's c a r e e r c h o i c e . The f i n d i n g s s uggest t h a t sons o f f a t h e r s w i t h p r e s t i g i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s and a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p , more r e a d i l y i n t e r n a l i z e t h e work v a l u e s o f t h e i r f a t h e r s and t h e r e f o r e move i n a s i m i l a r c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n . Summary The outcomes o f s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g a d o l e s c e n t c a r e e r development and i n t r a - f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s a r e v a r i e d . S t u d i e s a d d r e s s i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f d i v e r s e forms o f f a m i l i a l i n v o l v e m e n t suggest t h a t f a m i l y i n v o l v e m e n t , 43 e x p r e s s e d i n c a r e e r a m b i t i o n s f o r t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t c h i l d , i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f a v o r a b l e c a r e e r development outcomes. A d o l e s c e n t s tend t o i d e n t i f y w i t h p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s and t h e s t r e n g t h o f r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n may be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e p a r e n t ' s guidance o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t . A l t h o u g h s e v e r a l s t u d i e s show t h e f a m i l y as b e i n g t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r i n c a r e e r s e l e c t i o n , l i t t l e i s known about how t h i s i s brought about. Few s t u d i e s e x p l i c i t l y i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a m i l y members and c a r e e r development v a r i a b l e s . CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS THAT PRODUCE CHANGE A r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e ( Anderson e t a l . , 1965, S c h o f f n e r & K l e i m e r , 1973, R o b e r t s , 1979, Osipow, 1983) i n d i c a t e s t h a t p a r e n t s p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e c a r e e r development o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . However, t h e r e i s l i t t l e s u p p o r t o r a s s i s t a n c e a v a i l a b l e f o r them t o f u l f i l l t he r o l e o f g u i d i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n t h r o u g h t h e dev e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s o f v o c a t i o n a l achievement (Osguthorpe, 1976). A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l i n n o v a t i v e c a r e e r programs f o r p a r e n t s but l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e o f t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Few r e c e n t s t u d i e s a d d r e s s programs which have been d e v e l o p e d t o h e l p p a r e n t s i n t h e t a s k o f h e l p i n g t h e i r c h i l d i n c a r e e r development. A M i c h i g a n 7 group (Anderson, Mawby & O l s o n , 1965) d e s i g n e d and implemented a program c a l l e d C a r e e r O c c u p a t i o n a l Guide which was b u i l t around t h e theme "youth development" t h r o u g h an a c t i o n program f o r p a r e n t s . I t was t h e i r g o a l t o h e l p p a r e n t s and t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t c h i l d r e n become aware o f t h e l i n k between t h e governmental a g e n c i e s , p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r s , u n i v e r s i t i e s and t h e w o r l d o f work. M a t e r i a l s were p r o v i d e d f o r a l l p a r e n t s o f a l l h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s i n a m u l t i - c o u n t y a r e a . The program r e c e i v e d f a v o u r a b l e v e r b a l s u p p o r t from t h o s e who used i t ; A program e n t i t l e d C h o i c e s and C a r e e r : F r e e t o Choose About C a r e e r s , was d e s i g n e d by Thompson (1978) f o r American I n d i a n p a r e n t s t o use w i t h t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t d a u g h t e r s . The program i n c l u d e s i n f o r m a t i o n about c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s as w e l l as b a r r i e r s t h e s e g i r l s may f a c e i n f i n d i n g work. No assessment c o u l d be found o f the su c c e s s o f t h e program. Lea (1976) d e s c r i b e s a workshop i n t e n d e d t o g i v e p a r e n t s o f h i g h s c h o o l sophomores and j u n i o r s i n f o r m a t i o n about the n a t u r e o f v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e so t h a t t h e y might be a more u n d e r s t a n d i n g and h e l p f u l r e s o u r c e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n as they make c a r e e r p l a n s . The p a r e n t s t o o k the V o c a t i o n a l P r e f e r e n c e I n v e n t o r y and responded i n t h r e e ways: 1) as they p r e f e r r e d , 2) as 45 they thought t h e i r c h i l d r e n would answer, and 3) as th e y hoped t h e i r c h i l d r e n would answer. The i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from t h e s e r e s p o n s e s s e r v e d as a s t i m u l u s f o r d i s c u s s i o n s about t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f c a r e e r c h o i c e . A f o l l o w u p s u r v e y r e v e a l e d t h a t t w e l v e o f e i g h t e e n p a r e n t s i n v o l v e d , t h o u g h t about t h e i r c h i l d ' s c a r e e r p l a n n i n g a f t e r t h e workshop and a l l i n d i c a t e d t h e y had t a l k e d t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n about c a r e e r p l a n n i n g a f t e r t h e workshop. Another program d e s i g n e d f o r p a r e n t s , The C a r e e r C o n v e r s a t i o n was d e s i g n e d and implemented by Osguthorpe (1976). The purpose o f t h i s program was t o h e l p p a r e n t s work w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n c a r e e r p l a n n i n g . The p i l o t program was o f f e r e d t o t h i r t y s t u d e n t s a t t h e n i n t h grade l e v e l and t h e i r p a r e n t s . The feedback from t h e p a r e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d was e n c o u r a g i n g . The r e s u l t s o f the s t u d y b r o u g h t o u t t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n : s t u d e n t s e x p e c t e d p a r e n t s t o be most i n f l u e n t i a l i n h e l p i n g them make t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e s ; p a r e n t s f e l t t h a t p r i o r t o t h e program t h e y were not equipped w i t h the n e c e s s a r y s k i l l s t o h e l p t h e i r c h i l d r e n ; and t e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t , a l t h o u g h i t was t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p a r e n t s and c o u n s e l l o r s t o h e l p s t u d e n t s make a c a r e e r d e c i s i o n , p a r e n t s were p r o b a b l y most i n f l u e n t i a l . Greenough (1976) d e s i g n e d and implemented a guidance program f o r p a r e n t s o f upcoming s e n i o r s t u d e n t s . The purpose o f the program was t o i n c o r p o r a t e p a r e n t a l g u i d a n c e and i n t e r e s t i n t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s o f a s e n i o r s t u d e n t . The s t u d y measured t h e accomplishments o f t h e g r a d u a t e s f i v e and s i x y e a r s a f t e r c o m p l e t i n g h i g h s c h o o l . Greenough found t h a t t h e p a r e n t c o u n s e l l e d s t u d e n t s had a 90% chance o f c o m p l e t i n g a p o s t h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n and were r e a s o n a b l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n . The s t u d e n t s whose p a r e n t s chose not t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the program i n d i c a t e d a 20 - 60% p r o b a b i l i t y o f e r r o r when compared t o t h e same achievements as t h e p a r e n t s c o u n s e l l e d . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e program appeared t o h e l p s t u d e n t s s e l e c t a p r e p l a n n e d major, r e c e i v e a p o s t secondary degree and be s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . The s t u d e n t s w i t h t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g d i d not r e c e i v e s i g n i f i c a n t h e l p from p a r e n t s w i t h t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . Greenough c o n c l u d e d t h e r e i s a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t u d e n t s r e a s o n a b l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e and p a r e n t s who were i n v o l v e d i n t h e p a r e n t c o u n s e l l i n g program. Another program c a l l e d C a r e e r Development P a r t n e r s h i p (Myers e t a l . , 1979), d e v e l o p e d f o r the Rhode I s l a n d Department of E d u c a t i o n l i n k e d p a r e n t s , s t u d e n t s and s c h o o l s . I t i n v o l v e d p a r e n t s i n t h e c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s a t a l l l e v e l s i n s c h o o l . The g o a l o f t h e program was t o make p a r e n t s more aware o f t h e i r r o l e i n t h e c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s e s o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The program sought t o enhance t h e p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p i n a manner w h i c h would f o s t e r v o c a t i o n a l development. The a u t h o r s r e p o r t t h a t t h e program was w e l l r e c e i v e d by p a r e n t s i n t h e community. There i s e v i d e n c e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t some s c h o o l based c a r e e r development programs have a h i g h s u c c e s s r a t e . O t t e and Sharpe (1979) s t u d i e d 28 s e v e n t h g r a d e r s i n v o l v e d i n a c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n program f o r one semester. They r e p o r t e d t h a t s u b j e c t s made s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n v o c a t i o n a l knowledge, s e l f esteem, and problem s o l v i n g . The s t u d e n t s were t e s t e d w i t h the S e l f Esteem I n v e n t o r y and t h e PECE t e s t d e v e l o p e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f G e o r g i a t o a s s e s s v o c a t i o n a l knowledge. The a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e program was b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e s e 28 y o u n g s t e r s i n a t t a i n i n g a h i g h e r s e l f esteem and g r e a t e r v o c a t i o n a l knowledge. B r a n d t (1976) s t u d i e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a n i n t h grade p r e v o c a t i o n a l program w h i c h l a s t e d f o u r weeks. He used t h e C a r e e r M a t u r i t y I n v e n t o r y as a pre and p o s t t e s t measure t o d e t e r m i n e v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y change. Two hundred f o u r s t u d e n t s were i n v o l v e d , h a l f o f which 48 s e r v e d as c o n t r o l s . B r a n d t r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s e s i n t h e growth of v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e competencies o f t h e t r e a t m e n t group o v e r t h e c o n t r o l group. However, t h e i n c r e a s e i n p o s t t e s t s c o r e s o v e r p r e t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t group d i d n o t a t t a i n s i g n i f i c a n c e . He o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e f o u r week program seemed t o b e n e f i t the low a c h i e v e r s more t h a n t h e h i g h a c h i e v e r s . The r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e d i d not r e v e a l many c a r e e r development programs which used the CDI, b u t t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s t u d i e s u s i n g t h i s measure had a h i g h s u c c e s s r a t e . Hamdani (1977) i n v e s t i g a t e d whether t h e v o c a t i o n a l development o f d i s a d v a n t a g e d i n n e r c i t y a d o l e s c e n t s c o u l d be enhanced t h r o u g h a program o f c u r r i c u l a r e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h were d e s i g n e d t o i n v o l v e t h e s t u d e n t i n v o c a t i o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n . He a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e CDI as a pre and p o s t measure t o 77 grade t e n s t u d e n t s . The program was done o v e r a f o u r month time p e r i o d . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e p o s t t e s t mean s c o r e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y over the p r e t e s t s c o r e s on t h r e e of t h e s u b s c a l e s o f the CDI: S c a l e A, t=6.14, p.<01, S c a l e B, t=5.52, p<.01, S c a l e C, t=3.71, p<.01. Hamdani c l a i m e d t h a t t h e c a r e e r m a t u r i t y o f d i s a d v a n t a g e d y o u t h can be f a c i l i t a t e d t h r o u g h a c a r e e r development program. 49 Y a t e s (1982) e v a l u a t e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a j u n i o r c o l l e g e c a r e e r l a b o r a t o r y program u s i n g t h e CDI Form 111 t o measure g a i n s i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y . A p r e - p o s t t e s t e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n w i t h a c o n t r o l group was used i n t h e s t u d y . The t r e a t m e n t c o n s i s t e d o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g t he SVIB, e x p l o r a t i o n o f s e l e c t e d c a r e e r s and a c l o s i n g c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n . T h i r t y - f i v e s t u d e n t s i n each group were a l l o w e d t h r e e weeks t o complete t h e t r e a t m e n t . A two-way ANOVA w i t h r e p e a t e d measures y i e l d e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t t h e .01 p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l f o r t h e a g g r e g a t e s c o r e o f the CDI. The e x p e r i m e n t a l group e x p e r i e n c e d a g a i n o f 70 p o i n t s whereas t h e c o n t r o l group g a i n was 5 p o i n t s . The Ca r e e r L a b o r a t o r y t r e a t m e n t showed s i g n i f i c a n t impact on t h e t o t a l c a r e e r m a t u r i t y o f t h e t r e a t m e n t group. M c C u l l o c h and Cochran (1985) e v a l u a t e d a peer v o c a t i o n a l program based on B l o c h e r ' s (1977) c o r e c o n d i t i o n s o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l programs. Ten hours a week over a f u l l semester were devoted t o t h e program which t r a i n e d 10 s t u d e n t s t o a c t as peer v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r s . Ten s t u d e n t s a c t e d as c o n t r o l s . The s t u d e n t s were p r e and p o s t t e s t e d u s i n g the CDI. Over t h e y e a r , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group changed i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y g a i n i n g 16 p o i n t s on the Ca r e e r O r i e n t a t i o n T o t a l o f t h e CDI. U s i n g ANCOVA, t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n p o s t t e s t s c o r e s o f 50 t h e group was s i g n i f i c a n t , F(1,17) = 19.03, p.<.01. A s t u d y which b e a r s resemblance t o t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y i s t h a t o f Bearg (1979). She d e s i g n e d a s c h o o l based c a r e e r development workshop f o r p a r e n t s and s t u d i e d the impact o f t h e workshop on t h e c a r e e r m a t u r i t y o f c h i l d r e n . The workshop p r o v i d e d p a r e n t s w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n and communication s k i l l s w i t h w h i c h t o h e l p t h e i r c h i l d r e n make c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s . She h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t s e n i o r s whose p a r e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e workshop would be more l i k e l y t o i n c r e a s e i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y s c o r e s t h a n t h o s e s e n i o r s whose p a r e n t s d i d n o t . There were f i f t e e n p a r e n t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and twenty-two i n t h e c o n t r o l group. She used t h e C a r e e r Development I n v e n t o r y as a p r e t e s t , p o s t t e s t measure and found t h a t t h e r e were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between th e groups of s e n i o r s . A q u a l i t a t i v e component suggested t h a t such a workshop on c a r e e r development was welcomed by p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s . T h i s s t u d y uses t h e same measure (CDI) and has a s i m i l a r q u a l i t a t i v e component. The Program Used i n t h i s Study A c c o r d i n g t o t h e a u t h o r s (Cochran & Amundson, 1984), The P a r e n t ' s Guide t o C a r e e r C o u n s e l l i n g i s based on t h e t h e o r e t i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g s o f B r o n f e n b r e n n e r ' s (1979) Model o f Dyadic F o r m a t i o n and Super's (1957) Theory o f C a r e e r Development. I t i s d e s i g n e d t o be used w i t h t h e a d o l e s c e n t who i s i n the e x p l o r a t i o n s t a g e o f c a r e e r development w i t h t h e emphasis on t h e l a t t e r t e n t a t i v e s u b s t a g e and t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t r a n s i t i o n s u b s t a g e . The a u t h o r s chose t h i s s t a g e because i t i s a t t h i s t i m e (age 15-16) t h a t t e n t a t i v e c h o i c e s a r e made and t h e a d o l e s c e n t i s a t a p o i n t where he o r she can b e g i n t o p l a n and implement h i s o r h e r c a r e e r g o a l s . I t i s a t t h i s s t a g e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t c o n s i d e r s h i s o r h e r a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e s and i d e n t i f i e s p o s s i b l e f i e l d s o f work. The e x p e r i m e n t a l program c o n t e n t s t r e s s e s a c t i v i t i e s t o d i s c o v e r an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e s and proceeds t o t a k e t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h r o u g h an e x p l o r a t i o n phase whereby he o r she g a i n s i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e work w o r l d and e v e n t u a l l y makes a t e n t a t i v e c a r e e r d e c i s i o n . The a u t h o r s s t r e s s t h e " t e n t a t i v e d e c i s i o n " because t h e s t u d e n t can mature i n h i s Or her c a r e e r development and c h o i c e s may change. The a u t h o r s a r e a l s o aware o f t h e chan g i n g n a t u r e o f c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n v i e w o f c u r r e n t economic s i t u a t i o n s (Amundson, 1985, p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) . An a s s u m p t i o n u n d e r l y i n g the program i s t h a t i t i s the p r o c e s s o f a r r i v i n g a t a d e c i s i o n t h a t i s enhanced, not t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n i t s e l f . S p e c i f i c a t i o n o f a v o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e o c c u r s when the a d o l e s c e n t has 52 rea c h e d a s t a g e o f m a t u r i t y where he o r she can c o n v e r t a g e n e r a l c h o i c e i n t o a more s p e c i f i c one. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e a u t h o r s (Amundson, 1985, p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) , t h e program s h a r e s B l o c h e r ' s (1977) c o r e f e a t u r e s o f e f f e c t i v e c a r e e r programs. These c o r e f e a t u r e s i n c l u d e i n v o l v e m e n t , c h a l l e n g e ( t a s k s a r e n e i t h e r t o o easy n or t o o d i f f i c u l t ) , s u p p o r t , s t r u c t u r e ( h a v i n g models o f advanced f u n c t i o n i n g t o a c c o m p l i s h t a s k s ) , f eedback ( i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d on p e r f o r m a n c e ) , a p p l i c a t i o n ( o p p o r t u n i t y t o a p p l y knowledge and s k i l l s ) , and i n t e g r a t i o n ( r e f l e c t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n ) . A r e c e n t c a r e e r development program which was d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r and i s based on B l o c h e r ' s c o r e i n g r e d i e n t s i s t h a t o f M c C u l l o c h e t a l . (1985). Cochran and Amundson (1984) use B r o n f e n b r e n n e r ' s (1979) Developmental model t o ad d r e s s t h e d y a d i c f o r c e s t h a t e x i s t i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p . The program i s d e s i g n e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between p a r e n t and c h i l d c o n c e r n i n g c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o Cochran (1985), one v e r y i m p o r t a n t way t o i n c r e a s e t h e p a r e n t - c h i l d i n v o l v e m e n t i s t o p r o v i d e a c t i v i t i e s t h r o u g h s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s which can enhance t h e p r o g r e s s i o n i n t h e c l o s e n e s s o r bonding o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p . The program r e l i e s h e a v i l y upon B r o n f e n b r e n n e r ' s (1979) f i v e hypotheses o f t h e d y a d i c f o r c e s t h a t e x i s t i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p . These a r e : 1. Once two per s o n s b e g i n t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o one a n o t h e r ' s a c t i v i t i e s , t h e y a r e more l i k e l y t o become j o i n t l y engaged i n t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s . 2. Once two per s o n s p a r t i c i p a t e i n a j o i n t a c t i v i t y t h e y a r e l i k e l y t o d e v e l o p more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and e n d u r i n g f e e l i n g s toward one a n o t h e r . 3. The d e v e l o p m e n t a l impact o f the dyad i n c r e a s e s as a d i r e c t f u n c t i o n o f t h e l e v e l s o f r e c i p r o c i t y , m u t u a l i t y o f a p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g , and g r a d u a l s h i f t o f b a l a n c e o f power i n f a v o r o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g p e r s o n . 4. O b s e r v a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g i s f a c i l i t a t e d when t h e o b s e r v e r and t h e p e r s o n b e i n g o b s e r v e d r e g a r d t h e m s e l v e s as d o i n g something t o g e t h e r . Thus the d e v e l o p m e n t a l impact o f an o b s e r v a t i o n a l dyad tends t o be g r e a t e r when i t t a k e s p l a c e i n the c o n t e x t o f a j o i n t a c t i v i t y dyad. 5. The d e v e l o p m e n t a l impact o f b o t h o b s e r v a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g and j o i n t a c t i v i t y w i l l be enhanced i f e i t h e r t a k e s p l a c e i n the c o n t e x t o f a p r i m a r y dyad c h a r a c t e r i z e d by m u t u a l i t y o f p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g ( B r o n f e n b r e n n e r , 1979, p. 56-57). The a u t h o r s o f t h e program view t h e a d o l e s c e n t i n 54 t h e c o n t e x t o f h i s o r h e r immediate s e t t i n g ( t h e m i c r o s y s t e m ) , namely th e f a m i l y . They encourage t h e p a r e n t t o work w i t h t h e c h i l d t o a c h i e v e f o u r g o a l s : 1) t o improve s e l f u n d e r s t a n d i n g , 2) t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about 11 v i a b l e o p t i o n s by matching one's i n t e r e s t s , v a l u e s and c a p a b i l i t i e s t o a p p r o p r i a t e o c c u p a t i o n s ( p . 2 8 ) " , 3) t o improve d e c i s i o n making s k i l l s , and 4) t o a c h i e v e a good w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p on t h e i s s u e o f c a r e e r development (Cochran, 1985a). The program b e g i n s w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y t h e s t u d e n t e n j o y s d o i n g . Through d i s c u s s i o n t h e a c t i v i t y moves from an i s o l a t e d s t a t i c e n t i t y t o one among a group o f i n s t a n c e s . T h i s i s viewed as p a r t o f a dynamic p r o c e s s i n w h i c h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t and c h i l d may change from an o b s e r v a t i o n a l t o a j o i n t a c t i v i t y t o a p r i m a r y dyad f o r m a t i o n . T h i s p r o g r e s s i o n o c c u r s as dyads pay a t t e n t i o n t o each o t h e r , r e s p e c t each o t h e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e s , and encourage each o t h e r ' s views i n nonjudgemehtal terms. There can be a s t r i v i n g f o r a mutual b a l a n c e o f power as t h e atmosphere becomes more s u p p o r t i v e . A d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f t h e p i l o t s t u d y conducted on t h e program and a copy of t h e p r e s e n t program appear i n Appendix A. The a u t h o r s r e f e r t o B r o n f e n b r e n n e r ' s (1979) concept o f change i n f a m i l y dyad f o r m a t i o n . Change i n 55 one dyad member produces change i n t h e o t h e r member. As t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t e n s i f i e s and c a r e e r t a s k s a r e a c c o m p l i s h e d t h e dyad moves t o a h i g h e r form. The a u t h o r s view t h i s as a p r o c e s s t h a t i n c r e a s e s f a m i l y c o h e s i o n and f l e x i b i l i t y . T h i s a b i l i t y t o adapt t o change e f f e c t i v e l y can be measured u s i n g O l s o n e t a l . ' s (1979) F a m i l y A d a p t a b i l i t y and Cohesion E v a l u a t i o n S c a l e s . The p r e s e n t program c o n s i s t s o f a p a r e n t ' s manual and t h r e e workbooks ( d e s c r i b e d i n Appendix A ) . Cochran (1985) has summarized t h e program i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner: The manual o r i e n t s p a r e n t s t o t h e program s t r e s s i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f communication and i n v o l v e m e n t n e c e s s a r y f o r a s u c c e s s f u l p a r t n e r s h i p . The e x e r c i s e s o f each workbook were d e s i g n e d b o t h t o s t i m u l a t e p a r e n t - c h i l d d i s c u s s i o n s and t o f o r w a r d b a s i c s t e p s o f c a r e e r p l a n n i n g . The A c t i v i t i e s S e l f - E x p l o r a t i o n Workbook at t e m p t s t o h e i g h t e n awareness of t h e known (one's c u r r e n t range o f a c t i v i t i e s ) i n o r d e r t o b e g i n e x p l o r i n g t h e unknown (work a c t i v i t i e s ) . Once a l i s t o f e n j o y a b l e a c t i v i t i e s i s d e v e l o p e d , t h e p a r e n t a s k s what h i s o r h e r c h i l d l i k e s about each, what v a l u e s a r e i n v o l v e d , and what s t r e n g t h s a r e shown. From n o t e s , b o t h p a r t n e r s s e a r c h t h r o u g h t h e l i s t s o f 5 6 l i k e s , v a l u e s , and s t r e n g t h s to i d e n t i f y ones t h a t r e c u r . These c e n t r a l themes are used as an i n i t i a l b a s i s f o r b r a i n s t o r m i n g a l i s t o f p o t e n t i a l occupations and l a u n c h i n g a s e a r c h . Career G r i d Workbook A c a r e e r g r i d i s a v i s u a l frame f o r o r g a n i z i n g a d e c i s i o n . F i r s t , through t e s t s , c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n , and so on, p a r t n e r s are d i r e c t e d t o expand and then narrow a l i s t o f s u i t a b l e o c c u p a t i o n s . Second, through t e s t s , c o n s u l t a t i o n , and so on, they are d i r e c t e d t o expand and then narrow a l i s t of c a r e e r v a l u e s . Expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n i s a s t r a t e g y t h a t a l l o w s major p r i n c i p l e s of d e c i s i o n making to be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the program, i n c l u d i n g use of a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s , and t h a t f o s t e r s a sense of working together. A f t e r o c c u p a t i o n s are r a t e d on each v a l u e , p a r t n e r s are guided through systematic comparision and reasonably thorough d e l i b e r a t i o n . The workbook ends with a t e n t a t i v e d e c i s i o n . For many, t h i s d e c i s i o n i s apt to be a form of p r a c t i c e , but f o r those who must a c t soon, i t might be a f i r s t step toward implementing a d i r e c t i o n . Planning Workbook Through a s e r i e s of s t e p s , the workbook guides 57 p a r t n e r s i n i d e n t i f y i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g o r e d u c a t i o n , d e t e r m i n i n g e n t r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s , e s t i m a t i n g c o s t s and r e s o u r c e s , and i m p r o v i n g o n e s e l f . The workbook a l s o i n c l u d e s t h r e e s c e n a r i o s t o s t r e n g t h e n awareness o f key terms l i k e means, o b s t a c l e s , c o n t i n g e n c i e s , f a l l - b a c k o p t i o n s , and so on. E s s e n t i a l l y , p a r e n t and c h i l d work t o g e t h e r t o form a r e a s o n a b l e c a r e e r p l a n (p. 1-2). STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e few programs a v a i l a b l e f o r p a r e n t s t o h e l p t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t c h i l d r e n i n s e t t i n g a c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n have not been e m p i r i c a l l y s u p p o r t e d (Anderson e t a l . , 1965, L e a , 1976, Osguthorpe, 1976, Greenough, 1976, Thompson, 1978). The o n l y c o n s i s t e n t i n d i c a t i o n i s t h a t p a r e n t s seem t o welcome a s s i s t a n c e . The p r i m a r y aim o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t o measure the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f one program t h a t was d e s i g n e d f o r p a r e n t s t o a s s i s t t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t c h i l d r e n i n c a r e e r development and t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h i s program i n f l u e n c e s the a d o l e s c e n t ' s l e v e l o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y , and p e r c e p t i o n s o f c o h e s i o n and a d a p t a b i l i t y . Below a r e the two h y potheses o f t h i s s t u d y a l o n g w i t h a b r i e f summary of t h e t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e f o r each. 1. I f p a r e n t s use t h e Cochran and Amundson (1984) program t o work w i t h t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t c h i l d r e n , t h e i r 58 a d o l e s c e n t s w i l l g a i n i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y compared t o a d o l e s c e n t s n ot i n v o l v e d i n t h e program, as measured by the CDI. T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s based d i r e c t l y upon Super's (1957) t h e o r y o f c a r e e r development. To summarize, c a r e e r development i n v o l v e s a p r o g r e s s i o n t h r o u g h c a r e e r s t a g e s . P r o g r e s s i o n i s dependent upon t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f s p e c i f i c c a r e e r development t a s k s . To s u c c e s s f u l l y complete t h e s e t a s k s r e q u i r e s t h e development o f c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s and compe t e n c i e s . N e a r i n g t h e end o f a d o l e s c e n c e , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s r e l e v a n t t o t h i s s t u d y a r e c r y s t a l l i z i n g , s p e c i f y i n g , and im p l e m e n t i n g a v o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e . These a r e t h e c o r e t a s k s o f t h e e x p l o r a t i o n s t a g e . To a c c o m p l i s h t h e s e t a s k s s u c c e s s f u l l y , Super (1957) has e m p i r i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d f o u r f a c t o r s : p l a n f u l n e s s , d e c i s i o n c o m p e t e n c i e s , e x p l o r a t o r y a t t i t u d e (as i n d i c a t e d by t h e q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s u s e d ) , and i n f o r m a t i o n about work. The p r e s e n t program was d e s i g n e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e s e f o u r f a c t o r s and o t h e r s such as s e l f awareness. I f a p a r e n t i s r e a s o n a b l y s u c c e s s f u l i n h e l p i n g h i s o r h e r c h i l d t o s t r e n g t h e n p l a n f u l n e s s , d e c i s i o n c o m p e t e n c i e s , e x p l o r a t o r y a t t i t u d e s , and i n f o r m a t i o n about work, i t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e c h i l d w i l l m a n i f e s t more c a r e e r m a t u r i t y , a n d more r e a d i n e s s t o s u c c e s s f u l l y a c c o m p l i s h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l 59 t a s k s o f the e x p l o r a t i o n s t a g e . 2. I f p a r e n t s and t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t c h i l d r e n work t o g e t h e r on t h e Cochran and Amundson (1984) program, t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t s w i l l r e p o r t g a i n s i n f a m i l y c o h e s i o n and a d a p t a b i l i t y compared t o a d o l e s c e n t s n o t i n v o l v e d i n t h e program, as measured by FACES. T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s based d i r e c t l y upon B r o n f e n b r e n n e r 1 s (1979) t h e o r y o f d y a d i c p r o g r e s s i o n . To summarize, an o b s e r v a t i o n a l dyad i s formed when two pe o p l e b e g i n t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o one a n o t h e r . I f t h e y pay a t t e n t i o n , t h e y a r e more l i k e l y t o become j o i n t l y engaged i n a common a c t i v i t y . A j o i n t a c t i v i t y dyad i s formed when two p e o p l e p a r t i c i p a t e i n a j o i n t a c t i v i t y . As t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e , t h e y a r e more l i k e l y t o "de v e l o p more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and e n d u r i n g f e e l i n g s toward one a n o t h e r ( p . 5 9 ) . " A p r i m a r y dyad i s formed when each member o f t h e dyad t h i n k s o f t h e o t h e r when a p a r t , i s t h e f o c u s o f s t r o n g e m o t i o n s , and i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e o t h e r ' s p r e s e n c e when a p a r t . As f e e l i n g s o f c a r i n g a r e e s t a b l i s h e d , i t i s more l i k e l y t h a t a p r i m a r y dyad w i l l be formed. The p r e s e n t program was d e s i g n e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e f a c t o r s ( p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n , mutual warmth and f e e l i n g ) t h a t s t i m u l a t e d y a d i c p r o g r e s s i o n . I f a p a r e n t and c h i l d a r e r e a s o n a b l y s u c c e s s f u l i n c u l t i v a t i n g t h e f a c i l i t a t i v e f a c t o r s , i t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e c h i l d w i l l e x p e r i e n c e more f a m i l y c o h e s i o n and a d a p t a b i l i t y , i n d i c a t i v e o f d y a d i c p r o g r e s s i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e p r i m a r y f o c u s o f t h e st u d y i s on t h e a d o l e s c e n t , an a n a l y s i s o f p a r e n t r e s p o n s e s w i l l be i n c l u d e d t o d i s c e r n whether t h e r e were c o r r e s p o n d i n g changes i n f a m i l y c o h e s i o n , a d a p t a b i l i t y , d y a d i c f o r m a t i o n s and i n t h e c a r e e r m a t u r i t y from t h e p a r e n t s ' p e r s p e c t i v e . A l t h o u g h t h e s e two h y p o t h e s e s a r e s e p a r a t e , t h e y a r e c o n c e i v e d i n t h e d e s i g n o f t h e program as m u t u a l l y s u p p o r t i v e . F o l l o w i n g B r o n f e n b r e n n e r ( 1 9 7 9 ) , . i t i s assumed t h a t i f a dyad m a n i f e s t s more r e c i p r o c i t y , b a l a n c e o f power, mutual f e e l i n g s o f warmth, and t o g e t h e r n e s s on a common t a s k , t h e n t h e de v e l o p m e n t a l impact o f t h e dyad w i l l be g r e a t e r . C o n v e r s e l y , i f t h e t a s k s posed i n c r e a s e i n c o m p l e x i t y , t h e r e w i l l be a g r e a t e r c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t a l i m p a c t . Through i n s t r u c t i o n and t a s k d e s i g n , t h e program was framed t o s t i m u l a t e b o t h d y a d i c p r o g r e s s i o n and c a r e e r development i n an i n t e g r a t i v e f a s h i o n . The complex and p e r s o n a l n a t u r e o f t h e workbook t a s k s i n v i t e t h o s e q u a l i t i e s ( p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n , r e c i p r o c i t y , and mutual b a l a n c e o f power) t h a t f a c i l i t a t e d y a d i c p r o g r e s s i o n . I n t u r n , a h i g h e r l e v e l o f d y a d i c f o r m a t i o n w i l l l i k e l y improve t h e q u a l i t y w i t h which workbook t a s k s a r e completed. CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY Design A two group p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n was employed t o s t u d y t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e P a r e n t C o u n s e l l i n g Program (Cochran & Amundson, 1984). The CDI, FACES, and t h e S e l f - R e p o r t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l and t h e W a i t - L i s t e d C o n t r o l Group b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e program. FACES and t h e S e l f - R e p o r t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e p a r e n t s o f bo t h groups b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e program. The f a m i l i e s were asked t o complete t h e program w i t h i n a four-week t i m e p e r i o d , from May 16 - June 14. A f t e r t h e program was co m p l e t e d , and t h e s c o r e s t a b u l a t e d , t h e two f a m i l i e s t h a t had shown t h e g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e i n raw s c o r e s i n a l l measures, t h e two t h a t had l i t t l e o r no change, and two t h a t had low e r p o s t t e s t s c o r e s were i n t e r v i e w e d i n p e r s o n . The o t h e r f a m i l i e s were i n t e r v i e w e d by t e l e p h o n e . P r e t e s t s 4 week I n t e r v e n t i o n P o s t t e s t s E x p e r i m e n t a l CDI P a r e n t c a r e e r CDI Group FACES c o u n s e l l i n g FACES Q u e s t i o n n a i r e program Q u e s t i o n n a i r e C o n t r o l Group CDI FACES Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( W a i t - l i s t e d ; No p l a c e b o ) CDI FACES Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 61 62 Sample F o r t y v o l u n t e e r f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n i n grade t e n o r e l e v e n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y . They were s o l i c i t e d from f i v e d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d . Each s c h o o l was r e p r e s e n t e d by e i g h t f a m i l i e s , f o u r E x p e r i m e n t a l and f o u r C o n t r o l . T a b l e 1 d e s c r i b e s t h e sample f o r each s c h o o l , T a b l e 1 D e s c r i p t i o n o f Sample W i t h i n S c h o o l s S c h o o l Gender Grade E x p e r i m e n t a l C o n t r o l E x p e r i m e n t a l C o n t r o l M F M F 10 11 10 11 A 3 1 1 3 2 2 2 2 B 1 3 2 2 1 3 3 1 C 2 2 1 3 3 1 1 3 D 1 3 2 2 1 3 3 1 E 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 T o t a l 8 12 8 12 9 11 11 9 P a r e n t 8 12 7 13 S c h o o l A i s s i t u a t e d i n a l o w e r m i d d l e c l a s s d i s t r i c t i n w h i c h f i s h i n g i s t h e predominant i n d u s t r y . Absenteeism i s h i g h d u r i n g May and September because s t u d e n t s a r e e x p e c t e d t o h e l p w i t h t h e f i s h i n g . M o t i v a t i o n f o r h i g h achievement i s not as h i g h as i n School D and E because many students take over the family business. School B i s located i n a middle class r u r a l area. A large proportion of the families i n t h i s area farm for a l i v i n g . The school has a r u r a l - l i k e atmosphere. Extra c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s do not play as s i g n i f i c a n t a role as i n other schools because most students are bused. Counsellors report that parents place an important value on education and the work e t h i c . School C i s situated i n a very a f f l u e n t area consisting of many business entrepreneurs and professionals. Parents have high expectations of t h e i r children i n regard to school achievement. School D i s located i n a lower economic region where many parents are laborers. Counsellors reported noticing the ef f e c t s of recent parental unemployment. School E i s i n an area where families represent a moderately high income l e v e l . The school i s four years old and the suburb i s r e l a t i v e l y new. Families consist of semi-professionals and professionals. This was the only school that had an active parent-teacher group. Treatment In each of the schools, the families (1 parent and 1 c h i l d i n grade ten or eleven) were randomly assigned to the Experimental or Control group. Each group c o n s i s t e d o f twenty f a m i l i e s . C o u n s e l l o r s o f t h e s t u d e n t s met w i t h t h e groups t o e x p l a i n t h e purpose o f the program ( t o h e l p t h e c h i l d w i t h h i s o r her c a r e e r p l a n n i n g ) . These c o u n s e l l o r s were from t h e s t u d e n t s ' s c h o o l s . A l l o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s had completed master's degrees i n c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The c o u n s e l l o r s i n f o r m e d t h e p a r e n t s about t h e Manual f o r P a r e n t s ( C o c h r a n , 1985) w h i c h would t a k e them th r o u g h a s e l f - g u i d e d s t e p - b y - s t e p p r o c e d u r e i n h e l p i n g t h e i r c h i l d w i t h c a r e e r p l a n n i n g . The Manual i s found i n Appendix A. I f t h e y e n c o u n t e r e d any problems, t h e y were asked t o r e f e r t o t h i s manual b e f o r e t h e y t e l e p h o n e d t h e c o u n s e l l o r . The s u b j e c t s were a l s o t o l d t h a t t h e y would be i n t e r v i e w e d by t e l e p h o n e t o d e t e r m i n e how t h e program went and t h a t a s e l e c t e d number o f them would be asked t o do an i n - d e p t h i n t e r v i e w t o g i v e feedback and recommendations. B e f o r e t h e y were i s s u e d t h e program manual, the f a m i l i e s were asked t o f i l l o ut t h e CDI ( s t u d e n t s o n l y ) , FACES and t h e S e l f - R e p o r t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s ) . These were used as t h e p r e t e s t measures f o r t h e s t u d y . The E x p e r i m e n t a l Group was g i v e n t h e program and was t o l d t h e y would have f o u r weeks t o complete i t . The C o n t r o l Group was t o l d t h e y would r e c e i v e the program i n f o u r weeks t i m e , a f t e r t h e f i r s t group completed t h e i r s . When the program was completed, t h e f a m i l i e s met as a group ( E x p e r i m e n t a l ) t o t a k e t h e CDI ( s t u d e n t s ) , FACES and The S e l f - R e p o r t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s ) . They were once a g a i n i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e y would be i n t e r v i e w e d when th e a n a l y s i s was done. The C o n t r o l Group met t h e nex t e v e n i n g . The CDI, FACES and t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e were a d m i n i s t e r e d and t h e program was d i s t r i b u t e d . The c o u n s e l l o r e x p l a i n e d t h e program and asked t h e p a r e n t s t o c a l l i f t h e y had any d i f f i c u l t i e s . A f t e r t h e d a t a were a n a l y z e d , t h e f a m i l i e s were ranked a c c o r d i n g t o s c o r e s based on t h e p r e - p o s t measures. The two h i g h e s t , t h e two l o w e s t , and two mi d d l e r a n k i n g f a m i l i e s were i n t e r v i e w e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o g e t a n a r r a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f how t h e program went and how i t was o f b e n e f i t t o them. T h i s enabled t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o b e t t e r d e t e r m i n e what f a c i l i t a t e d o r h i n d e r e d change i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y and f a m i l y c o h e s i o n and a d a p t a b i l i t y . The i n t e r v i e w s a l l o w e d the f a m i l i e s t o s t a t e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s o f d o i n g the program i n t h e i r own words. The r e m a i n i n g p a r e n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p a r t o f t h e s t u d y were t e l e p h o n e d t o d e t e r m i n e how t h e program went and i f t h e r e were any d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the program. A copy o f the q u e s t i o n s , asked i n the i n t e r v i e w , appears i n Appendix J . I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n a. C a r e e r Development I n v e n t o r y = S c h o o l Form (CDI) The Career Development I n v e n t o r y (Super, Thompson, Lindeman, J o r d a a n , & Myers, 1980) i s an o b j e c t i v e m u l t i f a c t o r , 120 i t e m , s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r i n g i n v e n t o r y measuring v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y i n a d o l e s c e n t s . A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the f a c t o r s measuring c a r e e r m a t u r i t y can be found i n t h e CDI U s e r ' s Manual (Super e t a l . , 1979). The r e l i a b i l i t y d a t a f o r t h e CDI were o b t a i n e d by u s i n g t h e t e s t - r e t e s t method, measuring s t a b i l i t y o f a response o v e r a two o r f o u r week i n t e r v a l . I t was d e termined from th e r e s p o n s e s o f 1381 male and female s t u d e n t s i n grades t e n , e l e v e n and t w e l v e . R e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h e C a r e e r P l a n n i n g S c a l e was r = 0.85 t o 0.90; C a r e e r E x p l o r a t i o n S c a l e was r = 0.75 t o 0.81; D e c i s i o n Making S c a l e was r = 0.58 t o 0.71; and Work World S c a l e was r = 0.77 t o 0.87. I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y i s gauged by the a l p h a s t a t i s t i c and ranges from r = 0.79 t o 0.88 f o r the s c a l e s , but i s s t r o n g e s t f o r t h e combined s c o r e ( C a r e e r O r i e n t a t i o n T o t a l ) r a n g i n g from r = 0.82 t o 0.87. The C a r e e r O r i e n t a t i o n T o t a l (COT) i s used as a g l o b a l measure of c a r e e r development and i s used i n t h i s s t u d y . The CDI was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h f o u r v a r i a b l e s t o c o n f i r m c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . These v a r i a b l e s were: 1) socioeconom ic l e v e l o f f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n , 2) a s e l f - 67 r a t i n g o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s v o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e l e v e l , 3) a p t i t u d e as measured by t h e SRV-Verbal T e s t , and 4) t h e grade p o i n t average f o r n i n t h grade c o u r s e s . C o r r e l a t i o n s ranged from .15 t o .59 and were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e p<.05 o r t h e p<.01 l e v e l s . C a r e e r O r i e n t a t i o n T o t a l d i d n o t c o r r e l a t e w i t h s o c i a l s t a t u s and s c h o o l achievement (Super e t a l . , 1979). W h i l e t h e u s e r ' s manual f o r t h e CDI does not r e p o r t the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e f o u r s u b s c a l e s t h a t make up the o v e r a l l COT s c a l e , i t does r e p o r t t h e r e s u l t s o f s e v e r a l f a c t o r a n a l y s e s . F o r s e p a r a t e s t u d i e s o f males and females i n d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n (grade n i n e t o f o u r t h y e a r o f u n i v e r s i t y ) , t h e f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e i s c o n s i s t e n t . U s i n g a p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s w i t h varimax r o t a t i o n , two f a c t o r s emerge, one whi c h combines c a r e e r p l a n n i n g and c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n and one which combines d e c i s i o n making and w o r l d o f work i n f o r m a t i o n . The f i r s t f a c t o r i s a t t i t u d i n a l w h i l e t h e second i s c o g n i t i v e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t h e o r y and s u p p o r t i v e e v i d e n c e . When combined i n t o a t o t a l s c o r e , t h e CDI p r o v i d e s a g e n e r a l c omposite measure o f c a r e e r development which has a h i g h degree o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y and s t a b i l i t y up t o s i x months. 68 b. F a m i l y A d a p t a b i l i t y and C o h e s i o n E v a l u a t i o n S c a l e s (FACES) The F a m i l y A d a p t a b i l i t y and C o h e s i o n E v a l u a t i o n S c a l e s ( O l s o n , B e l l , & P o r t n e r , 1978) i s a s e l f - r e p o r t i n s t r u m e n t t h a t a d d r e s s e s two d i m e n s i o n s o f f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g : c o h e s i o n and a d a p t a b i l i t y . I t measures p e r c e p t i o n o f one's f a m i l y environment. Of t h e 111 m u l t i p l e c h o i c e i t e m s , 54 i t e m s r e l a t e t o C o h e s i o n , 42 t o A d a p t a b i l i t y , and 15 t o S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y . S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y was i n c o r p o r a t e d t o m o n i t o r t h e e x t e n t t o which i n d i v i d u a l s may be " f a k i n g good" when r e s p o n d i n g . S u b j e c t s answer each i t e m on t h e b a s i s o f i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o t h e i r f a m i l y u s i n g a f o u r p o i n t s c a l e from 1 = " t r u e none o f the t i m e " , t o 4 = " t r u e a l l o f the t i m e " . Low a d a p t a b i l i t y s c o r e s i n d i c a t e a f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n which i s r e s i s t a n t t o change. High a d a p t a b i l i t y s c o r e s r e p r e s e n t a c h a o t i c home environment where i n s t a b i l i t y p r e v a i l s . Low s c o r e s on the c o h e s i o n d i m e n s i o n suggest a disengaged environment c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i s t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between members. High s c o r e s i n d i c a t e a f a m i l y environment where r e l a t i o n s h i p s among members a r e e x c e s s i v e l y h i g h ( O l s o n e t a l . , 1978). The model proposes t h a t a b a l a n c e d l e v e l o f b o t h c o h e s i o n and a d a p t a b i l i t y i s most f u n c t i o n a l t o f a m i l y development. S i x t e e n f a m i l y t y p e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d u s i n g t h e s c o r e s as shown i n F i g u r e 1. 69 DISENGAGED -Low- COHESION •Hlgh- A CHAOTIC High i A D A P T A B I L I T Y i Low V FIEXIBIE STRUCTURED RIGID SEPARATED CONNECTEO ENMESHEO '^SCMAOTICALIT v ENMESHEO v BALANCED j / / / / J M.ORAHGE £ ^ EXTREME F i g u r e 1. C i r c u m p l e x Model: S i x t e e n t y p e s o f m a r i t a l and f a m i l y systems (Barnes and O l s o n , 1985, p. 440) Four b a l a n c e d f a m i l y t y p e s r e p r e s e n t more f u n c t i o n a l f a m i l y systems: f l e x i b l e s e p a r a t e n e s s , f l e x i b l e c o n n e ctedness, s t r u c t u r e d c o n n e c t e d n e s s , and s t r u c t u r e d s e p a r a t e n e s s . These open systems a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the a b i l i t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l s t o e x p e r i e n c e and b a l a n c e extremes o f b e i n g independent and b e i n g connected t o f a m i l i e s . The I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y ( a l p h a ) o f t h e t o t a l s c o r e s f o r a d a p t a b i l i t y and c o h e s i o n i s r = 0.75 and r = 0.83 r e s p e c t i v e l y . S p l i t h a l f r e l i a b i l i t i e s were v e r y low, and t h e a u t h o r s o f the measure c a u t i o n a g a i n s t u s i n g p a r t i a l s c o r e s i n t h e form o f s u b s c a l e s , recommending i n s t e a d , t h e use o f t o t a l s c o r e s . S t u d e n t / P a r e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e These i n s t r u m e n t s were c o n s t r u c t e d t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n p r i m a r i l y d e s i g n e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e r e s e a r c h sample and t o o b t a i n a d d i t i o n a l d a t a t o be used f o r c o n t r o l and a n a l y t i c a l p u r p o s e s . The q u e s t i o n s a d d r e s s e d the d y a d i c f o r m a t i o n changes (as t h e y r e l a t e t o B r o n f e n b r e n n e r 1 s t h e o r y ) and t h e c a r e e r r e l a t e d b e h a v i o r s (as t h e y r e l a t e t o Super's model o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y ) . The d y a d i c f o r m a t i o n q u e s t i o n s i n c l u d e d the f o u r n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s f o r moving t o a p r i m a r y dyad, namely: p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o each o t h e r , s t r i v i n g f o r r e c i p r o c i t y , s t r i v i n g f o r a mutual b a l a n c e o f power, and c r e a t i n g a warm atmosphere. The o t h e r q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n e d t o Super's c a r e e r r e l a t e d b e h a v i o r s which r e l a t e t o t a s k accomplishment i n c a r e e r development. These i n c l u d e d : c a r e e r p l a n n i n g , c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n , d e c i s i o n making s k i l l s and knowledge o f the work w o r l d . 71 These q u e s t i o n s were p r e s e n t e d i n a L i k e r t - t y p e r e s p o n s e format which took about 5 - 1 0 minutes t o c o m p l e t e . An i t e m and r e l i a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s u s i n g t h e LERTAP Program ( N e l s o n , 1978) was conducted on t h e q u e s t i o n s t o judge d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f items and d e t e r m i n e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . Copies o f the q u e s t i o n s a r e found i n Appendices H and I . i The I n t e r v i e w The i n v e s t i g a t o r i n t e r v i e w e d each f a m i l y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the program from t h e i r own v i e w p o i n t s . T h i s was conducted t o augment th e q u a n t i t a t i v e p a r t o f t h e s t u d y . The purpose was t o ask open ended q u e s t i o n s t o e n a b l e t h e f a m i l i e s t o g i v e c o n c r e t e examples o f t h e changes b r o u g h t out by t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e v a r i a b l e s . S i x p a r e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d i n p e r s o n ; t h e o t h e r s were i n t e r v i e w e d by t e l e p h o n e . The s i x f a m i l i e s chosen f o r i n d e p t h , i n p e r s o n i n t e r v i e w s i n c l u d e d : two p a r e n t - c h i l d dyads showing the h i g h e s t g a i n s i n t h e p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t measures, two showing l i t t l e o r no change i n t h e s e measures and two showing s c o r e s l o w e r i n the p o s t t e s t than i n t h e p r e t e s t measures. A l t h o u g h t h e c h i l d i n each f a m i l y was i n t e r v i e w e d , the major p o r t i o n of the feedback used i n the s t u d y came from t h e p a r e n t . 72 To a l l o w ample o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p o s i t i v e as w e l l as n e g a t i v e comments, the i n v e s t i g a t o r spoke v e r y l i t t l e o t h e r t h a n t o a s s u r e t h e f a m i l y t h a t whatever t h e y had t o say was i m p o r t a n t . The i n v e s t i g a t o r posed t h e q u e s t i o n and asked f o r more d e t a i l s . The p a r e n t s were asked t o d e f i n e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s , i n t h e i r own words, about th e program and t h e p r o g r e s s t h e y made. These i n t e r v i e w s t o o k a p p r o x i m a t e l y one hour t o c o m p l e t e . The t e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w i n v o l v e d a s k i n g t h e p a r e n t s q u e s t i o n s and hand r e c o r d i n g t h e i r remarks v e r b a t i m . These i n t e r v i e w s took a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t e e n m inutes t o complete. A copy o f t h e q u e s t i o n s used f o r b o t h i n t e r v i e w s can be found i n Appendix J . A n a l y s i s o f Data The d a t a were a n a l y s e d i n two ways. F i r s t , t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a were a n a l y s e d u s i n g a m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . N e x t , d a t a g a t h e r e d t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s were a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g t o c o n t e n t . U s i n g t h e p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s : FACES, CDI, and t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (SPSS Program) was used t o t e s t t h e program f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s . ANOVA, u s i n g t h e same SPSS program, was used f o r u n i v a r i a t e t e s t s o f 73 s i g n i f i c a n c e . P r i o r t o t h i s a n a l y s i s , t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f v a r i a b l e s was a s s e s s e d i n two ways. F i r s t , t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e o f d y a d i c f o r m a t i o n and c a r e e r m a t u r i t y was s u b j e c t e d t o i t e m a n a l y s i s , u s i n g t h e LERTAP" computer program ( N e l s o n , 1978). Among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h i s program p r o v i d e s a d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n s e s f o r each i t e m , a l o n g w i t h i t e m means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , t h a t a l l o w each i t e m t o be checked f o r adequacy of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . LERTAP p r o v i d e s a c o r r e l a t i o n o f each i t e m w i t h t h e t e s t t o t a l ( b o t h w i t h and w i t h o u t t h e c o r r e l a t e d i t e m ) . I n t h i s way, t h e r e l e v a n c e o f each i t e m t o t h e t e s t t o t a l caffi be a s s e s s e d . Second, the program c a l c u l a t e s a Hoyt e s t i m a t e of r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the s e t o f t e s t i t e m s , p r o v i d i n g a measure of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . U s i n g t h e c o n t r o l group o n l y , p r e t e s t s c o r e s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p o s t t e s t s c o r e s f o r each v a r i a b l e s e p a r a t e l y . These c o r r e l a t e s i n d i c a t e t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y o r t h e e x t e n t t o which s c o r e s were s t a b l e o v e r t i m e . W h i l e adequate r e l i a b i l i t y has a l r e a d y been r e p o r t e d f o r FACES and t h e CDI, i t i s s t i l l v a l u a b l e t o check s t a b i l i t y . However, t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s a new i n s t r u m e n t and e v i d e n c e f o r r e l i a b i l i t y i s more c r u c i a l . The p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s were tape r e c o r d e d and t r a n s c r i b e d . The t r a n s c r i p t s were a n a l y s e d and c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o the c a t e g o r i e s o f c a r e e r awareness, s e l f awareness, d e c i s i o n making, p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n , s t r i v i n g f o r r e c i p r o c i t y , mutual b a l a n c e o f power, and p r o v i d i n g a warm atmosphere. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c o n s t r u c t e d t o c o n s i d e r as much as p o s s i b l e t h e c o n s t r u c t s which a r i s e from Super's (1957) model o f c a r e e r development and B r o n f e n b r e n n e r ' s (1979) model o f d y a d i c f o r m a t i o n s . Quotes from each f a m i l y appear a f t e r each c a t e g o r y . The same p r o c e d u r e was used f o r t h e f a m i l i e s i n t e r v i e w e d by t e l e p h o n e e x c e p t t h a t the r e s u l t s were summarized and o n l y r e s p o n s e s r e p r e s e n t i n g a minimum o f f o u r f a m i l i e s were used. CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS The i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p a r e n t s d e t e r m i n e d whether o r not each dyad completed t h e workbooks. T h i s was checked i n two ways. F i r s t , each p a r e n t i n d i c a t e d whether t h e program was completed. Second, from answers t o q u e s t i o n s , i t was p o s s i b l e t o judge whether each dyad had completed t h e program. That i s , t h e y were asked t o r e p o r t e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t t h e y c o u l d o n l y have had i f t h e y completed a l l t h r e e workbooks. A sample o f workbooks was a l s o examined t o see how t h e t a s k s were done. From t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s , i t was co n c l u d e d t h a t a l l twenty f a m i l i e s had f i n i s h e d t h e program. On the a v e r a g e , dyads devoted about 12 hours t o t h e program, w i t h t h e range from 5 t o 21 h o u r s . F u r t h e r , a l l p a r e n t s found t h e t a s k s t o be c l e a r and easy t o f o l l o w . No f a m i l i e s t e l e p h o n e d t h e c o u n s e l l o r f o r a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g t h e program. Q u a n t i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s The main t h r u s t o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e Cochran and Amundson (1984) p a r e n t g u i d a n c e program on c a r e e r m a t u r i t y and p e r c e p t i o n s o f f a m i l y c o h e s i o n and a d a p t a b i l i t y o f a d o l e s c e n t s t u d e n t s . The hypotheses were t e s t e d u s i n g a m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (MANOVA). S i n c e t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l dependent measures, u n i v a r i a t e t e s t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e would be i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a t l e a s t two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , as the number 76 o f t e s t s i n c r e a s e , t h e r e i s danger t h a t some t e s t s w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t by chance. Second, u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s n e g l e c t s t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n among dependent v a r i a b l e s . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , a m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h r e p e a t e d measures i s p r e f e r a b l e . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n (between groups) v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d t r e a t m e n t , s c h o o l , and sex. The dependent measures i n c l u d e d f a m i l y c o h e s i o n and f a m i l y a d a p t a b i l i t y o f FACES, t h e c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n t o t a l o f t h e CDI, t h e c a r e e r m a t u r i t y items o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and t h e d y a d i c r e l a t i o n s h i p i t e m s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . These measures were r e p e a t e d o ver t i m e . M u l t i v a r i a t e hypotheses were t e s t e d , u s i n g H o t e l l i n g ' s T z s t a t i s t i c . Item A n a l y s i s P r i o r t o h y p o t h e s i s t e s t i n g , an i t e m a n a l y s i s was conducted upon t h e 7-item q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix H & I ) . F o r t h i s a n a l y s i s , 160 completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were used, composed o f 40 p r e t e s t s and 40 p o s t t e s t s f o r p a r e n t s and t h e same number f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The i t e m means ranged from 3.01 t o 3.69 w i t h s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s r a n g i n g from .90 t o 1.11, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t each i t e m i s r e a s o n a b l y d i s c r i m i n a t i v e and t h a t no i t e m i s e x c e s s i v e l y b i a s e d toward extreme r e s p o n s e . A Hoyt e s t i m a t e o f r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h e s e seven i t e m s i s .83. Item c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the t e s t t o t a l ranged from .58 t o .79. I n summary, t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e m a n i f e s t e d an a c c e p t a b l e degree o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y u s i n g a c o n v e n t i o n a l s t a n d a r d o f .8. 77 S t a b i l i t y To e s t i m a t e the s t a b i l i t y o r t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f v a r i a b l e s , t h e p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e c o n t r o l group were c o r r e l a t e d f o r each v a r i a b l e s e p a r a t e l y . The c o r r e l a t i o n s were .787 f o r a d a p t a b i l i t y , .895 f o r c o h e s i o n , .931 f o r COT ( T o t a l S c o re f o r t h e C D I ) , .883 f o r c a r e e r i t e m s o f t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and .948 f o r d y a d i c i t e m s o f t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . W h i l e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f .6 a r e g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t a b l e f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s , c o r r e l a t i o n s o v e r .8 ar e u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d f o r t e s t c o n s t r u c t i o n ( N u n n a l l y , 1967). As the c o r r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e , f o u r v a r i a b l e s showed s a t i s f a c t o r y s t a b i l i t y . A d a p t a b i l i t y , a l t h o u g h l e s s t h a n .8 approached a s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l o f .787 which i s s t i l l a c c e p t a b l e f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l p u r p o s e s . An Assessment o f t h e FACES S c a l e s As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , t h e extremes o f t h e FACES s c a l e s a r e r e g a r d e d as p r o b l e m a t i c . D e s i r a b l e changes t a k e p l a c e w i t h the m i d d l e range o f s c o r e s . I n t h i s s t u d y , d e s i r a b l e change on the t o p i c o f a c h i l d ' s c a r e e r development i n v o l v e d s t r o n g e r bonding which O l s o n (1979) termed "connected f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g " , and more a d a p t a b i l i t y w h i c h O l s o n termed " f l e x i b l e f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g " . C o n s e q u e n t l y b e f o r e an a n a l y s i s c o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n , t h e range o f s c o r e s were checked t o d e t e r m i n e t h a t change took p l a c e w i t h i n t h e m i d d l e range o f the model r a t h e r than i n t h e extremes. 78 As can be seen i n Appendix P, t h e a d o l e s c e n t s c o r e s were l a r g e l y w i t h i n t h e m i d d l e range. I n no case d i d a pe r s o n s c o r e a t t h e extremes o f chaos o r enmeshment. P a r e n t p r e t e s t s c o r e s tended t o f a l l w i t h i n t h e m i d d l e range on c o h e s i o n , but many were e x t r e m e l y low on a d a p t a b i l i t y , as can be seen i n Appendix Q. However, i n no case d i d p a r e n t s s c o r e s move t o the extremes o f chaos o r enmeshment on t h e p o s t t e s t . M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s A m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (MANOVA) was conducted on t h e dependent measures, y i e l d i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t ( T a b l e 2) f o r groups o v e r t i m e , F(5,16) = 9.38, p<.01. That i s , a l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n o f dependent v a r i a b l e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group made s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s ( F i g u r e 2) i n c o m p a r i s i o n t o t h e c o n t r o l group. To examine t h i s e f f e c t f u r t h e r , u n i v a r i a t e t e s t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e ( T a b l e 3) were conducted u s i n g an ANOVA w i t h r e p e a t e d measures. F a m i l y a d a p t a b i l i t y showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ; however, t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r f a m i l y c o h e s i o n , c a r e e r m a t u r i t y , c a r e e r i t e m s and d y a d i c i t e m s o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The e x p e r i m e n t a l group m a n i f e s t e d s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s on f o u r o f the f i v e v a r i a b l e s , i n c o m p a r i s i o n t o t h e c o n t r o l group ( F i g u r e 2 ) . F o r t h e dependent v a r i a b l e FACES ( F a m i l y C o h e s i o n ) , F i g u r e 2.a shows t h e C o n t r o l group w i t h a d e c l i n e o f 3 p o i n t s and the E x p e r i m e n t a l group w i t h an 79 increase of 5 points. The Career Maturity (Figure 2.c) items of the questionnaire produced similar slopes whereby the Control Group declined 2 points and the Experimental Group rose 2 points. The items on dyadic bonding of the questionnaire (Figure 2.d) indicate a s l i g h t decline of one point f o r the Experimental Group and an increase of 5 points for the Control Group. The Career Orientation Total of the CDI (Figure 2.e) shows an increase of 6 points for the Control Group and an increase of 18 points f o r the Experimental Group. According to the norms for 12th grade students, t h i s gain i s substantial; a change from the 25th to the 55th percentile. Compared to the norms stated i n the manual, the pretest means d i f f e r e d by .3. The mean of the pretest scores of the experimental and the control group was 102.9, compared to the norm of 102.6 of the same age group. The school effects were examined using a multivariate analysis to determine the i n t e r a c t i o n with time, sex and treatment. Only one i n t e r a c t i o n (school by time) was s i g n i f i c a n t (Appendix K). Since no univariate test of t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t , i t s meaning i s not c l e a r . There seems to be a tendency for students i n one school to generally improve more than students i n other schools, apart from the treatment related changes. This could be due to inherent counselling program differences among the schools, or to other unknown factors. There were no other s i g n i f i c a n t 80 T a b l e 2 Summary o f M u l t i v a r i a t e T e s t s on S t u d e n t s ' S c o r e s Source DF T* P r o b a b i l i t y Between Groups Treatment (T) 5,16 1.19 .36 S c h o o l (S) 20,58 1.11 .37 Gender (G) 5,16 .82 .56 T X S 20,58 1 .02 .45 T X G 5,16 .91 .50 S X G 20,58 .61 .89 T X S X G 20,58 1 .04 .44 Person •(T /S fG) ' . t h i n Groups ( O c c a s i o n ( O ) ) 0 X T 5,16 9.38 .00 0 X S 20,58 1 .76 .05 0 X G 5,16 .79 .57 0 X T X S 20,58 1 .44 .14 0 X T X G 5,16 2.62 .07 0 X S X G 20,58 .98 .49 0 X T X S X G 20,58 .80 • 7 1 O X Per s o n (T,S,G) Note: Dependent measures i n c l u d e : FACES ( C o h e s i o n ) , FACES ( A d a p t a b i l i t y ) , CDI (COT), Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on D y a d i c F o r m a t i o n s and C a r e e r M a t u r i t y . 81 T a b l e 3 Summary of U n i v a r i a t e T e s t s on S t u d e n t s ' S c o r e s f o r O c c a s i o n by Treatment (0 X T) Dependent V a r i a b l e DF F P r o b a b i l i t y FACES ( F a m i l y A d a p t a b i l i t y ) 1 ,20 1 ,02 .324 FACES ( F a m i l y Cohesion) 1 ,20 5.81 .026 QUESTIONNAIRE ( C a r e e r M a t u r i t y ) 1 ,20 5.63 .028 QUESTIONNAIRE (D y a d i c F o r m a t i o n ) 1 ,20 14.56 .001 CDI ( C a r e e r O r i e n t a t i o n T o t a l ) 1 ,20 23.21 .001 82 Treatment E f f e c t on S t u d e n t s o f t h e Outcome V a r i a b l e s 2.a FACES (Cohesion) 2.b FACES ( A d a p t a b i l i t y ) 256 255 254 253 252 M 251 E 250 A 249 N 248 S 247. M E A N S 188 187 186 185 184 183 182 181 180 179 P r e P o s t Pre P o s t 2 . C QUESTIONNAIRE (Ca r e e r M a t u r i t y ) 3.6 3.5 M 3.4 E 3.3 A 3.2 N 3.1 S 3.0 Pre -•c P o s t 2.d QUESTIONNAIRE (Dyadic F o r m a t i o n s ) M E A N S 3.6 3.5 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, Pre P o s t 2.e CDI ( C a r e e r O r i e n t a t i o n T o t a l ) 11 6 113 11 0 1 07 M 1 04 E 1 01 A 98 N 95 S 92 Pre P o s t F i g u r e 2 83 T a b l e 4 Summary o f Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f Dependent V a r i a b l e s Group FC FA Q.CMat Q.Dyad CDI E x p e r i m e n t a l PRE: Mean 251 .4 186.9 3.33 3.52 95.2 SD 15.5 14.2 .87 .83 16.6 POST: Mean 254.3 185.5 3.51 3.42 113.2 SD 17.9 15.0 .79 .86 16.8 C o n t r o l PRE: Mean 254.6 186.1 3.40 3.58 100.6 SD 20.6 14.6 .77 .95 16.8 POST: Mean 249.3 182.3 3.20 3.03 106.8 SD 23.6 14.2 .74 .91 14.9 Note: A b b r e v i a t i o n s : FC = FACES ( C o h e s i o n ) , FA = FACES ( A d a p t a b i l i t y ) , Q.CMat = Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on C a r e e r M a t u r i t y , Q.Dyad = Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on Dy a d i c F o r m a t i o n , CDI = Career Development I n v e n t o r y ( C a r e e r O r i e n t a t i o n T o t a l ) . 84 i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s i n v o l v i n g s c h o o l s . I n summary, the d i f f e r e n c e i n s c o r e s i s l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e improvement over t i m e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group. T h i s e f f e c t i s g e n e r a l l y n o t dependent upon s c h o o l o r s e x , o r on h i g h e r o r d e r i n t e r a c t i o n s . S i g n i f i c a n t improvement was found f o r f a m i l y c o h e s i o n , c a r e e r m a t u r i t y , c a r e e r m a t u r i t y items o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and d y a d i c r e l a t i o n s h i p i t e m s o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . As a secondary e x p l o r a t i o n , a m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was conducted upon p a r e n t p r e t e s t and p o s t e s t s c o r e s , i n c l u d i n g f a m i l y a d a p t a b i l i t y and c o h e s i o n , d y a d i c f o r m a t i o n i t e m s , and c a r e e r m a t u r i t y i t e m s from t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix L ) . U s i n g H o t e l l i n g ' s t e s t , a l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e dependent v a r i a b l e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group made s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n comparison t o the c o n t r o l group, T*(4,27) = 3.00, p_ <.05. To examine t h i s e f f e c t f u r t h e r , u n i v a r i a t e t e s t s were conducted u s i n g an ANOVA w i t h r e p e a t e d measures (Appendix M). Once a g a i n , f a m i l y a d a p t a b i l i t y showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . Change i n f a m i l y c o h e s i o n and d y a d i c f o r m a t i o n approached s i g n i f i c a n c e , w h i l e change on t h e p e r c e i v e d c a r e e r m a t u r i t y o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n r eached s i g n i f i c a n c e (Appendix N). G e n e r a l l y , t h e r e s u l t s t e n d t o p a r a l l e l t h o s e examined p r e v i o u s l y , a l t h o u g h p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d weaker change on c o h e s i o n and d y a d i c f o r m a t i o n , and s t r o n g e r change on c a r e e r m a t u r i t y . A summary o f group means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s and a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p a r e n t and c h i l d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e C i r c u m p l e x model o f f a m i l y systems i s found i n Appendices 0, P, and Q. Q u a l i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s The p a r e n t a l comments d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s i n d i c a t e s t r e n g t h s i n t h e program t h a t s u p p o r t and e n r i c h t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s u l t s . These comments p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e program on t h e a d o l e s c e n t . The program was aimed a t t h e c h i l d and t h e p a r e n t i n t h e home; t h e r e f o r e p a r t i c i p a n t . o b s e r v a t i o n was n o t f e a s i b l e . A s t r u c t u r e d r e t r i e v a l o f i n f o r m a t i o n was n e c e s s a r y t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d what f a c i l i t a t e d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e p o r t i o n o f t h e s t u d y . Hence, t h e a n a l y s i s was based on t h e t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s o f Super's (1957) c a r e e r m a t u r i t y model and B r o n f e n b r e n n e r ' s (1979) model o f d y a d i c f o r m a t i o n . Of a secondary n a t u r e , t h e f o l l o w i n g two comments were e x p r e s s e d . Of 20 p a r e n t s , 14 r e p o r t e d t h e y d i s l i k e d d o i n g FACES. They r e p o r t e d the c o n t e n t o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e was an i n t r u s i o n i n t o t h e i r p r i v a c y and t h a t answers c o u l d depend on moods. Twelve p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e four-week time f a c t o r a l l o w e d f o r t h e program and t h e t i m e o f y e a r was an impediment. The time o f y e a r chosen t o do t h e program was a v e r y busy one w i t h f i n a l exams and summer h o l i d a y s a p p r o a c h i n g . 86 I n d e p t h I n t e r v i e w s w i t h S i x F a m i l i e s . The p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s were conducted i n t h e home o f each f a m i l y . Each i n t e r v i e w l a s t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y one hour. A l t h o u g h each f a m i l y was u n i q u e , t h e feedback was c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o s p e c i f i c a r e a s . F a m i l y 1 and 2 (Type One) r e p r e s e n t t h e dyads w i t h t h e l a r g e s t change; 3 and 4 (Type Two) r e p r e s e n t t h e dyads w i t h l i t t l e o r no change; and 5 and 6 (Type Three) r e p r e s e n t t h o s e dyads whose p o s t t e s t s c o r e s were l o w e r t h a n t h e p r e t e s t ones. The a d o l e s c e n t s ' s c o r e s on FACES which c a t e g o r i z e s t h e f a m i l y t y p e f o r each o f t h e s e s i x f a m i l i e s a r e shown i n T a b l e 5. T a b l e 5 A d o l e s c e n t Faces S c o r e s C l a s s i f i e d A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C i r c u m p l e x Model F a m i l y C a t e g o r y A d a p t a b i l i t y C o h e s i o n T 1 P r e : S-D 184 230 Y P o s t : S-S 207 265 P E 2 P r e : S-S 187 240 1 P o s t : S-S 208 265 T 3 P r e : S-S 185 243 Y P o s t : S-S 1 87 248 P E 4 P r e : S-S 201 237 2 P o s t : S-S 206 240 T 5 P r e : S-D 184 230 Y P o s t : R-D 168 220 P E 6 P r e : R-D 1 81 1 99 3 P o s t : R-D 1 64 179 Note: A b b r e v i a t i o n s : S-D: S t r u c t u r a l l y - D i s e n g a g e d , S-S: S t r u c t u r a l l y - S e p a r a t e d , R-D: R i g i d l y - D i s e n g a g e d . 87 To convey t h e q u a l i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e r e l e v a n t t o each c a t e g o r y , d i r e c t quotes w i l l be used. F o l l o w i n g t h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t i o n o f i n t e r v i e w comments, g e n e r a l t r e n d s w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d . C a r e e r Awareness A l l t h e p a r e n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e program i n d i c a t e d t h e i r c h i l d showed an h e i g h t e n e d c a r e e r awareness which a l l o w e d them t o a c t i n more r e a l i s t i c ways. (a) . Type One Dyad P a r e n t One: " B e f o r e t h e program, G. l i v e d i n a f a n t a s y w o r l d . He l o v e s d i r e c t i n g , w r i t i n g and a c t i n g . The program h e l p e d him be r e a l i s t i c enough t o know t h a t maybe you c a n ' t make much money t h a t way so we won't e x c l u d e d o c t o r o r l a w y e r . At t h i s moment he r e a l i z e s he has a l o t o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s open t o him." P a r e n t Two: " J . had no p l a n s a t a l l b e f o r e t h e program. I t h i n k he i s a l i t t l e c l o s e r t o knowing what he wants t o do. He i s now t a l k i n g about g o i n g t o u n i v e r s i t y and sees t h a t as a n e c e s s i t y . " (b) Type Two Dyad P a r e n t Three: " I t seemed S. had t o o many t h i n g s on her p l a t e , so we r e a l l y had t o s e r i o u s l y t h i n k t h i s t h r ough and narrow down some a r e a s . The program s t a r t e d h e r t h i n k i n g s e r i o u s l y i n two d i r e c t i o n s , namely s p o r t s and h e l p i n g o t h e r s . " P a r e n t F o u r : "She i s c e r t a i n l y t h i n k i n g about c a r e e r s . F o r example, t a k e an a c t i v i t y and p i c k o ut t h e s t r e n g t h s , w e l l , she j u s t assumed what t h e y a r e b u t t o d e f i n e them on paper was d i f f e r e n t . T h i s would l e a d h e r t o t h i n k i n g about what I am good a t and what I might do." (c) Type Three Dyad P a r e n t F i v e : " T h i s i s t h e f i r s t t i m e she i s t e l l i n g me what she wants t o do. A t l e a s t now she i s t h i n k i n g about f i n i s h i n g s c h o o l f i r s t . A t l e a s t I g o t h e r t h i n k i n g about t h e f u t u r e . " P a r e n t S i x : "He was t o t a l l y unaware o f what t h e r e a l w o r l d i s r e a l l y l i k e b u t I h o n e s t l y b e l i e v e M. i s s t a r t i n g t o f o r m u l a t e some t h e o r i e s about l i f e because he knows he has t o s u p p o r t h i m s e l f when he i s f i n i s h e d grade t w e l v e . " The g a i n s made d i f f e r e d f o r each a d o l e s c e n t . F o r example, two began more r e a l i s t i c p l a n n i n g , one began p l a n n i n g f o r u n i v e r s i t y , one narrowed s e v e r a l o p t i o n s t o two, one r e l a t e d s t r e n g t h s and a b i l i t i e s t o c a r e e r o p t i o n s , and one began p l a n n i n g f o r n e x t term. These comments s u p p o r t t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e p a r t o f t h e s t u d y w h i c h measured a s p e c t s o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y ( c a r e e r awareness) u s i n g t h e CDI. S e l f Awareness F i v e p a r e n t s r e p o r t e d an i n c r e a s e i n s e l f awareness o f t h e i r c h i l d , (a) Type One Dyad P a r e n t One: "G. now knows a g r e a t d e a l about h i s i n t e r e s t s . The program b r o u g h t home t o him t h a t he does l i v e 8 9 i n a f a n t a s y w o r l d . He knows h i s s t r e n g t h s b u t i t was good t o d i s c u s s them. H i s s t r e n g t h s and v a l u e s were t h i n g s l i k e c o u r a g e , d e t e r m i n a t i o n , p r i d e . F o r a grade t e n t h a t i s r e a l l y q u i t e something." P a r e n t Two: "He l e a r n e d he i s a v e r y s o c i a l p e r s o n . He c e r t a i n l y knows what he' i s l o o k i n g f o r i n an e v e r y d a y work s i t u a t i o n . He has a b e t t e r i d e a o f t h e k i n d o f l i f e s t y l e he wants." (b) Type Two Dyad P a r e n t Three: "S. i s a v e r y aware p e r s o n . She d i s c o v e r e d h e r s t r e n g t h s and has become aware o f what i s i m p o r t a n t t o h e r . The program c o n f i r m e d t o h e r t h a t she was good i n a l o t o f a r e a s and why she was good i n them." P a r e n t F o u r : "She d i d r e a l i z e she has s t r e n g t h s i n c e r t a i n a r e a s . She i s a good l i s t e n e r and she d i d n ' t r e c o g n i z e t h i s u n t i l we d i d t h e a c t i v i t i e s . " (c) Type Three Dyad P a r e n t F i v e : "She f i n a l l y saw h e r s e l f i n a p o s i t i v e l i g h t . She c o u l d see she wasn't t h i s bad egg. She has a l o t of f r i e n d s so she i s a l i k e a b l e g i r l . " P a r e n t S i x : •" He doesn't seem t o have any g o a l s p a s t t h e n e x t meal. As h i s mother, I would say he doesn't know h i m s e l f a t a l l . " G i v e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i t u a t i o n s , t h e program h e l p e d f i v e a d o l e s c e n t s make a c o n n e c t i o n between s e l f awareness 90 and implementation of a c a r e e r . Family One saw the c h i l d no longer l i v i n g i n a f a n t a s y world, Family Two r e a l i z e d the c e n t r a l f e a t u r e of s o c i a b i l i t y as a necessary aspect f o r the l i f e s t y l e the student wanted. For F a m i l i e s Three and Four, the program confirmed o r made aware the st r e n g t h s the adol e s c e n t s had. For Family F i v e , the program helped the c h i l d see h e r s e l f i n a more p o s i t i v e l i g h t which made her more capable of making a r e a l i s t i c s e l f a p p r a i s a l . Family S i x r e p o r t e d the c h i l d d i d not know h i m s e l f a t a l l . The comments pro v i d e d by the parents support the q u a n t i t a t i v e p a r t of the study measuring the s e l f awareness aspect of car e e r m a t u r i t y i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . D e c i s i o n Making Family Types One and Two r e p o r t e d they had g r e a t e r confidence i n the a b i l i t y of t h e i r c h i l d t o make a b e t t e r c a r e e r d e c i s i o n , (a) Type One Dyad Parent One: " I t i s too e a r l y f o r him to make any f i n a l c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s . I t h i n k when the time comes f o r him to do t h i s , he w i l l make a good one because he w i l l have the know-how and w i l l see to i t t h a t the c a r e e r he chooses w i l l o f f e r him what he wants." Parent Two: "He now has a c l e a r e r i d e a of what i t takes to p l a n a c a r e e r . I am sure t h a t he ̂ i s capable of saying a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t t h i s i s what I am going t o do. He i s b e t t e r equipped to make a d e c i s i o n now." 91 (b) Type Two Dyad P a r e n t Three: " I f e e l f a i r l y c o n f i d e n t t h a t she i s c a p a b l e o f making a good d e c i s i o n . She has a good head on h e r s h o u l d e r s . She has a tremendous amount o f committment and d e t e r m i n a t i o n . She wouldn't do a n y t h i n g w i t h o u t g i v i n g i t a l o t o f t h o u g h t . " P a r e n t F o u r : " L e t ' s t a k e F r e n c h . I t was h e r d e c i s i o n t o t a k e i t i n summer s c h o o l , not mine. She knows she needs i t t o keep h e r o p t i o n s open. I t o l d h er she can use t h i s p r o c e s s i n t h e f u t u r e when she makes d e c i s i o n s . " (c) Type Three Dyad P a r e n t F i v e : "She i s n ' t ready t o make a d e c i s i o n y e t . I hope she w i l l grow up more n e x t y e a r . I don't t h i n k she c a r e s about much r i g h t now." P a r e n t S i x : "Not major d e c i s i o n s o f any k i n d . I don't t h i n k t h a t he i s mature enough t o make any d e c i s i o n s f o r h i m s e l f and what he s h o u l d be d o i n g . " The quotes r e p r e s e n t i n g Type One and Type Two dyads p r o v i d e a more c o n c r e t e b a s i s f o r t h e g a i n s e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e CDI. Dyadic F o r m a t i o n s (1) P a y i n g A t t e n t i o n : The comments o f each p a r e n t i n d i c a t e d t h e r e were more e n d u r i n g f e e l i n g s between th e p a r e n t and c h i l d i n f o u r o f s i x f a m i l i e s . P a r e n t s were made aware o f s e v e r a l 92 ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the relationship by paying more attention to the c h i l d . For example: (a) Type One Dyad Parent One: "I f e e l closer to him somehow. I guess we are f i n a l l y r e l a t i n g as adults. His values made me r e a l i z e how mature and deep thinking he i s . " Parent Two: "I can ta l k to him about everything. G. i s very open and takes our suggestions as well as we always hear him out. It has impressed me that he i s a very li k e a b l e k id and I t r u s t him." (b) Type Two Dyad Parent Three: " With S. I have a p a r t i c u l a r l y close r e l a t i o n s h i p because she i s j u s t such a pleasant person to be around." Parent Four: "Doing a program such as t h i s just makes me r e a l i z e I l i k e her a l o t more as a person." (c) Type Three Dyad Parent Five: "She just won't l i s t e n . " Parent Six: "When he i s i n a good mood, i f I have anything to say he w i l l l i s t e n . Our re l a t i o n s h i p used to be very good." (2) Mutual Balance of Power and Reciprocity: Bronfenbrenner (1979) defines r e c i p r o c i t y i n a dyad with a p a r t i c u l a r emphasis upon the coordination of a c t i v i t i e s between two dyad members. Reciprocity refers to r e a c t i o n i n k i n d as each g i v e s and t a k e s . However, Br o n f e n b r e n n e r a l s o s t r e s s e s t h a t t h e ways A responds t o B might d i f f e r from t h e way B responds t o A i n o r d e r t o c o o r d i n a t e o r p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h one a n o t h e r . W h i l e r e c i p r o c i t y might be n e g a t i v e (A r e q u e s t s w h i l e B r e f u s e s , B's r e f u s a l l e a d s t o A's a n g e r ) , B r o n f e n b r e n n e r 1 s c o n c e r n i s p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e s o r e f f o r t s t o c o o r d i n a t e i n a p r o d u c t i v e way on a j o i n t t a s k . B a l a n c e o f power c o n c e r n s t h e r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e o f one member o f a dyad on a n o t h e r . A might i n f l u e n c e B more th a n B i n f l u e n c e s A. As dyads p r o g r e s s , B r o n f e n b r e n n e r assumes t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l impact o f a r e l a t i o n i s h e i g h t e n e d by a movement toward a more mutual b a l a n c e o f power o r one t h a t s h i f t s i n f a v o r o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g p e r s o n . I n t h e examples below, a quote may i n d i c a t e more t h a n one f a c i l i t a t i v e f a c t o r . F o r example, warmth i s p r e s e n t as w e l l as r e c i p r o c i t y , (a) Type One Dyad P a r e n t One: "We would l i k e him t o l e a d a c o m f o r t a b l e l i f e s t y l e but you c a n ' t l a y t h a t on. I t has t o come from him and i t i s . I found out I c o u l d t r u s t him. I l i k e d h e l p i n g my son w i t h the program. He was p l e a s e d I t o o k an i n t e r e s t i n him." P a r e n t Two: "We t r y not t o i n f l u e n c e him t o our way o f t h i n k i n g but we t r y t o encourage him and h e l p him. We have always been open but i t r e a l l y showed now. We t r y not t o 9 4 pooh-pooh him and he a p p r e c i a t e s i t . " (b) Type Two Dyad Pa r e n t Three: " She would never d i s c a r d what we have t o say. We a r e v e r y open w i t h each o t h e r . We a r e v e r y open t o what our c h i l d r e n have t o say and encourage i n p u t i n a l l a r e a s . I n t u r n , they know th e y can t r u s t u s . " P a r e n t F o u r : " I never thought about t h i n g s she v a l u e d , so t h i s was a p e r f e c t o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n about h e r as I h e l p e d h e r . She t o o k p r i d e i n t e a c h i n g me. What she d i d n ' t l i k e about th e program, she d i d n ' t t a k e out on me but k e p t i t as an i s s u e we would b o t h d e a l w i t h . We r e a l l y do t h i n g s j o i n t l y . " (c) Type Three Dyad Pa r e n t F i v e : " I w i s h we g o t a l o n g b e t t e r . N o t h i n g I do seems t o s a t i s f y h e r . Whenever I want t o t a l k , she c a l l s me o l d f a s h i o n e d and won't l i s t e n . " P a r e n t S i x : "Those ti m e s (when he c l o s e s h i m s e l f o f f from the r e s t ) he w i l l a v o i d me t o t a l l y o r comes and a sks me something t h a t he knows he c a n ' t have so t h a t he can get mad and stomp o u t . T h i s program was a p e r f e c t o p p o r t u n i t y t o do something w i t h him t h a t would b e n e f i t each o f us and he j u s t wouldn't c o o p e r a t e . " ( 3) Warm Atmosphere: P a r e n t s p r o v i d e d comments which i n d i c a t e d the c l o s e n e s s they e x p e r i e n c e d w i t h t h e i r c h i l d . F o r example: 95 (a) Type One Dyad P a r e n t One: "We w i l l t a l k about e v e r y t h i n g and a n y t h i n g . Because he i s around a l o t we t a l k about e v e r y t h i n g . H i s Dad t a k e s him f i s h i n g o r t h e y go f o r a walk because h i s Dad i s aware o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f b e i n g a b l e t o t a l k t o each o t h e r . " P a r e n t Two: " I t was j u s t showing him t h a t we a r e r e a l l y c oncerned i n what he does and we a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n him and h i s f u t u r e . So I guess he r e a l i z e d t h a t we weren't p u s h i n g him b u t were r e a l l y t r y i n g t o h e l p him." (b) Type Two Dyad P a r e n t Three: "We a r e a v e r y c l o s e f a m i l y and we do many t h i n g s t o g e t h e r as a f a m i l y . We always a t t e n d e v e r y event our k i d s e n t e r . " P a r e n t F o u r : "When something goes wrong, we do f u n c t i o n t o g e t h e r . I have always s a i d t h e r e i s always a s o l u t i o n when t h i n g s go wrong and we always f i n d one. (c) Type Three Dyad P a r e n t F i v e : "She says I am t o o o l d f a s h i o n e d and t o o s t r i c t and t o o u p t i g h t . " P a r e n t S i x : " I c a n ' t t e l l one minute from t h e ne x t what h i s mood w i l l be. I t r y not t o become t o o u p s e t about i t because he w i l l grow out o f i t . " The two f a m i l i e s t h a t d i d not a c h i e v e warmth seemed t o e x p e r i e n c e t r o u b l e i n o t h e r a r e a s as w e l l . The i n t e r v i e w s 96 i n d i c a t e d t h a t Type One and Type Two dyads showed s h i f t s i n b a l a n c e o f power, mutual f e e l i n g s o f warmth, and t o g e t h e r n e s s . T h i s s u p p o r t s t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e p o r t i o n o f t h e stu d y measuring c o h e s i o n on FACES. B e n e f i t s o f t h e Program There were s e v e r a l b e n e f i t s o f t h e program. A l l t h e p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d an i n c r e a s e i n t h e i r c h i l d ' s s e l f awareness, c a r e e r awareness, and a more e n d u r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between them. Four o f s i x p a r e n t s r e p o r t e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n were b e t t e r a b l e t o make a c a r e e r d e c i s i o n . (a) Type One Dyad P a r e n t One: " P u t t i n g i t down on paper r e a l l y h e l p e d G r e a l i z e how i n t e r e s t e d he i s i n t h e a r t s . H i s v a l u e s made me r e a l i z e how mature and deep t h i n k i n g he i s . We d i d t h e g r i d s e v e r a l t i m e s so t h a t h i s c h o i c e s were s a t i s f a c t o r y t o a l l h i s v a l u e s . " P a r e n t Two: "For t h e f i r s t t i me we were a c t u a l l y t a l k i n g s p e c i f i c s . P u t t i n g t h e g r i d t o g e t h e r and a c t u a l l y coming up w i t h something c o n c r e t e was e x c i t i n g f o r J . I guess we l e a r n e d t h a t we have a son who i s growing up and t h a t he has done some t h i n k i n g about g o i n g t o u n i v e r s i t y a f t e r grade 12." (b) Type Two Dyad P a r e n t Three: "Doing t h e program i n a s t r u c t u r e d way c o n f i r m e d t h a t S would d e f i n i t e l y l i k e t o pursue a c a r e e r i n 97 s p o r t s . S. spent a l o t o f time i n t h e c a r e e r c e n t e r t r y i n g t o g e t i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f j o b s i n t h i s a r e a and we a r e now t a l k i n g t o p e o p l e who a r e i n v o l v e d i n t h i s a r e a . The program s t a r t e d h er t h i n k i n g s e r i o u s l y i n c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n s . " P a r e n t F o u r : "We r e a l i z e d i n d o i n g t h i s program t h a t she needed F r e n c h so she i s g o i n g t o t a k e i t i n summer s c h o o l . I t c o u l d n ' t have been more t i m e l y . The program made us f o c u s i n on something i n an o r g a n i z e d manner." (c) Type Three Dyad P a r e n t F i v e : "For a change J . saw h e r s e l f as b e i n g a b l e t o do something as okay. We t a l k e d about t h e c o u r s e s she would t a k e i n grade 11. I a c t u a l l y went t o t h e s c h o o l t o see the c o u n s e l l o r t o see i f I c o u l d g e t h e r i n t o a c a f e t e r i a program ne x t y e a r . " P a r e n t S i x : " I t was so d i s c o u r a g i n g f o r me. We j u s t d i d n ' t g e t anywhere. I t was f a r t o o l e n g t h y t o be o f any b e n e f i t t o us. A t l e a s t we were a b l e t o d i s c u s s t h e i n t e r e s t s and come up w i t h t h e v a l u e s . I i n t e n d t o t r y t h i s a g a i n w i t h him n e x t y e a r . " The b e n e f i t s were as v a r i e d as t h e number o f f a m i l y dyads. They ranged from p l a n n i n g n e x t term's c o u r s e s , t o making more r e a l i s t i c s d e c i s i o n s , t o r a i s i n g t h e s t u d e n t ' s s e l f esteem, t o a c t u a l c a r e e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The comments chosen f o r t h e s t u d y r e p r e s e n t j u s t a few examples o f what 98 t h e p a r e n t s r e p o r t e d . However, t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e comments su p p o r t t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e s t u d y w h i c h i n d i c a t e d an i n c r e a s e i n a d o l e s c e n t c a r e e r m a t u r i t y , and p e r c e p t i o n s o f f a m i l y c o h e s i o n and d y a d i c f o r m a t i o n . Telephone I n t e r v i e w s The f o u r t e e n p a r e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d by t e l e p h o n e were asked s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e program. A l t h o u g h a v a r i e t y o f r e s p o n s e s was g i v e n , t h e same c a t e g o r i e s as t h o s e o f t h e i n d e p t h i n t e r v i e w s emerged. The r e s p o n s e s s u p p o r t t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e p a r t o f t h e s t u d y and t h e r e p o r t s o f t h e s i x p a r e n t s who were i n t e r v i e w e d i n p e r s o n . C a r e e r Awareness T h i r t e e n p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e c h i l d was more aware o f c a r e e r and o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e . The h i g h r a t e o f p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e s may r e f l e c t t h e h i g h m o t i v a t i o n t o do t h e program. Comments from d i f f e r e n t p a r e n t s s u p p o r t t h i s : "For a f i f t e e n y e a r o l d she c e r t a i n l y seems t o know what she wants t o do." "The program made he r come up w i t h a c a r e e r p l a n . P r i o r t o t h i s she k e p t p u t t i n g i t o f f . " "We d i s c u s s e d a l l s o r t s o f o p t i o n s she c o u l d f o l l o w . " "She now knows what she wants." "He i s b e g i n n i n g t o t h i n k about c a r e e r s more s e r i o u s l y . " 99 S e l f Awareness Nine p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e c h i l d was more aware o f h i s o r h er s t r e n g t h s , i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e s . Three f a m i l i e s r e p o r t e d t h e c h i l d was t o o young t o know him o r h e r s e l f . Two f a m i l i e s r e p o r t e d t h e r e was no i n c r e a s e i n t h e c h i l d ' s s e l f awareness. Examples o f q u o t e s i n d i c a t e t h e above. "S. i s c e r t a i n l y more aware o f h i s s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses. W r i t i n g t h e v a l u e s on paper formed a p i c t u r e o f h i m s e l f . " "M. has c o n f i d e n c e i n h e r a b i l i t i e s t o do w e l l i n f a s h i o n d e s i g n . " "She c e r t a i n l y knows what she "wants and how t o go about g e t t i n g t h i s . " D e c i s i o n Making Ten p a r e n t s r e p o r t e d t h e y b e l i e v e d t h e c h i l d was b e t t e r a b l e t o make a c a r e e r d e c i s i o n a f t e r t h e program. Of t h e s e t e n , f i v e p a r e n t s r e p o r t e d t h e y thought t h e c h i l d was f a i r l y c a p a b l e , c o n s i d e r i n g he o r she was o n l y i n grade t e n . Two p a r e n t s were s u r p r i s e d a t t h e v e r y h i g h l e v e l o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y o f t h e i r c h i l d . The r e m a i n i n g two p a r e n t s f e l t t h e c h i l d was not c a p a b l e o f making a c a r e e r d e c i s i o n . Some quotes f o l l o w : "For h er age, she i s q u i t e c a p a b l e o f making a d e c i s i o n . I would c e r t a i n l y t r u s t her d e c i s i o n . " " I l e a r n e d t h a t K i s more mature about h e r d e c i s i o n s 1 0 0 t h a n I gave h e r c r e d i t f o r . She showed me t h a t she c o u l d make a d e c i s i o n and why she made i t . " " A f t e r t h e program, q u i t e c a p a b l e , b u t she s t i l l needs guidance about a f i n a l d e c i s i o n . " "The program made him u n d e r s t a n d what i t t a k e s t o make a w i s e d e c i s i o n . " Dyadic F o r m a t i o n s Ten o f f o u r t e e n p a r e n t s r e p o r t e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t and c h i l d was good t o v e r y good p r i o r t o t h e program. Nine o f t h e s e p a r e n t s r e p o r t e d t h e y had a v e r y open r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h each o t h e r . F i v e o f t h e s e same p a r e n t s s a i d t h e y made major d e c i s i o n s as a f a m i l y and f o u r p a r e n t s r e p o r t e d t h e y always t r y t o encourage t h e c h i l d i n whatever a r e a he o r she e x p r e s s e s an i n t e r e s t . The r e m a i n i n g f o u r p a r e n t s r e p o r t e d a f a i r t o poor r e l a t i o n s h i p . The program h e l p e d one mother r e a l i z e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h e r daughter was n o t as good as she t h o u g h t . She a t t r i b u t e d t h i s t o a problem son whom she had been d e v o t i n g a l l h er a t t e n t i o n t o , and had j u s t assumed t h i n g s were w e l l w i t h t h e dau g h t e r . A n o t h e r mother l e a r n e d about a s u i c i d e attempt by the d a u g h t e r ' s b e s t f r i e n d p r i o r t o t h e program. The f r i e n d had i n f o r m e d t h e d a u g h t e r o f h e r p l a n s and had sworn her t o s e c r e c y . The d a u g h t e r was s t r u g g l i n g w i t h t h i s a t the time of t h e program. The i n t e r v i e w s i n d i c a t e d t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e dyads 1 0 1 e x p e r i e n c e d more r e c i p r o c i t y , a b a l a n c e o f power, i n c r e a s e d mutual f e e l i n g s o f warmth and t o g e t h e r n e s s . T h i s c o n f i r m s t h e r e s u l t s o f FACES used i n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e s t u d y . The quotes o f t h e p a r e n t s f o l l o w : (a) P a y i n g A t t e n t i o n : R e g a r d i n g p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n , p a r e n t s p r o v i d e d a wide range o f o b s e r v a t i o n s and i n s i g h t s t h a t i n d i c a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n . One p a r e n t r e c o g n i z e d t h e " f i r s t b r e a k i n g away" s i g n s and r e a l i z e d * i t was t i m e . " Another was im p r e s s e d w i t h t h e m a t u r i t y o f h e r son. Some were amazed and d e l i g h t e d w h i l e a few were more guarded, but a l l seemed t o l e a r n and c o n f i r m t h i n g s t h r o u g h p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t h e program. (b) M u t u a l B a l a n c e o f Power and R e c i p r o c i t y As mentioned e a r l i e r , r e c i p r o c i t y can c o v a r y w i t h m u t u a l i t y o f power so t h a t p a r e n t comments o f t e n i n d i c a t e d r e c i p r o c i t y and m u t u a l i t y i n t h e same s e n t e n c e . F o r example: "We ask f o r i n p u t and r e s p e c t each o t h e r ' s i d e a s . I t e a c h h e r and she tea c h e s me." "We have always been a b l e t o t a l k t o each o t h e r about any t o p i c . I can say a n y t h i n g t o him and o f c o u r s e he f e e l s f r e e t o speak h i s mind t o me." " I would never make her choose a c a r e e r she d i d n ' t want. I can h e l p h er choose b u t she has t o d e c i d e . " "When my son r e a l i z e d h i s mother wasn't as s t u p i d as he 102 t h o u g h t , he r e a l l y opened up. He saw I was t r y i n g t o h e l p him." "We can b o t h speak our minds and she i s a b l e t o l i s t e n t o what I have t o say. I t works t h e o t h e r way t o o . " In each o f t h e s e c a s e s , p a r e n t comments i n d i c a t e d more g i v e and t a k e , and more openness i n communications about t h e c h i l d ' s c a r e e r . P a r e n t comments a l s o i n d i c a t e d a s h i f t i n power towards t h e c h i l d , a t l e a s t r e g a r d i n g c a r e e r d e c i s i o n and p l a n n i n g . R a t h e r t h a n d i r e c t , p a r e n t s sought t o h e l p , encourage, and s u p p o r t , o f t e n j u s t i f y i n g t h e i r p o s i t i o n by the c o n f i d e n c e , t r u s t , o r f a i t h t h e y had i n t h e i r c h i l d . P a r e n t s who do not s h i f t toward a more mutual b a l a n c e o f power seem t o l a c k t h i s b a s i c t r u s t , which i n t u r n seems t o be o f t e n connected w i t h a more p r o b l e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p , (c) Warm Atmosphere: R e g a r d i n g warmth, p a r e n t s ranged from e f f u s i v e d e c l a r a t i o n s o f t h e c l o s e n e s s t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d d o i n g t h e program t o more o b j e c t i v e a p p r a i s a l s . F o r example, one p a r e n t o p e n l y d e c l a r e d she t r u s t e d h er daughter t o t a l l y . A n o ther i n d i c a t e d a l l major d e c i s i o n were made as a group. Another used more g e n e r a l terms t o denote warmth: "He i s v e r y mature, f r i e n d l y and c o o p e r a t i v e and t h i s program r e a f f i r m e d t h a t . " I n p e r s p e c t i v e , mutual b a l a n c e o f power, p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n and a warm atmosphere seem t o c l u s t e r as p a r t o f a 103 more h o l i s t i c e x p e r i e n c e . P a r e n t s who e x p e r i e n c e warmth i n t h e f a m i l y a l s o a c h i e v e more m u t u a l i t y o f power. B e n e f i t s o f the Program A l l t h e p a r e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e program h e l p e d t h e i r c h i l d i n c a r e e r p l a n n i n g . The b e n e f i t s however, were v a r i e d . Four f a m i l y dyads used t h e program t o h e l p t h e c h i l d choose c o u r s e s f o r summer s c h o o l o r n e x t term. Four dyads g a t h e r e d more i n f o r m a t i o n about s p e c i f i c c a r e e r s . Four a d o l e s c e n t s e x p l o r e d o t h e r a r e a s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e p r e f e r r e d one. Three c o n f i r m e d the a r e a s t h e a d o l e s c e n t was i n t e r e s t e d i n . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e above, t h r e e f e l t t h e program h e l p e d them f o r m u l a t e c a r e e r p l a n s where t h e r e were none, and s i x p a r e n t s s a i d t h e g r i d h e l p e d t h e i r c h i l d d e c i d e on s p e c i f i c c a r e e r a r e a s . " I t gave us a good i d e a o f what a r e a s t o p u r s u e . " "The g r i d v e r i f i e d what h i s major c a r e e r i n t e r e s t s a r e . " "She i s more aware o f what i t t a k e s t o be happy i n a c a r e e r . " "The program put t h i n g s i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e f o r u s . " " I f we wouldn't have done t h e program, he would have t a k e n s c i e n c e i n s t e a d o f computer s c i e n c e s n e x t y e a r . T h i s wouldn't have f i t w i t h what he wants t o t a k e a t u n i v e r s i t y . " "We l e a r n e d what i s a v a i l a b l e a t d i f f e r e n t u n i v e r s i t i e s . " "The g r i d c o n f i r m e d t o h e r what she wants t o do and why." 1 0 4 " I t made me r e a l i z e I had t o spend more ti m e w i t h h e r and g i v e her more a t t e n t i o n . " Summary The i n d e p t h i n t e r v i e w s conducted w i t h t h e p a r e n t s showed t h e i r c h i l d i s now more aware o f c a r e e r s and t h e o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o him o r h e r . Four o f s i x p a r e n t s r e p o r t e d an i n c r e a s e i n c h i l d s e l f awareness and f o u r o f s i x s t a t e d t h e c h i l d i s b e t t e r a b l e t o make a c a r e e r d e c i s i o n . The two f a m i l y dyads i n t h e h i g h s c o r i n g range r e p o r t e d v e r y good r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e f o r e , d u r i n g and a f t e r t h e program. They were open t o each o t h e r ' s needs and e n j o y e d time t o g e t h e r . The dyads i n t h e mid range a l s o r e p o r t e d v e r y good r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The l i t t l e o r no change i n d i c a t e d by t h e measures, r e s u l t e d from t h e c h i l d knowing what he o r she wanted t o do p r i o r t o t h e program. T h i s was c o n f i r m e d as t h e p a r e n t and c h i l d worked on t h e program. P a r e n t F i v e would l i k e t o see t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p improved. F a m i l y S i x was e n c o u n t e r i n g some f a m i l y problems a t t h e t i m e o f t h e program which c r e a t e d a g r e a t d e a l o f s t r e s s between mother and son. The comments from t h e f o u r t e e n p a r e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d by t e l e p h o n e , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d from the program. A l t h o u g h t h e comments v a r i e d , t h e r e seemed t o be an i n c r e a s e i n c a r e e r awareness, s e l f awareness, and d e c i s i o n making. T h i s s u p p o r t s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e p o r t i o n o f t h e s t u d y which i n d i c a t e d a 105 s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y . The i n t e r v i e w s i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were good p r i o r t o t h e program i n d i c a t i n g t h e r e may have been a j o i n t a c t i v i t y dyad p r e s e n t i n t h e f a m i l y and t h a t t h e program may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a p r i m a r y dyad. T h i s may have came about as each member o f t h e dyad p a i d more a t t e n t i o n t o each o t h e r as t h e y worked on t h e program. T h i s i n t u r n , may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o c r e a t i o n o f a warm atmosphere and a s t r i v i n g f o r mutual b a l a n c e o f power. By b e i n g open i n a g i v e and t a k e way each member c o n t r i b u t e d i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p b u i l d i n g p r o c e s s . C l i n i c a l Assessment o f Two F a m i l i e s To g a i n some c l i n i c a l i n s i g h t i n t o t h e d i f f e r e n t ways f a m i l i e s might use t h e program, two f a m i l i e s w i l l be a s s e s s e d . The f i r s t i s c l a s s i f i e d as r i g i d l y d i s e n g a g e d and made v e r y l i t t l e p r o g r e s s . The second i s s t r u c t u r a l l y d i sengaged and d i d make p r o g r e s s . The second f a m i l y i s more of an i d e a l c a s e i n w h i c h t h e p a r e n t - c h i l d dyad made c o n s i d e r a b l e improvement. A l t h o u g h t h e p a r e n t a l comments a r e t e n t a t i v e and sometimes c o n j e c t u r a l , t h e y might p r o v i d e some p r a c t i c a l i n s i g h t i n t o f a m i l y p r o c e s s e s as t h e y a r e m a n i f e s t e d i n c o m p l e t i n g t h e program. Perhaps t h e key i s s u e s i n v o l v e what f a c i l i t a t e d and what h i n d e r e d p r o g r e s s i n the program and whether t h e r e a r e i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s t h a t seem t o make th e d i f f e r e n c e . 1 0 6 The f i r s t f a m i l y e n c o u n t e r e d many problems w i t h t h e program. When making a c l i n i c a l a s sessment, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e f a m i l y w i t h o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e major event which c r e a t e d u p h e a v a l . P r i o r t o t h i s e v e n t , t h e mother p a i d a g r e a t d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n t o h e r son. She a t t e n d e d a l l h i s s p o r t s a c t i v i t i e s , went f o r a p i z z a w i t h him once a week, and e n j o y e d h a v i n g h i s f r i e n d s a t home. A f t e r knowing a man f o r f o u r weeks, t h e man moved i n t o t h e house w i t h o u t a f o r m a l r o l e t i t l e as husband o r s t e p f a t h e r . The son's r e a c t i o n was one o f r e b e l l i o u s n e s s and i n t e n s e anger. The mother's a t t e n t i o n was now d i v e r t e d t o h e r male f r i e n d . The son m i s t r u s t s h i s mother and t h e man. S i n c e h i s a r r i v a l , t h e r e has been l i t t l e o r no r e c i p r o c i t y o r openness i n communication. The son f e e l s as i f he no l o n g e r counts i n the home, w i t h h i s mother h a v i n g a l l t h e power. What had presumably been a warm r e l a t i o n s h i p had t u r n e d i n t o a v e r y u n s t a b l e one i f n o t a c o l d one. S i n c e t h e c h i l d o b j e c t e d t o the man's appearance i n t h e home, t h e mother became angry and r e f u s e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n and a t t e n d any more o f the son's a c t i v i t i e s . I t was w i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t t h a t t h e program was cond u c t e d . The mother f o r c e d t h e son t o s i t t h r o u g h the program and had u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s o f how s u c c e s s f u l i t would be. I t was a c o n s t a n t s t r u g g l e t o g e t t h e son t o work on t h e program. Her comments s u p p o r t s t h i s : 1 0 7 "He would keep p o s t p o n i n g i t and he would t h i n k o f a l l s o r t s o f exc u s e s . I would have t o t h r e a t e n him t o do i t . " The mother d e s c r i b e d h e r son as u n m o t i v a t e d , w i t h no g o a l s . He would n o t name r e a l i s t i c i n t e r e s t s and c l a i m e d he d i d not l i k e any a c t i v i t i e s e x c e p t hockey. He d i d not e n j o y s c h o o l . He would always agree w i t h h i s mother's s u g g e s t i o n s so t h a t she never knew i f t h e y were genuine. Her comment about the g r i d i s i l l u s t r a t i v e : "When t h e o n l y t h i n g you want t o be i s a p l a y b o y i t i s p r e t t y d i f f i c u l t t o come up w i t h key c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Nobody i s g o i n g t o pay him f o r t h e t h i n g s he l i k e s t o do." I n a s s e s s i n g what h i n d e r e d t h e c o n s t r u c t i v e use o f t h e program, i t became a p p a r e n t t h a t c e r t a i n e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f B r o n f e n b r e n n e r ' s d y a d i c f o r m a t i o n s were n o t i n p l a c e . There was no warmth, o r m u t u a l i t y . The mother no l o n g e r p a i d a t t e n t i o n t o h e r son. The b a s i c c o n d i t i o n s o f t r u s t and openness n e c e s s a r y f o r h e a l t h y f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g were not e v i d e n t . B r o n f e n b r e n n e r ' s c o n d i t i o n s o f r e c i p r o c i t y and b a l a n c e o f power a r e key i n g r e d i e n t s o f Ol s o n ' s d i m e n s i o n o f a d a p t a b i l i t y . Warmth and p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r c o h e s i o n . None o f t h e s e c o r e c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r e f f e c t i v e communication were e v i d e n t i n t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . The second f a m i l y c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e f i r s t i n many ways. F a m i l y K. appeared t o have a s t a b l e and warm 1 0 8 r e l a t i o n s h i p . The p a r e n t s were b o t h i n v o l v e d i n f u l l t i me p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r s and the t h r e e c h i l d r e n , a l l t e e n a g e r s , were v e r y a c t i v e i n s c h o o l , s p o r t s and p a r t t i m e work. Any spare time was spen t d r i v i n g t h e c h i l d r e n t o t h e i r numerous events o r a t t e n d i n g t o p r e v i o u s commitments. The f a m i l y , however, always had d i n n e r t o g e t h e r t o p r o v i d e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o keep everyone u p - t o - d a t e on what was happening. The f a t h e r was v e r y proud o f h i s c h i l d r e n because they were a l l "A" s t u d e n t s and v e r y a t h l e t i c . He t r i e d t o a t t e n d as many o f t h e i r f u n c t i o n s as he had t i m e f o r . The d a u g h t e r i s a v e r y b r i g h t s t u d e n t who was a l s o i n v o l v e d i n s e v e r a l s p o r t s a c t i v i t i e s . The atmosphere i n t h e K home seemed warm and c a r i n g . The program f o r c e d t h e f a t h e r and d a u g h t e r t o s i t down as a u n i t and work t o g e t h e r . Because t h e y had made t h e commitment t o t h e c o u n s e l l o r , they were p r e p a r e d t o c a r r y i t t h r o u g h . The t i m e t h e y s p e n t t o g e t h e r proved t o be v e r y r e w a r d i n g and p l e a s a n t t o b o t h . The f a t h e r ' s comments i l l u s t r a t e t h i s : " I t was so much f u n d o i n g because we a r e always so busy w i t h everyone d o i n g t h e i r own t h i n g . T h i s f o r c e d us t o s i t down and work t o g e t h e r - j u s t t h e two o f u s . " T h i s dyad went t h r o u g h t h e program w i t h o u t any major d i f f i c u l t i e s . The da u g h t e r was a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h a c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n , something t h a t had been b o t h e r i n g h e r f o r a l o n g t i m e . The f a t h e r was amazed a t how many i n t e r e s t s t h e 1 0 9 d a u g h t e r had and how many o p t i o n s were open t o h e r . By p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n , t h e f a t h e r d i s c o v e r e d some t a l e n t s the daugh t e r had and how v e r y mature she was. He was v e r y proud o f h e r . The daughter e n j o y e d t h e program because she r e a l i z e d her f a t h e r was r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n h e l p i n g h e r and was p l e a s e d t h a t she c o u l d have h i s u n d i v i d e d a t t e n t i o n . The f a t h e r had not r e a l i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s u n t i l t h e y worked on t h e program. I n a s s e s s i n g what f a c i l i t a t e d t h e c o n s t r u c t i v e use o f th e program, i t was a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e c e r t a i n e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r B r o n f e n b r e n n e r 1 s d y a d i c p r o g r e s s i o n were i n p l a c e . They p a i d more a t t e n t i o n t o each o t h e r and d i s p l a y e d m u t u a l i t y i n an open, warm atmosphere. As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , t h e s e a r e a l s o t h e c o r e i n g r e d i e n t s f o r O l s o n ' s d i m e n s i o n s o f c o h e s i o n and a d a p t a b i l i t y . The openness and t r u s t d i s p l a y e d by t h e dyad p r o v i d e d f o r e f f e c t i v e communication. CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary The purpose o f t h e s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t t o which a program d e s i g n e d f o r p a r e n t s t o a s s i s t t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n c a r e e r p l a n n i n g f a c i l i t a t e s d y a d i c f u n c t i o n i n g and c a r e e r development. The t h e o r e t i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g s o f t h e program were Super's (1957) C a r e e r Development Theory and Br o n f e n b r e n n e r ' s (1979) Theory o f Dy a d i c F o r m a t i o n s . The s t u d y d e s i g n used was an e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n employing an e x p e r i m e n t a l and a c o n t r o l group. Both groups were p r e t e s t e d and p o s t t e s t e d d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s t u d y . The t r e a t m e n t c o n s i s t e d o f a program d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t p a r e n t s i n t h e i r c h i l d ' s c a r e e r development. I t was co m p r i s e d o f t h r e e s e p a r a t e modules o r workbooks w i t h each h a v i n g a number o f u n i t s . Each u n i t , s t r u c t u r e d and s e l f e x p l a n a t o r y , was completed by t h e p a r e n t and c h i l d c o o p e r a t i n g t o a c c o m p l i s h a p a r t i c u l a r c a r e e r t a s k . The sample c o n s i s t e d o f f o r t y v o l u n t e e r p a r e n t - c h i l d dyads from f i v e s c h o o l s i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d . Each s c h o o l was r e p r e s e n t e d by e i g h t f a m i l i e s : f o u r e x p e r i m e n t a l and f o u r c o n t r o l . Each dyad had a c h i l d i n grade t e n o r e l e v e n . A f o u r week time p e r i o d was a l l o w e d f o r c o m p l e t i n g t h e t r e a t m e n t 110 111 p o r t i o n o f the s t u d y . Dyads i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group were p r e t e s t e d w i t h t h e C a r e e r Development I n v e n t o r y (CDI) (Super e t a l . , 1980), F a m i l y A d a p a t a b i l i t y and C o h e s i o n E v a l u a t i o n S c a l e s (FACES) ( O l s o n e t a l . , 1978), and a Q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . A f t e r t h e p r e t e s t s , t h e p a r e n t o f each dyad was p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l program and p o s t t e s t e d w i t h t h e same measures. S u b j e c t s i n t h e c o n t r o l group were p r e t e s t e d , w a i t l i s t e d and t h e n p o s t t e s t e d d u r i n g t h e same time p e r i o d . The CDI was chosen f o r o b t a i n i n g p r e and p o s t measures o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y . I t i s a r e l i a b l e i n s t r u m e n t d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o measure the c a r e e r m a t u r i t y o f h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . FACES was chosen t o measure f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g , namely a d a p t a b i l i t y and c o h e s i o n . A b a l a n c e d degree o f c o h e s i o n and a d a p t a b i l i t y i s most f u n c t i o n a l t o f a m i l y development and s t u d i e s show t h e i n s t r u m e n t t o be a r e l i a b l e , o b j e c t i v e one. The p a r e n t o f each dyad was i n t e r v i e w e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e program from h i s o r h e r own v i e w p o i n t . S i x p a r e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d i n p e r s o n and f o u r t e e n p a r e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d by t e l e p h o n e . A m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h r e p e a t e d measures was used t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e CDI, FACES and t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o r e s o f s u b j e c t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group and c o n t r o l group changed d i f f e r e n t i a l l y . The f o l l o w i n g 1 1 2 hypotheses were t e s t e d w i t h major f i n d i n g s p r e s e n t e d f o r each. 1. I f p a r e n t s use t h e Cochran and Amundson (1984) program t o work w i t h t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t c h i l d r e n , t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t s w i l l g a i n i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y , compared t o a d o l e s c e n t s not i n v o l v e d i n t h e program, as measured by t h e CDI. A m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (MANOVA) showed a s i g n i f i c a n t t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t , F(5,16) = 9.38, p<.01. U s i n g an ANOVA w i t h r e p e a t e d measures, u n i v a r i a t e t e s t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e were conducted on each dependent v a r i a b l e s e p a r a t e l y . R e g a r d i n g c a r e e r , t h e c a r e e r m a t u r i t y i t e m s o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , F(1,20) = 5.63, p_<.05, as d i d t h e CDI measure o f c a r e e r development, F(1 ,20) = 23.21 , p_<.01 . 2. I f p a r e n t s and t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t c h i l d r e n work t o g e t h e r on t h e Cochran and Amundson (1984) program t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t s w i l l r e p o r t g a i n s i n f a m i l y c o h e s i o n and a d a p t a b i l i t y compared t o a d o l e s c e n t s n ot i n v o l v e d i n t h e program, as measured by FACES. F a m i l y a d a p t a b i l i t y showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e F(1,20) = 1.02. However, t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n f a m i l y c o h e s i o n , F(1,20) = 5.81, p<.05, and i n t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s a d d r e s s i n g t h e d y a d i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s , (F1,20) = 14.56, p<.01. However as F i g u r e 2d i n d i c a t e s , the 113 s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on d y a d i c i t e m s was due t o t h e drop m a n i f e s t e d by t h e c o n t r o l group more t h a n g a i n s made by t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group. The q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a e x t r a c t e d from t h e i n t e r v i e w s c o n f i r m e d t h e p o s i t i v e v a l u e o f t h e program. The e v i d e n c e s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e program i n c r e a s e d c a r e e r awareness, s e l f awareness, and c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making. Feedback from t h e p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t p a r e n t s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n l e a r n e d more about each o t h e r which s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . W i t h i n t h e g e n e r a l l i t e r a t u r e upon d e v e l o p m e n t a l c a r e e r programs, t h e p r e s e n t program s h a r e s a number o f s i m i l a r f e a t u r e s t h a t might ac c o u n t f o r t h e i m p r e s s i v e g a i n on t h e CDI. W h i l e t h e r e have been s e v e r a l r e v i e w s o f e f f e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e s , r a n g i n g from B o r d i n ' s (1979) w o r k i n g a l l i a n c e t o DeCharm's (1976) p e r s o n a l c a u s a t i o n , t h e most r e l e v a n t and thorough r e v i e w was conducted by B l o c h e r (1977). B l o c h e r summarized seven c o r e f e a t u r e s o f e f f e c t i v e c a r e e r development programs: i n v o l v e m e n t , c h a l l e n g e ( t a s k s a r e n e i t h e r t o o easy nor t o o d i f f i c u l t ) , s u p p o r t , s t r u c t u r e (one has models o f advanced f u n c t i o n i n g t o a c c o m p l i s h t a s k s ) , feedback ( i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d on p e r f o r m a n c e ) , a p p l i c a t i o n ( t h e p e r s o n has o p p o r t u n i t y t o a p p l y knowledge and s k i l l s ) , and i n t e g r a t i o n ( t h r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n , a p e r s o n r e f l e c t s on and i n t e g r a t e s l e a r n i n g ) . I n t h e p r e s e n t program, 114 i n v o l v e m e n t was f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e p e r s o n a l n a t u r e o f t h e t a s k and by t h e c o - i n v o l v e m e n t o f a p a r e n t . The t a s k s can be a c c o m p l i s h e d , b u t t o do w e l l r e q u i r e s c o n s i d e r a b l e thought and i n v e s t m e n t . I n s h o r t , t h e y a r e c a p a b l e o f b e i n g v e r y c h a l l e n g i n g as t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p a r e n t s i m p l i e d . Support was s u p p l i e d i n most cases by a warm atmosphere, a c a r i n g p a r e n t , and a c l e a r s e t and sequence o f t a s k s . I f an advanced model o f f u n c t i o n i n g was p r e s e n t , i t would be t h e model s e t by p a r e n t s . From p a r e n t i n t e r v i e w s , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t many p a r e n t s d i d p r o v i d e models. P a r e n t s p r o v i d e d feedback. A l s o , feedback i s b u i l t i n t o some o f t h e t a s k s . R a t h e r t h a n l e a r n g e n e r a l l y how t o e x p l o r e , d e c i d e o r p l a n , t h e a d o l e s c e n t s were g u i d e d t o l e a r n by d o i n g . L a s t , most p a r e n t s seemed t o p r o v i d e ample t i m e f o r r e f l e c t i v e d i s c u s s i o n s as t h e manual d i r e c t e d them t o do. A l t h o u g h t h e r e were e x c e p t i o n s , t h e i n t e r v i e w s s u p p o r t e d t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s e x p e r i e n c e d t o a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r e x t e n t , many o r p o s s i b l y a l l o f t h e c o r e f e a t u r e s B l o c h e r has i d e n t i f i e d . I f so, i t appears t h a t many p a r e n t s a r e a p t t o be c a p a b l e o f becoming e f f e c t i v e a g e n t s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s c a r e e r development, when p r o v i d e d w i t h a g u i d e d program. I n comparing t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y w i t h t h a t o f Bearg ( 1 9 7 9 ) , b o t h o f which used t h e C a r e e r Development I n v e n t o r y (Super e t a l . , 1979), t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y showed a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y whereas Bearg's d i d n o t . T h i s may 115 have been p a r t l y due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n format o f t r e a t m e n t . An a n a l y s i s o f Bearg's t r e a t m e n t i n d i c a t e d a l e s s s t r u c t u r e d workshop format r a t h e r t h a n t h e h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d workbook format used i n t h i s s t u d y . A c o m p a r i s i o n o f t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y w i t h s c h o o l based programs show some s i m i l a r i t i e s i n CDI g a i n s . M c C u l l o c h e t a l . (1985) show g a i n s o f 16 p o i n t s whereas t h i s s t u d y showed g a i n s o f 18 p o i n t s f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group. Both s t u d i e s employed a s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r t o e x p l o r e c a r e e r s . M c C u l l o c h e t a l . used peer c o u n s e l l o r s as t h e s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r , t h i s s t u d y used p a r e n t s . Y a t e s ' s (1982) s t u d y shows g a i n s o f 70 p o i n t s i n t h e CDI s c o r e s . However, he used c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s and t h e C o l l e g e Form o f t h e CDI. T h i s form c o n s i s t s o f s i x p a r t s r a t h e r than f o u r used i n t h i s s t u d y . S i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e two s t u d i e s show t h a t b o t h used u n d e c i d e d s t u d e n t s ready t o make a c a r e e r d e c i s i o n . Y a t e s used t h r e e weeks f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t p o r t i o n o f t h e s t u d y w h i l e t h i s s t u d y used f o u r weeks. The c o m p a r i s i o n o f s t u d i e s j u s t c i t e d i n d i c a t e s t h a t v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y can be a f f e c t e d p o s i t i v e l y i f e f f e c t i v e means o f p r o v i d i n g c a r e e r developmemt e x p e r i e n c e s a r e used. L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t young p e o p l e who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e p a r e n t c a r e e r g uidance program showed improvement i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y and i n s t r e n g t h o f p a r e n t a l 1 1 6 bonding. However, t h i s c o n c l u s i o n must be q u a l i f i e d by the n a t u r e o f t h e sample. F i r s t , t h e f a m i l i e s who p a r t i c i p a t e d , were v o l u n t e e r s . They sought h e l p i n a s s i s t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n c a r e e r p l a n n i n g . As t h e program i s aimed f o r v o l u n t e e r s , t h i s does not l i m i t i t s p l a n n e d use. However, no c l a i m can be made t h a t t h e f a m i l i e s i n t h i s s t u d y a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t f a m i l i e s i n g e n e r a l . C o n s e q u e n t l y , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f r e s u l t s t o n o n - v o l u n t e e r groups would be unwarranted. Second, a l l o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g f a m i l i e s were C a u c a s i a n , l i v i n g i n a N o r t h American urban c u l t u r e . I n f u t u r e s t u d i e s , i t would be i m p o r t a n t t o d e t e r m i n e how t h e program works w i t h f a m i l i e s from o t h e r c u l t u r e s as w e l l as w i t h f a m i l i e s from r u r a l a r e a s . On t h e b a s i s o f p r e s e n t e v i d e n c e , no g e n e r a l i z a t i o n can be made. T h i r d , perhaps as a f e a t u r e o f v o l u n t e e r s , p a r t i c i p a n t m o t i v a t i o n tended t o be h i g h and p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s tended t o be r e a s o n a b l y good. There i s some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t f a m i l i e s who a r e i n c o n f l i c t w i l l not b e n e f i t o r b e n e f i t as much. F o r example, one d i v o r c e d mother d i s c o v e r e d how s t r a i n e d h er r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h e r c h i l d r e a l l y was, and l a c k o f c o o p e r a t i o n dampened improvement. However, t h e r e a r e o t h e r i n s t a n c e s i n which d i f f i c u l t i e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p were overcome and a w o r k i n g dyad was improved. C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t cannot be a s s e r t e d t h a t p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s must be good 117 t o b e n e f i t from t h e program. R a t h e r , s t r a i n s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p a r e a p t t o p r e s e n t problems t o be overcome, i f t h e program i s t o s u c c e e d . F u r t h e r work w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o be a b l e t o make adequate d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s i n t h i s a r e a . F o u r t h , i n i n t e r v i e w i n g p a r e n t s , i t became ap p a r e n t t h a t t h e measures employed i n t h i s s t u d y do not c a p t u r e t h e f u l l range o f change produced i n c o m p l e t i n g t h e program. F o r example, t h e r e a r e i n s t a n c e s o f improvement i n s t u d e n t s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . There were p r a c t i c a l a l t e r a t i o n s such as changes i n c u r r i c u l u m c h o i c e s , t a k i n g a summer s c h o o l c o u r s e , and t h e l i k e . There were many e x p r e s s i o n s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n r e g a r d e d t h e w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p as on-going r a t h e r t h a n w o r k i n g w i t h i n a time frame. W h i l e t h e measures c a p t u r e major a s p e c t s o f improvement, t h e f u l l range of b e n e f i t r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n . The q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e measures show t h a t t h e t r e a t m e n t produced s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group. However, due t o t h e n o n - o b s e r v a t i o n a l n a t u r e o f t h e s t u d y , s p e c i f i c p r o c e s s e s t h a t produce change cannot be d e t e r m i n e d . P a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e how t h e p r o c e s s o f change came about. T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s The r e s u l t s s u p p o r t t h e two c e n t r a l bases f o r t h e p a r e n t c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g program (Cochran & Amundson, 1984). F i r s t , t h e r e s u l t s s u p p o r t i n a g e n e r a l way B r o n f e n b r e n n e r 1 s (1979) 118 c o n c e p t i o n o f d y a d i c f o r m a t i o n . As p a r t n e r s i n a dyad .began t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o one a n o t h e r and t o do something t o g e t h e r , t h e r e was an improvement i n r e l a t i o n s h i p , as i n d i c a t e d by FACES, the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and i n t e r v i e w s . The f e a t u r e s o f a p r i m a r y dyad appeared t o be s t r e n g t h e n e d . Second, t h e r e s u l t s s u p p o r t Super's (1957) v i e w o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s . As a p a r e n t - c h i l d dyad worked t o g e t h e r t o a c c o m p l i s h c a r e e r development t a s k s i n v o l v i n g s e l f awareness, c a r e e r awareness, d e c i s i o n making, and p l a n n i n g , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y . Important p a r t s o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y appeared t o be s t r e n g t h e n e d . T h i s s t u d y was not i n t e n d e d t o t e s t t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s . I t used B r o n f e n b r e n n e r ' s (1979) t h e o r y o f d y a d i c f o r m a t i o n and Super's (1957) t h e o r y o f c a r e e r development as bases o f a program, i n s t e a d o f e x a m i n i n g e i t h e r d i r e c t l y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , s u p p o r t remains i n d i r e c t and u n s p e c i f i c . More d i r e c t l y , t h e e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t s a p r a c t i c a l g u i dance i n t e r v e n t i o n i n v o l v i n g d y a d i c f o r m a t i o n and c a r e e r development t a s k s . P r a c t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s The major i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e p r a c t i c a l . F i r s t , t h e s t u d y shows t h a t p a r e n t i n v o l v e m e n t i n a s t r u c t u r e d c a r e e r g uidance program can enhance t h e c a r e e r development o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . F o r decades, c a r e e r 119 c o u n s e l l i n g has been l a r g e l y d e f i n e d as an a c t i v i t y c o n d ucted by a p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r and a c l i e n t . However, as t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i n d i c a t e d , s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s a r e o f t e n a b l e o r w i l l i n g t o devote o n l y a s m a l l f r a c t i o n o f t h e i r t i m e t o c a r e e r g uidance ( L e a , 1976, Trudeau-Brosseau,1982). As a consequence, perhaps most s t u d e n t s complete secondary s c h o o l w i t h j u s t a p r e l i m i n a r y o r i e n t a t i o n t o work, and t h a t i s p r o v i d e d i n l a r g e c l a s s e s . S u s t a i n e d i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n i s a p t t o be l a c k i n g . W h i l e p a r e n t s do not s u p p l a n t c a r e e r c o u n s e l l o r s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l program, t h e s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t a t l e a s t some a s p e c t s o f c a r e e r g u i d a n c e can be r e t u r n e d t o t h e f a m i l y under a p p r o p r i a t e c o n d i t i o n s . From a c o u n s e l l i n g p e r s p e c t i v e , p a r e n t s become a v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e f o r young p e o p l e , a r e s o u r c e t h a t can not o n l y save p r o f e s s i o n a l t i m e bu t a l s o enhance t h e q u a l i t y o f g u i d a n c e . From a p a r e n t a l p e r s p e c t i v e , c o u n s e l l o r s become a v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e f o r s u p p o r t i n g t h e i r e f f o r t s w i t h t e s t s , i n f o r m a t i o n , and o t h e r m a t e r i a l s , and f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n . Second, a major p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t y i s t h a t c a r e e r development t a k e s p l a c e o ver t i m e w h i l e c a r e e r i n t e r v e n t i o n s e i t h e r t a k e p l a c e a t a p e r i o d o f t i m e o r s p o r a d i c a l l y o v e r t i m e . A r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e shows t h e more e n d u r i n g s o u r c e o f s u p p o r t f o r y outh making t h e t r a n s i t i o n i n t o t h e a d u l t w o r l d o f work has been l a r g e l y unexamined. As p a r e n t s do p r o v i d e s u p p o r t and a r e r a t h e r c o n t i n u o u s l y p r e s e n t f o r 120 y o u t h , ways t o b e t t e r e q u i p p a r e n t s t o s u p p o r t o r g u i d e seems i m p o r t a n t . T h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r p a r e n t s t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e and be more e f f e c t i v e a g ents u s i n g a s h o r t term i n t e r v e n t i o n . However, such i n t e r v e n t i o n s can f a c i l i t a t e t h e l o n g t e r m c a r e e r development of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . T h i r d , i s t h e guarded p o i n t t h a t t h e s t u d y might have v a l u e i n t h e f i e l d o f f a m i l y g u i d a n c e . By g u i d i n g p a r e n t i n v o l v e m e n t i n s t r u c t u r e d t a s k s w i t h sons and d a u g h t e r s , t h e r e was a s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e f e a t u r e s o f a p r i m a r y dyad and measurable g a i n s i n f a m i l y c o h e s i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t s . P a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o one a n o t h e r and w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r on a common t a s k , under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , i n f l u e n c e d b o n d i n g , r e c i p r o c i t y and b a l a n c e o f power, a l l o f w h i c h a r e i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f f a m i l y g u i d a n c e . I t might a l s o be n oted t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t improvement on f a m i l y a d a p t a b i l i t y . A d a p t a b i l i t y r e f e r s t o t h e s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y f a m i l y r u l e s . The p a r e n t ' s program (Cochran & Amundson, 1984) does not a d d r e s s t h i s t o t h e same degree as i t does c o h e s i o n o r b o n d i n g . B r o n f e n b r e n n e r 1 s d y a d i c p r o g r e s s i o n depends upon c o h e s i o n more t h a n a d a p t a b i l i t y . T h i s w a r r a n t s f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . More j u s t i f i a b l y , t h e e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g s t r u c t u r e d t a s k s i n f a m i l y g u i d a n c e t o promote c o h e s i o n and t o f o s t e r p r i m a r y dyads. 121 F o u r t h , O l s o n ' s (1979) two s c a l e s a r e each d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r r e g i o n s . Combining t h e s e two s c a l e s r e s u l t s i n 16 t y p e s of f a m i l i e s (See F i g u r e 1 ) , a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t h a t i s i n t e n d e d t o h e l p p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n w o r k i n g w i t h f a m i l i e s . W h i l e t h i s t y p o l o g y has not been s t r e s s e d i n t h i s s t u d y , i t might be used as a b a s i s f o r a t t e m p t i n g t o g a i n some c l i n i c a l i n s i g h t i n t o t h e d i f f e r e n t ways f a m i l i e s might use t h e p r e s e n t program. F i f t h , i t appears t h a t t h e c o r e c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r e f f e c t i v e communication: t r u s t , openness, warmth, r e s p e c t , r e c i p r o c i t y , and mutual b a l a n c e o f power a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e c o r e c o n d i t i o n s f o r B r o n f e n b r e n n e r 1 s d y a d i c p r o g r e s s i o n as w e l l as f o r a d a p t a b i l i t y and c o h e s i o n . W i t h o u t t h e s e c o r e c o n d i t i o n s , t h e s u c c e s s o f c o m p l e t i n g t h e program would d i m i n i s h . P a r e n t s s h o u l d be made aware o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s b e f o r e d o i n g t h e program. T h i s would e n a b l e them t o a s s e s s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p and improve upon t h e a r e a s t h a t would i n c r e a s e communication e f f e c t i v e n e s s and h e a l t h y f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g . Recommendations F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 1. T h i s s t u d y opens up f u r t h e r avenues o f i n q u i r y . A n e x t s t e p would be t o conduct a r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h e d e s i g n t o i n v o l v e l a r g e r g r o u p s . 2. T h i s s t u d y c o n f i n e d i t s e l f t o a d o l e s c e n t s o f C a u c a s i a n f a m i l i e s i n urban a r e a s . A s i m i l a r s t u d y s h o u l d be 122 conducted to determine i f t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t of the program upon f a m i l i e s of d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l backgrounds and upon f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n r u r a l a r e a s . 3. I f a program such as t h i s s t i m u l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n between parent and c h i l d , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h could determine i f these i n t e r a c t i o n s remain p o s i t i v e f o r extended p e r i o d s of time. 4 . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h c o u l d be done to determine i f a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between the stage of a d o l e s c e n t v o c a t i o n a l development and the q u a l i t y of communication p a t t e r n s t h a t e x i s t i n the f a m i l y . The f i n a l stage of adolescence i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important i n c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making. Examining the q u a l i t y of communication p a t t e r n s o c c u r i n g a t t h i s stage a l l o w s us to determine the q u a l i t y of c a r e e r c h o i c e s ; hence d e v e l o p i n g and f u r t h e r v a l i d a t i n g the theory u n d e r l y i n g t h i s p r o c e s s . 5. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h c o u l d be done i n which o n l y the f a t h e r o r mother do the program with the c h i l d . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the involvement or d i s t a n c e of one parent i s the more potent i n g r e d i e n t i n c a r e e r development. 6. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h c o u l d be done which i s more process o r i e n t e d . T h i s study i n d i c a t e s t h a t the program had impact on the sample p o p u l a t i o n . The next step would be t o do a process a n a l y s i s to determine how the impact o c c u r s . 7. There are many p o t e n t i a l i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s t h a t 123 might a f f e c t program e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Two such v a r i a b l e s a r e i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l o f p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n (DeCharms, 1976) and s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s ( S c h u l e n b e r g e t a l . , 1984). F u t u r e s t u d i e s c o u l d i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l , v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y , and program e f f e c t i v e n e s s . An a l t e r n a t e approach might l o o k more c l o s e l y a t t h e degree t o which s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f f a m i l i e s a f f e c t s v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y and program e f f i c a c y . The r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e ( M o r t i m e r , 1976, S c h u l e n b e r g e t a l . , 1984) s u g g e s t s s o c i o e c o n o m i c l e v e l can have c o n s i d e r a b l e impact o r i n f l u e n c e on t h e c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n o f t h e c h i l d and i t i s p l a u s i b l e t o assume i t might have an i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e on t h i s program. 8. E x p e c t a t i o n s can p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n program development ( S c h o f f n e r & K l e i m e r , 1973). One p o t e n t i a l f u t u r e s t u d y c o u l d compare the program w i t h a p l a c e b o c o n t r o l group. A t p r e s e n t , t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s a f f e c t outcomes i n unknown. C o n c l u s i o n s A r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t p a r e n t s a r e p e r c e i v e d t o be t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r on c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s o f c h i l d r e n . There a r e s e v e r a l i n n o v a t i v e programs d e s i g n e d f o r p a r e n t s i n t h i s a r e a but r e s e a r c h and e v a l u a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s e programs i s s c a r c e . S t u d i e s which show e m p i r i c a l d a t a i n d i c a t e mixed r e s u l t s . 124 T h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o d e t e r m i n e whether a program f o r p a r e n t s , d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t t h e i r c h i l d i n a s t r u c t u r e d manner would i n c r e a s e c a r e e r m a t u r i t y and d y a d i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t a program such as A P a r e n t ' s Guide To C a r e e r C o u n s e l l i n g (Cochran and Amundson, 1984) showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n c a r e e r m a t u r i t y and f a m i l y c o h e s i o n . Based upon t h e r e s u l t s of t h e i n t e r v i e w s , CDI and F a c e s , t h e r e appears t o have been a p o s i t i v e improvement i n f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n around th e t o p i c o f c a r e e r s . However, f u r t h e r s t u d i e s a r e needed t o v a l i d a t e t h i s . The i n f o r m a t i o n and s k i l l s l i s t e d i n such programs may be h e l p f u l t o p a r e n t s whose p a t t e r n s i n t h e p a s t have i n h i b i t e d communication w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n . S t u d e n t s who e x p e c t t o g r a d u a t e need as much s u p p o r t as p o s s i b l e from t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n o r d e r t o m i t i g a t e t h e f e e l i n g s o f u n c e r t a i n t y t h e y may have c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r t r a n s i t i o n from s t u d e n t t o a d u l t . REFERENCES Amundson, N. & Cochran, L. (1984). 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A d e v e l o p m e n t a l approach t o v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e . V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Q u a r t e r l y , 13, 1-10. Super, D. E. & Bohn, M. J . (1970). O c c u p a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y Belmont, C a l : Wadsworth. Super, D. E., K o w a l s k i , R., & G o t k i n , E. (1967). F l o u n d e r i n g and t r i a l a f t e r h i g h s c h o o l . New York: Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y . Super, D. E., Thompson, A. S., Lindeman, R. H., J o r d a a n , J.P., & Myers, B. A. (1979). C a r e e r development I n v e n t o r y : Manual f o r r e s e a r c h and f i e l d t r i a l . New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y . Teideman, D. V. & O'Hara, R. P. (1959). V o c a t i o n a l s e l f c o n c e p t i n adolesce'nce. J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 6, 292-301. 1 3 3 Thompson, M. (1978). C h o i c e s and c a r e e r : F r e e t o choose about c a r e e r s . E d u c a t i o n a l Resources I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t e r , ERIC document ED197884. T o l b e r t , E. L. (1974). C o u n s e l i n g f o r c a r e e r development. B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n - M i f f l i n . Trudeau-Brosseau, L., B r o s s e a u , P., C a h r e t t e , C., & B o i s s i e r e , J . (1982) What w i l l t h e y do? Quebec: Les E n t e r p r i s e s C u l t u r e l l e s E nr. Van d e r Veen, F. (1976). Content d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e f a m i l y concept t e s t . C h i c a g o : I n s t i t u t e f o r J u v e n i l e R e s e a r c h . Walsh, F. (1983). Normal f a m i l y p r o c e s s e s . New York: G u i l f o r d P r e s s . W a t z l a w i c k , P., Beaven, J . & J a c k s o n , D. (1967). P r a g m a t i c s o f human communication: A s t u d y o f i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s , p a t h o l o g i e s , and parad o x e s . New York: W. W. N o r t o n . Werts, C. E. (1963). P a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s on c a r e e r c h o i c e . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 15, 48-52. Westbrook, B., P a r r y - H i l l , J . , & Woodbury,R . (1971). The development o f a measure o f v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement, 31, 541-543. Wynne, R., R y c h o f f , I . , Day, J . & H i r s c h , S . I . (1958). P s e u d o - m u t u a l i t y i n t h e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s o f s c h i z o p h r e n i c s . P s y c h i a t r y , 21 , 205-222. Y a t e s , H. (1982). The e f f e c t s o f a f o r m a l c a r e e r l a b o r a t o r y program on t h e c a r e e r m a t u r i t y o f a c a d e m i c a l l y u n d e c i d e d j u n i o r c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Alabama. Young, N. E. (1979). Secondary s c h o o l c o u n s e l o r s . The S c h o o l C o u n s e l o r , 26, 247-252. Young, R. A. (1984). Toward an e c o l o g y o f c a r e e r development. Canadian C o u n s e l l o r , 18, 152-159. APPENDIX A Preliminary Q u a l i t a t i v e Research; A Parent's Guide to Career Counselling. Cochran, L. and Amundson, N. "A Parent's Guide to Career Counselling." Unpublished manuscript. For further information, contact Dr. Larry R. Cochran, Department of Counselling Psychology, Counselling Psychology Build i n g , 5780 Toronto Road, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6T 1.L2. Leaves Ijk-kl not filmed; permission not obtained. Cochran, Larry R. Parent Career Guidance Manual. Copyright 1985 by Larry Cochran. Published by Buchanan-Kells, I985, Vancouver, B.C., Salem, Oregon. For further information, contact Dr. Cochran at address given above. Leaves 1̂ +2-47 not filmed; permission not obtained. 134 APPENDIX A PRELIMINARY QUALITATIVE RESEARCH A PARENT'S GUIDE TO CAREER COUNSELLING (Cochran & Amundson, 1984) An i n i t i a l q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d y e m p l o y i n g a c a s e study approach was conducted on f i v e v o l u n t e e r f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n i n grade t w e l v e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i m p act of t h e program on c a r e e r m a t u r i t y and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The q u a l i t a t i v e approach was chosen t o t o e n a b l e t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o o b s e r v e t h e r e c i p r o c i t i e s which e x i s t w i t h i n v a r i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n t h e d y a d i c c o n t e x t . Twenty t o t w e n t y - f i v e hours w i t h each f a m i l y were d e v o t e d t o o b s e r v a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n b e f o r e , d u r i n g and a f t e r t h e program. Each f a m i l y was v i s i t e d a minimum o f f i v e t i m e s and d u r i n g each v i s i t , i n t e r v i e w s were conducted s e p a r a t e l y w i t h t h e c h i l d and t h e p a r e n t , f o l l o w e d by an i n t e r v i e w w i t h b o t h . 120-150 pages of t y p e d s c r i p t were c o l l e c t e d f o r each f a m i l y . The p i l o t program c o n s i s t e d o f s t r u c t u r e d e x e r c i s e s d e s i g n e d t o h e l p t h e s t u d e n t e x p l o r e i n t e r e s t s , a p t i t u d e s and v a l u e s . The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s program were t o enhance p a r e n t communication p a t t e r n s and r e c o g n i z e common communication problems, make p a r e n t s aware o f t h e problems one c o u l d e n c o u n t e r when making a c a r e e r d e c i s i o n , e x p l o r e i n t e r e s t s i n r e l a t i o n 1 3 5 t o s e t t i n g s , v a l u e s , a b i l i t i e s and p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and e x p l o r e j o b s and t h e i r a l t e r n a t i v e s . P a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n were asked t o comment on t h e c h a p t e r s as t h e y worked t h r o u g h them. A f t e r t h e y were i n t e r v i e w e d , t h e d a t a was d i v i d e d i n t o two a r e a s : d y a d i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s and c a r e e r m a t u r i t y . A l t h o u g h each f a m i l y was unique, c e r t a i n themes emerged. The p e r t i n e n t f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y f o l l o w : C a r e e r Awareness The s t u d e n t s showed d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f c a r e e r awareness. F o r example: a f t e r d o i n g t h e g r i d , two s t u d e n t s c o n f i r m e d a p r e v i o u s c a r e e r c h o i c e and one st u d e n t narrowed t h e o p t i o n s t o two from s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e s . One s t u d e n t i d e n t i f i e d what c a r e e r o p t i o n s were a v a i l a b l e , w h i l e one s t u d e n t came t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t an e x t r a y e a r o f grade t w e l v e would be n e c e s s a r y t o f u l f i l l c a r e e r o p t i o n s . S e l f Awareness A l l f a m i l i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the a d o l e s c e n t became more aware o f h i s o r her s t r e n g t h s , i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e s and c o u l d now r e l a t e t h e s e t o c a r e e r s . Career D e c i s i o n Making A l l f i v e f a m i l i e s f e l t t h e a d o l e s c e n t was b e t t e r p r e p a r e d t o make a c a r e e r d e c i s i o n and t h a t t h e program made t h e s t u d e n t aware o f t h e p r o c e s s o f making a c a r e e r d e c i s i o n . 136 F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s h i p s The program appeared t o enhance o r s t r e n g t h e n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a l l dyads. There i s e v i d e n c e t h a t a l l f a m i l y dyads p a i d more a t t e n t i o n t o each o t h e r . Even those e n c o u n t e r i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s r e p o r t e d t h i s . The f a m i l y dyads i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a dee p e n i n g o f f e e l i n g s toward each o t h e r as th e y worked on t h e program t o g e t h e r . O v e r a l l , t h e impact o f t h e program appeared b e n e f i c i a l . On t h e b a s i s o f the s t u d y , i t appears t h e program was c a p a b l e o f pr o m o t i n g c a r e e r development o f the a d o l e s c e n t and o f s t r e n g t h e n i n g f a m i l y c o h e s i o n and a d a p t a b i l i t y . However, a more e x t e n s i v e q u a n t i t a t i v e study seemed d e s i r a b l e t o c o n f i r m t h e r e s u l t s . A l t h o u g h t h e impact o f t h e program seemed b e n e f i c i a l , each f a m i l y dyad member produced feedback on how t h e program c o u l d be improved. The c r i t i c a l feedback was summarized a c c o r d i n g t o each c h a p t e r and p r o v i d e d t o t h e a u t h o r s . Upon t h e b a s i s o f t h i s c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n t h e program was changed i n t h e f o l l o w i n g ways: 1) The program would be g i v e n t o grade t e n o r e l e v e n s t u d e n t s . 2) A P a r e n t ' s Manual was d e s i g n e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e program and g i v e s t e p - b y - s t e p i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r p a r e n t s . 3) The i n t r o d u c t i o n was s h o r t e n e d and r e w r i t t e n i n l a y terms t o make i t c o n c r e t e and p r a c t i c a l . 137 4) C h a p t e r s Three and F i v e were d e l e t e d because the p a r e n t s found them redundant and not e s s e n t i a l i n meeting program g o a l s . 5) The e x e r c i s e s were s t r e a m l i n e d t o h e i g h t e n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h l e s s e x p l a n a t i o n . 6) The program was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e workbooks. P r e s e n t S t r u c t u r e o f t h e Program Based on t h e p a r e n t a l f e e d b a c k , t h e program was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e workbooks and a P a r e n t ' s Manual. The manual d e s c r i b e s the o b j e c t i v e s , s t r u c t u r e o f t h e program and s p e c i f i c ways p a r e n t s can a s s i s t t h e i r c h i l d ' s c a r e e r development. I t c o v e r s t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s g u i d i n g i n v o l v e m e n t . Each o f t h e workbooks has s e v e r a l u n i t s o r t a s k s . An o u t l i n e o f each workbook f o l l o w s w i t h a d e t a i l e d i l l u s t r a t i o n o f u n i t one: 1) A c t i v i t i e s S e l f - E x p l o r a t i o n Workbook. T h i s may t a k e 3-4 hours but p a r e n t s a r e asked t o t a k e as much time as n e c e s s a r y t o complete t h e t a s k s w e l l . U n i t One: E n j o y a b l e A c t i v i t i e s . The t a s k i s t o make a l i s t o f t e n g e n e r a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t t h e c h i l d e n j o y s . The l i s t s h o u l d " c a p t u r e t h e broad scope o f t h e c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t s ( p . 3 ) . " The p a r e n t h e l p s t h e c h i l d summarize a g e n e r a l t y p e o f a c t i v i t y (th e a u t h o r s use s p e c i f i c e x a m p l e s ) . Q u e s t i o n s a r e l i s t e d t h a t might h e l p t h e p a r e n t g u i d e t h e c h i l d . F o r 138 example: "What do you e n j o y d o i n g i n s c h o o l ? I n your l e i s u r e time? What do you l i k e t o do by y o u r s e l f ? With your f a m i l y ( p . 3 ) ? " P a r e n t s a r e c a u t i o n e d n o t t o n e g l e c t t h e o b v i o u s . Examples a r e g i v e n t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s . U n i t s two, t h r e e , f o u r , and f i v e f l o w from U n i t one. These i n c l u d e : U n i t Two: L i s t what s/he f i n d s e n j o y a b l e about each a c t i v i t y . U n i t Three: L i s t what v a l u e s and s t r e n g t h s a r e shown i n each a c t i v i t y . U n i t F o u r : I d e n t i f y p a t t e r n s t h a t o c c u r o v e r and over a c r o s s a c t i v i t i e s . U n i t F i v e : Use t h e s e l i k e s , v a l u e s , and s t r e n g t h s t o b r a i n s t o r m s u i t a b l e j o b s and b e g i n f i n d i n g o u t more about them. (2) C a r e e r G r i d Workbook (3-5 hours) The c a r e e r g r i d h e l p s t h e c h i l d make a d e c i s i o n by u s i n g a v i s u a l frame. C o m p l e t i o n o f t h e g r i d i s based upon t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d i n t h e A c t i v i t i e s S e l f - E x p l o r a t i o n Workbook. The s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s workbook i n c l u d e s e x e r c i s e s w h i c h : a) Expand and t h e n narrow o c c u p a t i o n s t o t h e t e n b e s t p o s s i b i l i t i e s . b) Expand and t h e n narrow d e s i r a b l e f e a t u r e s o f o c c u p a t i o n s t o t h e t e n most i m p o r t a n t ones. 139 c) Rate each o c c u p a t i o n u s i n g t h e g r i d . The t o p t e n c a r e e r c h o i c e s o f the c h i l d a r e w r i t t e n a l o n g t h e top o f the g r i d and t h e p o s i t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o r v a l u e s i n a c a r e e r a r e w r i t t e n a l o n g t h e l e f t s i d e . The c a r e e r c h o i c e s a r e r a t e d on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e by i n d i c a t i n g how p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e a c a r e e r i s on each c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A l l c a r e e r s a r e r a t e d on a l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The column o f numbers f o r each c a r e e r c h o i c e i s added and t h e top t h r e e a r e s e l e c t e d f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n and a n a l y s i s . An example o f a completed g r i d appears on page 141. d) Use a d e c i s i o n p r o c e d u r e t o e v a l u a t e and a n a l y s e t h e s e t h r e e c a r e e r a r e a s . (3) P l a n n i n g Workbook (2-5 hours) T h i s workbook g u i d e s p a r e n t s t o h e l p t h e i r c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f y i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g o r e d u c a t i o n and d e t e r m i n e e n t r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s and c o s t s . One u n i t d e a l s w i t h ways t h e c h i l d can improve upon p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . There a r e s c e n a r i o s t o s t r e n g t h e n awareness o f e f f e c t i v e c a r e e r p l a n n i n g . The u n i t s i n t h i s workbook i n c l u d e : U n i t One: F i n d out what t r a i n i n g i s r e q u i r e d f o r a s p e c i f i c c a r e e r . U n i t Two: F i n d o u t t h e e n t r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p o s t secondary t r a i n i n g . U n i t Three: P l a n e d u c a t i o n t o meet t h o s e r e q u i r e m e n t s . U n i t F o u r : E s t i m a t e f i n a n c i a l c o s t s . U n i t F i v e : D e c i d e which i n s t i t u t i o n i s b e s t . U n i t S i x : P l a n how t o keep o p t i o n s open. U n i t Seven: A n t i c i p a t e ways t o m i n i m i z e r i s k s . U n i t E i g h t : D e c i d e upon p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o be improved. C A R E E R G R I D Occupations 7. Career Values Customs 1 Officer Police 2 Woman Private 3 Invest. Personnel 4 Officer Tour 5 Agent Hoiel 6 Manager 7 Reporter 8 Phntog. Fashion 9 Designer 10 Translator Interesting 2 2 2 1 2 1 l 1 2 l Power & Authority 2 2 0 1 - 1 2 0 - 2 - 1 - 2 Freedom 1 1 2 1 - 2 - 1 l 2 - 1 - 1 Work Associates 1 1 - 1 2 1 1 l 1 1 0 Style of Life 1 0 1 0 1 - 1 - 2 - 2 1 - 1 Control of Job 1 2 - 1 1 - 1 2 - 2 - 1 1 1 Salary 2 1 - 1 1 0 1 1 0 - 1 - 1 Enjoyable 2 1 1 - 1 1 1 2 2 1 - 1 Creative - 2 — 2 - 2 0 1 2 - 2 2 2 - 2 Personal Growth 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 - 1 •i z -> 'ositivity 12 9 2 7 4 10 1 2 7 - 4 142 P A R E N T C A R E E R G U I D A N C E M A N U A L Larry R. Cochran, Ph.D. This program is intended for parents who would like to become more involved in helping their children to set a career direction. The aim of the program is to facilitate a beginning foundation for your child's career development. Through exercises in the workbooks, you will help your child to explore interests, values, and strengths, and in general, try to make clear what your child wants in a career and what he or she is capable of doing. You will help your child to evaluate occupational possibilities and to make a tentative decision. And you will help to make a plan to gain entrance to an occupation. A second aim is to strengthen family bonds that support a young person's passage into the adult world. Many families have good relationships, but oddly enough, not good working relationships. Parents care a great deal, but are often strangely isolated from their child's efforts to launch a career. In making a career plan, your child is entering one of the most difficult transitions in life, a transition some never fully make and spend much of their adult lives trying to correct. If there is a time for parental involvement, support, and guidance, this is it. C o p y r i g h t 1985 b y L a r r y C o c h r a n P u b l i s h e d b y B u c h a n a n - K e l l s , 1 985 V a n c o u v e r , B . C . , S a l e m , O r e g o n 2 Program Description 143 The program includes three workbooks. Each workbook has several units or tasks to accomplish. Below is an outline of the program. U N I T O N E : U N I T T W O : U N I T T H R E E : U N I T F O U R : U N I T F I V E : U N I T S I X : U N I T O N E : U N I T T W O : U N I T T H R E E : U N I T F O U R : A C T I V I T I E S W O R K B O O K Generate ten activities your child finds enjoyable. List what he or she finds enjoyable about each activity. List what values are involved in each activity. List what strengths are shown in each activity. Identify likes, values, and strengths that occur over and over across activities. Use these likes, values, and strengths to brainstorm suitable jobs and begin finding out more about them. C A R E E R GRID W O R K B O O K Expand and then narrow occupations to the ten best possibilities. Expand and then narrow desirable features of occupations to the ten most important ones. Rate or grade each occupation on each desirable feature. Use a decision procedure to evaluate and rank occupations from most to least desirable. U N I T O N E : U N I T U N I T U N I T U N I T U N I T U N I T U N I T T W O : T H R E E : F O U R : F I V E : SIX: S E V E N : E I G H T : PLANNING W O R K B O O K Find out what training is required for an occupation and where one can get it. Find out the entrance requirements for training. Plan education to meet those requirements. Estimate financial costs and resources for training. Decide which educational or training institution is best. Plan how to keep options open. Anticipate ways to minimize risks. Decide upon personal characteristics to improve. In the Activities Workbook, the parent should pose the question of each unit and take notes on the appropriate tables. For example, once you have ten activities listed, you would ask (In Unit Two): What are the things you like about the first activity? As your child mentions things, you would take notes. Sometimes you will have things to suggest as well. Sometimes, your child will talk rather vaguely and you might try to accurately summarize or pinpoint what it is he or she likes. And sometimes, your child might need encouragement to expand upon his or her likes. The tasks of this workbook are quite simple, but do require some help to do well. Often, the experience of completing the Activities Workbook is that of a fast-paced discussion. You could complete the whole workbook in a few hours but it would probably be better to use a few sessions. 144 When you finish the Activities Workbook, you will be directed to find out about occupa- tions that seem suitable. However, a search for information should be on-going. While it starts here, it should continue throughout the program. If you arrange, for instance, to meet with your child for an hour or so once or twice a week, your child could look up information, complete interest tests, or whatever, between these sessions. In the Career Grid Workbook, you will not take notes, but will continue to suggest, clarify, direct, pose the tasks, discuss, and generally help to do whatever needs to be done. For this workbook particularly, read each unit before you get together with your child. For Unit Three, it would probably be best to cut out the career grid. Unit Four should involve considerable discussion as your child will be weighing one value against another, a task that can benefit from the broader perspective and experience of a parent. In the Planning Workbook, the units are directed toward your child primarily, but it really requires both parent and child. The reason for this is that planning partially involves financial support, a topic that is apt to involve parents quite heavily. The Planning Work- book is a rather straightforward frame for gathering information and organizing it into a plan, so that everyone knows who is responsible for what if the plan is to succeed. During the program, you and your child have a number of basic controls: 1. You can decide how much time, effort, and concentration to place on each unit. Each unit can be completed in one session or spaced over several sessions. Be guided by the needs of yourself and your child. For example, if your child has a clear interest area, there may be no need to concentrate on the Activity Workbook. If your child is vague and uncertain, you might want to spend a lot of time on this Workbook. 2. You can decide what parts of a unit will be stressed. What will be placed in focus and what will be unstressed? 3. You can decide on the level of focus that is most appropriate. Sometimes, you might help your child with a focus on precise detail in order to gain clarity. At other times, you will want to step back and get the whole in perspective. 4. You can highlight reasons for focusing on one thing or another. Your reasons will help to co-ordinate the way you and your child approach the task. 5. You can maintain a unifying focus by relating aspects of one unit to aspects uncovered in preceding units. 6. You can decide to make additions to units if you wish. For example, you could create exercises, consult a counsellor, use test results and so on. 7. You can decide on the pace. It is probably best to get together once or twice a week. This depends a lot on you and your time. Generally, too slow a pace is apt to hinder interest in the project, but if delicate issues arise, you might deliberately slow things down. Parental Counselling Role Parental involvement adds immensely to the quality with which these workbooks are completed, the benefit gained from completing them. Certainly, your child could complete many units on his or her own, and if you are really pressed for time, you could leave a unit for your child to complete alone. However, to maintain interest, enthusiasm, and effort, parent involvement is very important. The workbooks are intended to be a co-operative venture, to cultivate a sense of partnership, a sense of 'we' rather than 'me'. The success of this program depends, to a large extent, upon the quality of the working relationship you and your child form. For this reason, I will cover some of the basic principles that should guide your involvement. 4 145 Pay Attention. Be engaged. Be fully there, without letting your mind wander to unpaid bills, work problems, vacation plans, and so on. Really try to discover what your child's likes, values, strengths, and ideas are. In particular, attend to what your child is saying, not to what you wish or want him or her to say. Not only should you give your full attention to the task, you should put attention to use. You might paraphrase what your child has said to make sure you understand it. You might summarize lengthy statements and try to clarify vague ones. Active attention will keep you much more involved than passive attention, and will be much more helpful to your child. Strive for reciprocity. Like a friendship, partners should be able to give and take without fear of giving offense. Advise and be advised. Correct and be corrected. Encourage and be encouraged. Disagree and accept disagreement. You have a perspective and your child has a perspective. Both must be respected. However, differences are transcended by caring, trust, and mutual respect, an acknowledgement really that each is different. You can cultivate more reciprocity (more giving and taking in a co-operative spirit) by encouraging openness, by showing acceptance (not belittling, criticizing, condescending, or forcing), and by emphasizing positive and constructive comments before focusing on disagreements. In a partnership, there is no room for a tyrant, nor for a neutral observer. To be a partner, there must be a free give and take, and this must often be earned, even if you have a very good relationship with your child already. Strive for a mutual balance of power. This is similar to reciprocity, but different. For example, one could say: Now that we have had our little give and take, do as I want! Ideally, you will influence your child, and in turn, be influenced by him or her. That is, there will be a balance of power or influence. On some topics, you will have more influence. For example, it is you who must eventually decide how much financial support you can give. On other topics, your child should have more influence. For example, you can advise, but your child is responsible for deciding upon which occupation to pursue. After all, he or she will be living that decision. You cannot take responsibility for your child's career, but can influence it. Like reciprocity, a balance of power requires respect, trust, and openness. It requires taking the other into account. It requires good faith rather than hidden agendas. The fact is that you do care what your child thinks, values, and does. There is no point in hiding behind a phony neutrality. However, it is also true that your child is a person in his or her own right, and you cannot command or demand forever. It is this type of situation that calls for balance, a willingness to influence and to be influenced. Create warmth. A partnership of this nature is not like a business transaction. A warm, supportive relationship is essential for the type of exploration, evaluation, and planning that this program requires. If the climate is like that of a final examination, a trial, or an execution, the partnership is more apt to be destructive than constructive. It is warmth that will allow discussion to flow freely, for a working alliance on the issue of career development to occur, and for the program to work. If you cannot establish a reasonable partnership, terminate the program. With a poor working relationship, it is doubtful if anyone would benefit. For most people, there will be moments of discouragement, but many more moments of meaningful achievement. And most people will have little trouble forming a working relationship, but if not, there is apt to be a good reason and one should attend to this reason rather than the program. 146 Goals of the Program It is commonly assumed that there is one right job for each person and the goal of career counselling is to discover that job. Then, the person works hard presumably, succeeds in getting the right job, and lives a happy, contented life. While this might happen once in a while, it is largely nonsense. There is no one right job. A person has a variety of potentials and a variety of options that might be satisfying. People should continue to explore until they have to make a definite commitment. It would be perfectly natural for your child to change his or her mind within a week, month or year. People change. They find out new information. They lose interest. Other occupations might arise as better options. Even if your child stuck with the decision made during this program, people change occupations frequently. Let us consider a more realistic story from which we might set more reasonable goals. Pursuing a career is filled with uncertainties, risks, opportunities, setbacks, decisions, compromises, adjustments, and sometimes crises. The job market is in flux. New jobs are arising while some old jobs are dwindling and vanishing. People have more difficulty finding an anchor. There is a large element of chance in a career, being in the right place at the right time or being in the wrong place at the wrong time. In this shifting, uncertain environment, some people flounder from job to job without much sign of progress. They cant get what they want, or think they want, and don't want what they can get. Some people drift aimlessly, unsure of what they want and where they are going. Some people become stuck in jobs and stagnate, wondering how they ever fell into such a trap. And some people do indeed progress in a career that is meaningful, satisfying, and productive. Given this situation, the aim of this program is to tilt the odds more in one's favor, to minimize chance and increase purposeful direction. How can the odds be tilted in one's favor? This program involves four ways to improve one's chances for a meaningful career. First, this program was intended to improve self-understanding. Without a better under- standing of oneself, there is little basis for making wise decisions now or in the future. Does you child have a better grasp of his or her wants and strengths? If so, he or she is in a better position to pursue a career. Second, a person might have some self-understanding, but little awareness of viable options that would be optimal or even just suitable. It requires knowledge to match one's interests, values, and capabilities to appropriate occupations. The key question is: Does your child have viable options in mind? Third, one might have knowledge of oneself and occupations, but lack competence in decision making. Even with knowledge, one must be able to use that knowledge to evaluate options and to make good decisions. Does your child have greater competence in making decisions? Last, on-going support and encouragement from one's family is an important basis for successfully pursuing a career. Perhaps it is not always necesary, but it is a decided advantage that can make a difference in your child's future. The question here is: Did you achieve a good working relationship on the issue of career development? These four goals provide more enduring grounds for the future development of your child. Certainly, I hope that your child will also emerge with a reasonable decision and a workable plan, but these are really quite secondary. Of much more importance at this time is whether your child has established a foundation for the road ahead. Parent Diary 147 For yourself or for your child at some later time, record any significant questions, insights, observations, reactions, or even predictions; from your experiences within this program. Date Comments and Questions 143 APPENDIX B QUESTIONNAIRE FOR COUNSELLORS PLEASE TAKE A MINUTE AND F I L L OUT THE QUESTIONNAIRE AND DEPOSIT IT AT THE REGISTRATION DESK BEFORE YOU LEAVE. YOUR COOPERATION IS APPRECIATED. 1 . S c h o o l D i s t r i c t # 2. S c h o o l : E l e m e n t a r y J u n i o r Secondary 3. C o u n s e l l i n g : F u l l Time % o f the time 4. T e a c h i n g : F u l l Time % of the t i m e 5. I s the c o u n s e l l i n g t ime t h e same as i t was i n 1984? Yes NO I f no, how has i t changed: 4? 6 . Number o f c o u n s e l l o r s a t your s c h o o l ? _ Number o f s t u d e n t s a t you s c h o o l ? 7. P e r c e n t a g e o f t i m e you spend on: I n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t c o u n s e l l i n g P a r e n t I n t e r v i e w s C a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s O ther . P l e a s e s p e c i f y 8. I s t h i s amount o f time adequate f o r : I n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g C a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g P a r e n t i n t e r v i e w s A d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s Comments 9. A p p r o x i m a t e l y how many hours per s c h o o l y e a r do you spend c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g a grade t e n s t u d e n t grade e l e v e n s t u d e n t grade t w e l v e s t u d e n t Comments: 10. Would you l i k e t o see more p a r e n t a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r e a s such as c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g ? Yes No Reasons 11. Would you l i k e t o see more p a r e n t a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n o t h e r a r e a s o f c o u n s e l l i n g ? Yes No Reasons APPENDIX E INSTRUCTIONS TO COUNSELLORS 151 1. Please inform the parents that I w i l l want to c a l l them after the program i s completed to get more feedback from them. This may involve a personal interview. 2. The program i s s e l f explanatory. There i s a manual for the parents to follow and they should refer to i t i f they have any d i f f i c u l t i e s with the program. They should c a l l you i f they cannot understand the manual. Please explain to them that because i t i s s t i l l i n the testing stage, we need them to f i l l out the questionnaires and seek th e i r feedback. 3. The Career Development Inventory i s given to students before and aft e r the porgram. Please use the forms for the pretest and the booklets for the posttest. 4. FACES i s given to students and parents as a pretest. Again, have them use the forms for the pretest and the booklets for the posttest. Give them the questionnaires as well. 5 . Inform the parents i n the control group that they w i l l be given the program in four weeks time. 6. After two weeks have gone by, could you please phone one or two parents to see how the program i s going. 7. There are two short questionnaires that the parents and students f i l l out at the end. Thank you for helping me with t h i s venture. Please c a l l me i f you have any problems or questions and by the way, I ' l l owe you one after t h i s l 151a APPENDIX F Career Development Inventory (CDI). Developed by Drs. Donald E. Super, A l b e r t S. Thompson, et a l . School form. Copyright, 1979, by Con s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t s Press, Inc., 577 College Ave., Palo A l t o , CA 9^306. Leaves 152-61 not f i l m e d ; permission not obtained. APPENDIX F CAREER DEVELOPMENT INVENTORY 152 School Form Developed by Drs. Donald E. Super, Albert S. Thompson, Richard H . Lindeman, )ean P. Jordaan, and Roger A . Myers at Teachers College, Columbia University Career Development Inventory D I R E C T I O N S The Career Deve lopment Inventory asks you about s c h o o l , work , your future career, and some of the plans you may have made. Answers to quest ions l ike these can indicate what k ind of help may be useful to y o u in p lann ing and prepar ing for a job after graduat ion, for vocat ional and technical schoo l t ra in ing, or for go ing to col lege before pursu ing your occupat iona l career . The Inventory consists of two parts. The person w h o administers it w i l l indicate whether y o u shou ld comp le te the first part, the second part, or both parts. Part I (Career Or ientat ion) begins on the next page and Part II (Knowledge of Preferred Occupat ion ) begins on Page 11. Al l your answers to the CDI go o n a special answer sheet w h i c h shou ld accompany this book le t . M a k e no marks of any kind on this booklet . Record your answers by b lacken ing the appropriate lettered boxes on the answer sheet, us ing a #2 lead penc i l . D o n o t use a pen. If you change an answer, please erase thorough ly . . Before open ing the test book le t , fil l in your name and the other in format ion requested on the upper third of the answer sheet, fo l lowing any special instruct ions of the person administer ing the inventory. Fill in the name boxes careful ly . W h e n d i rected to do so , o p e n this booklet and begin . Please answer every quest ion . If y o u are not sure about an answer, guess; the first answer that c o m e s to y o u is often the best one . Work rapidly, but be careful to make your marks in the right boxes for each quest ion . Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc., Palo Alto, California ©Copyright, 1979, by Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc., 577 College Ave., Palo Alto, CA94306. All rights reserved. No portion of this material may be reproduced without written permission of the Publisher. PART I. Career Orientation 153 A. CAREER P L A N N I N G H o w m u c h t h i n k i n g a n d p l a n n i n g h a v e you d o n e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s ? For e a c h q u e s t i b e l o w c h o o s e t h e a n s w e r t h a t b e s t t e l l s w h a t y o u h a v e d o n e s o f a r . 1. F i n d i n g o u t a b o u t e d u c a t i o n a l a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s b y g o i n g t o t h e l i b r a r y , s e n d i n g a w a y f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , o r t a l k i n g t o s o m e b o d y w h o k n o w s . A. I h a v e n o t y e t g i v e n a n y t h o u g h t t o t h i s . B. I h a v e g i v e n s o m e t h o u g h t t o t h i s , b u t h a v e n ' t m a d e a n y p l a n s y e t . C . I h a v e s o m e p l a n s , b u t a m s t i l l n o t s u r e o f t h e m . D . I h a v e m a d e d e f i n i t e p l a n s , b u t d o n ' t k n o w y e t h o w t o c a r r y t h e m o u t . E. I h a v e m a d e d e f i n i t e p l a n s , a n d k n o w w h a t t o d o t o c a r r y t h e m o u t . 2. T a l k i n g a b o u t c a r e e r p l a n s w i t h a n a d u l t w h o k n o w s s o m e t h i n g a b o u t m e . A . I h a v e n o t y e t g i v e n a n y t h o u g h t t o t h i s . B. I h a v e g i v e n s o m e t h o u g h t t o t h i s , b u t h a v e n ' t m a d e a n y p l a n s y e t . C . I h a v e s o m e p l a n s , b u t a m s t i l l n o t s u r e o f t h e m . D . I h a v e m a d e d e f i n i t e p l a n s , b u t d o n ' t k n o w y e t h o w t o c a r r y t h e m o u t . E. I h a v e m a d e d e f i n i t e p l a n s , a n d k n o w w h a t t o d o t o c a r r y t h e m o u t . 3. T a k i n g c l a s s e s w h i c h w i l l h e l p m e d e c i d e w h a t l i n e o f w o r k t o g o I n t o w h e n I l e a v e s c h o o l o r c o l l e g e . A . I h a v e n o t y e t g i v e n a n y t h o u g h t t o t h i s . B. I h a v e g i v e n s o m e t h o u g h t t o t h i s , b u t h a v e n ' t m a d e a n y p l a n s y e t . C . I h a v e s o m e p l a n s , b u t a m s t i l l n o t s u r e o f t h e m . D . I h a v e m a d e d e f i n i t e p l a n s , b u t d o n ' t k n o w y e t h o w t o c a r r y t h e m o u t . E. I h a v e m a d e d e f i n i t e p l a n s , a n d k n o w w h a t t o d o t o c a r r y t h e m o u t . 4. T a k i n g c l a s s e s w h i c h w i l l h e l p m e i n c o l l e g e , i n j o b t r a i n i n g , o r o n t h e j o b . A . I h a v e n o t y e t g i v e n a n y t h o u g h t t o t h i s . B. I h a v e g i v e n s o m e t h o u g h t t o t h i s , b u t h a v e n ' t m a d e a n y p l a n s y e t . C . I h a v e s o m e p l a n s , b u t a m s t i l l n o t s u r e o f t h e m . D . I h a v e m a d e d e f i n i t e p l a n s , b u t d o n ' t k n o w y e t h o w t o c a r r y t h e m o u t . E. I h a v e m a d e d e f i n i t e p l a n s , a n d k n o w w h a t t o d o t o c a r r y t h e m o u t . 5. T a k i n g p a r t i n s c h o o l o r o u t - o f - s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h w i l l h e l p m e i n c o l l e g e , i n t r a i n i n g , o r o n t h e j o b . A . I h a v e n o t y e t g i v e n a n y t h o u g h t t o t h i s . B. I h a v e g i v e n s o m e t h o u g h t t o t h i s , b u t h a v e n ' t m a d e a n y p l a n s y e t . C . I h a v e s o m e p l a n s , b u t a m s t i l l n o t s u r e o f t h e m . D . I h a v e m a d e d e f i n i t e p l a n s , b u t d o n ' t k n o w y e t h o w t o c a r r y t h e m o u t . E. I h a v e m a d e d e f i n i t e p l a n s , a n d k n o w w h a t t o d o t o c a r r y t h e m o u t . 6 . T a k i n g p a r t i n s c h o o l o r a f t e r - s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s ( f o r e x a m p l e , s c i e n c e c l u b , s c h o o l n e w s p a p e r , v o l u n t e e r n u r s e ' s a i d e ) w h i c h w i l l h e l p m e d e c i d e w h a t k i n d o f w o r k t o g o i n t o w h e n I l e a v e s c h o o l . A . I h a v e n o t y e t g i v e n a n y t h o u g h t t o t h i s . B. I h a v e g i v e n s o m e t h o u g h t t o t h i s , b u t h a v e n ' t m a d e a n y p l a n s y e t . C . I h a v e s o m e p l a n s , b u t a m s t i l l n o t s u r e o f t h e m . D . I h a v e m a d e d e f i n i t e p l a n s , b u t d o n ' t k n o w y e t h o w t o c a r r y t h e m o u t . E. I h a v e m a d e d e f i n i t e p l a n s , a n d k n o w w h a t t o d o t o c a r r y t h e m o u t . C o o n t o t h e n e x t p a g e . 2 154 7. G e t t i n g a p a r t - t i m e o r s u m m e r j o b w h i c h w i l l h e l p m e d e c i d e w h a t k i n d o f w o r k I m i g h t g o i n t o . A . I h a v e n o t y e t g i v e n a n y t h o u g h t t o t h i s . B. I h a v e g i v e n s o m e t h o u g h t t o t h i s , b u t h a v e n ' t m a d e a n y p l a n s y e t . C . I h a v e s o m e p l a n s , b u t a m s t i l l n o t s u r e o f t h e m . D . I h a v e m a d e d e f i n i t e p l a n s , b u t d o n ' t k n o w y e t h o w t o c a r r y t h e m o u t . E. I h a v e m a d e d e f i n i t e p l a n s , a n d k n o w w h a t t o d o t o c a r r y t h e m o u t . 8 . G e t t i n g m o n e y f o r c o l l e g e o r f o r j o b t r a i n i n g . A . I h a v e n o t y e t g i v e n a n y t h o u g h t t o t h i s . B. I h a v e g i v e n s o m e t h o u g h t t o t h i s , b u t h a v e n ' t m a d e a n y p l a n s y e t . C . I h a v e s o m e p l a n s , b u t a m s t i l l n o t s u r e o f t h e m . D . I h a v e m a d e d e f i n i t e p l a n s , b u t d o n ' t k n o w y e t h o w t o c a r r y t h e m o u t . E. I h a v e m a d e d e f i n i t e p l a n s , a n d k n o w w h a t t o d o t o c a r r y t h e m o u t . 9 . W o r k i n g o u t p r o b l e m s t h a t m i g h t m a k e i t h a r d f o r m e t o g e t t h e k i n d o f t r a i n i n g o r t h e k i n d o f w o r k I w o u l d l i k e . A . I h a v e n o t y e t g i v e n a n y t h o u g h t t o t h i s . B. I h a v e g i v e n s o m e t h o u g h t t o t h i s , b u t h a v e n ' t m a d e a n y p l a n s y e t . C . I h a v e s o m e p l a n s , b u t a m s t i l l n o t s u r e o f t h e m . D . I h a v e m a d e d e f i n i t e p l a n s , b u t d o n ' t k n o w y e t h o w t o c a r r y t h e m o u t . E. I h a v e m a d e d e f i n i t e p l a n s , a n d k n o w w h a t t o d o t o c a r r y t h e m o u t . 10 . G e t t i n g t h e k i n d o f t r a i n i n g , e d u c a t i o n , o r e x p e r i e n c e I w i l l n e e d t o g e t t h e k i n d o f w o r k I w o u l d l i k e . A . I h a v e n o t y e t g i v e n a n y t h o u g h t t o t h i s . B. I h a v e g i v e n s o m e t h o u g h t t o t h i s , b u t h a v e n ' t m a d e a n y p l a n s y e t . C . I h a v e s o m e p l a n s , b u t a m s t i l l n o t s u r e o f t h e m . D . I h a v e m a d e d e f i n i t e p l a n s , b u t d o n ' t k n o w y e t h o w t o c a r r y t h e m o u t . E. I h a v e m a d e d e f i n i t e p l a n s , a n d k n o w w h a t t o d o t o c a r r y t h e m o u t . 1 1 . G e t t i n g a j o b o n c e I h a v e f i n i s h e d m y e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g . A . I h a v e n o t y e t g i v e n a n y t h o u g h t t o t h i s . B. I h a v e g i v e n s o m e t h o u g h t t o t h i s , b u t h a v e n ' t m a d e a n y p l a n s y e t . C . I h a v e s o m e p l a n s , b u t a m s t i l l n o t s u r e o f t h e m . D . I h a v e m a d e d e f i n i t e p l a n s , b u t d o n ' t k n o w y e t h o w t o c a r r y t h e m o u t . E. I h a v e m a d e d e f i n i t e p l a n s , a n d k n o w w h a t t o d o t o c a r r y t h e m o u t . 1 2 . D o i n g t h i n g s t h a t w i l l h e l p m e b e a g o o d w o r k e r , o n e w h o is m o s t l i k e l y t o b e s u r e o f a j o b . A . I h a v e n o t y e t g i v e n a n y t h o u g h t t o t h i s . B. I h a v e g i v e n s o m e t h o u g h t t o t h i s , b u t h a v e n ' t m a d e a n y p l a n s y e t . C . I h a v e s o m e p l a n s , b u t a m s t i l l n o t s u r e o f t h e m . D . I h a v e m a d e d e f i n i t e p l a n s , b u t d o n ' t k n o w y e t h o w t o c a r r y t h e m o u t . E. I h a v e m a d e d e f i n i t e p l a n s , a n d k n o w w h a t t o d o t o c a r r y t h e m o u t . T h e n e x t q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n t h e k i n d o f w o r k y o u w o u l d l i k e t o d o w h e n y o u c o m p l e t e y o u r e d u c a t i o n . A t t h i s s t a g e , y o u p r o b a b l y h a v e n o t d e f i n i t e l y d e c i d e d o n a s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n , b u t y o u p r o b a b l y c a n t h i n k o f a f i e l d o f w o r k o r t y p e o f j o b y o u w o u l d l i k e t o w o r k a t . Keeping in mind the type of job you think you might like to be in after you finish your schooling, c h o o s e t h e o n e b e s t a n s w e r w h i c h t e l l s t h e a m o u n t o f k n o w l e d g e y o u a l r e a d y h a v e a b o u t t h e s e j o b s . 13 . W h a t p e o p l e r e a l l y d o o n t h e j o b . A . Hardly any k n o w l e d g e . B. A little k n o w l e d g e . C . A n average amount o f k n o w l e d g e . D . A good deal o f k n o w l e d g e . E. A great deal o f k n o w l e d g e . 14 . T h e a b i l i t i e s n e e d e d f o r t h e o c c u p a t i o n . A . Hardly any k n o w l e d g e . B. A little k n o w l e d g e . C . A n average amount o f k n o w l e d g e . D . A good deal o f k n o w l e d g e . E. A great deal o f k n o w l e d g e . G o o n t o t h e n e x t p a g e . 3 155 15 . T h e w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s o n s u c h j o b s . A . Hardly any k n o w l e d g e . B. A little k n o w l e d g e . C . A n average amount o f k n o w l e d g e . D . A good deal o f k n o w l e d g e . E. A great deal o f k n o w l e d g e . 16 . T h e e d u c a t i o n o r t r a i n i n g n e e d e d t o g e t s u c h a j o b . A . Hardly any k n o w l e d g e . B . A little k n o w l e d g e . C . A n average amount o f k n o w l e d g e . D . A good deal o f k n o w l e d g e . E. A g r e a t deal o f k n o w l e d g e . 17 . T h e n e e d f o r p e o p l e o n t h a t k i n d o f j o b i n t h e f u t u r e . A . Hardly any k n o w l e d g e . B. A little k n o w l e d g e . C . A n a v e r a g e a m o u n t o f k n o w l e d g e . D . A g o o d deal o f k n o w l e d g e . E. A g r e a t deal o f k n o w l e d g e . 1B. D i f f e r e n t w a y s o f g e t t i n g i n t o t h a t o c c u p a t i o n . A . Hardly any k n o w l e d g e . B. A little k n o w l e d g e . C . A n average amount o f k n o w l e d g e . D A g o o d deal o f k n o w l e d g e . E. A great deal o f k n o w l e d g e . 1 9 . T h e c h a n c e s o f a d v a n c i n g i n t h a t k i n d o f j o b o r o c c u p a t i o n . A . Hardly any k n o w l e d g e . B. A little k n o w l e d g e . C . A n average amount o f k n o w l e d g e . D . A g o o d deal o f k n o w l e d g e . E. A great deal o f k n o w l e d g e . 2 0 . W h a t s o r t o f w o r k i n g d a y a n d w o r k w e e k I m i g h t h a v e i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n . A . Hardly any k n o w l e d g e . B . A little k n o w l e d g e . • C . A n average amount o f k n o w l e d g e . D . A good deal o f k n o w l e d g e . E. A g r e a t deal o f k n o w l e d g e . B. CAREER EXPLORATION Quest ions 21 through 30 have four possib le answers. C h o o s e the one best answer for each question to show whether or not you w o u l d go to the fo l lowing sources for in format ion or help in making your plans for work or further educat ion . 2 1 . F a t h e r , m o t h e r , u n c l e s , a u n t s , e t c . A . D e f i n i t e l y n o t . B. P r o b a b l y n o t . C . P r o b a b l y . D . D e f i n i t e l y . 2 2 . B r o t h e r s , s i s t e r s , o r c o u s i n s . A . D e f i n i t e l y n o t . B. P r o b a b l y n o t . C . P r o b a b l y . D . D e f i n i t e l y . 2 3 . F r i e n d s . A . D e f i n i t e l y n o t . B. P r o b a b l y n o t . C . P r o b a b l y . D . D e f i n i t e l y . 2 4 . C o a c h e s o f s c h o o l o r o t h e r t e a m s . A . D e f i n i t e l y n o t . B. P r o b a b l y n o t . C . P r o b a b l y . D . D e f i n i t e l y . 2 5 . T e a c h e r s . A . B. C . D . D e f i n i t e l y n o t . P r o b a b l y n o t . P r o b a b l y . D e f i n i t e l y . 2 6 . S c h o o l c o u n s e l o r s . A . D e f i n i t e l y n o t . B. P r o b a b l y n o t . C . P r o b a b l y . D . D e f i n i t e l y . 2 7 . O t h e r a d u l t s w h o k n o w t h i n g s a n d c a n h e l p p e o p l e . A . D e f i n i t e l y n o t . B. P r o b a b l y n o t . C . P r o b a b l y . D . D e f i n i t e l y . 2 8 . C o l l e g e c a t a l o g u e s , b o o k s , g u i d a n c e m a t e r i a l s , e t c . A . D e f i n i t e l y n o t . B. P r o b a b l y n o t . C . P r o b a b l y . D . D e f i n i t e l y . 29 . P e o p l e i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n o r at t h e i n s t i t u t e o r c o l l e g e I a m c o n s i d e r i n g . A . D e f i n i t e l y n o t . B. P r o b a b l y n o t . C . P r o b a b l y . D . D e f i n i t e l y . 3 0 . T V s h o w s , m o v i e s , o r m a g a z i n e s . A . D e f i n i t e l y n o t . B. C . D . P r o b a b l y n o t . P r o b a b l y . D e f i n i t e l y . C o o n t o t h e n e x t p a g e . 156 Quest ions 31 through 40 also have four possible answers. This t ime choose the one best answer to show how much useful in format ion the people or sources l isted be low have already given you or di rected you to in making your plans for the future. 3 1 . F a t h e r , m o t h e r , u n c l e s , a u n t s , e t c . A . No u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . B. Some u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . C . A g o o d deal o f u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . D . A g r e a f deal o f u s e f u l I n f o r m a t i o n . 32 . B r o t h e r s , s i s t e r s , o r o t h e r r e l a t i v e s . A . No u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . B. Some u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . C . A g o o d deal o f u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . D . A great deal o f u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . 3 3 . F r i e n d s . A . No u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . B. S o m e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . C . A g o o d deal o f u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . D . A great deal o f u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . 34 . C o a c h e s o f s c h o o l o r o t h e r t e a m s . A . No u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . B. S o m e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . C . A g o o d deal o f u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . D . A great deal o f u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . 35 . T e a c h e r s . A . No u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . B. Some u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . C . A g o o d deal o f u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . D . A g r e a f deal of u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . 36. S c h o o l c o u n s e l o r s . A. No u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . B. S o m e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . C . * good deal oi u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . D. A great deal o f u s e f u l I n f o r m a t i o n . 37. O t h e r a d u l t s w h o k n o w t h i n g s a n d c a n h e l p p e o p l e . A . N o u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . B. Some u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . C . A good deal o f u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . D . A g r e a f deal o f u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . 38 . C o l l e g e c a t a l o g u e s , b o o k s , g u i d a n c e m a t e r i a l s , e t c . A . No u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . B. Some u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . C . Agood deal o f u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . D . A great deal o f u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . 3 9 . P e o p l e i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n o r at t h e i n s t i t u t e o r c o l l e g e I a m c o n s i d e r i n g . A . N o u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . B. Some u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . C . A g o o d deal of u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . D . A g r e a f deal of u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . 4 0 . T V s h o w s , m o v i e s , o r m a g a z i n e s . A . No u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . B. Some u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . C . A g o o d deal o f u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . D . A great deal o f u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . C. D E C I S I O N - M A K I N G What should each of the fo l l owing students do? C h o o s e the one best answer for each case. 4 1 . E.R. t o o k s o m e t e s t s w h i c h s h o w s o m e p r o m i s e f o r c l e r i c a l w o r k . T h i s s t u d e n t s a y s , " I j u s t c a n ' t s e e m y s e l f s i t t i n g b e h i n d a d e s k f o r t h e r e s t o f m y l i f e . I 'm t h e k i n d o f p e r s o n w h o l i k e s v a r i e t y . I t h i n k a t r a v e l i n g j o b w o u l d s u i t m e f i n e . " E.R. s h o u l d : A . d i s r e g a r d t h e t e s t s a n d d o w h a t h e o r s h e w a n t s t o d o . B. d o w h a t t h e t e s t s s a y s i n c e t h e y k n o w b e s t . C . l o o k f o r a j o b w h i c h r e q u i r e s c l e r i c a l a b i l i t y b u t d o e s n o t p i n o n e t o a d e s k . D . a s k t o b e t e s t e d w i t h a n o t h e r t e s t s i n c e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e f i r s t o n e a r e p r o b a b l y w r o n g . 4 2 . j . D . m i g h t l i k e t o b e c o m e a c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m e r , b u t k n o w s l i t t l e a b o u t c o m p u t e r p i o g r a m m i n g , a n d is g o i n g t o t h e l i b r a r y t o f i n d o u t m o r e a b o u t i t . T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h i n g f o r J . D . t o k n o w n o w i s : A . w h a t t h e w o r k i s , w h a t o n e d o e s o n t h e j o b . B. w h a t t h e p a y i s . C . w h a t t h e h o u r s o f w o r k a r e . D . w h e r e o n e c a n g e t t h e r i g h t t r a i n i n g . C o o n t o t h e n e x t p a g e . 5 4 3 . A . M . is v e r y g o o d w i t h s k i l l e d h a n d i w o r k a n d t h e r e i s n ' t a n y b o d y i n t h e c l a s s w h o h a s m o r e m e c h a n i c a l a p t i t u d e o r i s b e t t e r at a r t . A . M . ' s b e s t g r a d e s a r e i n m a t h , b u t A . M . l i k e s a l l o f t h e s e t h i n g s . W h a t s h o u l d A . M . d o ? A . L o o k f o r a n o c c u p a t i o n w h i c h w i l l u s e as m a n y o f t h e s e i n t e r e s t s a n d a b i l i t i e s as p o s s i b l e . B . P i c k a n o c c u p a t i o n w h i c h u s e s m a t h , s i n c e t h e r e is a b e t t e r f u t u r e i n t h a t t h a n i n a r t o r i n w o r k i n g w i t h o n e ' s h a n d s . C . D e c i d e n o w o n o n e o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s b e c a u s e o f a b i l i t y o r i n t e r e s t , a n d t h e n p i c k a n o c c u p a t i o n w h i c h u s e s t h a t k i n d o f a s s e t . D . P u t o f f d e c i d i n g a b o u t t h e f u t u r e a n d w a i t u n t i l I n t e r e s t i n s o m e o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s d e c l i n e s . 4 4 . B .R . g e t s v e r y g o o d s c i e n c e g r a d e s b u t d o e s n ' t c a r e t o o m u c h a b o u t t h i s s u b j e c t . T h e s u b j e c t B .R . l i k e d b e s t i s a r t e v e n t h o u g h g r a d e s i n i t a r e o n l y a v e r a g e . T h i s s t u d e n t is m o s t l i k e l y t o d o w e l l i n a f u t u r e o c c u p a t i o n If h e o r s h e : A . f o r g e t s a b o u t i n t e r e s t i n a r t s i n c e a c h i e v e m e n t Is s o m u c h b e t t e r i n s c i e n c e . B . d o e s n ' t w o r r y a b o u t t h e a c h i e v e m e n t i n a r t , b e c a u s e if y o u l i k e s o m e t h i n g y o u c a n b e c o m e g o o d at i t . C . l o o k s f o r a n o c c u p a t i o n w h i c h u s e s b o t h a r t a n d s c i e n c e , b u t m o r e s c i e n c e t h a n a r t . D . l o o k s f o r a n o c c u p a t i o n w h i c h i n v o l v e s b o t h s c i e n c e a n d a r t , b u t m o r e a r t t h a n s c i e n c e . 4 5 . L .F . s e e m s n o t t o r e a l l y c a r e w h a t k i n d o f w o r k is a v a i l a b l e o n l e a v i n g s c h o o l a s l o n g a s i t i s w o r k i n g w i t h p e o p l e . If t h i s is a l l t h i s s t u d e n t c a r e s a b o u t , h e o r s h e is l i k e l y t o m a k e a b a d c h o i c e b e c a u s e : A . t h i s k i n d o f w o r k u s u a l l y r e q u i r e s a c o l l e g e d e g r e e . B . e m p l o y e r s u s u a l l y h i r e p e o p l e w i t h d e f i n i t e i n t e r e s t s a n d o b j e c t i v e s . C . p e o p l e l o o k d o w n o n t h o s e w h o w o r k w i t h p e o p l e b e c a u s e s u c h w o r k u s u a l l y d o e s n ' t p a y as w e l l as t e c h n i c a l w o r k . D . o c c u p a t i o n s i n w h i c h o n e w o r k s w i t h p e o p l e c a n b e v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m e a c h o t h e r i n t h e a b i l i t i e s a n d i n t e r e s t s w h i c h a r e n e e d e d . 46 . R . A . h a s g o o d g r a d e s In a l l h i g h s c h o o l c o u r s e s , w a n t s t o g o t o c o l l e g e , h a s p a r e n t s ' a p p r o v a l f o r g o i n g t o c o l l e g e , b u t h a s n o o c c u p a t i o n a l p l a n s . W h a t is t h e b e s t n e x t s t e p f o r R . A . ? A . D e l a y c o l l e g e u n t i l o c c u p a t i o n a l p l a n s e m e r g e . B. C h o o s e a c o l l e g e m a j o r t h a t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t . C . C h o o s e a c o l l e g e w h e r e e x p l o r i n g s e v e r a l m a j o r s is e n c o u r a g e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t t w o y e a r s . D . F i n d o u t a b o u t g r a d u a t e a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l r e q u i r e m e n t s . 4 7 . A . K . c a n ' t d e c i d e w h e t h e r t o b e c o m e a n a i r - c o n d i t i o n i n g a n d r e f r i g e r a t i o n t e c h n i c i a n o r a n e n g i n e e r . In m a k i n g t h e c h o i c e , t o w h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s h o u l d A . K . p a y t h e m o s t a t t e n t i o n ? A . H o w m u c h m o n e y A . K . w a n t s t o e a r n . B . H o w m u c h e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g A . K . i s l i k e l y t o b e a b l e t o g e t . C W h a t A . K . ' s p a r e n t s w o u l d p r e f e r . D . W h i c h o c c u p a t i o n p e o p l e r e s p e c t m o s t . . 4 8 . P .T . is a h i g h s c h o o l j u n i o r w i t h n o e d u c a t i o n o r v o c a t i o n a l p l a n s b e y o n d h i g h s c h o o l . W h a t w o u l d y o u r e c o m m e n d t h a t P .T . d o f i r s t ? A . A t h o r o u g h s e a r c h o f c o l l e g e s t o a t t e n d . B . A n a n a l y s i s o f r e l e v a n t p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h as a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , a n d v a l u e s . C . A n i n t e n s i v e s t u d y o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t o c c u p a t i o n s . D . A m a t c h i n g o f P .T . ' s a b i l i t i e s w i t h j o b r e q u i r e m e n t s . 4 9 . E .B . is a n i n t h - g r a d e r w i t h e x c e l l e n t s c h o o l g r a d e s a n d v e r y h i g h s c o r e s o n a l l a b i l i t y t e s t s , b u t h a s n o e d u c a t i o n a l o r v o c a t i o n a l p l a n s . W h a t is t h e b e s t a d v i c e t o g i v e t o E .B . ? A . A r r i v e at a d e f i n i t e g o a l a s s o o n as p o s s i b l e . B . N o t t o b e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t a g o a l o r a p l a n b e c a u s e s u c c e s s is a l m o s t c e r t a i n . C . C o n c e n t r a t e o n s e l e c t i n g t h e r i g h t c o l l e g e . D . F i n d o u t w h e n i m p o r t a n t c h o i c e s w i l l h a v e t o b e m a d e a n d g e t t h e n e e d e d i n f o r m a t i o n . C o o n t o t h e n e x t p a g e 158 5 0 . A n u n c l e h a s j u s t t o l d T . H . t h a t h i s c o m p a n y is a l w a y s l o o k i n g f o r t o o l a n d d i e m a k e r s , p a y s t h e m w e l l a n d k e e p s t h e m o n t h e p a y r o l l e v e n i n b a d t i m e s . T . H . is i n t e r e s t e d a n d w a n t s t o l e a r n m o r e a b o u t t h e o c c u p a t i o n . W h a t is t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h i n g f o r T . H . t o l e a r n ? A . W h e r e t o o l a n d d i e m a k e r s w o r k . B. H o w m u c h t r a i n i n g is r e q u i r e d . C . W h a t is t h e w o r k t o o l a n d d i e m a k e r s d o . D . W h a t t o o l a n d d i e m a k e r s a c t u a l l y a r e p a i d . 5 1 . L . M . h a s g o o d s c h o o l g r a d e s a n d l o o k s f o r w a r d t o s t u d y i n g e n g i n e e r i n g i n c o l l e g e . W h a t is t h e b e s t a d v i c e t o h e l p L . M . p l a n a t e n t h - g r a d e c o u r s e s c h e d u l e ? A . B e s u r e t o s c h e d u l e c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y m a t h a n d s c i e n c e . B. G e t a l l o f t h e s h o p c o u r s e s It i s p o s s i b l e t o t a k e . C . T a k e a l i g h t l o a d b e c a u s e i n c o l l e g e it w i l l b e h a r d w o r k . D . A l l o w t i m e f o r a p a r t - t i m e j o b t o l e a r n w h a t e n g i n e e r s d o . 5 2 . J . M . , w h o h a s a l w a y s d r e a m e d o f b e i n g e i t h e r a l a w y e r o r a b u s i n e s s e x e c u t i v e , c a n n o t p l a n f o r c o l l e g e b e c a u s e o f t h e c o s t . J . M . ' s g r a d e s a n d t e s t s c o r e s s h o w g o o d p r o m i s e f o r c o l l e g e . W h a t s h o u l d b e r e c o m m e n d e d f o r J . M . a f t e r h i g h s c h o o l ? A . F i n d a j o b i n a l a w o f f i c e a n d g o t o l a w s c h o o l at n i g h t . B. G e t a j o b i n a b u s i n e s s c o n c e r n t h a t o f f e r s o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g a n d o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . C . F o r g e t a b o u t l a w a n d b u s i n e s s a n d w o r k i n a f i e l d t h a t r e q u i r e s n o e d u c a t i o n . D . F i n d a r e w a r d i n g h o b b y . 5 3 . M . J . is c o n s i d e r i n g b e c o m i n g e i t h e r a r e s e a r c h c h e m i s t o r a l a w y e r . I n c h o o s i n g b e t w e e n t h e t w o , w h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s h o u l d b e g i v e n t h e m o s t w e i g h t ? A . W h e t h e r M . J . ' s a b i l i t y i n s c i e n c e a n d g r a d e s i n s c i e n c e c o u r s e s a r e g o o d e n o u g h . B. W h e t h e r M . J . c a n a f f o r d t o g o t o c o l l e g e . C . W h e t h e r M . J . c a n g e t a d m i t t e d t o c o l l e g e . D . W h e t h e r M . J . ' s f r i e n d s t h i n k t h e c h o i c e is a g o o d o n e . 54 . A f t e r c a r e f u l t h o u g h t , E .K . h a s d e c i d e d o n b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g f o r a y e a r o r t w o a f t e r h i g h s c h o o l . H o w e v e r , d e c i d i n g b e t w e e n m a j o r s i n a c c o u n t i n g a n d s a l e s r e m a i n s a p r o b l e m f o r E .K . In e x p l o r i n g t h i s p r o b l e m , t o w h a t s h o u l d b e g i v e n t h e m o s t w e i g h t ? A . T h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t r a i n i n g t i m e r e q u i r e d b y t h e t w o m a j o r s . B. T h e c h a n c e s o f b e i n g a d m i t t e d f o r t r a i n i n g i n t h e m a j o r . C . W h i c h m a j o r r e q u i r e s t h e m o s t w o r k . D . W h i c h m a j o r b e s t f i t s E .K . ' s a b i l i t i e s a n d i n t e r e s t s . 5 5 . J . F . i s t h e b e s t a l l - a r o u n d a r t i s t i n t h e c l a s s , w i n n i n g a r t c o m p e t i t i o n s c o n s i s t e n t l y . B u t a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t m a t t e r c o m e s h a r d t o J . F . , w h o w i l l p r o b a b l y g r a d u a t e i n t h e b o t t o m f i f t h o f t h e s e n i o r c l a s s . W h i c h is t h e m o s t r e a l i s t i c e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n f o r J .F . ? A . S e e k a d m i s s i o n t o a u n i v e r s i t y w h e r e o n e c a n c o m b i n e a r t a n d r e g u l a r c o l l e g e s u b j e c t s t o e a r n a B a c h e l o r o f F i n e A r t s . B. F o r g e t a b o u t a n y e d u c a t i o n b e y o n d h i g h s c h o o l . C . F o r g e t a b o u t a r t a n d c o n c e n t r a t e o n c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y s u b j e c t s . D . S e e k a d m i s s i o n t o a n a r t s c h o o l w h e r e p o o r a c a d e m i c g r a d e s w i l l n o t b e a h a n d i c a p . 5 6 . L . D . w a n t s t o b e a n e w s p a p e r r e p o r t e r . W h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p a t h s m i g h t l e a d t o b e c o m i n g a q u a l i f i e d n e w s p a p e r r e p o r t e r ? A . W o r k i n g f u l l - t i m e o n a n e w s p a p e r a n d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n o n a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s . B. E a r n i n g a b a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e i n J o u r n a l i s m . C . T a k i n g a l i b e r a l a r t s d e g r e e f i r s t , f o l l o w e d b y a g r a d u a t e d e g r e e i n J o u r n a l i s m . D . A n y o f t h e a b o v e . 5 7 . B . D . ' s i n t e r e s t i n a n d s k i l l a t h e l p i n g o t h e r s h a v e b e c o m e t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f B . D . ' s s e l f - p i c t u r e . W h i c h o c c u p a t i o n s h o u l d B . D . p r o b a b l y not b e c o n s i d e r i n g ? A . N u r s e ' s a i d e . B . R e c r e a t i o n w o r k e r . C . S a l e s p e r s o n . D . T e a c h e r ' s a i d e . G o o n t o t h e n e x t p a g e . 159 5 8 . R.R. g e t s B's i n m a t h a n d s c i e n c e b u t h a s f a i l e d n i n t h - g r a d e E n g l i s h t w i c e , a n d g e t s D ' s i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s c o u r s e s . W h i c h o c c u p a t i o n m a k e s t h e m o s t s e n s e f o r R .R .? A . E n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n . B. V e t e r i n a r i a n . C . C i v i l e n g i n e e r . D . S c i e n c e a n d m a t h t e a c h e r . 5 9 . R.) . h a s h i g h a b i l i t y , e x c e l l e n t g r a d e s a n d t h e m o n e y t o g o t o c o l l e g e . R . j . ' s o n l y c l e a r f u t u r e g o a l is t o m a k e a g r e a t d e a l o f m o n e y . W h a t s h o u l d R.J . d o r A . P u r s u e a c a r e e r i n m e d i c i n e b e c a u s e t h a t ' s w h e r e t h e m o n e y i s . B. A r r i v e at a n a p p r o p r i a t e v o c a t i o n a l g o a l a n d t h e m o n e y w i l l t a k e c a r e o f i t s e l f . C . C h a n g e g o a l s b e c a u s e w a n t i n g a l o t o f m o n e y is n o t a g o o d t h i n g . D . F i n d o u t w h a t w a n t i n g t o m a k e a l o t o f m o n e y r e a l l y m e a n s . 6 0 . A . S . h a s g o o d t e s t e d a b i l i t y b u t h a s p o o r h i g h - s c h o o l g r a d e s . T h e c o u n s e l o r a d v i s e s t h a t A . S . w i l l n o t b e a d m i t t e d t o a n y c o l l e g e b e c a u s e o f t h e h i g h s c h o o l r e c o r d . A . S . t h i n k s t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t c a u s e d t h e l o w g r a d e s a r e n o w s o l v e d a n d w a n t s t o g e t m o r e e d u c a t i o n . W h a t is A . S . ' s b e s t c o u r s e o f a c t i o n ? A . F o r g e t a b o u t c o l l e g e a n d s e e k a s a t i s f y i n g j o b . B. R e p e a t c o u r s e s i n h i g h s c h o o l i n o r d e r t o i m p r o v e t h e g r a d e s . C . F i n d o u t a b o u t j u n i o r c o l l e g e s a n d c o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e s w h o s e a d m i s s i o n s t a n d a r d s a r e l e s s d e m a n d i n g . D . G e t p r i v a t e t u t o r i n g i n t h e w e a k s u b j e c t s . D . W O R L D - O F - W O R K I N F O R M A T I O N C h o o s e t h e o n e b e s f a n s w e r t o e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s a b o u t c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t a n d t h e w o r l d o f w o r k . 6 1 . T e n t h g r a d e r s s h o u l d b e e x p e c t e d t o k n o w A . e x a c t l y w h a t o c c u p a t i o n t h e y w a n t t o g o i n t o . B. t h e k i n d o f w o r k b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n t h e y w a n t . C . w h e r e t o g e t t h e j o b t h e y w a n t . D . t h e d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n s a p e r s o n w i t h t h e i r i n t e r e s t s a n d a b i l i t i e s c o u l d g o i n t o . 6 2 . W h e n a t e a c h e r o r c o u n s e l o r e n c o u r a g e s s t u d e n t s t o e x p l o r e t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e w o r l d a b o u t t h e m , w h a t h e o r s h e w a n t s t h e m t o d o is t o A . b e a c t i v e i n s c h o o l a f f a i r s . B. g o o n f i e l d t r i p s . C . t r y t h e m s e l v e s o u t i n a v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n s a n d a c t i v i t i e s . D . t a k e s o m e a p t i t u d e t e s t s . 6 3 . E x p l o r i n g i n t e r e s t s , a b i l i t i e s a n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s s o m e t h i n g w h i c h p e o p l e s h o u l d b e e n c o u r a g e d t o e n g a g e i n A . t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r l i v e s . B. w h e n t h e y b e c o m e d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e w a y t h i n g s a r e . C . w h e n t h e y l o s e t h e i r j o b s . D . w h e n t h i n g s s t a r t t o g o w r o n g . 6 4 . W h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g w i l l h e l p h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s m o s t i n t h i n k i n g a b o u t a c a r e e r ? A . M a k i n g t h e r i g h t c o n t a c t s . B. S e t t i n g a n o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l e a r l y a n d s t i c k i n g t o i t . C . F i n d i n g o u t w h e r e t h e b e s t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e m p l o y m e n t a r e . D . F i n d i n g o u t w h a t a c t i v i t i e s a n d c o u r s e s t h e y l i k e m o s t a n d a r e b e s t a t . C o o n t o t h e n e x t p a g e . 8 65 . T h e r e a s o n w h y m a n y y o u n g p e o p l e c h a n g e j o b s f r e q u e n t l y b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 18 a n d 25 is t h a t t h e y A . d o n ' t k n o w w h e n t h e y a r e w e l l o f f . B. r e c e i v e d w r o n g a d v i c e f r o m t h e i r p a r e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s . C . a r e t h e f i r s t t o b e f i r e d w h e n b u s i n e s s is b a d . D . d o n ' t k n o w e n o u g h a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s o r w o r k t o m a k e g o o d c h o i c e s . 66 . S u p p o s e y o u k n o w w h a t kind o f w o r k y o u w o u l d l i k e t o d o a n d a l s o k n o w a b o u t t h e m a n y d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h c a n b e f o u n d i n t h a t f i e l d . W h a t i n f o r m a t i o n w o u l d y o u n e e d t o b e a b l e t o p i c k o u t t h o s e o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h a r e at t h e r i g h t level f o r y o u ? ( B y field is m e a n t t h e k i n d o f w o r k y o u w o u l d l i k e t o d o , f o r e x a m p l e , s c i e n t i f i c w o r k , s o c i a l s e r v i c e w o r k , w o r k i n v o l v i n g m a c h i n e s a n d t o o l s ; b y level is m e a n t t h e a m o u n t o f e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g y o u w o u l d n e e d t o g e t , a n d t h e a m o u n t o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y y o u w o u l d h a v e t o c a r r y o n t h e j o b . ) A . I n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t y o u r a b i l i t i e s . B. I n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t e d u c a t i o n a l a n d t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s . C . I n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t w h a t it w o u l d c o s t t o g e t t h e n e e d e d t r a i n i n g a n d e d u c a t i o n . D . A l l o f t h e a b o v e . 6 7 . T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h i n g a b o u t t h e c o u r s e s y o u t a k e at c o l l e g e o r t h e j o b s y o u t a k e a f t e r y o u l e a v e s c h o o l i s A . w h a t t h e c o u r s e s o r j o b s t e l l y o u a b o u t y o u r i n t e r e s t s a n d a b i l i t i e s . B. w h e t h e r t h e c o u r s e s o r j o b s a r e e a s y o r d i f f i c u l t . C . w h e t h e r y o u r p a r e n t s a p p r o v e o f t h e c h o i c e o f c o u r s e s o r j o b s . D . w h a t y o u r i n s t r u c t o r s o r e m p l o y e r s t h i n k o f y o u . 6 8 . B e i n g h a p p y i n a j o b is m o s t l y a m a t t e r o f A . b e i n g p a i d w e l l . B. h a v i n g i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g s t o d o w h e n y o u r d a y ' s w o r k is d o n e . C . k n o w i n g w h a t y o u w a n t f r o m a j o b a n d g e t t i n g i t . D . r e c e i v i n g p r o m o t i o n s a n d p a y i n c r e a s e s . 6 9 . S t u d e n t s w h o w a n t t o g o t o c o l l e g e o r t o s e e k a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f j o b w h e n t h e y l e a v e h i g h s c h o o l c a n i m p r o v e t h e i r c h a n c e s m o s t b y A . b e i n g a c t i v e i n s c h o o l a f f a i r s . B. c h o o s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e h i g h s c h o o l c o u r s e s . C . g e t t i n g a l o n g w i t h t h e i r t e a c h e r s a n d c o u n s e l o r s . D . c h o o s i n g c o u r s e s i n w h i c h t h e y k n o w t h e y w i l l g e t g o o d g r a d e s . 7 0 . A s t u d e n t w h o , o n l e a v i n g h i g h s c h o o l , t a k e s a s e m i - s k i l l e d f a c t o r y j o b at a g o o d w a g e i n s t e a d o f a l e a r n e r ' s j o b o r a p p r e n t i c e s h i p A . g i v e s u p a b e t t e r f u t u r e f o r a b e t t e r p r e s e n t . B. s h o u l d w o r k h i s w a y u p t o a m o r e s k i l l e d j o b e a s i l y e n o u g h . C . is p r o b a b l y f o l l o w i n g t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l o r ' s a d v i c e . D . is p r o b a b l y g i v i n g i n t o p r e s s u r e f r o m p a r e n t s . 7 1 . F a m i l y d o c t o r s ( p h y s i c i a n s ) u s u a l l y l e a r n t h e i r j o b s i n A . h i g h s c h o o l s . B. c o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e s o r t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s . C . f o u r - y e a r c o l l e g e s o r u n i v e r s i t i e s . D . g r a d u a t e o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l s . 72 . M a i l c a r r i e r s u s u a l l y l e a r n t h e i r j o b s i n A . h i g h s c h o o l s . B. a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s o r o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g . C . c o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e s o r t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s . D . f o u r - y e a r c o l l e g e s o r u n i v e r s i t i e s . G o o n t o t h e n e x t p a g e . 73 . M e d i c a l l a b o r a t o r y t e c h n i c i a n s a r e m o s t l i k e l y t o u s e 161 A . l e v e l s . B. l o g t a b l e s . C . t o n g u e d e p r e s s o r s . D . m i c r o s c o p e s . 74 . A s t o c k b r o k e r is m o s t l i k e l y t o u s e A . a c a l c u l a t o r . B. c a l i p e r s . C . f o r c e p s . D . a m i c r o m e t e r . 75 . B o o k k e e p e r s a r e m o s t l i k e l y t o u s e A . l a t h e s . B. c a l c u l a t o r s . C . l e d g e r s . D . s l i d e r u l e s . 76 . W h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g w o r k e r s is m o s t l i k e l y t o b e a b l e t o f o r g e t a b o u t w o r k a f t e r l e a v i n g t h e w o r k p l a c e ? A . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t B. S e c r e t a r y C . T y p i s t D . C r e d i t c l e r k 77 . W a i t e r s a n d w a i t r e s s e s a r e u s u a l l y p a i d A . w e e k l y s a l a r i e s . B. h o u r l y w a g e s . C w a g e s a n d t i p s . D . t i p s o n l y . 78 . In s t a r t i n g a n e w j o b , it is m o s t i m p o r t a n t t o A . m a k e s u r e t h e o t h e r w o r k e r s l i k e y o u . B. s h o w t h a t y o u a r e y o u r o w n b o s s . C b e a w a r e o f h o w o t h e r s f e e l a b o u t t h i n g s . D . h i d e y o u r o w n f e e l i n g s f r o m o t h e r s . 79 . In d e a l i n g w i t h c u s t o m e r s , c l i e n t s , o r o t h e r o u t s i d e r s w i t h w h o m y o u r w o r k b r i n g s y o u i n c o n t a c t , it is m o s t i m p o r t a n t t o A . s h o w t h e m y o u k n o w m o r e a b o u t y o u r w o r k t h a n t h e y d o . B. u n d e r s t a n d w h a t t h e y w a n t a n d s e e if y o u c a n h e l p t h e m ge t i t . C m a k e s u r e t h a t y o u d o o n l y as y o u a r e t o l d . D . d o w h a t e v e r b r i n g s i n t h e m o s t m o n e y . 80 . W h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g is m o s t i m p o r t a n t i n a j o b a p p l i c a t i o n i n t e r v i e w ? A . T e l l i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w e r y o u w i l l d o a n y w o r k s o l o n g as t h e j o b is a g o o d o n e . B. K n o w i n g w h a t s a l a r y o r p a y t o a s k f o r . - C F i n d i n g o u t w h e t h e r y o u a n d t h e j o b a r e r i g h t f o r e a c h o t h e r . D . B e i n g i n t r o d u c e d b y a m u t u a l f r i e n d . E n d o f Pa r t I. 10 / i I l 6 l a APPENDIX G Family A d a p t a b i l i t y and Cohesion E v a l u a t i o n Scales (FACES) Olson, D.H., B e l l . R., & Portner, J . F A C E S : Family A d a p t a b i l i t y and Cohesion Ev a l u a t i o n S c a l e s . S t . P a u l : U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, 1978. Leaves 162-6? not f i l m e d ; permission not obtained. APPENDIX G FAMILY ADAPTABILITY AND COHESION EVALUATION SCALES Thank you for taking the tin* to f i l l out the following questions. Your input will give us an indication of how well the program is working. INSTRUCTIONS Answer tthe following by placing 4 - true a l l the time 3 - true most of the time 2 - true some of the time 1 • true none of the time beside each statement as i t pertains to you. 163 FACES 4 " t r u a a l l the time 3 - t r u e most of the t i n e 2 » t r u e some of the time 1 » t r u e none of the t i n e 1. Family members a r c concerned w i t h each o t h e r ' s w e l f a r e . 2. Family members f e e l f r e e t o say what's on t h e i r mind. 3. We don't have spur of the moment guests a t mealtime. A. I t i s har d to know who the l e a d e r i s i n o u r f a m i l y . 5. I t ' s d i f f i c u l t f o r f a m i l y members to take t i n e away from the f a m i l y . 6. F a m i l y members a r e a f r a i d t o t a l l the t r u t h because of how h a r s h t h e punishment w i l l be. 7 . Host p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s are not f a m i l y f r i e n d s . 8. F a m i l y members t a l k a l o t b u t n o t h i n g ever gets done. 9. Family members f e e l g u i l t y i f they want t o spend 6ome time a l o n e . 10. There are times when o t h e r f a m i l y members do t h i n g s t h a t make me unhappy. 11. I n our f a m i l y we know where a l l f a m i l y members are a t a l l t i m e s . 12. Family members have some say i n what i s r e q u i r e d of them. 13. The pa r e n t s i n our f a m i l y s t i c k t o g e t h e r . 14. I have some needs t h a t are not b e i n g met by f a m i l y members. 15. Family members make the r u l e s t o g e t h e r . 16. I t seems l i k e t h e r e i s never any p l a c e to be alone i n our house. 17. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o keep t r a c k of what o t h e r f a m i l y members a r e d o i n g . 18. F a m i l y members do not check w i t h each o t h e r when making d e c i s i o n s . 19. My f a m i l y c o m p l e t e l y understands and sympathizes w i t h my every mood. 20. Family t i e s a r a more im p o r t a n t to us than any f r i e n d s h i p c o u l d p o s s i b l y be. 21. When our f a m i l y has an argument, f a m i l y nenbers j u a t keep t o t h e n e e l v e R . 22. F a m i l y members o f t e n answer q u e s t i o n s t h a t were addressed t o another p e r s o n . 23. The p a r e n t s check w i t h the c h i l d r e n b e f o r e making imp o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s i n our f a m i l y . 24. F a m i l y members l i k e t o spend some of t h e i r f r e e t i n e w i t h each o t h e r . 25. Punishment i s u s u a l l y p r e t t y f a i r i n our f a m i l y . 26. F a m i l y members a r a encouraged t o have f r i e n d s o f t h e i r own as w e l l as f a m i l y f r i o n J a , 7/70 164 1- 4 - t r u e a l l t h e time 3 " t r u e most of the time 2 • t r u e some of the time 1 » t r u e none of the time 27. Family members d i s c u s s problems and u s u a l l y f e e l good about the s o l u t i o n s . 28. F a m i l y members s h a r e almost a l l i n t e r e s t s and hobbies w i t h each o t h e r . 29. Our f a m i l y i s not a p e r f e c t s u c c e s s . 30. Family members a r e ex t r e m e l y independent. 31. Ho one i n our f a m i l y seems t o be a b l e t o keep t r a c k of what t h e i r d u t i e s a r e . 32. Family members f o o l i t ' s "everyone f o r thomselvoo." 33. Evory now t h i n g I'vo l e a r n e d about my f a m i l y has pleased ice. 34. Our f a m i l y has a r u l e f o r a l m o 9 t every p o s s i b l e s i t u a t i o n . 35. He r e s p e c t each o t h e r ' s p r i v a c y . 36. Once our f a m i l y has planned t o do something, i t ' s d i f f i c u l t to change i t . 37. I n our f a m i l y we a r e on our own when th e r e i s a problem to s o l v e . 38. 1 have never r e g r e t t e d b e i n g w i t h my f a m i l y , not even f o r a moment. 39. F a m i l y members do not t u r n to each o t h e r when they need h e l p . 40. I t i s hard t o know v;hat o t h e r f a m i l y members are t h i n k i n j . 41. F a m i l y members make v i s i t o r s f e e l a t home. 42. P a r e n t s make a l l of the im p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s i n our f a m i l y . 43. Even when everyone i s home, f a m i l y members spend t h e i r time s e p a r a t e l y . 44. P a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n i n our f a m i l y d i s c u s s t o g e t h e r the method of punishment. 45. F a m i l y members have l i t t l e need f o r f r i e n d s because the f a m i l y i s so c l o s e . 46. We f e e l pood about our a b i l i t y t o s o l v e problems. 47. A l t h o u g h f a m i l y members have i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s , they s t i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s . _48. My f a m i l y has a l l the q u a l i t i e s I've always wanted i n a f a m i l y . _49. F amily members are t o t a l l y on t h e i r own i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r i d e a s . 50. Once a t a s k i s a s s i g n e d t o a f a m i l y member, t h e r e i s no chance of changing i t 51. F a m i l y members seldom take s i d e s a g a i n s t o t h e r members. 52. There a r e times when I do not f e e l a g r e a t d e a l of l o v e and a f f e c t i o n f o r my f a m i l y . _53. When r u l e s are broken, f a m i l y members are t r e a t e d f a i r l y . 165 F A C I i S 4 - t r u e a l l the time 3 • t r u e moat of the time -3- 2 - t r u e some of the time 1 • t r u e none of the time 54. Family members don't e n t e r each other's areas or a c t i v i t i e s . 55. Family members encourage each other's e f f o r t s t o f i n d new ways of doing t h i n g s 56. Family members d i s c u s s important d e c i s i o n s w i t h each o t h e r , but u s u a l l y make t h e i r own c h o i c e s . 57. I f I c o u l d be a p a r t of any f a m i l y i n the w o r l d , I c o u l d not have a b e t t e r match. 58. Home i s one of t h e l o n e l i e s t p l a c e s to be. 59. I n our f a m i l y , i t ' s Important f o r everyone to express t h e i r o p i n i o n . 60. F a m i l y members f i n d i t e a s i e r to d i s c u s s t h i n g s w i t h persons o u t s i d e the f a m i l y . 61. There i s no l e a d e r s h i p i n our f a m i l y . 62. We t r y t o p l a n some t h i n g s d u r i n g the week so wc can a l l be t o g e t h e r . 63. F a m i l y members a r c not punished or reprimanded when they do something wrong. 64. I n our f a m i l y we know each o t h e r ' s c l o s e f r i e n d s . 65. Our f a m i l y does not d i s c u s s i t s problems. 66. Our f a m i l y doesn't do t h i n g s t o g e t h e r . 67. I f oy f a m i l y has ony f a u l t s , I am not aware of then, . 68. Fa m i l y members enjoy doing t h i n g s alone as w e l l as t o g e t h e r . 69. I n our f a m i l y , everyone shares r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 70. P a r e n t s agree on how to handle the c h i l d r e n . — - 7 1 . I don't t h i n k anyone c o u l d p o s s i b l y be h a p p i e r than my f a m i l y and I when we a r e t o g e t h e r . 72. I t i s u n c l e a r what w i l l happen when r u l e s a r a broken i n our f a m i l y . 73. When a bedroom door i s s h u t , f a m i l y members w i l l knock b e f o r e e n t e r i n g . 74. I f one way doesn't work i n our f a m i l y , we t r y an o t h e r . 75. F a m i l y members a r e expected to have the a p p r o v a l of o t h e r s b e f o r e making d e c i e i o n s . 76. F a m i l y members a r e t o t a l l y i n v o l v e d i n each o t h e r ' s l i v e s . 77. F a m i l y members speak t h e i r mind w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g how i t w i l l a f f e c t o t h e r 78. F a m i l y members f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e i n v i t i n g t h e i r f r i e n d s a l o n g on f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s . 166 FACES -4- 4 • t r u e n i l the time 2 • t r u e some of the time 1 " i r u p mom of tlio Umo 1 * r m u I I O I M uf ihu l l i i u i r 79. Each f a m i l y member has at l e a s t soma say i n major f a m i l y d e c i s i o n s . 80. Family members f e e l p r e s s u r e d to spend moat f r e e time t o g e t h e r . 81. Members of our f a m i l y can get away w i t h almost a n y t h i n g . 82. Family members share the same f r i e n d s . .83. When t r y i n g to s o l v e problems, f a m i l y members jump f r o n one attempted s o l u t i o n to another w i t h o u t g i v i n g any of them time to work. _84. We have d i f f i c u l t y t h i n k i n g of t h i n g s t o do as a f a m i l y . _85. F a m i l y members understand each ot h e r c o m p l e t e l y . 86. I t seems as i f we agree on e v e r y t h i n g . 87. I t seems as i f males and females never do the same chores i n our f a m i l y . 88. F a m i l y members know who w i l l agree and who w i l l d i s a g r e e w i t h them on most f a m i l y m a t t e r s . 39. My f a m i l y c o u l d be h a p p i e r than i t i s . 90. There i s s t r i c t punishment f o r b r e a k i n g r u l e s i n our f a m i l y . 91. Family members' seem t o a v o i d c o n t a c t w i t h each o t h e r when a t home. 92. For no apparent r e a s o n , f a m i l y members seem to change t h e i r minds. 93. We d e c i d e t o g e t h e r on f a m i l y m a t t e r s and s e p a r a t e l y on p e r s o n a l m a t t e r s . 94. Our f a m i l y has a bala n c e of c l o s e n e s s and s e p a r a t e n e s s . 95. F a m i l y members r a r e l y say what they want. 96. I t seems t h e r e a r c always people n r u u u d home who are not members of the f a m i l y . . 97. C e r t a i n f a m i l y members o r d e r everyone e l s e around. 98. I t seems as i f f a m i l y members can never f i n d time to be t o g e t h e r . 99. F a m i l y menbers a r c s e v e r e l y punished f o r a n y t h i n g they do wrong. 100. We know ve r y l i t t l e about t h e f r i e n d s o f o t h e r f a m i l y members. 101. Family members f e e l they have no say i n s o l v i n g problems. 102. Members of our f a m i l y share many i n t e r e s t s . 103. Our f a m i l y i s as w e l l a d j u s t e d as any f a m i l y i n t h i s w o r l d can be. 104. F a m i l y members a r c encouraged to do t h e i r own t h i n g . 105. Family members never know how o t h e r s a r c going to a c t . . 106. Certain indivlduala euora to cauao moat of our family problems. 4 » true a l l the time 2 •» true some of the tine 3 «= true most of the tine 1 • true none of the time 107. I don't think any family could live together vith greater harmony than my family. 108. It is hard to know what the rules ere in our family because they always change. 109. Family members find i t hard to get away from each other. 110. Family members feel that the family will never change. 111. Family members feel they have to go along with what the family decides to do. PARENT QUESTIONNAIRE INSTRUCTIONS: Please c i r c l e the rating which best describes the present s i t u a t i o n concerning your c h i l d ' s career. 1. To what extent does your child know about his or her career interests, strengths, and values? is not aware 1 2 is veryi aware 5 2 . To whatextent is your child aware of the different career options and how to attain them? 3. To what extent is your child capable of making sound career decisions? 4. To what extent do you pay attention to your child's career plans? 5. To what extent do you and your child discuss career ideas freely in a give and take way? is not aware 1 is not capable 1 2 do not pay attention 1 2 not freely 1 is very aware 4 5 is very capable 4 5 pay close attention 4 5 very freelv 4 5 > m z H > - a c m m z c o o H n M X o > r-H ? d 6. To what extent are you able to mutually influence one another when discussing careers? not at all 1 a great deal 4 5 7. How close do you feel to your child regarding his or her career development? not close 1 very close 5 oo STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE INSTRUCTIONS: Please c i r c l e the r a t i n g which best describes the present s i t u a t i o n concerning your career, 1. To what extent do you know about your interests, strengths and values? am not aware 1 2 am very aware 4 5 2. To what extent are you aware of the different career options and how to attain them? 3. To what extent are you capable of making sound career decisions? 4. To what extent do you pay attention to your parent's ideas regarding your career plans? am not aware 1 2 3 not capable 1 2 3 do not pay attention 1 2 3 am very aware 4 5 very capable 5 H C O m z > a z pay close attention ^ g C O H X 5. To what extent do you and yoc parent (s) discuss career ideas freely in a give and take way? not freely 1 2 3 very freely 5 Z > 5 * 3 m 6. To what extent are you able to mutually influence one another when discussing careers? not at all 1 a great deal 4 5 7. How close do you feel to your parent(s) regarding your career development? not close 1 very close 5 APPENDIX J 170 TELEPHONE INTERVIEW Introduce s e l f and thank them for p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 1. How d i the program go? 2. How did you and your c h i l d benefit from the program? 3. Is your c h i l d more aware of occupations and the options available to him or her? 4. Does your c h i l d know more about him/herself i n the area of careers? 5. How capable i s your c h i l d of making a career decision? 6. What part of the program did you enjoy the most? Why? 7. What part of the program did you enjoy the least? Why? 8. Did you learn anything about your son/daughter as far as careers go? 9. Did you learn anything about your relationship with.... by doing the program? (Expand: attention, balance of power, reciprocity) 10. Any other comments? INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 171 1. Who was involved? Some family background. 2. I was wondering how the program went? Can you t e l l me how you got started? 3. Was there anything in the program that helped your c h i l d with his or her career planning? Anything that hindered this? (SPECIFIC INCIDENTS) 4. To what extent doefe your c h i l d know him or herself now that the program i s done? 5. To what extent i s he or she capable of making a career decision? 6. How have you and your c h i l d benefitted from the program? 7. What was i t l i k e doing the program together? 8. Did anything s p e c i f i c happen that brought you closer together or farther apart? 9. To what extent do you know your c h i l d better? What do you think contributed to this? 10. Let's go over the program in d e t a i l . Can you t e l l me how the following went: a. Parent's Manual b. Part One c. Part Two (DETAILS) d. Part Three 11. Suggestions for improvement? 12. Additional comments APPENDIX K Treatment by S c h o o l E f f e c t s f o r S t u d e n t s (Questionnaire: Career Maturity) 172 4.a S c h o o l One 4 . 2 4 . 0 M 3 . 8 E 3 . 6 A 3.4 N 3 . 2 S 3 . 0 P r e P o s t 4.b S c h o o l Two 4 . 2 4 . 0 M 3 . 8 E 3 . 6 A 3.4 N 3 . 2 S 3 . 0 ••C P r e P o s t 4.c S c h o o l Three 4.d S c h o o l Four 4 . 0 3 . 8 M 3 . 6 3.4 3 . 2 3 . 0 2 . 8 M E A N S 4 . 0 3 . 8 3 . 6 3.4 3 . 2 3 . 0 2 . 8 Pre P o s t P r e P o s t 4.e S c h o o l F i v e 3.4 3 . 2 3 . 0 M 2 . 8 E 2 . 6 A 2.4 N 2 . 2 S 2 . 0 - O E P r e P o s t APPENDIX L Summary o f M u l t i v a r i a t e T e s t s f o r P a r e n t s 173 Source D F r f P r o b a b i l i t y Between Groups Treatment (T) 4,27 2.22 .09 S c h o o l (S) 16,102 1.60 .08 T X S 16,102 .90 .1 4 W i t h i n Groups ( O c c a s i o n ( O ) ) 0 X S 0 X T 0 X T X S 16,102 .97 .50 4,27 3.00 .03 16,1 02 1 .38 jjj6 174 APPENDIX M Summary of Univariate Tests for P a r e n t s ( O c c a s i o n X T i m e ) Dependent Variable DF ^ Probability Family Adaptability (FACES) 1,30 .26 .61 Family Cohesion (FACES) 1,30 2.17 .15 Career Maturity (QUESTIONNAIRE) 1,30 10.47 .003 Dyadic Formation (QUESTIONNAIRE) 1,30 2.69 .11 APPENDIX N 175 Combined Observed Means f o r Treatment E f f e c t s f o r P a r e n t s on Outcome V a r i a b l e s 3.a FACES (Co h e s i o n ) P r e P o s t 3.b FACES ( A d a p t a b i l i t y ) M E A N S 1 92 1 90 1 88 1 86 184 182 1 80 178 176 P r e P o s t 3.c QUESTIONNAIRE (C a r e e r M a t u r i t y ) 3.d QUESTIONNAIRE (Dy a d i c F o r m a t i o n s ) Pre - O t --»c Pos t M E A N S 4.0 3.9 8 7 ,6 ,5 3.4 Pre P o s t APPENDIX 0-1 176 Summary Table of Student Mean and Standard Deviation Scores on the CDI, FACES, and Questionnaire Scales According to Schools Schools Scale A B C D E CDI Pre 104.75 103.00 98.75 121 .75 106.00 COT 14 .93 15.76 22.54 9.94 16.57 Post 119 .25 105.25 100.00 125.25 117.75 8 .38 22.1 24.34 6.18 3.77 FACES FA Pre 185 .50 175.25 189.75 176.75 184.25 4 .93 19.1 27.98 10.56 5.05 Post 189 .00 173.75 190.20 186.25 188.75 5 .71 17.36 31 .72 13.09 10.87 FC Pre 258 .00 237.00 233.75 270.75 247.25 16 .1 25.25 34.0 15.8 20.82 Post 258 .00 242.75 237.50 272.75 257.25 13 .29 27.58 37.0 18.9 22.60 QUEST- IONNAIRE DYAD Pre 3.68 2.94 2.75 3.25 2.56 .80 .31 .84 1 .32 .82 Post 4.12 3.37 2.81 3.56 3.25 .59 .32 1 .24 1 .21 .45 CM Pre 4.08 3.25 3.08 3.33 2.16 .74 .57 .50 .61 .96 Post 4.83 4.00 3.00 3.58 3.16 .63 .86 .67 .88 .43 Note: Abbreviations: CDI - Career Development Inventory; COT= Career Orientation Total; FACES= Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales; FA= Adaptability; FC= Cohesion; DYAD= Dyadic Formations; CM= Career Maturity. APPENDIX 0-2 177 Summary Table of Mean and Standard Deviation Scores of Parents on FACES and QUESTIONNAIRE Scales According to Schools Scale Schools B C E FACES FA Pre 178.25 172.50 178.75 181 .25 172.25 5.73 4.03 14.10 25.09 6.99 Post 186.75 176.00 177.75 185.00 180.00 3.77 4.54 11 .92 21 .22 7.48 FC Pre 255.75 249.00 259.75 249.75 264.00 10.24 9.30 18.24 16.35 19.61 Post 256.50 251.50 252.00 252.00 269.75 15.25 7.59 29.4 19.54 16.00 QUESTIONNAIRE DYAD Pre 3.56 3.93 3.31 3.25 3.37 .86 .74 .42 1.08 .59 Post 4.12 4.18 2.93 3.68 3.93 .59 .74 .94 .98 .42 CM Pre 2.75 2.66 2.58 3.08 2.10 .78 .72 .99 .83 .27 Post 3.42 3.33 2.33 3.50 2.96 .73 .66 .90 1 .00 .17 Note: Abbreviations: FACES = Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales; FA = Adaptability; FC = Cohesion; DYAD = Dyadic Formations; CM = Career Maturity. APPENDIX P 178 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Child Perceptions of Family Types According to the Circumplex Model COHESION Disengaged Separated Connected Enmeshed (162-234) (235-268) 269-306) (307-378) Chaotic A (239-294) D A P F l e x i b l e T (210-238) A B I Structured 2(10%) L (183-209) 0 I T Y Rigid 2(10%) (126-182) 2(10%) 10(50%) 10(50%) 2(10%) 1(5%) 1(5%) 1(5%) 2(10%) 6(30%) 1 (5%) 0 PRE POST PRE POST PRE POST PRE POST Adaptability; PRE: Experimental Group Mean: 182.30 Control Group Mean: 186.11 POST: Experimental Group Mean: 185.55 Control Group Mean: 186.34 Cohesion: PRE: Experimental Group Mean: 251.99 Control Group Mean: 254.60 POST: Experimental Group Mean: 254.25 Control Group Mean: 251.40 APPENDIX Q 179 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Parent Perceptions of Family Types According to the Circumplex Model COHESION Disengaged Sepa r a t e d Connected Enmeshed (162-234) (235-268) (269-306) (307-378) C h a o t i c PRE A (239-294) POST D A P F l e x i b l e 0 PRE T (210-238) 1(5%) POST A B 1 S t r u c t u r e d 0 5(25%) 1(5%) PRE L (183-209) 2(10%) 6(30%) 2(10%) POST I T Y R i g i d 1(5%) 12(60%) 1(5%) PRE (126-182) 0 8(40%) 1(5%) POST A d a p t a b i l i t y : PRE: E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Mean: 182.25 C o n t r o l Group Mean: 187.95 POST: E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Mean: 186.17 C o n t r o l Group Mean: 1 91 .25 Coh e s i o n : PRE: E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Mean: 253.10 C o n t r o l Group Mean: 260.70 POST: E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Mean: 261.02 C o n t r o l Group Mean: 265.80 180 APPENDIX R P r e t r e a t m e n t I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among Dependent V a r i a b l e s FA FC Q(CM) Q(Dyad) COT FA FC .279** Q(CM) .039 .085 Q(Dyad) .055 .173 .388** COT .157 .262* .021 Note: A b b r e v i a t i o n s : FA = F a m i l y A d a p t a b i l i t y (FACES); FC = F a m i l y C o h e s i o n (FACES); Q(CM) = C a r e e r M a t u r i t y Items o f t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; Q(Dyad) = Dy a d i c F o r m a t i o n Items of t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; COT = C a r e e r O r i e n t a t i o n T o t a l o f the CDI. ** p<.01 * p<.05

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