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Sex role orientation : its possible impact on the marital satisfaction of dual career couples Kenney, Suzanne 1982

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SEX ROLE ORIENTATION: ITS POSSIBLE IMPACT. ON THE MARITAL SATISFACTION OF DUAL CAREER COUPLES by Suzanne Kenney A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Counsell ing Psychology) We accept th is thesis as conforming to the required standard. The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia March 1982 Suzanne Karen Kenney, 1982 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 D K - 6 ( 2 / 7 9 ) i i Abstract This study investigated the influence of sex role orientation on the marital satisfaction of dual career couples. The conceptual frame-work upon which the investigation was based was drawn from literature dealing with role change and symptomatic stresses in the l i f e s t y l e of dual career couples. The sample consisted of 46 dual career couples drawn from a large urban area on the West Coast of Canada. Three sets of hypotheses were explored, a l l using marital satis -faciton as the dependent variable. The specific hypotheses were as follows: (1) the marital satisfaction of androgynous couples is higher than the marital satisfaction of sex role stereotypic couples in dual career couples; (2) the marital satisfaction of androgynous men is higher than the marital satisfaction of sex role stereotypic men in dual career couples; (3) the marital satisfaction of wives of androgynous men is higher than the marital satisfaction of wives with sex role stereotypic husbands in dual career couples. The hypotheses were tested by the self administration of two inventories to both members of each couple. Bern's Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to identify sex role orientation and a subscale of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) was used to measure marital satisfaction. An individual was considered androgynous i f he or she scored above the median on both masculine and feminine subscales of the BSRI. Androgynous dyads were those couples in which both partners were androgynous. A i i i female par t ic ipant was considered sex ro le stereotypic i f she scored above the median on the feminine subscale and below the median on the masculine subscale of the BSRI. The reverse s i tua t ion appl ied to male par t i c ipan ts . Sex ro le stereotypic dyads were those couples in which both partners were sex ro le s tereotyp ic . To test the hypotheses, the t - t es t of the di f ference between means for independent groups was performed. Hypothesis 1 was not sustained suggesting that the mari tal sa t i s fac t i on of androgynous couples was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than the marital sa t i s fac t i on of stereotyped couples. Support was obtained for Hypotheses 2 and 3 at the .05 level of s i g n i f i -cance. These resu l ts suggest that the mari tal sa t i s fac t ion of the androgynous male was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the mari tal sa t i s fac t i on of a sex ro le stereotypic male. In add i t ion , the hypothesis that the mari tal sa t i s fac t i on of the wives of androgynous husbands was higher than the mari tal sa t i s fac t i on of wives of sex ro le stereotypic husbands was supported. In the supplementary ana lys i s , Pearson r cor re la t ion coef f i c ien ts were used to explore the re la t ionsh ip between typologies on the BSRI and the scores and subscores on the DAS. iv Table of Contents Page Abstract i i L i s t of Tables v i Acknowledgements . v i i i CHAPTER ONE Introduction 1 General Statement of the Problem 1 Sign i f icance of the Study 3 Def in i t ions of Key Terms 6 Limitat ions 8 Overview of the Study 8 CHAPTER TWO Review of the L i terature . 9 Introduction 9 Changing Roles: The Sh i f t From a Tradi t ional to an Ega l i ta r ian Orientat ion 10 Factors Influencing the Maintenance or Rejection of Tradi t ional Roles 11 D i f f i c u l t i e s Inherent in the Transi t ion 12 Symptomatic Stresses 14 Models for Change 18 Strategies for Implementing Change . . . 20 Androgyny: A F lex ib le A l ternat ive 22 Conclusion . . 23 V CHAPTER THREE Methodology 26 Sample 26 Instruments 30 Bern Sex-Role Inventory 30 Dyadic Adjustment Scale 36 Data Co l lec t ion 39 Data Analysis ' . . . . 40 CHAPTER FOUR Results 45 S t a t i s t i c a l Analyses of Hypotheses 45 Supplementary Analyses 48 Summary of Results 54 CHAPTER FIVE Summary, Discussion and Implications 56 Summary 56 Discussion of Findings 58 Discussion of Supplementary Analysis 62 Methodological Limitat ions 64 Implications and Suggestions for Future Research 65 Conclusions 67 Bibl iography 69 APPENDIX A: Family Background Sheet 73 APPENDIX B: Bern Sex-Role Inventory 77 APPENDIX C: Dyadic Adjustment Scale 80 APPENDIX D: Letter of Transmittal 85 vi L i s t of Tables Page Table 1: Married Women's Par t i c ipa t ion in the Labour Force in Canada, in Accordance With Educational Level Attained 1 Table 2: Frequency (Percent) Dist r ibut ions of Experimental Subjects Within Various Categories 28 Table 3: C lass i f i ca t i on of Respondents 33 Table 4: Div is ion of Couples Into Categories According to Their Sex Role Orientat ion 42 Table 5: S ign i f icance of the Difference Between Means for Androgynous and Sex Role Stereotypic Couples on Scores of Mari ta l Sa t i s fac t ion Using a t -Test . 46 Table 6: S ign i f icance of the Difference Between Means for Androgynous Males and Sex Role Stereotypic Males on Scores of Mari ta l Sa t i s fac t ion Using a t-Test 47 Table 7: S ign i f icance of the Difference Between Means for Wives of Androgynous and Sex Role Stereo-typ ic Men in Scores of Mari ta l Sa t i s fac t ion Using a t-Test 48 Table 8: Pearson r Correlat ion Coef f ic ients for Scale and Subscale Scores: Averaged Scores for Couples (n = 46) 49 v i i Table 9: Pearson r Correlat ion Coef f ic ient for Scale and Subscale Scores: Female Scores (n = 46) . . . 51 Table 10: Pearson r Corre lat ion Coef f ic ient for Scale and Subscale Scores: Male Scores 53 v i i i Acknowledgements I would l i k e to extend my thanks to my thesis committee. My chairperson, Dr. John Fr iesen, who acted as both my research and c l i n i c a l adv isor , has offered me sincere support and encouragement in my pro-fess ional development as a c l i n i c i a n and researcher. Dr. Harold Ratz la f f has taught me a l l I know about s t a t i s t i c s and pat ient ly con-tended with my anxiety about "numbers." Although Dr. Sharon Kahn was on sabbatical during the l a t t e r stages of my t hes i s , I appreciated her assistance during the prel iminary stages of my research. To the dual career couples who par t ic ipated in my research, I am extremely apprec ia t ive. Needless to say, the i r contr ibut ion was the essence of th is t hes i s . To Pau l , my partner in a dual career marriage, I am espec ia l l y thankful fo r his ongoing support throughout the creat ive process of my completing a graduate degree. I 1 CHAPTER ONE Introduction The s t r u c t u r e of the f a m i l y i s being reshaped by dual career couples who no longer view the t r a d i t i o n a l m a r i t a l arrangement as v i a b l e . The husband as breadwinner and the wife as homemaker no longer represent the s t e r e o t y p i c norm as i n c r e a s i n g numbers of married women become members of the labour f o r c e . This change would suggest a r e d e f i n i t i o n of sex r o l e behaviours w i t h i n the m a r i t a l dyad with a new formula r e -quired f o r d i s t r i b u t i n g the d i v i s i o n of labour. A s h i f t from a t r a d i -t i o n a l to an e g a l i t a r i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p seems imminent. General Statement of the Problem Dual career couples of today have been s o c i a l i z e d w i t h i n a value system that has endorsed a t r a d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between husbands and wives. Few e g a l i t a r i a n r o l e models have e x i s t e d f o r these s o c i a l innovators. Rather than seeking out more adaptive behaviours to meet t h e i r needs, dual career couples have reverted to known sex r o l e s t e r e o -t y p i c behaviour. A r i g i d d e f i n i t i o n of what i s appropriate male or female r o l e s i s juxtaposed onto a l i f e s t y l e that r e q u i r e s the f l e x i b l e sharing of tasks. Attempts by these s o c i a l innovators to experiment with cross sex behaviour i s often met by scorn and r i d i c u l e . A sense of bucking the system confronts dual career couples and r e v e r t i n g to t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s of labour seems to represent the most s o c i a l l y accepted a l t e r n a t i v e . Thus the working wife continues to 2 assume the ro le of homemaker in addi t ion to maintaining her posi t ion as a breadwinner. An underlying resentment accompanies th is demanding dual task; and although husbands are quick to support the notion of equa l i t y , congruence may not ex is t between what husbands announce as the i r be l i e f system and how much time they are prepared to put into household tasks. Thus ega l i ta r ian ism, although espoused as a theoret ica l i d e a l , appears to f a l l short of being an empirical r e a l i t y . The homeostasis of the family system is in a state of imbalance with old t rad i t i ona l d iv is ions of labour no longer su i tab le for the new demands of dual career couples. The resu l t ing dissonance is manifested in the often described stresses of the dual career couple, for example, over load, environmental sanct ions, mul t ip le ro le c y c l i n g , etc.(Rapoport and Rapoport, 1978). The thrust of the present invest igat ion is to examine an underlying factor that may inf luence the degree to which dual career couples are able to a l l ev i a te these s t resses. This process involves looking beyond the symptomatic stresses and examining the i n -f luence of sex ro le or ientat ion on the mari tal sa t i s fac t i on of dual career couples. Perhaps such an explorat ion can contr ibute to an under-standing of how an obsolete t rad i t i ona l d i v i s i on of labour can be abandoned and how the restructur ing of the family system can begin. Restructuring the family system i s not easy because of i t s resistance to change. Laws do not ex is t to sanction equal i ty wi thin the privacy of the mari tal dyad nor are mari tal dynamics monitored to ensure that an equitable d i v i s i on of labour ac tua l ly e x i s t s . In th is respect, the occupational sphere i s fur ther ahead in demonstrating ega l i t a r i an -3 ism. The evolut ion of the family w i l l be a longer, more painful pro-cess. Changes in the intimate in teract ions between husbands and wives w i l l require a more thorough remapping of sex ro le or ientat ions than has been required in the workplace. The struggle to achieve ega l i t a r i an -ism is a d i f f i c u l t one when dual career couples are required to make the changes from within rather than being forced to do so by l e g i s l a t i o n . S ign i f icance of the Study The interpersonal dynamics of dual career couples represent a new stage in the evolut ion of the fami ly ; and, as such, the i r re la t ionsh ip becomes a r i ch test ing ground for observing how change occurs. Although dual career couples have existed in the past, the considerat ion of the i r l i f e s t y l e as a v iab le a l te rnat ive i s recent. Their increasing numbers are demanding a t ten t ion . The dynamics of dual career marriages may provide the connecting l ink between what was ( t rad i t i ona l ) and what w i l l be (ega l i t a r i an ) . In a sense, they are pioneers for fami l ies of tomorrow, and may cont r ib-ute to the creat ion of a new hybrid species, one in which men and women w i l l hopeful ly be freed to explore a l l of the i r capab i l i t i es rather than being res t r i c ted to what has been ca l led gender appropriate. The stresses that accompany th is t rans i t i on may be perceived as being re -lated to the newness of th i s soc ia l pattern rather than being inherent to the l i f e s t y l e i t s e l f (Holmstrom, 1972). The dual career couple arrangement, although seen for some time as a var iant l i f e s t y l e , i s becoming more and more evident as a v iab le a l te rna t i ve . As economic and ideologica l factors contr ibute to women's 4 returning and remaining in the workplace, the problems inherent to the dual career l i f e s t y l e w i l l demand more a t tent ion. Ins t i tu t iona l changes are in evidence as can be seen in the expansion of day care f a c i l i t i e s and the pressure for more f l e x i b l e time schedules. P o l i t i c a l l y numbers ta lk and the voices of dual career couples w i l l be attended to as they comprise a growing proportion of the labour force. In 1977, 44.1% of married women were in the work force in Canada (Women's Bureau, 1977); and, i f the present growing trend continues, the percentage w i l l undoubtedly increase. This percentage represents a marked increase over the 1967 rate o f 28.3%. These f igures tend to de-bunk the myth of the t rad i t i ona l system as representing the national norm. In te res t ing ly , the l i ke l ihood of women opting for par t i c ipa t ion in the labour force tends to increase with the i r educational level with the 1976 Census providing confirmatory data (see Table 1). The recognit ion of the dual career couple's impact on soc ia l change i s being seen. Family theor is ts are beginning to conceptualize new stages in the family l i f e cyc le as the ex is t ing frameworks become anachronist ic . Counsell ing st rategies are being revised to accommodate the new and d i f fe rent demands of the dual career couple. Role theor is ts are already replacing r i g i d de f in i t i ons of what are s te reo typ ica l l y male and female behaviours with the broader concept of androgyny. The l i f e s t y l e of dual career couples i s receiv ing a lo t of a t ten-t ion in both professional journals and the popular press. The tendency of researchers has been to focus the i r at tent ion on the stresses i n -herent to the l i f e s t y l e . These s t resses, however, are merely symptomatic Table 1 Married Women's Par t ic ipat ion in the Labour Force in Canada in Accordance With Educational Level At ta ined* Educational Level Attained: Less Post Than Secondary Some Universi ty Grade 9 9-10 11 12-13 Not Univers i ty Universi ty Degree Par t i c ipa t ion in the Labour Force (percentage) 29.0 39.5 45.0 50.5 53.5 58.0 64.0 * Female population 15 years and over in occupies pr ivate dwell ings in which the women are married and the husband i s presentsn the home. Included in the percentages given are women with and without ch i ld ren . From: Census of Canada. Labour Force Ac t i v i t y by Marital Status, Age and Sex, Catalogue 94-805, Bu l l e t i n 5.6. Minister of Supply and Serv ices, Canada, 1978. 6 of underlying issues. As discussed above, th is invest igat ion addressed the underlying issue of sex ro le or ientat ion and i t s ef fect on the marital sa t i s fac t i on of these soc ia l innovators. The spec i f i c questions being addressed were: 1. Is the mari tal sa t i s fac t i on of androgynous couples higher than the marital sa t i s fac t i on of sex ro le stereotypic couples in dual career couples? 2. Is the mari tal sa t i s fac t i on of androgynous men higher than the mari tal sa t i s fac t i on of sex ro le stereotypic men in dual career couples? 3. Is the mari tal sa t i s fac t i on of wives with androgynous hus-bands higher than the mari tal sa t i s fac t i on of wives with sex ro le stereotypic husbands in dual career couples? Def in i t ion of Key Terms Several terms w i l l be mentioned in th is thesis whose de f in i t i ons are being provided to f a c i l i t a t e the reader 's understanding of the study. Dual career Mari ta l dyads in which both partners are employed on a couples: f u l l time bas is , i . e . , for ty hours per week. Androgynous Individuals who report that they enjoy the freedom to i nd i v idua ls : engage in whatever behaviours are s i t ua t i ona l l y appropriate regardless of gender ro le prescr ip t ions . These ind iv idua ls are i den t i f i ed as being androgynous on Bern's Sex Role Inventory, i . e . , they would reg is te r high masculine-high feminine scores. 7 Androgynous couples: Couples in which both partners are i den t i f i ed as being androgynous on Bern's Sex Role Inventory, i . e . , both partners w i l l reg is ter high masculine--high feminine scores. Sex ro le stereotypic ind iv idua ls : Individuals who report a high degree of e i ther stereo-typ ic masculine or feminine t r a i t s with a low degree of the opposite, with the behaviour being gender appropriate. Cross sex behaviours: Behaviours demonstrated by women that have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been labe l led masculine and vice versa. Mar i ta l sa t i s f ac t i on : F l e x i b l e : I n f l ex ib le : Feminine: An ever changing process with a qua l i ta t i ve dimension which can be evaluated at any point on a continuum from very s a t i s f i e d to d i s s a t i s f i e d (Spanier, 1976). Androgynous behaviours. Sex ro le stereotypic behaviour which r e s t r i c t s i n d i v i d -uals from exploring opposite sex behaviours. An adject ive to describe behaviour that i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y associated with women. Masculine: An adject ive to describe behaviour that i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y associated with men. Trad i t ional re la t ionsh ips : Relat ionships in which the partners have adopted sex ro le stereotypic behaviours. 8 Ega l i ta r ian Relationships in which there are two jobs for the wife re la t ionsh ips : and two jobs for the husband, i . e . , the j o i n t a l l o c a -t ion of tasks as homemaker and breadwinner i s shared. L imitat ions The par t ic ipants in th is study were not randomly se lec ted; therefore, the resu l ts may only be considered relevant to the subjects studied and may not be general izable to other dual career couples. Results are fur ther l imi ted by the canvassing of a volunteer sample, a sample that may have a response set that d i f f e rs from an involuntary populat ion. Overview of the Study An introduct ion of the study has been presented in Chapter One. The conceptual foundation for th is research i s provided in Chapter Two, which contains a review of the relevant l i t e r a t u r e . This chapter con-cludes by s ta t ing the research hypotheses. Chapter Three out l ines the methodology of the study and w i l l be followed in Chapter Four and Five by a presentation of the resu l ts and a discussion of the impl icat ions a r i s ing out of these f indings as well as suggestions for fur ther research. 9 CHAPTER TWO Review of the Literature Introduction The structure of the modern family is being stretched and reshaped to accommodate many new, alternate l i f e styles. An examination of the impact of this process is not an easy task because as Rapoport and Rapoport (1975) explain the private l i f e of a family is so intractable. Intimate relationships are deeply rooted in personal history and d i f f i c u l t to subject to governmental regulations. In Chaffee's (1940) portrayal.of the family, the institutional aspects represent a cell wall which encapsulates the dynamic protoplasm within and protects the private aspects of the family from scrutiny. Group expectations and controls are reflected in this protective cover-ing and give the family a certain r i g i d i t y . Chaffee describes the internal, private aspects as the exciting idiosyncratic part of the family that is determined by the habits and dispositions of its members and the roles they assume. As the dynamic elements within exert pressure, the institutional shell begins to crack and the gradual reshaping of the family occurs. One manifestation of this process is reflected in the creation of the dual career marriage as a viable alternative to the more traditional option of the man as breadwinner, and the woman as homemaker. This cracking of the shell cannot take place without trauma and thus dual career couples, as social innovators, are confronted with the pain of 10 redesigning the i r modern marriage. From Chaffee's (1940) viewpoint, the d i f f i c u l t i e s of these soc ia l innovators are seen as t rans i t i ona l and the restorat ion of balance would be expected as they move through a stage in soc ia l evolut ion to -ward a more symmetrical arrangement (Ba i l yn , 1978). I f , on the other hand, the redesigning of the modern marriage is viewed from a soc io-b io log ica l perspect ive, as espoused by Lionel T iger , attempts to cope with the present predicament are f u t i l e . Balance w i l l not be regained un t i l women return once again to the i r proper ro le as homemakers, and men as breadwinners (Ba i l yn , 1978). Changing Roles: The Sh i f t from a Trad i t iona l to an Ega l i ta r ian Orientat ion The emergence of a dual career re la t ionsh ip would suggest the corresponding adoption of an ega l i ta r ian ideology within the marital dyad. However, the couples studied by Holmstrom (1972) were a long way from equal i ty although they deviated a great deal from t rad i t i ona l norms. Poloma (1971) describes egal i tar ian ism as a myth with only one woman out of f i f t y - t h ree cases in her study report ing an ega l i ta r ian s ta tus. Gronseth (1978) supports the myth of egal i tar ian ism in describing the double r o l e , overworked, employed housewife as the ru le rather than the exception. As suggested by Richardson (1979), the t rad i t i ona l re la t ionsh ip with i t s high segregation serves to el iminate any competition between husband and wife that might contr ibute to marital discord and endorses male supremacy. This segregation of ro les creates a s t a t i c s i tua t ion 11 which impairs a l te ra t ions as l i f e s i tuat ions change (Ba i l yn , 1978). For dual career couples, th is r i g i d i t y is problematic in a re la t ionsh ip that requires f l e x i b i l i t y . In a sense, the retent ion of t rad i t i ona l guidel ines in dual career couples juxtaposes an outmoded framework on a new, constantly sh i f t i ng l i f e s t y l e . Factors Inf luencing the Maintenance or Rejection of Tradi t ional Roles Svinovacz (1977) a t t r ibutes the degree of j o i n t versus high segre-gation of tasks to the ro le expectation of each family member as well as previous ro le patterns in the fami l ies of o r i g i n . The normative or ientat ion of the couple's soc ia l network and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of sources of support are a lso considerat ions. Rapoport and Rapoport (1969) report that fami l ies moving from well integrated urban working c lass neighbourhoods to new i n d i v i d u a l i s -t i c housing developments in suburban areas are more l i k e l y to be freed from t r a d i t i o n a l l y defined sex types and new patterns of sharing emerge. Androgynous parents in Defra in 's (1979) study reported that ro le models, the Women's Liberat ion Movement, caring for ch i ldren before the i r own were born and e a r l i e r experience running a household were factors that enabled them to j o i n t l y par t ic ipate in parental r espons ib i l i t y . In Haas' sample (1978), the achievement of an ega l i ta r ian re la t ionsh ip was based on the pursui t of goals that could not be reached through a t rad i t i ona l ro le model as well as detachment from sources of t rad i t i ona l norms such as parents and r e l i g i o n . Few of the t rad i t i ona l barr iers to an ega l i ta r ian arrangement ex is ted , for example, i n f l e x i b l e jobs, lack 12 of adequate day care; and support was provided by ro le sharing f r iends within a l i b e r a l community. F a c i l i t a t i n g husbands contributed to the successful running of ega l i ta r ian households in Rapoport and Rapoport's (1973) study of dual career couples. They provided moral support and approved of t he i r wives working. They f e l t that they must make the i r fami l ies ideal models and did a l l possib le to help the i r wives. Ass is t ing wives with problems at work, equal sharing of domestic tasks , giv ing wives a job or introduc-ing them to c l i e n t s were examples of various ways in which the husbands helped. The family benefited by experiencing f inanc ia l comfort and secur i ty . Moreover, the family environment was enriched and chi ldren gained increased independence. Addit ional advantages of choosing an ega l i ta r ian l i f e s ty le (Haas, 1978) were re f lec ted in an increase in the spouses' se l f develop-ment as well as improved husband-wife and parent-chi ld re la t i ons . The women gained le i su re time and experienced greater economic independence. The men became more se l f su f f i c i en t around the house. D i f f i c u l t i e s Inherent in the Transi t ion The condit ions out l ined above give some ind icat ion of what factors may inf luence the attainment of an ega l i ta r ian ideology within a dual career couple. However, th is p r inc ip le of equal sharing i s not accom-pl ished without d i f f i c u l t y . According to Bai lyn (1978) more energy i s required than with the ro le designated a l te rnat ive because the guide-l ines are not i m p l i c i t . In a sense, the dual career couples who opt for 13 an ega l i ta r ian re la t ionsh ip , are engaging in an experiment with soc ia l change. They are working out patterns of l i v i n g together that are without c lear precedent (Rapoport and Rapoport, 1969). Parol ius (1975) suggests that many women w i l l experience consider-able anxiety as they are caught between con f l i c t i ng de f in i t i ons of appropriate sex ro le behaviour. The women she surveyed perceived that men wanted t rad i t i ona l females and were caught in the bind of having at t i tudes that they believed men would re jec t . The women in Arnot t ' s (1972) study attempted to maintain congruence between the i r ro le behaviours, and the ro le preference of the i r husband in the fol lowing ways. Conservative women tended to do so by se l f deception and adjust-ment, moderates through se l f deception and expectation of mari tal adjust-ment and l i b e r a l s through tolerance in ant ic ipa t ion of change. The process of change may be lengthy and painful since behaviour change often lags behind at t i tude as s i tua t iona l var iables exert greater pressure on behaviour than a t t i t ude , and hampers the dual career couple 's t rans i t i on into a true ega l i ta r ian partnership. Ega l i ta r ian behaviour w i l l continue to lag behind un t i l both women's se l f image and the soc ie ta l image of women changes. In the meantime, the couples w i l l con-t inue to experience the stresses that are symptomatic of placing an out-moded t rad i t i ona l framework on a re la t ionsh ip that required f l e x i b i l i t y . Symptomatic Stresses Dual career couples, by departing from t rad i t i ona l pat terns, encounter a var ie ty of res is tances, from prac t ica l t imetabl ing d i f f i -cu l t i es to problems associated with c r i t i c a l at t i tudes toward them 14 (Rapoport and Rapoport, 1978). Five categories of stress described by Rapoport and Rapoport are: Overload, Environmental Sanct ions, Personal Ident i ty and Sel f Expression, Social Network Dilemma and Mul t ip le Role Cyc l ing . 1. Overload. There i s considerable s t ra in associated with both partners sustaining demanding occupational ro les (Rapoport and Rapoport, 1969). Each look to one another for support which i s not always a v a i l -able due to con f l i c t i ng demands. Moreover, there i s a cer ta in amount of psychic s t ra in involved in placing high importance in two major areas of l i f e , namely, home and work. With no wife to do back-up work at home, domestic tasks have to be e i ther red is t r ibuted or neglected. 2. Environmental Sanctions. Rapoport and Rapoport (1975) report that in the workplace, women are caught in the expressiveness versus instrumental i ty dilemma. Women fear being expressive because i t has been equated with non- instrumental i ty, and c i ted as a feminine qua l i ty that in ter feres with production. Holmstrom (1972), in interviewing dual career couples, described other issues that a r i s e . Employers expect employees regardless of the i r sex to subordinate the i r family a c t i v i t i e s to work demands. Few options ex is t for employees to work less than f u l l time and interrupted work h is to r ies are looked upon susp ic ious ly . Mobi l i ty i s an expected part of business with family members expected to fo l low without quest ion. Moreover, fo r cer ta in jobs , two people are expected to be ava i lab le to f u l f i l l the duties associated with one job , fo r example, the salesperson who must entertain prospec-t i ve c l i e n t s . 15 In the community, working women encounter inequal i ty of ro le designation (Bryson and Bryson, 1977) which i s re f lec ted in the assump-t ion that the professional woman should have as large a community oriented l i f e as non-working women. The dual career couple are placed in a posi t ion of deciding how much energy they are prepared to exert in to rest ructur ing the i r re la t ionships with these soc ia l i ns t i t u t i ons or less formal groups and networks. They seem to have two opt ions: become se l f r e l i an t or move toward to ta l compliance with the expecta-t ions of others (Bryson and Bryson, 1971). 3. Personal Ident i ty and Sel f Expression. According to Rapoport and Rapoport (1971), dual career couples of today have been soc ia l i zed in values of t h i r t y years ago. As the husband and wife depart from the standard pattern of behaviour, with the wife as home-maker and the husband as breadwinner, the w i fe , in pa r t i cu l a r , may be defensive about fo l lowing her chosen career. When ind iv idua ls are pushed into a pattern which i s too discrepant with the i r sense of a personal i den t i t y , defensive behaviour begins to develop. Each person has a tension l i ne beyond which i t becomes d i f f i c u l t to step, and compromises need to be worked out wi th in the framework of th is l i n e . The discrepancy between personal and soc ia l norms may be resolved but the dilemma may be react ivated at c r i t i c a l t rans i t i on points e i ther i n the family or career l i f e cycle of e i ther partner. The b i r th of the f i r s t ch i l d may create pressure for the woman to remain at home, or a job prospect for the man may cause him to feel that his wife should fo l low, of course. 16 Simply s ta ted , as the couple reshape the i r l i f e s t y l e , they are opting to deviate from the soc iocu l tura l de f i n i t i on of work and family (Rapoport and Rapoport, 1969). In addi t ion to f ight ing soc ie ta l expectat ions, they must also contend with the i r own in terna l ized se l f concept as husband provider- father and wife-mother. Deviation from these roles often brings c r i t i c i s m and pressure from those close to them (Sa f i l i os -Ro thsch i l d and D i j ke rs , 1978). 4. Social Network Dilemma. According to Rapoport and Rapoport (1969), the potent ia l f r iendship pool for the dual working couple d i f f e rs from that of the t rad i t i ona l couple. . Friends from the w i fe ' s working environment are most prominent in that other working women pro-vide environmental support to sustain the dual career couple pattern. Neighbourhood contacts are often inappropriate because the working wife has l i t t l e in common with her non-working neighbours. Wives of husband's colleagues f a l l in to the same category. Kin re la t ionships decrease except when there are c lear r espons ib i l i t i e s or compatab i l i t ies , for example, Grandma may be the surrogate parent. The couple's divergence from expected norms can cause tension to ar ise between them and the i r k ind. There i s a tendency to form fr iendships on a couple bas is . 5. Mul t ip le Role Cyc l ing . Hal l and Hall (1979) discuss the problems related to the couples' synchronizing the career cycle with the family l i f e cyc le : 17 Career Cycle Family L i f e Cycle (1) Explorat ion and T r ia l (1) The Couple (2) Getting Establ ished and (2) Expanding C i r c l e Advancing (3) Peak Period (3) Midcareer (4) Fu l l House (4) Late Career (5) Shrinking C i r c l e (6) Empty Nest In a conventional marriage, the husband's posi t ion on the career t ra jec tory i s the major concern, with the family l i f e cyc le f i t t i n g in accordingly. However, when two people are moving through the career l i f e c y c l e , complications a r i s e , for example, c o n f l i c t can be generated in the re la t ionsh ip between a person in midcareer and one in ear ly career. They are at d i f fe ren t places on the career t ra jectory with one s t i l l in the take-of f stage while the other has begun to level in terms of work involvement (Hall and H a l l , 1979). This problem is symptomatic of the woman returning to work a f ter an interrupted work h is tory . Ramifications of the Stresses The most obvious ramif icat ions are divorce or the w i fe ' s re l i nqu ish -ing her career (Holmstrom, 1972). The th i rd theoret ica l p o s s i b i l i t y is the husband's re l inquish ing his career although th is is an empirical r a r i t y . A more mul t i - faceted adjustment to each other with two outside jobs c l i c k i n g with two ins ide ones (Young and Wil lmott , 1973) w i l l add pressure to the marital dyad. Moreover, f i nanc ia l independence w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the d ist ressed couples' withdrawal from marriage. However, 18 Coser and Rokoff (1971) suggest that a high degree of interdependence between home and work, with partners creat ing substant ia l commitment to each other, m i l i t a tes against divorce and separat ion. Tension w i l l resu l t because of the unsat isfactory resolut ion of the dissonance between ideals and behaviour (Bebbington, 1973) and resent-ments w i l l a r i se . Some men w i l l feel threatened and some women gu i l t y (Hall and H a l l , 1979) with h o s t i l i t y being pent up and resentments bui ld ing when the re la t ionsh ip i s not equi table. The majority of dual career re la t ionsh ips w i l l continue to be tarnished by resentment un t i l the couples move along the continuum of soc ia l evolut ion from the i r present coping stage to a creat ive adaptation phase. Models for Change According to Holmstrom (1972), the change taking place within the family may be viewed from a p l u r a l i s t , ass im i l a t i on i s t or hybrid per-spect ive. P l u r a l i s t s support the continuation of marked dif ferences between groups whereas ass im i la t i on i s t s aspire to have minori ty groups lose the i r d i s t i n c t charac te r i s t i cs and become absorbed into the main-stream of soc ie ty . The hybrid option changes both the dominant and minori ty group. This model can be compared to the retent ion of t r a d i -t ional values versus the adoption of male charac ter is t i cs versus the implementation of an androgynous arrangement. Scanzoni 's (1979) st rategies for changing men's family roles present another viewpoint of the dilemma of changing to an ega l i ta r ian ideology. In his c o n f l i c t perspect ive, women are seen as the oppressed 19 group wanting change whereas the dominant male group r e s i s t s . This is s im i l a r to the p l u r a l i s t typology described above. In the a l t r u i s t i c st rategy, men are expected to change because i t is j us t and moral. In the se l f in terest category, men are encouraged to change because they would be better of f . To f a c i l i t a t e change, Scanzoni suggests the f l e x -i b l e use of a l l three strategies at the appropriate time. Regardless of the perspective through which change i s viewed, Rossi (1964) comments that unl ike any other type of soc ia l inequa l i t y , sex is the only instance in which the subjugated group l i ves in more intimate associat ion with i t s oppressor than with other members of i t s group. Therefore, i t would appear that sh i f t i ng from the present way of coping to an ega l i ta r ian d i v i s i on of labour i s not going to be an easy task unless the oppressor and the oppressed cooperate. The task of modifying the present s i tua t ion w i l l involve el iminat ing or modifying both the s i tuat ions that are causing stresses as well as the couple's way of responding (Hall and H a l l , 1979). The movement from a submissive-dominant arrangement ( t rad i t iona l ) to an interdependent re la t ionsh ip (ega l i ta r ian) in which more symmetri-cal family needs are ac t iva ted , requires that men and women become able to see previously forbidden parts of themselves (Berger, 1979) and ex-pand the i r de f in i t i ons of what i s deemed appropriate masculine and feminine behaviour. Two adequate se l f su f f i c i en t adults w i l l learn that the giving goes both ways and look for a balance--an equi l ibr ium that i s f l e x i b l e enough to allow for sh i f t s in s i tuat ions of stress (Cohen, 1974). This balance of interdependence rather than the imbalance of a 20 t rad i t i ona l re la t ionsh ip (Arnott , 1972) suggests, takes pressure off the nuclear family and reduces pressures which have led to increased mari tal and family problems in past years. Strategies for Implementing Change 1. Structural and Personal Role Redef in i t ion . Katz (1978) suggests that a s t ructura l ro le rede f in i t i on is required which involves delegating respons ib i l i t y to others or negotiat ing with senders about expectat ion. In add i t ion , her personal ro le rede f in i t ion strategy necessitates p r i o r i t i z i n g ro le ob l igat ion which may require a re-evaluation of ex is t ing values. Katz found that women from non- t rad i t ion-a l upbringings were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i k e l y to choose the e f fec t ive strategies jus t described whereas women from t rad i t i ona l backgrounds were more l i k e l y to choose the super mom method, namely, taking on two jobs as homemaker and breadwinner, overloading themselves rather than sharing the burden with husbands. 2. An E x p l i c i t D iv is ion of Labour. Despite a preference for a more ega l i ta r ian pattern (Rapoport and Rapoport, 1976), the conventional model w i l l , continue to be reasserted during s t ress fu l per iods. There-fore with western ideology of fer ing l i t t l e support for the dual career ega l i ta r ian pat tern, Gowler and Legge (1978) suggest that couples need to make e x p l i c i t many of the assumptions and expectations each partner holds so that under the pressure of overload the couple does not revert to an asymmetrical pat tern, or a l t e rna t i ve l y , the d isso lu t ion of the re la t ionsh ip . Gowler and Legge go on to say that the couples need to 21 make e x p l i c i t what mutual r ights and obl igat ions both partners think they should have in re la t ion to a spec i f i c issue. Secondly, they need to determine what they think they can p rac t i ca l l y undertake. The resu l t ing d i v i s ion of labour, possibly made e x p l i c i t in a wr i t ten con-t r a c t , may be more l o g i c a l l y based on pragmatic reasons such as a v a i l -a b i l i t y of t ime, s k i l l , in terest and enjoyment rather than on t rad i t i ona l presumptions (Holmstrom, 1972). 3. Segmenting Work and Home L i f e . Within the mari tal dyad, couples are segmenting the i r work and home l i f e by strengthening the boundaries between fam i l i a l and occupational r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . A l t e r -na t i ve l y , couples are opting for an independent re la t ionsh ip in which each fol lows his or her optimal career path and the couple adapts to the consequences that ensue. 4. Recycling Stages. Couples are a lso recyc l ing stages in work and family events, fo r example, couples are wait ing un t i l t he i r mid-30's to have the i r f i r s t ch i l d at a time when both are securely establ ished in the i r respect ive careers (Ba i l yn , 1978). 5. Occupational Mob i l i t y . Holmstrom (1972) recommends that couples embarking upon a dual career re la t ionsh ip are better of f when both have occupational mob i l i t y , namely, can pract ise the i r trade in a wide var ie ty of p laces, for example, a free lance wr i ter rather than a Sanskr i t s p e c i a l i s t . 6. Ins t i tu t iona l Changes. I ns t i t u t i ona l l y , the dual career couples may lobby for changes in procedures, for example, more f l e x i -b i l i t y in work schedules, improved day care f a c i l i t i e s (Defra in, 1979; 22 Berger, 1978); better paying part time jobs with adequate f r inge benef i ts , jobsharing arrangements (Defra in, 1979; B a i l y n , 1978; Arkin and Dobrofsky, 1978). The dual career couples seem to be making changes from the ins ide -out ( rede f in i t i on of ro les) and outs ide- in (lobbying for i ns t i t u t i ona l changes) in the i r attempt to es tab l ish a place for themselves in a soc ia l fabr ic that has d i f ferent designs for the i r l i v i n g . The process may be f a c i l i t a t e d by l e t t i ng go of masculine and feminine stereotypic behaviour and adopting an androgynous or ientat ion that allows for i n -creased f l e x i b i l i t y . Androgyny: A F lex ib le A l ternat ive In examining the stresses and coping st rategies of dual career couples, the underlying assumption ex is ts that the narrower the band of behaviour a couple considers 'manly' or 'womanly', the fewer w i l l be the i r options in meeting the demands of t he i r l i f e s t y l e (Weingarten, 1978; Holmstrom, 1972). Weingarten suggests that a be l i e f in androgyny i s he lp fu l . Androgyny has been defined by Bern (1976) as a condit ion in which "a person would have no need to l i m i t his or her behaviors to those t r a d i t i o n a l l y defined as 'sex appropriate' but would have the psycho-log ica l freedom to engage in whatever behavior seemed most e f fec t i ve at the moment, i r respect ive of i t s stereotype as masculine or feminine" (p. 48). To Downing (1979) androgyny is manifested in s i t ua t i ona l l y appropriate behaviour and f l e x i b i l i t y which re f l ec ts a state of psycho-log ica l heal th . 23 The androgynous individual is presumed to engage in cross sex behaviours without dissonance and empirical studies have undertaken to demonstrate this. For example, Bern (1976) hypothesized that sex typed individuals would actively prefer sex appropriate activities and resist sex inappropriate a c t i v i t i e s . This would persist even in a situation when their preference would incur some cost. In addition Bern hypothesized that sex typed individuals would experience discomfort i f they did attempt to participate in cross sex behaviour. Conclusion As dual career couples engage in cross sex activities that may be required by their demanding l i f e style, role conflict often emerges. Women tend to make the transition more easily in that they have more to gain. For husbands, there seems to be l i a b i l i t i e s . Husbands of working women report greater job pressure and dissatisfaction with their jobs, marriages and various aspects of their lives. They report poorer psychological and physical health than their counterparts who are in traditional relationships (Burke and Weir, 1976). As husbands become involved in cross sex a c t i v i t i e s , they lose their active support system and take on what was once considered women's work. The husbands are also called upon to play a supportive role for their wives and their central position is eroded. Their relative lack of preparedness for crossing traditional sex roles may go as far as to contribute to severe identity problems. This transition, however, will seemingly be easier for men who are androgynous as may be manifested by their experiencing 24 greater marital s a t i s f a c t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , androgynous dual career couples may experience a higher degree of marital sa t i s fac t i on than the i r t rad i t i ona l counter parts in that the i r ro le f l e x i b i l i t y would enable them to handle more e f fec t i ve ly the var ie ty of demands that are inherent to the i r l i f e s t y l e . Goldste in 's hypothesis (1978), in her study of one hundred and twenty-six dual career couples, was that the mari tal sa t i s fac t i on of wives in androgynous dyads would be greater than the mari tal sa t i s fac t ion of wives in non-androgynous dyads. She suggested that couples in which both members were w i l l i n g and able to perform both instrumental (mascu-l ine) and expressive (feminine) behaviour would most l i k e l y be adaptive to the dual career l i f e pattern and the wives would more l i k e l y be s a t i s f i e d with the i r marriages. This hypothesis was supported. In Goldste in 's analysis of her study, she comments that given the fact that time management and home respons ib i l i t y have been i den t i f i ed as key areas contr ibut ing to the ro le s t ra in experienced by dual career wives (Rapoport and Rapoport, 1971), i t i s quite possible that task sharing i s a major factor re lated to the di f ference in mari tal s a t i s -fac t ion between wives in androgynous dyads and wives in non-androgynous dyads. A l so , the emotional adaptab i l i ty of integrat ing both i ns t r u -mental and expressive charac te r i s t i cs may enable androgynous dyads to support the emotional needs of the i r spouse more success fu l l y . Goldstein also hypothesized that the more androgynous, the more l i b e r a l and the less job involved the husbands are , the greater the mari tal sa t i s fac t i on of the wives would be. The hypothesis was sus-25 ta ined. The same log ic can be applied to the analysis of th is hypoth-es is as the one out l ined above, namely, that an androgynous husband would provide f l e x i b l e task sharing behaviour as well as emotional support to his wi fe . The psychological support resu l t ing from the emotional adaptab i l i t y that androgynous husbands can of fer seems to i n -crease the wives chances for mari tal s a t i s f a c t i o n . Using Bern's Sex Role Inventory and the Mari ta l Sa t i s fac t ion Sub-scale of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale the fo l lowing hypotheses were tested in th is inves t iga t ion : 1. The mari tal sa t i s fac t i on of androgynous couples w i l l be higher than the mari tal sa t i s fac t i on of sex ro le stereotypic couples in dual career couples. 2. The mar i ta l sa t i s fac t i on of androgynous men w i l l be higher than the mari tal sa t i s fac t i on of sex ro le stereotypic men in dual career couples. 3. The mari tal sa t i s fac t i on of wives of androgynous men w i l l be higher than the mari tal sa t i s fac t i on of wives with sex ro le stereotypic husbands in dual career couples. 26 CHAPTER THREE Methodology This chapter presents the research design of th is invest igat ion including the se lec t ion and charac te r i s t i cs of the sample, the i n s t r u -ments used to measure the var iab les , and the procedures u t i l i z e d in data gathering and ana lys is . Sample The par t ic ipants in th is study were f o r t y - s i x dual career couples where both partners were working f u l l t ime. Restr ic t ions based on type of occupation, duration of marriage, length of work h is to ry , age, number of ch i l d ren , e t c . , were not applied in order to promote heterogenity within the sample. The couples were sampled from a large urban area on the Canadian West Coast and were voluntary par t i c ipants . The volunteer couples for th i s study were obtained in a var iety of ways. A women's professional group was approached and a request made for volunteers. The researcher also made contact with acquaintances and asked them to suggest couples who might volunteer the i r t ime. In add i t i on , students were approached in a graduate programme at the un ivers i t y . None of the par t ic ipants were known to the researcher. Basic demographic data, obtained by means of a Background Informa-t ion Sheet (Appendix A ) , are summarized in Table 2. Inspection of the table reveals that the largest percentage of both female and male par t ic ipants in any s ing le category f e l l into the 30-39 year age range 27 (48 and 52 percent respec t i ve ly ) . This group of subjects may have combined those couples who had become well establ ished in the i r careers through an ear ly career s ta r t as well as those who may have begun the i r careers in the i r la te twenties or ear ly t h i r t i e s a f ter a prolonged period of education. This second p o s s i b i l i t y i s supported by the per-centage of both female (37%) and male (47%) par t ic ipants who had post graduate education. Seventy-four percent of the couples had been married for ten years or less suggesting that possibly the adjustment phase of marriage was s t i l l in progress pa r t i cu la r l y for the nineteen couples (41%) who had been married for less than f i v e years . Possibly the i n i t i a l stresses of adjustment were exacerbating the d i f f i c u l t i e s that may have been re lated to the dual career l i f e s t y l e . Twenty-six couples (56%) had chi ldren as compared to twenty couples (44%) who did not which provided a good representation of fami l ies with and without ch i ld ren . The largest percentage of couples in any s ing le category (39%) reported that the i r approximate j o i n t income was more than $49,999.00 suggesting that par t ic ipants could afford to h i re employees to help with ch i l d care and household tasks ; however, only ten of the twenty-six couples with chi ldren (38%) had ch i l d care ass is tance. The necessity of having ch i l d care assistance would be dependent on the age of the ch i l d ren , information that was not requested in the quest ion-na i re . Sixteen couples (35%) had assistance with household tasks. In the occupational category, the highest percentage of p a r t i c i -pants f e l l in to the professional category, twenty women (43%) and eight-een men (39%) respect ive ly . The men in th is sample had a longer work 28 Table 2 Frequency (Percent) Dis t r ibut ions of Experimental Subjects Within Various Categories Under n 30 30-39 40-49 50-59 Over 60 Age Wives: Husbands: 46 15(33) 22(48) 8(17) 46 5(11) 24(52) 15(33) 1(2) 2(4) 0 0 Total 92 20(22) 46(50) 23(25) 3(3) 0 High n School Univer-s i t y Post • Grad-uate Tech-n ica l Education Wives: Husbands: 46 7(15) 14(31) 17(37) 46 5(11) 14(31) 22(47) 8(17) 5(11) Total 92 12(13) 28(31) 39(42) 14(14) Years Less Than n 5 y r s . 5-10 Years 11-15 Years 16-20 Years 21-25 Years More Than 25 y rs , Married 46 19(41) 14(31) 4(9) 6(13) 2(4) 1(2) Number of Children n 0 46 20(44) 1 8(17) 2 7(15) 3 6(13) More Than 3 5(11) Approximate Jo in t Income Less Than n 19,999 46 3(6.5) 20,000 30,000 40,000 More to to to Than 29,999 39,999 49,999 49,999 3(6.5) 10(22) 12(26) 18(39) Profes-n sional Sales Of f ice Work Mana-ger Tech-n ica l Stu-dent Other Occupation Wives: Husbands: 46 20(43) 46 18(39) 3(6.5) 2(4) 9(19.5) 9(19.5) 4(9) 3(7) 4(9) 4(9) 9(19.5) 4(9) 2(4) 1(2) Total 92 38(41) 5(5) 18(20) 7(8) 13(14) 8(9) 3(3) More Than n 1-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 25 Years Wives: 46 16(35)14(30) 9(20) 5(11) 2(4) 0 Employed Husbands: 46 8(17) 13(28) 5(11) 15(33) 3(7) 2(4) Total 92 24(26) 27(29) 14(15) 20(22) 5(5.5) 2(2) More 6-11 1-5 6-10 11-15 Than 15 Time n_ 0_ Months Years Years Years Years ^I111'"9 W i v e s : 46 32(70) 1 (2) 5(11 ) 7(15) 1 (2) 0 w¥fTffpouse H " s b a n d s : 46 38(93) 4(9) 3(6] 1(2) 0 0 _ Worked Total 92 70(76) 5(5) 8(9) 8(9) 1(1) 0 30 h is tory with the largest number, 15 (33%) checking the 16-20 year cate-gory as compared to the sixteen women (35%) who checked category 1-5 years. The shorter working h istory of some of the women may have re -f lec ted the tendency for some women to remain at home while the i r c h i l d -ren are young. This p o s s i b i l i t y was supported with 12 women in compari-son to only 4 men report ing that they remained at home from 1-15 years whi le the i r spouses worked. In summary, the sample used in th is study tended to be a group of professional couples who were under the age of for ty and married less than ten years with a j o i n t income in the $49,999.00 plus range. There was a mixture of fami l ies with and without ch i ld ren . This sample seems representat ive of couples who are on the evolutionary edge of change without having adequate ro le models. Instruments BEM'S SEX ROLE INVENTORY (B .S .R . I . ) Bern's Sex Role Inventory (B .S .R . I . ) (Appendix B) was used to cate-gor ize the respondents into four types: (1) sex ro le stereotypic (2) sex reversed (3) androgynous (4) undi f ferent iated The fur ther assignment of couples into groups w i l l be described in the sect ion on Data Ana lys is . 31 The B . S . R . I , i s a s ing le adject ive check l is t in which ind iv idua ls respond on a 7-point L iker t scale as to how well each of the s ix ty charac te r is t i cs items describe them. Three subscales (mascul in i ty , feminin i ty and soc ia l des i r ab i l i t y ) involve twenty items each. The per-sona l i ty charac te r is t i cs on the mascul in i ty and feminin i ty scales were selected on the basis of the i r i den t i f i ca t i on as sex typed, s o c i a l l y desi rable t r a i t s . The soc ia l d e s i r a b i l i t y index was included to provide a larger context for the other two scales and is composed of items judged to be neutral in terms of sex ro le stereotyping. Upon completion of the inventory, the responses in each subscale are tabulated, using the numerical value checked on the L iker t sca le , with each par t ic ipant being assigned a to ta l mascul ini ty and to ta l feminin i ty score. Mascul in i ty and feminini ty scores equal the mean s e l f ra t ing for a l l endorsed masculine and feminine items respect ive ly . Both can range from one to seven. The androgyny score re f l ec t s the r e l a -t i ve amount of masculine and feminine charac te r i s t i cs that the respond-ent includes in his or her se l f descr ip t ion . Bern suggests three systems for determining the sex ro le typology of the respondents once the i r scores have been tabulated. For the pur-poses of th is inves t iga t ion , the median cutoff scoring technique w i l l be used to place persons into one of the sex ro le quadrants described in 32 Table 2 with the scores of the to ta l sample (both men and women) being divided at the median on both the mascul in i ty and feminin i ty sca les . The fo l lowing c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system is then appl ied: ( i ) masculine i s 'de f ined as high mascul ine--l,ow feminine ( i i ) feminine is defined as high feminine--low masculine ( i i i ) androgynous i s defined as high masculine--high feminine ( iv) undi f ferent iated is defined as low masculine--low feminine R e l i a b i l i t y Through the use of coe f f i c ien t a lpha, a measure of internal con-s is tency , the r e l i a b i l i t y of the B . S . R . I , was assessed to be: mascul in i ty , r_ = .86; femin in i ty , r_ = .80 (Bern, 1974). Test- retest r e l i a b i l i t y coe f f i c ien ts were assessed as mascul in i ty , r_ = .90; femin in i ty , r_ = .90; soc ia l d e s i r a b i l i t y , r_ - .89 (Bern, 1974). V a l i d i t y Content V a l i d i t y . Judges, who consisted of one hundred under-graduates at Stanford (hal f male, hal f female), selected items for the mascul in i ty and feminin i ty scales i f they were judged to be more desirable in American Society for one sex than for the other. A personal i ty charac te r i s t i c qua l i f i ed as masculine i f i t was independently judged by both male and female judges in the sample to be more desirable for a man than a woman (p<.05) (Bern, 1974). Construct V a l i d i t y . Gaudreau (1977) factor analyzed the B .S .R . I , in order to es tab l i sh i t s construct v a l i d i t y . The resul ts indicated that the B . S . R . I , successfu l ly discr iminated between masculine males and feminine females. When the items were factor analyzed, they loaded Table 3 C lass i f i ca t i on of Respondents Mascul in i ty Score Above Median Below Median Above Median Below Median Androgynous Feminine Masculine Undif ferent iated From: Scoring Packet, Bern Sex Role Inventory, Revised 4/76. 34 on two common fac to rs , appropriately named mascul ini ty and femin in i ty . Wiggins and Holzmuller (1978) correlated the B . S . R . I , with the mascu-l i n i t y and feminity scales from the Adject ive Checkl is t and observed that they were c lose ly re la ted : masculine measures, r_ = .87; feminine measures, r = .73. A ser ies of behavioural va l ida t ion studies reported by Bern and her co-workers (Bern, 1975; Bern and Lenney, 1976), indicate that the sex ro le s ty les assessed by the B .S .R . I , are capable of pre-d ic t ing subjects ' choices of sex stereotypical a c t i v i t i e s , thus lending support to the pred ic t ive v a l i d i t y of the instrument. Cr i t i c i sms The instrument has been c r i t i c i z e d for being non-speci f ic in that the context in which the descr ipt ion i s to be perceived i s not spec i f ied (Wiggins and Holzmuller, 1978). For example, the adject ive "he lp fu l " may be interpreted by some as respons ib i l i t y wi th in the fam i l i a l environ-ment whereas others may quantify the i r helpfulness within an occupation-al se t t i ng . The problem of non-spec i f i c i t y i s a lso seen in the lack of comparison groups in the instrument. A se l f - r a t i ng a t t r ibute scale en ta i l s comparison and a lack of same allows free reign for the. respondent's se lect ion of a comparison group (Locksley and Col ten, 1979). Word connotation introduces another weakness in that men and women may not in terpret the behaviour that accompanies the adject ives in the same way (Locksley and Col ten, 1979). "Gentle" may be perceived as two d i f fe rent constructs by men and women. In add i t i on , the adject ives are c r i t i c i z e d for being d i r e c t i o n a l , i . e . , the B .S .R . I . uses desirable i n te r -35 personal behaviours to the exclusion of undesirable interpersonal be-haviours (Wiggins and Holzmul ler, 1978). Kel ly and Worell (1977) label the measurement scale of the B .S .R . I , i n f e r i o r in that an in terval scale would permit more precis ion than the typological approach they perceive that Bern uses. The present researcher would argue that the B .S .R . I . can be more accurately described as quas i -in terva l in that the categories suggested by Bern do more than merely categorize and order the par t ic ipants as in an ordinal sca le . However, Bern's scale does not discern equal di f ferences between objects as a thermometer does; therefore, e l iminat ing the p o s s i b i l i t y of i t s being an in terva l sca le . Instead, the scale bridges the gap between ordinal and i n t e r v a l , thus being appropriately ca l led a quas i - in terva l sca le . Although a considerable amount of c r i t i c i s m has been noted in the l i t e r a t u r e , the B . S . R . I . has been used p r o l i f i c a l l y and demonstrates su f f i c i en t r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y to warrant i t s use in th is i n v e s t i -gat ion. S u i t a b i l i t y The B .S .R . I . is seen as appropriately assigning sex ro le typolo-gies to the respondents in the study under inves t iga t ion . This decision was arr ived at by reviewing the l i t e ra tu re and noting i t s use in s im i la r s tud ies. Moreover, Bern's de f i n i t i on of the construct androgyny i s seen as relevant to the study of a l i f e s ty le that requires f l e x i b i l i t y in using a wide var ie ty of behaviours. The ease of completing th is inven-tory is an asset in that i t was used with a volunteer sample in which subjects responded to the B .S .R . I . on a sel f -administered questionnaire bas is . * * * 36 THE DYADIC ADJUSTMENT SCALE (D.A.S.) The dyadic sa t i s fac t i on subscale of the D.A.S. , developed by Graham B. Spanier in 1976, was used to measure the dependent va r i ab le , mari tal s a t i s f a c t i o n . The to ta l dyadic adjustment score and the remain-ing subscores were used in the supplementary ana lys is . Spanier indicates in the scale descr ip t ion that the subscales can be used alone without los ing confidence in the r e l i a b i l i t y or v a l i d i t y of the measure. The instrument consists of t h i r t y s i x items that can be completed in a few minutes with the overal l resu l t ing score of dyadic adjustment ranging from 0-151. Addit ional scores are derived from the fol lowing subscales: Dyadic Consensus, Dyadic Sa t i s f ac t i on , Dyadic Cohesion and Af fect iona l Cohesion. Spanier defines dyadic adjustment as a process, the outcome of which i s determined by the degree of troublesome dyadic d i f fe rences, interpersonal tensions and personal anxiety , dyadic cohesion and dyadic s a t i s f a c t i o n . More simply s ta ted, dyadic adjustment is an ever chang-ing process with a qua l i t a t i ve dimension which can be evaluated at any point in time on a continuum from wel l-adjusted to maladjusted. Using mari tal adjustment as the dependent var iab le for th is invest igat ion would have const i tuted a broader measure of the qua l i ty of a r e l a t i o n -ship in that dyadic sa t i s fac t i on i s jus t one component of the to ta l adjustment score. However, the compliance factor that may be inherent in a woman's soc i a l i za t i on process could resu l t in a high degree of adjustment without an equally high degree of sa t i s f ac t i on . In the 37 supplementary analysis of th is i nves t iga t ion , an examination of how dyadic adjustment, sa t i s fac t i on and consensus scores corre la te with sex ro le or ienta t ion contributed to a fur ther understanding of th is concern. R e l i a b i l i t y R e l i a b i l i t y estimates of the D.A.S. and i t s subscales are as fol lows (Spanier, 1976): Dyadic Adjustment Scale r = .96 Dyadic Consensus Scale r = .90 Dyadic Sa t i s fac t ion Scale r = .94 Dyadic Cohesion Scale r = .86 Af fect iona l Cohesion Scale r = .73 Va l i d i t y The content v a l i d i t y of the D.A.S. was considered by three judges using the fol lowing c r i t e r i a (Spanier, 1976): 1. Relevant measures of dyadic adjustment for contemporary re la t ionsh ips . 2. Consistent with the nominal de f in i t i ons suggested by Spanier and Cole (1974) for adjustment and i t s components ( s a t i s -f a c t i o n , cohesion, and consensus). 3. Carefu l ly worded with appropriate f ixed choice responses. Only items that met the above c r i t e r i a were included in the instrument. . Cr i te r ion - re la ted v a l i d i t y (which encompases both pred ic t ive and concurrent va l i d i t y ) was assessed by administering the scale to a sample of 218 married persons and 94 divorced persons. For each i tem, the divorced sample d i f fered s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the married sample 38 (p < .001) using a t - t es t for assessing dif ferences between sample means (Spanier, 1976). Construct v a l i d i t y (the extent to which a test measures a theore t i -cal construct or t r a i t ) was establ ished by determining whether the D.A.S. measured the same general construct as a well accepted mari tal adjust-ment sca le , namely, the Locke-Wallace. The cor re la t ion between the two scales was .86 among married respondents and .88 amongst divorced respondents (p < .001) (Spanier, 1976). Factor Analysis . The factor analys is performed on the instrument allowed the developers to conclude that the 32 items give a more or less complete ind icat ion of dyadic adjustment and that they can in turn be grouped into the four subscales that have been out l ined, and deemed conceptually and empi r ica l ly re lated to dyadic adjustment (Spanier, 1976). Cr i t i c isms Spanier (1976) does not claim to have adequately dealt with soc ia l d e s i r a b i l i t y as a measurement issue but claims that recent research and c r i t iques suggest that th is l im i ta t i on may have been overstated. More-over, for the purposes of the present research i t i s hoped that anony-mity counterbalanced a soc ia l d e s i r a b i l i t y in f luence. A second problem the author mentions i s whether the present scale can be considered a measure of ind iv idual adjustment to the re la t ionsh ip or the adjustment of the dyad as a funct ioning group. This problem has not been resolved. 39 S u i t a b i l i t y The D.A.S. i s deemed a suitable instrument for use in this research. Viewing dyadic dynamics as a process seemed p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant to a study that i s examining relationships that are in a tra n s i t i o n a l state. The idea of the chameleon nature of the dual career relationship seems congruent with Spanier's d e f i n i t i o n of dyadic adjustment. In addition, special attention was given to ensuring that the items selected for the D.A.S. were relevant to the l i f e s t y l e s of the 1970's. This considera-tion was of parti c u l a r importance for the contemporary nature of the partic u l a r population under study, a population that i s on the cutting edge of social change. The ease in which the instrument can be administered was also a consideration in i t s selection, a c r i t e r i o n that i s of importance when a volunteer sample i s being used. Moreover, i t can easily be incorpor-ated into a self-administered questionnaire, another c r i t e r i o n that i s of importance to th i s investigation. * * * Data Collection The names of potential participants were given to the researcher through acquaintances or d i r e c t l y by the volunteers themselves. Sub-jects were mailed the necessary material which included: (1) a l e t t e r of transmittal (Appendix D) (2) two copies of each instrument with a symbol to iden t i f y male and female respondents (Appendix B and C) (3) a demographic sheet (Appendix A) 40 (4) a stamped envelope with the researcher 's address typed on i t The l e t t e r of t ransmit ta l asked the respondents to complete the scales pr iva te ly and without discussion with the i r partners. One partner in each couple was asked to f i l l out the demographic sheet in cooperation with the other partner. The anonymity and con f i den t i a l i t y of the resul ts were st ressed. A l l par t ic ipants who indicated a desire to learn about the resu l ts of the study were informed that upon completion of the invest igat ion they would be provided with an abstract of the study. A sel f-addressed postcard was mailed separately to the researcher to not i fy her of pa r t i c ipan ts ' in terest in receiv ing an abst ract . Since most of the forms were returned anonymously, most respond-ents were contacted with fol low-up reminders. As soon as the p a r t i c i -pant ve r i f i ed that the instruments had been returned, h is /her name was deleted from the fol low-up schedule. During the second week, a reminder was mailed to each couple. In add i t ion , a telephone c a l l was made to each subject during the th i rd week. Data Analysis Af ter data c o l l e c t i o n , the researcher had scores on the fol lowing independent va r iab les : ( i ) feminin i ty of the wife ( i i ) feminin i ty of the husband ( i i i ) mascul in i ty of the wife ( iv) mascul in i ty of the husband From these scores, using Bern's median cutoff scoring technique, the 41 respondents were assigned to one of the fo l lowing typologies: masculine, feminine, androgynous or undi f ferent ia ted. A score on the Social Des i r ab i l i t y Scale i s not calculated because i t served pr imar i ly to pro-vide a neutral context fo r the mascul in i ty and feminin i ty sca le . Once the ind iv idual par t ic ipants were assigned to a typology, the couples, in tu rn , depending upon the combined typologies of the partners, were assigned to one of 16 categories (see Table 4) . Data co l lec ted from couples f a l l i n g into the undi f ferent iated or sex reversed category was not used in the i n i t i a l analysis because of the i r i r relevance to the hypotheses being tested. Their scores were used in the supplementary ana lys is . The continuous va r iab le , mari tal s a t i s f a c t i o n , represents the dependent var iab le of t h i s study and was measured by the subscale marital sa t i s fac t i on on the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (D .A .S . ) , an assumed quasi -in terva l sca le . The remaining subscales of the D.A.S. were included in the analys is of the data in the procedure involv ing a cor re la t ion of dependent and independent var iab les . Both the couple's as well as the i nd i v idua l ' s perception of the dyadic adjustment i s of in terest so when necessary the couple's adjustment score was arr ived at by summing the partners adjustment data and d iv id ing by two. A s im i la r procedure was used with the subscales. Hypothesis 1. The mean marital sa t i s fac t i on score of the androgy-nous couples (defined as f l e x i b l e ) , as measured on the D.A.S. , w i l l be higher than the mean mari tal sa t i s fac t i on score of the stereotyped couples (defined as i n f l e x i b l e ) . 42 Table 4 Division of Couples Into Categories According to Their Sex Role Orientation Females Androgy-nous Sex Role Stereo-typic-Sex Re-versed Role Undiffer-entiated Androgynous Sex Role Stereotypic C/5 Sex Role Reversed *Androgy-nous (flexible) Couples *Sex Role Stereo-typic (inflex-ible) Couples Undifferentiated * The designated boxes identify the categories that are relevant to this investigation. The scores of couples f a l l i n g into the remaining boxes were discarded for the analysis of Hypothesis 1. 43 S t a t i s t i c a l hypothesis: V * f = " i with fi ^ being the group mean of the f l e x i b l e group w i th / { . being the group mean of the i n f l e x i b l e group An independent groups t - t es t for the di f ference between means was used to determine i f there was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gn i f i can t di f ference between the means of the two groups at the .05 level of s ign i f i cance . The combined partners scores were used for th is ana lys i s , namely, one score per couple as described above. Hypothesis 2. The mean mari ta l sa t i s fac t i on score of the androgy-nous male (defined as f l e x i b l e ) , as measured on the D.A.S. , w i l l be higher than the mean score of the stereotyped male (defined as i n f l e x i -ble) regardless of what the female partner i s . S t a t i s t i c a l hypothesis: V * a =Mm H l : * a - * " m with JL\ being the group mean of the androgynous men with JL\ being the group mean of the masculine men The independent groups t - t es t for di f ference between means was used to determine i f there was a s ign i f i can t di f ference (.05 level of s i g n i f i -cance) between the two means. Hypothesis 3. The mean mari tal sa t i s fac t i on score of wives of androgynous husbands, as measured on the D.A.S. , w i l l be higher than the mean score of the wives of stereotyped husbands, i . e . , masculine. 44 S t a t i s t i c a l hypothesis: H : M = M o / * wa ^ wm V ' " w a *Mm w i t h / ^ ^ being the group mean of the wives of stereotyped husbands with Mm being the group mean of the wives with androgynous husbands The independent groups t - t es t for d i f ference between means was used to determine i f there was a s ign i f i can t di f ference (.05 level of s ign i f icance) between the two means. Supplementary Analysis This invest igat ion moved beyond determining i f there was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gn i f i can t d i f ference between selected group means to exploring the cor re la t ion between typologies on the B . S . R . I . and the scores and subscores on the Dyadic Adjustment Scale using Pearson r since the data, being treated was considered quas i - in terva l in nature. Both the couples' averaged scores and the separate husbands and wives' scores were used for these analyses. 45 CHAPTER FOUR Results In the preceding chapter, the procedure for both data co l l ec t i on and analysis were presented. This chapter describes the resul ts of the analysis for each of the hypotheses and the supplementary ana lys is . S t a t i s t i c a l Analyses of Hypotheses Hypothesis 1 stated that the mean mari tal sa t i s fac t i on score of the androgynous couples (defined as f l e x i b l e ) as measured on the Dyadic Adjustment Scale would be higher than the mean marital sa t i s fac t ion score of the sex ro le stereotyped couples (defined as i n f l e x i b l e ) . Androgy-nous couples were defined as a case in which both wife and husband were above the median of the sample on both the mascul in i ty and feminin i ty scales of Bern's Sex Role Orientat ion Inventory. Sex ro le stereotyped couples were i den t i f i ed as those in which the husband had a mascul ini ty score above the median and a femini ty score below the median. The wives had a feminin i ty score above the median and a mascul in i ty score below the median. Undif ferent iated and sex ro le reversed couples and i n d i v i d -uals were el iminated. The median for Bern's Sex Role Orientat ion Inven-tory for the present invest igat ion was 4.8 for feminin i ty and 5.0 for mascu l in i ty , out of a maximum score of 7.0. In analyzing the data, the t - t es t of the di f ference between means for independent groups was performed with a Type 1 error probab i l i t y equal to .05. The nu l l hypothesis was accepted (Table 5). From th is 46 f i nd i ng , i t i s concluded that the mari tal sa t i s fac t i on of androgynous couples i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than the marital sa t i s fac t i on of stereotyped couples. Table 5 S ign i f icance of the Difference Between Means for Androgynous and Sex Role Stereotypic Couples on Scores of Mari ta l Sa t i s fac t ion Using a t -Test Variable N Mean Standard Deviation 2-Tai led Probab i l i t y Androgynous Couples 4 83.00 6.055 . 0.319 Sex Role Stereotypic Couples 3 75.6667 9.292 Out of the f o r t y - s i x couples four and three f e l l into the category of androgynous and sex ro le stereotypic couples respect ively^ Although the androgynous couples had a higher mean, the di f ference was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The sex ro le stereotypic group was more var iab le in the i r scoring with a standard deviat ion of 9.292 as compared to the androgynous group standard deviat ion of 6.055. Hypothesis 2 stated that the mean mari tal sa t i s fac t i on score of the androgynous male (defined as f l e x i b l e ) as measured on the Dyadic Adjust-ment Scale would be higher than the mean mari tal sa t i s fac t i on score of the sex ro le stereotypic male (defined as i n f l ex i b l e ) regardless of what the female partner was. In analyzing the data, the independent groups t - t es t of the d i f f e r -ence between means was performed with a Type 1 error; 'probabi1ity set at .05. The nu l l hypothesis was rejected (Table 6). From th is f i nd ing , 47 i t i s concluded that the mari tal sa t i s fac t i on of the androgynous male is s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the mari tal sa t i s fac t i on of a sex ro le stereo-typ ic male. Table 6 S ign i f icance of the Difference Between Means for Androgynous Males and Sex Role Stereotypic Males on Scores of Mar i ta l Sa t i s fac t ion Using a t -Test Standard 2-Tai led Variable N Mean Deviation Probab i l i t y Androgynous Males 10 42.9 4.175 .018* Sex Role Stereotypic Males 16 37.6250 6.438 * p<.05 The androgynous males had a mean of 42.9 which was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the sex ro le stereotypic males' mean of 37.625. Standard deviat ions of the two groups re f l ec t that sex ro le stereotypic males in the sample showed a greater v a r i a b i l i t y in the i r scores (6.438) as com-pared to the i r androgynous counterparts (4.175). Hypothesis 3 stated that the mean marital sa t i s fac t i on score of wives of androgynous husbands, as measured on the Dyadic Adjustment Sca le , would be higher than the mean mari tal sa t i s fac t i on score of the wives of sex ro le stereotypic husbands. Androgynous and stereotyped ind iv idua ls were i den t i f i ed and dealt with in the manner described in Chapter Three. In analyzing the data, the t - t es t for independent groups was made to determine the s ign i f i cance of the di f ference between means with a 48 Type 1 error p robab i l i t y set at .05. The nul l hypothesis was rejected (Table 7) . From th is f i nd ing , the hypothesis that the marital s a t i s -fac t ion of the wives of androgynous husbands is higher than the marital sa t i s fac t i on of wives of sex ro le stereotypic husbands is supported. Table 7 Sign i f icance of the Difference Between Means for Wives of Androgynous and Sex Role Stereotypic Men on Scores of Mari tal Sa t i s fac t ion Using a t-Test Standard Variable N Mean Deviation t-Value Wives of Androgynous Men 10 42.3 2.359 3.055* Wives of Sex Role Stereo- 16 36.1875 7.176 typ ic Men * Cochran Cox Modified t - t e s t , s i gn i f i can t at the &L = .05 l e v e l , from Ferguson, G . , S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis in Psychology and Education, 5th Ed i t i on , p. 182, McGraw H i l l , 198V. The wives of androgynous males had a mean of 42.3 which was s i g n i f i -cant ly higher than the wives of sex ro le stereotypic males' mean of 36.1875, with a 2 - ta i l ed probab i l i t y of .005. There was a considerable di f ference in the standard deviat ion of the var iables with wives of sex ro le stereotypic men in the sample haying a wide spread. Their range of scores re f lec ts a broader var ie ty of responses. Supplementary Analyses In addi t ion to the above three hypotheses, supplementary analyses were performed to explore the cor re la t ion between typologies on the B . S . R . I , and the scales and subscales on the D.A.S. using Pearson r. 49 Both the couples' averaged scores and the separate husbands and wives scores were used for th is procedure (see Tables 8 - 1 0 ) . Table 8 Pearson r Correlat ion Coef f ic ients for Scale and Subscale Scores: Averaged Scores for Couples (n = 46) Con- Af f . Cohe- S a t i s - Femi- Mascu-D.A.S. sensus Exp. s i on fac t ion n in i ty l i n i t y Dyadic Adjustment Scale Consensus Af fect ional Expression Cohesion Sa t i s fac t ion Femininity (B .S .R . I . ) Mascul in i ty (B .S .R . I . ) ,90** .62** .48** .78** .43** .38** .43** .26* .67** .37** .32* .30* .42** .23 .16 -.01 .11 .31* ,61** .26* - .09 * p < .05 * * p < .01 The above table examines the cor re la t ion between dependent and independent var iables using the couples' averaged scores. Observations w i l l be made in point form. 1. The high cor re la t ion between subscales on the D.A.S. and the to ta l D.A.S. score was predictable given Spaniers' be l ie f (Spanier, 1976) that Consensus, Af fec t iona l Expression, Cohesion and Sa t i s fac t ion are concomitants of dyadic adjustment. 2. An ant ic ipated cor re la t ion between consensus and cohesion did not occur ( .26). A predict ion might have been made that coming to a 50 consensus might contribute to the closeness or cohesion of a couple. 3. According to stereotypic views of feminine t r a i t s , a pre-diction might have been made that a high correlation would exist between affectional expression and femininity. This was not the case. Neither masculininity or femininity scores reflected any relationship with affectional expression. 4. Participants scoring high in femininity tended to have high satisfaction scores and vice versa (.61). In the case of masculinity scores, there was a weak relationship (r = .26). According to this sample, couples manifesting high femininity scores could expect to ex-perience greater marital satisfaction. Possibly an inference could be made that the traditional nurturing, supportive traits associated with femininity contribute to the marital satisfaction of dual career couples. 5. No s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant relationship existed between masculinity and femininity scores. This reflects the lack of androgynous and sex role stereotypic couples in the study. A greater number of such participants would have resulted in a high positive or negative correla-tion respectively. 51 Table 9 Pearson r Correlat ion Coef f ic ients for Scale and Subscale Scores: Female Scores (n = 46) Con- Af f . Cohe- S a t i s - Femi- Mascu-D.A.S. sensus Exp. sion fac t ion n in i t y l i n i t y Dyadic Adjustment Seal e Consensus Af fect iona l Expression Cohesion Sa t i s fac t ion Femininity (B .S .R . I . ) Mascul in i ty (B .S .R . I . ) ,85** .53** .27* .82** .27* .41* * .33** -.06 .03 .62** .17 .36** .42** .23 - .00 - .09 .09 .30* .24 .29* .01 * p < .05 * * p < .01 The above table examines the cor re la t ion between dependent and independent var iables using the female par t i c ipan ts ' scores. Again, observations w i l l be made in point form. 1. The cor re la t ion between subscales in the D.A.S. and the to ta l D.A.S. score i s again high and predictable given Spanier 's be l ie f that the subscales are concomitants of dyadic adjustment. The only exception was cohesion (.27). In the women in the sample cohesion was not a factor in determining dyadic adjustment. 2. A predict ion could be made that the compliance factor inherent in a woman's soc i a l i za t i on process might resu l t in a high degree of mari ta l adjustment without an equally high degree of mari tal sa t i s fac t i on . 52 This was not supported in the analysis given that a cor re la t ion of .82 was calculated for the re la t ionsh ip between mari tal sa t i s fac t i on and the D.A.S. , the l a t t e r being a measure of adjustment. 3. Once again, feminini ty and a f fec t iona l expression scores did not corre late strongly (.23). The di f ference between the femin in i ty / a f fec t iona l expression and the mascu l in i ty /a f fec t iona l expression co r re l a -t i o n , however, i s of in terest with the l a t t e r being - . 00 . In examining the re la t i ve strength of the two re la t ionsh ips , bearers of feminine charac te r i s t i cs did perceive the i r re la t ionships as being more a f fec-t ionate ly demonstrative. 4. A re la t ionsh ip existed between the Consensus and Sat is fac t ion scores ( .62). For the female par t i c ipan ts , coming to a consensus with the i r partners seemed to be a factor in determining the level of the i r marital s a t i s f a c t i o n . 53 Table 10 Pearson r Correlat ion Coef f ic ient for Scale and Subscale Scores: Male Scores Con- Af f . Cone- S a t i s - Femi- Mascu-D.A.S. sensus Exp. sion fac t ion n in i t y l i n i t y Dyadic Adjustment Scale Consensus Af fect ional Expression Cohesion Sa t i s fac t ion Femininity (B .S .R . I . ) Mascul in i ty (B .S .R . I . ) .93** .68** .57** .64** .38** .30* .58** . 43* * . 52* * .34* .21 .36** .33* .13 .29* -.14 .08 .29* .44** .14 - .20 * p < .05 * * p < .01 The above table examines the cor re la t ion between dependent and independent var iables using the male par t i c ipan ts ' scores. Again, obser-vations w i l l be made in point form. 1. The cor re la t ion between subscales on the D.A.S. and the to ta l D.A.S. score i s again high. This re la t ionsh ip was predictable given Spanier 's be l ie f that the subscales are concomitants of dyadic adjust-ment. 2. For the male pa r t i c ipan ts , a weak re la t ionsh ip did ex is t be-tween Consensus and Cohesion (.43). A perception that spouses were in agreement (consensus score) did seem to contr ibute to the degree of per-ceived closeness in the re la t ionsh ip . The corresponding cor re la t ion 54 amongst the female par t ic ipants was (r = .06). Possibly the view that s te reo typ ica l l y men tend to be less f l e x i b l e and more con t ro l l i ng is re f lec ted in th is re la t i onsh ip , i . e . , men need to have spouses in agree-ment with them in order to achieve closeness. This p o s s i b i l i t y is fur ther supported given the re la t ionsh ip between consensus and s a t i s -fac t ion ( .52). 3. A weak re la t ionsh ip was exhibi ted between the men in the sample who scored high on feminin i ty and marital sa t i s fac t i on subscore ( .44). This cor re la t ion contrasted sharply with the mari tal s a t i s -fac t ion /mascu l in i ty re la t ionsh ip (.14). Possibly the increased f l e x i -b i l i t y of men who could engage in cross gender a c t i v i t i e s due to the i r feminine t r a i t s , enabled them to respond more adaptably to the dual career l i f e s t y l e and thus experience greater mari tal s a t i s f a c t i o n . Summary of Results This study was designed to invest igate three hypotheses, each con-cerned with corre lates of marital sa t i s fac t i on among dual career couples. In add i t i on , a supplementary analys is was undertaken to determine the re la t ionsh ip among dependent and independent var iab les . The summary presents each hypothesis and the resu l ts obtained. Hypotheses 1. The mean marital sa t i s fac t i on score of the androgynous couples (defined as f l e x i b l e ) , as measured on the D.A.S. , i s higher than the mean mari tal sa t i s fac t i on score of the stereo-typed couples (defined as i n f l e x i b l e ) . This hypothesis was not sustained. 55 2. The mean marital satisfaction score of the androgynous male (defined as flex i b l e ) , as measured on the D.A.S., is higher than the mean score of the stereotyped male (defined as in-flexible) regardless of what the female partner i s . This hypothesis was sustained. 3. The mean marital satisfaction score of wives of androgynous husbands, as measured on the D.A.S., will be higher than the mean score of the wives of stereotyped husbands, i.e., mascu-line. This hypothesis was sustained. Supplementary Analysis The correlations for scale and subscales are summarized in Tables 8 - 10. 56 CHAPTER FIVE Summary, Discussion and Implications In the preceding chapter, s t a t i s t i c a l analyses and resu l ts were reported. This chapter contains a summary of the study, a discussion of the resu l ts and suggestions for future research. Summary A restructur ing of the family i s occurring as an increasing number of married couples choose a dual career l i f e s t y l e . The accompanying stresses inherent in the i r choice are not surpr is ing given that few ro le models have existed for these couples. A tendency seems to ex is t for dual career couples to revert to known sex ro le stereotypic behaviour rather than to seek out more adaptive a l te rna t i ves . The l i ke l ihood that these soc ia l innovators would instead engage in a f l e x i b l e sharing of tasks seems related to how comfortably they can engage in cross gender a c t i v i -t i e s . This p o s s i b i l i t y suggests that sex ro le or ientat ion may inf luence the a l l e v i a t i o n of stress in the l i f e s t y l e of dual career couples, and const i tutes the basis for the present inves t iga t ion . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the hypotheses tested were: 1. The mean mari tal sa t i s fac t i on score of the androgynous couples (defined as f l e x i b l e ) , as measured on the D.A.S. , is higher than the mean mari tal sa t i s fac t i on score of the stereo-typed couples (defined as i n f l e x i b l e ) . 2. The mean mari tal sa t i s fac t i on score of the androgynous male 57 (defined as flex i b l e ) , as measured on the D.A.S., is higher than the mean score of the stereotyped male (defined as inflex-ible) regardless of what the female partner i s . 3. The mean marital satisfaction score of wives of androgynous husbands, as measured on the D.A.S., is higher than the mean score of the wives of stereotyed husbands, i.e., mascu-line. Forty-six dual career couples participated in the investigation. These voluntary subjects were recruited from a women's group, from stu-dents in a graduate programme and through acquaintances of the research-er. Information gleaned from the Family Background Sheet, forwarded to the participants, suggests that the sample tended to be a group of pro-fessional couples, under the age of forty and married less than ten years. Their joint income tended to be in the $49,999.00 plus range. There was a good mixture of families with and without children. This sample seems representative of the type of couple who are on the evolu-tionary edge of change without adequate role models. Two self administered inventories (Bern's Sex Role Inventory and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale) as well as the Family Background Sheet were mailed to sixty-one couples with instructions to complete the inventories separately from their spouses (the Family Background Sheet could be completed jointly) and return them in a self-addressed envelope anony-mously. Follow-up reminders were mailed and telephone calls made to in-crease the rate of return. Seventy-five percent returned the documents completed. 58 Part ic ipants were placed into four categories (sex ro le s tereotyp ic , sex reversed, androgynous and undif ferent iated) according to Bern's Sex Role Inventory. Couples were subsequently categorized into s im i la r groups (Table 4) . Scores of ind iv idua ls and couples who f e l l into the sex reversed or undi f ferent iated groups were not used in the primary invest igat ion,but were used in the supplementary ana lys is . The mari ta l sa t i s fac t i on subscale of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale represented the dependent var iab le of th is study. The remaining sub-scales and to ta l score of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale were included in the supplementary ana lys i s , a cor re la t ion of dependent and independent var iab les . To test the hypotheses, t - t es ts for s i gn i f i can t di f ferences between means were appl ied. In add i t i on , Pearson r was used to corre la te typologies on the Bern's Sex Role Inventory and the score and subscores of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Support was establ ished for Hypothesis 2 and 3. In the next sec t ion , f indings of the analysis for the hypothe-ses as well as the supplementary analysis w i l l be discussed. Discussion of Findings In th is sec t ion , resu l ts of each hypothesis w i l l be discussed separate ly, followed by considerations of addi t ional supplementary analyses. Hypothesis 1 stated that the mean marital sa t i s fac t i on score of the androgynous couples (defined as f l e x i b l e ) , as measured on the D.A.S. , i s higher than the mean mari tal sa t i s fac t i on score of the 59 stereotyped couples (defined as inflexible). The hypothesis was not sustained. The results call into question the theoretical rationale for this hypothesis, namely, that partners in a dual career relationship who can engage in cross gender activities without dissonance are more likely to experience greater marital satisfaction given that their l i f e s t y l e demands a flexible sharing of tasks. The lack of substantiation for the hypothesis may possibly have resulted from methodological considera-tions. The subject pool was extremely small (four androgynous couples and three sex role stereotypic couples). Moreover, the couples p a r t i c i -pating were volunteers. Both these factors make the generalizability of the results dubious. There was a difference in the variability of the two groups with the sex role stereotypic couples' standard deviation being 9.292 compared to the androgynous couples' standard deviation of 6.055. The stereotypic couples tended to demonstrate more extreme scores than their androgynous counterparts, possibly reflecting their tendency to either be happy and compatable or dissatisfied and compliant in a dual career relationship in which stereotypic behaviours were demonstrated. The androgynous couples' scoring tended to reflect more homogeneity and moderation. Bern's definition of the construct androgyny was pivotal to this investigation. Her definition presupposes the co-existence of high masculine and feminine qualities within an individual. Perhaps instead an additional dimension of androgyny exists beyond the joint effect of masculine and feminine subscores (Goldstein, 1978). If this were the 60 ERRATUM Page 60a 1. Delete L i n e s 1 - 8 i n c l u s i v e . 2. I n s e r t the f o l l o w i n g between L i n e s 18 & 19: Hypothesis 3 s t a t e d - t h a t the mean m a r i t a l s a t i s f a c -t i o n score o f wives of androgynous husbands, as measured on the Dyadic Adij.ustm.ent S c a l e , i s h i g h e r than the mean m a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n score o f the wives of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i c husbands. 60a case, then possible androgynous couples were not actually identified. Hypothesis 2 stated that the mean marital satisfaction score of the androgynous male (defined as flexible), as measured on the D.A.S., is higher than the mean score of the stereotyped male (defined as inflexible) regardless of what the female partner is This hypothesis was supported. The conceptual rationale for the above is that f l e x i b i l i t y is re-quired for the multiple demands of the dual career l i f e s t y l e . According-ly those men who can engage in cross role activities are more likely to experience greater marital satisfaction than men who adopt a more rigid definition of what is male appropriate behaviour. These men might also have been able to support their partners' emotional needs thus enhanc-ing the interaction between spouses and thus increase marital satis-faction. The stereotypic males' more variable responses (with a standard deviation of 6.438) reflected a somewhat broader variety of reactions to the variable marital satisfaction than their androgynous counterparts with a standard deviation of 4.175. The likelihood of wives of androgynous husbands experiencing higher marital satisfaction can be clearly conceptualized. The demands of the dual career l i f e s t y l e are such that both partners are required to take on a diversity of tasks. The tendency has been for the woman to continue her traditional tasks in addition to being a 'breadwinner'. This dual task can be exhausting. The wife of a man who is androgynous is more likely to find her husband assuming cross gender tasks without 61 dissonance. Accordingly, he i s more l i k e l y to be f l e x i b l e enough to take on respons ib i l i t i e s that have been t rad i t i ona l female ro l es , e . g . , ch i l d care, and in the process equalize the burden of managing a house-hold, an arrangement that i s undoubtedly going to increase the mari tal sa t i s fac t i on of the wi fe . Moreover, wives of androgynous men would l i k e l y receive greater emotional support from the i r husbands which seemingly would contr ibute to mari tal sa t i s f ac t i on . There was a marked di f ference in the v a r i a b i l i t y of the two groups with the wives of sex ro le stereotypic husbands having a standard devia-t ion of 7.176 compared to the i r androgynous counterparts who had a standard deviat ion of 2.359. The wives of sex ro le stereotypic husbands' extreme scores may re f l ec t t he i r tendency to be e i ther happy and compatable or d issa t i s f ied and compliant. The wives of androgynous husbands, in sharp contrast , were homeogeneous in the i r responses re f l ec t i ng a commonality in the amount of marital sa t i s fac t i on they reportedly experienced. 62 Discussion of Supplementary Analysis The couples' averaged scores were used in the i n i t i a l cor re la t ion of dependent and independent va r iab les . Consensus and cohesion, sub-scales of the D.A.S. , did not corre la te (r = .26) possibly suggesting that di f ferences of opinions were to lerated amongst partners without a r i sk to the closeness of the re la t ionsh ip . A stereotypic view of feminine t r a i t s would have suggested a re la t ionsh ip between feminin i ty and a f fec t iona l expression which did not occur (r = .23). Femininity correlated with marital sa t i s fac t i on in th is analysis (r = .61) in con-t ras t to mascu l in i ty 's cor re la t ion with mari tal sa t i s fac t i on (r = .26). Conceptual support for th is re la t ionsh ip may be that the supportive t r a i t s associated with feminin i ty contr ibute to the marital sa t i s fac t ion of dual career couples. The cor re la t ion of dependent and independent var iables was re -peated using the scores of the wives. High cor re la t ion between subscales on the D.A.S. and the to ta l D.A.S. score was predictable given Spanier 's (Spanier, 1976) be l ie f that Consensus, Af fect ional Expression, Cohesion and Sa t i s fac t ion are concomitants of dyadic adjustment. In th is ana lys i s , the cohesion subscale was an exception with a cor re la t ion of r = .27. An inference could be made that a resistance to cohesion might be a factor for androgynous women in dual career re la t ionsh ips . For sex ro le stereotypic women, a need for cohesion might be a fac tor . Accordingly, the cohesion score would be balanced out by th is contrast-ing react ion resu l t ing in a cor re la t ion coe f f i c ien t that re f l ec ts ho re la t ionsh ip . 63 A predict ion could be made that the compliance factor inherent in a woman's soc i a l i za t i on process might resu l t in a high degree of mari tal adjustment without an equally high degree of mari tal sa t i s f ac t i on . This was not supported in the analys is given that a cor re la t ion of r = .82 was obtained for the re la t ionsh ip between marital sa t i s fac t ion and the D.A.S. , the l a t t e r being a measure of adjustment. Once again, feminin i ty and a f fec t iona l expression scores did not corre la te strongly (r = .23). The di f ference between the femin in i ty / a f fec t iona l expression and the mascu l in i ty /a f fec t iona l expression co r re l a t i on , however, i s of in terest with the l a t t e r being zero (r - .00). In examining the re la t i ve strength of the two re la t ionsh ips , bearers of feminine charac te r i s t i cs did have a r e l a t i v e l y stronger re la t ionsh ip with a f fec t iona l expression than those bearing masculine character-i s t i c s . The cor re la t ion of dependent and independent var iables was again repeated using only the husband's scores. For the male par t i c ipan ts , a weak re la t ionsh ip did ex is t between Consensus and Cohesion (r = .43). A perception that spouses were in agreement (consensus score) did seem to contr ibute to the degree of perceived closeness in the re la t ionsh ip . Possib ly the view that s te reo typ ica l l y men tend to be less f l e x i b l e and more con t ro l l i ng i s re f lec ted in th is re la t i onsh ip , i . e . , men need to have spouses in agreement with them in order to achieve closeness. This p o s s i b i l i t y is fur ther supported given the re la t ionsh ip between consensus and sa t i s fac t i on (r = .52) , a weak re la t ionsh ip but neverthe-l e s s , a re la t ionsh ip . 64 The men in the sample who scored high on feminini ty tended to score high on marital sa t i s fac t i on (r = .44) , a lbe i t a weak re la t ionsh ip . This cor re la t ion contrasted sharply with the marital sat is fact ion/mascu-l i n i t y re la t ionsh ip (r = .14). Possibly the increased f l e x i b i l i t y of men who could engage in cross gender a c t i v i t i e s due to the i r feminine t r a i t s , enabled them to respond more adaptably to the dual career l i f e -s t y l e and thus experience greater mari tal s a t i s f a c t i o n . Methodological Limitat ions The canvassing of a volunteer sample rather than using a random sample af fects the genera l izab i1 i ty of the f indings to the general popu-l a t i o n . The heterogenous nature of the sample used suggests that other var iables may have intervened in the re la t ionsh ip between androgynous and sex ro le stereotypic ind iv idua ls and the i r mari tal sa t i s fac t ion ( e . g . , the presence and number of ch i l d ren , the extent of work demands, se l f esteem, stage in the family l i f e stage). Bern's de f i n i t i on of androgyny was p ivota l to th is invest igat ion and i s based on the presupposit ion that high mascul ini ty and feminin i ty qua l i t i es co-ex is t within an i nd i v i dua l . Perhaps a spec i f i c t r a i t of androgyny beyond the j o i n t . e f f e c t of mascul in i ty and feminin i ty sub-scales ex is ts which ra ises the question of whether androgyny was ade-quately measured (Goldste in, 1978). C r i t i c i sm of the B . S . R . I , has ar isen as to the non-spec i f i c i t y of context for the t r a i t s l i s t e d ( e . g . , does helpful mean helpful in the workplace or at home). Word connotation presented another concern. 65 Perhaps par t ic ipants in terpret the behaviour connected with the t r a i t s d i f f e ren t l y . The problem of soc ia l d e s i r a b i l i t y was not considered in the D.A.S. ; however, anonymous rep l ies undoubtedly compensated in part for th is l i m i t a t i o n . A second problem area ar ises as to whether the D.A.S. can be considered a measure of the i nd i v i dua l ' s sa t i s fac t i on within the re la t ionsh ip or the i nd i v idua l ' s perception of the dyadic sa t i s fac t i on of the re la t ionsh ip . This problem has not been resolved. In executing the study, the small sample pool of androgynous and sex ro le stereotypic couples, four and three respect ive ly , was lower than ant ic ipa ted. With h indsight , however, the l i ke l ihood of th is problem a r i s ing was predictable given that couples could f a l l into one of s ixteen categor ies, instead of the four categories for ind iv idua ls (see Tables 4 and 3 respec t i ve ly ) . . A much larger sample would have been necessary in order to a t ta in a more adequate number of couples in the categories of in terest to th is inves t iga t ion . The supplementary analysis was cor re la t iona l in nature. The reader should be cautioned that no "cause and e f fec t " may be concluded from the resu l t s . Implications and Suggestions for Future Research Some spec i f i c impl icat ions were pointed out in the previous sect ion in the d iscussion of hypotheses. In th is sec t ion , these impl icat ions and others that have emerged from th is invest igat ion w i l l be conso l i -dated and suggestions made for future research. 66 1. The existence of cottage i n d u s t r i e s i n times past encouraged a f l u i d movement between the occupational and domestic spheres. A nebulous boundary d i v i d e d p u b l i c and p r i v a t e l i f e . In c o n t r a s t , the modern f a m i l y has been viewed as a p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n , shrouded i n secrecy. Monitoring, examining and l e g i s l a t i n g change w i t h i n the f a m i l y i s a formidable task. A challenge f o r researchers and change agents ( c o u n s e l l o r s and educators) w i l l be to penetrate the t h i c k c e l l wall that p r o t e c t s the i n s u l a r f a m i l y of the 80's from s c r u t i n y i n a time of r a p i d change. 2. S p e c i f i c s t r e s s o r s , unique to the l i f e s t y l e of dual career couples, have been described i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n as well as i n a pro-l i f e r a t i o n of books and a r t i c l e s on the s u b j e c t . The tendency to juxtapose t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s onto a l i f e s t y l e demanding a f l e x i b l e sharing of tasks has been i d e n t i f i e d as a p o s s i b l e underlying f a c t o r i n exacerbating the s t r e s s o r s experienced. In c o n t r a s t , a reduction i n s t r e s s may come about i f :husbands i n dual career r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be-come more androgynous thus providing these s o c i a l innovators with a broader r e p e r t o i r e of adaptable behaviours. This p o s s i b i l i t y suggests that the sex r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n of husbands i n dual career marriages appears to be a p i v o t a l f a c t o r i n determining m a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . 3. The question a r i s e s as to whether the s t r e s s o r s described are inherent to the l i f e s t y l e or t r a n s i t i o n a l i n nature. Development-a l l y , the dual career l i f e s t y l e i s i n i t s i n f a n c y . Perhaps turmoil w i l l subside once the l i f e s t y l e matures beyond i t s present pioneering status and becomes an e s t a b l i s h e d pattern of l i v i n g . Longitudinal studies 67 are required to consider what w i l l happen to the family of the 80's once the present painful restructur ing phase i s complete. 4. Innumerable var iables beyond sex ro le or ientat ion need to be considered in examining the underlying factors that a l l e v i a t e or exacer-bate stress in the dual career l i f e s t y l e . The partners ' pos i t ion on the i r respect ive career t ra jec to r ies as well as career compat ib i l i ty may be s i g n i f i c a n t . Detachment from t rad i t i ona l norms such as l i v i n g away from fami l ies of o r ig in may inf luence dual career couples. Modern archi tecture may contr ibute to f reeing inhabitants from t rad i t iona l values by the creat ion of i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c housing developments. The existence of support systems ( f r iends , family or professional services such as day care) may enhance the qua l i ty of l i f e for dual career couples. Personal i ty constructs such as s e l f esteem may play an important part in determining how well dual career couples cope with the i r chosen l i f e -s ty l e. 5. Ident i fy ing spec i f i c factors that reduce stress in the dual career l i f e s t y l e w i l l provide tools for counsel lors and educators in the i r attempts to e f fect pos i t i ve change within the fami ly . As these soc ia l innovators restructure the i r l i f e s t y l e , family theor is ts w i l l need to reconceptualize the l i f e stages of the fami ly . Role theor is ts w i l l rev ise what i s deemed appropriate behaviour for men and women. Conclusions The dual career couple seems to represent a new a l te rnat ive for the family of the 80 ' s . As such the i r l i f e s t y l e provides a r i ch test ing ground for assessing the modern family in t r ans i t i on . The impact the i r 68 l i f e s t y l e i s having on the soc ia l landscape i s widespread. Support services such as day care centers are expanding. Surrogate parenting w i l l begin to a f fect ch i l d rearing pract ice and possibly the soc ie ta l view of chi ldhood. Unions are demanding paid maternity leave and pressure i s being appl ied to i ns t i t u te more f l e x i b l e time schedules. Women's fashions are changing to address the needs of professional work-ing women. New housing developments are being constructed with con-venience bu i l t in to the arch i tectura l design, and with locat ion in c lose proximity to the workplace. The present invest igat ion has only examined one spec i f i c aspect of the inf luences coming to bear on the dual career l i f e s t y l e , i . e . , sex ro le o r ien ta t ion . An abundance of questions remain to be addressed by future researchers. 69 Bibl iography A rk i n , W., and Dobrofsky, L.R.. Job Sharing. In R. Rapoport and R. Rapoport (Eds . ) , Working Couples. London, England: Routledge & Kegan Paul L t d . , 1978. Arnot t , C.C. Husbands' a t t i tude and wives' commitment to employment. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1972, 34, 763-784. B a i l y n , L. Accommodation of work to fami ly . In R. Rapoport and R. Rapoport (Eds . ) , Working Couples. London, England: Route!edge & Kegan Paul L t d . , 1978. Bebbington, A.C. The funct ion of stress in the establishment of the dual career fami ly . Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1973, 35, 530-557. Bern, S .L . The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of  Consulting and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1974, 42, (2 ) , 155-162. Bern, S .L . Sex ro le adaptab i l i t y : one consequence of psychological androgyny. Journal of Personal i ty and Socia l Psychology, 1975, 31, (4) , 634-643. Bern, S.L . and Lenney, E. Sex typing and the avoidance of cross sex behavior. Journal of Personal i ty and Social Psychology, 1976, 33, (1) , 48-54. Bern, S . L . ; Martyna, W. and Watson, C. Sex typing and androgyny: further explorat ions of the expressive domain. Journal of Personal i ty and  Socia l Psychology, 1976, 34, (5) , 1016-1023. Berger, M. Men's new family ro les - some impl icat ion for therap is ts . The Family Co-ordinator, 1979, 28, (4) , 638-646. Bryson, R., and Bryson, J . B . Professional couples: a content ana lys is . Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1977, 36_, 323-330. Burke, R . J . and Weir, T. Relat ionship of wives' employment status to husband, wife and pai r sa t i s fac t i on and performance. Journal of  Marriage and the Family, 1976, 38, 279-287. Chaffee, I. Family d isorganizat ion. In M. Jung (Ed . ) , Modern marriage. New York: F.S. Crofts & Co . , 1940. Cohen, M.B. Personal ident i ty and sexual i den t i t y . In J . B . M i l l e r (Ed . ) , Psychoanalysis and Women. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books 1974. 70 Coser, R.L. and Rokoff, G. Women in the occupational world: soc ia l d isrupt ion and c o n f l i c t . Socia l Problems, 1971, ]8_, 535-554. Defra in, J . Androgynous parents t e l l who they are and what they need. The Family Coordinator, 1979, 28, (2) , 237-243. Downing, N.E. Theoret ical and operational conceptual izat ion of psycho-log ica l androgyny: impl icat ions for measurement. Psychology of  Women, Quarter ly, 1979, 3, (3) , 284-292. Gaudreau, P. Factor analys is of the Bern Sex Role Inventory. Journal  of Consulting and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1977, 45, (2) , 299-302. Golds te in , E.S. The re la t ionsh ip of sex ro le se l f -concept , at t i tudes toward women, job involvement, and mari tal sa t i s fac t i on in wives of dual career couples with ch i ld ren . Disser tat ion Abstracts Inter- national , 1978, 39, (12-B), 6196. Gowler, D. and Legge, K. Hidden and open contracts in marriage. In R. Rapoport and R. Rapoport (Eds . ) , Working Couples. London, England: Routledge & Kegan Paul L t d . , 1978. Gronseth, E. Work shar ing: a Norwegian example. In R. Rapoport and R. Rapoport (Eds . ) , Working Couples. London, England: Routledge & Kegan Paul L t d . , 1978. Haas, L.L. Sexual equal i ty in the fami ly : a study of ro le sharing couples. Disser tat ion Abstracts In ternat iona l , 1978, 38, (10-A), 6344. ~ H a l l , F.S. and H a l l , D.T. The Two Career Couple. Don M i l l s , Ontario: Addison Wesley, 1979. Holmstrom, L.L. The Two Career Family. Cambridge, Massachusets: Schenkman Publ ishing Co . , 1972. Katz, M. Antecedants of coping behavior in a ro le c o n f l i c t s i t ua t i on . Disser tat ion Abstracts In ternat iona l , 1978, 39 (3-B) , 1534. K e l l y , J . and Wore l l , J . New formulations of sex roles and androgyny: a c r i t i c a l review. Journal of Consulting and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1977, 45, (6) , 1101-1115. Locksley, A. and Col ten, M.E. Psychological androgyny: a case of mis-taken ident i ty? Journal of Personal i ty and Social Psychology, 1979, 3_7, 1017-1031. Pa ro l i us , A .P . Emerging sex ro le a t t i t udes , expectations and s t ra ins among col lege women. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1975, 37, 146-153. ~ 71 Poloma, M.M. and Garland, T.N. The myth of the ega l i ta r ian fami ly . In A. Theodore (Ed . ) , The Professional Woman. Massachusets: Shenkman, 1971. Rapoport, R. and Rapoport, R. The dual career fami ly , a var iant pattern and soc ia l change. Human Rela t ions, 1969, 22_, 3-30. Rapoport, R. and Rapoport, R. Further considerations on the dual career fami ly . Human Rela t ions, 1971, 6_, 519-533. Rapoport, R. and Rapoport, R. Family enabling processes: the f a c i l i t a t -ing husband in dual career f am i l i es . In R. Gosling (Ed . ) , Support, innovation and autonomy. London, England: Tavistock, 1973. Rapoport, R. and Rapoport, R. Men, women and equi ty. The Family  Coordinator, 1975, 24, 421-432. Rapoport, R. and Rapoport, R. Dual career fami l ies re-examined. London, England: Martin Robertson & Co . , L t d . , 1976. Rapoport, R. and Rapoport, R. Working Couples. London, England: Routledge & Kegan Paul L t d . , 1978. Richardson, J . G . Wife occupational super io r i ty and mari tal t roubles: an examination of the hypothesis. Journal of Marriage and the  Family, 1979, 4]_, 63-73. Ross i , A . S . Equal i ty between the sexes: an immodest proposal. In R . J . L i f ton (Ed . ) , The Woman in America. New York: Houghton-M i f f l i n , 1964. Scanzoni, J . Strategies for changing male family r o l es : research and pract ice impl ica t ion . The Family Coordinator, 1979, 28 ,^ 435-442. S a f i l i o s - R o t h s c h i l d , C. and D i j ke rs , M. Handling unconventional asymmetries. In R. Rapoport and R. Rapoport (Eds . ) , Working Couples London, England: Routledge & Kegan Paul L t d . , 1978. Spanier, G.B. Measuring dyadic adjustment: new scales for assessing the qua l i t y of marriage and s im i la r dyads. Journal of Marriage  and the Family, 1976, 28, 15-28. Spanier, G.B. and Cole, C.L. Toward c l a r i f i c a t i o n and invest igat ion of mari ta l adjustment. Revision of a paper presented at the National Counsil on Family Rela t ions. Toronto, Ontar io, 1974. Svinovacz, M.E. Role a l l o c a t i o n , family structure and female employ-ment. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1977, 36, 781-791. Weingarten, K. Interdependence. In R. Rapoport and R. Raport (Eds . ) , Working Couples. London, England: Routledge & Kegan Paul L t d . , 1978. 72 Wiggins, J . S . and HolzmulIer, A. Psychological androgyny and in te r -personal behavior. Journal of Consulting and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1978, 46, (1) , 40-52. Women's Bureau. Women in the labour fo rce , facts and f i gu res . Condi-t ions of Work, Labour Canada, Min is ter of Supply and Serv ices , Canada, 1978. Young, M. and Wi l lmot t , P. The Symmetrical Family. New York: Pantheon Books, 1973. 73 APPENDIX A Family Background Sheet 74 Instructions 1. It i s important to complete the two inventories i n d i v i d u a l l y . Please do not share your answers. 2. The inventory copies with a red sticker (upper left-hand corner) must be completed by the female subject. 3. Read the directions ca r e f u l l y before answering each inventory. 4. The Family Background Sheet may be answered j o i n t l y or separately. 5. Make sure to return the following documents: (a) Family Background Sheet (1 copy) (b) Bern Inventory (2 copies) (c) Dyadic Adjustment Scale (2 copies) * * * If you want to receive a copy of the research abstract summarizing the findings, indicate your name and address on th i s sheet. Return this coupon at a l a t e r date to the designated address. Name: Address: Return to: Suzanne Kenney 75 Family Background Sheet Your cooperation in providing a l l the answers i s appreciated. Please be assured of anonymity and s t r i c t con f i den t i a l i t y . Age: male female under 30 30 - 39 40 - 49 50 - 59 60 + female Education*! lev.!: ™ ^ h i g h 5 c h 0 o l _ _ univers i ty " post graduate technica l 3. Number of years married: less than 5 5 - 10 11 - 15 16 - 20 21 - 25 more than 25 4. Number of ch i ld ren : 0 1 2 3 more than 3 76 Approximate j o i n t incnmp- ^ j income. l e s s t n £ m i g j 9 g 9 _ 20,000 - 29,999 30,000 - 39,999 40,000 - 49,999 more than 49,999 6. Ethnic background: 7. Occupation: wife husband 8. Number of years employed: wife husband 9. Has there been any h istory of separation in your present marriage? If yes , how long? 10. Have there been any periods during which e i ther of you remained at home while the other partner worked? I f yes , please ind icate the durat ion. . wife husband 11. Do you have assistance with ch i l d care other than from your spouse or your other chi ldren? I f yes , by whom is i t provided and how many hours per week? 1) paid employee(s) no. hrs./week 2) family member(s) no. hrs./week 3) other(s) no. hrs./week 12 Do you have assistance with household tasks? I f * ' whom and how many hours per week? 1) paid employee(s) no. hrs./week 2) family member(s) no. hrs./week 3) other(s) "<>. h ^ / w e e k  Thank you! 77 APPENDIX B Bern Sex Role Inventory (Bem, 1974) DO NOT COPY 78 BEM INVENTORY Developed by Sandra L. Bern, Ph.D. Name Phone No . or Address Date 19 If a student: Schoo If not a student: Occupation, D I R E C T I O N S On the opposite side of this sheet, you will f ind listed a number of personality characteristics. We would like you to use those characteristics to describe yourself, that is, we would like you to indicate, on a scale from 1 to 7, how true of you each of these characteristics is. Please do not leave any characteristic unmarked. Example: sly Write a 1 if it is never or almost never t rue that you are sly. Write a 2 if it is usually not true that you are sly. Write a 3 if it is sometimes but infrequently true that you are sly. Write a 4 if it is occasionally true that you are sly. Write a 5 if it is often true that you are sly. Write a 6 if it is usually true that you are sly. Write a 7 if it is always or almost always true that you are sly. Thus, if you feel it is sometimes but infrequently true that you are " s l y , " never or almost never true that you are "ma l i c ious , " always or almost always true that you are " i r responsible," and often true that you are "carefree," then you would rate these characteristics as fol lows: Sly Malicious Irresponsible Carefree 7 C O N S U L T I N G P S Y C H O L O G I S T S P R E S S , INC. 577 College Avenue Palo A l to , Cal i fornia 94306 ©Copyr ight , 1978, by Consult ing Psychologists Press, Inc. A l l rights reserved. Dupl icat ion of this form by any process is a violation of the copyright laws of the United States except when authorized in writ ing by the Publisher. DO NOT COPY 79 Never or Usually Sometimes but Occasionally Often Usually Always or almost not infrequently true true true ' almost never true true true always true Defend my own beliefs Adaptable Affectionate Dominant Conscientious Tender Independent Conceited Sympathetic Will ing to take a stand Moody Love children Assertive Tactful Sensitive to needs of others Aggressive Reliable Gentle Strong personality Conventional Understanding Self-reliant Jealous Yielding Forceful Helpful Compassionate Athlet ic Truthful Cheerful Have leadership abilities Unsystematic Eager to soothe hurt feelings Analyt ical Secretive Shy Will ing to take risks Inefficient Warm Make decisions easily Flatterable Theatrical Self-sufficient Loyal Happy Individualistic Soft-spoken Unpredictable Masculine Gul l ib le Solemn Competi t ive Chi ld l ike Likable Ambi t ious Do not use harsh language Sincere Ac t as a leader Feminine Friendly a b Class R.S. S.S. a - b SSdiff . ,80 APPENDIX C Dyadic Adjustment Scale (Spanier, 1976) 81 DYADIC ADJUSTMENT SCALE Most persons have disagreements i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Please i n d i c a t e below the approximate extent of agreement or disagreement between you and your partner f o r each item on the f o l l o w i n g l i s t . (Place a checkmark to i n d i c a t e your answer.) Almost Always Always Agree Agree 1. Handling f a m i l y finances 2. Matters of Recreation 3. R e l i g i o u s matters 4. Demonstrations of A f f e c t i o n 5. Friends 6. Sex r e l a t i o n s 7- Conve n t i o n a l i t y ( c o r r e c t or proper behavior) 8. Philosophy of l i f e 9. Ways of d e a l i n g with parents or in-laws 10. Aims, goals, and things b e l i e v e d important 11. Amount of time spent together 12. Making major d e c i s i o n s 13. Household tasks 14. Leisure time i n -t e r e s t s and a c t i v i t i e s Occasion- Frequent- Almost a l l y l y Always Always Disagree Disagree Disagree Disagree 15- Career d e c i s i o n s •Duplicated with the permission of Graham B. Spanier 82 - 2 -More A l l Most of often Occa-the time the time than not s i o n a l l v Rarely Never 16. How often do you discuss or have you considered divorce, separation, or terminating your r e l a t i o n s h i p ? 17. How often do you or your mate leave the house a f t e r a f i g h t ? 18. In general, how often do you think that things between you and your p a r t -ner are going well? 19. Do you confide i n your mate? 20. Do you ever r e g r e t that you married? (or l i v e d together?) 21. How often do you and your partner quarrel? 22. How often do you and your mate "get on each others' nerves"? . Every Almost Occa-Dav Every s i o n a l l y Rarely Never 23. Do you k i s s your mate? A l l Most Some Very Few None 24. Do you and your mate engage i n outside i n t e r e s t s together? How often would you say the f o l l o w i n g events occur between you and your mate? Less Than Once or Once or Once a Twice a Twice a Once a More Never Month Month Week Day Often 25. Have a s t i m u l a t i n g exchange of ideas 83 -3-Less Than Once or Once or Once a Twice a Twice a Once a More Never Month Month Week Day Often 26. Laugh together 27. Calmy discuss something 28. Work together on a p r o j e c t These are some things about which couples sometimes agree and sometimes disagree. Indicate i f e i t h e r item below caused d i f f e r e n c e s of opinions or were problems i n your r e l a t i o n s h i p during the past few weeks. (Check yes or no.) Yes No 29. Being too t i r e d f o r sex. 30. Not showing love. 31. The dots on the f o l l o w i n g l i n e represent d i f f e r e n t degrees of happiness i n your r e l a t i o n s h i p . The middle point, "happy", represents the degree of happiness of most r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Please c i r c l e the dot which best describes the degree of happiness, a l l things considered, of your r e l a t i o n s h i p . Extremely F a i r l y A L i t t l e Happy Very Extremely P e r f e c t Unhappy Unhappy Unhappy Happy Happy 32. Which of the f o l l o w i n g statements best describes how you f e e l about the future of your r e l a t i o n s h i p ? Place a checkmark on the appropriate l i n e . I want desperately f o r my r e l a t i o n s h i p to succeed, and would go to almost any length to see that i t does. I want very much f o r my r e l a t i o n s h i p to succeed, and w i l l do a l l I can to see that i t does. I want very much f o r my r e l a t i o n s h i p to succeed, and w i l l do my f a i r share to see that i t does. I t would be nice i f my r e l a t i o n s h i p succeeded, but I can't do much more than I am doing now to help i t succeed.. I t would be nice i f i t succeeded, but I refuse to do any more than I am doing now to keep the r e l a t i o n s h i p going. My r e l a t i o n s h i p can never succeed, and there i s no more that I can do to keep the r e l a t i o n s h i p going. 84 _4-33. When disagreements a r i s e , they u s u a l l y r e s u l t i n : Husband g i v i n g i n Wife g i v i n g i n Agreement by mutual give &- take _, 34. In l e i s u r e time do you g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r : To be "on the go," To stay at home? Does your mate g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r : To be "on the go," To stay at home? 35- Do you ever wish you had not married? Frequently O c c a s i o n a l l y Rarely Never 36. I f you had your l i f e to l i v e over, do you think you would: Marry the same person Marry a d i f f e r e n t person Not marry at a l l , . , 85 APPENDIX D Letter of Transmittal 86 (participant's address) Dear : Over the past year, my interest in dual career couples has deepened as I have read journal articles and books, and discussed informally with working partners how they feel about their chosen l i f e s t y l e . Now I am reaching a new stage in my quest as I undertake my own research in the area of dual career couples. The research I am doing, under the super-vision of a thesis committee of three professors, constitutes the final requirement for a Master of Arts in Counselling Psychology at The University of British Columbia. Your cooperation in helping me is greatly appreciated because, as innovators, you are on the cutting edge of social change which makes your l i f e s t y l e of particular interest to me. The purpose of my study is to determine i f there is a relationship be-tween sex role orientation and dyadic satisfaction. At this time, I am unable to give you any additional information.' In order to maintain the integrity of my results, you, as potential participants, are not to be given the details of my research. If you would like to receive a summary of my findings when my thesis has been completed, please indi-cate your name and address on the enclosed sheet, and return i t to me separately and at a later date at the address provided. Do not send i t with your research data so as to maintain anonymity. Your participation in this study i s , of course, voluntary. If you do not want to participate, please return the uncompleted documents in the return envelope. Otherwise, I would request that you follow the instruc-tions provided. If the inventories are returned, I will assume that you are giving me your consent to use your data in my research. Anonymity is of importance so do not include your name, address or social in-surance number or other identifying information with the material you return to me. You and your partner are being asked to complete the Bern Sex Role Orientation Inventory and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale separately and privately. The Family Background Sheet, however, may be completed jointly or by one of you. Your participation will require approximately fifteen minutes. I would like to thank you in advance for your help. Your cooperation is invaluable to this research, research that will hopefully contribute to Continued 87 the growing body of knowledge that may provide you with ins ight as to how to deal with the chal lenging l i f e s t y l e you have chosen. Any inqu i r -ies you may have may be directed to the address or telephone number given below. S incere ly , Suzanne Kenney 

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