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Essential process components of conflict split resolution McDonald, Linda Katherine 1982

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ESSENTIAL PROCESS COMPONENTS OF CONFLICT SPLIT RESOLUTION By LINDA KATHERINE McDONALD B.A. , The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Counsell ing Psychology We accept th is thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1982 © Linda Katherine McDonald, 1982 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Counselling Psychology The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date October 6, 1982. i i ABSTRACT Nine Gestal t two-chair dialogue c o n f l i c t resolut ion performances were compared with nine non-resolut ion performances on structural analysis of soc ia l behaviour, depth of experiencing and voice qua l i t y . These per-formances were used to test whether three proposed process components had the power to discr iminate between the successful and unsuccessful perform-ances. Using F i she r ' s Exact Test of Probab i l i t y (S iege l , 1956), between-group comparisons were made as to the attainment of the "sof tening" c l i e n t performance pattern in the "other cha i r , " the attainment of the " f e l t wants" c l i e n t performance pattern in the "experiencing cha i r , " and the attainment of the "values and standards" c l i e n t performance pattern in the "other c h a i r . " I t was found that these three process components did discr iminate between resolut ion and non-resolution performances, thus ver i fy ing these c l i e n t performance patterns as component processes essent ia l to the res-o lu t ion of c o n f l i c t s p l i t s . C r e d i b i l i t y was thereby added to the Revised Model of Con f l i c t S p l i t Resolution (Johnson, 1980) from which the hypothe-sized c l i e n t performance patterns were generated. In add i t ion , a l l the c l i e n t s in th is study who resolved the i r c o n f l i c t s p l i t s demonstrated the "sof tening" performance pat tern, and a l l considered the i r "sof tening" experience as the i r most s i gn i f i can t moment of change, thereby cont r ib -uting further support to the considerat ion of the "sof tening" c l i e n t performance pattern as the key process component in the process of change. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT 11 LIST OF TABLES vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i Chapter I SCOPE AND FOCUS OF THE STUDY 1 Background of the Problem 1 Purposes of the Study 3 Statement of the Problem 4 Def in i t ion of Terms 4 Research Hypotheses and Rationale 11 Assumptions Underlying th is Research 12 Del imitat ions of the Study 13 J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the Study 14 II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 16 Overview 16 Process Research 16 Task Analysis 19 A Task-Analyt ic Approach to Psychotherapeutic Events 23 III METHODOLOGY 30 Population and Sampling Procedures 31 Therapists 32 Descript ion of Measuring Instruments 32 The Experiencing Scale 32 iv The Cl ient Vocal Quality C lass i f i ca t i on System (CVQ) 34 The Structural Analysis of Social Behaviour Model (SASB) 35 Conf l i c t Resolution Box Scale (CRBS) 37 Target Complaints Discomfort Box Scale (TCDBS) 38 Video Process Recal l 38 Design 39 Data Col lect ion and Rating Procedures 40 S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis 41 IV RESULTS 43 The Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the Cl ient Performance Pattern of "Softening" in The "Other Chair" 43 The Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the "Values and Standards" and the "Fe l t Wants" Cl ient Performance Patterns 45 The Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the "Fe l t Wants" Cl ient Performance Pattern in the "Experiencing Chair" 45 The Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the "Values and Standards" C l ien t Performance Pattern in the "Other Chair" 47 Comparison of Occurrence Across Resolution Perform-ances of the C l ien t - Iden t i f i ed "Most S ign i f i can t Moment of Change" with the Rater - Ident i f ied "Softening" Performance Pattern 49 V DISCUSSION OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS 50 Discussion and Conclusions 50 Implicat ions for Theory and Pract ice 54 Recommendations for Future Research 56 V REFERENCES 59 APPENDICES A. Revised Model of Con f l i c t S p l i t Resolution 66 B. Structural Analysis of Social Behaviour Model 67 C. Short Form of the Experiencing Scale 68 D. C l ient Vocal Quality C lass i f i ca t i on System 69 E. Con f l i c t Resolution Box Scale 73 F. Target Complaints Discomfort Box Scale 74 vi LIST OF TABLES Number Page 1 Iden t i f i ca t ion of Cl ient Performance Patterns 44 2 Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the "Softening" Performance Pattern in the "Other Chair" 46 3 Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the "Values and Standards" and the "Fe l t Wants" C l ient Performance Patterns 46 4 Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the "Fe l t Wants" Performance Pattern in the "Experiencing Chair" 48 5 Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the "Values and Standards" Performance Pattern in the "Other Chair" 48 vi i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am deeply grateful to Dr. Les Greenberg who, by his example, st imu-la ted my in teres t in psychotherapy research, and who, by seeing and valu-ing my c u r i o s i t y , sparked in me confidence, and sometimes, even de l igh t , in completing th is task. In add i t ion , I would l i k e to thank Dr. Marv Westrom for h is enthusiast ic support and Dr. Rich Young for his construc-t i ve help. CHAPTER I Scope and Focus of the Study  Background of the Problem Research which focuses on studying and understanding the process of psychotherapeutic change, and s p e c i f i c a l l y , mechanisms of c l i e n t change, seems d isappoint ing ly , to have been hindered by the research paradigms which have prevai led in psychotherapy research. In the ex is t ing paradigms of cor re la t iona l and experimental research, observation of behaviour has been neglected in favour of hypothesis test ing (Cronbach, 1975), with the end resu l t , that in a f i e l d committed to understanding change, we know alarmingly l i t t l e about how and why people change. E f fec t ive therap is ts , however, have known for a long time of the importance of sequential patterns and subtle momentary changes that occur in the process of therapy. In f ac t , many confrontations to a c l i e n t are in the form of pattern observations such as "whenever X happens, you seem to Y . " E f fec t ive therapists can be character ized by the i r a b i l i t y to integrate knowledge of c l i e n t performance patterns, of d i f f e ren t i a l e f fec ts of therapeutic intervent ions upon these performance patterns and of exceptions to these ru les , into a personally consistent approach to 2 therapy. Bandler and Grinder (1975) go so far as to explain the apparent "wizardry" of e f fec t ive therapists as being the i r responsiveness to i den t i f i ab l e cues in c l i e n t performance prompting them to recognize par t i cu la r behavioural patterns to which they then intervene in s p e c i f i -able ways. Yet , psychotherapy researchers have lagged behind the ef fec-t i ve therapists in the quest to unravel th is "structure of magic." Only recent ly have psychotherapy researchers redirected the i r concern to i l luminat ing patterns of c l i e n t performance and to ident i fy ing the spe-c i f i c cogni t ive and af fec t ive markers which indicate the necessity of a par t i cu la r therapeutic intervent ion at that moment in the therapy process (Gottman & Markman, 1978; Greenberg, 1975, 1979, 1980a, 1980b, in press; Rice & Greenberg, in press) . Gottman and Markman (1978) have suggested a new approach to psycho-therapy research which they c a l l a program development model. This i s an eight step model st ressing the importance of sequential analyses and the need for a task analysis to ident i fy the components of competence which discr iminate a competent population from a par t i cu la r target populat ion. Greenberg (1975, 1980a, in press) and Rice and Greenberg ( in press) have also adopted a task-analy t ic approach for in tens ive ly studying in-therapy c l i e n t performances in order to ident i fy recurr ing potent events in psychotherapy and to i so la te the performance patterns associated with the resolut ion of these events. The i n i t i a l steps of the i r task-analy t ic strategy emphasize induct ive, discovery-or iented research in which the process components of successful c l i e n t performances are i den t i f i ed by means of s ingle-case studies of c l i e n t performances in the event. Later , 3 experimental ve r i f i ca t i on studies are done in which the c l i e n t performance patterns of successful performance are ve r i f i ed and re lated to outcome by means of mul t i -subject designs. The use of th is task-analy t ic approach of fers a promising method of capturing the subt le t ies and complexit ies of therapy process, such that psychotherapy research can progress towards the i den t i f i ca t i on of c l i e n t mechanisms of change. Purposes of the Study This study forms part of a cumulative research program developed at U .B .C . . With the aim of turning intervent ion research toward a more de-sc r i p t i ve understanding of c l i e n t mechanisms of change, the study focused upon the c l i e n t ' s performance in the task of resolv ing a c o n f l i c t s p l i t . Adopting a task-analy t ic approach to invest igate the resolut ion of con-f l i c t s p l i t s , Greenberg (1975; 1979; 1980a; in press) and associates (Johnson, 1980; Taylor , 1981) have developed detai led sequential descr ip-t ions of the performances of c l i e n t s successful ly accomplishing the task of resolv ing c o n f l i c t s p l i t s . Steps such as ident i fy ing with the internal c r i t i c , s ta t ing values and standards from the internal c r i t i c , expressing d i f fe ren t ia ted feel ings and "wants" from the experiencing s ide , softening of the internal c r i t i c , l i s ten ing and understanding from the experiencing s ide , and negotiat ing between both sides represent possible key components of a successful resolut ion performance (see Appendix A). Given these proposed structural regu la r i t i es across resolut ion performances, the aim of the present study was to ver i fy that three of the c l i e n t performance 4 patterns were essent ia l to successful c o n f l i c t s p l i t reso lu t ion . Statement of the Problem The resolut ion components of "so f ten ing, " " fe l twants, " and "values and standards" generated by the Revised Model of Con f l i c t S p l i t Resolution (Johnson, 1980), were operat ional ly defined in t h i s study in terms of the process dimensions of c l i e n t vocal qua l i t y , experiencing level and social in teract ion behaviour. A pattern search was then conducted across nine resolut ion performances and nine non-resolut ion performances in order to invest igate whether these three hypothesized c l i e n t performance patterns had the power to discr iminate between the resolut ion and non-resolution performances. Standard process ra t ing systems, inc luding the Experiencing Scale (K le in , Mathieu, K ies le r & Gendl in, 1969), the Cl ient Vocal Quality C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System (Rice, Koke, Greenberg & Wagstaff, 1979) and the Structural Analysis of Social Behaviour Model (Benjamin, 1979) provided the precise process language enabling pattern recognit ion of these pro-posed process components. Def in i t ion of Terms Operational de f in i t ions of terms c r i t i c a l to th is study fo l low. 1. The c o n f l i c t s p l i t An intrapsychic c o n f l i c t s p l i t i s essen t ia l l y an experience of fragmentation, a s p l i t in the person's funct ioning, when a person i s 5 struggl ing between two opposing pos i t ions . As Greenberg (1979) describes: Instead of a s ingle c lear preference a r i s i n g , the person i s torn between a l te rna t i ves . There i s an experience of two par ts , of the se l f s p l i t into par t ia l selves in opposi t ion, rather than the experience of a s ingle integrated se l f in process (p. 318). He goes on to formally define the s p l i t as having the fo l lowing four features: (a) a statement of a tendency or par t ia l aspect of the s e l f ; e . g . , "I r ea l l y don't want to do t h i s , " (b) a statement of a second ten-dency or par t ia l aspect of the s e l f ; e . g . , "I feel I have to , " (c) an ind ica t ion of intrapersonal contradic t ion ind ica t ing that the two parts are being set against each other; e . g . , "but," (d) a verbal or non-verbal ind ica t ion that the person i s in c o n f l i c t , involved in s t ruggle, s t r i v i n g , or coerc ion; " e . g . , "I have to , " or voice qua l i t y . An example of a con-f l i c t s p l i t from th is study was, "I feel so lone ly . I want to reach out to people, but I j us t don't seem to be able to . When I'm with fr iends I s ta r t gett ing th is c losed- in fee l ing and I end up pushing them away." 2. The Gestal t Two-Chair Operation The Gestal t two-chair operation used in th is study consisted of a ser ies of suggestions and observations made by the therapist in order to c l ea r l y separate two aspects or pa r t ia l tendencies of the c l i e n t ' s se l f process and to f a c i l i t a t e d i rec t communication between these. The purpose of the two-chair experiment, as suggested by Greenberg (1975; 1980b), i s to maintain a process of demarcation and contact between these par ts . Greenberg (1975) presented the fo l lowing underlying p r inc ip les in an attempt to convey the structure of the operation: 6 1) Maintenance of a contact boundary: Maintaining c lear separation and contact between the par t ia l aspects of the s e l f ; 2) Respons ib i l i t y : Di rect ing c l i e n t s to use the i r a b i l i t i e s to respond in accordance with the true nature of the i r experience; 3) Attending: Direct ing c l i e n t s ' at tent ion to par t i cu la r aspects of the i r present funct ioning; 4) Heightening: Highl ight ing aspects of experience by increasing the level of arousal ; 5) Expressing: Making actual and spec i f i c that which i s i n te l l ec tua l or abstract . Pa r t i cu la r i z i ng experience by moving from theory to pract ice (p. 10). 3 . The experiencing chair The "Experiencing Chair" (Greenberg, 1975), also referred to in the data as Chair 2, represents the experiencing or fee l ing part of the per-son, and i s characterized by a s h i f t , during the process of dialogue, from react ive opposit ion to inner explorat ion and deeper leve ls of experiencing 4. The other chai r The "Other Chair" (Greenberg, 1975), also referred to in the data as Chair 1, represents other parts of the personal i ty , i n t ro jec t s , a t t r i bu -t ions and pro ject ions. I t can also be thought of as the " c r i t i c " cha i r , although th is c r i t i c i z i n g function changes as the dialogue progresses to-wards reso lu t ion . 5. Con f l i c t s p l i t resolut ion Con f l i c t s p l i t resolut ion in t h i s study refers to "the reconc i l i a t i on of opposites so that they no longer waste energy in useless struggle with 7 each other but can jo in in productive combination and in terp lay" (Per l s , 1970, p. 67). The c r i t e r i a for ident i fy ing c o n f l i c t resolut ion in th is study were c l i e n t and therapist report of reso lu t ion . S p e c i f i c a l l y , these c r i t e r i a included a sh i f t of f i ve or more points between the c l i e n t ' s pre- and post-session scores on the Target Complaints Discomfort Box Scale (Ba t t le , Imber, Hoehn-Saric, Stone, Nash, & Frank, 1966), and a score of f i ve or above on the Conf l i c t Resolution Box Scale (Dompierre, 1979) indicated by both c l i e n t and therapis t . 6. Iden t i f ied change point For the resolut ion performances, the " i den t i f i ed change point" was selected by c l i en t s during the video process review of the resolut ion sess ion. The c r i t e r i on for th i s se lec t ion was that the moment selected be of most s ign i f icance to the c l i en t s in the actual resolut ion of the con-f l i c t s p l i t . For the non-resolution performances, the " i den t i f i ed change point" was selected by taking the mean time of the " i den t i f i ed change points" across resolut ion performances, which was found to be 47 minutes into the interview. This 47-minute marker was then appl ied to the f i f t h decision-making session of the non-resolvers, under the assumption that th i s l a s t working session in the decision-making project would represent the most advanced attempt of the non-resolvers at resolv ing the i r s p l i t s . 7. Level of experiencing Level of experiencing refers to the qual i ty of c l i e n t s ' involvement in therapy, denoting the degree to which c l i en t s are aware of and can communicate the i r "bodi ly f e l t flow of experiencing" and the extent to 8 which they can integrate th is with the i r actions and thoughts (Kle in et a l . , 1970). Cl ients are said to be at a low level of experiencing i f the i r communication i s impersonal and i s l imi ted to behavioural or i n t e l -lec tua l descr ip t ion . Cl ients descr ib ing , exploring and elaborat ing upon fee l ings and personal experiences are said to be at moderate leve ls of experiencing. And f i n a l l y , c l i en t s are considered at high leve ls of ex-periencing i f they are creat ive ly synthesizing the i r fee l ings and exper-iences to resolve personally s i gn i f i can t issues. 8. Voice qual i ty Voice qual i ty in th is study represents a measure of the c l i e n t ' s i n -volvement and processing level in the moment (Rice et a l . , 1979) and i s considered to be a sensi t ive index of productive and unproductive pro-cessing s ty les (Rice & Gayl in , 1973). I t i s assessed by four patterns: focused, ex te rna l , l imi ted and emotional, each iden t i f i ed in terms of s ix features: (a) perceived energy, (b) primary s t ress , (c) regular i ty of s t resses , (d) pace, (e) timbre and ( f ) contours. 9. Structural analysis of soc ia l behaviour (SASB) The structural analysis of soc ia l behaviour refers to the changing qua l i t y of soc ia l in teract ion between the two chairs (Benjamin, 1974). The top surface of Benjamin's Structural Analysis of Social Behaviour Model (1979) (Appendix B) depicts soc ia l behaviours for which the focus i s on the other person (or, in th is study, the other par t ia l aspect of s e l f ) , and the middle surface displays soc ia l behaviours for which the focus in on s e l f . The bottom surface, portraying what happens when behaviours re -presented on the top surface are turned inward, was not necessary in th is 9 study because, in e f fec t , the in t ro jec ts of other to se l f were acted out d i rec t l y between the cha i rs . On each surface of the char t , the horizontal axis i s a f f i l i a t i o n and the ve r t i ca l axis i s interdependence. Opposite behaviours appear d i rec t l y across from each other on the same surface ( e . g . , Chart point 115, " f r iend ly explore, l i s t e n , " i s the opposite of 135, "accuse, blame"). Complementary behaviours, those that tend to draw or prompt each other, are at corresponding posi t ions on these two surf-aces, ( e . g . , chart point 235, "appease, scurry , " i s the behavioural com-plement of 135, "accuse, blame.") Because of i t s detai led s t ructure, the use of SASB provides highly spec i f i c ra t ing of conf l i c tua l i n te rac t ion . Dialogue can be examined utterance by utterance with each statement character ized by one of the 72 chart points . Together with voice qua l i t y and experiencing level in th is study, the structural analysis of the between-chairs soc ia l behaviour provided the descr ip t ive c r i t e r i a for i den t i f i ca t i on of c l i e n t performance patterns. 10. C l ien t performance patterns The Experiencing Scale (Klein et a l . , 1970), the C l ien t Vocal Qual i ty C lass i f i ca t i on System (Rice et a l . , 1979) and the Structural Analysis of Soc ia l Behaviour Model (Benjamin, 1979) were used to specify the c l i e n t states of "values and standards" expressed from the "other cha i r , " " f e l t wants" expressed from the "experiencing cha i r , " and "sof tening" expressed from the "other cha i r . " In order for a statement to be i den t i f i ed as representing the "values and standards" s ta te , ra t ing on the Experiencing Scale had to be level 3, ind ica t ing a personal react ion to an external 10 event. Voice qual i ty had to be rated focused (F) , ind ica t ing inner d i rec-t ion and exp lorat ion, as opposed to external (X) ind icat ing an external " lec tu r ing at" qua l i t y . And f i n a l l y , the socia l in teract ion dynamic had to be rated 137 or 138, ind ica t ing a n o n - a f f i l i a t i v e and con t ro l l i ng focus towards the other which i s an enforcing of conformity or a blocking or re-s t r i c t i n g of the other. For a statement to be considered representative of the " f e l t wants" s ta te , ra t ing on the Experiencing Scale had to be leve l 4 or above, ind icat ing a descr ip t ion of feel ings and personal exper-iences. Voice qual i ty had to be rated focused (F) , ind ica t ing inner d i rec-t ion and exp lorat ion, and the socia l in teract ion dynamic had to be rated 217, an a f f i l i a t i v e , independent asser t ion , or 243 an a f f i l i a t i v e and vulnerably stated expression of need. F i n a l l y , for a statement to be i den t i f i ed as representing the "sof tening" s ta te , ra t ing on the Exper-iencing Scale had to be level 5, ind ica t ing the proposit ion of a problem and i t s explorat ion through elaborat ion of feel ings and personal exper-iences. Voice qual i ty had to be rated focused (F) , ind icat ing inner d i rec t ion and explorat ion, and the soc ia l in teract ion dynamic had to be rated 215, an a f f i l i a t i v e and independent open disc losure of personal fee l ings and experiences related to self-development. Summarizing, using th is precise process language, the state of "sof tening" of the internal c r i t i c was recognized by the c l i e n t performance pattern of " focused, 215 at level 5 exper iencing," the state of " f e l t wants" ex-pressed by the experiencing side was recognized by the c l i e n t performance pattern of "focused, 217 or 243 at leve l 4 experiencing or above," and the state of "values and standards" expressed from the internal c r i t i c was 11 recognized by the c l i e n t performance pattern of "focused, 137 or 138 at level 3 exper iencing." Research Hypotheses and Rationale The fo l lowing research hypotheses were invest igated in the present study: 1. There w i l l be a s i gn i f i can t l y greater number of performances which have the "softening" c l i en t performance pattern in the "other cha i r " i n the resolut ion group than in the non-resolut ion performance group. 2. There w i l l be a s i gn i f i can t l y greater number of performances which have both the "values and standards" pattern in the "other chai r " and the " f e l t wants" pattern in the "experiencing cha i r " in the resolut ion per-formance group than in the non-resolut ion performance group. 3. There w i l l be a s i gn i f i can t l y greater number of performances which have the " f e l t wants" c l i e n t performance pattern in the "experiencing cha i r " in the resolut ion performance group than in the non-resolut ion performance group. 4 . There w i l l be a s i gn i f i can t l y greater number of performances which have the "values and standards" c l i e n t performance pattern in the "other cha i r " in the resolut ion performance group than in the non-resolution performance group. In add i t ion , the fol lowing research question was posed: Do c l i e n t s , across resolut ion performances, se lect the "softening" per-formance pattern as the i r most s i gn i f i can t change-point in the process 12 of resolv ing the i r c o n f l i c t s p l i t s ? These research hypotheses were generated from the Revised Model of Con f l i c t S p l i t Resolution (Johnson, 1980). As noted in the "Purposes of the Study," further ve r i f i ca t i on of th i s model was necessary. The present study thus translated three of the key performance states proposed by that model into observable performance patterns that could be measured by standard process rat ing systems and then tested as to the i r power for d iscr iminat ing between the resolut ion and non-resolution performances. These par t i cu la r three performance patterns were chosen because of the researcher 's view that the "sof tening" performance pattern i s central in the c l i e n t process of change leading to resolut ion of the c l i e n t ' s con-f l i c t s p l i t , and that the expression of "values and standards" from the "other chair"and " f e l t wants" from the "experiencing cha i r " are the c l i e n t processes which t r igger th is "sof tening" phenomenon. Assumptions Underlying th is Research A major assumption in th is research was that c o n f l i c t s p l i t episodes in therapy are s t ruc tu ra l l y homogeneous. The c o n f l i c t s p l i t i t s e l f was thought to represent a behavioural structure which reveals the c l i e n t ' s internal representation of the task (Greenberg, 1975). The c l i e n t ' s experienced fragmentation of se l f was thought to represent an internal demand for attent ion of which the c l i e n t ' s struggle was evidence. The c l i e n t ' s verba l iza t ion of the s p l i t in therapy was then considered part of an attempt towards understanding and resolv ing th is struggle. I t was 13 thus assumed that c l i en t s working on c o n f l i c t s p l i t s in therapy were in a s im i la r problem space regarding the i r construal of the s p l i t and i t s de-mands for reso lu t ion . Comparisons then were possible as to st ructural regu la r i t i es in the c l i e n t task performances. This study was also founded upon the premise that therapeutic change, s p e c i f i c a l l y the resolut ion of a c o n f l i c t s p l i t using two-chair dialogue, would fol low cer ta in i den t i f i ab le patterns. This premise was l inked to the researcher 's view of therapy. Therapy was seen as a s i tuat ion in which c l i e n t and therapist engage in a process of explorat ion and, hope-f u l l y , resolut ion of a ser ies of i m p l i c i t or e x p l i c i t sub-tasks in which the c l i e n t i s involved. I t was not the amount of par t i cu la r process behaviours that was of focal in te res t in th is study, but rather the attainment of cer ta in performance patterns which were thought to be ind ica t i ve of c l i e n t completion of cer ta in sub-tasks wi th in the overa l l a f fec t i ve task of resolv ing a c o n f l i c t s p l i t . Del imi tat ions of the Study An ideal study invest igat ing the hypothesized c l i e n t performance patterns would include a pattern search of c l i e n t s ' ent i re therapy per-formances on the i r par t i cu la r c o n f l i c t s p l i t s . This might include part of a one-hour therapy session or several one-hour sessions. Due to the time/ cost factors in t ranscr ib ing and rat ing c l i e n t performances, however, the present study l im i ted i t s performance search for the "other cha i r " to ten statements preceding and f i ve statements fo l lowing the iden t i f i ed change 14 po in t , and for the "experiencing cha i r " to f i ve statements preceding the i den t i f i ed change point. Adopting the c l i e n t - i d e n t i f i e d change point as the anchor point around which the pattern search was conducted was based on the be l i e f that the hypothesized c l i e n t performance patterns of " f e l t wants" and "values and standards" actua l ly t r igger the c l i e n t ' s experience of "sof tening" and that th is softening of the internal c r i t i c i s the central change experience for the c l i e n t . The judgment of how many state-ments to inc lude, however, was a rb i t r a ry , and i t may be that the pro-posed performance patterns were ac tua l l y attained by c l i e n t s but f a i l e d to be uncovered due to th is l imi ted search. J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the Study To avoid obscuring the process of c l i e n t change during therapy in group designs, psychotherapy researchers have started to seek a l te rnat ive s t ra teg ies , espec ia l ly designs that bring the researcher c loser to the data of what indiv idual c l i en t s do. As Rice and Greenberg ( in press) contend: Process research i s c ruc ia l to the endeavour of understanding the workings of therapy, but our conventional external var iable research methodologies must be replaced with emp i r i ca l - ra t i ona l i s t s t rategies that allow us to f ind the patterns inherent in the data by making use of observation and of the creat ive theor iz ing of the thoughtful c l i -n ic ian and then test ing these with the methodological r igor of s u i t -able ve r i f i ca t i on procedures. 15 The task-ana ly t ic approach adopted in th is study i s geared to th is end. I t seeks to close the gap between c l i n i c i a n s and researchers by focusing on c l i n i c a l l y meaningful descr ipt ion of the process components of a potent and recurr ing in-therapy event, and by doing th is with rigorous observa-t ion st rategies which permit further rep l i ca t ion s tudies. 16 CHAPTER II Review of Related L i terature Overview This review w i l l begin with a discussion of the current trends in psychotherapy process research to show how the present study i s meaning-ful to the f i e l d . Then, the research paradigm on which the study i s based, task ana lys i s , w i l l be described in d e t a i l . F i n a l l y , the spec i f i c research which has led to th is study w i l l be presented. Process Research The kinds of questions in psychotherapy research that need to be answered to i l luminate the mechanisms of therapeutic change disappoint ing-l y remain unasked. As Cronbach (1975) has suggested, in the ex is t ing par-adigms of cor re la t iona l and experimental research, observation of beha-viour has been neglected in favour of hypothesis tes t ing . I t seems that , on the one hand, counsel lors are i m p l i c i t l y doing research as par t i c ipant -observers, fascinated with the events of therapy, seeking patterns in c l i e n t funct ion ing, performing process diagnoses and prec ise ly applying in tervent ions contextual ly to the i r c l i e n t s ' performances. On the other hand, psychotherapy research into recognit ion of c l i e n t performance pat-terns and mechanisms of change i s impeded by experimental and cor re la -t ional research paradigms which f a i l to capture and i l luminate the complex transact ions occurring in therapy. As Gottman and Markman (1978) suggest, . . . There i s a need for a set of d i f fe ren t questions in psychology research. Furthermore, there i s a need for a way to proceed with psychotherapy research that w i l l make i t possible for us to learn from our f a i l u r e s , so that the business of gathering data on the process and the effect iveness of our intervent ions resu l ts in some improvement of our p r a c t i s e s . . . . [There i s a] need for a way to proceed that w i l l be useful to both the un ivers i ty scholar in te r -ested in psychotherapy research and the innovative c l i n i c a l p r a c t i -t ioner (p. 30). These sentiments are echoed by Goldman (1978): The problem i s not "research" as a general idea but rather the kinds of research that have predominated in our f i e l d . . . . The kinds of research methods and the kinds of research studies that prevai l i n the f i e l d are largely inappropriate or inadequate for most of the kinds of knowledge and ins ight counsel lors require in the i r da i ly work (p. 5) . Indeed, much of psychotherapy research has f a i l ed to meet the simple test of relevance as suggested by Krumboltz (1967): What w i l l counsel lors do d i f fe ren t l y i f the resu l ts of t h i s study come out one way rather than another? (p. 191). 18 I t seems that most process research to date has overlooked the fact that what i s of importance to the counsel l ing c l i n i c i a n i s not only know-ing what intervent ions to use but also when to use them, and in re la t ion to what c l i e n t performance pattern. Process studies have t rad i t i ona l l y attempted to study ongoing c l i e n t and therapist behaviour throughout the course of therapy. However, most of these studies s t i l l f a i l to permit an adequate examination of psychotherapy as a process changing over time in which there can be d i f ferent processes with d i f fe rent s ign i f icance in d i f fe rent contexts. Studies that operat ional ly define "process" by pre-and post - tes t di f ferences on some set of va r iab les , although supporting the inference of some process, f a i l to demonstrate or expl icate the type of process and the kind of change that did happen. Studies that opera-t i ona l l y define "process" in terms of frequency or change in frequency of events, across uni ts of time sampled, are also l imi ted in the i r c l i n i c a l relevance. What the c l i n i c i a n needs from the researcher i s to know whe-ther cer ta in patterns of c l i n i c a l processes actual ly change and how, or whether they, though s t i l l i n tac t , merely occur less of ten. Studies that operat ional ly define "process" in terms of a set of one-step contingen-c i e s , for example, how often a cer ta in kind of c l i e n t response fol lows a cer ta in kind of therapist response, are helpful in answering cer ta in questions concerning re lat ionships between immediate c l i e n t and therapist responses. However, they too are l i m i t e d , in that therapy becomes div ided into d iscrete dyadic un i t s , leaving one to in fe r the larger context of which they are a part . What in fac t seems cruc ia l for the development of research of therapeutic s ign i f icance i s an operational de f in i t i on of 19 "process" in terms of un i t s , temporal re la t ionships between un i t s , and end po in ts , such that descr ipt ive knowledge can be b u i l t of the actual processes of therapy in context. With th i s aim, and to avoid obscuring th i s process of c l i e n t change during therapy using group designs, counsel l ing researchers have started to use a l te rnat ive s t ra teg ies , espec ia l l y designs that br ing the counsel lor researcher c loser to the data of what ind iv idua ls do. One such a l te rna-t i ve approach i s that of task ana lys i s . Task Analysis Task analys is involves breaking down problems into component opera-t ions and then combining the components into models of performance. As an approach to research i t has been used in the area of cogni t ive development for studying ch i l d ren 's thinking for at leas t two decades. Recently there has been such a dramatic increase in i t s use that S ieg le r (1980) has re-ferred to task analysis as "the leading approach to invest igat ing the de-velopment of problem-solving, reasoning, and memorial s k i l l s " (p. 278). Task analysis has provided a vehic le enabling the deta i led performance analyses of ch i ldren who are engaged in tack l ing problems which make par-t i c u l a r l y in teres t ing demands on the i r mental structures (Klahr & Wallace, 1972; Case, 1975; Baylor & Lemoyne, 1975; Klahr & Wallace, 1976). I t has also enabled studies of complex performances such that the psychological processes involved in solv ing i n te l l ec tua l tasks can be revealed and the elements of the task that are " ins t ruc tab le" can be i den t i f i ed (Case, 20 1975; Gregg, 1976; Resnick, 1976). In add i t ion , in the information pro-cessing f i e l d , task analysis has enabled deta i led f ine-gra in analyses of spec i f i c tasks (Newell & Simon, 1972; Lindsay & Norman, 1972; Newell, 1977; Byrne, 1977). Newell and Simon (1972) in par t i cu la r have made de-t a i l ed observational records of s ing le ind iv idua ls as they proceed to solve reasoning problems, noting an approach t r i e d , a b l ind a l ley encoun-tered, a backing up, and a search for a new approach. From these records they in fe r the way the problem was construed, the hypotheses t r i e d , the ways in which the task ins t ruct ion impeded or f a c i l i t a t e d so lu t ion , and f i n a l l y the kinds of mental capac i t ies required to have generated th is performance. Task analysis as current ly appl ied in the f i e l d of psychology has been great ly inf luenced by the research programs of Gagne (1965, 1968) and Simon (1947, 1956). Gagni has used task analys is to analyze the struc-ture of subject matter. His view that concepts are h ie ra rch ica l l y organ-ized and that f a i l u re to learn a concept i s generally due to f a i l u re to understand one or more components wi th in the hierarchy led him to conduct task analyses which aimed at es tab l ish ing learning prerequis i tes and h ier -arch ies. His view of problem-solving i s that i t consis ts of defined cap-a b i l i t i e s or performances, each of which can be learned by the c l i e n t , and that these capab i l i t i e s are re lated to each other in such a way that achievement of a subordinate capab i l i t y ( i . e . , completion of that par t i c -u lar performance) i s e i ther necessary to , or greatly f a c i l i t a t e s the suc-cessful accomplishment of a more advanced performance or capab i l i t y . Gagne's perspective i s thus in accord with the idea of a general model of 21 an e f f i c i e n t or optimum route to the solut ion of a problem. His use of task ana lys i s , however, has been pr imar i ly pract ica l in focus, seeking to ident i fy components for teachers to teach and to es tab l ish the order in which they should be taught (the h ierarch ica l organizat ion) . He has paid l i t t l e at tent ion to the psychological processes involved in performing the components or to d i f fe r ing st rategies adopted, including such p o s s i b i l -i t i e s as people having reason to not choose the optimal approach to solv-ing problems. Simon (1947, 1956), on the other hand, has stressed psychological processes, the l i m i t s of human cogn i t ion , and how components are in te -grated. He views task analysis as a means of reveal ing the human cogni-t i ve system producing the performance. Newell and Simon (1972) state the i r approach to task analysis in terms of two postulates: 1. To the extent that the behaviour i s prec isely what i s ca l l ed fo r by the s i t ua t i on , i t w i l l give us information about the task env i -ronment. 2. To the extent that the behaviour departs from perfect ra t i ona l -i t y , we gain information about the psychology of the subject, about the nature of the internal mechanisms that are l im i t i ng his or her performance (p. 55). Simon thus sees tasks as opportunit ies for problem solvers to reveal the i r l im i ta t ions in terms of the type of information processing demands that resu l t in non-optimal performance. He then has directed his task analyses towards the construct ion of various computer simulation models of perform-ance in such areas as algebra (Paige & Simon, 1966), chess (Chase & Simon, 22 1973), spe l l i ng (Simon & Simon, 1973) and physics (Simon & Simon, 1978). In the t rad i t i on of Simon's simulation approach, Klahr and Wallace (1976) have constructed'simulat ions of several Piaget ian problems, Anderson (1976) has modeled language and memory and Kosslyn (1978) has modeled imagery. The major strength of such task analy t ic approaches i s that a simulation model capable of performing the task demonstrates the s u f f i -ciency of components necessary for performance of the par t i cu la r task. D i f f i c u l t i e s , however, ar ise in d is t ingu is ing features of the theory from programming conveniences, and even more important, the problem of l i nk ing the complexity of the verbal protocol data with the simulat ions. Recent trends in the appl icat ion of task analyses to the study of human cognit ion have been out l ined by S ieg le r (1980). He refers to three new d i rec t ions into which task analys is i s being extended. One d i rec -t i o n , exemplif ied by Sternberg's componential analysis approach (Stern-berg, 1977a, b; Sternberg <S R i f k i n , 1979), involves a search for compo-nents that are used on a large number of tasks and that may account for ind iv idual di f ferences in performance. Across such tasks as verbal and geometric analogy, t rans i t i ve inference, metaphoric production, and causal inference problems, Sternberg has i den t i f i ed the four common components of encoding, inference, mapping and app l i ca t ion . A second new d i rec t ion for task analyses, as set forth by S ieg le r (1980), involves analyzing tasks in terms of the pr inc ip les underlying the choice of par t i cu la r problem-solv ing s t ra teg ies . Gelman and G a l l i s t e l (1978) have adopted th is approach as they in ferred from cer ta in aspects of ch i l d ren ' s counting per-formance an understanding of f i ve p r inc ip les involved in counting. The 23 t h i r d new d i rec t ion set forth by S ieg le r (1980) involves the development of means for revea l ing, through analys is of ch i ld ren 's e r ro rs , the se-quence of pa r t ia l understandings leading to conceptual mastery. By pre-senting chi ldren problems that y i e l d d i f fe ren t patterns of correct answers and errors depending on what value they are using, S ieg le r (1976, 1978) and S ieg le r and Richards (1979) have appl ied a rule-assessment approach to such cognitive-developmental problems as balance sca le , project ion of shadows, p robab i l i t y , f u l l ness , t ime, speed, d istance, conservation of l i q u i d quant i ty , conservation of s o l i d quant i ty, and conservation of number problems. A Task-Analyt ic Approach to Psychotherapeutic Events Applying th is task-analy t ic approach to the study of psychotherapy, Gottman and Markman (1978) have designed an eight step program development model s t ress ing the importance of sequential analyses of in teract ions and the need for task analysis to ident i fy par t i cu la r components of compe-tence. Based on i den t i f i ca t i on of d e f i c i t s of these components in the target populat ion, programs are then developed to remedy these de f i c ien-c i e s . For example, Schwartz and Gottman (1976) developed a program fo r non-assert ive subjects. Based on a task analys is ind ica t ing that asser-t i ve and non-assertive subjects d i f fe red in the i r cogni t ive s e l f - s t a t e -ments and in the i r a b i l i t y to de l i ve r competent responses, they devel-oped a spec i f i c intervention program to remedy these de f i c ienc ies . S i m i l a r l y , Rice and Greenberg ( in press) have used task-analy t ic 24 methods to analyze the performance of c l i e n t s successful ly resolv ing cer-ta in a f fec t ive tasks in psychotherapy. This approach presumes that wi th in the complex stream of performance patterns exhibi ted by c l i e n t and thera-p i s t during therapy there are recurr ing "events" with a high probab i l i t y of a f fec t ing change. Greenberg (1975) defines these events: An "event" consists of an in teract iona l sequence between c l i e n t and therap is t . I t i s a performance sequence that has a beginning, an end, and a par t i cu la r structure that gives i t meaning such that i t i s d is t inguishable from the surrounding behaviour in the ongoing process. To the c l i e n t an event has the qual i ty of a whole and i t i s exper i -enced as a closure of some in terac t ion with the therap is t . For the therapis t the event represents a therapeutic a c t i v i t y which comes to some closure in the hour. The event i s l i k e a short incident in a novel or a drama. I t i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y complex, i s composed of i n te r -connected a c t i v i t i e s , with changing patterns, but i t occurs wi th in a continuous period of time and comes to some closure within the hour (pp. 4-5) . Rice and Greenberg ( in press) contend that experienced therapists are con-t i nua l l y making "process diagnoses" of "markers" of such events. Thera-p is ts are a l e r t for par t i cu la r c l i e n t performance patterns which signal both the presence of a f fec t ive issues needing to be resolved and at the same time the c l i e n t ' s readiness to focus on them. Acting on th is "process d iagnos is , " the therapist intervenes, assuming that i f the par t i cu la r c l i e n t marker i s followed by the appropriate therapeutic in te r -vent ion, the c l i e n t w i l l be able to work toward an a f fec t ive reso lu t ion . 25 This discr iminable "event" wi th in therapy i s thus comprised of the c l i e n t marker, therapist operation and resul tant c l i e n t process. Greenberg (1975; 1979) and Rice and Greenberg ( in press) further contend that such "when - then" events of therapy appear to have su f f i c i en t structural s i m i l a r i t y to warrant deta i led study. As described by Greenberg (1975) and Rice and Greenberg ( in press) the task-ana ly t ic approach to the study of psychotherapeutic events i s an eight-step process. The eight steps are: 1. The ideal observer - the general model. There i s an " ideal observer" (Pascual-Leone, 1976), in th is case a "counsel lor-researcher" who has an e x p l i c i t general model of funct ioning and an i m p l i c i t cogni t ive map concerning some of the spec i f i c events of therapy. The " ideal ob-server 's cogni t ive map" provides a framework wi th in which to begin looking at performances so that in terest ing and therapeut ica l ly s ign i f i can t events are located. 2. Select ion and descr ipt ion of a task. On the basis of the gene-ra l model and intensive re f lec t ions on counsel l ing experiences, the coun-se l lo r - researcher selects and describes a task and task s i tua t ion which seems to be recurrent within and across c l i en t s and potent in producing change. 3. Ve r i f i ca t i on of the s ign i f i cance of task reso lu t ion . Exper i -mental ve r i f i ca t i on i s then used to provide evidence that the postulated event (task plus task inst ruct ions and task performance) i s indeed a potent event containing act ive ingredients and therefore worth studying in tens ive ly . 26 4 . The thought experiment - construct ing performance diagrams. The counsel lor-researcher begins to in tens ive ly analyze the c l i e n t ' s task performance. The counsel lor-researcher, drawing upon his or her general model of human funct ioning and accumulated counsel l ing experience, gener-ates possible resolut ion performance paths, and diagrams these. This i s a type of "thought experiment" in which performances are varied f ree ly in imagination. 5. Descr ipt ion of the actual performances. Having developed a diagram of possible performances the counsel lor-researcher now makes a deta i led sequential descr ipt ion of the actual performance of one or more s ingle ind iv idua ls engaged in the par t i cu la r therapeutic task under study. 6. Comparison of actual performance with possible performance -model buiding. The counsel lor-researcher now compares the actual per-formance with the possible performances (Steps 5 and 4 ) , and from th is comparison begins to construct a spec i f i c model, consistent with the gene-ra l model, of the kind of human processes that could have generated the observed performance. 7. V e r i f i c a t i o n . Making use of the newly constructed spec i f i c model, hypotheses concerning c l i e n t performance on the task are advanced and s t a t i s t i c a l l y tested. Resolution and non-resolution performances are compared to ver i fy that the spec i f ied components discr iminate between the successful and unsuccessful performances. 8. Relat ing outcome to process. As a f i na l step in the task anal -y t i c program, outcome studies are done, in which the re la t ionship between 27 successful c l i e n t performances and long-term outcome are studied and the l i n ks between counsel l ing methods which lead to these c l i e n t performances, and outcome are demonstrated. Several studies using these task analy t ic steps have been conducted on a therapeutic event which has been labe l led a " c o n f l i c t s p l i t " (Green-berg, 1975). Greenberg (1975; 1979) constructed precise behavioural d e f i -n i t ions of the d i s t i nc t i ve features of the s p l i t marker and the d i s t i n c -t i ve features of the appropriate therapeutic in tervent ion, thereby estab-l i s h i n g the descr ipt ion of the task and task environment (Step 2 of the task analy t ic program). A number of studies have subsequently ve r i f i ed the s ign i f icance of the s p l i t . The d i f fe ren t ia l e f fec ts of the Gestal t two-chair operation compared with empathic re f lec t ion at a s p l i t have been studied in three s ingle cases (Greenberg, 1975), in a counsel l ing analogue (Greenberg and Clarke, 1979) and in a counsel l ing f i e l d study (Greenberg and Dompierre, 1981). These studies a l l demonstrated that c l i en ts working on s p l i t s using two-chair dialogue deepened the i r experience, increased the i r aware-ness, resolved the i r c o n f l i c t and changed the i r behaviour more than c l i e n t s in the empathic re f lec t ion cond i t ion . These resu l ts confirm Step three 's requirement that there be evidence that the event i s potent and worth studying in tens ive ly . Pursuing an intensive analys is of nine two-chair events, Greenberg (1980a) did f ind that successful two-chair dialogues manifest cer ta in patterned regu la r i t i es in each chai r on depth of experiencing and voice qua l i t y . He constructed an i n i t i a l spec i f i c model of c o n f l i c t s p l i t 28 resolut ion in which the softening of the harsh c r i t i c a l aspect of the per-sonal i ty toward the se l f was an important component in the resolut ion per-formances. Steps 4 through 6 of the task-ana ly t ic approach were then adopted by Johnson (1980) as she constructed mult i -step diagrams to e x p l i -cate the steps of possible paths to s p l i t reso lu t ion . Greenberg ( in press) and Johnson (1980) then constructed the Revised Model of Con f l i c t S p l i t Resolution (Johnson, 1980) representing d i f fe rent possible key c l i e n t states along the path of a resolut ion performance. These states included ro le-p lay ing top-dog and under-dog, iden t i f y ing with top-dog and under-dog, expression of values and standards from the internal c r i t i c , expres-sion of previously disowned fee l ings and "wants" from the experiencing s ide , softening of the internal c r i t i c , l i s t e n i n g , understanding and ex-pression of fee l ings from the experiencing s ide , and a negotiat ion lead-ing to integrat ion of the two s ides. These c l i e n t states were formed by the researchers drawing upon the i r theoret ica l understanding of human funct ion ing, the i r accumulated counsel l ing experience and intensive study of tape recorded interviews to generate possible performance paths. These paths were then diagrammed according to measures of vo ice, experiencing l e v e l , observation of non-verbal cues and process descr ip t ion , and then three actual performances were compared, resu l t ing in the Revised Model of Con f l i c t S p l i t Resolution (Johnson, 1980) (See Appendix A) . Subsequently, adopting the strategy of the task-analy t ic program's Step 7, a three stage spec i f i c model of c o n f l i c t resolut ion was proposed by Greenberg ( in press) and ve r i f i ed by Taylor (1981) in a study comparing fourteen Gestal t two-chair dialogue c o n f l i c t resolut ion performances with 29 fourteen non-resolution performances on structural analysis of socia l be-haviour, depth of experiencing and voice qua l i t y . I t was found that the two sides of the c o n f l i c t in a l l the resolut ion performances appeared to f i r s t go through a stage of opposi t ion, then a merging phase in which the c r i t i c softened i t s at t i tude as measured by degree of a f f i l i a t i o n , voice and depth of experiencing, and f i n a l l y an integrat ion phase, character ized by the two chai rs becoming more autonomous and a f f i l i a t i v e , and engaging in negotiat ion leading to resolut ion of the c o n f l i c t . In add i t ion , Taylor (1981) found that the degree of a f f i l i a t i o n (the "softening") in the pre-v iously harsh c r i t i c c lea r l y d ist inguished resolvers from non-resolvers, thus contr ibut ing c r e d i b i l i t y to the Revised Model of Con f l i c t S p l i t Reso-lu t ion (Johnson, 1980) through confirmation of the softening of the c r i t i c as a necessary condit ion of reso lu t ion . Further v e r i f i c a t i o n of the Revised Model of Con f l i c t Resolut ion (Johnson, 1980) aimed at confirming more of the essent ia l process compo-nents of c o n f l i c t s p l i t resolut ion would form an important next step in the task-ana ly t ic program. Although the Taylor (1981) study offered a descr ipt ion of the three stages through which c l i en t s progress in t he i r moment by moment performances in resolv ing intrapersonal c o n f l i c t , an even c loser look in terms of the par t i cu la r c l i e n t performance patterns repre-senting c l i e n t states rather than stages of resolut ion would enable more of the spec i f i c components of successful resolut ion performances to be d is t inguished. Such was the intent of the present study, i n which pattern i den t i f i ca t i on was directed towards a more ref ined l e v e l , a level of greater c l i n i c a l relevance to the p rac t i s ing therap is t . 30 CHAPTER III Methodology Zytowski and Betz (1972), In a review of measurement in psychotherapy research, emphasize the need for measures "which can fol low the progress of the c l i e n t in counsel l ing, so that improvement can be charted as a phy-s i c ian does that of h is surgical pat ient" (p. 78). S i m i l a r l y , Strupp (1973) suggests: The c ruc ia l information i s somehow imbedded in the verbal and non-verbal communications and i t i s the Job of the researcher to impose order on the process in such a way that meaningful answers emerge (p. x i i i ) . In accord with these sentiments, the r igor of th is present in tens ive-anal -y t i c study l i e s in i t s appl icat ion of systematic process methodology to reveal patterns in c l i e n t performances during an in-therapy task. Several process c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems were used to i l luminate c l i n i c a l l y impor-tant subt le t ies of c l i e n t s ' moment-to-moment performances during c o n f l i c t -s p l i t reso lu t ion , and to ident i fy operat ional ly the c l i e n t performance patterns of i n te res t . Discussion of th is methodology fo l lows. 31 Population and Sampling Procedures The 18 c o n f l i c t - s p l i t performances in th is study were taken from actual sessions of c l i en t s involved in a six-week Decision Making Project conducted at U.B.C. during the summer of 1980. A l l c l i en t s in the project had responded to advert is ing and were bas ica l l y wel1- funct ioni ing people who were explor ing decisional c o n f l i c t s pertaining to personal development or career. The sample i s thus composed of subjects who are broadly repre-sentative of a population which experiences trouble at some time with a decis ional c o n f l i c t and seeks assistance in i t s reso lu t ion . The resu l t s of t h i s study can therefore be general ized to a population of people who are deal ing with a spec i f i c decis ional c o n f l i c t , and who have vo lun tar i l y sought assistance for the resolut ion of th is c o n f l i c t . The real population of th is study, however, was not the c l i e n t s , but rather the population of c o n f l i c t - s p l i t performances. The actual reso lu-t ion performances chosen for th is study were selected on spec i f ied c r i t e -r i a for reso lu t ion . To be considered a resolut ion sess ion, both c l i e n t and therapis t had to indicate a score of f i ve or above on the Conf l i c t Resolut ion Box Scale (Dompierre, 1979) and a sh i f t of f i ve or more points between the pre- and post-session scores on the Target Complaints Dis-comfort Box Scale (Batt le et a l . , 1966). In add i t ion , for the purposes of th is study, the video tape of the c l i e n t ' s c o n f l i c t resolut ion session had to have been reviewed with the c l i e n t . Nine resolut ion performances from the pool of decision-making resolvers (Webster, 1982) matched these 32 c r i t e i a and were thus selected for the present study. From the pool of non-resolvers in the decision-making pro jec t , nine were randomly se lec ted . The f i f t h sessions of these nine non-resolvers then became the nine non-resolut ion performances analyzed in the present study. Therapists Four therap is ts , two men and two women, with a range of 2-9 years of experience with Gestal t methods, contr ibuted events for th is study. Two held Ph.D.s in Counsell ing Psychology and two were doctoral students. Two therapists each provided one resolut ion and one non-resolution performance for ana lys is . One provided four of each type of performance, and the other three of each type. A l l therapists were trained in the use of the Gesta l t two-chair method (Greenberg, 1979; 1980b) and were fami l ia r with Gestal t ideas regarding resolut ion being achieved by integrat ion of po lar -i t i e s and that a softening of the a t t i tude towards the se l f f a c i l i t a t e s th is reso lu t ion . Descr ipt ion of Measuring Instruments 1. The experiencing scale The Experiencing Scale (Klein et a l . , 1970) was used to measure the in-process level of c l i e n t experiencing, statement by statement, in both cha i r s , across successful and non-successful performances of c o n f l i c t s p l i t reso lu t ion . This scale i s a seven-point annotated and anchored 33 ra t ing device created for the purpose of assessing the qual i ty of c l i e n t involvement or "experiencing" in psychotherapy. K le in et a l . (1970) define experiencing as: . . . the qual i ty of an i nd i v i dua l ' s experiencing of himself , the extent to which his ongoing, bod i l y , f e l t flow of experiencing i s the basic datum of his awareness and communications about h imsel f , and the extent to which th is inner datum i s integral to action and thought (p. 1) . This construct i s a phenomenological construct which has evolved from Rogers' process scale (1958, 1959) and from Gendl in 's formulation of experiencing (Gendlin & Zimring, 1955; Gendl in, 1962). Gendlin operation-a l l y defined process components from the d i rec t l y present, immediate experiencing of the person. He subsequently developed the Experiencing Scale which was then ref ined and developed over the next ten years into a standardized measure of tape-recorded ongoing therapy process (Klein et a l . , 1970). Because of i t s extreme sens i t i v i t y to changes in c l i e n t s ' involve-ment, even within a s ingle therapy hour, the Experiencing Scale i s a par-t i c u l a r l y valuable rat ing device for microscopic process studies such as th i s one. The lower leve ls of the scale are character ized by impersonal or super f i c ia l references to s e l f . Moving up the sca le , there i s a progression from simple, l im i ted or external ized references to se l f to an elaborate descr ipt ion of fee l i ngs . At the highest leve ls of experiencing, explorat ion of feel ings and new awareness lead to problem solving and greater se l f understanding. 34 The v a l i d i t y of the scale and of the concept of experiencing has been affirmed across various sett ings where leve l of experiencing has been found to consis tent ly predict pos i t i ve psychotherapy outcome. In seven studies the ra t ing r e l i a b i l i t i e s were s i g n i f i c a n t , ranging from rk .79-.91 modes and .75-.92 peaks using the Ebel In te r -c lass R e l i a b i l i t y method. A short form of the Experiencing Scale i s provided in Appendix C. 2. The C l ien t Vocal Quali ty C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System (CVQ) The CVQ (Rice, Koke, Greenberg & Wagstaff, 1979) was used in t h i s study to track the qual i ty of voice in the two-chair dialogue as a measure of involvement and processing level in the moment. The CVQ has four voice patterns: focused, ex terna l , l im i ted and emotional, each iden t i f i ed in terms of s ix features: (a) perceived energy, (b) primary s t ress , (c) regu lar i ty of s t ress , (d) pace, (e) timbre and (f) contours. Voice qua l i -ty has been shown to be a good predictor of success and fa i l u re in therapy (Rice & Wagstaff, 1967), and a sens i t i ve index of productive and non-productive processing s ty les (Rice & Gay l in , 1973). More precisely with regard to c o n f l i c t s p l i t s , change to a focused voice has been demonstrated as a necessary condit ion for c o n f l i c t resolut ion (Greenberg, in press) . R e l i a b i l i t y for the CVQ has been demonstrated in several ways. Rank order cor re la t ions between judges were found to be between .70 and .79 on the four categories (Rice & Wagstaff, 1967). For the same study, percen-tage agreement was 70 and Cohen's kappa, a much more str ingent measure, was .49. 35 Appendix D provides a summary of the C l ien t Vocal Quali ty C l a s s i f i -cat ion System. 3. The Structural Analysis of Soc ia l Behaviour Model (SASB) The SASB model (Benjamin, 1979) was used in th is study to measure the qua l i ty of socia l in teract ion communicated statement by statement in the two chai rs as c l i en t s progressed through experential states towards reso-lu t ion of the i r s p l i t . The SASB extends the Leary C lass i f i ca t i on System into a model composed of three two-dimensional grids (see Appendix B) . Each of the gr ids represents the focus of the interpersonal t ransact ion (other, se l f or i n t ro jec t i on ) . The horizontal axis of each gr id runs from d i s a f f i l i a t i o n to a f f i l i a t i o n and the ve r t i ca l axis from maximal depen-dence to maximal independence. Each chart point wi th in each quadrant of the gr id i s then composed of a proport inate amount of the behaviours de-scribed by each of the axes. The instrument adapted for th is study u t i l i z e d two of the three-dimensional gr ids (other and s e l f ) . The dialogue was analyzed, statement by statement, and each statement was i den t i f i ed as belonging to one of 36 categories on one of two gr ids . Transactions were c l a s s i f i e d in terms of focus, quadrant, and top ic . In terms of focus: g r id 1 = other g r id 2 = s e l f . 36 In terms of quadrant: quadrant 1 = pos i t ive a f f i l i a t i o n , pos i t i ve interdependence quadrant 2 = negative a f f i l i a t i o n , pos i t i ve interdependence quadrant 3 = negative a f f i l i a t i o n , negative interdependence quadrant 4 = pos i t ive a f f i l i a t i o n , negative interdependence. In terms of top ic : track 0 = pr imi t ive basics track 1 = approach-avoidance track 2 = need f u l f i l lmen t , contact , nurturance track 3 = attachment track 4 = log ic and communication track 5 = attent ion to seif-development track 6 = balance in re la t ionsh ip track 7 = int imacy-distance, and track 8 = i den t i t y . The f i r s t number of the resu l t ing th ree-d ig i t behaviour code refers to the g r i d , the second number to the quadrant, and the th i rd number to the top ic . Thus, a 217 behaviour i s indicated by a c l i e n t statement in which the focus i s on se l f (2), the quadrant i s pos i t ive a f f i l i a t i o n , pos i t i ve interdependence (1) , and the topic i s int imacy-distance (7). The descr ip-t ion provided by Benjamin's model of such a 217 behaviour i s "assert on own." I l l u s t r a t i n g fur ther , a 138 would indicate a c l i e n t statement from one chai r towards the other (1); i t would be hostile-dependent (quadrant 3 ) ; and i t s content would concern ident i ty (track 8) . The provided de-sc r ip t ion of such a behaviour i s "enforce conformity." 37 The SASB has been found to be a sound measuring device. Va l i d i t y of the SASB model has been extensively tested through circumplex ana lys i s , factor ana lys i s , and auto-corre lat ional methods (Benjamin, 1977). Test-retest r e l i a b i l i t i e s for dimensional rat ings of the SASB items have ranged, from .85 to .93, and in te r ra ter r e l i a b i l i t i e s have fa l l en in the same range. When applied s p e c i f i c a l l y as a process ra t ing instrument fo r analyzing the therapeutic process of a Gesta l t two-chair dialogue, the r e l i a b i l i t y of in ter ra ter agreement was tested using Cohen's kappa, and found to be .911. Benjamin (1977) concluded that despite the complexity of the SASB model, the high kappas between independent raters estab l ish that the rules for applying the SASB model to therapy transactions are communicable and can y i e l d consistent rat ings among careful independent observers. 4. Con f l i c t Resolution Box Scale (CRBS) The Conf l i c t Resolution Box Scale was created by Dompierre (1979) as a se l f - repor t measure of the extent to which c o n f l i c t has been resolved. This seven-point box scale ranges from "not at a l l resolved" in the f i r s t box, to "somewhat resolved" in the fourth box, to " t o t a l l y resolved" in the seventh box (see Appendix E ) . On the c l i e n t form of the sca le , c l i e n t s indicate the degree to which they feel resolved regarding the c o n f l i c t they have iden t i f i ed and explored in the session. On the thera-p i s t form of the scale the therapists ind icate the degree to which, in the i r judgment, the i r c l i en ts have resolved the c o n f l i c t i den t i f i ed and worked on in the session. This scale has been shown to corre late with 38 other outcome measures and to discr iminate between more and less e f fec t i ve resolut ion sessions using two-chair dialogue and empathic re f lec t ion (Greenberg & Dompierre, 1981). The CRBS was used in th is study as one of the c r i t e r i a for ident i fy ing resolut ion events. Both the c l i e n t and the therapist had to mark a minimum of f i ve on the scale for the dialogue to be considered a resolut ion event. 5. Target Complaints Discomfort Box Scale (TCDBS) The TCDBS (Batt le et a l . , 1966) i s a th i r teen-point se l f - repor t meas-sure, which rates the amount of discomfort the c l i en t s are experiencing in re la t ion to the i r present complaints. This scale ranges from "not a t a l l " in the f i r s t box, to "pretty much" in the seventh box, to "very much" in the tenth box, and "couldn ' t be worse" in the top box (see Appendix F ) . For the purpose of th is study, i t was administered before and af ter the counsel l ing sessions to ident i fy any movement towards resolut ion of the issue presented for that session. A s h i f t of f i ve or more points between the pre-session scores and post-session scores was one of the c r i t e r i a necessary for the session to qual i fy as a c o n f l i c t reso lu t ion . 6. Video Process Recal l The video process reca l l used in th is study was a process c l a s s i f i c a -t ion procedure adapted from E l l i o t t ' s (1979) Interpersonal Process R e c a l l . Whereas E l l i o t t i so la tes points at which c l i e n t s perceive a therapist operation to have been espec ia l ly helpful and has the c l i e n t rate the s ign i f icance on a scale of 0 to 9, the main focus in th is study was upon 39 c l i e n t performances, not therapist in f luence. Thus, in th is study, c l i en t s were asked to select " s i gn i f i can t moments" in the i r experience which were perceived important to the actual resolut ion of the i r s p l i t . The spec i f i c procedure used in th i s study adopted the fo l lowing f o r -mat. Within two days of the c l i e n t ' s resolut ion sess ion, the c l i e n t would meet with a reca l l consultant who would review the video-tape of the session with the c l i e n t . The reca l l consultant asked the c l i en t s to se-l e c t from four to seven " s i gn i f i can t moments" in the i r process of change, and then to rate the s ign i f icance of these moments on a scale of 0 to 9. The "most s i gn i f i can t moment" was then establ ished as that moment to which the c l i e n t gave the highest s ign i f icance ra t ing . In the event of two or more moments given the same high ra t i ng , c l i en t s were then asked to choose which moment they would consider of most s ign i f i cance to the process of resolv ing the i r s p l i t . This "most s i gn i f i can t moment" was then used as an anchor point , around which a performance pattern search was conducted. The same reca l l consultant was used to review a l l of the resolut ion performances. This reca l l consultant was tra ined for the purposes of th i s study according to procedures set for th in E l l i o t t ' s (1979) research manual. Desi gn The intent of th is study was the v e r i f i c a t i o n of predicted perform-ance patterns in the process of resolv ing a c o n f l i c t s p l i t . In order to test the Revised Model of Con f l i c t S p l i t Resolution (Johnson, 1980) 40 constructed by Greenberg (1975, 1980a) and Johnson (1980), nine resolut ion and nine non-resolut ion performances on the task were co l lec ted and compared to see i f cer ta in of the spec i f ied components of resolut ion performance discr iminated between successful and unsuccessful performances. A pattern search was performed around the i den t i f i ed change point across each of the 18 performances on 20 dialogue statements rated for experiencing l e v e l , vocal qua l i t y , and social in teract ion behaviour. Between group compar-isons were then made as to the attainment of the c l i e n t performance patterns termed "sof ten ing, " "values and standards" and " f e l t wants." Data Co l lec t ion and Rating Procedures Two independent raters were used for each of the three measuring instruments (Experiencing Scale, C l ien t Vocal Quality System and St ruc-tural Analysis of Socia l Behaviour Model) and for the select ion of the cl ient-statement uni ts to be rated. One of the raters was a professor i n Counsell ing Psychology and the remainder were graduate students in Coun-s e l l i n g Psychology. The two statement-unit raters selected statements representing d ia -logue between the chairs by d iscr iminat ing these statements from statements representing parenthetical processing to the therap is t . The s ix process measure raters used audio-tapes and typewritten t ranscr ip ts of the spec i -f i c dialogue statements selected for ra t i ng . Each of the raters rated two-thirds of the data, providing an overlap of one-third for a r e l i a b i l -i t y check. Each of the process measure raters had a minimum of 15 hours 41 of t ra in ing and each was trained in accord with the rules of the par t i cu la r process c l a s s i f i c a t i o n manual. The experiencing level and SASB raters rated the i den t i f i ed statements according to the rules in the i r respective manuals and provided a f ina l score for each statement to represent the predominant behaviour in that statement. The voice raters also rated according to manual ru les ; however, they were to consider the overal l statement "focused" i f the statement contained a minimum of two thought uni ts of "focused" voice (a more len ient requirement than that required by the manual). This adaptation was J u s t i f i e d because i t was the attainment of focused voice not the amount which was of concern in th is study in the search for performance patterns. R e l i a b i l i t y scores were high across a l l ra t ings . The dialogue-uni t selectors had a percentage agreement score of 98%. On the statement by statement ra t ings , the experiencing raters obtained a Pearson product moment cor re la t ion coe f f i c ien t of r = .84, the voice raters obtained a Cohen's kappa of .63, and the SASB raters obtained a Cohen's kappa of .86. S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis This study required a test to determine the s ign i f icance of the di f ference between two independent samples. Since there were scores from two independent random samples a l l f a l l i n g into one or the other of two mutually exclusive c lasses , and since 1^  was smal l , the Fisher Exact Test of Probabi l i ty (S iege l , 1956) was se lected. Alpha was set at the .05 level of s ign i f icance and the Fisher Exact Test was used to determine 42 whether the resolut ion performances and non-resolut ion performances d i f -fered as to the frequency of performances which demonstrated the a t t a i n -ment of the hypothesized performance patterns. The "Table of C r i t i c a l Values of D (or C) in the Fisher Test" (S iege l , 1956, Table I, pp. 256-270) i s appl icable to data where N_ i s 30 or smal ler, and where neither of the to ta ls in the right-hand margin i s larger than 15. Because the data met these requirements, th is table was used to determine the s ign i f -icance of the observed set of values in each of the four 2 x 2 contingency tab les . Since Hi for each of the four hypotheses predicted the d i rec t ion of the d i f fe rence, the region of re ject ion was one- ta i led . HQ for each of the four hypotheses was rejected i f the observed c e l l values d i f fered in the predicted d i rec t ion and i f they were of such magnitude that the prob-a b i l i t y associated with the i r occurrence under HQ was equal to or less than .05. 43 CHAPTER IV Results In th is chapter the resul ts are presented of the c l i e n t performance pattern search (Table 1) , of the s t a t i s t i c a l analyses of the between-group comparisons (Tables 2-5) , and of the addit ional research question. D is -cussion and impl icat ions of these resu l ts fol lows in Chapter V. The Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the C l ien t Performance  Pattern of "Softening" Tn the "Other Chair" The two groups, resolut ion performances and non-resolution perform-ances, were compared using F isher ' s Exact Test (S iege l , 1956) for the attainment of the "softening" performance pattern in the "other c h a i r . " Results of th is between-group comparison are presented in Table 2. Refer-ence to Table I (S iege l , 1956, p. 257) reveals that with these marginal to ta ls (A + B = 9 and C + D = 9) , and with A = 9, the observed C = 0 has a one- ta i led probab i l i t y of occurrence under Ho of £ < .001. Since th is £ was smaller than the set level of signif icance,ot <= .05, our decision was to re jec t Ho in favor of Hi- We concluded that the performance compo-nent of "sof tening" in the "other cha i r " has power to discr iminate the 44 Table 1 Iden t i f i ca t i on of C l i e n t Performance Patterns < o; z 2: o — o. 115 /Z15~\ F5 ^fjT\l43 F5 ) F5 147 /215 x /215 147 215 214 X5 F5 X5 Resolution Performances Non-Resolution Performances 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F G H I 138 1138 ! 136 138 137 138 135 137 l i s 137 137 136 144 136 138 135 135 135 X2 Ll 3 J F2 F2 F2 X2 X2 F2 F3 X2 X2 X2 X2 X2 X2 X2 X2 X2 138 138 138 1 138 137 135 135 137 138 137 138 135 143 135 138 135 135 136 X2 X2 F2 F2 X2 X2 F3 X2 X2 X2 X2 X3 X2 X2 X2 X3 136 1138 136 138 137 135 135 137 136 136 138 135 148 138 135 135 138 138 X3 1 F 3 F2 X2 F3 X2 F2 X2 X3 X2 X2 X2 X3 X2 F3 X2 X2 F2, 136 216 136 137 137 135 138 138 138 136 137 135 135 138 135 135 138 138 X3 X3 F3 X2 X2 X2 F3 X3 X3 X2 X2 X3 X2 X2 X3 X2 X2 L2 138 215 144 136 131 216 138 138 138 136 131 138 144 138 136 138 138 136 X2 X4 X2 F2 F2 X3 F2 F3 X3 X2 X2 F3 X3 X2 X2 X4 X3 X3 138 233 217 137 216 216 135 227 138 136 138 138 144 144 135 138 214 135 X3 X3 X4 F3 F4 X5 X2 X3 X3 X2 X2 X2 X2 X2 X2 E2 X3 X3 215 226 217 137 131 216 135 215 144 136 136 138 135 136 135 138 215 136 F4 X3 F5 X3 F4 X2 F4 F2 X2 L4 X2 X2 X2 X2 X2 F3 X3 138 233 113 135 131 / 215 "> 135 143 216 138 136 138 138 135 136 137 215 136 F3 X4 X4 F4 F4 X3 F4 F5 X2 L3 X2 X2 X2 F3 F3 X2 L2 144 233 113 215 131 216 135 143 214 138 138 138 144 135 138 138 136 148 F5 E4 F5 X4 X4 X5 F3 F5 X4 X2 L3 X2 X2 X2 X3 X3 X3 X2 \216 /'215^ vl45 131 216 135 138 216 136 136 138 138 136 136 135 135 148 v F 5 y ) E4 / F4 F4 X5 E3 X4 X4 X2 X3 X2 X2 X2 X2 X3 X3 X2 245 F5 \136 138 X2 X3 136 214 X2 X3 143 112 F5 F5 215 112 F6 F5 (ZIS\ 143 ^215 A 143 N J F5 143 F5 END F 5 \ F 5 7 F5 147 \\1 (ns\ 216 136 137 F6 X2 X3 216 F6 END 136 214 X2 X3 136 137 X2 X3 138 138 X2 X3 138 138 X2 X3 138 144 X2 X3 138 144 X2 X2 138 138 X2 X3 135 144 137 X2 X2 X2 136 136 137 X2 X2 X3 136 216 136 X2 X2 X3 138 138 136 X2 X2 X3 136 144 135 X2 X2 X2 135 135 X3 X2 135 136 X3 X2 138 138 X3 X2 136 148 X3 X2 214 148 X3 X2 21 7 /135 212 ^ 2 4 3 / 214 215 F5 X3 X4 135 217 215 X4 X4 F4 — 1 - 0 <_> z z z u i < U l ZEL I '—1 U J L.) CC h-U l c ( Q . t— O 2 1/1 -•j/ X3 _ i 177l36 2)4 ^ 2 4 3 / 217 215 135 V43/ 216 € ¥ X3 FT- \Ft X3 X4 X4 \F4 X4 217 135 X4 E3 113 243 F5 X4 217 230 ^ 2 4 3 / 243 A 217/ 215 216 F4 F4 X4 E3 V21 7 216 X4 F4 233 E4 243/243 217 217 X4 X4 X4 •4/ X4 \ 4 3 / 216 144 X4 17/V17, 215 217 233 214 215 214 216 224 227 X3 X3 X2 X3 X3 X3 X3 X2 X3 215 215 215 215 215 215 216 231 227 X3 X4 X2 X4 X4 X3 X4 F3 L3 215 233 215 215 217 135 216 224 227 X4 X3 X2 X3 X3 X3 X4 X2 L3 233 135 233 215 237 227 236 224 227 X3 F3 X3 E3 X3 X3 X3 F2 L3 233 214 233 215 217 237 216 215 227 X3 X3 X3 E4 X3 X2 F4 X3 X3 Note : "Values and Standards" pattern = SASB 137 or 138, focused voice , exp. leve l 3. \y "Fel t Wants" pattern = SASB 217 or 243, focused voice , exp. leve l 4 or above. ^ ) "Softening" pattern = SASB 215, focused voice , exp. level 5. 45 resolut ion performances from the non-resolut ion performances. The Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the "Values and Standards"  and the "Fe l t Wants" C l ien t Performance Patterns The two groups, resolut ion performances and non-resolution perform-ances, were compared using F isher ' s Exact Test (S iege l , 1956) for the attainment wi thin the same session of both the "values and standards" performance pattern in the "other cha i r " and the " f e l t wants" performance pattern in the "experiencing cha i r . " Results of t h i s between-group com-parison are presented in Table 3. Reference to Table I (S iege l , 1956, p. 257) reveals that with these marginal to ta ls (A + B = 9 and C + D = 9 ) , and with A = 7, the observed C = 0 has a one- ta i led probabi l i ty of occur-rence under Ho of £ < .005. Since th is £ was smaller than the set leve l of s ign i f i cance , a = .05, our decis ion was to re jec t Ho in favor of H j . We concluded that the performance components of "values and stand-ards" expressed in the "other cha i r " together with " f e l t wants" expressed in the "experiencing cha i r " have power to discr iminate the resolut ion performances from the non-resolution performances. The Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the "Fe l t Wants" C l ien t  Performance Pattern in the "Experiencing Chair" The two groups, resolut ion performances and non-resolution perform-ances, were compared using F i she r ' s Exact Test (S iege l , 1956) for the 46 TABLE 2 Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the "Softening" Performance Pattern in the "Other Chair" Presence of Absence of "sof tening" "sof tening" pattern pattern Total Resolution performances 9 0 9 i lNon-resolution performances JD * _9 _9 9 9 18 Note: The Fisher Exact Test of Probab i l i t y (Se ige l , 1956) indicates p g .001. * p < .05. TABLE 3 Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the "Values and Standards" and the "Fe l t Wants" C l ien t Performance Patterns Presence of Absence of both one or both patterns patterns Total Resolution performances 7 2 9 Non-resolution performances _0 * _9 _9 7 11 18 Note: The Fisher Exact Test of Probabi l i ty (S iege l , 1956) indicates p s .005. * p < .05. 47 attainment of the " f e l t wants" performance pattern in the "experiencing cha i r . " Results of th is between-group comparison are presented in Table 4. Reference to Table I (S iege l , 1956, p. 257) reveals that with these marginal to ta ls (A + B = 9 and C + D = 9 ) , and with A = 8, the observed C = 0 has a one- ta i led probabi l i ty of occurrence under HQ of £ < .001. Since th is £ was smaller than the set level of s ign i f i cance , a = .05, our decision was to re jec t Ho in favor of Hj. We concluded that the per-formance component of " f e l t wants" expressed in the "experiencing cha i r " has power to discr iminate the resolut ion performances from the non-resolu-t ion performances. The Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the "Values and Standards"  C l ien t Performance Pattern in the "Other Chair" The two groups, resolut ion performances and non-resolution perform-ances, were compared using F i she r ' s Exact Test (S iege l , 1956) for the at-tainment of the "values and standards" performance pattern in the "other cha i r . " Results of th is between-group comparison are presented in Table 5. Reference to Table I (S iege l , 1956, p. 257) reveals that with these marginal to ta ls (A + B = 9 and C + D = 9 ) , and with A = 8, the observed C = 3 has a one- ta i led probabi l i ty of occurrence under HQ of £ < .05. Since th is £ was equal to or smaller than the set level of s ign i f i cance , a = .05, our decision was to re jec t Ho in favor of Hi. We concluded that the performance component of "values and standards" expressed in the 48 TABLE 4 Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the "Fel t Wants" Performance Pattern in the "Experiencing Chair" Presence of Absence of " f e l t wants" " f e l t wants" pattern pattern Total Resolution performances 8 1 9 Non-resolution performances _0 * _9 _9 8 10 18 Note: The Fisher Exact Test of Probab i l i t y (Se ige l , 1956) indicates p s .001. * p < .05. TABLE 5 Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the "Values and Standards" Performance Pattern in the "Other Chair" Presence of Absence of "values and "values and standards" standards" pattern pattern Total Resolution performances 8 1 9 Non-resolution performances -A * _6 _9 11 7 18 Note: The Fisher Exact Test of Probab i l i t y (Se ige l , 1956) indicates p s .05. * p S .05. 49 "other cha i r " has power to discr iminate the resolut ion performances from the non-resolut ion performances. Comparison of Occurrence Across Resolut ion Performances of the C l i en t - Iden t i f ied "Most S ign i f i can t Moment of Change" with the Rater- Iden t i f ied "Softening" Performance Pattern A further question of in teres t in th is study was whether c l i e n t s , across the resolut ion performances, would indicate the i r "most s ign i f -icant moment of change" in the process of resolv ing the i r s p l i t at the ob jec t ive ly - ra ted time of occurrence of "sof ten ing. " For f i ve of the nine resolut ion performances, the indicated s i gn i f i can t change point co-occurred exact ly with the beginning of "sof tening" (see Table 1). The indicated s ign i f i can t change points for three of the resolut ion perform-ances occurred wi th in one c l i e n t statement of the beginning of "sof ten-ing" and for the remaining resolut ion performance the indicated s i gn i f -icant change point was j us t three c l i e n t statements into the "sof ten ing. " According to a l l of the c l i en ts in th is study, then, the experience of "sof tening" was the most s i gn i f i can t moment of change in the process of resolv ing the i r s p l i t . 50 CHAPTER V Discussion of Results and Conclusions Discussion and Conclusions The proposed spec i f i c components of c o n f l i c t s p l i t resolut ion using Gestal t two-chair dialogue were supported by the resu l ts of th is study. A l l nine resolut ion performances and none of the non-resolution perform-ances attained the "softening" c l i e n t performance pattern in the "other cha i r . " At th is point in the resolut ion performance, the "other cha i r " openly d isc loses i t s feel ings (chart point 215 on the SASB), representing a sh i f t from a previously d i s a f f i l i a t i v e and con t ro l l i ng at t i tude to one of a f f i l i a t i o n and independence. This d isc losure occurs at a high level of experiencing ( level 5 on the Experiencing Scale) ind ica t ing the statement of a problem or proposit ion and the subsequent explorat ion and elaborat ion of that issue with reference to fee l ings and personal exper-iences. The c l i e n t does th is with a "focused" vo ice , ind ica t ive of the c r i t i c turning inward and newly construct ing what i t i s saying as opposed to i t s previous " lec tur ing at" qual i ty of speaking. The fact that the co-occurrence of these three process dimensions into the spec i f ied pattern 51 ca l l ed "sof tening" discriminated the resolut ion performances from the non-resolut ion performances supports considerat ion of th is pattern as one of the essent ia l components of the resolut ion task. Seven of the resolut ion performances and none of the non-resolut ion performances were characterized by the attainment of both the " f e l t wants" pattern in the "experiencing cha i r " and the "values and standards" pattern in the "other cha i r . " Of the two resolut ion performances lacking both patterns, one (case 2) attained the "values and standards" pattern but f a i l ed to a t ta in the " f e l t wants" pattern and one (case 6) attained the " f e l t wants" pattern but f a i l ed to a t ta in the "values and standards" pat-te rn . Inspection of the data revealed that the "experiencing cha i r " of case 2 had a high proportion of emotional voice and SASB behaviours ind ica t ing a turning outward of negative emotion. I t may be that th is case was not in fact part of the homogeneous set of c o n f l i c t s p l i t reso lu -t i ons , but rather a case representing the undoing of a r e t r o f l e x i o n , although i t did match the study's requirements for being considered a resolut ion performance. I f th i s i s so, the lack of expression of " f e l t wants" may simply be re f l ec t i ve of d i f fe ren t processes t r igger ing the "sof tening" in the undoing of a re t ro f l ec t i on as opposed to the process-es t r igger ing the "softening" in the resolut ion of a c o n f l i c t s p l i t . In the other case, 6, when the "other cha i r " did not use focused voice, and thus did not a t ta in the "values and standards" pat tern, inspection of the e a r l i e r two-chair dialogue in th is case revealed the attainment of the "values and standards" pattern. However, because of the arb i t rary l i m i t to th is study's pattern search of only ten statements pr ior to the iden-52 t i f1ed change point , th is pattern was not i den t i f i ed in the study's ana lys is . The attainment of both the "values and standards" pattern and the " f e l t wants" pat tern, l i k e the "sof tening" pat tern, did discr iminate the resolut ion performances from the non-resolution performances, thus supporting considerat ion of these two performance patterns being essen-t i a l components of the resolut ion task. Eight of the resolut ion performances and none of the non-resolution performances were character ized by the attainment of the " f e l t wants" pat tern. As has already been discussed, the absence of th is pattern in case 2 may have been caused by the undoing of a r e t r o f l e x i o n rather than the resolut ion of a c o n f l i c t s p l i t . In expressing the " f e l t wants" per-formance pat tern, the "experiencing cha i r " makes an a f f i l i a t i v e assert ion towards the "other cha i r , " e i ther independently "asser t ing on i t s own" (SASB chart point 217) or "vulnerably s tat ing i t s needs" (SASB chart point 243). This assert ion occurs at a moderate level of experiencing ( level 4 on the Experiencing Sca le ) , ind ica t ing descr ipt ions of fee l ings and personal experiences. The c l i e n t does th is with a focused vo ice, i nd ica -t i ve of turning inward and f reshly construct ing what i t i s saying. As with the "softening" performance pat tern, none of the non-resolution per-formances attained th is pattern. Eight of the resolut ion performances and three of the non-resolut ion performances attained the "values and standards" pat tern. This pattern i s character ized by a d i s a f f i l i a t i v e r e s t r i c t i n g and enforcing of conformity on the part of the "other cha i r " toward the "experiencing cha i r " (SASB behaviours 137 and 138). This occurs at a moderately low level of exper-53 iencing ( level 3 on the Experiencing Scale) ind ica t ing a personal react-iveness, but i s communicated with a "focused" vo ice. The use of focused voice seems to be the c r i t i c a l determinant of the "values and standards" pattern. With the expression of the "values and standards" pat tern, no longer i s there the " lec tur ing at" qual i ty of severe c r i t i c i s m , but rather a true d i f fe ren t ia t i ng of the values and standards held in opposit ion to the "experiencing cha i r . " This change of voice seems to be an important ind icator of something new developing in the c l i e n t ' s awareness. As with the "sof tening" pattern and the " f e l t wants" pat tern, i t appears as though the "turning inwards" indicated by the focused voice indicates the accom-plishment of an important sub-task wi th in the overal l a f fec t ive task of resolv ing a c o n f l i c t s p l i t . The fact that three of the non-resolution performances attained th is pattern may be considered support for the sequential ordering of these three performance components of c o n f l i c t s p l i t reso lu t ion . The expression of values and standards in the "other cha i r " i s thought to precede the expression of f e l t " wants" in the "exper-iencing cha i r , " which then i s considered to t r igger the "sof ten ing." Given these resu l t s , i t could be argued that i t i s questionable whether or not these performance patterns are part of the essent ial s t ruc-tural components of the successful completion of the c o n f l i c t s p l i t reso-lu t ion task or whether they are a product of a socia l inf luence process on the part of the therap is ts . However, although i t i s possible that the therapists inf luenced the par t i cu la r content and possibly even the leve l of experiencing of the i r c l i e n t s , i t remains highly un l ike ly that they were able to inf luence c l i e n t vocal qua l i t y . A lso , the same therapists 54 were working with the non-resolvers and those performances did not show the same components with the exception of three of the non-resolution performances a t ta in ing the "values and standards" pat tern. I t might also be argued on the basis of having had such a small sample of performances that the di f ference between the groups could be explained by an indiv idual di f ference var iab le . However, the spec i f i ca t ion of c l i e n t performance patterns at the level of refinement offered in th is study supports the in terpretat ion that these components are actual features of successful task performance, even i f they are a t t r ibu tab le to an indiv idual d i f f e r -ence var iable at work. From the resu l ts of th is study i t appears that c o n f l i c t resolut ion performances in the two-chair dialogue are character-ized by a d i f f e ren t ia t i ng of opposit ional values and standards which are subsequently challenged by a deep ly - fe l t assert ion of "wants" and needs from the newly experienced yet unacceptable aspects of the se l f which in turn t r iggers an acceptance of these aspects by a softening in at t i tude of the previously harsh inner c r i t i c . Implicat ions for Theory and Pract ice The two-chair dialogues of c l i e n t s engaged in resolv ing c o n f l i c t s p l i t s are thought to be homologues of the change processes involved in intrapsychic c o n f l i c t reso lu t ion . I f t h i s i s so, through the i d e n t i f i c a -t ion and v e r i f i c a t i o n of some of the essent ia l performance components for successful c o n f l i c t resolut ion th is study contr ibutes to the theoret ical understanding of how people change. Ver i fy ing the importance of the 55 c l i e n t ' s focused and d i f fe rent ia ted expression of opposit ional values and standards on the one side and the importance of a focused deeply- fe l t assert ion of "wants" and needs chal lenging these values from the other side of fers us a glimpse of the mechanism t r igger ing the softening of the previously harsh inner c r i t i c . Seemingly, through the Gestal t a f fec t ive approach, a cogni t ive and a f fec t ive rest ructur ing takes place which pa ra l l e l s in e f fec t the goals of cogni t ive behav ior is ts , but without the d i rec t chal lenging and confrontation by the therapist refut ing the c l i e n t ' s i r ra t i ona l b e l i e f s . The resu l ts of th is study underscore the importance of providing st imulat ion such that c l i en t s can f i r s t d i f f e r -ent iate the i r c r i t i c i s m into a focused presentation of values and stand-ards, and that they can then challenge these be l ie fs with the i r own deep ly - fe l t assert ion of previously unacceptable experiencing. A cogni-t i ve and a f fec t ive restructur ing of values then i s t r iggered and the pre-viously harsh inner c r i t i c softens i t s a t t i t ude , enabling the integrat ion of the two previously disparate aspects of s e l f . In addi t ion to th i s theoret ica l con t r ibu t ion , some exc i t ing impl ica-t ions for c l i n i c a l pract ice resu l t from th is study. As indicated in the Review of L i te ra tu re , i t i s important that the therapist know not only what to do but also when, and in re la t ion to what c l i e n t performance pattern and with what process goal . Knowing some of the component pro-cesses by which c l i en t s successful ly resolve c o n f l i c t s p l i t enables therapists to stimulate the appropriate processes at par t i cu la r stages in c l i e n t performances. The probabi l i ty of c l i e n t discovery and progression towards resolut ion i s thereby increased as appropriate therapist task 56 ins t ruc t ions are matched with par t i cu la r c l i e n t performance processes. Such fo l lowing of the patterns and sequences of c l i e n t performances on the part of the therapist can then contr ibute to more potent intervening. An exc i t ing extension of th is study would be the development of a t r a i n -ing program for therapists in which they are taught to see and hear par t i cu la r performance patterns in terms of the process dimensions of experiencing l e v e l , vocal qual i ty and SASB. Adopting the language of Newell and Simon (1972), therapists could be taught to recognize c l i e n t s ' exper ient ia l "states of knowledge." In conducting process diagnoses, they could ident i fy the c l i e n t ' s present s ta te , ident i fy the dif ferences which need to be reduced between th is state and the next desirable s ta te , and then apply therapeutic interventions that would enable them to do that . Recommendations for Future Research In order to further val idate the Johnson (1980) model, future re-search might include a rep l i ca t ion of the present study and further v e r i -f i ca t i on studies on more of the component performance patterns of c o n f l i c t s p l i t reso lu t ion . More single-case intensive studies of resolut ion per-formances could be conducted such that the act ive ingredients of these performance patterns can be i d e n t i f i e d . Rather than study non-resolut ion performances at th is point in the research program, i t may be more useful to look at a resolut ion that has one of the components missing and then to modify the ex is t ing model. Non-resolvers, for instance, may have a l l the components but in a d i f fe rent order or they may be missing one or more. 57 Another promising way of studying resolut ion performances in an attempt to i so la te the act ive components would be to do s ingle case studies of c l i en t s over t ime, provided they continue to work on the same c o n f l i c t s p l i t . Useful comparisons could then be made between the resolut ion per-formance interview and the non-resolution performance of the preceding interview. Another focus for future research would be the elaborat ion and refinement of the therapist task ins t ruc t ions . More spec i f i c categories could be generated to add to the f i ve p r inc ip les out l ined by Greenberg (1975; 1980b) of therapeutic intervent ions applied contextual ly to the spec i f i c patterns and sequences of c l i e n t performances. Future research could also include more ref ined d i f f e ren t i a l e f fec ts s tud ies . Rather than global ly comparing two therapeutic intervent ions at the s p l i t marker, par t i cu la r c l i e n t performances in par t i cu la r contexts could be re lated to successful outcome ( e . g . , softening in the context of a s p l i t re lated to outcome). In add i t ion , studies could be done spec i -fy ing what c l i e n t performance st rategies are set in motion by what thera-p i s t intervent ions at what par t i cu la r points in therapy. For example, a comparison could be done with the therapis t intervent ion "What do you want?" applied during d i f fe rent stages in the c l i e n t task performances of c o n f l i c t s p l i t s . During the react ive opposit ion stage of the task per-formance, th is intervent ion might lead to the c l i e n t c i r c l i n g in r epe t i -t i ve react ion at low leve ls of experiencing and f a i l i n g to progress to the next stage. Appl ied, however, during the stage of deep ly - fe l t inner ex-per iencing, th is intervent ion might prompt progression to the next stage 58 i n the sequential path to reso lu t ion . A lso , exper ient ia l " sh i f t s " in c l i e n t experiencing can now be captured and operat ional ized through the use of several process c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems. Therapist interventions at these markers can then also be studied at process leve ls which capture the subtlety and complexity of therapeutic in te rac t ions . 59 REFERENCES Anderson, J . 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Development of t ime, speed, and distance concepts. Developmental Psychology, 1979, 15^ 288-298. S ieg le r , R.S. Recent trends in the study of cogni t ive development: v a r i a -t ions on a task-analy t ic theme. Human Development, 1980, 23, 278-285. Simon, D.P. & Simon, H.A. A l ternat ive uses of phonemic information in s p e l l i n g . Review of Educational Research, 1973, 43, 115-137. Simon, D .P. , & Simon, H.A. Individual di f ferences in solv ing physics problems. In R.S. S ieg le r , Ch i ldren 's th ink ing: what develops? H i l l s d a l e , N . J . : Erlbaum, 1978. 65 Simon, H.A. Administrat ive behavior. New York: Macmil lan, 1947. Simon, H.A. Rational choice and the structure of the environment. Psychological Review, 1956, 63_, 129-138. Sternberg, R . J . Component processes in analogical reasoning. Psycho- log ica l Review, 1977a, 84, 353-378. Sternberg, R . J . In te l l i gence , information processing, and analogical reasoning: the componential analysis of human a b i l i t i e s . Hi 11s-dale, N . J . : Erlbaum, 1977b. Sternberg, R . J . & R i f k i n , B. The development of analogical reasoning processes. Journal of Experimental Chi ld Psychology, 1979, 27, 195-237. Strupp, H. Foreword. In D .J . K i e s l e r , The process of psychotherapy: A review of research. Chicago: A ld ine , 1973. Taylor , L. Toward a task analys is of c o n f l i c t reso lu t ion . Unpublished Master's thes is : The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980. Webster, M. The elements of decis ion making from a Gestal t perspect ive: A re la t ion of process to outcome. Unpublished doctoral d isser ta t ion : The Universi ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981. Zytowski, D.G. & Betz, E.L . Measurement in Counseling Research: A review. The Counseling Psychologist , 1972, 3, 72-81. Role Play I d e n t i f y Under-Dog .Under-Dog Values £ Standards Feelings Disowned Polarity Wants Softening Listening, Understanding & Feelings Impasse Negotiation Integration - Resolution u n c o O 3 C 00 o 67 APPENDIX B STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR MODEL S t r u c t u r a l Analys is of S o c i a l Behavior (SASS)• c 1979, Wi l l iam Alanson White P s y c h i a t r i c Foundation Lorna Smith Benjamin Department of Psychiatry C l i n i c a l Sciences Center 600 Highland Avenue Madison, Wisconsin 53792 120 Endorse freedom INTERPERSONAL OTHER Uncaringly lei 90 128 Forget 127 Ignore, pretend not tnere 126 [ Neglect interests, na eot 125 |—\ lllof>c» iiwimon 124 Abandon. leave in lurch 123 Starve, cut out 122 r Angry dismiss, resect 121 r—f Annihilating a rack 130 —' Aporoacn menacingly 131 r r r F T T 1 1 1 1 1 rrr 11 1 1 1 1 I 1 I Rio off. drain 132 Punisn. take revenge 133 k" Delude, divert, mislead 134 I I I I I I 118 Encourage K i u f i M identity 117 You can do it line 1 1 6 Carefully, fairly consider 115 Friendly linen 114 Snow emisethic understanding —, 113 Confirm as OK M it 112 Stroke, soothe, cairn 111 Warmly welcome 110 Tender saxuaiicy I I 1 1 I 1 I 1 1 I i 1 1 1 Accuse. oleme 135 Put d o w n . K I s u p e r i o r 136 Intrude, block, restrict 137 Enforce conformity 138 I I I 1 1 I I ! u ! 141 F r i e n d l y i n v i t e 142 P r o v i d e f o r . n u r t u r e 143 Protect. Pack uo 1 4 4 Sensible analysis I I I 145 Constructive stimulate J 146 Pamper, overindulge 147 Benevolent monitor, remind 148 Specify wnat's best Manage, control 140 220 Freeh/ come and go SELF Go own seoarate way 228 Defy, do opposite 227 1 Busy wim own tninq 226 Wall-oft. nondisdose 225 Noncontingent reaction 224 Detach, weep alone 223 Refuse exsinancv. care 222 ; Flee, escape, withdraw 221 Desperate protest 230 i I rrrr i i i i i i i i i Wary, fearful 231 Sacrifice greatly 232 I ' l l Whine, defend, justify 233 Uncomprehending agree 234 M i l l i I Appease, scurry 235 Sulk, act out upon 236 *" Apathetic compliance 237 Follow rules, proper 238 L I 218 Own identity, standards 217 Assert on own 216 "Put cards on tne not" IIS Openfy disclose, reveal 214 Clearly express —1 213 Enthusiastic showing 212 Relax. How. enjoy 211 Joyful approach — 210 Erratic responsa 241 Follow, maintain contact T T T i I I 1 I i i i i i i i i I I 1 I i i j J 242 Accept earetaking 243 Ask. trust, count on 244 Accaot reason 24S Take in. leim from 246 a ing. depend 247 Defer, over con form 248 Submerge into rote Yield, submit, give in 240 320 Happy-go-lucky INTRAPSYCHIC Introject of OTHER to SELF Drift wiul the moment 328 Neglect options 327 r~ Fanctsy. dream 326 | j— Neglect own potential 32S Undefined, unknown self 324 Reckless 323 — Ignore own basic neeoi 322 i : Refect, dismiss self 321 Torture, annihilate self 330 I 1 ' I rr 1 Menace to self 331 I I i I I I I Orain. overouraen self 132 | i I I I I Vengeful self punisn 333 I 1 ' ! I ! Deceive, divert self 334 [ | I | Guilt, biame, !ud self 335 | | i Doubt, put self oown 336 | T lestram. hold beat ieif 337 force propriety 338 318 Let nature unfofd v 317 Let self do it, confident 3 1 6 Balanced self acceptance 315 Explore, listen to inner self 314 Integrated, solid core 313 Pleased with self —j 312 Stroke, soothe salt ^—1 311 Entertain, eniov self 310 Love, cherish self i 1 I I l I I I I I I I I I t ' I I M M i i 341 Seek best for self 342 Nurture, restore self J 343 Protect self i 3A4 Examine, anefyu setf 345 Practice, become accomplished 346 Self camper, indulge 347 Benevoient rye on self J48 Force ideal identity Control, manage self 340 68 APPENDIX C SHORT FORM OF EXPERIENCING SCALE (K le in , Mathieu, K ies le r & Gendl in, 1969) Stage Content 1 External events; refusal to par t ic ipa te 2 External events; behavioural or i n te l l ec tua l se l f -desc r ip t i on 3 Personal reactions to external events; l imi ted se l f - desc r i p -t i ons ; behavioural descr ipt ions of fee l ings 4 Descript ions of fee l ings and personal experiences 5 Problems or proposit ions about fee l ings and personal exper-iences 6 Synthesis of readi ly access-ib le feel ings and experiences to resolve personally s i gn i f -icant issues 7 F u l l , easy presentation of ex-per iencing; a l l elements con-f i den t l y integrated Treatment Impersonal, detached Interested, personal , se l f - pa r t i c i pa t i on React ive, emotionally involved Se l f - desc r i p t i ve ; assoc ia t ive Exploratory, e laborat ive, hypothetical Feelings v i v i d l y ex-pressed, in tegra t i ve , conclusive or af f i rmat ive Expansive, i l l umina t ing , conf ident, buoyant 69 APPENDIX D CLIENT VOCAL QUALITY CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM (Rice, Koke, Greenberg & Wagstaff, 1979) The charac ter is t i cs of the four d i f ferent patterns are as fo l lows: A. Focused 1. Energy. The energy is f a i r l y high. Pitch is moderate to low, with appropriate loudness. 2. Primary s t resses. Primary stresses are achieved more by an increase in loudness than by a r i se in p i t ch . Loudness/pitch is greater than 1. The stress may also be achieved by lengthening the stressed sy l lab i e (drawl). 3. Regulari ty of s t resses. The stress pattern is i r regu la r for Engl ish , and stresses sometimes occur in unexpected places. For instance, adjoining sy l lab les sometimes receive almost equal s t ress . 4. Pace. The pace is i r regu la r . It i s usual ly slowed, but there may be patches that are speeded up. 5. Timbre. The voice is f u l l , and rest ing f i rmly on the p la t -form. 6. Contours. These may be unexpected in d i r ec t i on , but the ef fect is ragged rather than me l l i f l uous . B. External 1. Energy. The energy is f a i r l y high. The pi tch is moderate to high, but the volume is adequate. 2. Primary s t resses. These are achieved with pitch r i se as well as some increase in loudness. Loudness/pitch is equal to or less than 1. 3. Regulari ty of s t resses. The stress pattern i s markedly regular for Engl ish . The melodic l i ne may sound sing-song at lower 70 energy levels and resounding at higher levels. 4. Pace. The pace is f a i r l y even, though i t may be slightly speeded as i t approaches a stress point. 5. Timbre. The voice is f a i r l y f u l l , and resting on the plat-form. 6. Contours. These may go up, down, or remain level at times when this would not be quite the expected pattern, although meaning is not usually distorted. The effect is oratorical rather than ragged. C. Limited 1. Energy. The energy is low. The volume is not adequate for the pitch. 2. Primary stresses. The primary stresses are not very strong, and are achieved by normal balance of pitch to loudness. 3. Regularity of stresses. The stress pattern has about the normal irregularity of English. 4. Pace. The pace is somewhat slowed, but tends to be quite regular. 5. Timbre. This is one of the clearest distinguishing charac-t e r i s t i c s . The voice is thinned from below, and the effect is that of a voice that is "not resting on its platform." 6. Contours. Nothing notable here. D. Emotional Overflow Eo. This subcategory is d i f f i c u l t to describe using the six features, because a variety of different emotions are put in the same class. The primary characteristic is a disruption of ordinary speech patterns. The voice may break, tremble, rise to a shriek, etc. However, the mere presence of emotion does not put i t in this class, 71 without disrupt ion of speech patterns. For instance, laughter is often found in conjunction with Ex te rna l i z ing , and would not push the response into Emotional unless i t r ea l l y disrupts speech. This i s not a very sa t is fac tory c lass as i t now stands, but is not too d i f f i c u l t to recognize. Expressive Ee. 1. Energy. Very high. Pi tch is general ly higher and loudness greater than any of the other categor ies. 2. Primary s t resses. These are general ly achieved by substantial increases in both pi tch and 1oudness--although one may have a larger re la t i ve increase than the other. A lso , there is often a cl ipped sense to stressed s y l l a b l e s , and a s l i gh t pause af ter each one. Expressive vs . ex terna l - -as ide from regu lar i ty of stresses d is t ingu ish ing expressive from external (see below), there is greater pi tch and loudness r i se with expressive voice than with externa l . I f X i s general ly at modal pi tch and one step above, E varies between modal and two or three steps above, (or even higher). Expressive vs. focused- -s im i la r l y , focused general ly stays on modal pi tch and occas ional ly goes down, or there may be a p i tch r i se without loudness increasing to any marked degree. 3. Regulari ty of s t resses. The most d is t inguish ing feature of th is category is s t ressed, adjoining s y l l a b l e s , with higher pitch and greater loudness than found in focused ; .e .g . , the stressed adjoining sy l lab les in the sentence below are 'I ha te . 1 I hate you There may be a pi tch r i se on the second of the stressed s y l l a b l e s , but there i s a c lear sense of adjoining stressed sy l lab les as shown in the sentence below. 72 I don't care about you. 4. Pace. Regular over stressed s y l l a b l e s , but not regular in general. Often a stacatto qual i ty to stressed sy l lab les (relates to the s l i gh t pauses af ter stressed s y l l a b l e s ) . 5. Timbre. Generally a very f u l l vo ice. 73 APPENDIX E CONFLICT RESOLUTION BOX SCALE (CLIENT VERSION) (Dompierre, 1979) We are interested in how resolved you feel r ight now about your decisional c o n f l i c t . Please indicate with an (X) your present pos i t ion. Tota l ly resolved Somewhat resolved Not at a l l resolved 74 APPENDIX F TARGET COMPLAINTS DISCOMFORT BOX SCALE (Bat t le , Imber, Hoehn-Saric, Stone, Nash & Frank, 1966) We are interested in how much discomfort your decisional con f l i c t is causing you r ight now. Please indicate with an (X) your present pos i t ion . Coui dn 11 be worse Very much Pretty much A l i t t l e None at a l l 

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