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Essential process components of conflict split resolution McDonald, Linda Katherine 1982

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ESSENTIAL PROCESS COMPONENTS OF CONFLICT SPLIT RESOLUTION By LINDA KATHERINE McDONALD B . A . , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  1971  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Counselling  Psychology  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1982 ©  Linda Katherine McDonald, 1982  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be granted by the head o f  department or by h i s or her  representatives.  my  It is  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department o f  Counselling Psychology  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T  1Y3  Date  October 6,  1982.  Columbia  written  i i  ABSTRACT  Nine Gestalt two-chair dialogue c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n performances were compared with nine non-resolution performances on s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s of s o c i a l behaviour, depth of experiencing and voice q u a l i t y .  These per-  formances were used to t e s t whether three proposed process components had the power to discriminate between the successful and unsuccessful performances.  Using F i s h e r ' s Exact Test of P r o b a b i l i t y ( S i e g e l , 1956), between-  group comparisons were made as to the attainment of the "softening" c l i e n t performance pattern in the "other c h a i r , " the attainment of the " f e l t wants" c l i e n t performance pattern i n the "experiencing c h a i r , " and the attainment of the "values and standards" c l i e n t performance pattern in the "other chair."  I t was found that these three process components did discriminate  between r e s o l u t i o n and non-resolution performances, thus v e r i f y i n g these c l i e n t performance patterns as component processes e s s e n t i a l to the r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t s p l i t s .  C r e d i b i l i t y was thereby added to the Revised  Model of C o n f l i c t S p l i t Resolution (Johnson, 1980) from which the hypothesized c l i e n t performance patterns were generated.  In a d d i t i o n , a l l the  c l i e n t s i n t h i s study who resolved t h e i r c o n f l i c t s p l i t s demonstrated the " s o f t e n i n g " performance p a t t e r n , and a l l considered t h e i r "softening" experience as t h e i r most s i g n i f i c a n t moment of change, thereby c o n t r i b uting further support to the consideration of the "softening" c l i e n t performance pattern as the key process component i n the process of change.  ii i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  11  LIST OF TABLES  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  vii  Chapter I  II  III  SCOPE AND FOCUS OF THE STUDY  1  Background of the Problem  1  Purposes of the Study  3  Statement of the Problem  4  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms  4  Research Hypotheses and Rationale  11  Assumptions Underlying t h i s Research  12  Delimitations of the Study  13  J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the Study  14  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE  16  Overview  16  Process Research  16  Task Analysis  19  A Task-Analytic Approach to Psychotherapeutic Events  23  METHODOLOGY  30  Population and Sampling Procedures  31  Therapists  32  Description of Measuring Instruments  32  The Experiencing Scale  32  iv The C l i e n t Vocal Quality System (CVQ) The Structural  Classification  Analysis of Social Behaviour  Model (SASB)  IV  V  34  35  C o n f l i c t Resolution Box Scale (CRBS)  37  Target Complaints Discomfort Box Scale (TCDBS)  38  Video Process Recall  38  Design  39  Data C o l l e c t i o n and Rating Procedures  40  S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis  41  RESULTS The Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the C l i e n t Performance Pattern of "Softening" in The "Other Chair"  43 43  The Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the "Values and Standards" and the " F e l t Wants" C l i e n t Performance Patterns  45  The Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the " F e l t Wants" C l i e n t Performance Pattern in the "Experiencing Chair"  45  The Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the "Values and Standards" C l i e n t Performance Pattern in the "Other Chair"  47  Comparison of Occurrence Across Resolution Performances of the C l i e n t - I d e n t i f i e d "Most S i g n i f i c a n t Moment of Change" with the R a t e r - I d e n t i f i e d "Softening" Performance Pattern  49  DISCUSSION OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS  50  Discussion and Conclusions  50  Implications for Theory and P r a c t i c e  54  Recommendations for Future Research  56  V  REFERENCES  59  APPENDICES A.  Revised Model of C o n f l i c t S p l i t Resolution  66  B.  Structural  67  C.  Short Form of the Experiencing Scale  68  D.  C l i e n t Vocal Quality C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System  69  E.  C o n f l i c t Resolution Box Scale  73  F.  Target Complaints Discomfort Box Scale  74  Analysis of Social Behaviour Model  vi LIST OF TABLES Number 1 2  3  4  5  Page I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of C l i e n t Performance Patterns  44  Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the "Softening" Performance Pattern i n the "Other Chair"  46  Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the "Values and Standards" and the " F e l t Wants" C l i e n t Performance Patterns  46  Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the " F e l t Wants" Performance Pattern i n the "Experiencing Chair"  48  Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the "Values and Standards" Performance Pattern in the "Other Chair"  48  vi i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I am deeply grateful  to Dr. Les Greenberg who, by his example, stimu-  l a t e d my i n t e r e s t i n psychotherapy research, and who, by seeing and v a l u ing my c u r i o s i t y , sparked i n me confidence, and sometimes, even d e l i g h t , i n completing t h i s task.  In a d d i t i o n , I would l i k e to thank Dr. Marv  Westrom f o r h i s enthusiastic support and Dr. Rich Young for his construct i v e help.  CHAPTER I  Scope and Focus of the Study  Background of the Problem  Research which focuses on studying and understanding the process of psychotherapeutic change, and s p e c i f i c a l l y , mechanisms of c l i e n t change, seems d i s a p p o i n t i n g l y , to have been hindered by the research paradigms which have prevailed i n psychotherapy research.  In the e x i s t i n g paradigms  of c o r r e l a t i o n a l and experimental research, observation of behaviour has been neglected i n favour of hypothesis t e s t i n g (Cronbach, 1975), with the end r e s u l t , that in a f i e l d committed to understanding change, we know alarmingly l i t t l e about how and why people change. E f f e c t i v e t h e r a p i s t s , however, have known for a long time of the importance of sequential patterns and subtle momentary changes that occur i n the process of therapy.  In f a c t , many confrontations to a c l i e n t are  in the form of pattern observations such as "whenever X happens, you seem to Y . "  E f f e c t i v e therapists can be characterized by t h e i r a b i l i t y  integrate knowledge of c l i e n t performance patterns, of  to  differential  e f f e c t s of therapeutic interventions upon these performance patterns and of exceptions to these r u l e s , into a personally consistent approach to  2 therapy.  Bandler and Grinder (1975) go so f a r as to explain the apparent  "wizardry" of e f f e c t i v e t h e r a p i s t s as being t h e i r responsiveness to i d e n t i f i a b l e cues i n c l i e n t performance prompting them to recognize p a r t i c u l a r behavioural patterns to which they then intervene in s p e c i f i able ways.  Y e t , psychotherapy researchers have lagged behind the e f f e c -  t i v e t h e r a p i s t s in the quest to unravel t h i s "structure of magic."  Only  recently have psychotherapy researchers redirected t h e i r concern to i l l u m i n a t i n g patterns of c l i e n t performance and to i d e n t i f y i n g the spec i f i c c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e markers which i n d i c a t e the necessity of a p a r t i c u l a r therapeutic intervention at that moment i n the therapy process (Gottman & Markman, 1978; Greenberg, 1975, 1979, 1980a, 1980b, in press; Rice & Greenberg, in p r e s s ) . Gottman and Markman (1978) have suggested a new approach to psychotherapy research which they c a l l a program development model.  This i s an  eight step model s t r e s s i n g the importance of sequential analyses and the need for a task analysis to i d e n t i f y the components of competence which discriminate a competent population from a p a r t i c u l a r target population. Greenberg (1975, 1980a, in press) and Rice and Greenberg (in press) have a l s o adopted a t a s k - a n a l y t i c approach for i n t e n s i v e l y studying in-therapy c l i e n t performances i n order to i d e n t i f y recurring potent events in psychotherapy and to i s o l a t e the performance patterns associated with the r e s o l u t i o n of these events.  The i n i t i a l steps of t h e i r t a s k - a n a l y t i c  strategy emphasize i n d u c t i v e , discovery-oriented research i n which the process components of successful c l i e n t performances are i d e n t i f i e d by means of single-case studies of c l i e n t performances in the event.  Later,  3 experimental v e r i f i c a t i o n studies are done in which the c l i e n t performance patterns of successful performance are v e r i f i e d and r e l a t e d to outcome by means of m u l t i - s u b j e c t designs.  The use of t h i s t a s k - a n a l y t i c approach  o f f e r s a promising method of capturing the s u b t l e t i e s and complexities of therapy process, such that psychotherapy research can progress towards the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c l i e n t mechanisms of change.  Purposes of the Study  This study forms part of a cumulative research program developed at U.B.C..  With the aim of turning i n t e r v e n t i o n research toward a more de-  s c r i p t i v e understanding of c l i e n t mechanisms of change, the study focused upon the c l i e n t ' s performance in the task of r e s o l v i n g a c o n f l i c t  split.  Adopting a t a s k - a n a l y t i c approach to i n v e s t i g a t e the r e s o l u t i o n of conf l i c t s p l i t s , Greenberg (1975; 1979; 1980a; i n press) and associates (Johnson, 1980; T a y l o r , 1981) have developed d e t a i l e d sequential descript i o n s of the performances of c l i e n t s s u c c e s s f u l l y accomplishing the task of r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s p l i t s .  Steps such as i d e n t i f y i n g with the internal  c r i t i c , s t a t i n g values and standards from the i n t e r n a l c r i t i c , expressing d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f e e l i n g s and "wants" from the experiencing s i d e , softening of the internal c r i t i c , l i s t e n i n g and understanding from the experiencing s i d e , and negotiating between both sides represent possible key components of a successful resolution performance (see Appendix A ) .  Given these  proposed s t r u c t u r a l r e g u l a r i t i e s across r e s o l u t i o n performances, the aim of the present study was to v e r i f y that three of the c l i e n t performance  4  patterns were e s s e n t i a l to successful c o n f l i c t s p l i t r e s o l u t i o n .  Statement of the Problem  The r e s o l u t i o n components of " s o f t e n i n g , " " f e l t w a n t s , " and "values and standards" generated by the Revised Model of C o n f l i c t S p l i t Resolution (Johnson, 1980),  were o p e r a t i o n a l l y defined i n t h i s study i n terms of the  process dimensions of c l i e n t vocal q u a l i t y , experiencing l e v e l and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n behaviour.  A pattern search was then conducted across nine  r e s o l u t i o n performances and nine non-resolution performances i n order to i n v e s t i g a t e whether these three hypothesized c l i e n t performance patterns had the power to discriminate between the r e s o l u t i o n and non-resolution performances.  Standard process r a t i n g systems, i n c l u d i n g the Experiencing  Scale ( K l e i n , Mathieu, K i e s l e r & Gendlin, 1969), the C l i e n t Vocal Quality C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System ( R i c e , Koke, Greenberg & Wagstaff, 1979) and the S t r u c t u r a l Analysis of Social Behaviour Model (Benjamin, 1979) provided the precise process language enabling pattern recognition of these proposed process components.  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms  Operational d e f i n i t i o n s of terms c r i t i c a l to t h i s study f o l l o w . 1.  The c o n f l i c t  split  An intrapsychic c o n f l i c t s p l i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y an experience of fragmentation, a s p l i t in the person's f u n c t i o n i n g , when a person i s  5  s t r u g g l i n g between two opposing p o s i t i o n s .  As Greenberg (1979) describes:  Instead of a s i n g l e c l e a r preference a r i s i n g , the person i s torn between a l t e r n a t i v e s .  There i s an experience of two p a r t s , of the  s e l f s p l i t i n t o p a r t i a l selves i n o p p o s i t i o n , rather than the experience of a s i n g l e integrated s e l f i n process (p. 318). He goes on to formally define the s p l i t as having the f o l l o w i n g  four  features: (a) a statement of a tendency or p a r t i a l aspect of the s e l f ; e . g . , "I r e a l l y don't want to do t h i s , " (b) a statement of a second t e n dency or p a r t i a l aspect of the s e l f ; e . g . , "I  feel I have t o , " (c) an  i n d i c a t i o n of intrapersonal c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n d i c a t i n g that the two parts are being set against each other; e . g . , "but," (d) a verbal or non-verbal i n d i c a t i o n that the person i s in c o n f l i c t , involved i n s t r u g g l e , or c o e r c i o n ; " e . g . , "I  have t o , " or voice q u a l i t y .  f l i c t s p l i t from t h i s study was, "I  feel so l o n e l y .  to people, but I j u s t don't seem to be able t o .  striving,  An example of a conI want to reach out  When I'm with friends I  s t a r t getting t h i s c l o s e d - i n f e e l i n g and I end up pushing them away." 2.  The G e s t a l t Two-Chair Operation The Gestalt two-chair operation used i n t h i s study consisted of a  s e r i e s of suggestions and observations made by the t h e r a p i s t in order to c l e a r l y separate two aspects or p a r t i a l tendencies of the c l i e n t ' s s e l f process and to f a c i l i t a t e d i r e c t communication between these.  The purpose  of the two-chair experiment, as suggested by Greenberg (1975; 1980b), i s to maintain a process of demarcation and contact between these p a r t s . Greenberg (1975) presented the f o l l o w i n g underlying p r i n c i p l e s i n an attempt to convey the structure of the operation:  6  1) Maintenance of a contact boundary:  Maintaining c l e a r separation  and contact between the p a r t i a l aspects of the s e l f ; 2) R e s p o n s i b i l i t y :  D i r e c t i n g c l i e n t s to use t h e i r a b i l i t i e s  to  respond i n accordance with the true nature of t h e i r experience; 3) Attending:  D i r e c t i n g c l i e n t s ' attention to p a r t i c u l a r aspects of  t h e i r present f u n c t i o n i n g ; 4) Heightening:  H i g h l i g h t i n g aspects of experience by increasing the  l e v e l of a r o u s a l ; 5) Expressing: or a b s t r a c t .  Making actual and s p e c i f i c that which i s  intellectual  P a r t i c u l a r i z i n g experience by moving from theory to  p r a c t i c e (p. 10). 3 . The experiencing c h a i r The "Experiencing Chair" (Greenberg, 1975), also referred to i n the data as Chair 2, represents the experiencing or f e e l i n g part of the person, and i s characterized by a s h i f t , during the process of dialogue, from r e a c t i v e opposition to inner exploration and deeper l e v e l s of experiencing 4. The other c h a i r The "Other Chair" (Greenberg, 1975), also referred to i n the data as Chair 1, represents other parts of the p e r s o n a l i t y , i n t r o j e c t s , t i o n s and p r o j e c t i o n s .  I t can also be thought of as the " c r i t i c "  attribuchair,  although t h i s c r i t i c i z i n g function changes as the dialogue progresses t o wards r e s o l u t i o n . 5. C o n f l i c t s p l i t  resolution  C o n f l i c t s p l i t resolution i n t h i s study refers to "the  reconciliation  of opposites so that they no longer waste energy i n useless struggle with  7 each other but can j o i n i n productive combination and i n t e r p l a y " ( P e r l s , 1970, p. 67). The c r i t e r i a for i d e n t i f y i n g c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n i n t h i s study were c l i e n t and t h e r a p i s t report of r e s o l u t i o n .  S p e c i f i c a l l y , these c r i t e r i a  included a s h i f t of f i v e or more points between the c l i e n t ' s pre- and post-session scores on the Target Complaints Discomfort Box Scale ( B a t t l e , Imber, Hoehn-Saric, Stone, Nash, & Frank, 1966), and a score of f i v e or above on the C o n f l i c t Resolution Box Scale (Dompierre, 1979) indicated by both c l i e n t and t h e r a p i s t . 6. I d e n t i f i e d change point For the r e s o l u t i o n performances, the " i d e n t i f i e d change point" was selected by c l i e n t s during the video process review of the r e s o l u t i o n session.  The c r i t e r i o n for t h i s s e l e c t i o n was that the moment selected be  of most s i g n i f i c a n c e to the c l i e n t s i n the actual r e s o l u t i o n of the conflict split.  For the non-resolution performances, the " i d e n t i f i e d change  point" was selected by taking the mean time of the " i d e n t i f i e d change p o i n t s " across r e s o l u t i o n performances, which was found to be 47 minutes i n t o the interview.  This 47-minute marker was then applied to the f i f t h  decision-making session of the non-resolvers, under the assumption that t h i s l a s t working session i n the decision-making project would represent the most advanced attempt of the non-resolvers at r e s o l v i n g t h e i r s p l i t s . 7. Level of experiencing Level of experiencing refers to the q u a l i t y of c l i e n t s '  involvement  i n therapy, denoting the degree to which c l i e n t s are aware of and can communicate t h e i r "bodily f e l t flow of experiencing" and the  extent to  8 which they can integrate t h i s with t h e i r actions and thoughts ( K l e i n et a l . , 1970).  C l i e n t s are said to be at a low l e v e l of experiencing i f  t h e i r communication i s impersonal and i s l i m i t e d to behavioural or i n t e l lectual description.  C l i e n t s d e s c r i b i n g , exploring and elaborating upon  f e e l i n g s and personal experiences are said to be at moderate l e v e l s of experiencing.  And f i n a l l y , c l i e n t s are considered at high l e v e l s of ex-  periencing i f they are c r e a t i v e l y synthesizing t h e i r f e e l i n g s and experiences to resolve personally s i g n i f i c a n t i s s u e s . 8. Voice q u a l i t y Voice q u a l i t y i n t h i s study represents a measure of the c l i e n t ' s i n volvement and processing l e v e l i n the moment (Rice et a l . , 1979) and i s considered to be a s e n s i t i v e index of productive and unproductive processing s t y l e s (Rice & G a y l i n , 1973).  I t i s assessed by four patterns:  focused, e x t e r n a l , l i m i t e d and emotional, each i d e n t i f i e d in terms of s i x features:  (a) perceived energy, (b) primary s t r e s s , (c) r e g u l a r i t y  s t r e s s e s , (d) pace, (e) timbre and (f)  of  contours.  9. S t r u c t u r a l analysis of s o c i a l behaviour (SASB) The structural  analysis of s o c i a l behaviour refers to the changing  q u a l i t y of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n between the two c h a i r s (Benjamin, 1974). The top surface of Benjamin's S t r u c t u r a l Analysis of Social Behaviour Model (1979) (Appendix B) depicts s o c i a l behaviours for which the focus i s on the other person (or, in t h i s study, the other p a r t i a l aspect of s e l f ) , and the middle surface displays s o c i a l behaviours for which the focus i n on s e l f .  The bottom surface, portraying what happens when behaviours r e -  presented on the top surface are turned inward, was not necessary in t h i s  9 study because, in e f f e c t , the i n t r o j e c t s of other to s e l f were acted out d i r e c t l y between the c h a i r s .  On each surface of the c h a r t , the horizontal  axis i s a f f i l i a t i o n and the v e r t i c a l axis i s interdependence.  Opposite  behaviours appear d i r e c t l y across from each other on the same surface ( e . g . , Chart point 115, " f r i e n d l y e x p l o r e , l i s t e n , " i s the opposite of 135, "accuse, blame"). Complementary behaviours, those that tend to draw or prompt each other, are at corresponding p o s i t i o n s on these two surfaces, ( e . g . , chart point 235, "appease, s c u r r y , " i s the behavioural complement of 135, "accuse, blame.") Because of i t s d e t a i l e d s t r u c t u r e , the use of SASB provides highly s p e c i f i c r a t i n g of c o n f l i c t u a l  interaction.  Dialogue can be examined  utterance by utterance with each statement characterized by one of the 72 chart p o i n t s .  Together with voice q u a l i t y and experiencing l e v e l i n t h i s  study, the s t r u c t u r a l  analysis of the between-chairs s o c i a l behaviour  provided the d e s c r i p t i v e c r i t e r i a for i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c l i e n t performance patterns. 10. C l i e n t performance patterns The Experiencing Scale ( K l e i n et a l . , 1970), the C l i e n t Vocal Quality C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System (Rice et a l . , 1979) and the Structural Analysis of S o c i a l Behaviour Model (Benjamin, 1979) were used to specify the c l i e n t states of "values and standards" expressed from the "other c h a i r , "  "felt  wants" expressed from the "experiencing c h a i r , " and "softening" expressed from the "other c h a i r . "  In order for a statement to be i d e n t i f i e d as  representing the "values and standards" s t a t e , r a t i n g on the Experiencing Scale had to be l e v e l 3, i n d i c a t i n g a personal reaction to an external  10 event.  Voice q u a l i t y had to be rated focused ( F ) , i n d i c a t i n g inner d i r e c -  t i o n and e x p l o r a t i o n , as opposed to external (X) i n d i c a t i n g an external " l e c t u r i n g at" q u a l i t y .  And f i n a l l y , the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n dynamic had  to be rated 137 or 138, i n d i c a t i n g a n o n - a f f i l i a t i v e and c o n t r o l l i n g focus towards the other which i s an enforcing of conformity or a blocking or res t r i c t i n g of the other.  For a statement to be considered representative  of the " f e l t wants" s t a t e , r a t i n g on the Experiencing Scale had to be l e v e l 4 or above, i n d i c a t i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n of f e e l i n g s and personal experi e n c e s . Voice q u a l i t y had to be rated focused ( F ) , i n d i c a t i n g inner d i r e c t i o n and e x p l o r a t i o n , and the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n dynamic had to be rated 217, an a f f i l i a t i v e ,  independent a s s e r t i o n , or 243 an a f f i l i a t i v e and  vulnerably stated expression of need.  F i n a l l y , for a statement to be  i d e n t i f i e d as representing the " s o f t e n i n g " s t a t e , r a t i n g on the Experiencing Scale had to be l e v e l 5, i n d i c a t i n g the proposition of a problem and i t s exploration through elaboration of f e e l i n g s and personal experiences.  Voice q u a l i t y had to be rated focused ( F ) , i n d i c a t i n g inner  d i r e c t i o n and e x p l o r a t i o n , and the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n dynamic had to be rated 215, an a f f i l i a t i v e and independent open d i s c l o s u r e of personal f e e l i n g s and experiences related to self-development.  Summarizing,  using t h i s precise process language, the state of "softening" of the i n t e r n a l c r i t i c was recognized by the c l i e n t performance pattern of "focused, 215 at l e v e l 5 e x p e r i e n c i n g , " the state of " f e l t wants" expressed by the experiencing side was recognized by the c l i e n t performance pattern of "focused, 217 or 243 at l e v e l 4 experiencing or above," and the state of "values and standards" expressed from the internal c r i t i c was  11 recognized by the c l i e n t performance pattern of "focused, 137 or 138 at l e v e l 3 experiencing."  Research Hypotheses and Rationale  The f o l l o w i n g research hypotheses were investigated i n the present study: 1.  There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater number of performances which  have the "softening" c l i e n t performance pattern in the "other c h a i r " i n the r e s o l u t i o n group than in the non-resolution performance group. 2.  There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater number of performances which  have both the "values and standards" pattern in the "other c h a i r " and the " f e l t wants" pattern i n the "experiencing c h a i r " i n the r e s o l u t i o n performance group than in the non-resolution performance group. 3.  There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater number of performances which  have the " f e l t wants" c l i e n t performance pattern in the "experiencing c h a i r " in the resolution performance group than in the non-resolution performance group. 4.  There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater number of performances which  have the "values and standards" c l i e n t performance pattern i n the "other c h a i r " in the r e s o l u t i o n performance group than i n the non-resolution performance group. In a d d i t i o n , the following research question was posed: Do c l i e n t s , across resolution performances, s e l e c t the "softening" performance pattern as t h e i r most s i g n i f i c a n t change-point i n the process  12  of r e s o l v i n g t h e i r c o n f l i c t s p l i t s ? These research hypotheses were generated from the Revised Model of C o n f l i c t S p l i t Resolution (Johnson, 1980).  As noted i n the "Purposes  of the Study," further v e r i f i c a t i o n of t h i s model was necessary. The present study thus translated three of the key performance states proposed by that model into observable performance patterns that could be measured by standard process r a t i n g systems and then tested as to t h e i r power for d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between the r e s o l u t i o n and non-resolution performances. These p a r t i c u l a r three performance patterns were chosen because of the researcher's view that the " s o f t e n i n g " performance pattern i s central  in  the c l i e n t process of change leading to r e s o l u t i o n of the c l i e n t ' s conf l i c t s p l i t , and that the expression of "values and standards" from the "other chair"and " f e l t wants" from the "experiencing c h a i r " are the c l i e n t processes which t r i g g e r t h i s "softening" phenomenon.  Assumptions Underlying t h i s Research  A major assumption i n t h i s research was that c o n f l i c t s p l i t episodes i n therapy are s t r u c t u r a l l y homogeneous.  The c o n f l i c t s p l i t i t s e l f was  thought to represent a behavioural structure which reveals the c l i e n t ' s i n t e r n a l representation of the task (Greenberg, 1975).  The c l i e n t ' s  experienced fragmentation of s e l f was thought to represent an internal demand for attention of which the c l i e n t ' s struggle was evidence.  The  c l i e n t ' s v e r b a l i z a t i o n of the s p l i t i n therapy was then considered part of an attempt towards understanding and r e s o l v i n g t h i s struggle.  I t was  13  thus assumed that c l i e n t s working on c o n f l i c t s p l i t s i n therapy were i n a s i m i l a r problem space regarding t h e i r construal of the s p l i t and i t s demands f o r r e s o l u t i o n .  Comparisons then were possible as to s t r u c t u r a l  r e g u l a r i t i e s in the c l i e n t task performances. This study was also founded upon the premise that therapeutic change, s p e c i f i c a l l y the r e s o l u t i o n of a c o n f l i c t s p l i t using two-chair dialogue, would follow c e r t a i n i d e n t i f i a b l e p a t t e r n s . the researcher's view of therapy.  This premise was l i n k e d to  Therapy was seen as a s i t u a t i o n i n  which c l i e n t and t h e r a p i s t engage i n a process of exploration and, hopef u l l y , r e s o l u t i o n of a series of i m p l i c i t or e x p l i c i t sub-tasks in which the c l i e n t i s involved.  I t was not the amount of p a r t i c u l a r process  behaviours that was of focal i n t e r e s t in t h i s study, but rather the attainment of c e r t a i n performance patterns which were thought to be i n d i c a t i v e of c l i e n t completion of c e r t a i n sub-tasks w i t h i n the o v e r a l l a f f e c t i v e task of resolving a c o n f l i c t  split.  D e l i m i t a t i o n s of the Study  An ideal study i n v e s t i g a t i n g the hypothesized c l i e n t performance patterns would include a pattern search of c l i e n t s ' e n t i r e therapy performances on t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r c o n f l i c t s p l i t s .  This might include part of  a one-hour therapy session or several one-hour sessions.  Due to the time/  cost factors i n t r a n s c r i b i n g and r a t i n g c l i e n t performances, however, the present study l i m i t e d i t s performance search f o r the "other c h a i r " to ten statements preceding and f i v e statements f o l l o w i n g the i d e n t i f i e d change  14 p o i n t , and for the "experiencing c h a i r " to f i v e statements preceding the i d e n t i f i e d change point.  Adopting the c l i e n t - i d e n t i f i e d change point as  the anchor point around which the pattern search was conducted was based on the b e l i e f that the hypothesized c l i e n t performance patterns of " f e l t wants" and "values and standards" a c t u a l l y t r i g g e r the c l i e n t ' s experience of "softening" and that t h i s softening of the internal c r i t i c i s the central change experience for the c l i e n t .  The judgment of how many s t a t e -  ments to i n c l u d e , however, was a r b i t r a r y , and i t may be that the proposed performance patterns were a c t u a l l y attained by c l i e n t s but f a i l e d to be uncovered due to t h i s l i m i t e d search.  J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the Study  To avoid obscuring the process of c l i e n t change during therapy i n group designs, psychotherapy researchers have started to seek a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s , e s p e c i a l l y designs that bring the researcher c l o s e r to the data of what i n d i v i d u a l c l i e n t s do.  As Rice and Greenberg (in press)  contend: Process research i s c r u c i a l to the endeavour of understanding the workings of therapy, but our conventional external v a r i a b l e research methodologies must be replaced with e m p i r i c a l - r a t i o n a l i s t s t r a t e g i e s that allow us to f i n d the patterns inherent i n the data by making use of observation and of the c r e a t i v e t h e o r i z i n g of the thoughtful  cli-  n i c i a n and then t e s t i n g these with the methodological r i g o r of s u i t able v e r i f i c a t i o n procedures.  15 The t a s k - a n a l y t i c approach adopted i n t h i s study i s geared to t h i s end. I t seeks to close the gap between c l i n i c i a n s and researchers by focusing on c l i n i c a l l y meaningful d e s c r i p t i o n of the process components of a potent and recurring in-therapy event, and by doing t h i s with rigorous observat i o n s t r a t e g i e s which permit f u r t h e r r e p l i c a t i o n s t u d i e s .  16  CHAPTER II  Review of Related L i t e r a t u r e  Overview  This review w i l l begin with a d i s c u s s i o n of the current trends i n psychotherapy process research to show how the present study i s meaningful to the f i e l d .  Then, the research paradigm on which the study i s  based, task a n a l y s i s , w i l l be described in d e t a i l .  F i n a l l y , the s p e c i f i c  research which has led to t h i s study w i l l be presented.  Process Research  The kinds of questions i n psychotherapy research that need to be answered to i l l u m i n a t e the mechanisms of therapeutic change d i s a p p o i n t i n g l y remain unasked.  As Cronbach (1975) has suggested, i n the e x i s t i n g par-  adigms of c o r r e l a t i o n a l and experimental research, observation of behaviour has been neglected i n favour of hypothesis t e s t i n g .  It  seems t h a t ,  on the one hand, counsellors are i m p l i c i t l y doing research as p a r t i c i p a n t observers, fascinated with the events of therapy, seeking patterns in c l i e n t f u n c t i o n i n g , performing process diagnoses and p r e c i s e l y applying  interventions contextually to t h e i r c l i e n t s ' performances.  On the other  hand, psychotherapy research i n t o recognition of c l i e n t performance patterns and mechanisms of change i s impeded by experimental and c o r r e l a t i o n a l research paradigms which f a i l transactions occurring in therapy.  to capture and i l l u m i n a t e the complex As Gottman and Markman (1978) suggest,  . . . There i s a need for a set of d i f f e r e n t questions i n psychology research.  Furthermore, there i s a need for a way to proceed with  psychotherapy research that w i l l make i t possible f o r us to learn from our f a i l u r e s , so that the business of gathering data on the process and the effectiveness of our interventions r e s u l t s in some improvement of our p r a c t i s e s . . . .  [There i s a] need for a way to  proceed that w i l l be useful to both the u n i v e r s i t y scholar i n t e r ested i n psychotherapy research and the innovative c l i n i c a l  practi-  tioner (p. 30). These sentiments are echoed by Goldman (1978): The problem i s not "research" as a general idea but rather the kinds of research that have predominated i n our f i e l d . . . .  The kinds of  research methods and the kinds of research studies that prevail  in  the f i e l d are l a r g e l y inappropriate or inadequate for most of the kinds of knowledge and i n s i g h t counsellors require i n t h e i r d a i l y work (p. 5 ) . Indeed, much of psychotherapy research has f a i l e d to meet the simple t e s t of relevance as suggested by Krumboltz (1967): What w i l l counsellors do d i f f e r e n t l y i f the r e s u l t s of t h i s study come out one way rather than another? (p. 191).  18 It  seems that most process research to date has overlooked the f a c t  that what i s of importance to the c o u n s e l l i n g c l i n i c i a n i s not only knowing what interventions to use but also when to use them, and i n r e l a t i o n to what c l i e n t performance pattern.  Process studies have t r a d i t i o n a l l y  attempted to study ongoing c l i e n t and t h e r a p i s t behaviour throughout the course of therapy.  However, most of these studies s t i l l  f a i l to permit an  adequate examination of psychotherapy as a process changing over time i n which there can be d i f f e r e n t processes with d i f f e r e n t s i g n i f i c a n c e i n d i f f e r e n t contexts.  Studies that o p e r a t i o n a l l y define "process" by pre-  and p o s t - t e s t differences on some set of v a r i a b l e s , although supporting the inference of some process, f a i l to demonstrate or e x p l i c a t e the type of process and the kind of change that did happen.  Studies that opera-  t i o n a l l y define "process" i n terms of frequency or change i n frequency of events, across units of time sampled, are also l i m i t e d i n t h e i r c l i n i c a l relevance.  What the c l i n i c i a n needs from the researcher i s to know whe-  ther c e r t a i n patterns of c l i n i c a l processes a c t u a l l y change and how, or whether they, though s t i l l  i n t a c t , merely occur l e s s o f t e n .  Studies that  o p e r a t i o n a l l y define "process" i n terms of a set of one-step contingenc i e s , f o r example, how often a c e r t a i n kind of c l i e n t response follows a c e r t a i n kind of t h e r a p i s t response, are helpful in answering c e r t a i n questions concerning r e l a t i o n s h i p s between immediate c l i e n t and t h e r a p i s t responses.  However, they too are l i m i t e d , in that therapy becomes d i v i d e d  i n t o d i s c r e t e dyadic u n i t s , leaving one to i n f e r the l a r g e r context of which they are a part.  What i n f a c t seems c r u c i a l for the development of  research of therapeutic s i g n i f i c a n c e i s an operational d e f i n i t i o n of  19 "process" i n terms of u n i t s , temporal r e l a t i o n s h i p s between u n i t s , and end p o i n t s , such that d e s c r i p t i v e knowledge can be b u i l t of the actual processes of therapy i n context. With t h i s aim, and to avoid obscuring t h i s process of c l i e n t change during therapy using group designs, c o u n s e l l i n g researchers have started to use a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s , e s p e c i a l l y designs that bring the counsellor researcher c l o s e r to the data of what i n d i v i d u a l s do.  One such a l t e r n a -  t i v e approach i s that of task a n a l y s i s .  Task A n a l y s i s  Task a n a l y s i s involves breaking down problems into component operat i o n s and then combining the components i n t o models of performance.  As an  approach to research i t has been used i n the area of c o g n i t i v e development for studying c h i l d r e n ' s thinking f o r at l e a s t two decades.  Recently there  has been such a dramatic increase i n i t s use that S i e g l e r (1980) has ref e r r e d to task analysis as "the leading approach to i n v e s t i g a t i n g the development of problem-solving, reasoning, and memorial s k i l l s " (p. 278). Task a n a l y s i s has provided a v e h i c l e enabling the d e t a i l e d performance analyses of c h i l d r e n who are engaged i n t a c k l i n g problems which make part i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g demands on t h e i r mental structures (Klahr & Wallace, 1972; Case, 1975; Baylor & Lemoyne, 1975; Klahr & Wallace, 1976).  I t has  also enabled studies of complex performances such that the psychological processes involved i n solving i n t e l l e c t u a l  tasks can be revealed and the  elements of the task that are " i n s t r u c t a b l e " can be i d e n t i f i e d  (Case,  20 1975; Gregg, 1976; Resnick, 1976).  In a d d i t i o n , i n the information pro-  cessing f i e l d , task analysis has enabled d e t a i l e d f i n e - g r a i n analyses of s p e c i f i c tasks (Newell & Simon, 1972; Lindsay & Norman, 1972; Newell, 1977; Byrne, 1977).  Newell and Simon (1972) in p a r t i c u l a r have made de-  t a i l e d observational records of s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l s as they proceed to solve reasoning problems, noting an approach t r i e d , a b l i n d a l l e y encount e r e d , a backing up, and a search for a new approach.  From these records  they i n f e r the way the problem was construed, the hypotheses t r i e d , the ways i n which the task i n s t r u c t i o n impeded or f a c i l i t a t e d s o l u t i o n , and f i n a l l y the kinds of mental c a p a c i t i e s required to have generated t h i s performance. Task a n a l y s i s as currently applied i n the f i e l d of psychology has been greatly influenced by the research programs of Gagne (1965, 1968) and Simon (1947, 1956).  Gagni has used task a n a l y s i s to analyze the s t r u c -  ture of subject matter.  His view that concepts are h i e r a r c h i c a l l y organ-  ized and that f a i l u r e to learn a concept i s generally due to f a i l u r e  to  understand one or more components w i t h i n the hierarchy l e d him to conduct task analyses which aimed at e s t a b l i s h i n g learning p r e r e q u i s i t e s and h i e r archies.  His view of problem-solving i s that i t c o n s i s t s of defined cap-  a b i l i t i e s or performances, each of which can be learned by the c l i e n t , and that these c a p a b i l i t i e s are r e l a t e d to each other in such a way that achievement of a subordinate c a p a b i l i t y ( i . e . , completion of that p a r t i c u l a r performance) i s e i t h e r necessary t o , or greatly f a c i l i t a t e s the successful accomplishment of a more advanced performance or c a p a b i l i t y . Gagne's perspective i s thus in accord with the idea of a general model of  21 an e f f i c i e n t or optimum route to the s o l u t i o n of a problem.  His use of  task a n a l y s i s , however, has been p r i m a r i l y p r a c t i c a l in focus, seeking to i d e n t i f y components for teachers to teach and to e s t a b l i s h the order i n which they should be taught (the h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ) .  He has paid  l i t t l e attention to the psychological processes involved i n performing the components or to d i f f e r i n g s t r a t e g i e s adopted, including such p o s s i b i l i t i e s as people having reason to not choose the optimal approach to s o l v ing problems. Simon (1947, 1956), on the other hand, has stressed psychological processes, the l i m i t s of human c o g n i t i o n , and how components are i n t e grated.  He views task analysis as a means of revealing the human cogni-  t i v e system producing the performance.  Newell and Simon (1972) state  t h e i r approach to task analysis i n terms of two postulates: 1.  To the extent that the behaviour i s p r e c i s e l y what i s c a l l e d f o r  by the s i t u a t i o n , i t w i l l give us information about the task e n v i ronment. 2.  To the extent that the behaviour departs from perfect r a t i o n a l -  i t y , we gain information about the psychology of the subject, about the nature of the internal mechanisms that are l i m i t i n g his or her performance (p. 55). Simon thus sees tasks as opportunities for problem solvers to reveal t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s i n terms of the type of information processing demands that r e s u l t in non-optimal performance.  He then has directed his task analyses  towards the construction of various computer simulation models of performance i n such areas as algebra (Paige & Simon, 1966), chess (Chase & Simon,  22  1973), s p e l l i n g (Simon & Simon, 1973) and physics (Simon & Simon, 1978). In the t r a d i t i o n of Simon's simulation approach, Klahr and Wallace (1976) have constructed'simulations of several Piagetian problems, Anderson (1976) has modeled language and memory and Kosslyn (1978) has modeled imagery.  The major strength of such task a n a l y t i c approaches i s that a  simulation model capable of performing the task demonstrates the s u f f i ciency of components necessary f o r performance of the p a r t i c u l a r  task.  D i f f i c u l t i e s , however, a r i s e i n d i s t i n g u i s i n g features of the theory from programming conveniences, and even more important, the problem of  linking  the complexity of the verbal protocol data with the simulations. Recent trends i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of task analyses to the study of human cognition have been outlined by S i e g l e r (1980).  He refers to three  new d i r e c t i o n s i n t o which task a n a l y s i s i s being extended.  One d i r e c -  t i o n , exemplified by Sternberg's componential a n a l y s i s approach (Sternberg, 1977a, b; Sternberg <S R i f k i n , 1979), involves a search for components that are used on a large number of tasks and that may account f o r i n d i v i d u a l differences i n performance.  Across such tasks as verbal and  geometric analogy, t r a n s i t i v e i n f e r e n c e , metaphoric production, and causal inference problems, Sternberg has i d e n t i f i e d the four common components of encoding, inference, mapping and a p p l i c a t i o n .  A second new d i r e c t i o n  for  task analyses, as set f o r t h by S i e g l e r (1980), involves analyzing tasks i n terms of the p r i n c i p l e s underlying the choice of p a r t i c u l a r problemsolving s t r a t e g i e s .  Gelman and G a l l i s t e l (1978) have adopted t h i s  approach as they i n f e r r e d from c e r t a i n aspects of c h i l d r e n ' s counting performance an understanding of f i v e p r i n c i p l e s involved i n counting.  The  23  t h i r d new d i r e c t i o n set f o r t h by S i e g l e r (1980) involves the development of means for r e v e a l i n g , through a n a l y s i s of c h i l d r e n ' s e r r o r s , the sequence of p a r t i a l understandings leading to conceptual mastery.  By pre-  senting c h i l d r e n problems that y i e l d d i f f e r e n t patterns of c o r r e c t answers and errors depending on what value they are u s i n g , S i e g l e r (1976, 1978) and S i e g l e r and Richards (1979) have applied a rule-assessment approach to such cognitive-developmental problems as balance s c a l e , projection of shadows, p r o b a b i l i t y , f u l l n e s s , time, speed, d i s t a n c e , conservation of l i q u i d q u a n t i t y , conservation of s o l i d quantity, and conservation of number problems.  A Task-Analytic Approach to Psychotherapeutic Events  Applying t h i s t a s k - a n a l y t i c approach to the study of psychotherapy, Gottman and Markman (1978) have designed an eight step program development model s t r e s s i n g the importance of sequential analyses of i n t e r a c t i o n s and the need for task analysis to i d e n t i f y p a r t i c u l a r components of competence.  Based on i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of d e f i c i t s of these components in the  target population, programs are then developed to remedy these d e f i c i e n cies.  For example, Schwartz and Gottman (1976) developed a program f o r  non-assertive subjects.  Based on a task a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t i n g that asser-  t i v e and non-assertive subjects d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r cognitive  self-state-  ments and i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to d e l i v e r competent responses, they developed a s p e c i f i c intervention program to remedy these d e f i c i e n c i e s . S i m i l a r l y , Rice and Greenberg ( i n press) have used t a s k - a n a l y t i c  24 methods to analyze the performance of c l i e n t s s u c c e s s f u l l y r e s o l v i n g c e r t a i n a f f e c t i v e tasks in psychotherapy.  This approach presumes that w i t h i n  the complex stream of performance patterns exhibited by c l i e n t and therap i s t during therapy there are r e c u r r i n g "events" with a high p r o b a b i l i t y of a f f e c t i n g change.  Greenberg (1975) defines these events:  An "event" c o n s i s t s of an i n t e r a c t i o n a l sequence between c l i e n t and therapist.  I t i s a performance sequence that has a beginning, an  end, and a p a r t i c u l a r structure that gives i t meaning such that i t  is  d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from the surrounding behaviour i n the ongoing process. To the c l i e n t an event has the q u a l i t y of a whole and i t i s e x p e r i enced as a closure of some i n t e r a c t i o n with the t h e r a p i s t .  For the  t h e r a p i s t the event represents a therapeutic a c t i v i t y which comes to some closure in the hour. novel or a drama.  The event i s l i k e a short incident i n a  I t i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y complex, i s composed of  inter-  connected a c t i v i t i e s , with changing patterns, but i t occurs w i t h i n a continuous period of time and comes to some closure w i t h i n the hour (pp. 4 - 5 ) . Rice and Greenberg (in press) contend that experienced t h e r a p i s t s are cont i n u a l l y making "process diagnoses" of "markers" of such events.  Thera-  p i s t s are a l e r t for p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t performance patterns which signal both the presence of a f f e c t i v e issues needing to be resolved and at the same time the c l i e n t ' s readiness to focus on them.  Acting on t h i s  "process d i a g n o s i s , " the t h e r a p i s t intervenes, assuming that i f  the  p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t marker i s followed by the appropriate therapeutic  inter-  vention, the c l i e n t w i l l be able to work toward an a f f e c t i v e r e s o l u t i o n .  25 This discriminable "event" w i t h i n therapy i s thus comprised of the c l i e n t marker, t h e r a p i s t operation and r e s u l t a n t c l i e n t process.  Greenberg  (1975; 1979) and Rice and Greenberg ( i n press) further contend that such "when - then" events of therapy appear to have s u f f i c i e n t  structural  s i m i l a r i t y to warrant d e t a i l e d study. As described by Greenberg (1975) and Rice and Greenberg (in press) the t a s k - a n a l y t i c approach to the study of psychotherapeutic events i s an eight-step process. 1.  The eight steps are:  The ideal observer - the general model.  There i s an " i d e a l  observer" (Pascual-Leone, 1976), i n t h i s case a "counsellor-researcher" who has an e x p l i c i t general model of functioning and an i m p l i c i t c o g n i t i v e map concerning some of the s p e c i f i c events of therapy.  The "ideal ob-  s e r v e r ' s c o g n i t i v e map" provides a framework w i t h i n which to begin looking at performances so that i n t e r e s t i n g and t h e r a p e u t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t events are l o c a t e d . 2.  S e l e c t i o n and description of a t a s k .  On the basis of the gene-  r a l model and intensive r e f l e c t i o n s on c o u n s e l l i n g experiences, the couns e l l o r - r e s e a r c h e r s e l e c t s and describes a task and task s i t u a t i o n which seems to be recurrent within and across c l i e n t s and potent in producing change. 3.  V e r i f i c a t i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of task r e s o l u t i o n .  Experi-  mental v e r i f i c a t i o n i s then used to provide evidence that the postulated event (task plus task i n s t r u c t i o n s and task performance) i s indeed a potent event containing active ingredients and therefore worth studying intensively.  26 4.  The thought experiment - constructing performance diagrams.  The counsellor-researcher begins to i n t e n s i v e l y analyze the c l i e n t ' s task performance.  The counsellor-researcher, drawing upon his or her general  model of human functioning and accumulated counselling experience, generates possible resolution performance paths, and diagrams these.  This i s a  type of "thought experiment" i n which performances are varied f r e e l y  in  imagination. 5.  Description of the actual performances.  Having developed a  diagram of possible performances the counsellor-researcher now makes a d e t a i l e d sequential description of the actual performance of one or more s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l s engaged in the p a r t i c u l a r therapeutic task under study. 6.  Comparison of actual performance with possible performance -  model buiding.  The counsellor-researcher now compares the actual per-  formance with the possible performances (Steps 5 and 4 ) , and from t h i s comparison begins to construct a s p e c i f i c model, consistent with the gener a l model, of the kind of human processes that could have generated the observed performance. 7.  Verification.  Making use of the newly constructed s p e c i f i c  model, hypotheses concerning c l i e n t performance on the task are advanced and s t a t i s t i c a l l y t e s t e d .  Resolution and non-resolution performances are  compared to v e r i f y that the s p e c i f i e d components discriminate between the successful and unsuccessful performances. 8.  R e l a t i n g outcome to process.  As a f i n a l step i n the task a n a l -  y t i c program, outcome studies are done, i n which the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  27 successful c l i e n t performances and long-term outcome are studied and the l i n k s between counselling methods which lead to these c l i e n t performances, and outcome are demonstrated. Several studies using these task a n a l y t i c steps have been conducted on a therapeutic event which has been l a b e l l e d a " c o n f l i c t s p l i t " (Greenberg, 1975).  Greenberg (1975; 1979) constructed precise behavioural d e f i -  n i t i o n s of the d i s t i n c t i v e features of the s p l i t marker and the d i s t i n c t i v e features of the appropriate therapeutic i n t e r v e n t i o n , thereby establ i s h i n g the d e s c r i p t i o n of the task and task environment (Step 2 of the task a n a l y t i c program). A number of studies have subsequently v e r i f i e d the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the s p l i t .  The d i f f e r e n t i a l  e f f e c t s of the Gestalt two-chair operation  compared with empathic r e f l e c t i o n at a s p l i t have been studied in three s i n g l e cases (Greenberg, 1975), in a c o u n s e l l i n g analogue (Greenberg and Clarke, 1979) and i n a counselling f i e l d study (Greenberg and Dompierre, 1981).  These studies a l l demonstrated that c l i e n t s working on s p l i t s  using two-chair dialogue deepened t h e i r experience, increased t h e i r awareness, resolved t h e i r c o n f l i c t and changed t h e i r behaviour more than c l i e n t s i n the empathic r e f l e c t i o n c o n d i t i o n .  These r e s u l t s confirm Step  t h r e e ' s requirement that there be evidence that the event i s potent and worth studying i n t e n s i v e l y . Pursuing an intensive a n a l y s i s of nine two-chair events, Greenberg (1980a) did f i n d that successful two-chair dialogues manifest c e r t a i n patterned r e g u l a r i t i e s in each c h a i r on depth of experiencing and voice quality.  He constructed an i n i t i a l s p e c i f i c model of c o n f l i c t  split  28 r e s o l u t i o n i n which the softening of the harsh c r i t i c a l aspect of the pers o n a l i t y toward the s e l f was an important component i n the r e s o l u t i o n performances.  Steps 4 through 6 of the t a s k - a n a l y t i c approach were then  adopted by Johnson (1980) as she constructed multi-step diagrams to e x p l i cate the steps of possible paths to s p l i t r e s o l u t i o n . Greenberg (in press) and Johnson (1980) then constructed the Revised Model of C o n f l i c t S p l i t Resolution (Johnson, 1980) representing d i f f e r e n t possible key c l i e n t states along the path of a r e s o l u t i o n performance.  These states included  r o l e - p l a y i n g top-dog and under-dog, i d e n t i f y i n g with top-dog and underdog, expression of values and standards from the internal c r i t i c , expression of previously disowned f e e l i n g s and "wants" from the experiencing s i d e , softening of the internal c r i t i c , l i s t e n i n g , understanding and expression of f e e l i n g s from the experiencing s i d e , and a negotiation l e a d ing to i n t e g r a t i o n of the two s i d e s .  These c l i e n t states were formed by  the researchers drawing upon t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l understanding of human f u n c t i o n i n g , t h e i r accumulated c o u n s e l l i n g experience and intensive study of tape recorded interviews to generate possible performance paths.  These  paths were then diagrammed according to measures of v o i c e , experiencing l e v e l , observation of non-verbal cues and process d e s c r i p t i o n , and then three actual performances were compared, r e s u l t i n g i n the Revised Model of C o n f l i c t S p l i t Resolution (Johnson, 1980) (See Appendix A ) . Subsequently, adopting the strategy of the t a s k - a n a l y t i c program's Step 7, a three stage s p e c i f i c model of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n was proposed by Greenberg (in press) and v e r i f i e d by Taylor (1981) i n a study comparing fourteen G e s t a l t two-chair dialogue c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n performances with  29 fourteen non-resolution performances on s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s of s o c i a l behaviour, depth of experiencing and voice q u a l i t y .  I t was found that the  two sides of the c o n f l i c t i n a l l the r e s o l u t i o n performances appeared to f i r s t go through a stage of o p p o s i t i o n , then a merging phase i n which the c r i t i c softened i t s a t t i t u d e as measured by degree of a f f i l i a t i o n , voice and depth of experiencing, and f i n a l l y an i n t e g r a t i o n phase, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the two c h a i r s becoming more autonomous and a f f i l i a t i v e , and engaging i n negotiation leading to r e s o l u t i o n of the c o n f l i c t . (1981) found that the degree of a f f i l i a t i o n  In a d d i t i o n , Taylor  (the "softening") i n the pre-  v i o u s l y harsh c r i t i c c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d resolvers from non-resolvers, thus c o n t r i b u t i n g c r e d i b i l i t y to the Revised Model of C o n f l i c t S p l i t Resol u t i o n (Johnson, 1980) through confirmation of the softening of the c r i t i c as a necessary condition of r e s o l u t i o n . Further v e r i f i c a t i o n of the Revised Model of C o n f l i c t Resolution (Johnson, 1980) aimed at confirming more of the e s s e n t i a l process components of c o n f l i c t s p l i t r e s o l u t i o n would form an important next step i n the t a s k - a n a l y t i c program.  Although the Taylor (1981) study offered a  d e s c r i p t i o n of the three stages through which c l i e n t s progress i n t h e i r moment by moment performances i n r e s o l v i n g intrapersonal c o n f l i c t , an even c l o s e r look in terms of the p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t performance patterns representing c l i e n t states rather than stages of r e s o l u t i o n would enable more of the s p e c i f i c components of successful r e s o l u t i o n performances to be distinguished.  Such was the i n t e n t of the present study, i n which pattern  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was directed towards a more r e f i n e d l e v e l , a l e v e l of greater c l i n i c a l relevance to the p r a c t i s i n g t h e r a p i s t .  30  CHAPTER  III  Methodology  Zytowski and Betz (1972), In a review of measurement in psychotherapy research, emphasize the need for measures "which can follow the progress of the c l i e n t i n c o u n s e l l i n g , so that improvement can be charted as a phys i c i a n does that of h i s surgical p a t i e n t "  (p. 78).  S i m i l a r l y , Strupp  (1973) suggests: The c r u c i a l information i s somehow imbedded in the verbal and nonverbal communications and i t i s the Job of the researcher to impose order on the process in such a way that meaningful answers emerge (p. xiii). In accord with these sentiments, the r i g o r of t h i s present i n t e n s i v e - a n a l y t i c study l i e s i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n of systematic process methodology to reveal patterns i n c l i e n t performances during an in-therapy task.  Several  process c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems were used to i l l u m i n a t e c l i n i c a l l y important s u b t l e t i e s of c l i e n t s ' moment-to-moment performances during c o n f l i c t s p l i t r e s o l u t i o n , and to i d e n t i f y o p e r a t i o n a l l y the c l i e n t performance patterns of i n t e r e s t .  Discussion of t h i s methodology f o l l o w s .  31  Population and Sampling Procedures  The 18 c o n f l i c t - s p l i t performances i n t h i s study were taken from actual sessions of c l i e n t s involved i n a six-week Decision Making P r o j e c t conducted at U.B.C. during the summer of 1980.  A l l c l i e n t s i n the project  had responded to advertising and were b a s i c a l l y w e l 1 - f u n c t i o n i i n g people who were exploring decisional c o n f l i c t s pertaining to personal development or career.  The sample i s thus composed of subjects who are broadly repre-  sentative of a population which experiences trouble at some time with a decisional c o n f l i c t and seeks assistance i n i t s r e s o l u t i o n .  The r e s u l t s  of t h i s study can therefore be generalized to a population of people who are dealing with a s p e c i f i c decisional c o n f l i c t , and who have v o l u n t a r i l y sought assistance for the r e s o l u t i o n of t h i s  conflict.  The real population of t h i s study, however, was not the c l i e n t s , but rather the population of c o n f l i c t - s p l i t performances.  The actual r e s o l u -  t i o n performances chosen for t h i s study were selected on s p e c i f i e d c r i t e r i a for r e s o l u t i o n .  To be considered a r e s o l u t i o n s e s s i o n , both c l i e n t  and t h e r a p i s t had to indicate a score of f i v e or above on the C o n f l i c t Resolution Box Scale (Dompierre, 1979) and a s h i f t of f i v e or more points between the pre- and post-session scores on the Target Complaints Discomfort Box Scale ( B a t t l e et a l . , 1966).  In a d d i t i o n , f o r the purposes of  t h i s study, the video tape of the c l i e n t ' s c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n session had to have been reviewed with the c l i e n t .  Nine r e s o l u t i o n performances from  the pool of decision-making resolvers (Webster, 1982) matched these  32 c r i t e i a and were thus selected for the present study.  From the pool of  non-resolvers i n the decision-making p r o j e c t , nine were randomly s e l e c t e d . The f i f t h sessions of these nine non-resolvers then became the nine nonr e s o l u t i o n performances analyzed i n the present study.  Therapists  Four t h e r a p i s t s , two men and two women, with a range of 2-9 years of experience with Gestalt methods, contributed events for t h i s study.  Two  held Ph.D.s i n Counselling Psychology and two were doctoral students.  Two  t h e r a p i s t s each provided one r e s o l u t i o n and one non-resolution performance for a n a l y s i s .  One provided four of each type of performance, and the  other three of each type.  A l l t h e r a p i s t s were trained i n the use of the  G e s t a l t two-chair method (Greenberg, 1979; 1980b) and were f a m i l i a r with Gestalt ideas regarding r e s o l u t i o n being achieved by i n t e g r a t i o n of p o l a r i t i e s and that a softening of the a t t i t u d e towards the s e l f f a c i l i t a t e s this resolution.  Description of Measuring Instruments  1.  The experiencing scale The Experiencing Scale ( K l e i n et a l . , 1970) was used to measure the  in-process l e v e l of c l i e n t experiencing, statement by statement, i n both c h a i r s , across successful and non-successful performances of c o n f l i c t s p l i t resolution.  This scale i s a seven-point annotated and anchored  33 r a t i n g device created for the purpose of assessing the q u a l i t y of c l i e n t involvement or "experiencing" i n psychotherapy. K l e i n et a l . (1970) define experiencing as: . . . the q u a l i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s experiencing of himself, the extent to which his ongoing, b o d i l y , f e l t flow of experiencing i s the basic datum of his awareness and communications about himself, and the extent to which t h i s inner datum i s integral to action and thought (p. 1 ) . This construct i s a phenomenological construct which has evolved from Rogers' process scale (1958, 1959) and from Gendlin's formulation of experiencing (Gendlin & Zimring, 1955; G e n d l i n , 1962).  Gendlin operation-  a l l y defined process components from the d i r e c t l y present, immediate experiencing of the person.  He subsequently developed the Experiencing  Scale which was then refined and developed over the next ten years i n t o a standardized measure of tape-recorded ongoing therapy process ( K l e i n et a l . , 1970). Because of i t s extreme s e n s i t i v i t y to changes i n c l i e n t s '  involve-  ment, even within a s i n g l e therapy hour, the Experiencing Scale i s a part i c u l a r l y valuable r a t i n g device f o r microscopic process studies such as t h i s one.  The lower l e v e l s of the scale are characterized by impersonal  or s u p e r f i c i a l references to s e l f .  Moving up the s c a l e , there i s a  progression from simple, l i m i t e d or externalized references to s e l f to an elaborate d e s c r i p t i o n of f e e l i n g s .  At the highest l e v e l s of experiencing,  exploration of f e e l i n g s and new awareness lead to problem solving and greater s e l f understanding.  34 The v a l i d i t y of the scale and of the concept of experiencing has been affirmed across various settings where l e v e l of experiencing has been found to c o n s i s t e n t l y predict p o s i t i v e psychotherapy outcome.  In seven  studies the r a t i n g r e l i a b i l i t i e s were s i g n i f i c a n t , ranging from rk  .79-.91  modes and .75-.92 peaks using the Ebel I n t e r - c l a s s R e l i a b i l i t y method. A short form of the Experiencing Scale i s provided i n Appendix C.  2.  The C l i e n t Vocal Quality C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System (CVQ) The CVQ (Rice, Koke, Greenberg & Wagstaff, 1979) was used i n t h i s  study to track the q u a l i t y of voice i n the two-chair dialogue as a measure of involvement and processing l e v e l i n the moment. patterns:  The CVQ has four voice  focused, e x t e r n a l , l i m i t e d and emotional, each i d e n t i f i e d i n  terms of s i x features:  (a) perceived energy, (b) primary s t r e s s , (c)  r e g u l a r i t y of s t r e s s , (d) pace, (e) timbre and (f) contours.  Voice q u a l i -  ty has been shown to be a good p r e d i c t o r of success and f a i l u r e i n therapy (Rice & Wagstaff, 1967), and a s e n s i t i v e index of productive and nonproductive processing s t y l e s (Rice & G a y l i n , 1973).  More p r e c i s e l y w i t h  regard to c o n f l i c t s p l i t s , change to a focused voice has been demonstrated as a necessary condition for c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n (Greenberg, in p r e s s ) . R e l i a b i l i t y for the CVQ has been demonstrated i n several ways.  Rank  order c o r r e l a t i o n s between judges were found to be between .70 and .79 on the four categories (Rice & Wagstaff, 1967).  For the same study, percen-  tage agreement was 70 and Cohen's kappa, a much more stringent measure, was .49.  35 Appendix D provides a summary of the C l i e n t Vocal Quality C l a s s i f i cation System.  3.  The S t r u c t u r a l Analysis of S o c i a l Behaviour Model (SASB) The SASB model (Benjamin, 1979) was used in t h i s study to measure the  q u a l i t y of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n communicated statement by statement i n the two c h a i r s as c l i e n t s progressed through experential states towards resol u t i o n of t h e i r s p l i t .  The SASB extends the Leary C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System  into a model composed of three two-dimensional grids (see Appendix B ) . Each of the grids represents the focus of the interpersonal transaction (other, s e l f or i n t r o j e c t i o n ) .  The horizontal axis of each g r i d runs from  d i s a f f i l i a t i o n to a f f i l i a t i o n and the v e r t i c a l axis from maximal dependence to maximal independence.  Each chart point w i t h i n each quadrant of  the g r i d i s then composed of a proportinate amount of the behaviours described by each of the axes. The instrument adapted for t h i s study u t i l i z e d two of the threedimensional grids (other and s e l f ) .  The dialogue was analyzed, statement  by statement, and each statement was i d e n t i f i e d as belonging to one of 36 categories on one of two g r i d s .  Transactions were c l a s s i f i e d in terms of  focus, quadrant, and t o p i c . In terms of focus: g r i d 1 = other grid 2 = self.  36 In terms of quadrant: quadrant 1 = p o s i t i v e a f f i l i a t i o n , p o s i t i v e interdependence quadrant 2 = negative a f f i l i a t i o n , p o s i t i v e interdependence quadrant 3 = negative a f f i l i a t i o n , negative interdependence quadrant 4 = p o s i t i v e a f f i l i a t i o n , negative interdependence. In terms of t o p i c : track 0 = p r i m i t i v e basics track 1 = approach-avoidance track 2 = need f u l f i l l m e n t , c o n t a c t , nurturance track 3 = attachment track 4 = l o g i c and communication track 5 = attention to seif-development track 6 = balance in r e l a t i o n s h i p track 7 = intimacy-distance, and track 8 = i d e n t i t y . The f i r s t number of the r e s u l t i n g t h r e e - d i g i t behaviour code refers to the g r i d , the second number to the quadrant, and the t h i r d number to the topic.  Thus, a 217 behaviour i s i n d i c a t e d by a c l i e n t statement in which  the focus i s on s e l f (2), the quadrant i s p o s i t i v e a f f i l i a t i o n , p o s i t i v e interdependence ( 1 ) , and the topic i s intimacy-distance (7).  The d e s c r i p -  t i o n provided by Benjamin's model of such a 217 behaviour i s " a s s e r t on own."  I l l u s t r a t i n g f u r t h e r , a 138 would i n d i c a t e a c l i e n t statement from  one c h a i r towards the other (1); i t would be hostile-dependent (quadrant 3 ) ; and i t s content would concern i d e n t i t y (track 8 ) . s c r i p t i o n of such a behaviour i s "enforce conformity."  The provided de-  37 The SASB has been found to be a sound measuring device.  V a l i d i t y of  the SASB model has been extensively tested through circumplex a n a l y s i s , f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , and a u t o - c o r r e l a t i o n a l methods (Benjamin, 1977).  Test-  r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s for dimensional ratings of the SASB items have ranged, from .85 to .93, and i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s have f a l l e n i n the same range.  When applied s p e c i f i c a l l y as a process r a t i n g instrument  for  analyzing the therapeutic process of a G e s t a l t two-chair dialogue, the r e l i a b i l i t y of i n t e r r a t e r agreement was tested using Cohen's kappa, and found to be .911.  Benjamin (1977) concluded that despite the complexity  of the SASB model, the high kappas between independent r a t e r s e s t a b l i s h that the rules for applying the SASB model to therapy transactions are communicable and can y i e l d c o n s i s t e n t ratings among careful independent observers.  4.  C o n f l i c t Resolution Box Scale (CRBS) The C o n f l i c t Resolution Box Scale was created by Dompierre (1979) as  a s e l f - r e p o r t measure of the extent to which c o n f l i c t has been resolved. This seven-point box scale ranges from "not at a l l resolved" in the f i r s t box, to "somewhat resolved" i n the fourth box, to " t o t a l l y resolved" in the seventh box (see Appendix E ) .  On the c l i e n t form of the s c a l e ,  c l i e n t s i n d i c a t e the degree to which they feel resolved regarding the c o n f l i c t they have i d e n t i f i e d and explored in the session.  On the t h e r a -  p i s t form of the scale the t h e r a p i s t s i n d i c a t e the degree to which, i n t h e i r judgment, t h e i r c l i e n t s have resolved the c o n f l i c t i d e n t i f i e d and worked on i n the session.  This scale has been shown to c o r r e l a t e with  38 other outcome measures and to discriminate between more and l e s s e f f e c t i v e r e s o l u t i o n sessions using two-chair dialogue and empathic r e f l e c t i o n (Greenberg & Dompierre, 1981).  The CRBS was used in t h i s study as one of  the c r i t e r i a for i d e n t i f y i n g r e s o l u t i o n events.  Both the c l i e n t and the  t h e r a p i s t had to mark a minimum of f i v e on the scale for the dialogue to be considered a r e s o l u t i o n event.  5.  Target Complaints Discomfort Box Scale (TCDBS) The TCDBS (Battle et a l . , 1966) i s a t h i r t e e n - p o i n t  s e l f - r e p o r t meas-  s u r e , which rates the amount of discomfort the c l i e n t s are experiencing i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r present complaints.  This scale ranges from "not a t  a l l " i n the f i r s t box, to "pretty much" i n the seventh box, to "very much" in the tenth box, and " c o u l d n ' t be worse" i n the top box (see Appendix F ) . For the purpose of t h i s study, i t was administered before and a f t e r the counselling sessions to i d e n t i f y any movement towards r e s o l u t i o n of the issue presented for that session.  A s h i f t of f i v e or more points between  the pre-session scores and post-session scores was one of the c r i t e r i a necessary f o r the session to q u a l i f y as a c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n .  6.  Video Process Recall The video process r e c a l l used i n t h i s study was a process c l a s s i f i c a -  t i o n procedure adapted from E l l i o t t ' s (1979) Interpersonal Process R e c a l l . Whereas E l l i o t t i s o l a t e s points at which c l i e n t s perceive a t h e r a p i s t operation to have been e s p e c i a l l y helpful and has the c l i e n t rate the s i g n i f i c a n c e on a scale of 0 to 9, the main focus i n t h i s study was upon  39  c l i e n t performances, not t h e r a p i s t i n f l u e n c e .  Thus, i n t h i s study,  c l i e n t s were asked to s e l e c t " s i g n i f i c a n t moments" in t h e i r experience which were perceived important to the actual r e s o l u t i o n of t h e i r  split.  The s p e c i f i c procedure used i n t h i s study adopted the following f o r mat.  Within two days of the c l i e n t ' s r e s o l u t i o n s e s s i o n , the c l i e n t would  meet with a r e c a l l consultant who would review the video-tape of the session with the c l i e n t .  The r e c a l l consultant asked the c l i e n t s to se-  l e c t from four to seven " s i g n i f i c a n t moments" in t h e i r process of change, and then to rate the s i g n i f i c a n c e of these moments on a scale of 0 to 9. The "most s i g n i f i c a n t moment" was then established as that moment to which the c l i e n t gave the highest s i g n i f i c a n c e r a t i n g .  In the event of two or  more moments given the same high r a t i n g , c l i e n t s were then asked to choose which moment they would consider of most s i g n i f i c a n c e to the process of resolving their s p l i t .  This "most s i g n i f i c a n t moment" was then used as an  anchor p o i n t , around which a performance pattern search was conducted. The same r e c a l l consultant was used to review a l l of the r e s o l u t i o n performances.  This r e c a l l consultant was trained f o r the purposes of t h i s  study according to procedures set f o r t h in E l l i o t t ' s (1979) research manual.  Desi gn  The i n t e n t of t h i s study was the v e r i f i c a t i o n of predicted performance patterns i n the process of r e s o l v i n g a c o n f l i c t s p l i t .  In order to  t e s t the Revised Model of C o n f l i c t S p l i t Resolution (Johnson, 1980)  40 constructed by Greenberg (1975, 1980a) and Johnson (1980), nine r e s o l u t i o n and nine non-resolution performances on the task were c o l l e c t e d and compared to see i f c e r t a i n of the s p e c i f i e d components of r e s o l u t i o n performance discriminated between successful and unsuccessful performances.  A pattern  search was performed around the i d e n t i f i e d change point across each of the 18 performances on 20 dialogue statements rated for experiencing l e v e l , vocal q u a l i t y , and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n behaviour.  Between group compar-  isons were then made as to the attainment of the c l i e n t performance patterns termed " s o f t e n i n g , " "values and standards" and " f e l t wants."  Data C o l l e c t i o n and Rating Procedures  Two independent raters were used f o r each of the three measuring instruments (Experiencing Scale, C l i e n t Vocal Quality System and S t r u c t u r a l A n a l y s i s of Social Behaviour Model) and for the s e l e c t i o n of the client-statement units to be rated.  One of the raters was a professor i n  Counselling Psychology and the remainder were graduate students in Couns e l l i n g Psychology. The two statement-unit r a t e r s selected statements representing d i a logue between the c h a i r s by d i s c r i m i n a t i n g these statements from statements representing parenthetical processing to the t h e r a p i s t .  The s i x process  measure raters used audio-tapes and typewritten t r a n s c r i p t s of the s p e c i f i c dialogue statements selected for r a t i n g .  Each of the raters rated  two-thirds of the data, providing an overlap of one-third for a r e l i a b i l i t y check.  Each of the process measure r a t e r s had a minimum of 15 hours  41 of t r a i n i n g and each was trained i n accord with the rules of the p a r t i c u l a r process c l a s s i f i c a t i o n manual.  The experiencing l e v e l and SASB raters  rated the i d e n t i f i e d statements according to the rules i n t h e i r respective manuals and provided a f i n a l score f o r each statement to represent the predominant behaviour i n that statement.  The voice r a t e r s also rated  according to manual r u l e s ; however, they were to consider the o v e r a l l statement "focused" i f the statement contained a minimum of two thought u n i t s of "focused" voice (a more l e n i e n t requirement than that required by the manual).  This adaptation was J u s t i f i e d because i t was the attainment  of focused voice not the amount which was of concern i n t h i s study in the search for performance patterns. R e l i a b i l i t y scores were high across a l l r a t i n g s . s e l e c t o r s had a percentage agreement score of 98%.  The dialogue-unit  On the statement by  statement r a t i n g s , the experiencing r a t e r s obtained a Pearson product moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of r = .84, the voice r a t e r s obtained a Cohen's kappa of . 6 3 , and the SASB r a t e r s obtained a Cohen's kappa of .86.  S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis  This study required a t e s t to determine the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the difference between two independent samples.  Since there were scores from  two independent random samples a l l f a l l i n g i n t o one or the other of two mutually exclusive c l a s s e s , and since 1^ was s m a l l , the Fisher Exact Test of P r o b a b i l i t y ( S i e g e l , 1956) was s e l e c t e d .  Alpha was set at the .05  l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e and the Fisher Exact Test was used to determine  42 whether the r e s o l u t i o n performances and non-resolution performances d i f fered as to the frequency of performances which demonstrated the a t t a i n ment of the hypothesized performance patterns.  The "Table of C r i t i c a l  Values of D (or C) i n the Fisher Test" ( S i e g e l , 1956,  Table I,  pp. 256-  270) i s a p p l i c a b l e to data where N_ i s 30 or smaller, and where neither of the t o t a l s in the right-hand margin i s l a r g e r than 15.  Because the  data met these requirements, t h i s table was used to determine the s i g n i f icance of the observed set of values i n each of the four 2 x 2  contingency  t a b l e s . Since Hi f o r each of the four hypotheses predicted the d i r e c t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e , the region of r e j e c t i o n was o n e - t a i l e d .  HQ f o r each of  the four hypotheses was rejected i f the observed c e l l values d i f f e r e d i n the predicted d i r e c t i o n and i f they were of such magnitude that the proba b i l i t y associated with t h e i r occurrence under HQ was equal to or l e s s than .05.  43  CHAPTER IV  Results  In t h i s chapter the r e s u l t s are presented of the c l i e n t performance pattern search (Table 1 ) , of the s t a t i s t i c a l analyses of the between-group comparisons (Tables 2 - 5 ) , and of the additional research question.  Dis-  cussion and i m p l i c a t i o n s of these r e s u l t s follows i n Chapter V.  The Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the C l i e n t Performance Pattern of "Softening" Tn the "Other Chair"  The two groups, resolution performances and non-resolution performances, were compared using F i s h e r ' s Exact Test ( S i e g e l , 1956) for the attainment of the "softening" performance pattern in the "other c h a i r . " Results of t h i s between-group comparison are presented in Table 2.  Refer-  ence to Table I ( S i e g e l , 1956, p. 257) reveals that with these marginal t o t a l s (A + B = 9 and C + D = 9 ) , and with A = 9, the observed C = 0 has a o n e - t a i l e d p r o b a b i l i t y of occurrence under Ho of £ < .001.  Since t h i s  £ was smaller than the set l e v e l of significance,ot <= .05, our decision was to r e j e c t Ho i n favor of H i -  We concluded that the performance compo-  nent of " s o f t e n i n g " in the "other c h a i r " has power to discriminate the  44 Table 1 Identification  Resolution 1  2  Ll138J  138 X2  o;  <  z  v  138  X2  5  6  7  8  9  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  138 F2  137 F2  138 X2  135 X2  137 F2  lis F3  137 X2  137 X2  136 X2  144 X2  136 X2  138 X2  135 X2  135 X2  135 X2  1 138  137 F2  135 X2  135 X2  137 F3  138 X2  137 X2  138 X2  135 X2  143 X3  135 X2  138 X2  135 X2  135 X3  136  F2  136 X3  1138  136 F2  138 X2  137 F3  135 X2  135 F2  137 X2  136 X3  136 X2  138 X2  135 X2  148 X3  138 X2  135 F3  135 X2  138 X2  138  F3  136 X3  216 X3  136 F3  137 X2  137 X2  135 X2  138 F3  138 X3  138 X3  136 X2  137 X2  135 X3  135 X2  138 X2  135 X3  135 X2  138 X2  138 L2  138 X2  215 X4  144 X2  136 F2  131 F2  216 X3  138 F2  138 F3  138 X3  136 X2  131 X2  138 F3  144 X3  138 X2  136 X2  138 X4  138 X3  136 X3  138 X3  233 X3  217 X4  137 F3  216 F4  216 X5  135 X2  227 X3  138 X3  136 X2  138 X2  138 X2  144 X2  144 X2  135 X2  138 E2  214 X3  135 X3  215 F4  226 X3  217 F5  137 X3  131 F4  216  135 X2  215 F4  144 F2  136 X2  136 L4  138 X2  135 X2  136 X2  135 X2  138 X2  215 F3  136 X3  138 F3  233 X4  113 X4  135 F4  131 / 215 "> 135 F4 X3  143 F4  216 F5  138 X2  136 L3  138 X2  138 X2  135 X2  136 F3  137 F3  215 X2  136 L2  144 F5  233 E4  113 F5  215 X4  131 X4  216 X5  135 F3  143 F5  214 X4  138 X2  138 L3  138 X2  144 X2  135 X2  138 X3  138 X3  136 X3  148 X2  \216 /'215^ vl45 / F4 F 5 ) E4  131 F4  216 X5  135 E3  138 X4  216 X4  136 X2  136 X3  138 X2  138 X2  136 X2  136 X2  135 X3  135 X3  148 X2  \136 X2  138 X3  138 X2  138 X3  135 X2  144 X2  137 X2  135 X3  135 X2  1  y  147 / 2 1 5 / 2 1 5 x  115 /Z15~\ F5  ^fjT\l43  2: —  o o.  147 X5  F5 ) F5 215 F6  112 F5  (ZIS\ 143 143 F5  — <_> z Ul '— CC Ul 1  Q.  2  1 - 0  z ui  z < I L.)  ZEL  UJ  hc(  t— 1/1  O  -  Non-Resolution Performances  Performances  4  3  138 1138 ! 136 F2 X2 3  of C l i e n t Performance Patterns  112 ^215 A 143 F5 F5 N  J  215 F5  F5\  143 F5  F57  \\1  147  214 X5  245 F5  136 X2  214 X3  138 X2  138 X3  136 X2  136 X2  137 X3  135 X3  136 X2  F5  216 F6  136 X2  137 X3  138 X2  144 X3  136 X2  216 X2  136 X3  138 X3  138 X2  (ns\ 216 F6  136 X2  214 X3  138 X2  144 X2  138 X2  138 X2  136 X3  136 X3  148 X2  END  136 X2  137 X3  138 X2  138 X3  136 X2  144 X2  135 X2  214 X3  148 X2  END  21 7 /135 •j/ X3  212 ^ 2 4 3 / 214 X3 F5 _  215 X4  135 X4  177l36 €¥ X3  2)4 ^ 2 4 3 / 217 FT- \Ft X3  215 X4  135 V43/ X4 \F4  217 X4  135 E3  217  230 ^ 2 4 3 / 243 X4 E3  X4  V21 7 233 E4  113 F5  243 X4  243/243 X4  216 F4 217 X4  217 X4  A  i  215 F4  215 X3  217 X3  233 X2  214 X3  215 X3  214 X3  216 X3  224 X2  227 X3  216 X4  215 X3  215 X4  215 X2  215 X4  215 X4  215 X3  216 X4  231 F3  227 L3  215 X4  233 X3  215 X2  215 X3  217 X3  135 X3  216 X4  224 X2  227 L3  233 X3  135 F3  233 X3  215 E3  237 X3  227 X3  236 X3  224 F2  227 L3  233 X3  214 X3  233 X3  215 E4  217 X3  237 X2  216 F4  215 X3  227 X3  217/ 215 216 F4 F4 \ 4 3 / 216 •4/ X4 217 X4  144 X4  F2,  17/V17,  Note : "Values and Standards" pattern = SASB 137 or 138, focused v o i c e , exp. l e v e l  3.  \y  " F e l t Wants" pattern = SASB 217 or 243, focused v o i c e , exp. l e v e l 4 or above.  ^ )  "Softening" pattern = SASB 215, focused  v o i c e , exp. l e v e l 5.  45 r e s o l u t i o n performances from the non-resolution  performances.  The Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the "Values and Standards" and the " F e l t Wants" C l i e n t Performance Patterns  The two groups, resolution performances and non-resolution  perform-  ances, were compared using F i s h e r ' s Exact Test ( S i e g e l , 1956) for the attainment w i t h i n the same session of both the "values and standards" performance pattern i n the "other c h a i r " and the " f e l t wants" performance pattern i n the "experiencing c h a i r . " parison are presented i n Table 3.  Results of t h i s between-group com-  Reference to Table I ( S i e g e l , 1956, p.  257) reveals that with these marginal t o t a l s  (A + B = 9 and C + D = 9 ) ,  and with A = 7, the observed C = 0 has a o n e - t a i l e d p r o b a b i l i t y rence under Ho of £  < .005.  l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e , a Hj.  of occur-  Since t h i s £ was smaller than the set  = .05, our decision was to r e j e c t Ho i n favor of  We concluded that the performance components of "values and stand-  ards" expressed in the "other c h a i r " together with " f e l t wants" expressed i n the "experiencing c h a i r " have power to discriminate the performances from the non-resolution  resolution  performances.  The Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the " F e l t Wants" C l i e n t Performance Pattern i n the "Experiencing Chair"  The two groups, resolution performances and non-resolution  perform-  ances, were compared using F i s h e r ' s Exact Test ( S i e g e l , 1956) for the  46 TABLE 2 Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the "Softening" Performance Pattern in the "Other C h a i r " Presence of "softening" pattern  Resolution performances  9  ilNon-resolution performances  JD * 9  Note:  Absence of "softening" pattern  Total  0  9  _9  _9  9  18  The Fisher Exact Test of P r o b a b i l i t y ( S e i g e l , 1956) indicates p g .001. * p < .05.  TABLE 3 Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the "Values and Standards" and the " F e l t Wants" C l i e n t Performance Patterns  Presence of both patterns Resolution performances Non-resolution performances  Note:  7  Absence of one or both patterns  Total  2  9  _0 *  _9  _9  7  11  18  The Fisher Exact Test of P r o b a b i l i t y ( S i e g e l , 1956) indicates p s .005. * p < .05.  47  attainment of the " f e l t wants" performance pattern i n the "experiencing chair." 4.  Results of t h i s between-group comparison are presented i n Table  Reference to Table I ( S i e g e l , 1956, p. 257) reveals that with these  marginal t o t a l s  (A + B = 9 and C + D = 9 ) , and with A = 8, the observed C  = 0 has a o n e - t a i l e d p r o b a b i l i t y of occurrence under HQ of £ < .001. Since t h i s £ was smaller than the set l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e ,  a = .05,  our decision was to r e j e c t Ho i n favor of Hj. We concluded that the performance component of " f e l t wants" expressed i n the "experiencing c h a i r " has power to discriminate the r e s o l u t i o n performances from the non-resolut i o n performances.  The Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the "Values and Standards" C l i e n t Performance Pattern i n the "Other Chair"  The two groups, resolution performances and non-resolution  perform-  ances, were compared using F i s h e r ' s Exact Test ( S i e g e l , 1956) for the attainment of the "values and standards" performance pattern i n the "other chair." 5.  Results of t h i s between-group comparison are presented i n Table  Reference to Table I ( S i e g e l , 1956, p. 257) reveals that with these  marginal t o t a l s (A + B = 9 and C + D = 9 ) , and with A = 8, the observed C = 3 has a o n e - t a i l e d p r o b a b i l i t y of occurrence under HQ of £  < .05.  Since t h i s £ was equal to or smaller than the set l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e , a  = .05, our decision was to r e j e c t Ho i n favor of Hi. We concluded that  the performance component of "values and standards" expressed in the  48 TABLE 4 Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the " F e l t Wants" Performance Pattern in the "Experiencing Chair" Presence of " f e l t wants" pattern Resolution performances  8  Non-resolution performances  Note:  Absence of " f e l t wants" pattern  Total  1  9  _0 *  _9  _9  8  10  18  The Fisher Exact Test of P r o b a b i l i t y p s .001.  ( S e i g e l , 1956)  indicates  * p < .05.  TABLE 5 Between-Group Comparison on Attainment of the "Values and Standards" Performance Pattern in the "Other C h a i r " Presence of "values and standards" pattern Resolution performances Non-resolution  performances  8  -A * 11  Note:  The Fisher Exact Test of P r o b a b i l i t y p s .05. * p S .05.  Absence of "values and standards" pattern  Total  1  9  _6  _9  7  18  ( S e i g e l , 1956)  indicates  49 "other c h a i r " has power to discriminate the r e s o l u t i o n performances from the non-resolution performances.  Comparison of Occurrence Across Resolution Performances of the C l i e n t I d e n t i f i e d "Most S i g n i f i c a n t Moment of Change" with the RaterI d e n t i f i e d "Softening" Performance Pattern  A f u r t h e r question of i n t e r e s t in t h i s study was whether c l i e n t s , across the r e s o l u t i o n performances, would i n d i c a t e t h e i r "most s i g n i f i c a n t moment of change" in the process of r e s o l v i n g t h e i r s p l i t at the o b j e c t i v e l y - r a t e d time of occurrence of " s o f t e n i n g . "  For f i v e of the  nine r e s o l u t i o n performances, the i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t change point c o occurred exactly with the beginning of "softening" (see Table 1).  The  indicated s i g n i f i c a n t change points for three of the r e s o l u t i o n performances occurred w i t h i n one c l i e n t statement of the beginning of " s o f t e n i n g " and for the remaining r e s o l u t i o n performance the indicated s i g n i f i c a n t change point was j u s t three c l i e n t statements i n t o the " s o f t e n i n g . " According to a l l of the c l i e n t s i n t h i s study, then, the experience of "softening" was the most s i g n i f i c a n t moment of change i n the process of resolving their  split.  50  CHAPTER V  Discussion of Results and Conclusions  Discussion and Conclusions  The proposed s p e c i f i c components of c o n f l i c t s p l i t r e s o l u t i o n using Gestalt two-chair dialogue were supported by the r e s u l t s of t h i s study. A l l nine r e s o l u t i o n performances and none of the non-resolution performances attained the "softening" c l i e n t performance pattern i n the "other chair."  At t h i s point i n the r e s o l u t i o n performance, the "other c h a i r "  openly d i s c l o s e s i t s f e e l i n g s (chart point 215 on the SASB), representing a s h i f t from a previously d i s a f f i l i a t i v e and c o n t r o l l i n g a t t i t u d e to one of a f f i l i a t i o n  and independence.  This d i s c l o s u r e occurs at a high l e v e l  of experiencing (level 5 on the Experiencing Scale) i n d i c a t i n g the statement of a problem or proposition and the subsequent exploration and elaboration of that issue with reference to f e e l i n g s and personal experiences.  The c l i e n t does t h i s with a "focused" v o i c e , i n d i c a t i v e of the  c r i t i c turning inward and newly constructing what i t i s saying as opposed to i t s previous " l e c t u r i n g at" q u a l i t y of speaking.  The f a c t that the c o -  occurrence of these three process dimensions i n t o the s p e c i f i e d pattern  51 c a l l e d " s o f t e n i n g " discriminated the r e s o l u t i o n performances from the nonr e s o l u t i o n performances supports consideration of t h i s pattern as one of the e s s e n t i a l components of the r e s o l u t i o n task. Seven of the r e s o l u t i o n performances and none of the non-resolution performances were characterized by the attainment of both the " f e l t wants" pattern in the "experiencing c h a i r " and the "values and standards" pattern i n the "other c h a i r . "  Of the two r e s o l u t i o n performances l a c k i n g both  patterns, one (case 2) attained the "values and standards" pattern but f a i l e d to a t t a i n the " f e l t wants" pattern and one (case 6) attained the " f e l t wants" pattern but f a i l e d to a t t a i n the "values and standards" pattern.  Inspection of the data revealed that the "experiencing c h a i r " of  case 2 had a high proportion of emotional voice and SASB behaviours i n d i c a t i n g a turning outward of negative emotion.  I t may be that t h i s  case was not i n f a c t part of the homogeneous set of c o n f l i c t s p l i t r e s o l u t i o n s , but rather a case representing the undoing of a r e t r o f l e x i o n , although i t did match the study's requirements for being considered a r e s o l u t i o n performance.  If t h i s i s so, the lack of expression of " f e l t  wants" may simply be r e f l e c t i v e of d i f f e r e n t processes t r i g g e r i n g the "softening" i n the undoing of a r e t r o f l e c t i o n as opposed to the processes t r i g g e r i n g the "softening" in the r e s o l u t i o n of a c o n f l i c t s p l i t .  In  the other case, 6, when the "other c h a i r " did not use focused v o i c e , and thus did not a t t a i n the "values and standards" p a t t e r n , inspection of the e a r l i e r two-chair dialogue i n t h i s case revealed the attainment of the "values and standards" pattern.  However, because of the a r b i t r a r y  limit  to t h i s study's pattern search of only ten statements p r i o r to the iden-  52 t i f 1 e d change p o i n t , t h i s pattern was not i d e n t i f i e d in the study's analysis.  The attainment of both the "values and standards" pattern and  the " f e l t wants" p a t t e r n , l i k e the " s o f t e n i n g " p a t t e r n , did discriminate the r e s o l u t i o n performances from the non-resolution performances, thus supporting consideration of these two performance patterns being essent i a l components of the r e s o l u t i o n task. Eight of the r e s o l u t i o n performances and none of the non-resolution performances were characterized by the attainment of the " f e l t wants" pattern.  As has already been discussed, the absence of t h i s pattern i n  case 2 may have been caused by the undoing of a r e t r o f l e x i o n rather than the r e s o l u t i o n of a c o n f l i c t s p l i t .  In expressing the " f e l t wants" per-  formance p a t t e r n , the "experiencing c h a i r " makes an a f f i l i a t i v e  assertion  towards the "other c h a i r , " e i t h e r independently " a s s e r t i n g on i t s own" (SASB chart point 217) or "vulnerably s t a t i n g i t s needs" (SASB chart point 243).  This assertion occurs at a moderate l e v e l of experiencing (level 4  on the Experiencing S c a l e ) , i n d i c a t i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s of f e e l i n g s and personal experiences.  The c l i e n t does t h i s with a focused v o i c e , i n d i c a -  t i v e of turning inward and f r e s h l y constructing what i t i s saying.  As  with the "softening" performance p a t t e r n , none of the non-resolution performances attained t h i s pattern. Eight of the r e s o l u t i o n performances and three of the non-resolution performances attained the "values and standards" p a t t e r n .  This pattern i s  characterized by a d i s a f f i l i a t i v e r e s t r i c t i n g and enforcing of conformity on the part of the "other c h a i r " toward the "experiencing c h a i r " (SASB behaviours 137 and 138).  This occurs at a moderately low l e v e l of exper-  53 i e n c i n g (level 3 on the Experiencing Scale) i n d i c a t i n g a personal reactiveness, but i s communicated with a "focused" v o i c e .  The use of focused  voice seems to be the c r i t i c a l determinant of the "values and standards" pattern.  With the expression of the "values and standards" p a t t e r n , no  longer i s there the " l e c t u r i n g at" q u a l i t y of severe c r i t i c i s m , but rather a true d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g  of the values and standards held i n opposition to  the "experiencing c h a i r . "  This change of voice seems to be an important  i n d i c a t o r of something new developing in the c l i e n t ' s awareness.  As w i t h  the "softening" pattern and the " f e l t wants" p a t t e r n , i t appears as though the "turning inwards" indicated by the focused voice i n d i c a t e s the accomplishment of an important sub-task w i t h i n the o v e r a l l a f f e c t i v e task of resolving a c o n f l i c t s p l i t .  The f a c t that three of the non-resolution  performances attained t h i s pattern may be considered support for the sequential ordering of these three performance components of s p l i t resolution.  conflict  The expression of values and standards i n the "other  c h a i r " i s thought to precede the expression of f e l t " wants" in the "experiencing c h a i r , " which then i s considered to t r i g g e r the " s o f t e n i n g . " Given these r e s u l t s , i t could be argued that i t i s questionable whether or not these performance patterns are part of the essential s t r u c tural components of the successful completion of the c o n f l i c t s p l i t resol u t i o n task or whether they are a product of a s o c i a l influence process on the part of the t h e r a p i s t s .  However, although i t i s possible that the  therapists influenced the p a r t i c u l a r content and possibly even the l e v e l of experiencing of t h e i r c l i e n t s , i t remains highly u n l i k e l y that they were able to influence c l i e n t vocal q u a l i t y .  A l s o , the same therapists  54  were working with the non-resolvers and those performances did not show the same components with the exception of three of the non-resolution performances a t t a i n i n g the "values and standards" p a t t e r n .  I t might also  be argued on the basis of having had such a small sample of performances that the difference between the groups could be explained by an i n d i v i d u a l difference v a r i a b l e .  However, the s p e c i f i c a t i o n of c l i e n t performance  patterns at the l e v e l of refinement offered in t h i s study supports the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n that these components are actual features of successful task performance, even i f they are a t t r i b u t a b l e to an i n d i v i d u a l ence v a r i a b l e at work.  differ-  From the r e s u l t s of t h i s study i t appears that  c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n performances in the two-chair dialogue are characterized by a d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g of oppositional values and standards which are subsequently challenged by a d e e p l y - f e l t a s s e r t i o n of "wants" and needs from the newly experienced y e t unacceptable aspects of the s e l f which i n turn t r i g g e r s an acceptance of these aspects by a softening in a t t i t u d e of the previously harsh inner c r i t i c .  Implications for Theory and P r a c t i c e  The two-chair dialogues of c l i e n t s engaged i n r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s p l i t s are thought to be homologues of the change processes involved i n intrapsychic c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n .  If  t h i s i s so, through the i d e n t i f i c a -  t i o n and v e r i f i c a t i o n of some of the e s s e n t i a l performance components f o r successful c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t h i s study contributes to the t h e o r e t i c a l understanding of how people change.  V e r i f y i n g the importance of the  55  c l i e n t ' s focused and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d expression of oppositional values and standards on the one side and the importance of a focused d e e p l y - f e l t assertion of "wants" and needs challenging these values from the other side o f f e r s us a glimpse of the mechanism t r i g g e r i n g the softening of the previously harsh inner c r i t i c .  Seemingly, through the G e s t a l t a f f e c t i v e  approach, a c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e r e s t r u c t u r i n g takes place which p a r a l l e l s i n e f f e c t the goals of c o g n i t i v e b e h a v i o r i s t s , but without the d i r e c t challenging and confrontation by the t h e r a p i s t r e f u t i n g the client's irrational beliefs.  The r e s u l t s of t h i s study underscore the  importance of providing stimulation such that c l i e n t s can f i r s t  differ-  e n t i a t e t h e i r c r i t i c i s m into a focused presentation of values and standards, and that they can then challenge these b e l i e f s with t h e i r own d e e p l y - f e l t assertion of previously unacceptable experiencing.  A cogni-  t i v e and a f f e c t i v e r e s t r u c t u r i n g of values then i s triggered and the p r e viously harsh inner c r i t i c softens i t s a t t i t u d e , enabling the i n t e g r a t i o n of the two previously disparate aspects of s e l f . In a d d i t i o n to t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n , some e x c i t i n g i m p l i c a tions for c l i n i c a l p r a c t i c e r e s u l t from t h i s study.  As indicated in the  Review of L i t e r a t u r e , i t i s important that the t h e r a p i s t know not only what to do but also when, and in r e l a t i o n to what c l i e n t performance pattern and with what process g o a l .  Knowing some of the component pro-  cesses by which c l i e n t s s u c c e s s f u l l y resolve c o n f l i c t s p l i t enables t h e r a p i s t s to stimulate the appropriate processes at p a r t i c u l a r stages i n c l i e n t performances.  The p r o b a b i l i t y of c l i e n t discovery and progression  towards r e s o l u t i o n i s thereby increased as appropriate t h e r a p i s t task  56 i n s t r u c t i o n s are matched with p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t performance processes. Such f o l l o w i n g of the patterns and sequences of c l i e n t performances on the part of the t h e r a p i s t can then contribute to more potent intervening. An e x c i t i n g extension of t h i s study would be the development of a t r a i n ing program f o r t h e r a p i s t s i n which they are taught to see and hear p a r t i c u l a r performance patterns i n terms of the process dimensions of experiencing l e v e l , vocal q u a l i t y and SASB.  Adopting the language of  Newell and Simon (1972), t h e r a p i s t s could be taught to recognize c l i e n t s ' e x p e r i e n t i a l " s t a t e s of knowledge."  In conducting process diagnoses, they  could i d e n t i f y the c l i e n t ' s present s t a t e , i d e n t i f y the differences which need to be reduced between t h i s state and the next desirable s t a t e , and then apply therapeutic interventions that would enable them to do t h a t .  Recommendations for Future Research  In order to further v a l i d a t e the Johnson (1980) model, future research might include a r e p l i c a t i o n of the present study and further v e r i f i c a t i o n studies on more of the component performance patterns of c o n f l i c t s p l i t resolution.  More single-case intensive studies of r e s o l u t i o n per-  formances could be conducted such that the a c t i v e ingredients of these performance  patterns can be i d e n t i f i e d .  Rather than study non-resolution  performances at t h i s point in the research program, i t may be more useful to look at a r e s o l u t i o n that has one of the components missing and then to modify the e x i s t i n g model.  Non-resolvers, f o r instance, may have a l l the  components but in a d i f f e r e n t order or they may be missing one or more.  57 Another promising way of studying r e s o l u t i o n performances i n an attempt to i s o l a t e the a c t i v e components would be to do s i n g l e case studies of c l i e n t s over time, provided they continue to work on the same c o n f l i c t split.  Useful comparisons could then be made between the r e s o l u t i o n per-  formance interview and the non-resolution performance of the preceding interview. Another focus f o r future research would be the elaboration and refinement of the t h e r a p i s t task i n s t r u c t i o n s .  More s p e c i f i c categories  could be generated to add to the f i v e p r i n c i p l e s o u t l i n e d by Greenberg (1975; 1980b) of therapeutic interventions applied contextually to the s p e c i f i c patterns and sequences of c l i e n t performances. Future research could also include more r e f i n e d d i f f e r e n t i a l studies.  effects  Rather than g l o b a l l y comparing two therapeutic interventions at  the s p l i t marker, p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t performances i n p a r t i c u l a r contexts could be r e l a t e d to successful outcome ( e . g . , softening i n the context of a s p l i t r e l a t e d to outcome).  In a d d i t i o n , studies could be done s p e c i -  fying what c l i e n t performance s t r a t e g i e s are set i n motion by what therap i s t interventions at what p a r t i c u l a r points i n therapy.  For example, a  comparison could be done with the t h e r a p i s t intervention "What do you want?" applied during d i f f e r e n t stages in the c l i e n t task performances of conflict splits.  During the r e a c t i v e opposition stage of the task per-  formance, t h i s intervention might lead to the c l i e n t c i r c l i n g in r e p e t i t i v e reaction at low l e v e l s of experiencing and f a i l i n g to progress to the next stage.  A p p l i e d , however, during the stage of d e e p l y - f e l t inner ex-  periencing, t h i s intervention might prompt progression to the next stage  58 i n the sequential path to r e s o l u t i o n .  Also, experiential "shifts"  in  c l i e n t experiencing can now be captured and operationalized through the use of several process c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems.  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( E d . ) , Psychology:  A study of a science, V o l . 3.  In S . Koch  New York: McGraw  H i l l , 1959. Schwartz, R.M. & Gottman, J . M . Toward a task a n a l y s i s of a s s e r t i v e behavior.  Journal of Consulting and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1976, 44,  910-920. S i e g e l , S . ' Nonparametric s t a t i s t i c s for the behavioral sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1956. S i e g l e r , R.S.  Three aspects of c o g n i t i v e development.  Cognitive Psy-  chology, 1976, 8, 481-520. S i e g l e r , R.S. ences.  Cognition, i n s t r u c t i o n , development, and i n d i v i d u a l  differ-  In A.M. Lesgold, J.W. P e l l e g r i n o , S.D. Fokkema & R. Glaser  ( E d s . ) , Cognitive psychology and i n s t r u c t i o n .  New York: Plenum  P u b l i s h i n g , 1978. S i e g l e r , R.S. & Richards, P.D. concepts. S i e g l e r , R.S.  Development of time, speed, and distance  Developmental Psychology, 1979, 15^ 288-298. Recent trends i n the study of c o g n i t i v e development: v a r i a -  tions on a t a s k - a n a l y t i c theme.  Human Development, 1980, 23,  278-285. Simon, D.P. & Simon, H.A. spelling.  Review of Educational Research, 1973, 43, 115-137.  Simon, D . P . , & Simon, H.A. problems.  A l t e r n a t i v e uses of phonemic information in  Individual differences in solving physics  In R.S. S i e g l e r , C h i l d r e n ' s t h i n k i n g : what develops?  H i l l s d a l e , N . J . : Erlbaum, 1978.  65 Simon, H.A.  Administrative behavior.  New York: Macmillan, 1947.  Simon, H.A.  Rational choice and the structure of the  environment.  Psychological Review, 1956, 63_, 129-138. Sternberg, R . J .  Component processes i n analogical reasoning.  Psycho-  l o g i c a l Review, 1977a, 84, 353-378. Sternberg, R . J . reasoning: dale, N . J . :  Intelligence,  the componential a n a l y s i s of human a b i l i t i e s .  Hi 11s-  Erlbaum, 1977b.  Sternberg, R . J . & R i f k i n , B. processes.  information processing, and analogical  The development of analogical reasoning  Journal of Experimental C h i l d Psychology, 1979, 27,  195-237. Strupp, H.  Foreword.  In D . J . K i e s l e r , The process of psychotherapy:  A review of research. Taylor, L.  Chicago: A l d i n e , 1973.  Toward a task a n a l y s i s of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n .  Unpublished  Master's t h e s i s : The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980. Webster, M.  The elements of decision making from a Gestalt perspective:  A r e l a t i o n of process to outcome.  Unpublished doctoral  dissertation:  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981. Zytowski, D.G. & Betz, E . L .  Measurement i n Counseling Research: A review.  The Counseling P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1972, 3, 72-81.  Role  Play  Identify  Values  Softening  £ Standards  Negotiation  Under-Dog  .Under-Dog  Feelings  Disowned Polarity  Wants  Listening, Understanding & Feelings  Impasse  u  Integration - Resolution  n  C c o O  3  00  o  67  APPENDIX B STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR MODEL Structural  A n a l y s i s of S o c i a l Behavior  (SASS)• c 1979, W i l l i a m Alanson White P s y c h i a t r i c Lorna Smith Benjamin Department of P s y c h i a t r y C l i n i c a l Sciences Center 600 Highland Avenue M a d i s o n , Wisconsin 53792  Foundation  120 Endorse freedom  INTERPERSONAL  OTHER  118 Encourage K i u f i M identity Uncaringly lei 90 128 117 You can do it line Forget 127 1 1 6 Carefully, fairly consider Ignore, pretend not tnere 126 [ 115 Friendly linen Neglect interests, na eot 125 |—\ 114 Snow emisethic understanding lllof>c» iiwimon 124 rrr —, 113 Confirm as OK M it Abandon. leave in lurch 123 F T T 1 1 112 Stroke, soothe, cairn Starve, cut out 122 r 1 1 1 I 111 Warmly welcome Angry dismiss, resect 121 r—f I I 11 1 1 110 Tender saxuaiicy Annihilating a rack 130 —' I 1 1 I 11 1 1 I 1 I ! 141 F r i e n d l y i n v i t e Aporoacn menacingly 131 I 1 I I I ! 142 P r o v i d e f o r . n u r t u r e I II II I Rio off. drain 132 1 1 I i 143 Protect. Pack uo Punisn. take revenge 133 " 1 1 1 1 4 4 Sensible analysis Delude, divert, mislead 134 I I I 145 Constructive stimulate Accuse. oleme 135 J 146 Pamper, overindulge Put d o w n . K I s u p e r i o r 136 147 Benevolent monitor, remind Intrude, block, restrict 137 148 Specify wnat's best Enforce conformity 138  rrr  u  k  Manage, control 140 220 Freeh/ come and go Go own seoarate way 228 Defy, do opposite 227 1 Busy wim own tninq 226 Wall-oft. nondisdose 225 Noncontingent reaction 224 i I Detach, weep alone 223 rrrr Refuse exsinancv. care 222 ; i i i i Flee, escape, withdraw 221  SELF  i  Desperate protest 230  I  '  i  l  i  i  i  218 Own identity, standards 217 Assert on own 216 "Put cards on tne n o t " IIS Openfy disclose, reveal 214 Clearly express —1 213 Enthusiastic showing 212 Relax. How. enjoy i TTT 211 Joyful approach — 210 Erratic responsa i I I I 241 Follow, maintain contact i i i i 242 Accept earetaking i i 243 Ask. trust, count on I I 1 I 244 Accaot reason i ij 24S Take in. leim from J 246 a ing. depend 247 Defer, over con form 248 Submerge into rote 1  l  Wary, fearful 231 Sacrifice greatly 232 Whine, defend, justify 233 M i l l Uncomprehending agree 234 i I Appease, scurry 235 Sulk, act out upon 236 *" Apathetic compliance 237 L I Follow rules, proper 238  i  Yield, submit, give in 240 320 Happy-go-lucky  INTRAPSYCHIC Introject of OTHER to SELF  Drift wiul the moment 328 Neglect options 327 r~ Fanctsy. dream 326 | j— Neglect own potential 32S I Undefined, unknown self 324 Reckless 323 — ' I Ignore own basic neeoi 322 i : Refect, dismiss self 321 Torture, annihilate self 330  318 Let nature unfofd v 317 Let self do it, confident 3 1 6 Balanced self acceptance 1 315 Explore, listen to inner self 314 Integrated, solid core i 1 313 Pleased with self I I l —j 312 Stroke, soothe salt ^— 311 Entertain, eniov self I I I I  1  rr  I I i  I  I  I  I  Menace to self 331 | i I I II Orain. overouraen self 132 ' ! I Vengeful self punisn 333 I Deceive, divert self 334 [ | I Guilt, biame, !ud self 335 | | Doubt, put self oown 336 | lestram. hold beat ieif 337 force propriety 338 1  1  I I I I I t' I ! | i T  310 Love, cherish self  341 Seek best for self I M M 342 Nurture, restore self i i 343 Protect self i 3A4 Examine, anefyu setf 345 Practice, become accomplished 346 Self camper, indulge 347 Benevoient rye on self J48 Force ideal identity  Control, manage self 340  J  68 APPENDIX C SHORT FORM OF EXPERIENCING SCALE ( K l e i n , Mathieu, K i e s l e r & Gendlin, 1969) Stage  Content  Treatment  1  External events; refusal participate  to  2  External events; behavioural or intellectual self-description  Interested, personal, self-participation  3  Personal reactions to external events; l i m i t e d s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n s ; behavioural d e s c r i p t i o n s of f e e l i n g s  Reactive, emotionally involved  4  Descriptions of f e e l i n g s and personal experiences  Self-descriptive; associative  5  Problems or propositions about f e e l i n g s and personal experiences  Exploratory, e l a b o r a t i v e , hypothetical  6  Synthesis of r e a d i l y accessi b l e f e e l i n g s and experiences to resolve personally s i g n i f icant issues  Feelings v i v i d l y expressed, i n t e g r a t i v e , conclusive or a f f i r m a t i v e  7  F u l l , easy presentation of exp e r i e n c i n g ; a l l elements conf i d e n t l y integrated  Expansive, i l l u m i n a t i n g , confident, buoyant  Impersonal, detached  69 APPENDIX D CLIENT VOCAL QUALITY CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM (Rice, Koke, Greenberg & Wagstaff, 1979) The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the four d i f f e r e n t patterns are as f o l l o w s : A.  Focused 1.  Energy.  The energy is f a i r l y high.  Pitch is moderate to low,  with appropriate loudness. 2.  Primary s t r e s s e s .  Primary stresses are achieved more by an  increase in loudness than by a r i s e in p i t c h . than 1.  Loudness/pitch i s greater  The s t r e s s may also be achieved by lengthening the stressed  s y l l a b i e (drawl). 3.  Regularity of s t r e s s e s .  The stress pattern i s i r r e g u l a r  E n g l i s h , and stresses sometimes occur in unexpected places.  for  For  instance, adjoining s y l l a b l e s sometimes receive almost equal s t r e s s . 4.  Pace.  The pace i s i r r e g u l a r .  It  i s usually slowed, but  there may be patches that are speeded up. 5.  Timbre.  6.  Contours.  The voice is f u l l , and r e s t i n g f i r m l y on the  plat-  form. These may be unexpected in d i r e c t i o n , but the  e f f e c t i s ragged rather than m e l l i f l u o u s . B.  External 1.  Energy.  The energy is f a i r l y high.  The pitch is moderate to  high, but the volume i s adequate. 2.  Primary s t r e s s e s .  as some increase in loudness. 3.  These are achieved with pitch r i s e as well Loudness/pitch i s equal to or less than 1.  Regularity of s t r e s s e s .  regular for E n g l i s h .  The s t r e s s pattern i s markedly  The melodic l i n e may sound sing-song at lower  70  energy levels and resounding at higher l e v e l s . 4.  Pace.  The pace i s f a i r l y even, though i t may be s l i g h t l y  speeded as i t approaches a stress point. 5.  Timbre.  The voice i s f a i r l y f u l l , and resting on the plat-  6.  Contours.  form. These may  go up, down, or remain level at times  when t h i s would not be quite the expected pattern, although meaning is not  usually distorted.  C.  Limited 1.  the  Energy.  The effect i s oratorical  The energy i s low.  rather than ragged.  The volume is not adequate for  pitch. 2.  Primary stresses.  and are achieved by normal 3. normal  The primary stresses are not very strong,  balance of pitch to loudness.  Regularity of stresses.  The stress pattern has about the  i r r e g u l a r i t y of English. 4.  Pace.  The pace i s somewhat slowed, but tends to be quite  regular. 5. teristics.  Timbre.  This i s one of the clearest distinguishing charac-  The voice i s thinned from below, and the effect i s that of  a voice that i s "not resting on i t s platform." 6. D.  Contours.  Nothing notable here.  Emotional Overflow Eo.  This subcategory i s d i f f i c u l t to describe using the  six features, because a variety of different emotions are put in the same class.  The primary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s a disruption of ordinary  speech patterns.  The voice may break, tremble, r i s e to a shriek, etc.  However, the mere presence of emotion does not put i t in this c l a s s ,  71  without disruption of speech patterns.  For i n s t a n c e , laughter i s often  found in conjunction with E x t e r n a l i z i n g , and would not push the response into Emotional unless i t r e a l l y disrupts speech.  This i s not a very  s a t i s f a c t o r y c l a s s as i t now stands, but i s not too d i f f i c u l t to recognize. Expressive Ee. 1.  Energy.  Very high.  Pitch is generally higher and loudness  greater than any of the other c a t e g o r i e s . 2.  Primary s t r e s s e s .  These are generally achieved by substantial  increases in both pitch and 1oudness--although one may have a l a r g e r r e l a t i v e increase than the other.  A l s o , there i s often a clipped sense  to stressed s y l l a b l e s , and a s l i g h t pause after each one.  Expressive  v s . e x t e r n a l - - a s i d e from r e g u l a r i t y of stresses d i s t i n g u i s h i n g expressive from external  (see below), there i s greater pitch and loudness r i s e with  expressive voice than with e x t e r n a l .  If  X i s generally at modal pitch  and one step above, E varies between modal and two or three steps above, (or even higher).  Expressive v s . f o c u s e d - - s i m i l a r l y , focused generally  stays on modal pitch and o c c a s i o n a l l y goes down, or there may be a p i t c h r i s e without loudness increasing to any marked degree. 3.  Regularity of s t r e s s e s .  The most d i s t i n g u i s h i n g feature of  t h i s category is s t r e s s e d , adjoining s y l l a b l e s , with higher pitch and greater loudness than found in f o c u s e d ; . e . g . , the stressed adjoining s y l l a b l e s in the sentence below are 'I  hate.  1  I hate you There may be a pitch r i s e on the second of the stressed s y l l a b l e s , but there i s a c l e a r sense of adjoining stressed s y l l a b l e s as shown in the sentence below.  72  I don't care about you. 4. general.  Pace.  Regular over stressed s y l l a b l e s , but not regular  Often a stacatto  q u a l i t y to stressed s y l l a b l e s (relates to the  s l i g h t pauses a f t e r stressed s y l l a b l e s ) . 5.  Timbre.  in  Generally a very f u l l  voice.  73 APPENDIX  E  CONFLICT RESOLUTION BOX SCALE (CLIENT VERSION) (Dompierre, 1979) We are interested in how resolved you feel r i g h t now about your decisional c o n f l i c t .  Please indicate with an (X) your present p o s i t i o n .  T o t a l l y resolved  Somewhat resolved  Not at a l l  resolved  74 APPENDIX  F  TARGET COMPLAINTS DISCOMFORT BOX SCALE ( B a t t l e , Imber, Hoehn-Saric, Stone, Nash & Frank, 1966) We are interested in how much discomfort your decisional c o n f l i c t is causing you r i g h t now.  Please indicate with an (X) your present  position.  Coui dn 1 be worse 1  Very much  Pretty much  A little  None at a l l  

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