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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Battered wives : their growth towards independence Fitzgerald, Sheollagh 1983

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BATTERED WIVES : THEIR GROWTH TOWARDS INDEPENDENCE by S h e o l l a g h F i t z g e r a l d B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (De p a r t m e n t of C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1983 (c) S h e o l l a g h F i t z g e r a l d , 1983 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. The University of B r i t i s h Col 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Department of ABSTRACT An e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e g r o w t h t o w a r d s i n d e p e n d e n c e of f o u r b a t t e r e d women. Those s t u d i e d w e r e a s s u m e d t o be a h e t e r o g e n e o u s s a m p l e o f a t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n o f women who h a v e s e p a r a t e d f r o m p h y s i c a l l y a b u s i v e husbands. The A-B-A d e s i g n a l l o w e d f o r a t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d i n w h i c h a s e i i - s t r u c t u r e d c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r am c o u l d be i m p l e m e n t e d . Q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a was o b t a i n e d i n e i g h t , w e e k l y c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s a nd was r e c o r d e d i n t h e f o r m o f f o u r c a s e s t u d i e s . A s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l i n s t r u m e n t o f 12 p o l a r a d j e c t i v e p a i r s was u s e d t o g a t h e r q u a n t i t a t i v e t i m e s e r i e s d a t a f o r d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s . The women a s s e s s e d t h e i r f e e l i n g s i n the g i v e n a r e a s a t o t a l of 45 t i m e s o v e r t h e t h r e e p h a s e s . C o n s i s t e n c i e s among t h e women w i t h i n c h i l d h o o d w e r e d i s c u s s e d as w e l l as p o s s i b l e c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s t o t h e g r o w t h p r o c e s s . The women's s e l f - a s s e s s e d e f f e c t s o f t h e t r e a t m e n t p r o g r a m w e r e a l s o e x p l o r e d . Based on the d a t a , c o n c l u s i o n s were s u g g e s t e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l a nd s o c i a l c h a n g e t o more e f f e c t i v e l y m e e t t h e needs of b a t t e r e d women. (i) DEDICATION T h i s s t u d y i s d e d i c a t e d t o a l l b a t t e r e d women b u t , i n p a r t i c u l a r , t o the a u t h o r of t h i s poem. At the t i m e of t h i s s t u d y , s h e was 20 y e a r s o l d , a m o t h e r o f two c h i l d r e n , and was s e p a r a t i n g and r e t u r n i n g w e e k l y to an a b u s i v e h u s b a n d . She g a v e a c o p y of t h i s poem as a g i f t t o the r e s e a r c h e r . B e f o r e p r e s e n t i n g t h i s s t u d y , t h e l a t t e r w i s h e s t o w r i t e , as t h e a u t h o r o f t h e poem w r o t e , "May my w o r d s , i n some way, h e l p y o u t o r e m a i n as s t r o n g . " S e c r e t Love L i k e the o c e a n he c a p t u r e s my s i g h t , T a l l , d a r k , m y s t e r i o u s and s t r o n g , And l i k e a p e a c o c k i n many ways, A t t r a c t i n g an a d m i r i n g t h r o n g . He's as c o l d as i c e , y e t can m e l t my h e a r t W i t h a s i n g l e g l a n c e , and h i s body R i p p l e s w i t h c o n f i d e n c e , w i t h s t u r d y g r a c e ; To my eyes a r h a p s o d y . But r a t h e r t h a n be as a l l b e f o r e me, J u s t a n o t h e r f e a t h e r i n h i s cap, I ' l l l o v e m y s e l f , and s t a y my j e a l o u s y , L e a r n t o h e a r my own h e a r t t a p . One day p e r h a p s h e ' l l n o t i c e t h i s g i r l , And s i d l e c h a r m i n g l y to h e r s i d e , And soon h e ' l l be t r y i n g to t e a r out h e r h e a r t , To c o n q u e r h e r , d e s t r o y h e r p r i d e . H e ' l l n e v e r t a k e what's n e v e r r e v e a l e d ! So I ' l l h i d e my l o v e i n s i d e a s h e l l And n e v e r show h a p p i n e s s , anger or t e a r s , Then h e ' l l be t r a p p e d i n my l o v e c e l l . (ia) Acknowledgment s I w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o L o r e t t e W o o l s e y f o r h e r c o n s t a n t s u p p o r t , g u i d a n c e , and e n c o u r a g e m e n t f r o m the day t h i s r e s e a r c h was a few pages of n o t e s and t h o u g h t s u n t i l i t s emergence i n i t s p r e s e n t f o r m . I w i s h t o t h a n k L a r r y C o c h r a n f o r h i s p a t i e n t and v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n a n d , i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e u s e o f a s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l m e a s u r e . I a l s o e x t e n d t h a n k s t o R o b e r t A r m s t r o n g f o r h i s i n s i g h t i n t o f u t u r e p r o g r a m needs and h i s e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o e x p a n d my t h o u g h t s o n p r o g r a m d e s i g n t o w a r d s s p e c i f i c g o a l s . I am g r a t e f u l t o t h e women who w o r k a t M o n r o e H o u s e , B a t t e r e d Women's S u p p o r t S e r v i c e s , and t h e Women's R e s e a r c h C e n t r e f o r the r e s o u r c e and p o s i t i v e n e s s t h e y p r o v i d e d me. To a l l my f a m i l y and f r i e n d s who l i s t e n e d t o me, h e l p e d me c l a r i f y my t h o u g h t s a n d w o r d s , s h a r e d my ups and downs i n t h e c r e a t i o n p r o c e s s , m e d i a t e d my s o m e t i m e s s t o r m y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a c o m p u t e r , o r p o u r e d me c o f f e e t h r o u g h the night....you e n r i c h e d t h i s r e s e a r c h as you d i d me. Thank y o u . ( i i ) TABLE OF CONTENTS Page D e d i c a t i o n (ia) Ack n o w l e d g e m e n t s ( i i ) A b s t r a c t (i) CHAPTER I I n t r o d u c t i o n 2 Ba c k g r o u n d of t h e P r o b l e m 2 A v i o l e n t s o c i e t y 2 An e s t i m a t e d c o n d i t i o n 4 The v i o l e n t f a m i l y 6 What i s w i f e b a t t e r i n g ? 6 Why f o c u s on women as v i c t i m s ? 8 Why does the woman s t a y or r e t u r n ? 9 P s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s of p h y s i c a l b a t t e r i n g 12 Statement of t h e P r o b l e m 13 C l a r i f i c a t i o n of terms 14 I I Review of the L i t e r a t u r e 15 Myths 15 The A b u s i v e R e l a t i o n s h i p 22 The S o c i a l Response 31 T h e o r e t i c a l A p p r o a c h e s 35 P r e f a c e 35 S o c i o c u l t u r a l t h e o r y 35 ( i i i ) Page S o c i a l l e a r n i n g t h e o r y 38 S t r e s s t h e o r y 42 L e a r n e d h e l p l e s s n e s s t h e o r y 44 R e i n f o r c e m e n t & o p p o n e n t - p r o c e s s t h e o r i e s 46 T r a u m a t i c b o n d i n g 47 S u p p o r t : What Are The Needs? 48 I I I M e t h o d o l o g y 51 D e s i g n 51 Sample 53 Q u a l i t a t i v e Data C o l l e c t i o n : Case Study Format 55 I n s t r u m e n t 57 IV R e s u l t s 60 Q u a l i t a t i v e Case Study R e s u l t s 60 P r e f a c e 60 Case Study 1 61 Case Study 2 79 Case Study 3 104 Case Study 4 127 Q u a n t i t a t i v e G r a p h Data 150 V D e s c r i p t i v e A n a l y s i s of R e s u l t s 158 D e s c r i p t i v e A n a l y s i s of Q u a l i t a t i v e Data 158 D e s c r i p t i v e A n a l y s i s of Q u a n t i t a t i v e D a t a 170 VI C o n c l u s i o n s , Recommendations, & I m p l i c a t i o n s 176 (iv) Page C o n c l u s i o n s 176 Recommendations 178 I m p l i c a t i o n s 179 P e r s o n a l I n s i g h t s On T h e o r y And P r a c t i s e 182 R e f e r e n c e Notes 186 R e f e r e n c e s 190 A p p e n d i c e s ^gg (y) IiIST^F_FIGURE_S F_l.gure Page 1,2 Se m a n t i c D i f f e r e n t i a l S c o r e s O b t a i n e d Over 13 Week P e r i o d Of The S t u d y : P o s i t i v e A d j e c -t i v e s R e c e i v i n g H i g h S c o r e E v a l u a t i o n 150 3,4 S e m a n t i c D i f f e r e n t i a l S c o r e s O b t a i n e d Over 13 Week P e r i o d Of The S t u d y : P o s i t i v e A d j e c -t i v e s R e c e i v i n g H i g h S c o r e E v a l u a t i o n i_i 5,6 R e l a t i o n s h i p Between A c t i v e ( 7 ) / P a s s i v e ( 1 ) And R e l a x e d ( 7 ) / T e n s e ( 1 ) D u r i n g B a s e l i n e P e r i o d 152 7,8 R e l a t i o n s h i p Between A c t i v e ( 7 ) / P a s s i v e ( 1 ) And R e l a x e d ( 7 ) / T e n s e ( 1 ) D u r i n g B a s e l i n e P e r i o d 153 9,10 R e l a t i o n s h i p Between A c t i v e ( 7 ) / P a s s i v e ( 1 ) And R e l a x e d ( 7 ) / T e n s e ( 1 ) D u r i n g P o s t t r e a t r a e n t Phase 154 11 R e l a t i o n s h i p Between A c t i v e ( 7 ) / P a s s i v e ( 1 ) And R e l a x e d ( 7 ) / T e n s e ( 1 ) D u r i n g P o s t t r e a t m e n t Phase 155 12 R e l a t i o n s h i p Between A c c u m u l a t e d S c o r e s F o r Th e 12 A d j e c t i v e P a i r s I n T h e B a s e l i n e And P o s t t r e a t m e n t P h a s e s 155 13,14 R e l a t i o n s h i p Between A c c u m u l a t e d S c o r e s F o r The 12 A d j e c t i v e P a i r s In The B a s e l i n e And P o s t t r e a t m e n t Phases 156 15 R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Combined Da t a Of A d j e c t i v e #5 F o r B a s e l i n e And P o s t t r e a t m e n t Phases 157 16 R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Combined Data of A d j e c t i v e #8 F o r B a s e l i n e And P o s t t r e a t m e n t Phases 157 (vi) Page 1 missed i n numbering 1 B a t t e r e d W i v e s _ 2 _ T h e i r _ G r o w t h Towards Independence CHAPTER I Ba c k g r o u n d of The P r o b l e m - Y.i.°l?.3JL s o c i e t y . W i f e b a t t e r i n g has t a k e n p l a c e f o r t h o u s a n d s o f y e a r s ( D o b a s h & D o b a s h , 1979; M a r t i n , N o t e 1) w i t h i n a l l e c o n o m i c (Dobash & Dobash, 1979; M a r t i n , Note 1; Downey & H o w e l l , Note 2) and s o c i a l g r o u p s ( S t r a u s , G e l l e s , & S t e i n m e t z , 1980). I t i s n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y a c o n d i t i o n o f t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y o r o f any p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l o r e c o n o m i c g r o u p . D e s p i t e i t s p r e v a l e n c e and l o n g e v i t y w i t h i n s o c i e t y , i t w ould seem t h e r e i s no s i n g l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g or d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e a c t o f " a b u s i n g " o r " b a t t e r i n g " when i t i s c o n -t a i n e d w i t h i n the b o u n d a r i e s of m a r r i a g e . T h e r e i s a g r e e m e n t i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t t h e r e i s a p h y s i c a l d i m e n s i o n t o " a b u s e " o f women by t h e i r h u s b a n d s b u t the q u e s t i o n a r i s e s as to the range of t h e s e b e h a v i o r s . I n B r i t i s h Colum'bia a woman i s a b l e t o c h a r g e h e r h u s b a n d w i t h p h y s i c a l a s s a u l t . S h o u l d she d e c i d e t o w i t h d r a w t h e c o m p l a i n t f o r any r e a s o n , the t r i a l w i l l " t r a d i t i o n a l l y not p r o c e e d " u n l e s s t h e woman h a s s u s t a i n e d s e v e r e i n j u r i e s ( R a n s o m , N o t e 3). T h i s w o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be t h e c a s e were the v i c t i m and a s s a i l a n t s e p a r a t e i n d i v i d u a l s who were not m a r r i e d to each o t h e r . The la w s a p p e a r to be i n t e r p r e t e d d i f f e r e n t l y , d e p e n d i n g upon t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of the p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d. 2 S t r a u s ( 1 9 7 8 ) d e f i n e s t h e m a r r i a g e c o n t r a c t as a " h i t t i n g l i c e n s e . " He i s r e f e r r i n g t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f v i o l e n c e b etween s p o u s e s to w h i c h t h e r e i s o f t e n no l e g a l or s o c i a l r e s p o n s e due t o c e r t a i n b e h a v i o r s b e i n g so w i d e l y p r a c t i c e d . I t would a p p e a r t h a t he i s a l l u d i n g to a d i s c r e -pancy b e t w e e n a c e r t a i n d e g r e e of v i o l e n c e w h i c h i s a c c e p t e d b e t w e e n a h u s b a n d and w i f e v e r s u s t h a t w h i c h i s c o n d o n e d w i t h u n m a r r i e d i n d i v i d u a l s . He d e s c r i b e s " n o r m a l v i o l e n c e " w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e as b e i n g a r a n g e o f l o w r i s k ( o f i n j u r y ) b e h a v i o r s w h i c h a r e c a r r i e d out on a r e p e a t e d b a s i s . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , " b a t t e r i n g " o r " a b u s e " w i l l be assumed t o i n v o l v e a h i g h r i s k of i n j u r y . T h i s d e f i n i -t i o n w i l l be expanded upon i n a s u b s e q u e n t s e c t i o n . At t h i s p o i n t , i t would a p p e a r v a l u a b l e to c o n s i d e r t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of the p r e c e d i n g r e f e r e n c e t o " n o r m a l v i o l e n c e " b e t w e e n s p o u s e s o r , more s p e c i f i c a l l y , a g a i n s t women. I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n w h i c h i s a c k n o w l e d g e d and s o c i a l l y condoned to some d e g r e e . There i s a s e c t i o n t o f o l l o w w h i c h a d d r e s s e s t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e . A h u s b a n d ' s p h y s i c a l a t t a c k o f h i s w i f e w i t h i n a r a n g e o f " n o r m a l " b e h a v i o r seems t o be s i m p l y a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e of a range of a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o r s w i t h i n s o c i e t y as a whole. For example, f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t o v e r 90% of A m e r i c a n p a r e n t s use c o r p o r a l p u n i s h m e n t w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n ( S t r a u s e t a l . , 1 9 8 0 ) . Of t h e s e same p a r e n t s , 70% 3 b e l i e v e f i s t f i g h t s a r e a n o r m a l p a r t of a boy's d e v e l o p m e n t y e a r s and j u s t l e s s t h a n 50% s u p p o r t c o r p o r a l p u n i s h m e n t i n the s c h o o l s . P h y s i c a l p u n i s h m e n t o f one's c h i l d r e n i s n o t t o be c o n f u s e d w i t h the s e v e r e f o r m s of e i t h e r c h i l d or w i f e abuse b u t i t d o e s , h o w e v e r , c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s p e c t r u m o f a g g r e -s s i o n w h i c h i s a c c e p t e d a nd p r a c t i c e d w i t h i n o u r s o c i e t y . One c o u l d q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r t h e r a n g e o f a c c e p t a b i l i t y i s a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e l e v e l of p r a c t i c e o r i f " n o r m a l v i o l e n c e " i s c a r r i e d o u t as a r e s u l t o f l a c k o f s o c i a l r e s p o n s e and c o n t r o l . I f s o c i a l s a n c t i o n s e x i s t i n r e s p o n s e to b e h a v i o r , t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r " a c c e p t a b l e " b o u n d a r i e s o f v i o l e n c e w o u l d a p p e a r l i m i t l e s s , g i v e n e x i s t i n g v i o l e n t b e h a v i o r s . — _ _ _ JiE^ ?: ? °\ c o n d i t i o n . B a s e d on a s t u d y o f 2,143 A m e r i c a n f a m i l i e s , i t has b e e n e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6,000,000 w i f e b e a t i n g s o c c u r r i n g e v e r y y e a r i n t h a t c o u n t r y ( S t r a u s e t a l . , 1980). The same r e s e a r c h e r s s u g g e s t t h a t 1.8 m i l l i o n A m e r i c a n women a r e b e i n g a s s a u l t e d by t h e i r husbands a p p r o x i m a t e l y two to t h r e e t i m e s per y e a r w i t h 33% b e i n g b e a t e n f i v e t i m e s o r more. C a n a d i a n e s t i -m a t e s p r e d i c t t h a t a t l e a s t one i n t e n women i s s e r i o u s l y a b u s e d by h e r s p o u s e ( M c L e o d , 1980). I n f o r m a t i o n on t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a i s a l s o a m a t t e r o f e s t i m a t e s a l o n e b u t i n 1978, 89% of G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r M i n i s t r y of Human R e s o u r c e s s o c i a l w o r k e r s s u r v e y e d r e p o r t e d s e e i n g a t l e a s t one b a t -4 t e r e d w i f e a n d 26% saw more t h a n t e n ( S a n d e r s - K r a u s e a n d H o d g s o n , N o t e 4 ) . At t h i s p o i n t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e f i n e t h e t e r m s " h u s b a n d " and " w i f e " as any man and woman who a r e l i v i n g t o g e t h e r and m a i n t a i n i n g a f u l l t i m e i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p . As s t a t e d , the f i g u r e s a v a i l a b l e a r e m e r e l y e s t i m a t e s . W i f e abuse i s o f t e n c a m o u f l a g e d by symptoms of a l c o h o l i s m , f i n a n c i a l i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , c h i l d m i s b e h a v i o r , c h i l d a b u s e , o r t e n s i o n and a n x i e t y e x p e r i e n c e d on the p a r t of the woman. F o r e x a m p l e , 56 o u t o f 60 women r e f e r r e d f o r p s y c h i a t r i c e v a l u a t i o n to a r u r a l h e a l t h c l i n i c were a c t u a l l y v i c t i m s of m a r i t a l abuse ( H i l b e r m a n & Munson, 1978). A l s o , of a t o t a l o f 32,000 a s s a u l t s e x p e r i e n c e d by a sample of 109 women, 517 o r l e s s t h a n 2% w e r e r e p o r t e d a t a l l ( D o b a s h & D o b a s h , 1979). I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t a r a n g e o f " n o r m a l v i o l e n c e " c o n t r i b u t e s i n two ways t o t h e u n d e r r e p o r t i n g o f s e r i o u s abuse. F i r s t l y , i f the woman has not r e c o g n i s e d the p r o g r e -s s i o n s o f a b u s e , s h e w i l l n o t e v e n be a w a r e t h a t s h e i s b e i n g " b a t t e r e d " b e c a u s e o f h e r i n i t i a l a c c e p t a n c e . S e c o n d l y , the s e v e r i t y of h e r s i t u a t i o n , once she has r e a l -i z e d i t , can cau s e h e r to w i t h h o l d h e r f e e l i n g s as a r e s u l t o f h e r own s e n s e o f shame and e m b a r a s s m e n t . When u n d e r -r e p o r t i n g i s t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t , e s t i m a t e s s u g g e s t t h a t b e t w e e n 5 0 % a n d 60% o f women w i l l , a t some t i m e , be p h y s i -c a l l y a b u s e d by t h e i r husbands. 5 !E!!^_Xi°i5.E£_£a_E;Li.y_i. A s s e s s i n g t h e t o t a l s p e c t r u m o f t h i s ' h i d d e n ' v i o l e n c e w i t h i n s o c i e t y , i t a p p e a r s t o f a l l l a r g e l y w i t h i n the bounds of what i s i d e a l i s t i c a l l y v i e w e d as the c e n t r a l s t r u c t u r e of l o v e and n u r t u r a n c e — t h e f a m i l y . S t a t i s t i c s f o r p o l i c e o f f i c e r s k i l l e d on d u t y p l a c e d o m e s t i c c a l l s as t h e h i g h e s t r i s k ( S t r a u s e t a l . , 1 9 80). F i g u r e s s u g g e s t t h a t b etween 20% ( m a r t i n , Note 1) and 22% ( S t r a u s et a l . , 1980) o f p o l i c e d e a t h s o c c u r w h i l e t h e o f f i c e r i s i n v o l v e d i n m e d i a t i n g a d o m e s t i c d i s p u t e . In r e g a r d t o i n t r a f a m i l y h o m i c i d e , t h e r e i s g r e a t e r r i s k t h a t a woman w i l l be murdered by her husband t h a n by an unknown man whom she h a s b e e n s o c i a l i z e d t o f e a r ( F r e e m a n , 1 9 7 9 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , on a l e s s s e v e r e l e v e l , g r e a t e r t h a n one i n s i x h o u s e h o l d s h a v e one s p o u s e s t r i k i n g h i s o r h e r p a r t n e r i n one y e a r o r g r e a t e r t h a n one i n f o u r o v e r t h e c o u r s e o f a m a r r i a g e ( S t r a u s e t a l . , 1 9 8 0 ) . The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e f a m i -l y , a l o n g w i t h i t s r e p u t a t i o n f o r n u r t u r a n c e , m u s t a l s o a s s u m e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r b e i n g t h e m o s t c o n s i s t e n t l y v i o l e n t body w i t h i n our s o c i e t y ( S t r a u s e t a l . , 1980). W h a t _ i s _ w i f e _ b a t t e r i n g _ S t r a u s ( 1 9 7 8 ) d e s c r i b e s t h e m a r r i a g e l i c e n s e as a " h i t t i n g l i c e n s e , " t h e r e a s o n b e i n g t h a t t h e r e i s s u c h a d e g r e e o f v i o l e n c e b e t w e e n m a r r i e d p a r t n e r s t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h l i m i t s o f " n o r m a l " b e h a v i o r . The l i n e b etween s o c i a l l y condoned f o r c e a n d i l l e g a l a s s a u l t i s a t h i n one ( F r e e m a n , 1970). As 6 i n t r o d u c e d p r e v i o u s l y , i t can o f t e n depend on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e l a w and d i s c r e t i o n o f i n t e r v e n i n g p e r s o n n e l as t o w h e t h e r a h u s b a n d i s c h a r g e d w i t h a s s a u l t and w h e t h e r c h a r g e s a r e , i n f a c t , c a r r i e d o u t . In h i s s u r v e y o f o v e r 2,000 c o u p l e s , S t r a u s (1978) g a t h e r e d h i s d a t a u s i n g what he t e r m e d " C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n T e c h n i q u e s (CRT) S c a l e s . " T e c h -n i q u e s or a c t i o n s w i t h a h i g h r i s k of i n j u r y were c l a s s i f i e d t o be w i t h i n t h e W i f e - B e a t i n g I n d e x , n a m e l y , k i c k i n g , b i t i n g , h i t t i n g w i t h t h e f i s t o r w i t h an o b j e c t , " b e a t i n g up," a n d b e i n g t h r e a t e n e d w i t h o r u s i n g a k n i f e o r gun. S t r a u s e m p h a s i z e d t h a t he d i d not w i s h to c onvey an a c c e p t -a n c e o f p u s h i n g , s h o v i n g , g r a b b i n g , s l a p p i n g , and t h r o w i n g o b j e c t s b u t t h a t he c o u l d n o t i n c l u d e t h e s e a c t s i n t h e Index due to the f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h t h e y were c a r r i e d out. They were l a b e l l e d as " n o r m a l v i o l e n c e . " F r e q u e n c y i s a l s o t o be c o n s i d e r e d when d e f i n i n g a " b a t t e r e d " w i f e . I f a woman i s a s s a u l t e d by h e r husband on o n l y one o c c a s i o n the q u e s t i o n r e m a i n s an a c a d e m i c one as to w h e t h e r o r n o t s h e c a n be d e f i n e d as " a b u s e d . " R e l a t i o n -s h i p s a r e n o t s t a t i c and o n c e a n e g a t i v e f o r m o f r e l a t i n g i s i n i t i a t e d , t h e r e i s a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t i t w i l l p r o g r e s s f u r t h e r i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n ( S h a i n e s s , Note 5). The d e s t r u c -t i o n r e s u l t i n g f r o m o n l y one v i o l e n t e n c o u n t e r ( P i z z e y , 1974) s i m p l y i n d i c a t e s and adds to the power s t r u g g l e w h i c h l i e s b e n e a t h i t (May, 1972; S t r a u s , 1 9 7 8 ) . Not o n l y do 7 s t a t i s t i c s i n d i c a t e a m e d i a n f o r A m e r i c a n c o u p l e s of b e t w e e n two and t h r e e a s s a u l t s e a c h y e a r ( S t r a u s , 1978) b u t , of t h e 33% o f t h e women who w e r e b e a t e n o n l y o n c e i n t h e y e a r o f s t u d y , f i g u r e s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e as t o t h e number o f t i m e s t h e y were b e a t e n i n s u b s e q u e n t y e a r s . Why f o c u s on women as v i c t i m s ? T h i s s t u d y f o c u s e s on the woman i n the m a r r i a g e r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e r e a r e a number o f r e a s o n s f o r t h i s . T h e r e a r e men who a r e p h y s i c a l l y a b used by t h e i r w i v e s but f i n d i n g s ( S t r a u s et a l . , 1980) as w e l l as o v e r t p h y s i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s p o i n t t o i t b e i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r f i g u r e t h a n the i n c i d e n c e of w i f e abuse. The woman's g o a l i s m o s t o f t e n s e l f - d e f e n c e ( M a r t i n , N o t e 1 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , women's n e e d s f o r g r o w t h , i n d e p e n d e n c e , and f r e e d o m of c h o i c e have h i s t o r i c a l l y been i g n o r e d (Dobash & D o b a s h , 1979). Women h a v e b e e n s u b o r d i n a t e d t o men i n a r o l e w h i c h has n a t u r a l l y p r o m o t e d l a c k of r e s p e c t f o r t h e i r sex and p o s i t i o n and f o s t e r e d the d i r e c t b y p r o d u c t of abuse. P e r h a p s i t i s the a c c e p t a n c e of p h y s i c a l f o r c e as an a p p r o -p r i a t e e x p r e s s i o n o f m a s c u l i n i t y ( S t r a u s , 1978) t h a t p r e -s e n t l y a l l o w s some l e g a l s y s t e m s t o u n d e r r e a c t t o women as v i c t i m s b u t o v e r r e a c t when t h e y a s s u m e t h e a g g r e s s o r r o l e ( R i c h e t t e , Note 6). T h i s s t u d y w i s h e s to t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t a h i s t o r i c a l ' d e f i c i t ' as w e l l as a d d r e s s e x i s t i n g c o n d i -t i o n s . H u s b a n d s i n f l i c t more s e v e r e i n j u r i e s on t h e i r 8 s p o u s e s and a l s o r e p e a t t h e v i o l e n c e more f r e q u e n t l y ( S t r a u s , 1978). C o n f r o n t e d w i t h the d i f f e r e n c e s i n p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , t h e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s as t o what p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e w i f e ' s v i o l e n c e i s i n s e l f - d e f e n c e a g a i n s t t h a t a l r e a d y i n i t i a t e d by h e r h u s b a n d ( S t r a u s , 1978; M a r t i n , N o t e 1). S t r a u s ( 1 9 7 8 ) h a s a l s o e m p h a s i z e d t h e n e e d t o f o c u s on t h e woman b e c a u s e of the s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c " l o c k s " w h i c h h o l d h e r i n t h e m a r r i a g e i n ways w h i c h do n o t a f f e c t t h e man ( p . 4 4 9 ) . ^Z_i°i£_i!l?._™£5!.Il__iiy._°I_I?.iHI!Li S t u d i e s on w i f e b a t t e r i n g d e s c r i b e the p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s f a c e d by t h e s e women s h o u l d t h e y c h o o s e t o l e a v e t h e m a r r i a g e - - 1 a c k o f money, j o b s k i l l s , a nd a s a f e l i v i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . L e a v i n g t e m p o r a r i l y o r p e r m a n e n t l y i s d i f f i c u l t when t h e woman i s p h y s i c a l l y p r e v e n t e d f r o m d o i n g so, whether d i r e c t l y o r by t h r e a t of f u t u r e v i o l e n c e . Her f e a r i n l e a v i n g i s j u s t i f i e d ( F l e m i n g , 1979) as t h e u l t i m a t e p o t e n t i a l d a n g e r i s d e a t h . I t i s more l i k e l y t h a t a woman w i l l be m u r d e r e d by h e r s p o u s e t h a n by a s t r a n g e r ( f r e e m a n , 1979). G e l l e s ( 1 9 7 2 ) f o u n d t h a t one o f t h e b e s t i n d i c a t o r s o f w h e t h e r t h e woman chose t o l e a v e or s t a y was the l e v e l of abuse. R o u n s a v i l l e ( 1 9 7 8 ) s t a t e s t h a t , i n o r d e r f o r t h e woman t o l e a v e , t h e f e a r and h a r d s h i p of l e a v i n g must be l e s s t h a n t h a t e x p e r i -e n c e d by s t a y i n g . I f l e a v i n g i s t h e more t h r e a t e n i n g , f i n a n c i a l and e m o t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t can even 9 be i g n o r e d when she d e c i d e s to r e m a i n . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t a woman s t a y s o u t o f f e a r , o n l y f o r as l o n g as h e r c o n c e r n s f o r h e r p e r s o n a l s a f e t y a r e l e s s t h a n t h e y w o u l d be were she t o l e a v e . I t i s d i s t r e s s i n g t o c o n s i d e r t h e p o t e n t i a l s e v e r i t y o f s u c h a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h a woman p u r s u e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a p o i n t w h e r e she f e a r s f o r h e r l i f e no m a t t e r what s h e d o e s . I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e a t t h i s t i m e t o add t h a t the two most s e v e r e l y b a t t e r e d women i n t h e c a s e s t u d y c o n d u c t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r b o t h made c o m m e n t s t o t h i s e f f e c t . They c o u l d s u g g e s t no i n t e r v e n t i o n w h i c h , i n r e t r o -s p e c t , t h e y would a s s e s s as h a v i n g been e f f e c t i v e i n promo-t i n g them t o l e a v e the b a t t e r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p a t an e a r l i e r p o i n t i n t h e c y c l e . One woman, s a i d , " I wasn't r e a d y t o l i s t e n . . . . I had t o be p u s h e d t o my l i m i t . " The r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e w i l l p r o v i d e an i n d e p t h e x p l o r a t i o n i n a n s w e r t o t h e q u e s t i o n w h i c h h e a d s t h i s s e c t i o n . An u n d e r s t a n d i n g of why many women r e m a i n w i t h i n or r e t u r n to a b a t t e r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i s synonymous w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the b a t t e r i n g c y c l e i t s e l f . The r e m a i n d e r of t h i s s e c t i o n a d d r e s s e s the s p e c i f i c b e l i e f t h a t a woman r e m a i n s to be abused s o l e l y f o r r e a s o n s of p h y s i c a l needs. A c o n d i t i o n w h i c h g e n e r a t e d t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t t h e r e a r e many women who l e a v e and t h e n r e t u r n , r e p e a t e d l y , t o a b a t t e r i n g spouse (Dobash & Dobash, 1979; McLeod, 1980; Roun-s a v i l l e , 1978). Some n e v e r l e a v e a t a l l . W h i l e Dobash and 10 Dobash (1979) f o u n d t h a t 88% l e f t a t some t i m e , 48% of t h e s e s t a y e d away l e s s t h a n a week and 90% s a i d t h e y m o s t o f t e n r e m a i n e d i n t h e home i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e a t t a c k . T h e s e f i g u r e s a p p e a r t o s u p p o r t the v e r y d e b i l i t a t i n g and a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l f e e l i n g s f e l t by b a t t e r e d women f o l l o w i n g an a b u -s i v e e n c o u n t e r (Dobash & Dobash, 1979; G e l l e s , 1972; M a r t i n , 1976; McLeod, 1980; S t r a u s e t a l . , 1980; W a l k e r , 1979). The woman f e e l s a f r a i d , i s o l a t e d , h e l p l e s s , u n s u p p o r t e d , and g u i l t y . At t h i s p o i n t , s u f f i c e i t t o s a y t h a t b a t t e r e d women a r e r e s p o n d i n g w i t h r e a l f e e l i n g s t o a v e r y r e a l and d e s t r u c t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t . To say, however, t h a t t h e s e women s t a y w i t h i n o r r e t u r n t o a m a r r i a g e b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e no p l a c e t o go ( M c L e o d , 1980) w o u l d be t o o v e r s i m p l i f y . Many women w i t h e c o n o m i c r e s o u r c e s r e m a i n or r e t u r n , w h i l e many w i t h o u t f i n a n c i a l i n d e p e n d e n c e p e r m a n e n t l y l e a v e . The women who seek a s s i s t a n c e f r o m t r a n s i t i o n and emer-g e n c y h o u s e s a r e o f t e n w o r k i n g c l a s s o r f r o m l o w e r s o c i o -e c o n o m i c g r o u p s w i t h l i t t l e o r no money, e d u c a t i o n , o r j o b s k i l l s ( B a r n s l e y , N o t e 7; J o h n s o n & G o r d o n , N o t e 8). S t a -t i s t i c s a r e even l e s s c l e a r i n r e g a r d to m i d d l e c l a s s women. They a r e o f t e n more a b l e t o u s e p r i v a t e s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e o r t o s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e i r h u s b a n d s i n some way w i t h o u t s e e k i n g p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e f r o m t r a n s i t i o n h o u s e s , c o u n s e l -l i n g s e r v i c e s f o r women, g o v e r n m e n t s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , e t c e t e r a . F o r w h a t e v e r r e a s o n , women f r o m l o w e r e c o n o m i c 1 1 g r o u p s a p p e a r t o use p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n woman i n m a r r i a g e s of g r e a t e r a f f l u e n c e ( F l e m i n g , 1979). P s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l b a t t e r i n g ^ M o s t f o r c e w i t h i n s o c i e t y i s n e i t h e r v i s i b l e nor v i o l e n t (Goode, 1971). The p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s of w i f e a b u s e a r e f a r r e a c h i n g and s e r v e as a m a j o r i n f l u e n c e i n a f f e c t i n g t h e woman's b e h a v i o r . She i s o f t e n g o v e r n e d by s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , and t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s , a l l o f w h i c h s h a p e h e r g o a l s , b e l i e f s , a nd e x p e c t a t i o n s o f h e r s e l f and p r o v i d e h e r w i t h a range of a c c e p t e d b e h a v i o r s and r e s p o n s e s . For example, i f a woman i s r a i s e d to b e l i e v e she s h o u l d be "weak" i n o r d e r t o be a p p r o v e d o f by a man, she n e e d n o t be p h y s i c a l l y a b u s e d i n o r d e r f o r h e r t o c o n s i d e r h e r s e l f u n e q u a l to h e r spouse. In t h i s s i t u a t i o n , i t would a p p e a r t h a t h e r ' v i c t i m i z a t i o n ' would have a l r e a d y begun on a p s y c h o l o g i c a l l e v e l . The woman e x p e r i e n c e s the p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s of the p h y s i c a l b a t t e r i n g i t s e l f w i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e b a c k g r o u n d i n s u p p o r t o f them. O f t e n s h e was n o t o n l y r a i s e d w i t h i n a s o c i e t y and a f a m i l y b o t h of w h i c h p romoted t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e d i f f e r e n c e s , but she i s f a c e d w i t h s i m i l a r s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s as an a d u l t . The i s o l a t i o n , c r i t i c i s m , and t h r e a t s t o w h i c h s h e i s s u b j e c t e d by an a b u s i v e h u s b a n d c o n s t i t u t e m a j o r f o r m s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l abuse (Women's R e s e a r c h C e n t r e , Note 9 ) . I n r e s p o n s e , s h e b e g i n s t o d o u b t h e r own w o r t h , 12 c o n t r o l , a nd e v e n h e r own s a n i t y . T h e r e has o f t e n b e e n l i t t l e o r no d i r e c t p h y s i c a l b a t t e r i n g up t o t h i s p o i n t . T h e r e c an a l s o be s e x u a l a b u s e — f o r c e d s e x u a l a c t i v i t y - - a t some t i m e i n the c y c l e w h i c h may or may not i n v o l v e p h y s i c a l a s s a u l t a n d i n j u r y . N e e d l e s s t o s a y , t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f t h i s f o r m o f a b u s e a r e o f a s i m i l a r m a g n i t u d e t o the h u r t and d e s t r u c t i o n p o s s i b l e f r o m many f o r m s of p h y s i c -a l b a t t e r i n g . W a l k e r (1979) s t a t e s t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l abuse i s a s p o w e r f u l as p h y s i c a l a b u s e i n d e s t r o y i n g a woman's s e l f - e s t e e m and r e d u c i n g any b e l i e f t h a t she had i n her own a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l h er e n v i r o n m e n t . The p h y s i c a l b a t t e r i n g may c l a r i f y the v e r y r e a l t h r e a t t o t h e woman's s a f e t y b u t , on a p s y c h o l o g i c a l l e v e l , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t o p r o m o t e a c y c l e o f d e s t r u c t i o n w h i c h i s a l r e a d y i n p r o c e s s . The t h e o r y of v i c t i m i z a t i o n , a p p l i e d to b a t t e r e d women, would s u g g e s t t h a t by the t i m e the i n i t i a l s h o ck and d e n i a l i s d e c r e a s e d , the woman i s a l r e a d y d e b i l i -t a t e d t o a l o w l e v e l o f s e l f - e s t e e m ( W a l k e r , 1979). T h i s p r o g r e s s i o n need not i n v o l v e a p h y s i c a l d i m e n s i o n i n o r d e r t o commence. At the p o i n t a t w h i c h p h y s i c a l abuse i s begun, the woman's b e l i e f i n h e r own l a c k of w o r t h i s v e r i f i e d and sh e c a n , i n t u r n , become "an a c c o m p l i c e t o h e r own b a t t e r -i n g " ( W a l k e r , 1979, p.69). S t a t e me n t _o f _ t h e _P r o b 1 e m T h i s s t u d y w i l l a t t e m p t t o p r e s e n t an i n d e p t h u n d e r -13 s t a n d i n g o f a woman's g r o w t h a f t e r l e a v i n g a b a t t e r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . As i t i s e x p l o r a t o r y i n n a t u r e , t h i s s t u d y a s k s t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : What f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e t o a woman's f e e l i n g s o f i n d e p e n d e n c e and s e l f - w o r t h as she p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y s e p a r a t e s f r o m h e r a b u s i v e h u s b a n d ? I n a d d i t i o n , a r e t h e r e s t e p s i n d i c a t e d i n s u c h a p r o c e s s ? I s t h e r e a p o i n t a t w h i c h s p e c i f i c i n t e r v e n t i o n , a c t i v i t y , or a r e a l i z a t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r n a t u r e i s i n d i c a t e d as v a l u a b l e ? Are t h e r e any a p p a r e n t b e n e f i t s of a s e m i - s t r u e t u r e d t r e a t -ment program? ' C l a r i f i c a t i o n of t e r m s . Permanent s e p a r a t i o n i s not to be u n d e r s t o o d as an i m p l i e d g o a l o f t h i s s t u d y . R a t h e r , p h y s i c a l s e p a r a t i o n has been s u g g e s t e d as the most e f f e c t i v e means p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e to abused women i n o r d e r to com-mence p e r s o n a l g r o w t h t o w a r d s p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n d e p e n d e n c e ( W a l k e r , 1979). F o r t h i s r e a s o n , i t i s assumed t h a t p s y c h -o l o g i c a l s e p a r a t i o n and i n d e p e n d e n c e a r e p r e c e d e d by p h y s i -c a l s e p a r a t i o n . A s e c o n d c l a r i f i c a t i o n a p p l i e s to the d e f i n i t i o n of the t e r m " i n d e p e n d e n c e . " I t i s n o t a f i n a n c i a l g o a l b u t a p s y c h o l o g i c a l or e m o t i o n a l one. I t i m p l i e s an i n c r e a s e i n s e l f - e s t e e m l i n k e d w i t h a b e l i e f i n one's a b i l i t y t o be s e l f - d e t e r m i n i n g . The e m o t i o n a l bonds t h a t l i n k the c o u p l e a r e e x t r e m e l y s t r o n g ( D a v i d s o n , 1978; W a l k e r , 1 9 7 9 ) . I n t h i s s t u d y , the p s y c h o l o g i c a l bonds a r e a p p r o a c h e d as b e i n g 14 of c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e . R e s e a r c h e d d a t a i s w i d e l y a v a i -l a b l e on the woman's needs i n the a r e a s of f i n a n c e s , p h y s i -c a l s a f e t y , s h e l t e r , j o b s k i l l s , and c h i l d c a r e ( M c L e o d , 1980; Roy, 1977; Downey & H o w e l l , Note 2; B a r n s l e y , Note 7). T h e r e i s a l s o an a w a r e n e s s o f t h e n e e d s f o r e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t to r e d u c e the e f f e c t s of l i v i n g i n t e r r o r and i s o l a -t i o n ( R i c h e t t e , N o t e 6). D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e n e e d s a r e b e i n g met f o r some women, t h e r e a r e t h o s e who r e p e a t e d l y r e t u r n t o t h e i r husbands. T h i s would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h o s e who manage t o r e m a i n s e p a r a t e d a r e , i n some way, b e n e f i t i n g f r o m c e r t a i n e x p e r i e n c e s or a w a r e n e s s e s t h a t g i v e t h e m t h e a b i l i t y t o r e s i s t t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l b o n d s t o t h e b a t t e r e r . T h i s s t u d y s e e k s t o e x p l o r e t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s i n p u t . T h r o u g h an i n d e p t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the s e p a r a t i o n of a s m a l l sample of women, i t i s hoped t h a t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n w i l l l e a d t o e f f e c t i v e p r o g r a m d e s i g n t o a p p r o a c h t h o s e women n e w l y s e p a r a t e d f r o m an a b u s i v e h u s b a n d . I t may e v e n be o f p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t t o t h o s e s t i l l l i v i n g i n v i o l e n t s i t u a t i o n s . CHAPTER I I Review o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e Myths T h e r e a r e many m y t h s e x i s t i n g a r o u n d t h e s u b j e c t o f b a t t e r e d w i v e s . P e r h a p s one of t h e w i d e l y a c c e p t e d b e l i e f s i s t h a t t h e men who b a t t e r t h e i r s p o u s e s a r e s o c i a l d e v i a n t s 15 and f o r m a m i n o r i t y . S t r a u s ( 1 9 8 1 ) and W a l k e r ( 1 9 7 9 ) e s t i m a t e t h a t one i n two women w i l l , a t some t i m e i n t h e i r m a r r i a g e s , be s e r i o u s l y p h y s i c a l l y abused by t h e i r p a r t n e r s . The w i d e s p r e a d p r a c t i c e of p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e d i s c o u n t s the m y t h o f i t b e i n g a n i n d i v i d u a l p a t h o l o g y . W i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e r o o t s o f s u c h b e h a v i o r a t t h i s p o i n t , t h i s s t u d y s u p p o r t s t h e v i e w t h a t p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e i s a c h o s e n r e s p o n s e , a s e t o f p u r p o s e f u l b e h a v i o r s e m e r g i n g f r o m a c e r t a i n r a t i o n a l e or b e l i e f s y s t e m and e n d i n g i n the a t t a i n -ment o f a s p e c i f i c s e t o f g o a l s ( D o b a s h & D o b a s h , 1979; R o u n s a v i l l e , 1 9 7 8 ) . I t i s a " p s y c h o s o c i a l d i s o r d e r o f s o c i e t y a t l a r g e " ( W a l k e r , N o t e 10, p. 7 5 ) . A s e c o n d m i s c o n c e p t i o n l i e s i n t h e myth o f t h e f a m i l y b e i n g s o l e l y a s t r u c t u r e p r o v i d i n g l o v e and a f f e c t i o n . F a m i l y i s o l a t i o n o c c u r s when s o c i e t y p e r p e t u a t e s s u c h a n i d e a l i s t i c a n d u n r e a l i s t i c v i e w o f f a m i l y l i f e t h a t s t r e s s e s , o f t e n r e s u l t i n g f r o m a n a t u r a l change p a t t e r n , a r e not c o n f r o n t e d i n any way. V i o l e n c e w h i c h r e s u l t s f u r t h e r p r o m o t e s t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l as w e l l as p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n of t h e woman. As a s o c i e t y , we h a v e s e t s e v e r i t y and s i t u a -t i o n a l l i m i t s f o r s u c h v i o l e n c e . W h i t e h u r s t ( 1 9 7 1 ) f o u n d t h a t , o f a s a m p l e i n w h i c h 53% w e r e m a l e and 85% w e r e m a r r i e d w i t h some c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n , 62% s a i d i t i s a c c e p t -a b l e t o a c t v i o l e n t l y w i t h one's s p o u s e when e x t r a m a r i t a l sex i s t h e i s s u e . N e a r l y 33% b e l i e v e d t h i s v i o l e n c e i s not 16 o n l y n e g a t i v e b u t i s a l s o a s i g n o f l o v e a n d c o n c e r n ( p . 6 8 8 ) . I f one a c k n o w l e d g e s i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e and r e s p o n s i b i -l i t y , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e woman c a n , i n no way, f r u s t r a t e , nag, or f o r c e h e r husband i n t o a v i o l e n t r e s p o n s e . She may promote h i s an g e r or i n s e c u r i t y but she does not 'cause' h i m t o be a b u s i v e . H i s c h o i c e t o be v i o l e n t may e x t e n d t o t h e p o i n t where he makes i t a c c e p t a b l e by i m a g i n i n g p r o v o c a t i o n ( D a v i d s o n , 1 978). In l i v i n g w i t h and a c c e p t i n g t h e s e r e -s p o n s e s , the woman i s p l a y i n g a p a r t i n t h e i r c o n t i n u a t i o n . C o n t r a r y t o t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e ' p r o b l e m ' i s s o l e l y t h e husband's (Dobash & Dobash, 1979), the b a t t e r e d woman l i v e s i n c o n s t a n t f e a r . H er own v i c t i m i z a t i o n i s r e i n f o r c e d by t h e d a i l y c o n d i t i o n s w i t h w h i c h s h e i s f o r c e d t o d e a l as l o n g as she l i v e s w i t h abuse. R e a l i s t i c a l l y , she i s v i c t i -m i z e d b u t i t c a n be t h e woman's p e r c e p t i o n o f h e r own p o w e r -l e s s n e s s w h i c h h o l d s h e r i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p as opposed to a r e a l l e v e l o f p o w e r 1 e s s n e s s ( D u t t o n & P a i n t e r , N o t e 11). The woman can a c k n o w l e d g e h e r a c t i v e r o l e , however, w i t h o u t a c k n o w l e d g i n g d e b i l i t a t i n g g u i l t . I t i s a p o s i t i v e s t e p t o w a r d s h e r r e c o g n i s i n g h e r own p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n t r o l . She a l s o i s f o c u s i n g on c h a n g i n g h e r own b e h a v i o r and n o t t h a t of h e r husband. T h i s w r i t e r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e a r e m i s c o n c e p t i o n s t h a t i m p l y t h a t t h e woman c a n c o n t r o l h e r h u s b a n d ' s v i o l e n c e 17 t h r o u g h her own b e h a v i o r . Thorman's (1980) v i e w i s t h a t the woman r e m a i n i n g w i t h i n the m a r r i a g e can i n s i s t on an a b s e n c e o f v i o l e n c e . G a y f o r d ( N o t e 12) b e l i e v e s t h a t an a b u s i v e h u s b a n d i s l e s s l i k e l y t o be v i o l e n t i f he i s a w a r e t h a t h i s w i f e h a s t h e a b i l i t y t o l e a v e . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e woman's i s o l a t i o n i s f o s t e r e d by su c h a s s u m p t i o n s . F u r t h e r , t h i s w r i t e r q u e r i e s t h e a c c u r a c y of su c h b e l i e f s , i n t h a t a b a s i c t e n e t o f c o u n s e l l i n g i s t h a t p e o p l e u l t i m a t e l y o n l y h a v e f u l l c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r own b e h a v i o r . W h i l e we may c o u n s e l i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e hope t h a t t h e y may i m p r o v e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s , s u c h i m p r o v e m e n t i n v o l v e s o n l y i n f l u e n c e , n e v e r c o m p l e t e c o n t r o l of the o t h e r ' s a c t i o n . A woman i s f u r t h e r v i c t i m i z e d when i t i s s u g g e s t e d o r s h e b e l i e v e s t h a t she s h o u l d change h e r own b e h a v i o r i n o r d e r to c h a n g e h e r h u s b a n d ' s b e h a v i o r ( M a r t i n , N o t e 13). R a t h e r , h e r p r o g r e s s f r o m v i c t i m i z a t i o n to m e n t a l h e a l t h i s promoted when s h e c h a n g e s h e r own b e h a v i o r i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t h e r p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l h e a l t h . A r e l a t e d , w i d e l y a c c e p t e d b e l i e f a l o n g s i d e t h i s myth i s t h a t t h e woman i s p a s s i v e i n a t t e m p t i n g t o a v o i d o r r e m o v e h e r s e l f f r o m t h e v i o l e n c e . T h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e ( B a r n s l e y , N o t e 7; G e l l e s , 1972; R o u n s a v i l l e , 1 9 78). T h i s r e s e a r c h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e a b u s e d woman i n i t i a l l y s e e k s c o u n s e l l i n g h e l p i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d and c o n t r o l h e r s p o u s e as o p p o s e d t o h e r s e l f . R e c o g n i t i o n o f r e a l i s t i c 18 l i m i t s ( i . e . one c a n n o t " c h a n g e " a n o t h e r p e r s o n who i s u n w i l l i n g t o change, s i m p l y by s e e k i n g c o u n s e l l i n g o n e s e l f ) , i s t he f i r s t s t e p . She w i l l o f t e n r e c o g n i s e t h a t she has t o l e a v e h e r h u s b a n d o n l y a f t e r t h i s , when she a c c e p t s h e r i n a b i l i t y t o c h a n g e h i s ' i l l n e s s ' a nd b e h a v i o r ( H i l b e r m a n , N o t e 14). T h e r e has e x i s t e d a s t r o n g b e l i e f t h a t i f t h e woman does n o t l e a v e and h e r husband does not change, she must be a m a s o c h i s t to l i v e u nder s u c h c o n d i t i o n s ( S n e l l , R o s e n w a l d , & Robey, 1 9 6 4 ) . T h e s e same r e s e a r c h e r s s u g g e s t e d t h a t a v i o l e n t m a r r i a g e i n w h i c h t h e h u s b a n d b a t t e r s h i s w i f e i s m a i n t a i n e d a t an e q u i l i b r i u m by s u c h d e s t r u c t i o n ( p . 1 1 0 ) . They s u g g e s t t h a t h e r need to be c o n t r o l l i n g i s r e s p o n d e d to by h i s v i o l e n c e w h i c h a l l o w s h i m t o v e n t h i s a g g r e s s i o n w h i l e d e c r e a s i n g t h e g u i l t she had d e v e l o p e d . T h i s r e s e a r -c h e r c o u l d f i n d no o t h e r a r t i c l e s i n s u p p o r t of t h i s t h e o r y . M a s o c h i s m i s d i s r e g a r d e d by c u r r e n t t h e o r i s t s a nd r e s e a r -c h e r s as a c a u s e f o r women r e m a i n i n g w i t h i n a b a t t e r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p ( C a r l s o n , 1977; W a l k e r , Note 10). A common m i s c o n c e p t i o n t h a t f u r t h e r s e r v e s as a s o c i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f a b u s e i s t h a t men and women a r e e q u a l i n m a r r i a g e . Dobash and Dobash (1979) base t h e i r s o c i o c u l t u r a l v i e w o f b a t t e r i n g on s e x u a l i n e q u a l i t y , l a c k o f s o c i a l a w a r e n e s s , and the i d e a l i z i n g of t h e m a r r i a g e r e l a t i o n s h i p , a l l o f w h i c h t h e y b e l i e v e r e i n f o r c e t h e s e n s e o f i s o l a t i o n 19 f e l t by the woman and the a c t u a l i s o l a t i o n of h e r c o n d i t i o n . The s u p p o s e d c l a r i t y o f r u l e s i s a n o t h e r m y t h . W i t h r u l e s b e t w e e n s p o u s e s b e i n g " u n d e f i n e d , i m p l i c i t , and a m b i -guous" ( S t r a u s & H o t a l i n g , 1980, p.140), i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e b a t t e r e d woman t o u n d e r s t a n d h e r h u s b a n d ' s l i m i t s l e t a l o n e e x e r t any p r e d i c t a b i l i t y i n her own l i f e w h i l e she i s l i v i n g w i t h him. T h i s l a c k of p r e d i c t a b i l i t y w i l l be e x p a n -d e d u p o n i n t h e s e c t i o n on l e a r n e d h e l p l e s s n e s s . B a s e d i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e r u l e s a r e c l e a r , when i n f a c t , t h e y a r e n o t , the myth has d e v e l o p e d t h a t the husband and w i f e s h o u l d v e n t t h e i r f e e l i n g s i n a c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e o f w o r k i n g t h r o u g h t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s . S u c h v e n t i n g n o t o n l y c a u s e s p r o b l e m s of i t s own but r a r e l y i s i t d i r e c t e d a t the s p e c i -f i c i s s u e s ( S t r a u s & H o t a l i n g , 1980) or at c h a n g i n g e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n s i n d e a l i n g w i t h c o n f l i c t . Such v e n t i n g s h o u l d n ot be c o n f u s e d w i t h s e l f - d e f e n c e on the p a r t of the woman. I f women do p h y s i c a l l y and v e r b a l l y show t h e i r a n g e r and f r u s -t r a t i o n t h r o u g h r e t a l i a t i o n , most of t h e s e a c t i o n s a r e gen-e r a t e d by f e a r and h a v e s e 1 f - p r o t e c t i o n as t h e g o a l , n o t a b u s e o f t h e h u s b a n d ( M a r t i n , N o t e 1). I n summary, l a c k of c l a r i t y i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p i n s u c h a r e a s as i n t i m a c y , d i s -t a n c e , and c o m m u n i c a t i o n of f e e l i n g s can s e r v e i n a number of ways as a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to v i o l e n t p a t t e r n s . The b a t t e r e d woman has t o f a c e v e r y r e a l c o n c e r n s o f f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y and p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e t a l i a -20 t i o n i f she l e a v e s h er husband. The f o l l o w i n g myth does not q u e s t i o n the s e v e r i t y of t h e s e r i s k s i n l e a v i n g . R a t h e r , i n r e s p o n s e t o v e r y r e a l f e a r s , t h e woman d o e s n o t 'have t o ' r e m a i n i n t h e m a r r i a g e . T h o s e who l e a v e a r e o f t e n more s e v e r e l y b a t t e r e d t h a n many who r e m a i n ( G e l l e s , 1 9 7 2 ) . A l s o , t h e women who r i s k i n d e p e n d e n t l i v i n g o f t e n h a v e e i t h e r l i t t l e o r no money ( B a r n s l e y , N o t e 7; J o h n s o n & G o r d o n , N o t e 8 ) . An a s s u m p t i o n e x i s t s t h a t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s h a r e d by t h e women who r e m a i n w i t h i n a b a t t e r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e i r s y m p t o m s a r e o f t e n n o t t h e c a u s e b u t t h e r e s u l t o f t h e i r b e i n g b a t t e r e d ( W a l k e r , N o t e 1 5 ) . A f i n a l m y t h i s t h a t w i f e a b u s e i s a r e c e n t f o r m o f f a m i l y v i o l e n c e . W h i l e i t i s o n l y s i n c e t h e e a r l y 1970's t h a t i t has been e x p o s e d and s t u d i e d a t any l e n g t h , t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t our p r e s e n t s o c i e t y p r a c t i s e s w i f e abuse t o a ny g r e a t e r d e g r e e t h a n p r e c e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s . D o b a s h and D o b a s h ( 1 9 7 9 ) p r e s e n t an i n d e p t h h i s t o r i c a l r e v i e w o f the r i g h t s , s o c i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , and l e g a l and s o c i a l l i m i t -a t i o n s o f women i n a p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t y . T h r o u g h o u t t h e R e f o r m a t i o n , s o - c a l l e d n a g g i n g o r s c o l d i n g women were p u b l i c l y r i d i c u l e d and o f t e n p u n i s h e d ( p . 5 9 ) . The same c h a r g e s c o u l d n o t be made a g a i n s t t h e h u s b a n d b e c a u s e h i s r i g h t s e x t e n d e d to f a r g r e a t e r l e n g t h s i n o r d e r f o r him t o 21 g u i d e , c o n t r o l , and d i s c i p l i n e h i s w i f e . In 1878, A m e r i c a n w o r k i n g c l a s s b a t t e r e d women w e r e a c k n o w l e d g e d w i t h t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e M a t r i m o n i a l C a u s e s A c t w h i c h g a v e M a g i s -t r a t e s ' C o u r t s t h e po w e r t o g r a n t a s e p a r a t i o n o r d e r and m a i n t e n a n c e to be p a i d i f the woman was i n p h y s i c a l d a n g e r l i v i n g w i t h a husband who had been c o n v i c t e d o f a g g r a v a t e d a s s a u l t (Freeman, 1979). The c a m p a i g n w h i c h p r e c e d e d t h i s a c t and t h e e f f o r t s w h i c h f o l l o w e d i t d i d n o t , h o w e v e r , a c k n o w l e d g e b a t t e r i n g o f m i d d l e c l a s s women. The c h a n g e s w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t l y o c c u r r i n g on a l e g a l , m e d i c a l , and s o c i a l l e v e l f o l l o w many y e a r s o f e f f o r t i n d e a l i n g w i t h a p r a c t i s e w h i c h i s r o o t e d i n the v e r y f r a m e w o r k of the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . S i x y e a r s ago i t was p o s s i b l e f o r a r e s e a r c h e r t o f i n d no r e f e r e n c e s to w i f e abuse i n p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s ( N i c h o l s , 1 9 7 6 ) . The A b u s i v e R e l a t i o n s h i p An a w a r e n e s s of what c h a r a c t e r i z e s the a b u s i v e c o u p l e w o u l d a p p e a r t o s e r v e a s a v a l u a b l e b a c k g r o u n d t o w a r d s u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s b e h i n d w i f e a b u s e . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e d a t a w h i c h h a v e b e e n o b t a i n e d t o d a t e a r e p r i m a r i l y of c o u p l e s who have, by some means, come to p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n . One of the e x c e p t i o n s i s the s t u d y by S t r a u s e t a l . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . D a t a c a n o n l y c o n v e y t h e d e g r e e and n a t u r e o f t h e a b u s e o f w h i c h we a r e a w a r e and n o t t h e a c t u a l i n c i d e n c e of t h e whole s p e c t r u m of v i o l e n c e . 22 The p r o f i l e s o f b o t h t h e h u s b a n d and w i f e a r e a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l i n some r e s p e c t s ( M o o r e , 1 9 7 9 ) . The woman's l o w s e l f - e s t e e m i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f e e l i n g s of g u i l t , i n c o m p e -t e n c e , shame, p o w e r 1 e s s n e s s , a n d l a c k o f w o r t h ( D o b a s h & Dobash, 1979; H i l b e r m a n & Munson, 1978; Moore, 1979; Downey & H o w e l l , N o t e 2). The h u s b a n d ' s j e a l o u s y and p o s s e s s i v e -n e s s ( D o b a s h & D o b a s h , 1979; H i l b e r m a n & Munson, 1978; R o u n s a v i l l e , 1978; W a l k e r , 1979) a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f h i s own l a c k of esteem. The t e n a c i t y w i t h w h i c h t h e y b o t h a p p r o a c h an i n t e n s e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s one of t h e most f r e q u e n t l y n o t e d a s p e c t s of t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g c y c l e ( D a v i d s o n , 1978; H i l b e r m a n & M u n s o n , 1978; R o u n s a v i l l e , 1978; W a l k e r , 1979; S e g o v i a -A s h l e y , Note 16). The woman i s o f t e n aware of her husband's v i o l e n c e p r i o r t o t h e i r m a r r y i n g or l i v i n g t o g e t h e r ( R o u n s a -v i l l e , 1 9 7 8 ) . T h i s same r e s e a r c h e r a l s o f o u n d t h a t 58% o f t h e women w e r e u n d e r 20 y e a r s o f age when t h e y m a r r i e d o r c o h a b i t e d , w i t h 4 9 % b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n a c o u r t s h i p o f l e s s t h a n a y e a r . D e s p i t e the s i m i l a r i t i e s b etween s p o u s e s i n the a r e a of low s e l f - e s t e e m , t h e r e have been f o u n d to be d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r b a c k g r o u n d s . In r e g a r d t o f a m i l y v i o l e n c e e x p e r i e n c e d o r v i e w e d as a c h i l d , S t r a u s e t a l . ( 1 980) f o u n d t h a t men who had seen t h e i r p a r e n t s p h y s i c a l l y a t t a c k each o t h e r were more l i k e l y t o h a v e h i t t h e i r s p o u s e i n t h e y e a r p r e c e d i n g t h e s t u d y ; one i n t h r e e o r 35% v e r s u s one i n t e n o r 10.7% 23 f o r t h o s e who h a d no f a m i l y h i s t o r y o f v i o l e n c e . V i o l e n c e v i e w e d d u r i n g the t e e n y e a r s was e s p e c i a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l . A m a j o r i t y o f b a t t e r e d women , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , h a v e b e e n f o u n d t o have not e x p e r i e n c e d v i o l e n c e i n t h e i r b i r t h homes ( W a l k e r , 1979). F i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h e s e f i g u r e s t o be as l i t t l e as 26% ( R o u n s a v i l l e , 1978) and 29% ( D o b a s h & D o b a s h , 1 97 9 ). P r i o r t o 15 y e a r s o f a g e , 66% o f t h e women and 78% o f t h e men w e r e , h o w e v e r , e x p o s e d t o a f a m i l y d i s r u p t i o n ( R o u n s a v i l l e , 1978). T h i s m i g h t t a k e the f o r m of s e p a r a t i o n f r o m a p a r e n t t h r o u g h d e a t h o r d i v o r c e o r e m o t i o n a l d i s -t a n c e i n t h e f a m i l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d e l i n q u e n c y or s e r i o u s s c h o o l d i f f i c u l t i e s . S t r a u s e t a l . ( 1 9 8 0 ) f o u n d t h a t t h e women a t h i g h e s t r i s k a r e o f a m i n o r i t y b a c k g r o u n d , l i v e i n a c i t y o f one m i l l i o n or g r e a t e r i n p o p u l a t i o n , a r e of l o w e r s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , a n d o f t e n h a v e n o t c o m p l e t e d h i g h s c h o o l . The p r e s e n c e of c h i l d r e n i s not a d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c , b u t p r e g n a n c y a p p e a r s t o a l t e r t h e b a t t e r i n g c y c l e ( H i l b e r m a n & Munson, 1978), o f t e n i n c r e a s i n g i t s f r e q u e n c y . The b a t t e r i n g husband has o f t e n g r a d u a t e d f r o m h i g h s c h o o l a n d h a s , w i t h i n t h e p a s t y e a r , e x p e r i e n c e d a m a j o r l i f e c r i s i s — u n e m p l o y m e n t , m a j o r i l l n e s s , j a i l , o r " d e a t h o f a c l o s e r e l a t i v e . B a s e d on f i n d i n g s t h a t 27% o f 92 men were c h i l d a b u s e r s and 44% o f 73 men had c r i m i n a l r e c o r d s , C a r l s o n (1977) s t a t e s t h a t the a s s a i l a n t s were more d e v i a n t 2 4 t h a n t h e v i c t i m s ( p . 4 5 7 ) . A l t h o u g h t h i s w o u l d a p p e a r t o be t h e c a s e , s p o u s e a b u s e i s n o t l i m i t e d t o p a t h o l o g i c a l p e r s o n s . S i m i l a r i t i e s i n a g e , i n c o m e , e d u c a t i o n , e m p l o y m e n t s t a t u s , p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y , and r e l i g i o n a r e f a c t o r s t h a t h a v e p r o v i d e d a common t h r e a d b e t w e e n m a r r i a g e s c h a r a c -t e r i z e d by w i f e b a t t e r i n g ( S t r a u s e t a l . , 1980). In c o n t r a -d i c t i o n t o one o f t h e a b o v e f i n d i n g s , h o w e v e r , t h e h u s b a n d h a s a l s o b e e n f o u n d t o h a v e l e s s f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a n d / o r a l o w e r p a i d j o b t h a n h i s w i f e (Downey & H o w e l l , Note 2 ) — 6 1 % i n one s t u d y ( R o u n s a v i l l e , 1978). A l t h o u g h t h e h u s b a n d has b e e n f o u n d t o h a v e a h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e o f a l c o h o l and d r u g a b u s e t h a n h i s w i f e , i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s e c o u l d s i m p l y be t h e v e h i c l e s t h r o u g h w h i c h he c h o o s e s to c a r r y out h i s d e s i r e d a c t i o n s . C a r l s o n (1977) s t a t e s t h a t 60% of the sa m p l e d men v e r s u s 10% of the sam p l e d women abused a l c o h o l and 21% of the men v e r s u s 5% of t h e women a b u s e d n o n p r e s c r i p t i o n d r u g s . T h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e woman u s e s t h e s e means as an e s c a p e f r o m t h e v i o l e n c e o f t h e m a r r i a g e . T h i s r e s e a r c h e r f o u n d t h a t two o f t h e f o u r women s t u d i e d s a i d t h a t a l c o h o l h a d " d u l l e d t h e p a i n " o r "made l i f e m o r e b e a r a b l e . " T h e i n c i d e n c e of b a t t e r i n g when b o t h s p o u s e s a r e s o b e r ( R o u n s a -v i l l e , 1978) wou l d i n d i c a t e n e i t h e r d r u g s nor a l c o h o l can be s c a p e g o a t e d as the s i n g l e c a t a l y s t . 25 The b a t t e r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i s o f t e n i n t e n s e t o t h e p o i n t of b e i n g s y m b i o t i c ( R o u n s a v i l l e , 1978). E a c h p a r t n e r h a s o f t e n b e e n f o u n d t o s e e t h e mate as p o w e r f u l v e r s u s a p o w e r l e s s s e l f ( D u t t o n & P a i n t e r , N o t e 11). The f r e q u e n c y o f e x t r e m e f e e l i n g s of j e a l o u s y on the p a r t of the b a t t e r i n g man (Dobash & Dobash, 1979; H i l b e r m a n & Munson, 1978; Roun-s a v i l l e , 1978; W a l k e r , 1979), l e a d s him t o s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e h i s w i f e . T h i s i s o l a t i o n f u r t h e r p r o m o t e s t h e woman's f e e l i n g s of h e l p l e s s n e s s . As D a v i d s o n (1978) o u t l i n e s , the woman i s o f t e n i n one o f t h r e e s t a g e s . E i t h e r s h e i s a n -x i o u s t o c h a n g e h e r h u s b a n d , r e s i g n e d t o h e r s i t u a t i o n and l o n g i n g f o r h e l p , or she i s ea g e r to change h e r own l i f e . D e s p i t e p h y s i c a l d i s p a r i t i e s , the w i f e w i l l s o m e t i m e s f i g h t back, e s p e c i a l l y i f she has w i t n e s s e d v i o l e n c e b e t w e e n h e r p a r e n t s as a c h i l d ( S t r a u s e t a l . , 1980). D o b a s h and D o b a s h ( 1 97 9) f o u n d t h a t 24% h i t b a c k a f e w t i m e s , 42% s e l d o m h i t b a c k , and 33% n e v e r d i d . P s y c h o l o g i c a l a b u s e , however, can be more p o w e r f u l and d e s t r u c t i v e t h a n p h y s i c a l a b u s e ( W a l k e r , 1 9 7 9 ) . The f o r m e r c a n o c c u r i n many ways, t h r e e m a j o r f o r m s b e i n g name c a l l i n g and c o n s t a n t c r i t i c i s m , u n p r e d i c t a b l e a c c u s a t i o n s and t h r e a t s , and f o r c e d p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n f r o m f r i e n d s and c o m m u n i t y . The p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l i s o l a t i o n the woman i s e x p e r i e n c i n g o n l y i n t e n s i -f i e s h e r s e l f - d o u b t s and p r o m o t e s t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f h e r s e l f - e s t e e m . 26 P i z z e y (1974) p r o v i d e d a p o s s i b l e v i e w to u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f t h e b a t t e r i n g c y c l e and what seem t o be u n r e a l i s t i c r e s p o n s e s o f t h e woman. At t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h e i t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l or p h y s i c a l abuse r e c o g n i z a b l y o c c u r s f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , t h e woman i s l i k e l y t o r e s p o n d i n one of two ways. I f she was e x p o s e d t o v i o l e n c e as a c h i l d s h e i s more i n c l i n e d t o r e s p o n d w i t h p a s s i v i t y whereas i f she was n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h i t f r o m h e r c h i l d h o o d s h e w i l l r e s p o n d w i t h s h o c k . I n e i t h e r c a s e , she b e l i e v e s s h e c a n do some-t h i n g d i f f e r e n t i n o r d e r t o c h a n g e h e r h u s b a n d . Her s u b -s e q u e n t r e s p o n s e i s g u i l t , shame, u n w o r t h i n e s s , i n c o m p e t -e n c y , p o w e r 1 e s s n e s s , and a n g e r when t h e b a t t e r i n g p a t t e r n i n t e n s i f i e s r a t h e r t h a n d e c r e a s e s d e s p i t e h e r a t t e m p t s t o i m p r o v e the r e l a t i o n s h i p . O v e r t i m e , as t h e v i o l e n c e c o n t i n u e s t h e r e i s an i n -c r e a s e d p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e r e w i l l be o t h e r f a m i l y o r f r i e n d s p r e s e n t d e s p i t e t h e e a r l i e r p a t t e r n of the c y c l e to k e e p t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p a s e c r e t ( D o b a s h & Dobash, 1979). The most common a r e a s of d i s a g r e e m e n t p r i o r t o a v i o l e n t e n c o u n t e r a r e s e x u a l j e a l o u s y ( 4 4 % ) , money ( 1 6 % ) , and home s k i l l s (16%) (Dobash & Dobash, 1979). These d i s a g r e e m e n t s a r e m e r e l y s y m p t o m s o f a c a u s e . U n d e r l y i n g t h e o v e r t a g g r e s s i o n i s a f e a r o f l o s s o f c o n t r o l by b o t h s p o u s e s ( H i l b e r m a n & Munson, 1978; R o u n s a v i l l e , 1978). The r e s u l t i s a c o n f l i c t a r o u n d d e p e n d e n c y and i n d e p e n d e n c y 27 i s s u e s , R o u n s a v i l l e ( 1 9 7 8 ) a l s o ' d e s c r i b i n g t h e h u s b a n d ' s p e r s o n a l i t y as p o s s e s s i v e w i t h p a r a n o i d t e n d e n c i e s and the w i f e as f l u c t u a t i n g b e t w e e n p a s s i v i t y a n d a g g r e s s i o n . D a v i d s o n ( 1 9 7 8 ) u s e s t h e t e r m " f u s i o n " t o d e s c r i b e t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n and t h e h u s b a n d ' s n e e d f o r h i s w i f e a s a p a r t o f h i m s e l f . The v i o l e n c e i s r a r e l y d i s c u s s e d , w i t h f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t i n g o n l y 8% of the men show i m m e d i a t e r e m o r s e and 22% show i t a few days l a t e r (Dobash & Dobash, 1979). Anywhere f r o m 74% ( R o u n s a v i l l e , 1978) t o 88% (Dobash & D o b a s h , 1979) l e a v e t h e i r h u s b a n d s a t some p o i n t i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h 44% l e a v i n g a t l e a s t t w i c e ( R o u n s a v i l l e , 1 9 7 8 ) . L e s s t h a n h a l f h a v e b e e n f o u n d t o s t a y away l e s s t h a n one week ( D o b a s h & D o b a s h , 1 9 7 9 ) , o f t e n l i v i n g w i t h o t h e r f a m i l y m e m b e r s w i t h i n t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d . T h i s r e s e a r c h e r f o u n d t h a t , i n t h e c a s e s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d , t h e women l i v e d a p a r t f r o m t h e i r h u s b a n d s on a t l e a s t t h r e e o c c a s i o n s d u r i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r as b r i e f a p e r i o d as t h r e e d a y s . D u r i n g any o f t h e s e p e r i o d s t h e y had c o n s t a n t c o n t a c t w i t h him by phone or i n p e r s o n . The l o s s o f c o n t r o l f e l t by t h e woman, t h e i s o l a t i o n , a n d t h e p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a t t e r i n g p r o m o t e h e r c l i n g i n g t o any i d e n t i t y f o r f e a r o f h e r l o s i n g one a l t o g -e t h e r ( C o t t r e l l , 1 978 ) . I n M e a d i a n t h e o r y , t h e s e l f i s n o t a s t a t i c s t a t e b u t a d y n a m i c p r o c e s s o f c h a n g e ( C o t t r e l l , 28 1978, p.155). " I f t h e d e f i n i n g a c t i o n s o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s a r e d e n i g r a t i v e a nd r e j e c t i v e o f t h e p e r s o n and i f t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t i s so i m p o v e r i s h e d as t o p r o v i d e no s o c i a l a l t e r n a t i v e s , t h e n s h e w i l l a p p e a r t o c l i n g t o t h a t i d e n t i t y and evoke r e s p o n s e s c o n f i r m i n g i t i n p r e f e r e n c e t o h a v i n g no i d e n t i t y a t a l l " ( C o t t r e l l , 1978, p.158). Two o f t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e woman's l e a v i n g h e r h u s b a n d a r e n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o e a c h o t h e r , n a m e l y , s e v e r i t y o f a b u s e and s e l f - e s t e e m . W h e r e a s t h e d e g r e e of b a t t e r i n g p r o m o t e s the woman l e a v i n g h e r husband, i t a l s o d e s t r o y s h e r s e l f - e s t e e m w h i c h p r o m o t e s h e r s t a y i n g ( G r o p p e r & C u r r i e , N o t e 17). As s t a t e d , b o t h women who l e a v e a b a t t e r i n g husband and t h o s e who r e m a i n l a c k f i n a n -c i a l r e s o u r c e s . F i n a n c i a l need i s a c o n t r i b u t i n g b u t not a d e c i d i n g f a c t o r as t o w h e t h e r t h e woman p h y s i c a l l y s e p a -r a t e s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e woman w i l l o f t e n p o s s e s s a t r a d i -t i o n a l v i e w o f s e x r o l e s ( W a l k e r , 1979). As a r e s u l t , t h e s t i g m a of b e i n g s e p a r a t e d or d i v o r c e d , a s i n g l e p a r e n t , and w i t h o u t t h e s e c u r i t y o f a s p o u s e w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o h e r q u e s t i o n i n g o f h e r own s e n s e o f w o r t h . T h i s r e s e a r c h e r f o u n d t h a t a l l f o u r o f t h e women s t u d i e d d e s c r i b e d t h e i r s e e k i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e c u r i t y as opposed to f i n a n c i a l s e c u -r i t y i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e i r h u s b a n d s . A t h i r d c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to t h e woman's l e a v i n g i s her r e c o g n i -t i o n o f h e r h u s b a n d ' s ' i l l n e s s ' and h e r c o n s e q u e n t i n a b i -29 l i t y t o change him i n any way ( H i l b e r m a n , Note 14). The i r o n y i s t h a t v i o l e n c e s u c c e e d s i n t h e s h o r t r u n i n k e e p i n g many f a m i l i e s t o g e t h e r and c a r r y i n g out d a i l y r e q u i -r e m e n t s of l i v i n g ( S t r a u s & H o t a l i n g , 1980). Over t i m e , the woman comes t o a c t o u t t h e s m a l l d e g r e e o f f a l s e ' c o n t r o l ' t h a t s h e d o e s h a v e t h r o u g h a c t i v e p r e c i p i t a t i o n o f t h e husband's v i o l e n c e ( W a l k e r , 1979). Dobash and Dobash (1979) s t a t e t h a t any a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t of v i c t i m p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s an a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e u s e o f p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e (p. 135) b u t W a l k e r (1979) d e s c r i b e s the woman's i n s t i g a t i o n of the v i o -l e n t e n c o u n t e r as h e r d e s i r e t o b r i n g a b o u t t h e i n e v i t a b l e so as t o h a v e some d e g r e e o f c o n t r o l and t o more q u i c k l y r e a c h what she d e f i n e s as the t h i r d phase of the c y c l e , t h a t i s , r e c o n c i l i a t i o n and peace. T h e r e a r e t h r e e b a s i c f a c t o r s w h i c h have been o u t l i n e d as m a j o r i n f l u e n c e s on t h e woman l e a v i n g an a b u s i v e h u s -b a n d - - s e v e r i t y , s e l f - e s t e e m , and b e l i e f i n t h e h u s b a n d ' s i n a b i l i t y t o c h a n g e . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l t h e o r i e s as t o why s h e s t a y s . T h e s e v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s w i l l be e x a m i n e d f o l -l o w i n g a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s o c i a l r e s p o n s e t o b a t t e r e d women. The s o c i o c u l t u r a 1 v i e w i s b a s e d e n t i r e l y on t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y o f t h e s e x e s . C l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h t h i s i n e q u a l i t y i s t h e r e s p o n s e g i v e n by the l e g a l and m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n s , law e n f o r c e m e n t , and government s o -c i a l s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l when t h e woman r e q u e s t s h e l p i n 30 c h a n g i n g o r d e a l i n g w i t h h e r s i t u a t i o n . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e s h e r e c e i v e s f r o m one o r more o f t h e s e s o u r c e s c a n a s s i s t h e r i n d e v e l o p i n g a s e n s e of p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l o r c a n f u r t h e r s u p p o r t h e r f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t , h e l p l e s s n e s s , and l a c k of w o r t h . The S o c i a l Response The a b s e n c e o f s u p p o r t f o r b a t t e r e d women by l e g a l , m e d i c a l , l a w e n f o r c e m e n t , and s o c i a l s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l i s w e l l documented (Dobash & Dobash, 1979; P i z z e y , 1974; Roun-s a v i l l e , 1978; S t e i n m e t z , 1977; S t r a u s , 1978; S a n d e r s - K r a u s e & Hodgson, Note 4; Women's R e s e a r c h C e n t r e , Note 9). Women have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been v i e w e d as the p r e c i p i t a t o r s of t h e i r own v i c t i m i z a t i o n a n d , t h e r e f o r e , s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a i n t a i n i n g , c h a n g i n g , o r t e r m i n a t i n g t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the man. In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " b a t t e r e d women a r e not a d d r e s s e d per se i n l e g i s l a t i o n , p o l i c y , or r e g u l a t i o n s of the M i n i s -t r y of Human R e s o u r c e s MHR. They f a l l under the mandate i n two s i t u a t i o n s — a s an e x t e n s i o n of c h i l d w e l f a r e or b e c a u s e t h e y r e q u i r e s u b s t i t u t e income s u f f i c i e n t t o p r o v i d e b a s i c n e e d s " (Women's R e s e a r c h C e n t r e , N o t e 9, p. 167). S h o u l d t h e woman n o t h a v e a c h i l d l i v i n g w i t h h e r o r be f i n a n c i a l l y i n need, i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on the p a r t of the i n t e r -v i e w i n g s o c i a l w o r k e r p l a y s a l a r g e p a r t i n t h e s e r v i c e s a n d e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t s h e w i l l r e c e i v e . T h e r e e x i s t s no 31 mandate f o r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s e women d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t t h e y m i g h t have been s e v e r e l y i n j u r e d by t h e i r husbands on a number of o c c a s i o n s . F o r f a m i l i e s , " t h e g o a l o f M i n i s t r y p o l i c y i s t h a t o f k e e p i n g t h e f a m i l y t o g e t h e r " (Women's R e s e a r c h C e n t r e , Note 9, p. 165). I d e a l l y , t h i s s u g g e s t s m a r i t a l c o u n s e l l i n g a n d / o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . The next s t e p to be p u r s u e d w o u l d be an i n q u i r y i n t o t h e r e q u i r e d s u p p o r t , f i n a n c i a l a n d / o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l , f o r the woman and h e r a c c o m p a n y i n g c h i l d o r c h i l d r e n . As s t a t e d by t h e Women's R e s e a r c h C e n t r e ( N o t e 9 ) , t h e M i n i s t r y c a n p r o v i d e a l l o f t h e s e r v i c e s n e e d e d t o h e l p a woman l e a v e a b a t t e r i n g s i t u a t i o n s h o u l d r e c o n c i l i a -t i o n be deemed i n a p p r o p r i a t e . An a p p a r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the s t a t e m e n t t h a t " i t would be u n u s u a l f o r a s o c i a l w o r k e r to e n c o u r a g e a woman to l e a v e , a l t h o u g h t h e w o r k e r would p r o b a b l y s u p p o r t the woman i f she d e c i d e d to do so on h e r own" (p. 174). In e i t h e r c a s e , the woman r e c e i v e s no s u p p o r t i n h e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . E v e n i f she c a r r i e s o u t h e r s e p a r a t i o n and s e e k s v a r i o u s f o r m s o f s u p -p o r t i n d o i n g so, t h e r e i s no r e c o r d k e p t of h e r h a v i n g been b a t t e r e d . I f she r e m a i n s w i t h h e r husband h e r r e q u e s t w i l l be l a b e l l e d a s m a r r i a g e - r e 1 a t e d . The M i n i s t r y d o e s n o t r e q u i r e t h a t s t a t i s t i c s be m a i n t a i n e d on b a t t e r i n g . A " P o l i c y S t a t e m e n t on S o c i a l Work P r a c t i c e w i t h A s s a u l t e d Women and t h e i r F a m i l i e s , " i s s u e d by t h e C a n a d i a n 32 A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l W o r k e r s i n O c t o b e r , 1982, a d d r e s s e d t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r ' s r o l e i n more e f f e c t i v e l y d o c u m e n t i n g , t r e a t i n g , a n d c h a n g i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n o f b a t t e r e d women. R e c o n c i l i a t i o n and f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g t e c h n i q u e s a r e s t a t e d as " p o t e n t i a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e , i l l - t i m e d , o r d a n g e r o u s f o r t h e woman a n d h e r c h i l d r e n . " T h e i r a p p e a l f o r i m p r o v e d s e r v i c e s f o r abused women emerges f r o m a g r o w i n g r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s have o f t e n not been aware t h a t t h e y have been s e e i n g a bused women and t h a t t h e y may be c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e m a i n t e n a n c e of a p o t e n t i a l l y l e t h a l s i t u a t i o n . In a D e c e m b e r , 1975, t o May, 1976 p i l o t s t u d y o f a g e n c i e s i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , T r a n s i t i o n House was the o n l y one s p e c i -f i c a l l y r e c o r d i n g i n c i d e n c e and d e t a i l s of b a t t e r i n g (Downey & H o w e l l , N o t e 2). Of a t o t a l o f 283 d o m e s t i c v i o l e n c e c a l l s t o t h e V a n -c o u v e r P o l i c e o v e r a two m o n t h p e r i o d , a p o l i c e c a r was s e n t o u t 53.8% o f t h e t i m e . O n l y 10% o f t h e s e w e r e g i v e n " p r i o -r i t y o n e " a t t e n t i o n w i t h t h e p r o b a b i l i t y r i s i n g t o 67% i f weapons and a l c o h o l were i n v o l v e d or t o 73% i f c h i l d r e n were p r e s e n t i n t h e home ( D u t t o n , N o t e 18). T h e r e e x i s t s what m i g h t be t e r m e d a s t a l e m a t e between b a t t e r e d women and law e n f o r c e m e n t p e r s o n n e l . W i t h the i n c i d e n c e of b a t t e r i n g i n V a n c o u v e r i n c r e a s i n g to a l m o s t d o u b l e i n the l a s t few y e a r s t o 75 o r 80 c a l l s p e r n i g h t , V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e f i n d i t d i s -c o u r a g i n g when a woman w i l l n o t p r e s s a s s a u l t c h a r g e s 33 a g a i n s t h e r husband or w i l l w i t h d r a w them b e f o r e the c o u r t d a t e ( V a n F l e e t , N o t e 19). One i n d i c a t i o n o f p r o g r e s s o c c u r r e d i n Aug u s t , 1982, when t h e C r i m i n a l Code was amended so t h a t s p o u s e s c o u l d a l s o be c h a r g e d w i t h s e x u a l a s s a u l t . H e s i t a t i o n on the p a r t of the woman to c a l l the p o l i c e o r p r e s s c h a r g e s c o u l d be a r e f l e c t i o n of an a r r e s t r a t e of 7 % ( D u t t o n , N o t e 18) and o f t h e l e n i e n c y o f t h e c o u r t s . I n a V a n c o u v e r Sun s u r v e y i n N o v e m b e r , 1982, t h e h a r s h e s t s e n t e n c e g i v e n i n 68 f a m i l y d i s p u t e s was 12 m o n t h s p r o b a -t i o n , a nd t h i s was o n l y i n two c a s e s . V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e " C r i s i s I n t e r v e n t i o n T e c h n i q u e s " m a t e r i a l a d v o c a t e s "compro-m i s e " and " t h e g o a l f o r t h e o f f i c e r . . . t o g e t p a r t i e s i n c o n f l i c t t o c o m m i t t h e m s e l v e s t o a v e r b a l c o n t r a c t a b o u t s p e c i f i c f u t u r e b e h a v i o r " (p. 3 0 ) . The q u e s t i o n i s an a c a d e m i c one as t o w h e t h e r t h e s e g o a l s a d e q u a t e l y p r o t e c t t h e woman i n the s i t u a t i o n b e c a u s e 85% of the t i m e m e d i a t i o n i s n o t e v e n p o s s i b l e ( V a n F l e e t , N o t e 19). A p a r t f r o m r e m o v i n g t h e h u s b a n d f r o m t h e home, t h e r e a p p e a r s l i t t l e t h a t c a n be done t o e n s u r e t h e s a f e t y o f b o t h s p o u s e s b u t , i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e woman. I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t o t h e r p r e -v e n t i v e measures must be i n i t i a t e d . V a n c o u v e r has a g r o u p -b a s e d c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m f o r a b u s i v e men, c o o r d i n a t e d by Dr. D. D u t t o n , D e p a r t m e n t o f P s y c h o l o g y , a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The q u e s t i o n o f s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y e x t e n d s t o t h e 34 i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n s o c i e t y . One s t u d y c o n d u c t e d f o u n d t h a t a t o t a l of 68% o f t h e sampled women had been p h y s i c a l l y abused i n p u b l i c by t h e i r husbands but t h a t o n l y 3% of t h e s e women ha d r e c e i v e d h e l p ( R o u n s a v i l l e , 1 97 8 ) . I n s u c h a c a s e , t h e r e a l i t y of the women's s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n i s v a l i d a t e d t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , h e o r e t i c a l A p p r o a c h e s P r e f a c e . The t h e o r i e s of w i f e b a t t e r i n g a r e p r e s e n t e d as s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t f r o m e a c h o t h e r b u t t h e r e a r e f e w r e s e a r c h e r s who do n o t a c k n o w l e d g e t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f a number o f f a c t o r s t o t h e i n c e p t i o n and c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e b a t t e r i n g c y c l e . By c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t i n g t h e s e e x i s t i n g t h e o r i e s , t h i s r e s e a r c h e r b e l i e v e s t h a t a more i n t e n s i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e woman's r e s p o n s e t o a b u s e w i l l be o b t a i n e d a l o n g s i d e a g r e a t e r a w a r e n e s s f o r f u t u r e p r o g r a m d e s i g n . S o c i o c u l t u r a l . The f e m i n i s t - p o l i t i c a l ( W a l k e r , N o t e 15) or s o c i o c u l t u r a l t h e o r y of w i f e b a t t e r i n g d e s c r i b e s t h e abuse l a r g e l y as a r e f l e c t i o n of u n e q u a l power r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n a p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e ( R i c h e t t e , N o t e 6). The s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e of a woman's m a r r i a g e becomes a major d e t e r m i n a n t of h e r s e l f - e s t e e m . C o n c u r r e n t l y , she l o s e s h e r " p e r s o n h o o d " i n t h i s u n i o n ( M a r t i n , Note 13, p. 44). M a r t i n (Note 1) q u o t e s a C o n n e c t i c u t c o u r t r u l i n g as r e c e n t as 1962 w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t t h e w i f e ' s o b l i g a t i o n i s t o be h e r h u s -35 band's " h e l p m a t e , t o l o v e and c a r e f o r h i m i n s i c k n e s s , a n d t o l a b o r f a i t h f u l l y t o a d v a n c e h i s i n t e r e s t s . " She mu s t p e r f o r m "her h o u s e h o l d t a s k s and d o m e s t i c d u t i e s . . . w i t h o u t c o m p e n s a t i o n . A h u s b a n d i s e n t i t l e d t o b e n e f i t o f h i s w i f e ' s i n d u s t r y and economy" (p. 12-13). The woman's e n c u l -t u r a t e d d u t y to be s u b s e r v i e n t and n u r t u r a n t to her husband ( S e g o v i a - A s h l e y , Note 16), l i n k e d w i t h a s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h t e a c h e s h e r t h a t s h e n e e d s a man t o t a k e c a r e o f h e r ( W a l k e r , N o t e 15), r e s u l t s i n f e e l i n g s o f h e l p l e s s n e s s a n d c o n f u s i o n when she i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a b a t t e r i n g p a r t n e r . D o b a s h a n d D o b a s h ( 1 9 7 9 ) d e f i n e t h e p r o b l e m as t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f s o c i a l a n d p e r s o n a l d o m i n a t i o n a n d " r i g h t f u l " c o n t r o l of women by men (p. 243). They acknow-l e d g e t h e r e l i g i o u s , e c o n o m i c , and p o l i t i c a l s a n c t i o n s o f s u c h a p o w e r i m b a l a n c e . The a c c e p t a n c e and p r o m o t i o n o f men's a u t h o r i t y o v e r women w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y and s o c i e t y as a w h o l e has b e e n s u p p o r t e d as a a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o t h e i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l p a t t e r n of w i f e b a t t e r i n g (Freeman, 1979; S t r a u s & H o t a l i n g , 1980). The d e f e r e n c e , i n t i m e , becomes a m o r a l i s s u e ( F r e e m a n , 1 9 7 9 ) . P h y s i c a l c o n t r o l i s u n n e c e s -s a r y when much more e f f e c t i v e i d e o l o g i c a l ones a r e p r e s e n t . The s t r e n g t h of the e m o t i o n a l bond of p i t y ( S e g o v i a - A s h l e y , N o t e 16) i s o n l y r e i n f o r c e d on a p h y s i c a l l e v e l when a b u s e o c c u r s . The a c c e p t a n c e o f a g e n t s o f f o r c e i n a c q u i r i n g d e s i r e d g o a l s w i t h i n an u n e q u a l p o w e r s y s t e m s u c h as t h e 36 f a m i l y does not d e a l w i t h the s o u r c e of the p r o b l e m , n a m e l y , the l a c k of c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n r e s p o n s e to r e a l or p e r c e i v e d c h a l l e n g e t o a u t h o r i t y ( S t e i n m e t z , 1977). W i t h the e m p h a s i s on p o w e r w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y , t h e h u s b a n d w i l l r e s o r t t o v i o l e n c e as a s o c i a l l y a p p r o v e d t o o l of dom i n a n c e , o f t e n i n r e s p o n s e t o what he p e r c e i v e s t o be t h r e a t s t o h i s s u p e r -i o r i t y ( R o u n s a v i l l e , 1978). H i s w i f e ' s a c t i o n s need not be c a r r i e d o u t t o c h a l l e n g e o r i n c i t e . I t i s o n l y n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e husband ' b e l i e v e s ' t h a t t h e y a r e . R o s e n b e r g ' s ( 1 9 7 9 ) t h e o r y o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e l f w o u l d s e r v e t o c l a r i f y a t t h i s p o i n t . The i n d i v i d u a l f l e x e s t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e s e l f i n o r d e r t o i n c o r p o r a t e e x t e r n a l e l e m e n t s i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a s e 1 f - c o n c e p t . S e l f - e s t e e m i s s e e n as b e i n g s p e c i f i c t o a r o l e , t a s k , o r s e t of a b i l i t i e s w h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e s . I f one c o n s i -d e r s the c u l t u r a l l y - d e f i n e d e x p e c t a t i o n of women to f u l f i l l a ' t r a d i t i o n a l ' r o l e , i t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e i n h e r e n t a n d i n e v i t a b l e d e s t r u c t i o n of s e l f - e s t e e m f o r the woman w i t h i n the b a t t e r i n g c y c l e has f a r - r e a c h i n g d i m e n s i o n s . The O c t o b e r , 1982, P o l i c y S t a t e m e n t o f t h e C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l Workers a c k n o w l e d g e s a s o c i o c u l t u r a l v i e w when i t s t a t e s t h a t " b a t t e r i n g i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f women as p o s s e s s i o n s w h i c h l e a d s t o t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n as o b j e c t s o f men's v i o l e n t b e h a v i o r . " The s o c i o c u l t u r a l v i e w i n d i c a t e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e of s o c i a l c o n d i -37 t i o n s i n c r e a t i n g and a l l o w i n g t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e b a t t e r i n g c y c l e b e t w e e n s p o u s e s . The model f a i l s , however, to a c c o u n t f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t e x i s t between the m a l e s ' r e s p o n s e s ( D u t t o n fie P a i n t e r , Note 20). S o c i a l l e a r n i n g . W i f e b a t t e r i n g can be v i e w e d as a s e t o f b e h a v i o r s w h i c h h a v e b e e n l e a r n e d a n d a c c e p t e d as a r e s u l t of the c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l d i m e n s i o n s of s o c i a l -l y s a n c t i o n e d s e x u a l i n e q u a l i t y . I t can a l s o be l i n k e d w i t h f a m i l y a n d i n d i v i d u a l p a t t e r n s . T h i s l a t t e r c o m p o n e n t i s what m i g h t be t e r m e d ' m i c r o c u l t u r a t i o n ' i n t h a t l e a r n i n g on a c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l l e v e l i s p r e s u m e d t o t a k e p l a c e as a r e s u l t o f what o c c u r s s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h i n t h e home. A b a s i c p r e m i s e o f t h e s o c i a l l e a r n i n g t h e o r y i s t h a t t h e v i o l e n c e s a n c t i o n e d w i t h i n t h e c h i l d h o o d home w i l l be r e -e n a c t e d w i t h i n t h e a d u l t home. In p o i n t , t h e s o n s o f v i o -l e n t p a r e n t s h a v e a r a t e o f w i f e b a t t e r i n g 1000% g r e a t e r t h a n t h o s e o f n o n v i o l e n t p a r e n t s ( S t r a u s e t a l . , 1 9 8 0 ) . These same r e s e a r c h e r s s ay t h a t one out of f o u r p a r e n t s who w e r e p h y s i c a l l y a b u s e d as a t e e n a g e r a r e l i k e l y t o a b u s e t h e i r own c h i l d r e n as c o m p a r e d t o one o u t o f s i x t e e n f o r t h o s e o f n o n a b u s i v e p a r e n t s . The l i n k s b e t w e e n w i f e b a t -t e r i n g and c h i l d a b u s e w i l l n o t be r e v i e w e d i n t h i s p a p e r b u t , i n b r i e f r e f e r e n c e , s e r v e t o s u p p o r t t h e s o c i a l l e a r -n i n g v i e w of the f o r m e r . T h e r e i s a c o g n i t i v e d i m e n s i o n to s o c i a l l e a r n i n g w h i c h 38 p r o m o t e s men t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be t o u g h and a g g r e s s i v e and not t e n d e r and s o f t ( W h i t e h u r s t , 1971). Hep-b u r n ( 1 9 7 3 ) a l s o s t a t e s t h a t i t i s s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e f o r men t o u s e a l c o h o l as an e x c u s e f o r v i o l e n c e and a p p a r e n t u n c o n t r o l l e d b e h a v i o r . He s t a t e s t h a t t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o s t o f f a i l u r e o r l o s i n g f a c e i s o f t e n l e s s t h a n t h e e m b a r a s s m e n t o f p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e . S t r a u s e t a l . ( 1 9 8 0 ) s t a t e t h a t we l e a r n t o a c c e p t the s t r u g g l e f o r power w i t h i n the f a m i l y as w e l l as the t e c h n i q u e s w i t h w h i c h to c a r r y i t out. A g g r e s s i o n i s a l e a r n e d r e s p o n s e to t h r e a t e n e d c o n t r o l ( H i l b e r m a n & Munson, 1978). R a r e l y i s the l i n k b etween t h e two r e c o g n i z a b l e . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t , w h i l e t h e husband i s d i r e c t i n g h i s u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a g g r e s s i o n onto h i s w i f e , t h e woman i s c o n c u r r e n t l y d i r e c t i n g h e r anger onto h e r s e l f ( H i l -b e r m a n , N o t e 14). She i s c o v e r t l y d e n y i n g h e r " r a g e by means of a comple x m y t h o l o g y a b o u t w i f e b e a t i n g " (p. 159), a m y t h o l o g y w h i c h p r o m o t e s h e r b e l i e f i n h e r own c o n t r o l i n an d s e p a r a t i o n f r o m t h e d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s o f t h e a b u s e . A l o n g s i d e , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e R o u n s a v i 1 1 e ' s ( 1 9 7 8 ) f i n d i n g s t h a t s t a t e t h a t 16% o f t h e women i n h i s s t u d y a p p r o v e d of s p o u s e s h i t t i n g e a c h o t h e r a t c e r t a i n t i m e s and 20% s a i d t h e y d e s e r v e d a p h y s i c a l r e p r i m a n d a t some p o i n t . The b e h a v i o r a l a s p e c t of t h i s t h e o r y i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h what i s t e r m e d " i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the a g g r e s s o r " or " d e f e n s i v e i d e n t i t y . " The c h i l d who s e e s v i o l e n c e w i t h i n 39 t h e home i s more l i k e l y t o be a p e r p e t r a t o r o f i t o r , i f a woman, t o be a v i c t i m as an a d u l t ( G e l l e s , N o t e 2 1 ) . T h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s r e s u l t i n g f r o m v i e w i n g v i o l e n c e as w e l l as f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i t . The v i e w e r w i l l t a k e the r o l e o f a g e n t o f a b u s e i n o r d e r t o d e c r e a s e a n x i e t y ( B a n d u r a , R o s s , & R o s s , 1961; R o u n s a v i l l e , 1 9 78). T h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t , f o r women i n p a r t i c u l a r , e a r l y e x p o s u r e t o w i f e abuse may s e r v e t o d e s e n s i t i z e them ( C a r l s o n , 1977) as s k i l l s a r e mos t o f t e n l e a r n e d f r o m t h e p a r e n t o f t h e same s e x ( S t r a u s e t a l . , 1 9 80). Norms t o j u s t i f y w i f e b a t t e r i n g ( S t r a u s 5c H o t a l i n g , 1980) d e v e l o p a l o n g s i d e an a w a r e n e s s of when, where, and how i t i s s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e . As t h e r e a r e c o n s i s t e n c i e s on a c o g n i t i v e d i m e n s i o n b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n s o c i e t y , t h e r e e x i s t s a d e g r e e o f s i m i l a r i t y on a b e h a v i o r a l l e v e l . S o c i a l n o r m s c o n t r i b u t e t o a p a t t e r n o f b e h a v i o r s b e t w e e n a b u s i v e s p o u s e s as w e l l as between c o u p l e s i n g e n e r a l . W i f e b a t t e r i n g i s n o t 'random' i n t e r m s o f d e g r e e o r o c c u r r e n c e ( S t r a u s & H o t a l i n g , 1980). S t r a u s (197 ) r e c o u n t s a s t o r y i n w h i c h a b a t t e r i n g husband a c k n o w l e d g e d h i s l o s s of c o n -t r o l i n h i t t i n g h i s w i f e . When a s k e d why he d i d n o t s t a b h e r , he s a i d he would not do su c h a t h i n g . I t a p p e a r e d t h a t he had s e t l i m i t s f o r h i m s e l f and t h a t he c o u l d ' l o s e c o n -t r o l ' o n l y w i t h i n c e r t a i n b o u n d a r i e s of b e h a v i o r . S t r a u s and H o t a l i n g (1980) o u t l i n e what t h e y b e l i e v e to 40 be a number of c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s t o w a r d s f a m i l y v i o l e n c e . T h e s e t e n f a c t o r s c a n be s u m m a r i z e d by s a y i n g t h a t f a m i l y members o f t e n s p e n d much t i m e t o g e t h e r , e n g a g e i n a w i d e ra n g e of a c t i v i t i e s w i t h an i n t e n s i t y t h a t can e a s i l y c r e a t e f e e l i n g s o f i n f r i n g e m e n t o f s p a c e and t h r e a t e n a s c r i b e d f a m i l y r o l e s . Not o n l y i s membership, i n h e r e n t l y , i n v o l u n -t a r y b u t s t r e s s f r o m c o n s t a n t change c an e m p h a s i z e age and s e x d i f f e r e n c e s t o t h e p o i n t w h e r e e a c h i n d i v i d u a l ' s v u l -n e r a b i l i t i e s a r e t e s t e d by o t h e r f a m i l y members. The s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n o f t h e ' r i g h t ' o f f a m i l y p r i v a c y o f t e n a s s i s t s i n i s o l a t i n g r a t h e r t h a n e d u c a t i n g t h e f a m i l y m embers. P o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y i s s o c i a l l y v a l u e d w i t h o u t t h e s k i l l s o f t e n b e i n g t a u g h t i n o r d e r t o b r i n g i t a b o u t . I n s t e a d o f s k i l l s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t h e r e e x i s t s k i l l s o f a g g r e s s i o n o r p a s s i v i t y . The a p p a r e n t r e s u l t i s t h e man's d e n i a l o f h i s v i o l e n c e o r r a t i o n a l i z i n g o f h i s a c t i o n s . As l o n g as the woman sees h e r s e l f as the cau s e of t h e v i o l e n c e , s h e w i l l f e e l o b l i g a t e d t o r e m a i n i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p ( D u t t o n & P a i n t e r , Note 2 0 ) . In c o n c l u s i o n , t h i s t h e o r y of w i f e b a t t e r i n g c a n n o t be s o l e l y r e l i e d u p o n f o r t h e r e a s o n t h a t i t d o e s n o t a c c o u n t f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b etween men ( D u t t o n & P a i n t e r , Note 2 0 ) a n d a l s o b e t w e e n women. A l l men who v i e w v i o l e n c e as a c h i l d w i l l n o t c h o o s e t o c a r r y i t o u t n o r w i l l a l l women choo s e to r e m a i n v i c t i m i z e d by a b a t t e r e r . I t would a p p e a r 41 v a l u a b l e to c o n s i d e r the t h e o r y of c o n t r i b u t i n g s t r e s s . S t r e s s t h e o r y . The b a s i c p r e m i s e o f t h i s t h e o r y i s t h a t w i f e b a t t e r i n g i s a f i n a l e f f o r t i n a s t r u g g l e f o r power w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y ( S t r a u s e t a l . , 1980). The e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s o f u n e m p l o y m e n t , s u b s t a n c e a d d i c t i o n , l a c k o f money, an d / o r the e f f e c t s of low s t a t u s j o b s on s e l f - e s t e e m ( C a r l s o n , 1977; H i l b e r m a n & M u n s o n , 1978) c o m b i n e w i t h t h e s t r e s s of c o n s t a n t change w i t h i n the f a m i l y s y s t e m ( K a r d e n e r & F u l l e r , 1 9 7 0 ) . P o o r i m p u l s e c o n t r o l and p a t h o l o g i c a l j e a l o u s y can f o r m a d e s p e r a t e mix when combi n e d w i t h any or a l l of t h e above ( H i l b e r m a n & Munson, 1978). The b a t t e r i n g and v i o l e n c e i n g e n e r a l emerges as the symptom of u n d e r l y i n g f e a r of a c t u a l a n d / o r p r e d i c t e d p o w e r l e s s n e s s ( H i l b e r m a n & M u n s o n , 1 978; May, 1 9 7 2). The l o w s e l f - e s t e e m o f b o t h t h e husband and w i f e c r e a t e and c o n t r i b u t e t o a v i o l e n t means of a c h i e v i n g d e s i r e d s e l f - e s t e e m and s i g n i f i c a n c e (May, 1972). C o n t r a r y t o some e x i s t i n g t h e o r i e s w h i c h a c c e p t v i o l e n c e as a r a t i o n a l r e s p o n s e t o s t r e s s , f r u s t r a t i o n s , o r t h r e a t s t o i d e n t i t y ( G e l l e s , 1 9 7 2 ) , i t i s more f r e q u e n t l y deemed an i n a p p r o p r i a t e and n e g a t i v e means of r e s p o n d i n g (May, 1972; S t r a u s et a l . , 1980) t o what i s c o n s i d e r e d to be a r e s e r v o i r o f power needs t h a t our s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s c r e a t e s w i t h i n us ( M a r t i n , Note 22). The f i n d i n g s l i n k l o w e r s o c i o e c o n o m i c f a m i l i e s w i t h g r e a t e r d e g r e e s of e x t e r n a l s t r e s s and h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n s o f w i f e b a t t e r i n g (Freeman, 1979; G e l l e s , 1972). 42 I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e d p o t e n t i a l f o r w i f e abuse when a u t h o r i t y i s c h a l l e n g e d or p e r c e i v e d to be c h a l l e n g e d w i t h i n the f a m i l y ( S t e i n m e t z , 1977). The s t r e s -s e s p r e s e n t a r e t h e c a t a l y s t b u t n o t t h e c a u s e . W i f e b a t -t e r i n g h a s , i n f a c t , b e e n f o u n d t o be t h r e e t i m e s as f r e -q u e n t when t h e h u s b a n d i s e m p l o y e d p a r t t i m e as o p p o s e d t o b e i n g t w i c e as f r e q u e n t when he i s u n e m p l o y e d ( S t r a u s e t a l . , 1 980). May ( 1 9 7 2 ) d e s c r i b e s one r e s p o n s e t o t h e s t r e s s o f p o w e r l e s s n e s s as " p s e u d o i n n o c e n c e , " a r e f r a m i n g o f h e l p -l e s s n e s s as a v i r t u o u s s t a t e of a v o i d a n c e . In not c o m i n g to t e r m s w i t h t h e d e s t r u c t i v e ne s s i n one's s e l f o r o t h e r s a n d i n making use of p o s i t i v e power i n t e r m s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h i s i n n o c e n c e b e c o m e s s e 1 f - d e s t r u c t i v e (p. 50). I f t h i s t h e o r y i s a p p l i e d t o b a t t e r e d women, an a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t of s e 1 f - d i r e c t e d a g g r e s s i o n a n d i g n o r e d p e r s o n a l s t r e n g t h s i m p l i c a t e s t h e woman's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d e n i a l o f h e r s e l f - w o r t h . S t r e s s , a l i g n e d w i t h a s e n s e of p o w e r l e s s n e s s , c a n be s e e n as a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on t h e b e h a v i o r o f b o t h s p o u s e s . Two s t r e s s f u l c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a r e n o t d i s c u s s e d i n a m a j o r i t y o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on a b u s e a r e b o r e d o m and i n t i -macy. The f o r m e r , a l s o t e r m e d " u n d e r l o a d " ( S t r a u s & H o t a -l i n g , 1980), would seem to s u p p o r t the d o u b l e d r a t e of w i f e a b u s e when t h e h u s b a n d i s u n e m p l o y e d b u t f a i l s t o a c c o u n t 4 3 f o r the h i g h e r f i g u r e when he i s empl o y e d p a r t t i m e . As f o r i n t i m a c y , t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n f l i c t t e n d s t o i n c r e a s e a l o n g s i d e an i n c r e a s e i n p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l c l o s e n e s s ( S t r a u s & H o t a l i n g , 1980). A f i n a l s t r e s s t h e r e s e a r c h e r w o u l d l i k e t o add i s t h a t o f g u i l t w h i c h r e s u l t s when s o c i a l n o r m s c o n d e m n b o t h t h e b a t t e r e r and the v i c t i m w i t h o u t a c k n o w l e d g i n g a n d / o r a c c e p -t i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a b u s e . I f t h e c r i t i c i s m i n a c k n o w -l e d g i n g t h e b a t t e r i n g i s s e e n as g r e a t e r t h a n t h e v a l u e i n c h a n g i n g e x i s t i n g a b u s i v e p a t t e r n s , t h e i s o l a t i o n f e l t by b o t h s p o u s e s w i l l most p r o b a b l y be i n c r e a s e d . L e a r n e d h e l p l e s s n e s s t h e o r y . W a l k e r (1979) i s a m a j o r p r o p o n e n t of a l e a r n e d h e l p l e s s n e s s model i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the b a t t e r e d woman's b e h a v i o r when she r e m a i n s i n t h e mar-r i a g e . W a l k e r o u t l i n e s what s h e t h e o r i z e s a r e t h e t h r e e s t a g e s of the b a t t e r i n g c y c l e — t e n s i o n b u i l d i n g , e x p l o s i o n , and l o v i n g c a l m . The v i c t i m i z a t i o n becomes c o m p l e t e i n t h e t h i r d p h a s e when t h e s y m b i o t i c b o n d s a r e d e e p e n e d . The women whom she d e s c r i b e s as s u s c e p t i b l e to the r o l e of the v i c t i m a r e t h o s e who b e l i e v e i n an e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l a n d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e i r p e r s o n a l a c t i o n w i l l n o t be a d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r of e x p e r i e n c e . She r e f e r s to the woman's a w a r e n e s s o f t h e s e s t a g e s as a r e a s o n f o r any p r o v o k i n g b e h a v i o r on h e r p a r t . Dobash and Dobash (1979) b e l i e v e t h a t a n y s u g g e s t i o n o f t h e woman's p r o v o c a t i o n w o u l d a l l o w f o r 44 "an a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e u s e o f p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e " (p. 135). W a l k e r p r e s e n t s i t as one of the means of p s e u d o c o n t r o l t h a t t h e woman h a s i n o r d e r t o s e r v e as a c a t a l y s t f o r h e r own p a i n , t h e r e b y b e i n g more a b l e t o p r e d i c t i t . One o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t s t e p s i n b r e a k i n g the c y c l e i s f o r the woman t o r e c o g n i s e t h a t h e r b e h a v i o r c a n a f f e c t what h a p p e n s t o her ( W a l k e r , 1 979). A more i n d e p t h s t u d y of t h e l e a r n e d h e l p l e s s n e s s t h e o r y e n a b l e s i t to p r o v i d e a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the woman's c h o i c e t o r e m a i n . H e l p l e s s n e s s can a f f e c t an i n d i v i d u a l i n t h r e e a r e a s — m o t i v a t i o n , c o g n i t i o n , and e m o t i o n ( S e l i g m a n , 1975). The e f f e c t s a r e se e n i n d e c r e a s e d v o l u n t a r y c o n t r o l of g e n e r a l e v e n t s , d i f f i c u l t y i n l e a r n i n g to t a k e and a c c e p t c o n t r o l , and p h y s i c a l i n a c t i o n . The r e a l h e l p l e s s n e s s w h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s when an outcome i s not a f f e c t e d i n a ny way by t h e p e r s o n ' s a c t i o n w i l l a f f e c t s u b s e q u e n t r e s p o n s e s . The s e n s e of c o n t r o l , p r e d i c t a b i l i t y , and e f f e c t of one's b e h a v i o r a l f r a m e w o r k i s r e p l a c e d w i t h d i s t r u s t and, " t o t h e d e g r e e t h a t u n c o n t r o l l a b l e e v e n t s o c c u r , e i t h e r t r a u m a t i c o r p o s i t i v e , d e p r e s s i o n w i l l be p r e d i s p o s e d and ego s t r e n g t h u n d e r m i n e d " (p. 99). The t h e o r y of l e a r n e d h e l p l e s s n e s s , a p p l i e d to b a t t e r e d women, has been d i s c o u n t e d as a t o t a l e x p l a n a t i o n as i t does no t a c c o u n t f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s p o n s e . Whereas some women have r e s p o n d e d by f e e l i n g h e l p l e s s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p and 45 l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s ( R o u n s a v i l l e , 1 9 7 8 ) , n o t a l l t h e women who f e e l s i m i l a r l e v e l s o f h e l p l e s s n e s s w i l l r e s p o n d by-r e m a i n i n g w i t h t h e i r husband. R e i n f o r c e m e n t and o p p o n e n t - p r o c e s s t h e o r i e s . T h e r e a r e two t h e o r i e s w h i c h w i l l be p r e s e n t e d as s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s a l t h o u g h t h e y a l s o b o t h c o n t r i b u t e t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the t h e o r y of t r a u m a t i c b o n d i n g . The ( n e g a t i v e ) r e i n f o r c e -ment t h e o r y s t a t e s t h a t e m o t i o n a l b o n d i n g t a k e s p l a c e i n r e s p o n s e t o an a n x i e t y p r o d u c i n g s i t u a t i o n as a r e s u l t of a d e c r e a s e i n a v e r s i v e s t i m u l a t i o n . The p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t f o l l o w i n g a t h r e a t e n i n g s i t u a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more i n f l u e n t i a l b e c a u s e i t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d e c r e a s e o f a p a i n f u l s t a t e . "To t h e e x t e n t t h a t f e a r and o t h e r a v e r s i v e s t a t e s a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a h e t e r o s e x u a l r e l a -t i o n s h i p , the r e d u c t i o n of r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r l e v e l s of s u c h a r o u s a l w i l l l e a d to i n c r e a s e d a t t r a c t i o n " ( K e n d r i c k & C i a l -d i n i , 1 9 7 7 ) . The s e c o n d t h e o r y i s t h a t of o p p o n e n t - p r o c e s s . Solomon ( 1 9 8 0 ) s t a t e s t h a t t h e i n i t i a l , a f f e c t i v e r e a c t i o n t o a s t i m u l u s w i l l d e c r e a s e o v e r t i m e w h i l e the a f t e r - r e a c t i o n , o f t e n o f a n o p p o s i n g q u a l i t y , w i l l i n c r e a s e a s i t i s r e p e a t e d . In s i t u a t i o n s of b a t t e r i n g , the a f t e r - r e a c t i o n or "b" p r o c e s s seems t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f W a l k e r ' s ( 1 9 7 9 ) t h i r d p h a s e o f a h e l p l e s s n e s s m o d e l when t h e l o v e and c a l m a r e a l m o s t i n e x t r e m e as a r e s u l t o f t h e p r e c e d i n g e x p l o s i v e 46 p e r i o d . As t h e "b" p r o c e s s i s s t r e n g t h e n e d , t h e " a " o r v i o l e n t p r o c e s s has w e a k e n e d . The i n d i v i d u a l has b ecome a c c u s t o m e d a n d / o r d u l l e d to the i n i t i a l p a i n and f e a r s e n s a -t i o n s . Two c o n c e p t s d e s c r i b e d by S o l o m o n a r e t h e c r i t i c a l d e c a y p e r i o d and t h e s a v i n g s e f f e c t . The l a t t e r i s a ' r e s e r v o i r ' of p a s t l e a r n i n g s w h i c h a l l o w f o r t h e "b" e f f e c t t o a c c u m u l a t e . The t i m e b e t w e e n e a c h "b" i s c r i t i c a l . I t c a n be e i t h e r t o o l o n g , d e s p i t e an a c c u m u l a t i o n e f f e c t so t h a t t h e "b" w i l l n o t be s u f f i c i e n t t o o u t w e i g h " a " o r i t c a n be t o o s h o r t and t h e r e b y r e d u c e i t s s t r e n g t h . T r a u m a t i c b o n d i n g t h e o r y . The b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h i s t h e o r y o f b o n d i n g a r e t h a t t h e r e i s a s e v e r e p o w e r i m b a l a n c e and t h a t t h e r e i s an i n t e r m i t t e n t q u a l i t y t o the abuse ( D u t t o n & P a i n t e r , Note 11). The power d i f f e r e n c e i n i t s e l f c a n p r o m o t e d y s f u n c t i o n a l b e h a v i o r i n i n d i v i d u a l s . S t r o n g b o n d s b a s e d on a p p a r e n t n e e d r e s u l t f r o m t h e l o w p o w e r p e r s o n ' s l a c k o f s e l f - w o r t h and t h e c o n t r o l l e r ' s d e s i r e t o m a i n t a i n h i s f a l s e p o w e r i n o r d e r t o a v o i d c o n -f r o n t i n g h i s own l a c k of s e l f - e s t e e m . The r e i n f o r c e m e n t of t h e i n t e r m i t t e n t n a t u r e o f t h e a b u s e ( R o u n s a v i l l e , 1978; D u t t o n & P a i n t e r , N o t e 11) i s a c c o m p a n i e d by i n t e r m i t t e n t r e w a r d , e n c o u r a g i n g p u r s u i t of a g o a l much l o n g e r t h a n w i t h e i t h e r c o n s i s t e n t o r n o n - e x i s t e n t r e w a r d ( S k i n n e r , 1 9 38). T h i s r e s e a r c h e r was s u r p r i s e d w i t h t h e h i g h l e v e l o f 47 c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n h u s b a n d and w i f e i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h i s power i m b a l a n c e . S u p p o r t : What a r e the Needs? T h e r e a r e a v a r i e t y of answers g i v e n t o the q u e s t i o n o f t h e n e e d s o f t h e a b u s e d woman. The s o c i o c u l t u r a l a n d s o c i a l l e a r n i n g t h e o r i s t s a s c r i b e to a t o t a l s h i f t i n a t t i -t u d e s and p a t t e r n s on a s o c i e t y ( D o b a s h & D o b a s h , 1979) and f a m i l y l e v e l ( S t r a u s e t a l . , 1980). S e x i s t norms i n s o c i e t y and the f a m i l y need to be changed so t h a t women a r e r e s p e c -t e d as e q u a l t o men a n d b o t h a r e f r e e t o c h o o s e t h e i r d o m e s -t i c o r p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e s . E l i m i n a t i n g n o r m s o f f a m i l y i s o l a t i o n o r ' p r i v a c y ' a n d a l s o t h o s e o f " n o r m a l " v i o l e n c e ( S t r a u s e t a l . , 1980) would p r o v i d e a s o c i a l base f r o m w h i c h t o b e g i n i n d i v i d u a l c h a n g e s . I f f a m i l y c o n f l i c t c a n be a c c e p t e d as i n e v i t a b l e i t can p e r h a p s be s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e b e l i e f t h a t v i o l e n c e i s t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e r e s p o n s e . I n t e -g r a t i o n w i t h the e x t e n d e d f a m i l y and w i t h the community, as w e l l as s k i l l s i n p a r e n t i n g t o d e c r e a s e c o r p o r a l p u n i s h m e n t of c h i l d r e n , a r e b o t h b e h a v i o r a l measures a i m e d a t r e m o v i n g t h e s a n c t i o n f o r v i o l e n c e a n d d e v e l o p i n g an a l t e r n a t e p a t t e r n of r e s p o n s e ( S t e i n m e t z , 1977; S t r a u s e t a l . , 1980). P e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g a n d s u p p o r t f o r e i t h e r t h e b a t t e r e r o r t h e a b u s e d i s n o t a d e q u a t e on i t s own t o b r i n g a b o u t t h e n e c e s s a r y s o c i a l c h a n g e s ( S t r a u s e t a l . , 1 980), a l t h o u g h c o u n s e l l i n g f o r t h e men who commit the abuse i s a 48 p r i o r i t y ( D o b a s h & D o b a s h , 1979; S t r a u s e t a l . , 1 9 8 0 ) . The man m u s t b e l i e v e t h a t b a t t e r i n g h i s w i f e i s n o t a 'mas-c u l i n e ' a c t ( M a r t i n , N o t e 13) w h i l e t h e woman n e e d s t o s e p a r a t e h e r p a s s i v i t y f r o m h e r p e r c e p t i o n o f f e m i n i n i t y . In b e h a v i o r a l t e r m s , she needs to be p r e p a r e d to l e a v e a f t e r t h e f i r s t s l a p ( S t r a u s , N o t e 23). I n g e n e r a l , i n s i g h t -o r i e n t e d c o u n s e l l i n g f o r b a t t e r e d women, on a g r o u p o r i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , i s d i s c o u r a g e d ( W a l k e r , Note 10; S e g o v i a -A s h l e y , N o t e 16) i n f a v o r o f b e h a v i o r - o r i e n t e d , s h o r t t e r m t e c h n i q u e s a i m e d a t r a i s i n g s e l f - e s t e e m ( W a l k e r , Note 10). P o s s i b l e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s a r e t h a t i n s i g h t c o u n s e l l i n g m i g h t be t h o u g h t t o d e l a y a c t i o n , i n a d v e r t e n t l y p e r p e t u a t e t h e s i t u a t i o n , a n d l e a d t h e woman t o a s s u m e an i n a p p r o p r i a t e amount of g u i l t and r e s p o n s b i l i t y . The r e s e a r c h e r , i n r e s p o n s e to the i n d i c a t i o n s of t h i s s t u d y , b e l i e v e s t h a t i n s i g h t - o r i e n t e d c o u n s e l l i n g c a n , to a d e g r e e , p r o v i d e v e r i f i c a t i o n f o r b e h a v i o r and an i n c r e a s e d s e n s e o f c o n t r o l i n r e s p o n s e t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g . P e e r and s e l f - h e l p g r o u p s c a n p r o v i d e e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t f o r a b a t t e r e d woman ( F l e m i n g , 1979; Thorman, 1980; W a r r i o r , Note 24) but e n c o u n t e r and c l i e n t - c e n t e r e d g r o u p s have been d i s -f a v o r e d as many o f t h e women a r e d e s c r i b e d as n o t h a v i n g a l e v e l o f s e l f - e s t e e m t o make i t a p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e ( R i c h e t t e , Note 6). More d i r e c t i v e g r o u p t e c h n i q u e s s u c h as r o l e - p l a y i n g , dyads, r e l a x a t i o n s k i l l s , v e n t i n g a n g e r , and 49 p s y c h o d r a m a have been used ( F l e m i n g , 1979). A woman's p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a d i n e s s to t a k e the s t e p s she b e l i e v e s n e c e s s a r y can be pr o m o t e d by h e r o p e n l y d i s c u s s i n g t h e i s s u e s ( S t r a u s , N o t e 2 3 ) . She n e e d s t o r e c o g n i s e h e r p o t e n t i a l f o r c h a n g e d e s p i t e a l a c k o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t ( W a l k e r , 1979). T h e r e i s a n e e d f o r g r e a t e r e d u c a t i o n o f b a t t e r e d women as to t h e i r r i g h t s and a l t e r n a t i v e s as w e l l as s k i l l s t o h a n d l e t h e b a t t e r i n g when i t o c c u r s ( M c L e o d , 1981). As s h e l t e r i s a c o n c e r n o f women who l e a v e t h e i r s p o u s e and home (Downey & H o w e l l , Note 2), t h e r e e x i s t s n ot o n l y a n e e d f o r t r a n s i t i o n h o u s i n g b u t a l s o f o r p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n so t h a t women l i v i n g w i t h v i o l e n c e a r e a w a r e o f the r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e to them. T h e r e i s a pa r a d o x w i t h i n t h e s u p p o r t s y s t e m f o r abused women. D e s p i t e an a w a r e n e s s o f t h e n e e d f o r t h e woman t o remove h e r s e l f f r o m t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p ( P i z z e y , 1974; W a l k e r , 1 9 7 9 ) , a n e e d h a s a l s o b e e n e x p r e s s e d f o r s u p p o r t f o r t h e woman i n h e r d e c i s i o n to r e m a i n i f t h a t i s h e r c h o i c e ( W a l -k e r , 1 9 7 9 ) . I t i s s u g g e s t e d , b a s e d on t h e p e r s o n a l a s s e s s m e n t s of the s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y , t h a t the b a t t e r e d woman i s o f t e n i n need of a c c e p t a n c e by s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s i n o r d e r f o r h e r t o l e a r n t o a c c e p t h e r s e l f . The c o u n s e l l o r c a n c o n v e y an a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a nd s t i l l m a i n -t a i n an i n d e p e n d e n t o p i n i o n about the v a r i o u s o p t i o n s a v a i -l a b l e t o t h e woman. I f t h e c o u n s e l l o r and o t h e r p e o p l e i n 50 the woman's n a t u r a l s u p p o r t s y s t e m show t h a t t h e y e x p e c t h e r t o l e a v e t h e v i o l e n t s i t u a t i o n a nd t o s t a y o u t o f i t , t h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s , i n t h e m s e l v e s , a r e p o w e r f u l m o t i v a t o r s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e not r e j e c t and d i s a p p r o v e s h o u l d she r e t u r n , one or more t i m e s . R e s p e c t and a c c e p t a n c e need not a l l o w f o r c o m p l i c i t y a r o u n d a woman's d e c i s i o n to r e m a i n i n a p h y s i c a l l y a nd e m o t i o n a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e s i t u a t i o n . " A b e t t i n g a woman i n g o i n g b a c k w i t h h e r b a t t e r i n g mate c l e a r l y n e g a t e s any e f f o r t s t o v a l i d a t e a n d a b e t h e r s e n s e o f s e l f - r e s p e c t a nd i n d e p e n d e n c e . I f many women l e a v e a s h e l t e r t o r e t u r n t o a b a t t e r i n g man, i t ' s a s u r e s i g n t h a t t h e s h e l t e r has f a i l e d them i n some way" ( W a r r i o r , Note 24, p. 7 3 ) . CHAPTER I I I M e t h o d o l o g y D e s i g n The d e s i g n i m p l e m e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y was o f an A-B-A ty p e w i t h i n the f r a m e w o r k of a c a s e s t u d y f o r m a t . Q u a n t i t a -t i v e d a t a w e r e o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f a t i m e s e r i e s measurement. T h e r e were a number of r e a s o n s why t h i s p a r t i -c u l a r d e s i g n and f o r m a t were c o n s i d e r e d a d v a n t a g e o u s . The g o a l s of t h i s s t u d y were t w o - f o l d . F i r s t l y , t h e r e was a g o a l t o e x p l o r e and o b t a i n i n d e p t h i n f o r m a t i o n on the g r o w t h of b a t t e r e d women t o w a r d s p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n d e p e n d e n c e . T h e r e was a l s o a c l i n i c a l g o a l t o p r o v i d e a s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d 51 e d u c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m f o r t h e s u b j e c t s . The s i n g l e c a s e m e t h o d was c h o s e n f o r i t s a b i l i t y t o c o m b i n e r e s e a r c h f o r the p u r p o s e of g e n e r a l k n owledge as w e l l as f o r i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e and g r o w t h ( L e i t e n b e r g , 1 9 7 3 ) . The c a s e s t u d y m e t h o d was s e l e c t e d as an e f f e c t i v e means t h r o u g h w h i c h t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s h o r t t e r m e f f e c t s of the t h e r a p e u -t i c p r o c e d u r e ( K a z d i n , 1981; L e i t e n b e r g , 1 9 73). I t a l s o e n a b l e d the r e s e a r c h e r to o b t a i n d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the h i s t o r y o f e a c h s u b j e c t and t h e v a r i a b l e s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e c h a n g e p r o c e s s . The o b j e c t was n o t t o ' p i n p o i n t a c a u s e ' b u t t o a s s e s s a r a n g e o f b e h a v i o r s ( L a w r e n c e & S e l -l e r , 1965) t o w a r d s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h m i g h t c o n t r i b u t e t o i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e a n d / o r common e x p e r i e n c e ( L e i t e n b e r g , 1 9 73). The c a s e s t u d y m e t h o d c a n l e a d t o a g r e a t e r a w a r e n e s s of t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s , the i n f o r -m a t i o n a p p r o x i m a t i n g t h a t w h i c h i s o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h e x p e r i -m e n t a l r e s e a r c h ( K a z d i n 1981). In a d d i t i o n , the i m p o r t a n c e o f s p e c i f i c l i f e e v e n t s c a n s u r f a c e a l o n g w i t h o b j e c t i v e m e a s u r e m e n t s of change. The d e s i g n e n a b l e d f e e d b a c k so as t o c h a n g e t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n t o a n s w e r i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s ( B l o o m , 1978). The s e s s i o n s w e r e s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d w i t h a m a j o r i t y of the q u e s t i o n s b e i n g open-end i n f o r m a t . Case s t u d i e s r e l y h e a v i l y on i n c i d e n t a c c o u n t s and the r e s e a r c h e r / c o u n s e l l o r ' s i n f e r e n c e s f r o m them ( K a z d i n , 1981). C o n c l u s i o n s c a n n o t be as c l e a r as w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n s 52 as i n c i d e n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t e n o u g h t o c o n c l u d e c h a n g e ( K a z d i n , 1981). Two w e a k n e s s e s e x i s t — t h e q u e s t i o n of c a u -s a l i t y and t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of r e s u l t s ( S m i t h , 1981). I n a n s w e r t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f d e t e r m i n i s m , two s t e p s w e r e t a k e n i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . F i r s t l y , a s t e a d y s t a t e was o b t a i n e d p r i o r t o t h e t r e a t m e n t p h a s e . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s l e v e l i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e a b i l i t y t o p r e d i c t b e h a v i o r i n c o n t i n u o u s a s s e s s m e n t and, t h e r e f o r e , to i n c r e a s e i n t e r -n a l v a l i d i t y ( K a z d i n , 1981). I f change i s i m m e d i a t e and of a d e q u a t e m a g n i t u d e , i t i s more l i k e l y due t o t r e a t m e n t t h a n e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s . S e c o n d l y , r e s u l t s were v e r i f i e d w i t h a q u a n t i t a t i v e m e a s u r e ( s e e A p p e n d i x C) w h i c h was d e s c r i p -t i v e l y a n a l y s e d ( s e e C h a p t e r V). In t h e c a s e s t u d i e s , o b j e c t i v i t y was a l s o p u r s u e d t h r o u g h s u p p o r t o f a n e c d o t a l a c c o u n t s w i t h an e x e m p l i f y i n g b e h a v i o r a l c o m p o n e n t . The r e s e a r c h e r i s aware, however, t h a t the r e s u l t s must be s e e n as s u g g e s t i v e r a t h e r t h a n c o n c l u s i v e . The b a s e l i n e was two weeks i n l e n g t h w i t h s e v e n weeks f o r the t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d and f o u r weeks f o r the p o s t t r e a t -ment p e r i o d . The z o n e s h a v e n o t b e e n , a n d n e e d n o t be c o n s t r u c t e d as s t a t i s t i c a l ends i n t h e m s e l v e s (Bloom, 1978). They do a l l o w , however, f o r a d e q u a t e measurements to be made i n e a c h phase so as to i n c r e a s e i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y . Sample The e f f e c t s of e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a b l e s must be m i n i m i z e d 5 3 i n o r d e r to f u l f i l l i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . G e n e r a -l i z a b i l i t y o r e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y i s a l s o a c o n c e r n . In o r d e r t o a d d r e s s b o t h , f o u r c a s e s t u d i e s w e r e u n d e r t a k e n , r a t h e r t h a n a s i n g l e c a s e s t u d y . E x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y i s , n e v e r -t h e l e s s , e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d and the s t u d y i s i n t e n d e d to have m a i n l y s u g g e s t i v e and h e u r i s t i c v a l u e , p r o v i d i n g i n s i g h t s f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . S u b j e c t s were assumed to be a h e t e r o g e n e o u s sample of the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n , namely, p h y s i c a l l y abused women who have p h y s i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d f r o m an a b u s i v e spouse. They were o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h r e f e r r a l by a V a n c o u v e r t r a n s i t i o n h o u s e and by a c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e a g e n c y f o r abused women. I n i -t i a l c o n t a c t was made w i t h a l e t t e r ( s e e A p p e n d i x A) f o l l o w e d by a t e l e p h o n e c a l l t o c o n f i r m an i n i t i a l c o n t a c t t i m e . A l l of the women had v o l u n t e e r e d to p a r t i c i p a t e p r i o r to r e f e r r a l however t h i s was not c o n s i d e r e d to be a s i g n i f i -c a n t b i a s i n g f a c t o r . Due t o t h e h i g h l e v e l o f s e c r e c y w i t h i n v i o l e n t homes and the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y needs of t h o s e women who come i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e s y s t e m , t r u e r a n d o m s a m p l i n g was n o t p o s s i b l e . The o n l y r e q u i r e -m e n t s o f t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e t h a t t h e y h a v e b e e n p h y s i c a l l y a b u s e d by t h e i r h u s b a n d s and t h a t t h e y be l i v i n g a p a r t , h a v i n g p h y s i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s f r o m the v i o l e n c e . The f o u r women r a n g e d i n age f r o m 22 t o 40 y e a r s o f age a n d a l l h a d o n e c h i l d u n d e r t h r e e y e a r s o f a g e . T h e 54 p r e s e n c e o f c h i l d r e n had n o t b e e n a r e q u i r e m e n t . They had l e f t a b a t t e r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p f r o m b e t w e e n f o u r m o n t h s t o t e n m o n t h s p r i o r t o t h e c o m m e n c e m e n t o f t h i s s t u d y . A l l were on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and, a p a r t f r o m the one woman who h a d a s u i t e i n a s e c o n d s t a g e t r a n s i t i o n h o u s e , t h e y w e r e l i v i n g a l o n e i n t h e i r own a p a r t m e n t s . The sample s i z e was c o n s i d e r e d s m a l l enough to e x p l o r e e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s but of a d e q u a t e number t o make i m p l i c a t i o n s f r o m t h e s t u d y and s u b s e q u e n t r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . " I f t h e same f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s d i d not g o v e r n a l l p e o p l e t h e r e would be no s c i e n c e o f p s y c h o l o g y . S i t u a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n f l u e n c e b e h a v i o r b u t t h e y do n o t a l t e r human n a t u r e " ( M a i e r , 1963). A c o n t r o l g r o u p was not r e q u i r e d b e c a u s e i n s i n g l e s u b j e c t d e s i g n t h e s u b j e c t i s h i s / h e r own c o n t r o l (Howe, 1974) t h r o u g h c o m p a r i s o n of e a r l i e r l e v e l s w i t h l a t e r ones (Bloom, Note 25). Q u a l i t a t i v e Data C o l l e c t i o n : Case Study Format The s t u d y c o v e r e d a t o t a l p e r i o d o f 13 weeks w i t h t h e t h r e e phases of b a s e l i n e , t r e a t m e n t , and p o s t t r e a t m e n t b e i n g two w e e k s , s e v e n w e e k s , and f o u r w e e k s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The p u r p o s e o f t h e b a s e l i n e p h a s e was t o e s t a b l i s h a l e v e l o f e x i s t i n g b e h a v i o r . Q u a n t i t a t i v e l y , i t was u n d e r t a k e n t h r o u g h the use of a t i m e s e r i e s measurement. S u b j e c t i v e l y , x e x t e n s i v e h i s t o r i c a l d a t a was o b t a i n e d f r o m e a c h s u b j e c t . D u r i n g t h e t r e a t m e n t p h a s e , s u b j e c t s met on a one t o one 55 b a s i s w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r f o r a t o t a l o f e i g h t , o n e - h o u r c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s or one s e s s i o n e a c h week w i t h a f i n a l s e s s i o n a t the b e g i n n i n g of the e i g h t h week. T h e r e s e a r c h e r m a i n t a i n e d a n o n d i r e c t i v e f o r m a t ( S e l l t i z , J a h o d a , D e i i t s c h , & Cook, 1960) i n c o n d u c t i n g t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s by p r e s e n t i n g more o p e n t h a n c l o s e d q u e s t i o n s (see A p p e n d i x D). Whereas c l o s e d q u e s t i o n s t e n d t o p r o v i d e somewhat s u p e r f i c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n , open q u e s t i o n s a l l o w f o r much g r e a t e r c l a r i t y by p u t t i n g f a r f e w e r r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e r e s p o n s e ( K e r l i n g e r , 1964). " Open-end q u e s t i o n s a r e f l e x i b l e ; t h e y h a v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f d e p t h ; . . . t h e y e n a b l e t h e i n t e r v i e w e r t o a s c e r t a i n a r e s p o n d e n t ' s l a c k o f know-l e d g e , t o d e t e c t a m b i g u i t y , t o e n c o u r a g e c o o p e r a t i o n a n d a c h i e v e r a p p o r t , and t o make b e t t e r e s t i m a t e s o f r e s p o n -d e n t s ' t r u e i n t e n t i o n s , b e l i e f s , and a t t i t u d e s " (p. 4 8 3 -8 4 0 ) . W i t h t h i s d e s i g n , o b j e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be o b t a i n e d w i t h o u t the r e s e a r c h e r l e a d i n g the s u b j e c t s . A l l t h e women w e r e made a w a r e t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n was b e i n g g a t h e r e d on t h e i r g r o w t h t o w a r d s p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n d e -p e n d e n c e f o l l o w i n g t h e i r l e a v i n g an a b u s i v e s p o u s e ( s e e A p p e n d i x A). T h e y w e r e , i n no way, l e a d t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y w e r e t o be a s k e d t o a s s e s s t h e t h e r a p e u t i c v a l u e t h e y o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e t r e a t m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n . As a r e s u l t , i t was h o p e d t h a t t h e i r c o m m e n t s w o u l d more c l o s e l y r e f l e c t t h e i r p e r s o n a l e v a l u a t i o n s as opposed t o what t h e y p e r c e i v e d 56 the r e s e a r c h e r wanted to be t o l d . A n i n t h o r f i n a l i n t e r v i e w was c o n d u c t e d f o l l o w i n g a p o s t t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d o f f o u r w e e k s . At t h i s t i m e , t h e s u b j e c t s were a s k e d , t h r o u g h open-end q u e s t i o n s , to a s s e s s the t r e a t m e n t program and t o r e c a l l s p e c i f i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s or t e c h n i q u e s w i t h i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s t h a t t h e y b e l i e v e d c o n -t r i b u t e d to t h e i r a t t a i n i n g a f e e l i n g of g r e a t e r s e l f - e s t e e m a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h i r d p h a s e was t o a l l o w a r e t u r n to the b a s e l i n e or to p r o v i d e i n d i c a t i o n s f o r r e l i a b i l i t y of the f i n d i n g s o v e r t i m e w i t h o u t t r e a t m e n t . I_ns _t r um e n t A q u a n t i t a t i v e m e a s u r e was u s e d i n a d d i t i o n t o o b j e c -t i v e q u a l i t a t i v e c a s e s t u d y d a t a . The s e l e c t e d i n s t r u m e n t was a s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l (SD) w h i c h was u s e d as a r e p e a t e d measure i n a t i m e s e r i e s d e s i g n . W i t h c o n t i n u o u s a s s e s s m e n t , t h e e f f e c t s of i n f l u e n c i n g v a r i a b l e s was r e d u c e d ( K a z d i n , 1 9 8 1 ) . The s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l i s a s e n s i t i v e t e c h n i q u e i n a s s e s s i n g c h a n g e i n t h e c o u r s e o f a p r o g r a m ( O s g o o d , 1 9 5 7 ) . The i n s t r u m e n t (see A p p e n d i x C) was c o m p r i s e d of a l i s t o f 12 p a i r s o f o p p o s i t e a d j e c t i v e s , as t e s t e d by O s g o o d . The s u b j e c t s e v a l u a t e d t h e i r own f e e l i n g s a t t h e t i m e o f e a c h measurement, m a r k i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p o i n t on e a c h of t h e s e v e n - p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e s . T h e y c o m p l e t e d t h e t e s t a t o t a l o f 45 t i m e s o v e r t h e 13 w e e k s , s i x t i m e s w e e k l y d u r i n g 57 the b a s e l i n e phase and t h r e e t i m e s w e e k l y t h e r e a f t e r . The l e n g t h o f e a c h p h a s e was c o n s t r u c t e d , n o t as a s t a t i s t i c a l e nd ( B l o o m , N o t e 2 5 ) , b u t i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the women's s h i f t i n f e e l i n g s t h r o u g h o u t a t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d o f g r o w t h t o w a r d s i n d e p e n d e n c e . S e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l d a t a i s u n i q u e i n t h a t i t c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d on an i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p b a s i s ( K e r l i n g e r , 1964). D e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s of b o t h combined and i n d i v i d u a l d a t a i s g i v e n i n C h a p t e r V. A q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of the t i m e s e r i e s d a t a was n o t c o n d u c t e d f o r two b a s i c r e a s o n s . The s a m p l e s i z e l i m i t e d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t c o u l d be made f r o m t h e r e s e a r c h . A l s o , t h e c l i n i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s would not be g r e a t l y enhanced t h r o u g h an i n t e n -s i v e q u a n t i t a t i v e t e s t i n g of the d a t a . In s h o r t , q u a n t i t a -t i v e t i m e s e r i e s a n a l y s i s was c o n s i d e r e d beyond the s c o p e of t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y . A p r i m a r y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h w o u l d be t o i n c l u d e a s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f s i m i l a r d a t a w i t h i n a l a r g e g r o u p s t u d y . The v a l i d i t y o f a s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l i s m o s t l y " f a c e . " O s g o o d e t a l . ( 1 9 5 7 ) c o m p a r e d i t t o two o t h e r s c a l e s - - t h e T h u r s t o n e and Guttman s c a l e s — a n d f o u n d them to s u p p o r t i t as an i n d e x of a t t i t u d e . O b j e c t i v i t y i s a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h i t s e x p l i c i t n e s s and ea s y r e p l i c a t i o n w h i l e r e l i a b i -l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e not n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e the s c o r e s a r e t o o c o n s i s t e n t ( O s g o o d e t a l . , 1 9 5 7 ) . The s e v e n p o i n t 58 s c a l e , u s i n g t h e t e r m s o f " e x t r e m e l y , " " q u i t e , " a n d " s l i g h t l y , " "do y i e l d n e a r l y e q u a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l u n i t s i n the p r o c e s s of judgment" (p.. 327). The t h r e e b a s i c d i m e n s i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e a d j e c -t i v e s a r e t e r m e d " e v a l u a t i o n , " " p o t e n c y , " and " a c t i v i t y " by Osgood. E v a l u a t i o n f a c t o r l o a d i n g s were f o u n d t o be some-what h i g h e r t h a n t h e o t h e r two. The a d j e c t i v e s s e l e c t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r w e r e c h o s e n f o r t h e i r v a l i d i t y w i t h i n t h e s t u d y as w e l l as t h e i r h i g h f a c t o r l o a d i n g s w i t h i n one o f the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d d i m e n s i o n s . They had to be a s s e s s m e n t s w i t h w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t s f e l t a t e a s e as w e l l as w h i c h t h e y f e l t a p p r o p r i a t e to t h e i r own range of f e e l i n g s about them-s e l v e s . E v a l u a t i v e f a c t o r l o a d i n g s r a n g e f r o m .55 t o .82, th e p o t e n c y and a c t i v i t y f a c t o r l o a d i n g s f r o m .44 t o .62 and f r o m .41 t o .59, r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h r e e of the a d j e c t i v e p a i r s a r e f r o m t h e a c t i v i t y d i m e n s i o n — a c t i v e / p a s s i v e , f e r o c i o u s / p e a c e f u 1 , s h a r p / d u l l . T h r e e o f t h o s e r e m a i n i n g a r e f r o m t h e p o t e n c y d i m e n s i o n — b r a v e / c o w a r d l y , d e e p / s ha 11 o w , s t r o n g / w e a k — and t h e o t h e r s i x a r e f r o m t h e e v a l u a t i v e group. The s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e p l a c e d the h i g h s c o r e of " s e v e n " on t h e p o s i t i v e a d j e c t i v e , n a m e l y , r e l a x e d , c l e a r , a c t i v e , p e a c e f u l , happy, s h a r p , b r a v e , k i n d , c a l m , s t r o n g , deep, and v a l u a b l e . The l o w e s t s c o r e o f " o n e " was g i v e n t o t h e i r o p p o s i t e s , n a m e l y , t e n s e , h a z y , p a s s i v e , f e r o c i o u s , s a d , 59 d u l l , c o w a r d l y , c r u e l , a g i t a t e d , weak, s h a l l o w , and worthless. It was assumed that the higher semantic d i f f e r -e n t i a l scores i n d i c a t e d a higher se1f-eva1uation i n the adjective areas. CHAPTER IV Qualitative Case Study Results P r e f_ace The four case studies are presented to provide an indepth assessment of the childhood and adult experiences of a small sample of battered women. Also important are their c o g n i t i v e and emotional r e a c t i o n s to these experiences. Verbatim quotations of the subjects' are included as often as p o s s i b l e and are designed with double quotation marks. The researcher's comments are enclosed with single quotation marks or prefaced by "appears" or "seems." It i s n e c e s s a r y to c l a r i f y the approach used i n obtaining the early recollections. The positive or negative quality of early memories was not specified. The subjects were asked to describe a s i n g l e event that they r e c a l l e d from their childhood. They could not be events about which they had been informed at a later point in time. The names used are f i c t i t i o u s . Some events and l o c a -tions have also been changed to protect the identity of the women and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . No changes have been made that w i l l misrepresent the research information. 60 Case Study 1 F a m i l y of_ o r i g i n . C a t h e r i n e was 28 y e a r s of age at t h e t i m e of t h i s s t u d y . Her p a r e n t s as w e l l as h e r g r a n d p a r e n t s w e r e a l l C a n a d i a n b o r n . C a t h e r i n e knew n o t h i n g a b o u t h e r g r a n d p a r e n t s ' m a r r i a g e s as to the p r e s e n c e of abuse, s e p a r a -t i o n , o r d i v o r c e . She d e s c r i b e d b o t h h e r g r a n d m o t h e r s as " s t r o n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s . " She had a l w a y s f e l t c l o s e s t t o h e r m a t e r n a l g r a n d m o t h e r , R a c h e l , above any o t h e r f a m i l y member. She a t t r i b u t e d t h i s p a r t l y to t h e i r c o m p l e m e n t a r y a s t r o l o g i -c a l i n f l u e n c e s but l a r g e l y to R a c h e l ' s c l e a r and p r e d i c t a b l e f a v o r i t i s m f o r h e r . I n a f a m i l y i n w h i c h C a t h e r i n e f e l t much c o m p e t i t i o n and f e a r a r o u n d u n p r e d i c t a b l e c r i t i c i s m , R a c h e l w o u l d c l a r i f y h e r p r e f e r e n c e s f o r c e r t a i n g r a n d -c h i l d r e n . When v i s i t i n g , t h e c h i l d r e n c o u l d t a k e money f r o m a j a r o f c o p p e r c o i n s i f n o t f a v o r e d o r f r o m a j a r o f s i l v e r c o i n s i f f a v o r e d . C a t h e r i n e s a i d she was n e v e r aware of the c r i t e r i a f o r h e r g r a n d m o t h e r ' s d e c i s i o n s I n t h i s r e g a r d . C a t h e r i n e d e s c r i b e d h e r f a m i l y as c o n t i n u a l l y j u d g i n g i t s members as a c c e p t a b l e o r n o t a c c e p t a b l e w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y s y s t e m . In r e s p o n s e , t h e r e w o u l d e x i s t f a v o r i t i s m o r an i g n o r i n g o f t h a t member. She was u n a w a r e o f t h e b a s e s f o r t h e s e j u d g m e n t s . F o r e x a m p l e , a l t h o u g h C a t h e r i n e d i d n o t know t h e d e t a i l s , R a c h e l was a s s u m e d t o h a v e " k i l l e d " h e r h u s b a n d by " f o r c i n g " h i m t o go o u t on a c o l d e v e n i n g . As a r e s u l t , he was c h i l l e d and d i e d of pneumonia. 61 C a t h e r i n e ' s p a t e r n a l g r a n d p a r e n t s , J o h n and S y l v i a , w e r e n o t v i o l e n t w i t h e a c h o t h e r as f a r as C a t h e r i n e knew. She d e s c r i b e d J o h n as " q u i e t " and " s t r o n g " and S y l v i a as " d o m i n e e r i n g " a n d " p o w e r f u l . " She d i d n o t f e e l c l o s e t o S y l v i a u n t i l s h e was 17 y e a r s o l d when s h e r e a l i z e d t h a t h e r g r a n d m o t h e r " c a r e d f o r her." She d e s c r i b e d t h i s as a p o i n t o f d e v e l o p m e n t f o r h e r as o p p o s e d t o l i n k i n g i t t o any s p e c i f i c changes t h a t her g r a n d m o t h e r had r e c e n t l y made. C a t h e r i n e d e s c r i b e d her mother, M a r i o n , as " l o n e l y " and " s a d " b u t s h e s a i d s h e d i d n o t s e e h e r m o t h e r i n t h i s way u n t i l one y e a r a f t e r M a r i o n ' s d e a t h . C a t h e r i n e d e s c r i b e d h e r change of f e e l i n g as b e i n g i n r e s p o n s e to a dream w h i c h she l i k e n e d t o a s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . She c o u l d n o t d e s c r i b e h e r m o t h e r as s h e saw h e r d u r i n g h e r c h i l d h o o d e x c e p t t h a t she, C a t h e r i n e , had l a i n awake n i g h t s p l a n n i n g how to " k i l l " h e r. C a t h e r i n e b e l i e v e d h e r an g e r t o w a r d s h e r mother was b a s e d i n h e r own d e s i r e f o r e m o t i o n a l i n t i m a c y and t o u c h t h a t s h e d i d n o t r e c e i v e f r o m M a r i o n . She r e c o u n t e d i n c i -d e n c e s i n w h i c h h e r m o t h e r f u l f i l l e d " t r a d i t i o n a l " r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s i n r e g a r d t o h o u s e h o l d t a s k s b u t d i d n o t hug th e c h i l d r e n or r e s p o n d w i t h n u r t u r i n g to t h e i r s t a t e d f e a r s or c o n c e r n s . C a t h e r i n e d e s c r i b e d h e r f a t h e r , G e r a l d , as " c o n t r o l -l i n g , " " a u t h o r i t a r i a n , " and " u n p r e d i c t a b l e . " He h a d b e e n t h e o l d e r of two c h i l d r e n . M a rion's f a m i l y had e x p e c t e d h e r 62 t o m a r r y a p r o f e s s i o n a l . G e r a l d was a s k i l l e d t r a d e s m a n a n d , a s a r e s u l t , M a r i o n was " d i s o w n e d " f o r m a r r y i n g " b e n e a t h h e r . " She was s u b j e c t e d t o f a m i l y c r i t i c i s m , s o c i a l s e g r e g a t i o n , and e m o t i o n a l d i s t a n c e . M a r i o n and G e r a l d had t h r e e c h i l d r e n . Tanya was b o r n i n 1952, C a t h e r i n e was b o r n 13 months l a t e r i n 1953, and Sharon was b o r n s i x y e a r s l a t e r i n 1959. When C a t h e r i n e was 6 y e a r s o l d , h e r m o t h e r r e t u r n e d t o wor k o u t s i d e t h e home. F o l l o w i n g M a r i o n ' s a n d G e r a l d ' s d i v o r c e i n 1971, G e r a l d r e m a r r i e d a woman w i t h one d a u g h t e r . C a t h e r i n e had a l r e a d y l e f t t h e f a m i l y home and was s h a r i n g a a n a p a r t m e n t w i t h a f e m a l e f r i e n d . C a t h e r i n e s a i d she had had l i t t l e t o do w i t h h e r s t e p m o t h e r s i n c e the l a t t e r ' s " b e t r a y a l " of h e r by g o i n g to G e r a l d and i m p a r t i n g C a t h e r i n e ' s c o n f i d e n c e s i n r e g a r d to her f a t h e r ' s p h y s i c a l abuse of h e r as a c h i l d . C a t h e r i n e was u n a w a r e o f any a l c o h o l i s m , d r u g a d d i c -t i o n , o r p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e w i t h i n h e r e x t e n d e d f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d . D e v e l o p m e n t y e a r s . C a t h e r i n e d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f as an " a b u s e d c h i l d . " She saw h e r f a t h e r ' s v i o l e n c e as a r e l e a s e o f h i s own a n g e r a l t h o u g h s h e s a i d he w o u l d n e v e r d i s c u s s h i s a n g e r w i t h a ny f a m i l y member. She s a i d s h e f e l t " c o n -t r o l l e d " as i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s a g r e e w i t h h e r f a t h e r . He w o u l d r e s p o n d by s t r i k i n g , p u n c h i n g , o r t h r o w i n g h e r a c r o s s t h e room so t h a t s h e was b r u i s e d f r o m h i t t i n g t h e 63 w a l l . O f t e n the anger she f e l t i n r e s p o n s e to h i s v i o l e n c e and c o n t r o l was " b u r i e d . " She d i d n o t f e e l c o n f i d e n t t o s h a r e h e r f e e l i n g s w i t h h e r f a t h e r f o r f e a r he would p u n i s h h e r f u r t h e r . She a l s o s a i d t h a t h i s f e e l i n g s were " i n c o n s i -s t e n t " and " u n p r e d i c t a b l e " and t h e r e w e r e many t i m e s s h e v i e w e d h e r own b e h a v i o r as t o t a l l y u n c o n n e c t e d t o h i s v i o -l e n c e . She remembered one o c c a s i o n when she was r i d i n g on a f a r m wagon and she was s u d d e n l y and f o r c e f u l l y h u r l e d to the g r o u n d by a b l o w f r o m b e h i n d . She f i r s t b e l i e v e d i t t o be h e r f a t h e r , d i s c i p l i n i n g h e r f o r s o m e t h i n g she was unaware of . She l a t e r l e a r n e d i t was a low h a n g i n g t r e e b r a n c h . C a t h e r i n e a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t y i n p r e d i c t i n g h e r m o t h e r ' s r e s p o n s e s , f i n d i n g them o f t e n i n c o n s i s t e n t . She r e c a l l e d one o c c a s i o n when he r mother s h o u t e d t h a t she l o v e d T a n y a more t h a n C a t h e r i n e . She had j u s t p r e v i o u s l y s a i d t h a t t h e l a t t e r was h e r f a v o r i t e . As a " l o n e r " w i t h f e w f r i e n d s , C a t h e r i n e f e l t u n s u p p o r t e d i n t r y i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d what sh e p e r c e i v e d t o be h e r m o t h e r ' s m i x e d m e s s a g e s . C a t h e r i n e f e l t l i k e s h e was c o n s t a n t l y c o m p e t i n g w i t h h e r o l d e r s i s t e r , T a n y a b e i n g s o c i a l l y p o p u l a r and " o u t g o i n g . " C a t h e r i n e s a i d s h e h a d a l w a y s f e l t a d e g r e e o f r e s e n t m e n t f o r S h a r o n , h e r y o u n g e r s i s t e r , who was c o n s i d e r e d t h e "good" c h i l d of the t h r e e but who was " s p o i l e d " i n many ways by b e i n g g i v e n p r i v i l e g e s not g i v e n to t h e o t h e r two. I f t h e r e was p h y s i c a l abuse between C a t h e r i n e ' s p a r e n t s 64 s h e was u n a w a r e o f i t . She s a i d t h e y w o u l d go i n t o t h e bedroom and s h u t the d oor when t h e y had d i f f e r e n c e s . T h e r e was a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e o f v i o l e n c e w i t h i n t h e home, h o w e v e r . C a t h e r i n e c o u l d r e c a l l one o c c a s i o n when h e r f a t h e r t h r e w t h e s o f a t h r o u g h t h e l i v i n g room w a l l i n a moment o f a n g e r . She b e l i e v e d h e r s e l f t o be t h e m a j o r v i c t i m of h i s abuse t o w a r d s f a m i l y members. C a t h e r i n e c o u l d n o t r e c a l l s e e i n g h e r p a r e n t s show a f f e c t i o n t o w a r d s e a c h o t h e r o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . When C a t h e r i n e was 6 y e a r s o l d , she a s k e d h e r m o t h e r f o r a hug b u t was t o l d s h e was " t o o o l d f o r t h a t . " She was r a i s e d w i t h a s t r i c t b e h a v i o r a l and m o r a l code w h i c h had an e x t e r -n a l b a s e . As an e x a m p l e , a f t e r T a n y a ' s b i r t h t h e m o t h e r w o u l d not hang the d i a p e r s on the c l o t h e s l i n e f o r f e a r t h a t the n e i g h b o r s would t h e n be aware t h a t she had been p r e g n a n t p r i o r t o m a r r i a g e . The u p b r i n g i n g o f h e r p a r e n t s , as w e l l as h e r own u p -b r i n g i n g , was " t r a d i t i o n a l " o n l y i n c e r t a i n ways. F i r m b e h a v i o r demands wer e n o t s e x u a l l y s p e c i f i c . C a t h e r i n e u n d e r s t o o d t h a t h e r p a r e n t s had t o t a l " c o n t r o l . " She saw h e r s e l f as h a v i n g no i n p u t i n t o s e t t i n g h e r own b e h a v i o r l i m i t s as a c h i l d o r a d o l e s c e n t . She b ecame c o n f u s e d when s h e was t o l d by h e r p a r e n t s t o " t a l k n i c e l y " when t h e y c o n s i s t e n t l y s w o r e and s h o u t e d a t h e r . She f e l t a s t r o n g e x p e c t a t i o n t o r e c e i v e t h e a p p r o v a l o f o t h e r s , i n p a r t i c u -65 l a r , h e r p a r e n t s . I t seemed to h e r t h a t , no m a t t e r what she d i d , s he was u n a b l e t o p l e a s e e i t h e r h e r m o t h e r o r f a t h e r . She f e l t as i f s h e was c o n s t a n t l y t e a s e d by t h e f a m i l y a b o u t h e r p h y s i c a l s i z e b e c a u s e " i f t h e y t e a s e d me e n o u g h , t h e y t h o u g h t I'd g e t o v e r my s e n s i t i v i t y . " She saw h e r p a r e n t s as s t i l l t r y i n g t o c o n t r o l h e r a t 17 y e a r s o f age when t h e y l o c k e d h e r i n h e r room f o r m i s s i n g s c h o o l . She s a i d , " I c a n ' t r e m e m b e r t h e m e v e r p r a i s i n g me. I was a l w a y s ' s t u p i d'.... I g r e w up t h i n k i n g I was dumb as w e l l as p h y s i -c a l l y u g l y . " C a t h e r i n e b e l i e v e d h e r s e l f t o be "your b a s i c bad p e r s o n " d u r i n g h e r e a r l y y e a r s . She g r e w up w i t h a g r e a t d i s l i k e f o r r u l e s i n g e n e r a l w h i c h s h e saw as c o n f i r m i n g h e r a s s u m p t i o n of her "bad" c h a r a c t e r by r e m o v i n g h e r r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y f o r c o n t r o l o v e r h e r s e l f . D e s p i t e h e r r e c o g n i t i o n i n t h i s a r e a , when h e r t h o u g h t s and a c t i o n s d e v i a t e d f r o m a r e g i o n of " a c c e p t a b i l i t y , " she would o f t e n a s k h e r s e l f , "Am I c r a z y ? " She e x p l a i n e d t h i s as a r e a c t i o n t o t h e s t r i c t c o d e s w i t h w h i c h she was r a i s e d and h e r i n e x p e r i e n c e w i t h a l t e r n a t e v i e w s . She c u r r e n t l y v i e w e d h e r s e l f as a " v i c t i m " o f h e r own c h i l d h o o d and h e r p a r e n t s r e a c t i o n s : "What do I do? I can't change my c h i l d h o o d . " She s a i d i t was c o n f u s i n g b e c a u s e s h e w a n t e d t o be l i k e d by h e r p a r e n t s and y e t , i n p l e a s i n g them, she saw h e r s e l f l o s i n g h e r i n d i v i d u a l i t y and i n d e p e n d e n c e . She s a i d s h e s p e n t much o f h e r m i d d l e t e e n s 66 " e i t h e r s t o n e d o r d r u n k " b e c a u s e s h e d i d n o t want t o g e t i n t h e way o f h e r f a t h e r ' s a n g e r . The d r u g s and a l c o h o l a l s o h e l p e d h e r r e m a i n p a s s i v e a n d , t h e r e f o r e , n o t i n c i t e h i m . She c o m p l e t e d G r a d e 12 a f t e r l e a v i n g home a t 17 y e a r s o f age. E a r l y r e c o l l e c t i o n s . 1. (age: 2 y e a r s ) C a t h e r i n e was s i t t i n g w i t h a l a r g e , r e d f u z z y t o y i n f r o n t o f h e r . She e s p e c i a l l y r e m e m b e r e d i t s b r i g h t c o l o r a n d t h a t s h e was l o o k i n g f o r w a r d t o p l a y w i t h i t . A l l o f a s u d d e n , s o m e o n e came and too k i t away. She f e l t " s a d " and " c o n f u s e d . " 2. ( a g e : 3-4 y e a r s ) T a n y a a n d C a t h e r i n e w e r e s i t t i n g on a t a b l e i n t h e k i t c h e n e a t i n g p eanut b u t t e r s a n d w i c h e s . B e f o r e she c o u l d do a n y t h i n g , one o f t h e s h e e p f r o m t h e f a r m y a r d came i n t h e d o o r and t o o k h e r s a n d w i c h away f r o m h e r . She d e s c r i b e d the " p a n i c " she f e l t when i t was s t o l e n . 3. (age:4 y e a r s ) She was i n the h o s p i t a l h a v i n g an eye o p e r a t i o n . She had p u l l e d up the b a n d a g e t o l o o k a r o u n d t h e room when h e r m o t h e r e n t e r e d . She f e l t b o t h a n g r y and u n h a p p y when h e r m o t h e r was "mean" and q u i c k l y p u l l e d the bandage down o v e r h e r eyes. 4. ( a g e : 5 y e a r s ) She was b o u n c i n g a s t u f f e d r a b b i t , s a y i n g t o h e r m o t h e r t h a t she w a n t e d t o go o u t a n d p l a y . Her m o t h e r s l a p p e d h e r a n d k n o c k e d h e r i n t o t h e w a l l . She t h e n " t h r e w " h e r i n t o h e r 67 room, s a y i n g t h a t s h e l i k e d T a n y a b e t t e r . C a t h e r i n e was " t o t a l l y d e m o l i s h e d . " Summary o f r e c o l l e c t i o n s . In e a c h o f h e r r e c o l l e c -t i o n s , C a t h e r i n e r e c a l l s h e r s e l f i n t h e r o l e o f a v i c t i m . In a l l f o u r s i t u a t i o n s an u n p r e d i c t a b l e and u n c o n t r o l l a b l e a c t removes s o m e t h i n g of v a l u e or p u t s h e r i n a p o s i t i o n of d i s c o m f o r t . She a p p e a r s p o w e r l e s s i n h e r r e c o l l e c t i o n s j u s t as s h e s a y s s h e f e e l s p o w e r l e s s i n many s i t u a t i o n s a s an a d u l t . R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h m e n . In r e g a r d t o n e e d i n g f r i e n d s , C a t h e r i n e w r o t e i n h e r j o u r n a l , " t h e w o r l d i s t o o b i g t o f i g h t i t a l o n e . " She h a s m a l e as w e l l as f e m a l e a c q u a i n -t a n c e s b u t h e r more e n d u r i n g f r i e n d s h i p s a p p e a r t o a l l be x w i t h women. She s a i d t h a t , as a r e s u l t o f h e r u p b r i n g i n g , s h e s e e s h e r s e l f b e i n g e i t h e r t o t a l l y c o m m i t t e d w i t h i n a r o m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a man or f e e l i n g g u i l t y f o r b e i n g a " l o o s e " woman i n l e a d i n g a man on. She a p p e a r e d u n a w a r e o f how t o s e p a r a t e a s e x u a l d i m e n s i o n f r o m h e r c l o s e n e s s w i t h men. She s p o k e o f no men t o whom s h e had e v e r b e e n e m o t i o n a l l y c l o s e and, a t t h e same t i m e , w i t h whom she had not been s e x u a l l y i n v o l v e d . She had had t h r e e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v o l v i n g commitment, C a t h e r i n e d e s c r i b i n g a l l t h r e e men as p o s s e s s i v e and u n s u p p o r t i v e of h e r i n d e p e n d e n c e . In h e r two most r e c e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the man would o f t e n t h r e a t e n h e r i f she t r i e d t o see f r i e n d s . 6 8 H e r f i r s t r e l a t i o n s h i p c u l m i n a t e d i n h e r m a r r i a g e t o R o g e r j u s t p r i o r t o h e r 1 9 t h b i r t h d a y . She d e s c r i b e d h e r h u s b a n d as " b o r i n g " and " p a s s i v e " b u t when he p r o p o s e d she was " f l a t t e r e d " as she d i d n o t e x p e c t any man w o u l d e v e r a s k her . Her s e l f - e s t e e m would a p p e a r to be d i r e c t l y l i n k e d to h e r p e r c e i v e d a c c e p t a n c e o r r e j e c t i o n by h e r m a l e p e e r s . E v e n t h o u g h s h e r e c o g n i s e d s h e had r u s h e d i n t o m a r r i a g e t o R o g e r , she d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f as a " r e a l d i e h a r d " i n s u c h s i t u a t i o n s . " I f I'm r e j e c t e d by a man I'm d a t i n g o r l i v i n g w i t h , I i m m e d i a t e l y ask m y s e l f what's wrong w i t h me and how c a n I c h a n g e . " She f o u n d s h e r e a c t e d t o R o g e r ' s p a s s i v i t y by d o u b t i n g h i s c a r i n g f o r h e r . She d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f a s b e i n g p o s s e s s i v e i n the m a r r i a g e w h i l e h o l d i n g a l o t of her j e a l o u s y i n s i d e . She o b j e c t e d to the t i m e t h a t Roger s p e n t on a c t i v i t i e s t h a t e x c l u d e d h e r . C o n c u r r e n t l y , s h e f e l t u n a b l e t o e x p r e s s h e r a n g e r t o h i m i n t h i s r e g a r d . She c u r r e n t l y p e r c e i v e d t h i s as o n l y one i n s t a n c e i n w h i c h h e r l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n t o d e a l w i t h h e r a n g e r as a c h i l d p l a c e d h e r i n a " v i c t i m " p o s i t i o n as an a d u l t . C a t h e -r i n e saw t h e m a r r i a g e as b r e a k i n g down as a r e s u l t o f t h e i m p o s e d s t r u c t u r e . As Roger was i n the S e r v i c e s , t h e y were l i v i n g on a m i l i t a r y b a s e and C a t h e r i n e f o u n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o d e a l w i t h t h e a u t h o r i t y - b a s e d l i f e s t y l e . R o g e r t h r e a -t e n e d abuse but C a t h e r i n e b e l i e v e d he would n e v e r p h y s i c a l l y c a r r y i t out. T h e r e was no p h y s i c a l abuse i n the m a r r i a g e . 69 Catherine s a i d that Roger had provided her with an escape from her f a m i l y as w e l l as from what she had since assessed as t h e i r u n r e a l i s t i c demands around behavior and control of anger. She recognised that she had married a man of whom her f a m i l y approved and, i n l e a v i n g Roger, she expected r e j e c t i o n from her f a t h e r . In r e t r o s p e c t , she believed that her boredom in the marriage was largely due to her i n a b i l i t y to share her f e e l i n g s of anger or love with Roger. She attempted s u i c i d e with s l e e p i n g p i l l s s h o r t l y before l e a v i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p . She said she caused her-s e l f to be s i c k to r i d her body of the p i l l s when she r e a l i z e d she "didn't want to k i l l he r s e 1 f.... The r e were other ways out of the marriage....I could just walk out." S h o r t l y a f t e r l e a v i n g Roger, Catherine met Dave and moved i n with him. She described him as both extremely "kind" and "considerate" as well as extremely "jealous" and "violent." He was "unpredictable," especially in the area of a f f e c t i o n . She s a i d she never knew whether he would be s a y i n g he l o v e d her or s h o u t i n g t h a t he hated her. Catherine s a i d she was f a m i l i a r with his "abuse of power" from her f a t h e r so there was an aspect to the r e l a t i o n s h i p that was predictable and comfortable for her. She believed that, as a c h i l d , Dave's fa t h e r had "beat the h e l l out of him" and that she had a constant fear of him doing the same to her. She did not fear his p h y s i c a l abuse, however, as 70 much as h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e t a l i a t i o n by n a m e - c a l l i n g , c r i -t i c i s i n g , and i n s u l t i n g when he was d r u n k . C a t h e r i n e s a i d t h a t , d e s p i t e t h e " b e a u t i f u l man" t h a t Dave b e c a m e when he was s o b e r , i t was "not w o r t h i t " as he o n l y s t o p p e d d r i n k i n g a q u a r t e r o f t h e t i m e . She s a i d , " t h e n e x t t i m e he h i t me I was a f r a i d I was g o i n g t o g e t a b r o k e n j a w , so I l e f t . " T h e y had l i v e d t o g e t h e r f o r a l m o s t two y e a r s b u t had n e v e r m a r r i e d . They had p l a n n e d t o have a c h i l d and t h e i r son was b o r n f o u r m o n t h s b e f o r e t h e y s e p a r a t e d p e r m a n e n t l y . C a t h e r i n e had had no c o n t a c t w i t h Dave s i n c e t h a t t i m e . Her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h G o r d o n was o v e r a y e a r l a t e r i n t h e summer of 1982. She d e s c r i b e d h i m as more " u n p r e d i c -t a b l e , " "dependent," " d o m i n e e r i n g , " " i n s e c u r e , " and "deman-d i n g " t h a n Dave. " I m u s t h a v e b e e n r e a l l y d e s p a r a t e f o r a man/woman r e l a t i o n s h i p . . . . I knew what he was l i k e two weeks a f t e r I met h i m and y e t I moved i n w i t h h i m f o u r weeks l a t e r . " She s a i d s h e t h e n s p e n t t h e n e x t c o u p l e o f m o n t h s d e c i d i n g how s h e w o u l d l e a v e . She f e l t p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y a b u s e d i n t h a t he c a l l e d h e r " s t u p i d " and " l a z y " and c o n -s t a n t l y c r i t i c i s e d a n d t h r e a t e n e d t o h i t and s t a b h e r . "When he b l a c k e n e d my e y e , t h a t was i t . I'd had e n o u g h o f t h a t as a c h i l d and I j u s t wasn't g o i n g t o p u t up w i t h i t . " She l i n k e d h e r e m o t i o n a l r e a d i n e s s t o l e a v e Gordon w i t h t h e a b u s e s h e r e c e i v e d f r o m h e r f a t h e r . She c o u l d p r e d i c t t h e f e e l i n g s she would e x p e r i e n c e and she knew she d i d not want 71 t o t h i n k as p o o r l y of h e r s e l f as she had i n the p a s t . C a t h e r i n e ' s c u r r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men a p p e a r e d s u p e r f i c i a l and b r i e f . Her f e a r was t h a t t h e y would not be h o n e s t w i t h h e r and t h a t s h e w o u l d a n s w e r h e r " h e a r t " and n o t h e r " h e a d , " b e i n g u n a b l e t o s e p a r a t e o n c e s h e was com-m i t t e d . She s a i d , " I have to keep t e l l i n g m y s e l f t h a t Dave won't s o b e r up. I f he d i d , I'd go b a c k i n a f l a s h . R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h women. C a t h e r i n e s a i d t h a t she has a f e w c l o s e f e m a l e f r i e n d s a l t h o u g h she has " n e v e r r e a l l y r e l a t e d w e l l t o women." She a p p e a r e d t o f e e l m o r e v u l n e r a b l e w i t h women. She l a c k s t r u s t i n them, b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e y w i l l c o n f r o n t h e r on c e r t a i n i s s u e s a f t e r she has c o n f i d e d i n them. I t had a l w a y s a n n o y e d h e r when women w o u l d " u s e " t h e i r w e a k n e s s a s s h e b e l i e v e s i n s e x u a l e q u a l i t y . The m a i n a c t i v i t y t h a t C a t h e r i n e s h a r e s w i t h f e m a l e f r i e n d s i s " p a r t y i n g " i n m i x e d company, h e r m o s t e n d u r i n g f r i e n d s s e e m i n g l i n k e d w i t h a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g a r e l e a s e of t e n s i o n as opposed to a d e e p e r l e v e l of e m o t i o n a l s h a r i n g . She r e f e r r e d t o men as " e m o t i o n a l l y w e a k e r " a n d l e s s s e n s i t i v e t h a n women. She b e l i e v e d t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r l y n e g a t i v e and u n s u p p o r t i v e s o c i a l w o r k e r was j u d g m e n t a l , l a r g e l y b e c a u s e o f h i s s e x . She a p p e a r s t o v i e w women, as c o m p a r e d t o men, as more s u p p o r t i v e o f women b u t s h e c o n c u r r e n t l y b a s e s h e r s e l f - e s t e e m on t h e s u p p o r t she r e c e i v e s f r o m men. T h i s comment i s s u p p o r t e d by s t a t e m e n t s 72 i n t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n . R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h son. C a t h e r i n e f e e l s g e n e r a l l y s t r o n -g e r as a r e s u l t of her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h e r son. She s a i d , " I d on't know what I'd do w i t h o u t him." He i s n o t o n l y a c ompanion f o r her but he a l s o c o n f i r m s h e r t r u s t i n h e r own a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e a c o n s i s t e n t y e t l o v i n g home e n v i r o n m e n t . In a d d i t i o n , he h a s c a u s e d h e r t o q u e s t i o n h e r r o l e as a s i n g l e p a r e n t . She s a i d she f e e l s somewhat g u i l t y and does r e s p o n d w i t h o c c a s i o n a l s e l f - d o u b t i n r e g a r d to h e r p a r e n -t i n g s k i l l s . Some of h e r f e e l i n g s of g u i l t a l s o a p p e a r e d to be b a s e d i n h e r d e s i r e t o p r o v i d e a two p a r e n t f a m i l y f o r h e r s o n . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , s h e h a d b e e n " c o m m i t t e d " t o b r i n g i n g up a c h i l d w i t h b o t h r o l e m o d e l s . Re c e n£_h^s_t o £ y _ a nd _ c o n c_e r n s F r o m t h e t i m e s h e l e f t Dave u n t i l t h e p r e s e n t , C a t h e r i n e s p o k e o f f e e l i n g a g r e a t d e a l o f p r e s s u r e f r o m h e r f a m i l y , h e r b r i e f r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h G o r d o n p e r h a p s b e i n g p a r t o f h e r a t t e m p t t o s e p a r a t e h e r s e l f f r o m h e r f a t h e r i n p a r t i c u l a r . She r e f e r r e d to h e r f a t h e r ' s c r i t i c i s m of h e r p a r e n t i n g , her " h i p p i e " l i f e s t y l e , and h e r b e i n g on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . She b e l i e v e s he l a b e l e d h e r as a " h i p p i e " b e c a u s e o f h e r c h o i c e o f c l o t h i n g and h e r s m o k i n g of m a r i j u a n a . She a l s o f e l t c r i t i c i s e d i n t r y i n g to have h e r g r a n d m o t h e r l i v e w i t h her i n s t e a d of i n a h o s p i t a l . C a t h e r i n e was c o n s t a n t l y c a l l e d names and a c c u s e d of " l y i n g " and " s t e a l i n g " by h e r f a m i l y . " I had to s e p a r a t e f r o m them 73 i n o r d e r t o k e e p my s a n i t y , " she s a i d . She d e s c r i b e d a l a r g e f a n t a s y w a l l t h a t she had p l a c e d between h e r s e l f and her f a t h e r , s t e p m o t h e r , a u n t , and s i s t e r s . W h i l e she s a i d , " I ' v e s e p a r a t e d e n o u g h so t h e y c a n ' t h u r t me," s h e a l s o a c k n o w l e d g e d a l o v e / h a t e bond s t i l l v e r y much i n e x i s t e n c e ; " E v e r y o n e h a t e s t h e s i g h t o f e a c h o t h e r b u t when s o m e t h i n g happens, you f e e l . " She was aware t h a t she w o u l d , a t t i m e s , h a v e t o t a l k w i t h h e r f a m i l y i n r e g a r d t o h e r g r a n d m o t h e r but she a p p e a r e d unaware of the a p p a r e n t i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e " w a l l " s h e h a d c r e a t e d i n h e l p i n g h e r t o f e e l l e s s c r i t i c i s e d a nd c o n t r o l l e d by h e r f a t h e r . The b o n d s a p p e a r b o t h n e g a t i v e and s t r o n g . I n s e p a r a t i n g f r o m b o t h h e r f a t h e r and f r o m D a v e , C a t h e r i n e s a i d s h e b e g a n t o q u e s t i o n h e r own e m o t i o n a l s t r e n g t h s and a b i l i t i e s . In b r o a d e n i n g h e r own u n d e r s t a n -d i n g of h e r s e l f and v e r i f y i n g h e r own a c t i o n s and f e e l i n g s , she f o u n d g r e a t e s t s u p p o r t f r o m h e r women f r i e n d s , a f e m a l e w e l f a r e w o r k e r , a n d a s i n g l e v i s i t t o a m a l e p s y c h i a t r i s t . She s e e m e d t o r e c e i v e v a l i d a t i o n f r o m h i m as he c o n f i r m e d t h a t she was not " c r a z y . " A c o n c e r n f o r h e r i s h e r d i f f i c u l t y i n d e a l i n g w i t h a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s , s p e c i f i c a l l y as p a r t o f h e r b e i n g on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . She f e e l s n e g a t i v e l y j u d g e d by o t h e r s b e c a u s e of h e r f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n , and j u d g e s h e r s e l f as a r e s u l t . She a p p e a r s a l m o s t d e s p e r a t e i n h e r d e s i r e t o 7 4 i n c r e a s e h e r s e l f - e s t e e m . The o n l y ways she s e e s h e r s e l f d o i n g s o , h o w e v e r , i s by i m p r o v i n g h e r e d u c a t i o n , c o n t r o l -l i n g h e r f e e l i n g s of a n g e r , r e m o v i n g h e r s e l f f r o m w e l f a r e , o r b r i n g i n g a b o u t a c h a n g e i n h e r f a m i l y ' s r e s p o n s e t o h e r . G i v e n h e r p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s and b e l i e f s y s t e m , t h e s e g o a l s a p p e a r beyond h e r g r a s p . I t would seem t h a t her s e l f -e s t e e m a l s o r e m a i n s an ' i d e a l . ' L i f e s t y l e and a t t i t u d e s . C a t h e r i n e f e l t u n a b l e t o a s s e s s h e r own a c t i o n s . She b e l i e v e d s h e w o u l d o f t e n s e e k v a l i d a t i o n f r o m o t h e r s . She a t t r i b u t e d t h i s t o h e r c h i l d h o o d t r a i n i n g by h e r p a r e n t s a n d a s t r e s s on " b e i n g n i c e " b e c a u s e of how o t h e r s would r e a c t . W h i l e she s a i d she h a s no c o n t r o l o v e r " a n y t h i n g , " s h e s a i d she i s c o n s t a n t l y p l a c i n g h e r s e l f i n p o s i t i o n s w h e r e sh e h a s t o " f i g h t " o u t , a l m o s t as a t e s t . Her r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men, h e r " v i c t i m " a s s u m p t i o n s , and h e r d e a l i n g s w i t h f i n a n c i a l a i d p e r s o n n e l w ould seem t o s u p p o r t t h i s . She r e c o g n i s e d t h a t , i n a way, she i s a b l e t o a t t e m p t c o n t r o l w i t h o u t f e e l i n g r e s p o n s i b l e to c o n t i n u e d o i n g so as h e r b e l i e f i s t h a t h e r a t t e m p t s a r e a l w a y s i n o p p o s i t i o n t o a s t r o n g e r e x t e r n a l p o w e r . She p r e d i c t s h e r own f a i l u r e and t h e r e i s , t h u s , n o t as h i g h a r i s k i n a t t e m p t i n g c o n t r o l as she presumes she w i l l not have t o m a i n t a i n i t f o r any p e r i o d of t i m e . She l i n k e d h e r p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n w i t h h e r f e a r o f f a i -l u r e . She f e l t v i c t i m i z e d by h e r c h i l d h o o d . She b e l i e v e d 75 h e r c u r r e n t h e s i t a t i o n t o a c c e p t c o n t r o l o v e r much o f h e r own l i f e e m e r g e d f r o m h e r l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e i n s e t t i n g p e r s o n a l l i m i t s as a c h i l d . At the same t i m e , she b e l i e v e d t h a t c h a n g e c a n n o t o c c u r w i t h o u t h e r s e p a r a t i n g h e r c h i l d h o o d l e a r n i n g f r o m h e r c a p a b i l i t i e s as an a d u l t . T h i s w o u l d i n v o l v e h e r a c c e p t i n g h e r own a b i l i t y to b r i n g about t h a t c h a n g e . She f e l t t h r e a t e n e d t o t h i n k o f s t o p p i n g " f i g h t i n g t h e s y s t e m . " She a p p e a r e d t o v i e w l i v i n g as i n v o l v i n g a c o n s t a n t d e f e n s e . She m a i n t a i n e d h e r b e l i e f i n l i f e as u n p r e d i c t a b l e , out of h e r c o n t r o l , and e l i c i t i n g of e m o t i o n a l as opposed to i n t e l l e c t u a l r e s p o n s e s on h e r p a r t . I n s h o r t , s h e s t a t e d f i r m g o a l s f o r h e r s e l f w h i l e c o n c e p -t u a l i z i n g h e r own s a b o t a g i n g of t h e i r a t t a i n m e n t t h r o u g h h e r a s s u m i n g a " v i c t i m " r o l e . In r e g a r d t o f u t u r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men, C a t h e r i n e s a i d s h e i s l o o k i n g f o r a f a t h e r f i g u r e f o r h e r s o n b u t t h a t t h e e q u a l i t y she w a n t s i s n o t f a v o r e d by most o f t h e men s h e m e e t s . She s a i d , "You c a n ' t be y o u r s e l f . Y o u ' r e a l w a y s a man's p u p p e t . " Her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h e r f a t h e r r e m a i n s u n d e f i n e d . I t i s n e i t h e r a s e p a r a t i o n o r a c l o s e -n e s s ; " I know I'm s t i l l t r y i n g t o p l e a s e h i m . I want t o r e a l l y do w e l l s o I c a n show h i m I c a n do i t a n d he c a n t e l l me I'm okay." I n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r s . C a t h e r i n e had d e a l t w i t h h e r l o n e l i n e s s s i n c e l e a v i n g Gordon by r e t u r n i n g t o s c h o o l and 7 6 o r g a n i z i n g e v e n i n g s o u t f o r h e r s e l f . She a l s o f e l t m o r e c a p a b l e o f a c c e p t i n g l i v i n g a l o n e b e c a u s e o f h e r " l o n e r " q u a l i t y as a c h i l d . W h i l e f i g h t i n g f o r government s u b s i d y t o r e t u r n t o s c h o o l p r o v i d e d h e r w i t h a ' s t r e n g t h t h r o u g h o p p o s i t i o n , ' h e r p r i m a r y w i s h was t o be a b l e t o d e f u s e h e r a n g e r , i n r e s p o n s e to a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s i n p a r t i c u l a r . She s a i d s h e w o u l d l i k e t o be a b l e t o p u t f o r t h h e r p o i n t o f v i e w , d e s p i t e o p p o s i t i o n , w i t h o u t l o s i n g c o n t r o l and b e i n g e i t h e r r u d e o r c r y i n g . She f o u n d s h e c o u l d no l o n g e r b u r y h e r a n g e r and y e t she saw c r y i n g as a s i g n of weakness. She a l s o w a n t e d t o f e e l a g r e a t e r s e n s e o f s e l f - w o r t h , c o n t r o l o f h e r a n g e r b e i n g an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h i s . She s a i d she f o u n d the t r e a t m e n t s e s s i o n s v a l u a b l e i n a number of ways t o w a r d s h e r r e c o g n i s i n g and d e a l i n g w i t h h e r c o n c e r n s : "I'm n o t c r a z y . You d i d n ' t r e a c t t o a n y t h i n g I s a i d a b o u t me!" She u s e d t h e s e s s i o n s t o g a i n e x t e r n a l f e e d b a c k as w e l l as t o r e a l i z e h e r c o n t r o l t h r o u g h u n d e r -s t a n d i n g t h e s o u r c e of h e r b e h a v i o r s . She s a i d she had come to r e c o g n i s e h e r n e g a t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of an open comment and h e r need to b e l i e v e i n h e r own a b i l i t y to change. At f i r s t c o n f u s e d by t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f e a r l y r e c o l -l e c t i o n s , she was l a t e r a b l e , w i t h o u t p r o m p t i n g , t o r e c o g -n i s e r e p e a t e d p a t t e r n s f r o m h e r c h i l d h o o d . She f o u n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o s e p a r a t e h e r f e e l i n g s f r o m h e r r e s p o n s e s t o t h o s e f e e l i n g s and t o a c c e p t i n t e l l e c t u a l o v e r e m o t i o n a l 77 c o n t r o l . L a u g h t e r was a v a l u a b l e r e l e a s e of t e n s i o n f o r h e r t h r o u g h o u t e a c h s e s s i o n , e s p e c i a l l y when r e s p o n d i n g t o a c o n f r o n t a t i o n . She was not aware of the s e r i o u s s i d e of h e r c h a r a c t e r , t h e h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o n t r o l s h e had o f h e r s e l f , and t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h s h e r e a c t e d t o what s h e p e r c e i v e d t o be r e j e c t i o n o f h e r by o t h e r s . She s a i d she fo u n d s e v e r a l of the c o n f r o n t a t i o n s v a l u a b l e i n a c h i e v i n g a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h e r p a s t r e s p o n s e s and h e r c h o i c e s i n t h e p r e s e n t . She s a i d s h e a p p r e c i a t e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r l i s t e n i n g and a l s o p r o v i d i n g an a l t e r n a t e o p i n i o n as she d i d n o t f e e l c o n f i d e n t t h a t s h e had e s t a b l i s h e d h e r own s e t o f l i m i t s , a t t a i n a b l e g o a l s , or t o o l s of s e I f - a s s e s s m e n t . She b e l i e v e d h e r s t r e n g t h i n n o t r e t u r n i n g t o e i t h e r G o r d o n o r Dave came f r o m h e r e x p e r i e n c e as an a b u s e d c h i l d a nd y e t b e i n g a b u s e d as an a d u l t made h e r s e v e r e l y d o u b t h e r own s e l f - e s t e e m , w o r t h , and s e n s e o f c o n t r o l . A c c o m p l i s h i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l i v i n g s k i l l s had not been s u f f i c i e n t on i t s own t o p r e v e n t h e r c o n t i n u i n g to c r i t i c i s e h e r s e l f . In summary, she s a i d she a p p r e c i a t e d many of the d i r e c -t i v e t e c h n i q u e s of t h e t r e a t m e n t s e s s i o n s . Those she made r e f e r e n c e t o were l a r g e l y a t y p e of b e h a v i o r c o n t r a c t i n g or c o g n i t i v e r e s t r u c t u r i n g . She f o u n d t h e t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h c a u s e d h e r t o f o c u s on e x p e r i e n c i n g h e r a n g e r were f r u s t r a -t i n g , a t l e a s t i n i t i a l l y . She f e l t a s e n s e of h e l p l e s s n e s s t o d e a l w i t h the f e e l i n g s w h i c h were b r o u g h t to the s u r f a c e . 78 She a p p r e c i a t e d t h e p o s i t i v e n e s s o f t h e s e s s i o n s b u t f e l t t h e n e e d f o r more d i s c u s s i o n o f h e r e x p e r i e n c e s a r o u n d h e r f a t h e r and h e r c h i l d h o o d a l o n g s i d e more s p e c i f i c s k i l l s i n c o n t r o l l i n g h e r r e s p o n s e s t o h e r own anger. Case Study 2 F a m i l y of o r i g i n . Maureen was b o r n i n 1941, t h e m i d d l e c h i l d i n a f a m i l y w i t h t h r e e d a u g h t e r s . She was a b l e t o p r o v i d e an i n d e p t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h e r g r a n d p a r e n t s , p a r e n t s , and s i s t e r s . Her own u n c e r t a i n t y i n her own c a p a -b i l i t i e s was a p p a r e n t when, p r i o r t o c o m m e n c i n g , she had s a i d h e r " s i s t e r s w ould p r o b a b l y know i t b e t t e r . " Her m a t e r n a l g r a n d p a r e n t s were b o t h E n g l i s h b u t , a f t e r m a r r y i n g , had moved t o C a n a d a . M a u r e e n ' s g r a n d m o t h e r , E l a i n e , had m a r r i e d a man o f whom h e r f a m i l y d i d n o t " a p p r o v e . " Her g r a n d f a t h e r was a " s a i l o r " b u t he b e g a n f a r m i n g a f t e r a r r i v i n g i n E a s t e r n Canada. Maureen d e s c r i b e d her g r a n d m o t h e r as a " r u l e r " who was " f u s s y , " " s t a t e l y , " and " s t r o n g . " She s p o k e o f h e r g r a n d f a t h e r as " a l w a y s t h e r e " and " a l w a y s w o r k i n g " a l t h o u g h s h e d i d n o t r e c a l l h a v i n g s h a r e d any e m o t i o n a l or p h y s i c a l c l o s e n e s s w i t h him. M a u r e e n ' s m o t h e r , L o r n a , was one o f s i x c h i l d r e n b u t Maureen d i d not know he r b i r t h p o s i t i o n . She d e s c r i b e d her as a " h a r d w o r k e r " who was "weak i n some w a y s " b u t o f t e n " g i v i n g . " She saw h e r m o t h e r as weak when s h e w o u l d be p h y s i c a l l y a b u s e d by h e r h u s b a n d . M a u r e e n r e m e m b e r e d h e r 79 m o t h e r c o o k i n g and b a k i n g r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g e m o t i o n a l l y i n v o l v e d w i t h h e r c h i l d r e n . M a u r e e n ' s p a t e r n a l g r a n d p a r e n t s w e r e u n k n o w n t o h e r . Her f a t h e r , L a n c e , had been the o l d e s t of two boys u n t i l h i s mo t h e r r e m a r r i e d a man w i t h two d a u g h t e r s , b o t h o l d e r t h a n L a n c e. Maureen had had l i t t l e or no c o n t a c t w i t h h e r u n c l e or a u n t s . She s a i d she had v i s i t e d one of h e r a u n t s s e v e r a l y e a r s b e f o r e and r e a l i z e d t h a t s h e " d i d n ' t want t o be l i k e h e r , " one of t h e r e a s o n s b e i n g t h a t the aunt was c o n s t a n t l y s e d a t e d w i t h t r a n q u i l i z e r s . The u n c l e had been h o s p i t a l i z e d f o r e m o t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s some y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y and had d i e d i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . Maureen d i d not know the d e t a i l s of h i s i l l n e s s . She d e s c r i b e d h e r f a t h e r as a "g o o d t i m e C h a r l i e " who was o f t e n d r i n k i n g and o u t w i t h h i s f r i e n d s . She s a i d he was a l s o " k i n d " and " g e n t l e " and w o u l d " s p o i l " h i s d a u g h t e r s by b r i n g i n g them g i f t s but would r a r e l y spend t i m e w i t h them. Maureen had a s i s t e r , Nora, who was one y e a r o l d e r and a n o t h e r s i s t e r who was f o u r y e a r s y o u n g e r . I t a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e r e was a v a l u e p l a c e d on p e r s e v e r a n c e and e f f o r t as Maureen d e s c r i b e d each of h e r s i s t e r s as a " h a r d worker." D e v e l o p m e n t y e a r s . Maureen d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f as " i n n o -c e n t , " " i n f e r i o r , " a nd " g o o d " as a c h i l d . She w a n t e d t o " p l e a s e o t h e r s " but f e l t she had to c o n s t a n t l y compete to do s o . She o f t e n f e l t i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h h e r s i s t e r s . She 8 0 b e l i e v e d h e r n a i v e t e a l l o w e d h e r t o a v o i d c o m p a r i s o n and p e r c e i v e d t h r e a t s of c r i t i c i s m . She b e l i e v e d she was r a i s e d w i t h many " t r a d i t i o n a l " v a l u e s w i t h i n a home w h e r e b o t h p a r e n t s f u l f i l l e d c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r o l e models. Her mother would i n v i t e f r i e n d s to t h e house, would bake and cook, and l o o k e d " p r e t t y " when s h e was y o u n g and w o u l d " d r e s s up." T h e r e was a s t r i c t " m o r a l " c o d e w i t h i n t h e home w h i c h p r o -v i d e d s o c i a l g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e c h i l d r e n but Maureen saw her f a t h e r ' s b e h a v i o r as o f t e n o p p o s i n g t h e s e r u l e s . She remem-b e r s him f r e q u e n t l y b r i n g i n g home o t h e r " d r i n k e r s " f r o m the depot where he worked as a bus d r i v e r . She r e c a l l s h e r f a t h e r a b u s i n g h e r m o t h e r , o f t e n when he was d r u n k . He w o u l d h i t o r k i c k h e r a n d , on one o c c a -s i o n , " p u t h e r h e a d t h r o u g h t h e k i t c h e n window." M a u r e e n s a i d she was " s c a r e d " when h e r p a r e n t s f o u g h t and she w o u l d e i t h e r t a k e h e r " m o t h e r ' s s i d e " and " k i c k " h e r f a t h e r o r would l e a v e t h e house u n t i l the f i g h t ended. She s a i d t h a t s h e was n o t r e g u l a r l y a b u s e d as a c h i l d b e c a u s e h e r f a t h e r " c o u l d n ' t c a t c h " h e r . On a few o c c a s i o n s when she was h i t , however, she would r u n o f f and " u s u a l l y bang i n t o s o m e t h i n g " so h e r p a r e n t s w o u l d " f e e l s o r r y " f o r h e r . M a u r e e n e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n a b o u t h e r j e a l o u s y , a n g e r , and g u i l t as a c h i l d . She s a i d s h e a l w a y s b e l i e v e d h e r s i s t e r s e x c e l l e d i n many a r e a s a n d s h e v i e w e d h e r s e l f as " n o t b e i n g a b l e t o m e e t up t o them." E v e n t u a l l y , s h e 81 b e l i e v e d t h a t the o n l y a r e a i n w h i c h she f e l t c o n f i d e n t was i n " b e i n g p r e t t y . " She a l s o r e c a l l e d s p o r t s ' days a t s c h o o l and how t h e y p r o v i d e d h e r w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o "be d i f -f e r e n t and b e t t e r t h a n " h e r s i b l i n g s . She e s p e c i a l l y a p p r e -c i a t e d t h e s e days b e c a u s e h e r f a t h e r would come t o w a t c h h e r and s h e f e l t s p e c i a l t o h i m . She s a i d he o f t e n had " l i t t l e t o do w i t h h i s c h i l d r e n . " M a u r e e n f e l t " c o n s t a n t l y g u i l t y " as a c h i l d f o r n o t d o i n g t h e " r i g h t " t h i n g o r when she b e l i e v e d s h e d i d n o t meet up w i t h what s h e p e r c e i v e d t o be t h e o t h e r p e r s o n ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s o f h e r . She saw a s i m i l a r q u a l i t y i n h e r mother. F o r example, she f e l t a g r e a t d e a l of g u i l t a r o u n d h e r f a t h e r ' s d e a t h . A f t e r one of the n i g h t s when she f a n t a -s i z e d h i s d e a t h , s h e awoke t o be t o l d t h a t he had d i e d i n h i s s l e e p . She f e l t ashamed and g u i l t y f o r she d i d not know h i m w e l l a n d , a t t h e t i m e , s h e b e l i e v e d h e r s e l f t o be a " w i t c h " b e c a u s e of the powers she a p p e a r e d t o have. Maureen was 16 y e a r s o l d a t t h e t i m e a n d s h e saw h e r s e l f as j u s t b e g i n n i n g to "know" h e r f a t h e r . She s a i d , " I guess I r e s e n t n o t h a v i n g a d a d " f r o m t h a t p o i n t on as w e l l as i n t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r s when s h e f e l t t h a t t h e y had s h a r e d v e r y l i t t l e t i m e or e m o t i o n a l c a r i n g . M a u r e e n s a i d t h a t , as a c h i l d , she would e i t h e r " f i g h t b a c k " o r become " q u i e t " and " s h y " when s h e was p r o v o k e d . She w o u l d n e v e r a l l o w h e r f e e l i n g s t o show i n f r o n t o f h e r 82 parents, however. She described i t as "unacceptable" within the family to express feelings, especially anger. She said, " i f anyone spoke of feelings, that would mean something was wrong with you." If she f e l t attacked or c r i t i c i s e d , she saw h e r s e l f being " j u s t as mean" i n retu r n rather than speaking of her own hurt or anger. She s t i l l f e l t g u i l t y for some of her r e t a l i a t o r y behavior as a ch i l d . She r e c a l -led one incident when, after feeling c r i t i c i s e d by her older s i s t e r , she "chased her around the house with a butcher knife just to throw a scare into her." Maureen's alternate response to her own anger was to "keep i t i n s i d e . " She would "hide i n the corner," f e e l i n g "unsupported" and "re-jected." She l i n k e d a great deal of her adult anger to her feelings of helplessness to respond to what she perceived as r e j e c t i o n by her parents and s i g n i f i c a n t others. She said she f e l t l i k e an "inconsequencia1 daughter" who could "go away and never be missed." She said that she b e l i e v e d her fat h e r favored her s i s t e r s by "babying" the youngest and admiring the sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the eldest. Maureen f e l t u n c e r t a i n as to how to go about r e c e i v i n g an equal l e v e l of r e c o g n i t i o n . She never knew how she f i t t e d i n t o the f a m i l y . She could not be s p e c i f i c about her parents' responses to her except that she never f e l t they understood her "shyness" as a c h i l d . 83 Y o u n g a d u l t y e a r s . An a d d i t i o n a l s e c t i o n h as b e e n i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a s e s t u d y due t o M a u r e e n h a v i n g b e e n m a r r i e d some y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y and the e x t e n s i v e n e s s of her e x p e r i e n c e . At 40 y e a r s of age, she was the o l d e s t s u b j e c t w i t h i n t h i s s t u d y . Maureen was 19 y e a r s o l d and p r e g n a n t when she m a r r i e d Roy. She d e s c r i b e d h i m as a " g l a m o r o u s f i g u r e " who w o u l d " f l a t t e r " h e r and make h e r f e e l " l i k e a woman" by t a k i n g her o u t and t r e a t i n g h e r k i n d l y . She s a i d , "He t o o k a d v a n t a g e o f me" when he was s e x u a l l y i n t i m a t e one e v e n i n g when she had b e e n d r i n k i n g . She b e l i e v e d s h e was " n o t r e a d y f o r m a r r i a g e " and s h e a l s o f e a r e d t h a t Roy was " t o o g o o d " f o r h e r . She saw h i m as s k i l l e d a n d c o n f i d e n t and h e r s e l f as " s h y " a n d " b a c k w a r d " b u t s h e b e l i e v e d i t was " r i g h t " t o m a r r y b e c a u s e s h e was p r e g n a n t . She s a i d , " I e x p e c t e d h i m t o t a k e c a r e o f me" b u t , a f t e r t h e f i r s t y e a r o f m a r r i a g e , "my h e r o wasn't my h e r o . " She o f t e n f e l t j e a l o u s o f t h e t i m e he s p e n t p u r s u i n g i n t e r e s t s o u t s i d e the m a r r i a g e and, i n r e s p o n s e , would "throw t h i n g s " i n an g e r . She f e l t u n s up-p o r t e d by h i m i n b e c o m i n g " w o r l d l y " o r i n h a v i n g f r i e n d s . At t h e same t i m e , s h e saw h e r s e l f " w a i t i n g on h i m hand a n d f o o t . " When t h e y w o u l d f i g h t p h y s i c a l l y , she s a i d i t b e g a n w i t h h e r h i t t i n g Roy f i r s t ; " I d i d n ' t know i t wasn't o k a y b e c a u s e my p a r e n t s d i d i t . " She s a i d t h e f i g h t i n g i n c r e a s e d 84 o v e r t i m e . On one o c c a s i o n , she r e c a l l e d him " k i c k i n g " h e r down t h e s t a i r s b e c a u s e he d i d n o t want h e r t o go t o a d a n c e . She a l s o f e l t c o n s i s t e n t l y " p u l l e d down" by h i m as he c a l l e d h e r " s t u p i d " and would make comments t h a t Maureen b e l i e v e d w e r e c r i t i c a l and r e j e c t i n g . She l i n k e d t h o s e c o m m e n t s t o h e r b e g i n n i n g t o d o u b t h e r own s e n s e o f w o r t h a s , by t h e t i m e s h e r e c o g n i s e d what was o c c u r r i n g , s h e d i d n o t f e e l c o n f i d e n t t h a t s h e c o u l d e f f e c t t h e p a t t e r n . She f e l t "so b r a i n w a s h e d " as a r e s u l t of Roy " d o m i n a t i n g " her on a p s y c h o l o g i c a l l e v e l , t h a t s h e w o u l d b e l i e v e t h a t " b l a c k was w h i t e " i f he had t o l d h e r . I t w ould a p p e a r t h a t Maureen d e s c r i b e d t h e i r r e l a t i o n -s h i p as " t h e p e r f e c t m a r r i a g e " b e c a u s e t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s were m a i n t a i n e d . They had t h r e e c h i l d r e n , the o l d e s t b e i n g 21 y e a r s o l d a t t h e t i m e o f t h i s s t u d y . M a u r e e n s a i d s h e h a d a l w a y s f e l t c l o s e s t t o h e r y o u n g e s t s o n who was c u r r e n t l y 17 y e a r s o l d . She d e s c r i b e d t h e o l d e r boy as " s e l f i s h " and "more l i k e h i s dad." She s a i d s h e f e l t p o s i -t i v e a bout h e r s e l f as a r e s u l t of h e r i n p u t i n t o r a i s i n g t h e c h i l d r e n . She f e e l s some a n g e r t o w a r d s h e r s e l f , h o w e v e r , f o r h a v i n g p u t a l l h e r e f f o r t s i n t o f u l f i l l i n g h e r p a r e n t and s p o u s e r o l e s t h r o u g h o u t the m a r r i a g e . She b e l i e v e d t h a t s h e had n o t a t t e m p t e d t o u n d e r s t a n d o r meet h e r own n e e d s as an a d u l t but r e m a i n e d d e p e n d e n t upon Roy. When s h e was 34 y e a r s o l d , M a u r e e n l e f t Roy and t h e 8 5 c h i l d r e n b e c a u s e of what she d e s c r i b e d as h e r "boredom" w i t h h e r l i f e . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t s h e was a l s o e x p e r i e n c i n g some a n x i e t y or t e n s i o n w h i c h she f e l t u n a b l e t o s h a r e w i t h Roy. A f e w m o n t h s a f t e r s e p a r a t i n g , s h e a g r e e d t o e n t e r h o s p i t a l f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r e a t m e n t . She r e c a l l e d t h e e x t r e m e g u i l t t h a t s h e was e x p e r i e n c i n g a t t h a t t i m e as a r e s u l t of h e r " f l i n g " a f t e r l e a v i n g the m a r r i a g e . She s a i d s h e had b e e n d r i n k i n g h e a v i l y and had b e e n i n t i m a t e l y i n -v o l v e d w i t h a number o f men whom she l a t e r d e s c r i b e d as " l o s e r s . " She f o u n d t h e b e h a v i o r m o d i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m a t t h e h o s p i t a l was b e n e f i c i a l i n h e l p i n g h e r to resume d a i l y t a s k s and t o e v e n t u a l l y b e g i n a p e r i o d o f i n d e p e n d e n t l i v i n g . She s a i d she had f o u n d i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t to a c c e p t t h a t she " c o u l d n ' t have h e r own way i n g o i n g back to Roy." She r e c a l l e d " y e l l i n g " and " s c r e a m i n g " a t him w h i l e she was i n h o s p i t a l . She b l a m e d h i m f o r h e r b e i n g t h e r e and t h e s e v e r a l s u i c i d e a t t e m p t s she made. E a r l y r e c o l l e c t i o n s . 1. (age: 5 y e a r s ) Maureen and her m o ther were i n a d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e , l o o k i n g f o r an i t e m t h a t was on s a l e . When the f e m a l e c l e r k s t e r n l y s a i d i t was not a v a i l a b l e , Maureen f e l t e m b a r a s s e d f o r h e r m other and a l s o f o r h e r s e l f . She p a r t i c u l a r l y r e c a l l e d t h e s e v e r e manner of the c l e r k . 2. ( a g e : 8 y e a r s ) M a u r e e n was w a l k i n g down the s t r e e t when h e r o l d e r s i s t e r came r u n n i n g 86 up. The l a t t e r s a i d t h a t t h e i r p i a n o t e a c h e r had j u s t g i v e n h e r a c h o c o l a t e b a r f o r p r a c t i s i n g b u t t h a t she was n o t t o t e l l Maureen. Maureen r e c a l l e d f e e l i n g r e j e c t e d and wanted t o q u i t p i a n o . 3. ( a g e : 5 y e a r s ) M a u r e e n and h e r s i s t e r s w e r e a t t h e b e a c h w i t h t h e i r f a t h e r . When s h e was a f r a i d t o go o u t s w i m m i n g , M a u r e e n r e m e m b e r e d h e r f a t h e r c o m i n g t o h e l p h er. She f e l t " p r o t e c t e d " and "good" t h a t he was t h e r e when she needed him. 4 . ( a g e : 6 y e a r s ) M a u r e e n was i n a s c h o o l p l a y w i t h h e r o l d e r s i s t e r . T h e y b o t h h a d t o a p p e a r on t h e s t a g e o u t o f a l a r g e c a r d b o a r d egg and s i n g a d u e t . She d i d n o t come o u t o f t h e egg b e c a u s e s h e f e l t n e r v o u s and t h e c u r t a i n h a d t o be d r o p p e d . She f e l t e m -b a r a s s e d and g u i l t y when h e r mother was s c o l d i n g h e r l a t e r f o r n ot k e e p i n g up w i t h h e r s i s t e r . Summary o f r e c o l l e c t i o n s . Women a p p e a r i n a g g r e s s i v e a n d a n g r y r o l e s i n t h r e e o f M a u r e e n ' s r e c o l l e c t i o n s . T h e y a r e a l s o i n p o s i t i o n s o f a u t h o r i t y o r p r i v i l e g e . M a u r e e n f e e l s e m b a r a s s e d , g u i l t y , o r r e j e c t e d i n r e s p o n s e . In t h e t h i r d r e c o l l e c t i o n , she r e c e i v e s h e l p f r o m h e r f a t h e r when sh e i s a f r a i d and i n a p a s s i v e p o s i t i o n . I n a l l h e r r e c o l -l e c t i o n s , Maureen would a p p e a r to r e a c t to s i t u a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n p l a c i n g h e r s e l f i n an a c t i v e r o l e . R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men. M a u r e e n f e l t g u i l t y a b o u t 87 l e a v i n g Roy and h e r m a r r i a g e b u t s h e a l s o was a w a r e o f t h e e m o t i o n a l needs w h i c h she b e l i e v e d were not b e i n g met w i t h i n t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p . She s a i d s h e was a n g r y a t h e r s e l f as a r e s u l t o f f e e l i n g g u i l t y f o r t r y i n g t o meet h e r own n e e d s . She d e s c r i b e d the men w i t h whom she had been i n v o l v e d s i n c e l e a v i n g t h e h o s p i t a l as " j e r k s . " She a p p e a r e d to be r e f e r -r i n g t o t h e i r m o r a l and v a l u e s s y s t e m s . She s a i d she o f t e n j u d g e d h e r s e l f i n r e s p o n s e t o h e r p e r c e p t i o n s and o p i n i o n s of the men ar o u n d her. She f e l t " p u l l e d down" a t t h a t t i m e , p a r t l y as a r e s u l t o f t h e men w i t h whom s h e was a s s o c i a t i n g . M a u r e e n d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f as " s i c k " when s h e met M a r v i n . She b e l i e v e d h i m t o be "a s t e p up" i n many ways. She s a i d he h a d b e e n "a p o r t i n a s t o r m " f o r a number o f r e a s o n s . He a p p e a r e d t o h e r t o be " s e n s i t i v e " t o h e r f e e l i n g s and wou l d l i s t e n and r e s p o n d w i t h p h y s i c a l c l o s e -n e s s . She s a i d i t s e e m e d as i f he a l s o " g a v e h e r a l i t t l e p o w e r " a t t h e b e g i n n i n g , f o r e x a m p l e , t o p l a n a c t i v i t i e s t h a t t h e y would do t o g e t h e r . She s a i d t h a t he l a t e r removed i t u n p r e d i c t a b l y and s h e was b o t h " h u r t " and " d i s t r u s t i n g " as a r e s u l t . O v e r t i m e , s h e s a i d he " r u i n e d h e r one l a s t b i t o f h o p e " t h a t s h e had i n men. I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t s h e was r e f e r r i n g to what she p e r c e i v e d as h i s e v e n t u a l r e j e c -t i o n of h e r . M a r v i n was a c o u p l e o f y e a r s y o u n g e r t h a n M a u r e e n and had been m a r r i e d t w i c e p r e v i o u s l y . Maureen was u n c e r t a i n as 88 to w h e t h e r t h e r e had been p h y s i c a l abuse i n e i t h e r m a r r i a g e . He r e n t e d a h o u s e a n d, w i t h i n a f e w m o n t h s o f k n o w i n g e a c h o t h e r , Maureen had moved i n w i t h him. She r e c a l l e d t h a t , as w i t h Roy, she was " c l i n g i n g " and " p a s s i v e " w i t h M a r v i n . She s a i d t h a t s h e was a l s o v e r b a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y a g g r e s s i v e t o w a r d s him, o f t e n as a d e f e n s e f o l l o w i n g h i s c r i t i c i s m of h e r o r h i s t h r e a t s a g a i n s t h e r . She f e l t j e a l o u s as a r e s u l t of t h e t i m e he s p e n t d r i n k i n g w i t h h i s f r i e n d s . She r e c a l l e d , w i t h some embarassment, when she wo u l d "nag" him i n f r o n t o f h i s f r i e n d s a b o u t c o m i n g home. I n r e t r o s p e c t , s h e b e l i e v e d s h e was s e e k i n g h e r own s e n s e o f w o r t h i n M a r v i n ' s r e s p o n s e s to h e r . M a u r e e n s a i d t h a t he o f t e n c a l l e d h e r " c r a z y " and t h r e a t e n e d h e r w i t h h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n . She a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t s h e was "so s c r e w e d up" when s h e met h i m t h a t s h e " d i d n ' t c a r e " what man she l i v e d w i t h . She had a l w a y s b e l i e v e d t h a t men a r e " s t r o n g " and women a r e "weak." I t s e e m e d as i f s h e was d e s p e r a t e l y s e e k i n g a v i c a r i o u s s t r e n g t h t h r o u g h h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h M a r v i n as s h e had w i t h Roy. She r e c o g -n i s e d t h a t s h e had a l w a y s s o u g h t a man t o be a " p r o v i d e r . " She s a i d , " I ' v e w a n t e d a man t o l o o k o u t f o r me and t o t a k e c a r e o f me." In r e t r o s p e c t , she f e l t some s u r p r i s e when t h e y t u r n e d o u t t o be " w e a k e r " t h a n h e r . She b e l i e v e d s h e was s e e k i n g a l e v e l o f i n t i m a c y w i t h men t h a t s h e d i d n o t e x p e r i e n c e as a c h i l d . She a p p e a r e d to l a c k the s k i l l s and 89 l i m i t s i n v o l v e d i n d o i n g so. F o r example, he r own s e n s e of w o r t h was d e c r e a s e d as a r e s u l t o f M a r v i n ' s d e s i r e f o r d i s t a n c e w h i c h she p e r c e i v e d as r e j e c t i o n . She s a i d , "I've n e v e r been t r e a t e d l i k e I want to be t r e a t e d , m a i n l y b e c a u s e I've n o t a l l o w e d m y s e l f t o be. I've a l w a y s p l a y e d t h e v i c t i m and a l l o w e d t h e man t o d o m i n a t e , r e s c u e me, t h e n p e r s e c u t e me." She d e s c r i b e d M a r v i n as "mean," " v i c i o u s , " and " r o t t e n " t o w a r d s the end of the t h r e e y e a r p e r i o d t h e y were t o g e t h e r . She had d e c i d e d t o have a c h i l d , h o p i n g t h a t i t would change h i s r e s p o n s e t o h e r . T h e i r d a u g h t e r was b o r n f i v e m o n t h s b e f o r e t h e y s e p a r a t e d . H i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l as w e l l as p h y s i -c a l v i o l e n c e c o n t i n u e d to be b o t h h u r t f u l and u n p r e d i c t a b l e . He w o u l d t h r o w h e r a g a i n s t t h e w a l l and s h o u t , " I l o v e my b a b y b u t I h a t e you . " She s a i d , " I c o u l d e a s i l y h a v e g o t k i l l e d . " I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e i r f i n a l s e p a r a t i o n was n o t i n i t i a t e d by M a u r e e n as s h e s a i d s h e had w a n t e d h i m t o c a l l and a s k h e r b a c k b u t he d i d n o t . M a u r e e n s a i d h e r ways of r e l a t i n g t o men had c h a n g e d c o n s i d e r a b l y s i n c e s h e had l e f t M a r v i n . She f e l t some g u i l t f o r her need " t o have a guy h a n g i n g around." She s a i d t h a t s h e was no l o n g e r l o o k i n g f o r " P r i n c e C h a r m i n g . " She b e l i e v e d t h a t s h e had " b a b i e d " Roy and M a r v i n b u t t h a t s h e was a b l e t o now l i n k t h i s p r a c t i s e t o h e r own l a c k o f e s t e e m . She s e e m e d t o f o c u s c o n t i n u a l l y on h e r n e e d f o r a 90 man t o f i n a n c i a l l y s u p p o r t h e r and h e r d i s l i k e f o r h e r s e l f when she i s "poor." She r e f e r r e d t o h e r mother e x p e r i e n c i n g p o v e r t y and the e f f e c t s she p e r c e i v e d i t h a v i n g on h e r s e l f -e s teem. Maureen a p p e a r s to l a c k t r u s t i n h e r own a b i l i t y to f i n a n c i a l l y p r o v i d e f o r h e r s e l f . M a u r e e n s a i d s h e had " n e v e r f e l t s u p p o r t e d " by h e r husband o r l o v e r s . She had f e l t r e s t r i c t e d i n p u r s u i n g h e r own n e e d s as an i n d e p e n d e n t i n d i v i d u a l a n d , a t t h e same t i m e , "not a p p r e c i a t e d as a woman." In t h i s l a t t e r comment she a p p e a r s to be r e f e r r i n g to the s e n s i t i v i t y she showed i n h e r r o l e s o f m o t h e r and w i f e . F o r e x a m p l e , s h e s a i d s h e f e l t a l a c k o f a c c e p t a n c e f r o m Roy w h i c h c a u s e d h e r t o u n d r e s s where he c o u l d n ot see h e r . T h i s r e m a i n e d the c a s e f o r t h e 18 y e a r s t h e y w e r e m a r r i e d . I n a d d i t i o n , he w o u l d o f t e n c a l l h e r " s t u p i d " i f she w e r e t o show h e r h u r t by c r y i n g i n f r o n t o f h i m . She a c k n o w l e d g e s s h e i s s t i l l t r y i n g t o l o s e w e i g h t f o r the r e s p o n s e she w i l l r e c e i v e f r o m men as o p p o s e d t o how she w i l l f e e l . She seems t o be c o n t i -n u i n g t o b a s e h e r s e l f - e s t e e m l a r g e l y on h e r p e r c e i v e d a c c e p t a n c e by men and y e t she a l s o s a i d she does not " t r u s t " a ny man when he i s k i n d and p o l i t e t o h e r . She p r e d i c t s r e j e c t i o n . M a u r e e n had had a s m a l l number o f m a l e a c q u a i n t a n c e s whom she s a i d she c o n s i d e r e d good company but w i t h whom she would n ot w i s h to become i n t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e d . I t a p p e a r e d 91 t h a t t h e y w e r e p r o v i d i n g h e r w i t h s u p p o r t and e n c o u r a g i n g f e e d b a c k on h e r a p p e a r a n c e and c a p a b i l i t i e s . R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h women. Maureen s a i d she had ab o u t t h r e e or f o u r c l o s e f e m a l e f r i e n d s . She s a i d she i s a t t r a c -t e d t o " l o v i n g women" who w i l l l i s t e n t o h e r when she t a l k s a b o u t h e r f e e l i n g s . She a l s o a p p e a r s t o be c o m p a r i n g h e r own a c t i o n s t o t h e i r s and l e a r n i n g f r o m t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . D u r i n g t h e t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d , Maureen a t t e n d e d " F r y w o r k , " a p r o g r a m s p o n s o r e d by t h e E l i z a b e t h F r y S o c i e t y . I t i s d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t women who have e x p e r i e n c e d some c o n f u s i o n and d i f f i c u l t y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r own f e e l i n g s , r e e n t e r t h e c o m m u n i t y , a n d p e r h a p s o b t a i n e m p l o y m e n t . M a u r e e n f o u n d t h a t , i n c o m p a r i n g h e r s e l f to t h e o t h e r women i n t h e gr o u p , she f e l t l e s s v i c t i m i z e d by h e r own e x p e r i e n c e s . She d e s c r i b e d one of the women to whom she i s c l o s e as " k i n d , " " n i c e , and " c a r i n g . " She a l s o s a i d she a p p r e c i a t e d h e r " g o o d m o r a l s , " a t e r m M a u r e e n a p p e a r e d t o be u s i n g t o d e s c r i b e h e r f r i e n d ' s b e l i e f i n m a r r i a g e and " r e s p e c t b e tween i n d i v i d u a l s . " She b e l i e v e d t h a t many of h e r women f r i e n d s h a v e b e e n t a k e n a d v a n t a g e o f by men and t h a t t h i s i s an a r e a of common e x p e r i e n c e between them. She f e e l s g u i l t y a t t i m e s f o r what s h e p e r c e i v e s as h e r " u s e " o f them i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g her own f e e l i n g s and b e h a v i o r s . R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h own c h i l d r e n ^ M a u r e e n r e m a i n s r e a s o n a b l y c l o s e t o h e r t h r e e o l d e r c h i l d r e n . T h e y v i s i t 92 w e e k l y and h a v e , on o c c a s i o n , s t a y e d w i t h h e r f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s o f t i m e . She c o m m e n t e d on t h e i r i n d e p e n d e n c e and s k i l l s and t h a t s h e f e e l s p o s i t i v e a b o u t h e r s e l f i n b e i n g a b l e to a c k n o w l e d g e he r p a r t i n t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t y e a r s . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t Maureen i s a b l e to f e e l more c o n f i d e n t i n h e r own s k i l l s as a r e s u l t o f f e e l i n g n e e d e d by h e r o l d e r c h i l d r e n . She f e e l s s i m i l a r l y i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e n e e d s o f h e r i n f a n t d a u g h t e r e x c e p t t h a t she s a i d a t one p o i n t , " I d o n ' t know who's t a k i n g c a r e o f who. S o m e t i m e s i t ' s l i k e t h e b a b y i s t a k i n g c a r e o f me." D e s c r i b i n g h e r as h e r " s i d e k i c k , " M a u r e e n s p o k e o f h e r d a u g h t e r as b e i n g " e v e r y -t h i n g " t o h e r . She s a i d , " I g e t so much l o v e b a c k f r o m h e r . " Her f e a r i s t h a t , w e r e she t o be i n c a p a b l e , t h e r e w i l l be nobody to c a r e f o r the c h i l d . R e c e n t h i s t o r y and c o n c e r n s . M a u r e e n had l e f t M a r v i n f i v e months p r i o r to the commencement of t h i s s t u d y and had b e e n l i v i n g on h e r own w i t h h e r i n f a n t d a u g h t e r s i n c e t h a t t i m e . Her m a j o r c o n c e r n t h r o u g h o u t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s s t u d y was h e r own a n g e r a n d h e r " f e a r " w h e n s h e f e l t h e l p l e s s t o c o n t r o l i t . The n a t u r e of Maureen's a n g e r w i l l be expanded i n t h i s s e c t i o n as w e l l as i n the one to f o l l o w . H e r c o n c e r n s i n t h i s a r e a d o m i n a t e d m o s t o f t h e t r e a t m e n t s e s s i o n s b u t a l s o a p p e a r e d t o d i m i n i s h t o w a r d s t h e end o f t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d . She d i d not m e n t i o n t h e s e c o n c e r n s i n t h e f o l l o w - u p s e s s i o n . 93 M a u r e e n s p o k e o f f e e l i n g h e l p l e s s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e r o o t s of h e r a n g e r and how she c o u l d d e c r e a s e t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e s e f e e l i n g s . She r e c o g n i s e d t h a t s h e was d i r e c t i n g much o f i t t o w a r d s M a r v i n b u t t h a t i t was n o t o r i g i n a t i n g f r o m t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p a l o n e . F o r e x a m p l e , sh e f e l t l e s s a n g r y w h e n s h e was a b l e t o " b u i l d u p " h e r i m a g e w h e n s p e a k i n g w i t h Roy i n o r d e r to show him t h a t she was "okay." She l i n k e d h e r a n g e r w i t h b o t h men to h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h e r f a t h e r . At one p o i n t s h e a s k e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r , "What t h e h e l l ' s w r o n g w i t h me?" She was r e f e r r i n g t o h e r r e c e n t b e h a v i o r w i t h M a r v i n and t h a t she had o f t e n done and s a i d w i t h h i m what h e r m o t h e r " s h o u l d h a v e done w i t h h e r f a t h e r l o n g ago." Her a n g e r a t h e r s e l f f o r s u c h r e s p o n s e s w i t h h e r p a r t n e r e m e r g e d f r o m h e r w i s h t o a v o i d u s i n g h e r c h i l d h o o d as an e x c u s e f o r h e r p r e s e n t s e l f . She s u g g e s t e d t h a t she m i g h t n o t f e e l as l o n e l y i f s h e was s e e i n g a man who c a r e d about h e r and h e r d a u g h t e r . Maureen s a i d she was a l s o a n g r y t h a t M a r v i n was not f u l f i l l i n g h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as a f a t h e r . He h a d n o t shown any i n t e r e s t i n s e e i n g t h e c h i l d o r i n m a k i n g s u p p o r t p a y m e n t s f o r h e r m a i n t e n a n c e . M a u r e e n a l s o r e c o g n i s e d t h e h u r t s h e f e l t i n t h e a r e a o f p a r e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . M a u r e e n d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f as h a v i n g b e e n a " l o s e r f o r so many y e a r s . " She was r e f e r r i n g to h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men who d i d n o t " s u p p o r t " h e r i n d e v e l o p i n g h e r own s e n s e o f 94 w o r t h . She was f i n d i n g i t d i f f i c u l t t o a d j u s t h e r t h i n k i n g p a t t e r n s to a v o i d b o t h b e l i e v i n g i n h e r s e l f as a v i c t i m and p l a c i n g h e r s e l f i n t h a t p o s i t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , s h e s t a t e d t h a t s h e " w o u l d n ' t be a l i v e " h a d s h e r e m a i n e d w i t h M a r v i n b e c a u s e o f h e r own l a c k o f w o r t h . She b e l i e v e d s h e c o u l d h a v e s u c c e s s f u l l y c a r r i e d o u t one o f h e r s u i c i d e a t t e m p t s . She s a i d s h e was a b l e t o r e c o g n i s e M a r v i n ' s a f f e c t on h e r s e l f - e s t e e m o n l y a f t e r s e p a r a t i n g f r o m h i m . M a u r e e n a l s o had a c o n c e r n a r o u n d h e r f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n . She was w o r r i e d t h a t , i n t i m e , she w o u l d be f o r c e d i n t o w e a r i n g c l o t h e s w h i c h would not be a t t r a c t i v e and wo u l d make h e r l o o k " l i k e a dump." She c o n s t a n t l y r e f e r r e d t o h e r a p p e a r a n c e as an i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e on h e r sen s e of w o r t h . She was a l s o c o n c e r n e d a b o u t h e r p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n t h i s r e g a r d . She o f t e n s a i d , " o n c e I g e t i n t o s h a p e a n d l o s e some w e i g h t I ' l l j u s t f e e l a l o t b e t t e r a b o u t m y s e l f . " She s a i d , " I d o n ' t f e e l l i k e I've g o t a n y t h i n g e l s e g o i n g f o r me." Her a p p e a r a n c e a f f e c t e d " e v e r y t h i n g " e l s e she d i d and f e l t . M a u r e e n a p p e a r e d v e r y w o r r i e d t h a t s h e w o u l d l o s e c o n t r o l of t h i s a s p e c t of h e r l i f e , d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t i t a p p e a r e d as i f she t o o k c a r e of h e r p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n . She was o f t e n w e a r i n g an a t t r a c t i v e o u t f i t a l o n g w i t h a p p r o p -r i a t e makeup. She e v e n t u a l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t she had c o n c e r n s t h a t s h e w o u l d become l i k e h e r m o t h e r by b e i n g " s l o p p y , " " b i t -95 t e r , " and " r e s e n t f u l " as s h e g o t o l d e r . She d o u b t s h e r own " s t r e n g t h " t o r e m a i n s e p a r a t e d f r o m the k i n d of r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a man w h i c h she b e l i e v e d c a u s e d her mother's r e s p o n s e s . Maureen s a i d t h a t she saw h e r mother as v e r y a t t r a c t i v e when t h e l a t t e r was y o u n g b u t t h a t , i n M a u r e e n ' s o p i n i o n , h e r n e g a t i v e a p p e a r a n c e an d a t t i t u d e s had b e e n c a u s e d by h e r husband's d r i n k i n g , a n g e r , and u n p r e d i c t a b l e abuse. Maureen was a f r a i d t h a t , i n r e p e a t i n g f a m i l y p a t t e r n s , s h e w o u l d meet a n o t h e r man who w o u l d be s i m i l a r t o M a r v i n , t o Roy, and t o h e r f a t h e r . She w o u l d t r u s t h i m and he w o u l d g r a d u a l l y show h i s l a c k of s u p p o r t by c r i t i c i s i n g h e r s k i l l s , d o m i -n a t i n g h e r , and e v e n t u a l l y b e i n g v i o l e n t . M a u r e e n s a i d t h a t , a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , s h e d i d n o t want t o become i n v o l v e d i n a n o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a man b e c a u s e of t h e " i n s e n s i t i v e n e s s " w h i c h she had e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e p a s t . I t s e e m e d she was d i s t r u s t i n g o f h e r own a b i l i t i e s t o a t t r a c t a man who would be s u p p o r t i v e and who w o u l d a l l o w h e r t o end the p a t t e r n s w h i c h she had d e v e l o p e d i n h e r own l i f e as w e l l as t h o s e s h e had s e e n h e r m o t h e r e n a c t i n g . L i f e s t y l e and a t t i t u d e s . M a u r e e n b e l i e v e d s h e was g r a d u a l l y b e c o m i n g a b l e t o s e p a r a t e h e r own a c h i e v e m e n t s or f a i l u r e s f r o m h e r a n g e r t o w a r d s M a r v i n b u t t h a t i t was e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t b e c a u s e she had n e v e r had " c o n f i d e n c e " i n h e r s e l f . F o r e x a m p l e , i t had b e e n s e v e n m o n t h s s i n c e 96 M a u r e e n h a d s e p a r a t e d f r o m M a r v i n when sh e s a i d , " I f I go o u t and don't h a v e a g o o d t i m e , I'm a n g r y a t M a r v i n f o r f o r c i n g me i n t o t h i s s p o t . . . . S t a r t i n g o v e r a g a i n i s a r e a l h a s s l e . " She s a i d s h e d o e s n o t b e l i e v e s h e i s " i n c o n t r o l " o f h e r own s e l f - e s t e e m and t h a t i t i s i m p o r t a n t to have o t h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y men, t h i n k " w e l l " o f h e r . At t h e same t i m e , s h e d o e s n o t want t o " g e t c l o s e t o p e o p l e " b e c a u s e o f h e r f e a r o f b e i n g c r i t i c i s e d and f a i l i n g i n some r e s p e c t . She s a i d s h e had o f t e n a v o i d e d r i s k i n g f a i l u r e as she " d o e s n ' t t h i n k e n o u g h " o f h e r s e l f i n o r d e r t o r e s p o n d t o i t i n a p o s i t i v e way. I n i t i a l a n g e r w o u l d be " t u r n e d i n s i d e " t o b e come " s e l f h a t r e d . " Her p e r c e p t i o n t h a t she h a s b e e n " r e j e c t e d " by p e o p l e w o u l d a p p e a r to emerge f r o m h e r b e l i e f t h a t s h e d o e s n ' t h a v e "an ego a n y m o r e . " She a c k n o w l e d g e d , " I h a v e b e e n t h e v i c t i m o f m y s e l f i n so many ways and i n so many r e l a t i o n s h i p s . . . . l i k e I was w i t h my f a t h e r . " M a u r e e n s a i d s h e h a d t r i e d t o p r e v e n t h e r s e l f f r o m a s k i n g , "What's wrong w i t h me?" She f o u n d t h a t t h e more she f o c u s e d on what sh e p e r c e i v e d t o be h e r f a u l t s , t h e m o re f r e q u e n t h e r w i t h d r a w a l i n t o t h e r o l e o f a v i c t i m . W h i l e m a r r i e d t o Roy, s h e w o u l d a t t e m p t a t a s k i n w h i c h s h e t h o u g h t s h e m i g h t make a m i s t a k e . As a r e s u l t , he w o u l d comment on h e r i n a b i l i t y w h i c h would promote h e r r e s p o n s e of s e l f - d o u b t and would a l s o c a u s e h e r to f e e l r e j e c t e d by him. 97 The c y c l e appeared to be i n c r e a s i n g l y s e 1 f - d e s t r u c t i v e . Maureen said she f e l t "weak" while r e a l i z i n g that she wanted to f e e l "strong." She would place h e r s e l f i n such a p o s i -t i o n but would often respond a g g r e s s i v e l y on a p h y s i c a l l e v e l during a violent encounter. She described herself as an " a g g r e s s i v e / p a s s i v e " p e r s o n a l i t y . She f e l t " s i l l y " and " c h i l d i s h " i n s t i l l wanting Marvin to "take care of" her and yet she also said she would f e e l l e s s angry i f he would care about her so she could respond by "rejecting him." Maureen f e l t a f r a i d that she would "lose c o n t r o l " of her anger towards Marvin. It seemed that her concern was that she not turn her anger towards herself, thereby repea-ting her mother's pattern. Maureen appeared to express a number of 'shoulds' around her own behavior. As a result of her feeling "bloody awful" in not feeling in control of her anger, she acknowledged she f e l t more angry at herself. It appeared that she was unaware of how to respond to her anger, perhaps partly as a result of her lack of experience as a c h i l d and the f a m i l y b e l i e f that "there was something wrong with you" i f the anger was acknowledged. Maureen seemed to have a number of awarenesses on a c o g n i t i v e l e v e l which i t appeared she had not i n t e g r a t e d within her own thinking and behavior patterns. For example, she c o n s t a n t l y r e f e r r e d to the negative e f f e c t s of her anger, her desire to f e e l "taken care of," her v i c t i m i z a t i o n 98 o f h e r s e l f as a r e s u l t o f h e r f e a r o f f a i l u r e and f o c u s on h e r f a u l t s , a n d h e r a t t e m p t s t o e s t a b l i s h h e r s e l f - e s t e e m b a s e d on t h e o p i n i o n s o f o t h e r s . At one p o i n t s h e s a i d , " n o b o d y c a n b u i l d y o u up e x c e p t y o u r s e l f . " I t a p p e a r e d as i f Maureen was s e e k i n g f e e d b a c k f r o m the r e s e a r c h e r as w e l l as l e a r n i n g f r o m l i s t e n i n g t o h e r own a w a r e n e s s e s s p o k e n a l o u d . I n f l u e n c e s . Maureen's changes i n a t t i t u d e a p p e a r e d to s e r v e as a m a j o r i n f l u e n c e t o w a r d s h e r change i n b e h a v i o u r w h i c h , i n t u r n , a f f e c t e d h e r a t t i t u d e s , and so on. D u r i n g t h e e n t i r e p e r i o d of t h i s s t u d y , M a u r e e n was i n v o l v e d i n a number of a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h she l i n k e d to h e r new a w a r e n e s s e s a n d t h e s u p p o r t s h e f e l t as s h e r i s k e d t o c h a n g e . M a u r e e n was s p e c i f i c i n r e f e r r i n g t o the a c t i v i t y , a w a r e n e s s e s , or s k i l l s w h i c h s h e b e l i e v e d a s s i s t e d h e r i n r e c o g n i s i n g h e r p a t t e r n s and c h a n g i n g h e r b e h a v i o r . Maureen had f o u n d the " A l c o h o l i c s Anonymous" (AA) P r o g -ram t o be a m a j o r s u p p o r t t o h e r . She had b e e n a t t e n d i n g m e e t i n g s r e g u l a r l y f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . She was u n c e r t a i n as t o w h e t h e r she had been an " a l c o h o l i c " but she d e s c r i b e d the p r o g r a m as " s i m p l y a good p s y c h o l o g y o f l i v i n g . " She s a i d she f e l t a c c e p t e d w i t h i n t h e g r o u p s she a t t e n d e d and d i d not f e e l r e j e c t e d b e c a u s e o f h e r f a u l t s . She s a i d s h e a p p r e -c i a t e d h a v i n g o t h e r s a p p r o a c h h e r f o r c o n v e r s a t i o n as h e r i n i t i a l l a c k of s e l f - e s t e e m c a u s e d h e r t o w i t h d r a w and not 99 i n i t i a t e c o n t a c t w i t h p e o p l e . She f e l t more c o n f i d e n t i n h e r own a b i l i t i e s as a r e s u l t o f s t a n d i n g up and v o i c i n g h e r p e r c e i v e d w e aknesses to the members. She s a i d she was a l s o c o n s t a n t l y l e a r n i n g f r o m h e a r i n g o t h e r s s p e a k . She f e l t " e n c o u r a g e d " and " s u p p o r t e d " by t h e " p o s i t i v e " a t m o s p h e r e w h i c h r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e s t r u c t u r e and e m p h a s e s o f t h e AA Program. She p a r t i c u l a r l y r e c a l l e d one woman who made the s t a t e m e n t , " i t ' s a shame what o u r p a r e n t s do t o us when we're l i t t l e but i t ' s a r e a l shame we have to s t a y l i t t l e . " M aureen c o m p l e t e d the " F r y w o r k " P r o g r a m and f o u n d i t to be o f h e l p i n a number o f ways. In h e a r i n g t h e " l i f e s t o r i e s " o f t h e o t h e r women i n t h e g r o u p , s h e f e l t l e s s v i c t i m i z e d by h e r own c h i l d h o o d and p a s t . T h e i r c o m m e n t s t h a t s h e was " d e t a c h e d " and n o t i n v o l v e d w i t h any o t h e r member o f the group a p p e a r e d to p r o v i d e h e r w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n of w h i c h she was not aware. She r e c o g n i s e d t h a t her d i s t a n c e m i g h t be due, i n p a r t , to her f e e l i n g "down" a f t e r l i s t e n i n g t o t h e o t h e r s ' " p r o b l e m s . " She a l s o v a l u e d t h e work e x -p e r i e n c e she o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h i s program. She worked at a b u s i n e s s o f i n t e r e s t f o r s e v e r a l d a y s and was a b l e t o f e e l more c o n f i d e n t about her own s k i l l s as a r e s u l t . S p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s p r o v i d e d Maureen w i t h s u p p o r t as she began l i v i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y of M a r v i n . Her s o c i a l w o r k e r and d o c t o r h a d b o t h t o l d h e r t h a t she " d i d n o t h a v e t o r e m a i n " i n a v i o l e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p , the f o r m e r a s s i s t i n g h e r 100 t o f i n d s h e l t e r a t t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h sh e d i d l e a v e . She s a i d t h a t she had n o t b e e n a w a r e t h a t t h e r e was a t r a n s i t i o n house o r t h a t she c o u l d "cope" w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of l i v i n g on h e r own and b e i n g a s i n g l e p a r e n t . The t r a n s i t i o n h o u s e s t a f f w e r e s u p p o r t i v e by l i s t e n i n g and h e l p e d h e r t o a c c e p t h e r d e c i s i o n t o l e a v e and y e t n o t f e e l g u i l t y i n r e s p o n s e . She s a i d s h e g r a d u a l l y was a b l e t o f e e l l e s s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r M a r v i n ' s a c t i o n s b u t t h a t she d o u b t e d t h i s w o u l d h a v e b e e n p o s s i b l e had she n o t p h y s i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d f r o m him. P r i o r t o l e a v i n g s h e s a i d s h e was c o n s t a n t l y t h i n k i n g t h a t s h e c o u l d n o t " t h i n k e n o u g h o f h e r s e l f " o r s h e w o u l d n o t p u t up w i t h i t . She r e c a l l s a m a l e f r i e n d s u g g e s t i n g s h e j o i n a women's a s s e r t i v e n e s s g r o u p . At t h e t i m e , s h e was b e i n g " s h o u t e d a t " and c r i t i c i s e d i n h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h M a r v i n . She s a i d " I d i d n ' t l i s t e n t o h i m . I g u e s s I h a d t o g e t p u s h e d r i g h t t o my l i m i t . " She l i k e n e d t h i s t o h e r s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s w i t h Roy. M a u r e e n s a i d t h a t s h e was a b l e t o " l e t go" a n d a l l o w h e r s e l f t o f e e l l e s s a n g r y as a r e s u l t o f h e r r e c o g n i s i n g t h a t she c o u l d n o t c h a n g e e i t h e r man " t o be t h e p e r s o n M a u r e e n w a n t s . The o n l y p e r s o n I c a n change i s me." M a u r e e n s a i d s h e f o u n d t h e t r e a t m e n t p r o g r a m t o be q u i t e h e l p f u l i n a number of w a ys. She had p r e v i o u s l y b e e n u n a w a r e o f t h e p a t t e r n s f r o m h e r c h i l d h o o d w h i c h sh e was 101 r e e n a c t i n g as an a d u l t . D i s c u s s i n g them a p p e a r e d to h e l p h e r become more aware of h e r c o n t r o l o v e r h e r b e h a v i o r s w i t h men and a s s u m p t i o n s of b e i n g r e j e c t e d . She s a i d t h a t , i n c o n t i -n u a l l y f o c u s i n g on h e r a n g e r , s h e had b e e n f e e l i n g l e s s c o n f i d e n t i n h e r a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l . She a l s o f e l t g u i l t y f o r f e e l i n g a n g r y . She s a i d she a p p r e c i a t e d the r e s e a r c h e r ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t she s e t a s i d e two to t h r e e s p e c i f i c p e r i o d s i n a day d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e s h e w o u l d a l l o w h e r s e l f a few m i n u t e s t o f o c u s on h e r a n g e r . She s a i d t h a t , a f t e r a p e r i o d o f a f e w d a y s , she f e l t so " f o o l i s h " a b o u t f e e l i n g a n g r y t h a t s h e was a b l e t o end t h e e x e r c i s e and a l s o f e e l l e s s a n g r y t h r o u g h o u t e a c h day. Maureen had been f r e q u e n t l y t e l e p h o n i n g M a r v i n t o v e n t h e r a n g e r . She s a i d she f e l t "even w o r s e " a t the end of t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s . She b e l i e v e d t h e t r e a t m e n t p r o g r a m was v a l u a b l e t o h e r i n e x p l o r i n g h e r f e e l i n g s and h e l p i n g h e r d i s c o v e r a range of c h o i c e s of b e h a v i o r open to h e r . B e s i d e the t e l e p h o n e she had p l a c e d a l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h she e n j o y e d . When she wanted t o d i a l M a r v i n she would r e f e r t o her l i s t and wo u l d c a r r y b u t a n o t h e r a c t i v i t y . She s a i d " i t w o r k e d " i n d e c r e a s i n g t h e a n g e r a t t h e t i m e and made i t p o s s i b l e f o r h e r t o f e e l more i n c o n t r o l o f h e r own f e e l i n g s and a c t i o n s i n r e s p o n s e to M a r v i n . Maureen s a i d she t h o u g h t she " c o u l d n e v e r c o n t r o l h e r mind." She b e l i e v e d the t r e a t -ment p r o g r a m a s s i s t e d h e r i n b e c o m i n g c l e a r on h e r own 102 a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l t h r o u g h an e m p h a s i s on and p r a c t i s e i n c l a r i f y i n g h e r f e e l i n g s by b e g i n n i n g w i t h " I f e e l . " M a u r e e n r e c o g n i s e s t h a t she w i l l be on s o c i a l a s s i s t -a n c e o n l y u n t i l s h e o b t a i n s j o b s k i l l s a n d / o r e m p l o y m e n t . F o r t h i s r e a s o n she s a i d she does not b e l i e v e she i s j u d g i n g h e r s e l f n e g a t i v e l y as a r e s u l t . She s a i d s h e i s a b l e t o r e m a i n i n d e p e n d e n t on w e l f a r e and not be f o r c e d to be " t a k e n c a r e o f " by a man. She s a i d , " I know I don't want t o l i v e l i k e t h i s t h e r e s t o f my l i f e . " She s a i d s h e l o o k s f o r w a r d t o f e e l i n g more p o s i t i v e a b o u t h e r s k i l l s and w o r t h as a r e s u l t o f c o n t r i b u t i n g w i t h i n a j o b . Her a p p a r e n t a n x i e t y , s u g g e s t e d by h e r v o c a l t o n e and i n a b i l i t y t o f o c u s on one a r e a of i n t e r e s t , would seem d i r e c t l y l i n k e d t o h e r p a t t e r n s o f b e l i e f s and a c t i o n s i n w h i c h h e r " o n l y i m p o r t a n c e was t h r o u g h h e r husband." She s a i d she had n e v e r a l l o w e d h e r s e l f t o f e e l c o m p e t e n t t o c o p e w i t h i n d e p e n d e n t l i v i n g o r w i t h t h e a n g e r t h a t s h e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as e m e r g i n g f r o m h e r d e p e n d e n c e on Roy o r M a r v i n . T h r o u g h o u t t h e t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d , Maureen l i n k e d h e r d e c r e a s i n g a n g e r w i t h h e r b e l i e f i n h e r a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l h e r r e a c t i o n s and f e e l i n g s w i t h i n h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men, d e s p i t e t h e c o n t r a s t i n g p a t t e r n s s h e saw a s a c h i l d b e t w e e n h e r p a r e n t s . She b e l i e v e d h e r s e n s e o f c o n t r o l had e m e r g e d f r o m an u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o b t a i n e d w i t h i n the t r e a t m e n t program of t h e r o o t s and p a t t e r n s of h e r f e e l i n g s and a c t i o n s . She s a i d she f e l t 103 " f r e e r t o e x p l o r e " on a one t o one b a s i s t h a n i n a g r o u p s e t t i n g I n t h e f o l l o w - u p s e s s i o n , M a u r e e n s t a t e d t h a t she had been t h i n k i n g l e s s a bout M a r v i n s i n c e she had begun d a t i n g o t h e r men. She s a i d t h a t r e m a i n i n g a c t i v e h e l p e d h e r f e e l l e s s a n g r y t o w a r d s h i m and more p o s i t i v e a b o u t h e r own c a p a b i l i t i e s and worth. Case Study 3 F a m i l y of o r i g i n . Born i n t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s i n 1959, R i t a was 22 y e a r s o l d a t t h e c o m m e n c e m e n t o f t h i s s t u d y . She s a i d s h e knew v e r y l i t t l e a b o u t h e r e x t e n d e d f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d . She knew n o t h i n g of e i t h e r h e r p a t e r n a l o r m a t e r n a l g r a n d f a t h e r . She d i d n o t r e c a l l h a v i n g known t h e i r names b u t b e l i e v e d b o t h h a d d e c e a s e d . She d i d n o t r e m e m b e r w h e r e o r when s h e h a d o b t a i n e d t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . The p r e s e n c e or a b s e n c e of abuse, s e p a r a t i o n , or v i o l e n c e of any n a t u r e w i t h i n t h e i r m a r r i a g e s was a l s o unknown t o h e r . She h a d h a d some c o n t a c t w i t h h e r p a t e r n a l g r a n d m o t h e r i n t h a t t h e y had t a l k e d on t h e t e l e p h o n e o n c e o r t w i c e i n t h e p a s t y e a r . R i t a b e l i e v e d t h a t h e r m a t e r n a l g r a n d m o t h e r was s t i l l l i v i n g b u t s h e d e s c r i b e d h e r as " j u s t a name i n my l i f e . " R i t a was 15 y e a r s o l d b e f o r e s h e knew h e r c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e a n d t h e N a t i v e b a n d o f w h i c h s h e was a member. She s t a t e d f i r m l y , h o w e v e r , t h a t she was a f u l l y r e c o g n i s e d Nat i v e . 104 R i t a r e c a l l e d h e r f a t h e r , B r u c e , w i t h some t e a r s , s a y i n g t h a t she was s t i l l " a ngry a t him f o r d y i n g " when she was o n l y 10 y e a r s o l d . He had b e e n b o r n w i t h i n a f a m i l y o f 12 c h i l d r e n but R i t a knew n o t h i n g of h i s c h i l d h o o d y e a r s or h i s b i r t h p o s i t i o n . He had d i e d a f t e r a l o n g i l l n e s s w i t h c a n c e r . A l l h i s b r o t h e r s were a p p a r e n t l y a l s o d e c e a s e d , R i t a h a v i n g known of two who had " s h o t t h e m s e l v e s . " She remem-b e r e d h e r f a t h e r as " g e n t l e , k i n d - h e a r t e d , and w e l l - l i k e d . " The day of h i s d e a t h was the one s p e c i f i c d a t e she r e c a l l e d f r o m h e r c h i l d h o o d y e a r s . R i t a r e c a l l e d h i m b e i n g a b s e n t f r o m t h e home a m a j o r i t y o f h e r e a r l y y e a r s a s h i s w o r k as a l a b o r e r t o o k him out of town. When he was a t home, he would s e v e r e l y abuse h e r mother by p u n c h i n g , h i t t i n g , and k i c k i n g . R i t a r e c a l l s him o f t e n b e i n g drunk when he was v i o l e n t . She d e s c r i b e d b o t h o f h e r p a r e n t s as " a l c o h o l i c . " I n h e r d e s -c r i p t i o n of Bruc e as " g e n t l e , " she s t r e s s e d t h a t t h i s was i n r e f e r e n c e to h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o R i t a and h e r s i s t e r . On one o c c a s i o n when he d i d s t r i k e h e r s h e s a i d s h e was n o t o n l y " s h o c k e d " but f e l t a g r e a t d e a l of " r e s e n t m e n t . " R i t a ' s m other, S t e l l a , was one of n i n e c h i l d r e n and the s e c o n d o l d e s t to a b r o t h e r . She d e s c r i b e d h e r m o t h e r as " t h e w o r s t t h i n g on e a r t h . " She f e l t a n g r y as a r e s u l t o f what she p e r c e i v e d as h e r mother's i n f i d e l i t y . When S t e l l a d r a n k , s h e w o u l d b ecome " l o u d " and " c r u d e " and on one o f s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s , R i t a r e c a l l e d h e r b r i n g i n g home a b o y f r i e n d whom 105 she i n t r o d u c e d t o the c h i l d r e n as t h e i r "new f a t h e r . " B r u c e was i l l i n h o s p i t a l a t the t i m e . D e v e l o p m e n t y e a r s . R i t a was t h e s e c o n d and y o u n g e s t c h i l d i n t h e f a m i l y , h a v i n g a s i s t e r , C l a r e , who was two y e a r s o l d e r . She r e c a l l e d h e r e a r l y y e a r s as " h a z y . " She was n o t a w a r e o f t h e s e q u e n c e o f e v e n t s o r o f any c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s she had d u r i n g t h o s e y e a r s . Her f i r s t 11 o r 12 y e a r s r e m a i n " j u s t a b l u r . " R i t a s a i d , " I t ' s l i k e I n e v e r l i v e d t h o s e y e a r s . " S h o r t l y a f t e r b i r t h , R i t a was p l a c e d i n a f o s t e r home f o r two y e a r s . She was not aware of the r e a s o n f o r t h i s . She s a i d t h a t a g r e a t d e a l o f a n g e r t h a t s h e s t i l l f e l t f o r h e r m o t h e r e m e r g e d f r o m what s h e saw t o be t h e l a t t e r ' s o v e r t f a v o r t i s m f o r C l a r e . D u r i n g t h o s e two y e a r s , R i t a b e l i e v e d t h a t C l a r e r e m a i n e d w i t h t h e i r n a t u r a l p a r e n t s . R i t a d e s c r i b e d h e r u p b r i n g i n g as " d e s t r u c t i v e " i n a number of ways. She f e l t c o n s t a n t l y compared to h e r s i s t e r , b o t h by t h e i r m o t h e r as w e l l as by t e a c h e r s a t s c h o o l . She s a i d , "no m a t t e r what I d i d , I c o u l d n e v e r meet up t o h e r . " She s a i d she v i v i d l y r e c a l l s h e r mother's c r i t i c i s m s as w e l l as b e i n g a s k e d why she c o u l d n ' t be "more l i k e C l a r e . " S t e l l a w o u l d o f t e n s a y t h a t C l a r e was h e r f a v o r i t e . W h i l e C l a r e was l a b e l e d as t h e " g o o d " c h i l d , R i t a f e l t s h e was " e x p e c -t e d " t o be t h e " t r o u b l e m a k e r " who a v o i d e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and d i d n o t do what he r p a r e n t s t o l d h e r . As a young c h i l d , she 106 a t t e m p t e d t o f i g h t what she p e r c e i v e d to be an u n a v o i d a b l e l a b e l f o r h e r . She saw h e r s e l f c o n s t a n t l y t r y i n g , o f t e n by d o i n g e x t r a h o u s e h o l d t a s k s , t o p l e a s e h e r m o t h e r b u t f a i -l i n g on a l l o c c a s i o n s . She s a i d s h e had e v e n w o n d e r e d i f she had b e e n an u n e x p e c t e d c h i l d o f a man o t h e r t h a n h e r f a t h e r b e c a u s e o f t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h sh e was " p i c k e d on" by h e r m o t h e r . She f o u n d i t h a r d t o b e l i e v e t h a t h e r m o t h e r w o u l d v e n t s u c h a n g e r by o v e r t l y " r e j e c t i n g " h e r w e r e t h i s o r some s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n not the c a s e . She b e l i e v e d C l a r e to have a g r e a t e r number of p r i v i l e g e s a t home, R i t a a l s o s e e i n g h e r s e l f o f t e n t a k i n g the blame f o r C l a r e ' s u n c o m p l e t e d t a s k s . R e c a l l i n g t h a t s h e was a l w a y s c a l l e d " s t u p i d " and a " l o s t c a u s e , " R i t a s a i d s h e b e g a n t o b e l i e v e h e r m o t h e r ' s c r i t i c i s m s . The a n g e r w h i c h she f e l t i n r e s p o n s e was some-t h i n g w i t h w h i c h sh e f e l t s h e n e v e r l e a r n e d t o d e a l . She s a i d , " I c o u l d n ' t g e t a n g r y . . . I was t h e o n l y o n e who c o u l d n ' t show i t . I f I d i d , my m o t h e r w o u l d b l a m e me a n d c a l l me s t u p i d . " In r e s p o n s e , R i t a saw h e r s e l f b e c o m i n g "pushy" and " a g g r e s s i v e " as a d e f e n s e a g a i n s t the f a v o r t i s m a n d c r i t i c i s m a n d h e r a p p a r e n t i n a b i l i t y t o p l e a s e h e r m o t h e r . She s a i d t h a t i t was, i n many w a y s , e a s i e r t o f u l f i l l t h e n e g a t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s she f e l t f r o m o t h e r s t h a n to c o n t i n u e t o f a i l a t c h a n g i n g them. I t w o u l d a l s o a p p e a r t h a t , p a r t l y as a r e s u l t o f h e r i n a b i i t y t o e x p r e s s h e r 107 a n g e r , R i t a was g i v e n t r a n q u i l i z e r s a t 12 y e a r s o f age f o r what s h e r e c a l l e d t h e p s y c h i a t r i s t d e s c r i b i n g as a " n e a r n e r v o u s breakdown." R i t a was u n c e r t a i n as t o t h e a c t u a l a m o u n t o f t i m e t h a t h e r f a t h e r was p r e s e n t i n the home b e c a u s e he worked out of t o w n a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e . She s a i d s h e r e m e m b e r e d h i m as " a l w a y s t h e r e , " h o w e v e r , as s h e f e l t v e r y c l o s e t o h i m a n d he was o f t e n t h e o n l y one who w o u l d "come t o h e r r e s c u e " when s h e was b e i n g s i n g l e d o u t and c r i t i c i s e d . She c o n c e p -t u a l i z e s some of h e r c u r r e n t a nger as l i n k e d t o h e r f e e l i n g s of "abandonment" when her f a t h e r d i e d . Her f e e l i n g s of t o t a l l a c k o f c o n t r o l o f h e r l i f e w e r e e m p h a s i z e d when he d i e d and she l o s t n o t o n l y a p a r e n t b u t t h e p e r s o n t o whom s h e was c l o s e s t . N i n e months a f t e r h i s d e a t h , R i t a ' s mother " w a l k e d o u t " and l e f t b o t h c h i l d r e n . T h e y w e r e i m m e d i a t e l y p l a c e d i n a f o s t e r home t o g e t h e r . R i t a was u n a w a r e o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r her mother l e a v i n g , n e v e r h a v i n g d i s c u s s e d the m a t t e r w i t h h e r . In a d d i t i o n t o f e e l i n g a n g r y , h u r t , and c o n f u s e d i n r e s p o n s e t o h e r m o t h e r ' s a c t i o n s , s h e a l s o a p p e a r e d t o be a s s u m i n g some g u i l t a nd r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r them. She had t r i e d t o a s s e s s h e r own a c t i o n s t o e x p l a i n h e r m o t h e r ' s b e h a v i o r . Her abandonment c o n f i r m e d h e r b e l i e f i n her l a c k o f w o r t h and c o n t r o l . Some y e a r s l a t e r when R i t a was 17 y e a r s o l d , s h e v i s i t e d h e r m o t h e r . R i t a s a i d s h e was e x -108 t r e m e l y h u r t a t t h a t t i m e when h e r m o t h e r s a i d t o c a l l h e r " S t e l l a " and not "mother." T h i s would seem to have c o m p l e t e d R i t a ' s p e r c e i v e d p a t t e r n of abandonment and c o n t r i b u t e d t o h e r c h i l d h o o d b e l i e f t h a t she.was "ne v e r good enough." R i t a s t i l l b e l i e v e s h e r f o s t e r m o t h e r , M a r g , f a v o r e d C l a r e as d i d t h e i r n a t u r a l m o t h e r . On one o c c a s i o n when R i t a was c h e w i n g h e r f i n g e r n a i l s , M a r g r e p r i m a n d e d h e r by g r o u n d i n g h e r f o r n i n e m o n t h s . She and C l a r e r e m a i n e d w i t h M a r g f r o m t h e t i m e R i t a was 11 y e a r s o l d u n t i l s h e was 17 y e a r s o l d . D u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e , R i t a saw h e r s e l f as " f i g h t i n g t o k e e p a d i s t a n c e " f r o m o t h e r s f o r f e a r o f c r i t i c i s m . She s e e s h e r s e l f as h a v i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " r o w d i e s " a l t h o u g h s h e d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f as b e i n g so t i m i d t h a t s h e " w o u l d n ' t s a y 'boo' t o a monkey." She f e l t a c c e p t e d w i t h i n t h e g r o u p , d e s p i t e h e r " p a s s i v e n e s s ,"as s h e r e c o g n i s e d i n h e r s e l f an a g g r e s s i v e o p p o s i t i o n t o s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f h e r . She o f t e n f e l t c o n f u s e d as t o the b e h a v i o r t h a t o t h e r s e x p e c t e d o f h e r . F o r e x a m p l e , s h e s a i d s h e had b e e n t o l d t o e x p r e s s h e r a n g e r and t o a l s o be p o l i t e d u r i n g h e r t e e n s . She s a i d , as she b e l i e v e d she was not a b l e t o do b o t h s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , s h e was u n c e r t a i n as t o what s h e was s u p p o s e d t o do. She s a i d , "When I g e t a n g r y , I g e t r u d e . I c a n ' t be p o l i t e and a n g r y a t t h e same time....What do t h e y want me t o d o ? " L a c k i n g h e r own s e t o f l i m i t s , s h e s a i d s h e w o u l d m a i n t a i n a d i s t a n c e w h i l e t e s t i n g h e r own a b i l i t y t o " r e b e l . " She 109 f o r e s a w c r i t i c i s m f r o m h e r mother and s i s t e r , no m a t t e r what s h e d i d . R i t a r e c a l l s " f i g h t i n g c o n s t a n t l y " w i t h C l a r e . T h e y w o u l d s h o u t and s w e a r a t e a c h o t h e r , o f t e n o v e r i s s u e s o f u n e q u a l p r i v i l e g e . R i t a s t a t e s t h a t C l a r e was a l s o h e r c l o s e s t f r i e n d . She s a i d t h e r e were few p e o p l e c l o s e to h e r d u r i n g h e r t e e n s and t h a t , a l t h o u g h she p r e d i c t e d c r i t i c i s m , she hoped to be " l i k e d by e v e r y o n e . " At 17 y e a r s of age, she moved t o a g r o u p home w h e r e s h e s t a y e d f o r a y e a r . S u p p o r t e d by t h e g r o u p home p a r e n t s , s h e h a d h e r " b e s t y e a r i n s c h o o l . " The g r o u p home mother was s e n s i t i v e to h e r f e e l i n g s a n d w o u l d d i s c u s s t hem w i t h h e r when R i t a f e l t t h e n e e d . E a r 1 y r e c o l l e c t i o n s . 1. ( a g e : 7 y e a r s ) R i t a c l e a r l y r e c a l l s s t a n d i n g i n a d o o r w a y a t h e r f i r s t f o s t e r m o t h e r ' s house w h i l e h e r p a r e n t s t a l k e d about R i t a ' s u p c o m i n g o p e r a -t i o n t o r e m o v e h e r t o n s i l s . She r e m e m b e r e d b e i n g v e r y e x -c i t e d t o t a l k w i t h t h e f o s t e r m o t h e r ' s s o n , t h e a d u l t c o n -v e r s a t i o n b e i n g o f no i n t e r e s t t o h e r . She was " s u r p r i s e d " and " p l e a s e d " t h a t she had a f o s t e r b r o t h e r . 2. ( a g e : 6-7 y e a r s ) R i t a was s l e e p i n g i n a b i g bed b e s i d e C l a r e when t h e i r m o t h e r came i n t o t h e b e d r o o m and k i c k e d h e r o u t . Her m o t h e r s a i d she w a n t e d t o " s l e e p w i t h h e r d a u g h t e r " and t h a t R i t a c o u l d s l e e p i n t h e l i v i n g room. Her f a t h e r was s l e e p i n g on t h e c o u c h and s h e went t o t e l l h i m what h a p p e n e d . He went i n t o 110 the bedroom and "fought" with the mother to l e t Ri t a stay i n the bed because she was s i c k . She most v i v i d l y r e c a l l s c l i m b i n g i n beside her fa t h e r and how "secure" she f e l t at the time. 3. (age: 9 years) Her fa t h e r was s i c k i n h o s p i t a l and "nearly dead." Her mother came home late one night with another man and said to Rita and Clare, "This i s your new fa t h e r . I want you to respect him." R i t a remembered saying "he isn't my dad!" and then running out of the room. She recalled her disgust at her mother because of the latter's "betrayal" of the father. 4. (age: 5-7 y e a r s ) C l a r e and Rita were dressed up i n red and white dresses with fancy shoes and l i t t l e purses. Clare's shoes were white and Rita's shoes were black. She r e c a l l e d f e e l i n g pleased that they looked so much alike i n the o u t f i t s . She f e l t "special" when they posed for a picture. Summary of r e c o l l e c t i o n s . The f i r s t three r e c o l l e c -t i o n s a l l focus on Rita's r e l a t i o n s h i p s with men. In the f i r s t , the son would appear to provide her with an opportu-nity to remove herself from her parents' discussion while in the second and t h i r d r e c o l l e c t i o n s , i t seems she i s e i t h e r being rescued by her fa t h e r or she i s 'rescuing' him i n a certain way. In the fourth, Rita and Clare look a l i k e , apart from their shoes, her r e c o l l e c t i o n of their s p e c i f i c color 1 11 b e i n g i m p o r t a n t t o h e r . R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men. R i t a h ad h a d o n l y one r e l a -t i o n s h i p of any d u r a t i o n w i t h a man p r i o r t o t h i s s t u d y and t h a t was h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h F r a n k . She d e s c r i b e d an e x p e c t a t i o n i n h e r home town t h a t a l l the women had "an o l d man." The c o u p l e need not have been m a r r i e d but the commit-ment was u n d e r s t o o d i n t e r m s o f s e x u a l i n v o l v e m e n t . R i t a s a i d s he was r a i s e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t men w e r e " s t r o n g " and women were "weak" i n an e m o t i o n a l as w e l l as p h y s i c a l s e n s e . She s a i d t h a t , i n t h e p a s t , she had f e l t i n c a p a b l e o f h a n d l i n g b e i n g a l o n e . She s a i d , "I'd wa l k a r o u n d t h e s t r e e t s a t m i d n i g h t . . . j u s t w a n t i n g s o m e o n e t o t a l k t o . " T he " l o v e " t h a t F r a n k p r o m i s e d and the " s e c u r i t y " t h a t R i t a saw i n him was s o m e t h i n g she s a i d she had n e v e r f e l t b e f o r e . W h i l e she saw h e r s e l f b e i n g "dumped" by " e v e r y o n e e l s e who s h e c a r e d about," F r a n k was somebody who "wanted" h e r . She was u n c e r -t a i n as t o how she d e f i n e d " s e c u r i t y " e x c e p t t h a t she w o u l d n o t have t o f e e l l o n e l y w i t h F r a n k . R i t a s a i d t h a t she was aware t h a t he had " b e a t e n up" two g i r l f r i e n d s b e f o r e h e r but t h a t s h e b e l i e v e d s h e c o u l d " c h a n g e h i m " t h r o u g h h e r a c t i o n s . I n r e t u r n , she b e l i e v e d he w o u l d " t a k e c a r e o f " h e r . She was 18 y e a r s o l d i n 1 978 when t h e y moved f r o m t h e N o r t h t o V a n c o u v e r . In r e t r o s p e c t , she sees h e r s e l f as n a i v e a t t h a t t i m e , h a v i n g "grown up" i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r s she 112 s p e n t w i t h F r a n k . By t h i s , s h e m e a n t t h a t s h e was f o r c e d i n t o f o r m i n g h e r own s e t of " l i m i t s " f o r h e r s e l f and r e c o g -n i s i n g h e r own low s e l f - e s t e e m . She d i d so w h i l e , i n e f f e c t , b e i n g i s o l a t e d f r o m h e r hometown f r i e n d s and community. R i t a s a i d s h e d i d n o t r e a l i z e s h e was b e i n g b a t t e r e d u n t i l s h e was w i t h F r a n k f o r a t l e a s t a y e a r . She l i n k e d t h i s l a c k o f r e c o g n i t i o n t o h e r h ope o f F r a n k c h a n g i n g . A l t h o u g h s h e f e l t " g u i l t y " and " a n g r y , " s h e " c l i c k e d o f f " h e r a n g e r t o w a r d s F r a n k f o r f e a r of r e t a l i a t i o n . He w o u l d be v i n d i c t i v e by h i d i n g h e r c l o t h e s and p u n c h i n g h e r , o f t e n i n t h e s h o u l d e r s . She c o u l d n o t l e a v e u n l e s s s h e d i d so n a k e d . W h i l e F r a n k i n t r o d u c e d h e r t o s o f t d r u g s , R i t a had d r u n k a l c o h o l p r i o r t o t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . She s a i d t h e y b o t h d r u n k " f a i r l y h e a v i l y " w h i l e t h e y w e r e t o g e t h e r . T h i s d i d n o t , however, e f f e c t the p a t t e r n of Frank's abuse. She spoke of t h e p h y s i c a l p a i n of t h e v i o l e n c e — p u n c h i n g , k i c k i n g , and b l a c k e n e d e y e s — b u t s h e b e l i e v e d h i s i n s u l t s and v e r b a l o putdowns to be most h u r t f u l and d e s t r u c t i v e of h e r b e l i e f i n h e r s e l f . He w o u l d t e l l h e r s h e was n o t c a p a b l e o f c o p i n g w i t h o u t h i m . I f s h e s h o w e d any k n o w l e d g e i n a number o f l i f e s k i l l s a r e a s , he w o u l d i n s u l t h e r o r p h y s i c a l l y r e t a l i a t e . She p e r c e i v e s h i s f e a r o f l o s i n g " c o n t r o l " o f h e r as b e i n g t h e c a u s e o f h i s " p u l l i n g h e r down t o h i s l e v e l . " What she i n i t i a l l y saw as s t r e n g t h , she e v e n t u a l l y l e a r n e d was weak-n e s s , a c t e d out i n the f o r m of "power." 113 F r a n k p h y s i c a l l y a bused h e r d u r i n g h e r f i r s t two p r e g -n a n c i e s , b o t h of w h i c h t e r m i n a t e d i n m i s c a r r i a g e s . On d i s -c o v e r i n g s h e was p r e g n a n t f o r a t h i r d t i m e , s h e s p e n t t h e d u r a t i o n u n t i l t h e b i r t h i n a r e s i d e n t i a l c e n t r e a t w h i c h t i m e s h e f e l t a b l e t o a s s e s s h e r s i t u a t i o n . She s a i d t h a t , l a r g e l y t h r o u g h r e a d i n g , she r e a l i z e d t h a t F r a n k would not c h a n g e . Of p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e t o h e r was an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t h r e e s t a g e s of b a t t e r i n g , as o u t l i n e d by W a l k e r (1979) i n t h e b o o k , "The B a t t e r e d Woman." A f t e r t h e b i r t h , R i t a a t t e m p t e d a b r i e f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h F r a n k but f o u r months l a t e r s o u g h t t h e h e l p o f a t r a n s i t i o n h o u s e w o r k e r i n o r -d e r i n g him t o l e a v e t h e i r a p a r t m e n t . R i t a s a i d , " A l t h o u g h I b l a m e F r a n k , i t g o e s a l o n g way ba c k . " She r e c a l l s s t a y i n g w i t h F r a n k b e c a u s e she b e l i e v e d t h e a l t e r n a t i v e was t o "move f r o m one man t o a n o t h e r . " I t would seem she n e g a t i v e l y j u d g e d s u c h b e h a v i o r , p e r h a p s as a r e s u l t o f h e r own l a c k o f c l a r i t y a r o u n d l i m i t s . She s a i d s h e was o f t e n u n a w a r e o f how f a r t o go b e f o r e s h e w o u l d be c r i t i c i s e d by o t h e r s . One of h e r s t a t e d g o a l s was to e s t a b -l i s h h e r own s e t o f a c c e p t a b l e l i m i t s f o r h e r s e l f i n t h e a r e a s of s o c i a l b e h a v i o r and p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s i n p a r t i c u l a r . One month b e f o r e the end of the t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d , R i t a b e g a n l i v i n g w i t h a man s h e had known f o r two y e a r s a l -t h o u g h w i t h whom she had had l i t t l e c o n t a c t o v e r t h a t t i m e . W h i l e she s a i d she and F r a n k had begun t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p as 114 s e x u a l p a r t n e r s , s h e s p o k e o f M a r k as b e i n g a " f r i e n d " b e f o r e t h e y b ecame s e x u a l l y i n t i m a t e . M a r k i s two y e a r s y o u n g e r t h a n R i t a a n d , a t t h e t i m e o f t h i s s t u d y , was a n unemployed t r a d e s m a n . R i t a s a i d she t r u s t s him i n a number o f ways t h a t s h e d i d n o t t r u s t F r a n k , n o t t h e l e a s t o f w h i c h i s h i s a b i l i t y to budget money. W i t h F r a n k , she had been the s o l e wage e a r n e r as w e l l as t h e o n l y one who was a b l e t o save any money. She a l s o s e es Mark as someone "who's a b l e to t a k e c o n t r o l i f s h e n e e d s h i m t o . " She was r e f e r r i n g t o o c c a s i o n s when she f e e l s c o n t r o l l e d by h e r own f e e l i n g s of a n g e r . She l i n k e d h e r f e e l i n g s o f h e l p l e s s n e s s a t s u c h t i m e s w i t h h e r l a c k o f l e a r n i n g how t o d e a l w i t h h e r a n g e r as a c h i l d . She a l s o f e l t i n c a p a b l e of p r e v e n t i n g h e r a d u l t a n g e r i n r e s p o n s e t o h e r c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s . As a r e s u l t , s h e b e l i e v e s she o f t e n " l o s e s c o n t r o l " as an a d u l t , v e n t i n g h e r a n g e r t h r o u g h v e r b a l r e t a l i a t i o n . At s u c h t i m e s , she i s a l s o a n g r y a t h e r s e l f f o r f e e l i n g f o r c e d i n t o r e s p o n d i n g i n t h i s way. She b e l i e v e s t h a t s h e w i l l g r a d u a l l y be a b l e t o s e p a -r a t e t h e f e e l i n g s and r e a c t i o n s she e x p e r i e n c e d w i t h F r a n k f r o m t h o s e she would l i k e t o e x p e r i e n c e w i t h Mark. She s e e s h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Mark as a m a j o r i n f l u e n c e t o w a r d s h e r a b i l i t y t o f e e l g r e a t e r s e l f - w o r t h and l e s s e m o t i o n a l a t t a c h m e n t t o F r a n k . She i s n o t o n l y l e s s a f r a i d o f h e r 115 p h y s i c a l s a f e t y w i t h Mark p r e s e n t but a l s o f e e l s l e s s g u l l i -b l e t o w a r d s what she r e c o g n i s e s were Frank's l i e s i n r e g a r d t o p r o t e c t i n g h e r . I t o f t e n c o n f u s e d h e r t h a t he s p o k e o f " l o v e " as a r e a s o n f o r h i s a b u s e . I t i s s u g g e s t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t s h e m i g h t be r e p e a t i n g a p a t t e r n t o some d e g r e e . She s a y s t h a t " s e e i n g i t t h r o u g h " w i t h Mark i s i m p o r t a n t to h e r . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t s h e m i g h t be p l a c i n g h e r s e l f i n a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n t o h e r r o l e w i t h F r a n k w h e r e s h e c o u l d p e r h a p s a l l o w h e r s e l f to t e s t h e r own l i m i t s of p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l e n d u r a n c e and p a i n once a g a i n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , she s a i d t h a t s h e saw i n h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h F r a n k what s h e w a n t e d t o s e e and i g n o r e d what s h e d i d n o t want t o f a c e . She a c k n o w l e d g e d s h e s t i l l h a s " l i t t l e h o p e s " t h a t F r a n k w i l l s t o p " b e h a v i n g l i k e a l i t t l e k i d , " i n w h i c h c a s e s h e "wouldn't mind t a k i n g him back." R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h women. A f t e r s e p a r a t i n g f r o m F r a n k , R i t a b e l i e v e s s h e r e c e i v e d a l l h e r e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t f r o m f e m a l e f r i e n d s who r a n g e d i n age f r o m 30 y e a r s t o 80 y e a r s o f a g e . T o w a r d s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s s t u d y , s h e s a i d t h a t she saw men as i n c a p a b l e of u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e f e e l i n g s of a b a t t e r e d woman. She l a t e r changed h e r o p i n i o n as a r e s u l t of Mark's l i s t e n i n g a nd c o n v e y i n g h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . She s a y s s h e h a s f e l t l e s s a n g r y as a r e s u l t . She h a s f e l t t h e g r e a t e s t amount of s u p p o r t f r o m women who a c c e p t h e r i n her p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n b u t a l s o e n c o u r a g e h e r t o o b t a i n j o b 116 s k i l l s and remove h e r s e l f f r o m s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . A m a j o r f o c u s i n t h e t r e a t m e n t s e s s i o n s w e r e R i t a ' s p o l a r f e e l i n g s o f l o v e and a n g e r t o w a r d s C l a r e . She f e l t v i c t i m i z e d as she saw h e r s i s t e r h a v i n g " u s e d " h e r w i t h o u t r e c i p r o c a t i n g by g i v i n g t i m e an d e n e r g y t o a n s w e r R i t a ' s n e e d s . She a l s o a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t , o n c e a g a i n , s h e f e l t s o m e w h a t i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h C l a r e i n r e g a r d t o m a t e r i a l goods and t h a t h e r j e a l o u s y m i g h t be i n f l u e n c i n g h e r p e r c e p -t i o n s . She f e l t a f r a i d o f s h a r i n g h e r f e e l i n g s w i t h h e r s i s t e r f o r f e a r t h a t C l a r e would u n p r e d i c t a b l y "walk out and l e a v e . " R i t a s a i d , "She h a s s t e p p e d on me o u r w h o l e l i f e . She n e v e r g a v e me any o f h e r s t r e n g t h t o h e l p me g e t o u t o f my r u t . " She was r e f e r r i n g t o h e r r e c e n t n e e d s f o l l o w i n g h e r s e p a r a t i o n f r o m F r a n k . The r e s e a r c h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t , b e l i e v i n g i n an e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l , R i t a has a l l o w e d C l a r e to be the i n i t i a t o r o f c l o s e n e s s or d i s t a n c e b etween them. R i t a s e e s h e r s e l f as t h e o n l y one who w i l l l o s e a v a l u e d c l o s e n e s s w e r e t h e y t o be d i s t a n c e d f r o m e a c h o t h e r . T h i s c l o s e n e s s a p p e a r s to be a m a j o r c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o w a r d s R i t a ' s s e n s e o f s e l f -w o r t h . She d e s c r i b e d C l a r e as "the o n l y f a m i l y I've got." R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h d a u g h t e r . R i t a b e l i e v e s h e r g r e a t e s t s u p p o r t comes f r o m h e r d a u g h t e r . She s a i d s h e had a l w a y s wanted a c h i l d and t h a t she e n j o y s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as i t p r o v i d e s h e r w i t h a n e e d t o s t r u c t u r e h e r l i f e . " I d o n't 117 know what I'd do w i t h o u t h e r , " s h e s a i d , " s h e ' s my w h o l e l i f e . " She a l s o spoke of d o u b t i n g h e r own p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s , l a r g e l y i n t h e a r e a o f s e t t i n g l i m i t s . At t h e same t i m e , s h e i s c o n c e r n e d t h a t s h e p r o v i d e h e r c h i l d w i t h " c o n s t a n t l o v e , " s o m e t h i n g she s a i d she was n e v e r g i v e n . ^£££1^1 _h J. s t o r y and c o n c e r n s . R i t a ' s r e a c t i o n t o h e r p e r c e i v e d v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o e x t e r n a l c r i t i c i s m h a s b e e n t o a t t e m p t t o a s s e s s t h e d e s i r e s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h o s e a r o u n d h e r . She h a s o f t e n b e l i e v e d t h a t " n o b o d y g i v e s h e r c r e d i t " f o r t h e d e c i s i o n s s h e makes. She r e c o g n i s e s t h a t , f o l l o w i n g many o f h e r d e c i s i o n s , s h e h a s s o u g h t e x t e r n a l v a l i d a t i o n t o p r o v e t h a t s h e was " r i g h t . " F r e q u e n t l y , she h a s f e l t c o n f u s e d w i t h t h e v a r i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h o s e s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y a r o u n d p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s , h e r r e s p o n s e t o h e r own a n g e r , and h e r s o c i a l b e h a v i o r w i t h men. In r e g a r d t o t h e l a t t e r , s h e a p p e a r s t o be, i n some wa y s , t r y i n g t o a v o i d h a v i n g t o a s s e s s h e r own b e h a v i o r s w i t h men by p u r s u i n g h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Mark. She s a i d , " I want t o know where i t ' s gonna go w i t h him so t h a t he's an o p e n book t o me. I t ' s t o o damn h a r d t r y i n g t o g e t t o know o t h e r g u y s . " In o t h e r a r e a s , s h e f e e l s h u r t when C l a r e s a y s " Y o u ' l l p r o b a b l y be l i v i n g on w e l f a r e f o r t h e r e s t of y o u r l i f e . " She b e l i e v e s w e l f a r e i s o n l y a s t e p t o w a r d s h e r a t t a i n m e n t of f i n a n c i a l i n d e p e n d e n c e . 118 R i t a r e c o g n i s e s t h a t s h e r e s p o n d s w i t h a f e e l i n g o f anger when she f e e l s out of c o n t r o l . I t w o u l d seem, however, t h a t s h e o f t e n s e e k s t o c o n t r o l t h a t w h i c h i s e x t e r n a l t o h e r as o p p o s e d t o i n t e r n a l . She s p o k e o f h e r a n g e r when s h e m i s s e d t h e bus as a r e s u l t o f i t b e i n g a h e a d o f s c h e d u l e . She a l s o f e l t a g r e a t d e a l o f a n g e r and h e l p l e s s n e s s i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e b e h a v i o r of h e r a p a r t m e n t l a n d l o r d . Her c o n c e r n s h a v e b e e n o r i e n t e d t o w a r d s l i f e s k i l l s s i n c e s h e s e p a r a t e d f r o m F r a n k . She s a y s h e r a b i l i t y t o i n d e p e n d e n t l y c o p e w i t h p a y i n g b i l l s , d o i n g l a u n d r y , c l e a n i n g house, and m a i n t a i n i n g h e r c h i l d has c o n t r i b u t e d to h e r s e n s e o f w o r t h . The l o n g e r s h e a c c o m p l i s h e s t h e t a s k s w h i c h F r a n k t o l d h e r she c o u l d n o t do, t h e more c o n f i d e n t s h e f e e l s . She r e c o g n i s e d t h a t , d e s p i t e h e r e f f o r t s t o s u c c e e d w i t h i n h e r s e l f - d e f i n e d l i m i t s i n o r d e r t o promote h e r own s e l f - w o r t h , she was a l s o c o n t i n u i n g t o seek a p p r o v a l f r o m o t h e r s t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n she w o u l d l i k e . She was a w a r e t h a t s h e was a n g r y a t t i m e s when s h e d i d n o t f e e l v a l i d a t e d by C l a r e f o r h e r e f f o r t s as a p a r e n t , a s i s t e r , a n d an i n d i v i d u a l a d u l t . She had r e c e n t l y s a i d , " i t ' s l i k e I'm n o t g o o d e n o u g h f o r h e r " when C l a r e w o u l d n o t a c c e p t R i t a ' s l o a n of some d i s h e s . R i t a s a y s she " d i s t r u s t s " Mark's " k i n d n e s s " t o a d e g r e e and i s a f r a i d o f d i s c o v e r i n g a " d i s h o n e s t y " b e h i n d i t . She s a i d , "I'm n o t u s e d t o i t . . . . I t s c a r e s me." She e x p e c t s 119 v i o l e n c e and a b u s e w i l l f o l l o w as i t d i d w i t h F r a n k . She f i n d s t h a t when s h e f e e l s " d e p r e s s e d , " s h e t h i n k s a g r e a t d e a l a b o u t h i m . She o f t e n c a t c h e s h e r s e l f r e e n a c t i n g o l d f i g h t i n g p a t t e r n s w i t h Mark, b e g i n n i n g w i t h h e r c a l l i n g him " F r a n k . " She t e l l s h e r s e l f " i f I e v e r made t h a t s t e p b a c k w a r d s , I wouldn't be a b l e t o g e t out." She b e l i e v e s t h a t s h e w o u l d be e m o t i o n a l l y t i e d t h r o u g h b e i n g c o n t i n u a l l y p u l l e d down i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p once a g a i n . I t s e e m e d t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r t h a t R i t a m i g h t h a v e b e e n s a y i n g t h i s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f h e a r i n g and c o n v i n c i n g h e r -s e l f as w e l l as o b t a i n i n g f e e d b a c k and e x t e r n a l s u p p o r t . Her v o c a l t o n e , t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h s h e made s u c h s t a t e -ments, and her c o n t r a d i c t o r y comments s u g g e s t e d t h a t she was r e t a i n i n g a t t h a t t i m e , a d e g r e e of p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t a c h m e n t t o F r a n k . D e s p i t e h e r s a y i n g he was " s i c k " and w o u l d n e v e r c h a n g e , s h e a l s o s p o k e o f h e r f e a r s o f l o s i n g c o n t r o l and r e t u r n i n g t o him. A t t i t u d e s and l i f e s t y l e . R i t a r e a l i z e d t h a t she had b a s e d much o f h e r p a s t b e h a v i o r on h e r d e s i r e t o p l e a s e o t h e r s and h e r a n g e r when h e r a c t i o n s d i d not b r i n g a b o u t a l e v e l of c o n t r o l or p r e d i c t a b i l i t y i n o t h e r s . R i t a e x p l a i n e d h e r " e x t r e m e " a n g e r as an e s c a p e f r o m e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o n -t r o l o v e r h e r e n v i r o n m e n t . She r e c o g n i s e d the need to a v o i d t h e s e l f - i m p o s e d p r e s s u r e of s u c h e x p e c t i o n s t h r o u g h her use o f a n g e r . She became a w a r e o f t h e p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h s h e 120 p l a c e d h e r s e l f i n t h a t s h e h a d a c o n c u r r e n t b e l i e f s y s t e m w h i c h m a i n t a i n e d h e r i n a r o l e l a c k i n g c o n t r o l . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t R i t a h a s b e e n a s s e r t i v e , l a r g e l y i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e c r i t i c i s m o r a n g e r s h e p e r c e i v e s f r o m o t h e r s o r f r o m h e r own s e 1 f - d i r e c t e d a n g e r . She s a i d s h e " r e b e l s " when s h e f e e l s c r i t i c i s e d . F o r e x a m p l e , R i t a was a n g r y when an e l d e r l y f r i e n d whom she v i s i t s s u g g e s t e d t h a t s h e w a k e up e a r l i e r i n t h e m o r n i n g . She r e c a l l e d h e r f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t a t b e i n g " w r o n g " i n a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n w i t h h e r se c o n d f o s t e r mother. R i t a s a i d , "When I'm t o l d not t o h i t , t h a t ' s t h e f i r s t t h i n g I want t o do, e v e n h a r d e r . " She seems a w a r e o f h e r own " p o w e r " when i n v o l v e d i n a d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h a n o t h e r p e r s o n of e i t h e r sex. T h a t power, however, a p p e a r s t o be f r e q u e n t l y g e n e r a t e d by h e r p e r c e i v e d v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o e x t e r n a l c r i t i c i s m or a t t a c k . In r e g a r d t o M a r k , she s a i d , "I'm j u s t w a i t i n g t o h a v e h i m p u s h my b u t t o n s so I c a n r i p i n t o h i m r e a l l y bad." She s e e s h e r a n g e r a s , n o t o n l y a means o f a v o i d i n g t h e p r e s s u r e o f c o n t r o l , but a l s o as a way of p r e v e n t i n g o t h e r s f r o m m a n i p u -l a t i n g h e r . She i s a w a r e t h a t s h e l i n k s h e r a n g e r w i t h a c e r t a i n - range of b e h a v i o r s such as s h o u t i n g and s w e a r i n g . On one o c c a s i o n , s h e s a i d t h a t i n b e i n g " k i n d , " one a l l o w e d o t h e r s t o t h i n k " t h e y can s t e p on you." R i t a s a i d , " I h a t e f e e l i n g t h i s way" as she spoke of her p e r c e i v e d l a c k o f e m o t i o n a l c o n t r o l when s h e i s a n g r y . She 121 b e l i e v e s she c o u l d p e r h a p s be a s s u m i n g the h u r t of o t h e r s a t s u c h a t i m e . I t would a p p e a r t h a t h e r b o u n d a r i e s of r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y a r e n o t c l e a r i n s u c h s i t u a t i o n s . At one p o i n t i n t h e t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d , she s a i d she had a new u n d e r s t a n d i n g of Frank's i n s u l t s and t h a t when he c a l l e d h e r a " b i t c h , " she now saw t h a t "he was a c t u a l l y s a y i n g how much he h a t e d h i m s e l f . " She i s a w a r e o f h e r own v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o o t h e r s ' comments. F r a n k t o l d h e r she was " s t u p i d " and " c o u l d n ' t make i t w i t h o u t h i m" and she b e l i e v e d him. She i s a l s o aware of the g a i n s she has made t o w a r d s d e v e l o p i n g h e r own s t r e n g t h . She s a y s t h a t she i s v e r y c o n s c i o u s t h a t h e r " p a s s i v e " s i d e w o u l d r e t u r n t o d o m i n a t e h e r w e r e s h e t o r e t u r n t o F r a n k a n d t h a t s h e i s u s i n g a n g e r as a d e f e n s e a g a i n s t i t . I t w o u l d seem t h a t , s i n c e s e p a r a t i n g f r o m him, she has sp e n t a g r e a t d e a l o f e f f o r t t e s t i n g h e r own l i m i t s a r o u n d g i v i n g t o o t h e r s . She s a i d t h a t h e r r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f h e r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h F r a n k s e r v e d as an i n s p i r a t i o n t o w a r d s h e r c h a n g i n g . At t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h s h e l e f t h i m , s h e s a i d t h a t s h e was c o m p l e t e l y " d r a i n e d " w i t h n o t h i n g l e f t t o g i v e . S i n c e l e a v i n g F r a n k , t h e r e have been t i m e s when she has f e l t l i k e s a y i n g , " H e r e , t a k e my l i f e b e c a u s e I'm n o t d o i n g a v e r y g o o d j o b o f i t . " I n r e s p o n s e , she has t a k e n c o n t r o l o v e r m e e t i n g h e r own n e e d s o f i n t i m a c y , s h a r i n g , and s e c u r i t y . She r e c o g n i s e s h e r a b i l i t y t o s a y "no" t o o t h e r s ' r e q u e s t s 122 of h e r t h a t a r e beyond he r l i m i t s i s a s s i s t i n g t h i s p r o c e s s of g r o w t h . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c i n g f r o m F r a n k t h a t she s a i d had commenced w h i l e she was p r e g n a n t and s e p a r a t e d f r o m h i m i s i n c r e a s i n g as a r e s u l t o f h e r a s s e s s i n g h e r own e m o t i o n a l n e e d s . In a n s w e r i n g t h e s e n e e d s r a t h e r t h a n b u r y i n g t hem i n f a v o r o f a t t e m p t i n g t o p l e a s e o t h e r s , s h e f e e l s more i n c o n t r o l o f h e r own s e n s e o f w o r t h . I n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r s . R i t a s a i d t h a t , a f t e r r e a d i n g "The B a t t e r e d Woman" d u r i n g h e r p r e g n a n c y , i t was h e r " B i b l e " i n h e l p i n g h e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e v i o l e n t p a t t e r n s a n d make a d e c i s i o n . She s e p a r a t e d f r o m F r a n k f o u r m o n t h s l a t e r . Of i m p o r t a n c e t o h e r was an a w a r e n e s s o f t h e t h r e e s t a g e s o f v i o l e n c e — t e n s i o n , e x p l o s i o n , and c a l m . As a r e -s u l t , s h e b ecame more a w a r e o f how s h e p r o v o k e d F r a n k f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f g e t t i n g t h r o u g h " t h e i n e v i t a b l e " as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . She s a i d t h a t , i n r e t r o s p e c t , she d i d n o t b e l i e v e she would have been r e a d y f o r t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n at an e a r l i e r p o i n t and t h a t s h e was s t i l l " l e a r n i n g " up t o t h e t i m e she s e p a r a t e d . She had t a l k e d w i t h a number of p e o p l e a b o u t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h F r a n k and i t was t h i s f e e d b a c k w h i c h p r o v i d e d h e r w i t h a p o s i t i v e n e s s t h a t she b e l i e v e d she n e e d e d i n o r d e r t o l e a v e h i m . She r e m e m b e r e d t a l k i n g t o a p r i e s t who s u p p o r t e d h e r i n s a y i n g d i r e c t l y t h a t s h e n e e d no t l i v e w i t h v i o l e n c e . She i s c u r r e n t l y t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h a r o u t i n e o f 123 e a t i n g , s l e e p i n g , and a c c o m p l i s h i n g t a s k s as she f e e l s most p o s i t i v e a b o u t h e r s e l f as w e l l as h e r r o l e as a p a r e n t when she has a p l a n and o r g a n i z a t i o n . She r e c e i v e s a g r e a t d e a l o f s u p p o r t f r o m f e m a l e f r i e n d s b u t b e l i e v e s t h a t Mark's u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s more h e l p f u l f o r h e r t o w a r d s h e r s e p a r a t i n g f r o m F r a n k . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t , as Mark's u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d a c c e p t a n c e o f h e r i n c r e a s e s , so t o o d o e s h e r t r u s t i n h e r own a b i l i t y to c h o o s e a man who w i l l not abuse h e r . She s a y s s h e v a l u e s t h e p h y s i c a l c l o s e n e s s t h a t t h e y s h a r e a n d t h e p a r e n t a l r o l e he f u l f i l l s w i t h h e r d a u g h t e r . A p r i o r i t y f o r h e r a t t h e t i m e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o be a b l e t o s a y "no" t o p e o p l e w i t h o u t f e e l i n g g u i l t y f o r h u r -t i n g o r d i s p l e a s i n g them. She a l s o w o u l d l i k e to o b t a i n some o f f i c e s k i l l s i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o o b t a i n a c l e r i c a l j o b . R i t a s a i d t h a t she b e l i e v e d t h a t the t r e a t m e n t p r o g r a m h e l p e d h e r i n a number of w ays, n o t t h e l e a s t b e i n g t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n v i t e d h e r o u t t o a p l a y on one e v e n i n g . She b e l i e v e d h e r s e l f - e s t e e m was i m p r o v e d by s i m p l y l e a v i n g t h e house to do s o m e t h i n g she e n j o y e d . As a r e s u l t , she s a i d she t h o u g h t l e s s a b o u t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h F r a n k and f e l t a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f e m o t i o n a l s e p a r a t i o n . She s a i d s h e o f t e n f e l t as i f she was " b a l a n c i n g " h e r g r o w i n g s e n s e o f w o r t h and h e r c o n f i d e n c e i n i n d e p e n d e n c e a g a i n s t h e r d o u b t s a b o u t h e r s e l f and h e r v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o r e t u r n t o F r a n k . In a d d -i t i o n , she s a i d t h a t t a l k i n g w i t h the r e s e a r c h e r h e l p e d h e r 124 s e p a r a t e f r o m h e r f i r s t two c h i l d r e n , b o t h of whom m i s c a r -r i e d . The a r e a s i n w h i c h sh e f o u n d t h e p r o g r a m t o be o f g r e a t e s t h e l p w e r e i n d e a l i n g w i t h h e r a n g e r and i n a c c e p -t i n g C l a r e . She s a i d s h e was a b l e t o r e a c h a p o i n t o f r e c o g n i t i o n as t o how she had b e e n a s s u m i n g t h e " h u r t , " " a n g e r , " an d " j e a l o u s y " o f h e r f o s t e r m o t h e r , n a t u r a l m o t h e r , s i s t e r , and F r a n k . She s a i d she w o u l d l i k e more s k i l l s i n d e a l i n g w i t h h e r f e e l i n g s f o r her f a m i l y but t h a t s h e f e l t s o m e w h a t l e s s m a n i p u l a t e d by t h e m an d more i n c o n t r o l of h e r own f e e l i n g s i n r e s p o n s e . The r e s e a r c h e r had d i s c u s s e d " b o u n d a r i e s " and " a c c e p t i n g o n l y one's h a l f o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p " o r d i s a g r e e m e n t . In b r i e f , o t h e r s ' a c t i o n s w e r e s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e r a n g e o f f e e l i n g s w i t h w h i c h R i t a c o u l d r e s p o n d . These f e e l i n g s were, i n t u r n , s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e c h o i c e s a v a i l a b l e t o h e r when r e s p o n d i n g w i t h a b e h a -v i o r . R i t a s a i d s h e u n d e r s t o o d C l a r e ' s d i f f i c u l t y i n r e l a -t i n g t o h e r e x p e r i e n c e o f a b u s e . R i t a d i d n o t f e e l as r e s p o n s i b l e t o p l e a s e C l a r e n o r d i d she a p p e a r t o f e e l as m a n i p u l a t e d as a r e s u l t of d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h i n t h e t r e a t m e n t p r o g r a m w h i c h c l a r i f i e d R i t a ' s e x p e c t a t i o n of e x t e r n a l c o n -t r o l . R i t a b e l i e v e d s h e a l s o had a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h e r f e e l i n g s as a r e s u l t o f h e r d e s c r i b i n g t hem i n t h e s e s s i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , sh e b ecame a w a r e t h a t t h e t h r e e 125 stages of b a t t e r i n g about which she had read also defined what she saw as the three stages of her anger. In recog-nising the patterns in the f i r s t stage, she hoped to affect a change in her response to anger in order to f e e l a greater sense of control. Rita did not find the journal helpful in c l a r i f y i n g her f e e l i n g s . She f e l t almost negative about i t i n that she would focus on d i f f i c u l t i e s without knowing how to deal with them at the time. The researcher assessed that i t was the form of the j o u r n a l i n terms of i t s basis of w r i t i n g and not i t s focus on se1f-understanding which c o n t r i b u t e d to i t s lack of effectiveness and appeal. Rita often referred to the value of the understanding she was ob t a i n i n g i n the i n t e r -vention sessions. It appeared to the researcher that R i t a had acquired some cognitive awarenesses from the program and that, over time, she might be able to i n t e r n a l i z e the i n f o r m a t i o n i n order to integrate i t within her behavior framework as well as her pattern of a t t i t u d e s . In a d d i t i o n , two sessions of couple c o u n s e l l i n g took place. They seemed to be p o s i t i v e l e a r n i n g experiences for both R i t a and Mark. They were conducted in response to a request by Rita. Rita said that she learned some additional information about Mark of which she was previously unaware. She stated that her trust in him increased as a result. She knew that 126 he had b e e n a b u s e d as a c h i l d and was a f r a i d as t o how t h i s w o u l d a f f e c t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . She d i d n o t f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e i n c o n f r o n t i n g him w i t h her c o n c e r n s as she was n o t c e r t a i n t h a t she c o u l d h a n d l e her f e e l i n g s of anger and h u r t w h i l e d i s c u s s i n g t h e i s s u e . She was a f r a i d t h a t he w o u l d r e s p o n d a g g r e s s i v e l y and she would t h e n r e t u r n to h e r p a t t e r n s o f r e s p o n s e f r o m h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h F r a n k . A m a j o r f o c u s of t h e c o u p l e c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s was c o n t r o l . Case Study 4 F a m i l y of o r i g i n . Anne was b o r n i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d i n 1953, t h e t h i r d e l d e s t of t h r e e g i r l s . She knew n o t h i n g o f h e r p a t e r n a l g r a n d p a r e n t s a p a r t f r o m h e r g r a n d m o t h e r ' s name. - She was unaware of w h e t h e r the c o u p l e was s e p a r a t e d o r d i v o r c e d a t any t i m e o r w h e t h e r t h e y w e r e a b u s i v e t o e a c h o t h e r or t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Anne's f a t h e r , W i l l , was the m i d d l e c h i l d of t h r e e w i t h an o l d e r s i s t e r and a y o u n g e r b r o t h e r . Anne ha d l i t t l e o r no c o n t a c t w i t h e i t h e r . Her f a t h e r i s s t i l l l i v i n g w i t h i n a f e w m i l e s o f h e r p r e s e n t r e s i d e n c e b u t s h e has "as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e " t o do w i t h him. H e r m o t h e r , F r i e d a , was t h e y o u n g e s t o f f i v e c h i l d r e n w i t h two b r o t h e r s and two s i s t e r s , one of the g i r l s b e i n g a f o s t e r c h i l d . The f a t h e r had d i e d some y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y to t h i s s t u d y b u t t h e m o t h e r , A n n e , a f t e r whom h e r g r a n d d a u g h t e r was named, was s t i l l l i v i n g . Anne s a i d t h a t 127 h e r g r a n d m o t h e r had a l w a y s been t h e r e to p r o v i d e " s u p p o r t " and " p r o t e c t i o n " f o r Anne when he r f a t h e r was v i o l e n t d u r i n g h e r c h i l d h o o d . T h e r e was no v i o l e n c e o r a b u s e w i t h i n t h e m a r r i a g e o f t h e m a t e r n a l g r a n d p a r e n t s . I t was w e l l known w i t h i n the f a m i l y , however, t h a t one of Anne's u n c l e s p h y s i -c a l l y b a t t e r e d h i s w i f e . Anne's mother was a l s o p h y s i c a l l y a b u s e d d u r i n g t h e 11 y e a r s s h e l i v e d w i t h h e r h u s b a n d . Anne's two a u n t s had r e m a i n e d s i n g l e . F r i e d a was 21 a n d W i l l was 23 y e a r s o f age when t h e i r e l d e s t d a u g h t e r , S h a r o n , was b o r n i n 1947. T h e i r n e x t d a u g h t e r , B a r b a r a , was b o r n t h r e e y e a r s l a t e r w i t h Anne b e i n g b o r n t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r t h a t i n 1953. The y o u n g e s t g i r l , D e n i s e , b o r n i n 1954, was s e v e r e l y h a n d i c a p p e d and s p e n t much o f h e r l i f e i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . Anne c o u l d n o t remember h e r l i v i n g i n t h e home. She s a i d t h a t none of the f a m i l y had had r e g u l a r c o n t a c t w i t h h e r . Anne d e s c r i b e d h e r m o t h e r as " f a n t a s t i c " and " s t r o n g " a n d h e r f a t h e r as a " j e r k " who " d o m i n a t e d " h i s w i f e a n d c h i l d r e n t h r o u g h v e r b a l and p h y s i c a l t h r e a t s . None o f t h e c h i l d r e n w e r e p h y s i c a l l y a b u s e d b e c a u s e , as Anne s a i d , "we were t o o f a s t f o r him." H i s d o m i n e e r i n g a p p r o a c h i n c l u d e d r e s t r i c t i v e r u l e s f o r t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e c h i l d r e n and h i s d i s c i p l i n e a p p e a r e d r e t a l i a t o r y to Anne. One of h e r " e a r l y r e c o l l e c t i o n s " o f h e r f a t h e r d e s c r i b e s an i n c i d e n t w h i c h s u p p o r t s t h i s . I t w o u l d a p p e a r s h e saw h e r m o t h e r ' s 128 s t r e n g t h a s p a r t l y an a b i l i t y t o w i t h s t a n d h e r f a t h e r ' s p h y s i c a l abuse. Anne s a i d h e r p a r e n t s were e i t h e r f i g h t i n g or s h o u t i n g w i t h e a c h o t h e r when t h e y were l i v i n g t o g e t h e r . He w o u l d punch and h i t F r i e d a , o f t e n when he was drunk. D e v e l o p m e n t y e a r s . Anne was r a i s e d w i t h a s t r o n g , m a t r i a r c h a l f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . She s a i d t h a t m o s t o f h e r e a r l y m e m o r i e s do n o t i n c l u d e h e r f a t h e r d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t h e r p a r e n t s w e r e n o t d i v o r c e d u n t i l Anne was 11 y e a r s o l d . Up u n t i l t h a t t i m e , s h e s a i d t h a t h e r m o t h e r w o u l d l e a v e W i l l a n d t a k e Anne and h e r s i s t e r s t o one o f t h e i r a u n t ' s h o u s e s w h e r e t h e y w o u l d s t a y f o r p e r i o d s o f up t o a fe w m o n t h s . Anne s a i d t h a t i t was " g r e a t " w i t h o u t h e r f a t h e r a r o u n d as t h e r e was no h i t t i n g o r v i o l e n c e . She d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f as h a v i n g t o be " r e s p o n s i b l e " as a c h i l d b e c a u s e o f h e r f a t h e r ' s a b u s e . B o t h s h e and h e r s i s t e r s w e r e a w a r e o f t h e h u r t t h a t t h e i r m o t h e r was e x p e r i e n c i n g a n d t h e y w o u l d a l w a y s s u p p o r t h e r a g a i n s t t h e i r f a t h e r . Anne r e c a l l e d t h e l a s t t i m e h e r p a r e n t s p h y s i c a l l y f o u g h t . She and h e r s i s t e r s p i c k e d h e r f a t h e r up o f f t h e c o u c h , " b e a t t h e h e l l o u t o f h i m , " and t h e n l e t t h e i r m o t h e r o r d e r him o ut of the house. Anne s a i d t h a t her m o t h e r had had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e m a r r y s i n c e t h a t t i m e b u t t h a t t h e y b o t h b e l i e v e d t h a t "she was s t r o n g and would d o m i n a t e and pound" t h e man. D u r i n g m o s t o f h e r c h i l d h o o d , Anne f e l t c l o s e s t t o 129 B a r b a r a b u t s a i d t h a t t h e i r m o t h e r ' s s i s t e r , J o a n , was t h e " s t r e n g t h " a n d " l a w " w i t h i n t h e w h o l e f a m i l y . She was t h e one who w o u l d make m o s t o f t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n s and w o u l d s e r v e as an e m o t i o n a l r e s o u r c e f o r the o t h e r f a m i l y members. When Anne was 11 y e a r s of age, h e r two a u n t s and h e r mother bought a f a r m and began r a i s i n g s t o c k . Her a d o l e s c e n c e was s p e n t i n a r u r a l s e t t i n g as a r e s u l t . D u r i n g t h o s e y e a r s , Anne had no male models. She d i d not v i e w h e r f a t h e r as a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e at any p o i n t . He would v i s i t d u r i n g t h e i r t e e n y e a r s and b r i n g t h e m g i f t s as he had done when t h e y w e r e y o u n g e r . Anne s a i d t h e y w e r e a w a r e o f h i s b r i b e r y and t h a t t h e y w e r e o n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n what he b r o u g h t them. She r e c a l l s no emo-t i o n a l g i v i n g o f c a r e , i n t i m a c y , o r e v e n t i m e on h i s p a r t . W h i l e d i s c i p l i n e f r o m b o t h p a r e n t s was i n the f o r m of c o r -p o r a l p u n i s h m e n t , she d i d n o t f e e l s i n g l e d o u t o r s c a p e -g o a t e d i n any way i n t h i s r e g a r d . She s a i d s h e c o n s i d e r e d h e r s e l f t o have been pampered and " a l w a y s babied...Somebody was a l w a y s s t e p p i n g i n " t o t a k e o v e r h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Anne s a i d s h e b e g a n t o h a v e " t e m p e r t a n t r u m s " i n h e r t e e n s f o r w h i c h t h e r e was o f t e n no o t h e r r e a s o n t h a n she d i d n o t h a v e h e r "own way." I t w o u l d seem t h a t i n d e m a n d i n g h e r own way by s h o u t i n g , s c r e a m i n g , o r s u l k i n g , she c o u l d a l s o p r e d i c t some f o r m o f a t t e n t i o n f r o m h e r m o t h e r . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t f a m i l y b o u n d a r i e s were u n d e f i n e d w i t h a c o n s i d -130 e r a b l e d e g r e e o f enme s h m e n t . At 16 y e a r s o f age Anne a t t e m p t e d s u i c i d e by t a k i n g s l e e p i n g p i l l s but s a i d t h a t she r e a l i z e d , a f t e r s w a l l o w i n g t h e m , t h a t s h e d i d n o t want t o i n j u r e h e r s e l f . The r e s e a r c h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t she was p e r -haps u s i n g s u i c i d e as a means of e s t a b l i s h i n g i n d e p e n d e n c e and s e p a r a t i o n f r o m h e r f a m i l y . Anne s a i d t h a t she " d i d not e v e n l e a v e home" when she b e g a n l i v i n g w i t h a man a t 19 y e a r s o f age. She w o u l d be c o n s t a n t l y r e t u r n i n g t o v i s i t . She s t i l l f e e l s g u i l t y when s h e s p e a k s t o h e r f a m i l y a b o u t w a n t i n g d i s t a n c e . At one p o i n t d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y , she d i d not want to s t a y f o r the r i t u a l Sunday d i n n e r a t her aunt's. She d e s c r i b e d t h e o b j e c t i o n s she r e c e i v e d when she p e r s i s t e d a n d d i d l e a v e . She f e l t g u i l t y a t d i s a p p o i n t i n g them a n d a l s o a n g r y t h a t s h e had t o a p o l o g i s e f o r a n s w e r i n g h e r own needs of i n d e p e n d e n c e . U n a b l e t o r e c a l l when and how she was t a u g h t , Anne r e c o g n i s e s her " t r a d i t i o n a l " v i e w s , not a l l of them e n t i r e l y s e x u a l l y b a s e d . She s a i d she a l w a y s " s w o r e " h e r c h i l d r e n w o u l d g r o w up w i t h b o t h p a r e n t s . I t a p p e a r e d s h e had a c o n s e r v a t i v e o u t l o o k on s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between men and women. She r e q u e s t e d b i r t h c o n t r o l p i l l s f r o m h e r d o c t o r f o r the cramps she was e x p e r i e n c i n g . She f e l t v e r y " g u i l t y " when he t e a s e d h e r t h a t she n e e d e d them b e c a u s e s h e was s e x u a l l y a c t i v e . E a r l y r e c o l l e c t i o n s . 1. ( a g e : 5 y e a r s ) Anne's f a t h e r 131 c a u g h t h e r p l a y i n g w i t h m a tches. He t o o k h e r and b u r n e d t h e e n d s o f a l l h e r f i n g e r s w i t h a l i t m a t c h . She v i v i d l y r e c a l l s " h i s b i g hand and my l i t t l e hand." 2. ( a g e : 4 y e a r s ) Anne and h e r s i s t e r , B a r b a r a , w e r e s t a y i n g w i t h t h e i r a u n t , J o a n . T h e y w e r e e a t i n g ham, d r i n k i n g g i n g e r a l e , and c r y i n g o v e r a t e l e v i s i o n show t h e y were w a t c h i n g . She c l e a r l y remembers J o a n c a r r y i n g t hem t o b e d , one u n d e r e a c h arm. She f e l t s e c u r e . 3. ( a g e : 7 y e a r s ) H e r f a t h e r was c h a s i n g h e r and h e r s i s t e r s a r o u n d t h e house. The c h i l d r e n r a n o u t s i d e a n d h e a r d t h e i r m o t h e r l a u g h as t h e i r f a t h e r c h a s e d h e r i n s i d e t h e h o u s e . Anne f e l t e s p e c i a l l y h a p p y b e c a u s e t h e y m o s t o f t e n h e a r d t h e i r m o t h e r c r y w i t h t h e i r f a t h e r . 4. ( a g e : 7 y e a r s ) Anne and h e r s i s t e r s w e r e p i c k e d up by t h e i r a u n t S h a r o n t o go v i s i t J o an. When t h e y d r o v e i n the d r i v e w a y , t h e c h i l d r e n h i d i n t h e b a c k s e a t a n d saw t h e l o o k o f d i s a p p o i n t m e n t on J o a n ' s f a c e when S h a r o n s a i d t h a t W i l l had n o t a l l o w e d t h e g i r l s t o l e a v e t h e h o u s e . Anne and h e r s i s t e r s t h e n a l l j u m p e d up. She r e c a l l s how f u n i t was t o p l a y a j o k e and a l s o how g ood i t f e l t t o s e e t h e l o o k of, j o y on J o a n ' s f a c e when sh e saw them. Summary o f r e c o l l e c t i o n s . Anne s a i d s h e r e m e m b e r e d 132 l i t t l e o f h e r f a t h e r and y e t he i s p a r t o f two o f t h e f o u r r e c o l l e c t i o n s g i v e n . I n a l l o f t h e a b o v e , t h e r e a p e a r s t o be an e x t r e m e of e i t h e r h a p p i n e s s or s a d n e s s w i t h no p e o p l e o u t s i d e t h e f a m i l y b e i n g i n c l u d e d . I n t h r e e o f t h e f o u r , t h e r e i s a s e n s e o f u n p r e d i c t a b l e e m o t i o n o c c u r r i n g : u n -p r e d i c t a b l e h u r t i n #1, u n p r e d i c t a b l e h a p p i n e s s i n #3, and the humor r e l a t e d to t h e u n p r e d i c t a b l e i n #4. In the f i r s t two, she sees h e r s e l f as s m a l l and v u l n e r a b l e to e i t h e r p a i n o r i n n e e d o f s e c u r i t y f r o m o t h e r s . I n t h e l a t t e r two, s h e i s t a k i n g more o f an a c t i v e r o l e b u t b o t h i n v o l v e c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d games. R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men. Anne d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f as a "dumb f a r m k i d " when s h e met E r i c , t h e f i r s t man w i t h whom she was i n t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e d . At 19 y e a r s o l d , she had l e f t s c h o o l some t i m e p r e v i o u s l y and was w o r k i n g p a r t t i m e on t h e f a m i l y f a r m and a l s o i n a w a r e h o u s e . E r i c was two y e a r s o l d e r t h a n Anne. She d e s c r i b e d h i m as " g e n t l e " and " g o o d h umored." She a c k n o w l e d g e d s h e " u s e d E r i c " t o move away f r o m h e r f a m i l y . She was r e f e r i n g to an e m o t i o n a l d i s t a n c e as w e l l as a p h y s i c a l one. T h e y b o t h w o r k e d as g r o u p home p a r e n t s f o r t h e f i r s t two y e a r s of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p u n t i l t h e i r d a u g h t e r was born . Anne was 21 y e a r s o l d a t the t i m e . The p r e g n a n c y had been u n p l a n n e d . E r i c was n o t p h y s i c a l l y v i o l e n t . Anne s a i d t h a t s h e f e l t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r d i s a g r e e m e n t s i n many ways 133 b e c a u s e of h e r demanding b e h a v i o r and h e r temper t a n t r u m s i f s h e d i d n o t g e t h e r own way. She saw E r i c s i m p l y t a k i n g o v e r " c a r i n g f o r " h e r as h e r f a m i l y had done. Knowing t h a t he h a d t o g e t up t o w o rk, sh e w o u l d c l i n g a n d demand t h a t he s t a y i n b e d w i t h h e r . She w o u l d s h o u t o r s u l k i f s h e d i d n o t h a v e h e r demands met. E r i c h i t h e r o n c e a c r o s s t h e f a c e , s h e h i t h i m b a c k , and " t h a t was t h a t . " T h e y n e v e r s t r u c k e a c h o t h e r a g a i n . Anne and E r i c m u t u a l l y a g r e e d t o s e p a r a t e a f t e r b e i n g t o g e t h e r f o r f o u r y e a r s . Anne was a f r a i d she c o u l d not cope o r w o u l d n o t e n j o y b e i n g on h e r own b u t s h e f o u n d t h a t , t o t h e c o n t r a r y , s h e " l i k e d i t " f o r t h e c h a l l e n g e i t p r o v i d e d h e r . W i t h i n a f e w m o n t h s , sh e h a d met B l a i r and i n l e s s t h a n a y e a r , he had moved i n w i t h h e r . He was f o u r y e a r s y o u n g e r t h a n h e r b u t , a t 20 y e a r s o l d , had a l r e a d y b e e n m a r r i e d and had b a t t e r e d h i s f i r s t w i f e . As f a r as Anne knew, B l a i r had been r a i s e d t h e e l d e s t of f o u r c h i l d r e n , h i s f a t h e r l e a v i n g the f a m i l y when B l a i r was 4 y e a r s o l d . B l a i r had a l e n g t h y h i s t o r y o f l e g a l o f f e n c e s , l a r g e l y d r u g r e l a t e d . A c o u p l e o f y e a r s a f t e r m o v i n g i n w i t h Anne, he r e c e i v e d c u s t o d y o f h i s 3 y e a r o l d d a u g h t e r when he r mother l e f t the c h i l d . Anne's f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n o f B l a i r was t h a t he was "sweet," t a k i n g h e r out f o r d i n n e r and c o n v e y i n g i n t e r e s t i n h e r . He had s t r u c k h e r n i n e months a f t e r t h e y met and j u s t 134 p r i o r t o t h e i r l i v i n g t o g e t h e r . She had h o p e d , h o w e v e r , " t h a t he would change." She d e s c r i b e d him as "a l i t t l e boy" whom she " b a b i e d " t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . She s a i d s h e had a t a b l e s e t up i n f r o n t o f t h e t e l e v i s i o n when he g o t home f r o m w o r k w i t h h i s d i n n e r r e a d y t o be s e r v e d and a c h i l l e d g l a s s f o r a d r i n k . He was t a k i n g n o n p r e s c r i p t i o n d r u g s - - l a r g e l y MDA and c o c a i n e - - o n a d a i l y b a s i s b u t s h e f o u n d e i t h e r a l c o h o l or dru g s to be u n r e l a t e d to h i s v i o l e n t a t t a c k s . He wo u l d o f t e n abuse h e r when he was s o b e r . D u r i n g t h e f o u r y e a r s t h e y were l i v i n g t o g e t h e r , Anne d i d n o t h a v e a n y c o n t a c t w h a t s o e v e r w i t h h e r f a m i l y . N e i t h e r d i d s h e h a v e a n y m a l e o r f e m a l e f r i e n d s . She d e s -c r i b e d h e r s e l f as a " p r i s o n e r " as B l a i r w ould not a l l o w h e r t o s e e f r i e n d s o r i n v o l v e h e r s e l f i n any a c t i v i t i e s . She s a i d she o n l y saw h e r mother or a u n t s when t h e y came to see h e r w h i l e s h e was r e c u p e r a t i n g i n t h e h o s p i t a l f r o m t h e b a t t e r i n g . She had no b a n k a c c o u n t b u t s h e h a d no money t o d e p o s i t . F o r f e a r o f B l a i r r e t a l i a t i n g , s h e saw h e r s e l f c o n s t a n t l y t r y i n g t o p l e a s e h i m i n a n s w e r i n g h i s demands a r o u n d h o u s e h o l d t a s k s , i n t i m a c y , e t c e t e r a . She b e l i e v e d s h e r a r e l y s u c c e e d e d i n t h a t he c r i t i c i s e d h e r no m a t t e r w h a t s h e d i d . She c o u l d n o t go a n d buy an i t e m o f c l o t h i n g f o r the c h i l d r e n or h e r s e l f b e c a u s e , even i f she had had t h e money, s h e w o u l d h a v e b e e n s w o r n a t , s h o u t e d a t , o r o f t e n h i t by h i m f o r d o i n g s o . She n e v e r h i t b a c k as s h e f e a r e d 135 f o r h e r l i f e h a d s h e done s o . She s a i d , "he w o u l d h a v e k i l l e d me." Anne f o u n d i t e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o t a l k a b o u t B l a i r w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r . When s h e d i d , s h e f e l t "down" as i t s e e m e d as i f s h e was o n c e a g a i n , f e e l i n g o l d a n g e r , h u r t , and g u i l t . In f o c u s i n g on h e r p r e s e n t s e l f - e s t e e m , s h e w o u l d r e v e r t b a c k t o h e r f e e l i n g s o f l o w w o r t h d u r i n g h e r y e a r s w i t h B l a i r . She r e c o g n i s e d t h a t she was, i n many ways, a v o i d i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g h e r own g r o w t h as w e l l as her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h B l a i r . She a p p e a r e d t o be f i n d i n g i t d i f f i c u l t s e p a r a t i n g h e r p o s i t i v e a c h i e v e m e n t s t o w a r d s i n d e -pendence f r o m h e r f e a r and s e n s e of h e l p l e s s n e s s d u r i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t seemed she b e l i e v e d i f she r e c o g n i s e d h e r c o n t r o l i n t h e p r e s e n t and t h e n r e s p o n d e d i n s u c h a way t h a t s h e l o s t i t , she w o u l d be v u l n e r a b l e t o be b a t t e r e d o n c e a g a i n i n a s u b s e q u e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a man. To r e c o g n i s e h e r g r o w t h away f r o m B l a i r w ould be to a c k n o w l e d g e a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f c o n t r o l w h i c h s h e w o u l d be f o r c e d t o m a i n t a i n i n o r d e r t o a v o i d a b u s e . I t a p p e a r e d t h a t , when s h e was a b l e t o a c c e p t h e r i n d e p e n d e n c e and s t r e n g t h , s h e u s e d i t as a d e f e n s e a g a i n s t h e r f e a r o f v i o l e n c e and h e r a c c o m p a n y i n g l o w s e n s e o f w o r t h . She s a i d i t was v e r y " f r u s t r a t i n g " t o h e r t o r e c o g n i s e h e r own c u r r e n t l o n e l i n e s s and y e t t o n o t r e t u r n t o B l a i r a s " t h e d o o r " was "op e n on h i s s i d e . " He h a d f r e q u e n t l y a s k e d t h a t t h e y m i g h t r e s u m e t h e r e l a t i o n -136 s h i p . A p p r o x i m a t e l y two y e a r s a f t e r t h e y b e g a n l i v i n g t o -g e t h e r , Anne had a d a u g h t e r . She s a i d the b i r t h was the one t i m e t h a t B l a i r was t r u l y s u p p o r t i v e and k i n d t o h e r . The c h i l d h a d b e e n b o r n i n t h e l i v i n g room a t home, s e v e r a l w e e k s p r e m a t u r e . She was d e p e n d e n t on h i m t o c a r e f o r h e r u n t i l t h e a m b u l a n c e a r r i v e d . I t t o o k h e r s e v e r a l y e a r s t o r e c o g n i s e t h a t " i t wasn't l o v e but h a t e " between the two of them. D u r i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p , she c o u l d not r e c a l l how she e x p l a i n e d h e r own b e h v i o r . She d i s c u s s e d t h e s e c r e c y s h e m a i n t a i n e d a r o u n d t e l e p h o n i n g h e r f a m i l y f o r f e a r of B l a i r a b u s i n g h e r as a r e s u l t . She a l s o r e c o g n i s e d h e r f e a r i n c o n s i d e r i n g l e a v i n g him. She s a i d she would "sneak o u t " t o a pay phone t o c a l l h e r m o t h e r . At t h a t t i m e , she s a i d she was not aware of t r a n s i t i o n h ouses and the s u p p o r t t h a t was a v a i l a b l e f o r her f r o m t h e s e r e s o u r c e s . At t h e t i m e o f t h i s s t u d y , s h e was n o t d a t i n g o t h e r men. She f e l t some a n x i e t y and c o n f u s i o n as t o how t o a t t e m p t t o meet a man. She s a i d t h a t , a t 29 y e a r s o l d , s h e f e l t l i k e a "has b e e n " and t h a t "no man w o u l d be i n t e r e s t e d i n a woman w i t h t h r e e c h i l d r e n . " I t s e e m e d s h e was u s i n g t h e c h i l d r e n as an e x c u s e t o a v o i d c o n f r o n t i n g h e r h u r t and l a c k o f t r u s t a r o u n d men. She a l s o a p p e a r e d t o be s e t t i n g up an e x p e c t a t i o n o f h e r s e l f i n t e r m s o f m e e t i n g a c o m p a t -i b l e mate a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y . Were she to f a i l i n f u l f i l -137 l i n g t h i s ' i d e a l ' she had set for h e r s e l f , she would f e e l even l e s s worthy of a p o s i t i v e male-female r e l a t i o n s h i p . Her self-esteem seemed to be greatly influenced by her bonds with men despite the apparent p o l a r i t y of help l e s s n e s s or perfection that she saw in these bonds. Re 1a t i o nships with women. Anne's models of strength had always been women. As a c h i l d as w e l l as i n the present, her support system was ent i r e l y female. She re l i e d on the female members of her f a m i l y for such things as babysitting or driving her to medical appointments in town. She did not confide i n them i n the same ways as she sa i d she did with a close f r i e n d . Her c l o s e s t f r i e n d was a woman who had also been battered. They met i n the t r a n s i t i o n house and, a year l a t e r , continued to meet or t a l k on the t e l e -phone. Anne feels stronger as a result of being able to share with her about the abuse and her present f r u s t r a t i o n s and concerns. It would appear that t h i s strength i s gained largely through discussion and overcoming adversity related to abuse and subsequent independence. She also feels strong i n being able to serve as a resource f o r her e l d e s t s i s t e r who i s p r e s e n t l y being abused i n her marriage. Anne said that she would have appreciated such support when she was with B l a i r . She i s not only informing her s i s t e r of a v a i l -able resources but she i s also p r o v i d i n g Sharon with some 138 d i r e c t i v e a d v i c e . She s a i d , t h r o u g h h a v i n g s u r v i v e d t h e a b u s e , s h e i s f a m i l i a r w i t h c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s i n a v i o l e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t w ould seem t h a t the e m o t i o n a l and p h y s i c a l c l o s e n e s s t h a t Anne ha s s h a r e d w i t h women has c o n s i s t e n t l y b e e n t o o p p o s e t h e d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s o f t h e a b u s e an d v i o l e n c e o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men. R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h own c h i l d r e n ^ Anne's d a u g h t e r and s t e p d a u g h t e r p r o v i d e h e r w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o f o c u s on h e r own f e e l i n g s by " t u n i n g i n t o " h e r when t h e y s e e she i s t e n s e o r a n g r y . T h e y h a v e h e l p e d h e r f e e l more p o s i t i v e a b out h e r s e l f i n t e r m s of w o r t h though p e r h a p s n o t • c o n t r o l . In r e f e r e n c e to h e r a t t e m p t e d s u i c i d e , she s a i d , " I t h i n k i f i t wasn't f o r t h e k i d s , I w o u l d n ' t be h e r e . I'd be d e a d . " She f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t , however, b e i n g a s i n g l e p a r e n t and a l s o m e e t i n g h e r own n e e d s as an a d u l t . One o f h e r j o u r n a l e n t r i e s s a i d , " I need more t h a n j u s t b e i n g a mother. I l o v e my c h i l d r e n v e r y much b u t I n e e d t o f e e l r e a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t o r s o m e t h i n g , maybe u s e f u l i n o t h e r ways t h a n j u s t b e i n g a p a r e n t . " R ecent h i s t o r y and c o n c e r n s . On the e v e n i n g when Anne l e f t B l a i r , s h e s a i d t h a t s h e knew she " w o u l d n ' t l i v e t h e n i g h t " i f s h e s t a y e d . She had i n s u l t e d h i m i n f r o n t o f h i s f r i e n d s a n d " t h e l o o k i n h i s e y e " made h e r t h i n k s h e had t o remove h e r s e l f and the c h i l d r e n i m m e d i a t e l y . She had p r e -139 v i o u s l y l e f t h i m on a c o u p l e o f o c c a s i o n s and s t a y e d w i t h r e l a t i v e s . T h e y had a l s o b e e n a p a r t when s h e had b e e n i n h o s p i t a l a f t e r s e v e r a l o f t h e b e a t i n g s . She b e l i e v e d t h a t s h e h a d f i n a l l y r e m a i n e d s e p a r a t e d f r o m B l a i r f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , a nd p e r h a p s m o s t i m p o r t a n t , was t h a t s h e ha d moved i n t o a t r a n s i t i o n h o u s e i n s t e a d o f s t a y i n g w i t h h e r m o t h e r o r a u n t s . She f e l t no o b l i g a t i o n as s h e had i n t h e p a s t t o move b a c k w i t h B l a i r as s h e was n o t b e i n g " c a r e d f o r " by h e r f a m i l y . She f e l t n e i t h e r g u i l t y o r a n g r y as b e f o r e . She a l s o f e l t s u p p o r t f r o m some of the o t h e r r e s i -d e n t s i n t h e h o u s e . S e c o n d l y , s h e s a i d t h a t p r i o r t o h e r l e a v i n g f o r t h e f i n a l t i m e , s h e had n o t b e e n r e a d y t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t B l a i r was " s i c k . " She had p r e v i o u s l y r a t i o n a l i z e d h i s abuse by s a y i n g t h a t he had a "bad temper." In c o n s i d e r i n g l e a v i n g , she s a i d h e r l a c k of money was n o t a c o n c e r n . She was a l s o n o t c o n c e r n e d t h a t she h a d t h r e e c h i l d r e n : h e r own d a u g h t e r f r o m h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h E r i c , B l a i r ' s d a u g h t e r f r o m h i s f i r s t w i f e , and t h e c h i l d s h e h a d had w i t h B l a i r . She s a i d t h a t s h e f e l t " r i c h " d u r i n g h e r f i r s t few weeks a t the t r a n s i t i o n house b e c a u s e s h e " d i d n ' t h a v e a c e n t " f o r t h e f o u r y e a r s s h e was w i t h B l a i r . I t w a s . a l s o " s t r a n g e " t h a t she c o u l d buy c l o t h e s f o r t h e c h i l d r e n and h e r s e l f a n d " n o t f e e l s o r e o r g e t b e a t up" f o r i t . I t was f r i g h t e n i n g , h o w e v e r , t o s u d d e n l y be i n d e -p e n d e n t a f t e r b e i n g " l o c k e d away" f o r f o u r y e a r s . At t h e 140 t i m e o f t h i s s t u d y , s h e s t i l l f e l t a l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e i n h e r a b i l i t y t o h a n d l e money. Th e m o s t d i f f i c u l t a s p e c t s o f s e p a r a t i o n f o r h e r had b e e n h e r f e e l i n g s o f l o n e l i n e s s and i s o l a t i o n . She s a i d , " i t ' s a l m o s t l i k e i t was when I was w i t h B l a i r e x c e p t I've now g o t money a n d c a n go o u t s i d e when I want." Her e x p e c t a -t i o n s o f b e i n g s i n g l e w e r e more p o s i t i v e t h a n what she had e n c o u n t e r e d . H a v i n g l e f t "by c h a n c e , " Anne s a i d , " i f I h a d known i t was g o i n g t o be t h i s d i f f i c u l t , I w o u l d n ' t h a v e l e f t h i m . " In r e t r o s p e c t , s h e saw h e r s e l f h a v i n g r e c e i v e d t h e same t h i n g f r o m B l a i r as s h e h a d b e e n g e t t i n g a t home i n t e r m s o f " b e i n g t a k e n c a r e o f . " I n l o o k i n g b a c k , s h e s a i d , " I h a t e i t now." H e r two m a j o r c o n c e r n s a t t h e t i m e o f t h i s s t u d y w e r e c u s t o d y of B l a i r ' s d a u g h t e r and h e r own l o n e l i n e s s w i t h o u t an i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a man. She was a n x i o u s t o k e e p h e r s t e p d a u g h t e r as Anne r e c o g n i s e d s h e was " t h e o n l y m o t h e r the c h i l d e v e r knew." She a l s o had become aware t h a t B l a i r was s e x u a l l y a b u s i n g t h e c h i l d on a number o f o c c a -s i o n s . The s o c i a l w o r k e r i n v o l v e d was p u s h i n g h e r t o a s k f o r "no a c c e s s " f o r B l a i r b u t Anne s a i d t h a t s h e was t i r e d o f " l i v i n g i n t e r r o r . " I f he was u n a b l e t o s e e h i s d a u g h t e r , Anne b e l i e v e d t h a t he w o u l d c a r r y o u t h i s t h r e a t t o k i d n a p t h e c h i l d r e n o f f t h e s t r e e t on t h e i r way home f r o m s c h o o l . She was a s k i n g f o r " s u p e r v i s e d a c c e s s " and 141 s a i d t h a t s h e w o u l d n o t f e e l t h r e a t e n e d t o s u p e r v i s e h i s v i s i t s i n t h e house. Anne o f t e n spoke of h e r d e s i r e to meet a man w i t h whom she w o u l d be c o m f o r t a b l e and t o w a r d s whom she would f e e l a d e g r e e of t r u s t . I t would seem t h a t , as she d o u b t e d h e r own w o r t h , a b i l i t y , and c o n t r o l , she a l s o d i s t r u s t e d h e r s e l f i n f i n d i n g a mate who w o u l d n o t a b u s e h e r . She b e l i e v e d h e r p r e s e n t l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s a nd t h e l o c a t i o n i n w h i c h s h e l i v e d t o p r o m o t e h e r i s o l a t i o n . W h i l e s h e had money f o r e s s e n t i a l s , t h e r e were many e n t e r t a i n m e n t needs she s a i d she c o u l d not a f f o r d . She f i n d s she can d e c r e a s e t h e r e s u l t i n g t e n s i o n by c r y i n g b u t " d o e s n ' t a l l o w " h e r s e l f t o c r y as s h e f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t t o s t o p . She d i s l i k e s " f e e l i n g s o r r y " f o r h e r s e l f i n t h i s way and y e t h e r r e s p o n s e a p p e a r s t o be a v o i d a n c e o f b o t h h e r f e e l i n g s a nd what s h e i s c a p a b l e o f d o i n g i n o r d e r t o meet h e r own s o c i a l a nd i n t i m a c y n e e d s . She a l s o e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e t o r e t u r n t o s c h o o l to c o m p l e t e h e r G r a d e 12 b u t h e r f u t u r e p l a n s i n t h i s r e g a r d w e r e u n -c l e a r . L i f e s t y l e and a t t i t u d e s . When a s k e d as t o her b e l i e f s y s t e m , Anne r e s p o n d e d t h a t she b e l i e v e d i n " n o t h i n g . " She l a t e r changed h e r answer to " f a t e . " She s a i d she a p p r o a c h e s l i v i n g on a d a i l y b a s i s w i t h a few l o n g t e r m g o a l s t h a t r e m a i n h a z y , s u c h g o a l s as r e t u r n i n g t o s c h o o l , i n v o l v i n g h e r s e l f i n a c t i v i t i e s , and s u p p o r t i n g h e r c h i l d r e n and h e r -142 s e l f w i t h o u t w e l f a r e . I t a p p e a r e d t h a t s h e a l s o w a n t e d t o show B l a i r t h a t she can s u c c e e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y . Whenever he t e l e p h o n e d , s h e s a i d she w o u l d r e p l y t h a t s h e was " j u s t f i n e " w h e t h e r or not t h a t was the c a s e . B e i n g p o s i t i v e when t a l k i n g w i t h him a p p e a r e d to h e l p h e r In f e e l i n g more c o n f i -d e n t i n h e r own l i m i t s of c o n t r o l . Her f i r s t j o u r n a l e n t r y began, " W e l l , I woke t h i s morn, as e v e r y morn s i n c e I l e f t h i m , w i t h t h e h a p p y f e e l i n g I won't be b e a t t o d a y . " Her t h o u g h t s o f B l a i r o f t e n c o n t r i -b u t e t o h e r b e l i e f i n h e r own l a c k o f c o n t r o l o f h e r "emo-t i o n s , " t h i s l a c k of c o n t r o l b e i n g f r i g h t e n i n g to h e r . She s a i d , " O f t e n I d o n ' t know how I f e e l . I t ' s a l l m i x e d up i n e m o t i o n s . " She commented, i n r e g a r d t o the s e s s i o n w i t h the r e s e a r c h e r , "when y o u ' r e h e r e i t f e e l s g o o d t o t a l k b u t e v e r y t i m e y o u l e a v e I f e e l down....It j u s t t a k e s me r i g h t back." She s a i d she may wake up f e e l i n g "good," but she may f e e l " l i k e t h r o w i n g a c h a i r , c a l l i n g i t q u i t s , and w a l k i n g out one hour l a t e r . " She b e l i e v e d she o f t e n f e l t a n g r y f o r f e e l i n g s o r r y f o r h e r s e l f . She a p p e a r e d t o h a v e a g r e a t d e a l o f d i f f i c u l t y l i n k i n g h e r a n g e r w i t h changes she c o u l d make i n her r e s p o n -ses t o t h o s e f e e l i n g s . C o n c u r r e n t l y , she p e r c e i v e d h e r s e l f as v u l n e r a b l e t o " h u r t i n g p e o p l e ' s f e e l i n g s . " She s a i d , " I d o n ' t know how t o s a y 'no' t o p e o p l e , I so r a r e l y do." I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t s h e o f t e n i s f a c e d w i t h h e r own a n g e r as a 143 r e s u l t of her not e s t a b l i s h i n g her own c o n t r o l s , l i m i t s , and s e l f - e v a l u a t i v e mechanisms. When she f i r s t l e f t B l a i r , she g a v e h e r e l d e s t d a u g h t e r t o h e r m o t h e r t o t a k e c a r e o f d u r i n g t h e t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d . She i s s t i l l u n c l e a r as t o w hat r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s h e i s w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t i n a n s w e r t o h e r g u i l t a r o u n d t h i s i s s u e . Anne d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f as c o n s i s t e n t l y " f r u s t r a t e d " and " u p t i g h t . " She s a i d she was "drunk" f o r the f i r s t f o u r days a f t e r m o v i n g i n t o t h e p r e s e n t h o u s e as a r e s u l t o f h e r t e n s i o n a n d l o n e l i n e s s . She i s a l s o a f r a i d o f b e i n g h u r t , b o t h p h y s i c a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y , w i t h i n s u b s e q u e n t r e l a t i o n -s h i p s w i t h men. She f e e l s a s e n s e o f h e l p l e s s n e s s t o a t t r a c t s t r o n g men who w i l l not abuse he r . She q u e s t i o n e d , "What i s i t a b o u t me" t h a t s h e a t t r a c t s "weak" and o f t e n " v i o l e n t " men. She s a i d , " a t l e a s t w i t h B l a i r I know what I'm g e t t i n g . . . H e knows me. He knows what my b o dy l o o k s l i k e . " I m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g the f i n a l t r e a t m e n t s e s s i o n , Anne went i n t o h o s p i t a l and was o p e r a t e d on t o c o r r e c t t h e i m -p r o p e r h e a l i n g i n h e r jaw. B l a i r had s t r u c k h e r o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e and had b r o k e n i t i n s u c h a way t h a t i t was c a u s i n g h e r much p a i n and n o t a l l o w i n g h e r t o o p e n h e r m o u t h f u l l y . I n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r s . A f t e r l e a v i n g B l a i r , Anne f e l t s t r o n g e r as s h e a c c o m p l i s h e d what s h e p r e v i o u s l y b e l i e v e d 144 was beyond h e r c a p a b i l i t y . In s t r e n g t h e n i n g h e r own s e n s e o f i n d e p e n d e n c e by s e t t i n g g o a l s and a c c e p t i n g h e r own d e c i s i o n s , she f e l t d i f f e r e n t l y about h e r f a m i l y ' s i n t e r v e n -t i o n i n h e r d a i l y a f f a i r s . She s a i d , "they've p r o b a b l y been w a i t i n g f o r me t o do t h i s . " R e c o g n i s i n g and a c c e p t i n g h e r o w n l o n e l i n e s s and h e r a b i l i t y to e f f e c t some g r a d u a l change had h e l p e d h e r t o f e e l more p o s i t i v e a b o u t h e r own w o r t h a n d l e s s e m o t i o n a l l y d ependent on B l a i r . F o r example, she was n o t f e e l i n g as a n x i o u s t o t e l e p h o n e h i m " j u s t t o h e a r h i s v o i c e . 11 At the t h i r d t r e a t m e n t s e s s i o n , Anne r e q u e s t e d t h a t she w i t h d r a w f r o m t h e s t u d y . She s a i d , i n t h a t i t h a d b e e n 10 m o n t h s s i n c e s h e h a d s e p a r a t e d f r o m B l a i r , s h e f e l t as i f she was " r e l i v i n g " t h e v i o l e n c e and h u r t o n c e a g a i n . She f o u n d t h e f e e l i n g s c h e c k l i s t ( s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l ) v e r y d i f f i c u l t b e c a u s e s h e o f t e n was n o t a b l e t o a s s e s s how s h e f e l t . She a p p e a r e d t o f e e l t h r e a t e n e d i n t r y i n g . When a s k e d by the r e s e a r c h e r what she b e l i e v e d would h e l p h e r t o become more aware of h e r p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s of h e r s e l f , she was u n c e r t a i n . She s a i d t h a t s h e had h e s i t a t e d t o t a l k a b o u t her f e e l i n g s e a r l i e r b e c a u s e she d i d not want to " h u r t t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s f e e l i n g s . " The r e s e a r c h e r r e e m p h a s i z e d t h a t Anne c o u l d d i r e c t the t r e a t m e n t s e s s i o n s t o answer h e r own c o n c e r n s . She a g r e e d to c o n t i n u e f o r the f i n a l s e s s i o n s w i t h o u t c o m p l e t i n g t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l . 145 She s a i d t h a t t h e t r e a t m e n t p r o g r a m was m i n i m a l l y h e l p f u l t o h e r i n t h a t she c o u l d t a l k a bout h e r f e e l i n g s but t h a t she b e l i e v e d s h e w o u l d h a v e a p p r e c i a t e d i t m o s t when sh e was s t i l l l i v i n g a t t h e t r a n s i t i o n h o u s e d u r i n g t h e f i r s t s i x m o n t h s o f i n d e p e n d e n t l i v i n g . The r e s e a r c h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t one of the m a j o r r e a s o n s f o r Anne's d i f f i c u l t y i n the p r o g r a m m i g h t have been h e r p e r c e i v e d l a c k of c o n t r o l o v e r h e r own f e e l i n g s and c o n s e q u e n t a c t i o n s a l o n g s i d e the a b s e n c e of t h e a n g e r t h a t she once f e l t t o w a r d s B l a i r . She s a i d t h a t she had r e c e n t l y t r i e d t o r e p l a c e h e r f e e l i n g s of l o n e l i n e s s i n b e i n g on h e r own w i t h f e e l i n g s o f a n g e r f o r B l a i r ' s a b u s e b u t t h a t s h e b e l i e v e d s h e had "gone p a s t t h a t s t a g e . " I t c o u l d prove v a l u a b l e to r e c o g n i s e the e x i s t e n c e of a p o i n t a t w h i c h a n g e r i s no l o n g e r p r e s e n t as a d e v i c e p r o m o -t i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t a s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l of b o t h f e e l i n g s and a c t i o n s on the p a r t o f t h e woman w o u l d p r o v i d e a p o s i t i v e r e p l a c e m e n t f o r d e c r e a s e d a n g e r . The r e s e a r c h e r p r o p o s e s t h a t the a b s e n c e o f b o t h p r o m o t e s a s e n s e of h e l p l e s s n e s s and c o n f u s i o n s u c h as t h a t e x p e r i e n c e d by Anne. L e t i t be u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r a s s u m e d t h a t the t r e a t m e n t p r o gram o n l y c r e a t e d a f o c u s on f e e l i n g s w h i c h Anne was a l r e a d y e x p e r i e n c i n g i n a l e s s i n t e n s e f o r m a p a r t f r o m t h e p r o g r a m . As Anne d i d n o t c l a r i f y h e r f e e l i n g s 146 u n t i l the end of t h i s s t u d y , i t was not p o s s i b l e to r e s t r u c -t u r e t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n . The r e s e a r c h e r e m p h a s i z e d Anne's s t r e n g t h s by d i s c u s s i n g w i t h h e r the c o n t r o l s she had a r o u n d the q u e s t i o n of c u s t o d y of B l a i r ' s d a u g h t e r and a r o u n d d a i l y l i v i n g s k i l l s . A l s o e m p h a s i z e d was Anne's a b i l i t y to c h o o s e howshe r e s p o n d s t o h e r f e e l i n g s o f l o n e l i n e s s . W h i l e she c a n n o t c o n t r o l what w i l l h a p p e n , s h e c a n c o n t r o l h e r r e s p o n s e to the p o i n t of not r e t u r n i n g to B l a i r . W i t h i n the s h o r t d u r a t i o n of t h e p o s t t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d , Anne was u n a b l e t o a s s e s s the v a l u e of s u c h i n p u t . Anne s a i d t h a t , i n b r i e f l y r e a d i n g t h e b o o k , "How t o B r e a k Y o u r A d d i c t i o n t o a P e r s o n " ( H a l p e r n , 1 9 8 2 ) , she had o b t a i n e d some h e l p t o r e f r a i n f r o m t e l e p h o n i n g B l a i r . A l t h o u g h s h e w a n t e d t o h e a r t h e c o m p l i m e n t s he w o u l d g i v e h e r , s h e knew " i t ' s n o t t r u e " and t h a t t h e v i o l e n c e w o u l d b e g i n w i t h i n a "week" i f sh.e w e r e t o " a l l o w h i m b a c k . " She r e c o g n i s e d t h a t s h e i s " n o t c o m p l e t e l y s e p a r a t e d " i n an e m o t i o n a l s e n s e b u t t h a t s h e b e l i e v e d s h e was " g e t t i n g t h e r e . " D u r i n g th e p a s t y e a r , she had f o u n d a number of t h i n g s t o be o f h e l p t o w a r d s t h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e p a r a t i o n . She f e l t " s u p p o r t e d " by the o t h e r women a t t h e t r a n s i t i o n house. In s a y i n g t h i s , she a p p e a r e d to be r e f e r r i n g t o t h e i r f e e d -b a c k as w e l l as t h e i r a c t i o n i n l e a v i n g t h e i r homes w h i c h v a l i d a t e d h e r own a c t i o n s i n t h i s r e g a r d . At t h a t t i m e she 147 a l s o b e c a m e a w a r e t h a t t h e a b u s e was n o t h e r " f a u l t . " I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was a p e r i o d o f t i m e when she f o u n d v a l u e i n p l a c i n g a " b e f o r e " and " a f t e r " p i c t u r e o f h e r s e l f on t h e k i t c h e n w a l l . Anne f i n d s a s e n s e o f humor t o be v a l u a b l e . She and h e r c l o s e s t f r i e n d had g i v e n h u m o u r o u s names t o t h e i r p a r t n e r s . She w r o t e " h a t e " l e t t e r s to B l a i r w h i c h she n e v e r w o u l d m a i l b u t w h i c h h e l p e d h e r d e a l w i t h t h e a n g e r . She f o u n d t h e j o u r n a l n o t e f f e c t i v e i n t h i s r e g a r d , h o w e v e r , p e r h a p s b e c a u s e she b e l i e v e d i t w o u l d be r e a d by o t h e r s . When a s k e d what s h e w o u l d m o s t a p p r e c i a t e a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , Anne r e p l i e d "a man" so t h a t she w o u l d not be as " l o n e l y . " She s a i d she was not s e e k i n g t o be " c a r e d f o r " as i n h e r p r e v i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n one o f h e r j o u r n a l e n t r i e s , she had e x p r e s s e d h e r need when she w r o t e , " I w i s h I h a d a h u s b a n d o r b o y f r i e n d t o h o l d on t o , s o m e o n e t o p u t t h e i r arms a r o u n d me and say ' i t ' s a l r i g h t ! ! " 1 Her c h i l d r e n p r o v i d e h e r w i t h much e n c o u r a g e m e n t a n d s t r e n g t h but she s a y s " t h e r e ' s s o m e t h i n g m i s s i n g . " I t would a p p e a r t h a t , i n r e s p o n s e t o h e r u n s a t i s f i e d i n t i m a c y n e e d s , Anne was m a k i n g a g l o b a l s e l f - e s t e e m j u d g m e n t when she f o l l o w e d a s t a t e m e n t o f h e r e x p r e s s e d n e e d s w i t h t h e com-me n t , " R i g h t now, I d on't e v e n l i k e ME!!" The r e s e a r c h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t Anne's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h B l a i r had become so much a way o f l i f e w i t h e x t r e m e l e v e l s o f f e a r , p a i n , g u i l t , 148 and l a c k of c o n t r o l t h a t she f i n d s i f d i f f i c u l t to make the m a j o r c h a n g e s i n a t t i t u d e t h a t w o u l d a p p e a r n e c e s s a r y f o r h e r t o a f f e c t h e r s e l f - e s t e e m i n a number of a r e a s . C o n t i n u e d i n p u t was i n d i c a t e d as a means t o w a r d s h e l p i n g h e r to e x p l o r e the p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n h e r " d r a i n e d " f e e l i n g s a n d h e r f e a r o f r i s k i n g c o n t r o l on a c o g n i t i v e l e v e l a n d , t h e r e b y , on an e m o t i o n a l l e v e l . She r e c o g n i s e d t h a t s h e was n o t a t t e m p t i n g a number of s o c i a l r i s k s i n t e r m s of m e e t i n g p e o p l e . In p o i n t , she f e l t uncom-f o r t a b l e r i d i n g the p u b l i c bus i n t o town. T a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n what Anne e n d u r e d t h r o u g h o u t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h B l a i r , t h e r e s e a r c h e r w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t i t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t s h e h a s a c c o m p l i s h e d what s h e h a s . She s u p p o r t s h e r c h i l d r e n , m a i n t a i n s a home, and s e r v e s as a f r i e n d and s u p p o r t t o o t h e r women. I t w o u l d seem t h a t h e r e x t e r n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s m i g h t p o s s i b l y b e t r a y an d l e a d t o t h e o v e r l o o k i n g o f h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l n e e d s i n s e p a r a t i o n . 149 Q u a n t i t a t i v e G r a p h Data C r H o iH *J •u « OJ r H 0 1 U H • H o 4 J ( 0 a o rt a e ^  cn a) O o to C a t h e r i n e I M-20 25 30 35 Time s e r i e s measurements f 40 t-45 F i g u r e 1. S e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l s c o r e s o b t a i n e d o v e r 13 week p e r i o d of the s t u d y : p o s i t i v e a d j e c t i v e s r e c e i v i n g h i g h s c o r e e v a l u a t i o n . c i-l o rt i-t —1 rt a a 0 1 r H 0 1 > > CO o p. e rt 0 ^ 01 co a) o o 0 ) Maureen Time s e r i e s measurements F i g u r e 2. S e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l s c o r e s o b t a i n e d o v e r 13 week p e r i o d of the s t u d y : p o s i t i v e a d j e c t i v e s r e c e i v i n g h i g h t s c o r e e v a l u a t i o n . 150 R i t a Time s e r i e s measurements F i g u r e 3. S e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l s c o r e s o b t a i n e d o v e r 13 week p e r i o d of the s t u d y : p o s i t i v e a d j e c t i v e s r e c e i v i n g h i g h s c o r e e v a l u a t i o n . Anne 0 3 6 9^  12 15 18 21 Time s e r i e s measurements F i g u r e 4. S e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l s c o r e s o b t a i n e d o v e r 13 week p e r i o d of the s t u d y : p o s i t i v e a d j e c t i v e s r e c e i v i n g h i g h s c o r e e v a l u a t i o n . 151 5* 4 J • H Is iv 7 4-1 > O 6 0 ) ca r H —i 5 —1 c 01 n) CO 4 CO (3 o> O CO • H 3 CO ce « 2 i X u-< C8 r H i H ' CU O i l 1 M> 1 m 0 o S Catherine relaxed/ tense active/ passive 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 1 2 Time series measurements Figure 5. Relationship between active(7)/passive(1 ) and relaxed(7)/tense(l) during baseline period. Maureen + I + T 1 4 1 1 4 | 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Time series measurements relaxed/ tense active/ passive 4-12 Figure 6. Relationship between active(7)/passive( 1) and relaxed(7)/tense(1) during baseline period. .152 CO > Rita relaxed/ tense act ive/ passive 8 3 1 9 1 1 1 2 Time series measurements Figure 7. Relationship between active(7)/passive( 1 ) and relaxed(7)/tense(1) during baseline period. >^  u • H CO > . H CD • U > O _ CD rt 6-i H 7 3 nd 5-<D rt 0 1 4-CO C CD o co • H 3-CO • U rt rt I X 2-rt I V • 1 -C O M | 4 - 1 © -O 0 Anne relaxed/ tense active/ pas s ive 4 I t I I t I { f 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 Time series measurement s Figure 8. Relationship between active(7)/passive( 1) and relaxed(7)/tense(1) during baseline period. 153. CO > <u u > o a) cd —A T3 T> C CU CO CO Catherine c o w cu CO 4J CO « I X r - t i H cu cu co u <4-l o 7--6--5--4-3-2. 8 0 * — -I-2 relaxed/ tense active/ passive •4 + I t I I t I t f 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 Time series measurements Figure 9. Relationship between active(7 )/passive( 1 ) and relaxed(7)/tense(1) during posttreatment phase. Maureen o relaxed/ tense active/ passive 9 10 11 12 Time series measurements Figure 10. Relationship between active(7)/passive(1) and relaxed(7)/tense(1) during posttreatment phase. .154 Rita cu 0) co u 4-1 O relaxed/ tense active/ passive T I 1 2 t f I t I I T I T t 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Time series measurements Figure 11. Relationship between active(7 )/passive(1) and relaxed(7)/t ense(l) during posttreatment phase. Catherine Semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l adjective pairs Figure 12. Relationship between accumulated scores for the 12 adjective pairs i n the baseline and posttreatment phases. 155 Maureen B a s e l i n e P o s t -t r e a t m e n t S e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l a d j e c t i v e p a i r s F i g u r e 13. R e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c u m u l a t e d s c o r e s f o r t h e 12 a d j e c t i v e p a i r s i n the b a s e l i n e and p o s t t r e a t m e n t p h a s e s . R i t a B a s e l i n e _ P o s t -t r e a t m e n t 9 19 11 12 S e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l a d j e c t i v e p a i r s F i g u r e 14. R e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c u m u l a t e d s c o r e s f o r t h e 12 a d j e c t i v e p a i r s i n the b a s e l i n e and p o s t t r e a t m e n t p h a s e s . 156. B a s e l i n e P o s t -t r e a t m e n t 0 -4 I t 4 1 4 1 1 4 1 4 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Time series measurements F i g u r e 15. R e l a t i o n s h i p between combined d a t a of a d j e c t i v e #5 f o r b a s e l i n e and p o s t t r e a t m e n t phases. to 4-1 c cu —N e CO — ' CO r H CU CU co 3 co u cd O I ^ •4-1 —« r-i f -0) — ' CO —) c CU M c • H C M -2 O B O Baseline — P o s t -t r e a t m e n t 4 4 I- - -4 1 1 4 1 4 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 12 Time series measurements F i g u r e 16. R e l a t i o n s h i p between combined d a t a o f a d j e c t i v e #8 f o r b a s e l i n e and p o s t t r e a t m e n t p h ases 157. CHAPTER 5 D e s c r i p t i v e _ A n a l y s _ i s of R e s u l t s D e s c r i p t l v e A n a l y s i s of Q u a l i t a t i v e Data The c a s e s t u d y d a t a o f t h e f o u r s u b j e c t s p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m w h i c h i t i s p o s s i b l e t o e x p l o r e a r e a s o f s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e women s t u d i e d . T h e s e s i m i l a r i t i e s seem t o be w i t h i n f o u r m a j o r a r e a s — d e v e l o p m e n t y e a r s , p a t t e r n s i n m a r r i a g e , p h y s i c a l s e p a r a t i o n f r o m a s p o u s e , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e p a r a t i o n f r o m a s p o u s e . D e v e l o p m e n t y e a r s . A l l o f t h e women c o n s i s t e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o what t h e y p e r c e i v e d to be the a b s e n s e of o p p o r -t u n i t y to e x p r e s s a n g e r t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r c h i l d h o o d . F e e l i n g s i n g e n e r a l — i n c l u d i n g l o v e , f e a r , and h u r t — were o f t e n not e x p r e s s e d by any f a m i l y member w i t h i n t h e h o u s e h o l d . F o r e xample, Maureen s a i d " t h e r e was s o m e t h i n g wrong w i t h you i f you e x p r e s s e d y o u r f e e l i n g s . " Anger was a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a of c o n c e r n f o r t h e s e women. R i t a b e l i e v e d she was "the o n l y one who c o u l d n ' t show h e r a n g e r " i n t h e f a m i l y and t h a t , i f she d i d , h e r m o t h e r w o u l d " b l a m e " h e r and c a l l h e r " s t u p i d . " C a t h e r i n e w o u l d " b u r y " h e r a n g e r f o r f e a r h e r f a t h e r w o u l d p u n i s h h e r i f she e x p r e s s e d i t . Anne commented on her "tem-p e r t a n t r u m s " when she was an a d o l e s c e n t b u t d u r i n g h e r c h i l d h o o d , she d e s c r i b e d h e r b e h a v i o r as " r e s p o n s i b l e . " She f e l t l i m i t e d i n t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h sh e c o u l d c o n v e y n e g a -t i v e f e e l i n g s , p a r t l y as a r e s u l t of f e e l i n g a g r e a t d e a l of 158 p r e s s u r e as a c h i l d t o p r e v e n t h e r f a t h e r ' s a b u s e o f h e r mother. Anne p e r c e i v e d h e r mother as " s u p p o r t i v e " of her i n many ways but she d i d not want to t r o u b l e h e r w i t h what she b e l i e v e d to be a d d i t i o n a l c o n c e r n s . T h e f o u r women e x p r e s s e d a n g e r t o w a r d s t h e i r m o t h e r a n d / o r f a t h e r f o r n o t a l l o w i n g t h e m t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p r e s s t h e s e f e e l i n g s . T h i s p o i n t i n t r o d u c e s the s u b j e c t of p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l . T h r e e o f t h e women e x p r e s s e d some r e s e n t m e n t as a r e s u l t o f h a v i n g l i v e d w i t h a d o m i n a t i n g f a t h e r . The f o u r t h d e s c r i b e d h e r m o t h e r as t h e d o m i n a t i n g p a r e n t , a h i g h l y c o n t r o l i n g woman whom she t h o u g h t of as "the w o r s t t h i n g on e a r t h . " T h e s e d o m i n a t i n g p a r e n t s had g e n e r a t e d a d e g r e e o f c o n f u s i o n i n r e s p o n s e t o u n p r e d i c t a b l e e f f o r t s o f l o v e a l t e r n a t e d w i t h e x t r e m e and o f t e n v i o l e n t d i s c i p l i n e . C a t h e r i n e d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f as an " a b u s e d " c h i l d , p a r t l y b e c a u s e o f h e r f a t h e r ' s f r e q u e n t b l o w s t o h e r h e a d and h e r mother's t h r o w i n g h e r a g a i n s t the w a l l when t h e l a t t e r was a n g r y . One of Anne's r e c o l l e c t i o n s of h e r f a t h e r was when he bu r n e d a l l h e r f i n g e r s as a d i s c i p l i n a r y measure a g a i n s t h e r p l a y i n g w i t h m a t ches. Both Maureen and R i t a remembered b e i n g r e p e a t e d l y c a l l e d " s t u p i d " w h i c h t h e y l i n k e d w i t h t h e i r own d o u b t s o f s e l f - w o r t h and a b i l i t y . C a t h e r i n e , M a u r e e n , and Anne a l l s a i d t h e y " r a n t o o f a s t , " a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i r a v o i d a n c e o f what t h e y b e l i e v e d w o u l d be e x t r e m e a b u s e o f them by t h e i r f a t h e r . T h e y v i e w e d t h e i r d i s c i p l i n e as 159 u n w a r r a n t e d and o f t e n not ba s e d i n any of t h e i r a c t i o n s . C a t h e r i n e d i d not r e c a l l w h e t h e r h e r f a t h e r had abused h e r m o t h e r b u t s h e r e m e m b e r e d v i o l e n t i n c i d e n c e s s u c h as when h e r f a t h e r t h r e w the co u c h t h r o u g h the l i v i n g room w a l l when he and h e r mother d i s a g r e e d on a p o i n t . Anne, Maureen, and R i t a w e r e r a i s e d w i t h i n f a m i l i e s i n w h i c h t h e f a t h e r c o n s t a n t l y p h y s i c a l l y abused the mother. C e r t a i n l y i n t h r e e a n d p o s s i b l y i n f o u r o f t h e homes, t h e women e x p e r i e n c e d s e v e r e b e h a v i o r d e mands f r o m t h e i r p a r e n t s d u r i n g t h e i r c h i l d h o o d . C a t h e r i n e and Maureen d e s -c r i b e d t h e i r c o n c e r n t h a t t h e i r d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s be " r i g h t " a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f a t h e r . F o r R i t a , h e r m o t h e r a p p e a r e d t o f u l f i l l an i d e n t i c a l r o l e . T h e r e was o f t e n c o n f u s i o n when, no m a t t e r what t h e i r a c t i o n , p a r e n t a l s c o l -d i n g a n d / o r a b u s e w o u l d f o l l o w . T h r e e o f t h e f o u r women e x p r e s s e d d i s c o u r a g e m e n t a r o u n d c o m p e t i n g w i t h a " g o o d " s i b l i n g , a s i s t e r i n a l l c a s e s . The s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e n t l y s p o k e o f t h e i r f a t h e r as d i s t a n t f r o m them and r a r e l y i n p h y s i c a l o r e m o t i o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h h i s c h i l d r e n or spouse. T h r e e of the women made s i m i l a r comments i n r e g a r d to t h e i r mother. B o t h R i t a and C a t h e r i n e a d d e d t h a t t h e i r m o t h e r ' s a f f e c t i o n s w e r e o f t e n " u n p r e d i c t a b l e " t o them. E a c h o f t h e women h a d l o s t one o f h e r p a r e n t s by t h e t i m e she had r e a c h e d h e r m i d d l e t e e n s : R i t a ' s f a t h e r d i e d of 160 c a n c e r when s h e was 10 y e a r s o l d , C a t h e r i n e was 16 y e a r s o l d when h e r mother d i e d of a h e a r t a t t a c k , Anne' f a t h e r was no l o n g e r h a v i n g r e g u l a r c o n t a c t w i t h h i s c h i l d r e n f o l l o w i n g t h e p a r e n t s ' d i v o r c e , and M a u r e e n ' s f a t h e r d i e d s u d d e n l y when s h e was 16 y e a r s o l d . M a u r e e n , C a t h e r i n e , and R i t a spoke of f e e l i n g " r e j e c t e d " by t h e i r f a t h e r s . R i t a s a i d she a l s o f e l t a g r e a t d e a l o f a n g e r i n r e s p o n s e t o what s h e b e l i e v e d t o be h e r m o t h e r ' s " r e j e c t i o n " a l o n g s i d e h e r f a t h e r ' s r e j e c t i o n and " a b a n d o n m e n t . " She h a d a number o f t h i n g s she wanted to d i s c u s s w i t h him and had not " f o r g i v e n " h i m f o r d y i n g . She had s p o k e n o n l y a f e w t i m e s w i t h h e r m o t h e r a f t e r t h e l a t t e r h a d " w a l k e d o u t on" R i t a and h e r s i s t e r . I t a p p e a r e d as i f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t -ween each of the women and one or b o t h of t h e i r p a r e n t s was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n c o m p l e t e s e p a r a t i o n or u n f u l f i l l e d c l o s e -n e s s . F o r example, C a t h e r i n e spoke of a " w a l l " she had b u i l t b e t w e e n h e r f a t h e r and h e r s e l f and y e t she s a i d i f a n y t h i n g n e g a t i v e s h o u l d h a p p e n t o h i m , s h e w o u l d " f e e l . " M a u r e e n c r i e d when she r e c a l l e d h e r " s e n s e of l o s s " when h e r f a t h e r d i e d a t a p o i n t a t w h i c h she was b e g i n n i n g t o f e e l c l o s e to him. She s a i d i t was as i f she " n e v e r knew him." A f i n a l c o n s i s t e n c y b e t w e e n the c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s of the s u b j e c t s was t h e i r l a c k of e x p e r i e n c e i n d e f i n i n g and t e s t i n g what m i g h t be t e r m e d t h e i r own l i m i t s . T h i s s i m i -161 l a r i t y w o u l d seem to emerge f r o m t h e women's p e r c e p t i o n s of the l e v e l of c o n t r o l m a i n t a i n e d by t h e i r p a r e n t s . They spoke o f b e i n g c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e i r b e h a v i o r b e c a u s e o f t h e i r p a r e n t s ' r e a c t i o n t o i t r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r own a s s e s s m e n t of i t . In t h i s r e g a r d , t h e y a p p e a r e d t o h a v e an e x t e r n a l a s oppose d t o an i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l and s e l f - w o r t h . The c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s of t h e women wou l d a p p e a r , i n p a r t , t o s u p p o r t a s o c i a l l e a r n i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p a t t e r n of v i o l e n c e . The women were e i t h e r a bused d i r e c t l y by a . p a r e n t o r b o t h p a r e n t s , o r o b s e r v e d v i o l e n c e and b a t t e r i n g w i t h i n t h e home. T h i s s u g g e s t s an ag r e e m e n t w i t h G e l l e s ' (1972) t h e o r i e s on " i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the a g g r e s -s o r . " The c h i l d l e a r n s by b e i n g a b u s e d and t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e v i o l e n c e as w e l l as by w a t c h i n g t h e a b u s e ( S e l i g m a n , 1975; W a l k e r , 1979). The s t r e s s t h e o r y s u g g e s t s t h a t , i n p a r t , e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e p r o m o t e s a f i n a l s t r u g g l e f o r p o w e r w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y ( S t r a u s e t a l . , 1980). R o u n s a v i l l e ' s (1978) f i n d i n g s i n r e g a r d to a f a m i l y d i s r u p t i o n would seem to be s u p p o r t e d by t h e i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h i s c a s e s t u d y d a t a . The women had l o s t a p a r e n t by t h e t i m e t h e y w e r e 16 y e a r s o l d , t h e r e b y p l a c i n g them w i t h i n a h i g h e r r i s k c a t e g o r y t o be a b u s e d as an a d u l t . 2. P a t t e r n s i n m a r r i a g e . A l l f o u r women s t a t e d t h a t t h e y had n o t been r e a d y f o r t h e i r f i r s t m a r r i a g e or r e l a t i o n s h i p . 162 C a t h e r i n e s p o k e o f h e r f i r s t m a r r i a g e as an a t t e m p t t o p l e a s e h e r f a t h e r . She a l s o d e s c r i b e d i t as a r e a c t i o n t o her own s u r p r i s e and f e e l i n g s of b e i n g " f l a t t e r e d " a t b e i n g p r o p o s e d t o . She d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f as " a n x i o u s to g e t away f r o m t h e f a m i l y . " R i t a s a i d t h a t s h e had " g r o w n up" w i t h F r a n k . She s a i d she r e c o g n i s e d h er own i m m a t u r i t y when t h e y began l i v i n g t o g e t h e r but t h a t she saw i n him an a c c e p t a n c e when " e v e r y b o d y e l s e " whom s h e had c a r e d a b o u t had " w a l k e d o u t " on h e r . M a u r e e n ' s f i r s t r e a c t i o n t o Roy was t h a t he was " t o o good" f o r h e r . She t h o u g h t of h e r s e l f as i n a d e q u a t e a s w e l l a s n a i v e . Anne saw h e r s e l f as a "dumb f a r m k i d " when she began l i v i n g w i t h E r i c , h e r f i r s t husband. A l l o f t h e women d e s c r i b e d t h e i r s p e c i f i c d e s i r e f o r " s e c u r i t y " w i t h i n t h e i r i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men and t h e i r w i s h " t o be c a r e d f o r . " M a u r e e n was t h e o n l y woman who p l a c e d any f i n a n c i a l c o n n o t a t i o n on the word " s e c u r i t y . " T h e y a l l l i n k e d i t w i t h an e m o t i o n a l n e e d t o be i n t i m a t e and a p p r e c i a t e d . They m a i n t a i n e d i d e n t i c a l v i e w s t h a t the g r e a -t e s t f e a r s w h i c h h e l d them i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w e r e r e l a t e d t o t h e i r l o w s e l f - e s t e e m i n a r e a s o f d a i l y s k i l l s and t h e i r q u e s t i o n i n g of t h e i r own s o c i a l w o r t h w h i c h c a u s e d t h e m t o f e a r t h e l o n e l i n e s s o f s e p a r a t i o n . T h e y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e y had " b a b i e d " t h e i r h u s b a n d s by o f t e n a n s w e r i n g t h e i r n e e d s b e f o r e t h e i r own. T h e y s t a t e d t h a t t h e y had bas e d t h e i r s e l f - e s t e e m on t h e r e a c t i o n s of t h e i r h u sbands. 163 In p o i n t , C a t h e r i n e s a i d she b e l i e v e d i n h e r own " u g l i n e s s " when she was w i t h an u n a t t r a c t i v e man. Anne, when a s k e d what w o u l d h e l p h e r f e e l b e t t e r about h e r s e l f , r e s p o n d e d by s a y i n g "a man." Bo t h Anne and Maureen s a i d t h a t t h e y f e l t " a n g r y " t h a t t h e y d i d n o t h a v e t h e i r "own way" i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men. A l l t h e women s p o k e o f n o t k n o w i n g how t o d e a l w i t h the a n g e r t h e y f e l t i n r e s p o n s e to the u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of t h e p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l abuse f r o m t h e i r husbands. T h e y s a i d t h e y e i t h e r " b o t t l e d up" o r " b u r i e d " t h e i r a n g e r as t h e y f e l t i n c a p a b l e of r e l e a s i n g i t . E x t r e m e j e a l o u s y on t h e p a r t o f t h e man was m e n t i o n e d by t h e women. T h e y w e r e p r e v e n t e d by t h r e a t o r a c t u a l p h y s i c a l a b u s e f r o m m a i n -t a i n i n g a g r o u p o f f r i e n d s o r , i n Anne's c a s e , f r o m s e e i n g h e r mother or s i s t e r s . I n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e , T h o r m a n ( 1 9 8 0 ) and G a y f o r d ( N o t e 12) s u g g e s t t h a t t h e woman c a n a f f e c t h e r h u s b a n d ' s b e h a v i o r . A l t h o u g h t h e woman may s e e k t o c h a n g e h e r husband, i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s u p p o r t s t h e v i e w t h a t she may a t t e m p t t o do so b u t c a n n o t d i r e c t l y c o n t r o l h i s r e s p o n s e . The m o s t she c a n do i s i n f l u e n c e . T h i s v i e w i s s u p p o r t e d by i n d i c a t i o n s w i t h i n t h i s c a s e s t u d y r e s e a r c h as a l l the women s t a t e d t h a t t h e y were r e m a i n i n g i n th e m a r r i a g e i n hopes of t h e i r husband's "change." Towards t h i s end, a l l the women had l e f t an a b u s i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p on 164 s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s , o n l y t o r e t u r n w i t h i n t h e week. D o b a s h and Dobash (1979) a l s o f o u n d f r e q u e n t s e p a r a t i o n s to be the r u l e p r i o r to the women l e a v i n g p e r m a n e n t l y . The f u s i o n , d e p e n d e n c e , and d e g r e e o f s y m b i o t i c b o n d s d i s c u s s e d by R o u n s a v i l l e ( 1 9 7 8 ) a n d D a v i d s o n ( 1 9 7 8 ) w e r e a l s o i n d i c a t e d w i t h i n t h i s s t u d y . Anne d e s c r i b e d h e r f e e l i n g s of b e i n g " l o c k e d up" d u r i n g the f o u r y e a r s she was w i t h B l a i r and y e t she a l s o f e l t a f r a i d t o l e a v e him. I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t h e r t e n a c i t y m i g h t be due, i n p a r t , t o t h e c l e a r l y d e f i n e d power d i f f e r e n c e between the s p o u s e s and the i n t e r m i t t e n t n a t u r e of t h e abuse. These q u a l i t i e s c h a r a c -t e r i z e d the most r e c e n t v i o l e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r a l l f o u r women and a p p e a r t o s u p p o r t t h e t r a u m a t i c b o n d i n g model of v i o l e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( D u t t o n & P a i n t e r , 1981). 3. P h y s i c a l s e p a r a t i o n f r o m husband. T h r e e of the women b e l i e v e d t h a t , i f t h e y r e m a i n e d w i t h t h e i r h u s b a n d , t h e y w ould be "dead." The women seemed to be r e f e r r i n g to t h e i r l e a v i n g as t h e i r c a r r y i n g o u t o f what t h e y " h a d " t o do r a t h e r t h a n what t h e y ' w a n t e d ' t o do. F o r e x a m p l e , R i t a s a i d " I had t o l e a v e , I had n o t h i n g l e f t t o g i v e . " I t was n o t u n t i l t h e y had s e p a r a t e d t h a y t h e y w e r e a b l e t o r e c o g -n i s e t h e i r c o n d i t i o n w i t h i n the r e l a t i o n s h i i p . T h r e e of the women b e l i e v e d i t was e a s i e r to r e m a i n s e p a r a t e d when t h e y r e c o g n i s e d t h a t t h e i r s p o u s e was " s i c k " a nd t h a t t h e y were n o t a t f a u l t f o r h i s a b u s e . T h i s seems t o s u p p o r t a v i e w 165 put f o r t h by H i l b e r m a n (Note 14), p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e i t t o o k b e f o r e t h e y r e c o g n i s e d t h a t t h e y w e r e b e i n g b a t t e r e d . H i l b e r m a n l i n k s t h e woman's r e c o g n i t i o n o f h e r h u s b a n d ' s i l l n e s s w i t h h e r r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t she had to l e a v e . M a u r e e n a n d Anne s a i d t h e y w o u l d p r o b a b l y n o t h a v e r e m a i n e d s e p a r a t e d had t h e y n ot been l i v i n g i n a t r a n s i t i o n house. Two of the women s a i d t h e y had been unaware of t h i s r e s o u r c e f o r a m a j o r i t y of the t i m e t h e y were b e i n g a bused. The s o u r c e o f s u p p o r t f o r a l l s u b j e c t s had b e e n f e m a l e f r i e n d s , f e m a l e s o c i a l w o r k e r s , and f e m a l e c o u n s e l l o r s . T h r e e r e c a l l e d s i n g l e v i s i t s t o a m a l e d o c t o r , a m a l e p s y c h i a t r i s t , o r a p r i e s t as b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e i r s e n s e o f w o r t h and t h e i r c l a r i t y i n making t h e " r i g h t " d e c i s i o n . E a c h s u b j e c t r a t i o n a l i z e d h e r c u r r e n t b e h a v i o r a s s t r o n g l y l i n k e d w i t h c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e i n some way. For e x a m p l e , a l l b u t one d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f as a " v i c t i m " as a c h i l d and s u g g e s t e d t h a t a d u l t f e e l i n g s of " v i c t i m i z a t i o n " o r " r e j e c t i o n " w e r e f o r m e d p a r t l y i n r e s p o n s e t o e a r l i e r p a t t e r n i n g . The i m p o r t a n c e of an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of l e a r n e d b e h a v i o r m o d e l e d a t b o t h an i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a 1 ( S t r a u s e t a l . , 1980) a n d s o c i o c u l t u r a l l e v e l ( D o b a s h & D o b a s h , 1979) would a p p e a r e v i d e n t . A l l t h e women r e f e r r e d t o c o n s i s t e n t a l c o h o l o r d r u g use on t h e p a r t of the man and t h e i r own p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o a 166 l e s s e r d e g r e e . C a r l s o n ' s ( 1 9 7 7 ) s u g g e s t i o n t h a t b a t t e r i n g h u s b a n d s f o r m a more " d e v i a n t " g r o u p w o u l d a p p e a r t o be c o r r o b o r a t e d . In p o i n t , Anne s a i d she would d r i n k i n o r d e r t o e a s e t h e p a i n o f t h e a b u s e b u t r a r e l y f o r any o t h e r r e a s o n . 4. P s y c h o l o g i c a l s e p a r a t i o n f r o m husband. Anger and l o n e -l i n e s s were m a j o r c o n c e r n s f o r t h e women d u r i n g t h e i r f i r s t y e a r o f i n d e p e n d e n t l i v i n g a f t e r t h e y s e p a r a t e d . T h e y f e a r e d what t h e y p e r c e i v e d as t h e i r t o t a l i n a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l t h e i r f e e l i n g s i n g e n e r a l and, s p e c i f i c a l l y , anger. They a l l l i n k e d t h i s to t h e i r l a c k of e x p e r i e n c e i n c o n t r o l -l i n g i t d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d and a l s o to t h e i r n ot b e i n g a b l e to e x p r e s s i t i n t h e i r p a s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r f e a r of p h y s i c a l r e t a l i a t i o n . I t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e a n g e r was, i n p a r t , i n a n s w e r to e a c h women's o t h e r w i s e e x t r e m e demands of s e l f - c o n t r o l . The a n g e r seemed t o g i v e p e r m i s s i o n to r e l a x t h e s e demands. As an e x a m p l e , R i t a s a i d s h e c o u l d n o t c o n t r o l h e r s e l f i n any way when she became a n g r y . She would o f t e n f e e l a g g r a -v a t e d t h a t s h e had n o t b e e n a b l e t o a f f e c t s u c h e v e n t s as t h e bus b e i n g e a r l y o r l a t e . In r e s p o n s e , t h e women w o u l d c o n s i s t e n t l y d i r e c t a g r e a t d e a l o f a n g e r t o w a r d s t h e m -s e l v e s , p a r t l y b e c a u s e o f t h e i r g u i l t f o r t h e a n g e r t h e y were a l r e a d y e x p e r i e n c i n g . H i l b e r m a n (Note 14) r e f e r r e d t o the f r e q u e n c y of t h i s r e s p o n s e : " L i k e rape v i c t i m s , b a t t e r e d 167 women r a r e l y e x p e r i e n c e t h e i r a n g e r d i r e c t l y . . . A g g r e s s i o n was most c o n s i s t e n t l y d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t t h e m s e l v e s " (p. 159). L o n e l i n e s s a p p e a r e d t o r e s u l t f r o m t h e a b s e n c e o f an i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a man. The women d e s c r i b e d t h e i r u n m e t n e e d s o f p h y s i c a l c l o s e n e s s and s h a r i n g . Anne s a i d she would not have l e f t h e r husband i f she had known of the l o n e l i n e s s she would f e e l i n s e p a r a t i n g . W a l k e r (1979) has d i s c u s s e d t h i s a s p e c t of s e p a r a t i o n and s t a t e d t h a t f e a r of l o n e l i n e s s p r o m o t e s many women t o s t a y . She a l s o s a i d t h a t t h o s e who b e l i e v e i n an e x t e r n a l s o u r c e o f c o n t r o l , as d i d a l l t h e s u b j e c t s , would be more l i k e l y t o become v i c t i m s of l e a r n e d h e l p l e s s n e s s , f e e l i n g u n a b l e to a l t e r t h e i r c i r c u m -s t a n c e s or e m o t i o n s . The i n d i c a t i o n s i n t h i s s t u d y s u p p o r t t h i s . A l l t h e s u b j e c t s f e l t e i t h e r " v i c t i m i z e d " by, " u n a b l e to g e t r i d o f , " " h e l p l e s s t o d e a l w i t h , " or i n p o s s e s s i o n of "no c o n t r o l " t o r e s p o n d t o o t h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s o f them, t h e i r own c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e , or t h e i r f e e l i n g s of g u i l t , a n g e r , and l o n e l i n e s s . F i n a l l y , t h r e e of the women r e q u e s t e d s k i l l s t o c o n t r o l t h e i r e m o t i o n s a n d , s p e c i f i c a l l y , a n g e r . T h i s seems t o i n d i c a t e a n e e d on t h e p a r t o f t h e s e b a t t e r e d women w h i c h h a s b e e n d o w n p l a y e d i n some o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , t h a t n e e d b e i n g s e 1 f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g ( D o b a s h & D o b a s h , 1979; S e g o v i a -A s h l e y , N o t e 16). M a u r e e n s a i d t h a t s h e f e l t a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f c o n t r o l and a b i l i t y t o c h a n g e as a r e s u l t o f t h e 168 u n d e r s t a n d i n g s h e o b t a i n e d i n t h e t r e a t m e n t p r o g r a m a b o u t h e r m o t i v a t i o n s and p a t t e r n s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t to r e c o g n i s e t h a t s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s not b e i n g s u g g e s t e d as an end i n i t s e l f b u t as a p o t e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e a d j u n c t t o s k i l l s t r a i n i n g and b e h a v i o r change. A l o n g w i t h t h e o t h e r women, Anne d i d n o t b e l i e v e t h a t s h e had t h a t c a p a c i t y t o c o n t r o l any a s p e c t o f h e r l i f e , i n c l u d i n g h e r own f e e l i n g s . U n i q u e f r o m t h e o t h e r s , s h e s a i d she no l o n g e r f e l t a n g e r t o w a r d s her husband. She s a i d s h e f e l t u n a b l e t o a v o i d t h i n k i n g o f r e t u r n i n g t o h i m a t t i m e s when she f e l t l o n e l y . She w i s h e d to a v o i d f o c u s i n g on p e r s o n a l g r o w t h b e c a u s e of her n e g a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of h e r -s e l f i n r e s p o n s e . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e may be a t l e a s t two s t a g e s to the p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e p a r a t i o n a b a t t e r e d woman u n d e r g o e s f r o m h e r husband w h i c h may e f f e c t h e r g r o w t h t o w a r d s i n d e p e n d e n t l i v i n g . In t h e f i r s t s t a g e , the woman i s a n g r y a t h e r h u s b a n d and t h i s e m o t i o n p r o m o t e s h e r d i s -t a n c e f r o m him. When t h e a n g e r i s no l o n g e r p r e s e n t , t h e r e a p p e a r s t o e x i s t a s t a g e o f ' f r e e c h o i c e ' a t w h i c h t i m e t h e o p t i o n to r e t u r n c an be p l a c e d o p p o s i t e the c h o i c e of i n d e -p e n d e n c e . I f s h e d o e s n o t b e l i e v e i n h e r own a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l a n y a s p e c t o f h e r e n v i r o n m e n t , s h e w i l l p o s s i b l y p e r c e i v e r e t u r n i n g t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o be l e s s t h r e a -t e n i n g t h a n i n d e p e n d e n c e . I n e f f e c t , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t a n g e r n e e d s t o be r e p l a c e d by a s e n s e o f i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l 169 a t some p o i n t . I f t h i s i s not a c h i e v e d , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e a t t a i n m e n t of su c h r e c o g n i t i o n w i l l not o c c u r as e a s i l y a f t e r t h e a n g e r i s no l o n g e r as s t r o n g as a d e v i c e o f emo-t i o n a l d i s t a n c e . In summary, t h e r e was some d e g r e e of v i o l e n c e or abuse on t h e p a r t o f t h e p a r e n t s o f a l l t h e women s t u d i e d . T h e y a l s o l i n k e d c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e t o a d u l t p a t t e r n s o f i n a b i l i t y t o c o p e w i t h a n g e r . T h e y had a l l l o s t t h e i r f a t h e r , t h r o u g h d e a t h or s e p a r a t i o n , by 16 y e a r s of age. As a d u l t s , t h e y a p p e a r e d t o p o s s e s s an e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l and p e r c e i v e d t h e i r own i d e n t i t i e s and s e n s e o f w o r t h i n t h e p a s t t o h a v e e m e r g e d f r o m t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i r husband. D e s c r i p t i v e A n a l y s i s of_ Q u a n t i t a t i v e G r a p h Data T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s of t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l (SD) t i m e s e r i e s d a t a . The p u r p o s e of t h i s q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a was t o p r o v i d e t h e s u b j e c t s ' s e l f -a s s e s s m e n t s , o v e r t i m e , i n t h e g i v e n a r e a s (see A p p e n d i x C). S t a t i s t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of t h e d a t a was c o n s i d e r e d i n a p p r o p -r i a t e , g i v e n t h e s m a l l number o f s u b j e c t s . In a d d i t i o n , b e c a u s e t h i s was an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y , q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e t i m e s e r i e s d a t a was v i e w e d as b e y o n d t h e s c o p e o f t h i s d e s i g n . The r e s u l t s must be r e g a r d e d as t e n t a t i v e , b a s e d upon the e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e of t h i s r e s e a r c h . At t h i s p o i n t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to c l a r i f y t h a t c o m p l e t e 170 q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a i s n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r one o f t h e f o u r s u b j e c t s . T h r e e weeks f o l l o w i n g t h e c o m m e n c e m e n t of t h e t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d , Anne s a i d she no l o n g e r w i s h e d to c o n t i n u e t h i s a s p e c t of the s t u d y . She f e l t u n a b l e t o a s s e s s h e r own f e e l i n g s and a l s o u n a b l e t o s e p a r a t e h e r a s s e s s m e n t o f h e r s e l f f r o m h e r r e e x p e r i e n c i n g f e e l i n g s f r o m the f o u r y e a r s i n w h i c h she was abused. She c o n t i n u e d to meet f o r s e s s i o n s w i t h the r e s e a r c h e r . T h e r e would a p p e a r to be t h r e e c o n s i s t e n c i e s w i t h i n the d a t a o b t a i n e d . 1. A b r i e f d e c r e a s e i n SD s c o r e . The most e v i d e n t t r e n d w o u l d seem t o be a d e c r e a s e i n t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l s c o r e ( p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n ) w i t h i n a s h o r t p e r i o d a f t e r t r e a t m e n t began. As shown i n F i g u r e s 1-4, the l o w e s t p o i n t , c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the l e a s t p o s i t i v e s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n , o c c u r s w i t h i n a maximum of s e v e n measurement p o i n t s f r o m the b e g i n -n i n g o f t h e t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s r e s p o n s e m i g h t be p a r t l y due to the d i s c u s s i o n i n the f i r s t s e s s i o n of f a m i l y of o r i g i n and d e v e l o p m e n t y e a r s . I t c o u l d a l s o be a r e a c t i o n t o the i n t e n s i t y of t h e t r e a t m e n t p r o g ram i n g e n e r a l . T h e r e i s a sudden i n c r e a s e w h i c h f o l l o w s a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y w i t h the t h r e e s u b j e c t s on w h i c h t h i s d a t a was a v a i l a b l e . I f the d e c r e a s e i n s c o r e r e f l e c t e d a r e a c t i o n to t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e t r e a t m e n t p r o g r a m i n g e n e r a l , i t i s a s s u m e d t h a t r e c o v e r y w o u l d n o t h a v e o c c u r r e d as d r a m a t i -171 c a l l y . T h e r e f o r e , i t w o u l d seem more l i k e l y t h a t t h e d e -c r e a s e i n p o s i t i v e s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n was p e r h a p s i n r e s p o n s e t o the f o c u s on e a r l y y e a r s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n m i g h t p r o v i d e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e p r o g ram d e s i g n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . An a w a r e n e s s of su c h t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s would not o n l y e l i m i -n a t e t h e s u r p r i s e e l e m e n t t o t h e woman o f s u c h t r e n d s i n f e e l i n g but w i l l a l s o h e i g h t e n the c o u n s e l l o r ' s s e n s i t i v i t y t o a s p e c i f i c n e e d o f b a t t e r e d women. S e n s i t i v i t y t o a n d s k i l l i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p a i n i n v o l v e d i n d i s c u s s i o n s of e a r l y y e a r s i s i n d i c a t e d as a means t h r o u g h w h i c h the c o u n -s e l l o r c a n e n c o u r a g e t h e woman t o become p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t , i n p a r t , b e c a u s e she has been a b l e to grow f r o m an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of p a s t e x p e r i e n c e . 2* R e l a t i o n s h i p b etween " a c t i v e " and " r e l a x e d . " A s e c o n d t r e n d seems to l i e i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a d j e c t i v e s c a l e s o f r e 1 a x e d / t e n s e and a c t i v e / p a s s i v e . F i g u r e s 5-8 i n d i c a t e the b a s e l i n e p a t t e r n s f o r a l l f o u r s u b j e c t s . T h e r e would a p p e a r to be an a p p a r e n t n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the p o s i t i v e c o o r d i n a t e s of t h e s e two s c a l e s ; a h i g h e r l e v e l o f r e l a x a t i o n a p p e a r s w i t h a l o w e r l e v e l o f a c t i v i t y . I n s h o r t , t h e women f e l t a c t i v e , f r e q u e n t l y i n the p r e s e n c e of t e n s i o n and a s s e s s e d t h e m s e l v e s as p a s s i v e when t h e y w e r e f e e l i n g r e l a x e d . I n F i g u r e s 9 - 1 1 , t h e s a m e t w o s c a l e s w i t h i n t h e 172 p o s t t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d a p p e a r to have a s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d r e l a -t i o n s h i p , p a r t i c u l a r l y when i n t r a s u b j e c t l e v e l s a r e com-p a r e d . As the f o u r t h s u b j e c t d i d not c o m p l e t e the SD beyond the f i r s t t h r e e weeks of the t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d , p o s t t r e a t m e n t d a t a i s o n l y a v a i l a b l e on the r e m a i n i n g t h r e e s u b j e c t s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e two s c a l e s m i g h t s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e d p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e 1 f - a s s e s s e d f e e l i n g s o f r e l a x a t i o n and a c t i v i t y as t h e b a t t e r e d woman g r o w s t o w a r d s i n d e p e n d e n c e . The s u b j e c t s a p p e a r e d t o l i n k t h e s t a t e o f f e e l i n g r e l a x e d w i t h b e i n g p a s s i v e somewhat l e s s i n the p o s t t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d t h a n t h e y d i d i n t h e b a s e l i n e p e r i o d . T h e s e f i n d i n g s h a v e c l e a r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t r e a t m e n t , b o t h i n t h e c h o i c e o f g o a l s , ( l e a r n i n g t o f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e when a c t i v e ) , and a p p r o p r i a t e means t o a c h i e v e t h e s e . The p o s s i b l e i m p r o v e m e n t i n s e l f -d e s c r i b e d , c o i n c i d i n g f e e l i n g s of r e l a x a t i o n and a c t i v i t y g i v e s hope t h a t c o u n s e l l i n g may be an a p p r o p r i a t e method t o b r i n g a b o u t the d e s i r e d change. 3. T r e n d s i n " h a p p i n e s s " and " k i n d n e s s . " T h e r e i s no a p p a -r e n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e t o t a l e d s c o r e s o f t h e c o m b i n e d 12 a d j e c t i v e s c a l e s between the b a s e l i n e and the p o s t t r e a t m e n t phase. A l l t h r e e s u b j e c t s on w h i c h t h e s e measurements were a v a i l a b l e had i n c r e a s e d t h e i r t o t a l s c o r e s f r o m b e t w e e n 1.4%-3.9%. T h i s l e v e l o f c h a n g e has n o t b e e n c o n s i d e r e d c l i n i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t due t o t h e s a m p l e s i z e and b e c a u s e 173 t h e r e h a v e b e e n no i n f e r e n t i a l s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s done t o a s c e r t a i n w h e t h e r t h e s e r e s u l t s a r e m e r e l y due t o r a n d o m v a r i a t i o n . By p r o v i d i n g t o t a l s c o r e s f o r e a c h s c a l e i n b o t h t h e f i r s t and t h i r d p h a s e s , p o s s i b l e change w i l l become a p p a r e n t on any s p e c i f i c s c a l e . F i g u r e s 12-14 d e p i c t t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p b e t w e e n the a c c u m u l a t e d s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n s c o r e s f o r the 12 a d j e c t i v e p a i r s i n the b a s e l i n e and p o s t t r e a t m e n t phases. The p o i n t r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s c o r e s i n t h e f i f t h s c a l e o f h a p p y / s a d seems t o be c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r i n the p o s t t r e a t -ment p h a s e , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r two o f t h e t h r e e s u b j e c t s . T h e s e d a t a w o u l d p e r h a p s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s e 1 f - a s s e s s e d h a p p i n e s s o f t h e s e women had i n c r e a s e d . In t h a t an e x t e n -s i v e h i s t o r y was o b t a i n e d w h i c h s u p p o r t e d t h e b a s e l i n e a s s e s s m e n t , i t m i g h t be p o s s i b l e to l i n k t h i s i n c r e a s e w i t h t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the t r e a t m e n t program. I t i s i m p o s -s i b l e t o know, h o w e v e r , w h e t h e r t h i s r e f l e c t s s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f t h e t r e a t m e n t o r a p l a c e b o e f f e c t o f t h e a t t e n -t i o n , s u p p o r t , and hope p r o v i d e d by a l m o s t any f o r m o f t r e a t m e n t of t h i s n a t u r e . T h e r e I s a s m a l l i n c r e a s e i n t h e e i g h t h s c a l e p o i n t f o r tw o o f t h e t h r e e women ( s e e F i g u r e s 13 & 1 4 ) . T h e s e p o s t t r e a t m e n t i n c r e a s e s would a p p e a r to p r o v i d e some s u p p o r t f o r t h e s u g g e s t e d i n d i c a t i o n s w i t h i n the f i r s t of the t h r e e g r a p h s of t h i s group. The i n c r e a s e s a r e so s m a l l t h a t t h e y 174 s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d as s u g g e s t i v e o n l y . The e i g h t h s c a l e p o i n t i n F i g u r e 12, r e p r e s e n t i n g a s e l f - a s s e s s m e n t of k i n d v e r s u s c r u e l , r e f l e c t s t h e h i g h e s t i n c r e a s e o f any one a d j e c t i v e o f t h e c o m p a r a t i v e d a t a o f t h e f i r s t and t h i r d p h a s e s . A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n c a n be o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h c o m b i n i n g the i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t ' s d a t a . F i g u r e s 15 and 16 r e p r e s e n t combined d a t a of a d j e c t i v e s #5 ( h a p p y / s a d ) a n d #8 ( k i n d / c r u e 1 ) . I n F i g u r e 15, t h e d o t t e d l i n e , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e p o s t t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d , w o u l d a p p e a r t o be a l m o s t c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e s o l i d o r b a s e l i n e d a t a . In f a c t , t h e r e i s a combined i n c r e a s e of 25 p o i n t s o r 14% o f t h e o r i g i n a l l e v e l s . F o r a d j e c t i v e #8, F i g u r e 16 g r a p h s t h e d i f f e r e n c e as an a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l 26 p o i n t s o r 14% o f t h e b a s e l i n e l e v e l s . F i g u r e 16, i n p r e -s e n t i n g t h i s i n c r e a s e i n a d j e c t i v e #8 i n t h e f o r m o f com-b i n e d d a t a , d i s p l a y s a t r e n d w h i c h was not i n d i c a t e d t o s u c h a d e g r e e i n two o f t h e t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l d a t a g r a p h s o f t h e same a d j e c t i v e p a i r . I n summary, t h e r e was an a p p a r e n t d e c r e a s e i n t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l s c o r e ( p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n ) f o l l o w i n g t h e c o m m e n c e m e n t o f t h e t r e a t m e n t p h a s e . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s m i g h t be due t o the f o c u s on f a m i l y of o r i g i n and d e v e l o p m e n t y e a r s . I t was a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t s e I f - a s s e s s e d f e e l i n g s o f " a c t i v e " a n d " r e l a x e d " m i g h t be more c l o s e l y l i n k e d i n t h e p o s t t r e a t m e n t p h a s e t h a n i n t h e b a s e l i n e 175 p h a s e . T h e b a s e l i n e s e e m e d t o i n d i c a t e a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a c t i v e a n d t e n s e v e r s u s r e l a x e d and p a s s i v e . The combined d a t a s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e has been some q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i s c e r n a b l e i n c r e a s e i n s e n s e o f w o r t h o r w e l l - b e i n g i n the p o s t t r e a t m e n t phase. The same l i m i t a t i o n s on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a ( m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r ) a p p l y h e r e . I t i s a l s o n o t p o s s i b l e t o a s s e s s t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e s e c h a n g e s o v e r t i m e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s e f i n d i n g s p r o v i d e some h o p e , h o w e v e r s l i m , f o r t h e e f f i c a c y o f c o u n s e l l i n g i n a s s i s t i n g b a t t e r e d women t o r e b u i l d s e l f -w o r t h and s t r u c t u r e s u c c e s s f u l i n d e p e n d e n t l i v e s . CHAPTER VI C o n c l u s i o n s The i n d e p t h n a t u r e of the q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a on the f o u r s u b j e c t s i s c o m p l e m e n t e d by a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a . T h e r e a r e c o n s i s t e n c i e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s w h i c h a l l o w f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g a p p a r e n t c o n c l u s i o n s and p r o -v i d e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a r e a s of p r e s e n t need. 1. A l l f o u r b a t t e r e d women f e l t " v i c t i m i z e d " t o some d e g r e e by t h e i r c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e . T h e y s t a t e d t h e i r needs f o r s p e c i f i c s k i l l s i n o r d e r f o r them to a v o i d v i e w i n g t h e m s e l v e s as t h e v i c t i m s of t h e i r a d u l t e x p e r i e n c e . • They a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e l i n k s b e t w e e n t h e two i n t h a t a t t i t u d e s d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d had r e m a i n e d to become a d u l t r a t i o n a l e and p a t t e r n e d b e h a v i o r . 176 2. The r e s e a r c h e r a g r e e d w i t h t h e s u b j e c t s ' a s s e s s m e n t s t h a t e ach woman's p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e p a r a t i o n f r o m a b a t t e r i n g husband was t a k i n g p l a c e o v e r t i m e a f t e r p h y s i c a l s e p a r a t i o n h a d o c c u r r e d . T h e y had a l l l e f t o u t o f f e a r . T h r e e were a f r a i d on a p h y s i c a l l e v e l w h i l e the f o u r t h was a f r a i d t h a t t h e p s p y c h o l o g i c a l abuse a l o n e would push her to a p o i n t of c o m m i t t i n g s u i c i d e . 3. Lack of a p p a r e n t a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l a n g e r was a d e t e r -m i n a n t o f l o w s e l f - e s t e e m f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . A c o n s i s t e n t r e s p o n s e was to f e e l a n g r y a t t h e m s e l v e s f o r t h i s p e r c e i v e d l a c k of c o n t r o l . O t h e r c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s t o f e e l i n g s of low w o r t h were l o n e l i n e s s f o l l o w i n g s e p a r a t i o n , l a c k of edu-c a t i o n o r j o b s k i l l s , a n d , t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e , l a c k o f money. 4. The women a l l a p p e a r e d to p o s s e s s an e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l a nd s t a t e d t h a t , b a s e d i n t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h t h e y were r a i s e d , t h e y were u n a b l e t o s e t t h e i r own e x p e c t a t i o n s or a s s e s s t h e i r own l i m i t s of a c c o m p l i s h m e n t . 5 . B a s e d on t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f one o f t h e s u b j e c t s , i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e m i g h t be an i n d i c a t e d p o i n t a t w h i c h t h e b a t t e r e d woman r e l i n q u i s h e s h e r a n g e r t o w a r d h e r h u s -b a n d . The e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n s o f t h i s woman d u r i n g t h e t r e a t m e n t p r o g r a m w o u l d a p p e a r t o s u g g e s t t h e n e e d f o r s p e c i f i c i n p u t a t the a p p a r e n t p o i n t of change i n the g r o w t h p r o c e s s . I t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t , a t t h i s s p e c i f i c p o i n t , a 177 p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t f o c u s m i g h t be the d e v e l o p m e n t of an i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l . 6. A r e q u e s t was made by t h r e e s u b j e c t s f o r s k i l l s t o c o n t r o l a n g e r and h u r t and to a s s e s s p e r s o n a l a c t i o n s . The f o u r t h e x p r e s s e d h e r w e a k n e s s i n t h e s e a r e a s b u t a l s o h e r i n a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l much o f h e r e n v i r o n m e n t d e s p i t e t h e s k i l l s s h e p o s s e s s e s . The women a s s e s s e d t h e t r e a t m e n t p r o g r a m and i t would a p p e a r t o have been c l i n i c a l l y v a l u a b l e i n p r o v i d i n g some of t h e s e s k i l l s . Recommendations T h i s s t u d y i s e x p l o r a t o r y . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed t o i n v e s t i g a t e , v a l i d a t e , a n d / o r f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d the t r e n d s a p p a r e n t i n t h e p r e s e n t d a t a . The i n d i c a t i o n s f r o m t h e s e f i n d i n g s a p p e a r ' t o s u g g e s t r e s e a r c h i n the f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : 1. T h i s s t u d y was e x p l o r a t o r y . T o w a r d s t h i s e n d , a s e m i -s t r u c t u r e d t r e a t m e n t program as opposed to a more d i r e c t i v e f o r m o f i n t e r v e n t i o n was u s e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e women's g r o w t h t o w a r d s i n d e p e n d e n c e and t h e i r needs i n t h i s p r o c e s s . B a s e d on t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y , a more d i r e c t i v e , e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m m i g h t be a s s e s s e d f o r i t s t r e a t m e n t v a l u e i n f u l f i l l i n g some of t h e s e needs. 2. The s a m p l e d women w e r e a l l l i v i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e i r h u s b a n d s . Women who a r e s t i l l w i t h t h e i r s p o u s e s c o u l d be s a m p l e d f o r s u b s e q u e n t r e s e a r c h of a s i m i l a r s e m i -s t r u c t u r e d n a t u r e . The r e s u l t m i g h t p r o v e v a l u a b l e t o w a r d s 178 d e s i g n i n g an i n t e r v e n t i o n program t o i n t e r r u p t the b a t t e r i n g c y c l e a t an e a r l i e r p o i n t i n t i m e . 3. S i n c e the s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a was e n t i r e l y s e 1 f - e v a l u a t i v e , t h e i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y o f s u b -s e q u e n t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s would be enhanced t h r o u g h the use of a s t a n d a r d i z e d s e l f - e s t e e m measure w h i c h c o u l d be a d m i n -i s t e r e d on a p r e t r e a t m e n t and p o s t t r e a t m e n t b a s i s . 4. The p r e s e n t s t u d y u s e d a s m a l l s a m p l e . G e n e r a l i z a b i -l i t y w o u l d be e x p a n d e d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f a l a r g e g r o u p d e s i g n and more s t a t i s t i c a l l y p r o p e r s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s i f the l a t t e r i s p o s s i b l e . 5. The use of an e x t e r n a l e v a l u a t i n g s o u r c e o t h e r t h a n the r e s e a r c h e r would i m p r o v e the i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y . 6. I t w o u l d a p p e a r t o be v a l u a b l e t o f u r t h e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e i n d i c a t e d p o i n t a t w h i c h t h e a n g e r f e l t by b a t t e r e d women f o r t h e i r h u s b a n d s seems t o d i m i n i s h . T o w a r d s t h i s e n d , t h e i n p u t o f an a d d i t i o n a l c o n t r o l o r a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m a t one y e a r a f t e r s e p a r a t i n g m i g h t p r o v e v a l u a b l e . Long t e r m a s s e s s m e n t would need to f o l l o w . 7. C o m p a r a t i v e r e s e a r c h would h e l p t o c l a r i f y the c l i n i c a l b e n e f i t s of g r o u p v e r s u s i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g of b a t t e r e d wome n. I m p l i c a t i o n s The i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c h a n g e e m e r g i n g f r o m t h i s s t u d y a p p e a r t o be w i t h i n t h r e e m a j o r a r e a s of e d u c a t i o n : b a t t e r e d 179 women, c o u n s e l l o r s , and s o c i e t y as a whole. 1. Based on the s u b j e c t s ' s e l f - a s s e s s m e n t s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e b a t t e r e d woman w o u l d a p p e a r t o b e n e f i t f r o m an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h e r own a t t i t u d e s and p a t t e r n s . T h r o u g h an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e and b e l i e f s a l o n g s i d e a d u l t p a t t e r n s and a s s u m p t i o n s , the woman can p o s s i b l y r e c o g n i s e h e r own l i m i t s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . In s h o r t , s h e c a n h o p e f u l l y c e a s e v i e w i n g h e r s e l f as a v i c t i m and b e g i n s e e i n g h e r s e l f as an i n d i v i d u a l who s e t s h e r own e x p e c t a t i o n s and a c k n o w l e d g e s an i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e s p o n s e t o h e r own a n g e r . T o w a r d s t h i s end, i n d i v i d u a l as opposed to group c o u n s e l l i n g was a s s e s s e d by t h e s u b j e c t s as b e i n g a u n i q u e and b e n e f i c i a l e x p e r i e n c e . I t was v i e w e d as a means of m e e t i n g i n d i v i d u a l needs u n i q u e t o e a c h woman. I t was n o t i n t e n d e d as a r e p l a c e m e n t f o r b u t a n a d d i t i o n t o t h e v a l i d a t i o n p r o v i d e d by a g r o u p e x p e r i e n c e . 2. I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e c o u n s e l l o r c a n m o s t e f f e c -t i v e l y r e s o n d t o t h e n e e d s o f t h e b a t t e r e d woman i f t h e f o r m e r i s a w a r e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a t t e r n s and f a m i l y and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o s u c h a c o n d i t i o n . W i f e b a t t e r i n g i s not c a u s e d by any one f a c t o r but r e f l e c t s a number o f c o n t r i b u t i n g v a r i a b l e s ( S t r a u s e t a l . , 1 9 8 0 ) . I t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the a p p a r e n t t r e n d s and c o n s i s t e n c i e s w i t h i n t h i s s t u d y w i l l p e r h a p s a s s i s t t h e 180 c o u n s e l l o r i n i n t e r v e n i n g w i t h i n the b a t t e r i n g c y c l e i t s e l f , i n t e r p r e t i n g a n d c o n v e y i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e a b u s e d woman, and p r o v i d i n g s k i l l s t r a i n i n g t o d e a l w i t h s u c h c o n c e r n s as a n g e r , l o n e l i n e s s , c o n t r o l , and c o m m u n i c a t i o n of f e e l i n g s . As W a l k e r (1979) s t a t e s , the b a t t e r e d woman needs t o r e c o g n i s e t h a t h e r b e h a v i o r c a n a f f e c t what h a p p e n s t o he r . The r o l e of the c o u n s e l l o r i n t h i s r e g a r d would a p p e a r c r u c i a l . 3. F i n a l l y , t h e a p p a r e n t c o n s i s t e n c i e s and t r e n d s w i t h i n t h i s s t u d y , a l o n g w i t h t h e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , p l a c e t h e b a t t e r i n g o f women w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t . I t i s a c o n d i t i o n of b o t h men and women t h a t t h e y t a k e p a r t i n s u c h a c y c l e as w e l l as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e w h i c h condones i t t h r o u g h i n a c t i o n . I f su c h d e s t r u c t i o n of t h e human b o d y , m i n d , and i n i t i a t i v e i s t o be e n d e d , w i d e -s p r e a d s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n and change i s n e c e s s a r y . The b e l i e f s y s t e m a n d r o l e v a l u e s w i t h w h i c h we h a v e b e e n r a i s e d , t h e s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n of " m a s c u l i n e " and " f e m i n i n e , " the a v a i l a -b i l i t y o f j o b s and s k i l l s p r o g r a m s t o b o t h s e x e s , and t h e n a t u r e of s o c i a l and i n t r a f a m i l y c o n t r o l and power a r e a l l c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s t o w a r d w i f e abuse. I t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t w i f e b a t t e r i n g w i l l be d e c r e a s e d m o s t e f f e c t i v e l y t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n on a s o c i a l as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l . I t i s i m p l i e d t h a t t h e p r e s e n t ' v e r t i c a l ' s y s t e m o f s o c i a l a nd f a m i l i a l c o n t r o l and i n e q u a l i t y w i l l have to be removed i n 181 f a v o r of a s t r u c t u r e based on e q u a l i t y as opposed t o a u t h o -r i t y . The r o l e o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r i n s u c h s o c i a l c h a n g e i n c o r p o r a t e s a p e r s o n a l as w e l l as p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l o f a c t i o n . P e r s o n a l I n s i g h t s On T h e o r y And P r a c t i s e T h e r e a r e two g e n e r a l a r e a s i n w h i c h t h i s r e s e a r c h e r , b a s e d on p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and a w a r e n e s s , w o u l d c h a n g e f u t u r e p r o g r a m s f o r b a t t e r e d women t o w a r d s e x p a n d i n g b o t h r e s e a r c h and c l i n i c a l v a l i d i t y . F i r s t l y , i n t h e a r e a o f e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n , i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween t h e f e e l i n g s e x p e r i e n c e d by the women. T h i s w r i t e r w o u l d , i n s u b s e q u e n t r e s e a r c h , i n c l u d e a d j e c t i v e s w h i c h w o u l d r e p r e s e n t d i m e n s i o n s o f c o n t r o l , g u i l t , f e a r , a nd l o n e l i n e s s . The a d j e c t i v e " a n g r y " w o u l d a l s o be i n c l u d e d r a t h e r t h a n h a v i n g a s i m i l a r word used t h a t e i t h e r m i s r e p r e s e n t s or d o w n p l a y s the meaning of the e m o t i o n i t s e l f . I n t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l , t h e u s e o f t h e t e r m " f e r o c i o u s " a p p e a r e d t o i n v o l v e some o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s o f m e a n i n g w i t h w h i c h t h e s e women were n o t c o m f o r t a b l e . By a s s e s s i n g c h a n g e i n t h e s e new a r e a s o f f o c u s , i t m i g h t be p o s s i b l e t o l i n k s p e c i f i c c o u n s e l l i n g t e c h n i q u e s w i t h c e r t a i n c h a n g e s a n d , t h e r e b y , i n c r e a s e c l i n i c a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . 182 A l s o , t h r e e o f t h e f o u r s u b j e c t s s a i d t h e y , a t t i m e s , f o u n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s t h e i r own f e e l i n g s . I n o r d e r to p r o v i d e a s s e s s m e n t s of t h e i r p o s s i b l e b e h a v i o r and a f f e c t change, the use of s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s and e x t e r n a l , i n f o r m e d v i e w e r s a r e s u g g e s t e d . The g r e a t e r t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h change_ c a n be d e f i n e d , m e a s u r e d , e v a l u a t e d , and f i n a l l y e x p a n d e d , t h e g r e a t e r t h e p o t e n t i a l v a l u e o f b o t h t h e r e s e a r c h and t h e programs e m e r g i n g from i t . A s e c o n d c l i n i c a l a r e a of change would i n v o l v e a number of a d d i t i o n s t o the t r e a t m e n t program. These changes would be i m p l e m e n t e d on two l e v e l s — e x p e r i e n t i a l t e c h n i q u e s w i t h i n t h e c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s and b e h a v i o r a l c o n t r a c t i n g f o r c o n c r e t e c h a n g e c o m m i t m e n t . I s s u e s s u c h as t h e n e e d t o p l e a s e , t h e n e e d f o r i n t e n s i t y i n one's d a i l y l i f e , f e a r o f l o n e l i n e e s s i n l i v i n g a l o n e , and n o n - s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men would be e x p l o r e d i n g r e a t e r d e p t h , p a r t l y t h r o u g h the use of s u c h t e c h n i q u e s as p s y c h o d r a m a , t w o - c h a i r , and r o l e - p l a y . C o n c u r r e n t l y , t h e r e w o u l d be an a g r e e d u p o n l e v e l o f b e h a v i o r a l e x p e c t a t i o n . The women w o u l d be r e q u e s t e d t o p r a c t i s e c e r t a i n s k i l l s and to change s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r s a t home. T h i s r e s e a r c h e r b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e p a i n a n d f e a r e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e s e women o f t e n b e c o m e s s u c h a way o f l i f e f o r them t h a t a ' n o r m a l i z a t i o n ' p r o c e s s m u s t o c c u r b e f o r e many b a t t e r e d women w i l l be r e a d y t o ack n o w l e d g e t h e i r s e n s e of wo r t h and l i m i t s of c o n t r o l . 183 A t r e a t m e n t p r o g r a m l i k e t h e one i n t h i s s t u d y c o u l d a s s i s t them t h r o u g h s u c h a p e r i o d and i d e a l l y s h o u l d p r o v i d e a c e r t a i n i n t e n s i t y of i n v o l v e m e n t and p e r h a p s even s o c i a l c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r women t o answer t h e s e women's a p p a r e n t l y v e r y s t r o n g f e a r of l o n e l i n e s s . They would be a s s s i s t e d i n v i e w i n g a l o n e n e s s as a n a t u r a l p a r t of l i f e t o be used f o r s e l f - g r o w t h and n o t as an i n d i c a t i o n o f l o w w o r t h . L o n g t e r m f o l l o w - u p (up t o two y e a r s ) i s c o n s i d e r e d v a l u a b l e i n s u p p o r t i n g c h a n g e s a l r e a d y made and g u i d i n g t h e women t h r o u g h i n d i c a t e d p e r i o d s of s t r e s s . T h r o u g h o u t t h e t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d o f t h i s s t u d y , t h i s w r i t e r f e l t a c o n s i s t e n t d r a i n o f e n e r g y a f t e r many o f t h e c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s . To c o u n t e r a c t s t r e s s on t h e c o u n s e l l o r , t h e s e women's n e e d s m i g h t be a l s o a n s w e r e d t h r o u g h a group e x p e r i e n c e w i t h o t h e r women. However, t h e s e g r o u p s need not o n l y be f o r m e d of t h o s e women who have been b a t t e r e d . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t abused women c o u l d b e n e f i t f r o m b o t h the s t r e n g t h and the p e r s p e c t i v e of women who have u n d e r g o n e a r a n g e o f e x p e r i e n c e s and w i s h t o s h a r e t h e i r f e e l i n g s . Women do n o t h a v e t o be a b u s e d i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e s t r e n g t h and v a l i d a t i o n f o r e a c h o t h e r and t o u n d e r s t a n d f e e l i n g s of f e a r of l o n e l i n e s s , s u c c e s s , s o c i a l r i s k , and change e x p e r i e n c e d by o t h e r women. In summary, i n d i v i d u a l and g r o u p - b a s e d c o u n s e l l i n g a r e c o n s i d e r e d by t h i s r e s e a r c h e r as two means t h r o u g h w h i c h t o 184 s u p p o r t , c o n f r o n t , c h a l l e n g e , i n f o r m , and e n c o u r a g e t h e b a t t e r e d woman. The ' n o r m a l i z a t i o n " p r o c e s s would i n v o l v e o b t a i n i n g s k i l l s a n d a w a r e n e s s e s w i t h i n a n i n t e n s e , p o s i t i v e , a nd s e m i - d i r e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n o r d e r t o grow b e y o n d a c o n s i s t e n t f e a r o f l o n e l i n e s s , c h a n g e , i n d e p e n d e n c e , a n d i n a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l o n e ' s own e n v i r o n m e n t . I t would a l s o i n v o l v e p r a c t i s i n g new b e h a v i o r s w h i c h w o u l d s e r v e t o c o n f i r m c h a n g e s on a c o g n i t i v e l e v e l and a f f i r m the woman's new i d e n t i t y f o c u s e d on s t r e n g t h , n ot v i c t i m i z a t i o n . 185 R e f e r e nee Notes 1. M a r t i n , D. O v e r v i e w : Scope of the p r o b l e m . In A. F l e m i n g ( C h a i r ) , B a t t e r e d women: I s s u e s of p u b l i c p o l i c y . C o n s u l t a t i o n s p o n s o r e d by the U.S. C o m m i s s i o n on C i v i l R i g h t s , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., J a n u a r y 30-31, 1978. 2. Downey, J . , & H o w e l l , J . Wi_f_e b a t t e r i n g : A r e v i e w and p r e l u m i n a r y i n q u i r y i n t o ^ o c a l i n c i d e n c e , n e e d s , and r e s o u r c e s . Study c o n d u c t e d by the U n i t e d Way of G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , September, 1976. 3. Ranson, J . P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , F e b r u a r y 21, 1983. 4. S a n d e r s - K r a u s e , C , & Hodgson, C. W i f e - b a t t e r i n g : An a n a l y ^ i s _ of_ the M:L n i s_t_r_y of_ Human R e s o u r c e s po 1 i^c^es_ and s t r a t e g i e s . A r e p o r t t o the N o n - M e d i c a l Use of Drugs D i r e c t o r a t e ' s Summer R e s o u r c e s Fund, 1978: P r o j e c t #1216 - 9 - 93. 5. S h a i n e s s , N. P s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s of w i f e b e a t i n g . In M. Roy, (Ed.), B a t t e r e d women: A p s y c h o s o c i o l o g i c a l s t u d y o f d o m e s t i c v i o l e n c e . New Y o r k : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d , 1977. 6. R i c h e t t e , L. Long t e r m needs. In A. F l e m i n g ( C h a i r ) , B a t t e r e d women: Is sues of_ p u b l i c p o l i c y . C o n s u l t a t i o n s p o n s o r e d by the U.S. C o m m i s s i o n on C i v i l R i g h t s , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., J a n u a r y 30-31, 1978. 186 7. B a r n s l e y , J . ' B a t t e r e d and blamed' - A r e p o r t on w i f e a s s a u l t f r o m £he_ p e r s p e c t i v e of b a t t e r e d women. A r e p o r t by V a n c o u v e r T r a n s i t i o n House and the Women's R e s e a r c h C e n t r e , November, 1980. 8. J o h n s o n , J., & Gord o n , B. S h e l t e r r e s i d e n t p r o f i l e . A r e p o r t p r e p a r e d f o r the C o u n c i l on B a t t e r e d Women, A t l a n t a , G e o r g i a , J a n u a r y 1 - June 30, 1981. 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A f e m i n i s t p e r s p e c t i v e on d o m e s t i c v i o l e n c e . In R.B. S t u a r t (Ed.), V i o l e n t b e h a v i o r : S o c i a l l e a r n i n g a p p r o a c h e s to p r e d i c t i o n , management and t r e a t m e n t . New Y o r k : B r u n n e r / M a z e l , 1981. 16. S e g o v i a - A s h l e y , M. S h e l t e r s : S h o r t t e r m needs. In A. Flemming ( C h a i r ) , B a t t e r e d women: I s s u e s of £ub ;iic_ p o l i c y . C o n s u l t a t i o n s p o n s o r e d by the U.S. C o m m i s s i o n on C i v i l R i g h t s , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., J a n u a r y 30-31, 1978. 17. G r o p p e r , A., & C u r r i e , J . A s t u d y o f b a t t e r e d women. u n p u b l i s h e d M.S.W. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1976. 18. D u t t o n , D. " D o m e s t i c d i s p u t e i n t e r v e n t i o n by p o l i c e . 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The use of s i n g l e - c a s e m e t h o d o l o g y i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y r e s e s a r c h . J o u r n a l of_ A b n o r m a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1973, 82:1, 87-101. M a i e r , N. P r o b l e m - s o l v i n g d i s c u s s i o n s and c o n f e r e n c e s : L e a d e r s h i p methods and s k i l l s . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1963. M a r t i n , D. B a t t e r e d w i v e s ^ San F r a n c i s c o : G l i d e , 1976. M a r t i n , J.P., (Ed.). V i o l e n c e and the f a m i l y ^ C h i c h e s t e r : J o h n W i l e y and Sons, 1978. May, R. Power and i n n o c e n c e : A s e a r c h f o r the s o u r c e s of v i o l e n c e . New Y o r k : W.W. N o r t o n , 1972. 193 M c C l e l l a n d , D.C. Power: The I n n e r e x p e r i e n c e . New Y o r k : I r v l n g t o n , 1975. McLeod, L. W i f e b a t t e r i n g i n Canada: The v i c i o u s c i r c l e . The C a n a d i a n A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on the S t a t u s of Women: C a n a d i a n Government P u b l i s h i n g C e n t r e , 1980. Moore, D., (Ed.). B a t t e r e d women. B e v e r l e y H i l l s : Sage, 1979. N i c h o l s , B. The abu s e d w i f e p r o b l e m . S o c i a l Casework, L V I I ( J a n u a r y , 1976), 27-32. O s g o o d , C.E., S u c i , G.J., & T a n n e n b a u m , P.H. The measurement of meaning. C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1957. P i z z e y , E. Scream q u i e t l y or _the n e i g h b o r s w i l l h e a r . M i d d l e s e x , E n g l a n d : P e n g u i n Books, 1974. P o l i c y £ t a t e m e n t on s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e w i t h a s s a u l t e d women and thei^r f a m i l i e s . A r e p o r t by the C a n a d i a i n A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l W o r k e r s , O c t o b e r , 1982. Ro s e n b e r g , M. C o n c e i v i n g the s e l f . New Y o r k : B a s i c Books, 1979. R o u n s a v i l l e , B.J. T h e o r i e s i n m a r i t a l v i o l e n c e : E v i d e n c e f r o m a s t u d y of b a t t e r e d women. V i c t i m o l o g y , 1978, 3, 11-31. Roy, M., (Ed.). B a t t e r e d women: A p s y c h o s o c i o l o g i c a l s t u d y of_ d o m e s t i c v i o l e n c e . New Y o r k : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d , 1977. 194 S a n d e r s - K r a u s e , C. W i f e b a t t e r i n g . A paper s u b m i t t e d to the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , O c t o b e r , 1979. S a n d e r s - K r a u s e , C , & Hodgson, C. Wif_e b a t t e r i n g : An a n a l y s i s of_ _the M i n i s t r y of_ Human R e s o u r c e s p o l i c i e s and s t r a t e g i e s . A r e p o r t t o t h e N o n - M e d i c a l Use of Drugs D i r e c t o r a t e ' s Summer R e s o u r c e s Fund, 1978. S c h e f f , T.J. 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S t r a u s , M., G e l l e s , R.J., & S t e i n m e t z , S. B e h i n d c l o s e d • d°_£££^ N e w Y o r k : Anchor Books, 1980. S t u a r t , R.B., (Ed.). V i o l e n t b e h a v i o r : S o c i a l l e a r n i n g a p p r o a c h e s to p r e d i c t i o n , management and t r e a t m e n t . New Y o r k : B r u n n e r / M a z e l , 1981. Thorman, G. Family v i o l e n c e . S p r i n g f i e l d , 111.: C h a r l e s Thomas, 1980. U n i t e d S t a t e s C o m m i s s i o n on C i v i l R i g h t s . B a t t e r e d women: I s s u e s of_ p u b l i c p o l i c y . W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., J a n u a r y 30-31, 1978. U n i t e d Way. Fami l y v i o l e n c e : R e p o r t of_ the t a s k f o r c e on f a m i l y v i o l e n c e . V a n c o u v e r , May, 1979 . W a l k e r , L. The b a t t e r e d woman. New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, 1979. 196 W a r r i o r , B. W o r k i n g on w i f e abuse. An u n p u b l i s h e d manual, Cambridge, Ma., 1978. W h i t e h u r s t , R.N. V i o l e n c e p o t e n t i a l i n e x t r a m a r i t a l s e x u a l r e s p o n s e s . J o u r n a l of_ M a r r i a g e and t^he F a m i l y , 33, ( N o v ' 7 1 ) , 683-691. Women's R e s e a r c h C e n t r e . A s t u d y of p r o t e c t i o n f o r b a t t e r e d women^ An u n p u b l i s h e d s t u d y , V a n c o u v e r , J a n u a r y , 1982. 197 APPENDIX A L e t t e r of I n t r o d u c t i o n 5780 T o r o n t o Road, V a n c o u v e r , B.C., O c t o b e r , 1982. Dear, As a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t i n t h e M.A. Program i n c o u n s e l -l i n g i n the f a c u l t y of e d u c a t i o n at t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I am p r e s e n t l y r e s e a r c h i n g the a r e a of b a t t e r e d w i v e s . I am i n t e r e s t e d i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g more a b o u t t h e woman's g r o w t h t o w a r d i n d e p e n d e n c e and h e r d e v e l o p m e n t of p e r s o n a l l i v i n g s k i l l s . T h e r e a r e a number o f q u e s t i o n s w h i c h h a v e a r i s e n f o r me. Ar e t h e r e p e r h a p s s t e p s i n v o l v e d i n o r d e r f o r y o u as w e l l a s number of o t h e r women t o f e e l more p o s i t i v e a bout t h e m s e l v e s and more a w a r e n e s s e s w h i c h o c c u r d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d p s y c h o -l o g i c a l s e p a r a t i o n w h i c h a s s i s t a woman i n b e c o m i n g more a w a r e o f t h e f e l l i n g s s h e h a s i n r e g a r d t o h e r h u s b a n d a n d how s h e m i g h t c h a n g e h e r c h o i c e s f o r t h e f u t u r e as a r e s u l t of u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s e f e e l i n g s ? The r e s e a r c h I am p l a n n i n g w i l l , I hope, p r o v i d e some a n s w e r s to t h e s e q u e s t i o n s as w e l l as p e r h a p s as w e l l as p e r h a p s b r i n g up new q u e s t i o n s and i d e a s I n t h i s a r e a . S h o u l d you choose to v o l u n t e e r f o r t h i s i n d e p t h s t u d y , i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y f o r y o u t o be i n v o l v e d i n t h r e e a c t i v i -t i e s ; keep a d a i l y j o u r n a l , a s s e s s y o u r s e l f t h r e e t i m e s w e e k l y on a b r i e f l i s t of o p p o s i t e a d j e c t i v e s , and t h i r d l y , m eet w i t h me f o r a one h o u r c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n p e r week. The j o u r n a l i s t o be s i m p l y a d i a r y of f e e l i n g s , a c t i -v i t i e s , e x p e r i e n c e s , r e a l i s a t i o n s , e t c . , w h i c h you b e l i e v e v a l u a b l e i n y o u r a c q u i r i n g of i n d e p e n d e n t l i v i n g s k i l l s . The c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s w i l l t o t a l n i n e i n a l l , w i t h one each week f o r a p e r i o d o f e i g h t w e e k s , and a f i n a l s e s s i o n f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g the l a t t e r s e s s i o n . They w i l l p r o v i d e us w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y , on a on e - t o - o n e b a s i s , to d i s c u s s y o u r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g s b u t , a l o n g s i d e , t h e s e j o u r n a l e n t r i e s w i l l a l s o s e r v e as a g u i d e i n i n t r o d u c i n g f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n t o p i c s w h i c h w i l l h o p e f u l l y a s s i s t you i n a c h i e v i n g a g r e a -t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of y o u r own f e e l i n g s and the o p t i o n s open t o y o u i n t h e f u t u r e . 198 I would l i k e to r e a s s u r e you t h a t a l l i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y w i l l be k e p t s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . I t w i l l be u s e d o n l y as a n o n y m o u s c a s e s t u d y d a t a and n o t f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n any j o u r n a l or as i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n any w r i t t e n o r m e d i a f o r m . I n a d d i t i o n , s h o u l d y o u w i s h t o c o n t i n u e c o u n s e l l i n g f o r an a d d i t i o n a l p e r i o d of up t o s i x months, I would be most w i l l i n g to do so w i t h o u t c o s t t o y o u . As t h e s e s s i o n s w i l l be s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d , i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e f o r you t o t e r m i n a t e d i s c u s s i o n of any t o p i c w i t h i n t h e s e s e s s i o n s s h o u l d you f e e l t h e need. You a r e a l s o f r e e to w i t h d r a w c o m p l e t e l y f r o m t h i s s t u d y at any p o i n t w i t h o u t j e o p a r d i z i n g f_ur t^he_r t r e a t m e n t :Ln any way, e i t h e r by the r e f e r r a l a gency or by m y s e l f . T h i s s t u d y i s i n no way c o n n e c t e d w i t h the r e f e r r a l a gency nor w i l l y o u r p a r t i c i p a -t i o n or n o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y a f f e c t y o u r s t a n d i n g w i t h any o t h e r agency. Y o u r s s i n c e r e l y , S h e o l l a g h F i t z g e r a l d G r a d u a t e S t u d e n t Department of C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 199 Consent Form Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology F a c u l t y of Education U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia I, , agree to volunteer to pa.rticipa.te i n the research, as o u t l i n e d i n the accom-panying l e t t e r , a.s undertaken "by Sheollagh F i t z g e r a l d , a student- i n the Master of Arts Program i n the above-named Department. I understand that any i n f o r m a t i o n I provide w i l l be kept s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l and that I may f r e e l y withdraw as a subject of t h i s research study at any time without j e o p a r d i z i n g • f u r t h e r treatment. During the t h i r t e e n weeks of t h i s study I am w i l l i n g to keep a j o u r n a l , assess myself on a, short a d j e c t i v e c h e c k l i s t , and meet with the researcher as o u t l i n e d i n the i n i t i a l l e t t e r . I agree to the sessions being a.udiotaped, understanding the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of these tapes and the measures being taken to ensure same. Signed, 20Q APPENDIX Peelings C h e c k l i s t Please c i r c l e the point which 'best describes your f e e l i n g s at t h i s 1 moment. 1 I 1 1 1 1 xtremely quite s l i g h t l y n e u t r a l s l i g h t l y q u i t e extremel 1 1 I i. J 1. 1 tense 1 r e l a x e d 1 c l e a r 1 r i i hazy J a c t i v e I i . i passive 1 f e r o c i o u s 1 1 ! 1 peaceful 1 happy J 1 , 1 sad 1 d u l l 1 1 1 1 sharp 1 cowa.rd.ly 1 1 1 1 crave \ kind c r u e l 1 | 1 1 1 | I calm a g i t a t e d 1 | 1 1 1 | 1 v/eak \ 1 , 1 strong 1 deep shallow 1 J 1 J 1 1. 1 valuable worthless 201 B r i e f APPENDIX D O u t l i n e of T r e a t m e n t S e s s i o n s S_es_s_ion J. T h eme^ f a m i l y o f o r i g i n , d e v e l o p m e n t y e a r s , and s p e c i f i c e a r l y r e c o l l e c t i o n s . A r e a s of E x p l o r a t i o n and Sample Q u e s t i o n s : : I w o u l d l i k e t o know a l i t t l e a b o u t y o u r f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d . Can y o u t e l l me a b o u t y o u r g r a n d p a r e n t s as a b e g i n n i n g . : What was i t l i k e f o r y o u g r o w i n g up i n y o u r f a m i l y ? What k i n d of c h i l d were you? : P e r h a p s y o u c a n r e c a l l c h a n g e s o v e r y o u r c h i l d h o o d - - d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e you were c l o s e t o , how you see y o u r s e l f h a v i n g c h a n g e d i n y o u r a c t i o n s and f e e l i n g s , and maybe even what happened a l o n g s i d e . : We h a v e b e e n t a l k i n g a b o u t y o u r c h i l d h o o d i n g e n e r a l . I w o n d e r i f y o u c a n r e c a l l a n y s p e c i f i c o c c u r r e n c e s d u r i n g y o u r e a r l y c h i l d h o o d — e v e n t s t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l y s t a n d o u t f o r y o u . T h e s e a r e e v e n t s t h a t y o u remember and n o t t h o s e a b o u t w h i c h you were t o l d a t a l a t e r p o i n t . P e r h a p s y o u c a n t e l l me what y o u r e c a l l h a p p e n e d , how y o u f e l t , and what a s p e c t o f t h a t e v e n t i s m o s t v i v i d f o r you a t t h i s t i m e . S_e s_sjL on 2 l k £ 5 ! i r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men; r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h women. Ar e a s of E x p l o r a t i o n : : I w o u l d l i k e t o d i s c u s s y o u r f e e l i n g s a n d e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e men who h a v e b e e n c l o s e t o y o u i n p a r t i c u l a r . Y o u h a v e s a i d i t c o u l d be p a i n f u l f o r y o u t o r e c a l l t h e v i o l e n c e i n any of t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and I want t o s u g g e s t t o y o u t h a t y o u m i g h t s h a r e t h e s e f e e l i n g s w i t h me. : P e r h a p s y o u c a n b r i e f l y t e l l me a b o u t how and 2G2 when you s e p a r a t e d from y o u r h u s b a n d . : You h a v e a l r e a d y l i n k e d y o u r c h i l d h o o d l e a r n i n g t o y o u r a d u l t b e h a v i o r . Can y o u s e e any p a t t e r n s w i t h i n t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s y o u h a v e j u s t d i s c u s s e d . Were y o u f e e l i n g s i m i l a r l y w i i t h d i f f e r e n t men a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n t i m e ? Can you l i n k t h e s e f e e l i n g s w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , m a s c u l i n i t y , f e m i n i n i t y , or how you t h i n k o f y o u r s e l f as a woman? : Do you r e a c t d i f f e r e n t l y w i t h women? As a woman i n s o c i e t y , what t h o u g h t s do you have of y o u r own d e g r e e of power ? S e s s i o n 3 Theme: r e c e n t h i s t o r y and c o n c e r n s . A r e a s of E x p l o r a t i o n : : Maybe y o u c o u l d t e l l me a b o u t what y o u p e r c e i v e t o be t h e s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s i n t h e p a s t f e w m o n t h s s i n c e you l e f t y o u r husband? the d i f f i c u l t i e s ? t h e p l e a s u r e s and s u c c e s s e s ? : How do y o u s e e y o u r s e l f a c t i n g and t h i n k i n g d i f f e r e n t l y now t h a n i n t h e p a s t , e i t h e r w i t h y o u r h u s b a n d o r p r i o r t o t h a t t i m e ? How d o e s i t f e e l w h e n y o u a c k n o w l e d g e t h e p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s o f y o u r own a c t i o n s a n d changes ? : You say you a r e f e e l i n g a f r a i d , l o n e l y , and a n g r y i n p a r t i c u l a r . I want t o e x p l o r e t h e s e f e e l i n g s w i t h you i n o r d e r t h a t y o u m i g h t h a v e a w i d e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r s o u r c e and how you might e f f e c t them. : Who h a s b e e n a s u p p o r t t o y o u as y o u s e p a r a t e d f r o m y o u r h u s b a n d and b e g a n i n d e p e n d e n t l i v i n g ? Who i s a s u p p o r t t o y o u now? i n what ways? Do y o u s e e y o u r r o l e as a p a r e n t a f f e c t i n g y o u r t h o u g h t s and b e h a v i o r s ? S e s s i o n 4 Theme: a n g e r — s e p a r a t i n g the f e e l i n g f r o m the a c t i o n . A r e a s of E x p l o r a t i o n : : Can y o u t h i n k o f a f e w r e c e n t s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h 2Q3 y o u h a v e b e e n a n g r y ? I w o u l d to see i f t h e r e might be some l i k e t o d i s c u s s them p a t t e r n s h a p p e n i n g . w i t h y o u : You s a y y o u r e s p o n d w i t h c e r t a i n a c t i o n s when y o u f e e l a n g r y . I'm w o n d e r i n g i f y o u c a n t h i n k o f any o t h e r ways i n w h i c h you c o u l d r e s p o n d to t h i s a n g e r . : How do you f e e l when you a c k n o w l e d g e t o y o u r s e l f o r t o o t h e r s t h a t y o u a r e a n g r y ? How do y o u f e e l when y o u f i g h t b a c k , e i t h e r p h y s i c a l l y or v e r b a l l y ? : I f you were to change y o u r a c t i o n s i n r e s p o n s e t o y o u r own a n g e r , what i s t h e r i s k ? You s a y y o u f e e l a f r a i d and v u l n e r a b l e . Can you t a l k f u r t h e r about t h e s e f e e l i n g s . S e s s i o n 5 T h e m e j ^ a n g e r t h a t i s r o o t e d i n f e e l i n g s o f h e l p l e s s n e s s ; l i m i t s of p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l . A r e a s of E x p l o r a t i o n : : L a s t week we d i s c u s s e d how you b e l i e v e t h e r e a r e p a t t e r n s i n y o u r e x p r e s s i o n o f a n g e r and t h e s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h p r o m o t e i t f o r y o u . P e r h a p s we c a n f u r t h e r d i s c u s s t h e f e e l i n g s of h e l p l e s s n e s s you mentioned.What do you t h i n k and f e e l when you p e r c e i v e y o u r s e l f t o be out of c o n t r o l of a s i t u a t i o n ? : I w o u l d l i k e t o h a v e y o u e x p a n d on what y o u p e r c e i v e t o be the p a t t e r n s b etween y o u r r e s p o n s e s to a n g e r as a c h i l d a nd as an a d u l t . How w o u l d y o u l i k e t o c h a n g e t h e s e r e s p o n s e s ? : You say you a c c e p t t h a t you a r e not i n c o n t r o l of many ( o r a n y ) a s p e c t s o f y o u r l i f e a nd y e t y o u s a y y o u f e e l a n g r y when y o u don't f e e l i n c o n t r o l . L e t ' s l o o k a t what y o u a r e h o p i n g t o c o n t r o l and w h e t h e r , i n f a c t , t h e y a r e w i t h i n the range of y o u r c o n t r o l . : I n r e c o g n i s i n g t h a t y o u m i g h t be a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n t r o l o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s or e x t e r n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , how can y o u make u s e o f t h i s a w a r e n e s s i n c h a n g i n g y o u r own t h o u g h t s a n d b e h a v i o r s ? I f y o u d i d , w o u l d y o u f e e l d i f f e r e n t l y ? What w o u l d y o u be g i v i n g up? I s i t p o s s i b l e t h a t y o u a r e u s i n g y o u r a n g e r t o a l l o w y o u r s e l f t o g i v e up a d e g r e e of y o u r o t h e r w i s e s t r i c t e x p e c t a t i o n s of c o n t r o l of y o u r s e l f and o t h e r s ? 204 S e s s i o n 6 Theme: e x t e r n a l v e r s u s i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l . A r e a s o f E x p l o r a t i o n : : We h a v e d i s c u s s e d some l i n k s t h a t y o u made b e t w e e n y o u r c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e and y o u r c o n f u s i o n i n r e g a r d t o what i s e x p e c t e d o f y o u as an a d u l t . I w o u l d l i k e y o u t o a s k y o u r s e l f whose e x p e c t a t i o n s y o u b e l i e v e y o u a r e r e s p o n d i n g t o . How d o e s i t f e e l t o be c o n t i n u a l l y f e e l i n g p r e s s e d t o a d h e r e to o t h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s ? : P e r h a p s we c a n d i s c u s s ways i n w h i c h y o u m i g h t d e v e l o p y o u r own l i m i t s and g o a l s . How w o u l d y o u f e e l i f y o u d i d ? I s t h e r e a r i s k i n v o l v e d a n d , i f s o , what w o u l d y o u be g i v i n g up? How do y o u f e e l when y o u a t t e m p t b u t f a i l t o a c c o m p l i s h c e r t a i n t a s k s ? How do y o u f e e l a n d t h i n k a b o u t y o u r s e l f i n r e s p o n s e ? How do y o u b e l i e v e y o u r t h o u g h t p a t t e r n s e i t h e r s u p p o r t you or p u l l you down as you a t t e m p t t h e s e t a s k s ? : Y o u h a v e s p o k e n o f f e e l i n g a d e g r e e o f h u r t a r o u n d c e r t a i n members o f y o u r f a m i l y . I f y o u a l l o w t h e s e p e r s o n s t o own t h e i r own h a l f o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p as we h a v e d i s c u s s e d , how w i l l you be t h i n k i n g and f e e l i n g d i f f e r e n t l y . S e s s i o n 7 Theme: l i m i t s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . A r e a s o f E x p l o r a t i o n : : Y o u s a i d t h a t i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r y o u t o a l l o w a n o t h e r p e r s o n to "own t h e i r h a l f " of a d i s c u s s i o n or d i s a g r e e m e n t . P e r h a p s we c a n t a l k f u r t h e r a b o u t some a l t e r n a t e ways you c o u l d h a n d l e t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s . : I would l i k e to l i n k some of y o u r comments about a n g e r , h e l p l e s s n e s s , l a c k of c o n t r o l , and p a r t i c u l a r l y y o u r f e e l i n g s o f b e i n g v i c t i m i z e d o r u s e d . What a r e y o u d o i n g d i f f e r e n t l y when y o u f e e l l e s s v i c t i m i z e d and more i n c o n t r o l ? What a r e some o t h e r c h o i c e s y o u h a v e i n t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s ? : Y o u s p o k e o f r e c e n t l y f e e l i n g d i f f e r e n t l y a b o u t c e r t a i n c l o s e f a m i l y m e m b e r s . What a r e y o u d o i n g 205 d i f f e r e n t l y ? What a r e t h e r i s k s i n v o l v e d ? How do y o u f e e l d i f f e r e n t l y a b o u t y o u r s e l f ? : Y o u h a v e s a i d y o u a r e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f b e c o m i n g more a w a r e o f y o u r own l i m i t s . P e r h a p s y o u c a n d e f i n e w h a t t h i s means t o y o u a n d how y o u a r e g o i n g a b o u t i t , and y o u r f e e l i n g s as y o u do s o . How a r e y o u a c c e p t i n g r e c o g n i t i o n f r o m o t h e r s and a l s o m a i n t a i n i n g y o u r own g o a l s ? S e s s i o n 8 Theme : c o n c r e t e p l a n n i n g f o r the f u t u r e . A r e a s of E x p l o r a t i o n : : What a r e you d o i n g d i f f e r e n t l y now as compared to your p a t t e r n s e i t h e r i n c h i l d h o o d or when you were w i t h y o u r husband? Do you f e e l d i f f e r e n t l y about y o u r s e l f as a r e s u l t ? How do you 'pat y o u r s e l f on the back' f o r the g a i n s you have made ? : What a r e y o u r p r i o r i t i e s f o r t h e n e x t s i x m o n t h s ? What a r e y o u r l i m i t s of c o n t r o l ? : I f y o u a r e u n d e c i d e d o r c o n f u s e d a b o u t y o u r i n t e r e s t s , how can you go ab o u t g e t t i n g more i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s a r e a ? I f t h e r e i s a r i s k o f f a i l u r e i n v o l v e d , l e t ' s d i s c u s s how you might h a n d l e i t . : How w i l l you be t h i n k i n g and r e s p o n d i n g i n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r y o u r own g r o w t h ? L e t ' s l o o k a t a r a n g e o f f e e l i n g s and b e h a v i o r s t h a t a r e o p t i o n s f o r y o u . How c o u l d y o u s a b o t a g e y o u r own g r o w t h ? Maybe y o u c a n f o c u s on t h e f e e l i n g s b e h i n d t h o s e a c t i o n s a n d a l t e r n a t e r e s p o n s e s a v a i l a b l e to y o u . S e s s i o n 9 Theme: f o l l o w - u p and i n t e r v e n t i o n e v a l u a t i o n . A r e a s of E x p l o r a t i o n : : C o u l d y o u b r i e f l y t e l l me what y o u h a v e b e e n d o i n g o v e r the p a s t f o u r weeks. Can you l i n k c e r t a i n e v e n t s w i t h s p e c i f i c f e e l i n g s you have had? : We h a v e d i s c u s s e d s e v e r a l o f y o u r p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o r and f e e l i n g . How a r e you c o n t i n u i n g t h e s e p a t t e r n s ? 206 How a r e you b r e a k i n g away f r o m them? Are you n e w l y aware of a n y t h i n g t o w h i c h y o u w o u l d l i k e t o be r e s p o n d i n g d i f f e r e n t l y ? : We h a v e d i s c u s s e d t h e e v e n t s and a w a r e n e s s e s w h i c h y o u b e l i e v e w e r e o f h e l p i n a s s i s t i n g y o u t o b ecome i n d e p e n d e n t f r o m y o u r husband. At t h i s t i m e , I would l i k e to a s k y o u w h a t y o u f e e l a n d t h i n k a b o u t t h e p a s t e i g h t c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s . Are t h e r e any a r e a s we have d i s c u s s e d t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l y s t a n d o u t f o r you? Do y o u t h i n k t h e s e s e s s i o n s h a v e p e r h a p s a f f e c t e d y o u r t h o u g h t s , a c t i o n s , or f e e l i n g s i n some way? towards o t h e r s ? towards y o u r s e l f ? : A r e t h e r e a n y p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s y o u h a v e a p p r e c i a t e d d i s c u s s i n g w i t h me? How w o u l d y o u c h a n g e t h e f o r m a t o r s t r e s s of our d i s c u s s i o n s i f you were p r o v i d i n g i t f o r o t h e r women who had l e f t a b u s i v e h u sbands? ( 207 

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