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Jealousy : an empirical and phenomenological study West, Mariette Bésanger 1983

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JEALOUSY: AN EMPIRICAL AND  PHENOMENOLOGICAL  STUDY  by  MARIETTE R.N.,  BESANGER WEST  ST. PAUL'S HOSPITAL,  1972  B.S.N., UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA,  1981  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL F U L F I L L M E N T OF . THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE (Department  We  of C o u n s e l l i n g  accept t h i s to  thesis  the r e q u i r e d  STUDIES Psychology)  as conforming standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA DECEMBER  ©  MARIETTE  1983  BESANGER WEST,  1S8 3  In  presenting  requirements  this for  an  of  British  it  freely available  agree for  I  by  understood  that  his  that  or  be  her or  shall  the  University  and  I  study.  copying  granted  by  of  p u b l i c a t i o n of  not  be  further this  this  It  thesis my  is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  Columbia  make  the head o f  representatives.  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main M a l l Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  at  the  shall  permission.  Department  f u l f i l m e n t of  the L i b r a r y  extensive  may  copying  f i n a n c i a l gain  degree  reference  for  purposes  or  partial  agree  for  that permission  scholarly  in  advanced  Columbia,  department for  thesis  written  i i  ABSTRACT  This  study  combination In  examines t h e concept  "jealousy" using a  o f e m p i r i c a l and p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l  t h e e m p i r i c a l phase o b j e c t i v e d a t a  descriptive subjective  statistics. data  descriptors,  from  understandings  In t h e p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l  were a n a l y z e d  the other gained  were s u r v e y e d  from  a review  of l i t e r a t u r e  by d a t a a n d  of three t h e o r i e s of on j e a l o u s y  a student  u s i n g an a d a p t e d  by A r o n s o n and P i n e s  28 male r e s p o n d e n t s  described with  responses.  from  disciplines.  inventory and  phase  p h a s e and by t h e c o n c e p t u a l  T h r e e h u n d r e d a d u l t s from complex  using  on t h e b a s i s o f m a j o r  i n e a c h p h a s e were s u p p o r t e d  emotion and a c r i t i q u e several  were a n a l y z e d  e l e m e n t s a n d themes i n t h e v e r b a t i m  Interpretations findings  approaches.  (1982).  family  housing  v e r s i o n of a jealousy Forty-five  defined jealousy in their  and i n t e r p r e t e d  their  t h e e m o t i o n and r e s p o n d e d  objective  item  emotional  reactions; general  most e x t r e m e  female own words;  experiences  (on a o n e - t o - s e v e n  s u b t e s t s of j e a l o u s y p r e v a l e n c e ;  scale) to p h y s i c a l and  r e a c t i o n s and c o p i n g  mechanisms. Quantitative preliminary effects  and q u a l i t a t i v e  findings.  resulted  Among them were: a p p a r e n t  of the instrument;  objective  analyses  sex d i f f e r e n c e s  s u b t e s t s ; and q u a l i t a t i v e  i n many  therapeutic  i n each of the  s i m i l a r i t i e s and  differences  among i n d i v i d u a l s  participants'  and between t h e s e x e s i n  definitions, experiential  a c c o u n t s and  interpretations. Several for  future  counselling  h y p o t h e s e s were g e n e r a t e d and many  r e s e a r c h were d i s c u s s e d . practice  generally  broader c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n jealousy  experiences.  Implications  suggestions for  promoted a p p l i c a t i o n  and more p o s i t i v e  of a  outcomes f o r  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  List  of T a b l e s  List  of F i g u r e s  vi v i i  Acknowledgements  viii  Dedication  ix  Chapter I  II  INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY G e n e r a l B a c k g r o u n d and P u r p o s e of t h e S t u d y . D e f i n i n g J e a l o u s y ..... .. Assumptions Limitations T h e o r i e s of Emotion ... LITERATURE REVIEW J e a l o u s y and Envy P e r s p e c t i v e s from A n t h r o p o l o g y P e r s p e c t i v e s from P s y c h i a t r y P e r s p e c t i v e s from P s y c h o l o g y C h a p t e r Summary  III  .. and S o c i o l o g y  EMPIRICAL PHASE D e s i g n and Method Subjects Instruments P i l o t Study D a t a C o l l e c t i o n and P r o c e d u r e s Sample Demography R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n I. Jealousy: Trait-Based? II. Response S e t a n d / o r R e - e x p e r i e n c e o f the Emotion? III. J e a l o u s y and S i b l i n g P o s i t i o n IV. Jealousy Prevalence V. General Reactions to Jealousy VI. Physical Reactions to Jealousy VII. E m o t i o n a l R e a c t i o n s t o J e a l o u s y .... VIII. Coping with J e a l o u s y H y p o t h e s e s and I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u t u r e Research C h a p t e r Summary  1 1 4 5 6 7 25, 25 30 45 61 113 116 116 116 116 117 118 119 121 121 123 128 129 129 132 134 137 140 145  V  IV  PHENOMENOLOGICAL PHASE  146  P a r t i c i p a n t D e f i n i t i o n s of J e a l o u s y : A Discussion P a r t i c i p a n t s ' J e a l o u s y E x p e r i e n c e s : Major Themes Implications f o r Future Research C h a p t e r Summary V  IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELLING  .  153 158 164  PRACTICE  165  General Considerations Counselling Individuals Counselling Couples C o u n s e l l i n g Groups C h a p t e r Summary  167 170 175 180 183  THE SI S. SUMMARY REFERENCES  1 46  184  .  . ..' Inventory  186  Appendix  A:  Jealousy  194  Appendix  B:  Request  Appendix  C:  Cover L e t t e r  Appendix  D:  Responses  t o Items  Appendix  E:  Responses  t o Item  120  224  Appendix  F:  Responses  t o Item  123  230  for Participation  i n Study  f o r Inventory 28, 29, 30  ......  201 203 206  vi  L I S T OF TABLES  Table  1:  Frequencies  Table  2:  Jealousy Prevalence Questions: Standard D e v i a t i o n s  Table Table Table Table  3: 4: 5: 6;  o f t h e Demographic V a r i a b l e s  General Reaction Questions: Standard D e v i a t i o n s Ranking of P h y s i c a l Mean R e s p o n s e Ranking of E m o t i o n a l Mean R e s p o n s e  ... 120  Means and 130  Means and  Reactions  131 on B a s i s o f 133  Reactions  on B a s i s o f "  Ranking of "Coping With J e a l o u s y " B a s i s o f Mean R e s p o n s e  135  Items on 13.8  vii  L I S T OF FIGURES  Figure  1:  R e s p o n s e t o Q u e s t i o n s 20 and 122 by Question  19  .  124  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I thank my  a d v i s o r , Dr.  and  patience  i n h e l p i n g me  and  thesis.  I thank my  and  Dr.  Robert  t i m e and Roelofs  her  with  data  Centre,  and  Acadia  and  my  Neville  of  my  and  support f o r her  and  Marv Westwood consultation.  f r i e n d s h i p , her  G e r i Cymbluck  for their  s u b j e c t s , the  and  most  colleagues  importantly,  my  daughter  invitations  t o p l a y as  delivering  envelopes.  Kala  Sciences  for  husband,  f o r her  her  Park  'being  h i s support West  in  response;  I thank my  w e l l as  help  participation  enthusiastic  for his love, his patience, and  f o r her  r e s i d e n t s of A c a d i a  t i m e and my  Gary  computer  of U.B.C. H e a l t h  Psychiatry,  guidance  research project  a s s i s t a n c e with  staff  f r i e n d s and  editing;  endless  stamping  the  Camp f o r t h e i r  West  and  word p r o c e s s i n g ;  study;  Finally  help with and  and  f a m i l y , my  there'.  for their  teaching  Department  pilot  this  c o n s u l t a t i o n ; B r u c e M c G i l l i v r a y and  processing;  the  to complete  Adrienne Roelofs  for their  programming  Banmen f o r h i s  c o m m i t t e e members, Dr.  Armstrong  I a l s o thank Dr.  John  help  and love with  his  ix  DEDICATION  To N e v i l l e  and  Kala  " E v e r y human p a s s i o n has  i t s useful  purpose."  Descartes  1  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY  General Jealousy experience. it  Background and Purpose of t h e Study  i s an a n c i e n t  e a r l y stages  f i n d i n g s and a r e l a r g e l y  framework to allow  of t h i s  about  Empirical  decade.  Widely  m e t h o d o l o g i e s and  a n a l y s i s have been u s e d y e t c l a r i f i c a t i o n  Completion  construct  of t h i s  f o r a l l human e m o t i o n s ,  task which  i s not p r e c i s e or awaits  a  conceptual  is flexible  enough  f o r i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e p l e t h o r a o f human phenomena  to account  f o r o u r i n n a t e human  Jealousy dramatized our  a product  j e a l o u s y as a t h e o r e t i c a l  comprehensive.  knowledge  of development.  operational definitions,  approaches t o data of  and a u n i v e r s a l human  However, t h e body o f s c i e n t i f i c  i s i n the very  varying  topic  complexity.  h a s been e x a m i n e d , a n a l y z e d ,  and v i s u a l l y  c u l t u r e and o t h e r s .  portrayed This  discussed,  by e x p e r t s  research  and a m a t e u r s i n  r e - e x p l o r e s the  topic. The  researcher  assumes t h a t we a s humans have a  consensual  awareness of the u n i v e r s a l l y  jealousy.  T h i s does n o t mean we e x p e r i e n c e  identically. shared  experienced  R a t h e r , we,have some h o l i s t i c ,  sense of the j e a l o u s y e x p e r i e n c e  jealousy universally  as a n a t u r a l  2  phenomenon. This linear  study  is subjective  refinement,  meanings.  ordered  approaches.  scientically  presented  statistics.  L a t e r , the  interprets  and  as.a  member of  takes p l a c e .  Using  seeking  and  O b j e c t i v e data  interpreted  are  using  descriptive  r e s e a r c h e r p r e s e n t s and  gained  d u r i n g the  t h e community  this  combined  logical  experiential  scientific  t h e e x p e r i e n c e s c o n t r i b u t e d by  includes insights  itself,  objective,  i n f o r m a t i o n and  I t i n c o r p o r a t e s both  phenomenological  also  and  her  creatively  subjects.  research  i n which  approach  the  she  She  process study  assumes:  t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of u n d e r s t a n d i n g b e h a v i n g systems, w i t h more d e p t h t h a n t h e layman, i n o r d e r t o h e l p t h e n o n - r e s e a r c h e r have more i n s i g h t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g h i m s e l f and t h u s t o d e v e l o p a t h i s own p a c e ( N a s r u , 1980, p.16). The  researcher, a counsellor,  system.  L i k e the c o u n s e l l i n g  outcomes seek insight She  and  further  understanding  e x p l o r e s both Concepts  purposes,  p r o c e s s , her  and  which  similarities  change o v e r  time  essential.  of our  solicit and as  concept  A more c o n v e r g e n t statistical  understandings  For purposes  of  this  open  approach while  action  and promoting  and  change.  differences. they  serve  open and  add  i s not  just  changing to  the  wise  but  research refinement  i s t h e r e f o r e secondary conceptual approach  a n a l y s i s await  as an  validation,  so t h e need t o remain  complexity  jealousy  query  v i e w s man  further  to  and  of  the  re-exploration. advanced  refinement  of t h e o r i e s  3  and models  f o r human  Rollo 'purpose' to  May's of  (1969)  our  May  in  gives  this  further  (1969)  r e s e a r c h which  b e l i e v e s emotions  one t h a t  purpose.  answers  The f i r s t  to  are  aspect  has  one's  side  aspect'starts  in the present  and p o i n t s  the w o r l d , feelings first the  of  and  "purpose  in a r e a l  why",  for".  but  Emotion  a r o u s e d by v i r t u e of future.  He  the  is  present.  May b e l i e v e s  that  it  In is  goals,  past  second future.  from us  f o r m e d by  dealing  with  the  requires asking is  to  the  e n t i r e l y sound t o  second aspect  ideals  The  toward the  partially  that  past experience.  meaningful  second aspect  in the  subjectivity.  emotions.  something  sense  other persons  aspect,  "reason  and s h a r e s  blends  t o do w i t h t h e  the r e g r e s s i v e  communicates  of  and  support  r e a s o n and t h e o t h e r  as  It  it  for  i n t e n t i o n a l and have  and is" c o r r e l a t e d w i t h d e t e r m i n i s m of He s e e s  'reason'  fundamental  o b j e c t i v i t y with phenomenological  two a s p e c t s , serves  d i s t i n c t i o n between  emotions  the approach used  scientific  emotions.  ask the  attraction,  and p o s s i b i l i t i e s  in  the  says:  The r e a s o n i s t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e p a s t w h i c h e x p l a i n s why y o u a r e d o i n g t h i s or t h a t , and p u r p o s e , i n c o n t r a s t , i s what you want t o get out of d o i n g i t . . . . The s e c o n d ( a s p e c t ) i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h f r e e d o m . We p a r t i c i p a t e i n f o r m i n g t h e f u t u r e by v i r t u e of o u r c a p a c i t y t o c o n c e i v e of and r e s p o n d t o new p o s s i b i l i t i e s , and t o b r i n g them out of i m a g i n a t i o n and t r y them i n a c t u a l i t y (May, 1969, p . 9 1 ) .  In  summary,  exploration  of  this  the  r e s e a r c h renews and a d d s  reasons  why and p u r p o s e s  for  to  the  jealousy.  4  It  adds  t o t h e G e s t a l t of what  is  open  and c r e a t i v e i n u s i n g  descriptive Her  goal  ways and  i s jealousy. her d a t a ,  r e m a i n d e r of t h i s  research broader  of j e a l o u s y ;  chapter  explore  context  conceptually provides  for jealousy  a brief  Many e a r l y and jealousy  assumptions  treat  (Langfeldt, Buunk,  (Francis, Turbott,  jealousy 1962); 1982;  1922;  1957;  upon w h i c h and p r o v i d e  Todd  1977); m o r b i d  three  major Finally,  define  1962;  (Barrell  & Dewhurst,  1947;  1955);  Ziman,  1979).  have  logical  u n d e r s t a n d i n g s of j e a l o u s y .  as:  been  1949)  erotic  1982;  Bohm,  heterosexual  1977;  (Mooney,  Seeman,  Riviere,  & Richards,  & Marks,  1981); o r p a t h o l o g i c a l  trait  cause-effect  Sokoloff,  efforts  a  to follow.  authors  Langfeldt,  (Cobb  this  further  somewhat c a t e g o r i c a l l y  sexual  These  new  presuppose a jealous character  (Freud,  seeking  Jealousy  some c o n t e m p o r a r y  (Klein,  a  t h e o r i e s of human e m o t i o n . .  O t h e r s presuppose or imply  relationships  1961;  present  o u t l i n e of t h e c h a p t e r s  i n ways t h a t  or d i s p o s i t i o n  and/or  will  of a p p r o a c h by p r e s e n t i n g  divergent  in  jealousy.  as w e l l as  Defining  1932).  on  i s b a s e d , examine t h e l i m i t a t i o n s  substantiation  it  in objective  c o u n s e l l o r s and c l i e n t s  a b r o a d e r more h e l p f u l p e r s p e c t i v e  definition  researcher  i n more s p e c u l a t i v e , s u b j e c t i v e ways.  i s to f a c i l i t a t e  The  The  Mowat,  1965;  Pao,  1966; 1977;  e n l i g h t e n i n g t o our  However,  they  5  contribute strive  to  t o a t e n d e n c y t o be p r i m a r i l y understand  a need f o r  our  realities.  phenomenological  diagnostic  This  as  tendency  conceptualization  we  indicates  and  exploration. Nasru  (1980)  constructs" build our  (p.7).  them i n t o  incorporates  "exist"  is  not  it  is  the  then,  for  a triangular  and  preliminary  descriptors  a new one  and  to  them  in a  similar T h e form  she  of  conceptually  purposes  of  this  research  human e x p e r i e n c e i n w h i c h c o r e needs a r e  is both  t h r e a t e n e d or  t o be t h r e a t e n e d .  i n an e f f o r t  she  to  not  solicits  as  a conceptual  r e m a i n open t o new define  their  background.  possibilities  jealousy  for  her  subjects.  definitions  for  presentation  discussion.  Assumpt i o n s 1.  in  definition  in d i s c u s s i o n s  an a n c i e n t  interpersonal  r e s e a r c h e r does  Instead,  t h e n , we need  t h e human e x p e r i e n c e .  The above d e f i n i t i o n a c t s However,  mental  and i l l u s t r a t e  researcher's  to  are  one.  d e f i n e d as  perceived  This  Rather,  Jealousy,  personal  "concepts  Phenomenologically  "form"  a triangle,  reliable  that  visually-oriented  effort,, giving  jealousy.  out  images t h a t  definitions.  uses,  points  Jealousy  is  constructs  a conceptually u s e d as  broader  foundations  for  construct the  than  currently  the  and  6  available 2.  Jealousy  measures of j e a l o u s y . exists in a social,  situational stake  F u n d a m e n t a l human needs a r e a t  and every person has a t l e a s t  experience 3.  context.  i n t e r a c t i o n a l and  the p o t e n t i a l t o  jealousy.  Humans have a c o n s e n s u a l a w a r e n e s s o f t h e j e a l o u s y experience.  4. A combined a p p r o a c h incorporates: research by  literature;  Inferences  of p r e v i o u s  i s both  and adapted  for objective  subjects'  f e a s i b l e and v a l i d .  experiences  own s e l f - r e p o r t , b u t r e m a i n  basis  of the r e s e a r c h e r ' s the topic  conventional  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s u b j e c t s '  their  with  which  a self-report questionnaire  accounts,  about  of j e a l o u s y  descriptive statistics  and s u b j e c t i v e  experiential 5.  critique  the researcher;  data;  t o the study  are subservient  valid  expertise  to  i n c l u s i o n s on t h e  a s a c o u n s e l l o r and  area.  L i m i t a t ions 1. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  as a r e s e a r c h  a p p r o a c h have t h e u s u a l including scale in  socially  problems,  recall,  These  d e s i r a b l e and other  selective returns,  difficulties  Platek  and t h e survey  well-established  i n sampling  i s s u e s a r e reviewed  Krewski,  tool,  response  sets,  individual differences non-respondents, e t c .  extensively  & Rao ( 1 9 8 0 ) , B o r g  problems  by s u c h a u t h o r s a s  & Gall  (1979) and many  7  others. 2.  A non-random a d u l t and/or as  their  a male or  partners  Selection  of  the  4.  one  An  students  adult  a g e s of  20  is  and  pool  was  a wish  countries,  backgrounds.  b a s e d on to  60.  These  findings.  financial include  cultures,  Survey  defined  races  response  and  is a  factor.  Residency criteria  the  c o n v e n i e n c e and  religious/social  university  g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of  subject  from v a r i o u s  limiting  of  sampled.  restrict  considerations, subjects  was  f e m a l e between  characteristics 3.  population  i n the such as:  adult;  community  sampled  f u l l - t i m e student  essential parental  income; and  i s determined  proximity  of  status  status;  permanent  of  at  number of  residence  by least children;  to  the  university.  Theories  This providing the  section  further  reviews three  a broader  conceptual  of  context  divergence  substantiation  for  of  Emotion  major  jealousy.  these  f o r the  theories  of  emotion,  I t makes a p p a r e n t  theories,  approach used  thus in  providing  this  research. Plutchik's Plutchik, the  theory  (Plutchik,  1962;  1980b) i s p s y c h o e v o l u t i o n a r y  ways i n w h i c h e m o t i o n s  function  Plutchik, and  1980a;  seeks to  adaptively  identify  i n humans  and  8  animals.  His  structural  interrelationships acceptance,  fear,  anticipation. analysis by h i s  of  many mood terms  " w h e e l of  emotions"  emotion.  Mixtures  yields  love.  the wheel  Emotions  that  The w h e e l globe. position equator. emotion  is  of  yields  awe,  indicates  including  disgust,  were a r r i v e d a t  and a r e which  anger by  is  divided  such,  while of  into  emotions  eight  like  result  a combination  of  of  is  distinguished  weakest  sadness  is  their  of by  the p o l e s  while  uses c o l o r s  encapsulate  fear  acceptance  similarity.  a rather  opposed.  elongated  cross-sectional and g r e a t e s t  or e q u i t o r i a l v e r s i o n  then g r i e f  He a l s o  Ten p o s t u l a t e s  at  in  around the c i r c u m f e r e n c e  the c r o s s - s e c t i o n is  equal  primary  emotions  j o y mixed w i t h  the e x t e n t  and  represented conceptually  primary  As  joy,  factor  a r e most d i f f e r e n t a r e d i a m e t r i c a l l y  The i n t e n s e  pensiveness.  emotions  sadness,  adjacent  Proximity  Intensity and  the  each r e p r e s e n t i n g a d i f f e r e n t  compounded e m o t i o n s .  and s u r p r i s e  primary  These emotions  wedges,  of  eight  surprise,  geometric  other  of  model d e s c r i b e s  its  of  polar  the  of  the  primary  version  to d i s t i n g u i s h  the essence  at  is  intensity. Plutchik's  theory: 1.  2.  The c o n c e p t of e m o t i o n i s a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l e v o l u t i o n a r y l e v e l s and a p p l i e s t o a n i m a l s as as humans.  well  E m o t i o n s have an e v o l u t i o n a r y h i s t o r y and have e v o l v e d v a r i o u s forms of e x p r e s s i o n i n d i f f e r e n t spec i e s .  9  3. E m o t i o n s s e r v e an a d a p t i v e r o l e i n h e l p i n g o r g a n i s m s d e a l w i t h key s u r v i v a l i s s u e s p o s e d by t h e environment. 4. D e s p i t e d i f f e r e n t forms of e x p r e s s i o n of e m o t i o n s d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s , t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n common e l e m e n t s , or p r o t o t y p e p a t t e r n s , t h a t can be identified. 5.  T h e r e i s a s m a l l number of prototype emotions.  basic,  primary,  in  or  6. A l l o t h e r e m o t i o n s a r e m i x e d or d e r i v a t i v e s t a t e s : t h a t i s , t h e y o c c u r as c o m b i n a t i o n s , m i x t u r e s , or as compounds of t h e p r i m a r y e m o t i o n s . 7.  P r i m a r y e m o t i o n s a r e h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s or i d e a l i z e d s t a t e s whose p r o p e r t i e s and • c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can o n l y be i n f e r r e d from v a r i o u s kinds'of evidence.  8.  P r i m a r y e m o t i o n s can be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n terms p a i r s of p o l a r o p p o s i t e s .  9. A l l e m o t i o n s v a r y one a n o t h e r .  i n t h e i r d e g r e e of  10. E a c h e m o t i o n c a n e x i s t i n t e n s i t y or l e v e l s of p.8) . Plutchik's dichotomous  continuum.  "we know t h a t the o p p o s i t e various  1970)  places  He e m p h a s i z e s  the o p p o s i t e  love"  (Bartell,  Robinson  Honigmann, seeming  of  is  disciplines  synergism Huber,  joy  (1980b,  of  in  on a by  saying  that  hate  Many a u t h o r s  from  of  to  of 1980a,  the concept  1934; C o u l t e r ,  1978; Maslow,  believe rather  view  sadness,  p.75).  1977; B e n e d i c t ,  emotions  this  who a r e p r o p o n e n t s  & Huber,  similarity  in varying degrees arousal (Plutchik,  eighth postulate  of  is  of  1976;  1971; Maslow &  the e s s e n t i a l  unity  of  paradoxes.  Plutchik's  wheel a l s o  does  not a l l o w  for  a potential  10  approximation  of  researcher  is  exploring  model.  incorporates  It  spherical  to allow  emotion(s)  and r e c u r r i n g  triadic  p o s e d by Bower relate three  such  sets  interpretive It  three  have  sets  conceptual of  including  is  three subsets,  of  tetrahedrons  in c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and F u l l e r  the  one  empirical effort (1981)  to  claims  processes, mood-congruous  latter  two of  indicating  triadic  these  the  vertexes  itself  to both e m p i r i c a l  is  a synergistic  explains  The use  and  of  and  conceptual and  mathematical  e x p l a i n e d and s u p p o r t e d by Nasru  circular)  t h e use  triangular  sphere  lends  (1975).  verses  true  useful  model  for  example,  a very  (as  strives  substantive  is  spherical  other  approximating  Bower  mathematically  research.  (or  again  tetrahedral  tetrahedron.  phenomenological  Fuller  exact  such  for  of  the  d e r i v e d by t h e  It  for  more  for  as,  and s a l i e n c e  representation.  (1980)  and  associative  that  conceptual  things:  to emotion.  noteworthy  The c o m b i n a t i o n component  other  other(s);  processes  facility the  among  This  i n t o movable  in h i s • p r e l i m i n a r y  processes  material.  segmented  relationships  (1981)  cognitive  planes  a mathematically  for,  w i t h any  p o l a r i z e d emotions.  a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e  representation  components any  otherwise  view of  of  man and t h e  Nasru  T a o i s m and a  Y a n g - Y i n g movement  spheres  geodesies)  understanding  incorporates  thinking  into  universe.  packed with  tetrahedrons  i n model c o n s t r u c t i o n  the behaviour  of  her  whole  that  systems.  11  Plutchik's s u c h as I z a r d ' s that  presupposes  Izard's  (1971) t h e o r y ,  of the r e l a t i o n  separate  repeatedly  occur  emphasizes  cognition. in contrast,  their  incorporates  usual  He c l e a r l y  harmonious  in consciousness,  of c o g n i t i o n " at least.the  phenomena he g i v e s  (Izard,  the  possibility  response.  divergence  o f t h e two t h e o r i e s  claim  emotions  as one  and  (as v e r s u s that  emotion  completely  1971, p.1850.  By  of independent  e m o t i o n more s t a t u s  equates emotion with  others,  in postulating  i n t e r a c t i v e n a t u r e but a l s o c l a i m s  independent  that  from  between e m o t i o n and c o g n i t i o n ,  a s "a p r o c e s s  suggesting  (1948),  but i n t e r a c t i n g s u b s y s t e m s .  consecutive) can  also differs  (1971) and S a t r e ' s  emotion  notion of  (1980a) t h e o r y  than  emotional  Plutchik  The c e n t r a l  who  conceptual  i s thus emphasized  " i n t e r a c t " (p.155) r a t h e r  by  Izard's  t h a n mix  like  colors. Izard's and  critique  r a i s e s many q u e s t i o n s  conceptualization. as  of P l u t c h i k ' s  e s p e c i a l l y regarding  H i s own  theory  the p r i n c i p a l m o t i v a t i o n a l  fundamentally  postulates  and  that  s y s t e m but even  e m o t i o n s have n e u r o p h y s i o l o g i c a l ,  (interest,  give  (p.183).  He  neuromuscular  aspects.  (1971) p o s t u l a t e s enjoyment,  "not o n l y  more  as t h e p e r s o n a l i t y p r o c e s s e s w h i c h  phenomenological Izard  i s s u e s of  views emotions  meaning and s i g n i f i c a n c e t o human e x i s t e n c e " claims  i s extensive  nine  fundamental  emotions  surprise, distress, disgust,  anger,  1 2  shame,  fear  and c o n t e m p t )  mechanisms.  He c l a r i f i e s  f i x e d number and assumes  which are that "that  vestigial  and d i s a p p e a r  (p.234).  E a c h e m o t i o n has  motivational amplify negative  lead to p s y c h o l o g i c a l facilitate entropy"  (Izard,  Izard five  (1971)  subsystems:  motor.  effective  becomes  Another  of  discrete s u c h as  three,  his  fundamental  necessary of  his  a more for  attenuate  or  and  emotions  tend  to  a complex  of  tend  to of  personality  drive,  for  is  emotion,  emotion, uniquely  are human  behaviour.  Therefore,  leads  interaction  is  that  breaks  separate  the  to  eventuate.  compounded  more than  and  t h e most  t h r e e subsystems  assumptions  something  cognition  and  emotions  summation  of  emotions.  A comprehensive requires  that  these  exist. are  and  positive  i n e f f e c t i v e behaviours  principal  jealousy  a  evolve"  the c o n v e r s e  When s u b s y s t e m  faulty  emotions  or  including  i n t e r a c t i o n of  down or  "some  not  p.182).  suggests  behaviours.  that  behaviour  and form t h e b a s i s  Harmonious  i d e a of  while.others  homeostatic,  The l a s t  important  more  1971,  is  may become  new ones may  the  rather  entropy  constructive  nine  One might a c t i v a t e ,  noting  innate  unique phenomenological  He q u a l i f i e s  emotions  by  postulated  some e m o t i o n s  and t h a t  properties.  another.  his  subserved  understanding  of  in-depth exploration  purposes  of  this  conceptualization, his  Izard's of  review.  his  (1971)  text  However,  'open-system'  than the  thinking,  theory is clarity and  13  relative  to others discussed  applicability  of h i s t h e o r y  the  of h i s c l a i m s :  following  in this  section,  the  greater  t o humans i s made a p p a r e n t i n  1. E m o t i o n e l e m e n t s of p e r s o n a l i t y [ a r e r e f e r r e d t o ] as a s y s t e m s i n c e , on t h e b a s i s of b o t h i n n a t e and l e a r n e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , emotions are i n t e r r e l a t e d i n dynamic and r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e ways. Largely b e c a u s e of t h e n a t u r e of t h e u n d e r l y i n g i n n a t e mechanisms, some of t h e e m o t i o n s a r e o r g a n i z e d i n a k i n d o f h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p .... A novel sound might e l i c i t t h e i n t e r e s t o f an i n f a n t o r child. I f i n i t s f i r s t p r e s e n t a t i o n the s t r a n g e sound were q u i t e l o u d i t might e l i c i t f e a r . I f the sound were e x t r e m e l y l o u d and sudden i t m i g h t evoke s t a r t l e .... 2. The c o n c e p t o f p o l a r o p p o s i t e s s h o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d as d e f i n i n g i n f l e x i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between e m o t i o n s , and t h e a p p a r e n t o p p o s i t i o n does, n o t a l w a y s d e n o t e an e i t h e r / o r r e l a t i o n s h i p . Often o p p o s i t e s t e n d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h or e l i c i t e d by e a c h o t h e r , as e v i d e n c e d by t h e o f t e n o b s e r v e d " t e a r s of j o y " . 3. C e r t a i n e m o t i o n s o t h e r t h a n t h e p a i r s of p o l a r o p p o s i t e s t e n d t o have f a i r l y r e g u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a t l e a s t under c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s . I n t e r e s t may o s c i l l a t e w i t h f e a r as t h e o r g a n i s m e x p l o r e s some unknown o b j e c t or s i t u a t i o n .... 4. Two o r more f u n d a m e n t a l e m o t i o n s o c c u r r i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y o r a l t e r n a t e l y w i t h some r e g u l a r i t y p r o d u c e a c o m b i n a t i o n of e m o t i o n s w h i c h may t a k e on the q u a l i t y of a t r a i t or p e r s o n a l i t y p a t t e r n . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f o n l y some of t h e components of two o r more f u n d a m e n t a l e m o t i o n s p r o d u c e s mixed e m o t i o n , w h i c h may r e s u l t i n ambiguous, a m b i v a l e n t , o r conflictive feelings.... 5. A l l e m o t i o n s have c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n common. A l l e m o t i o n s , as c o n t r a s t e d w i t h d r i v e s , a r e noncyclical. One does n o t become i n t e r e s t e d or d i s g u s t e d or ashamed two or t h r e e t i m e s a day i n rhythm w i t h i n g e s t i o n , d i g e s t i o n , and m e t a b o l i c processes. 6. E m o t i o n s have v i r t u a l l y u n l i m i t e d g e n e r a l i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y as m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . While only f o o d and d r i n k w i l l s a t i s f y t h e hunger and t h i r s t  14  d r i v e s , a p e r s o n c a n l e a r n t o be j o y f u l o r contemptuous or a f r a i d i n response t o a seemingly i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y of t h i n g s . 7. A l l e m o t i o n s i n f l u e n c e o r r e g u l a t e t h e d r i v e s and o t h e r p e r s o n a l i t y s u b s y s t e m s . ' One o f t h e i m p o r t a n t and f r e q u e n t f u n c t i o n s o f e m o t i o n i s t o r e g u l a t e , t o a c t as a m p l i f i e r or a t t e n u a t o r i n the m o t i v a t i o n a l system complex. F o r example, d r i v e s w h i c h a r e n o t reduced t o a l e v e l w i t h i n the t o l e r a n c e l i m i t s of t h e o r g a n i s m t e n d t o i n s t i g a t e and r e c r u i t e m o t i o n s , which i n t u r n a m p l i f y the d r i v e . The e m o t i o n of i n t e r e s t - e x c i t e m e n t may b r i n g t h e sex d r i v e t o h i g h p i t c h ; the emotions of d i s g u s t , f e a r , or d i s t r e s s may m o d u l a t e , mask, r e d u c e , o r c o m p l e t e l y i n h i b i t t h e sex d r i v e ( I z a r d , 1971, p p . 1 8 5 - 1 8 7 ) .  Solomon influential  (1976) a c k n o w l e d g e s mentor.  Unlike  S a t r e a s h i s most  Satre  myth o f t h e p a s s i o n s w h i c h c l a i m s the  same i n terms o f e m o t i o n s .  e m o t i o n a l metaphors  (eg. being  " h a u n t e d by g u i l t " ) ,  claiming  however, he d e n i e s t h e that  deep down we a r e a l l  He r e f u t e s "struck  the t r a d i t i o n a l  by j e a l o u s y " o r  they separate  us from o u r  e m o t i o n s and s u g g e s t o u r e m o t i o n s a r e s o m e t h i n g we eliminate believes  or deal  with  i n the l e a s t  d a n g e r o u s way.  should He  o u r e m o t i o n s a r e s o m e t h i n g we "do" and s a y s :  An e m o t i o n i s a ( s e t o f ) j u d g e m e n t ( s ) w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e our w o r l d , o u r s u r r e a l i t y , and i t s ' i n t e n t i o n a l objects'. An e m o t i o n i s a b a s i c judgement a b o u t o u r s e l v e s and o u r p l a c e i n o u r w o r l d , t h e p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e v a l u e s and i d e a l s , s t r u c t u r e s and m y t h o l o g i e s , a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h we l i v e and t h r o u g h w h i c h we e x p e r i e n c e o u r l i v e s (Solomon, 1976, p p . 1 8 6 - 1 8 7 ) . Solomon of  (1976) e x p l a i n s  i t must a l w a y s  significance  involve  i n order  O t h e r w i s e we would  that  that  an i n c i d e n t  a personal  e v a l u a t i o n of  i t be s u f f i c i e n t  n o t be a b l e  or perception  f o r emotion.  to account f o r the f a c t  that  15  different the  p e o p l e have v e r y d i f f e r e n t  same  incidents.  The  feeling  according specific  t h e o r y of emotion  t o Solomon  (1976).  t o the s i t u a t i o n  have a l l t h e f e e l i n g s emotion  of paradigm.  It results  or extremes  the emotion.  every  he p r o f e s s e s ,  and not the emotion.  with t h i s  instance  feeling,  of d i f f e r e n t  o r we c a n have t h e feelings.  i n our t y p i c a l  of emotion,  He  examples  use o f  o f e m o t i o n , and'  f e e l i n g s a r e much t h e same i n  emotion.  The c o n c e p t o f  t o him, h a s t o o many d i f f e r e n t  of s p e c i f i c  ornamentation  Hence we c a n  t h e s e f e e l i n g s and s e n s a t i o n s  He b e l i e v e s  according  definitional  that  may be  t h e o r y as b e i n g a poor  when g i v i n g  our mistaken- b e l i e f s  are  Feelings,  and n o t t h e e m o t i o n  the problem  emergencies in  i s a n e g a t i v e one  a n d none o f t h e u s u a l a c c o m p a n y i n g  describes choice  emotional reactions to  emotion.  u s e s t o be  He s a y s " f e e l i n g  not i t s essence"  i s the  (Solomon,  1976,  p.159). Solomon  s u g g e s t s we make o u r e m o t i o n s ,  t o make them by o u r c u l t u r e each o t h e r r e s p o n s i b l e judgements  of f a c t  we make s o m e t h i n g They It  are active,  may seem l i k e  necessarily explicit,  at a very early  f o r them.  i n the usual true  by v i r t u e  spontaneous our emotions  They  a g e , and h o l d  a r e not simply  sense but i n the sense o f t h e judgement  but n o n - r e f l e c t i v e  that  itself. judgements.  "happen" t o us and we do n o t  remember making them b e c a u s e  articulated,  a r e t a u g h t how  or d e l i b e r a t e d .  they a r e not always However, he s a y s  16  "emotions  c a n become r e f l e c t i v e ,  p u r p o s e s and t h e i r An series  emotion  objects"  about  must be s e l f - i n v o l v e d love"  juried  that  personally cast  to us.  set, ...  and t h a t  they a r e the g u i l t y  court  about  prosecutor role  and s e l f - r i g h t e o u s ,  1976, p . 1 9 0 ) .  attempts  In a n g e r  we  to elevate  t h e jaw  object  and s e l f - e s t e e m " a r e "about"  "a r e l a t i o n s h i p  competition  We make  hence  "The u l t i m a t e  When e m o t i o n s  p e r s o n he s a y s t h e y c o n s t i t u t e  one  party.  we a r e p l a y i n g .  o u r own s e n s e o f d i g n i t y  or a n o t h e r , p e r h a p s  we s h o u l d t a k e i t  t h e w o r l d a n d we a c t o u t t h e  t h e t e n s e and f o r w a r d s t a n d .  (Solomon,  particularly  Our p o s t u r e r e p r e s e n t s t h e  out as s u p e r i o r  i s always  We  When we become a n g r y we have j u d g e d a n d  we have c a s t .  ourselves  a whole  When we " f a l l i n  someone h a s o f f e n d e d u s , t h a t  accusational,  includes  and our s e l f - e s t e e m .  t o make someone  a s e t o f judgements  role(s)  t o Solomon,  our s e l f  their  1976, p . 1 9 2 ) .  t o be e m o t i o n a l .  we make a d e c i s i o n  important  (Solomon,  then, according  o f judgements  aware o f t h e m s e l v e s ,  or comparison,  h i s self-esteem"  another  o f one s o r t within  (Solomon,  which  1976,  p. 1 90) . Solomon emotions. because  (1976) a l s o  speaks  of " b i - p o l a r "  J e a l o u s y , a n g e r , h a t e and l o v e a r e b i - p o l a r  they a r e not s o l e l y  about  oneself,  t h e o t h e r p e r s o n and n o t a c o n j u n c t i o n about  (p.189)  not s o l e l y  o f t h e two.  the r e l a t i o n s h i p . In Solomon's  (1976) view  emotions  are l o g i c a l ,  about  They a r e  17  describable  and e x p l a i n a b l e ,  uncontrollable.  They a r e "our most  instruments of s e l f - e s t e e m " about  our present  importantly,  not a n i m a l i s t i c and trustworthy  (p.252).  situation,  and r a t i o n a l  They a r e j u d g e m e n t s  our p a s t ,  other  people-and  most  they:  i n c l u d e i n t e n t i o n s f o r t h e f u t u r e , t o a c t , t o change the w o r l d and change o u r s e l v e s , t o r e v e n g e o u r s e l v e s i n a n g e r , ... t o c a r e s s a n d c a r e f o r a n o t h e r i n l o v e , t o d e s t r o y - b u t a t a s a f e d i s t a n c e - an o p p r e s s o r i n r e s e n t m e n t (Solomon, 1976, p . 2 7 6 ) .  Theories  o f e m o t i o n a r e many and d i f f e r e n t . . O n l y a few  major c o n t e m p o r a r y provide the  t h e o r i s t s have been p r e s e n t e d  a broader context  divergence  f o r jealousy  particular together  emotion.  theories discussed  discuss  extrapolate Plutchik  about  (1962,  separately,  1980a,  of  1980a,  opposite, discussion  draw  from t h e  model  (1971)  but i t i s p o s s i b l e t o  1980b) i m p l i e s  a l l ) of h i s e i g h t  h i s conceptual  jealousy  1980b) n o r I z a r d  of t h e i r that  m i x e d e m o t i o n , a d e r i v a t i v e o r combined possibly  section will  above.  from t h e main p r i n c i p l e s  (1962,  means we need t o  o f e x a m i n i n g any  of t h i s  some s p e c i f i c s  Plutchik  jealousy  This  at the l e v e l  The r e m a i n d e r  and c r i t i q u e  Neither  and t o make a p p a r e n t  in conceptualizations.  r e m a i n open and e x p l o r a t o r y  i n order to  primary  jealousy  isa  f o r m o f (some o r  emotions.  suggests that  theories.  jealousy  The s t r u c t u r e has a p o l a r  a n o t h e r m i x e d , compounded e m o t i o n , b u t h i s of t h i s  to h i s eight  polarity  primary  characteristic  emotions.  i s applied  H i s second p o s t u l a t e  only implies  18  that  jealousy,  expressive  even  forms,  deal of  be  serves  with  key  an  to  that  society  of  has  species.  construct  that  an  by  certain and  evolutionary the  evolved  organism  various  Jealousy  forms  i s , according  whose p r o p e r t i e s can  Izard evidence,  or  e m o t i o n s , he  only  jealousy of  emotions are  convinced  as  same s e n s e t h a t  awaiting  Plutchik  we  societies.  their  e m o t i o n does not 1980a, p . 5 ) .  the  more  for  exist His  in  theory  degrees  of  substantive  psychoevolutionary  least,  as  that  emotions  He  sources  Plutchik.  fundamental  (p.410).  i n a l l c u l t u r e s , or attempt  does  "the  u n i v e r s a l phenomena"  fundamental nine) e x i s t  than  arousal.  f o r humans a t  innate,  inner  a b s e n c e of a word  emotions to a l l s p e c i e s ,  that  in  e x i s t s in varying  h e s i t a t e s to extend  concludes,  in western  the  (Plutchik,  (1971), w i s e l y  d y n a m i c s of  as  that  "the  their  more l i k e l y  components  says  mean t h a t  levels  not' l a b e l  western c u l t u r e s are  in question"  implies  intensity  the  i t has  some c u l t u r e s do  e m o t i o n does not  further  not  familiar  i n a l l humans  role in helping  include, p s y c h o l o g i c a l  descriptions  He  in  inferred.  others  and  adaptive  a hypothetical  mood s t a t e s and  the  emotions,  in d i f f e r e n t  Observing  an  evident  patterns  s u r v i v a l i s s u e s and  expression  t o him,  prototype  L i k e a l l other  history,  clearly  is potentially identifiable  common e l e m e n t s or animals.  i f not  (other at  He than  least  i t seems, t o  his  not  to o b j e c t i v e l y d e s c r i b e  would a g r e e ,  is  in  them  some  19  common p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l a s p e c t all  of the j e a l o u s y  c u l t u r e s a n d , on a more o b j e c t i v e  less  differentiated  subjective  level,  depending  in  t o some more o r  r e c o g n i t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n  experience  experience  of t h i s  on t h e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l  environment. Jealousy, discrete  by i n f e r e n c e  and s e p a r a t e  combination  of I z a r d ' s  emotion,  (1971) t h e o r y ,  isa  s o m e t h i n g more t h a n a  of fundamental emotions.  It influences  some o r  other  d r i v e s , a n d has some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n common w i t h a l l  other  emotions.  I t i s part  o f an o r g a n i z e d  subsystem of p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t by has  four  other  giving  i n f l u e n c e s and i s i n f l u e n c e d  s u b s y s t e m s and by t h e s y s t e m a s a w h o l e .  neurophysiological,  aspects.  "emotion"  Most  neuromuscular  importantly,  It  and p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l  i t h a s some m o t i v a t i o n a l  basis  meaning and s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s  existence. Solomon  (1976) d e a l s  than e i t h e r P l u t c h i k closely envy,  more s p e c i f i c a l l y  or I z a r d .  He o b s e r v e s  r e l a t e d t o a n g e r and h a t r e d .  with  jealousy  that  jealousy i s  He compares  i t with  saying: J e a l o u s y shares envy's 'green-eyed monster' s t a t u s .... T h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s however; j e a l o u s y , u n l i k e envy, s e e s i t s e l f a s t h e e q u a l o f t h e o t h e r . Where envy g l o w e r s q u i e t l y a n d i n e f f e c t i v e l y - even u n n o t i c e a b l y - from a d i s t a n c e , j e a l o u s y i s w i l l i n g and even a n x i o u s f o r a c o n f r o n t a t i o n .... U n l i k e envy, j e a l o u s y wants t h e o t h e r t o f a c e i t s f a b l e d g r e e n e y e . Moreover, j e a l o u s y i s u s u a l l y c o n f i n e d t o a s i n g l e p o s s e s s i o n o r i n c i d e n t ; envy o f t e n i n c l u d e s major a s p e c t s o r even t h e e n t i r e l i f e s t y l e o f i t s d i s t a n t o b j e c t (Solomon, 1976, p . 3 3 3 ) .  20  Jealousy, involving  competition  particular object  Solomon  and  i n c i d e n t or  status.  s e r i e s of  is a bi-polar  I t s s c o p e or incidents"  i s "another person's c o m p e t i t i v e  intersubjectively ( p . 3 3 4 ) ; and what  (1976) c l a i m s ,  the  rightfully  belongs  involved  gain"  t o me"  i s one  (p.334).  focus  is  "a  (p.333); i t s  i t i s " c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l and mythology  emotion  (p.334); defensive"  of  "you've  taken  Jealousy:  l o o k s t o t h e o t h e r as r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o n e ' s own deprivation. But l i k e e n v y , r i g h t [my e m p h a s i s ] i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e q u e s t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; i n j e a l o u s y , one seems h i m s e l f as h a v i n g a r i g h t t o t h e c o v e t e d o b j e c t - a t l e a s t as much r i g h t as the o t h e r (Solomon, 1976, p.334).  Jealousy's is  one  of  (p.334).  desire  i s "to get  i t back"  " p l a c i n g o n e ' s stamp on Solomon  (1976) c l a i m s  uncommonly become j e a l o u s possessions,  about  over  which they  He  discusses  Its  strategy  things  the  earth"  of  further that possessions,  have l i t t l e  Solomon a p p l i e s h i s t h e o r y jealousy.  the  (p.334).  of  not  i n c l u d i n g human  or  no  concern.  emotions n e g a t i v e l y  r i g h t s without  discussing  or p r i v i l e g e .  practical  a p p l i c a b l e , e s p e c i a l l y when a c o u n s e l l o r  faced  by  the  relatively  babe  i n arms, who  with  another It  for as  common c a s e of  i s threatened  by  her  but  not is  a woman, s u c k l i n g mate's  involvement  woman.  seems q u i t e  other  i s convenient,  to  freedom,  committment, or  This  people  emotions,  acceptable that  to consider,  jealousy  will  as  does Solomon  i n some c a s e s  a s p o n t a n e o u s , n o n - r e f l e c t i v e judgement.  occur  However, i n  21  discussing his  jealousy  earlier  claims  judgements about instance, forget  as a p a r t i c u l a r that  the past  and f u t u r e  (his context,  includes p r i m a r i l y the p r e s e n t ) .  trustworthy (Solomon,  and r a t i o n a l 1976, p . 2 5 2 ) .  evidenced  sees  that  of  1976,  1980, 1981a) view  experienced  perspectives  (e.g.,  as o c c u r r i n g a f t e r about  Cbnstantine, jealousy  when t h e t h r e a t  jealousy's  Certainly  the jealousy  speak  suggested jealousy person  d e s i r e . . Mb'st 1972; W h i t e ,  as a f e a r of l o s s  i s imminent, a p p a r e n t o r  judgement  t o our p e r c e i v e d  t h e l o s s as  1976; F o s t e r ,  imagined and i t i s thus a s s o c i a t e d with  other  He a l s o seems t o  self-esteem"  N e g l e c t i n g these ft  by h i s s t a t e m e n t  authors  Our  in this  e m o t i o n s a r e "our most  instruments  jealousy  other  is  forgets  i n h i s negative i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s .  Solomon  will  Solomon  e m o t i o n s a r e i n t e n t i o n s t o a c t and  h i s fundamental c l a i m  results  emotion  will  a " y e t t o happen".  be a m o r a l one and i t  s t a t u s or p l a c e  by Solomon's g e n e r a l  i n the world  as  d i s c u s s i o n of emotions.  does s a y s o m e t h i n g a b o u t  t h e way we s e e t h e  and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p , b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h a t  we view e i t h e r a s o b j e c t s , a s he seems t o i n d i c a t e when applying  h i s general  theory  including  that  the  j e a l o u s y may  loss,  what t h e o t h e r those  F o r many  the f e a r of l o s s n e c e s s a r i l y o c c u r s just  as l i k e l y  person p r o v i d e s  essential,  such as l o v e  to jealousy.  be d i r e c t e d  and r e c e i v e s  before toward  ( f o r example,  b u t a b s t r a c t and ' n o n - o b j e c t '  and i n t i m a c y ,  reasons,  qualities  w h i c h we a l l need t o g i v e  as w e l l  22  as  receive,  only  keep or p r o t e c t ) .  a f t e r we  party's  gain  lose  fear  envy d i r e c t e d a t  "jealous  loss,  woman" i n the  f o r h e r s e l f and  unique environment l o s s has Solomon's back" or (p.234).  not  yet  likely that  (both  loss  back"  involves a  third  a f t e r the  loss,  that, the  them  new  possessor  we  rather  occurred  I t may  i n f a n t , of  and  her  her  moral  that  infant)  a  then  special  of  f e a r may  her  the  judgements  she  as  and  i s being  that  of  the  the  (in this  cheated.  broken-  would  committment  ( b e c a u s e of aside,  same p r i v i l e g e s or  f r e e d o m s as  (1976) a l s o c l a i m s  jealousy's  it  earth"  society) A  Rights  to get  r e l a t i o n s h i p can  p h y s i o l o g i c a l bondage  i s being  Her  transcend  "wanting  things  make s e n s e t o her  r e s u l t e d i n her  have the  above example m i g h t  physical and•meta-physical).  " p l a c i n g a stamp on  include  suckling  her  (1976) p e r s p e c t i v e  s t o l e n but  not  i f our  "get  jealousy. The  be  want t o  i t seems more l o g i c a l  would e x p e r i e n c e than  them and  We  her  she  the  does  "delinquent"  mate. Solomon intimate, instance  not of  the  certainly  not  redefines  or  or  impersonal"  situation.  jealous  jealousy  p e r s o n who  in the.instance resolution-seeks These  behaviour, proposed that  '(p.234).  four by  of  This  within  different  is frequently  may  be  w i t h d r a w s or  the  Constantine  distance  person the  who  so  is  "not  i n . the  denies  but  antagonizes,  jealousy t r i a n g l e  t y p e s of  jealousy  (1976, p . 3 8 8 ) , make c l e a r  intimate  and  always  involves  23  fear the  of l o s s .  The l a s t  are active e f f o r t s  to protect  p a i r bond and a r e s e q u e n t i a l l y more i n t i m a t e .  first,  jealous  withdrawal,  Solomon's c l a i m In  place  three  within  divergence, search  i s the only  jealousy's  this  one t h a t  theories  t o a need  fits  discussed  of emotion g i v i n g  I t h a s made a p p a r e n t  pointing  The  distance.  s e c t i o n has p r e s e n t e d ,  major  each.  their  and  jealousy a  conceptual  t o remain d e s c r i p t i v e and i n  of p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l i n s i g h t s .  Chapter summary.  two i s d i v i d e d  The/first  envy.  selected  The n e x t literature  psychiatry,  major  s e c t i o n s and a  s e c t i o n examins comparisons three  sections  present  from a n t h r o p o l o g y  three  presents  After presentation  statistics  i n t o four  of  jealousy  and c r i t i q u e  and s o c i o l o g y ,  and p s y c h o l o g y .  Chapter study.  about  summary,  critiqued  and  three  are presented  the e m p i r i c a l phase of t h e of the methodology, d e s c r i p t i v e  f o r the o b j e c t i v e data  collected  by t h e s u r v e y .  Preliminary  discussed  and some h y p o t h e s e s  that  findings will  for future  research  were be  will  be  presented. Chapter in  four  the jealousy  will  discuss  survey.  It will  appendices which p r e s e n t , insights,  use examples  completely  collected  from t h e  and v e r b a t i m , t h e  d e f i n i t i o n s and e x p e r i e n t i a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f  seventy-three few  the s u b j e c t i v e data  personal  people.  The r e s e a r c h e r  i n s i g h t s gained  during  will  a l s o present  the research  a  process.  Again,  suggestions  Chapter for  five  counselling.  suggested.  for future will A  few  discuss  research  will  be  made.  implications  of  this  study  interventions  will  be  specific  25  CHAPTER I I  LITERATURE REVIEW  This  chapter  were o u t l i n e d because  page.  t o the usual  i t prepares  sections  The t e x t  which  i s extensive  for empirical  f o r the l a t e r  examination  phenomenology  of m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y  and p r a c t i c e .  Jealousy  Jealousy their  heritages.  The l a c k  assuming, as t h i s  study  awareness of our s u b j e c t i v e conceptual verbal  clarity  distinctions origins  experiences.  to c l a r i f y  between  jealousy  "although  summarizes  and envy.  semantically  'jealous'  who  uses  ambiguities. several  Discussing r e l a t e d , they  their refer  a s o c i a l (and  (p.167).  English Dictionary  f o r the a d j e c t i v e  i s often  S e m a n t i c and  a s p e c t s o f what may be c a l l e d  Oxford  i n s p i t e of  t o the c o u n s e l l o r  emotional) s t a t e , a r t or emotion" The  of c l a r i t y  (1972) "Anatomy o f Envy"  he s a y s  to d i s t i n c t  confused  does, a c o n s e n s u a l  are important  communication  Foster's  and Envy  and envy a r e f r e q u e n t l y  distinct  semantic  root  major  background  the reader  o f f e r i n g an i n - d e p t h  theory  i n t o four  on t h e p r e v i o u s  in addition  research, by  i s divided  (1933) g i v e s  and t h e noun  a single 'jealousy'  26  through the L a t i n zelos Latin  meanings  'emulation'  jealous  f o r the a d j e c t i v e  and ' z e a l '  Webster  back t o t h e Greek include  (1976) d e f i n e s  hostile  vigilance" The  Greek and  'jealousy',  (p.562). 'jealousy'  t h e noun as " a 1  d i s p o s i t i o n or s t a t e : a j e a l o u s  feeling:  ^7jXos.  rivalry:  nature,  suspicion, mistrust  a t t i t u d e or 2  zealous  (p.1212).  verb  " t o be j e a l o u s "  i s defined  i n t h e same  source  as: i n t o l e r a n t of r i v a l r y or u n f a i t h f u l n e s s ; d i s p o s e d t o s u s p e c t r i v a l r y or u n f a i t h f u l n e s s (as i n l o v e ) : a p p r e h e n s i v e o f t h e l o s s of a n o t h e r ' s d e v o t i o n : h o s t i l e t o w a r d a r i v a l o r one b e l i e v e d t o e n j o y an a d v a n t a g e (as a p o s e s s i o n o r a t t a i n m e n t ) : e n v i o u s , r e s e n t f u l ; z e a l o u s i n g u a r d i n g (as a p o s e s s i o n ) : v i g i l a n t : s o l i c i t o u s ; d i s t r u s t f u l l y w a t c h f u l ; a p p r e h e n s i v e of harm o r f r a u d : s u s p i c i o u s ( p . 1 2 1 2 ) . 1  2  3  Greek' and L a t i n other  form  p.167). defines  the  from  The c o n t e m p o r a r y  the L a t i n  " i n v i d e r e " meaning  maliciously  on  f o r "envy" and " e n v i o u s " ,  hand, a r e d i s t i n c t .  "envy" stems verb  forms  upon, t o c a s t  account  advantage"  noun  i s related to a  askance a t , t o look  eye upon"  ( F o s t e r , 1972,  International Dictionary  (1976)  envy t o w a r d o r  aware o r r e s e n t f u l l y aware o f  of (another) with  a desire  t o p o s s e s s t h e same  (p.760).  Foster meanings,  which  " t o envy" as " t o f e e l  o f : be p a i n f u l l y  advantage  " t o look  a an e v i l  W e b s t e r ' s T h i r d New t h e same v e r b  "invidia"  English  on t h e  (1972),  "to feel  looking  to Oxford's  a grudge a g a i n s t  (1933)  a person;  obsolete to regard  a  27  person  or a c t i o n  with desire  observed envy's  aggressive  Foster  believes  envy  and  targeted  at  is  is  the t r i g g e r .  involves  jealousy  something  that  is  envy and  is  of  He  significantly,  fears  normal  or  acquire  possession,  which  d i r e c t e d at  the  its  loss.  He  counterpart  of  envy,  when t h e e n v i e d p e r c e i v e s , it  as  a  or  significant  p.168).  (1980),. i n c o n t r a s t , jealousy.  is  t h e envy and v i e w s  1972,  (p.562),  to a t t a i n  their  jealousy  "the  triggered  becomes c o n s c i o u s (Foster,  not  and t h e s u b j e c t  that  Most  a desire  the p e r s o n ,  concludes  Neu  potential.  Conversely,  valued possession  threat"  or d i s a p p r o v a l "  sees  desire  as  central  to  both  says:  What i s s p e c i a l about t h e f e a r of l o s s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s j e a l o u s y i s c o n n e c t e d w i t h what i s s p e c i a l about p e o p l e : w h i l e one c o u l d l o s e p o s s e s s i o n of a t h i n g , one c o u l d not l o s e i t s a f f e c t i o n — i t has no a f f e c t i o n t o g i v e or t o be t a k e n away. T h i n g s do not r e s p o n d t o o u r feelings. People do. And when t h e y d o , we may f e a r t h e i r l o s s , not j u s t as t h i n g s (as o b j e c t s of d e s i r e and l o v e ) , but as f e e l i n g a g e n t s (as s o u r c e s of d e s i r e and l o v e ) . At t h e c e n t r e of j e a l o u s y i s i n s e c u r i t y , f e a r of l o s s , s p e c i f i c a l l y f e a r of a l i e n a t i o n of a f f e c t i o n s . . . . t h e d e s i r e [my e m p h a s i s ] t o be d e s i r e d or t h e d e s i r e f o r a f f e c t i o n , t h e need t o be l o v e d (Neu, 1980, p . 4 3 3 ) . Neu  (1980)  the person admiring  sources decides, it  is  wants t o  envy,  the o t h e r .  distinguishes lower  the other  when one s e e k s  He c l a i m s  between m a l i c i o u s  to  raise  unlike  o f t e n without  own l e v e l  oneself  t h e y have d i f f e r e n t  and d e v e l o p m e n t a l p a t h s . is  to h i s  either  appropriate  and  t o be  envy,  or a d m i r i n g  objects.  when  like  instinctual  Malicious  jealousy  envy,  "Its  he  envy  because  occurrence  28  may a l w a y s  involve pathology"  (Neu 1980, p . 4 3 4 ) .  perceives  broad contexts  to Foster  who l o s e s s i g h t o f man's c o m p l e x i t y ,  situational  complexity  interrelationship simplistic  for jealousy  and envy  and the c o m p l e x i t y  Neu  in contrast the  of the  between c o g n i t i o n and e m o t i o n .  t o imagine a poignant  jealousy  I t i s too  experience  lacking  desire. Klein  (1957) i s s i m i l a r  distinctions.  b a s e d on e n v y "  poles  polarity  (p.8).  believes  drawing  i s always  struggle  and  professing less  person  them on  opposite  a s n o b l e when when  i t  insatiable.  in its train"  Like Riviere  Competition  i s "always  is potentially  t o do w i t h  satiable  (1932) she  frustration  a t i t s most b a s i c  and d e a t h  is  this  she c l a i m s  passions  it  is  She does n o t a p p l y  the worst  life  "jealousy  instincts,  of e a r l y  level,  as  underlies  t h e s i s f o r envy and j e a l o u s y .  Scheock in  jealousy  to her, jealousy  between  angry a s p e c t of  She s a y s  places  t o envy, w h i c h  b o t h e m o t i o n s have  object-relations.  Klein's  by f e a r .  characteristic  According  envy  but l a t e r  She s e e s  stimulated  a base p a s s i o n ,  the  (p.6),  of j e a l o u s y .  s h a r p e n e d by f e a r , b u t i g n o b l e  greediness  but  aspect  of a continuum.  emulation  (1972) i n some o f h e r  She t o o s e e s an a g g r e s s i v e ,  envy and a p a s s i v e is  to Foster  (1969) p a r a l l e l s jealousy  problematic  Foster(l972)  t o be l e s s  than  envy.  and K l e i n  aggressive,  more  (1957)  passive  He b e l i e v e s t h e e n v i o u s  knows e x a c t l y what p r o v o k e s him; t h a t  envy i s  29  occassioned  by  ill-will  by c o n t e m p l a t i o n directed cannot  emotion;  occur"  and K l e i n , as  to  superior  without  a target,  the nature  of  his  primary  when a r i v a l  the  emotions.  the  antagonist  and i s  never a  appears  hostile  on t h e  E a c h has  scene.  the p o t e n t i a l  and t o have n e g a t i v e depending  of  her  review  and c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t s of  study.  this  and  of  The s e c t i o n  the to  took  four major  several jealousy  of  and p s y c h o l o g y . contemporary  especially  occur.  a closer  subjects  the  who  samples  presenting theorists.  decades  about  very  factors,  takes  1931; and B e n e d i c t ,  contributions psychiatry  of  in which they  follow  and/or  positive  b e f o r e examining  of  It  and/or  chapter  on j e a l o u s y  1936; Mead,  t o be a d a p t i v e  on a m u l t i t u d e  the c o n t r i b u t i o n s  is  occurring  changing  and s o c i o l o g y ,  1982)  doubt  and  remainder  theorists.  in  behavior  on t h e b a s i s  from a n t h r o p o l o g y  (Davis,  often  Foster  They have e v o l v e d t o meet d i f f e r e n t  literature  this  with  is  and e x p e r i e n t i a l a c c o u n t s in  contrast  it  related  consequences  The  a victim,  person  —  a  but  maladaptive  social  "is  and envy a r e d i s c r e t e ,  human n e e d s .  the  accompanied  jealous  aggressor  jealousy  In  is  Envy  without  p.7).  The r e s e a r c h e r a s s u m e s , critique,.that  and  advantages.  (Schoeck,1969,  he b e l i e v e s  spontaneous only  of  and m o r t i f i c a t i o n  look  objective  participated the  and  literature  critiquing  The f i r s t  1934)  at  are  three  early  before t h e i r  significant  were n o t i c e d by t h e  disciplines  The f o u r t h t h e o r i s t  and adds a new d i m e n s i o n  (Fisher, to  30  anthropological  and  other  Perspectives The  and  in d e f i n i n g the  that  institutions normatively norms as To  only  jealousy's  because  t o the  reaction of  the  He  Davis'  cites  Descartes  fear r e l a t e d to a Davis  regulated  says  a  Kingsley  "not  strength  observes  by  only  the  of  social  is i t  to the  societies. he  social  of  community  In  love has  support  of  this  interest  depend on the  claim  i t s purpose  relationships.  an  r e s t s upon  social  highly variable  discusses  in  As  in love  i t but  peaceful  such "not  also distribution  (p.187).  (1936) a c k n o w l e d g e s an by  jealousy nervous  e m o t i o n s as or may  jealousy's  i t s i n e v i t a b l e but  universality  sympathetic  w h i c h may  he  review  (p.176).  understanding  cohesion  aroused  many o t h e r  Sociology  by  of  and  future generations  of major v a l u e s " Davis  kind  i t gives  preservation  that  social  And  (p.192).  in d i f f e r e n t  because  "a  jealousy  underscores  proposes  jealousy.  Property".  i s defined  c o n t r o l l e d but  he  relation he  of  promote an  appearance about  and  well"  function  Sexual  a possession"  property  on  including in this  e m o t i o n as  to preserve  sexual  of  a n a l y s i s i s demonstrated  (1936) " J e a l o u s y  desire  from A n t h r o p o l o g y  importance  sociological  perspectives  not  be  but  system  well.  inherent p h y s i o l o g i c a l describes that  Other  i t as  a  function  is generalizable  than  this  externally evident,  he  jealous  to  flash,  proposes  that  31  this  emotion  response says  i s expressed  to different  differently  situations  "each c u l t u r e d i s t r i b u t e s  society  an  inherited For  stimulus  western  bolstering likewise  the value  or whatever  situations  content  Davis  thus  on monogamy.  r a t h e r than  institution  is a distributive  cannot  value  as  (p.188).  j e a l o u s y -as  In o t h e r  prevails. his belief and he  of the  be r e g a r d e d  response" views  He  i n i t s own  societies i t  c a u s e s monogamy,  or c a u s a l p e r s p e c t i v e with  affection  cultures.  the sexual property  t o an i n h e r i t e d  society,  supports  polyandry polar  in different  and d e f i n e s t h e c o n f l i c t  way... t h e r e f o r e t h e c o n c r e t e  and e x p e r i e n c e d i n  polygamy,  He r e f u t e s t h e that  sexual  says:  t o l e t i t go u n d i s t r i b u t e d would i n t r o d u c e a n a r c h y i n t o t h e . g r o u p and d e s t r o y t h e s o c i a l s y s t e m . . . The s t i m u l u s t o j e a l o u s y , m o r e o v e r , i s n o t so much a p h y s i c a l s i t u a t i o n a s a m e a n i n g f u l one. The same p h y s i c a l a c t w i l l i n one p l a c e d e n o t e o w n e r s h i p , i n a n o t h e r p l a c e r o b b e r y . . . . J e a l o u s y d o e s n o t r e s p o n d i n h e r e n t l y t o any p a r t i c u l a r p h y s i c a l s i t u a t i o n ; i t responds to a l l those s i t u a t i o n s , no m a t t e r how d i v e r s e , w h i c h s i g n i f y a v i o l a t i o n of t h e a c c u s t o m e d s e x u a l r i g h t s ( D a v i s , 1936, pp.189-190). To any  understand  given  particular type  pride,  between e c o n o m i c processes  of a t t i t u d e  to property whether  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of j e a l o u s y f o r  s o c i e t y we must have an an a w a r e n e s s o f : t h e i r  distinction  the  Davis'  that  the value  and s e x u a l  of c o m p e t i t i o n ,  property;  rivalry  and t r e s p a s s ;  assumed by t h e i n d i v i d u a l  i s owned, p o s s e s s e d of t h e p r o p e r t y  l o v e o r some c o m b i n a t i o n ) ;  their  in relation  or i n custody  (e.g.,  i s b a s e d on need, v a n i t y , their  particular  cultual  32  definition roles  and  of  different social  the  statuses  means, ends and For  instance,  western  of  conditions  discussing  society  relationships,  the  p a r t i c i p a n t s ; and  which  some of  i n terms of Davis  s i t u a t i o n s i n terms of  influence  finally,  a l l of  the  these parameters  for  jealousy's  the  function  in  the  above.  intimate  says:  As a f e a r r e a c t i o n i n t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s of r i v a l r y i t i s s i m p l y the o b v e r s e s i d e of the d e s i r e t o win the object. The d e s i r e t o win b e i n g institutionally c u l t i v a t e d , t h e f e a r of l o s i n g i s u n a v o i d a b l y s t i m u l a t e d a l s o , though i t s e x p r e s s i o n i s p u b l i c l y f r o w n e d upon. But a f t e r o w n e r s h i p has been a t t a i n e d , j e a l o u s y i s a f e a r and r a g e r e a c t i o n f i t t e d t o p r o t e c t , m a i n t a i n and p r o l o n g the i n i t i m a t e a s s o c i a t i o n of l o v e (Davis,.1936, p.183).  In  conclusion,  maintenance  function  institutions neutral  Davis'  and  of he  the  for  view  jealousy  that  in question.  "the  hasty  to  jealousy's t o deny  or  It review broad  of  breach. i n so  He  f a r as  perspective  the  to p r a i s e relation  He  says  or  of  i t s tendency  i t admits " i t is  i t muddles  is  sees  while noting  because  the  to  a  destructive  its  own  of  this  (p.183). will  that  become a p p a r e n t Davis'  f o r the  and  protective intimacy  threatened only  His  structure"•(p.187).  harmony of  i t [intimacy]  purpose"  for  social  i n t e n t i o n as  the  perceived of  the  g r o u p s and  readiness  condemn p r e v e n t s a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g jealousy  stresses i t s  i n d i v i d u a l s , dyads,  society  notes  of  conceptualization  times.  against  in later  sections of  jealousy  A l t h o u g h a r g u m e n t s can  his various  be  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , he  was posed  very both  acknowledges  33  a need t o a l s o s t u d y view.  This  the emotion  i s i n contrast to h i s cohorts  disciplines  who l a r g e l y  neglected  p e r s p e c t i v e s he had made M a r g a r e t Mead's Civilized" jealousy  from a p e r s o n a l i t y p o i n t o f  the s o c i o l o g i c a l  available.  (1931) " J e a l o u s y :  p o r t r a y s how  situations  in others.  who f o l l o w e d h e r , Mead c o n c e i v e s  a threat to the self-esteem. individual  P r i m i t i v e and  that are p r o v o c a t i v e of  i n one c u l t u r e a r e i n n o c u o u s  many o t h e r s  i n the other  Without  d i f f e r e n c e s she n o t e s  threatening  will  sociocultural  be d e t e r m i n e d  setting.  She  of j e a l o u s y as  entirely  t h a t what  L i k e so  discrediting  i s p e r c e i v e d as  by t h e p a r t i c u l a r  says:  However v a r i e d t h e s o c i a l s e t t i n g , i t w i l l be seen t o be t h e t h r e a t e n e d ego w h i c h r e a c t s j e a l o u s l y . S i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g t h i s s e l f - e s t e e m w i l l , however, t a k e w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t f o r m s . . . . T h e r e i s h a r d l y any l i m i t of p e r f o r m a n c e o r a p p a r e n t d e p r i v a t i o n t o w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l may n o t be p u s h e d by h i s s o c i e t y ' s standards. Whatever t h e s o c i a l s e t , however, i t w i l l i n s p i r e him t o z e a l f o r h i s s o c i a l l y d e f i n e d p o s i t i o n . And i f he f e e l s h i s s e l f - e s t e e m i s t h r e a t e n e d , i f h i s r e p u t a t i o n as a g r a c i o u s w i f e l e n d e r or a s u c c e s s f u l r u l e r o f a harem i s i n d a n g e r , j e a l o u s y w i l l be t h e r e s u l t (Mead, 1931, p . 1 1 9 ) . (  As  will  results remain  become a p p a r e n t  t h a t attempt  in this  chapter,  to c o r r e l a t e self-esteem  i n c o n s i s t e n t and m o d e l s f o r t h e e m o t i o n  have c o n s i g n e d discussion -  later  spurious jealousy.  i t to a less central  of s e l f - e s t e e m  nature  —  As t h i s  will  role.  with  research jealousy  (White, 1976)  Also,  the l a t e r  disclose its potentially  i t c a n be a s s i t u a t i o n a l l y a p p l i e s t o Mead's  dependent as  interpretation,  34  possibly  t h e harem r u l e r ' s r e p u t a t i o n  apparent  t h a n an a c t u a l  if  h i s jealous  society  e f f e c t on h i s s e l f - e s t e e m  behaviour  jealousy,  i s e x p e c t e d and c o n d i t i o n e d  (1931) draws a f i n e l i n e a distinction  the l i t e r a t u r e .  that  i n the attainment  personal  status"  angry defense societies zealous  of the  status"  to exemplify  impotent  this  displayed  there  their  lovers  to allay  Adhering  i s jealous. confused  possession  subject  sexual  that  by t h e r e q u i r e m e n t i n jealousy  by t h e o b j e c t  generally  to a negative  that  of the loved  view o f j e a l o u s y ,  side  object.  of l o v e  She n o t e s  for exclusive  Jealousy,  that the  of a p r i v i l e g e which they  because share  outsiders"  i n h e r v i e w , need n o t be s e x u a l  i s t h e most e g o c e n t r i c  Mead  w h i c h wants  possession  but which they m a i n t a i n a g a i n s t  variety  instead  of z e a l .  "many p e o p l e a r e z e a l o u s  (p.116).  that the  She o b s e r v e s  misinterpretations  need n o t be w a n t i n g  with others  polygamous  a c e r t a i n amount o f  (1931) r e l a t e s i t t o t h e e g o c e n t r i c for  Mead u s e s  p o l i c e s h i s 200 w i v e s  s i t u a t i o n s that  i s a lack  (p.119).  i s "a f r i g h t e n e d  buy many w i v e s t o enhance h i s p r e s t i g e b u t  two a t t i t u d e s a r e f u r t h e r love  jealousy  of s o c i a l or  difference, noting  man who r i g i d l y  overlooking  elsewhere  z e a l a s "an a t t e n t i v e  or p r e s e r v a t i o n  (p.119) whereas  of such  man w i l l  romantic be  by h i s  between z e a l and  i s largely neglected  She d e s c r i b e s  interest  the  especially  and f a m i l y .  Mead  in  h a s more o f an  and s e l f i s h .  but the  35  Comparing  the  Banaro t r i b e  peasants p r i o r to  the  male's e x c l u s i v e ,  proprietary  evident  that  the  to  lend  because the emphasized  Frenchman's  social  In c o n t r a s t , as  living  new  Mead  bride  of  within  father  sex  was  to e a r l i e r  The  several  each person's addition set  to  does not  give  Generally, only  he  that  established their  rise  to  their  by  sexual  to  she  —  planning  Banaro  peoples  exogamous s y s t e m  a ceremonial  in  f r i e n d of  initiation friend's  to wife.  a r r a n g e m e n t s mean t h a t will  have t h r e e  Mead c l a i m s  the  that  in  mates i n  this  social  jealousy  occurs  However,  she  Banaro people always Her  specific  Hence  sexual  arrangements.  boundaries..  t o any  being  jealousy.  i n t e r m s of  response  the  ceremonial  spouse.  illicit  place.  by  the  sexual  and  she  for deflowering  bridegroom's  extra-regular  ritualistic duration  a complex  Mead c o n s i d e r s  in response  is  and  p a r t i c i p a t i o n in- t h e  the  or  regular  s e e m i n g l y assumes t h a t their  and  reported  lifetime  their  feelings  lord  the  However,  outraged d i g n i t y at  i s deflowered  bridegroom's  other  French  (1931) shows t h a t  (1931) d e s c r i b e s  the  attended  the  impotence.  contentedly  w h i c h the  an  lack  to  societies.  jealous  h i s woman t o h i s  peasant's his  Guinea  a t t i t u d e toward h i s wife  complex  b e h a v i o u r s were e l e m e n t a l l y required  New  r e v o l u t i o n , Mead  i n b o t h s i m p l e and  suggests  of  discussion  i t would be  deviations  does  arrangements are persons,  respect indicate  planned  and  occasions,  i n t e r e s t i n g to  from t h e s e norms.  know  Also,  36  Mead's e v i d e n c e society  f o r the i n d i v i d u a l ' s contentment  i s based  recruitment  on whiteman's p o o r  f o r labor  possible  that  expected  sex p a r t n e r s  purposes.  recruitment  Mead a l s o g i v e s  success  i n Banaro  rates at  Alternatively, i t  was p o o r  is  b e c a u s e any l o s s of  may have p r o v o k e d examples o f f e m a l e  intense  jealousies.  jealousies  occurring  in  polygamous s o c i e t i e s when t h e husband has been t o o l o n g  in  acquiring  In  this  extra  instance  distinguishing her  view  feeling  that  suspicion Mead the  between  jealousy  the widely  and c h i l d b e a r i n g .  to ascertain and envy.  varying  of jealousy  labor  i f Mead was  Generally,  s i t u a t i o n s preclude  because  and h u m i l i a t i o n "  Rather,  is  a  t o anger,  (p.116).  (1931) makes a s t r o n g , stereo-type  i t  i t "sometimes  more t o f e a r , sorrow a n d shame, a t o t h e r s  traditional  sex".  i tis.difficult  definition  inclines  wives t o share  c l e a r statement  to reject  of t h e female as "the j e a l o u s  she s a y s :  T h r o u g h o u t h i s t o r y , w i t h a few r a r e e x c e p t i o n s , women have been t h e i n s e c u r e s e x . T h e i r s t a t u s , t h e i r f r e e d o m o f a c t i o n , t h e i r v e r y economic e x i s t e n c e , t h e i r r i g h t o v e r t h e i r own c h i l d r e n , h a s been d e p e n d e n t upon t h e i r p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s men. I n t o t h e f i e l d o f p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s have been t h r u s t a l l t h e s e o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s n o t g e r m a i n e t o i t . The w i f e t h r e a t e n e d with the l o s s of her husband's a f f e c t i o n , f i d e l i t y , i n t e r e s t or l o y a l t y , whichever p o i n t h e r s o c i e t y has d e f i n e d a s t h e p i v o t o f w i f e l y tenure, sees the very r o o t s of her s o c i a l e x i s t e n c e b e i n g c u t f r o m b e n e a t h h e r . She h a s been i n t h e p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h a man would be i f he h a d r e a d i n t o h i s w i f e ' s a v e r t e d shoulder t h e d e p r e c i a t i o n of a l l h i s s t o c k s , a l o s s of h i s b u s i n e s s r e p u t a t i o n , e v i c t i o n f r o m w h a t e v e r p o s i t i o n he h o l d s , b o t h s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l , a s w e l l a s t h e l o s s o f h i s home and p o s s i b l y a l l c o n t r o l over h i s c h i l d r e n . I f women's s u p e r i o r  37  morbid anxiety concerning t h e i r r e l a t i o n s with the a l l n e c e s s a r y male p u r v e y o r s o f economic a n d s o c i a l goods be r e a d i n t h e s e t e r m s , i t becomes a t r u i s m t h a t women p r o b a b l y a l w a y s have been " t h e j e a l o u s s e x " (Mead, 1 931, p.125) . In  spite  of her r e l a t i v e l y  many s i t u a t i o n a l considers  t h e emtion  little  t o be s a i d  mainly  because  repellent" factors are  and s o c i a l  in i t sfavor"  (p.120).  Othello  belonging  other  of j e a l o u s y ,  obessive  group judged  from whom he won h i s w i f e " born  with  culturally-prized to  jealously cling  Nevertheless, to  rather  endowments  she d e p r e c a t e s  than m i t i g a t e s "  effects the  of j e a l o u s y .  word  aspect  (p.125).  jealousy  inferior  and p e r s o n a l the l a t t e r  For  i n the case of born of  by t h e g r o u p  In h e r v i e w , t h e p e r s o n other  i s u n l u c k y and w i l l  be l i k e l y  t h a t comes h i s way.  h i s jealousy  because  i t "adds  (p.125) h i s m i s e r y . (1931) s e e s  few o r no p o s i t i v e  She i s i n d u c t i v e i n r e f u t i n g u s e o f  b u t she goes on t o c a t e g o r i z e d e s t r u c t i v e way w i t h o u t  individual  with  i s so  t o an " i n s e c u r i t y  "exclusive" i n defining jealousy's  exclusively of  social  p h y s i c a l and/or  to anything  In c o n c l u s i o n , Mead  both  (p.124).  fewer o r d i f f e r e n t  phenomenon  but concludes, that  h i s misfortune  to a racial  (1931)  forms o f e x t r e m e e g o i s m , i s  o f bad l u c k "  she e x e m p l i f i e s  attributing  Mead  (p.120) and t h i s  She c o n s i d e r s  r a r e and "the r e s u l t  instance,  determinants,  t o be an " u n f o r t u n a t e  i t , "like  as. c a u s a l  b r o a d view o f j e a l o u s y ' s  differences.  possessive  t h e emotion presenting  i n an  observations  Her l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e  i n the  38  latter  categorization  suggestion eliminate She  that c i v i l i z e d or d r a s t i c a l l y  tempers- t h i s  might  i s p o r t r a y e d by h e r t e n t a t i v e societies reduce  suggestion  be s e r e n i t y  jealousy examining  strive to  the emotion's o c c u r r e n c e . .  with a caution that the r e s u l t  a t t h e c o s t o f t h e p a s s i o n and i n t e n s i t y  which produce g r e a t m y s t i c s discuss-ion  should  i s thus  and g r e a t a r t i s t s .  very  useful  in giving  but i t i s l e s s  useful  and l e s s  j e a l o u s y ' s "purpose"  than  Her  "reasons" t o intricate in  Kingsley Davis'  (1936)  sociological perspectives. Exactly referred  i s evident  Culture". 1970,  the k i n d and q u a l i t y  i n Ruth B e n e d i c t ' s  Benedict  was "never  (1934) " P a t t e r n s o f  a n e u t r a l person"  individual,  Likewise,  her concern  behaviour  but with  seer,  t o w h i c h Mead  p.51) and y e t she d i d n o t name t h e r i g h t  good o r bad s o c i e t y ,  find  of p a s s i o n  a place  feeling  was n o t w i t h  "the extent  —  or behaviour.  t o w h i c h one c u l t u r e  which another  abnormal o r w o r t h l e s s "  o r wrong,  'normal' o r ' a b n o r m a l '  f o r e x t r e m e s of b e h a v i o r  the a r t i s t  (Harris,  could  i n the mystic, the  culture  branded as  ( c f . p r e f a c e by Mead  i n Benedict,  1934,). Of  j e a l o u s y she s a y s  of many d i f f e r e n t that  " i t i s evident  cultures,  c a n be most e f f e c t i v e l y  [that  the p r a c t i c e s  i t ] i s one o f t h e e m o t i o n s  f o s t e r e d by c u l t u r a l  a r r a n g e m e n t s , o r i t c a n be o u t l a w e d " p. 109).  from  ( B e n e d i c t , 1934,  But she d i d n o t p o r t r a y t h e e x p e r i e n c e  of j e a l o u s y ,  39  in  itself,  issue  as  with emotions  distinguish determined social as  abnormal,  those  and b e h a v i o u r s  that  from t h o s e  as  are  She  or p r o b l e m a t i c in general  instinctive  that  conditioning.  automatic  destructive  are  or  was not  to  organically  l e a r n e d or  says  and h e r  engrained  by  "the c o n d i t i o n e d response  the o r g a n i c a l l y  determined  is  [response]"  (p.17). Instead, levels whole that  of  Benedict  synergy.  In  s y s t e m s and f o r jealousy,  l a b e l l e d as expression social  units  constructive  their  examined s o c i e t i e s this  she  dyadic  and o t h e r  are  of  these  attributing  exclusive  Dobu  and v i o l e n t these  in disharmony  values  of  (1934)  in Melanesia,  healthy  Conversely,  the  synergy  of  compares Pueblos  and t h e  expression  between  their  to  of the  social  individual  of  New  Kwakiutl a in  fierce structures objectives  She e x e m p l i f i e s  t h e Dobu  their  beliefs  and  jealousy  and norms. in  of  She d e s c r i b e s  observations  and c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s  values  synergy.  cultures —  of' the American Northwest.  t h e Dobu,  when t h e i r  which  Benedict  Indians  and s o c i e t a l  traditionally  emotions.  the n a t i v e s  aggressive  subsystems,  encourage  of  their  their  and p r a c t i c e s  Mexico,  frequent,  for  levels  Culture"  of  of  for  r e p r e s e n t e d by h i g h  expression  which r e s u l t s  and g r o u p  emotions  levels  three very d i s t i n c t  exclusivity  implied,  become p r o b l e m a t i c  customs  "Patterns  contrasts  doing  impeded by low that  have b u i l t - i n  In  fear,  negative is  (1970)  the; most  about  the  40  ownership  of  yams  (their  major  foodstuff)  c o n s i d e r e d t o have an h e r e d i t a r y couple  share  children, have  jealously  been grown from t h e  guard  describes  many  arising  from o t h e r m a r i t a l  Always,  the o r i g i n  emotion  harmony  basis,  of  resides  marital  for  gardens  their which  respective  problematic  individual  between t h e i r (1934)  expressed  arrangements  the couple a l t e r n a t e  Benedict  their  similarly  in a s o c i a l  between t h e  example,  common f o o d  separate  s e e d yams of  the  lines.  Benedict  the  their  are  Although  a common home and p r o v i d e  they  hereditary  line.  which  of  the  behavioural  structure and h i s  observes  Dobu. expression  that  or h e r  of  precludes society.  their habitation,  respective matrilineal  jealousies  on a  For  yearly  villages.  that:  The spouse who i s on a l i e n t e r r i t o r y p l a y s a r o l e of humiliation. A l l t h e owners of t h e v i l l a g e may c a l l him [ o r h e r ] by h i s name. He may n e v e r use t h e name of one of t h e m . . . . W h e n p e r s o n a l names a r e u s e d i t s i g n i f i e s t h a t i m p o r t a n t l i b e r t i e s may be t a k e n by t h e namer....He is a perpetual outsider (p.137). In  contrast,  by B e n e d i c t Their  the  (1934)  society  is  as  Zuni  (a P u e b l o p e o p l e )  having  affirmative  a much h i g h e r of  life,  has  c o m p e t i t i o n and v i o l e n c e and a h i g h l e v e l Jealousies instance,  still  occur  she d i s c u s s e s  They do not r e s p o n s e on cut o f f the even i n t h e  but a r e managed marital  are  level a low of  described of level  of  cooperation.  differently.  jealousy  synergy.  For  saying:  meet a d u l t e r y w i t h v i o l e n c e . A usual t h e p l a i n s t o t h e w i f e ' s a d u l t e r y was t o f l e s h y p a r t of h e r n o s e . T h i s was done Southwest by n o n - P u e b l o t r i b e s l i k e t h e  41  Apache. But i n Zuni the u n f a i t h f u l n e s s of the wife i s no excuse f o r v i o l e n c e . The husband does not regard i t as a v i o l a t i o n of h i s r i g h t s . I f she i s u n f a i t h f u l , , i t i s normally a f i r s t step i n changing husbands, and t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s make t h i s s u f f i c i e n t l y easy so that i t i s r e a l l y a t o l e r a b l e procedure. They do not contemplate v i o l e n c e (Benedict, 1934, p.107). Benedict  (1934) d e s r i b e s  wives i n the instance "Controversies,  the same a t t i t u d e of Zuni  of t h e i r husbands'  adultery.  whether they are ceremonial or economic or  domestic are c a r r i e d out with an u n p a r a l l e l e d lack of vehemence" (p. 106). of j e a l o u s y ,  She i n t e r p r e t s that t h e i r  g r i e f , anger and other  traditionally  emotions are moderate because cooperation their  expressions, negative  i s the essence of  lifestyle. The  p o i n t s made by Benedict are not i n exoneration  deprecation  or  of exogamy, monogamy, polygamy or polyandry.  Rather, she observes the harmony or lack of i t that r e s u l t s from the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s which vary widely even among s o c i e t i e s that have s i m i l a r m a r i t a l arrangements. f i n a l a n a l y s i s , t h i s renouned a n t h r o p o l o g i s t the l i s t  of those who b e l i e v e jealousy  cultural universal. emotion w i l l result  In the  can be added to  to be a c r o s s -  The i n s i g h t she adds i s that the  be expressed as a means to a c o o p e r a t i v e  i n d e s t r u c t i o n and v i o l e n c e  between these poles) synergy which i n turn  end or  (or some consequence  depending on the s o c i e t y ' s l e v e l of i s based i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l  structure. Helen F i s h e r  (1982), a contemporary  anthropologist,  42  looks She  at  the  evolution  suggests  million living She  ago  together,  believes  jealousy  sharing  who's  behaviours. t h a t , by  females  were  four  bonding,  learning  to  cooperate.  evolution  of  these  patterns,  (p.132).  emotions  to  one  such  another  as [and  Cooperative  required the  emotions  that  came  along  them. Central  to F i s h e r ' s  pair-bonding says  and  "clearly  laugh  life"  and  cry  free  survival"  emotions other  people Sexual  bonding  is  and  —  Fisher  and  for  emotion  understood" jealousy,  she  of  feelings. our  humans  to  was  key  to  a l l  demanded  developed  trust  be e x p r e s s e d  the  "not  slowly  friendship,  She  selection  that  Cooperation  of  ancestors  was  natural  proposes  early  came  evolution  togetherness  (1982)  love,  the  social  concepts  Thus  is  encouraged  learned....[yet]  (p.119).  "each  for  facilitation  together  will  thesis  requirement  inclinations and  (1982)  Integrating  human b e h a v i o r  natural  its  social  (p.119).  a n d human  for  and  indicate  and  individuals  who"  thus  and  with the  tie  to  males  food  behaviour  "to  responsibilities  to  along  complex  evolved  evidence  protohomid  that  to]....Define  with  human e m o t i o n s  and p r o v i d e s  years  relatively  of  and so  other  that  (p.119). suggests,  reciprocal altruism.  evolved  She  along  with  pair-  says:  B e c a u s e a m a l e was now o b l i g e d t o d e f e n d t h e c h i l d r e n of h i s m a t e , he w o u l d d e v e l o p a n a t u r a l t e n d e n c y t o make s u r e t h a t t h e y w e r e h i s c h i l d r e n t o o . T h o u g h he m i g h t n o t know i t c o n s c i o u s l y , h e d i d n o t w i s h t o expend h i s t i m e , h i s energy, and perhaps h i s l i f e f o r the genes of a n o t h e r m a l e . T h u s was b o r n s e x u a l  43  jealousy She  explains  (Fisher, that  s c r a t c h mine" form of  although  (p.113)  natural  outrage  felt  apology  and c o n t r i t i o n  guilt,  summary,  emotions  a nouvelle  functional,  t h e r e were a l w a y s received.  for  critiqued  earlier  To summarize critiqued  adding in  this  this  Although  were a v a i l a b l e  had l i t t l e  or  it.  the  man  who  learned  jealousy,  Meanwhile,  the Pardon,  showdown. on j e a l o u s y  with  to  and  environmentalism.  i n f l u e n c e of  dimension  early  T h o s e who were  thesis  evolution  an  self-deception.  from a  (1982)  she e x a m i n e s  the  early  man's  perspectives  section.  section,  one s o c i o l o g i c a l  on j e a l o u s y .  as  you  T h e r e f o r e , even  revenge.  resulted  integrates way  and  back,  those  d e c e i t and e a r l y  embarassment  Fisher's  structures,  Benedict  was  would e x p e r i e n c e and e x p r e s s  cheater  social  s c r a t c h your  t o n e u t r a l i z e or c o u n t e r a c t  indignation,  In  "I'll  agreement  s e l e c t i o n allowed  e x p l o i t e d by o t h e r s  In  the  r e t u r n the h e l p they  feelings  other  pp.113-114).  reciprocal altruism,  wouldn't  moral  1982  it  has  presented  and  and t h r e e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l  the p e r s p e c t i v e s early  interdisciplinary  in  this  effect  of  Davis,  century  until  Mead,  they  several  views and  seemingly decades  later. Davis' maintenance  (1936) of  view  stresses  each s o c i e t y ' s  jealousy's  institutions  role  is  a l s o c o n t r o l l e d by t h e  institutions  he s e e s  it  as  the extent  only  to  the  and norms.  emotion  destructive  in  The  and norms  that  it  and  defeats  44  its  own  purpose.  Mead's pejorative social  (1931)  and r e a s o n - o r i e n t e d .  structures  oriented  anthropology  implies  Zuni  result  (1934)  levels  of  that  are  this  with  (as  chapter,  and l e s s  purpose-  Finally,  this  integrates  on j e a l o u s y  chronologically  individual  as  psychiatry  beginning  (or  high levels  a means In  several  As  synergy  decades  synergy  will  is  likely later  re-associated  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l The n e x t  thesis  perspectives  section  perspectives  w i t h F r e u d and e n d i n g (1981).  be  later.  and c r i t i q u e s  l i t e r a t u r e by T u r b o t t  as  to  become a p p a r e n t  examined F i s h e r ' s ( 1 9 8 2 )  emotions.  She  when l e v e l s , of  jealousy  will  of  be l i k e l y  contrast,  society)  of  will  for  she  between  effect.  explores  Accordingly,  harmony  evolutionary  and o t h e r  be compared  societies.  values  section  to  several  the c o n c e p t  theory  recent  examined  of  i n Dobu  jealousy  which  is  jealousy  t o have a d e s t r u c t i v e in  analysis  and s o c i e t a l  low  societies  'synergy'.  when t h e r e  society)  that  in a c o o p e r a t i v e end.  synergy  primarily  she  i n t r o d u c e d a new c o n c e p t  a comparative  objectives in  Like Davis,  i n a more p a r o c h i a l  by s u g g e s t i n g  varying  presents  but  was  way.  Benedict  their  p e r s p e c t i v e on j e a l o u s y  with  from  t h e most  45  Perspectives  The  most c l a s s i c  Psychiatry ascribes grief, are  Psychiatry  on j e a l o u s y  i s Freud's  four  e n m i t y and s e l f - d o u b t .  t h o u g h t ] of t h e n a r c i s s i s t i c  "against  the s u c c e s s f u l r i v a l "  criticism  "tries  his  (p.232).  loss" Freud  to hold  believed  the loved  wound"  complex,  homosexuality. jealousy Normal derived  or t o a d i s g u i s e d  - normal or c o m p e t i t i v e , he s a i d  from t h e a c t u a l  c i r c u m s t a n c e s and under conscious  ego" ( F r e u d ,  delusional repressed Freud.  impulses  subject, rightly  situation,  the enmity  accountable f o r  Oedipal  or  expression  of  brother-  and d e l u s i o n a l .  proportionate  1922, p . 2 3 2 ) .  i n the  l a y e r s or stages of  projected  the complete  that i s  to the r e a l  c o n t r o l of the Projected  j e a l o u s y and  towards u n f a i t h f u l n e s s , a c c o r d i n g result  Delusional  i n that  and i t " r e p r e s e n t s takes  (p.232);  i n b o t h men and women a r e d e r i v e d  unfaithfulness. i s different  o b j e c t and  " i s by no means r a t i o n a l ,  The f o r m e r may a l s o  actual hand,  jealousy  and g r i e f  t o be u n i v e r s a l , r o o t e d  He d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h r e e  jealousy,  pain,  ( p . 2 3 2 ) ; and t h e s e l f -  u n c o u s c i o u s and r e l a t e d t o an u n r e s o l v e d and-sister  H i s account  the pain  the person himself  jealousy  both  emotions —  He d e c i d e d  of l o s i n g  from  (1922).  overlapping  " c a u s e d by t h e t h o u g h t  [the is  reference  and P s y c h o l o g y  to jealousy  from  from to  from t h e s u b j e c t ' s jealousy,  the object  own  on t h e o t h e r  i s t h e same sex a s t h e  an a c i d u l a t e d h o m o s e x u a l i t y , and  i t s p o s i t i o n among t h e c l a s s i c  forms o f  46  paranoia"  (Freud,  Jones  1922,  (1929) e x t e n d e d F r e u d ' s  reinforced  jealousy's  s t a t u s as  pathological.  He  predisposition  results  emanating inversion.  The  added h e r  Generalizing  i n s i g h t s on  jealousy  from t h e  as  resolve p h a s e of  of  and  as  the a  [and]  f e a r of  others  and  women  p a t h o l o g i c a l to  "means of  defence  a symptom of  coquetry  and  Deciding  could  be  not  the against  her  explained  infidelity, Riviere  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : while  were r o b b i n g was  her  (the  robbing  Both behaviours  through a fantasy  study.  unconscious  (p.423).  i n f l i r t a t i o n she  everything.  conflict  are  patient)  those  an  effort  o r i g i n a t i n g i n the  to  oral  development.  Riviere  agreed with  Freud  the  emotion's a s s o c i a t i o n with  and  in r e l a t i n g  wound.  father  infidelity.  f o l l o w i n g symbolic  jealousy  everything;  around her  f e a r of  a p r o j e c t i o n of p e r s o n a l  o f f e r e d the  experiencing of  to  f u r t h e r to  of  the  dependency  b a s i s of a s i n g l e c a s e  super-ego"  j e a l o u s y and  sufficiently instead  the  her . c o n c l u s i o n s  unconscious c o n f l i c t s . . .  patient's  leading  f l i g h t and  and  i n h i s example) t h a t  from n a r c i s s i s t i c  inversion leads  viewed  accusations  dispositional  and  (1932) t r a n s l a t e d many of F r e u d ' s works  own  she  (1922) t h e s i s  ( f o r men  guilt  in projected  Riviere  normal,  suggests  from O e d i p a l  resulting  p.234).  (1922) and f e e l i n g s of  even  "normal"  jealousy  However, she  explains  the  Jones  self-criticism  to the  wound as  (1929) a b o u t  narcissistic  "the  condemnation  47  by  the super-ego  unconscious himself"  predatory  (Riviere,  Sokoloff's physician the  and the e x p i a t i o n  evolution  and r o l e  sentiment.  negative  form,  emotion  notes  great  (Sokoloff,  manifestations  destructive  jealousy  H i s study  and  he c l a i m s ,  is  It i s s t i l l  with  by e v e r y o n e  into  of  instinctual,  in a  less  but i n h i b i t e d cannot  i t may  result  a complex  (an  i n the z o o l o g i c a l  for purely  two  more  in obsessive He  says  economy  the group.  social  by  be  on p r e d i s p o s i t i o n .  function  corrective  us  the sentiment  i f repressed  i s much  soma.  i s comprised  the i n d i v i d u a l as a g a i n s t  1947,  Sokoloff  character,  of psyche  depends  of  misinterpreted i t s  reaction,  and  to the  nature  and a  a  subject  h i s colleagues,  a n d humans.  he c l a i m s  "retains  the complex  reaction  jealousy)  to conserve  nature's  He  I t s transformation  delusional  i n the  a primitive  The  inhibited  complexes.  —  —  f o r the  i s addressed  or negatively  experienced  In c o n t r a s t ,  completely  this  jealousy  that  and a t a v i s t i c .  primitive  or  on  i n animals  units  impulses  t o which  neglected  concludes  psychological  most.  text  s t r e s s i n g the unity  Sokoloff  t h e ego  p.423).  and the extent  Freud,  complex  1932,  (1947)  including  broader,  and a g g r e s s i v e  and the p a t i e n t .  emotion  by  It is  emotion"  p.22).  (1947)  discusses  of jealousy,  i t s demand potential  many  and v a r y i n g  stressing  for satisfaction for subject,  i t s  types  autonomous  and revenge  object  and  and i t s  and s o c i e t y .  He  48  claims  i t t o be  concealed it  and  the  and  as  the the  jealousy  period  effort  of  that  and  time.  He  traditional jealousy.  his  jealousy  and and  discussion, to  p e o p l e of  ancient  and  the  The  Sandwich the  G r e e k s and former  English Romans  related •  claimed  it  had  love.  believes  i t is  of  a l o n e n e s s and  His  suggestions given  the  s u g g e s t s open d i s c u s s i o n and  cautions nature  that  should  e f f o r t s and  for childhood  if i t is s t i l l good-natured  for  "an  in a  treatment  state  of  the  are  art  to n e u t r a l i z e  i t s importance not  extra  r a t i o n a l he  to e x c e s s i v e  be  at  the  and  and He  f o r any  attention  stresses  intelligent,  is optimistic  early  problematic  recommends  demands.  or  underestimated.  love  jealousy.  teasing  Sokoloff  isolation  to  r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n surrounding  i n d i v i d u a l i z e d treatment  his discipline,  the  latter  by  exemplifies  n a t i o n a l i t i e s and  The  comprehensive  submit  that  i n d i v i d u a t i o n and  destructive  detection  agrees  in adults  (p.35).  treatment  most  jealousy  fears  family  He  the  excessive  concealment  Collaborative  yet  Sokoloff  (p.15).  love  However, he  potential  refusal  child  world"  insightful  of  (1947) t r a c e s  t o combat  hostile  the  jealous"  w i t h envy t h a n  Sokoloff the  cultures.  least.  to excessive  and  l e s s e f f e c t i v e l y coped with  jealous  the  commonest  human e m o t i o n s .  more or  most  little  more t o do  the  S o m a l i s and  A m e r i c a n s as  were " v e r y  in  but  of  i n d i v i d u a l s and  French,  Islands  oldest,  disguised  is universal  different  are  the  Relative in his  free friendly to  others  prognosis,  49  claiming  the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  intelligent  efforts  experienced  by  Ziman  the  prevention and  and  at  jealous  a symptom of  he  wants s o m e t h i n g  person  jealousy  w o r r y and  with  first  and  one  text  given  wounds  others.  to  i t s era.  He  "a c h i l d  for  parents  sees  jealousy  is jealous  (p.5).  the.same and  look  suggest  i s a guide  proclaims  and  and  modern p s y c h i a t r i s t t o  someone e l s e h a s "  envy as  patience  psychological  i n c h i l d r e n and His  holistic  as  and  the  treatment.  is relatively  jealousy  in dealing  (1949) was  comprehensively  understanding,  He  deals  when  with  v i e w s them  as  normal d e v e l o p m e n t a l  reactions,  s t r e s s i n g w i s e management  and  of  the  source  rather  supress  the  emotion.  understanding  eliminate  or  "jealous  child  adult"  (p.5).  sibling adult for  does not  competitiveness,  power emanate o n l y  Basically,  emphasizes  n e c e s s a r i l y grow up  Ziman a l s o d e a l s  p o s i t i o n s and  He  than attempts  family  with  configurations,  aggression  and  an  in  involves a high  a  the  jealous  different  suggesting  unsatiable  from mismanaged c h i l d h o o d  h i s treatment  that  t o be  jealousy  to  quality  that  search  jealousy. parental  nurturance. Schmideberg still  more o r a l ,  However, her emphasize  f e a r of  agrees with and  work  (1953), another anal  and  i s the l o s s as  Ziman t h a t  psychoanalyst,  focuses  on  genital contributing factors. first  i n the  fundamental  field to the  to c l a r i f y  and  emotion.  She  childhood  jealousy  i s developmental  views p a t h o l o g i c a l adulthood  jealousy  as  a "schizoid  50  inability  to love"  (p.3).  In h e r v i e w ,  jealousy  includes  elements of sadism, a c o m p u l s i o n  to c o n t r o l the loved  object,  fear, g u i l t ,  hostility,  anxiety,  ambivalence  doubts about loneliness  o f -the l o v e  and  jealousy  (1953) a g r e e s w i t h  Freud  i s a defence against  She r e l a t e s j e a l o u s y  introduces  to psychoanalysis  jealousy,  and i n c o r p o r a t e s  social,  expectation  in patriarchal societies  For instance,  and j e a l o u s o f h i s w i f e  t o be a s u r v i v o r o f c h i l d i s h "bullied,  (p.13). it  According  emphasize  of j u s t i f i e d or c u l t u r a l and  she n o t e s a  traditional  f o r t h e man  over  hurt"  he c o n t i n u e d dispositional.  resulting  feeling  she  speculates  from  having  and f r u s t r a t e d "  i s clung  sadistic  t o because  impulses  which  and c a s t r a t i o n c o m p l e x e s .  (1962) was t h e f i r s t  the r o l e  Finally,  f a c t o r and  humiliated  unconscious  t o be  and t o r e g a r d  hurts  to her, t h i s  from O e d i p a l  Langfeldt  as  nagged, t e a s e d ,  reduces g u i l t  emanate  but  "feeling  complex  emotions,  as t h i e v e r y o f h i s m a s c u l i n i t y .  e m p h a s i z e s an e l e m e n t a l  been  t h e s i s i s more  the p o s s i b i l i t y  factors.  it  that p a t h o l o g i c a l  t o many more  situational  unfaithfulness  hurt,  unconscious  However, h e r g e n e r a l  than h i s .  possessive  dependency,  obsession.  homosexuality.  rational  strong  r e l a t i o n s h i p , impotence or  potency, possessiveness,  Schmideberg adult  exaggeration,  in Psychiatry  of u n c o n s c i o u s p s y c h o d y n a m i c  the t r a d i t i o n a l Studying  tendency  t o deprocesses  to label  the case h i s t o r i e s  jealousy  o f 66  51  psychiatric jealousy,  patients  troubled  he d e s c r i b e d  (p.317), c l a i m i n g  that  by f r e q u e n t  an " e r o t i c  has  p o t e n t i a l l y present a significant  alcoholism. alcohol, organic  can  predominance  some b i o l o g i c a l  results  i n diagnosed  syndrome  chronic  i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e abuse o f  phases of s e v e r a l  (especially schizophrenia  he s u g g e s t s t h a t i n poor  this  people  f a c t o r s s u c h a s t h e menopause,  have a r e l e a s i n g e f f e c t  Finally,  He b e l i e v e s  syndromes and p s y c h o t i c  mental d i s o r d e r s  syndrome"  i n a l l t y p e s of mental d i s o r d e r s but  He-observes that  brain  jealousy  intense  i t c a n be common among n o r m a l  or a b n o r m a l and even- c o n g e n i t a l . is  and  and  on t h e j e a l o u s y  a low l e v e l  insight into jealousy  of  melancholia)'  syndrome.  intelligence  ideas,  rendering  them  more o r l e s s p e r m a n e n t . Mooney discipline the  (1965), a B r i t i s h a still  difficulty  pathological western tribe  ideal  that  suppressed. jealousy potential  jealousy  faithful  He e v e n t u a l l y  is irrational f o r frequent  noting  to define the  f r o m t h e norm.  Comparing  (a polygamous and p o l y a n d r o u s  I n d i a ) , he c l a i m s  on a d u l t e r y  on j e a l o u s y ,  i n attempting  s o c i e t i e s t o t h e Tobas  is lifelong  neglects  arises  perspective  as a d e v i a t i o n  i n southern  censure  broader  P s y c h i a t r i s t , gave h i s  that  when t h e r e  must be s u p p r e s s e d  monogamy decides  infidelity that  i s no  b u t when t h e must be  pathological  and u n f o u n d e d , e m p h a s i z i n g t h e e r r o r s by t h e d i a g n o s t i c i a n  a c a r e f u l study  who  o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s and s o c i a l  52  context. Even  t h o u g h Mooney  with d e f i n i n g he  goes on  the  (in a  (1965) a c k n o w l e d g e d  pathological  as  jealousy  certainty"  (p.1024) from o b s e s s i v e  has  After  the  jealousy  surveying  outlines  factors,  epilepsy; paranoid  organic  be  drug  degenerative  (e.g.,  analysis  p r e g n a n c y and  and  (1965) p r o g n o s i s  65  other  familial  intoxication  or  disorders;  and  poat-partum  (e.g.,  other  state;  initial  On  c a s e h i s t o r i e s (8 of concludes  favorable  (p.1034).  His  variant  explained,  but  he  problems with h i s of  for delusional  jealousy.  a u t h o r s ) he  validity  with  i n v o l u t i o n a l changes).  for obsessive  of  and  (1965)  p s y c h i a t r i c syndromes  the  patient  problems.  associated  cerebral  with  evidence  Mooney  state, manic-depressive psychosis);  worse t h a n  the  the  emotional  hereditary  personality;  mental d e f i c i e n c y ;  Mooney's  an  including  to  norm,  i s held  when t h e  literature,  thought  from the  belief  jealousy  of  difficulty  distinguish  to a p p r e c i a t e  Psychiatric  or  to  "mistaken  i s symptomatic  jealousy  menopause and  three  reality  categories  premorbid  addiction;  factors  the  eight  pathological  had  i n which a  enough t o u c h w i t h  realize  a deviation  s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t o r y way)  delusional  the  l e v e l s of  h i s own  that  e f f e c t on  the  instituting  the  basis and  of 57  delusional  reader  from  well  is left  chemotherapy  drugs  jealousy"  s i g n i f i c a n c e are and  is  his  "phenothiazine  documents e x t e n s i v e l y s t u d y and  jealousy  not the  other  t o wonder a t . j i n the f i r s t place.  53  No o t h e r and  non-chemical  treatment  a l t e r n a t i v e s are suggested  a p e s s i m i s t i c long-term prognosis The  next  study of " d e l u s i o n a l  i s predicted.  jealousy"  was Mowat's  (1966) a n a l y s i s o f 110 m u r d e r e r s and a t t e m p t e d He c o n c l u d e s t h a t  "12% o f male and 3% o f f e m a l e  murderers murdered single  delusion  suicide  f o r morbid  and murder"  w h i c h t h e a v e r a g e man  of  his  s i x years  average,  and  he soon m i s i n t e r p r e t s  later.  i n h i s mistaken eventuate  later.  The man's d e l u s i o n s  four-and-a-half  delusional The  Seidenberg's  acts as  years  a t the outset developing,  state  on  escalates  i n c r e a s i n g l y more  Angry  s c e n e s and  leaving only  frequently  o r murder o c c u r  to return  become  on t h e a v e r a g e  a f t e r the onset  relative  of the  excuse  to avoid  and f i d e l i t y  "the p r i n c i p l e  on j e a l o u s y i s  of s o c i o - c u l t u r a l  to f i d e l i t y  he v i e w s s e x u a l  sentiment  literature  (1967) e x p l o r a t i o n  of u n f a i t h f u l n e s s .  former  then  psychoanalytic  considerations  overrated  i n the wife  from  system.  next  Basically,  H i s deluded growing  other  showed a p a t t e r n  h i s wife  judgements.  attacks  Suicide  about  trivia,  violent  about  so many d e a t h s  The murders  h i s delusions  psychotic  [ a n d ] ... no  was f r e e o f j e a l o u s y  the  hallucinations.  with  (p.115).  in  convinced  jealousy  i s associated  marriage,  murderers.  and  infidelity dealing  with  jealousy.  a s w e s t e r n man's other  infidelities  He d i s t i n g u i s h e s between as l o g i c ,  i s followed  claiming  that  fidelity i n the  more o r l e s s b l i n d l y f o r  or  54  its  own s a k e "  the  s e r v i c e of e x i g e n c y "  infidelity, meaning  he d e c i d e s ,  'sexual'  extramarital sexual of  U n f a i t h f u l n e s s and  "have s u f f e r e d t h e p e j o r a t i o n o f  reflect  He b e l i e v e s  jealousy  between p a r t n e r s "  Seidenberg's  In h i s v i e w ,  d e p e n d e n t needs a s much a s  (p.30) and f r e q u e n t l y  foreplay  that  (p.29).  i t i s "a p r i n c i p l e i n  e x c l u s i v e l y " (p.28).  affairs  needs.  living"  the  (p.29) and i n t h e l a t t e r  (1967) view  i s "an e x p e c t e d  "a p a r t  affect  of the t i t i l l a t i o n ,  (p.31). o f j e a l o u s y "in m a r r i a g e i s  i t a r i s e s from t h e p a t r i a c h a l monogamous s y s t e m .  claims  that  i n the m a t r i a r c h a l  jealousy  hardly  "another  by-product  extend  this  instances  (1922) b e l i e f s .  jealousy  the  absolute,  (Seidenberg, Hoaken  that  o f male d o m i n a n c e "  In t h e s e  and  organic  e x i s t e d and c o n c l u d e s  provoked  be  normal  the emotion i s  he a g r e e s w i t h  His final  analysis  are " i n e x t r i c a b l y t i e d f o r the u n a l t e r a b l e  He does n o t  and e x t e n d s  i s that  t o man's b a s i c  and  natural  or d e l u s i o n a l  fidelity wish f o r  infallible"  1967, p.51'). (1976) d e s c r i b e s  jealousy  as a symptom o f  or f u n c t i o n a l p s y c h i a t r i c d i s o r d e r  as  system  (p.38).  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n to obsessive  jealousies. Freud's  polyandrous  He  or unprovoked.  Provoked  and c l a s s i f i e s i t  jealousy,  or e x c e s s i v e  and n e u r o t i c , whereas  jealousy  i s irrational  and a l w a y s e x c e s s i v e .  provoked  jealousy  he  he c l a i m s  unprovoked Normal,  says:  may be c o m p l e t e l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e a s a r e a c t i o n t o a person's f r u s t r a t e d d e s i r e to preserve a s i g n i f i c a n t  may  55  e m o t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . . . [ I t ] runs a n a t u r a l c o u r s e [and] i s e x p e r i e n c e d i n r e l a t i o n t o a blow t o t h e s e l f e s t e e m , r a i s i n g d o u b t s t h a t may have had t h e i r o r i g i n i n e a r l y e x p e r i e n c e s (Hoaken, 1976, p.47). Excessive  or n e u r o t i c j e a l o u s y d i f f e r s  only  according  t o him  b e c a u s e of  or  prolonged  revealing morbid an  and  "most c a s e s  p r o v o c a t i o n " (p.48),  of u n d e r l y i n g p r o b l e m s .  and  may  be  one  among t h e  latter  firmly  jealousy  the  patients  or a f i x e d  stresses  the  process  of  f o r the p a t i e n t  he  fixed  d e l u s i o n s he  f a v o r s the  personality  s h o u l d be  assessed  trait  e x c e s s i v e use  person  of a l c o h o l .  should allow a l i m i t e d h e l p the person  and  determining If  morbid  suggests  and  use  and  the for  of  with a jealous  f o r and  The  helped  therapist  to  in a l l  a p p r o p r i a t e d i s c h a r g e of  recognize that  i s exaggerated,  trait,  distinguish  of o v e r t o r c o v e r t d e p r e s s i v e i l l n e s s  with  affection  To  importance  The  anger,  jealousy i s  a personality  delusion.  therapy.  cases  repeated  are, nevertheless,  Unprovoked  electroconvulsive  control  degree  subject holds his/her b e l i e f s .  i s a new  possibility  he  but  of t h r e e k i n d s —  obsessive suspicion  how  occur  in  promote  h i s / h e r need f o r emotional  independence. Seeman  (1979) p r e s e n t s and  analyzes  five  cases  of  pathological  j e a l o u s y i n women, n o t i n g t h e  special  significance  of t i m e  p a t i e n t s at  time  of o n s e t  were " f e e l i n g  subordinate....[and] diminish  of o n s e t .  [their]  life  A l l of h e r  unusually insecure  circumstances  self-esteems"  (Seeman,  had  the  and  conspired to  1979,  p.352).  The  56  author  notes  recent  precipitating  l o s s of a parent  f a c t o r and g e n e r a l l y ,  t i m e when t h e need t o be l o v e d She  a l s o notes the frequent  provocation she  found  directed that  by t h e p a r t n e r  little  by t h e s u b j e c t  often  of  and  interactions.  the r i v a l  of the j e a l o u s  evidence  at a  subject.  Although  i n h e r sample o f envy  at the object  she e v e n t u a l l y  claims  i n t h e game o f s i b l i n g - r i v a l r y "  She o b s e r v e d often  and a l l f i v e  occurs  o u t w e i g h s t h e need t o l o v e .  took  that  quite  apparent i n  the sexual  t h e form o f  had " d e c r i b e d  f a n t a s i e s p r i o r ' t o the development  jealousy"  onset  b o t h envy and c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s  her female p a t i e n t s  with  that  p r e s e n c e and y e t d e n i a l o f  t h e y a r e "engaged  (p.354) w i t h their  initial  as a p o s s i b l e  fantasies  identification  homoerotic  of the  dreams  [problematic]  (p.355).  Seeman  (1979) o b s e r v e s  jealousy  frequently  explains  i n an e v o l u t i o n a r y  that  experience  p a t i e n t s with  increased  problematic  libido.  She  sense a s :  a r e s p o n s e t o t h e t h r e a t o f s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e mates and [ i t ] c a n be seen a s n a t u r e ' s a t t e m p t t o p r e v e n t t h e s e p a r a t i o n and e n s u r e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e s p e c i e s . One p a r t n e r t h r e a t e n s l o s s o f i n t e r e s t ; j e a l o u s y and heightened l i b i d o r e s u l t , l e a d i n g to stronger bonding of t h e m a r i t a l p a i r (Seeman, 1979, p . 3 5 8 ) . She of  a l s o observed ruminations,  partners  in  rage,  a cycle  r e m o r s e , and mania and i n t h e i r  In h e r view both p a r t n e r s  f o r i t s secondary  order  (female) s u b j e c t s  male  a c y c l e o f s u r r e p t i t i o u s n e s s , f u r t i v e n e s s and  untruthfulness. alive  i n her jealous  to prevent  gains  or r e s o l v e  and need h e l p  keep t h e j e a l o u s y to gain  "one p a r t n e r ' s  insight  withdrawal  57  from  reality,  unresolvable Seeman psychiatry  the  other  hurts"  partner's  (Seeman,  (1979) i s t h e  the  jealousy  temporal  and  involves  both p a r t n e r s .  and  stresses  first  life  representative  the  She  reality  s i t u a t i o n and  past  and  concentrate  1979,  p.360).  from b o t h does not latter  She  intuitions  their  b e l i e v e s are secondary  the  separated  sexual  discussed.  psychiatry  and  of  past  retaliatory  gains  date.  Cobb and  Marks be  the  She with  present.  hunches"  actions" not  To  partner  (Seeman,  role  of  jealousy. and  of any  (1979) c l a i m t h a t  i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from  their  She which is  games  children  i s the  The  Fantasy  parenting  are  most  suggested  "morbid  "candor  (p.360).  supportive.  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with  humanitarian  to  occasionally  secondary  t h r o u g h open d i s c u s s i o n  'turn-on'  their  and  self-  stresses that  O v e r a l l , Seeman's t r e a t m e n t  comprehensive  restore  contracts  on  from a c t i o n , s i b l i n g - r i v a l r y  e x p o s e d and  treatment  encourages each  a c t i o n s and  include confessions  neutralizes  a  e n c o u r a g e s t r u t h f u l n e s s and • f r a n k n e s s  regarding  she  includes  other's  she  with  relationship.  the  e l a b o r a t i o n of d e l u s i o n s  " v a l i d a t e the  to  of  prevent  interactional  reduce  i n t o the  forget  are  the  Her  distortions,  candor  and  from  in combination  intervenes  both to  to  social  events p e r s p e c t i v e .  re-introduce the  p.359).  triangle  esteem, a r r e s t p e r c e p t u a l gains  1979,  t o examine c l o s e l y  e l e m e n t s of  bondage, and r e c i p r o c a l  by  jealousy  can  obsessive-compulsive  58  neurosis" jealous  (p.301).  p e r s o n s on  "combines o p e r a n t can  be  are  taught  to  partner  (object)  questions The  and  over h i s / h e r  the  object  in deciding  Given  the  not  rather  n e u t r a l i z i n g secondary  basis  of  target  criterion  for  more p o i n t s points  for  one,  but  in this  scores  an  at  8-point  improved, t h e y do  and  got  worse.  duration  f r o m two  to  questioned.  The  i s made j u d g e the  q u a l i t y of  their and  f o r two  power and the  Seeman  promoting  outcomes on  Their  was  of  reduction  for  d i d the  Cobb and  2 to  or  3.9  rating. improved  fourth  for  patient  Marks v a r i e d  Finally,  4  not  p a t i e n t s and  months.  the  ruminations.  t a b l e , the  F o l l o w - u p by fifteen  be  2 points  i n d i c a t e who  their  may  by  f o r much i m p r o v e d ,  l e s s than  not  i n d i c a t e d by  actually  jealous  gains.  follow-up  scale  were much i m p r o v e d as  instance  for r i t u a l s  The  uncommon p a r e n t a l i z a t i o n  (1979) e v a l u a t e  improvement  on  i m p r o v e d , but Rituals  Marks  and  latter.  ignore  couple dynamics d e s c r i b e d  therapist  Cobb and  the  and  Patients  therapist establishing definite  (1979), the than  to  a p p r o a c h must be  partner  sibling-rivalry  (p.303).  to d i s r e g a r d  questions.  couple —  questions.  treatment  between n o r m a l  normal  the  Their  four  response prevention  i s taught  this  treated  basis.  jealousy  reward  e t h i c s of  they  reinforcement"  (p.303) and  between the  other's and  out-patient  c o n d i t i o n i n g with  of  example has  jury  study  "distinguish clearly  thoughts"  lines  an  termed d i f f e r e n t i a l  jealous  last  In a p i l o t  one  of  in  their  59  patients  was  duration  of  "attempts  on an a n t i - d e p r e s s a n t treatment  and f o l l o w - u p .  to withdraw  the drug  in anxiety  and d e t e r i o r a t i o n  in  rituals"  jealous  patient's indicate —  increase that  rituals  evidence The case  or  for  by T u r b o t t  the  of  only  married couple delusional The w i f e  prevent  jealousy  reciprocity "morbid  of  (p.166).  makes  clear  the  being  alert  to  say  change  that  still  the  mood significant  substantive  psychotherapy.  reports  the  instance  subsided  the p o s s i b i l i t y  of  assessing of  a  treatment.  When h i s  paranoid  "clear that  interaction examples  both p a r t n e r s  actively  provoked  to  jealousy  and c a u t i o n s  own and o t h e r  of  partner  Turbott concludes (p.166)  a  with  with  from t h e u n i q u e  i m p o r t a n c e of  terms  and made a t t e m p t s  treatment.  his  in  on t h e  presented  is  the  developed a f l o r i d  remitted.  Using  neglect  and not  refused treatment further  apparent  earlier  which r a p i d l y  may r e s u l t  two p e o p l e "  t o any  w i t h no  makes  subject  psychopathology"  jealousy  behaviour.  It  Turbott  r e t u r n e d her p s y c h o s i s  to  increase  from t h e p s y c h i a t r i c " l i t e r a t u r e  jealous  her husband's  not  were  behavioral  interim "rapidly  (p.167),  it  left  i n w h i c h t h e husband  in the  psychosis"  We a r e  (1981).  relationship.  that  and d e t e r i o r a t i o n of  the d i s c i p l i n e ' s  on t h e  the  immediate  but  problems  Cobb and M a r k s '  significance  or  underlying  example  l e d t o an  Suffice  in a n x i e t y  for  They r e p o r t  i n mood,  (p.303).  no r i t u a l s .  final  study  focusing  his  medication  of he  and  jealous  60  This  r e v i e w and  development by  the  theory  of  jealousy  d i s c i p l i n e of largely  interpretation  in  intensive  therapy  psychiatry.  and  effort  the  the  look c l o s e l y at  f o c u s of  f o c u s of  theory  "pathological". a professional primarily  as  though the  No  that  the  the  involve  of  jealousy  relationship  is gradually  exclusively  or  "personality"  report  more d y n a m i c , with  seems t o  t r a d i t i o n to view  trait  partners  experiences.  t h i s tendency  lay-person  both  The  e f f o r t i s made t o  remains almost  construct  on  p r o c e s s and  treatment  a personality  documented  Freudian  exclusively  1979.  Generally, and  as  i s apparent  (Seeman's) t o  in  historical  unconscious processes.  client's interpretations  Although  It  almost  the  treatment  t r a d i t i o n of  underlying  dynamics appears only the  the  focusing of  outlined  t h e o r y and  follows  psychoanalysis,  first  c r i t i q u e has  the result  in  jealousy  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c even has  itself  not  been  validated. Nevertheless, subjective to  the  b e c a u s e any  i n s i g h t s and  body of  discipline  interpretations  knowledge,  continues  to  be  the  useful  i t seems, would be  very  trend  treatment  for  to de-empathsize processes;  and  the  introduce  are  well  advised  inclusions  unconscious  more o b j e c t i v e  and  by  this  to continue  its  interactionally-based  heed L a n g f e l d t ' s  r o l e of  valid  applicable.  t o w a r d more d y n a m i c ,  jealousy;  therapist's  l i t e r a t u r e contributed  Psychiatry, recent  individual  (1962) i n c l i n a t i o n psychodynamic valid  empirical  61  research, and  especially  introduce  accounts  by  The  from t h e  and  discipline ends w i t h  Pines  the  of  rest  of A d l e r  tradition.  theoretical and  cultural,  The  Jung who  recent  I t begins research  on  with  by  focus  research  published  prior  b a s e d and  subjects  on  a speciality  adhering  partly  and be  treatment  traced  a departure  to the are  of  t o the  from  era  Freudian  e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t e d i n theand. a wide v a r i e t y of  Gradually  this  i n c r e a s i n g the  individual  jealousy  itself  a n a l y s i s of  affects focus  i n t e r p e r s o n a l d y n a m i c s and on  within  separates  to the  diagnosis  can  this  i n t e r v e n t i o n s by  i t s application within  most p a r t  initiated  perspectives.  a chronological  and  several s p e c i a l i t i e s  the  perspectives  Psychology  As  the  separation  f a m i l y and  decreasing  and  In p s y c h o l o g y  emergence of  theory  theory  of p s y c h o l o g y ,  This  and  from  f o r the  unconscious processes pathology.  critiques  most  of p s y c h i a t r y . "  medicine, p s y c h i a t r y , from t h e  chemotherapy;  of p s y c h o l o g y .  section presents  jealousy  discipline  of  (1983).  previous  development  and  the  Perspectives The  use  clients.  section presents  (1928) and  Aronson  their  r e p o r t i n g of more s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n t i a l  their  next  jealousy Adler  the  regarding  jealousy on  socio-  by  pathology.  contributed  mid-seventies r e f e r r e d t o as  by  psychology  is primarily " j e a l o u s " or  trait"non-  and  62  jealous"  persons.  were a t l e a s t thirties.  This  i s in spite  i m p l i e d by A d l e r  and Jung  The 1976 a p p e a r a n c e o f  interactional integration  model  of a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t  for jealousy  i n the twenties  and  Constantine's  allows  for a preliminary  o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l and s t a t e - o r i e n t e d  perspect ives. To  demonstrate the development  practice  within  the d i s c i p l i n e  r e v i e w s and c r i t i q u e s  with  Constantine's synergism research  t h e most  the e x c e p t i o n  recent  that  on j e a l o u s y  later  Adler  It i s a  instruments,  (1977) r e s e a r c h on  by A r o n s o n and P i n e s  recent  (1983) a r e  from t h e s e q u e n c e and d i s c u s s e d  of t h e s e c t i o n t o f a c i l i t a t e  section  with  research.  jealousy  (1976) m o d e l , B a r t e l l ' s  t h e o r y and  this  beginning  i n human r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d t h e most  extracted end  of p s y c h o l o g y  the l i t e r a t u r e  (1928) and e n d i n g w i t h chronology  of j e a l o u s y  together  near the  i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h i s and  chapters. Adler  (1928) t r a c e s  months o f l i f e individual  jealousy's  when, a c c o r d i n g  i s developing  origin  to h i s theory,  his life  goal  being  i s a character  neglected  trait  that  inherent  In h i s view,  results  or d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t ,  few  each  t o overcome  w e a k n e s s e s and f e e l i n g s o f i n f e r i o r i t y . jealousy  to the f i r s t  from  f e e l i n g s of  and i t s g o a l i s  power. A  1982 t r a n s l a t e d work  indicates  that Adler's  "Cooperation  Between t h e S e x e s "  i n s i g h t s i n t o the dynamics of j e a l o u s  63  behaviour in  emphasized  a Freudian  humanistic, of  in  the  a social  and  his  jealousy status since  p e r s o n can  food"  (p.154).  t r i g g e r e d by Jung  their  a self-effort  lost the  t o an  sublimated  alcoholic but  Jung  claims  early  i t "can  strive  that  the  now  jealousy"  real  also  stirrings  notes  sphere" i n the  i t is reinforced  desire  rather  eroticisms. jealousy  for their  t o get  a  "emotional  sexual  of p a r a n o i d ,  "unconscious compensation" love  of  p.144).  ( p . 1 1 5 ) , but to  social  f o r power  feeling  among h i s  its original  He  consciously  form of  1982,  jealousy  (1960) r e l a t e s the  alcoholics  is  i t "has  only  that  Woman's r e a l  need t o  entirely  his  " i s possible  implies  t o l e r a t e the  (Adler,  power,  actual, socio-cultural  of p s y c h o s e x u a l i t y " belong  v i e w s were more  ( A d l e r , -1982, p. 146)]  i n women. greater  not  t o man's " e v a l u a t i o n  [which  to the  simply  (1961) i n c l u d e s  i t "does not  than  her  inferiority"  (p.154) b e c a u s e for  drive  f e m a l e ' s d e v e l o p m e n t he  thus a b d i c a t e s  manifestations  Adler's  of male d o m i n a n c e "  i s more p r e v a l e n t  Jung  sex  d e v e l o p m e n t , but  In h-is view of  references  to the  "no  sexual  "masculine p r o t e s t "  order  apparent  that  the  purposes.  frequent  obstacles  or  subordinating  of  of  d e t e r m i n i s t i c sense.  i t f o r h i s own  concept  issues  back on  perceives reappear  (p.209) f o r  partners.  This  the  of  that  [from  course  his love the  chronic  compensation  duty. is  The  entirely  unconscious] only  (p.209).  (1954) a l s o u s e s the  case  s t u d y of  a seven  year  in  64  old  boy  to exemplify  manifestation. d i a g n o s e d as tests  walking  being  boy,  opposite.  a  squint  i n one  When the  impossible  was  affection.  (1979) f o r h e r chapter.  adult  i n the  on  their  participate,  therapists  t o examine the  Feelings  of  purposeful  before  impotence and  circumstances  child,  in learning  i n the  the  to  and  compete  form  things.  of  These  birth  of a  that  were  a c y c l e of  rage  and  moods of  the  emphasize  which they  others  in  things  the  clients  earlier  in  and  by  situation  the  social  and  the  Seeman  this  r a g e may  individual  groups  and in  for  pathology. appear  t h a n p a t h o l o g i c a l when the  by  r o l e s of  individual  resulting  i n d i c a t e that  and  unfair expectations  t h u s p o i n t i n g t o a need  diagnosing  adaptive  remorse  cycle described  sample d i s c u s s e d  Both authors  involved  (later  expected  rage  for doing  approximates  judgements p l a c e d  was  throwing  a l t e r n a t i n g with  This  intelligence  sibling.  Jung d e s c r i b e s , vindictiveness  boy  five after  soon p r a i s e d  for his  eventuated  would e x p r e s s  a t age  later  l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n  eye  b u l l y i n g and  power  originally  impediment  speech  and  problems exacerabated  was  A  surgery),  who  child, but  simple  problems.  a compensatory  retarded  a  tantrums,  brother  only  mentally  u n f a i r g r o u n d s he  temper  an  r a g e as  by  behavioural on  The  showed t h e  resolved  jealous  is  more  the experiencing  powerlessness. In  summary, J u n g ' s  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s focus  on  situational  65  factors His  brief  role his  and a r e c o n c e r n e d discussions,  of unconscious "optimistic  p.19).  with the c l i e n t ' s  goal or purpose.  t o Freud's,  de-emphasize the  relative  sexual impulses  and c r e a t i v e  Jung's r e c o g n i t i o n  view  and a r e c o n g r u e n t  o f humans"  of s o c i e t y ' s  ( C o r e y , 1977,  r o l e and  e x p e c t a t i o n s acknowledge t h a t  jealous behaviour  sometimes be t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s  best  Reik  (1946) c o n t e n d s  something of and  love"  (p.173).  on t h e b a s i s  He b e l i e v e s of c l i n i c a l  consists  i n Reik's  i n the organism  o b s e r v a t i o n s he n o t e s elemental  (1949) v i e w ,  and a g g r e s s i o n .  mainly  some sex  feelings,  aims  i s t o d e f e a t her r i v a l  Her  fears  attention,  However, t h e f e m a l e ' s  involve  loss  and g e t back t h e l o v e d  of emotional  and s e c u r i t y  as w e l l  e x p e r i e n c e and a c t o u t a n g e r this  i s because  often  involvement.  one o f r e t a l i a t i o n  threatened  The woman's object. time,  and r a g e .  i s more  likely  According to interprets  with another  that  implies her  H i s aim, i n R e i k ' s view, but h i s rage, emanating  sexual self-concept,  experience  o f abandonment, so  The male  t h e male a c c u r a t e l y  woman's s e x u a l i n v o l v e m e n t  emotional  involvement,  as t h r e a t  becomes p o s s e s s i v e a n d schemes.  Reik,  i s compounded o f envy,  o f envy a n d t h e m a l e ' s o f r a g e .  aim  his  rotten,  that  behaviours.  depression  to  effort.  i t i s a symptom n o t a d i s e a s e  i n terms o f predominant  Jealousy,  she  may  j e a l o u s y i s "a s i g n  i s wrong, n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  differences and  that  with  i s more from a  r e n d e r s him i n c a p a b l e o f  66  rational  t h i n k i n g or  women r e a c t by t o win  scheming.  holding  them b a c k .  their  partner's  react  by  on  Men,  sexual  withdrawing,  Reik  to t h e i r  (1949) p r o p o s e s  partners  in contrast, w i l l involvement rejecting  with  their  or by  focus  the  fighting,  on  third  partners  that  images of party  and  or  r e t a l i a t ing. Central jealousy already with  as  to Reik's being  a symptom of  research  o f inferiority  results  & Lindsey, are  t o be  1979;  jealousy  and  Wylie  that  of  be  jealousy  low  (Buunk,  1978;  regard.  Corzine  (1974) c i t e s  overview  of  but'  1982;  Jaremko  White,  1976,  methodological  individual  may  or may  not  rather  than  are  p.31).  spurious  The  effectively  or  individual  ineffectively  and/or o t h e r s .  Secondly,  he  associated  labelled  high  with  with  to a r r i v e  Coopersmith  problems  self-concept.  scientific  is associated  both  self-esteem.  and  difficult  The  review  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of  self-esteem  "the  and  of  This  self-esteem,  later  i n v o l v e the  (1961) i n an  expressions 1974,  self-esteem.  & Mosher,  inconsistent in this  Accordingly,  study  or a  reviewed  Teisman  problems encountered  and  low  i n d i c a t e s some c o n s e n s u s t h a t  feelings  1981)  thesis i s also a perspective  be  low  and  low  He  he  aware t h a t  genuine"  (Corzine,  i t from  self-esteem norms f o r that  the  his  some  thus  himself  that personal  notes  to  observes  s e l f - r e g a r d may  a t commonly a c c e p t e d  evaluation"'(p.32).  inherent  Firstly,  concealing  observes  (1967)  values  "make i t  67  investigators narcissism  assume a r r o g a n c e ,  are a s s o c i a t e d  inferiority,  timidity,  and  However,  in t h i s  lack  consider than  that  should of  personal  are a s s o c i a t e d  view,  Therefore,  of  it  involve,  it  is  with  have not  also very  low  minimally,  a time  approaches,  this  such as  approach.  author, i s  in  motivations  assuming  field"  that  behaviours,  Thus,  1974,  human b e h a v i o u r s ,  will  we a r e aware  (Corzine,  of.  p.35),  Wylie  (1974)  The  of  first  interventions clear  jealousy's  author is  Ard  in  Emphasizing  that  on u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s detail  by  his/her  extradyadic,  limits  of  opposite-sex  who s t r e s s e s  with to  outside  the  seemingly  these  that  views.  self-esteem.  suggest  the  acceptable behaviour  specific  importance  behaviours  he recommends t h a t  persons.  saying  i n a more p r e c i s e  affiliation  jealous  terms  agreement  communication to a v o i d d e s t r u c t i v e r e a c t i o n s  jealousy.  In  by s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s  the d i s c i p l i n e  (1967)  rather  jealousy  re-emphasizes  a c o m b i n e d a p p r o a c h may r e s u l t  understanding  thus  including  be i n f l u e n c e d o n l y  to  jealousy  they n e g l e c t phenomenal  validated  and  criticisms  and u n c o n s c i o u s  self-  important  w i t h C o r z i n e who u n d e r s c o r e s W y l i e ' s "drives  while  and c h a n g i n g  series  and  self-  been  e m p i r i c a l measurement  with other c o n s t r u c t s  phenomenological  pride  acceptance,  s e l f - e s t e e m may be dynamic  static.  comparison  of  these assumptions  author's  egotism,  with very high s e l f - e s t e e m ,  h a t r e d and s u b m i s s i v e n e s s esteem.  vanity,  of  to  are dependent  each p a r t n e r with  T h i s exchange  should  be  68  r e v i e w e d as t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p committment successful  and e x p l i c i t relationship  Beecher  communication in t h i s  and B e e c h e r  "The Mark o f C a i n "  progresses.  jealous  competition.  between  jealousy  general  references to A d l e r ' s  philosophies, about  ambition  practice"  exist,  (James  glossary  use  t h e word j e a l o u s y  of  Jealousy  indicates  symptomatic, in h i s t o r y person  has spoken  who t r i e s  himself" Testament Is  pathological  (p.5).  "I  the C h r i s t i a n  he/she  stating  perceived  of  am a j e a l o u s  God making  an i n t e n t i o n  rights  A r e v i e w of may w e l l  their  jealousy,  their  and p r i v i l e g e s  jealousy and every Elliot's  connotes  envy.  p e j o r a t i v e way it  is  always  They say " n o one  except perhaps  discussion  to hide neglects  G o d " (Exodus  it  the from  the Old  20:5, R.S.V.).  s e l f - r e f e r e n c e s or  to zealously  is  be an a r c h a i c  view  in order  negative  The book  be d i s o r d e r  or d e s t r u c t i v e .  to excuse h i m s e l f However,  claim  In  oh  " f o r where  i n an e x c l u s i v e l y  well  frequent  specifics  passages.  w h i c h more l i t e r a l l y  (1971).  and  and w r i t t e n  there w i l l  this  wrote  distinguish  t h e y make  citation,  that  is discussed  by B e e c h e r and B e e c h e r  jealousy  r e l y predominantly  3:16, R . S . V . ) .  (1967)  of  t o any of h i s  of B i b l i c a l  p r e f a c e d w i t h a New T e s t a m e n t  vile  spoken  of A d l e r ' s ,  t h e y do n o t  and a l t h o u g h  Instead,, they  interpretations  and s e l f i s h  the i s s u e s  t h e y do not r e f e r  jealousy.  personal  and e n v y ,  of a  view.  students  Unfortunately,  clear  are the essence  author's  (1971),  addressing  Trust,  protect  is  his  which a r e the f o u n d a t i o n s  of  69  Christian The  philosophy Beechers,  tendency  and  i n s p i t e of  to confuse  frequently  practice?  jealousy  their  with  Unfortunately,  associate  behaviours with  and  jealous  This  neglects  jealousy  useful  The  for either jealousy  interpersonal perspective  dynamics,  that  the  and  analogies seeking  of  always  of a  emotions  a u t h o r s do  an  power.  individual,  defensive  or  pathological. beyond  for  Jealousy,  not  superior  in  general  consider  any  Their  rather  typically  the which  seek and  necessarily may  'superior'  be  protective,  and  therapeutic  i n d i v i d u a l how  his  have a  suggestions jealous  and  initiative  and  as  a p r o b l e m of  keep  dependent.  that  the  may  than d e s t r u c t i v e  his creativity  jealousy  some a s p e c t  i t "leaves  characterizes  not  t e x t makes few  (1972) d i s c u s s e s  love claiming  neglect  f a c t o r s , and  in these circumstances,  comparisons destroy  May  They  in circumstances  'more' but  adaptive  and  power.  vulnerable,  i n t e r p r e t i n g f o r the  infantile  or  situational  r e n d e r him/her v e r y  f u n d a m e n t a l need  him  power  their  complexity  in p a r t i c u l a r .  and  p u r p o s e or p o t e n t i a l l y p o s i t i v e i n t e n t i o n or  motivation  indeed  the  views  envy, a d d r e s s i t s  mentioned a s s o c i a t i o n with  competitiveness.  power.  restricted  the  of  i t i s healthy  realms of  normal  r e l a t i o n s h i p i n w h i c h one  than  love"  (p.117).  that  a r i s e s in d i r e c t  He  also  says that  proportion  to  the  power  but  and  more  caring....[and] s e e k s more power  " i t i s an impotence  impotence of  the  70  individual"  (p.117).  He  associates  e s t e e m , p o w e r l e s s n e s s and privileges occurs  has  i n the  that  freedom.  when the  nothing, •out  and  person  no  cold.  by  negatives. jealousy  May  falls  (p.19) and  "power  and  whipped only  violence.  into action"  ineffective. is  names f i v e  a potentiality  when t h e  purely  power  other He  as  being  i s more  do  left  implies  than  perspective of  on  power  positives  and  r e l a t i o n s h i p between holism.  A clear  power w i l l  facilitate  developing  we  and  other  these  a  " i n the  right  Aggression  i s always  i t strength"  how One  of  power  self-assertion, exist  situation  and  pole  is  levels  have been b l o c k e d  "power call  the  human.  self-affirmation, E a c h of  levels  i n t e r m s of  ontological levels  (p.42).  says  personal  polarities  demanding, w h i l e  power t o be,  humans a s  of  i n f a n t and  including  and  a c t u a l l y can  i s essential for a l l l i v i n g  discusses  He  the  violence  therefore  a continuum  short  cooperative.  aggression  J u n g , he  rights,  jealousy.  (1972) s a y s  competitive  for  himself  a holistic  transcending  power emerges i n t h e is  and  of May's t h e s i s a b o u t  t h e s i s about  jealousy  low-self  determined.  power  understanding  things"  Like Adler  However, h i s p r o p o s e d  and  struggles  experiences  (1972) a c c o m p l i s h e s  i n c l u d i n g and  new  experiencing  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  intrapsychically  with  From h i s p e r s p e c t i v e ,  power and  jealousy's  May  resulting  jealousy  violence or  in a l l can  be  occur  are  interpersonal; i f i t (p.35).  He  71  e m p h a s i z e s a modern day against (May,  the  that  d e s t r u c t i v e e f f e c t s of  1972,  t h a n as  tendency,  p.20),  t o v i e w power  a significant,  the  i s "a  reaction  m i s u s e of. power"  i n a p e j o r a t i v e way  fundamental aspect  of  the  rather  life  process. May prevent  (1972) d e f i n e s change"  (p.99),  power as  "the  pointing  out  ability that  i t can  in  a c t u a l or p o t e n t i a l t e r m s .  He  —  e x p l o i t a t i v e , manipulative,  competitive,  integrative. Nutrient  the  power, he  exemplifies in  Only  caring  says  i t along  through  person"  thesis, its  attraction He  idea in  of  order  to  stimulate  and  by  three  plane.  In  and  a polar  holistic using  i n t e g r a t i v e power  nonviolence  solicits  i n t o a new  s y n e r g i s t i c because  this  conceptual way  May  points  the  body"  he exerts  Integrative i s "with  process i s one  (May,  when t h e  of  p.110).  of i t  creator  May's c o n c e p t  then  or  1972,  interpersonal  i t transcends  the  body,  repulsion  i n G h a n d i ' s use  i n an  creativity.  and  (p.109) and  type,  there  in instances  response  power  power a p a r e n t  i s "a d i a l e c t i c  synthesis...  two  t y p e s of  i t s best.  g r o w t h p r o c e e d s by  these  exemplifies  through  It  viewed  power p o t e n t i a l l y  most a l t r u i s t i c  a n t i t h e s i s and and  to the  or  explanation.  other"  from t h a t  be  nutrient  need some  i s " f o r the  child  (p.109).  antibody,  names f i v e  statesmanship at  power, u l t i m a t e l y the other  two  a range  for his/her  expressed  last  to cause  an  exchange  of  the  of  power i s continuum  thus  intersecting a  new  supports t h i s  a u t h o r ' s model  for  72  e m o t i o n s as  proposed  With these power can There  be  applied  agreement  pejorative, trend  trend  manipulative  It  be  need  power  then  " t o be"  his  t o the  any  theories  five  powers and  of  of  In  jealousy  power. i t with  congruence  and  of  Izard  (and and  i t s purpose  achieves"  i s the  (as  something  that  and  the  or h i g h l y  and  the by  and/or  expressed  in/of  exercise  of  types.  of  and/or  same p o t e n t i a l i t i e s  in  from  the  self-affirmation, selfAs  l e v e l s can  May  most o t h e r  (1972) s a y s  also  experiences  Solomon  types  integrative  an  can  constructive.  ontological levels,  be  of  emotions  of  "whipped jealousy.  i f we  consider  reviewed e a r l i e r )  i s to c r e a t e  c e n t r a l question is truly  with  p o s i t i v e l a b e l s ' , w'e  violence.  these  the  jealousy.  internally  (p.42) i n v a r i o u s  power, j e a l o u s y  be  power.  constituted  m o t i v a t e s and  may  that  to a s s o c i a t e  destructive  nutrient  aggression  into action"  the  power t o  occurring  be  t o e a c h of  power, p o s s i b l y  Like  jealousy.  i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h e a c h of May's f i v e  can  assertion,  of  of  literature  toward  side  f o r power e x i s t i n g w i t h  relation  concept  about  his e x p l o i t a t i v e , competitive  highly  i n c l u d i n g the  Jealousy  (1972) t h e s i s  l e a s t some a s p e c t  both p e j o r a t i v e  v i e w e d as  externally power,  as  the  i n the  been  t y p e s of  jealousy can  has  applies  Considering see  at  destructive May  one.  i n mind May's t o expand  involves  However, t h e  this  ideas  i s general  elementally  in chapter  change. asked  creative  by  i n the  "What i t May  of  power)  positive  73  sense, or something that  that  i s very  destructive,  l i e s between o r a t a t h i r d  point  or something  "beyond"  these  polarities. Ellis  (1972) c a l l s  jealousy  (p.118) a n d d i s t i n g u i s h e s jealousy.  Rational  between  jealousy  observations"  contrast,  " i s one o f t h e common  reaction with  (p.119).  t o someone b l o c k i n g  i t an i l l o g i c a l  absolutistic  ...  religionists  devoutly  Ellis' can  test  check  scientifically expected  with  in applying  t h e major  theories  logic;  the  emotion having  implies  secondly,  that little  signal  f o r things  denies  jealousy, in  forms o f e m o t i o n a l  like  idiosyncratic  i s "dogmatic,  those  i n which  of r a t i o n a l i t y  evidence. theory  of emotion.  h i s theory  not only  connection  (1974), c i t e d  of  individual,  rather with  Some d i f f i c u l t y which  i s to  lacks a f f i l i a t i o n  Firstly,  excludes  "the"  logic i s  the p o s s i b i l i t y of  has no i n d e p e n d e n t  o r no p u r p o s e beyond gone wrong  orthodox  the  feelings i s a  logical  this  that  along  (p.121).  jealous  the p o s s i b i l i t y  Corzine  logico-  any p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l a s p e c t ;  emotion  serves  Irrational  system  f o r the l e v e l  observable  on t h e  i t " i s an  believe"  for their  and i r r a t i o n a l  y o u " (p.120) a n d s e e s  and e x a c t l y  his  it  belief  a t t r i b u t e to his/her  simplistic  be  (p.118).  He s a y s  tearfulness"  rational  " i s based  empirical  disturbance"  "sex-love  serving  thirdly,  s t a t u s , but  as a warning  i n the c o g n i t i v e  bank;  finally,  intuition.  above  he  i n reference  to h i s  74  critique of  of self-esteem  t e s t s the a s s o c i a t i o n  integrative/dis-integrative personality  jealousy. an  methodologies,  He c l a i m s  and p r o v i d e s  support  i n t e g r a t i v e / d i s - i n t e g r a t i v e schema  "Butler-Haigh instrument,  Q-Sort" designed  instrument  that  he u s e s .  specific  (Corzine,  time"  t o measure  b a s e d on s u b j e c t s '  characterize  into the  This  attention  1974, p . 7 6 ) ,  in a pre-therapy/post-therapy  u s e s an a d a p t e d v e r s i o n concept  that  by C a r l R o g e r s and a s s o c i a t e s " t o by t h e r a p e u t i c  administered  to indicate  i s structured  measure c h a n g e s e f f e c t e d periodof  p r o c e s s e s and.  "jealous"  over a  i s usually  fashion.  "the notion  of  Corzine  self-  s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n s " (p.76) t o  and " n o n - j e a l o u s " p e r s o n s .  associates  high  self-esteem  individual  with  integrative personality  He  and t h e s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g p r o c e s s e s and low  self-esteem  o r t h e non s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g i n d i v i d u a l w i t h  integrative  personality  "movement away conflict"  F-test  and  tests  theories  proposition,  jealousy.  was t h e o r y - t e s t i n g  procedures.  derivative  possible  1974, p . 1 7 6 ) ,  rather  than a d i v i d i n g or  of the psyche.  Corzine and  D i s - i n t e g r a t i v e means a  i n t e g r i t y and i n the d i r e c t i o n of  (Corzine,  destruction  be  from  processes.  dis-  This  by way o f o f Q-methodology  methodology  "by way of s i n g u l a r  of a p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r y "  uses  propositions (p.76).  i n essence, views p e r c e p t i o n  personality  dimension  He a c k n o w l e d g e s t h a t  small  in a larger  samples that  may  His singular  of s e l f  as a  theory of  this proposition  reflects  75  only is  on  the  also  internal  important  derived  t o remember  An  a l s o excludes  p e r s o n s were  self-report  significant  problem  relationships. assume t h a t The rather  Corzine's  jealousy  current  than  conceive  of  conclusions  may  as  his  by  esteems and  to  the  t h a n as  and  suggest and  jealousy  a  attitudes  t o be  i n t e r p e r s o n a l l y as  and  thus  Hence,  that  had  "process"  a t t r i b u t e s the  as  i t i s relevant  to  f o r some of he  Corzine's  t e s t e d the  points  Accordingly, original  and  territoriality  as  partners  ( j e a l o u s agents)  Rogers of  self(1972),  of  dynamics  Rogers'  a possible biological  i n t e r p e r s o n a l and  he  the  context  group-influenced Even  in time,  their  design i n the  as  similarly  i n t e r m s of  j e a l o u s y moreso  socio-cultural  dynamically  well  involved others  jealousy  suggests  of  not  procedures  " s u b j e c t s " at v a r i o u s  questioned  of  "non-  was  their  jealousy  a personality characteristic.  suggestion of  assumes  self-actualization.  relationship,  or  others.  basis  t h a t a l l p a r t i e s were, o v e r a l l ,  t o whom C o r z i n e instrument,  and  38  the  e i t h e r was  are  jealousy involved  on  i n t e r m s of  experienced.  jealous  have f o u n d  affected  solely  alternate explanations and  of  conclusions  " j e a l o u s " and  sampling  research  (jealous objects) well  Corzine's  view, i t  is dispositional.  statically,  intrapersonally  38  jealousy  f o r them  author's  r o l e ( s ) of  identified  that  this  assessment  the  homogenous sample of  jealous"  In  that  from a u n i d i m e n s i o n a l  dynamics t h a t  their  experience.  possibly  group  aspect  76  involvement. t e r m s of  Also,  own  containing  36  p e r s o n " ) and of  61  are  each  hopelessness").  three  vote  by  an  results  used a  cards  the  differences concludes  that  me"  to  first  r e q u i r e d by  of what  this  on  example, an  a n a l y s i s of power  subject,  loss,  of  because he/she  i s temporarily  responsible  recording  On  like  the  sheet  would of  reflecting  me".  the a  Subgroupings  hypotheses. showed  conclusion  i n the  that  that  significant  adults.  group] i n  i n terms  of  wants f o r  process  that  subject.  triangle  is experiencing  Corzine  and  [the non-jealous  jealous  two  completion  both c o n s c i o u s  the  been  three  Viewed d i f f e r e n t l y ,  i t i s about  part  cards  "I have a-  of  non-jealous  them  more c o p i n g  the  the  panel  hypothesis  strategems,  (p.151).  97  b a s i s of a  into his six  null  group dynamics,  consideration  the  piles.  "least  j e a l o u s and  "fewer  are  to cope"  triangular  the  between  unconscious, order  to  from each c a t e g o r y  nine  of h i s sample were s t r u c t u r e d of  a  i n a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n  "most l i k e  Testing  "I am (e.g.,  on  independent  number of  t o e a c h of  this  from  inherent  in  B e f o r e h a n d , a l l i t e m s had  Each subject  the  allotted  earlier,  i n t o -9 p i l e s ,  (e.g.,  to e i t h e r category  psychologists. structured  sorted,  d i s - i n t e g r a t i v e items  out  range  a construct  i n t e g r a t i v e items  to belong  sorting  as  subjects  judged  be  discussed  design.  Corzine's  of  limitations  self-esteem  Corzine's  feeling  the  requires  For  suggests  the  threat  i n a lower p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e  to  that of  both  77  object  and a g e n t .  additional change  coping  Hence, he/she w i l l  indeed  mechanisms, and more t h a n  i s t o o c c u r and i f dynamic  require t h e others., i f  equilibrium  i s t o be r e -  established. Several null  other  s u b g r o u p i n g s by sex and a t o t a l  h y p o t h e s e s about  were u s e d  by C o r z i n e  i n t e g r a t i v e / d i s - i n t e g r a t i v e processes (1974) t o c h a r a c t e r i z e  p e r s o n " and t h e " n o n - j e a l o u s p e r s o n " . a priori  characterizations,  culturally oriented  differences  jealous  males  jealous  females  interpretation not  integrative his  processes  property,  indicating is  likewise  western  jealous  given  these  use o f s o c i o -  than' t r a i t -  males  (JM) and nqn-  differences females  i n the f i r s t  between  (NJF).  instance,  that  His NJM do  t h a n JM i n terms o f i n t e g r a t i v e / d i s -  because  (Corzine,  "viewing  the l o v e - o b j e c t  h i s perception  1974, p . 1 5 3 ) .  as  of the j e a l o u s  H i s evidence  more i n t e g r a t i o n among J F when compared w i t h NJF interpreted  society's  traditional  between  he e x t e r n a l i z e s  circumstance"  rather  ( J F ) and n o n - j e a l o u s  measure d i f f e r e n t l y  At i s s u e ,  "jealous  F o r example, he f i n d s no  (NJM) b u t s i g n i f i c a n t  includes,  the  is his conflicting  b a s e d and s t a t e - o r i e n t e d  interpretations.  significant  of s i x  s o c i o - c u l t u r a l l y and g r o u n d e d i n  sanctioning  role expectations  o f woman's v u l n e r a b i l i t i e s v i a so t h a t :  J e a l o u s y i s r e a d i l y p e r c e i v e d by t h e f e m a l e a s an i n t e r n a l p r o b l e m . . . [ a n d ] s h e , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e male, senses that her p e r s o n a l i n a d e q u a c i e s a r e f i n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c i r c u m s t a n c e s which p r e c i p i t a t e her j e a l o u s f e e l i n g s " ( C o r z i n e , 1974, p . 1 5 6 ) .  78  Corzine  incorporates  interactionally-based adequately  supported  "non-jealous individual affects  by  comparing followed  experiences  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s then  grounding  i n the  processes. exclude  subjects the  and as  and  agent  w e l l as  has  on  the  b a s i s of a  jealousy  1976  before  following For is  roles an  at  The  the  intial  i n t r o d u c t i o n of is discussed  h i s model a r e  evidenced  both the  tendency  Corzine  was  to  label  which  life  process. researching  Constantine's  toward  expanded p e r s p e c t i v e s  example, a new  of  the  which  on  the  end  of  jealousy  i n s e v e r a l of  the  studies.  suggested  text  the  model w h i c h  section. by  comparisons  o n l y .temporary meaning t o t h e i r  interactional  group  s i n g l e emotion  that  by  requires  i n c o r p o r a t i o n of  a r e l i n q u i s h i n g of  remembered  provided  i t likewise  require  process  is indicated  i n t e r p e r s o n a l and  However, i t must be  this  societal  much as  with  a n a l y s i s of  s u b j e c t i v e - e x p e r i e n t i a l a c c o u n t s by  individual  probably  a n a l y s i s of  I f the  more  triangles"  inter-group  Alternatively, individual  object  objective  by  as  Corzine's  would be  "jealous  reciprocal roles.  individual  and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s that  triangles"  and  socio-cultural  by  approach  Clanton  and  " s u b j e c t " of  involved others. stock-taking  contribution  f o r working with  Smith  (1977) who  jealousy, Their  kind  of  direct  type  of  work t o be  their  discounting  interventions  to determine  o f mood and  without  jealousy  the  incorporate  jealousy, done on  the  79  relationship. improvement suggest first  an  and  jealousy  opening  experiences,  i s s u e s of  then  distrust,  the  recognize  jealousy  " f e a r of  communication  as  which  meanings, b e l i e f s  experience  several  loss"  authors talking  a trigger  and  jealousy  jealousy  provide  simultaneously  jealousy-evoking while  the  other  second-guessing his/her responses.  of  emotion,  and  of"needs,  of  analyzes  the  for a  Her  jealousythem  emotion, (negative)  i n terms  disclosing enhancement  before  subjects  Both p a r t n e r s  in a Likert The  rating  of  interviewer  know  are potentially questions  one  o b s e r v e s t h r o u g h a one-way g l a s s , partner's  Four q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  written,  are  anonymous  administered  after  the  interview. Francis variations  (1977) shows e v i d e n c e  in jealousy  of  i n v e n t i v e methodology  interview  situations.  flash",  (p.213).  investigated.  involved  important  for constructive  She  expression  a structured  the  to c l a r i f i c a t i o n  values"  response.  i s being  of  and  manipulation  d i s c u s s i o n of  component  self-  fantasies  and  (1977) e x a m i n e s a s p e c t s  b a r r i e r s that  incorporates  partner  sharing  deception  related-couple-communication.  the  The  c h a n n e l s by  to candid  "leads  and  Then F r a n c i s  of  for  They a c k n o w l e d g e a p h y s i o l o g i c a l " j e a l o u s  emphasize  the  a catalyst  intimacy.  of c o m m u n i c a t i o n  eventually progressing  issues.  as  for strengthening  about past  discussing and  They view  experience,  f o r wide  individual,  especially  i n terms  of  80  eliciting  f a c t o r s and  regarding  the  the  manner of  attribution  s o u r c e and  of  expression  infidelity  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  jealous  S o c i a l u n d e s i r a b l i t y of  response  inhibits  communication  of  intervention  at  dealing  with  jealousy  (1967),  she  working  through h y p o t h e t i c a l  cautions  that  jealousy  communcation as  underlying  extradyad'ic  toward mutually problems are  she  t o be  directs  recommends Like  Ard  assumptions  and  s i t u a t i o n s but  must, be  acceptable  the  basic  Therefore  s y s t e m and  open c o m m u n i c a t i o n  partner,  jealous  a n e u t r a l phenomenon.  suggests c l a r i f y i n g  negotiations if  the  the  prevents  these d i s c r e p a n c i e s .  and  f e e l i n g s and  coping.  recognition  also  to s e l f  means of  and  but  followed  by.  r u l e s and  prevented  or  boundaries  withstood  by  (1978) examine  the  the  relationship. Shettel-Neuber, effects third  of  party  subject's  B r y s o n and sex  and  p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of  i n t e r l o p e r i n t e r m s of  jealousy.  They a s s e s s  simulated,  jealousy-evoking  female undergraduate f o r the  alterations  in fashion,  the  "projected"  different  p h y s i c a l movements.  responses  experimental  Analysis  of  to  sex,  interaction  of  of  their  Regardless  of  sex,  12  subjects  variance  video-taped,  42  male and  skin  by  condition  revealed  dependent  were more l i k e l y  41  is  a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , or 36  a  of  conditions  clothing, hairstyle,  d i f f e r e n c e s due for  to  Attractiveness  significant  both,  expression  s i t u a t i o n s , using  students.  manipulated  and  Young  to  the  measures.  feel  angry  81  or  e m b a r a s s e d when t h e i n t e r l o p e r  authors and/or  explain  as being  the d i f f e r i n g  unattractive al.,  this  nature  interloper  "due t o t h e s o c i a l  of the t h r e a t  included  in their  study  (Shettel-Neuber et  were more l i k e l y  that  they  Although  this  Corzine,  possible  finding  particular  social  supports  earlier  their  of t h e i r  by t h e i n t e r l o p e r ' s  partners while  more l i k e l y  to their  think  didn't care.  views about resulting  (cf . Reik,  e t a l . do n o t d i s c u s s age range  to report  feeling  a c t i o n s and more  females  the e f f e c t s  Again  and  male s u b j e c t s .  reported that  " t u r n e d on"  they  these  findings  would be  more  p a r t n e r and t r y t o make t h e i r  distinctions  Adler  views  get  person.  t o c r y when a l o n e , make t h e m s e l v e s  attractive they  themselves,  i n terms of the s p e c i f i c milieu  angry  Examples  t h r e a t e n the other  M a l e s were a l s o more l i k e l y "flattered"  with  1974 ) , S h e t t e l - N e u b e r  confounds  to i n i t i a t e  as a response.  would g e t a n g r y  drunk o r h i g h and v e r b a l l y  (cf.  situation  t h a t an  seems t o p r e s e n t "  and/or a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r s  by  The  1978, p . 6 1 4 ) . Males  1949;  was u n a t t r a c t i v e .  partner  support  other  o f s e x - r o l e t r a d i t i o n a l i s m and i n t e r m s o f power  1928, 1982; May,  diffusion  1972; C o r z i n e ,  1974; and W h i t e ,  1981) . M a l e s were a l s o more start  going  likely  out w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e  to report that  they  and become more  aggressive with others i f the i n t e r l o p e r  would  sexually  was a t t r a c t i v e , b u t  82  f e m a l e s were more l i k e l y interloper the  was  authors  to  respond  unattractive.  To  i n t h e s e ways when  explain  these  the  differences,  say:  I f we assume t h a t an a t t r a c t i v e i n t e r l o p e r i s seen as more t h r e a t e n i n g t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h e n as t h e t h r e a t i n c r e a s e s m a l e s become more l i k e l y t o seek s o l a c e or t o b o l s t e r t h e i r ego by p u r s u i n g a l t e r n a t i v e relationships. F e m a l e s , on t h e o t h e r hand, become l e s s l i k e l y t o engage i n b e h a v i o r s t h a t might a c c e n t t h e t h r e a t t o the e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p ( S h e t t e l - N e u b e r e t a l . , 1978, p.614).  The  researchers  correlates the  (locus  various  role)  the  Their projected  research  possibility different quite can  be  t h a n by sample.  actual  reactions that  accounted sex  than  life  that  f o r more by  i n the  instance  image) of  not  results (e.g.,  sex-  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s in  jealousy  "males' and  reactions"  findings  females'  situation  However,  b e c a u s e of  his  the  and  elicit  Also,  socio-cultural  age of  events.  are  i t i s again  c i r c u m s t a n c e s might  simulated  some of  are  present  jealousy-evoking  the  body  p.615).  d i f f e r e n t " (p.615).  that  possible  "the  m a g n i t u d e of  reveals  to g e n e r a l i z e  and  c u l t u r a l factors  a l l , 1978,  responses to a  qualitatively difficult  et  personality  findings  than p e r s o n a l i t y  n a t u r e and  (Shettel-Neuber  but  that  s i t u a t i o n a l or  more i m p o r t a n t  determining  self-esteem'  reactions  They c o n c l u d e  that  are  examine p o s s i b l e  of control,  jealousy  significant. suggest  also  explainations  sub-cultural  this university  i t is  milieu  undergraduate  83  The  late  research  part  of t h e l a s t  on j e a l o u s y  development, correlates  and f u r t h e r  predominantly conceptual  a t model  development  The r e s e a r c h empirical  since  and. i n s t r u m e n t  as " j e a l o u s "  ( e . g . , Jaremko  inconsistent  o.f p o t e n t i a l  of t h e r a p e u t i c t h e n has r e m a i n e d  and the problems c o n t i n u e  and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l .  individuals  evidenced p r o l i f i c  attempts at the i s o l a t i o n  interventions.  apparent  aimed  decade  The t e n d e n c y t o s u b g r o u p  and " n o n - j e a l o u s " p e r s o n s i s s t i l l & Lindsey,  findings.  Model  1979) a n d r e s u l t s i n  development  encounters the c o n c e p t u a l misplacement Instrument poignant  development  being  from o t h e r there  Mosher, 1979;  i n theory  envy.  f o c u s on j e a l o u s y development  1979).  sex d i f f e r e n c e s gradually  r o l e s and r o l e  (Buunk,  t h a n a s an i s o l a t e d  intrapsychic  first  by B a r r e l l  remainder of t h i s  Cohen,  This  Jealousy i s process  a n d i n 1982 t h e  and R i c h a r d s a p p e a r s .  section  r e v i e w s and c r i t i q u e s the  i n these developments.  model.  (Daher &  interactional  dynamic  i s made i n t h e c h r o n o l o g y t o d i s c u s s interactional  1982, T e i s m a n &  and r e m a i n p e r t i n e n t .  r e c o g n i z e d more a s a complex  s t u d i e s mentioned  side,  The themes o f power, s e x u a l i t y a n d  continue  phenomenology  jealousy  On t h e p o s i t i v e  1978) a n d i n t h e r a p y d e v e l o p m e n t  Teisman,  The  of s e l f - e s t e e m .  with d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  emotions, e s p e c i a l l y  reciprocity  ( W h i t e , 1976)  e n c o u n t e r s many p r o b l e m s , t h e most  the d i f f i c u l t y  i s an i n c r e a s e d  t o be  Then  a regression  Constantine's  i s followed  by a b r i e f  84  introduction  to B a r t e l l ' s  human r e l a t i o n s h i p s instruments. and P i n e s facilitate  is  t h e most  discussed.  integration  of  T e i s m a n and Mosher including  some of  those  predominantly Caucasian unmarried, by sex  to  conditions while  jealous  this  the other  (98%),  and  (4)  sex  closeness.  used s i g n i f i c a n t l y  subjects  non-jealous  to  eighty,  (57%), assignments  role-playing  t o overcome t h e  The a u t h o r s  in d i s t a n c i n g  roles  found  sexual  jealousy  issues  However,  jealousy  it  i n terms  long-term patterns.  issues  of  of  distance  that,  and e x p e r i e n c i n g  for  non-jealous  loss  noteworthy initial  They c o n c l u d e  that  jealousy  involving is  role  more r e j e c t i o n and c o e r c i o n  who e n a c t e d d i s t a n c i n g  select  attention.  Using  t h e y made random  no sex d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t e d i n  tended to  used  differences  Roman C a t h o l i c  improvised e f f o r t s  jealousy  assess  examine  is  Aronson  chapters.  s u g g e s t e d by R e i k .  subjects  selected  and l a t e r  (1978)  overall,  However,  format  in  jealousy  i n w h i c h one p a r t n e r assumed a d i s t a n c i n g  and r e - e s t a b l i s h  did  r e c e n t r e s e a r c h by This  heterosexual couples (4)  r e s e a r c h on s y n e r g i s m  and an o v e r v i e w and c r i t i q u e of  Finally,  (1983)  (1977)  of  time  that  the  reasons.  regard.  while  than  Men  women and  authors  c o n f r o n t a t i o n and  not  that:  W h i l e seeming t o c o n t r a d i c t t h e i d e a t h a t j e a l o u s c o n f l i c t has an e s c a l a t i n g and r e s o l u t i o n - r e s i s t i n g n a t u r e i n terms of t h e q u a n t i t y of v e r b a l a c t s , t h e r e does seem t o be some e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e q u a l i t y of v e r b a l b e h a v i o r (more r e j e c t i o n and c o e r c i o n ) r e f l e c t s t h e i d e a of t h e r e s o l u t i o n - r e s i s t i n g n a t u r e of j e a l o u s c o n f l i c t in comparison to other i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t ( T e i s m a n & M o s h e r , 1978, p . 1 2 1 5 ) .  \  85  Conceived initial  rejection  the d e n i a l also  i n terms of t h r e a t e n e d  stage  and c o e r c i o n m i g h t o f an a n t i c i p a t o r y  be t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  jealousy jealous  discouraged  also grief  their  reaction.  and p r e c l u d i n g more e f f e c t i v e  I t may  attached to  i t s open acknowledgement by indirect  subjects'  be e x p l a i n e d a s  pejorative labels  s u b j e c t s l e a d i n g t o more  communicate  loss,  their  e f f o r t s to resolution-  seeking. Although (1949,  1952) p r o c l a i m e d  t h e male with  Teisman. and" MO she r f o u n d sex d i f f e r e n c e s  no sex d i f f e r e n c e s  possibly, couples  as they  regarding  because  were n o t e c o n o m i c a l l y  i s suggested the couple,  the i n d i v i d u a l s  in their  a t the j e a l o u s  by T e i s m a n  (1979).  "The s y s t e m  but a l s o  the r i v a l ,  the  norms o f t h e s u b c u l t u r e "  (p.153).  concept  of the t h e r a p e u t i c t r i a n g l e  paradox  and symptom  transfer the couple  they  issues,  directed  only  into  loss,  interdependent.  therapy  not  incorporating  i s s u e s of  involvement  on h e r f e a r s of t i m e  i n terms of r e s o u r c e  suggest,  A problem-solving system  for. R e i k ' s  f o c u s i n g more on h i s p a r t n e r ' s s e x u a l  o t h e r s and t h e f e m a l e  found  support  includes  the t h e r a p i s t  and  He d e s c r i b e s t h e  a s w e l l as t h e use o f  and s t r e s s e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e s y s t e m an a t t i t u d e  of  of s e r i o u s  playfulness. Teisman's therapy author  questions  has many f a v o u r b l e p o i n t s , b u t t h i s  i t svery  directive  and b e h a v i o u r a l  approach  86  as the  well  as  i t s demand f o r a  therapist  counsellors for  the  might  by,  c o u p l e and  contact  for  the  to  control  find  usually  refuses  tell  him/her  to c o n t i n u e  the  He  jealousy"  (p.153).  the  the  this  to  treat  therapist's  rival's  refusal"  intervention  i n need of  temporary  boundaries.  "means" w h i c h might  the  extramarital  one  i n j e c t e d by  that  be  is  is In  acceptable  that  loyal,  the  and  i s Teisman's  through  only  the  behaviour, provide  to a l t e r  hope f o r the  therapist ascribes  t o the  of  passionate,  imaginative  to accent  use  the  emotional experience  zealous,  therapist  (1979)  language  "society orchestrates  Hence, words s u c h as  jealous  promote a c t i o n  acceptable  consequently  sexually-curious,  the  the  point  s y s t e m as  notes  and  transfer,  this  i n knowing how  through  symptom t r a n s f e r  labelling  of  rival  at  directive counsellor.  and  alteration.  and  jealous  i s Teisman's  reframing  rival  "ritualize  rationale underlying  P e r h a p s more w i d e l y  polarity  therapist  i s done t o the  the  therapeutic  rival  exclude  highly  the  suggestions  He  in viewing  question  are  Teisman's  Many  to p a r t i c i p a t e in therapy.  This  The  (p.153).  by  him/her  the  phoning  strategies  the  o v e r p e r m e a b l e and  of  difficult  of  i n f r o n t of  facilitate  and  (p.153).  t o the  realize, goals"  instance,  should  couple.  sound  also  requesting  that  therapist  the  to  use  t h e r a p i s t t o assume c o n t r o l of  triangle  claims  in order  "continual  the  and  sensitive  positive  perspectives, system.  In  symptom  non-jealous  person,  87  e m o t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s s i m i l a r person.  The p u r p o s e  his/her  self-focusing  struggles.  all  i s to re-direct  recognizes that  p a r t s of the system.  opportunity  i s that  of the j e a l o u s  the l a t t e r  and more toward  The p r i n c i p l e  once t h e c o u p l e  t o those  their  from  partner's  change w i l l  similar  away  be  emotions  facilitated permeate  The d e p e n d e n t member t h u s h a s an  t o become t h e h e l p e r .  Daher and Cohen  (1979) s u g g e s t  group therapy f o r  c o u p l e s and p r e s e n t  t h e c o n c e p t u a l base and f o r m a t  workshop,  a five-phase process:  involving  for a  1. r e c o g n i t i o n o f j e a l o u s y 2. l a b e l l i n g a s p e c t s o f j e a l o u s y ( l a b e l l i n g and c o g n i t i v e e f f e c t s on j e a l o u s y b e h a v i o r s ) 3. c o m m u n i c a t i o n about j e a l o u s y w i t h . o t h e r s 4. a c c e p t a n c e o f j e a l o u s y a s a l e g i t i m a t e p o s s i b l e a s p e c t of r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and 5. f o c u s i n g on o p t i o n s t h a t may i n d u c e r e s o l u t i o n (Daher & Cohen, 1979, p . 4 8 0 ) . They d i r e c t learning  modalities —  structured options theory  participants  these phases,  persons.  t a s k s , and a p p l y i n g b e h a v i o r a l  jealous"  Group'  format.  t o t h e o r y d e v e l o p m e n t , Jaremko and L i n d s e y that  of d i f f i c u l t The p u r p o s e  jealous person's stress"  three  r e l a t i o n s h i p - d i l e m m a s " (p.481-482).  (1979) h y p o t h e s i z e d stress  using  a c o g n i t i v e model, s h a r i n g  i s w e l l managed w i t h i n t h e i r  Returning  the  "building  experiential  to actual  through  (p.548).  non-jealous  persons  self-disclosure  of t h e i r  response  study  tendency  They t a u g h t  subjects a cognitive,  would cope  better  than  with  jealous  was " t o s t u d y t h e  i n coping with  17 " j e a l o u s "  social  and 13 "non-  reversal-of-affect  technique  88  as  the t e s t c o n d i t i o n .  disclosure  sessions  questionnaire intimate used the  Private,  served  f o r the p r e - t e s t post-test. The  as t h e s o c i a l  i t e m s were r a n k e d  by a l l s u b j e c t s  while  from most  No c o n t r o l g r o u p was  is  i d e n t i f y i n g jealous  desirability. condition lowest  consisted  scorers  imply a t o t a l jealous They low  though t h e i r of only  s a y " i t may w e l l in jealousy  (p.554). jealousy  the very  In t h e f i n a l  useful  situations It  that  therefore  example  jealousy could  that  people  the idea  that  eventually  [who m e a s u r e d ] jealous  the age-old underlies  conclude  assumption  that  several  other  "certain  experiment  empirical  that  i t may be more  i n most p e o p l e "  this  persons"  t h e many p r o b l e m s  They m e n t i o n  be e l i c i t e d that  and t h e v e r y  o f 80, t h e y  a s r e s u l t i n g from  seems e v i d e n t  supports  highest  by s e l f - r e p o r t m e a s u r e s .  analysis,  c o n f o u n d s and f i n a l l y  Jealousy  to social  masked h i g h l y  i s a personality trait  t o view  non-jealous  i n terms o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  have been  w i t h c o m p a r a t i v e measurements. possible  pool  persons  were i n f a c t  experiment  sample o f 30 f o r t h e t e s t  of c o n f i d e n c e  from n o n - j e a l o u s  from  their  (1979) " S e l f - R e p o r t  from an o r i g i n a l lack  to support  persons  i t t o be s u s c e p t i b l e  Even  1, 3 and -5 were  key p r o b l e m w i t h t h e i r  They u s e d B r i n g l e ' s  and f o u n d  to least  formed.  evidence  The r e p o r t e d  Scale"  intimate  Six  i t e m s 2, 4 and 6 were u s e d f o r  hypothesis.  persons.  self-  stressor.  and i t e m s r a n k e d  authors d i d not f i n d  common —  tape-recorded,  (p.553).  i s an  research  used  alone  89  is  less  lead  than  efficient  to a greater  i n t e r m s of p r o d u c i n g  understanding,  of  the  results  that  human e x p e r i e n c e  of,  jealousy. Using 1980,  the  for three  jealousy.  development first  of  stage  has  with  three two  His  threat  stages  White  of  study  "romantic  as  and  (1976) m e a s u r e s  (among o t h e r  self-esteem,  due  developed  things)  feelings  relationship,  results  of the  His  as. t h e  first  of a n g e r  over  i n a d e q u a c y as  a  alternative  jealousy•with his  to partner's  would p r e d i c t l a t e r  collected  model  jealousy".  feelings  on  (p.51).  hypothesizes  the  (1976,  conceptualized  a .consequence of  "Relationships Questionnaire"  the  explores  including "feelings  relationship  that develop  relationship"  1977  to s e l f - e s t e e m  components  alternative  partner  to  s t u d i e s , White  1981a) d i s c u s s e s a power-and-dependency p e r s p e c t i v e  "romantic"  the  same sample  a n g e r and  from a s u r v e y  to support  of  these  a b s e n c e of e v i d e n c e ,  where s e l f - e s t e e m  f o r the  150  with  inadequacy, fights. couples  predictions. a new  study  that perceived  involvement of  17-scale  model of  His  threat  a  to  rival,  perceived  threat  a n a l y s i s of .data  d i d not He  and  generate  concludes  jealousy  that " i n  i s required  i s r e l e g a t e d t o a more p e r i p h e r a l  role"  (p.135). In a  later  more l i k e l y especially  to  paper, White induce  i f they  are  sexual in a  (1980) r e p o r t s t h a t j e a l o u s y than  are  low-power p o s i t i o n  females  are  males, relative  to  90  their  partner.  relationship The  considers  indicates a  subjects*  were most  He  relatively  f r e q u e n t l y , to t e s t increase  esteem, and  least  involvement  i n the  that  o f t e n , as  to gain  a  to  m a l e s , on  final  and  for  a  involved  powerful inducing  in  the  position. jealousy  r e l a t i o n s h i p , followed  form of  r e l a t i o n s h i p was  specific  indirect the  to b o l s t e r  punishment.  not  relevant  reported  concrete  ways i n w h i c h suggestions, of  the  power"  by  self-  Level to  of  these  forms of  He  jealousy power.  this  power exercise  suggests,  in  the  i s r e l a t e d to  the  Unlike  many  earlier  i s r e l a t e d more t o  r e l a t i o n s h i p than  in  (1980') e x p l a i n s  more f r e e t o  (p.226).  share  jealousy  stereotypically  personal  ordinary  White d e c i d e s  the  is  hand, a r e  couple  inducing  r e w a r d and' so W h i t e  and  other  a n a l y s i s , that  shaping  less  f o r revenge,  " f e m a l e e x e r c i s e of power  direct  more  motives.  constrained ...  the  rewards,  F e m a l e s more f r e q u e n t l y order  being  s e l f - r e p o r t e d motives  a d e s i r e to  various  that  t o the  the  individual  personalities. Possible self-esteem, of  c o r r e l a t e s of self-esteem  i n a d e q u a c y as  traditionalism,  examined  failed  romanticism,  dependence on  i n White's  jealousy  including  dependence, e x c l u s i v i t y ,  a partner,  d e p e n d e n c e of p a r t n e r , are  romantic  birth  the order  role  relationship, perceived and  (1981a) s t u d y .  to predict jealousy.  sex  feelings  r e l a t i o n s h i p stage The  Expectations  of  last  three  sexual  91  exclusivity only  v a r i a b l e s that  sexes. with  a n d f e e l i n g s of i n a d e q u a c y a s a p a r t n e r  Self-esteem  jealousy  traditional  were p r e d i c t i v e o f j e a l o u s y  d e p e n d e n c e was p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d  male was more l i k e l y  as j e a l o u s .  belief,  fixed  than  White d e c i d e s  i n the t r a d i t i o n a l  role,  However, sex r o l e  of jealousy  may,be b e c a u s e double are  h a s t o do a  t h a n man a n d so any be o v e r i n t e r p r e t e d by  t r a d i t i o n a l i s m was n o t  f e m a l e s no l o n g e r  assumptions  that  this  endorse the  t h a t male a t t r a c t i o n s t o o t h e r s  self-eseem  low s e l f - e s t e e m  m a l e s were f o u n d males.  p r e d i c t s male a n d n o t f e m a l e discusses  sexual  component  of self-esteem (as a p a r t n e r )  perception  of t h r e a t  that  t o be l e s s  self-esteem  j e a l o u s y White  (1981a)  that  i s captured  and t h e r e f o r e  i t may be a by f e e l i n g s o f  related to  f o r men b u t n o t f o r women.  Dependence on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p was t h e o n l y White  female  (1981a) f o u n d t o be i n d e p e n d e n t l y  jealousy.  jealous  To e x p l a i n why  p r e s t i g e , suggesting  inadequacy  that  that  not s e r i o u s . High  than  this  i n f e m a l e s and he e x p l a i n s  traditional  standard  males t o r a t e  which h o l d s  she h a s t o a n o t h e r man w i l l  partner.  predictive  other  that  woman i s more monogamous o r f a i t h f u l  her  f o r both  f o r males but not f o r females and the  himself  attraction  were t h e  He e x p l a i n s  variable  p r e d i c t i v e of  this as:  b e i n g r o o t e d i n an economic s t r u c t u r e t h a t c r e a t e s more r e l a t i o n s h i p d e p e n d e n c y i n women t h a n i n men. A female's m a t e r i a l and s o c i a l s t a t u s as w e l l as h e r s e l f - e s t e e m may be more r e l a t e d t o m a i n t a i n i n g a  92  r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a n i s t r u e f o r men. I f a r e a l or p o t e n t i a l r i v a l a t t r a c t i o n e x i s t s , t h e t h r e a t would be c o n s e q u e n t l y g r e a t e r than f o r the male. The d e p e n d e n t male may h a v e , or f i n d i t e a s i e r t o d e v e l o p , a l t e r n a t i v e s o u r c e s of e s t e e m and s t a t u s and hence would be l e s s a f f e c t e d by a p e r c e i v e d a t t r a c t i o n ( W h i t e , 1981a, p . 1 4 4 ) . This  explanation  "jealous  woman"  recalls  Mead's  (1931)  r e j e c t i o n of  stereotype presented e a r l i e r  in  the  this  chapter. White's cultural His  three  perspectives  explanations  views  studies  are  and r e s e a r c h  must be k e p t  add t o and s y n t h e s i z e  on j e a l o u s y - r e l a t e d insightful  in a d d i t i o n  i n mind t h a t  his  consisting  of  (91%).  he a c k n o w l e d g e s ,  As  predominantly  engaged or m a r r i e d and so seriously  affected his  measurement Buunk  of  anticipated  sexual  self-esteem,  samples  involvement.  The s a m p l e s  in both  and s e c o n d  in  the t h i r d  white very  own d a t a . ' was v e r y  (84%),  sample)  r a n g e s and v a r y i n g  the  Finally,  students  (16%)  his  were  may  have  static  confounding.  relationship  differing or  between  variables  in age,  including  large  samples  sexual  (125 men and  125 women  and 242 men and  138 women  and h e t e r o g e n e o u s  relationship  He u s e s  socio-economic  extra-relationship  are  it  homogeneous,  committment  and s e v e r a l  However,  university  few c o u p l e s of  earlier-  d e p e n d e n c y and r e c i p r o c i t y .  and e x t r a - m a r i t a l  first  sample  findings.  jealousy  emotional  three male/female status  to h i s  level  examines  differences.  and s u p p o r t e d by  s e l f - e s t e e m may have been  (1982)  sex  socio-  including  structures.  wide  Again,  age  the  93  situations  are  "anticipated". correlations  hypothetical The  author  f o r e i t h e r m a l e s or  of  inconsistencies  of W h i t e ' s  hence h i s use  does not  females.  role"  that  the  Again,  we  self-esteem  term  significant  jealousy  in jealousy/self-esteem  (1977) s u g g e s t i o n  t o a more p e r i p h e r a l  of  establish  between a n t i c i p a t e d s e x u a l  esteem the  and  and  are  self-  reminded  research be  and  "relegated  (p.135) i n b u i l d i n g m o d e l s  for  jealousy. Buunk and  -.67  at  intended He  (1982) f i n d s n e g a t i v e  p<.001, r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r  extramarital  concludes that  involved  this third  "the  (p.314).  higher  He  factor  s u c h as  of  the  sexual  s p o u s e or  exchange t h e o r y  (-.79,  3 samples  anticipated  intention  behavior,  the  by  the  jealousy.  to become -  lower  influence  dependency, the  -.55  ) between  some s u b s t a n t i a t i o n  explained  emotional  the  and  one's  provides  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not  activities Using  involvement  in extramarital  jealousy"  correlations  one's that of  a  extramarital  self-representational bias.  his explanation  is  that:  P e o p l e w i l l r e a c t l e s s j e a l o u s l y when t h e y t h e m s e l v e s f e e l a need t o engage i n e x t r a m a r i t a l s e x u a l b e h a v i o r . In s u c h a c a s e i t may be f e l t u n j u s t i f i e d t o m a n i f e s t j e a l o u s y , even when t h i s e m o t i o n i s f e l t . By t h e same t o k e n , someone who r e f r a i n s from e x t r a m a r i t a l sex w i l l r e a c t j e a l o u s l y when t h e p a r t n e r does engage i n e x t r a m a r i t a l a c t i v i t i e s b e c a u s e the norm of r e c i p r o c i t y i s v i o l a t e d (Buunk, 1982, p.311). As  the  author  investigation when r e a l  suggests,  this  t o d e t e r m i n e whether  behaviours are  f i n d i n g warrants the  incorporated.  association However,  further holds  typical  94  problems are e v i d e n t not  use  t h e word  b e c a u s e he by  relevant  people using  i t .  indirect  of t h e  term  and  They  necessary  person  focus  and  he/she  of  of  feeling  and  sufficient  especially  self-esteem  totally  emotion  that  a  feel  an  deserving" these  on  reliant  on  i n terms  of.  phenomenological what  j e a l o u s and  factors.  The  i t must be  it difficult  i t is like they  identify  first of  to  i s that  or  object,  event, the  to o u r s e l v e s .  impossible person"  feeling  "a  another  perceived that  of t h e o t h e r  " a b s e n c e of  by  in his subjects.  i s d e s i r a b l e t o h i m / h e r and  Richards way  reader  d e s i r a b l e aspect  Secondly,  "must  Implementing Barrell  created  likelihood  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h an  t h e r e must be  [ o b j e c t ] t o be  emotion  instead relying  s u b j e c t s on  have t h e d e s i r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e Finally,  i t and  (1982) use  their  a single  (p.42).  other's experience Thirdly,  i n c r e a s e the  some o t h e r  sufficient  experience  or p e r s o n "  was  situational* e l i c i t o r s  Richards  f o c u s e s on  person's  felt  j e a l o u s y and  l e a v e s the  not  i n the e x p e r i e n c e  four  using  of h i s f i v e  j e a l o u s y and  approach.  the  did  s e l f - i m a g e s would d e s c r i b e t h e m s e l v e s  terminology,  Barrell  i n s t a n c e , he  usual a r t i f a c t  T h i s he of  might  However, not  the v a l i d i t y  be  f o r the  connotations.  w i t h poor  evoking  to c o n t r o l  to h i s c o r r e l a t i o n s  b e c a u s e use  For  ' j e a l o u s y ' i n h i s measure of  wished  i t s negative  in his design.  the  to  (p.43). person  (p.43).  four e x p e r i e n t i a l  (1982) recommend  f o r overcoming  components,  that a necessary  jealousy i s to learn  "a  and sense  95  of  relatedness  believe  that  them s i m p l y ourselves" t o an  (p.44).  of  former  of how  i n our  part  latter  other  togetherness  trusted mutuality" The  authors  i s aimed a t jealousy  and  belief their  an  like  and us  t h a t we being  must  the  The  learn  same i n  authors  identification. wants t o be  one-sided"  derive  The  our  r e l a t e d to  object,  leads  unique  own'  others.  (p.45)  resulting  and  in a  from a s h a r e d  setting. t o our  further research  on  i n d i v i d u a l s to explore  and  sense  and  jealousy their  understanding.  own  contributes  something  However, t h e i r  be  that are  problem with  unconsciously  motivated  from c o n s c i o u s l y accounting  outside  phenomenologies  the  phenomenal  i s discussed  while  perceived  for aspects  of  human  field.  This  i n the  new  most  i n t e r v e n t i o n recommends a f u n d a m e n t a l change  emanates o n l y  that  s h a r e them t h r o u g h d i s c l o s u r e i n a  Their a r t i c l e  " a w a r e n e s s e s " , t h u s not experience  of what comes t o  own  whole.  f o r c e d and  recommend  s y s t e m t h a t may data  profess  a l l broadly  "does not  encouraging  different  emphasized  are  we  (p.45).  experiences  controlled  "each o f  p e r s o n as  that  our  b o u n d a r i e s as  i s "generally  observes the  they  that  s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n that  create  relatedness  we  so  as human b e i n g s  of a g r e a t e r  between  (p.45) but  we  and  recognizes, that  person"  exist  others"  deserving  They s u g g e s t  jealousy  being  distinguish  of  persons are  because they  include others  terms of  The  "other  understanding  experience to  or c o n n e c t e d n e s s w i t h  earlier  in a  96  critique  of  self-esteem  a p p r o a c h e s may alone. other  The  transcend  on  gives  and  context.  His  interviews, jealousy  a level  model and  theory  questionnaires  behaviours jealousy  kind  s i t u a t i o n which  valued  involves  which g e n e r a t e  actor  (another person).  object" possible  to  research.  structure which  from  observations  of  relationships.  He  as  of  situational  response  i s perceived  to a p a r t i c u l a r  threatening  f e e l i n g s that The  context has  person),  an  The  and  actor  (p.385). secondary in  may  to  a  The  is a  or may  not  be  involves  ( t h a t need n o t , an  impending  [ h e / s h e ] has actor  emotional  also  i n the  positions:  object but  may  be  a  l o s s of r e l a t i o n s h i p with  "experiences  responses  expressed  three  a r e l a t i o n s h i p with agent  process  then i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  always  "perceives  which  (1976) v i e w  perceptions,  ( p e r s o n ) who  behaves  agent.  in s i t u  "a d e f e n s i v e  initial  something v a l u e d  and  and  and  process  model  were d e v e l o p e d  in Constantine's  behaviourally. an  a  this  r e l a t i o n s h i p " (p.385).  Jealousy, that  as  within  in m u l t i l a t e r a l  defines of  a  approach  transformational  behaviour  either  facilitate  incorporate  a combined  combined  using  (1976) s u g g e s t s a c o n t e x t u a l  a sequential,  jealous  below w i l l  and  Again,  d e f i c i e n c i e s of  s t u d i e s which  jealousy  Constantine jealousy  the  model d i s c u s s e d  preliminary  perspective  methodologies.  to the  primary  and  l o s s or  threat  ' j e a l o u s manner' t o w a r d b o t h o b j e c t  and  97  Constantine's is  either  automatic  sequential.  The  "programmed with  non-sequential  former  i f any,  experience" and  and  response  little,  unfelt  (1976) model a c c o u n t s  results  triggered  i n behaviour by  a s e t of  "societal  and  or e x p e c t a t i o n s of  jealousy in specific  independent  p e r c e p t i o n of  process  j e a l o u s y , on  that begins  behaviour. insecurity  The  with  jealousy. synergic for  an  The has  the  (Constantine, threshold especially object and  the  likelihood  individual  a way  "essential  situational of  1976,  important  hand,  involves a  culminates of  committment, l o n g e v i t y of  his ability a c t as  or  or  tendency  perceptual  and  express  is highly  interdependence  by  which  threatening  t h a t he/she w i l l  of  that  allows  dichotomies"  security-insecurity  a multitude  t h e d e g r e e and  of  relationship.  jealousy behaviours,  factors,  nature  the p e r s o n a l m a t u r i t y their  in  security  as p o t e n t i a l l y  The  but  (p.387).  r e a d i n e s s or e a s e w i t h  p.387).  are  affectual  circumstances  of o r g a n i z i n g h i s / h e r r e a l i t y u n i t y and  cues  i s expected  whose p e r c e p t i o n  is also affected  Eventual  sense  is a  familial conditioning  p e r c e p t i o n and  he/she p e r c e i v e s a s i t u a t i o n the  other  synergically,  Both determine  consequently  loss"  r e l a t i o n s h i p and  to p e r c e i v e s i t u a t i o n s filters.  the  actor's personal  i n the  that  T h i s b e h a v i o u r a l type  emanates from  Sequential  o r , more commonly,  intervening interpretation  (p.387).  of any  for jealousy that  of  of both ,  i f they  but  the a c t o r partners  -  occur,  are  of  98  four  types  including  redefinitional  and/or  (1976) s t r e s s e s  statement"  jealousy  affect  people.  By  (or  emotional  quickly  initial  into  d e s p a i r and  internalize  or a n g e r ,  unique  to  primary  very c o n s i s t e n t  feelings  include of  and  with perceived actual  secondary  emotional  i f the person's  r a g e and  hate  across  "anxiety  loss,  in jealousy situations  guilt  hurt  loss"  are  often  responses style  such  i s to  i f the person's  style  is  externalize. Jealous behaviours  in  c l a i m s t o be  hurt  a  This i s in contrast  pain) a s s o c i a t e d  transformed  i s "almost  with perceived threat  A n x i e t y and  as g r i e f ,  to  (p.390).  his report,  fear) connected  However, C o n s t a n t i n e  jealous behaviour  w h i c h he  (or  antagonistic,  resolutional.  that  personal  (p.389).  isolational,  t e r m s of  system  and  resolution  their  or  and  refusal  behaviours  to f i g h t less  or  a common enemy  of  resolution"  T h i s model  ...  in effective behaviour  such  as  o r n e g o t i a t e , and  functional  because  but  (e.g., the problem that  " u n i t e s the  [but] p o t e n t i a l l y  ( C o n s t a n t i n e , 1976,  involves  positive  the  A n t a g o n i s t i c and  ' s e d u c t i v e men')  against  as  pair-boundary  a r e more e f f e c t i v e  intellectualization  'infidelity'  result  Isolational  i s not m a i n t a i n e d .  redefinitional  real  they  reintegration.  silence,  model a r e seen  to m a i n t a i n the  s e p a r a t i o n are thus  pair-contact  i n v o l v e an  intention  t o the e x t e n t t h a t  withholding, silence  in this  several  the  latter  is pair  at the  expense  p.393).  other transformations  99  between  initial  jealous  behaviours.  point to  to  Each p r o v i d e s  for a potential  i n t e r v e n t i o n s i s h e l p i n g the c o u p l e  emotion, trigger  the purpose  of  entry  t o the  that  (1976),  boundaries.  source  of  He  f e a r s and  i s perceived, actual  or  to  that w i l l  committment  s t r e s s e s the clarifying impending.  t h e r e f o r e , names s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t  Basic  recognize  the p o t e n t i a l  communication  of v a l u e s , b e l i e f s ,  individual/couple getting  i t s e r v e s and  more e f f e c t i v e  a clarification  loss  eventual consequences  f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n s when j e a l o u s y i s p r o b l e m a t i c .  these  the  p e r c e p t i o n and  i t has  result  in  and importance  the  type  of  of  Constantine  types  of  loss  including: 1. L o s s of f a c e , s t a t u s , ego-hancement, e t c . 2. L o s s of need g r a t i f i c a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g s e x u a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , e m o t i o n a l and o t h e r n e e d s . 3. L o s s o f c o n t r o l o v e r O b j e c t , of c o n t r o l o v e r A c t o r ' s own l i f e , of power i n r e l a t i o n t o O b j e c t . 4. L o s s of p r e d i c t a b i l i t y , d e p e n d a b i l i t y of b e h a v i o r of Object i n r e l a t i o n to Actor. 5. L o s s of p r i v a c y , t e r r i t o r y , e x c l u s i v e a c c e s s , e t c . 6. L o s s of a c t u a l t i m e w i t h O b j e c t , c o n t a c t , e t c . ( C o n s t a n t i n e , 1976, p . 3 9 5 ) . Constantine's situational usual  context  etc.  t h e wants,  as  More source  sexual, heterosexual, important of  i s an  f e a r s and  f o r a v a l u e - f r e e approach  and  practice.  highly  useful  Jealousy,  need  of  loss.  to theory  for i t s  (p.391) or  of  wants  His  development  i n h i s v i e w , can  interpersonal process"  a  time,  examination  type  model a l l o w s clinical  s t r u c t u r e and  f o r j e a l o u s y e l i m i n a t e s the  categorization  opportunity, under  p r e s e n t a t i o n of a t r i a d i c  be  i t can  "a "work  100  to the disadvantage fundamental  level  perception  correlated  o f h i s model  that  with  Unfortunately, this  (p.391).  of the s i t u a t i o n  hypothesizes  at  of a l l "  time  i s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  and C o n s t a n t i n e  the r e s u l t i n g  current  because a s u i t a b l e  most p e r t i n e n t  revealed several were t h a t  t o number o f i t e m s  jealousy  instrument,  exist. from  spread  problems.  Inventory"  item-format  and t y p e  Among  any c o r r e l a t i o n s  are forced  which  (1974)  p r e f e r e n c e , and t h e base  one s u b s c a l e t o c r e a t e a s e p a r a t e new for establishing  with  statistics  Finally,  mind  i s sane,  that  cannot  1969, p . 3 9 4 ) .  reliability  established  in Bartell's  rational  be measured  and e t h i c a l solely  that  may  "Personal  line  extracting  instrument.  (Thorndike,  (1982)  This  depend on t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s  himself"  comparison  them, t h e  ipsatively.  individual  does n o t a l l o w  f o r the  c h o i c e and were drawn  i s scored  of s c o r i n g  of r e l a t i v e  study  f o r o b t a i n i n g the  s u b s c a l e of Shostrum's  Orientation  "pattern  i n the p i l o t  i n A r o n s o n and P i n e s '  to demonstrate  the "synergy"  i s not a v a i l a b l e .  (1974) was d e s i g n e d t o  d i d not a l l o w  A l s o , h i s items  empirically  i t s s m a l l number o f i t e m s ( 1 4 ) ,  relative  necessary  be t e s t e d  instrument  need b u t i t s i n c l u s i o n  project  (p.397).  h y p o t h e s i s cannot  Constantine's Contrast Scale meet t h i s  (1976)  "jealous behavior i s  synergic perception" this  A t t h e most  i s the  Hence, instrument  or v a l i d i t y  by  f o r Shostrum's  (1977) v i e w  the synergic  and o p e r a t e s  i n a mode  by t h e c o g n i t i v e  a b i l i t y to  101  transcend dichotomies. Scale the  (1971),  items  Therefore,  measures  only  require only  t h e most s o c i a l l y Although  desirable  synergic  has  been c l o s e l y  study  pair  constituting  synergistic.  These  relationships  but a l s o  and p r o f e s s i o n a l things,  that  individual qualities  synergism  that  including  pairs  blending  positive  For  found t h i s  t o be t r u e  t h e two p e r s o n s  will in  of  the  each c o n t r i b u t e  dynamics  individual  i n human (1977).  were not  She  She  (by to  only  of  the be  when t h e  couple/lover co-worker  traditionally  and i n t e r m s  of  the  the  the and  the in a  feminine-  qualities  be more s y n e r g i s t i c . of  other  individuals  masculine-positive  terms  highly  paradoxical  serious/playful  both  to  f o u n d , among many  sets  not  used  were r e p r e s e n t e d by four  is  relationships  and o p p o s i t e - s e x ,  instance,  and t r a d i t i o n a l l y  relationship  the  and  apparent.  realistic/imaginative,  individualistic/collective, masculine/feminine.  quite  them and' by o t h e r s )  same-sex  the  decisions  were r e p o r t e d  relationships  synergistic  is  because  r e s e a r c h methodology)  relationships.  and p a i r  relationship  in  examined by B a r t e l l  relationships  individuals  response  (a q u a l i t a t i v e  Contrast  the c o n s t r u c t  cognitive  perception  e m p i r i c a l l y measurable,  theory  of  simplistic  yet  grounded  part  constantine's  the  Bartell  interactions  c o u p l e - i n t e r a c t ion  between with  others. West's experiencing  (1983)  d e s i g n of  problematic  a group  jealousy  workshop  includes  for  several  couples exercises  1 02  aimed at improving couple communication. incorporates B a r t e l l ' s  One  of them  (1977) four c a t e g o r i e s i n t o a shared  assessment of r e l a t i o n s h i p synergism.  The process of the  e x e r c i s e i s as important as the a c t u a l d e c i s i o n s a r r i v e d at by the c o u p l e . structured  For i n s t a n c e , i n moving through  the  format of the e x e r c i s e couples become aware of  the need to a r r i v e at some harmony i n terms of being- at once s e r i o u s and p l a y f u l .  I t i s expected that the e x e r c i s e w i l l  help the couple-system  to be more s y n e r g i s t i c .  i n t e r v e n t i o n holds p o t e n t i a l  This  f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h on  jealousy. As mentioned e a r l i e r ,  instrument development emerged  l a t e i n the l a s t decade and has s i n c e been p r o l i f i c . s e v e r a l j e a l o u s y measures are now  available.  the "Jealousy Question" l a t e r developed  They include,  i n t o the  "Sexual  Jealousy Inventory" by Aronson and Pines (1982); the Report J e a l o u s y " and  Hence,  "Self-  " P r o j e c t i v e J e a l o u s y " s c a l e s by B r i n g l e  et a l . (1979); the " I n t e r p e r s o n a l J e a l o u s y S c a l e " by Mathes and Severa  (1981a, 1981b); the "Chronic J e a l o u s y " and.  " R e l a t i o n s h i p J e a l o u s y " s c a l e s by White (1981b, 1981c) and an as yet unnamed s c a l e by T i p t o n et a l . (1978). There are s t i l l these s c a l e s .  many conceptual and other problems with  E x c e p t i n g the one by T i p t o n , a l l were f a c t o r  analyzed by Mathes, Roter and Joegor convergence  was  not found.  other emotions remains  (1982) but the  Distinguishing  a c e n t r a l problem  expected  j e a l o u s y from  and t h i s i s r e a d i l y  1 03  evidenced  in  instance,  the  simply  poses  elicitors the  name  each  the  28-item a  and of  on a  his/her  someone  of  formats  simply  is.  is,  Item  the  or  at  scales at  cognitive,  and  approximating jealousy,  remains by  subjects'  rating  prevalence  f i l l  in  "I  feel  an  and  level  one  often  by  by  all  Pines.  by  accounts  of  emotional,  two of that The  Other jealous  the  story  sexual  required result  in  physical  about  Pines  to a  (1982)  the  behavioural,  are  crucial  (1971)  then  in  and  to  phenomenological theory  except  jealousy  unique  and c o l l e c t s d a t a  in  often  w h i c h may  inventory  which are  also  are  instruments  own d e f i n i t i o n s  when  how  exclusively  Aronson  Izard's  Their  weight  set.  picture.  suggested  good  ways,  imply  the  then  irritated").  various  subjects  with  admired  frequently  intimate  a blank  feel  the person  and  (1981b)  "If  in  For  situational  upset  one  is  Severa  or  a whole  instrument  of  to  would  subject,  except  their  and  (e.g.,  I  instruments.  g i r l f r i e n d and  a f f e c t i v e domains  and  experiential  This  sex  jealous  untouched  Aronson  for  the  an  least  or  nine  d e s i r a b i l i t y response  All neglect  ask  subject  f r i e n d " and  jealousy  self-disclose social  to  opposite  how  of  one  several  variety  boyfriend  a new  formats  definition  of  of  the  of  by M a t h e s  narrow  requests  makes  he/she  scale  rather  scale  .  item formats  also  used as and it  emotions,  again,  solicits but  that  of  the  not  one  only  their  the  general  criteria reactions.  examines  culture,  aspect  family  jealousy of  1 04  origin,  and  current  demographic results  information.  the  next  adapted,  For  this  were 35  undergraduate  sample of  Their  individual  they the  was  will  w o u l d be b a s i s of  on  able  selected,  "Sexual  promote  subjects'  evident  i n the  yes/no q u e s t i o n  jealousy.  and  Their in" age  s e c t i o n , in that  but  Jealousy  from  i t remains a  (94%)  married  i t did  than not  selective (41%)  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  dispositional  not  defined  couples.  study  on  options  for their  their  the  f o c u s i n g more  f a c t o r s in order  experience.  focus  own  that  r e p o r t i n g of  f o r change. subjects  d e g r e e of  so  that  jealousy  However, g i v e n  situational  you  their  consider  on  the  factors  the and  s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n , a weakness becomes  "Do  21  jealousy.  own  i n t e n t to  but  correlates  to p a r t i c i p a t e in a  to define  their  discussed  i s more h e t e r o g e n e o u s  have more d i s t i n c t was  survey  t o be  females ranging  white  s t r e s s the  than  jealousy  authors'  others  their  sample  students,  sexual  authors  64  in this  were a p p r o a c h e d  situational  Sexual  i n terms of  which  study.  (1983) use  predominantly  investigating The  this  m a l e s and  (M=34) y e a r s .  Subjects  inventory  s e l f - r e p o r t e d sexual  other -studies reviewed use  (and  other  i s i t s length  t o examine p o s s i b l e a n t e c e d e n t s ,  c o n s e q u e n c e s of subjects  Pines  w e l l as  problem  reasons  f o r p u r p o s e s of  Inventory"  64  these  chapter)  A r o n s o n and  to  One  i n some l a c k of p r a c t i c a l i t y  application. in  r e l a t i o n s h i p , as  findings — yourself a  they jealous  use  the  on  105  person?" as a c r i t e r i o n "jealous" The  and " n o n - j e a l o u s " current  criterion  than  the use of t h i s  a s s u m i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s have osmosed, t o t o focus  on j e a l o u s y  Hence, t h e e x a m i n a t i o n  d i f f e r e n c e s i s very  rather  persons.  re-explores  t h e tendency  dispositional.  Pines  research  question  some e x t e n t ,  just  t o e s t a b l i s h d i f f e r e n c e s between  an i m p l i e d  as being  of s i m i l a r i t i e s not  r e l e v a n t a n d r e q u i r e s a documented  focus.  F o r i n s t a n c e , A r o n s o n and  (1983) r e p o r t : In a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r own p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e i r j e a l o u s y , other peoples' r e a c t i o n s v a l i d a t e d the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e : p e o p l e who d e s c r i b e d t h e m s e l v e s a s j e a l o u s were c o n s i d e r e d j e a l o u s by more p e o p l e who knew them w e l l a n d by more p e o p l e w i t h whom t h e y h a d an i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p (p.115).  However,  i t must be remembered  t h e m s e l v e s were q u e s t i o n e d with well.  whom t h e y  only  the subjects  by t h e s u r v e y ,  intimate  not the people  and not o t h e r s  who knew them  Hence, t h e above a n a l y s i s i s n o t v a l i d a t i o n  criterion tendency they  were  that  question  but r a t h e r  t o assume t h a t  perceive  criterion  themselves.  question  researcher  uses  differences, "positive"  others  i ti svalidation perceive  Instead  r e p o r t i n g seemingly  findings.  of response s e t .  The  research  Aronson and P i n e s  them t h e same way  of d e l e t i n g  this  and seemingly  i t t o re-examine t h e  also differs  (1983) i n t h a t  this  s i m i l a r i t i e s and  "negative"  She a l s o u s e s  implications  current  of s u b j e c t s '  from t h e a d a p t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  i t t o examine b o t h  of the  f r o m t h e s t u d y by  i treturns  to a basic  106  assumption  about  otherwise,  depending  describe.  This  phenomenological  theory  aspect  "sexual"  themselves  and s e x u a l other  referred  self-concept.  themes  and t o  include  t o as t h e  of e m o t i o n s  this  study  adapts  instrument.  The f o c u s  on s e x u a l  issues a n d e l i c i t o r s  eliminated,  t h e use of  subjects'  own d e f i n i t i o n s  experiences  i s m a i n t a i n e d and added' t o by r e q u e s t i n g  insights  and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s .  original  inventory  questions are  (e.g.,  or  r e v i e w has i n d e e d r e v e a l e d a  invalidating  (1971)  emotion,  on what t h e s u b j e c t s  sex, s e x u a l i t y ,  to avoid  what I z a r d ' s  as a d i s c r e t e  literature  theme i n v o l v i n g However,  jealousy  Hence,  large  see A p p e n d i x  A, q u e s t i o n s  is  and  portions  a r e d e l e t e d and a d d i t i o n a l  the  their of the  subjective  2 9 , 30 and 123)  incorporated. A few of  and P i n e s that  t h e many  (1983)  integrates  their  findings Aronson  findings  from t h e s t u d y  a r e now p r e s e n t e d the c u r r e n t  that  will  and P i n e s  study  by A r o n s o n  incorporating and g i v i n g  discussion  precedence to  be c o m p a r a b l e .  (1983)  say  that:  [When compared w i t h ' n o n - j e a l o u s ' p e o p l e ] s u b j e c t s who d e s c r i b e d t h e m s e l v e s as ' j e a l o u s p e o p l e ' r e p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c i n g more j e a l o u s y n o t o n l y a t t h e t i m e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w (M=4.4 v s . 2.2) b u t a l s o d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d (M=4.0 v s . 3 . 4 ) , a d o l e s c e n c e (M=4.9 v s . 4 . 4 ) , young a d u l t h o o d (M=5.5 v s . 2.8) and a d v a n c e d a d u l t h o o d (M=4.7 v s . 2.3) (p.115). "Jealous  people"  be more e a s i l y longer  in t h e i r  triggered,  study  also  r e p o r t e d the emotion  t o o c c u r more f r e q u e n t l y ,  and t o be a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h more  intense  to  to  last  p h y s i c a l and  1 07  emotional report  reactions.  significant  level  of  their  data  findings if  in  be  the  empirical The used  had  Significance,  own  jealousy,  study  data  collected  hypotheses  issues  their  the  subjects'  in  additional  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and  hoped  the  Aronson the  average,  inventory  chapter  reader  and  A  generally  a  for  most  reported  during  young  during  advanced of  their  people'  (p.116), of  be  (1983) being  to  seven  as  being  adulthood subjects but  people  are  order  to  and  that  found  are  actually  do  the  to  present.  jealous,  the  one  in  was less less  Fifty-four  as  "when the  on  (Their  childhood,  that  is  subjects,  Jealousy  themselves  it  same.  adolescence,  during  i t i s noteworthy  the  jealous.  discussed.)  "defined  verbatim  her  identical  at  their  Ultimately  also  least  as  by  present  during  will  definitions  and  to  rating  study  well  stimulated  less  the  become  discussed  insights.  most  even  as  completely  "somewhat"  responses  adulthood,  percent  percentage  one  in  will  Pines  reported  uses  Appendix  four  and  research.  therefore  Examples  a  exploring  current  e x p e r i e n t i a l accounts  appendices.  at  investigation  instead  researcher  that  the  future  presented  only  findings  further  authors  established. in  for  the  were  reliability  and"  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are  within  they  Their  be  when  is applicable  require  i s to  and  that  because  hypotheses.  validity  phenomenological of  no  significance  suggest  this  generation  current  objective to  i s noteworthy  differences  hypothesis and  It  'jealous asked  average  what  108  r e s p o n s e was and  75%"  women t o be The  was  (p.119).  equally  inventory  changed  original  to-a  one  therefore  to  seven  allow  jealousy  occasion  this  question).  Given  to  (55%),  i t may  be  of  as  a response  actually  do  respond  rational  discussion the  The Pines of and  only  younger  was  younger  more o l d e r  brothers,  assault  social  the  80%  to  and  7%  (56%),  thing  79%  order.  brothers,  many more  acknowledged i n t e n t at  by  Aronson  c o n s t e l l a t i o n i s that  was  negatively  the  less jealous).  the  do).  p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with brothers  For  acknowledged  their  to  (18%).  these  t h u s wonders how that  to  frequently  in a reversed that  process  'yes'  denial  desirability,  the  subjects  sarcasm  f i n d i n g reported family  and  Their  reponded their  (7%)  reflecting  acceptable  The  researcher  much l e s s  (60%),  than  coping  Pines.  r o l e and  of  and  one  way)  (perhaps  significant  brothers  the  percent  (e.g.,  this  socially  number of  (e.g.,  (e.g.,  significant  (1983) i n terms of  older  lose  more s i g n i f i c a n t  violence  men  to acknowledge u s i n g  physical violence  likewise  and  this  through t h e i r  rational discussion;  responses are  t i m e or  likely  Severtty-nine  a consideration  instance,  Aronson  i s u s e d by  most  they acknowledged v e r b a l acceptance  by  s t r a t e g i e s for  for d i r e c t comparison.  to think  stood/feared  acknowledged  format  scale  were, o v e r a l l ,  also believed  jealous...  yes/no  subjects  they  subjects  section assessing  does not  what  Their  number  jealousy  correlated  more j e a l o u s ; However,  and  the  this  more  109  interpretation of  must be c o n s i d e r e d  t h e few c a s e s  would  fall  possible  possibly sibling  (for the r e l a t i v e l y  i n t o the necessary  subgroupings  positions  very  i n various the majority  small  but p o s s i b l y  i f they family  t e n t a t i v e l y because sample) vast  that  number o f .  had c a l c u l a t e d a c t u a l  constellations.  of t h e i r  sibling  For instance,  sample were from a p a r t i c u l a r  position.  Aronson  and P i n e s  (1983) r e p o r t  t e r m s o f sex d i f f e r e n c e s .  very  few f i n d i n g s i n  They s a y :  In t e r m s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e , , i t s e l f , a n d i t s g e n e r a l e f f e c t s , however, t h e r e were no sex d i f f e r e n c e s ; and when a s k e d d i r e c t l y who were t h e most j e a l o u s , men o r women, t h e r e s p o n s e was ' e q u a l l y j e a l o u s ' .... The few sex d i f f e r e n c e s f o u n d i n t h e s t u d y ( e . g . , women were more l i k e l y t h a n men t o f e e l ' c l o s e t o a n e r v o u s breakdown', ' i n f e r i o r ' a n d ' h u m i l i a t e d ' a n d t o e x p e r i e n c e ' f e a r of l o s s ' , ' g r i e f ' and ' v u l n e r a b i l i t y ' ) c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by W h i t e ' s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n a s r e s u l t i n g from t h e women's l a c k o f power i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p or i n s o c i e t y a t l a r g e (p.129). However,  i t i s noteworthy  previous  trend  men  in this  most  people.  and now r e p o r t  study,  jealous  The c u r r e n t  of and  findings  themselves as j e a l o u s  r e - e x a m i n e sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n  s e c t i o n has reviewed and c r i t i q u e d the from  the d i s c i p l i n e  of t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s  Jung.  themselves as  emotions.  on j e a l o u s y  the departure  their  f o r a l l women and a l l  t h o s e who r a t e d  research  summary, t h i s  literature variety  as versus  t h e a u t h o r s change  o r t h o s e who d e f i n e d  terms o f e l e m e n t a l In  that  from F r e u d i a n  of psychology.  A  emerged a s a c o n s e q u e n c e  tradition  The r e s u l t i n g d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n  initiated  by A d l e r  of s p e c i a l t i e si n  110  psychology jealousy  partly  that  that  research  and  in psychiatry,  In s p i t e  negative  the e a r l y  the emotion  or d e s t r u c t i v e  individual. empirical  Much of  the  Adlerian  and  therapy  the e a r l y  and  was  emerges.  T h i s was setting  in psychology  viewed  as  directed  inherently o n l y a t the.  some o f t h e more r e c e n t "jealous person"  socio-cultural  with Ard's  is  Jungian  G r a d u a l l y , the  initially  As  jealous disposition.  and  r e s e a r c h t h u s compares t h e  r e l a t i o n s h i p and  practice  on  in theory, in  to therapy.  literature  was' p r i m a r i l y  "non-jealous person".  family,  of both  f o r t h e most p a r t ,  implications,  were p r e s e n t e d  the developments  o f more o p t i m i s t i c  of r e s e a r c h  used.  psychology  to r e f l e c t  about  f o r the v a r i e t y  i n the a p p l i c a t i o n  concentrated,  the  have been  p e r s p e c t i v e s from  chronologically  ongoing  f o r t h e many themes  have emerged and  methodologies The  accounts  influence  dynamics  of  also  e v i d e n c e d most d i r e c t l y (1967) f o c u s on  with  i n the  couple-  communication . May's researcher these  two  (1972) t h e s i s  to jealousy in order concepts  continuum,  things, but a l s o  and  and  studies  from  critiqued.  the broadening  applied  by  this  t o expand h i s a s s o c i a t i o n  t r a n s c e n d the b a s i c  thus b u i l d i n g  Several discussed  on power was  of  positive-negative  a more h o l i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e . the e a r l y They  and  mid-seventies  indicated,  among o t h e r  conceptual understanding  a continuing reticence  were  i n research to  of j e a l o u s y relinquish  111  the  tendency  basis  of  a  evidence and  the  to l a b e l  f o r wide  of  of  the  jealousy  emotion  about  preventing  of  loss),  short  envy, h u r t ,  jealousy of  jealousy that  the  the  that  security  to t h e i r  were t y p i c a l l y roles  and  partners 1978;  pain,  i n the  by  open  being  and  by  to  explained  i s s u e s of  (Corzine,  White,  1980) .  White's  (1976,  1980,  idea  that the  sum  experienced. and  theme and to  the  beliefs  expression  there  was  emotion and  emotional  cooperation  1974;  combinations  the  fixed  on  the  basis  f e m a l e s more  These in  and  on the  differences  traditional  or p o w e r - s h a r i n g  Shettel-Neuber,  of  consensus  involvement  relationships.  by  compounded  humiliation,  many p r o p o s e d  self-esteem  their  were  ( s o m e t h i n g more t h a n  react  their  status  powerlessness,  vulnerability,  experience  ongoing  sexual  threats  provided  as  r a g e , power or  i s uniquely  were a l s o an  of  social  jealousy  "whole" t h u s s u p p o r t i n g  males e x p e r i e n c e  basis  e m o t i o n s of  However, the  differences  threats  how  individual discrepancies.  i s a d i s c r e t e emotion  i t s parts) Sex  of  of  inhibit  showed  experience  demonstrated to  the  (1977) r e s e a r c h  i t is described  anger,  love and/or h a t e .  of  elemental  Generally,  fall  serves  recognition  suggested.  self-doubt,  and  on  i t , thus r e i n f o r c i n g i t s negative  Many d i f f e r e n t  (of  Francis'  i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s i n the  expression  communication  fear  individual's character  s i n g l e emotion.  disapproval  and  the  Bryson  1981a) s t u d i e s added  between  & Young,  to  and  11 2  synthesized sex  socio-cultural  differences.  remain grounded either are  neglect  perspectives  However, t h e s e  on j e a l o u s y - r e l a t e d  proposed  i n h i s and o t h e r  empirical  the phenomenological aspect  sex d i f f e r e n c e s findings that of j e a l o u s y or  i n c o n c l u s i v e b e c a u s e o f t h e many m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  discussed  in this  section.  White's  (1976) s t u d y  also  demonstrates the problems encountered i n r e s e a r c h static  m e a s u r e s of s e l f - e s t e e m  defined  concept  The in  first'phenomenological  and s u f f i c i e n t  experience. "a  i n a c e n t r a l conceptual  1982 and i n i t B a r r e l l  necessary  and/or p l a c e s  They  study  with  others"  adds a new e x p e r i e n t i a l p e r s p e c t i v e exemplifies it  a c e n t r a l problem with  does n o t a c c c o u n t  the  phenomenal  motivation).  field  problems encountered approach  t o the study  Accordingly, most of  f o r aspects (e.g.,  For t h i s  jealousy  role.  emotions.  appeared  identified  jealousy  (p.44).  four  by l e a r n i n g  Their  on j e a l o u s y  reason  study  but i t a l s o  phenomenologies  i n that  o f human e x p e r i e n c e  outside  and  and b e c a u s e o f t h e many  i n e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s , a combined of j e a l o u s y  i s supported.  instruments  were c r i t i q u e d  r e l e v a n t problems o u t l i n e d , emphasizing  inefficiency  nebulously  unconscious processes  the phenomenological aspect  their  this  uses  f a c t o r s which c o n s t i t u t e the  recommend o v e r c o m i n g  sense of r e l a t e d n e s s  that  of j e a l o u s y  and R i c h a r d s  problems  and t h e  their  neglect  of the emotion as w e l l as  i n d i s t i n q u i s h i n g jealousy  from  other  113  Toward t h e end o f t h e s e c t i o n facilitate  integration  Constantine's  and i n o r d e r t o  o f t h i s , and f o l l o w i n g , chapters,,  (1976) i n t e r a c t i o n a l  model was e x t r a c t e d  the c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence, p r e s e n t e d , partial  foundation  foundation also synergism jealousy adapted model,  f o r the current  i n human r e l a t i o n s h i p s  instrument  preliminary pursued  (1977) r e s e a r c h on  and p o t e n t i a l  recent  (1983),  jealousy inventory.  e s p e c i a l l y an T h i s use of  intervention  f a c i l i t a t e the  combined p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l - e m p i r i c a l  approach  i n the current research.  Chapter This chapter first  This  and t h e most  r e s e a r c h by A r o n s o n and P i n e s v e r s i o n of t h e i r  and d i s c u s s e d a s a  research.  incorporates Bartell's  from  section  was d i v i d e d  j e a l o u s y and envy.  presented  and c r i t i q u e d i n order  The  (along with  chapter  one) s u p p o r t s  depending  The  t h a t compares and  The n e x t  three sections :i  for this  i n the f i r s t  section  the t h e o r i e s of emotion this  t o meet d i f f e r e n t  but r e l a t e d  of t h i s  examined i n  emotions;  and c h a n g i n g  t o be a d a p t i v e  on t h e t h e s o c i a l  research.  r e s e a r c h e r ' s assumptions  and envy a r e d i s c r e t e  each has t h e p o t e n t i a l  sections.  m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a - r y perspectrves 'on  examined  chapter  have e v o l v e d  f o u r major  t o p r o v i d e a background  literature  jealousy  into  examined l i t e r a t u r e  contrasts  jealousy  Summary  or  and c u l t u r a l  that they  human n e e d s ; and  maladaptive contexts  i n which  11 4  they  occur. The  second  s e c t i o n of t h i s  chapter  perspectives  on j e a l o u s y  anthropology  and s o c i o l o g y .  ( 1 9 3 6 ) , Mead  ( 1 9 3 1 ) , and B e n e d i c t  very  significant  emotion. effect the  seventies  used The  perspectives  follows almost  that  Benedict's  The  of s y n e r g y  by t h i s  Jealousy  as e i t h e r  literature  clinical subjects' The  own  t o be  T h e r e were no p r e s e n t a t i o n s  t h e most  May's  jealousy  and c r i t i q u e s  of p s y c h o l o g y  beginning  recent  and  Pines  the  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of j e a l o u s y .  t h e s i s on power was new  only  of the  experiences. perspectives  with  research  This  and  'non-pathological'.  o r i e n t e d and d i s c u s s e s  fourth section presents  (1983).  underlying  was and c o n t i n u e s  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h e i r  (1928) and e n d i n g w i t h  focusing  in psychiatric literature  i s not r e s e a r c h  from t h e d i s c i p l i n e  The  psychoanalysis,  ' p a t h o l o g i c a l ' or  observations.  of  discipline  e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  discussed  was  i s a chronology  of p s y c h i a t r y .  of F r e u d i a n  viewed as a p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t is  i t was n o t u n t i l  concept  chapter  contributed  unconscious processes.  view o f t h e  jealousy.  from t h e d i s c i p l i n e  the t r a d i t i o n  t o be  interdisciplinary  For i n s t a n c e ,  s e c t i o n of t h i s  on j e a l o u s y  major  Davis  (1934) were f o u n d  interactional  i n a s s o c i a t i o n with  third  literature  The c o n t r i b u t i o n s of  v i e w s had l i t t l e  f o r s e v e r a l decades.  late  again  their  four  from t h e d i s c i p l i n e s o f  t o a dynamic,  However,  sampled  Adler by A r o n s o n  used  to extend  1 15  conceptualization, relationships, the  research  together to  B a r t e l l ' s research  A r o n s o n and  t o e s t a b l i s h an  (1983),  Pines  for  jealousy  were  i n t e g r a t i v e base  i n human and  discussed  f o r the  chapters  follow. The  current  next  survey. because  chapter  study.  statistics  constitutes  It w i l l  f o r the  More a d v a n c e d this  present  objective  p h a s e of  generation  and  individual  subjects  own  synergism  (1976) model  Constantine's  by  on  the  conceptualization  using  previous of  requires  of  that  analyses  chapter  but  incorporates  interpretations  their and  data are  has  that  hypotheses measures  supported  so  lend  this  empirical something.  in chapter  involvement  of  —  by  their  insights.  a itself  well  preliminary research Thus  four,  researcher  definitions, their  their  eschewed  criterion  does not  a p p r o a c h and  phenomenological phase, d e s c r i b e d face-to-face  are  jealousy  jealousy.  each phase r e l i n q i s h  usual  the  descriptive  i s aimed" a t  a subjective with  p h a s e of  c o l l e c t e d i n the  p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l and  the  empirical  discuss  objective  jealousy  to a s i n g u l a r l y o b j e c t i v e combination  data  research  because the  the  and  statistical  most e x t r e m e e x p e r i e n c e Finally,  the  the eschews  and  experiences,  subject their  1 16  CHAPTER I I I  EMPIRICAL PHASE  Design  and Method  Subjects  This who  reside  British the  study  s u r v e y e d a non-random p o p u l a t i o n  i n student  Columbia.  family  housing  was b a s e d  on f i n a n c i a l  wish to i n c l u d e races  from v a r i o u s  and r e l i g i o u s / s o c i a l  community  i s determined  "limitations"  Selection  considerations,  subjects  t o be between .  of the s u b j e c t  pool  c o n v e n i e n c e and a countries,  backgrounds.  by c r i t e r i a  families  at the U n i v e r s i t y of  P a r t i c i p a n t s were r e q u i r e d  ages o f 20 and 60 y e a r s .  of  that  cultures,  Residency  i n the  are described  under  i n c h a p t e r one.  Instrument  The  instrument  adapted v e r s i o n Jealousy  instrument  i n a p p e n d i x A.  o f A r o n s o n and P i n e s '  Inventory".  deleted.  i s included  Whole s e c t i o n s  (1982)  i n chapter  14-page  and s e v e r a l  The r a t i o n a l e f o r use and a d a p t a t i o n was d i s c u s s e d  I t i s an  two.  "Sexual  i t e m s were  of the  Additions  included  i t e m s 6, 7, 14, 15, 16, 18, 29, 30, 53-58, 94 and 123.  1 17  Items 8 and 9 were r e - w o r d e d  Pilot  f o r comprehensiveness.  Study  The  pilot  study used  They were n u r s i n g ,  15 f e m a l e and 16 male  m e d i c a l and s u p p o r t s t a f f  Sciences Centre Hospital  at the U n i v e r s i t y  volunteers.  at the Health  of  British  Columbia. On t h e b a s i s basic  of L e r t a p  correlations,  originally  a decision  adapted v e r s i o n  for  total  test  of the j e a l o u s y  statistics,  0.97 a n d a C r o n b a c h ' s  a Hoyt's  A l p h a o f 0.72.  respectively  f o r each of t h e f o l l o w i n g  general  reactions.  entitled  results for  demonstrated,  E s t i m a t e of  Hoyt's  physical  Lertap  inventory  demonstrated  prevalence;  ( N e l s o n , 1974) and  was made n o t t o i n c l u d e t h e  i n t e n d e d measure o f s y n e r g y .  the  of  item a n a l y s i s  Reliability  Subtest  statistics  o f 0.81, 0.94, 0.95 a n d 0.78  reactions; A decision  subtests:  jealousy  e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s ; and to include  "coping with jealousy"  the subtest  was made f o l l o w i n g  study.  On t h e b a s i s  of feedback  changes  were made i n t h e o r i g i n a l  from t h e s u b j e c t s wording  of items  the p i l o t minor numbered  8, 9, a n d 18. The interest  statistics  more i n terms  more a d v a n c e d empirical  presented f o r the p i l o t of f u t u r e  statistical  phase  of t h i s  study a r e of  s t u d i e s which  analysis  study which  than  incorporate  f o r purposes of the  uses o n l y  descriptive  118  statistics. to assess  interest  the o v e r a l l items  t h e main  the purpose  and r e s p o n s e  structuring  (especially  facilitate  Data  Otherwise,  the weekly housing  and d a t a h a n d l i n g f o r  t o t h e commencement o f d a t a  (see appendix  300  s e l f - a d d r e s s e d envelopes  unsealed,  t h e homes i n t h e h o u s i n g  B).  complex.  inventory, the envelopes  (see appendix  C) s t a t i n g :  participation  requirements;  participants  week  were d i s t r i b u t e d t o  In a d d i t i o n  to the  contained a cover  letter  of the study;  delivery  considerations.  the next  two n e w s l e t t e r s .  returned  t o t h e two c o l l e c t i o n  used  the f o l l o w i n g  procedural information; a return  of the r e t u r n  were d e s t r o y e d b e c a u s e  During  the purpose  ( s e t a t 21 d a y s a f t e r  the usual e t h i c a l  remind  collection  newsletter published'the request f o r  participation  and  to  and P r o c e d u r e s  One week p r i o r  deadline  about:  i n v e n t o r y ; wording of  i t e m s ) ; and f i n a l l y ,  of p r o c e d u r e s  was  study.  Collection  jealousy  study  and t o g a i n f e e d b a c k  of the adapted  subjective  refinement  of the p i l o t  of the e n v e l o p e s ) ; Follow-up  notes to  d e a d l i n e were p u b l i s h e d i n  Seventy-seven points.  i n three cases  inventories Four  were  inventories  respondents  had n o t  t h e p r o v i d e d • s c a l e s and i n one c a s e more t h a n two-  thirds  of both  omitted.  objective  and s u b j e c t i v e  i t e m s had been  119  Sample Demography The  final  demography they  at  the  i n age  from  percent  level  of  93%  of  countries  residency)  and  responses to  culture  item  three  the  22  t o 43  the  subjects  (of b i r t h ,  7.  and  Iran  and  the  were C a u c a s i a n ,  New  Spain,  on  Table  1)  and  (and  range  the  the  one  and  the  Guyana,  The  and  Haida  were e a c h named  Paraguay,  Australia  "other"  West  Indies-y  Yugoslavia.  hence not  separately  i n c l u d e d : M e n n o n i t e , T a o i s t , Mormon, Latter-Day  Saint,  "unclassified".  Seventy-three percent second  subjective  separately  Zealand  Tosan, U n i t a r i a n , E v a n g e l i s t , Buddhist, Agnostic  permanent  instances,  The*-Middle - E a s t ,  Kenya, S w i t z e r l a n d ,  indicated  i n the  many  I r e l a n d were e a c h named t w i c e  Italy-,  as  education  beyond.  Cree c u l t u r e i n  Columbia,  specified  (M=31; S.D.=2.7).  Canadians  were named o n c e : B r a z i l ,  Religions  In a d d i t i o n ,  f r e q u e n t l y named Canada,  Germany but  instance  1.  r e a r i n g and/or  Subjects  Their  i n d i c a t e d formal  d e g r e e or  following  Nigeria,  Table  years  respondents  O t h e r w i s e , J a p a n and  times,  by  Q u e b e c o i s c u l t u r e i n two  i n one  instance.  respondents.  c u l t u r e s were d e s c r i b e d  U.S.A., E n g l a n d and specified  73  in part,  of a b a c h e l o r ' s  Although different  included  i s described,  ranged  Sixty-four  sample  sibling  of  subjects  positions in their  f o r number of  were from  f a m i l i e s of  c h i l d r e n i n f a m i l i e s of  first  origin.  origin  was  or The from  1 20 Table 1 Frequencies  o f t h e Demographic V a r i a b l e s  Var i a b l e s Subjects Students  2  Race: Caucasian Negroid Or i e n t a l Canadian Indian East Indian Other Religion: None Protestant Catholic Jewish Moslem Hindu Sikh Other Twins  Total  Females  73  (100.0)  28  (100.0)  45  (100.0)  45  ( 61.6)  16  ( 57. 1 )  29  ( 64.4)  68 2 1 1  ( 93.2) ( 2.7) ( 1.4) 1.4) (  24 ( 8 7 . 5 ) 1 ( 3.6) 3.6) 1 ( 3.6) 1 (  1 23 18 12 1  (  1.4)  ( 3T.5) ( 24.7) ( 16.4) (  1.4)  l9-( 26.0) 4  2  Ma l e s  (  1  (  (  Note.  1. Absolute  41 20 5 7  7 ( 25.0)  5.5)  ( 56,.2) ( 27,.4) ( 6,.8) ( 9,.6)  and ( r e l a t i v e )  10 ( 2 2 . 2 ) 14 ( 3 1 . 1 ) 9 ( 20.0)  3.6) 12  ( 26.7)  •4 (  Present M a r i t a l or R e l a t i o n s h i p S t a t u s : Single 6 ( 8.2) 4 ( 14.3) Divorced 1 0 ( 13.7) 2 ( 7.1 ) Separated 8 ( 11.0) 2 ( 7.1 ) Widowed Partnered 6 ( 8.2) 4 ( 14.3) Cohabiting 6 ( 8.2) 2 ( 7.1) Remarried 4 ( 5.5) 1 ( 3.6) Married 33 ( 4 5 . 2 ) 1 3 ( 46.4) Other Current Family: Two-parent Single-parent Blended Other  44 ( 9 7 . 8 ) 1 ( 2.2)  3.6)  13 •(•• 4 6 . 4 ) 4 (14.3) 3 ( 10.7) 1  1  1 6 3 2 7  ( 5 7 ..1 ) ( 10.,7) ( 7..1) ( 2 5 ..0)  8.9)  2 ( 4.4) 8 ( 17.8) 6 ( 13.3) 2 ( 4.4) 4- • ( 8.9) 3 ( 6.7) 20 ( 4 4 . 4 )  25 ( 5 5 ,.6) 1 7 ( 37,.8) 3 ( 6..7)  frequencies  2. C a l c u l a t e d on b a s i s o f p o s i t i v e Yes/No q u e s t i o n  response  to a  121  one  to eight with  represented contained  three  'only'  i n t h e sample.  more t h a n  It results  i s not f e a s i b l e from t h i s  survey  allow  Therefore,  the researcher  I. J e a l o u s y :  f o r m u l t i p l e combinations  subjects in  (Do y o u c o n s i d e r  review  labels.  to apply  The l i t e r a t u r e  t h a t women w i l l  no the  status.  s u r p r i s e that  there  above q u e s t i o n  t o some  as r e s e a r c h e r s  inventory  extent critiqued  ' j e a l o u s ' and 'nona l s o supports  be more l i k e l y  With these  yourself a  when t h e o r i g i n a l  I t s i n c l u s i o n assumes t h a t  acknowledge a ' j e a l o u s ' l a b e l inferior  of t h e o r e t i c a l  Trait-Based?  have t h e same t e n d e n c i e s  prediction  critique  only  and t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y .  the l i t e r a t u r e  jealous'  of data.  i s selective in presenting  j e a l o u s p e r s o n ? ) was n o t d e l e t e d was a d a p t e d .  a l l of the o b j e c t i v e  b e c a u s e even t h e b a s i c d e s c r i p t i v e  19 o f t h e i n v e n t o r y  Item  household  and D i s c u s s i o n  r e s u l t s v i s a v i s the e a r l i e r  perspectives  'twins'  (M=3.4).  to present  statistics  key  The a v e r a g e c u r r e n t  3 people  Results  c h i l d r e n and f o u r  t h a n men t o  because of t h e i r considerations  were no o c c a s i o n s  even t h o u g h t h i s  an a  d e p e n d e n t and  i n mind,  i t was  of non-response t o  a l t e r n a t i v e was  clearly  122  stated  i n the enclosed  The refute  pattern  instructions.  of responses  or support  to this  item  trait-based theories  (19)  does n o t  of j e a l o u s y .  However,  i t demonstrates  the i n a c c u r a c i e s  that  applying  d i s p o s i t i o n a l l a b e l s on t h e b a s i s  result  from  of a s i n g l e  emot i o n . Forty-eight question  subjects  (66%) r e s p o n d e d  and 25 (34%) r e s p o n d e d  sample o n l y  25% (7) r e s p o n d e d  women d i d t h e same.jealousy  scores  emotional  response.  (19)  than males.  Of t h e 28 men i n t h e  while  40% (18) o f t h e 45  were a s s i g n e d "  of t h e i r  When a l l s c o r e s more l i k e l y  to score  that  r e s p o n d e n t s ) would d o m i n a t e  mentioned  total  jealous  from w h i c h  found  i n t h e t o p two i n t e r v a l s w h i l e  t h e y were d e r i v e d )  were i n t h e same i n t e r v a l s .  (38%);  difference  females=45  persons  (62%)] along  scores.  the one-to-seven  17.8% o f a l l men were only  Considering  i n sample  ('yes'  f o r t h e above-  ( i n accordance with  scale  porportionate  closely  t h e above median  i n t e r v a l s were c r e a t e d scores  above t h e  l i k e l i h o o d of o c c u r r e n c e .  we would e x p e c t  When s e v e n  females  t h e (18) " y e s " a n d  "no" r e s p o n s e s above t h e median v e r y  Logically,  stronger  were r a n k e d  However, sex a s i d e ,  a p p r o x i m a t e an i d e n t i c a l  total  summed r e s p o n s e s t o  females o v e r a l l i n d i c a t e d a  were a l s o p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y median  "yes"  When s u b j e c t s  on t h e b a s i s  emotional, r e a c t i o n s  "yes".  "no" t o t h e  15.5% o f a l l women t h e much l a r g e r  structure  [n=73; males=28  with the p r e d i c t i o n  that  1 23  women a s a s u b g r o u p a r e more l i k e l y jealous not  t o be d i s p o s i t i o n a l l y  then  men, t h e n  they  s h o u l d be f o u n d  a lesser  frequency  than  men i n e s p e c i a l l y  intervals. these  intervals  theories, that  Even an i d e n t i c a l  would be i n c o n s i s t e n t  especially  given  t h e t o p two  o f men and women i n  with  trait-based  the frequent support  women a r e more l i k e l y  personalities  occurrence  with a greater  to f i n a l l y  ascribe  f o r the idea  to their  basic  the consequences of n e g a t i v e l y p e r c e i v e d  circumstances. Random s a m p l i n g interval  w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y  significance these  a n d an a d e q u a t e number  of t h e above  experimental  to verify  findings.  the e m p i r i c a l However, even  p r e c a u t i o n s , i t would be v e r y  to c o n t r o l  f o r the s o c i a l l y - i n f l u e n c e d  determined  and seemingly  categorize  themselves  theories  and the ongoing  recommendation  II.  that  o f women t o trait-based  lack  of evidence  separately  c o l l e a g u e s and c l i e n t s .  1 graphically  level  of t h e E m o t i o n ?  p o r t r a y s ( f o r a l l s u b j e c t s and  f o r m a l e s and f e m a l e s ) a t each  supports a  c o u n s e l l o r s a v o i d i t s a p p l i c a t i o n and  caution their  Figure  ("How  Hence,  Response Set and/or Re-Experience  responded  difficult  or s o c i a l l y -  g r e a t e r tendency  as j e a l o u s .  with  a n d r e s e a r c h on j e a l o u s y a r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y  impractical  likewise  of cases per  t h e number  of the response  j e a l o u s a r e you a t t h i s  time  scale  i n your  o f s u b j e c t s who f o r items  life?")  20 ;  and 122 '  124  F i g u r e 1. R e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n s 20 ( s o l i d l i n e ) and 122 ( b r o k e n l i n e ) bu, q u e s t i o n 19 (Yes/No)  125  ("Using y o u r own graphs are arid  "no"  further divided  responses  There dotted that sex  being are  end  of  regardless  a  phendnmenon.  answer"  The  ("Are  shift with  you  toward the  whether or  a  the  solid  inventory  usual  answer  (Borg  The  b a s i s of  jealous right  line.  "yes"  person?").  when This  the indicates  a l l subjects  (regardless  not  acknowledged  they  had  would commonly  by  subjects  that  than  by  fault  However,  case  in assessing than at  effect  the  of  Given  subjects  the  this  a true  in a patterned  self-report  jealousy  beginning  definition, reports  measure t o the  in  t o a c k n o w l e d g e and  their  true  conflicting  in s o l i c i t i n g  of  the  by  the  measure which  general. subjects  were  p e r h a p s more  end  b e c a u s e of a  way  extent  of  the  therapeutic  instrument.  that  much c a u t i o n  the  and  Using the  difference  i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e that  more aware o f , more l i k e l y  inventory  with  responded  inaccuracy  accurate  that  efficient  demonstrates the in this  respondent  p.311).  suggested  subjects  There  apparent  i n d i c a t e s "the  the  1979,  indicate a  i t is less  simply  given  be  of  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would" a t t r i b u t e t h e  s e t which  & Gall,  it  or  19  you?).  the  interpretations for this  to a response  between the  that  of  j e a l o u s are  j e a l o u s p e r s o n ) were r e p o r t i n g more j e a l o u s y .  many p o s s i b l e  shift  the  how  i n t o p a i r s on  item  i s compared  the  and  to  is a visible  line  by  definition,  was  no  definition  taken  of  to avoid  were e s s e n t i a l l y  jealousy implying  responding  was a  to the  presented  and  definition, same q u e s t i o n  in  126  items  20  and  definition be  122.  If they  when r e s p o n d i n g  a p r o j e c t i o n and  own  were a s s u m i n g a  definition  to  item  hence s t i l l  w h i c h was  the  20  researcher  i t would n e c e s s a r i l y  closely  criterion  comparable  to  for response  their  to  item  122. Therefore,  the  usual  negative  assumptions  response  set  i n t e r m s of  i t s confounding  findings  can  be  in this  if  the  reversed  differences portrayed  response' s e t because  i t . i s one  that  by acts  i t demonstrates that  encouraged  a  presenting  their  reflecting  on  (see a p p e n d i x D), experience  and  d e f i n i n g the  accuracy  their  g i v e a more " t r u e " or This by  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  s u b j e c t i v e and  overall study  subjects.  i n terms of  jealousy,  negative  effects  o b j e c t i v e data  observations.  both  i n t e r m s of  main s t u d y  the  speaks to the  even  123  (requesting  to  insights/thoughts/experiences contribute)  they hence  item  k e e n n e s s and  to  large  pilot keenness  content  which s u b j e c t s might  a l s o speaks to t h i s  supported The  specific  responses  the  and  is also  The  of  to  E),  jealousy  of p a r t i c i p a n t s t o s e l f - e x p l o r e . length)  After  self-report.  survey  the  with  their  phenomenological  r e s p o n s e t o the  and  by  inventory  (see a p p e n d i x  t o own  accurate  words,  way  feelings relative  emotion  were s e e m i n g l y more p r e p a r e d  In o t h e r  to the  p o s i t i v e and  examining  research  in a constructive  most e x t r e m e e x p e r i e n c e  i t s ultimate  on  graph demonstrate a  responding  self-determined  effect  instance. the  about  (and  other wish  their  to  127  willingness feelings, appendix  t o s h a r e and  t h o u g h t s , and F,  especially  Alternatively, set  i s an  aspect  objective  (which  codes  possibly  items  cognitive  39 and  43).  suggested  that  demonstration  of the  Interpreted  19 and  prior  the  Of  in relation  an  of t h e s e e v e n t s  (see  response  to the jealousy  actual  r e - e x p e r i e n c i n g of  inventory.  If  is insufficient  in  f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s ,  responses  item  (122)  may  o r more a c c u r a t e  that  i s experienced following Again,  the  speak  emotion.  approached accumulated  "true"  phenomenological  interpretation. code 06)  the  The on  by  fellow  and  evidence  subjective  one  on  t o the  final feeling  self-exploration. supports the  responses  b e h a l f of the s u g g e s t e d  Also,  122  differences  accounting  reflect  their  to responding to item  d u r i n g c o m p l e t i o n of t h e  recall  of  phenomenological  2 0 ) , the d e m o n s t r a t e d  the. e f f e c t  use  jealousy  most e x t r e m e e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h  indicate  emotion  22,  be  subjects contributed  but a f t e r  the  about  experiences with  i t can  of the emotion.  statements  make more c o n s t r u c t i v e  several  above  (e.g., appendix  r e - e x p e r i e n c i n g of  o c c a s i o n s the r e s e a r c h e r  community members. non-respondent  F,  Process notes  was were  i s n o t e d as s a y i n g :  "It's s i t t i n g t h e r e l o o k i n g a t me, p a r t of me wants t o do i t and p a r t o f me d o e s n ' t . I g u e s s I'm a f r a i d of what i t might s t i r up f o r me. I'm a s i n g l e p a r e n t and I've gone t h r o u g h a l o t g e t t i n g t o t h e p o i n t t h a t I'm now a t . I j u s t want t o l e t a l l t h a t go now, y e t I know a l o t of i t i s s t i l l t h e r e and I g u e s s I'm a f r a i d the j e a l o u s y q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l r e a l l y s t i r i t a l l up a g a i n " .  128  This person's  indecision  was  seemingly based  a w a r e n e s s o f t h e phenomena b e i n g d i s c u s s e d . participating Further  would  conversation  to p a r t i c i p a t e resolution. because  because  negative  of h e r  reveals  jealous  emotions.  encouragement complete  for counselling  because,  i n the p r o c e s s  h e r an a l t e r n a t e  feelings  that  may  and  less  have  only  becomes e v i d e n t  without  data.  o b s e r v a t i o n s and  that  subjects' from  losing  by  figure  one  be p o r t r a y e d by  the o b j e c t i v e  s e p a r a t e d from  evaluations  set demonstrated  more t h a n c a n  phenomenological  be  i s s u e s and  the response  something  interpretating  cannot  referred  that  h e r responses-.  In e s s e n c e ,  it  was  past  she wanted  an  sensed  t o r e a c h a more  the r e s e a r c h e r o f f e r e d  view  influenced  that  of a wish  of her p a r t i c u l a r  She  in re-experiencing  indicated  I n s t e a d , she  of h e l p i n g ,  and  result  on  When b o t h  f i n d i n g s are  insights  their  combined  and e x p e r i e n c e  objective  a large part  empirical  self-  of t h e  "whole"  meaning.  III.  J e a l o u s y and Sibling  separately then 73%  12 and  Sibling  position  adding 13  was  Position determined  for a l l subjects  responses to inventory  (see appendix  o f t h e sample were f r o m  their  families  of o r i g i n .  along  w i t h t h e wide range  A). first  Given of  items  As p r e v i o u s l y and this  family  10 and  by 11  mentioned,  second p o s i t i o n s sample  size  and  in  characteristic  (and t h e r e f o r e  the  1 29  vast  possibilities  evident beyond  that d e s c r i p t i v e saying that  distributed for  total  IV.  i n a random  Jealousy  responses  a r e not  and  siblings  second  f a s h i o n above and  t h e means and  again  meaningful were  below  seemingly  the  standard  median  deviations (for  s e p a r a t e l y f o r males and  'jealousy prevalence'  scores are h i g h e s t  adolescence  and  findings  A r o n s o n and  by  statistics  i t is  response.  2 presents  to  family constellations)  Prevalence  s u b j e c t s and  that  first  emotional  Table all  i n t e r m s of  f o r both  m a l e s and  young a d u l t h o o d . Pines  for  I t i s noteworthy females  In c o n t r a s t t o  during  the  (1983) d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r  two,  subjects in this  sample, on  less  j e a l o u s d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d than  However, when m a l e s and  items.  females)  females  the  are  average,  during  reported  being  adulthood.  considered separately  m a l e s r e p o r t more c h i l d h o o d j e a l o u s y t h a n  females  (M=3.4 v s .  2.7).  V.  General  Reactions  Table  3 presents  responses the  to  items  inventory.  more t h a n  Subjects  'days'  Jealousy  t h e means and  i n the  extreme e x p e r i e n c e s for  to  with but  'general on  standard  r e a c t i o n s ' s u b s e c t i o n of  the average  jealousy are less  than  deviations for  reported that  'rare'  and  'weeks' and  they  are  last  coped  130  Table Jealousy  2  P r e v a l e n c e Q u e s t i o n s : Means and  Standard D e v i a t i o n s  Total (n=73)  Males (n=28)  Females (n=45)  x  SD  x  SD  x  19. Do you c o n s i d e r y o u r s e l f a j e a l o u s person? 1=Yes, 2=No  1.7  0.5  1.7  0.4  1.6  0.5  20.  How j e a l o u s a r e you a t t h i s time i n your l i f e ? 1=not a t a l l ... 7 = e x t r e m e l y  2.5  1.5  2.5  1.4  2.4  1.1  21.  During childhood 1 = n o t a t a l l ' - ' . . . 7=extremely  2.9  1.5  3.4  1.5  2.7  1.5  22.  During adolescence . 1-not a t a l l ... 7 = e x t r e m e l y  3.9  1.6  4.4  1.6  3.7  1.6  23. D u r i n g young a d u l t h o o d 1=not a t a l l ... 7 = e x t r e m e l y  3.9  1.7  3.7  1.8  4.0  1.6  24.  3.0  1.4  2.8  1.2  3.0  1.4  Question  During adulthood 1=not a t a l l ...  SD  7=extremely  25.  Have any of y o u r i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s ended b e c a u s e of y o u r j e a l o u s y ? 1=none ... 7 = a l l o f them  1.6  1.1  1.6  0.9  1.6  1.1  26.  Do most p e o p l e who know you 2.1 w e l l c o n s i d e r you a j e a l o u s person? 1 = d e f i n i t e l y not ... 7 = d e f i n i t e l y  1.3  2.0  1.0  2.1  1.5  2.5  1.6  2.9  1.9  yes  •27. Do p e o p l e you have been 2.8. 1.8 i n t i m a t e w i t h c o n s i d e r you jealous? 1 = d e f i n i t e l y not ... 7 = d e f i n i t e l y y e s  131  Table General  Reaction  Questions:  3  Means and S t a n d a r d  Deviations  Total (n=73)  Males (n=28)  x  x  Females (n=45)  Question SD  SD  x  SD  4.4 1 .6 89. R e c a l l i n g y o u r most e x t r e m e e x p e r i e n c e of j e a l o u s y , how long d i d the experience last? 1=seconds ... 4=days ... 7=years  4 .3  1 .5  4. 5 1 .6  90. How o f t e n do you e x p e r i e n c e extreme j e a l o u s y ? 1=never ... 7=always  3.0 0.9  2 .7  1 .0  3. 2 0 .9  91 . Do you t h i n k you c o p e d w e l l w i t h t h e extreme s i t u a t i o n you described? 1=very p o o r l y ... 7=very w e l l  4.2 1.7  4 <4  1 .8  4. 1 1 .7  92. Do you c o n s i d e r y o u r j e a l o u s y a problem? 1=not a t a l l ... 7=a v e r y  2.2 1 .5  1 .9 1 .5  2. 5 1 .5  93. Can you make y o u r s e l f s t o p 4.3 1 .8 being jealousy? 1 = d e f i n i t e l y n o t ... 7 = d e f i n i t e l y yes  4 .9 1 .7  4. 0 1 .8  94. How o f t e n do you e x p e r i e n c e mild jealousy? 1=never . .. 7=always  3 .7 0 .8  3. 8 0 .7  s e r i o u s one  3.8 0.8  95. Do you t h i n k t h a t j e a l o u s y ,5.7 1 .6 i s a normal response i n certain situations? 1 = d e f i n i t e l y n o t ... 7 = d e f i n i t e l y yes  6 .0  1 .2  5. 4 1 .7  96. Do you c o n s i d e r y o u r own 2.1 1 .3 j e a l o u s y i n extreme s i t u a t i o n s t o be an a p p r o p r i a t e reaction? 1 = d e f i n i t e l y not ... 7 = d e f i n i t e l y y e s  2 .0  1 .0  2. 1 1 .5  132  with  'averagely  jealousy  was  not  "occasionally" average,  not  The  "rarely". t o be  t o be  to  females.  i t e m s 92 their  subjects  mild The  jealousy  response  jealousy  an  appropriate  differences  and  93  be  are  l e s s of  findings  stop being  by  White  interpretation  jealous.  (1976,  i s posed  1980  in certain situations thus  apparent the  average  in that  and  a  they p o s s i b l y  r e l a t i o n s h i p and  h e n c e her  l e s s powerful p o s i t i o n .  support  i n the  m a l e s and especially  but  the  females  to  c o d e s 01,  i t e m s 28, 02,  08,  await  29,  09,  subjective and  25,  30  36,  (see 41,  the  Again, more  interpretation also  between  the  d e p e n d e n c e on  these d i f f e r e n c e s  above  differences  and  reflect  involvement  advanced a n a l y s i s  their  similar  emotional  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  did  support  female's greater  statistical  than  in reporting  These d i f f e r e n c e s 1981)  in  a problem  M a l e s were a l s o more c o n f i d e n t to  the  status.  w i t h m a l e s on  to  on  reaction  taboo  that  occurred  i n extreme  sex  jealousy  reported  e m o t i o n was,  normal  i t s ongoing  most v i s i b l e  considering  "a  In c o n t r a s t ,  supporting  responses  ability  not  considered  seemingly  Overall,  a p r o b l e m but  reported  situations". was  well'.  finds  responses  by  appendix  D,  46,  48,  55  and  56) .  VI.  Physical Table  Reactions  4 lists  responses to  the  28  and  to  Jealousy  ranks the  'physical  ten  highest  reaction'  means  for  items, again  for a l l  1 33  subjects  and s e p a r a t e l y  f o r m a l e s and f e m a l e s .  Table Ranking  of P h y s i c a l R e a c t i o n s  T o t a l (n=73) Mean R e s p o n s e  4 on B a s i s  o f Mean R e s p o n s e  M a l e s (n=28) Mean Response  F e m a l e s (n=45) Mean Response  Fast heartbeat  3. 6  Shakey  3. 4  Fast heartbeat  3. 9  Shakey  3. 5  Fast heartbeat  3. 1  Energized  3. 9  Energized  3. 5  Stomach empty  3. 0  Insomnia  3. 6  Insomnia  3. 2  Blood  2. 9  Shakey  3. 6  2. 8  Appetite  loss  3. 2  Hot  2. 7  Stomach empty  3. 2  Energ i z e d  2. 7  Blood  rushing  3. 1  short  3. 0  Stomach  Blood  rushing  empty 3. 1 .A p p e t i t e l o s s 3. 1  Appetite  r u s h i n g 3. 0  loss  Trembling hands  2. 8  Insomnia  2. 6  Breath  Hot  2. 6  Exhausted  2. 6  Trembling hands  3. 0  2. 6  Trembling hands  2. 5  Sweaty  2. 6:  Breath Note.  short  In t h e c a s e o f t i e d means, t h e r e a c t i o n w i t h t h e smaller standard d e v i a t i o n i s l i s t e d f i r s t . A l l i t e m s were a n s w e r e d on a 7 p o i n t s c a l e .  noteworthy  that  although  the ten r e a c t i o n s  sample a r e a l l m o d e r a t e l y describe or  It i s  an a u t o n o m i c  seemingly,  w e i g h t e d and g e n e r a l l y  nervous  the 'jealous  f o r the t o t a l  system  flash'  they  fight-flight  described  i n the  response  134  literature.  However, f e m a l e s  considerably  h i g h e r than males p o s s i b l y  tendency also  to fight  generally  rather  ranked " e n e r g i z e d "  than  flee.  several  threat  be g r e a t e r f o r t h e f e m a l e  earlier  because of the former's greater  reactions  response, feelings  support  than  social  a autonomic  a greater  responses are  that  again  the f e l t  f o r t h e male  s t a t u s and h e r Also,  because  nervous  s e n s a t i o n s ) may be g e n e r a l i z e d He s a y s  not i t s essence"  these  system  i s g i v e n t o Solomon's" (197/6) t h e s i s  emotions.  emotion,  that t o many  " f e e l i n g s are the ornamentation (p.159).  Emotional Reactions to Jealousy Table  responses  5 lists  and r a n k s  t h e t e n h i g h e s t means f o r  t o t h e 30 ' e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n '  s u b j e c t s and s e p a r a t e l y and  inferior  describe  (as v i s c e r a l  different  VII.  interpretations  d e p e n d e n c e on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p .  physical  of  Female  somewhat h i g h e r t h a n male r e s p o n s e s  supporting may  indicating  for a l l  f o r m a l e s and f e m a l e s .  females are c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y  "envy",  items  "fear  When-males  of l o s s " ,  " p o s s e s s i v e n e s s " and "low s e l f - i m a g e " a r e r a n k e d  among t h e t e n h i g h e s t means f o r f e m a l e s b u t n o t f o r m a l e s . Again,  female  responses.  responses o v e r a l l  a r e higher than  "Pain", " s e l f - p i t y " ,  male  " v u l n e r a b i l i t y " and  " d e p r e s s i o n " a r e among t h e t e n h i g h e s t means f o r m a l e s b u t not is  f o r females.  This  stereo-typically  finding  supports the idea  c o n s i d e r e d t o be j e a l o u s y  that  what  i s seemingly  1 35 Table 5 Ranking of Emotional  Reactions  T o t a l (n=73) Mean R e s p o n s e  on B a s i s o f Mean  M a l e s (n=28) Mean R e s p o n s e  Response  F e m a l e s (n=45) Mean Response  Anger  4 .8  Humilation  4 .5  Anger  5 .2  Resentment  4 .6  Depression  4 .3  Rage  5. 1  Rage  4 .6  Resentment  4 .2  Resentment  4 .8  Humiliation  4 .5  Anger  Excluded  4 .8  Anxiety  4 .4  Frustration  3 .9  Anxiety  4 .7  Excluded  4 .3  Self-pity  3 .9  Fear  4 .6  F r u s t r a t ion  4 .3  Anxiety  3 .8  Low  Depression  4 .3  Rage  3 .8  Frustration  4 .5  Fear  4 .2  Vulnerability  3 .0. H u m i l i a t i o n  4 .5  4 .2  Excluded  3 .6  Possessiveness  4 .4  4. 1  Pain  3 .6  Envy  4 .4  of l o s s  Low s e l f • image Inferiority Note.  •4 .0  s e l f - i m a g e 4 .6  I n t h e c a s e o f t i e d means, t h e r e a c t i o n w i t h t h e smaller standard d e v i a t i o n i s l i s t e d f i r s t . A l l i t e m s were answered on a 7 p o i n t s c a l e .  b a s e d on e m o t i o n s t h a t t y p i f y if  traditional  of  a focus  depression  It  on i t s e l e m e n t s o f p a i n , and s e l f - p i t y  i s also  total  woman's e x p e r i e n c e .  Perhaps  v i e w s o f j e a l o u s y h a d been d e r i v e d from more  j e a l o u s man" r a t h e r t h a n  the  of l o s s  sample  then  t h e s t e r e o - t y p e would be " t h e  " t h e j e a l o u s women".  noteworthy t h a t "envy"  vulnerability,  i n the t o p t e n rankings f o r  i s n o t on t h e l i s t  image" a p p e a r s o n l y n i n t h .  and "low s e l f -  The a b s e n c e o f envy  in this  136  ranking  s u p p o r t s a v i e w of  something  more and  ranking  of  for  female  the  subsample relegate  "low  j e a l o u s y as a d i s c r e t e  different  than  envy.  The  s e l f - i m a g e " f o r the t o t a l subsample  ranking)  (as w e l l  as  supports White's  emotion  relatively  sample  i t s absence  s e l f - e s t e e m t o a more p e r i p h e r a l  role  low  listing i n the  (1976) d e c i s i o n  —  and male  to  i n models of  jealousy. Unlike m a l e s and  'physical  females  highest  rankings  females  and  responses females  finding and  f o r the  a r e anger  for rating  was  results  t h e most p o i g n a n t and  rage  and  top  elemental  emotions  f o r t h e male t h e y  that  also  both and  the this  on  socialization  of  the  feel  separate anger,  humiliation  f o r the  the  emotional  Comparing  females,  two  interactionally  i n somewhat d i f f e r i n g  under  for  experience,  Reflecting the  very  depression while for  j e a l o u s y as an  emotion.  the  from' t h o s e  The  individual's  anxiety, frustration  and  time  Re-emphasizing  jealousy experiences.  resentment,  this  markedly  (1976) view of e m o t i o n s ,  seemingly  where t o p r a n k i n g s f o r  sample.  rage.  the  a v i e w of  r a n k i n g s under m a l e s and  anger  total  and  influenced  j u d g e m e n t s of  rage,  similar,  f o r males a r e h u m i l i a t i o n  socially  sexes  items  f o r males d i f f e r  supports  Solomon's  were v e r y  those  they  criterion  reaction'  female  are h u m i l i a t i o n  but  are and  depression. Using synergistic  Bartell's couples  (1977) c r i t e r i a (thus v e r i f y i n g  to i d e n t i f y a high l e v e l  highly of  social  137  and  possibly  economic  hypothesized would not  that  differ  for these  necessary emotion  in their  emotions.  i n acceptance  of  i t could  relationships.,  significantly  jealousy's elemental evenuate  interdependence)  m a l e s and  rankings  differences  or  between t h e  this  hypothesis  in addition sexes  females  of  However, i f f i n d i n g s i t will  t o c o n s i d e r t h e common p u r p o s e s e r v e d  r a t h e r than,  be  still  by  the  to, s i m i l a r i t i e s  i n terms of  be  and  internal  exper i e n c e .  VIII.  list  Coping  With  Table  6 lists  of  'coping with  24  sample, m a l e s and The  and  ranks  females  the  i s evident.  socially  "negotiation"  t e n h i g h e s t means f o r t h e Again  the  total  are each c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y .  The  higher  female  top three  acceptable  appears  the  j e a l o u s y ' items.  same p a t t e r n of o v e r a l l  responses are  Jealousy  than  items  male  a c r o s s the  " t h i n g s t o do".  table  However,  c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e c on- the' l i s t - ,  supporting  a suggestion  that  j e a l o u s y i s not  recognized  as a t r i g g e r  for interdependent  thus-  typically  change t o  the  relationship. A l s o apparent items  suggest  antagonistic  a female  ranking  tendency  i s t h a t the next  t o g i v e more w e i g h t  or a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r s  g i v e more w e i g h t a withdrawal.  in this  to behaviours  Reflecting  on  and  several to  a male t e n d e n c y  that portray a c l o s i n g  Constantine's  (1976)  to  o f f or  typology  138 Table 6 Ranking  of "Coping With J e a l o u s y " Response  T o t a l (n=73) Mean R e s p o n s e  Items on B a s i s  M a l e s (n=28) Mean R e s p o n s e  o f Mean  F e m a l e s (n=45) Mean R e s p o n s e  Thinking through  4 .8  Thinking through  4.5  Thinking through  5. 0  Acceptance  4 .2  Acceptance  4.4  Rational discussion  4. 1  Rational discussion  4. 1  Rational discussion  3.9  Acceptance  4. 2  Sarcasm  3 .6  Withdrawal  3.5  Sarcasm  3. 8  Withdrawal  3 .4  Stoney  3.4  Crying  3. 7  Arguing  3 .4  I solation'  Arguing  3. 6  Isolation  3 .2  Sarcasm  Negotiation  3. 4  Stoney  s i l e n c e 3 .2  silence  3.3  Suffer silently  3.0 + visibly  Withdrawal  3. 3  2.9 + covertly  I s o l a t ion  3. 2  Negot i a t i o n  3. 1  Suffer silently  Crying  2 .9  Negotiation  Note.  of  2.7  Stoney  s i l e n c e 3. 0  In t h e c a s e o f t i e d means, t h e r e a c t i o n w i t h t h e smaller standard d e v i a t i o n i s l i s t e d f i r s t . A l l i t e m s were a n s w e r e d on a 7 p o i n t s c a l e .  jealous  behaviours discussed  antagonistic,  redefinitional  females a r e r e p o r t i n g  i n t h e ways t h a t  likely  to preserve  i n chapter  two  and r e s o l u t i o n a l )  a greater  behave  with  ' 3.4  tendency  (isolational, i t seems  than males t o  Constantine maintains w i l l  the r e l a t i o n s h i p .  that  This  i s also  t h e many v i e w s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s d i s c u s s e d  be more congruent i n chapter  1 39  two  in that  the  female's  g r e a t e r d e p e n d e n c y on  r e l a t i o n s h i p a b d i c a t e s her Again,  these d i f f e r e n c e s  so a p p a r e n t on  economically  of t h e i r  differences  occurred  on  higher 1.2  membership  the  in socially  "crying",  of  24  and  i t e m s t h e most  "screaming"  F o r a l l t h r e e items' f e m a l e  t h a n male means and  (3.7  vs  1.6;  and  "throwing  means were 2.5  f e m a l e s were a l s o  considerably  1.6;  and  1.5).  A l t h o u g h a l l o f t h e s e means a r e r e l a t i v e l y  may  important.  and  4 out  violence  as a r e a c t i o n One  reaction  and  subjectively  feeling,  i t is a killer"  ratings  male a c k n o w l e d g e d  remembered t h a t  reporting on  physical this  ( o r 14%)  to jealousy  more o f t e n .  must be  than males  A c c o r d i n g l y , n i n e of t h e  of 28 m a l e s  beseeched  v i o l e n c e may  item.  occurs  i t as h i s  be  low  vs  they  females  (or  physical  "rarely"  or  "usual"  70).  undesirability resulting  vs  more  (1.6  " t r y t o overcome  (appendix. F, code the s o c i a l  45  acknowledged that  2.0  very s l i g h t l y  t o acknowledge p h y s i c a l  20%)  violence  vs  females  likely  be  be  f o r study  between means f o r m a l e s and  items  respectively)  identified  not  relationships.  t h e whole l i s t  apparent  things".  f e m a l e s were  interdependent  Considering  to preserve i t .  i n c o p i n g mechanisms m i g h t  i f m a l e s and  the b a s i s  g r e a t e r need  the  this  Also, i t of  i n lower  1 40  H y p o t h e s e s and I m p l i c a t i o n s As  has been  empirical  phase of t h i s  based only  along  with  ( i n c l u d i n g data  broader  study  are preliminary.  a w a i t s more a d v a n c e d  When c o n s i d e r e d  They a r e  and t h e i r statistical  analysis.  f i n d i n g s of the phenomenological  i n t h e a p p e n d i c e s ) t h e y promote a  conceptualization  to as " j e a l o u s y " ,  Research  mentioned, the f i n d i n g s of the  on d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s  "significance"  phase  frequently  f o r Future  o f t h e human e x p e r i e n c e  thus a c h i e v i n g  the o v e r a l l  referred  purpose of the  study. It  i s hoped t h a t  research  on j e a l o u s y  this that  study again  will  i n each phase.  empirical  generation-of  methods t h a t a r e  Hence, among o t h e r  phase of t h i s  study  hypotheses  i s used  things, the  to exemplify  from p r e l i m i n a r y  Several are  of o b j e c t i v e data-,  of the subsections  again  briefly  implications counselling research  for future  I above  result  hypotheses using  t h e above  be *-presented*. 7  and D i s c u s s i o n "  o f new h y p o t h e s e s and  Specific  implications for  from b o t h p h a s e s o f t h i s  i n chapter implies  "Results  in light  research.  practice derived  are presented  Section jealousy  discussed  from  o n l y a- few- w i l l  under  the  findings.  A l t h o u g h many h y p o t h e s e s c a n be e x t r a p o l a t e d discussion  future  c o m b i n e s e m p i r i c a l and  p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l approaches but u s i n g additive  encourage  that  five. t r a i t - b a s e d t h e o r i e s of  in inconsistent research  findings.  " j e a l o u s " and " n o n - j e a l o u s "  Thus  categorizations  141  of  i n d i v i d u a l s are  b a s e d on well  as  the on  chapter  the  Instead, the  different  and  issues  in  who  i n terms of  change.  and  the  consider  r o l e s than  the  r o l e s as  II  aimed a t  development  experience  frequent  B o r g and  goal  of  research  take  "research  and  also  or  Gall  be  viewing  the  assessment of  subject, As  and found  preliminary  of  VII,  and  VII)  e x i s t i n g programs for  problems with  (1979) s t a t e t h a t  the  couples jealousy. primary  methodology  incorporate  of  past.  s e c t i o n s VI,  (R&D)  of  the  less frequently  i n the  of  should  f o r more s o c i a l  ongoing  knowledge and  of  i t s role in  group t h e r a p i e s  development  i n terms  dynamics change.  improvement  new  dynamics  p r e s e n c e or a b s e n c e  implements  the of  Instead  f o r the  women may  (and  examine  about  possibility  t h e y were  that  Couple  research  allow  i n c r e a s i n g l y allow  be  Accordingly,  Future  as  the r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  i n t e r m s of  will  changing  the  research  researched  process.  examined  section  above c o u l d and/or  be  future  be  re.s.earch  study.  assumptions  can  jealousy  research  of  this  d e p e n d e n c e on  interdependence,  Future  and  cooperation  of  agent  'subject'  findings  beliefs  methods t h a t  relationships economic  in jealousy  the  i t can  and  f i n d i n g s of  boundaries,  reciprocity  object  previous  triangles.  dynamic p r o c e s s  role  of  roles  behaviour  incorporate  critique  implication is  that  they e f f e c t  pathology  two  This  i t i s recommended  p o w e r - s h a r i n g and  individual  recommended.  objective  s u c h as  relationship  how  not  i t into a  i s to product  1 42  that  c a n be u s e d "  implies  purposes  effect  Alternatively,  individuals  i t might  selected  differences  i n terms of t h e i r  experiences  with  be u s e d  cannot  without  one i n d i v i d u a l  changes i n  t o t h e same a n d / o r experiences.  be u s e d t o  individual  alot  and c o u p l e  i t s expression.  Or, i t  the o b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s of  be s e p a r a t e d  losing  from  of v a l u a b l e  the s u b j e c t i v e understanding.  between t h e a n g e r and r a g e  described  and t h e h u m i l i a t i o n and v u l n e r a b i l i t y  by t h e n e x t  (forsimilar  jealousy) are determined perceptions,  also  j e a l o u s y and w i t h  Hence, t h e d i f f e r e n c e  very  in a  t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and  t o d e m o n s t r a t e how  human e x p e r i e n c e  be  "coping  c o u l d be used  individual  jealousy  might  for participants  In  The  and a b r o a d e r c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n  j e a l o u s y , the instrument  described  t o assess or  a p r o g r a m t h a t p r o m o t e s s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n and  negotiation.skills  experience  be u s e d  i n response  demonstrate  by  i t may be u s e f u l f o r  of the instrument  h y p o t h e t i c a l or r e a l  Given  might  Hence,  f a s h i o n t o measure  of behaviours  different  of  r e s e a r c h had a.  f o r the group e x p e r i e n c e .  jealousy" section  teaches  in this  on s u b j e c t s .  pre-test/post-test types  used  I I above  o f f o r m a t i v e and summative e v a l u a t i o n o f s u c h  programs.  with  For instance, section  that the intrument  therapeutic  prepare  (p.623).  beliefs,  experiences  to a l a r g e extent  v a l u e s and  terms o f i m p l i c a t i o n s  with  by t h e i r  unique  assumptions.  for section  r e l e v a n t t h a t t h e sample o f p e o p l e  I I I above, who  i t may  responded  to  143  the  jealousy  second  inventory  siblings.  positions  was c o n s t i t u t e d  Perhaps  have a g r e a t e r  Future  research  by 73% f i r s t  i n d i v i d u a l s from need t o e x p l o r e  that  uses very  of  e x p e r i e n c e s and v a r i o u s  sibling  chapter  of a s s o c i a t i o n s  two d i s c u s s i o n s  power o r s t a t u s , provide  a u s e f u l context  development others) coping that  of b e l i e f s  that  mechanisms.  society  Given the  between  j e a l o u s y and  sibling  position  would  which  to explore  the  and a s s u m p t i o n s  This  (about  self  and most  and i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e  i f we assume  important  u n i t of cooperative  that  were s u g g e s t e d  (by t h e  from a n t h r o p o l o g y  and s o c i o l o g y '  section)  influential  t o t h e outcomes o f j e a l o u s y  Two h y p o t h e s e s a r e s t a t e d implications  and  s e l e c t i o n of e f f e c t i v e  i s e s p e c i a l l y relevant  i s the f i r s t  could  jealousy  i n t e r m s of l e a r n i n g and p r a c t i c i n g t h e  'perspectives being  within  samples  positions.  e i t h e r enhance o r impede  the f a m i l y  values  i t seems t h a t  sibling  the t o p i c .  large  examine t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f p e r c e p t i o n  these  and  for section  in null  as  experiences.  terms t o  exemplify  IV a b o v e :  1. T h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between male and f e m a l e ( s e l f - r e p o r t ) o b j e c t i v e m e a s u r e s o f f e l t t h r e a t when an h y p o t h e t i c a l j e a l o u s y e x p e r i e n c e i s i d e n t i c a l l y described for a l l subjects. 2.  T h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between male and f e m a l e s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f a h y p o t h e t i c a l and p o t e n t i a l l y t h r e a t e n i n g jealousy e x p e r i e n c e when t h e l a t t e r i s i d e n t i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d for a l l subjects.  144  The using  first  objective  'general the  o f t h e above h y p o t h e s e s c o u l d  reactions'  inventory  could  used  be t e s t e d  judges  items  (blind  s i m i l a r t o some of t h o s e under t h e  and ' e m o t i o n a l in this  by u s i n g  reactions'  research.  an e x p e r t  segmented  from e a c h h y p o t h e s i s would t h e n  be v e r i f i e d  group.  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , subjects  used as t h e judges  provided  categories for  responses.  be compared.  by t h e s u b j e c t s ,  panel of  who would be  The r e s u l t s To  a p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l phase t h e c a t e g o r i e s ' a n d / o r could  hypothesis  and i n d e p e n d e n t  t o t h e sex o f s u b j e c t s )  o f whole a n d / o r  s e c t i o n s of  The s e c o n d  w i t h a v a r i e t y of t h e o r e t i c a l l y d e r i v e d placement  be t e s t e d by  incorporate  findings  i n d i v i d u a l l y or as a  ( i n an open  for categorizing  forum) c o u l d  be  t h e p o o l e d anonymous  data. The  hypothesis already  s u g g e s t e d and d i s c u s s e d  s e c t i o n V I I above c a n be s t a t e d  in null  under  terms a s :  1. T h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between male and f e m a l e r a n k i n g s o f e l e m e n t a l e m o t i o n s when an h y p o t h e t i c a l and p o t e n t i a l l y j e a l o u s y - e v o k i n g e x p e r i e n c e i s i d e n t i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d - f o r s u b j e c t s whoa r e ( i n d i v i d u a l l y ) members of c o u p l e s p r e v i o u s l y a s s e s s e d t o be h i g h l y s y n e r g i s t i c . The could any  'emotional  be u s e d  reactions'  f o r measurement  s e c t i o n of the  o f t h e above h y p o t h e s i s and  d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e x e s  tested  f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e by u s i n g  (Glass  & Stanley,  assessment  1970, pp.  inventory  i n t h e r a n k i n g s would be a two-tailed  316-317).  of the purpose that  Again,  would be s e r v e d  Kendall's  r  subjective by t h e  145  emotion  f o r each s u b j e c t  (relative  to the h y p o t h e t i c a l  situation)  would enhance  constitute  the phenomenological p o r t i o n of the a n a l y s i s .  Finally, VIII  h y p o t h e s e s c a n be d e r i v e d  i n t e r m s of e x a m i n i n g  mechanisms. of  various  t h e meaning o f r e s u l t s and would  jealousy  potentially  results in physical violence  and h e n c e  methodology  i s highly  I t i s evident  t h e gap between  that  recommended research  Chapter This study.  chapter  study, data  collection  The p r e s e n t a t i o n  dealing  with  with  perspectives.  were g e n e r a t e d along  with  many  the e m p i r i c a l phase of t h i s  pool,  preliminary,  t h e p u r p o s e of t h e s t u d y  theoretical  and p r a c t i c e .  the instrument,  including the p i l o t  and p r o c e d u r e s , and t h e sample  demography. only  because of i t s aim t o  and m e t h o d o l o g y were p r e s e n t e d ,  a d e s c r i p t i o n of the s u b j e c t  this  Summary  has p r e s e n t e d  The d e s i g n  i n terms  and f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f p r e l i m i n a r y problematic  bridge  section  sex d i f f e r e n c e s and c o p i n g  A g a i n R&D m e t h o d o l o g y would be u s e f u l  implementation  findings.  from  of••• r e s u l t s "  wa-s-selective-rn>  key f i n d i n g s  i n accordance  and t h e e a r l i e r  Finally,  from t h e p r e l i m i n a r y  c r i t i q u e of  s e v e r a l hypotheses f i n d i n g s were  implications f o r future  research.  that  presented  146  CHAPTER IV  PHENOMENOLOGICAL The study.  last  chapter  presented  phase.  t o the s u b j e c t i v e data  This chapter  the phenomenological Subjects'  appendices  integrating  this which  D, E a n d F) c o n s t i t u t e  responses  i n a way t h a t  inter-comparisons  frequent  t h e body  phase.  verbatim  interpretations,  thus  made  d i s c u s s e s the s u b j e c t i v e data  (contained w i t h i n appendices  and  t h e e m p i r i c a l phase of t h i s  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the o b j e c t i v e data  references  of  PHASE  are organized  facilitates  of d a t a .  reader  To o f f e r  within the  interpretation  some o f h e r own  t h e r e s e a r c h e r e x t r a c t s a few major  e l e m e n t s o r themes from  e a c h o f two main  participant  definitions  of j e a l o u s y  participant  d e s c r i p t i o n s of j e a l o u s y e x p e r i e n c e s (see  appendix D). theory  Finally,  development  discussed  are presented,  i n chapter  Participant  loss  f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h and  adding  t o those- a l r e a d y  of J e a l o u s y : A D i s c u s s i o n  definitions  of j e a l o u s y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n  Female s u b j e c t s ' r e s p o n s e s  male s u b j e c t s ' r e s p o n s e s . and  ( s e e a p p e n d i x E ) ; and  three.  Definitions  Participants' appendix E.  implications  s e c t i o n s of data:  are separated  C o n s i d e r i n g both  together,  from fear  emerge a s t h e major d e s c r i p t o r s o f t h e e m o t i o n .  147  Otherwise, betrayal;  subjects deception;  confusion; self,  envy; t r u s t  partner,  or about  i n terms of s e l f ,  rivalry;  competition  covetousness;  partner  or the r e l a t i o n s h i p ) ;  a focus  than  one o f r e s i g n a t i o n o r a c c e p t a n c e .  i s more one o f p r e v e n t i o n  apparent q u a l i t y of p r e s e r v a t i o n ,  20,  negative  evaluations  "stimulus"  (as b e i n g  the  subject's  definitions  descriptors.  products  creating)  ( c o d e s 09, 10,  i t s ongoing negative  use more  or  logical  resources"  which  theories  "there  teaching  we p l a y  this  (code  view  little  part  results in who s e e  02) and " n o t c o n t r o l l a b l e by  (code 0 3 ) .  by I z a r d  "source"  view of emotions  by s e v e r a l s u b j e c t s  i s no c u r e  of emotion  have d i r e c t  Seemingly,  expressed  as "automatic"  that  "effect",  "cause",  The t r a d i t i o n a l  of our " b e i n g "  i s evident.  hopelessness  jealousy  for  of t h i s  a l s o make  of t h e e m o t i o n  "response" or " r e a c t i o n " d e s c r i p t o r s than  in  or p r o t e c t i o n  status. Overall,  or  elemental  In s p i t e  subjects  59, 60, 64) s e e m i n g l y c o n f i r m i n g  taboo  The  possessiveness;  f i t a framework o f a n t i c i p a t e d g r i e f  with  frequent  with  the r e l a t i o n s h i p ; inadequacy  and hope o r h o p e l e s s n e s s .  that  pain;  an i n s e c u r i t y  or f e a r of c o m p e t i t i o n ;  e m o t i o n s named b r o a d l y  hurt;  or l a c k of i t ; doubt;  i n d i g n a t i o n ; anger; h o s t i l i t y ;  about  (again  name: d e s i r e ; l o v e ; c a r e ;  It i s a "sickness"  (code  60)  and no way o u t " (code  06).  The  (1971) and Solomon  (1976) t h u s  i m p l i c a t i o n f o r c o u n s e l l i n g p r a c t i c e i n terms o f  a l t e r n a t e and more complex  ways o f v i e w i n g , our  1 48  e m o t i o n s and t h e r o l e s t h e y Male d e f i n i t i o n s cognitive variety toward  locus  the external  negative  more f r e q u e n t descriptors  subject's the  internal  (codes  status  subjects  this  emotion  recognize being they  have some  a fundamental  e v o k e d by b o t h  this  liason.  i n t o the s o c i a l  above.  though  of  the  they  external factors,  t o "blame" t h e m s e l v e s f o r  by making n e g a t i v e  Again,  nature  i n terms of j e a l o u s y  and ( s o c i a l )  males) tend  of the  confirms  maintaining  Thus even  reciprocity  emotion  public.  i s an  some t h r e a t t o  This perception  insight  internal  "personalities".  general  there  an a n t i c i p a t e d d i m i n u t i o n  but i t i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  e s s e n c e o f more r e c e n t the  by  " d i s e a s e " and  i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p and/or  (and e s p e c i a l l y  their  typified  their  o f d e c e i t , b e t r a y a l o r abandonment o f  view d e s c r i b e d  experiencing  of p a t h o l o g y  explain  55, 59, 60, 64)  by t h e o b j e c t ,  that  partially  more  b o t h male and f e m a l e d e f i n i t i o n s  b o u n d a r i e s of t h e i r  negative  l o c u s and an even  f o r t h e e m o t i o n may  perception  subject  In male d e f i n i t i o n s t h e  s u c h as " s i c k n e s s " ,  Throughout apparent  t h r e a t and i n t e r p e r s o n a l l y i n f l u e n c e d  attribution  "irrationality"  w h i c h name a w i d e r  d e s c r i p t o r s and a r e d i r e c t e d more  o f a more  status  process.  s e e m i n g l y have more o f an i n t e r n a l and  of the emotion.  combination  i n our l i f e  female d e f i n i t i o n s  of emotional  qualities  the  than  play  this  a t t r i b u t i o n s to  i s evidence  that the  t h e o r i e s o f e m o t i o n has n o t r e a c h e d  Otherwise,  there  would be a  greater  149  balance  in subjective  recognizing  jealousy  for constructive  responses  i n terms of  participants  i n a. more, p o s i t i v e way  action  i n v o l v i n g on  as  their  a  motivator  primary  relationships. Comparisons across  male,  imagining the  of  female, o b j e c t i v e  a t r i a n g l e of  experiential.  In  perspective  of  'within'  or  from an  internal  focus  of  our  perspective 'without' describe  of  and how  sense t h i s of  be  the  fear  of  trust  deceived  total  viewing  speak t o  our  us  (or  or  the our  be  agent  how or  we  or  or  abandoned.  Seemingly  r a n k i n g s of  jealousy's  g r o u p were a n g e r ,  'source'  self  the  be  resentment,  or  projective the see  us  ' s o u r c e ' as  in  a  betrayal  having  of  been  the  emotions  r a g e and  to  'subjective'  in congruence, elemental  try  served.  threatened of  a from  agent  'want'  female or  a  from  attempt  others) to  'reason'  imagined, a c t u a l  or  In a  emotion w i l l  c o m b i n e d male and jealousy's  (or  and  this  to. t h e  subject).  then  self  unconsciously)  jealousy  (the  view may  the  p o s i t i o n we  by  attempt  'reason'  committment; a n d / o r a p e r c e p t i o n  'objective' the  of  ' p u r p o s e ' of  l o s s ; an  or  object  subjective,  to the  in relation  made  perceptions  p o s i t i o n we  perceived  objective  be  Seemingly,  (consciously  jealousy  Accordingly, definitions  the  the  in r e l a t i o n  experience  objective  that  subjective  the  also  subjective  i n t e r n a l focus.  In  the  and  objective,  experience  speaks to  the  our  the  the  hence we  o t h e r s ) might  order  the  jealousy.  object  t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s can  highest for  humiliation  150  (see the  table  5).  If  r e l a t i o n s h i p the  agent  know t h i s )  these  e m o t i o n s and  descriptors However,  i f anger,  n o r m a l and  or  anticipated  requires the  and  letting  deny or  the  the  i f not  resentment,  r a g e and  tests  the  accuracy  or  trust,  and  the  etc.) stage  'threat With  display  of  loss  will  rather  anger,  explains  subjective  the  'pathological'. and  humiliation  to  the  and  are  threat  seen  of  This  the  emotions thus (and  a/the  validity (the  agent  anticipated  loss  view  subjective  and  we With  subject  'objectively'  loss, felt  to  anger,  'source'  'reasonable'  in a grief reaction  the  o t h e r s ) know  loss —  his/her  of  serve  threat.  the  of  fear  does t h i s i n  or  betrayal  ways  of  given  'anticipated  loss'  or  loss'. reference,  'acceptance'  premature because with object  by  objective  accept  t h i s frame of  an  served  and  humiliation  emotions  inadequately  'purpose'.  our  yet  'subjective'  his/her  the  object  refute  'recognize'  and  t h e y make more s e n s e .  of  preserve  object  grief reactions  l o s s then  to  letting  resentment  objectively described  p u r p o s e of we  or  'irrational' rage,  is really  (e.g.,  this possibly  a combination  The  that  'purpose'  initial  'reason'  intent  seems p o o r l y  s u c h as  as  -—  jealousy's  a  emotions  would make l e s s s e n s e or them t h e  i n t e r p r e t them an t h a n as  objective  subject  as  recognition  rage, h u m i l i a t i o n  and  of  the  resentment  be  r i s k s that  a c c e p t a n c e of  the  threat. may  not  that  the potential Thus  be  the  most  151  efficient  emotions  serve  purpose during  the  i n t e r m s of the  the  ultimate  initial  goal  s t a g e of  but  they  anticipatory  grief.  for  Examining  table  humiliation  and  highest  5 once a g a i n , depression  f o r a n g e r and  rage.  can  objective  subjective.  subjective  the  'possessiveness'  55,  59,  frequently  f o u n d by  61,  70)  and  'desire',  06,  12,  09,  10,  11,  18,  male  48,  51 ,  54,  are  more-  competion'  (codes 22,  for the  female d e s c r i p t o r s of  are  descriptors"  ( c o d e s 46,  'envy'  14,  the  include  ' i n s e c u r i t y ' , 'fear again  08,  combining  Accordingly,  whereas the  highest  rankings  explanation  again  'envy'  v e r s u s c o m p e t i t i o n ) and 07,  female  d e f i n i t i o n s more f r e q u e n t l y  s u c h as 56,  while  A possible  these d i f f e r e n c e s and  be  male r a n k i n g s a r e  23,  (as  01,  03,  04,  05,  26,  29,  32,  34,  36,41). The powerful  male  i n our  social  and  society  t o assume h i s  relative  to  the  jealousy  (as a t h r e a t  one  female. to  In the  of  point  the  'subjective'  p o t e n t i a l l o s s of of  powerful  sense t h a t  position  should  instance  of  b o u n d a r i e s of humiliation  source  of  his  and  relationship) depression  be  i s moreso internal  'irrational'  in a r e l a t i v e l y  suddenly  felt  From h i s  is likewise  someone  his the  be  ownership  jealousy  'possession'.  view h i s e x p e r i e n c e  makes l i t t l e  the  more  'logically'  r i g h t s , p r i v i l e g e s and  thus o b j e c t i v e l y d i s p l a y s  because  relatively  e c o n o m i c p o s i t i o n would  more l i k e l y  he  with h i s  —  more  in a v i c t i m . r o l e  and  it  152  required his in  to  fear  l o s s and/or  possessions. the  process  In  This  of  of  necessarily  the  the  should  desire,  value  she  includes  on  the  insecurity,  to  l e v e l s of  male and  t y p e of  fear  the  be  values  on  necessary  only  behaviours  She  as  of  in chapter  (the is  power  May's  the  of  'anger'  l e v e l s of  also  and  'source'  etc.).  aggression  and  are  named above  (cf. discussion  her  dependent  subjective  others  two  c l a i m s and  relatively  descriptors  display  off  of  relationship  competition,  in chapter  female c o p i n g  her  position  blocked  power  of to  from her  be  on  Hence, her  more l i k e l y  because  perceived  places  o n g o i n g b e c a u s e of  objectively 'rage'  'reasonably'  female's p r o t e c t i o n  less powerful p o s i t i o n . jealousy  c l a i m s and  acquisition.  contrast,  portrayal  re-state  and are  thesis  comparison  three,  of  section  VIII). Females a l s o  described  behaviours a greater  (objectively)  tendency  in t h e i r  toward a g g r e s s i o n  a n t a g o n i s m w h i l e m a l e s were more l i k e l y  to  off.  offered  In  (e.g.,  this  using  indicators ways t h a t that but  sense,  that will  as  interpretation  and  w i t h d r a w or  one  f e m a l e s have a g r e a t e r preserve  the  f e m a l e ' s p u r p o s e as that  tendency  relationship)  i s more  can  possibly  'required'  by  be  more her  close  earlier  C o n s t a n t i n e ' s model t h e s e data, were seen  views the also  the  coping  as  t o behave  in  seen as  one  altruistic  social  status. In  contrast,  when t h e  male's p o s i t i o n  i s threatened  he  1 53  will  be more l i k e l y  than  loss  by w i t h d r a w i n g  and  depression. relatively this  less  impending  imminent  or  Alternatively, than  which  his).  In  i f her  than  display  a  and  priori the  of a c c e p t a n c e may  i s not  relationship  becomes one  jealousy  f o r b o t h m a l e s and  of  e l e m e n t a l emotions are  further  and  in their  their  be  grief.  objective  experimental  Jealousy Experiences: A  Participants'  most extreme e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h  responses  i n appendix  'speak  extrapolates  than  emerges This ratings  descriptions  d i s c u s s e d below.  Participants'  are d e p i c t e d  of  as  females  e x p e r i e n c e of a n t i c i p a t o r y  evident in subject's d e f i n i t i o n s ,  one  of more power  summary,  in  or ending i t  t h e m a l e ' s n o n - a c t i o n may  is  loss  jealousy  'finally'  action.  an  of  be more e f f e c t i v e  female's  and  loss  'threatened'.  as t h e  as a d i s p l a y  which  an  the  i n him  powerful.)' f e m a l e ' s  of t h e  c a s e her p o s i t i o n  t o evoke  simply  intention  the boundaries  sense,  managing  the  and  t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e of  is actual  less  himself to  humiliation  of a t h r e a t  (dependent,  In t h i s  effective  rather  objective  behaviour  sabataging (in  an  to resign  approaches  the t h r e a t  recognition  the  female  emotion,  that  evoking  displaying  powerful  confirmation  reversing  female  From h i s p e r s p e c t i v e  'irrational'  rather  the  D  (item  for themselves'.  some o f t h e major  28). The  Discussion  These  verbatim  discussion  themes t h a t  jealousy  to  follow  seem e v i d e n t t o  154  the  researcher.  items  29 a n d 30 i n t h e same Again  and  Very  often  appendix.  are central  f o r both males  'fear  of l o s s ' i s  name t h e p a r t i c u l a r  The most d i s t i n c t  loss  that  i s a naming o f a ' l o s s o f  ( c o d e s 08, 11, 30, 34, 40, 44, 60, 66, 71, 7 3 ) .  Sometimes  this  loss  of t r u s t  t h e p a r t n e r ' s sex ( c o d e s  overall, ability definitions,  to trust  i s generalized  (codes  these responses  11, 40", i t e m 3'07.  reveal  to relationship  object  h a s b e t r a y e d an assumed  been d e c e i t f u l  t o a l l members  34 a n d 66) o r t o t h e s u b j e c t ' s  threat  has  themes  a generalized  and many r e s p o n s e s  anticipated.  trust'  of  l o s s and f e a r  females.  described is  R e f e r e n c e s a r e a l s o made t o r e s p o n s e s f o r  an a p p a r e n t  As i n t h e  or p e r c e i v e d  b o u n d a r i e s and a s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e or e s t a b l i s h e d  committment o r  or d i s h o n e s t .  F e m a l e s a l s o d e s c r i b e many o t h e r t y p e s o f a n t i c i p a t e d loss  including:  loss  of c o n f i d e n c e i n s e l f  as a woman  (code  attention,  intimacy, interest,  relationship respect (code  (codes  for self  34); loss  freedom  (code  Few sexual  01, 13, e t c . ) ;  or o b j e c t  time or l o s s  (codes  affection,  of the  21, 2 4 ) ; l o s s  with another  mention  their  l o s s of of c o n t r o l 2 6 ) ; l o s s of  (code .42).  name t h e p a r t n e r ' s  as the primary  to re-directed  that  (code  of a p p r e c i a t i o n  responses e x p l i c i t l y  a l t h o u g h many do a l l u d e few e x p l i c i t y  of l o v e ,  of f r i e n d s h i p w i t h agent  involvement  g e n e r a l l y or  25, 27, 31, 36, 37, e t c . ) ;  3 8 ) ; and l o s s  female  loss  —  threat  sexual attention..  jealousy  emanated more  A from  1 55  the  potential  partner's itself.  of e m o t i o n a l  infidelity The h i g h  specificity losses  loss  than  level  and  and f e a r s  those  as  well  as her d i s t i n c t  Males or  loss  frequently  of sexual  understanding, 48,  60,  As  they  than  their  fear  the a c t u a l  t h e many  findings  i n c h a p t e r two, greater  i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p  of s o c i a l i z a t i o n . loss  (codes status  of l o v e r  o r sex p a r t n e r  46, 50, 5 8 ) ; l o s s o f o r hoped  of p a r t n e r ' s  loyalty  or i t s s t a b i l i t y  of p a r t n e r ' s  f o r status  (code 4 8 ) ;  (codes  interest,  (codes  49, 50, 58,  attention  or  ( c o d e s 63, 65, 70, 71, 72, 7 3 ) ; a n d l o s s o f  friendship  with agent  (code 7 0 ) .  in their definitions  name o r i m p l y jealousy.  67,  understood  61, 64, 6 9 ) ; l o s s  intimacy  as  fidelity  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p  with  involvement  describe  indeed  the female's  process  55, 57, 67, 6 9 ) ; l o s s  loss  sample have named  were d i s c u s s e d  d e p e n d e n c e on and e m o t i o r i a l  and t h e  relationships  discussed  by t h e i r  knowledge o f t h e a c t  that  i s congruent  that  that  further  to their  This  interpretations  implied  of s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e  indicates  of f i d e l i t y .  especially  from t h e i r  w i t h w h i c h women i n t h i s  more t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s loss  intimacy  elemental responses.  males  'envy' o r u s e i t i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y  They do n o t d i s t i n g u i s h  c l e a r l y a s do f e m a l e s 68).  of j e a l o u s y ,  Again,  their  (codes  with  between t h e two e m o t i o n s  51, 53, 54, 56, 57, 59, 62,  responses generally  emotions and a r e l e s s  frequently  disclosing  They seem more r e s i g n e d  name  fewer  than  female  to or a c c e p t i n g  of the  1 56  threat their 65,  o f l o s s and more feelings  inclined  t o withdraw and/or  and t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e  (codes  67, 68, 7 0 ) . A few m a l e s m e n t i o n  recall  T h i s may be t h e c a s e  likely  remember Our jealousy  than  females  occurrences society  by e i t h e r  stereotype. expression  either  don't  relatively  of t h i s  emotion.  emotion  t o r e p r e s s t h e e x p e r i e n c e and  (even  more t h a n  women) i n o r d e r t o  a s s o c i a t i o n s with emotional  rare experiences  with  this  dependence,  Their claims to 'irrational'  ascribed to the i n s t i n c t u a l  cognitive control itself  t h e acknowledgement o f  b e c a u s e o f t h e ' j e a l o u s woman'  envy and p o s s e s s i v e n e s s .  are congruously  manifest  taboo  sex and i t may be even more d i f f i c u l t f o r  of j e a l o u s y  i t snegative  with  t o r e c o g n i z e , acknowledge or  Men may t e n d  femininity,  their  that they  o r i t may be t h a t t h e y a r e  does n o t f a c i l i t a t e  men t o c l a i m t h i s  avoid  56, 58, 61, 64,  o r have had 'no', 'few' o r ' o n l y one' e x p e r i e n c e  jealousy. less  avoid  emotion  o r f o r c e s beyond  ( c f . code 72 " j e a l o u s y d i d n o t  t o the person  i n v o l v e d " a n d many o f t h e male  def i n i t i o n s ) . Males  in this  sample who name t h e i r  c o n t r i b u t e more t h a n and  30 i n a p p e n d i x D a n d i t e m  appendix F. by  other males  code  socialization with  i n responding  123, ' o t h e r  For instance, responses  48 d e m o n s t r a t e  jealousy.  process  emotions  t o items  t o each of these  t h a t was m o t i v a t e d  29  insights' in  the s u b j e c t ' s i n s i g h t  In c o n t r a s t , code  also  into  items  t h e male  by h i s e x p e r i e n c e s  56 d e m o n s t r a t e s ( i n  157  responses to between  items  j e a l o u s y and  norms of  the  negative  jealousy  final  most  experiences  of  loss  are  is poignantly  the  experience.  The  and  that  idea  e a c h new  she  that  communication  and  29,  appendix D).  named as  the  significant  or  Sometimes  this  with  a motivator  the  i n code  02  Sometimes s u b j e c t s  by  she  i s evident  or  report  that  ultimately resulted in stronger, r e l a t i o n s h i p s (codes  19,  29,  33,  negative the  28,  effects  erosion  of  are  trust  31,  resolution  42,  many and  61,  the  A  subject's  re-activates new  65,  for  the  extreme  more 04,  73).  of  responses  their  intimate 08,  11,  15,  Likewise,  most p o i g n a n t  a s s o c i a t e d with  u n d e r s t o o d committments.  way.  re-evaluation  i n many of  defined  27,  the  n o t e s her  or more c l e a r l y 22,  but  characteristics  experience  f o r review  to  experiences  of  is a positive trigger  boundaries  29.  f o r both p a r t i e s  on".  relationship item  one  Positively,  "moved  Many  i n a much more n e g a t i v e  jealousy  jealousy  experiences  item  described  of how  the  and  most e x t r e m e  relationship.  affiliation  with  societies.  both p o s i t i v e  their to  distinction  affiliation  in western  report  i s viewed  description  insight  a l a c k of  a c o n s t r u c t i v e step  i t s effect  earlier  123)  male r o l e  for ending a  Jealousy's  and  a strong  i n t e r m s of  i s seen as  often  envy and  ( c f . responses  trigger  ending  30  many s u b j e c t s  effects  times these  29,  traditional  Overall,  with  28,  b e t r a y a l of  is  (again)  assumed  or  l a c k of c o n s t r u c t i v e or p o s i t i v e  p e r v a d e s many r e s p o n s e s and  is typified  i n code  158  06  by t h e s u b j e c t ' s  feeling  that  demonstrate subjects  responses  the broad  will  share  t o item  characterized abnormal,  i n response  negative,  contributed elemental  constructive, positive, and many  causes,  t o a very  i s evident  r e s p o n s e s and from  Solutions  and r e s o l u t i o n s  broad c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n  their  willing  of  jealousy.  Research of s u b j e c t s '  of s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e t h a t  The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f f e r e d as a m o t i v a t i o n  they  the-ir  by t h e  for further  discourse. understandings gained  data  yet  unrefined  the  continuing  terminology  level  they  b u t keen t o s e l f - e x p l o r e a b o u t  were p r e s e n t e d  broad  subjective  for Further  from t h e g e n e r o s i t y  experiences.  theoretical  other  e f f e c t s and'  A l l r e s p o n s e s a r e u n i q u e and t o g e t h e r  researcher  question.  Different s o c i o - c u l t u r a l insights are  and many and v a r i o u s  were n o t o n l y  that  i s variously  destructive, pathological  Implications  The  understandings  jealousy  e m o t i o n s a r e named.  contribute  jealousy  F) e f f e c t i v e l y  t o an open-ended  as normal, h e a l t h y ,  categorizations.  It  t o hate myself f o r  123 ( a p p e n d i x  and v a r i o u s  these generous responses  abound.  "I l e a r n e d  jealous".  Finally,  In  claim  i n d i c a t e t h e need  conceptualization  will  allow  the  t o r e m a i n open t o t h e a s  of j e a l o u s y .  use o f a d e f i n i t i o n a l  that  by r e v i e w i n g  They  support  " f o r m " and a b r o a d  for flexibility  i n terms of  159  incorporating  jealousy  i n t o an o v e r a l l framework  f o r human  emotions. The needs  d e f i n i t i o n presented  by g i v i n g  synergistic It are  grounds  the concept  development the emotion  dynamic,  a form t h a t  of s u b j e c t i v e  further  network.  and s o c i a l l y  development  as w e l l  of a  are  implied  of p e r c e p t i o n  as  discussed subjects of  data  of d i r e c t i o n s  major  The  p r e v i o u s phase  research  For instance,  presented  i n an open leading  with (as  groups of  forum  generation  t o a more  t o a more d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e of  themes and e l e m e n t a l i n t h i s phase  of t h i s study  and/or  emotions. as w e l l  indicate a central  a  definitions  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of j e a l o u s y  d e f i n i t i o n and/or  interpretations  i n terms of t h e  of j e a l o u s y  H a v i n g been  be i n c o r p o r a t e d  experiental  networks  for future  of the r e s e a r c h .  and a q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s  convergent  allows  structure  triangular  positions  above), i n d i v i d u a l s , couples, could  form a l s o  jealousy.  i s indicated.  triangular conceptual  which  intrapersonally  of other  more d e t a i l e d q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s  the  ideas.  r o l e s and i n t e r a c t i o n and  of  a number  by t h i s phase  and e x p e r i e n c e s  for a  and o b j e c t i v e  into a tetrahedral  subjective-objective-experiental  Accordingly,  allow  these  cognitive-behavioural-emotional  f o r the a n a l y s i s  s u c h as s u b j e c t ^ o b j e c t - a g e n t  individuals  will  The t r i a n g u l a r  I t c a n be expanded  thus a l l o w i n g  one meets  i n human needs and e x p e r i e n c e  d e t e r m i n e d and i n f l u e n c e d . for  i n chapter  as the need  for a  160  qualitative different by May  analysis  t y p e s and  (1972) and  Price  and  (involving  an  attend"  jealousy's relationship  levels  of power  Barrell  might  be  approach  useful  investigators  ( e . g . , from  as o b j e c t , and  as  those  s.ug,ge_sted two.  (1980) d e s c r i b e a r e s e a r c h p a r a d i g m quantitative  research.  " q u e s t i o n and  of t h e i r  different  as a g e n t )  with  i n such  would  (p.75) t o a v a r i e t y  jealousy  such  with  d i s c u s s e d at l e n g t h i n chapter  experiental  methods) t h a t methodology,  of  role  own  Using  this  passively  experiences  positions —  with  as s u b j e c t ,  and  d e s c r i b e t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e c o n t e x t of p l a c i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n s i t u a t i o n s or r e l i v i n g p a s t s i t u a t i o n s . T h e . e x p e r i e n c e s a r e t h e n d e s c r i b e d i n t e r m s of how t h e y e x p e r i e n c e t h e phenomenon [ i n t h i s i n s t a n c e t h e i r power] r a t h e r t h a n i n t e r m s of t h e t a r g e t of t h e i r a t t e n t i o n or t h e s t i m u l u s c o n d i t i o n s ( p . 7 6 ) . Analysis definitional necessary  seemingly  be  that  types  variously of power  (1972).  in satisfactory  or  these  some of  important  to  as  i n the the  A l s o , the  eventuates  levels  generate  about  elements  (p.76).  to  the  f o r the  These  would  i n i n s t a n c e s of j e a l o u s y  result  such  used  "statements  competitive, nutrient  by May  i s then  experiental  quite different  manipulative, suggested  sufficient  which are  of a g i v e n phenomenon"  experiences different  hypotheses  and  occurrence  of t h e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s  exploitative, and  integrative  types  jealousy process  resolution  of power  s h a r i n g of  may  that  move t h r o u g h a l l  s h a r i n g and  hence  incorporate subject-investigators  who  i t may  be  report a  161  range o f a d e q u a t e - i n a d e q u a t e Price  and B a r r e l l  qualitative be  analysis  used t o g e n e r a t e  "statements about elements" in  The  authors  suggest  fear  subjects  using  be u s e d  them  research.  to test  research  t o examine t h e many o t h e r such as j e a l o u s y  as w e l l  t o te"st  relationships  and f e a r  as j e a l o u s y  methodology  of l o s s or  and s y n e r g y .  sample o f c o u p l e s c o u l d  and d i f f e r e n c e s  outcomes f o r j e a l o u s y l e v e l s of synergy  be u s e d t o  demonstrate  i n terms of c o p i n g  experiences  For  given  or s e l f - a s s e s s e d  mechanisms  different  self-  types of l o s s  t h e i r meaning. Equally  jealousy data  questionnaires  h y p o t h e s e s and t o q u a n t i t a t i v e l y  similarities  and  phase of t h e  of the above-described  of c o m p e t i t i o n  assessed  tested  hypotheses.  example, a h e t e r o g e n e o u s  and  experiental  who a r e n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h  the q u a n t i t a t i v e  by t h i s s t u d y  generate  can a l s o  h y p o t h e s e s and r a t i o - s c a l i n g t e c h n i q u e s  Variations  implied  t h e above  Both types of hypotheses a r e then  this constitutes  also  that  f u n c t i o n a l hypotheses which a r e  and  could  suggest  of e x p e r i e n t i a l d e s c r i p t i o n s  experiments using  functional  (1980) f u r t h e r  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  (p.76).  definitional  resolutions.  relevant  and t r u s t .  i n t h i s study  i s t h e need  for further  The q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s indicates  that  extreme  e x p e r i e n c e s have e s p e c i a l l y n e g a t i v e when t h e y  involve  a perceived  study of of  subjective  jealousy  or d e s t r u c t i v e  or a c t u a l  betrayal  outcomes  of t r u s t or  162  committment  that  some s u b j e c t s involving  i s based  report  sexual  conceptualization re-evaluation and  for their  research  However,  experiences  were u l t i m a t e l y  positive for  relationships.  This  to further  of j e a l o u s y  incorporate  indicates a the broader  ( a s a t r i g g e r f o r change o r  of r e l a t i o n s h i p b o u n d a r i e s )  into  quantitative  q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f s o c i o - c u l t u r a l and o t h e r  factors  that  r e s u l t i n these  Development further  trust held  of j e a l o u s y  the r e c i p r o c a l r o l e s  possibility that value  may s e r v e  that  jealousy  outcome theory  polarities. a l s o needs t o c o n s i d e r  i n our c u l t u r e and t h e  i s sometimes p r o v o k e d  i s ultimately  or e x c l u s i v e l y based  on monogamy.  In t h i s  Thus, by p r o v o k i n g  unconsciously) through a c t i o n s contrary  process  instance,  to test a  in a  rigidly  the value  t o the expectations  (altruistically  jealousy contrary  (consciously or to this  v a l u e and  b a s e d on i t , t h e o b j e c t  o r o t h e r w i s e ) a s a change a g e n t .  anywhere  Depending  c r e a t i v e or h i g h l y  d e s t r u c t i v e or  i n between.  A c r e a t i v e outcome t h r o u g h e f f e c t i v e n e g o t i a t i o n ( f o r example) t h a t  value and  acts  how t h e d y n a m i c s a r e managed by a l l c o n c e r n e d , t h e  outcomes c a n be h i g h l y  be  itself  a l e s s t h a n u s e f u l p u r p o s e and i t may be g r o w t h -  inhibiting.  on  on monogamy.  outcomes o f j e a l o u s y  infidelity  themselves and/or need f o r f u t u r e  that  i n a value  the subject  b u t does so l e s s r i g i d l y ;  new o r e x p a n d e d b a s e s  continues  respect  might  to hold the  i s re-established  f o r t r u s t a r e formed.  163  In  contrast,  d y n a m i c s , may  and  those d e s c r i b e d  denial  ruminations,  by  empirical  the  study  norm of  the  indicates  seemingly i n our  the  t h e i r combination combined a n a l y s i s  that  men  and  a common is  'reasons' 'purpose'  expressed  validation  of  a p p r o a c h e d by grounded  i n the  later  practice.  and  like  of  the  ways.  is  b o t h p h a s e s of their  shared  for the  be  this  jealousy i n terms  awareness  but  of  somewhat  i t s occurrence,  humanely  evidence  that  t o human e x p e r i e n c e  via  yet  that  clarification most  of  their  relationship)  Further will  and  recommended.  emotion  of  Because  infidelity  interpreted  phenomenological applied  other.  p r o c e s s of  'sources'  and  phenomenological  have a  (preservation  seeking  cycles,  i n the  of  t h i s was  these d i f f e r e n c e s  i n and  counselling  f o r or  in d i f f e r i n g  An  their  partner  women d e f i n e  Seemingly, they  phenomenological aspect  differing  rare  society,  c u l t u r a l phenomena  socialization.  i n one  remorse  e x p e r i e n c e s d i f f e r e n t l y and differing  f e e l i n g s and  destructive  furtiveness  r a g e , mania and  Finally, study  and  for destructiveness.  jealous of  different  (1979) — r - u n t r u t h f u l n e s s ,  Seeman  outcomes a r e  approaching  of  perpetuation  surreptitiousnous  creative  same s i t u a t i o n , g i v e n  have e q u a l p o t e n t i a l  example would be provocation  the  is  and  1 64  Chapter This of  this  chapter  study.  participants  has p r e s e n t e d  The s u b j e c t i v e  were p r e s e n t e d  discussed.  Researcher  motivation  for further  emphasized  that  within  the  Finally,  development previous  p h a s e were  of t h i s  by  phase  b u t i t was  is  contained  r e s o n s e s and i n t h e i r  d a t a and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  integrated  for future  were d i s c u s s e d  chapters.  contributed  theoretical discource  Objective  implications  data  phase  ( i n a p p e n d i c e s D, E and F) and  p a r t i c i p a n t s ' verbatim  empirical  the phenomenological  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were o f f e r e d a s  the essence  interpretations.  Summary  own from  i n t o the d i s c u s s i o n .  research  at length,  and  again  theory  integrating  1 65  CHAPTER V  IMPLICATIONS FOR  The the  definition  subsequent  study  conceptualization Implications discussed from the the  of  and  f i n d i n g s of  body of The  or  findings.  research  three this  and  theory  four.  s t u d y and  core  threat needs.  a  which  from an  of  were  derived  i n t e g r a t i o n of  jealousy  involves  threat  l o s s and trust  sees  i t as  a  dynamic  and in a context  to both p e r s o n a l  or a c t u a l b r e a c h of  and  development  They were  It occurs  This  f e a r of  one  earlier.  conceptualization  perceived  m a i n l y as  perceived  and  among c o g n i t i v e , b e h a v i o u r a l  interpersonal subject  in chapter  many p r e l i m i n a r y  p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l components. actual  presented  broader  human e x p e r i e n c e  interaction  PRACTICE  have r e s u l t e d i n a  knowledge r e v i e w e d  broader  triangular  jealousy  for future  in chapters  COUNSELLING  of  and  i s experienced  often  involves  or committment  by  the  a by  the  object. Jealousy sum  of  i s a d i s c r e t e emotion,  i t s elemental  emotions.  interactional  process  people  p e o p l e and  or  activity  two  or m a t e r i a l  s o m e t h i n g more t h a n  It i s a  w h i c h e f f e c t s and some o t h e r  possession.  a  social, i s e f f e c t e d by  agent  s u c h as  It i s variously  an  three  166  interpreted and  and v a r i o u s l y  the s o c i a l  expressed  by i n d i v i d u a l s , c o u p l e s  groups t o which t h e y belong —  many f a c t o r s  including  assumptions,  norms, v a l u e s and t h e r u l e s  boundaries This  f o r t h e i r primary chapter  practice. gained  their particular  discusses  They emanate  from t h e r e v i e w  implications  t h e y make about t h e  for counselling  from a c o n s o l i d a t i o n of three  critique.of perspectives  the  d i s c i p l i n e s of a n t h r o p o l o g y , the data,  beliefs,  relationships.  the  psychology;  d e p e n d i n g on  of i n s i g h t s  main t h e o r i e s  and r e s e a r c h  of emotion;  on j e a l o u s y  sociology,  p s y c h i a t r y and  f i n d i n g s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of both  p h a s e s o f t h e s t u d y ; and from t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s experience.  First,  they a r e f o l l o w e d principles  general  considerations  by a t h r e e - s e c t i o n  and s p e c i f i c  individuals,  from  are discussed  presentation  interventions  for counselling  clinical and  of  for counselling  c o u p l e s and f o r c o u n s e l l i n g  groups. The of  author  assumes t h a t ,  her suggestions w i l l  counsellor's for  his/her  jealousy out.  assessment  c l i e n t ( s ) given She f u r t h e r  experience with  i s strong jealousy  and c o n s u l t a t i o n  application  by t h e i n d i v i d u a l of t h e i r  suitability  t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r and unique assumes t h a t  a s a symptom of o r g a n i c  I f there  referral  be p r e c e d e d  professional  circumstances.  in a l l instances,  evidence  the p o s s i b i l i t y of  dysfunction that  h a s been  the c l i e n t ' s  i s b a s e d on d e l u s i o n a l should  ruled  be s o u g h t  material,  promptly.  167  Physical out  violence,  s u i c i d e and h o m i c i d e  i f circumstances  to him/herself  or  suggest  for  primary  love,  other  role  as w e l l  When  involves fears  The his/her  the c l i e n t  also  c l i e n t ( s ) recognize emotions which  and o t h e r l o s s or  the c o u n s e l l o r ' s  i d e n t i f y and p r i o r i z e losses.  and'express  jealousy's  many  seem t o be r e l a t e d t o v a r i o u s grief reaction.  Fear  been b e t r a y e d  and/or  fear  o r abandoned  5  subjective  communicate a n g e r ,  with  and  t o b e the'most' s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms- o f t h e '  individual's  other  sexual  the a n t i c i p a t e d things,  needs  needs t o be aware a n d t o h e l p  l o s s and f e e l i n g s o f h a v i n g  appear  social  i n r e l a t i o n to these a n t i c i p a t e d  s t a g e s o f an a n t i c i p a t o r y  emotions.  rage,  potentially useful  status,  Objectively,  resentment, h u m i l i a t i o n i n connecting  his/her  he/she may a n d / o r many  emotions  i n a m e a n i n g f u l and p o s i t i v e way  movement t o w a r d  However,  experience.  Guidance  the experience  foster and  occurs  Among o t h e r  helping  counsellor  elemental  of  as economic,  jealousy  a r e complex.  his/her  Considerations  r e l a t i o n s h i p meets many and v a r i o u s  intimacies,  losses  t h e c l i e n t , may be a d a n g e r  i n t e r e s t , a f f e c t i o n , time, a t t e n t i o n ,  securities.  be r u l e d  others.  General The  that  should also  in light  recognition  of j e a l o u s y  will  as a v a l i d  emotion. of j e a l o u s y ' s  alternative perspectives  n e g a t i v e and/or  are frequently  taboo  warranted.  168  Accordingly, as  the c l i e n t ( s )  a motivator  that  or t r i g g e r  traditional  and  replaced  for potentially  'jealous person'  by t h e d y n a m i c ,  have been d i s c u s s e d labels  label  in this  t o negate  should  "loyal",  be b a l a n c e d  "passionate", involves  with  These  context  practice couples  be  work.  emotional  "adaptive",  experience  or " p r o t e c t i v e " .  i s s u e s of competition,  skills  that  more p o s i t i v e l a b e l s s u c h  power and  freedom,  and e x p e c t a t i o n s .  of n e g o t i a t i o n  discouraged  Pejorative  i s s u e s need t o be o p e n l y  beliefs  Use o f  perspectives  r i g h t s and  discussed  o f ' r e l a t i o n s h i p ' a n d i n terms o f  assumptions,  jealousy  for experiencing  power-sharing, c o n t r o l , cooperation, privileges.  should  their  t o "blame" t h e m s e l v e s o r o t h e r s  Jealousy  the  t o view  creative action  interactional  at length  u s e d by c l i e n t s  jealousy) as  be h e l p e d  may have p o s i t i v e outcomes f o r a l l i n v o l v e d . .  the  (or  should  will  and g r o u p s who seek harmony  within  individual  D e m o n s t r a t i o n and  facilitate in their  individuals,  intimate  relat ionships. Jealousy  a l s o fundamentally  i n v o l v e s a need f o r  maintenance,  r e - e v a l u a t i o n a n d / o r change o f r e l a t i o n s h i p  boundaries.  This  discussion other  intimacies  f o r e a r l y a n d open  o f c o u n s e l l o r and c l i e n t  r e l a t i o n s h i p arrangements.  committment  their  i m p l i e s a need  should should  biases  Other  a l s o be d i s c u s s e d . be d i s c u s s e d  meaning and v a l u e  a b o u t monogamy o r  bases  f o r t r u s t and  Emotional  and compared  and s e x u a l  i n terms of  f o r e a c h member and f o r t h e d y a d .  169  The of  counsellor will the couple  facilitating potential The  s e p a r a t i n g and s h o u l d this  process  unless  'source'  f o r the emotion  a central  promoting  goal  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  agent;  and  by: i n d i v i u a l the ongoing  stages  milieu;  individual,  negotiation  will  of the s u b j e c t ' s  of t h e o b j e c t ' s e x p e r i e n c e and i n v o l v e m e n t  v i sa  i n evoking  remember t h a t b e h a v i o u r s  will  process  among s u b j e c t , o b j e c t and  type  couple  grief  reaction;  and p e r c e i v e d potency  and s o c i e t a l  t o i n c l u d e the agent  be c o n s i d e r e d . in this  circumstance(s);  be  p e r c e p t i o n of the j e a l o u s y  levels  of  cultural of synergy  factors.  A decision may  understanding  of the a n t i c i p a t o r y  many o t h e r  process  emotions) as  the jealousy process.  subcultural  threat;  The ' r e a s o n ' o r  by i t s v a r i o u s " e x p r e s s i o n s  behaviours  c o u n s e l l o r should  experience;  of p h y s i c a l  The same means and g o a l a r e recommended f o r  maintaining  ^effected  and  f o r mutual  g e n e r a l l y be  i t s characteristics  (and i t s e l e m e n t a l  served  h i s / h e r emotions,  The  should  i s evidence  dangerous behaviour.  as t h e 'purpose'  experience.  or  g r o w t h - i n h i b i t i n g outcomes.  there  or other  vis  i n a way t h a t m i n i m i z e s t h e  w i t h i n t h e framework o f l o s s ,  violence  be  be s k i l l e d i n  subject's jealousy behaviours  i t s process  well  need t o be open t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  for destructive,  normalized and  also  regard  In t h i s  i n the t h e r a p e u t i c author's  v i e w , any  should c o n s i d e r the p a r t i c u l a r  t h e w i s h e s o f s u b j e c t , o b j e c t and  agent;  1 70  and  the c o u n s e l l o r ' s  decision require  sections  most  of t h i s chapter  that  present  will  i n each  sections.  client-counsellor  Choice  of  suggestions  of s e t t i n g  three  specific counselling.  modification  i s assumed t o be a  Individuals the c l i e n t - c o u n s e l l o r  an a d e q u a t e o r b e t t e r  self-understanding  the c l i e n t  l e v e l of  has been g u i d e d i n a t which a  goal  i s s u i t a b l y pursued ( c f .  1975, p . 3 6 ) .  1. H e l p t h e c l i e n t dispositional  transcend  labels.  humans a s dynamic jealousy don't of  into  applicable to  p r o c e s s of s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n t o a p o i n t  Egan,  2.  some  are also  below assume t h a t  t r u s t and h e n c e , t h a t  dynamic  will  decision..  r e l a t i o n s h i p has reached  the  and w i t h  section  Counselling  shared  i s divided  f o r i n d i v i d u a l , c o u p l e and g r o u p  statements  subsequent  t h e agent  p r i n c i p l e s and a few  these p r i n c i p l e s overlap  The  If a positive  and d i s c r e t i o n .  remainder  interventions Often  judgement.  i s made, t h e means f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g sensitivity  The  professional  Instead,  and c h a n g i n g  present  t o use a perspective  and a p e r s p e c t i v e  as a s o c i a l - i n t e r a c t i o n a l p r o c e s s  experience  an i m p o r t a n t  Give  the tendency  jealousy  jealousy  in isolation  of  (e.g.,  "We  but i n the c o n t e x t  and v a l u e d r e l a t i o n s h i p " ) .  a valid  unique e x p e r i e n c e .  context  within  H e l p him/her  of  the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  to recognize  that  171  j e a l o u s y may e x i s t perceived  threat  pyschological differing jealousy  to his/her  well-being.  socio-cultural i n varying  expression values,  a s a sound  judgement  p h y s i c a l , emotional Remember t h a t  situational  contexts about  and t h e a s s u m p t i o n s  or  clients  backgrounds w i l l  of i t i s a statement  beliefs  of a r e a l or  with  experience and t h e i r  their  they  norms,  make a b o u t  their  intimate r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 3.  Proceed  from a r e a s  experiences threat.  (e.g.,  to areas  childhood  of; g r e a t e r  recent  the jealousy  and most  or current  process  and r e l a t e  to anticipatory loss.  refine  s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n i n an o n g o i n g  r e c o g n i t i o n of the elemental  jealousy  emotions  way t o in his/her  experience.  Help the c l i e n t messages" t h a t in  threat  use p a s t ,  to describe  4. Promote c l i e n t  5.  jealousy)  Accordingly,  . experiences it  with  of l e a s t  name s p e c i f i c he/she w i l l  open a n d d i r e c t  f e a r s and p r a c t i c e " I -  be a b l e  ways w i t h i n  t o u s e t o communicate  the context  of h i s / h e r  intimate r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 6. E v e n t u a l l y destructive justify 7.  Guide  introduce  a perspective  behaviours  over  "blaming" o u r s e l v e s  the c l i e n t  that  c h o i c e of  c o n s t r u c t i v e ones d o e s n o t for experiencing  i n the process  values,  a s s u m p t i o n s and b e l i e f s  current  intimate  of e x p l o r i n g  jealousy. needs,  i n t e r m s o f h i s p a s t and  relationships, especially  with  respect  1 72  to boundaries. security, 8.  Help  What a r e h i s / h e r r e q u i r e m e n t s  shared  the c l i e n t  to c l a r i f y  what b e h a v i o u r s and 9.  m u t u a l i t y and  context and  of  the c l i e n t ' s  needs t h a t u n e r l i e  expressed. practice  t o be  opposite-sex  E n c o u r a g e e x p l o r a t i o n s of  skills  acceptable  (for self  persons.  experience. those  of  i n terms o f  jealousy's goal within  the  Examine t h e  t h a t a r e more  Accordingly, explore  the  intimacy?  his/her limits  are considered  for partner) with  emotional  for  wants  superficially  the p r i n c i p l e s  and  r e s o l u t i o n - s e e k i n g through  effective negotiation. 10.  Promote open d i s c u s s i o n of n e e d s f o r a t t e n t i o n , interest, within  l o v e , time,  the c o n t e x t  of  e t c . from  p a r t n e r and  realistic  e x p e c t a t i o n s as  expressed  examine  them  versus  demands. 11. O p e n l y  d i s c u s s the  jealousy  i n our  resultant  culture  barriers  d i s c u s s i o n s and 12.  i s s u e of  to  and  ways f o r o v e r c o m i n g  throughout  in maintaining c l i e n t  subject  and  assume new require of  their  author's  their  without  mutual  'losing  insight  current experience preference  (cf. previous the  i n the  ways i n w h i c h c l i e n t  roles  the  paper).  i n t e r m s of p a r t n e r ' s p o s s i b l e  investment —  d i s a p p r o v a l of  i t s communication  suggestions  Explore p o s s i b i l i t i e s  social  for couples  the  of  partner  face'.  into and  and  role  This  jealous can  will  reciprocal  r o l e s and or g r o u p  hence  nature this  therapy.  1 73  However, t h e r e w i l l other  partner  counsellor  13.  responses and  triangle  that  of and s e n s i t i v e  i s , nevertheless,  t o name h i s / h e r p a r t i c u l a r during  parallel  conditioned tendency  feelings it'  response,  of c o n t r o l "  control  breath,  responses drinking other  a cold  develop,  behavioural  Distinguish  their  about the  r a t h e r than  the c l i e n t  i n which he/she i n which these  managed. and o t h e r  g l a s s of water very  a tendency  noting  and p h y s i c a l 'being  important  in talking felt  a  "loss  occurrences  Suggest  cues t o h e l p  physiological  (e.g., abdominal b r e a t h i n g  As i n s i g h t s  included  support  ways  cues are e s p e c i a l l y  expresses  Talk  that i s  theory.  experiences  heartbeat  Distinguish  and b e h a v i o u r  the emotion  be more s a t i s f a c t o r i l y  and e n c o u r a g e  jealousy.  territoriality  and s u g g e s t  created.  and our s o c i e t y ,  (1976)  to the  physiological  'automatic'.  t o t h e above,  emotional  with  behaviour  by o u r f a m i l i e s  a s p e r Solomon's  about  of  instinctual  as accompanying  In r e l a t i o n  may  experiences  t o be e q u a l l y  fight/flight  15.  be c o g n i z a n t  and a c c o r d i n g l y , t h e  A d d r e s s the i s s u e of the ' j e a l o u s f l a s h ' the c l i e n t  14.  i n w h i c h one o r t h e  refuses to p a r t i c i p a t e  should  therapeutic  be i n s t a n c e s  techniques slowly).  and/or  T h e s e and  f o r the c l i e n t  who  toward p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e . guide  options  the c l i e n t  for jealousy  i n an e x p l o r a t i o n  experiences.  e a c h o f t h e f o u r main b e h a v i o u r a l  in Constantine's  (1976) model  types  (isolational,  174  antagonistic, evaluate  redefinitional  progress,  compare  terms o f t h e c l i e n t ' s  techniques  exchanges with  partner.  for a)  • -  about  b)  love  effectively  Use r o l e - p l a y i n g verbal  intervention  include:  and j e a l o u s y .  I t i s written  o f a h u s b a n d and' h i s s e c o n d  demonstrates  i n the j e a l o u s y  'object'  outcomes i n  (1965) "Atmosphere o f L o v e " w h i c h i s  t h e two v i e w p o i n t s  shifts  To  to practice constructive  S u g g e s t i o n s might  Andre Maurois'  It  various  may be u s e f u l a s a s p e c i f i c  some c l i e n t s .  a novel  their  own e x p e r i e n c e .  or e m p t y - c h a i r  Bibliotherapy  and r e s o l u t i o n a l ) .  role  triangle  wife'.  r e c i p r o c i t y and as ' s u b j e c t '  becomes  i n a new r e l a t i o n s h i p .  A.M. Dahms'  "Emotional  Requirement  f o r S u r v i v a l " which t a l k s about the  skills  implied  perspective  social  I n t i m a c y : An O v e r l o o k e d  i n the t i t l e  on i n t i m a c y  constructive the  from  and p r o v i d e s  a  a s a committment t o  human r e l a t i o n s h i p s a t a l l l e v e l s o f  system.  This  book  is practical  and n o t  sent imental. c)  Robbe-Grillet's French version experiential  (1957) " J e a l o u s y "  (or the o r i g i n a l  "La J a l o u s i e " ) p r o v i d e s  perspective  characters —  a  on t h e e m o t i o n .  has  three  the  presumed l o v e r .  and  the s t r u c t u r e of the novel  very The s t o r y  t h e h u s b a n d , t h e w i f e and  It i s narrated  by t h e husband  has t h e r e a d e r  i n an  175  'absent-I" of  the  position.  narrator  'experience' time d u r i n g the  poignantly  of  visual  through  the  scenes  into a  the  of  few  The  days space  ever-present  of  lives  The  reader  'missing  bit  narrator's  i n v o l v i n g h i s wife  his  content  jealousy.  detail.  because the  complete  justify  mental  o b s e r v e s and  in great  blind's or  f o r the to  subject  i s extremely  slatted  necessary  plot  information' of  i s the  narrator  aware o f  lover  allowing  i s the  which the  is  description  text  i s compacted  e v e n t s of  presumed  who  The  and  d e t a i l e d but  her  h i s view  ' j a l o u s i e s ' thus  never  information  would  suspicions  that  of  is  be  her  infidelity.  Counselling The are  suggestions-  searching  I f , on  the and  outlines  structured  separation. a hope of on  helping  decision;  other will  strategies.  Her  them g e t a plan that  a  For  i s that  i n the  sense t h a t  be  hand, to  Lynch at  most c o u p l e s  they are  involved;  different  (1982) the  point  separate  interview making t h e  a w a r e n e s s of a  is  incorporate  Her  couple  their  for couples  an  the  separation  instance,  future.  for proceeding; will  improve  need  interview  premise  reconnecting  difficulties  the  counsellor  principles a  s e c t i o n assume t h a t  f o r ways t o mend or  relationship. imminent,  in this  Couples  feeling  of  with focuses right  the  that  not a l l  176  is  d e s t r o y e d ; and a s e n s e Most  o f t h e s u g g e s t i o n s under  also applicable  be  below.  universally  comprehensive  be n e c e s s a r y .  Finally, applied  and t h i s  treatment  plan.  therapy.  therapist  To e f f e c t  will  need  decision  that  i n the couple of c o n t r o l  therapist  therapy.  One way t o p r e v e n t  the  therapist  role  each  p a r t n e r and u n t i l  exchanges b r i e f . discussions unless or  only a f t e r  necessary.  i n terms o f  collusion  i s t o agree t o h a s been i s s u e d  i n telephone  o f p r o b l e m s w i t h one o r t h e o t h e r  i n which case Otherwise,  requires the i n i t i a l  of p h y s i c a l  crisis  clarify  to requests  p o i n t , keep v e r b a l  Do n o t p a r t i c i p a t e  there are indicators  homicide  system the  respond  the request  that  initiation  needs t o make an a  how h e / s h e w i l l  for  by  a r e not  i s n o t i n t e n d e d as a  i s " s e t up" by  the balance  about  although  Hence, t h e y  section  change  the. p r o c e s s and so e a c h priori  setting,  none o f t h e s u g g e s t i o n s below c a n  1. Be aware o f t h e t r i a n g l e of  f o r growth.  t h e s e c t i o n s above a r e  i n the couples-therapy  some m o d i f i c a t i o n s may repeated  of the p o t e n t i a l  violence,  suicide  intervention i s  that  and o n g o i n g  partner  lasting  change  involvement  of b o t h  partners. 2. A v o i d p o l a r i z i n g person' couple by  the couple  and a ' h o n - j e a l o u s as a system  and e f f e c t i n g  by w o r k i n g person'.  with a 'jealous  I n s t e a d , view t h e  and t h e j e a l o u s y a s a p r o c e s s c r e a t e d  that  system  and i t s members.  1 77  3. I f one o r t h e o t h e r pathology that  to their  contributes  member o f t h e c o u p l e partner,  confront  efforts  in this  sessions  i twill  be i m p o r t a n t  to avoid  process  to s t r u c t u r e the process  During  f o r the l i s t e n i n g  (e.g.,  Accordingly,  a better  that  person  "As p a r t  t o speak w i t h  each  t i m e i t i s v e r y .t o be i n v o l v e d b u t  to f a c i l i t a t e  understanding  of the  a t a common  demonstrate a t t e n d i n g  explain active listening gaining  to affirm  E s p e c i a l l y i n the e a r l y  o f t h e p r o b l e m , I am g o i n g  silent.").  in  w i t h i n the  both of you t o a r r i v e  of y o u f o r 10 m i n u t e s . important  regard.  three-way exchanges  of helping  description  and  on ' s e l f '  a s an i s s u e , of the p r o c e s s .  o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p and remember  positive  and  this  to the d e s t r u c t i v e part  •4. E n c o u r a g e e a c h member t o work context  assigns  behaviours  the l i s t e n e r  of h i s / h e r  partner's  perspective. 5. A s s e s s what to therapy  e a c h member a n d t h e c o u p l e i n terms o f i n v o l v e m e n t  professionals; and  family  importantly, loss'  previous  current  unresolved  social  intimacy  f o r by t h e c o u p l e  in this  6. A c c o r d i n g l y ,  and o t h e r  brings  helping family  marriages or circles;  losses.  may be an i n d i c a t o r t h a t  been g r i e v e d  other  h i s t o r y and s t r u c t u r e of c u r r e n t  of o r i g i n ;  relationships;  with  as a u n i t  a n d most  Jealousy a previous  as a ' f e a r of l o s s has n o t  a s a u n i t , hence  blocking  areas.  the essence of therapy  may be i n r e d e f i n i n g  178  t h e p r o b l e m a s a common need  f o r intimacy.  Introduce the  perspective  t h a t t h e o l d p r o b l e m s may be f a i l e d o r  ineffective  attempts  because  at solution.  They d i d n ' t work  t h e p r o b l e m was n o t c l e a r l y  d e f i n e d i n the f i r s t  place. 7. As soon a s p o s s i b l e , naming a common g o a l behavioural this  of  f o r therapy  i n the p r o c e s s of  and i n naming t h e  g o a l h a s been a t t a i n e d .  therapy  a s a need  Often  f o r more and b e t t e r  a beginning  therapy  When t h i s  i s a negotiable  9. Speak t o h e a l t h y , p o s i t i v e and  affirm  this  s i g n s t h a t they  point  good/bad,  i s reached  issue.  aspects  of t h e i r  relationship  a r e making c o n n e c t i o n s  right/wrong  each p a r t n e r ' s tendency and o t h e r  black/white  Provide  a p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t each person's  his/her  own a n d i s a v a l i d  one f o r h i m / h e r .  them t o examine t h e i r  jealousy process  11. H e l p  toward t h e  with  aspect.  If present, discourage  patterns  and c y c l e s such  as those  (1979) a n d d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . to  intimacy.  a n d an end by naming t h e number  t h a t h a s been named.  further  that  t h e g o a l c a n be  s e s s i o n s t h a t w i l l be d e d i c a t e d t o w o r k i n g  goal  10.  the couple  changes t h a t w i l l s e r v e as i n d i c a t o r s  encapsulated 8. G i v e  guide  demonstrate  future  these  patterns visually  r e f e r e n c e when p l a n n i n g  polarities.  reality is  suggested  A flip  t o use  i n terms of by Seeman  c h a r t may be u s e f u l and t o use f o r  or e v a l u a t i n g a c t i o n -  179  oriented 12.  Inject to  sex  humor i n t o  laugh  13. D e f i n e of  changes.  about  the couple  some o f t h e i r  'affairs'  intimacy'.  by t h e i r  'source'  may  which they 14.  Dialogue  i n v o l v e both should  openly  excitement,  about  shared  between  serves a similar  15.  Introduce Solicit  accept want"  affairs  t o name. of intimacy  such as  sex, the a b i l i t y  e t c . Draw a 'common  purpose' t o show how  are i n d i r e c t  each  attempts  for intimacy. as a grounding  from  i n a vague  feelings  e a c h member  f o r intimacy. when h e / s h e s t a t e s  way.  t h a t may come a l o n g  client  w i t h making " I -  statements. develop  face their  in m a i n t a i n i n g levels  The j e a l o u s y  i n separate  g o a l and how b o t h  'fear  another  between wants and needs and h e l p e a c h  guilt  17. As i n s i g h t s to  partners  j e a l o u s y and t h e a f f a i r  specificity  16. D i s t i n g u i s h  activities.  various aspects  some r i t u a l s  wants o r needs  c a n be w i t h  h o p e s , dreams, good  t o meet m u t u a l needs  i s often a  a committment t o  e a c h be e n c o u r a g e d  to g r i e v e together, parallel  which  a therapist,  work, c a r e e r , s p o r t s o r o t h e r  them  issues.  P o i n t out t h a t a f f a i r s  partner, a friend,  process  s y s t e m by e n c o u r a g i n g  and t h e c o u p l e  i s s u e s and a c k n o w l e d g e t h e i r  mutual  the j e a l o u s y process, demonstrate  of s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e  by....").  are i n c r e a s i n g l y  (e.g.,  Explore e f f e c t i v e  able  roles higher  "I t r y t o c o n t r o l y o u  ways of s h a r i n g power  in  its  180  positive  sense  of b e i n g  "with  the other  person"  (May,  1972, p . 1 0 9 ) . 18.  G e n e r a l l y use and t e a c h a r e s e a r c h a p p r o a c h by f r e q u e n t l y encouraging  p e r c e p t i o n checks;  curiousity;  s h a r i n g e v a l u a t i o n s o f what  and  what  i s not working  appreciations about  promoting  so w e l l ;  of therapy.  i s working  with  e a c h o t h e r and  The t h e r a p i s t  what h e / s h e h a s l e a r n e d d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s person 19.  and. from  the couple  Power".  ways o f s t r i v i n g  relationships. previous  couples and  section  considerations. consideration  nature;  will  f o r b i b l i o t h e r a p y under  Groups  by t h i s  present  The s u g g e s t i o n s  things, publicity  should c l e a r l y  jealousy;  o f power a n d  author  (West, 1983)  o n l y a few m a j o r assume  i n c l u s i o n or  of previous s e c t i o n s .  1. Among o t h e r jealousy  Side  program' d e s i g n - f o r g r o u p c o u n s e l l i n g o f  i s p r o v i d e d elsewhere  so t h i s  each  are a l s o a p p l i c a b l e here.  Counselling A comprehensive  name  f o r power p a r i t y i n  The s u g g e s t i o n s  section  from  C. S t e i n e r ' s "The O t h e r  T h i s book d i s c u s s e s t h e n a t u r e  cooperative  should  a s a u n i t . •.,.  For b i b l i o t h e r a p y , . suggest of  well  a n d by s h a r i n g  and d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s  the process  shared  emphasize  exemplify  state  about  the o b j e c t i v e s ;  i t suniversal  mutuality  g r o u p s t h a t work  with  define  and i n t e r a c t i o n a l  i n t h e j e a l o u s y p r o c e s s ; and  181  specify 2.  criteria  Pre-screening reasons  applicants  liason  For  for participation;  the. d e v e l o p m e n t  example,  meeting  of group  the lead'er(s) can i n t r o d u c e  its  philosophies  and g o a l s  added p r e p a r a t i o n .  and m e e t i n g itself  f e a r s about  need t o be  Reading m a t e r i a l s  some  c a n be made by presented  d e s c r i p t i o n o f j e a l o u s y and  freedom, p r i v i l e g e  the t o p i c  Hence,  group experience  and  expectations;  introductory discussion  interviews  because  most p e o p l e .  in  and b r i e f  rights,  The p r e - s e s s i o n important  interest  and a b r i e f ,  n e e d s , wants,  with  objectives  and i n t r o d u c t o r y c o n c e p t s c a n be  a definition  process  a b o u t c o u n s e l l i n g and a b o u t  and compared  statements about  about  and p o w e r ) .  are especially  implies c o n f l i c t to  what w i l l  happen  i n the  discussed.  and homework s h o u l d Topics  be  themselves, the  l e a r n e r s ; members c a n g e t a c q u a i n t e d ;  participants;  a s a way of  development.  adult  be r e v i e w e d  an  of s e l e c t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s s h o u l d  and.their  (e.g.,  r e f e r r a l of  of t r u s t .  t o enhance t h e e a r l y s t a g e s  early  5.  s e l e c t i o n of  topic  can  4.  preparation  partners.  be. e s s e n t i a l f o r many  between members and t h e l e a d e r  A pre-session held  will  of both  n o t s u i t a b l e f o r t h e g r o u p ; and t o p r o v i d e  facilitating 3.  interviews  i n c l u d i n g needs a s s e s s m e n t ;  participants;  early  f o r the involvement  might  be c o n s i d e r e d  include  those  as  mentioned  #3 above a s w e l l a s an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s skills  o f n e g o t i a t i o n a s f o r example, T e s s i n a and  182  Smith's 6.  (1980) "How  G r o u p numbers w i l l the t r i a n g u l a r inclusion members need  an  important  nature  of  j e a l o u s y and  f o r m u l t i p l e s of the  and  Still  be  Free".  c o n s i d e r a t i o n given hence the  probable  three people.  suggested  t h r e e and  in order  Twelve  t o meet  to approximate  as  Corey  this closely  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s of g r o u p t h e o r i s t s  such  (1977).  B e c a u s e of t h e n a t u r e structuring  and  be  (6 c o u p l e s ) a r e  as C o r e y  a Couple  of e x e r c i s e s i n v o l v i n g  as p o s s i b l e  7.  t o be  of t h e  of t h e g r o u p ,  a man/woman team) w i l l  topic  and  the  "couples"  c o - l e a d e r s h i p (e.g., o p t i m a l l y ,  best  facilitate  process  and  dynamics. 8.  I s s u e s of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y ; disclose;  and  s e s s i o n s and is  topic.  much and  o t h e r g u i d e l i n e s s h o u l d be reinforced  especially  how  important  Group p r o c e s s  i n an  ongoing  when t o taught  way.  be  in early  Again,  b e c a u s e of the n a t u r e  should also  self-  taught  of  this  the  to  part ic ipants. 9.  E x e r c i s e s and discussed  in t h i s  specifics, 10.  theory w i l l  please  For b i b l i o t h e r a p y reade  and  generally involve  previous sections.  see West  For  analyze  sex  roles  in a closing  s e s s i o n , subgroups c o u l d  analysis,  i t i n t e r m s of h i s t o r i c a l  i n western  more  (1983).  p o r t i o n s of C o u r t i n ' s (1684) t r e a t i s e  and  concepts  society.  versus  Following  t h e whole g r o u p c o u l d be  on  jealousy  contemporary  subgroup  reassembled for  a  183  discussion  o f what  jealousy  meant  means v i s a v i s male and f e m a l e  Chapter This practice  chapter that  on  jealousy  It  was d i v i d e d  discussed sections  discussed  were d e r i v e d  four  some g e n e r a l included  counselling  Summary  implications from  main  i t now  roles.  the broad  and from t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s into  t h e n v e r s u s what  base o f t h i s  clinical  sections.  considerations  for counselling  experience.  The f i r s t  and t h e n e x t  p r i n c i p l e s and s p e c i f i c  study  section three  interventions for  i n d i v i d u a l s , c o u p l e s and g r o u p s .  184  THESIS This  s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o r e - e x p l o r e  conceptualization phenomenological objective  of j e a l o u s y . approaches.  the phenomenological  on  the basis  in  o f major  phase  e a c h phase phase  In the e m p i r i c a l  phase  descriptive  subjective  descriptors,  statistics.  d a t a were a n a l y z e d  elements  and themes i n  The  interpretations  were s u p p o r t e d by d a t a and f i n d i n g s  from t h e  and by t h e c o n c e p t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s g a i n e d  review of t h r e e t h e o r i e s  conventional disciplines  and b r o a d e n t h e  e m p i r i c a l and  v e r b a t i m responses of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  other a  I t used  d a t a were a n a l y z e d u s i n g  In  the  SUMMARY  and r e s e a r c h  of emotion literature  and a c r i t i q u e on j e a l o u s y  of a n t h r o p o l o g y , s o c i o l o g y ,  from  of the  from t h e  psychiatry,  and •  psychology. Three housing jealousy  hundred  adults  from a u n i v e r s i t y  student-family  complex were s u r v e y e d u s i n g an a d a p t e d v e r s i o n i n s t r u m e n t by A r o n s o n  and P i n e s  (1982).  f e m a l e and 28 male r e s p o n d e n t s d e f i n e d  jealousy  words; d e s c r i b e d  most  and i n t e r p r e t e d  experiences with jealousy  their  and r e s p o n d e d  Forty-fivein their  own  extreme  (on a  one-to-seven  scale) to objective  item s u b t e s t s measuring  prevalence;  and e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s ; g e n e r a l  phyical  of a  jealousy  r e a c t i o n s and c o p i n g mechanisms. Quantitative preliminary  and q u a l i t a t i v e  findings.  analyses resulted  Among them were: a p p a r e n t  i n many  therapeutic  185  effects  of the instrument;  objective  subtests;  sex d i f f e r e n c e s  i n e a c h of t h e  and q u a l i t a t i v e s i m i l a r i t i e s and  differences  among i n d i v i d u a l s a n d between t h e s e x e s i n  participant  defintions,  in  their  interpretations.  descriptions subjective .variety  of l o s s e s  highest  The  subtest,  female  larger  t h a n d i d men.  and d e p r e s s i o n  i n four  research  appeared as  and s p e c i f i c  These  conceptualization  and b o t h p h a s e s  The f i r s t  and t h e n e x t  also  practice section  f o r future were  discussed  sections  presented  for counselling  c o u p l e s and f o r c o u n s e l l i n g generally  promote a b r o a d e r  a n d more p o s i t i v e and g r o w t h f u l  experiences.  on  several  suggestions  three  interventions  implications  were  were e x p l a i n e d  t o generate  f o rcounselling  f o rcounselling  rankings  influences.  and s p e c i f i c  sections.  considerations  jealousy  f o r women t h e s e  p h a s e was u s e d  many g e n e r a l  individuals,  for  experiences  and c u l t u r a l  Implications  principles  groups.  while  f o r future  contributed  presented  subjective  emotions than  Many o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s  empirical  hypotheses  general  in their  of s o c i a l  research.  male  and women named a much  f o r men, h u m i l i a t i o n  anger and rage. basis  For instance,  o f ranked' mean response's t o t h e ' e m o t i o n a l  reactions'  the  e x p e r i e n t i a l a c c o u n t s and  named fewer e l e m e n t a l  descriptions  Objectively, the  in their  outcomes  186  References Adler,  A. and  Adler,  A. 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Psychiatry,  1979,  42,  192  S e i d e n b e r g , R. F i d e l i t y and j e a l o u s y : S o c i o - c u l t u r a l considerations. P s y c h o a n a l y t i c Review, 1967, 54, 583-608. S h e t t e l - N e u b e r , J . , B r y s o n , J.B., & Young, L . E . Physical a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of t h e ' o t h e r p e r s o n ' and j e a l o u s y . P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y B u l l e t i n , 1978, _4, 612-615. Shostrum, E. P e r s o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n i n v e n t o r y (2nd e d . ) . D i e g o , C a l i f : E d u c a t i o n a l and I n d u s t r i a l T e s t i n g Service, 1974. S o k o l o f f , B. Howell  Jealousy, a psychiatric Soskin, 1947.  study.  New  Solomon, R.C. The p a s s i o n s . Garden C i t y , Academic Press/Doubleday, 1976".  New  S t e i n e r , C. The o t h e r P r e s s , 1981.  York:  side  of power.  New  San  York:  York: Grove  T e i s m a n n , M.W. Jealousy: S y s t e m a t i c p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g therapy with couples. F a m i l y P r e s s , 1979, 18(2) , 151-160. T e i s m a n n , M.W., couples.  & Mosher, D.L. Jealous c o n f l i c t in dating P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e p o r t s , 1978, 42, 1211-1216.  T e s s i n a , T.B., & S m i t h , R. How t o be a c o u p l e and s t i l l free. North Hollywood, C a l i f o r n i a : Newcastle Publishing, 1980.  be  T h o r n d i k e , R.L., & Hagan, E . Measurement and e v a l u a t i o n i n p s y c h o l o g y a n d - e d u c a t i o n ( 3 r d edv) . New- Y o r k : John W i l e y & Sons, 1969. Tipton,  R.M., B e n e d i c t s o n , C.S., Mahoney, J . , & H a r t n e t t , J.J. D e v e l o p m e n t of a s c a l e f o r t h e a s s e s s m e n t of jealousy. P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e p o r t s , 1978, 42, 12171218.  Todd, J . & D e w h u r s t , K. The O t h e l l o syndrome: A s t u d y i n t h e p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y of s e x u a l j e a l o u s y . J o u r n a l of N e r v o u s & M e n t a l D i s o r d e r s , 1955, 122, 367-374. Turbott, J . M o r b i d j e a l o u s y : An u n u s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h t h e r e c i p r o c a l a p p e a r a n c e of p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y i n e i t h e r spouse. A u s t r a l i a n and New Z e a l a n d J o u r n a l of P s y c h i a t r y , 1981, J_5, 164-167.  193  W e b s t e r ' s T h i r d New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y of t h e E n g l i s h Language. S p r i n g f i e l d , Mass.: G. & C. M e r r i a m , 1976. West, M.B. W o r k i n g w i t h j e a l o u s y : A g r o u p workshop couples. Unpublished manuscript, U n i v e r s i t y B r i t i s h Columbia-, V a n c o u v e r , Canada, 1983.  for of  W h i t e , G.L. The s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y of r o m a n t i c j e a l o u s y ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , A n g e l e s , 1976). Dissertation Abstracts I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1977, 3 7 ( 1 0 - B ) , 5449-5450. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 77-7700) W h i t e , G.L. I n d u c i n g j e a l o u s y : A power p e r s p e c t i v e . P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y B u l l e t i n , 1980, 222-227. W h i t e , G.L. SOme c o r r e l a t e s of r o m a n t i c j e a l o u s y . . o f P e r s o n a l i t y , June 1981 a, 4 9 ( 2 ) , 129-147.  Los  6,  Journal  W h i t e , G.L. Chronic jealousy s c a l e . Unpublished scale, U n i v e r s i t y of M a r y l a n d , C o l l e g e P a r k , 1981b. W h i t e , G.L. Relationship jealousy scale. Unpublished s c a l e , U n i v e r s i t y of M a r y l a n d , C o l l e g e P a r k , 1981c. Wylie,  R.C. The s e l f - c o n c e p t . Nebraska Press, 1961.  Lincoln: University  of  Wy1ie, R.C. The s e l f - c o n c e p t : A r e v i e w of m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s (2nd r e v i s e d ed.). L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y of N e b r a s k a P r e s s , 1974. Ziman, E.A. Jealousy in c h i l d r e n : A guide Y o r k : A. A. Wyn , 1949'.  for parents.  New  APPENDIX A Jealousy  Inventory  195  Jealousy Circle you. A.  the  number a d j a c e n t  Background  Inventory*  to the  response  that a p p l i e s to  Information  1.  Sex:  1 male  2.  Age:  years  3.  Education: Last  grade completed  4.  Other  5.  Occupation:  6.  Are  you  currently  7.  Country  of b i r t h :  Country  or c o u n t r i e s i n w h i c h you  training  2  female  in school  (please specify)  a student:  1 Yes  2  No  . " were  raised  O t h e r c o u n t r i e s or c u l t u r e s i n w h i c h you l i v e d or p a r t i c i p a t e d t o an e x t e n t w h i c h has s i g n i f i c a n t l y e f f e c t e d your g r o w t h a n d / o r v a l u e s y s t e m s 8.  Race:  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  Caucasian Negroid Oriental Canadian Indian East Indian Other (please* s p e c i f y )  9.  Religion:  1. 2. 3. 4. 6. 7. 8. 9.  None ( a t h e i s t ) Protestant Catholic Jewish Moslem Hindu Sikh Other ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y )  Siblings: 10.  Number of o l d e r  brothers  * A d a p t e d from t h e S e x u a l and E l l i o t A r o n s o n .  Jealousy  Inventory  by  Ayala  Pines  196  11. 12. 13. 14.  Number Number Number I am a  15.  Number o f p e o p l e  16.  P l e a s e s p e c i f y t h e i r a g e s a n d sex ( i . e . , 10 y e a r 15 y e a r f e m a l e , e t c . ) Do n o t i n c l u d e y o u r s e l f .  17.  Present  18.  My c u r r e n t f a m i l y ( i . e . , best d e s c r i b e d a s : 1. 2. 3. 4.  B.  Jealousy  of o l d e r s i s t e r s of younger b r o t h e r s o f younger s i s t e r s twin: 1 Yes living  2 No  i n household  including  yourself male,  m a r i t a l / r e l a t i o n s h i p status; 1. S i n g l e 2. D i v o r c e d 3. Separated 4. Widowed 5. Partnered 6. Cohabi t ing 7. R e m a r r i e d 8. M a r r i e d 9. O t h e r ( p l e a s e not your  family  Two-parent f a m i l y Single parent family Blended family ( c h i l d r e n i n f a m i l y more m a r r i a g e s ) Other (please s p e c i f y )  of o r i g i n ) i s  from two o r  Prevalence  19.  Do y o u c o n s i d e r  20.  How  jealous  1 not a t a l l jealous  y o u r s e l f ' a.- j e a l o u s -person-?"  a r e you a t t h i s 2  3  time 4  i n your 5  How j e a l o u s were y o u i n p r e v i o u s p e r i o d s ( P l e a s e use t h e above s c a l e f o r a l l f o u r 21.  During  childhood:  22.  During  adolescence:  23.  During  young a d u l t h o o d :  1 Ye s -2 No ;  3i  life? 6  7 extremely jealous  i n your l i f e ? periods.)  1 97  24.  During  adulthood:  25.  Have any of y o u r i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s of y o u r j e a l o u s y ? 1 none  26.  2  3  Do most p e o p l e person? 1 definitely not  27.  ;  Do p e o p l e jealous?  who  4 several know you  2  you  1 definitely not'  3  5  3  6  because  7 a l l of them  w e l l c o n s i d e r you  4 moderately jealous  have b e e n • i n t i m a t e 2  ended  4 moderately jealous  5  6  a jealous 7 definitely yes  with consider 5  6  7 definitely yes  28.  P l e a s e d e s c r i b e the s i t u a t i o n t h a t produced e x t r e m e e x p e r i e n c e of j e a l o u s y .  29.  What p o s i t i v e a n d / o r n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e have on you and on r e l a t i o n s h i p involved?  30.  D e s c r i b e - - a s i t u a t i o n t h a t w o u l d ( f o r you a n d - a t t i m e i n y o u r l i f e ) r e s u l t i n a s i m i l a r or more e x t r e m e e x p e r i e n c e of j e a l o u s y .  C.  Reactions  to  effects did the primary  you  your  most  this  this  Jealousy  R e c a l l i n g y o u r most e x t r e m e e x p e r i e n c e of j e a l o u s y , t o what e x t e n t d i d you e x p e r i e n c e e a c h one of t h e f o l l o w i n g p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s . P l e a s e use t h e f o l l o w i n g s c a l e t o describe a l l items. not  1 at a l l  2  3 to a  4 "moderate" degree  5  6  7 very intensely  1 98  Physical 31 . 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41 . 42. 43.  89.  74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81 . 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88.  qr i e f helplessness v u l n e r a b i 1 i ty blame resentment self-riqhteous excluded passion hopelessness annoyance emotional exhaustion excitement entrapment low s e l f - i m a q e self-knowledge  Reactions  rage humiliation self-pity confusion pain possessiveness inferiority f r u s t r a t ion f e a r of l o s s envy anger aqqression anxiety depression gui I t  General  54. 55. 56. 57. 58.  sexually aroused dizzy appetite loss t r e m b l i n g hands fast heartbeat insomnia blood rushinq sweaty exhausted t u n n e l (or t e l e s c o p e d ) vi sion blurred vision double v i s i o n sounds seem i n t e n s i f i e d sounds seem d u l l e r sounds a r e d i s t o r t e d  44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51 . 52. 53.  hot headachy shakey stomach empty breath short insomnia energized cold faintness nausea stomach cramps niqhtmares a b o u t t o have a nervous breakdown  Emotional 59. 60. 61 . 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71 . 72. 73.  Reactions  Reactions  R e c a l l i n g your most e x t r e m e e x p e r i e n c e l o n g d i d the e x p e r i e n c e l a s t ? 1 seconds  2 minutes  3 hours  4 days  5 weeks  of  jealousy,  6 months  7 years  how  199  90.  How  often  1  2  never 91.  once  1 poorly  1 at a l l not  95.  2  3 your  2  How  often  2  6  occas.  often  usually  with  being  do you e x p e r i e n c e  5  6  7 very  5  mild  7 a very s e r i o u s one  6  7 definitely yes  jealous?  jealousy?  2  3  4  5  6  never  once  rarely  occas.  often  usually  3  Do y o u c o n s i d e r y o u r t o be an a p p r o p r i a t e 1 definitely not  2  i s a normal  4 somewhat own j e a l o u s y reaction?  3  well  6  1  Do y o u t h i n k t h a t j e a l o u s y certain situations?  always  a problem?  4 moderately so stop  7  the extreme s i t u a t i o n  3 4 5 to a c e r t a i n degree  1 2 definitely not 96.  5  jealousy 3  jealousy?  4  4 average  Can y o u make y o u r s e l f 1 definitely not  94.  rarely  Do y o u c o n s i d e r not  93.  3  extreme  Do y o u t h i n k you c o p e d w e l l you described? very  92.  do you e x p e r i e n c e  4 somewhat  5  7 always  response i n 6  7 definitely yes  i n extreme s i t u a t i o n s 5  6  7 definitely yes  200  Coping with  Jealousy  How do you cope w i t h j e a l o u s y ? s c a l e for a l l items:  Please  use  the  following  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  never  once  rarely  occas.  often  usually  97. r a t i o n a l d i s c u s s i o n 98. a c c e p t a n c e 99. s t o n y s i l e n c e 100. s a r c a s m 101. a v o i d i n g t h e i s s u e 102. s u f f e r s i l e n t l y but v i s i b l y 103. c r y i n g 104. f i n d i n g t h e funny s i d e 105. c l i n g i n g __. 106. b e s e e c h i n g " 107. i s o l a t i o n _____ 108. s c r e a m i n g . 109. t h r o w i n g t h i n g s 1 TO. d e n i a l 112. r e t a l i a t i n g - making p a r t n e r j e a l o u s 113. l e a v i n g p a r t n e r 114. s u f f e r s i l e n t l y and c o v e r t l y 115. p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e 116. ' making a j o k e of i t 117. n e g o t i a t i o n 118. a r g u i n g 119. w i t h d r a w a l 120. u s i n g t h e o c c a s i o n f o r t h i n k i n g t h r o u g h my r o l e s i t u a t i o n and what i t i s I s t a n d / f e a r t o l o s e Other  (please  specify)  121.  How  would you  define  122.  Using not  123.  your  own  1 at a l l  2  in  the  jealousy?  definition, 3  always  how  4 moderately  jealous are 5  6  you? 7 extremely  O t h e r i n s i g h t s / t h o u g h t s / e x p e r i e n c e s I have had w i t h / a b o u t j e a l o u s y and w i t h t o s h a r e a t t h i s t i m e . D i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l , r e l i g i o u s , l i n g u i s t i c or any o t h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s w i l l be g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . I f , for example, you a r e aware of a few or s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t words f o r j e a l o u s y i n o t h e r l a n g u a g e s p l e a s e p r e s e n t them and e x p l a i n t h e i r d i s t i n c t i o n .  APPENDIX B Request  for Participation  i n Study  202  Participation  needed i n j e a l o u s y s t u d y by M a s t e r s Counselling Psychology  student  in  We a l l have e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h j e a l o u s y d u r i n g our lives. T h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s can have b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s f o r o u r s e l v e s and our r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l t h o u g h none of us a r e exempt from t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s , s e e m i n g l y few p e o p l e d i s c u s s them o p e n l y . The p u r p o s e of t h i s s t u d y i s t o e n l a r g e upon t h e t h e o r y a b o u t j e a l o u s y and t o p r o v i d e c o u n s e l l o r s w i t h ways i n w h i c h t h e y w i l l be a b l e t o a s s i s t i n d i v i d u a l s , c o u p l e s and f a m i l i e s t o use t h e i r j e a l o u s y e x p e r i e n c e s i n m e a n i n g f u l , c o n s t r u c t i v e ways. To p a r t i c i p a t e you must be between t h e a g e s of 20-60 years. D u r i n g t h e coming week a l a r g e brown u n s e a l e d e n v e l o p e c o n t a i n i n g t h e j e a l o u s y q u e s t i o n n a i r e and i n s t r u c t i o n s h e e t w i l l be d i s t r i b u t e d v i a y o u r m a i l s l o t . I f you c h o o s e t o c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t w i l l be assumed t h a t y o u r c o n s e n t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i s g i v e n . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l r e q u i r e a maximum of 30 m i n u t e s of your t i m e and most p e o p l e w i l l be a b l e t o answer i t much more . quickly. You a r e r e q u e s t e d t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n p r i v a c y and w i t h o u t d i s c u s s i o n or c o n s u l t a t i o n . You a r e , of c o u r s e , f r e e t o withdraw a t any t i m e or r e f u s e t o answer any questions without p r e j u d i c e . S h o u l d you c h o o s e t o p a r t i c i p a t e p l e a s e p l a c e t h e c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e back i n t h e e n v e l o p e , s e a l i t and r e t u r n i t t o t h e MELFA COURT a d d r e s s on t h e o u t s i d e of t h e e n v e l o p e , or i f you l i v e i n t h e HIGHRISE, p l e a s e p l a c e t h e s e a l e d e n v e l o p e t h r o u g h t h e i n s i d e m a i l s l o t on t h e main floor. P e o p l e who w i s h t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e but not d e l i v e r i t may c a l l t h e number below and i t w i l l be p i c k e d up. R e t u r n of unanswered q u e s t i o n n a i r e s by t h e same p r o c e d u r e ( e x c e p t t h e y s h o u l d r e m a i n u n s e a l e d ) would be g r e a t l y appreciated?. The r e s e a r c h e r w i l l c o l l e c t l a r g e numbers of t h e e n v e l o p e s and s h u f f l e them p r i o r t o o p e n i n g . Your i d e n t i t y w i l l r e m a i n a b s o l u t e l y anonymous. P l e a s e do not p l a c e y o u r name or a d d r e s s anywhere on t h e e n v e l o p e or q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A l l i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d must r e m a i n c o n f i d e n t i a l . Return d e a d l i n e i s J u l y 5, 1983. At t h e c o m p l e t i o n of t h e s t u d y a f r e e w o r k s h o p w i l l be g i v e n , w i t h d a t e , t i m e and l o c a t i o n t o be a n n o u n c e d i n t h e newsletter. The s t u d y f i n d i n g s w i l l be s h a r e d and q u e s t i o n s w i l l be a n s w e r e d . For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , p l e a s e 224-7015.  call  M a r i e t t e West a t  203  APPENDIX C Cover L e t t e r  for  Inventory  204  Dear  Occupant,  E n c l o s e d p l e a s e f i n d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t i s p a r t of a study about j e a l o u s y e x p e r i e n c e s . The s t u d y i s f o r my MA t h e s i s in Counselling Psychology. The p u r p o s e of the s t u d y i s t o e n l a r g e upon the t h e o r y a b o u t j e a l o u s y and t o p r o v i d e c o u n s e l l o r s w i t h ways i n w h i c h t h e y w i l l be a b l e t o a s s i s t p e o p l e t o use t h e i r j e a l o u s y e x p e r i e n c e s i n more c o n s t r u c t i v e ways. We a l l have e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h j e a l o u s y d u r i n g our lives. These e x p e r i e n c e s can have b o t h p o s i t i v e and negative e f f e c t s f o r o u r s e l v e s and our r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l t h o u g h none of us a r e exempt from t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s s e e m i n g l y few p e o p l e c l a i m . o r d i s c u s s them o p e n l y . To  p a r t i c i p a t e in t h i s 1. You must be years.  study:  between  the  ages' of" 20  and  60  2.  I f you c h o o s e t o p a r t i c i p a t e , y o u r c o n s e n t be assumed by c o m p l e t i o n and r e t u r n of t h e questionnaire.  will  3.  You a r e r e q u e s t e d t o answer the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n p r i v a c y and w i t h o u t c o n s u l t a t i o n o r d i s c u s s i o n . • A p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 m i n u t e s o f y o u r t i m e w i l l be r e q u i r e d , a l t h o u g h some w i l l be a b l e t o c o m p l e t e i t much more q u i c k l y .  4.  Your i d e n t i t y w i l l r e m a i n a b s o l u t e l y anonymous and a l l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l r e m a i n c o n f i d e n t i a l . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i l l be number c o d e d f o r p u r p o s e s of d a t a h a n d l i n g and a n a l y s i s . Please do not put your' name- or a d d r e s s anywhere on' the e n v e l o p e or q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  5.  The c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h o u l d be p l a c e d back i n t h e e n v e l o p e , s e a l e d and r e t u r n e d t o t h e M e l f a C o u r t a d d r e s s on the o u t s i d e , or t o t h e i n s i d e m a i l s l o t of t h e f a m i l y h o u s i n g o f f i c e on t h e main f l o o r of the h i g h r i s e . H o u s e h o l d s who w i s h t o r e t u r n unanswered q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , or who would l i k e e x t r a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o r o t h e r members or who would, p r e f e r p i c k - u p r a t h e r t h a n d e l i v e r y of a n s w e r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s may c a l l t h e number b e l o w .  6.  You a r e , of c o u r s e , f r e e t o w i t h d r a w a t any t i m e or t o r e f u s e t o answer any questions without p r e j u d i c e .  206  APPENDIX D Responses  t o Items  28,  29,  30  207  The 28,  following are subjects' 29, and 30:  responses  t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e items  28.  Please d e s c r i b e the s i t u a t i o n that produced most e x t r e m e e x p e r i e n c e of j e a l o u s y .  your  29.  What p o s i t i v e a n d / o r n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s d i d t h i s e x p e r i e n c e have on y o u and on t h e p r i m a r y relationship involved?  30.  D e s c r i b e a s i t u a t i o n t h a t would ( f o r y o u a n d a t t h i s time i n your l i f e ) r e s u l t i n a s i m i l a r or more e x t r e m e e x p e r i e n c e o f j e a l o u s y .  S u b j e c t s ' r e s p o n s e s a r e v e r b a t i m s t a t e m e n t s a n d hence may c o n t a i n grammar, s p e l l i n g , and p u n c t u a t i o n i r r e g u l a r i t i e s . Subject 01  Female S u b j e c t ' s R e s p o n s e s 28. 29.  30.  02  28.  29.  30. 03  28. 29.  F i n d i n g o u t t h a t my husband l o v e d a n o t h e r woman. I l o s t c o n f i d e n c e i n m y s e l f a s a woman f o r a time. I r e a l i z e d that the depth of the r e l a t i o n s h i p on h i s p a r t had n e v e r been what I had hoped i t t o be t h e r e f o r e b r o u g h t p a s t happenings i n t o f o c u s . R e l a t i o n s h i p ended. I f I h a d u n r e a l i s t i c hopes f o r a p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o d e v e l o p , then r e a l i z e d I had l o s t , i . e . t h a t i t would n e v e r be, b e c a u s e o f a n o t h e r woman. My h u s b a n d l o v e d a n o t h e r woman ( t h e c o u p l e were c l o s e f r i e n d s of o u r s ) and I f e l t t e r r i b l e . I was m a r r i e d 2 y e a r s w i t h a s m a l l baby a n d d e f i n i t e l y f e l t the victim. I moved on ( p o s i t i v e ) . I am a l s o a b l e t o s e e how e a c h j e a l o u s s i t u a t i o n i s a r e a c t i v a t i o n o f this e a r l i e r experience. I b r o k e up my marriage (negative). My f i a n c e e w a n t i n g t o be w i t h a n o t h e r woman besides myself. D u r i n g m a r r i a g e breakdown, b e f o r e s e p a r a t i o n , a t a p a r t y , I became v e r y j e a l o u s o f a woman f l i r t i n g w i t h my e x - h u s b a n d . P o s i t i v e : I e x p r e s s e d my f e e l i n g s a n d f e l t a l i t t l e b e t t e r b u t I r e a l i z e d i t was i n s e c u r i t y  208  30.  04  28.  29.  30. 05  28.  29. 30.  06  28.  29.  30.  about t h e m a r r i a g e , ( a n d t h e man) n o t t h e woman, t h a t c a u s e d t h e j e a l o u s y . I t d i s g u s t e d my e x - h u s b a n d , b u t did, n o t a f f e c t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p ' s already d i s i n t e g r a t i n g path. I t h i n k I am e n v i o u s now o f s o l i d man/woman r e l a t i o n s h i p s , but I c a n ' t imagine r e a l l y f e e l i n g j e a l o u s y l i k e I u s e d t o , a s I am more s e c u r e about m y s e l f . D u r i n g c h i l d h o o d , s i s t e r 2 y e a r s younger than me r e c e i v e d "more" t h i n g s ( c l o t h e s , p e t s , e t c . ) t h e way I saw i t . I a l s o saw h e r a s c u t e r and more e a s y g o i n g w i t h more f r i e n d s . I am t o l d t h a t I was " r e s e n t f u l " o f h e r from t h e moment she was b o r n (I threw numerous t a n t r u m s ) . Up u n t i l a d o l e s c e n c e I was e x t r e m e l y j e a l o u s t o t h e p o i n t o f f i g h t s and t e a r s b e c a u s e I t h o u g h t m y . p a r e n t s l a v i s h e d "more" on h e r . I n f a c t , I . t e n d e d t o r e f u s e " t h i n g s " whereas* she a c c e p t e d e v e r y t h i n g handed to' h e r - a s i f I wanted t o be j e a l o u s of h e r . ( s e l f - i n f l i c t e d j e a l o u s y ) D u r i n g c h i l d h o o d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s s i s t e r and I was e x t r e m e l y t e n s e . I t seems we h a t e d e a c h o t h e r t h e whole t i m e . But now I t h i n k t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s even s t r o n g e r t h a n i t would have been o t h e r w i s e . I f e e l i n c a p a b l e o f t h i s k i n d o f j e a l o u s y now. The t i m e was when a man I was l i v i n g w i t h c o n f e s s e d he was i n l o v e ( a n d s e e i n g ) someone else. I s p l i t up w i t h h i m and d i d n ' t e a t f o r 8 days. We s p l i t up. I c a n n o t a c c e p t i n f i d e l i t y , (yet, I am c a p a b l e o f " s t r a y i n g " m y s e l f ) . My b o y f r i e n d f l i r t s w i t h h i s n e i g h b o r a l o t . I f he- f l i r t e d w i t h h e r at'^'party*,,-- i n - f r o n t - o-fime - t h e n " l e f t " w i t h h e r - I would be v e r y jealous. Grade 12, h i g h s c h o o l , my b o y f r i e n d s t a r t e d dating another g i r l . I t was e x t r e m e l y p a i n f u l . I would go t o any l e n g t h t o t r y t o win back h i s affections. P o s : i t was a g r o w i n g e x p e r i e n c e a s I e v e n t u a l l y got over i t . I l e a r n e d t o d i s l i k e myself f o r f e e l i n g j e a l o u s . Neg: I l o s t a l l sense of p r i d e . I was p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h j e a l o u s y a n d i t a f f e c t e d my mood. I became q u i t e n a s t y and h a t e f u l . H o p e f u l l y n o t h i n g w i l l e v e r be a s bad a s t h a t was. B u t , i f I d e e p l y l o v e d someone a n d f e l t h i s a f f e c t i o n s s l i p p i n g away f o r a n o t h e r woman  209  that 07  28.  29.  30.  08  28.  29.  30.  09  28.  29.  may r e s u l t  in a similar  experience.  I had a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a man t h a t was s t r o n g l y a t t a c h e d t o a n o t h e r woman. She moved out a few months a f t e r we met b u t he c o u l d n o t l e t h e r go b e c a u s e he was s t i l l so e m o t i o n a l l y attached to her. I l o v e d t h i s man v e r y much and would have l i k e d to m a r r y him b u t r e a l i z e d he was e i t h e r n o t i n l o v e w i t h me o r s t i l l t o o a t t a c h e d t o t h i s woman t o even c o n s i d e r a n o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . The p o s i t i v e a s p e c t i s y o u grow from experience. The n e g a t i v e a s p e c t i s y o u s u f f e r a l o t of p a i n . I f I saw h i m a g a i n w i t h t h i s l a d y I would e x p e r i e n c e j e a l o u s y I'm s u r e . As w e l l a s h u r t and r e s e n t m e n t . A l o v e r who h a d an i n t i m a t e a f f a i r w i t h someone else while t r a v e l l i n g . ( I t was a l s o s e x u a l , but i t was t h e e m o t i o n a l i n t i m a c y t h a t was most t h r e a t e n i n g t o me.) I f e l t h o r r i b l y i n s e c u r e and my t r u s t l e v e l was e r o d e d , b u t h a v i n g t o d e a l w i t h t h e i s s u e and our f e e l i n g s a r o u n d i t was I t h i n k u l t i m a t e l y growth p r o d u c i n g f o r both of u s . I c a n ' t t h i n k o f one - a s i m i l a r one would come c l o s e s t , b u t I t h i n k I ' v e r e s o l v e d some o f t h e issues. I have a s t r o n g e r s e n s e o f s e l f now and am more w i l l i n g t o e x p e r i e n c e and a c k n o w l e d g e my v u l n e r a b i l i t y i n s t e a d o f f o c u s i n g on t h e o t h e r p e r s o n , w h i c h I t h i n k i s what j e a l o u s y i s . I saw t h e man, w i t h whom I h a d been l i v i n g w i t h for 2 y e a r s b u t who had c a l l e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p off f o r no r e a s o n I c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d , walking i n t o a r e s t a u r a n t w i t h a woman I knew a n d , s u s p e c t b u t d o n ' t know, he h a d h a d an a f f a i r with. I was w a l k i n g down t h e s t r e e t - y e l l e d a bit, threw my s w e a t e r a t him a n d c r i e d c o n t i n u a l l y f o r about a y e a r . F o r t h e man I was j e a l o u s o f , t h e i n c i d e n t was "water o f f a d u c k ' s b a c k " . F o r t h e man I was w i t h i t p r o b a b l y added some u n d e r s t a n d i n g a s t o my f l u c t u a t i n g b e h a v i o u r t o w a r d s h i m . F o r m y s e l f , i t f u r t h e r e n t r e n c h e d me i n t h e none x i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p , I became even more d e p e n d e n t on i t a n d soon ended t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h my new f r i e n d . T h i s happened a b o u t 5 y e a r s ago, I am s t i l l c a u g h t i n t h i s nonexistent relationship. I even b o r e one o f h i s  210  30.  10  28.  29.  30. 11  28.  29.  30.  12  28.  29.  30.  13  28.  c h i l d r e n and am p r e g n a n t w i t h a s e c o n d . I f I were t o meet a man whom I l o v e d , r e s p e c t e d and c o m m i t t e d m y s e l f t o and had f u n w i t h and a g r e a t d e a l of i n t i m a c y and he l e f t out of t h e b l u e or s i m p l y c u t me o f f - I d o n ' t know but I c e r t a i n l y f e a r I w o u l d go t h r o u g h t h e same jealous routine. My most extreme e x p e r i e n c e of j e a l o u s y t h a t I can r e c a l l p r o b a b l y had t o do w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t I grew up w i t h a t w i n s i s t e r . She was more " p o p u l a r " t h a n I and had many more f r i e n d s and i n v i t a t i o n s t o p a r t i e s . N e g a t i v e e f f e c t was p r o b a b l y t h a t of f e e l i n g i n f e r i o r to her. P o s i t i v e e f f e c t was t h a t i t p r o b a b l y h e l p e d me t o p u r s u e my own identity and i n d i v i d u a l i t y . I s t r i v e d to excel i n d i f f e r e n t areas than her. S i m i l a r perhaps' would be b e i n g ' e x c l u d e d from, a "social circle". :  B o y f r i e n d - g i r l f r i e n d s i t u a t i o n where b o y f r i e n d appeared i n t e r e s t e d i n other g i r l . T h i s was late teens. D i s c o v e r e d he had s e v e r a l o t h e r girlfriends. Subsequent r e l a t i o n s h i p s s u f f e r e d b e c a u s e of a l a c k i n t r u s t as a r e s u l t of o t h e r relationship. (+)opened up more w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s e feelings. C o m m u n i c a t i o n between us i n c r e a s e d . (-) an i n c r e a s e i n a r g u m e n t s , d e c r e a s e i n my t r u s t i n him. F r u s t r a t i o n on b o t h s i d e s , studies suffered. Husband i n t e r e s t e d i n a n o t h e r g i r l but i n a more d e f i n i t e way i . e . not coming home. In o t h e r words, now I f e e l more s e c u r e i n our relationship. A d o l e s c e n c e - I was 16 w i t h a b o y f r i e n d and moved t o J a p a n . W h i l e I was l i v i n g t h e r e he began d a t i n g a n o t h e r g i r l , d r o p p e d me q u i c k l y upon my r e t u r n . Made me somewhat c o l d i n o r d e r t o e r a d i c a t e t h e p a i n c a u s e d by j e a l o u s y , I'm much q u i c k e r t o s t e p out of a r e l a t i o n s h i p i f I f e e l I'm unwanted, d o n ' t commit m y s e l f a s e a s i l y on an emotional l e v e l . My s e c o n d h u s b a n d r e m a r r y i n g and g e t t i n g c u s t o d y of one or more of t h e c h i l d r e n . (Pain too!) In t h e a t r e s c h o o l , I had a g r e a t d e a l of r e s p e c t f o r my a c t i n g t e a c h e r . T h e r e was  a  21 1  29.  30.  14  28. 29. 30.  15  28. 29. 30.  16  28.  woman i n t h e c l a s s w i t h whom I made f r i e n d s on t h e f i r s t day. T h i s t e a c h e r was h i g h l y c r i t i c a l of me and seemed t o f a v o u r my f r i e n d . T h i s a g i t a t e d me u n t i l I was f u r i o u s w i t h b o t h of them most of t h e t i m e . After graduation t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h e r h i r e d me, i n shows she was d i r e c t i n g , i n p r e f e r e n c e t o my "friend". Now we a r e " f r i e n d s " a g a i n ( o r a t l e a s t on pleasant terms). P o s i t i v e : I was c o n v i n c e d I was a b e t t e r a c t r e s s t h a n t h e woman b e i n g f a v o u r e d but worked v e r y h a r d t o g e t t h e a p p r o v a l of t h i s teacher. H a r d e r t h a n I would have w i t h someone who a l r e a d y t h o u g h t I was g r e a t . Negative: I was v e r y a n g r y and t e n s e a l o t of t h e t i m e and f o u n d i t h a r d ( i f not i m p o s s i b l e ) t o d e a l w i t h e i t h e r of them i n a r a t i o n a l way. I l e t the e x p e r i e n c e c h i p away a t my a l r e a d y shakey s e l f image. This i s a d i f f i c u l t question.. I think I've m e l l o w e d a b i t and I'm more c o n f i d e n t a b o u t my work. I'm more j e a l o u s how when my man raves on a b o u t a n o t h e r woman. But t h a t d o e s n ' t r e a l l y make me h a t e h e r - j u s t watch c l o s e l y . I'm i n a s i t u a t i o n now where I'm d o i n g a show and one of t h e a c t r e s s e s i s d o i n g a b r i l l i a n t j o b - but I'm j u s t e n j o y i n g h e r . I t ' s smug v e r y s e l f - c o n f i d e n t p e o p l e t h a t t h r e a t e n me. As an a d o l e s c e n t I was v e r y j e a l o u s of one my b o y f r i e n d was c o n c u r r e n t l y s e e i n g . I t consumed a l o t of e n e r g y and t h e relationship deteriorated. None.  girl  A l o n g term general', l o w - l e v e l f e a r of l o s i n g my h u s b a n d t o a n o t h e r woman, w h i c h i n t e n s i f i e d when he had an a f f a i r . I learned to l i k e myself. In t e r m s of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o v e r a p e r i o d of y e a r s , my h u s b a n d and I made a c o n s c i o u s c h o i c e t o be monogomous. I f my husband had an a f f a i r now, p a r t of my r e a c t i o n would be j e a l o u s y but I would d e a l w i t h i t more s a n e l y and i t would be f o r a shorter time. In c h i l d h o o d - t h e t h o u g h t t h a t my t w i n would g e t s o m e t h i n g or be a b l e t o do s o m e t h i n g I couldn't. We had a l w a y s done e v e r y t h i n g t o g e t h e r , wore t h e same c l o t h e s (we're b o t h f e m a l e ) e t c . u n t i l we were 16. Various g r a n d p a r e n t s ( n e v e r our p a r e n t s ) would s i n g l e  212  29.  30.  17  28. 29. 30.  18  28.  19  28.  When I f o u n d out my husband was a n o t h e r woman a l s o . Ended i t t h a t m i n u t e . Near r e p e a t of i t I g u e s s .  married  to  I had a l o v e r and our r e l a t i o n s h i p had t o be kept dead s e c r e t . An o l d e r woman f o n d l e d my l o v e r i n my p r e s e n c e ( a g a i n s t h i s w i s h e s ) and I • c o u l d n ' t d e c l a r e t h a t we had s o m e t h i n g g o i n g . (We were b o t h s i n g l e so i t wasn't an " i l l i c i t " affair). 29. No p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s . Heightened f r u s t r a t i o n at not b e i n g a b l e t o be open a b o u t our a f f a i r . 30. I would o n l y be as j e a l o u s as t h a t now i f my husband f l i r t e d w i t h a n o t h e r woman. Actually, I'd be a s t o u n d e d r a t h e r than j e a l o u s b e c a u s e he' s- the- l e a s t f 1 i r t a t i o u s - man' P k-nowv W-ith" • any o t h e r man, I would p r o b a b l y answer d i f f e r e n t l y t o t h e above q u e s t i o n s . At t h i s t i m e i n my l i f e I f e e l v e r y s e c u r e and have no r e a s o n t o be j e a l o u s .  29. 30. 20  one out f o r p r e f e r m e n t and t h i s would t u r n one of us i n t o s o m e t h i n g v e r y n a s t y . I t has c a u s e d a c e r t a i n amount of c o m p e t i t i o n not as f a r as we o u r s e l v e s a r e c o n c e r n e d but our s p o u s e s i . e . x has got a Ph.D., but y owns 2 h o u s e s and 2 c a r s . This i s very subliminal we n e v e r a c t u a l l y e x p r e s s i t i n w o r d s . N e i t h e r of us can see what t h e o t h e r saw i n t h e i r h u s b a n d (mine of 11 y e a r s , h e r s of 2 ) . I f s o m e t h i n g happened t o one of our spouses, d e a t h , d i v o r c e e t c . and a n o t h e r man came on t h e scene who we b o t h a g r e e d f u l f i l l e d t h o s e q u a l i t i e s we a d m i r e d most i n a man compassion, e t c . - t h e o t h e r t w i n would f e e l very j e a l o u s . I t has happened t h a t we f o u n d a man l i k e t h i s - f o r t u n a t e l y f o r our r e l a t i o n s h i p - he was a l r e a d y m a r r i e d t o a cousin.  28.  W a t c h i n g t h e man I was s e x u a l l y i n v o l v e d w i t h t a l k i n g i n t i m a t e l y for s e v e r a l hours with a n o t h e r woman. I t made me more i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e man and w i l l i n g t o make more of a committment t o t h e relationship. I f a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n r e o c c u r e d I t h i n k my j e a l o u s y would be g r e a t e r now. S e e i n g my s e r i o u s b o y f r i e n d t a l k i n g g i r l f r i e n d t h a t I d i d not l i k e .  t o an  ex-  213  21  29. 30.  E x a s p e r a t i o n on my b o y f r i e n d ' s p a r t . An o l d g i r l f r i e n d o f my h u s b a n d ' s r e - a p p e a r i n g on t h e scene and my h u s b a n d b e i n g f r i e n d l y w i t h h e r , even i f he was o n l y b e i n g f r i e n d l y .  28.  When I was 19 I became i n v o l v e d w i t h a boy, who unknown t o me, h a d a g i r l f r i e n d t h a t l i v e d i n another c i t y . He m a r r i e d h e r a y e a r o r so later. I l e a r n e d t o be c a u t i o u s o f p e o p l e who a v o i d t e l l i n g t h e t r u t h - n o t t h o s e who l i e , b u t t h o s e who s a y n o t h i n g i n an a t t e m p t t o p r o t e c t t h e m s e l v e s from e x p l a i n i n g . Now t h a t I am m a r r i e d I would become j e a l o u s i f my h u s b a n d began t o s e e a n o t h e r woman o r even i f i t was j u s t a o n e - n i g h t e x p e r i e n c e t h a t r e s u l t e d from p e e r p r e s s u r e / d r i n k i n g / p a r t y i n g with the boys.  29.  30.  22  2.8.  29.  30.  23  28. 29. 30.  24  28.  29.  A f t e r b e i n g s e p a r a t e d o n l y 2 months my h u s b a n d " s t a r t e d d a t i n g a good f r i e n d o f mine. She h a d a good j o b , n i c e f i g u r e , and g o r g e o u s c l o t h e s . I had a l l t h i s b e f o r e I m a r r i e d . The p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s were g r e a t e s t . I had t o d e a l w i t h h i m d a t i n g o t h e r women. I t h e l p e d me t o r e a l i z e "I am who I am". The o n l y n e g a t i v e e f f e c t was t h a t I no l o n g e r s e e h e r i n t h e same l i g h t a s when we were f r i e n d s . P r o b a b l y i f my c h i l d r e n were a l w a y s r a n t i n g a n d r a v i n g a b o u t how g r e a t daddy's new g i r l f r i e n d is. I t h i n k I m i g h t f e e l somewhat t h r e a t e n e d . S i b l i n g r i v a l r y - y o u n g e r s i s t e r was a t t r a c t i v e - clever etc. S t i l l a l i t t l e j e a l o u s - but d i s t a n c e d e c r e a s e s this--. Seeing other f a m i l i e s enjoying family a c t i v i t y without the s t r e s s a t t a c h e d t o those i n our own. Combination j e a l o u s y / a n g e r - a f t e r 4 years of mates' i n f i d e l i t y we s e p a r a t e d a n d c o n t i n u e d r e l a t i o n s h i p l i v i n g i n separate dwellings. Mate s t o o d me up t o go t o a g a t h e r i n g a t a f r i e n d ' s house so I went a l o n e . He a r r i v e d l a t e r w i t h woman he h a d been s e e i n g w h i l e we l i v e d t o g e t h e r a n d h a d p r e v i o u s l y s a i d he wasn't s e e i n g h e r any more. I t ended t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . "Last straw" concept. N e g a t i v e e f f e c t s - f i r s t time I r e a l l y f e l t h a t r e d a n d I r e a c t e d b a d l y - threw g l a s s a t h i m a s he l e f t h o u s e . Felt horrible  214  30.  25  28.  29.  30. 26  28.  29. 30. 27  28.  29.  30. 28  28.  29.  30.  for not being able t o c o n t r o l myself. To have c u r r e n t companion do a s i m i l a r a c t . Have someone abandon me a t a s o c i a l e v e n t t o f l i r t with others. Went t o b o y f r i e n d ' s house t o p i c k h i m up f o r prearranged date. E n c o u n t e r e d him l e a v i n g w i t h a woman w i t h whom h e ' d had a r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the p a s t . C l a i m e d he f o r g o t t h e d a t e , l e f t w i t h o t h e r woman. N e g a t i v e e f f e c t s - am now c o n t i n u a l l y s u s p i c i o u s , i n s e c u r e , have v e r y a n x i o u s f e e l i n g s whenever I go o v e r t o h i s house unexpectedly, always expect the worst. E n c o u n t e r i n g him w i t h someone e l s e a t h i s h o u s e , i n an o b v i o u s l y s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . F i r s t h u s b a n d l e f t me w i t h my o l d e s t , l o n g e s t f r i e n d (14 y e a r s ) . A f t e r s e v e r a l e p i s o d e s o f i n f i d e l i t y w i t h o t h e r s and e v e n t u a l l y t h i s friend. 6 y e a r s l a t e r ( t o p r e s e n t ) . I c a n n o t speak i n a c i v i l , c a l m f a s h i o n t o e i t h e r o f them. F o r my new p a r t n e r t o commit t h e same t h i n g . W h i l e p r e g n a n t , a f o r m e r one n i g h t s t a n d was w r i t i n g l e t t e r s a n d making phone c a l l s t r y i n g to c o n t a c t him. I phoned him w h i l e he was i n .... t o l d h i m a b o u t t h i s . Then went t o where she was a n d t o l d h e r t o s t a y c l e a r . P o s i t i v e - have n o t h a d any p r o b l e m s w i t h h e r since. I f e l t more s e c u r e . When I t o l d him a b o u t what I d i d , he s u p p o r t e d me by n o t g e t t i n g mad a b o u t i t . Our r e l a t i o n s h i p was rocky a t t h i s p o i n t . T h i s seemed t o cement my s e c u r i t y t h a t * he was'- w i t h me' and o n l y me;. • I t h i n k I would have t o f i n d him i n bed w i t h someone o t h e r t h a n me. My husband was t r a v e l l i n g - i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h h i s work and s t a y i n g a t a h o t e l - when I c a l l e d to w i s h h i m a happy a n n i v e r s a r y I d i s c o v e r e d he was r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e same room w i t h h i s work a s s o c i a t e - a woman! P o s i t i v e : I took a h o l i d a y and s p e n t f o u r d a y s w i t h a b e a u t i f u l young man. Our m a r r i a g e r e a d j u s t e d t o a f r i e n d s h i p and a l t h o u g h we a r e now d i v o r c e d we a r e s t i l l f r i e n d s who c a n t a l k to e a c h o t h e r a s we c o u l d n o t do b e f o r e t h a t incident. I do n o t b e l i e v e t h e r e c o u l d be any i n c i d e n t now t h a t c o u l d p r o v o k e t h e same r e a c t i o n .  215  29  28. 29. 30.  30  28. 29.  30. 31  28. 29. 30.  32  28. 29. 30.  33  28.  29.  30.  - a d e s i r e t o want b e t t e r l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n o r material things. - a d e s i r e t o want more attention. - i t b r o u g h t us c l o s e r t o g e t h e r , t a l k i n g a b o u t it. I f my h u s b a n d gave a t t e n t i o n t o someone w i t h a better l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n . I was on v a c a t i o n . B o y f r i e n d (I t h o u g h t ) t o o k up w i t h a n o t h e r woman. P o s i t i v e - I have l e a r n e d n o t t o be q u i t e so d e p e n d e n t on someone. Negative - d i s t r u s t of people. S t i l l f i n d i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o speak t o woman i n v o l v e d , o r even be i n t h e same room with h e r . F o r a f r i e n d t o win a m i l l i o n - d o l l a r l o t t e r y . Meet i n g p a s t g i r l f r i e n d o f my h u s b a n d ' s who I . knew he had once been s e r i o u s a b o u t . Had a. p o s i t i v e e f f e c t i n t h a t i t t a u g h t me t h a t the p a s t had no s i g n i f i c a n c e on t h e p r i m a r y relationship. I f I f e l t my h u s b a n d was i n t e r e s t e d a n d a t t r a c t e d t o a n o t h e r woman. When my h u s b a n d d a n c e s w i t h a n o t h e r g i r l y o u n g e r t h a n me and b e t t e r d a n c e r . Very negative - negative d i s c u s s i o n - negative view o f m y s e l f s a d n e s s o f my h u s b a n d who e n j o y s dancing. Same e x p e r i e n c e . When I was a b o u t 20, t h e r e was a f e e l i n g o f extreme j e a l o u s y t o w a r d s a c o - w o r k e r . She was c o n s i d e r a b l y o l d e r t h a n !, but- my - husband admired her, and I f e l t I j u s t c o u l d n ' t compete. The d i f f i c u l t t h i n g was t h a t I a l s o a d m i r e d h e r and l i k e d h e r . I t was h a r d t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e f e e l i n g s I h a d when my h u s b a n d praised her. From t h i s I r e a l i z e d t h a t i t was "O.K." f o r my husband t o a d m i r e somebody e l s e f o r t h e i r good q u a l i t i e s , a s l o n g a s t h e r e was no i l l r e f l e c t i o n on me. I have l e a r n e d t h a t a l t h o u g h some p e o p l e " o u t s h i n e " me, I am s t i l l an O.K. p e r s o n . I f my h u s b a n d were t o a d m i r e a c l o s e f r i e n d and i t seemed t o be more t h a n a d m i r a t i o n ! If I f e l t t h a t he was p l a c i n g me i n a p o s i t i o n where i t was n e c e s s a r y t o compete f o r h i s a f f e c t i o n . ;  216  34  28. 29.  30. 35  28. 29. 30.  36  28.  29.  30.  37  28. 29.  30.  38  39  28. 29. 30. 28.  The man I l i v e d w i t h s t a y e d out a l l n i g h t w i t h a n o t h e r woman. N e g a t i v e - d i d n ' t t r u s t t h e man (men?). P o s i t i v e - made me l o o k c l o s e l y a t m y s e l f t o f i n d out why t h i s h a p p e n e d . E f f e c t - l e d to eventual s p l i t ^ u p . I f I f o u n d my h u s b a n d s l e e p i n g w i t h a n o t h e r woman. My h u s b a n d ' s i n t e r e s t i n a n o t h e r woman who was y o u n g e r , a t t r a c t i v e and i n t e l l i g e n t . M a i n l y n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n toward m y s e l f . Nonc o m p r e h e n s i o n by my h u s b a n d : i . e . what's a l l the f u s s about? My c h i l d r e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e i r f a t h e r ' s attention. A f r i e n d of mine whom I have been s p e n d i n g a l o t of t i m e w i t h s t a r t e d t a l k i n g a b o u t a n o t h e r woman he was making f r i e n d s w i t h - s i n g l e parent, a r t i s t , e t c . I f e l t v e r y i n s e c u r e and f e l t he was c o m p a r i n g me t o h e r even t h o u g h we a r e not h a v i n g an i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p I d i d n ' t want him t o have one w i t h her e i t h e r . I t r e a l l y " g r i p p e d " me f o r a w h i l e - I became d i s t a n t w i t h my f r i e n d when he t a l k e d of h e r and made s u b t l e s n i d e r e m a r k s . I r e a l l y tried, t o work i t out w i t h o u t him - I met h e r f i n a l l y and f e l t much b e t t e r - I d i d n ' t c a r e f o r her much and f e l t l e s s t h r e a t e n e d . I would f e e l b a d l y i f my f r i e n d got i n v o l v e d i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p and c o n s t a n t l y t a l k e d about how w o n d e r f u l she was and i f I a t t h e same t i m e was not i n v o l v e d i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p . I cannot' remember a s p e c i f i c exper-ience-'-which s t a n d s out i n a memorable way. In e a r l i e r y e a r s i t made me c l i n g y and possessive. Now i t l e a d s me t o d e t a c h m y s e l f from my f e e l i n g s and t h e r e b y g i v e s me g r e a t e r freedom to l o v e both p e o p l e . The g r e a t e s t j e a l o u s y comes when my c h i l d r e n p r e f e r a f r i e n d ' s company a t a t i m e w h i c h had been a s p e c i a l i n t i m a t e t i m e f o r us i n t h e past. My l o v e r p l a n n i n g a t r i p out of t h e C o n t r i b u t e d to break-up. A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n - where p a r t n e r t o t r a v e l and I am n o t . Sexual  j e a l o u s y i n an  insecure  country. is  "free"  relationship.  217  29. 30. 40  28. 29. 30.  41  28. 29.  30.  42  28. 29. 30.  43  28.  29. 30.  44  28.  H e l p e d t o end an u n s t a b l e and h a r m f u l relationship. I f my husband was a t t r a c t e d t o someone e l s e . C o n t a c t ( d o n ' t know t o what d e g r e e o f i n t i m a c y ) between my husband a n d a f o r m e r g i r l f r i e n d ( t o whom he was t o be m a r r i e d ) . Taught me t h a t t r u s t o f someone c l o s e t o y o u , came from w i t h i n y o u r s e l f . I d o n ' t t h i n k i t would happen. I believe I have p r e t t y w e l l e l i m i n a t e d j e a l o u s y - a s an u n p r o d u c t i v e emotion! A y o u n g e r p h y s i c a l l y more v o l u p t u o u s woman w i t h d e f i n i t e i n t e n t t o make i m p r e s s i o n on my h u s b a n d i n my v e r y p r e s e n c e . I f e l t h e l p l e s s and became more k e e n l y aware o f my p h y s i c a l s h o r t c o m i n g s . I pouted a b i t but . s i n c e husband d i d not d i s p l a y l a s t i n g i n t e r e s t i n o t h e r woman t h e e p i s o d e was soon f o r g o t t e n . I would be much more j e a l o u s i f my husband r e s p o n d e d more v i g o r o u s l y t o a come-on o r i n i t i a t e d one h i m s e l f . F o r me t o become e x t r e m e l y j e a l o u s t h e woman i n v o l v e d would have t o be d e f i n i t e l y much b e t t e r l o o k i n g t h a n myself. I f my husband showed i n t e r e s t i n a woman who was more p l a i n t h a n m y s e l f I would p i t y him a n d would t e n d n o t t o t a k e h i m seriously. T h i n k i n g t h a t I was the one I l o v e . Negative - r e s u l t e d us. P o s i t i v e - got out t h e p r o b l e m . F i n d i n g o u t t h a t my  not appreciated  o r l o v e d by  i n a n g r y words between 2 o f us t a l k i n g and s t r a i g h t e n e d husband was f o o l i n g a r o u n d :  A f t e r becoming p r e g n a n t by my b o y f r i e n d (now my husband) we s e p a r a t e d f o r a y e a r . During that y e a r a c l o s e g i r l f r i e n d became v e r y f r i e n d l y with him. Between my husband and m y s e l f t h e e x p e r i e n c e i s no l o n g e r a n e g a t i v e o n e . I s t i l l c a n n o t . a s s o c i a t e o r even s e e t h i s f o r m e r g i r l f r i e n d . I f my h u s b a n d were t o become f r i e n d l y w i t h t h i s p a r t i c u l a r g i r l again. Even a f r i e n d s h i p would cause j e a l o u s y . Husband p r e f e r r e d t o spend h i s t i m e more and more w i t h a g r o u p o f f r i e n d s , s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h a certain g i r l . T o l d me one day t h a t he had f a l l e n i n love with h e r .  218  29.  30.  45  28.  29.  30.  I t d e s t r o y e d my c o m p l e t e t r u s t I had i n him and made o u r m a r r i a g e a f a r c e . The p o s i t i v e : I have s t a r t e d t o f o c u s on m y s e l f a g a i n , I l i v e by m y s e l f a n d f o r m y s e l f . None, b e c a u s e I have n o t been a b l e t o t r u s t anyone enough s i n c e , t o w a r r a n t j e a l o u s y . An a d m i r e d p e r s o n x o v e r t l y i g n o r e d me; d i d n ' t a t t e n d my p e r f o r m a n c e s a l t h o u g h I had r e h e a r s e d w i t h him e t c . . . But t u r n e d up a t a n o t h e r student's performance. P o s i t i v e e f f e c t s : I t r i e d t o improve t h o s e s k i l l s which the person v a l u e d very h i g h l y . N e g a t i v e e f f e c t s : an u n d e r c u r r e n t f e e l i n g t h a t a f f e c t e d o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t i n d e e d he was not f a i r and a f e e l i n g t h a t I was n o t w o r t h a s much as I t h o u g h t I was. Any s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h I would f e e l t h a t I am l o s i n g t h e a t t e n t i o n o f someone I r e g a r d e d v e r y highly.  Male S u b j e c t s ' 46  28. 29.  30. 47  28. 29. 30.  Responses  My g i r l f r i e n d l e f t me, a n d r e t u r n e d t o h e r e x lover. N e g a t i v e - l o n e l i n e s s , s e l f - p i t y , s a p p e d my m o t i v a t i o n t o work, s o I q u i t . Positive a f t e r 3 weeks, f o u n d I c o u l d e a s i l y c r e a t e new r e l a t i o n s h i p s , b o l s t e r e d my c o n f i d e n c e t o w a r d defeating jealousy. Same - g i r l f r i e n d l e a v e s me f o r a n o t h e r . When a g i r l I had t a k e n t o a p a r t y l e f t w i t h someone- e l s e w i t h o u t s a y i n g a n y t h i n g i A p r i m a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p was n o t i n v o l v e d , i t was casual. I f my w i f e l e f t a s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g w i t h someone e l s e w i t h o u t f i r s t f i l l i n g me i n on t h e p o s i t i o n I was l e f t i n .  48 28.  29.  In a d u l t h o o d , an o c c a s i o n where my l o v e r t o l d me t h a t she h a d been i n t i m a t e w i t h a n o t h e r man she met a t a c o n f e r e n c e . I t was a p r o f o u n d f e e l i n g of h u m i l i a t i o n , d i s l o y a l t y ( a t t r i b u t e d to h e r ) , r i v a l r y . I t was t h e " l a s t s t r a w " i n a f a l t e r i n g relationship. We were n e v e r i n t i m a t e a f t e r t h a t , a l t h o u g h we have met on c o r d i a l , f r i e n d l y terms s i n c e . F o r m y s e l f i t was a " w a t e r s h e d "  219  30.  49  28. 29. 30.  p e r i o d i n which I e v e n t u a l l y matured out of the b o y - g e t s - g i r l syndrome. I decided to abstain from s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s u n t i l I was c a p a b l e o f g r e a t e r e m o t i o n a l i n t i m a c y and s e l f - k n o w l e d g e , w i t h one e x c e p t i o n ( t h a t e c h o e d t h e s i t u a t i o n a b o v e ) I was c e l i b a t e f o r j u s t o v e r a y e a r , e n t e r e d g r o u p t h e r a p y , became more s o c i a l and less possessive. I doubt t h a t any s i t u a t i o n c o u l d evoke a s i m i l a r o r more e x t r e m e j e a l o u s r e a c t i o n . I n f i d e l i t y on t h e p a r t o f my w i f e , f o r example, would s u r e l y evoke j e a l o u s y , b u t I b e l i e v e t h a t extreme j e a l o u s y ( i n i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o r e l s e w h e r e ) stems from p e r s o n a l i n s e c u r i t y , and I now f e e l more aware o f my i n s e c u r i t i e s . My w i f e had an e x t e n d e d (8 months) a f f a i r . Broke us up f o r a y e a r and u n s e t t l e d us f o r f o u r more. The same s i t u a t i o n .  50  28. 29. 30.  W i f e and b e s t f r i e n d s l e e p i n g t o g e t h e r . Ended m a r r i a g e and began a c o u r t s h i p . A n o t h e r man b e i n g (becoming) t h e f a t h e r r o l e o f my c h i l d r e n .  51  28.  29. 30.  Don't r e c a l l any e x t r e m e e x p e r i e n c e o f jealousy. Only f e e l i n g of j e a l o u s y i s i n a v e r y g e n e r a l s e n s e w i t h r e g a r d t o p e o p l e who l i v e a more d e s i r a b l e l i f e s t y l e , b e t t e r sex l i f e , w e l l behaved k i d s , e t c . Not a p p l i c a b l e . (no r e p s o n s e )  52  28. 29. 30.  (No r e s p o n s e ) (No r e s p o n s e ) (No r e s p o n s e )  53  28. 29.  1) A p p e a r a n c e s 2) Work r e l a t i o n s h i p s 1) Lack o f s e l f c o n f i d e n c e and few f r i e n d s 2) C r e a t e d a tremendous need f o r a c c o m p l i s h m e n t over a c h i e v e r . Someone who I f e e l i s l e s s c a p a b l e t h a n I , y e t i s more s u c c e s s f u l .  30. 54  28. 29. 30.  When my s t e p m o t h e r would o f f e r s p e c i a l f o o d b e h i n d my back t o my s t e p s i s t e r s e t c . Hate t h a t l a s t s t o t h i s day, o r s h o u l d p e r h a p s I c a l l i t v e r y bad moments t o remember. Well I c o n s i d e r myself self-made, financially and f a m i l y - w i s e . P e r h a p s , i f I w o u l d n ' t have a f i n a n c i a l l y s e c u r e f e e l i n g I would f e e l j e a l o u s  220  t o w a r d s some of my 55  28. 29.  30. 56  28.  29.  30.  57  28. 29. 30.  friends  or  f e l l o w workers.  O n l y 1 e x p e r i e n c e - a t age 17 - t h e g i r l I t o o k t o a h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n d a n c e d e s e r t e d me for another guy. We were f r i e n d s b e f o r e and a r e s t i l l f r i e n d s now - I was u p s e t a t t h e t i m e , but g o t o v e r i t . I had n e a r l y f o r g o t t e n t h e i n c i d e n t u n t i l t h i s survey. (No response) As i t happens so i n f r e q u e n t l y , I have no memory of 'the most extreme e x p e r i e n c e ' of j e a l o u s y . One t h i n g I remember: b e i n g i n a back s e a t w h i l e a f r i e n d 'made o u t ' w i t h a g i r l I desired. I t made me a n g r y and d e p r e s s e d , s u l l e n and distant. I wanted t o be a l o n e and d i d n ' t f e e l much l i k e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n g r o u p a c t i v i t i e s w i t h t h e f r i e n d ( s ) I was t h e n w i t h - f o r a day or s o . L o s i n g a j o b t o a f r i e n d whom I knew t o be l e s s q u a l i f i e d f o r t h e p o s i t i o n - b e i n g r e j e c t e d by a p u b l i s h i n g house t h a t a c c e p t e d a work of a f r i e n d I t h o u g h t t o be of l e s s e r s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a n mine. A c t u a l l y , t h i s would p r o b a b l y make me a n g r y , r e s e n t f u l - maybe more e n v i o u s t h a n jealous. When I saw a f r i e n d of mine go a f t e r a g i r l f r i e n d t h a t I had my eye on. I became f r i e n d s w i t h t h e g i r l and the boy and I became d i s t a n t . I f my w i f e b r o u g h t up our c h i l d r e n w i t h h e r s i d e up of t h e f a m i l y i n f l u e n c e . T h i s would make^me- a n g r y - t h r n M ng that- my f a m i l y • isn-'t good enough.  58  28. 29. 30.  Sexual deception - i n f i d e l i t y . Ended i t . D i f f i c u l t t o say - j e a l o u s y t e n d e n c y now s u p p l a n t e d t o d i s s a p p o i n t e d r e c o g n i t i o n and a c c e p t a n c e of r e a l i t y .  59  28.  As a young t e e n ( 1 2 - 1 3 ) , a n e i g h b o u r boy was endowed w i t h e v e r y m a t e r i a l i s t l u x u r y money c o u l d buy - I was not so endowed and he made s u r e I remembered t h a t . Even i f t h e p e r s o n i n q u e s t i o n ' s l i f e had n o t become as d i r e c t i o n l e s s as i t d i d , I would have s t i l l l e a r n e d t h e p o i n t l e s s n e s s of s i m p l y acquiring "possessions."  29.  221  60  30.  I f a p e r s o n were t o e x h i b i t a g r e a t d e a l o f s k i l l at a musical instrument without p r a c t i c e , but s i m p l y by p u r e i n n a t e t a l e n t (which I do not have much of')' I o f t e n become e n v i o u s and self-critical.  28.  My g i r l f r i e n d had a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a n o t h e r male. P o s i t i v e - t o t a l l y c u r t a i l e d any o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s I may have had o r t h i n k i n g o f having. N e g a t i v e - t h e f e e l i n g o f t r u s t was somewhat r u p t u r e d . I f I was h a v i n g a c o n t i n u e d i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p and my p a r t n e r was c a r r y i n g on an a f f a i r w i t h someone e l s e .  29.  30.  61  28. 29.  30. 62  28.  29. 30.  When someone t o o k my g i r l f r i e n d and a t t h e same t i m e g o t a p a r t I had been p r o m i s e d i n a p l a y . I saw, e v e n t u a l l y , t h a t he was b e t t e r f o r b o t h (the p a r t and t h e g i r l ) s o u l t i m a t e l y t h e y had my b l e s s i n g and I am now q u i t e f r i e n d l y w i t h b o t h (him and h e r ) . . I f someone was c h o s e n f o r s o m e t h i n g t h a t I f e l t more q u a l i f i e d t o do. A woman I know bought a new j a c k - k n i f e f o r h e r son w h i c h was n i c e r t h a n t h e one I owned. I t o l d him I was j e a l o u s o f him h a v i n g s u c h a nice knife. I t made him a p p r e c i a t e t h e g i f t even more. I c a n n o t i m a g i n e j e a l o u s y b e i n g an a c t i v e f a c t o r i n my l i f e .  63  28. 29. 30.  My f i r s t g i r l f r i e n d l i k e d someone e l s e . (No r e s p o n s e ) My- spouse- t o fa-fee^a-"l/o-veu'-o.s*'leaver  64  28.  My f i r s t l o v e r , was an e x t r e m e l y j e a l o u s p e r s o n and was a l w a y s c h e c k i n g up on me, she was v e r y suspicious. I r o n i c a l l y she made i t w i t h a trumpet p l a y e r from a v e r y good r o c k g r o u p , I was s i c k w i t h b e t r a y a l , a n g e r and j e a l o u s y . P o s i t i v e l y i t ended t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p a s we knew i t and s h a t t e r e d a l l t h e i n a n e i l l u s i o n s I had been s a d d l e d w i t h from my l e a r n i n g up u n t i l that p o i n t ( i e . love) i n i t s narrowest senses. P e r h a p s i f someone were t o show e x t r e m e i n t e r e s t i n my p a r t n e r and t h e r e was some r e c i p r o c a t i o n my i d l e t h o u g h t s c o u l d be aroused.  29.  30.  65  28.  My  girlfriend  (now my w i f e )  w r o t e a l e t t e r (I  222  29.  30. 66  28. 29. 30.  67  28. 29.  30.  68  28.  was g o i n g t o s c h o o l i n ..., she was g o i n g t o s c h o o l i n ...) a n d t o l d me she h a d gone on a " c a s u a l " date with another f e l l o w . Neg - I became somewhat i l l a n d l i s t l e s s f o r s e v e r a l days. Pos - we d i s c u s s e d t h e m a t t e r . My j e a l o u s y i n d i c a t e d t o h e r t h a t I was s e r i o u s about h e r . I f I f o u n d o u t t h a t my w i f e c a r e d more a b o u t a n o t h e r male t h a n m y s e l f . G i r l f r i e n d d i s c o v e r e d d a t i n g a n o t h e r guy. P o s i t i v e - made me aware t h a t I was n o t a s i n d i s p e n s i b l e as I thought. N e g a t i v e - made me not t r u s t women anymore. F i n d i n g my p r e s e n t g i r l f r i e n d i n t i m a t e w i t h someone e l s e . S e p a r a t e d w i f e g o i n g o u t w i t h an o l d b o y f r i e n d ( v e r y . m i n o r j e a l o u s r e s p o n s e , b u t I was aware of i t ) . May h a v e i n t r o d u c e d a v e r y m i n o r b i t o f s t r a i n i n t o an o t h e r w i s e e x t r e m e l y a m i c a b l e s e p a r a t i o n . . I emphasize the "minor": i t i s h a r d l y w o r t h y o f comment. Cannot v i s u a l i z e any s i t u a t i o n a t t h e moment, s i n c e I have no c l o s e c u r r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h anyone. I t r y n o t t o d w e l l on any p a r t i c u l a r e v e n t o r i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t makes me f e e l j e a l o u s , however, i n g e n e r a l , s i t u a t i o n s where a n o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l i s i n my e y e s more s u c c e s s f u l ; be i t in t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with other people or i n what t h e y do w e l l c o u l d c a u s e j e a l o u s y . No e v e n t , o t h e r t h a n t h e immediate one c a u s i n g j e a l o u s y , has been' more ' extreme' 'than t h e l a s t ' . A l l s u c h e x p e r i e n c e s make me s t r i v e h a r d e r t o a c h i e v e something t h a t o t h e r s can a t t a i n but I feel I can't. (No r e s p o n s e ) 1  29. 30. 69  28.  29.  30.  An e x t r e m e l y i n t e n s e , p r o l o n g e d , y e t t e n u o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p ; i n which p a r t n e r c a s u a l l y e x p r e s s e s a t t r a c t i o n f o r a n o t h e r male p e r c e i v e d by me t o be a more a c c o m p l i s h e d , dynamic a n d c a p a b l e i n d i v i d u a l than m y s e l f . P o s : s h a r i n g f e e l i n g s w i t h p a r t n e r . Neg: a f t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p h a d ended t h e e v e n t c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e f e e l i n g s t h a t t h e p a r t n e r h a d been i n s i n c e r e and ( d i s ) h o n e s t i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p ( w i t h h e r s e l f a n d me). P r e s e n t p a r t n e r c h a n g i n g and s u b s e q u e n t l y  223  finding.the relationship didn't whereas someone e l s e c o u l d . 70  28. 29. 30.  71  28. 29. 30.  72  28.. 29. 30.  73  28. 29.  30.  meet h e r  needs  F i n d i n g my g i r l f r i e n d i n t i m a t e l y d a n c i n g w i t h another person. N e g a t i v e e f f e c t : break r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h friends. P o s i t i v e e f f e c t : t r y t o be l e s s possessive. At t h i s t i m e i n l i f e I do not have any f e e l i n g of j e a l o u s y . A f t e r s e e i n g my f i r s t and most i m p o r t a n t p e r s o n i n l i f e , i n an i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o p r o v o k e my s e n s e s . As a s i d e e f f e c t h e l p e d me t o g e t m y s e l f more together. N e g a t i v e p a r t was t h e t r u s t w h i c h I c o u l d not s h a r e 100% w i t h h e r anymore. Unknown a t t h e moment. P e r c e p t i o n t h a t my h i g h s c h o o l s w e e t h e a r t was i n t e r e s t e d i n another f e l l o w . L i t t l e e f f e c t as j e a l o u s y d i d n o t m a n i f e s t i t s e l f to person involved. J e a l o u s y proved unfounded. S i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n as d e s c r i b e d i n 28 a b o v e . My w i f e s p e n d i n g an e v e n i n g j u s t t a l k i n g w i t h a m u t u a l man f r i e n d who was f o n d o f h e r . R e a l i z e d t h a t my j e a l o u s y was a r e s u l t of n o t t r u s t i n g my s p o u s e - l e a r n e d t o be more t r u s t i n g and r e s p e c t f u l of her c o n t a c t w i t h other men. My w i f e becoming i n v o l v e d i n a l o n g - t e r m emotional r e l a t i o n s h i p with another man.  224  APPENDIX E R e s p o n s e s t o Item  120  225  The f o l l o w i n g questionnaire 120.  How  are subjects' verbatim i t e m 120:  responses  to  would you d e f i n e j e a l o u s y ?  Subject  Female S u b j e c t s ' R e s p o n s e s  01  ( j e a l o u s y i s ) f e a r of not h a v i n g the r e q u i r e d p r o p o r t i o n of a l o v e d - o n e ' s a f f e c t i o n s - i n s e c u r i t y .  02  an a u t o m a t i c st imulus.  03  an e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e t o a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h one c a n n o t c o n t r o l by l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s .  04  d e s p e r a t e l y w a n t i n g t o be l i k e someone e l s e ( w h i c h i n c l u d e s h a v i n g " t h i n g s " h e / s h e has o r h a v i n g p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , e t c . ) which i s i n h e r e n t l y a futile desire.  05  an" e m o t i o n  06  t h e most h o r r i b l e p r e - o c c u p y i n g e m o t i o n t o experience. T h e r e i s no c u r e o r way o u t .  07  a p h y s i c a l or emotional r e a c t i o n i n response to a f e a r o f l o s i n g your l o v e r ( e t c . ) t o someone e l s e . You c a n a l s o be e n v i o u s o r ( i . e . ) j e a l o u s of m a t e r i a l t h i n g s someone e l s e h a s .  08  f e e l i n g i n s e c u r e o r t h r e a t e n e d by t h e l o s s o f someone o r s o m e t h i n g , hence p o s s e s s i v e and w a n t i n g t o hang on, have a l l to-- one's- s e l f .  09  an i r r a t i o n a l , p a i n f u l , c r i p p l i n g e m o t i o n w h i c h c r e a t e s i n me deep f e e l i n g s o f d e s p a i r and powerlessness. I t only e x i s t s in r e l a t i o n s h i p to a man I have d e c i d e d t o l o v e , s u r r e n d e r e d t o , and t h e n been b e t r a y e d o r a b a n d o n e d .  10  a n e g a t i v e e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n t o someone o r some s i t u a t i o n i n which you f e e l d e p r i v e d .  11  an e m o t i o n t h a t b r i n g s on f r u s t r a t i o n , a n g e r , and retaliation. The e m o t i o n i s c a u s e d by b a s i c d i s t r u s t i n my c a s e a c t u a t e d by a more s u c c e s s f u l r ival.  12  the f e e l i n g  response  based  f o l l o w e d by a  on p a r a n o i a and  aroused  particular  insecurity.  when one t h i n k s one i s l o s i n g  226  s o m e t h i n g d e a r t o one's s e l f anything to regain i t . 13  i s wanting else.  affection  14  the d e s i r e  t o be  15  the  16  17  18  reaction  that  of  is helpless  to  do  i s b e i n g g i v e n t o someone  something  to loss  and  you  are  not.  affection.  -a s e v e r e amount of i n d i g n a t i o n a r i s i n g r i v a l r y w i t h someone c l o s e t o m y s e l f . f e l t j e a l o u s o f p e o p l e I d o n ' t know.)  through (I have  never  e m o t i o n s t h a t a r e b r o u g h t t o s u r f a c e by i n n e r m o s t t h o u g h t s and i d e a l s of what i s r i g h t a n d / o r a c c e p t a b l e t o one's s e l f . . i n a n s w e r i n g , I have c o n c e n t r a t e d ~ o n t h e s e x u a l a s p e c t of j e a l o u s y , not on n o n - s e x u a l r i v a l r y o r coveting. T h e r e f o r e , my d e f i n i t i o n of s p e c i f i c j e a l o u s y i s f e a r of c o m p e t i t i o n f o r someone's a f f e c t i o n , sexual a t t e n t i o n .  19  an e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e u s u a l l y i n t e n s e and p a i n f u l an i m a g i n e d o r r e a l s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g y o u r m a t e / s e x u a l p a r t n e r and a n o t h e r p e r s o n .  20  a horrid  21  d o u b t / c o n c e r n / c o n f u s i o n a b o u t one's own p o s i t i o n h e l d i n r e s p e c t t o t h a t of a n o t h e r w h e t h e r i t be concerning material/maternal matters.  22  a f e e l i n g you g e t when someone e l s e always" wanted' to- be o r were.  23  envious  24  a f e e l i n g of b e i n g l e f t w i t h someone you l o v e .  25  a r e a c t i o n of h u r t and b e t r a y a l t o an i n s e n s i t i v i t y on t h e p a r t o f a p e r s o n d e a l about.  awful  feeling.  of a n o t h e r ' s  i s what  you  person. out  of a p l e a s a n t  insecurity.  27  fear  28  n a t u r a l r e a c t i o n t o b e i n g e x c l u d e d from an p a r t of a p e r s o n ' s l i f e whom you had t r i e d  someone you  situation  a c t i o n of I care a great  26  of l o s i n g  to  l o v e t o someone  else. intimate to share  227  a l l w i t h - a f e a r of not b e i n g " g i v i n g " enough p r o v i d e t h a t p e r s o n w i t h enough. for better  29  a desire  30  envy of a n o t h e r p e r s o n ' s s i t u a t i o n s , r e l a t i o n s , o r p o s s e s s i o n s ; but whereas envy i s not u s u a l l y n e g a t i v e , j e a l o u s y d e f i n i t e l y i s n e g a t i v e , and o f t e n c a n become a p r o b l e m f o r a l l c o n c e r n e d .  31  an  32  a  33  a f e e l i n g of r e s e n t m e n t f e e l they pose a t h r e a t  34  c o n d i t i o n e d emotion self-esteem.  35  i n a b i l i t y to t r u l y accept situations/relationships.  36  a deep i n s e c u r i t y about another p e r s o n a c t i v i t i e s t h a t d o n ' t i n c l u d e you.  37  t h e f e e l i n g I have.when I see someone e l s e r e c e i v i n g t h e a t t e n t i o n of a l o v e d one w h i c h I t h o u g h t was the k i n d of a t t e n t i o n o n l y g i v e n t o me.  38  anger  39  (no  40  b e i n g t o o p r o t e c t i v e of t h e ca-re for- has' w.ith^ others*.  41  f e a r of envy of  42  a f e e l i n g t h a t r e s u l t s when you a r e c o v e t i n g some s i t u a t i o n or b e i n g u n a b l e t o make someone the way you want them t o be.  43  a very helped  44  t h e f e a r of (and something h i g h l y  45  a f e e l i n g of held in high  envy of  another  f e e l i n g of  at  things/  to  situations etc.  p e r s o n ' s p o s i t i o n or a t t r i b u t e s .  inadequacy.  injustice  towards another p e r s o n . t o you i n some way.  b a s e d on  of  not  i n s e c u r i t y and  You  low  certain  being  loved  and  their  enough.  response) contacts  someone  you  l o s i n g my h u s b a n d t o a more b e a u t i f u l woman; a n o t h e r g i r l ' s good l o o k s .  i n t e n s e e m o t i o n a l h u r t w h i c h can u s u a l l y by d i s c u s s i n g i t w i t h a c l o s e p e r s o n . reaction valued.  having regard  to)  l o s i n g someone  l o s t the a t t e n t i o n or e s t e e m .  of  be  or  someone  228  Male S u b j e c t s '  Responses  46  p o s s e s s i v e n e s s , and a p e r c e p t i o n t h a t . o n e ' s p o s s e s s o r y i n t e r e s t i s c h a l l e n g e d ; or a d e s i r e t o a q u i r e s o m e t h i n g or someone i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n of another.  47  f e a r i n g complete l o s s very p o s i t i v e about.  48  r i v a l r y , s e n s e of ( p o s s i b l e ) l o s s , b e i n g a l o n e or i n f e r i o r .  49  f e a r of l o s s one (wife).  50  s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y based my c a s e .  51  f e e l i n g e n v i o u s of o t h e r p e r s o n s b e i n g s i t u a t i o n I would l i k e t o be i n . .  52  (no  53  a h o s t i l e e m o t i o n t o w a r d one who I, at the f e e l t o have an a d v a n t a g e o v e r me. I. have e x p e r i e n c e d j e a l o u s y i n an i n t r a - p e r s o n a l experience.  54  built-in  55  an i r r a t i o n a l person.  56  r e s e n t f u l and e n v i o u s f e e l i n g s a n d / o r b e h a v i o r ; a f e a r f u l n e s s of l o s i n g a f f e c t i o n ; c o v e t o u s n e s s or g u a r d e d a t t i t u d e t o w a r d someone's a t t a i n m e n t s / some p e r s o n , w i t h p o s s i b l e c o r o l l a r y of p e r c e i v e d rivalry.  57  feeling  58  e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e t o an u n f a i r d e c e p t i o n or i n t e r f e r e n c e - being forced to play with h a l f deck.  of a c o n t a c t  (to another  person  I  was  envy,  feeling fear  of  or p u r s u i t ) of  loved  on m o t h e r ' s a f f e c t i o n s  in  in a  response)  possessive  59  somewhat envy.  60  sickness.  instinct.  feeling  t h a t you're  irrational  time, never  of p o s s e s s i v e n e s s  not  good  - f o r me  of  another  enough.  a real  gut  a  feeling  of  229  61  t h e f e e l i n g y o u g e t when someone e l s e p o s i t i o n ( s ) you p r i z e .  62  envy w i t h  63  n a t u r a l r e s u l t when one who i s t r u s t e d w i t h o n e ' s innermost f e e l i n g s b e t r a y s the r e l a t i o n s h i p .  64  emotional emotional  65  an e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n ( o f t e n m a n i f e s t e d p h y s i c a l l y (e.g.) s t r e s s response) t o the r e a l or p e r c e i v e d f e a r of l o s s of a f f e c t i o n .  66  a manifestation  67  t h e f e e l i n g " o f i n s e c u r i t y and" p a i n i n d u c e d by t h e t h o u g h t t h a t someone e l s e has a g r e a t e r a t t r a c t i o n t o one's p a r t n e r t h a n o n e s e l f , even when r a t i o n a l l y , t h a t a t t r a c t i o n c a n n o t be j u s t i f i e d .  68  an e m o t i o n a l s t a t e i n i t i a t e d by a f e e l i n g o f i n a d e q u a c y o r h o p e l e s s n e s s c o u p l e d w i t h someone e l s e ' s a b i l i t y t o cope e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h t h e situation.  69  f e e l i n g of i n s e c u r i t y a r i s i n g from s i t u a t i o n s where an i m p e n d i n g l o s s o f an i n t i m a t e p a r t n e r i s p e r c e i v e d (be i t r e a l o r i m a g i n a r y ) and t h e a g g r e s s i v e r e a c t i o n s w h i c h stem from t h e f e e l i n g s o f insecurity.  70  feeling  71  t h e e x t r e m e o f l o v e o r c a r e f o r somebody o r something i s t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t of j e a l o u s y .  72  f e a r o f d i m i n u t i o n o r l o s s o f someone o r s o m e t h i n g ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p r e l a t i v e t o me.  73  a lack  regard  to another's  i s i n the  affection.  d i s e a s e common i n p e o p l e w i t h narrow e x p e r i e n c e and f e e l i n g s o f i n s e c u r i t y .  o f one's own  self  esteem.  of p o s s e s s i v e n e s s .  of t r u s t  i n your  partner.  230  APPENDIX "F R e s p o n s e s t o Item  123  231  The f o l l o w i n g a r e s u b j e c t s ' v e r b a t i m q u e s t i o n n a i r e item 123:  responses  to  O t h e r i n s i g h t s / t h o u g h t s / e x p e r i e n c e s I have had w i t h / a b o u t j e a l o u s y and w i s h t o s h a r e a t t h i s t i m e . D i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l , r e l i g i o u s , l i n g u i s t i c or any o t h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s w i l l be g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . I f , f o r example, you a r e aware of a few or s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t words f o r j e a l o u s y i n o t h e r l a n g u a g e s p l e a s e p r e s e n t them and e x p l a i n t h e i r d i s t i n c t i o n .  Subject  Female S u b j e c t s '  Responses  02  I d i d t h e "EST t r a i n i n g " and f o u n d i t t o be the i n c r e d i b l e i n s i g h t i n t o my j e a l o u s y e v e r . I am f i n e w i t h my j e a l o u s y .  most now  03  I have known more o v e r t l y j e a l o u s / p o s s e s s i v e males, than females. I t seems s i m i l a r t o me t o a n g e r or g r i e f or s e n t i m e n t a l i t y -- an e m o t i o n not e a s i l y . disciplined. -  04  I f e e l I have "overcome" j e a l o u s y b e c a u s e I have come t o s t r o n g l y b e l i e v e t h a t e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l i s u n i q u e and has h i s own p l a c e i n t h e scheme of t h i n g s and I c o u l d n ' t p o s s i b l y s t r i v e / w a n t t o be l i k e anyone e l s e .  05  J e a l o u s y i s b a s e d on an i n s e c u r e c l i n g i n g a t t i t u d e . I t p l a c e s a q u a n t i t a t i v e q u a l i t y on l o v e i . e . " i f you l o v e him t h e n you must t h e r e f o r e l o v e me l e s s " . T h i s i s f a u l t y t h i n k i n g , but common! When I l o o k t o my mate f o r a p p r o v a l , I i n t e r p r e t h i s " a p r o v a l " of a n o t h e r woman ( e s p e c i a l l y one t h a t I am a t t r a c t e d t o ) as a r e j e c t i o n of me. Result? -- r a g e , i n d i g n a t i o n , f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y and humiliation. I can a c c e p t h i s f l i r t a t i o n s i f I f e e l s t r o n g , a t t r a c t i v e and " n o t i c e d " . If I feel ugly, weak and i n s e c u r e , I c a n n o t t o l e r a t e even m i l d f l i r t a t i o n s on h i s p a r t .  06  To l o v e someone d e e p l y i s t h e most w o n d e r f u l human experience. F e a r of l o s i n g t h a t l o v e t o someone e l s e b r i n g s upon j e a l o u s y . N a t u r a l l y the p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s a r e g o i n g t o be i n t e n s e , and t h e f r u s t r a t i n g t h i n g a b o u t i t i s t h a t you have no c o n t r o l of y o u r e m o t i o n s or y o u r s i t u a t i o n . Great questionnaire! I enjoyed p a r t i c i p a t i n g . P.S. Even t o f i l l out a q u e s t i o n n a i r e a b o u t the most i n t e n s e e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h o c c u r r e d some 13 y e a r s ago, I s t i l l can f e e l t h e p a i n a t t h e t h o u g h t of what I went  232  through at  the  time.  08  When I was a c h i l d , my mother, whose E n g l i s h was not v e r y good, t a l k e d o f j e a l o u s y when she meant e n v y . I t was y e a r s b e f o r e I c l a r i f i e d t h e c o n f u s i o n -i n t e r e s t i n g example of how l a n g u a g e c a n shape c o n c e p t s and hence f e e l i n g s .  09  I r e a l i z e now t h a t I d o n ' t f e e l j e a l o u s b e c a u s e I a v o i d , a t g r e a t c o s t s , t h o s e s i t u a t i o n s which would b r i n g j e a l o u s y (by my d e f i n i t i o n ) a b o u t . I have y e t t o d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h the f e e l i n g . This i s , a c t u a l l y , a thought provoking questionnaire.  12  My f i r s t h u s b a n d had a f f a i r s c o n s t a n t l y d u r i n g t h e 6 y e a r s we were l i v i n g t o g e t h e r . I came t o e x p e c t t h i s as commonplace i n our r e l a t i o n s h i p , and j e a l o u s y became a v e r y s e c o n d a r y i s s u e .to me n e x t t o h o n e s t y ( w h i c h I f e l t was t o t a l l y l a c k i n g ) . I find i t d i f f i c u l t t o get j e a l o u s when; I f e e l t h e r e i s l o v e b e i n g m a n i f e s t e d between two p e o p l e — my j e a l o u s y i s u s u a l l y a r o u s e d when I p e r c i e v e ( w r o n g l y or r i g h t l y ) a l o t of s e c o n d a r y m o t i v e s — e.g. revenge, wanting to i n f l i c t p a i n , f l i g h t , avoidance, e t c . and I f e e l c a u g h t up i n t h e c e n t r e of i t .  13  I u s u a l l y t r y t o a v o i d s i t u a t i o n s where j e a l o u s y could occur. I t h i n k I u s u a l l y t r y to turn i t a r o u n d so I d o n ' t f e e l j e a l o u s . I t ' s j u s t too frustrating.  16  B r i t i s h upper m i d d l e c l a s s -- j e a l o u s y i s d e f i n i t e l y a no-no. One must not g i v e way t o a l l t h o s e feelings — and so I t e n d e d t o make up a more a c c e p t a b l e e m o t i o n t o a c c o u n t f o r my b e h a v i o u r -l i k e tiredness-.  19  J e a l o u s y o f t e n seems t o be " p r o j e c t i o n " . I have a l s o n o t i c e d t h a t t h e h u s b a n d s who a r e p r o m i s c u o u s o f t e n t e n d t o be v e r y j e a l o u s and p o s s e s s i v e of t h e i r wives.  21  My e x p e r i e n c e s of b e i n g j e a l o u s have g e n e r a l l y been very mild. Most o c c a s i o n s t h a t I have been j e a l o u s have been t h o s e i n w h i c h I m i s u n d e r s t o o d my b o y f r i e n d ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r g i r l -he f a i l e d t o e x p l a i n t h e s i t u a t i o n t h o r o u g h l y .  22  I f e e l j e a l o u s y i s a p e r f e c t l y n a t u r a l r e a c t i o n and i f d e a l t w i t h p r o p e r l y , i t can h e l p you u n d e r s t a n d y o u r s e l f a whole l o t b e t t e r .  •  233  24  My p r e s e n t companion communicates h i s f e e l i n g s w i t h i n a day or two of t h e i r a r r i v a l . I t h e l p s me t o u n d e r s t a n d h i s i n s e c u r i t i e s and g i v e s me c o n f i d e n c e t h a t he w i l l a l s o u n d e r s t a n d my f e e l i n g s of j e a l o u s y when t h e y s u r f a c e .  26  In my o p i n i o n , j e a l u o s y i s j u s t a symptom of insecurity. At t h i s t i m e i n my l i f e , I do not f e e l j e a l o u s y b e c a u s e I am i n a v e r y s e c u r e r e l a t i o n s h i p and f e e l v e r y c o n f i d e n t re my own l i f e (education, self-esteem, e t c . ) .  27  I f e e l i n my y o u n g e r d a y s t h a t j e a l o u s when w i t h someone, but to my i n s e c u r i t y . I no l o n g e r s e c u r e w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p I  31  I t c o u l d be t h a t I'm not v e r y j e a l o u s as I've n e v e r been c o n f r o n t e d w i t h v e r y many s i t u a t i o n s where j e a l o u s y would a r i s e .  33  J e a l o u s y seems t o be a r e s u l t of a f e e l i n g of inadequacy i n one's s e l f . I t h i n k p e o p l e who are s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r own s e l f , t e n d t o be l e s s jealous. T h i s i n c l u d e s knowing what you a r e , and e i t h e r a c c e p t i n g what you a r e , or making an e f f o r t to improve y o u r s e l f . T h e r e i s no need t o be j e a l o u s of o t h e r s , i f t h e q u a l i t i e s t h e y p o s s e s a r e not what you d e s i r e anyway.  34  J e a l o u s y can be removed by a l l o w i n g one's t r u e l o v e to emerge — l o v e b a s e d i n t r u t h as o p p o s e d t o a n t i c i p a t e d r e w a r d s -- I have e x p e r i e n c e d p e r i o d s of no j e a l o u s y .  35  As I g e t - o l d e r , j e a l o u s y a f f e c t s me' f a r less-, the c a u s e s a r e c o m p l e t e l y different.  36  I t h i n k the more d e f i n e d and s e c u r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p or f r i e n d s h i p i s , the l e s s need I f e e l t o be jealous. T h a t h o l d s even t r u e r f o r how s e c u r e and c o n f i d e n t one i s w i t h o n e s e l f . T h a t i s what I a n a l y s e when I f e e l j e a l o u s .  37  I f i n d j e a l o u s y t o be the o p p o s i t e of l o v e . When I f e e l one I c a n n o t f e e l the o t h e r a t t h e same t i m e . H a t e and l o v e can l i v e t o g e t h e r t h o u g h . Therefore, i f I am f e e l i n g j e a l o u s , I am not l o v i n g t h e o t h e r p e r s o n and t h a t i s m_ p r o b l e m and I can a c t on t h a t . I t may be t h a t when I f i n d my l o v e f e e l i n g s a g a i n I f i n d t h a t I m i g h t a l s o need t o do s o m e t h i n g o t h e r t h a n what I wanted -- l i k e get busy d o i n g s o m e t h i n g  I was e x t r e m e l y I f e e l t h i s was due f e e l t h i s as I f e e l have.  and  234  on my own i n s t e a d o f s h a r i n g an e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h a t other person. Often I fear l o s i n g the shared e x p e r i e n c e and i n d e e d t h e f e a r i s r e a l and w e l l f o u n d e d and what I must a c c e p t i s l o s i n g an i m a g i n e d or a n t i c i p a t e d e x p e r i e n c e . 39  When p e o p l e a r e j e a l o u s t h e y u s u a l l y have good rea.son t o be; s u c h f e e l i n g s p o i n t t o d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h one's s e l f , one's r e l a t i o n s h i p s , e t c . , t h a t a r e healthy to r e a l i z e .  40  In Mombasa (Kenya) b o t h men and women a c c e p t t h e f a c t t h a t d u r i n g t h e i r l i v e s , t h e y w i l l be a t t r a c t e d ( s e x u a l l y ) t o p e o p l e o t h e r t h a n t h e i r permanent partner. I f t h i s a t t r a c t i o n r e s u l t s i n sexual i n t i m a c y w i t h p e o p l e , o t h e r t h a n t h e permanent p a r t n e r (a c a u s e o f j e a l o u s y i n C a n a d i a n s ) , i t i s u s u a l l y viewed as p a r t o f . l i f e . B e c a u s e o f my c o n t a c t w i t h p e o p l e from Mombasa, and from l i v i n g t h e r e , I now f e e l t h a t s e x u a l c o n t a c t i s o n l y one a s p e c t of a r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t h i n k t h a t i n Canada, t h e r e i s t o o much e m p h a s i s p l a c e d on t h e s e x u a l p a r t of a r e l a t i o n s h i p -- what a b o u t f r i e n d s h i p , c o o p e r a t i o n , m u t u a l g o a l s , t o name o n l y a few o t h e r important things? By becoming j e a l o u s when y o u r p a r t n e r has s e x u a l c o n t a c t w i t h a n o t h e r , b u t n o t b e i n g j e a l o u s when t h e r e i s a warm f r i e n d s h i p means t h a t your f r i e n d s h i p w i t h your p a r t n e r i s not as important as your s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p .  41  I am c o n v i n c e d t h a t I v a l u e p h y s i c a l b e a u t y a s much a I do b e c a u s e my mother was c o n s i d e r e d t o be v e r y good-looking i n her c u l t u r e (Yugoslavs l i k e sturdy d a r k women w i t h a l a r g e bosom). She had a n i c e f i g u r e , a p r e t t y f a c e , b e a u t i f u l s t r a i g h t white t e e t h , l o v e l y legs-. A l t h o u g h she g o t f a t a f t e r I was b o r n , h e r image a s b e i n g b e a u t i f u l ( s e l f - i m a g e and view of p e o p l e a r o u n d h e r ) p e r s i s t e d . I was a s i c k l y c h i l d and n o t h i n g was done t o d i s p e l l my s e l f - i m a g e o f b e i n g a r u n t who u n f o r t u n a t e l y grew up t o be f l a t - c h e s t e d a s w e l l , w i t h c r o o k e d t e e t h and an u n f l a t t e r i n g n o s e . A l t h o u g h I have s i n c e come t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t I'm p r o b a b l y n o t much w o r s e l o o k i n g t h a n my mom ( s t i l l s l i m a f t e r two c h i l d r e n , with l e g s l i k e hers, n i c e h a i r , impressive eyes) what has been p l a n t e d i n my c h i l d h o o d s t i l l p a i n s me when I f e e l t h r e a t e n e d by a t r u l y b e a u t i f u l " w e l l d e v e l o p e d " woman. U n l e s s a mother c a n p a s s on t o her daughter t h a t the p h y s i c a l appearance of her c h i l d i s d e f i n i t e l y a t t r a c t i v e but not r e a l l y t h a t i m p o r t a n t t h a t c h i l d may have p r o b l e m s i n t h e jealousy area. U n f o r t u n a t e l y I f i n d t h a t I am  235  a l r e a d y r e p e a t i n g some of my m o t h e r ' s m i s t a k e s . My own d a u g h t e r i s an a t t r a c t i v e c h i l d b u t I w o u l d n ' t c a l l her gorgeous. I c a t c h myself saying " l i t t l e f a t t y " and r e f e r r i n g t o t h e w i d t h o f h e r n o s e . This q u e s t i o n n a i r e h a s made me more aware o f t h e f a c t t h a t I have t o watch what I'm s a y i n g t o and a b o u t her. I do t e l l h e r she has b e a u t i f u l h a i r and b e a u t i f u l eyes. E i f e r s u c h t (German f o r j e a l o u s y ) d e f i n e d i n t h e German B r o c k h a u s d i c t i o n a r y a s "a passionate s t r i v i n g f o r s o l e possession with a fear of e v e r y competitor". L j u b o s u m n o s t S l o v e n i a n ( Y u g o s l a v i a n ) -- l i t e r a l l y " s u s p i c i o n o f l o v e " ( i . e . , a s u s p e c t i n g of y o u r l o v e r ' s l o v e f o r someone e l s e ) . 44  I t i s n o t good t o deny one's own f e e l i n g s and be t h e martyr of the f a m i l y . They w i l l n o t a p p r e c i a t e i t b u t . w i l l walk a l l o v e r y o u .  45  J e a l o u s y i s v e r y c o n t e x t u a l and t h e q u e s t i o n s a d d r e s s t h e v a r y i n g c o n t e x t s -- ( e . g . , i n a mentoring c o n t e x t ) . Male S u b j e c t s '  do n o t  Responses  48  Re #28 -- w h i l e t h e e v e n t d e s c r i b e d was a p r o f o u n d i n s t a n c e of j e a l o u s y i n adulthood, t h e r e i s another a n e c d o t e t h a t comes t o mind. When I was i n g r a d e 8 (aged 13) I t o o k a g i r l t o t h e s c h o o l prom. When another f e l l o w " c u t i n " d u r i n g a dance, I walked o u t s i d e w i t h a few f r i e n d s a n d a f t e r complaining about t h i s " r i v a l " , I p l a c e d a k i c k a g a i n s t t h e s c h o o l w a l l , a s o r t o f r i t u a l / m o c k d i s p l a y of a g g r e s s i o n a n d p o s s e s s i o n a g a i n s t my r i v a l dancing 'inside. K i c k i n g , y o u s e e , was a l a r g e p a r t o f the--" h a r d r o c k " o r i e n t a t i o n ... where I was r a i s e d . And so was t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a d v e r t i s i n g y o u r r i g h t s o v e r "your g i r l " a g a i n s t c o m p e t i t o r s . Generally, I do b e l i e v e t h a t j e a l o u s y i s e l e m e n t a l and t h e r e f o r e not u n n a t u r a l . I hope y o u r s t u d y t a p s i n t o t h e c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f j e a l o u s y a s w e l l a s ways i n w h i c h e x t r a o r d i n a r y j e a l o u s y c a n be a l t e r e d . F i n a l l y , a l t h o u g h I've responded i n terms of s e x u a l j e a l o u s y ( r e a l or imagined) i t i s important t o r e a l i z e t h a t j e a l o u s y emerges i n a h o s t o f o t h e r situations (intelligence, drive, nurturing a b i l i t i e s , w i t , ad i n f i n i t u m ) .  50  To t h e e x t e n t one g i v e s power away i n one's l i f e -one t h e n becomes o b s e s s e d w i t h how t h a t power i s being used.  236  54  German t r a n s l a t i o n : jealousy?  55  I t h i n k : j e a l o u s y i s "bad" b u t " n o r m a l " . but u s u a l .  56  J e a l o u s y i s s o m e t h i n g I d e f i n i t e l y know I e x p e r i e n c e l e s s t h a n most p e o p l e . I've oten caught p a r t i c u l a r h e l l f o r n o t f e e l i n g j e a l o u s about o t h e r m a l e s ' a d v a n c e s toward t h e women i n my l i f e , f o r e x a m p l e . I'm t o o s e l f - a b s o r b e d and f i e r c e l y independent. Competition i s u s u a l l y with myself. I ' v e thrown away o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t would be more m a t e r i a l l y l u c r a t i v e t h a n my o b s e s s i o n w i t h w r i t i n g a n d , consequently, the c l o s e s t I u s u a l l y get to jealousy i s envy o f m a t e r i a l g a i n w h i c h I t h e n pooh pooh w i t h some t h o u g h t o f fame o r o t h e r e g o - b l a s t . T h a t ' s my game. I j u s t d o n ' t g i v e a goddamn a b o u t most o f t h e t h i n g s most p e o p l e g e t j e a l o u s a b o u t f o r t h e s i m p l e r e a s o n t h a t I'm a l r e a d y p r e p a r e d t o l o s e most o f them c h a s i n g my w i l l - o - t h e - w i s p . Self-imposed m a r t y r d o m I s u p p o s e y o u ' d have t o c a l l i t . I a l w a y s j o k e a b o u t t h a t . . I'm a s u r v i v o r . I g e t angry and self-righteous frequently; rarely jealous. I'm t o o pompous f o r t h a t .  58  I b e l i e v e a v a r i e d l i f e w i t h a m o d e r a t e number of d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s h a s a l l o w e d me t o out-grow a y o u t h f u l tendency t o j e a l o u s y .  63  Urayamashii  64  J e a l o u s y seems t o be a c o m p o s i t e o f many d i f f e r e n t (emotions) (responses) anger, p a i n , a l l the p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s l i s t e d . T h r u e x p e r i e n c e one l e a r n s t h e i r way o u t o f s u c h an u n h e r o i c e m o t i o n . We a r e g i v e n c o n d i t i o n s , d e f i n i t i o n s and p r i n c i p l e s whereby we a r e e x p e c t e d t o l i v e o u r l i f e a n d a c h i e v e happiness. T h r u e x p e r i e n c e we l e a r n t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n we have been g i v e n i s t o o n a r r o w , i s e r r o n e o u s , does n o t a p p l y t o u s , i s s i l l y a n d we c a n b e g i n t o form a t r u e r more p e r s o n a l a n d more i n t u i t i v e p i c t u r e of the u n i v e r s e . I think that j e a l o u s y i s j u s t a symptom of a g r e a t e r p r o b l e m . Insecurity. Which i s j u s t a symptom o f h u m a n i t y ' s g r e a t e s t enemy -- f e a r . We must come t o t e r m s w i t h f e a r and assume t h a t h a p p i n e s s a n d h e a l t h i s o u r s .  68  I d o n ' t become j e a l o u s i n i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r r o m a n t i c r e a s o n s , i f t h e woman I am s e e i n g c h o o s e s t o be w i t h someone e l s e t h e n I a c c e p t t h a t a n d end  -- envy,  eifersuchtig  jealousy —  f o r envy o r Undesirable  Japanese.  237  the  relationship,  I do n o t a c c e p t this  feeling,  compromise.  70  T r y t o overcome  i t is a  killer.  71  J e a l o u s y a t a v e r y h i g h l e v e l i s a l m o s t a must o f a man's mind c h a r a c t e r i n t h e m i d d l e e a s t c o u n t r i e s , and i s known and p r a c t i c e d i n the t r a d i t i o n a l culture.  

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