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Acculturation and value change : Chinese immigrant women Lee, Christina Chau-Ping 1984

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ACCULTURATION  AND  V A L U E CHANGE:  CHINESE  IMMIGRANT  by Christina B.A.  University  M.Ed.  of  University  A THESIS SUBMITTED THE  Chau-Ping  Lee Toronto  of  IN PARTIAL  REQUIREMENTS  FOR  DOCTOR OF  Toronto  F U L F I L M E N T OF  THE  DEGREE  OF  EDUCATION in  THE  F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E COUNSELLING  We  accept to  this  . April THE  PSYCHOLOGY  thesis  the required  U N I V E R S I T Y OF © CC.  STUDIES  as  conforming  standard  1984 B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  L e e , 1984  WOMEN  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements  this thesis  British  it  freely available  for  fulfilment of the  f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  of  agree that  i n partial  Columbia,  I agree that f o r reference  permission  scholarly  the Library  shall  and study.  I  thesis  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my  understood that  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  f i n a n c i a l gain  shall  ^  "  ^  ^  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Apr;/  of this  It i s thesis  n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department o f  further  f o r extensive copying o f t h i s  department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . for  make  < *t 9  /fycA*/ogy Columbia  written  Abstract  T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n examines t h e p e r s o n a l  value  Chinese- women i m m i g r a n t s  i n the process  of adjusting to  Canadian c u l t u r e .  a variant of Kelly's  Repertory g r i d  Using  methodology, f i f t e e n  Vancouver, B r i t i s h  situations.  elicited  which d e f i n e d  options (bipolar  concept  each o p t i o n Using  options  on t h e i r  concerning  cultural  each g r i d  constructs. principal  options  on s i x s u p p l i e d  identity,  separately,  personal  including only loading  a superordinate  The s e c o n d  their individual  constructs.  They  constructs  i d e n t i t y and  highest  elicited  on t h e f i r s t  theme w h i c h  principal  options  the twelve  f o r a common c o r e o f  In t h e second  the s i t u a t i o n a l  from  Component a n a l y s i s was c o n d u c t e d  The c o n s t r u c t s  t h e same f a s h i o n .  re-rated  i n d i v i d u a l value  A Principal  meaning and g i v e n  in  construct  i n i t s favor.  then rated  component were a s s e s s e d  t h i s meaning.  value  f o r the major value  twelve  their  emotionality.  were  r e s u l t i n g i n twelve  A personal  scale, subjects  also rated  on  the c o n f l i c t ,  two o p t i o n s  s u c h a s l o y a l / d i s l o y a l ) was e l i c i t e d  by a s k i n g  a 7-point  six individual  For each s i t u a t i o n ,  f o r each person.  (1955)  Hong Kong i m m i g r a n t s t o  Columbia p r o v i d e d  conflict  systems o f  reflected  component was t r e a t e d interview,  each  subject  on t h e f i r s t , and t h e  I l l  second on  superordinate  the v a l i d i t y  grouped.  supplied  are  portrait  the f i r s t  component,  acculturation. conflict  i n ordinary  of constructs.  against  Chinese  values,  (c) the c u l t i v a t i o n  identity,  compartmentalization,  identity,  and  within  studies  Aside  the process  six  They a r e :  personal  (e) an a f f i r m a t i o n o f  Supervisor: Larry  Cochran  group of  pervasive reasonably  (a) a r e a c t i o n  (b) a r e a l i g n m e n t w i t h of a core  on  i n f e r a b l e from  (f) p o s i t i o n expansion against  Dr.  The  from a  to c o n f l i c t  indicate  conflict,  identity.  Research  themes.  and t h e s e c o n d  s i t u a t i o n s , with  s t r a t e g i e s o f managing  were  r a t i n g s on t h e  t h e f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t no o r d e r l y  I n d i v i d u a l case  the o r g a n i z a t i o n  (d)  option  p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y meaningful.  of construct organization  distinct  constructs  and on t h e s u p e r o r d i n a t e  that both  t o comment  and t h e s e c o n d  f o r C h i n e s e and W e s t e r n i d e n t i t y  first  value  on t h e f i r s t  then c o r r e l a t e d with  suggest  tendency the  were  constructs  components  a l s o asked  o f t h e themes and t h e way  Option scores  components  results  themes, and was  peripheral identity, Chinese  Chinese  iv  Acknowledgements  I wish research support thesis..  t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e  supervisor,  and d i r e c t i o n d u r i n g I a l s o wish  Marv Westwood  appreciation  the development o f t h i s  t o t h a n k my c o m m i t t e e members,  whose work i n t h i s  for their  In a d d i t i o n , , I would  t o the external area  many v a l u a b l e  to- my  Cochran' f o r h i s c o n t i n u e d  and Dr.. G o r d o n N e l s o n  and- encouragement..  provided  Dr., L a r r y  and a p p r e c i a t i o n  examiner,  like  involvement to express  Dr.. M i l d r e d  of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l research, insights to this  study.  Dr.  McCoy,,  V  T a b l e o f ContentsPageAbstract  ....... .......... ..... ............... . ........................ ...........  Acknowledgements  ......................................  ii iv  Table of Contents  v  List  ix  of Tables  Chapter  I::  Introduction  Chapter  I I : : Review  •  of the L i t e r a t u r e  4  Acculturation-  4  Acculturation  o f Chinese  V a l u e a s a- p r o b l e m  i m m i g r a n t s ...................  6  ......................................  16  C h i n e s e v e r s u s W e s t e r n v a l u e s .............................. Possible Chapter  e f f e c t s of value c o n f l i c t  I I I : Acculturation  Methodologies Content Personal  ..  19 24  Cross-Cultural 29  ......................................  29'  C o n s t r u c t t h e o r y ..................................  35.  Principal  ................................................  Component a n a l y s i s  R e p e r t o r y g r i d and IV:  and  ....... ...............  ...................................  and m e t h o d o l o g y  Repertory g r i d  Chapter  1  of a grid  ..................  cross-cultural applicability  Method  Subjects  Eliciting  .  ........................................  e l e m e n t s t o be  judged  42 49  . ........... ................... ........................  Situation grid  39"  52 52 52 54'  vi  Page E l i c i t i n g : value- c o n s t r u c t s - w i t h which  to  judge elements;  ..  R a t i n g ; e a c h e l e m e n t on each, c o n s t r u c t Validating: core Procedure  and  ...  54  .............  56  ....  57  p e r i p h e r a l components  ................... .,....,...,.... ...........,.... .,...................  D a t a a n a l y s i s ; .............,. ..,.. ... ..,. .... ....................-... C h a p t e r V:  Group R e s u l t s  ....................................  P s y c h o l o g i c a l meaningf u l n e s s  o f components  ..........  Group p a t t e r n s  ............  Case 2 ... . Case  ................................  perspective:  nomothetic approach Case 1  Idiographic  i.....  .  ... .....................,  .... .,. ....... .,... ... . . . ... . . . .  Case 5  Case 9» C a s e 10  .  ... . . . ... . .  86  . .  . . .  103  . . . .  . . ..  111 115  ..  ..... .  81  10 7  .  .....  81  9/8- •  .  Ca se 6 .,... . . .  Case 8  63  . . . . . . .  ................................................  Case 7  63  versus:  ...........................................  3  Case 4  61  68  Chapter V I : I n d i v i d u a l Cases ft h i s t o r i c a l  60  .  ...  .  ... ......  119 12 3  ..  127  92  vii  Page Cas-er I I . ....  .......<..<.  C a s e 12  ...  Case 13  •....  •• •  133  ........-  .  .•..  C a s e 14-  ......  Case 15-  130  .'.  .  • 139  -  14 2  Summary o f c a s e s t u d i e s - .......................................... Chapter V I I :  136  146  The. Nature- o f C o n f l i c t S i t u a t i o n s . ............ 152.  An e x a m i n a t i o n , o f s i t u a t i o n a l o p t i o n s The a n a l y s i s  .............................  of a decision  158  Chapter VIIIr- D i s c u s s i o n Limitations Theoretical Conflict  163  ... ....................................... .........................  impl i c a t ions .  152  ..........................................  .......................................  ...  165 165  ....... 165  S t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n s ; o f managing c o n f l i c t  168  Self-development  17 3  Practical  ..... . ..... . ..... ... . . ... . . . . ... ..... . . . . ... .  implications  ............................................. ............ 175  Idiosyncratic: nature o f adjustment Ordinary  nature o f c o n f l i c t  Attitude  toward  Methodology  .  ...  o f adjustment  Identifying  ..............  the process o f acculturation  Future d i r e c t i o n s , f o r research Patterns  situations  175  common c o n f l i c t s  ......  . ..................................  177 178 179 181 181 181  vi.ii  Page S umma r y List  .............-.............. ~  . 18 3  o f References-  186  A p p e n d i x A:  Advertisement  Appendix  B:  Preparation  Append i x  Cr  Rating  Appendix  D:  Re-rating  f o r subjects  ........................ 203  f o r interview  f o r m a t .............,  204 -.........-........... 20 5  f o r m a t ...................................... 207  Appendix- E :  Letter  to subject  ......................................... 208  Appendix  F:  Subject consent  form  Appendix  G:  Intraind ividual  correlations  210 ............................. 211  ix  List  o f Tables* Page  5.1  C o r r e l a t i o n s , o f t h e named themes, w i t h and  5.2  67  i d e n t i t y with  the  the second  first  Correlations  -  first  p r i n c i p a l component  70  o f Western' i d e n t i t y w i t h  the second  Correlations the  5.6  p r i n c i p a l component  the  p r i n c i p a l " component  p r i n c i p a l component  o f expansion  first  ...................  Correlations, o f personal i d e n t i t y with and  5.5  the second  Correlations and  5..4  1  C o r r e l a t i o n s , o f Chinese and  5.3  t h e second  the* f i r s t  the  first  ...............  with  the f i r s t  Correlations the  7.1  first  o f c o n f u s i o n and u n c e r t a i n t y and t h e s e c o n d  Classification percentages.  74  and t h e  second? p r i n c i p a l component 5.7  73  of personal i d e n t i t y with  and t h e second: p r i n c i p a l , component... of" g u i l t  72*  76 with  p r i n c i p a l , component. .  of situations into categories  77  and  .. ... ............................  154  Chapter- 1 Introduction  The  s p e c i f i c problems, and n e e d s o f i m m i g r a n t women  from t h e T h i r d World  and e s p e c i a l l y  are  area, i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h . .  a much n e g l e c t e d Previous  P a c i f i c . Rim c o u n t r i e s ;  s t u d i e s o n Chinese, immigrants,, c o n d u c t e d  a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y i n t h e United: States,- have d e a l t p r i m a r i l y with problems. aspects  demographic, h i s t o r i c a l  Few s t u d i e s have f o c u s e d  o f immigrant  attention  or political  on t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l  a d j u s t m e n t and l i t t l e ,  has been paid, t o t h e s p e c i a l  i f any,  problems  facing  i m m i g r a n t women.. The considers society,  need  f o r such a study  the t r a d i t i o n a l living  becomes^ e v i d e n t  place  o f women i n C h i n e s e  a sheltered existence  women i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y .  A Chinese  f r o m a, s o c i e t y i n w h i c h h e r v a l u e s within are is  culturally  narrow l i m i t s  redefined, w i t h i n primarily defined  this  when o n e  relative immigrant  t o that o f woman moves  and r o l e s a r e d e f i n e d  t o a s o c i e t y i n which  f a r broader limits.. as a mother, wife  these  A t home, h e r r o l e  and d a u g h t e r ;  abroad  c a n be expanded: t o i n c l u d e s o c i a l , , e d u c a t i o n a l and  work r o l e s ,  and many o t h e r s . .  problems o f adjustment speaking  faced  Thus, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e by a l l immigrants  (e.g..,  a new- l a n g u a g e , u n f a m i l i a r c u s t o m s a n d r u l e s o f  conduct, now  f e e l i n g s o f b e i n g : uprooted),,, t h e C h i n e s e  confronted: with  values,, l i f e - r o l e  radical  of  this  c h a n g e s i n m o r a l and? e t h i c a l ,  p e r c e p t i o n s , a n d and t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l  p r e s s u r e s * and c o n f l i c t s For  t h a t accompany s u c h  reason,, a s p e c i f i c  a c c u l t u r a t i o n ; that Chinese  long  overdue..  The p r e s e n t  examination  t h e impact  changes. o f the process  i m m i g r a n t women undergo, i s  dissertation,  w h i c h f o c u s e s on  C h i n e s e ' i m m i g r a n t women i n C a n a d a , a t t e m p t s systematically  woman i s  to investigate  o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n and; t h e r e l a t e d  issue o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustment. The  theoretical  investigation Kelly  system with  Superordinate  the present  drawn f r o m t h e work o f G e o r g e A.  core  the notion o f a personal a n d p e r i p h e r a l subsystems..  w i t h i n each s e l f - c o n s t r u c t  c o n s t r u c t s which d e f i n e a person'^  essence  system a r e t h e identity..  o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n " i s regarded; here  construct The  is- l a r g e l y  (195 5),.. p a r t i c u l a r l y  construct  core  base u n d e r l y i n g  change, s p e c i a l l y  aim o f this, study  systems o f i n d i v i d u a l s structure relation  and c o n t e n t to value  investigation Repertory  the centrally  as value/ involved values.  i s t o examine t h e p e r s o n a l i n transition, of this  The  value  to explore the  value organization i n  c o n f l i c t , , i d e n t i t y and e m o t i o n a l i t y .  a l s o provides, the o p p o r t u n i t y  The  t o assess the  g r i d : a s a- c r o s s - c u l t u r a l m e t h o d o l o g y .  method a l l o w s o n e t o i d e n t i f y and measure v a l u e  This conflict  within  the construing o f the adjusting  person- and t o s t u d y  which, v a l u e s a r e opposed,, a f f i r m e d ; o r r e j e c t e d . This' d i s s e r t a t i o n the l i t e r a t u r e North  b e g i n s w i t h an e x t e n s i v e r e v i e w o f  on- a c c u l t u r a t i o n  o f Chinese  America- w i t h , emphasis: on women and v a l u e  P r e v i o u s ^ r e s e a r c h and m e t h o d b l o g i e s v w i l l 5  assessed..  i t s theoretical  g i v e an o r i e n t a t i o n  involves  individual  immigrants; from This  be  change..  critically  S i n c e t h e R e p e r t o r y g r i d " i s t h e main t o o l o f  investigation, to  immigrants i n  study  background  will  be d e s c r i b e d  to. t h e p r e s e n t method-,, w h i c h  case s t u d i e s o f f i f t e e n  women  Hong Kong. i s intended' t o c o n t r i b u t e  t o an  u n d e r s t a n d i n g , o f t h e phenomenon o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n , of  reference; o f a s p e c i f i c m i n o r i t y group  that  a r i s e ' from  diversity this  adjustment..  and; m u l t i c u l t u r a l  r e s e a r c h can lead  1  especially- i n the f i e l d immigrant building one  In v i e w  and t h e p r o b l e m s  o f t h e growing,  nature o f Canadian  to- i m p o r t a n t  t h e frame  practical  ethnic  society, applications,  o f c o u n s e l l i n g ; and: h e l p i n g  women i n t e g r a t e  into  society,, to f i n d  a b r i d g e between t h e l i f e  on w h i c h t h e y a r e e m b a r k i n g .  new ways o f  t h e y have l e f t  and t h e  4 Chapter II  Review- o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e -  Acculturation Acculturation  i s a nebulous ;  term which  has. been  a p p r o a c h e d from d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s - i n s o c i a l As; a r e s u l t acculturation mid  of the appointment  i n the S o c i a l  1930s, a c c u l t u r a t i o n  sciences.  o f a s u b c o m m i t t e e on  Science  Research  was. d e f i n e d  Council  as an a r e a o f s t u d y  within  t h e domain o f c u l t u r a l a n t h r o p o l o g y d e a l i n g  "those  phenomena* w h i c h  result  having d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s contact with either,  subsequent  o r both groups"  when, groups; o f  come  into  i n the  with  individuals  continuous  first-hand  changes i n the o r i g i n a l p a t t e r n o f (Redfield,.  Linton,  & Herskovits,  1936,, p.. 149) .. Early the  research  on a c c u l t u r a t i o n ,  was c o n d u c t e d  f i e l d ' o f anthropology,, mostly w i t h i n  descriptive', Also,  most  world  nations  natural  studies  history  tradition  within  t h e framework o f a (Keesing,  f o c u s e d ; on t h e a c c u l t u r a t i o n  to- i n d u s t r i a l i z e d ; w e s t e r n  -  1956). of t h i r d  societies  (Siegel,.  1955). In  a; 1979 r e v i e w on- a c c u l t u r a t i o n ,  sociologists acculturation  have a t t e m p t e d  to d i s t i n g u i s h  and a s s i m i l a t i o n . .  viewed; a c c u l t u r a t i o n  Kim s t a t e d  as a l i m i t e d  that  between  F o r example,, Gordon  (1964)  form o f a s s i m i l a t i o n ,  a.  5 limited: convergence the on  host  country..  issues  Most  relating  prejudice  (.Spiro,  toward  s o c i o l o g i c a l , s t u d i e s - have  to race  greater  of ethnic  research  that, t h e r e c e n t  included:,  own  i n attempts terms  rather  groups  and  1951;  than, by c o n t r a s t i n g  i n t e r e s t to i n c l u d e  (Chance,. 1 9 6 5 ) ,  A s i a n s , (Sue,, 1 9 7 7 ) ,  Kaufman, &. P i e r c e ,  1976),  emphasis; on m e t h o d o l o g i c a l definition identity In  toward  a:  groups i n  them w i t h  other  (Barth,, 1969) , (b) a s h i f t  of  (Clark,  cultures  of  i d e n t i t y , as  to understand ethnic  cultures, or reference- groups target  trends  (a) a s h i f t  emphasis- on e t h n i c i t y , o r e t h n i c  represented  groups  group  group membership ( B e r r y ,  (19-79) s t a t e d  acculturation  the  status  focused  1952).  Olmedo  their  relations,, minority  1955),. s o c i a l  consequences* o f m i n o r i t y Marden,  t h e s o c i o c u l t u r a l mainstreams; o f  and  European  ethnic  Hispanics  (c) an, i n c r e a s e d  issues', p a r t i c u l a r l y  i n the  and? measurement o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n and  ethnic  ( S z a p o c z n i k , , 1975; this, study,  Padilla,  no d i s t i n c t i o n  1980)..  i s made between  the  terms: " a c c u l t u r a t i o n " a n d " a s s i m i l a t i o n , " I have  used  interchangeably  of  immigrants cultural  to the h o s t  contact..  considered involved  to- d e n o t e  as v a l u e values..  the a d j u s t m e n t p r o c e s s  culture  as. a r e s u l t o f  them  cross-  Also,, the: e s s e n c e o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n i s change,  in  particularly  the c e n t r a l l y  6 Acculturation  of Chinese  Influenced sociology Chinese  and  by  Immigrants  the v a r i o u s , t h e o r i e s  psychology,, r e s e a r c h  on a c c u l t u r a t i o n  immigrants* i n . N o r t h A m e r i c a  major, a r e a s :  family  l i f e ? (Hayner  1956,. I960;. Lyman, 1968;  of a n t h r o p o l o g y ,  has. e x p l o r e d  several  & Reynolds;, 19-37;; L e e ,  Abbott,. 1 9 7 0 ) ; c u l t u r a l , v a l u e s - and  a t t i t u d e s - (Kuo  &> L i n , 1977;  Yao,, 19-79);  (Sdllenberger,  1968;  & Kroes,, 1 9 7 2 ) ; m e n t a l  Kriger  and. c u l t u r e : c o n f l i c t Bourne, and  1975;  courtship  marriage  1949;  (Sommers, 1960;  (Huang,. 1965;  Weiss,  b e h a v i o r and  Fong., 1965) ;. e t h n i c  social identity  &. Sue,, 1973;  An findings women. in  attempt  The  Early businessmen  credibility  1972r  & Lew,. 1 9 7 6 ) ;  dating  interracial  (Fong. & P e s k i n ,  orientation  1969);.  (Abel  &  Hsu,  (Weisman, Snadomsky,. & mobility  (Tan,  1968;  to present  some o f the  emphasis- on v a l u e of such f i n d i n g s  change  will  be  major  and; examined  chapter.. studies; focused who  the i n f l u x  m a i n l y on  as  labourers  m i g r a t e d f o r economic of: new  and  and  or p o l i t i c a l  immigrants, l a t e r  c o n c e n t r a t e d more on p r o f e s s i o n a l s came e i t h e r  illness  1976) ..  fi  i s . made h e r e  with, p a r t i c u l a r  the next  With  Hong  & Sue,.  1970);  Gannon, 1972;; Sung,. 1 9 7 7 ) ; a n d s o c i a l Kitano  child-rearing  Sue  Sue, Wagner, M a r g u i l l i s ,  (Beaudry,. 1 9 6 6 ) ; sex r o l e s  interpersonal  of  reasons.  studies  college  immigrants, o r as s t u d e n t s , who  students  decided  to  who  s.tay p e r m a n e n t l y a f t e r g r a d u a t i o n . .  In i n t e r p r e t i n g ; such  results,  the variables of  o n e m u s t take- i n t o - a c c o u n t  socio-economic-, s t a t u s , , e d u c a t i o n , can  l e a d - t o d i f f e r i n g ; degrees^ o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n . . Early  1960;  s t u d i e s ( H a y n e r &« Reynolds;,  Lyman,. 1968) r e v e a l e d ? s i g n i f i c a n t  d e s c r i p t i v e ^ and h i s t o r i c a l It  occupation', a n d a g e w h i c h  appeared  lifestyle family  that these  1937; Lee,. 1956,, demographic,  data; r e g a r d i n g  settlers  f irs.t. s e t t l e r s . .  had a v e r y  with minimal contact with  insulated  t h e host, c u l t u r e . .  constituted: the center o f t h e i r  lives,, with  The  some  d e p e n d e n c e o n community e t h n i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o f u l f i l l social  and r e c r e a t i o n a l  needs.  values  were- s t r i c t l y a d h e r e d  Traditional  to.  r o l e s : and  "The t r a d i t i o n a l  a good; h u s b a n d i . S : t h a t o f as g o o d p r o v i d e r . . money and he a l s o spends; i t . sympathetic,, and  forbearing.  conservative and  A good  Chinese  wife  daughters"  i n the ideology o f the spends v e r y  1937,, p . 6 3 3 ) .  v a l u e s and d e p e n d e n c e o n t h e h u s b a n d  observed  that except  money  by L e e (19-56, I960).,  woman l e d a v e r y  v i r t u o u s , and r e s p e c t a b l e C h i n e s e  Similar  regarding  for occasional v i s i t s  community,, t h e C h i n e s e  little  as, p o s s i b l e — s o n s , , n o t  ( H a y n e r &> R e y n o l d s ,  m a t t e r s , were a l s o n o t e d  t o be- k i n d and  t h e w i f e must be t o l e r a n t  o f America  r a i s e s : a s many c h i l d r e n  He e a r n s t h e  He i s . e x p e c t e d  b u t i f he i s n o t ,  i d e a o.f  everyday Lyman  (1968)  t o the  secluded  life,  "no  woman, w h e t h e r m a r r i e d o r  single  i s even p e r m i t t e d  325) .  Threat  of  a s s i m i l a t i o n was: e x p e r i e n c e d  intergenerational independence of  t o show h e r s e l f i n p u b l i c " (p., primarily in  c o n f l i c t s ; , parents, feared- the  c h i l d r e n might a f f e c t  the  cohesion  of  the-  family. A b b o t t . (1970) e x p l o r e d and  the  c h a n g i n g ; v a l u e s ? of: C h i n e s e  psychosocial  immigrants with  C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l . Inventory.. that, t h e  majority of  nonassertive  subjects  and: i n d i r e c t ;  Test  they  s t u d i e s on  the  components:  socially  preferred  Furthermore,. A b b o t t  (1976)  o f phenomena as. wholes, r a t h e r  s t a t e d , t h a t deference,*  a p p r o a c h m i g h t be  e x p l a i n e d ' by  the  c u l t u r a l , norms, o f harmony and  1962;  was  supported  by  studies  & K i r k , 19-7 2)  comparison  to Caucasian  Americans,  manifested  g r e a t e r deference,,  the  (Fenz &  ;  on  attempt  Arkoff,. that  a b a s e m e n t , and* e x t e r n a l  informal  and  in  Americans:  of c o n t r o l . (1972) c o n d u c t e d  as  collectivity..  w h i c h showed  Chinese  and  than  emphasis  t o f a m i l y and. g r o u p , and  Meade,. 1970;; Sue  Young  key  individualism  t o respondr t o  observation  self  low  of  ;  reviewed  e x t r a c t e d - two  subordination  This  collectivity  i n t r a g r o u p d e p e n d e n c y and; s e l f - r e s t r a i n t ,  Abbott  indirect  indicated,  showed; c o n s i d e r a b l e -  C h i n e s e p e r s o n a l i t y and  holistic: perception parts..  the  results  tended, t o be  s e l f - r e s t r a i n t , , u n e a s e i n group,, and versus: i n d i v i d u a l i t y .  functioning  interviews  to  locus  investigate- family patterns Americans„  Specific  expenditure,, examined.. and  and v a l u e s  among C h i n e s e  values, r e l a t i n g ; t o s u c c e s s ,  f a m i l y s y s t e m and i n t e r e t h n i c - r e l a t i o n s were  Responses; i n d i c a t e d s t r o n g  family orientation  d e l a y e d , g r a t i f i c a t i o n : i n a t t i t u d e s toward  education,,  investment  and g o a l s . .  Social  one's^ e t h n i c g r o u p were: c o n s i d e r e d However, d i f f e r e n c e s c o n c e r n i n g  contacts  i n favor o f the North  nuclear  the ideal  family  extended  American p a t t e r n o f the  and L i n (1977) and Yao (1979) examined t h e  assimilation  o f c o n t e m p o r a r y immigrants,, most o f whom were  educated:..  They f o u n d  c o n s e r v a t i v e - i n some a r e a s ,  a changing value but l i b e r a l  parental authority,, f i l i a l culture  and i d e n t i t y . the  1  values  p i e t y , , and a f f e c t i o n  However, i n t h e s e  woman's t r a d i t i o n a l l y  have c h a n g e d .  system,,  i n others.  suggested, t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l  toward  system  family..  Kuo  well  within  more m e a n i n g f u l . ,  were noted?; some h a d r e j e c t e d ! the' t r a d i t i o n a l family  work,,  passive  Results  s u c h as; for  Chinese  studies,, a t t i t u d e role  a p p e a r e d to-  T h e r e was an: i n c r e a s i n g e m p h a s i s on  h u s b a n d - w i f e r e l a t i o n s and a g r e a t e r e q u a l i t y o f woman,, p a r t i c u l a r l y  r e c o g n i t i o n ofthe  i n the wife's  role i n  d e c i s i o n making and t h e p u r s u i t o f a c a r e e r . The supported  importance- o f p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y was. f u r t h e r by s t u d i e s * i n c h i l d - r e a r i n g ( S o l l e n b e r g e r , . 1968 ;  10 Kriger  &, Kroes,, 1972)..  (1968) f o u n d controlling  From i n t e r v i e w d a t a ,  t h a t Chinese their  parents  Sollenberger  were much s t r i c t e r i n  c h i l d r e n ' s aggressive behavior  A m e r i c a n s ; e m p h a s i s was  p l a c e d ' on: t r a d i t i o n a l  g e n t l e n e s s , manners and  w i l l i n g n e s s : t o conform..  Kroes  (1972) compared- C h i n e s e  The  strictness  e m p h a s i s on  illustrated  by  s t u d i e s on  (Sommers„ 1960;  on  Sue  control of  mental  & Sue,  nature  of  the> view, t h a t "one  1972;  intergenerational  their native  Old' W o r l d  traditions  c h i l d r e n might  feel  w i t h p a r e n t s : on these  pressure often  637).  likely  I t appeared  i n a new  conflicts  country in their  between  hand and  parents  necessary  to succeed  based; one that  by m i g r a t i o n . .  than  their  with peers  their and  whereas: t h e  identification on  the  other.  a great deal  academically.  f o r the- f a m i l y t o i n v e s t  in  strange  p.. 6 4 3 ) ,  immigrant c h i l d r e n - e x p e r i e n c e d  from  was  t o s t r e s s more r i g i d l y  (Sommers, 1960,  the- one  The  s e r v e o n e ' s p a r e n t s - as  land,, t o p r o t e c t t h e m s e l v e s  insecure environment"  Also,  are  generation  relation  c o n f l i c t was: h e i g h t e n e d  "Most i m m i g r a n t p a r e n t s  and:  culture  Bourne, 1975).  s e r v e s heaven"' (Sommers, I960,, p .  and  also  the p a r e n t  the p a r e n t - c h i l d  should  Kriger  behavior..  i l l n e s s and  c o n f l i c t with  of  m o t h e r s p l a c e d - a>.  p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y was  conflict,, particularly  authoritarian  and  behavior  mothers, w i t h J e w i s h  P r o t e s t a n t mothers;, i t seemed' t h a t C h i n e s e h i g h v a l u e on  than  " i t was  a l l of i t s  of  11 resources-, i n t h e  education, of one's i n d i v i d u a l , , u s u a l l y  oldest  pressure  to.  son..  fulfill  was  The the  filial  considerable"'  findings valued  area- o f  were s u g g e s t e d  found g r e a t e r  to  that  the  honour t o the  273).  of  the  &, Hsu,  individual's  social  and  A m e r i c a n mode o f  Test  that  gestures  as  contemporary  c o m p e t i t i v e : and and; f a t a l i s m had; Such  i m m i g r a n t s had traditional  (1949)  of  Yao  Fong  the  expressive  that  the  Chinese-  perceive  (1979) a l s o  observed  become more a s s e r t i v e values  of  from  and  inconspicuousness  diminished.  f i n d i n g s suggest  a p p e a r e d t o have an and  1979)..  the  d i s p o s i t i o n to  that,  i n terms o f  functioning,, c r o s s - c u l t u r a l contact  expression  Hsu  Chinese..  I t appeared  Americans did..  the  Yao,,  t o examine  interpersonal perception culture.  expression  emotional expressiveness  were a c q u i r i n g : a p s y c h o l o g i c a l social  highly  functioning,  1949'; Fong,, 1965;  Stick Figures  manner o f A m e r i c a n  Research  R o r s c h a c h data,. A b e l and  spontaneity  the  family  immigrants.  American-born Chinese than native-born (1965) used  h i s . s e l e c t i o n , and  a u t h o r i t y was  interpersonal  (Abel  basis of  bringing  that parental  among; many C h i n e s e  changes p a r a l l e l  the  r o l e by  to j u s t i f y  ( B o u r n e , 1975,. p .  indicated  In. t h e  On  both  the  e f f e c t of  interpersonal  f o r Chinese  increased;  emotional  o p e n n e s s v e r s u s s e l f - c o n t r o l and  Also,, u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  and  sensitivity  immigrants  to  reticence.  American  b e h a v i o r a l , norms- seemed The  t o have d e v e l o p e d . .  o v e r a l l , impression' i n d i c a t e s ^ t h a t  e x p o s u r e t o and  contact, with another  values:- a p p e a r t o change,, t h e the  obligations Chinese  and* h e t e r o s e x u a l difference  and? women.,  A  study  "greater  suggested  females; a p p e a r e d  by  filial  toward  greater  between  (Abel  acculturation begin  to  immigrant  & Hsu,  1949)  a  men  in creative- p r o d u c t i v i t y  than males  adjusted.  have a. c o n s t r i c t e d  sex: r o l e s ' and  find  indicated  (p., 301).  Though  o v e r s e n s i t i v i t y , d o u b t and  to. be* b e t t e r  o t h e r hand,, seemed^ t o regarding  family  Behavioraily,  r e l a t i o n s , we  freedom  and. e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i v e n e s s " was  that  and  impact of  in reaction  Rorschach  f e m a l e s had  anxiety  showed  authority,, c o n t r o l  examine t h e  significant  conflict  according: to  assertiveness.,  However, when we  that  Results  immigrants, appeared* t o have moved  se* roles  increased  culture,, t r a d i t i o n a l  were most r e s i s t a n t to. change.,  s p o n t a n e i t y and  on  with  degree v a r y i n g  s p e c i f i c values: involved..  v a l u e s ; s u c h as. p a r e n t a l  12  guilt,  Males,, on-  the  emotional  control:  unresolved  feelings  of  rebellion.. From a d e s c r i p t i v e dating  and  courtship  longitudinal  patterns  of  s t u d y on  Chinese  students,  (1956). found; a d i f f e r e n t i a l  degree of  the  whole, appeared  sexes*  sensitive  Females,, on  the  to a c c u l t u r a t i o n  innovative Huang  acculturation  and; more r e a d y  t o be  between  more  to accept  the  13 American  ideal  concentrated  of sexual equality..  on  and' behavior...  superficial  c o u n t e r p a r t s as  and  social  customs.  male/female  relations.  1  In terms  and- Good  of o r i e n t a l  of i n t e r r a c i a l  marriage  & Morishima,,  immigrant their  :  cultural  sex  by  over  lowered'  scales..  suggested  a  v a l u e s among  females..  marriage an  among C h i n e s e  increasing  trend  and  1  for  t o o c c u r p r e d o m i n a n t l y among- f e m a l e s  1982)..  view;, t h e s e r e s u l t s  point  toward  i n the process of a c c u l t u r a t i o n women f r o m t h a t  relative  new  Psychological  Impression  (1972) a l s o  recent data indicated  interracial  difference  than  in  e x p e c t a t i o n s , , as s u g g e s t e d  C h i n e s e males; t h a n among; C h i n e s e  In my  the  e x p r e s s e d more c o n f l i c t s ; t h a n m a l e s  role  influence  strain  the C a l i f o r n i a  Weisman,, Snaddmsky and' Gannon  (Sue  t o have i n t e r n a l i z e d  the p o t e n t i a l  On  Socialization  Japanese,  in sexual  v a l u e s to. a g r e a t e r e x t e n t  illustrated  norms and  stronger  lacking  Fong and: P e s k i n ' s (1969») s t u d y o f  Inventory,, females  s c o r e s on  acculturation  t o have a d j u s t e d t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t o t h e  further  social  culture  t o d e n i g r a t e t h e i r , male  Females appeared  Caucasian dating  males,  roles  females  that  i n h i b i t e d , , p a s s i v e * and  attractiveness..  however,  i m i t a t i o n o f American  Weiss? (19-70) r e v e a l e d  caused- many C h i n e s e  dominant  Males,  positions  among men, within  a  significant  among  Chinese  a difference  the t r a d i t i o n a l  rooted i n  Chinese  14  family- h i e r a r c h y .  Because- t h e Chinese, woman begins, from a  position  o f s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o h e r male- r e l a t i o n s , h e r  exposure  t o W e s t e r n v a l u e s , and: s o c i a l  f  norms may f o r c e h e r  to' u n d e r g o a- f a r more r a d i c a l  reappraisal  traditional  than  male  views; and o u t l o o k  o f her  i s the case  with h e r  counterpart..  5  The- C h i n e s e  male c a n a d a p t  h i m s e l f t o the. more  superficial  a s p e c t s o f Western: c u l t u r e w i t h o u t  significant  pressure  Chinese- v a l u e s b a s e d  to alter  fundamentally  feeling  his traditional  on h i s d o m i n a n t p o s i t i o n - w i t h i n t h e :  family., The  Chinese  adaptation. and  cannot  Obviously,  make s u c h  an e a s y  i f s h e remains; r e l a t i v e l y  isolated  i n o c u l a t e d ^ from W e s t e r n v a l u e s and i n f l u e n c e s , , she may  continue extent and  female  t o accept, h e r s u b o r d i n a t e  position.  But t o t h e  t h a t s h e a t t e m p t s , t o b r i d g e t h e gap: between h e r o l d  h e r new way o f l i f e , , h e r p o s i t i o n  problematic- p r e c i s e l y  becomes  increasingly  b e c a u s e W e s t e r n v a l u e s : p l a c e s u c h an  e m p h a s i s on t h e e q u a l i t y o f men and women w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y and: s o c i e t y interacts  at large.  with  Assuming  h e r new- s o c i e t y  member o f t h e w o r k f o r c e , set of values held.  in conflict  t h a t t h e immigrant o n l y as a s t u d e n t  she w i l l with  immediately  those  woman  or a  confront a  she has. t r a d i t i o n a l l y  More i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e s e new v a l u e s may c h a l l e n g e h e r  to a l t e r  her position  w i t h i n the- t r a d i t i o n a l  Chinese  family  structure. classes,  she w i l l  backgrounds or  Thus,, e v e n  i f she- o n l y a t t e n d s  s u r e l y meet women f r o m  university  widely diverse  (e.g..,> p r o f e s s i o n a l s , , r e - e n t r y women,, m a r r i e d  d i v o r c e d women,, s i n g l e m o t h e r s , etc.,),, whose v e r y  experiences her  may c r e a t e f o r h e r r o l e  traditional  only  values.  models c o n f l i c t i n g  This viewpoint  s t u d y o f the' a c c u l t u r a t i o n  life  i s confirmed  and' e m o t i o n a l  by t h e  adjustment  Chinese  women (Chang,. 1 9 8 0 ) .  Chinese  women became more a c c u l t u r a t e d , t h e r e was a l o w  correlation  between t r a d i t i o n a l  parents,, r e s e r v e d b e h a v i o r , values  (e.g.., s o c i a b i l i t y ,  affection, In may  also  feel  t h e impact  f e e l i n g ; any d i r e c t  within  competence,  of continued  American  5  Chinese  exposure  few p o s t i m m i g r a t i o n  w i t h i n t h e family.. feel  t h e immigrant  (Under c e r t a i n  man  t o Western  years  o r academic g o a l s  however,, he  without dominant  circumstances,-  a f f i r m e d i n h i s p o s i t i o n ; o f dominance  the family structure,, given  the f a c t  that  t o be a w i d e l y h e l d v a l u e  males.)  v a l u e s seems t o be more Chinese  e t c . ) and c u r r e n t  challenge to h i s t r a d i t i o n a l  chauvinism"' c o n t i n u e s North  that,, a s  (e..g.., o b e d i e n c e t o  independence,  pursue h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l  he may even  found  of  a m b i t i o n ) ..  In t h e f i r s t  position  values  thriftiness,  the long run, o f course,  values.. can  This study  with  In sum,, t h e impact  "male among  some  o f Western  immediate and t h e c o n t r a s t with.  v a l u e s more s t r i k i n g  f o r the immigrant  woman  than  16 for  t h e man.,  Value  a s a. P r o b l e m Value  Kluckhohn  has. been- d e f i n e d i n many d i f f e r e n t ways.. (1952) d e f i n e s value, a s " a c o n c e p t i o n , ,  or: i m p l i c i t , , d i s t i n c t i v e o f an i n d i v i d u a l . . . desirable  which  i n f l u e n c e s ^ the: s e l e c t i o n  o f the  from  modes, means and: e n d s o f b e h a v i o r " ' ( p . 3 95) .. McBrearty  (1967) s t a t e t h a t v a l u e s  desirability directive  involving  Wilson criteria  are considered  Such  i n terms o f  appropr i a t e - i nappropriate.  (19-79) f u r t h e r s t a t e s , t h a t v a l u e s  provide  by w h i c h g o a l s a r e c h o s e n , i n d i c a t i n g ; t h a t  something, o u g h t t o be- p r e f e r r e d . conduct  Kessel and  the- c o g n i t i v e - , , a f f e c t i v e and  standards: o f d e s i r a b i l i t y right-wrong  available  are standards o f  elements o f the e v a l u a t i v e process.  good-bad  explicit  (instrumental values)  (terminal values) individuals, size by g i v i n g  these  individual f o r one's  1  T h e y d e a l w i t h modes o f  and e n d - s t a t e s ; o f e x i s t e n c e 5  in. which they up s i g n i f i c a n t  serve  aspects  a s p e c t s , meaning..  t o get. a l o n g concept  with  as guides,, h e l p i n g  Values  others  of the environment a l s o h e l p an  by s e r v i n g a s  standards  of. o n e s e l f .  Hence,, value.- s e r v e s a v a r i e t y o f f u n c t i o n s . a sense o f d i r e c t i o n  and p u r p o s e t o l i v i n g ; ;  frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  I t gives,  i tprovides a  o n e s e l f and o n e ' s  17 environment; it  i f a f f i r m s ; one's* i d e n t i t y , , r o l e s , and, s t a t u s . ;  g i v e s m e a n i n g and: c o n s i s t e n c y  relations..  Shared: v a l u e s  conduct,, h e l p : one o t h e r s - and  can' p r o v i d e  specific: rules of  t o p r e d i c t e x p e c t a t i o n s : and. r e s p o n s e s  to= b e h a v e m e a n i n g f u l l y  Immigrants, m o v i n g with  to i n t e r p e r s o n a l  f r o m one  oneself.  c u l t u r e to another  them a s e t o f v a l u e s , , a t t i t u d e s and  r e f l e c t i o n ; o f childhood: s o c i a l i z a t i o n . experiences- the  world  influenced, values, p.  14) ..  In  a s s u m p t i o n s and  immigrants- e x p e r i e n c e  with  the  the  host  stimuli  and  be  the  immigrants"  partially  typical  way  or  1975,  environment, through However,  t o the and  consequently  norms, e x p e c t a t i o n s , , and; a c c e p t a b l e can: be  (Adler,,  reference..  an. i n f l u x : o f new  i n f o r m a t i o n , , and  differences  person  and; c o n s t r u c t t h e i r w o r l d  c u l t u r e is; markedly d i s s i m i l a r  of origin,, there w i l l  i s a.  culturally  cultural  t h i s , p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d , frame: o f if  "Every  beliefs"  new  bring:  b e l i e f s ; which  through h i s or her  interacting  of  culture  diverse  differences, in  behavior..  Such  totally, i n c o n s i s t e n t with  o f p e r c e i v i n g and  valuing  ( A d l e r , . 1975) . Value  presents  consistently  a p r o b l e m when i m m i g r a n t s , who  affirmed* i n t h e i r  t h e m s e l v e s , i n a new  and  formerly  the meaning, o r d e r  appropriate  and: d i r e c t i o n  been  identity,, find  e n v i r o n m e n t where t h e y  invalidated for their Much o f  values  have  of  are c o n s i s t e n t l y value their  systems.. lives  can.  18 be, l o s t  through  t h e d i s c o n f i r m a t i o n o r r e d u c t i o n o f values-  w h i c h were once: f o r m e d t o d e a l w i t h roles  a now a b s e n t  set of  a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . (McCoy,, 1 9 8 1 b ) . Value: t h e n  endowing  life  1  becomes, a, p r o b l e m , i f t h e "frames- f o r  w i t h meaning; [ a r e ] s u b t l y t r a n s f o r m e d  cages; i n w h i c h p e o p l e  e n d u r e what t h e y  (Cochran,, 19-78,- pv 19).* The need evident  a s a. r e s p o n s e  particularly behavior  are experienced  functioning  escape"'  f o r c h a n g e becomes  to- t h e p e r c e i v e d  when t r a d i t i o n a l  cannot  into  differences,,  i d e a s , v a l u e s a n d modes o f  as; i n a p p r o p r i a t e o r i n a d e q u a t e t o  i n a different  cultural  environment..  With- t h e e n c r o a c h m e n t o f W e s t e r n i n f l u e n c e , t h e Chinese  immigrant  woman may f i n d ? h e r v a l u e s , and r o l e s  v a l i d a t e d : w i t h i n h e r f a m i l y and e t h n i c e n c l a v e . she  steps o u t s i d e o f such  boundaries,  into  But. once,  a work,  educational or social  s e t t i n g , , w i t h c o n s i s t e n t and  prolonged  with Westerners,  be  interaction  partially  or totally  Thus,, w i t h possibility  s h e i s faced, w i t h t h e  and r e v i s i n g  identity,, but concomitantly, l o s s o f h e r former  h e r b a s i c v a l u e s , may  invalidated..  acculturation,  o f expanding  fully  security  with  h e r v a l u e s and  the f e e l i n g  and t r a d i t i o n a l  o f r e g r e t and  emotional  bonds;.. If our conception o f the p a r t i c u l a r Chinese* women i n a c c u l t u r a t i o n  problems faced' by  i s correct,, then an :  19' understanding (i.e..,  their  importance  Chinese  their  starting  traditional  term  I am  immigrants,  entire  i s of  crucial  process;..,  needs; c l a r i f i c a t i o n .  specifically the  this  process,  Values-  "Chinese"  from  p o i n t in; t h i s  system o f values)  to the study o f  v e r s u s Western  The study,  of  concerned  with  In  x  this  the adjustment  Hong; Kong r e g i o n , t h o u g h  I feel  that  t h e r e s u l t s ? may  have a p p l i c a t i o n s ; , , t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s ,  immigrants  Mainland  from  Abbott philosophy stated being is  (197 0)  Chinese  people  Chinese  i t s value  traditionally  system.. He  view t h e i r  in a l l relationships.  world  as  Harmony  Concern, f o r o t h e r  becomes t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f harmony i n a l l area; o f  human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . , Chinese  Hsu  (1971) a l s o  c o n c e p t i o n o f human b e i n g  individual's  fit  of  i n a c o n s t a n t h a r m o n i o u s movement"' (p.. 4 7 ) . concept  for  Taiwan.  reviewed, t h e h i s t o r y  i n o r d e r to understand  t h a t "the  the key  i s , on  China o r  of  stated that  (Jen)  the  i n t e r p e r s o n a l standards  (Hsu,, 1971,  p., 29) .  v i e w and; c o n c e p t  o f human b e i n g  congruity..  the  The  of s o c i e t y  and  o f such  i s other-  fails  to  culture"" a  world  or  individual' s role ;  the  emphasis  i t f i t s or  A- b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n  g r o u p - o r i e n t e d n e s s . and harmony and  i s based; on  t r a n s a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r people.,  i n t e r p e r s o n a l t r a n s a c t i o n , "how.  the  in maintaining  20 Within important  t h i s orientation,, the family  i s t h e most  system' o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a n d " ' a l l v a l u e s a r e  d e t e r m i n e d by r e f e r e n c e function o f the family solidarity  t o t h e m a i n t e n a n c e , , c o n t i n u i t y and group"' ( L e e ,  i s - h i g h l y valued:..  1953,, p . 2 7 2 ) .  Individual f e e l i n g s and  behaviors are sacrificed: t o further the welfare, reputation or  o f t h e family..  Family  p r i d e and  The i n d i v i d u a l c a n b r i n g  disgrace- t o t h e entire- family.,  credit  " i t i s the f e e l i n g o f  ''we.' ( n o t '"1 as; i n t h e f a m i l y o f t h e W e s t e r n w o r l d ) ,. w h i c h 1  is  5  1  cherished,,  c u l t i v a t e d and f i n a l l y  incorporated  i n the  p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e grown-up a d u l t s . . . . A C h i n e s e d o e s n o t live  for himself  his parents,  and" f o r h i m s e l f  alone.  He i s . t h e s o n o f  the descendant o f his. ancestors,,  f a t h e r o f h i s - c h i l d r e n , , and: t h e p i l l a r  the p o t e n t i a l  o f the family"  1  (Lee,,  1953,. p . 253) . Feelings socialization gratitude  o f shame and g u i l t  are i n s t i l l e d  ( H u , 194 4 ) , and t h e r e  and:, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . .  during:  i s ; a strong, a p p e a l t o  In o r d e r  to maintain  harmony,, s t r i n g e n t s e l f - c o n t r o l i s . p r a c t i s e d , and reinforced.  Within  p r e s c r i b e d , by age;, father-son family  s u c h a, f a m i l y , , t h e r o l e s a r e r i g i d l y s e x and g e n e r a t i o n a l  status..  The  relationship, i s the c e n t r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the  and i s v i e w e d  as a l i n k  t o p o s t e r i t y (Lang,- 1946 ;.  L e v y , 1949.;; Anshen,, 1959-; Fong,, 1973) is; p r e f e r a b l e  to that  o f a daughter  .  The b i r t h  (Fujitomi  o f a son  & Wong,  21 1976).. This  s t r e s s ; o n t h e m a l e l i n e a g e has, p r o f o u n d ;  i m p l i c a t i o n ' s ' f o r t h e s u b j u g a t i o n and; d e v a l u a t i o n o f women. The  role  o f women i s . a p t l y  feminine e t h i c s ,  conveyed; by t h e p o p u l a r c o d e o f  " t h e three- obediences,,"' w h i c h  "a woman i s to- o b e y h e r f a t h e r the  m a r r i a g e , , and: h e r e l d e s t  husband." will  A t an e a r l y  sooner  daughters  or later  a t home, h e r h u s b a n d  son a f t e r  age,, g i r l s  a r e made aware t h a t  t o as; "goods- [on] w h i c h  o n e ' s c a p i t a l " ' (Baker,, 1979,. p . 4 1 ) , b e c a u s e invested; i n r a i s i n g , a daughter  after  t h e d e a t h of; h e r  be m a r r i e d o u t o f t h e f a m i l y .  are referred  they  Often  one l o s e s  a l l the e f f o r t  i s handed o v e r t o t h e ;  h u s b a n d " s f a m i l y when s h e m a r r i e s . . the- d a u g h t e r  states; that  i s aimed, a t f i t t i n g  The whole* t r a i n i n g o f  h e r to, be a wife,, mother,  and. w o r k e r f o r t h e husband's: f a m i l y . .  "Lack o f learning: i s  a woman* s v i r t u e " ' a n d e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , a r e r  denied? (Levy,, 19-4:9'; F r i e d , , 1953,; W r i g h t ,  often  1964;, Das, &  B a r d i s , 1979;: Baker,, 1979) .. To  this  point,  we have d i s c u s s e d t h e n a t u r e o f C h i n e s e  v a l u e s ; as. they, a r e r e f l e c t e d  i n the literature,, philosophy  and  values are not only of  history  historical,  o f China..  but a l s o o f contemporary  psychological the  These  significance.  outlook o f present-day  demonstrated  s o c i a l and.  That they p e r s i s t  to influence  C h i n e s e men and: women i s c l e a r l y  by a; s e r i e s o f r e c e n t s t u d i e s  i n Hong Kong .  22 ( L i u , . 1964;  Stoodley,  1967;  Dawson, Law,  1.971;; Podmore> & C h a n e y , 1973, Liu  (.1964) used, an  value-orientation were s i g n i f i c a n t accounted  19741; Harding,.  adaptation of  scale  to e s t a b l i s h  value d i f f e r e n c e s  f o r by d i f f e r e n c e s  Leung.,, &  1978) .  Kluckhohn-Strodtbeck that,, a l t h o u g h  i n age,  education the  t o t h e p r e s e n t day"  marked consensus-  among- Hong Kong: teenagers„ and^  individualism  t h e r e was and  and  (p.. 55) .  a strong, trend  "future" orientation,  social  He  found  cultural  rituals  still  had  a  parents  toward the  traditional  views r e g a r d i n g f a m i l y cohesiveness,. r e s p o n s i b l i t y e l d e r s , , and  be  Confucian  heritage persist  although  there  (many o f which, c o u l d  status);, nonetheless; "strong vestiges* of  that,  Whitney,  toward  substantial  support. Hong Kong* p a r e n t s of  and  change, as d e m o n s t r a t e d  youths; a r e in their  attitudes  parental  a u t h o r i t y , m a r i t a l c h o i c e and  Stoodley  (1967) study,, s u p p o r t e d : by  (1974), conjugal  i n a gradual  toward  relations.,  Podmore and  i n d i c a t e d ; the emergence o f a v a r i a n t o f f a m i l y (free choice of marriage,  d e c i s i o n m a k i n g and  financial  process  The  Chaney the  wife's role  responsibility)  with  in  the  c o e x i s t e n c e - o f a p p a r e n t l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y norms: s t r o n g support  and  wishes, w i t h and  respect for parents; deference some r e c e n t l y d e v e l o p e d  accomodation.  The  to parental  forms o f n e g o t i a t i o n  persistence:of parental influence  was  f u r t h e r demonstrated:- by  S'tudy on  the  Podmore and  Chaney's  (197 3)  o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e o f young; Hong Kong :  adults. Dawson,. Law,  L e u n g , and- W h i t n e y  traditional-modern the G a l v a n i c versus  a t t i t u d e change* m o d e l w i t h  S k i n Response  unimportant  (GSR)  induced  with  higher  arousal-  GSR  higher  C h i n e s e and  grid;.  attitudinal  per  and; f o r o t h e r s . . constructs  se..  In t h e  the  vulnerable  c o n f l i c t , , and  involved  using  the  values;  Repertory  with  The  C h i n e s e group,., s e l f - r e s p e c t social  Chinese,.  harmony and  Harding; noted;,  respect  c o n s t r u c t s as: " a c c e p t s  self,"  "importance of  individual  between^ s o c i a l , s e l f  and  " o b l i g a t i o n to  needs,."' etc*.  and, i d e a l  s m a l l e r among C h i n e s e t h a n guilt  Westerners, f a v o r e d  self  was:  Also,  was  used  d i s g r a c e d , " ' " a v o i d s , c o n f r o n t a t i o n , , " * "aware o f The  the  from  s u c h as. " r e s p e c t b y o t h e r s , ' " " p o s s i b i l i t y  responses, to myself."  as  that  c e n t r a l i t y of moral  W e s t e r n s u b j e c t s ; by  close- conjunction  being  important  In; t h e W e s t e r n group,, t h e r e was. more e m p h a s i s on  individual in  of  i n a modern d i r e c t i o n , , were  H a r d i n g ' (1978) e x p l o r e d ; t h e in  a  use  They found  c o n c e p t s - were l e s s  p r e s s u r e s , t o change  associated  the  measurement o f  C h i n e s e concepts;.  more h i g h l y v a l u e d , C o n f u c i a n to  (1971) e x a m i n e d  of others'  such, self," distance  significantly  among W e s t e r n e r s . .  Emotions  shame were s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  core  such  24 Chinese, v a l u e s .  Possible  E f f e c t s o f Value  These and o t h e r little  doubt  piety,  self-control,  Conflict  works; (Ho, 1976; T i n l o y , . 1978). l e a v e s  that t r a d i t i o n a l social  Chinese values  harmony,, shame a n d g u i l t  exert, c o n s i d e r a b l e : i n f l u e n c e on both And of  yet,,, i t seems e v i d e n t traditional  distinctly  values,  different  men and women f i n d  positions..  considered  crucial  Baker,. 1979) .  immigrants cultural  of  custom  framework  themselves; i n  p o s i t i o n o f the female a r e  i nmaintaining  t h a t socia-l and f a m i l i a l s o much emphasis. ( L a n g ,  B u t l e t us= now assume t h a t  a r e suddenly exposed  these  to a vastly different  environment,, one which s t r e s s e s i n d i v i d u a l i s m ,  autonomy,, e m o t i o n a l Park  this  The dominant, p o s i t i o n o f  harmony o n which: t h e C h i n e s e p l a c e 1946;  still  C h i n e s e men and women..  t o me t h a t w i t h i n  t h e m a l e and t h e d o m i n a t e d  of f i l i a l  expression,, competitiveness,,  (1928) comments; t h a t w i t h  migration  i s b r o k e n and- t h e i n d i v i d u a l  etc..  " t h e cake  i s freed  f o r new  e n t e r p r i s e s and; f o r new a s s o c i a t i o n s . ,  One o f t h e  consequences o f m i g r a t i o n  a situation  the: same i n d i v i d u a l — w h o  i s to create  may o r may n o t be m i x e d  finds himself  striving  groups..  is; the 'marginal  This  that marginal  to- l i v e  i n two d i v e r s e man.'  man t h a t c o n f l i c t i n g  7  i n which blood—  cultural  I t i s i n t h e mind o f  c u l t u r e s meet and fuse"'  (p.  881) .. But  what of. t h e " m a r g i n a l  woman"?  Such a q u e s t i o n i s  n o t b e s i d e ; t h e p o i n t y e s p e c i a l l y when one- i s ; d e a l i n g w i t h a culture  which r i g i d l y  Although  both  d i s t i n g u i s h e s b e t w e e n men a n d women.  face s i m i l a r  c o u n t r y „ each begins; from The  experiences a* d i f f e r e n t  i n t h e i r new? p o i n t o f development.  d o m i n a n t p o s i t i o n ; o f the.- male:* d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  t h a t he has: a n advantage- i n a c c u l t u r a t i o n . .  mean  On t h e  c o n t r a r y , , t h a t v e r y d o m i n a t i o n ; c a n a c t as. a. h i n d e r i n g , f a c t o r , , i f he i s r e i n f o r c e d , i n h i s t r a d i t i o n a l the o t h e r  hand,., t h e d o m i n a t e d  o r subordinate  values..  On  position- o f  t h e woman means t h a t t h e p r o c e s s : o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n s h e undergoes, may be more- d i f f i c u l t - b u t a l s o more and, more p r o f o u n d  wide-ranging;  i n its-, impact..  A t p r e s e n t we have no t h e o r e t i c a l , m o d e l o f c u l t u r a l t r a n s i t i o n : w h i c h t a k e s ; t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s ; i n t o account.. do  know, f r o m  did;  works; s u c h  not d i s t i n g u i s h  as: those- by A d l e r  b e t w e e n men. and women)  i m m i g r a n t may undergo; d i f f e r e n t this  process.  disintegration leading one  (19-7 5)-,-  An i n i t i a l  and- c o n f u s i o n o v e r  stages in.  i s ; f o l l o w e d by  individual  t o a, s t r o n g r e j e c t i o n o f t h e h o s t  may come to= terms; w i t h  (which  that the  developmental  c o n t a c t phase  We  identity,  culture..  Later,  t h e d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s ;  b e t w e e n . t h e o l d , and t h e new c u l t u r e  i n order  s y n t h e s i s , , a new f r a m e w o r k o f meaning  to create a  forlife  situations.  26 We  also  know t h a t t h e r e may be d i f f e r e n t  adjustment.  Sue a n d Sue (1971) c o n c e p t u a l i z e d  typological  c h a r a c t e r s o f Chinese  distinction  i s made b e t w e e n m a l e a n d f e m a l e )  value  types o f  Americans  three  ( a g a i n no experiencing  conflict: 1.  The " t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s "  maintaining  loyalty  associating  predominantly  insulating  who r e s i s t  assimilation  to family responsibilities  themselves  with  from  other  Chinese,  by  and by thus  the i n f l u e n c e o f Western  culture. 2. in  The " m a r g i n a l  men"  who may become  defiance of parental values.  assimilate  into  the host  terms o f acceptance 3.  to  and d e f i n e s e l f - w o r t h i n  Caucasians.  by p r e s e r v i n g C h i n e s e of their  T h e y may a t t e m p t  society  The " A s i a n A m e r i c a n s "  identity aspects  by  overwesternized  cultural  who  t r y to formulate  values  and r e c o n c i l e  heritage with  a new viable  the present  situation. None o f t h e s e m o d e l s , s i g n i f i c a n t take  into  account  the d i f f e r e n c e s  women.  Nor do t h e y  process  of value  defined  context.  emigrate  they a r e ,  Chinese  men a n d  on a c c u l t u r a t i o n  and d e c i s i o n  Do t h e v a l u e s o f C h i n e s e they  between  focus d i r e c t l y  conflict  though  making  and t h e  within  women c h a n g e o r p e r s i s t  t o a Western s o c i e t y ?  Which v a l u e s  this  when  are affirmed  27  and  which a r e expanded, r e j e c t e d o r p o l a r i z e d i n t h e i r  process  o f adjustment?  reactions An  What a r e some o f the p e r s o n a l  involved?  in-depth  e x p l o r a t i o n o f these  i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l can g e n e r a t e these in  questions.  important  information  about  In t u r n , t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n can be u s e f u l  c o u n s e l l i n g and a s s i s t i n g  assuming a f u l l  i s s u e s on an  the "marginal  woman" i n  and rewarding p o s i t i o n i n t h e mainstream o f  her new s o c i e t y . In a f i e l d important  where so l i t t l e  t o seek the r i g h t q u e s t i o n s  pose q u e s t i o n s  o f unknown m e r i t .  o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s study how  r a t h e r than merely t o  A c c o r d i n g l y , a major  i s t o use case s t u d i e s t o e x p l o r e  immigrant women a l t e r t h e i r c o n s t r u c t systems i n  adjusting  t o a new c u l t u r e .  aspects.  First,  1955) one  i s known, i t i s more  serves  T h i s e x p l o r a t i o n i n v o l v e s two  and most important,  each g r i d  (Kelly,  as a b a s i s f o r a case study on how a t l e a s t  woman c o n s t r u e d  her options.  From t h i s  f i f t e e n case s t u d i e s a r e used t o c o n s t r u c t  perspective, individual  p o r t r a i t s o f the a c c u l t u r a t i o n experience. Second, the s i t u a t i o n s themselves a r e a v a l u a b l e source  o f i n f o r m a t i o n on the way c o n f l i c t a r i s e s .  as a v a r i a n t o f Flanagan's Technique, these  (1954) C r i t i c a l  s i t u a t i o n s a r e grouped  Treated  Incident  into categories to  p o r t r a y the d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f c o n f l i c t s and d e c i s i o n s  28 involved will serve  be  in adjusting  t o a. new  country..  made t o e x a m i n e g r o u p patterns;..  c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s , and* p r o v i d e  perspective- t o the  L a s t l y , , an  attempt  These patterns, an a l t e r n a t i v e  individual case studies.  can  29 Chapter A c c u l t u r a t i o n - and  Content  and-  As  Cross-Cultural  Methodologies:  Methodology  we: have s e e n , many a c c u l t u r a t i o n  explored  t o p i c s ; such  as  differences,, c u l t u r a l roles;  III  family  occupational  factors  affiliation,  status  as  such  as  of  and  sex  language,  socioeconomic  indicators  have  generational  attitudes,, c h i l d - r e a r i n g  o t h e r s have m e a s u r e d  friends,, r e l i g i o u s  life,,  studies  or  assimilation  (Lai,.  1971)-. Examination t h a t v e r y few be  partially  general  studies  reveals  focus, on v a l u e s and: v a l u e c h a n g e .  Values  the c o n t e n t o f s u c h  explored^ i n a d i r e c t  s t u d y on  & L i n , 1977; 1980).  of  family  Yao,  Another  life  1979)  approach  other variables,  (Abbott,. 1 9 7 0 ) ,  or emotional  V a l u e s are; i n f e r r e d : f r o m of  manner as p a r t  test  including  results social  1965);,, d a t i n g . (Huang, 1956;  Weiss,  ( S o l l e n b e r g e r , , 1968;  & Kroes,  characteristics Frank,  Kriger  ( A b e l & Hsu,  1949;  been  a  attitudes  adjustment  t o v a l u e s ; has  of  (Kuo  (Chang,  indirect.  o b t a i n e d i n the orientation  19-70),,  may  study  (Fong,  child-rearing  1972),  and  Sue- & K i r k ,  personality 1972;  Sue  &  1973).  Furthermore,, most p o p u l a t i o n , , w i t h no  s t u d i e s , were conducted, on  account  taken of  the  a general  distinction  30 between: m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s , a f a c t o r o f c r u c i a l to  an e x p l o r a t i o n  cultural values  o f values..  v a l u e s which  pertaining  apply  are c l e a r l y  the adjustment  are-  general  t o b o t h men and: women, some k e y  i n terms- o f c o n t e n t  understanding  there  to t h e i r development  process of acculturation limitations  Though  significance  and. a f f e c t i n g t h e  different.  Such  pose d i f f i c u l t i e s i n  e x p e r i e n c e s o f the: i m m i g r a n t  women., In  terms o f methodology, most a c c u l t u r a t i o n  have u t i l i z e d  approaches  as  evidence,  historical  observations;  involving, p r i m a r i l y survey data,  factors  ethnographic  methods  in earlier  studies  Reynolds,- 1937"; Lyman,. 1968) r e l y h e a v i l y r e c o r d s , and* a n e c d o t e s to look  (Hayner. & on d o c u m e n t a r y  for interpretation..  studies  tend  lives..  V a l u e s ; and. t h e i r r e l a t e d : changes, a r e o f t e n gathered.,  Such an a p p r o a c h  t h a t , t h e i n t e r p r e t e r and t h e t a r g e t meaning, o f t h e b e h a v i o r  being  Anthropologically-oriented participant used  ethnographic the  observation,  (Solienberger,  and-  share  inferred  requires-  and; a g r e e  upon  investigated..  field  work, p a r t i c u l a r l y  interviews,,  have a l s o  been  1968 ; Weiss,, 1 9 7 0 ) .  Although  such  research  immigrant's  These  a t d i f f e r e n t facets, o f the immigrants'  from- t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  the  such  and psychometric: assessment.  Historical  evidence,  studies,  g i v e s , a more c o m p l e t e  real l i f e  environment  picture of  i n terms o f a  31 naturalistic severe  s e t t i n g , , a l l s u c h s t u d i e s a r e hampered  limitations  stemming: f r o m t h e o b s e r v e r ' s : b i a s , and  u n r e l i a b i l i t y , , the subject's of  r e a c t i v i t y , , the- c o m m u n i c a t i o n  i n t e r v i e w m a t e r i a l , , and: c u l t u r a l  recording-coding  Chinese dating, behavior,  responses"  background  the  fact  and h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s  (Fong.,, 1973, p . 1 2 2 ) .  attitudes..  The s t u d y  t h a t some i n t e r v i e w s  The e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s  i n Sollengerger's  s t u d y on-  may a l s o be a f f e c t e d by  were c o n d u c t e d  s u c h an approach,, v a l u e s  indirect  of  to determine the  b y Western,  i n t e r v i e w e r s and. some- by C h i n e s e t r a n s l a t o r s . within  study  i n f l u e n c e d h i s s u b j e c t s a m p l e and  b i a s a p p e a r s t o be a l i a b i l i t y child-rearing  of  remarked about Weiss'  "it. i s d i f f i c u l t  t o which his. r a c i a l  may h a v e s e l e c t i v e l y their  equivalence  procedures,.  Thus,, as, one o b s e r v e r  extent  by  Again.,  a r e i n v e s t i g a t e d i n an  f a s h i o n and a r e b a s e d o n i n f e r e n c e s  from  other  findings:. A n o t h e r method sociological  studies  1979-; Chang, 1980) . questionnaires  i s survey  research, mostly  used i n  ( L a i , 1971; Kuo & L i n , 1977; Y a o „ Here,, measurement t o o l s s u c h as.  and, sometimes,  Questionnaires; are constructed  interviews to obtain  are used. standardized  i n f o r m a t i o n , f r o m r e s p o n d e n t s , s u c h as:, t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f r e s p o n d e n t s who h o l d are  often limited  certain cultural  beliefs..  to Likert-type scales or  Responses  forced-choice  replies..  For  example,  questionnaire  forms  i n Kuo  three  and  Lin- ( 1 9 - 7 7 ) a r  d i s t i n c t i v e , indicators- of  Chinese-Amer i c a n c e n t r i p e t a l tendencies;: attitude traits;  s u r v e y examines; e x t r i n s i c * and and  i n Chang; ( 1 9 8 0 ) , an  adjectives  i s developed  ;  Yao's  (19-79)  intrinsic  cultural  a c c u l t u r a t i o n i n d e x of'  to describe  values  of  acculturated  women.Although basic at  survey research  information  a given  probably further  moment"  indicated  on; t h e  ( Z a v a l l o n i , 1980, the  d i r e c t i o n of  i n v e s t i g a t i o n is; required of  limitation,,  Zavalloni  between the  i n d i v i d u a l and  the- v a r i a b l e s  a- r e s u l t ,  the  restrictive data could  p.  An  (1980) notes,, i s , t h e the  response obtained  speculative  (1969) c a l l s  a. s o c i e t y ,  and  has;  research, greater obvious, communality  g r o u p as; d e t e r m i n e d ; by from, a s a m p l e  may  be  of  frequencies.  superficial  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  As  and such  and. a l w a y s v u l n e r a b l e  'rival  the  to  hypotheses"" (Zavalloni,.  99).  Most p s y c h o l o g i c a l standardized include  future  involved.,  i n c o n t e n t , , and: t h e  what C a m p b e l l  p., 100)  expressed: through average  be; " t o o  ""indispensable,,  to obtain  aggregate responses obtained  i n d i v i d u a l s and  1980,  provided  fundamental b e l i e f s , of  specificity  use- o f  has  the  acculturation studies  p e r s o n a l i t y and use  of  the  are  p r o j e c t i v e tests..  California  Psychological  based  on  Examples Inventory  3 3< in  Abbott  Figures  (1970) and  Test  (1949) , t h e Margullis  Fong; and  i n Fong  (1965),  Peskin, the  Rorschach  Nunnally's questionnaire  and  Lew  (1976), the  Personality  Inventory  Personality  I n v e n t o r y and  Blank: i n Sue  and  the  Sue  Sue  Such p s y c h o m e t r i c assessment presentation  of  measurement and  stimuli material i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  to c e r t a i n standardized administered approach  to  the  norms.  questions  testing,, a p p l i c a t i o n of c o n f o u n d e d : by  culture-bound Zavalloni measure  imposed  and  states etic  methodologically  their  ethnic  clinical  c l i e n t , , and  and  responses tests  the  according are  t  comparative  groups  for  Besides  the  instruments; c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y construct  norms, among o t h e r  t h a t most o f  variables  and  these  validity,,  things..  As  instruments  comparison  is  indefensible..  approach  1973;- B o u r n e , 1975) the  subjects  concerning, p e r s o n a l i t y  Another source of m a t e r i a l from, t h e  the  s u c h problems- a s  stimulus  (198 0)  such  Interest  the  Often,, s u c h  several  Omnibus  and: Frank. (197 3) ••  t e s t , s c o r e s , and' i n f e r e n c e s . .  numerous u n r e s o l v e d  is often  (197 4) , t h e  C h i n e s e group,, or,, i f a  i s adopted,, t o  comparison of  Multiphasic  involves to  Hs,u  Wagner,  Strong Vocational  (1972) and  Stick  i n A b e l and  i n Sue,  Minnesota  i n Sue= and  Kirk  (1969),. t h e  the  ..  on  acculturation  (Sommers, 1960;  Mental h e a l t h  clinical  Sue  &  is  derived  Sue,  197 2,  a t t i t u d e s , problems  judgment o f  the  therapist  of  34 constitute  the; b a s i s ; o f s u c h data..  v a l u e s , and; i d e n t i t y are- u s u a l l y studies. Sue of  and; Sue  the- s o l u t i o n  i n f e r r e d - from  t o such  (1971) and. Sue  a bicultural To  of  And  Again,, c o n f l i c t s , o f  conflicts,  (19-77) , l i e s  immigrants  concerning  their  environment.  has  according to  i n the  the  development  of methodologies  i t s own  never  has  s t r e n g t h s and  t h e q u e s t i o n o f v a l u e , c h a n g e and; c o n f l i c t r e g a r d s women) h a s  cultural  the c o n t e n t o f these s t u d i e s  a, v a r i e t y  (each, m e t h o d o l o g y w i t h  acculturation  provided invaluable information  adaptation to a d i f f e r e n t  Although  been; d i v e r s e ; and  case  identity.  s u m m a r i z e , p r e v i o u s ; r e s e a r c h on  Chinese  these  has;  been  used  weaknesses),  (particularly  been a d d r e s s e d d i r e c t l y  as  or  explored: thoroughly., It  appears; t h a t  acculturation empirical  the m a j o r i t y o f s t u d i e s  of Chinese  o r comparative- approach  standardized underlying  psychological  assumption  A n g l o - c o n f o r m i t y model dimension  immigrants; h a s  from e t h n i c  tests..  adopted  primarily It also  of acculturation  on. an  w i t h t h e use appears  i s m e a s u r e d by  (Gordon,, 19-78) r a n g i n g on t o American,,  that  of the  an  a  unacculturated to  acculturated. An would  alternative  shift  individual  t o the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  the study o f the aggregate and:, as: n o t e d  by  Zavolloni  study of values  to that of  the  ( 1980),. would  include  35 idiosyncratic  p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes,, r e l a t i o n s h i p s  v a l u e s , , judgments; and integration  o f new  representations, of  experiences  w i t h i n an  the world,  among, and  the  existing; cognitive  structure.. In my Repertory  assessment of grid  alternative. the world  conceptual  of  The  own  seems to- b e f o c u s e s on  framework  ( B a n n i s t e r , 196 5 ) .  because  the  rest  (Bannister,  Personal  largely  no  of  the world  1965,, p .  derived  relevant  the p r a c t i c e  of  on  our  " i t recommends  own. p e r s o n a l  with  practice and  initially  [client], locates  w h i c h he  base underlying  from the  Construct  which the  '  us  i s confronted"  981).  work o f  theory.  means an e x h a u s t i v e  attention  on  view of  Theory  theoretical  Personal  clients'  d i m e n s i o n s towards- t h e p r a c t i c e - o f  Construct  The  viable  i t leads- us away f r o m t h e  s c a n n i n g , those? d i m e n s i o n s on and  the  terms; r a t h e r t h a n  to locate* [ c l i e n t s ]  professional  a  the  them i n t e r m s o f a s t a n d a r d , p r o f e s s i o n a l  primarily  trying  1955)  technique  in their  categorizing  itself  (Kelly,  research methodologies,  i s focused  on  t o the- p r e s e n t  The  G-  the  Repertory  A., K e l l y  (195 5)  is  on  f o l l o w i n g , d i s c u s s i o n i s by  analysis; of Kelly's those  grid  theory..  parts of h i s theory  investigation..  Rather, that  are  36 This  theory  i s ; b a s e d on t h e c o n c e p t i o n  as' a s c i e n t i s t whose u l t i m a t e  being  a i m i s t o p r e d i c t and t o  f  control  o f human  h i s . o r h e r own world..  This  i s accomplished  by  s e t t i n g , hypotheses,, t e s t i n g and. r e v i s i n g , them. Inherent although  i n this  reality  to r e a l i t y  only  theory  i s assumed  i s the assumption  t o exist,, i n d i v i d u a l s ; respond  a s t h e y s e e and i n t e r p r e t ; i t . 1  individuals develop  their  that,  Hence,  u n i q u e and i d i o s y n c r a t i c  f r a m e w o r k o f i n t e r p r e t i n g ; and making, s e n s e o f e v e n t s and experiences..  This  framework i s - t h e p e r s o n a l  s y s t e m , a n d e a c h new e v e n t o r e x p e r i e n c e interpreted- in. r e l a t i o n their  constructs  to this  construct  i s construed  e x i s t i n g system..  as guides o r " t r a n s p a r e n t  or  Using  patterns; o r  t e m p l a t e s " " ( K e l l y , , 1955, p.. 8 ) , i n d i v i d u a l s c a n a n t i c i p a t e and  p r e d i c t e v e n t s and i n t e g r a t e  already  e s t a b l i s h e d meaningful  Within present revision  such a model,  this  k n o w l e d g e w i t h i n an.  system.  i t i s assumed  interpretations, o f the universe o r replacement"' ( K e l l y ,  that " a l l of our are subject to  1955, P. 15) — a p o s i t i o n ,  which- K e l l y t e r m s c o n s t r u c t i v e a l t e r n a t i s m . takes, p l a c e  through construing  This  and. r e c o n s t r u i n g .  process In  c o n s t r u i n g : ( p l a c i n g a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) , an i n d i v i d u a l notes, features of  i n a- s e r i e s o f e l e m e n t s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s  t h e elements, and a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y  others..  some  uncharacteristic of  Thus he e r e c t s c o n s t r u c t s , o f s i m i l a r i t y and  contrast.  Both the  inherent the  i n the  basic  things  -  similarity  same c o n s t r u c t  nature of  are  and  as; b e i n g  contrast  are  ( K e l l y , . 1955) ..  a construct  construed  the  i s the  alike  way  and  And  in. which  some  yet d i f f e r e n t  from  others. Since of  the  the  present  Chinese  ;  as; a, r e s u l t  study  immigrant  woman,, t h e  core  and  constructs  is in  constructs.,  is. d e f i n e d  A core  system.; by  and  by  construct virtue of  partially other  of; f e w e r a n d  this the  constructs  viewpoint,,  meaningfulness of the  i s more  extent  (Hinkle,. 1965).  constructs  w h i c h he  of  i n terms o f  "those c o n s t r u c t s  Stefan  minimally  is  is  i t s relations  to are  processes—that  identity  (1977) d e f i n e s  s t r u c t u r e which  other  meaning  their, superordinancy;  i n the  1  "Core c o n s t r u c t s  maintains his  p.. 482)*.  embedded  a construct  those which govern a p e r s o n ' s maintenance  ( K e l l y , , 1955,  emotion-related  weaker r e l a t i o n s , t o  theoretical  a function of  i s , , t h o s e by  such  numerous', s t r o n g  virtue  and  terms  i s maximally  embedded by  relational,  identity  i.ts i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r  A more p e r i p h e r a l c o n s t r u c t  In  system  reactions  Kellian some  relations..  constructs..  value  order..  construct  in= a c o n s t r u c t  the  personal  some b a s i c  peripheral constructs,  A core other  of  on  shaping of her  o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n , and" t h e  involved,, a c l a r i f i c a t i o n as  is, focused  and  existence"  core they  identify  are a  pattern  38 or  identity  the  f o r a l o o s e g r o u p i n g ' o f constructs......by w h i c h  construing  i n d i v i d u a l , comes t o p o s i t  o r meaning- t o h i s b e h a v i o r "  ( p . 282) .  p r o p o s e s to. l o o k a t t h e s e l f  i s continually  updated  s e t o f core  various  theorists,  T h u s , as. o b s e r v e d  core  w h i c h c a n be a l t e r e d  t o change.,  central  without  position  core  Peripheral and a r e t h o s e  and p e r i p h e r a l  centrality  i n the system.  relative  o f e x p a n d i n g or' r e v i s i n g  c o n s t r u c t s , , emotions such  as g u i l t :  Such e m o t i o n — r e l a t e d i s a certain  one's  or threat are c o n s t r u c t s convey "the  awareness o f the f a t e  o r a l l o f the c o n s t r u c t , system being  at stake"  1977,, p . 1 0 4 ) .  guilt  Here we w i l l  w h i c h are- d i r e c t l y Guilt  by  s e r i o u s m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the  a r e d e f i n e d , i n terms o f t h e i r  idea that there  a new and  identity,, are implicated i n other  In t h i s , s t u d y ,  In' t h e p r o c e s s  that  c o n s t r u c t s are b a s i c to the  constructs  experienced.,  a view  constructs.  and more r e s i s t a n t  structure.  to hold  identity,  of structuring  c o n s t r u c t s occupy a l e s s  core  Stefan f u r t h e r  i n the process  maintenance o f p e r s o n a l constructs  identity  as a b a s i c c o r e  w h i c h can- be e l a b o r a t e d , r a t h e r t h a n one  an  related  clarify  to this  study.  1  role  structure.  structure- there  a r e those  (McCoy,  and b e w i l d e r m e n t  i s ; t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f one's a p p a r e n t  from one's c o r e  of part  Within  dislodgement-  one's c o r e  frames which enable  role  one t o  39 predict with  and. c o n t r o l  other persons  Guilt  and w i t h  i s experienced  fulfilling integral  change  1  i n t e r a c t ions* o f o n e s e l f  societal  groups  role  which maintains, the s e l f  i s an a w a r e n e s s o f imminent  describes  In t h e p r e s e n t  reactions  such  Repertory  Grid  (McCoy,  context,, bewilderment implies-  a s c o n f u s i o n and u n c e r t a i n t y . .  :  Kelly devised  the- R e p e r t o r y  the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  grid  a s a method f o r  c o n s t r u c t system.  I t s primary  is= t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e and t o e l u c i d a t e t h e s u b j e c t i v e '  frame o f r e f e r e n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l s , i n o r d e r to.- t h e i r  outlook  the s e l f  available  w i t h i n one's c o n s t r u c t  interview.  c a n be- l o o k e d  I t is- both  seeks d i r e c t l y  access  e v e n t s and  I t a l s o taps, t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s  and o f o t h e r s , , and t h e o p t i o n s  grid  to gain  on t h e world,, how t h e y o r g a n i z e  anticipate* experiences..  The  bewilderment  the r e s u l t i n g , sense o f p r e c a r i o u s n e s s  exploring  seems  when- t h i n g s a r e c u r i o u s e r and c u r i o u s e r , b u t  c o n s t r u c t s have n o t been i n v a l i d a t e d , ,  concern  a s an  comprehensive  i n n o n - c o r e s t r u c t u r e . . When a l l t h e w o r l d  1977)..  1955)...  being..  topsyturvey,  of  (Kelly,  when one p e r c e i v e s , o n e s e l f as n o t  one's- c o r e  Bewilderment  self  the e s s e n t i a l  view  and l i m i t a t i o n s  system.  a t as a form o f s t r u c t u r e d  p r o j e c t i v e and i d i o g r a p h i c v  and e x p l i c i t l y  It  t o measure t h e s u b j e c t ' s view  40 o f h i s s i t u a t i o n , , whereas a t r a d i t i o n a l approach  tends  t o measure t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r " s  conceptualization  o f the s i t u a t i o n  the s u b j e c t ' s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n (Bannister,  experimental  and i n f e r  from  the nature o f  the- r e s p o n s e  1962).  In t h e o r y , s i n c e  the g r i d  i s based  on t h e a s s u m p t i o n  of m a n — t h e — s c i e n t i s t with h i s or her i m p l i c i t  system o f  viewing- t h e world,, i t i s a means; o f e x p l o r i n g  the content  and  the s t r u c t u r e  "networks  of: such, an i m p l i c i t  o f meaning; t h r o u g h w h i c h  the u n i v e r s e o f s i t u a t i o n s  system,, which  i s like-  p e r s o n s : s e e and h a n d l e  through which  t h e y move"  ( F r a n s e l l a , & B a n n i s t e r , 1977,. p . 2).. T h e r e f o r e , g r i d r e s u l t s ; c a n be seen, as a s u b j e c t i v e map o f t h e c o n s t r u c t system,, "a s o r t Bannister,  o f i d i o g r a p h i c cartography"  1977, p . 3 ) .  In p r a c t i c e , , t h e g r i d s o r t i n g ' t a s k which and' t h e s t r u c t u r e B a n n i s t e r , 1977). the of  ( F r a n s e l l a - &,  may be d e f i n e d  a l l o w s f o r the assessment  o f the content  between c o n s t r u c t s ; ( F r a n s e l l a & The- c o n t e n t i n v o l v e s  i n t e r e s t s o f the i n d i v i d u a l ; ;  relationship  a s any f o r m o f  and o r g a n i z a t i o n  t h e c o n c e r n s and  the structure  i s the type  o f the constructs.  ( B a n n i s t e r & M a i r , 1.968)., A grid which  is: a s e t o f elements  have been  judged  (people,, objects,, e t c . )  on a s e t o f c o n s t r u c t s  c o n c e p t s , s u c h as> f r i e n d l y / u n f r i e n d l y ) ,  (bipolar  typically  u s i n g 2-,  41 3—,.  5-,, and 7 - p o i n t s c a l e s ; f o r r a t i n g , e l e m e n t s .  are  organized'  In  t h i s g r i d , , w h i c h w i l l , be used  rival the  i n t o a m a t r i x as i l l u s t r a t e d  elements.,  rate, o p t i o n s One  Twelve c o n s t r u c t s on a 7 - p o i n t  among c o n s t r u c t s  example,  i n the g r i d ,  expectations family  c a n be- a s s e s s e d  family  expectations contact.  This; is; q u i t e to grasp  w i t h which  correlation  direct  types o f c o r r e l a t i o n s ) . .  between  1  constructs bearing  and o b l i g a t i o n s Not t o f u l f i l l  social  a potent  ideals)  content  close To  i s not t o these  i s t o break o f f  a l i g n m e n t and one can;  i t i s framed*., By c o n t r a s t , t h e "not to jeopardize curiosity"  close  i s only  are n e g l i g i b l y related.,  on f a m i l y  relations.  what goes, w i t h what,, one c a n b e g i n the  "parental  t h e s u b j e c t ' s , s i t u a t i o n and t h e  r e l a t i o n s ' " and " p e r s o n a l value  by P r o d u c t -  They a r e s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d . .  relations.  (by p u r s u i n g  r e a d i l y begin extremity  i s that the  and o b l i g a t i o n s " and " n o t t o j e o p a r d i z e  parental, expectations  jeopardize  and' used t o  t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between  r e l a t i o n s " ' i s ..88.  fulfill  were e l i c i t e d  scale.,  moment c o r r e l a t i o n s (among o t h e r For  study,  situations constituted  o f t h e m o s t u s e f u l a s p e c t s o f a-, g r i d  relations  data  i n A p p e n d i x C.  i n the present  options: from s i x p r o b l e m a t i c  Grid  i s structured,  construes her decisions..  family —.,12.-  The two  C u r i o s i t y has no  In t h i s  way, by- s e e i n g  to* make s e n s e o f t h e way  and by i m p l i c a t i o n , t h e way she  42 The  difficulty  numerous.,  with correlations- i s that  F o r 12 c o n s t r u c t s , ,  correlations.  there- a r e 66 i n t e r -  One way t o r e d u c e  the complexity o f  c o r r e l a t i o n s , t o a more m a n a g e a b l e and: c l e a r interpretation  i s through  t h e y a r e so-  basis; f o r  t h e use o f a P r i n c i p a l  Component  analysis-. Principal  Component a n a l y s i s , o f a g r i d v  Component a n a l y s i s of  i s a method  The f i r s t  maximum v a r i a n c e w i t h i n component a c c o u n t s is  uncorrelated  with  a< g r i d . .  least  The s e c o n d  the first., root  And s o on:..  In  A component i s  (loading  accounted  o f c o n s t r u c t s on the of constructs  o r superordinate construct),,  and: i t s  ( s c o r e s o f elements on component).  the data being  distribution). variation  v a r i a n c e and  (amount o f v a r i a n c e  squares, a p p r o a c h , t h e a n a l y s i s  regarding  principal  be t h o u g h t o f a s c o r r e l a t i o n s  with a hypothetical element v e c t o r  r patterns of  p r i n c i p a l component a c c o u n t s , f o r  for),, i t s c o n s t r u c t v e c t o r component—can  Q  f o r a maximum o f r e m a i n i n g  s p e c i f i e d * by i t s ; l a t e n t  (Slater,  i t s ,application  correlations  makes no a s s u m p t i o n s  I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y an a n a l y s i s  i n a grid  As a  a n a l y z e d : (e.g.,,, t h e f o r m o f t h e o f the t o t a l  1964J; Hope, 1968) .  to a grid  person, the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n the  f o r reducing: the c o m p l e x i t y  d a t a by s h o w i n g d o m i n a n t c l u s t e r s :  relationship.  A Principal.  produced: b y a  is, idiographic.  single  F o r example,  b e t w e e n c o n s t r u c t s o r t h e l o a d i n g s on a  component a r e population describes is,  not  o f people.. the  within  construct  estimates  of a true  Rather,, t h e  relationship within  the  context  of  relation  correlation the. d a t a  to load  the microcosm o f i n d i c a t o r of  the  t o some d e g r e e on i n d i v i d u a l , , the  conclusions  about o t h e r  happening  i n some o t h e r  to; d e s c r i b e  universe  this- study infer  are  to  i s not  infer  i n a grid..  The  and  f o r the  and' most s t u d i e s , , u n n e c e s s a r y . .  of  order as  times the  improve  the  stability  statistically  psychologically,, at F o r example,, an chance of  t o draw  system,  but  involved  f r o m a. of  i s no  need  recommend, t h e  number o f e l e m e n t s as  F r a n s e l l a and' B a n n i s t e r  desirable  of  t o a. p o p u l a t i o n .  three to  an  aim  purpose  There  Some i n v e s t i g a t o r s (e.g..,, Wilson,. 1976) use  the  problems  o f e l e m e n t s and' c o n s t r u c t s formidable,  Within  what i s ;  p a r t o f one's c o n s t r u c t  what i s t h e r e  a random s a m p l i n g  nor  another  which  Typically,  Component a n a l y s i s o f a g r i d cases,  to  That  given  relationship is  a Principal  to  loading,  a component..  s u b j e c t i v e meaning,, t h e e x t e n t related.,  a  of a grid..  a set of elements, a  constructs; or c l u s t e r s are  private  or  i s shown;, t o c o r r e l a t e t o some d e g r e e w i t h  construct or  in  within  increase  relations..  in But  (1977) n o t e , what seems  i s not  least  of construct  constructs  with  always d e s i r a b l e an  i d i o g r a p h i c ; instrument..  in. elements might  f a t i g u e , boredom, and; c o n f u s i o n ,  increase which  can  the  44 decrease: s t a b i l i t y . .  Also,- t h i s : s t r e s s upon a p r e s u m a b l y  more, t r u e r e l a t i o n s h i p n e g l e c t s ; t h e v e r y a grid context  i s given,  namely t o d e s c r i b e  o f c e r t a i n elements..  so much c o n c e r n e d ; w i t h significant no and  effort  sample..  significant interpret  I n a c a s e s t u d y , one i s * n o t  F o r example,, i n t h i s  was. made t o  of  which c o n s t r u c t s constructs  cautioned,  was  elicit used- t o  i n h i s works  might r e l a t e d i f f e r e n t l y  space.  within  i s irrelevant..  than use c o n s t r u c t s , t o r a t e  (1965,  an i n t e r a c t i v e s y s t e m  are r e l a t e d i n element  another s e t o f elements  rather  there  those s i t u a t i o n s .  1969,. 1976 „ 1977) , a g r i d : r e p r e s e n t s  the  study,  s i t u a t i o n s and t h e c o n s t r u c t s  As. S l a t e r h a s r e p e a t e d l y  in  a personally  a; random sample' o f s i t u a t i o n s  R a t h e r , an e f f o r t  conflict  f o r which  r e l a t i o n s - w i t h i n the  a random sample as: w i t h  whatever t o e l i c i t  constructs.  purpose  Whether  the c o n t e x t  F o r example,,  situational  options,.- one  m i g h t u s e them t o r a t e people,, c u l t u r e s , o r a r t i s t i c productions. rate: insects..  To go f u r t h e r a f i e l d , There  e f f o r t , . , one- c o u l d construct  for  find  i s * of. l i t t l e  how t h e c o n s t r u c t s which  rather  use them t o  doubt t h a t with  a: s e t o f elements: w i t h i n  relations varied  demonstration is  is little  one m i g h t  a, d e t e r m i n e d which t h e  perhaps q u i t e a b i t , but such importance.  relate within  What  i s important  the context  o f elements  t h e y a r e most u s e f u l o r a p p l i c a b l e , , p r i m a r y  t h a n remote u s e s .  a  However,, p e r h a p s t h e most  uses  striking is; t h a t  reason, f o r n e g l e c t i n g  suggestions;  such  t h e r e l a t i o n s among; c o n s t r u c t s , u s i n g  12' x. 12 g r i d s  (and* o t h e r  s i z e s - as; w e l l )  as W i l s o n ' s  10 x 10 o r  have been shown i n  a v a r i e t y o f ways t o be r e a s o n a b l y d e p e n d a b l e , a s w i l l described  shortly.  The i m p o r t a n c e o f P r i n c i p a l Component this  study  is< t h a t  peripheral construct  more  i s defined  system  i n t o core  Recall that  by i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s construct  f o r other  strong  of a construct  in a  relations..  embedded  of its; relations, to other  I t i s ; assumed; t h a t  correlations. first  by  i n a. g r i d ,  function (Hinkle,  analysis,,  f o r t h e maximum  {^redefinition i t i s c e n t r a l .  the c o n s t r u c t s  In c o n t r a s t ,  :  Product-moment  that  loadf h e a v i l y on t h e  p r i n c i p a l component w i l l be c e n t r a l o r  constructs...  and  r e l a t i o n s among^ c o n s t r u c t s ; c a n  p r i n c i p a l component a c c o u n t s  Correspondingly,  a  constructs  Since,, i n a P r i n c i p a l Component  of variance  A  constructs.  is partially  be m e a s u r e d by c o r r e l a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y  first  core  t h e o r e t i c a l v i e w p o i n t , meaning: i s r e l a t i o n a l ,  the extent  amount  and  i s m a x i m a l l y embedded  by v i r t u e o f numerous  meariingfulness  1965)"...  the  a  o f f e w e r and" weaker r e l a t i o n s - t o o t h e r  In. t h i s  of  A core  analysis for  p e r i p h e r a l c o n s t r u c t , i s more m i n i m a l l y  1  virtue  the  it: d i v i d e s c o n s t r u c t s  c l u s t e r s o r themes.  constructs*. construct  be  the second  core  and' t h i r d p r i n c i p a l  components, become i n c r e a s i n g l y p e r i p h e r a l , and t h e  46 constructs  w h i c h l o a d ' h e a v i l y on  p e r i p h e r a l as There different  well.  i s growing- e v i d e n c e  predictable  and  follow-up  s t u d y , Wishner  correlated  That  in. i m p r e s s i o n number o f  that  peripheral  Asch  constructs  i s , a core  core- c o n s t r u c t s constructs^ to Lemon and  t o be  constructs  implications  Cochran  Warren  more  for  influential  other  Bender  (1974) f o u n d  (1969) than  their core  in. i n d i v i d u a l s ' d e s c r i p t i o n s ,  (1978) showed t h a t in defining  constructs.  In a  policies  at of  ways,, t h e s e s t u d i e s  core social  situa-  partial  (1981) f u r t h e r showed  construed  In v a r i o u s  of  were used more e x t e n s i v e l y  were more i n f l u e n t i a l , , o r i n the  a  construct  i n t e r p r e t p e o p l e and  Cochran  In  i t s greater  correlations.  were m o r e i n f l u e n t i a l  replication,  to  that  centrality  a set was  in  impression  that  within  construct  more s a l i e n t  than p e r i p h e r a l  different  constructs..  and- change due  by  in  t o which, a  constructs  as measured  people.,  constructs  involved,  extent  are  (1946) showed  (1960) showed  the  formation  actions,, while  others..  ways.  r e l a t i o n s with or  constructs,  other  by  with other  constructs.  tions  constructs  c o n s t r u c t s , , and  change than p e r i p h e r a l  could, be measured  of  core  c o n s t r u c t s - were more i n f l u e n t i a l  formation  found  that  f r o m more p e r i p h e r a l  theoretically central  them become i n c r e a s i n g l y  that  core  l e a s t more actions provide  strongly  toward support  for  the  assumption^ t h a t  ean  be  i d e n t i f i e d : by  t i o n s or  l o a d i n g s ; on  Since  Slater  possibilities grid and  of  data,, t h e rather  Slater  core the  strength  the  first  use  of  this  constructs,  advantages  and  construct  However, o f Are  the  researchers. most o f i t s  immediate  relevance  test scores,  f r o m a random s e t o f S l a t e r . (1977) has g e n e r a t e s and w h i c h can. be  generated  grid  i n the  More b r o a d l y ,  To  f o r 2-,,  an  Slater  the  is indistinguishable  assess  this  (1977) has  "experimental g r i d s hardly numbers,, e v e n r e m o t e l y "  (p.  possibility,. which  and; 7 - p o i n t  i s that  first  numbers,  scales  there  of  randomly  is; a  large  p r i n c i p a l component.  concluded  that  ever resemble a r r a y s 136).  the  unreliable,,  d i f f e r e n c e between a  a c t u a l one  s i z e of  so  randomly s e l e c t e d  5—,  is  this- study?  r a t i n g s are  a grid  g r i d s of  most s t r i k i n g and  c o u n t on  d e v e l o p e d ; a GRANNY p r o g r a m  adjusted  The  that  numbers..  analyses  judgment.  one  purposes of that  are  r e l a t i o n s among  In p a r t i c u l a r , , c a n  m i g h t be  to  become w i d e s p r e a d  thoroughly discussed  components f o r t h e  One: o b j e c t i o n  difference  the  upon w h i c h P r i n c i p a l Component a n a l y s i s  based-,,, r e l i a b l e ?  unlike- say  their intercorrela-  t e c h n i q u e has  reliability..  and-  p r i n c i p a l component.  c u s t o m a r y among p e r s o n a l  of  more m e a n i n g f u l  a p p l y i n g - P r i n c i p a l Component a n a l y s i s  advantages; and; l i m i t s . .  principal  are  of  (1965) c l a r i f i e d  (1976, 1977). has  questions  constructs  of  random  48 The  pattern of  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among c o n s t r u c t s ; i s  a random happening.,, b u t  a reflection  c o n s t r u c t s mean t o a. p e r s o n set  o f e l e m e n t s , as  has  published' studies..  o f what  i n complex  F o r example,, M a i r  those  interaction  become a p p a r e n t  not  with  in several  a  hundred  (1966) used  d i c t i o n a r y meanings; t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h o f a s e l e c t i o n o f constructs  would" be- s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d - (e.g.,, synonyms),,  negatively  r e l a t e d (e.g..,. antonyms),., and w e a k l y r e l a t e d .  He  found  5  that: the- a v e r a g e r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r a g r o u p  subjects derived predicted found  from a g r i d  relations.  in a grid  tends  another,, t y p i c a l l y .60  to  .80  who  F u r t h e r , , the t o be  ranging- f r o m c o n s i s t e n c y  also, manifest  low  that lead  1  time  to  c o r r e l a t i o n s of  1977). finding  degrees of p a t t e r n  behaviors  with  pattern of r e l a t i o n s h i p s  extensively replicated  manifest  associated  c o n s i s t e n t f r o m one  ( F r a n s e l l a & Bannister,,  Indeed,-. an those  were c l o s e l y  of  and  i s that consistency  to a d i a g n o s i s  of  thought-disordered  s c h i z o p h r e n i a . (Adams-Webber,. 1979).,  Those who  symptoms w h i c h  manifest  lead  to a d i a g n o s i s  of  t h o u g h t d i s o r d e r tend: t o p r o d u c e g r i d s t h a t more  closely  r e s e m b l e a, r a n d o m l y g e n e r a t e d  But  there  i s considerable  a r r a y o f numbers..  d i f f e r e n c e - between t h e  In a? d i s c u s s i o n o f how  grid: data  assumptions, o f population- s t a t i s t i c s , noted  t h a t even- i f s t a t i s t i c a l  differs,  still,  two. from  the-  S l a t e r (1977)  has  arguments o r e v i d e n c e  of  49other  kinds  show t h a t g r i d s a r e  reliability  of  i s not  relevant  supports or v e r i f i e s  statistical  subject  the  grid.  content of  (Harding,  employed: in: t h i s  (see  study  ;  Repertory g r i d  evidence of a  e v i d e n c e about the  a validation- procedure  and  the  access to its  own  d e t a i l s - i n the  that -  point and  (McCoy,. 1 9 8 1 a ) . with the  of  not  and  and the  cross-cultural  the  Carrol  research.  is  for  the  This, r e q u i r e s  might  Personal  impose on Construct  events,, can  formation..  explicable  and  which theory.  derived  on  it theory,  reference  and.  be- a p p l i c a b l e  Hence t h e  basic  that  from  that  the  an  They f u r t h e r s t a t e d  and  from  f o r measurement  act of  conception  for  the  theory  phenomenon o f as  Kelly's  potentially useful  techniques  i s observable is. the  are  stated  They r e m a r k e d  object-sorting  the  of  Repertory g r i d  established  in  that  (1980) a l s o  is, d i r e c t l y  itself,  end,  chapter).  respect  i n d i v i d u a l frame o f  methodology  concept  this  cultures.  Irvine theory  To  next  i s the  t h o s e w h i c h we  individual construction  across  which  v i e w w h i c h must n e c e s s a r i l y be  I t appears  i t s emphasis; on  doubt.  cross-cultural applicability..  another c u l t u r a l viewpoint.  terms  the  general,  19-78; McCoy, 1979)  E s s e n t i a l to c r o s s - c u l t u r a l research i n t e g r i t y of  reliable,  a; p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e - r e m a i n s open, t o  What i s needed n a t u r e , but  generally  of that  of  test taking  construing human  is  in  experience  s i m i l a r to  other  50 i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g models like- t h a t developed T r i a n d i s . (1972) , t h e g r i d  "allows, f o r the  5  culture-syntonic  content  i n the  presence-  The  v a l i d i t y . . . . " ' (p. usefulness of  was; f u r t h e r noted, by anthropology—where  concern—the  elicit  s u b j e c t ' s own,  the  seem t o be  of value"  Previous  and  role  the  Repertory  role  study  the  and; t h e d i f f e r e n t  structure.  (Harding,  experienced  use  grid,  of  by  conflicts  1980) a, 25  to  supportive grid.  explored  Western v a l u e  the  the  core- c l u s t e r  emotions  of  involved, with single  explored, the  values  old  changing  Chinese  between t r a d i t i o n a l  some o f systems,  In a d d i t i o n , a r e c e n t  year  often  t e r m s would-  the  the; c e n t r a l i t y o f m o r a l v a l u e s ,  p s y c h o l o g i c a l meaningf ulness; of  core  are  138).  t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n C h i n e s e and  constructs,  caste  j u d g m e n t s i n h i s ; own  the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  (1978), using  particularly  and  and  ongoing; s t u d i e s have p r o v i d e d  evidence- r e g a r d i n g Harding;  (197 5) : " i n s o c i o l o g y  research  c a p a c i t y o f grid; technique  (p.  they  prior  to c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  perceptions, of  of c e n t r a l  ....  232).  the g r i d  Ryle  of  testing, situation,.  a r e g e n e r a l methods,, having, some d e g r e e o f a construct  by  woman and.  C h i n e s e and  the  case  illustrated Western  values., An  ongoing  involves, the  longitudinal  study  by  McCoy ( 1 9 8 0 ,  phenomenon o f c u l t u r e - s h o c k e d  1981b)  marriages  and  51 the of  experience  o f e x p a t r i a t e wives, who  culture transition.,  obtained  a p p l i c a t i o n of  this  of  two  the  after cultural  ;  have i l l u s t r a t e d  g r i d - method.  some i m p o r t a n t  experience"'  say,  studies  and  t o r e v e a l h i s own  regarding  of,  in- c o n s t r u c t  years;  was  The  i t taps  the  the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  grid  elements  (McCoy, 1981a,- p.. 4 6 ) , subject's  people,, e v e n t s o r  through a standardized  and  personal  as  "allows  the  vocabulary  in his  own  previously  conceptualization  things, rather normative  cultural  entrance..  j u d g m e n t s i n h i s own set of  to  changes.  f r o m s a m p l e s o f women f r o m f o u r d i f f e r e n t  T h e s e few  stated,  :  t e s t i n g over a period  backgrounds-, b o t h b e f o r e  subject  process  t o Hong Kong f r o m a. W e s t e r n  e n v i r o n m e n t has- r e s u l t e d  Repertory g r i d  i n the  T h e s e are- W e s t e r n w i v e s m a r r i e d  C h i n e s e h u s b a n d s whose r e - e n t r y cultural  are  than  examining  framework.  Chapter  IV  Method  Subjects. Fifteen British  subjects are  Columbia  through  r e c r u i t e d from the l e t t e r s ; to the  Chinese  A s s o c i a t i o n , , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House and. an Appendix. A) This  i n "Ubyssey"  i s a volunteer  Hong' Kong who  fifteen  advertisement  ( t h e U.B.C. s t u d e n t  and  Of  seven are  grid  decision, situations  i s designed  that  primarily  difficulty  immigrants-  are  married.  faced with  i n adjustment  i s value  to- c a p t u r e  conflict  In o r d e r  subjects are  asked- t o s p e a k f o r t h e m s e l v e s and  p e r s o n a l experiences:,  t h e o p t i o n s , and t h i s v way,,  the  structure  of are  the v a l u e  situation  :  with  their  heart  significance,  the c o n f l i c t  of  the  t o draw  from  situations,,  a t t r i b u t i o n s , to- e a c h o p t i o n . .  grid, i l l u s t r a t e s  the s i t u a t i o n faced  this  in  in decision  situations.,  they  the  t o model, the.  process: of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . . P s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , the  how  years.  Grid  A. s i t u a t i o n  t h e i r own  women f r o m three  from twenty t o t h i r t y - t h r e e . . single  (see  newspaper)..  i n Canada f o r a t l e a s t  subjects,, e i g h t are  Situation  Students  s a m p l e o f Chinese, i m m i g r a n t  have been  Their, ages range  University of  as c o n s t r u e d  conflicting  fidelity by  the  o p t i o n s and  to  In  the  individuals, values  in  53 situations, or  and: how. t h e y a c t u a l l y  "pulled, apart" nt  A  i s defined  not only  happened viewing  i n the context  o f a range o f  o f w h i c h o n l y one comes, i n t o b e i n g "  1978,, p.. 734) ,. o r as, B a t e s o n defined  feel, polarized  i n d e c i s i o n making.  situation  possibilities  respond,  (Cochran,,  (1972) a s s e r t s , a s i t u a t i o n i s  by what h a p p e n e d b u t b y what c o u l d  but d i d not. circumstances  have  I n a n a l y z i n g s i t u a t i o n s , , we a r e that permit  some f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e o r  some a l t e r n a t i v e : c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n . I n sum,, t h e r a t i o n a l e remain Value  faithful  o f the s i t u a t i o n g r i d  to the context  o f the s i t u a t i o n  o r i e n t a t i o n s ? are. e x p l o r e d  must, be made  in< e v e r y d a y  life  as concrete  situations  from, s p e c i f i c  c h o i c e of. a l t e r n a t i v e s . .  provides: r e a l  options  that  are important  options..  These are r e a l  ive  o f t h e immigrant..  world  specific values context  values  life  choices  That  that  i s , the subject  and: t h e v a l u e s  i n d e c i d i n g upon  those  experiences- i n the s u b j e c t The p u r p o s e  i s t o examine t h e  i n v o l v e d and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  w i t h i n t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s  between  these  i n the defined  of acculturation.  E a c h s u b j e c t , , t h e r e f o r e , completes: Completing  the s i t u a t i o n  t h e g r i d : i n v o l v e s t h r e e major steps:,  e l e m e n t s t o be: judged,, with  as l i v e d .  and: a r e i n f e r r e d  i n real, s i t u a t i o n s  and. m e a n i n g f u l  i s to  eliciting  and s u p p l y i n g  w h i c h to; j u d g e elements- and r a t i n g  grid.  eliciting constructs  each, e l e m e n t o n  each, c o n s t r u c t * E l i c i t i n g , elements exercise  was, t o e l i c i t  t o be j u d g e d . real  life  The p u r p o s e  situations  of this  i n which value  c o n f l i c t s ^ were e x p e r i e n c e d ; i n t h e p r o c e s s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n . An  initial  pilot  (1954) C r i t i c a l  using  Incident  consuming; and w e a r i n g •following  a fuller  Technique  t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n , , each  Consequently the  subject  instructions  was- g i v e n a ( s e e Appendix B ) .  e a c h s u b j e c t was asked: t o r e c a l l  which, s h e had' t o make a d e c i s i o n cultural which  t o be t o o t i m e -  adopted..  handout containing, s p e c i f i c Briefly,  proved  on t h e s u b j e c t .  p r o c e d u r e was  Prior  version, o f Flanagan's  environment.  seemed m o s t  These  six situations i n  i n adjusting  t o t h e new  situations: involved  things  i m p o r t a n t t o the- s u b j e c t , , and c o v e r e d h e r  main i n t e r e s t s , , c o n c e r n s o r i m p o r t a n t a r e a s o f h e r l i f e . , She  was t h e n a s k e d t o i d e n t i f y  option  she r e j e c t e d , i n each  o n e ' s own v e r s u s - l i v i n g Eliciting elements..  the option  situation  she chose  (e..g..,. l i v i n g on.  with, f a m i l y ) .  v a l u e c o n s t r u c t s w i t h which  After e l i c i t i n g  options,, t h e v a l u e which by a s k i n g t h e s u b j e c t  and t h e  the c o n f l i c t  t o judge  s i t u a t i o n s and,  s u p p o r t e d each o p t i o n  was  elicited  t o r e f l e c t , on t h e p r o c e s s o f d e c i s i o n  m a k i n g and: t o come up w i t h t h e r e a s o n s f o r j u s t i f y i n g o r choosing accepted  the o p t i o n . 5  option  The m a i n r e a s o n w h i c h  was used  forwarded the  a s one p o l e o f a v a l u e  construct  55 ( e . g . ,. t h e o n e ' s own  was -  The argue  main r e a s o n t o be  subject  more  was  i n favor of  f o r the  then asked  the  f o r the  was  was  rejected  to get  with  the  accepted  contrasts; to elicited  the  used  option  the  the  and  As  u s e d on  the  the  reasons  The  main  the  pole  (e.g.,, t h e  on  reason  of  a  main of  which  value reason  living  with  parents). constructs  rejected options, constructs  twelve value  were e l i c i t e d  the  were  associated bipolar  then  six; s u p p l i e d ; c o n s t r u c t s  (b)  (c)  weakening p e r s o n a l  value  were a l s o p r o v i d e d ; .  their  constructs identity  constructs, They were:  versus, weakening  i d e n t i t y , , (d)  for confusion  how  and  and: were  Chinese  versus  weakening  p o t e n t i a l for strengthening  i d e n t i t y , , (e)  potential  subject  p o t e n t i a l for strengthening  identity,  personal  the  twelve e l i c i t e d  p o t e n t i a l for strengthening  identity,  from  constructs  s i t u a t i o n grid.,  I n a d d i t i o n to; t h e  t o see  as  twelve value  a result,  contrasts  supplied  living  the  rejected option  from  twelve value  bipolar  Western  of  (e.g.. ,, b e c o m i n g more i n d e p e n d e n t v e r s u s , f o l l o w i n g  tradition).  (a)<  1  approval  After e l i c i t i n g  to give  r e j e c t e d option..  w h i c h argued* i n f a v o r o f family  option  independent).  w h i c h was; m o s t a p p e a l i n g construct  accepted  and  p o t e n t i a l for expansion  potential for guilt, and; u n c e r t a i n t y . .  i s to aid  versus  and  The  of  (f)  r o l e of  the  interpretation, particularly  emotions, a r e  aligned  with  certain  56 value, c l u s t e r s .  For  example,  involved: with c e r t a i n Western, i d e n t i t y cluster It supplied defined  of  conflict  more a l i g n e d  here to  constructs.. within* the  Guilt  Kellian  the  identity  sense of  ethnic  immigrant's n a t i v e  culture are  and  h e r i t a g e , , and that  such as  cultural  habits.  feeling Rating  each s u b j e c t situational constructs.. rate  the  a central  note the  or  or  peripheral  definition  confusion  identity  For  ways o f  culture.  generally with  this  society;  identity  and  are  of  u n i q u e n e s s and  Also,  six  situational  E a c h s u b j e c t was  are of  things a  Western  standards refers such  refers  continuity,  of  to  they  sense  to  with  to  which to  ideals  the  particularly  her  individuality.  each c o n s t r u c t .  administered  o p t i o n s as  identity  39  refers  saying  different  relationship  sense of  e a c h e l e m e n t on was  and  been  the  Western i d e n t i t y  Lastly,, personal  and  instance,, s i n c e  doing  the  have a l r e a d y  When, t h e y e m i g r a t e  Canada, t h e r e  of  p a g e s 38  associated  culture.,  immigrant's; p e r s o n a l own  i s Chinese  f r o m Hong Kong,, t h e y h a v e a c e r t a i n  t y p i c a l of  their  with  t r a d i t i o n on  Chinese  typical, of  confusion  situations: or  and  this dissertation.  cultural  or  values?  i s important  immigrants  is guilt  a grid  elements supplied  -  and  As  comprised  a of  result, twelve  twelve values  as  c o n s t r u c t s were u s e d  to-  options. asked  to  rate  e a c h e l e m e n t on  each  57 construct, bipolar the  using  a scale of  nature of  subject  was  the  7 to  construct  1 to represent dimension.  to r a t e each s i t u a t i o n a l  "independence/following  tradition"  7 to  f a r the  1 according  described  by  or r e l a t e d to  6—moderately, 3—slightly, rating  t o how  2—moderately, The  constructs;  each s i t u a t i o n a l dimension using  option  a scale of  Validating  core  meaningfulness of validated  i n the  the  grid  analysis.  The  first  extracted,  and  the  highest  l o w e s t on  procedure of constructs  However, i n t h i s  If.a  second  had  component),  on a scale  option  (i.e.,  was  Appendix  and  the  subject  for  was  asked  the  to  rate  construct  1. The  p e r i p h e r a l components First,  the  to P r i n c i p a l  second  data  were o r d e r e d  (1979) , t h e  to c h a r a c t e r i z e each i f a construct  loaded  d i m e n s i o n o f meaning, loading  from  from  the top  heavily  i t would  In  four  component.  be  (this applies only  deleted.  each  were  (1978) and  McCoy  was  Component  component  loadings  i t would be  C  procedure a p p l i e s to  Following  a low  of  7—very,  e a c h component.  study,  a new  construct  7 to  construct  Harding  See  each s u p p l i e d  were s u b m i t t e d and  example,  p e r i p h e r a l components.  core  were s e l e c t e d  supplemented  1—very.  f o l l o w i n g ways.  individual  to  and  d i m e n s i o n on  construct  i s , the  on  option  situational  same r a t i n g that  For  4—neutral/nonapplicable,  5—slightly,  format).  supplied  the  the  this  way,  or added.  to  the two  58 c l u s t e r s , o f v a l u e s were f o r m e d c l u s t e r , , a- s u p e r o r d i n a t e ized  w h i c h seemed  f o r each person.  construct  to reflect  o r theme was  For each conceptual-  t h e meaning, o f the: c l u s t e r . .  Two  named themes, were o b t a i n e d , , one f o r t h e f i r s t  and  one f o r t h e secondr ( e x a m p l e s c a n be s e e n i n C h a p t e r  VI).  The themes and c l u s t e r s were c h e c k e d  independent  j u d g e who  component  by a n  s u b j e c t i v e l y v a l i d a t e d : t h e common  c o r e o f m e a n i n g o f t h e c l u s t e r s - and t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f the  superordinate  significant naming the  part  theme. played  t h e component.,  McCoy  by t h e p e r s o n "Naming  process o f abstraction  same- e x e r c i s e subjective required  (1979) e m p h a s i z e d  i n t e r p r e t i n g and  factors  i s a f i n e a r t ...  i n naming i s c e r t a i n l y n o t t h e  o f mathematical o b j e c t i v i t y . .  intuitions contribute  t o meet  greatly  In f a c t ,  to the c r e a t i v i t y  the c h a l l e n g e o f i n t e g r a t i n g  h i g h loading; elements  the  a number  of  i n t o a. s i n g l e c o n c e p t name" (p.,303)  Second,, t h e v a l u e ; c l u s t e r s ; and t h e s u p e r o r d i n a t e themes o f t h e f i r s t to  the s u b j e c t  and, t h e s e c o n d  f o r subjective  was- p e r s o n a l l y  meaningful  Allport  discussed,  (194 2)  important subject  published:  presented  v a l i d a t i o n t o see i f a n a l y s i s  and. r e f l e c t i v e o f h e r s i t u a t i o n . the rare  use o f " r e b u t t a l "  that  t o another's: a n a l y s i s  examples:  component were  but p o t e n t i a l l y may  be o f f e r e d  of himself.  by a  He c i t e d  Freud's, c r i t i q u e o f W i t t e l ' s , b i o g r a p h y a s an i n t r o d u c t i o n  t o the biography  two  (1924)  itself.,  and  59the p h i l o s o p h e r ' s answer t o h i s c r i t i c s as  the  L i b r a r y of Living  volume d e v o t e d subject  "has  t o J o h n Dewey  statements  biographers"  was  naming o f  asked  ordinate option  and  t h e m e s , and  for their  44) .  the  cases,,  the  least  In t h i s  o p t i o n s , on  p s y c h o l o g i c a l meaningfulness  of  the core  and  the  subject  the  super—  r e - r a t i n g s were c o r r e l a t e d  r e s p e c t i v e component  by  study,,  incorporated in  Furthermore,, the  situational  these  or at  in  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s made  s o u g h t and  the components.  to r e - r a t e the  scores  fact  was  In t h e s e  to c o r r e c t ,  ( A l l p o r t , , 194:2, p .  subjective verification final  of  s e r i e s * known  illustrated  (1939)..  the o p p o r t u n i t y  protest,, the his  Philosophy,  in. the  with  to assess  the  peripheral  components. The  f o l l o w i n g , i s ; an  explanation ratings,  values  t o the v a l i d a t i o n  I was  v a l u e s ; go  able  m i g h t t h i n k o f as  the  first  component), the  do  i s to study  an  overall of  name o r your  these  "From t h e  t o t r y to- o r g a n i z e  Here i s a. l i s t theme o f and  the  v a l u e s on  in. c o n t r a s t to these  to  essence  clusters  preamble  your  this  values.  theme,, s o m e t h i n g  your  o f what  you  adjustment  superordinate  theme o f  s i d e a l l go  What I h a v e  values very c l o s e l y  experience."  grid:  c o m p u t e r t o show w h i c h  and  central  the  procedure::  the  themes..  the  to the v a l u e  together  t o use  with, which v a l u e s  into- o v e r a l l  (refer  example o f  and  tried,  give  that captures  the  them  60 After  this^ i n t r o d u c t i o n ,  understand  the  the r e s u l t s subject's  q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d  subject's reaction.  s t r i k e ' you?  F o r example,  to  "How  What d o e s t h i s mean f o r y o u ? "  response  was  recorded.,  the v a l u e c l u s t e r s  and  t h e named theme were removed..  subject her on  was  first  asked  grid  to re-rate  the s i t u a t i o n a l  repeated  t h e named theme o f t h e s e c o n d independent  from  component.  For  it?""  example,  theme,, s o r t o f  together i n contrast  and  secondary,,  to these  ones,,  do  Again,  subjective  validation  was  r e c o r d e d and, t h e s u b j e c t a s k e d  to re-rate  the  a scale  about  f o r m a t ) ..  how  situational  feel  options  The  f o r the. v a l u e c l u s t e r s  o f the p r i m a r y  t h e s e v a l u e s seem t o go you  Then, the- p a p e r c o n t a i n i n g  ( s e e Appendix, D f o r r e - r a t i n g  same p r o c e d u r e , was  "Quite  The  w i t h t h e s u p e r o r d i n a t e theme a s a c o n s t r u c t  a scale of 7 to 1  The  do  options, w i t h the second  of 7 to  s u p e r o r d i n a t e theme on.  1.  Procedure The each  d a t a were g a t h e r e d  s u b j e c t i n two  personally  by  the author  s e p a r a t e i n t e r v i e w s from  with  March t o  May  1983.. Prior this  was  to the  a dissertation  change o f C h i n e s e letter  interview,, each  to investigate  immigrant  t o s u b j e c t and  s u b j e c t was  informed  v a l u e and  women ( s e e A p p e n d i x  consent  f o r m ) „ and, t h a t  that  identity E and  F for  participation  61 was  voluntary  would  be  and  confidentiality  respected..  A l l data  a n o n y m o u s l y upon t h e The  first  conflict  s i t u a t i o n s and  elicitation  of  contrasts.  The  situational  options  supplied  their  on  the  colleague, and  with  grouped the  the  and  the  for the  and  second  that  an  six  the  each  second  interview,  gave each c l u s t e r  f o r the  the  independent  l o a d h e a v i l y on  first  the  a  component  second. contacted  f o r a second  f e e d b a c k and. i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f h e r  the  bipolar  c o n d u c t e d on  first  the  constructs  theme o r name, one  then asked  Data  Before  component and  E a c h s u b j e c t was  of  the  the- a s s i s t a n c e o f  the  second  superordinate  was  and  to rate  twelve e l i c i t e d  of  the  constructs  then asked  grid,, from which o n l y  author, t o g e t h e r  give  elicitation  Component a n a l y s i s was  component were e x t r a c t e d .  one  study.  f o l l o w e d , by  related value was  preserved  this  involved, the  information  constructs.  individual  and  of  options,  subject  A Principal  first  w o u l d be  completion  interview  of personal  for subjective validation  situational  options  on  the  grid and  interview  to  results..  She  for re-rating  superordinate  themes.  Analysis For  each  a n a l y s i s was  individual performed  grid,  a Principal  to organize  Component  constructs  into clusters  and  t o see  which s i t u a t i o n a l  o p t i o n s were  salient  f o r each c l u s t e r . .  and  second: components; were c o r r e l a t e d  the  constructs aligned.. the g r i d  to. d e t e r m i n e how Together  managing  to; g a i n an  Western  aligned  peripheral  the  i n accord,  Chinese  ways t h e s e  adjustment..  o f how  conflicts  i t was  hoped  fuller  was to  be  Chinese  separated  and  in  personally a central these  portraits  immigrants cope w i t h  and  thought  inspection of  supplied  were  each  I s one  first  interviews;  For example, a r e  conflict,, or  Through  the  and; e m o t i o n  o r W e s t e r n i d e n t i t y on  component?  other questions, of  value  to the c o n s t r u c t c l u s t e r s ? with  with  were a n a l y z e d  understanding  i n acculturation.,  identity  relation  identity  individual  t h e d e c i s i o n s and  problematic  o p t i o n scores;, f o r t h e  with, i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e  data, f r o m e a c h  interpreted  The  particularly  problems  or  and  would; emerge of  Chapter V Group  A P r i n c i p a l Component grid, i n d i v i d u a l l y . ,  Since  a n a l y s i s was this  meaningf ulness, o f c o n s t r u c t s , theory  indicate that  related  Results.  study  p e r f o r m e d on  i s focused-  and; s i n c e  upon t h e  p r i o r research  t h o s e c o n s t r u c t s , w h i c h a r e more  a r e a l s o more: p e r s o n a l l y  meaningful  component d e f i n e s  assumed  peripheral and  component d e f i n e s , one t h a t  and l e s s m e a n i n g f u l .  The  meaningful  i s more  For comparative  f o r an a l t e r n a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e  (presented  rathe  a dimension o f v a r i a t i o n that i s  t o be more p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y c e n t r a l and  w h i l e the second  and inter  (central  t h a n p e r i p h e r a l ) , , t h e components were n o t r o t a t e d . first  each  f o r case  i n the next chapter),, a P r i n c i p a l  purposes  studies Component  a n a l y s i s , was, a l s o c o n d u c t e d ' w i t h a v a r i m a x r o t a t i o n . . However,, c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e o p t i o n between u n r o t a t e d  and; r o t a t e d  the  r o t a t i o n would add l i t t l e  the  first  range  from  o r component  components were s o h i g h t o the, p r e s e n t  t o .7 0..  m e d i a n c o r r e l a t i o n was  Psychological  For the second  .82  with  .99 t o .69.  Components  The m e a n i n g f u l n e s s o f t h e component  For  components, the  .81 w i t h a r a n g e f r o m  Meaningfulness of  that  results.  components,, t h e m e d i a n c o r r e l a t i o n was 1.00  scores  clusters of  64  c o n s t r u c t s , was v a l i d a t e d i n f o u r individual grid, highest  the construct  t o lowest  steps.,  loadings  o n e a c h component.  procedure o f Harding  First,  f o r each,  were o r d e r e d  from  Following the  (1978) a n d McCoy ( 1 9 7 9 ) , t h e t o p f o u r  c o n s t r u c t s were s e l e c t e d t o c h a r a c t e r i z e e a c h  component.  However,  heavily or  i n this  study,,  i fa construct  loaded  s u p p l e m e n t e d : a. new d i m e n s i o n - o f m e a n i n g , If  a c o n s t r u c t had. a l o w l o a d i n g  second  component),  (this  each c l u s t e r ,  a superordinate  conceptualized While  applies only  i t would- be d e l e t e d .  c l u s t e r s ; o f c o n s t r u c t s were formed  i t would be a d d e d .  In t h i s  to the  way,, two  f o r e a c h person..  For  c o n s t r u c t o r theme was  w h i c h seemed t o make s e n s e o f t h e c l u s t e r .  this- step  requires considerable  s e n s i t i v i t y and  sometimes; k n o w l e d g e o f t h e p e r s o n and h e r s i t u a t i o n , satisfactory person..  theme was d e v e l o p e d  Some themes seemed  generally,  each c l u s t e r  core, o f m e a n i n g . an  independent  of each c l u s t e r step, at  common  judge,, who s u b j e c t i v e l y v a l i d a t e d t h e s e n s e , and t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  f o r personal  the c l u s t e r i n g  o f t h e theme.  This  t h e c l u s t e r s were m e a n i n g f u l t o judges.  Second, t h e a p p r o p r i a t e  that  a recognizable,  The themes, and c l u s t e r s ; were c h e c k e d b y  two i n d e p e n d e n t  each s u b j e c t  o f each  t o f i t b e t t e r than others,: b u t  manifested  then,, i n d i c a t e s t h a t  least  f o r each c l u s t e r  a  c l u s t e r s were p r e s e n t e d  validation.  o f construct values  Most s u b j e c t s i n t o themes  to stated  clarified strongly  the o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e i r affirmed  the v a l i d i t y  Some a d d i t i o n a l l y m e n t i o n e d values  and t h e way t h e y  value  o f t h e c l u s t e r s f o r them.  that, t h e y  were  were aware o f t h e i r  interconnected,  clusters  affirmed  their  sadness,  silence,  and o t h e r  clusters  were e n l i g h t e n i n g , b u t p r o b a b l y  ional  nature  directly..  Through  psychological by  every  e a c h was l i v i n g  unprepared  reactions  confrontat-  t o f a c e so  and a f f i r m a t i o n s , - t h e  indirectly  during  the i n t e r v i e w ,  t h e meaning of.  providing; information  as an immigrant..  each  The added  about  the l i f e  information  to resolve  questions  and p u z z l e m e n t s  about  clusters.. Last,  were  were  of a  The  t o make t h e c l u s t e r s e v e n more s e n s i b l e , and  occasionally, the  with  forms; o f r e c o g n i t i o n .  c o n s i s t e n t l y to elaborate  c l u s t e r s through  tended  Some r e a c t e d  i n t h e sample..  a n d more  p e r s o n was a b l e the  these  and t h a t t h e  m e a n i n g f u l n e s s o f t h e c l u s t e r s was v a l i d a t e d  person  Third,  beliefs.  the s u b j e c t s  systems,, and  the s u p e r o r d i n a t e  constructs  used; t o r e - r a t e : s i t u a t i o n a l  were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  option  o r named, themes  o p t i o n s , , and; t h e s e  rating  scores- f o r r e s p e c t i v e  components.. As c a n be s e e n involving  the f i r s t  c o r r e l a t i o n : i s .81.  i n Table component  5.1, t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s are very  strong..  The a v e r a g  The c o r r e l a t i o n s - i n v o l v i n g t h e s e c o n d  66  component  are  moderately  Unlike grid of  be  mind  normative  stable.  average c o r r e l a t i o n  as  well  as  happy mood m i g h t sad  mood..  stable first if  a, c o r e  i s , a. g r i d  partially  involves: a  frame  an  o u t l o o k or  system of  construing,  and  change. construe  In o t h e r  and  second  component..  of  constructs...  as  not  the  than  secondary  in four  independent could  meaningful  to  between  the  be  more  clear  peripheral statistical  clusters  as  primary clusters..  summary, the; meaning f u l n e s s  validated  more  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the  capture  reasonably  meaningful  would  the  a  Theoretically,  most  that, one  using; them r a t h e r  accurately  meaning  a difference  in  a  from when i n  correlations indicate  i t seems l i k e l y  procedure might  In  the  that  words, a p e r s o n  somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y  c l u s t e r i s composed: o f  stable  ways.  discussions  of  the  who  of  the- c l u s t e r s , was  c l u s t e r s proved, m e a n i n g f u l extent  i d e n t i f i e d , and  subjects,  the  The  judges,, t o  be  meanings of  that  named.  strongly  The  their  reasonably  l i v e s , as that, the  stable  of  c l u s t e r s were them.  consistently  immigrants.  to  a common c o r e  affirmed  c l u s t e r s were e l a b o r a t e d  re-ratings: indicate be  necessary  However,, the  component  cluster  two  i t i s not  s y s t e m s o f m e a n i n g , and  constructs, and  variables,  That  f r a m e s o f mind may  to  The  .53.  is  a  strong..  And  The in  the  dimensions of v a r i a t i o n appear  sub-systems of  meaning.  67  Table  5.1  C o r r e l a t i o n s ' o f t h e named first  Subject  and  the second  First  themes w i t h  principal  Component  the  component  Second  Component  1  .75  .44  2  .76  .53  3  .94  -.02  4  .87  .55  5  .69  .84  6  .72  .42  7  .77  .55  8  .76  .55  9  .96  .60  10  .82:  .63  11  '..89-  .64  12  .77  .54  13  .75  .21  14  .54  .51  15  .76  .59  68 Group P a t t e r n s For  each  constructs  i n d i v i d u a l , , t h e r a t i n g s : on  were c o r r e l a t e d  first  for  i n t e r p r e t i n g , t h e c o m p o n e n t s and the case  correlates  second  the o p t i o n s c o r e s o f  the  in  and  with  components..  studies..  The  For example,  s t r o n g l y with, t h e  second, component, t h e n one  supplied  correlations, are  are o f major i f Chinese  identity  f i r s t , component,, b u t not. t h e  i s able to i n t e r p r e t  importance  f o r an  immigrant's  identity.  However, i t i s a l s o o f for' a group  that  I t was  would r e f l e c t  Chinese  guilt  w h i l e the second  identity,, expansion uncertainty. redundant case  suggest the: of  interest  that  identity,  the  component would  However, t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s  i n case  first  reflect and  are  these  set of  component and:  Western c o n f u s i o n : and  somewhat  emphasis.  importance  d e f i n e one  studies..  cultural  t o examine  f o r each  o f personal identity,  merely  or  personal identity,  and- s u b j e c t t o m i s p l a c e d  the hypotheses  of ethnic  were framed  expected  studies are of primary  expected  sense  primary  pattern.  Initially,., hypotheses correlations.,  aids  importance  component more b r o a d l y a s a g r o u p i n g , o f v a l u e s o f  correlations  both  in this  First,  the  study,, and  pattern of adaptation  Second,  the hypotheses  tend  to  a more f o r m a l , s e t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s than- i s a c t u a l l y  c a s e , and  which m i s l e a d i n g l y overshadow the major  the s t u d y , which  is; e x p l o r a t i o n  and  discovery.  aim  However,.  69 the  group  tests, are s t i l l  of value i n simply  w h e t h e r t h e r e i s : a*, t e n d e n c y relate  supplied  e a c h person,, t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f components c o n s t r u c t s ; were  G i v e n a. s u p p l i e d  transformed into  Since each p a i r correlated significant  Fisher  construct,, each person r e c e i v e d  s c o r e s , , one f o r t h e f i r s t  Using  constructs  to  t o one component, o r t h e o t h e r i n t h i s , s a m p l e .  For  with  f o r the supplied  indicating  used  Z scores. two  component: and one f o r t h e second..  o f s c o r e s was  t . - t e s t was  from one i n d i v i d u a l ,  to determine  a  i f t h e r e was; a  difference.  Table- 5.2  r e c o r d s the c o r r e l a t i o n s o f Chinese  the f i r s t  and s e c o n d  a; c o r r e l a t e d _ - t e s t ,  components  f o r each  t h e mean d i f f e r e n c e i s Chinese  to  component  r e l a t e more s t r o n g l y  to the f i r s t  s e c o n d component, o r t o t h e c e n t r a l constructs.  identity  tends  than, t o t h e  c o n s t r u c t s more  than  As. c a n be; seen,, t h e m a j o r i t y o f  correlations, are substantial.. 1.0): show a s t r o n g  identity  subject.  s i g n i f i c a n t , , t (14) = 2.45, p <.05.  peripheral  with  correlation  However,  two s u b j e c t s  w i t h the second  (5 and  component..  70  Table C o r r e l a t i o n s : of Chinese and  Subject  the second  First  5.2. identity  principal  Component  with  the  first  component  Second  Component  1  .76  .22  2  .77  .07  3  .60  .18  4  .41  .19  5  .29  .82  6  .78  .05  7  .65  .15  8  .03  .43  9  .50  .12  10  .43  .69  11  .75  .10  12  .75  .47  13  .67  .02  14  .64  .21  15  .33.  .47  71 Table with  5.3 r e c o r d s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f W e s t e r n  the f i r s t  Using  a correlated  significant, to  components f o r each subject..  ^-test,  t h e mean d i f f e r e n c e i s  t (14) = 3.04,, p <.01.  r e l a t e more s t r o n g l y t o t h e f i r s t  second  component.  correlation identity first  tends  tend  Table with  with  Only  t o be o p p o s e d  t o Chinese  and s e c o n d t-test,  f o r personal  a particular  personal Using  identity  component  5.5 r e c o r d s  identity  with  identity  f o r each subject..  to correlate  i s not there  isa  s t r o n g l y with  no marked p a t t e r n  f o r the group.  the f i r s t  with  and s e c o n d  components-  t h e mean d i f f e r e n c e  _t (14) = - . 4 1 , n. s.  correlations  versa.  the c o r r e l a t i o n s o f expansion o f  a correlated _t-test,  significant, strong  Chinese  and v i c e  As c a n be s e e n ,  component o r t h e o t h e r , b u t w i t h  Table  i d e n t i t y on t h e  t h e mean d i f f e r e n c e  t (14) = .66, n. s..  to the  F u r t h e r , Western  identity,  components  tends  substantial  5.4 r e c o r d s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f p e r s o n a l  significant,  toward  a  than  Those o p t i o n s which s t r e n g t h e n  a. c o r r e l a t e d  tendency  identity  component  component.  t o weaken W e s t e r n  the f i r s t  Using  Western  subject 5 manifests  the second  component..  identity  one  and s e c o n d  identity  both  Once a g a i n ,  components.  i s not t h e r e a r e many  72  Table C o r r e l a t i o n s o f Western and  Subject  5.3 identity  the second p r i n c i p a l  First  Component  with  the  first  component  Second  Component  1  .68  .05  2  .31  .35  3  .60  .18  4  .02  .00  5  .29 ,  .82  6  .76  .19  7  .55  .51  8  .20  .00  9  .26  ..00  10  ' .90  .22  11  .85  .07  12  .92  .05  13  ..71  .0 5  14  .78  .39  15  .22  .17  73  Table Correlations of personal and  Subject  5.4 identity  the second p r i n c i p a l  First  Component  with  the  first  component  Second  Component  1  .01  .48  2  .53  .41  3  .61  .15  4  .24  .42  5  .75  .45  6  .52  .68  7  .57  .50  8  .60  .15  9  .74  .07  10  .09  .38  11  .55  .38  12  .08  .62  13  .62  .27  14.  .02  .06  15  .17  .52  74  Table C o r r e l a t i o n s o f expansion the  Subject  first  5.5 of personal  and; t h e s e c o n d p r i n c i p a l  First  Component  identity  with  component  Second  Component  1  .18  .64  2  .59  .46  3  .41  .05  4  .52  .36  5  .49-  .66  6  .06  .64  7  .54  .49  8  .53  .02  9>  .77  .13  10  .22  .46  11  .61  .18  12  .08  .70  13  .59  .44  14  .24  .75  15  .16  .59  Table 5.6 r e c o r d s the c o r r e l a t i o n s o f g u i l t with the first  and second components.  mean d i f f e r e n c e  Using a c o r r e l a t e d  t.-test, the  i s not s i g n i f i c a n t , _t (14) = .71, n. s.  While there a r e some strong  c o r r e l a t i o n s , o v e r a l l , they  appear t o be weaker than those i n v o l v i n g i d e n t i t y . Table 5.7 r e c o r d s the c o r r e l a t i o n s o f c o n f u s i o n and uncertainty correlated t  with the f i r s t  and second components.  t - t e s t , the mean d i f f e r e n c e  (14) = —.56 n.s.  Usinq a  i s not s i g n f i c a n t ,  Once a g a i n , there a r e a few s u b s t a n t i a l  c o r r e l a t i o n s with components, but most are weak o r negligible.  One s t a t i s t i c a l o b j e c t i o n advanced. variance  Since an unrotated  t o these comparisons has been first  accounted f o r , l e a v i n g  component maximizes  l e s s f o r the second  component, i t i s argued t h a t the f i r s t n e c e s s a r i l y more r e l i a b l e , consistency,  component i s  i n the sense o f i n t e r n a l  and w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y have h i g h e r  external  relations. The  d i f f i c u l t y with t h i s argument i s t h a t  the assumptions o f p o p u l a t i o n  s t a t i s t i c s , which have dubious  a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o an i d i o g r a p h i c g r i d 138).  For example, c o n s t r u c t s  i t r e s t s upon  ( S l a t e r , 1977, pp. 127-  a r e not items o f a t e s t .  76  Table Correlations of guilt the second  Subject  First  5.6 with  principal  Component  the f i r s t  and  component  Second  Component  1  .22  .51  2.  .47  .26  3  .35  .21  4  .13  .21  5  .57  .57  6  .14  .84  . 7  .39  .09  8  .32  .19  9  .65  .12  10  .36  .43  11  .63  .23  12  .29  .42  13  .6 3  .09  14  .48  .29  15  .10  .09  77  Table  5.7  C o r r e l a t i o n s o f c o n f u s i o n and: u n c e r t a i n t y w i t h t h e first  Subject  and t h e second: p r i n c i p a l  First  Component  component  Second  Component  1  .20  .17  2  .30  .13  3  .43  .02  4  .41  .43  5  .23  .75  6  .16  .59  7  .53  .18  8  .12  .10  9  .48  .47  10  .16  .34  11  .59  .07  12  .10  .59  13  .18  .52  14  -12  .22  15  .41  .42  78 Selection  o f elements; and  random; t h e y There  i s no  elements  are  selected* f o r personal  necessary  and  constructs- i s j u s t  assumption  first  t o have h i g h e r  component  Western  reliability  is  has  identity..  reasonable  stability less  The  finding  than  issue  may  p r o c e d u r e - f o r the Subjects  in  n e a r l y the o p p o s i t e way examining and  identity,  Tables  Western  would; l a r g e l y variation,  tend  fall  unlike guilt,  first  to r a t e  5.2  on  and  the  and  does  show  although i t component.  tend  The to  component.  i d e n t i t y may  be  averaging correlation  Chinese  identity..  identity  Next,  i t i s apparent  by  that i f  i n c l u d e d , i n the g r i d , with  identity,  c o n f u s i o n , and  the  for  identity  average  o p t i o n s on  5.3,.  fact,  in effect.  central  a Z score  alignment  personal  or  Western  and  first  and. W e s t e r n  i d e n t i t y were into  Western  be  f o r Chinese  by-passed,  15 correlation's'',  -.86.  Chinese  the  might  In  component  the  and  the e v i d e n c e  second  and  Using  is  simply  be  Chinese  way.  given  shown f o r the  between C h i n e s e  i n another  only  e x p l o r a t o r y study,  that  i n p o l a r o p p o s i t i o n on  assessed  the  f o r an  i s that  correlation  specifically.  higher relations In a d d i t i o n ,  However, t h i s  be  beyond  g e n e r a l l y , i t cannot  relations  (as s t a b i l i t y ) ,  certainly  major  of g e n e r a l i t y  Also,, w h i l e a more r e l i a b l e component  have h i g h e r e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s  of  meaningfulness.  c o n s t r u c t s to a u n i v e r s e of elements  constructs..  assumed  the o p p o s i t e  the  they  core dimension  expansion  of  personal  u n c e r t a i n t y , and  of  79 irrespective The a v e r a g e first  of their  correlation  component  Western  and  summary, b o t h  t o the second  between C h i n e s e  i s .58.  identity  In  relations  The a v e r a g e  the f i r s t  and  meaningful.  reflect  and W e s t e r n i d e n t i t y  Personal relate the  identity  emotions  weakly  The  and e x p a n s i o n  r a t h e r s t r o n g l y t o one (guilt,  and n e g l i g i b l y  and t h e  correlation  between  first  components a r e  component  of personal  and  a l i g n e d with  t e n d s to  in polar opposition.  component  confusion  i s .61.  second  psychologically Chinese  identity  component  the f i r s t  component.  identity  o r the o t h e r  tend  to  while  uncertainty)  a r e more  one component  or the  other. The number o f s u b j e c t s not  allow  one  t o make a s t r o n g  would  this  which  i s concerned  be t r u e of t h i s  are  obscured  That  study  case  o f the sample do  normative g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , nor  seems  i s true  some o t h e r s  i s to i d e n t i f y  or i n v i s i b l e  provide  s t u d i e s and a d i f f e r e n t  i s , what  that exceptions  group data identity  with  f o r at least  aim  provided  the nature  be d e s i r a b l e f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h i s  generalization. to  and  (Chassan,  data.  decisions  of t h i s  identity  of o r i g i n  group of immigrants. enters  evaluation  i s apt  1979).  The  patterns  that  as e r r o r , the  trends.  to- be p e r v a s i v e l y i n v o l v e d  of  However,  are not d i s m i s s e d  some i n t e r e s t i n g  type  f o r one p e r s o n  individual  i n grouped  study,  A sense o f  i n the  Often,  in direct  value  the  cultural  o p p o s i t i o n to  80 the  cultural  i d e n t i t y o f the host  emotions a r e not s t r o n g l y component. alleviate identity or  What t h i s guilt,  options  vice versa.  In c o n t r a s t ,  generally  with  means i s t h a t  f o r instance,  by s t r e n g t h e n i n g  One may e x p e r i e n c e g u i l t eliminates  either  one c a n n o t o r d i n a r i l y  a t the expense o f Western  moves, w h i c h v i r t u a l l y Accordingly,  aligned  country.  Chinese  identity options,  e i t h e r way one  any simple  solution.  i t i s t o i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s one must t u r n i n  order  to determine  that  people attempt  acculturation.  the p o t e n t i a l l y r i c h to resolve  and d i v e r s e  t h e dilemmas o f  ways  81 Chapter Individual  A Historical  Perspective:  VI Cases  Idiographic versus  Nomothetic  Approach D i v e r s e o p i n i o n s have b e e n e x p r e s s e d place of nomothetic analysis  (Beck,  (1942) n o t e d christened of  ( B i l l s , . 1938)  1953;  that  Du  Mas,  as e a r l y  the o p p o s i t i o n  nomothetic  and  (1934) o b s e r v e d  as  Allport,  1904,  Windelband  i n t e r m s we  idiographic  he  intuitionist psychology The  "averaged  processes same p o i n t of  here adopt:  James  Bakan  which  draw m e a n i n g f u l from group that  the  a species generally  the  between  (1891) d e f i n e d  individual  minds."  (1954) e m p h a s i z e d  a s any  Tryon  the  They  circumstances  i n f e r e n c e s about  intensive  Spearman  of  that  one  individual  (1934) s t r e s s e d  study o f the average  l e a d s the comparative  do  the  t h e y a r e d e r i v e d and  statistics.  spoke  statistical  i n psychology.  c u r v e s " have t h e same form c u r v e s from  he  "ancient battle  "finite  (1952) and  of  t h a t o n l y under v e r y s p e c i a l  "individual" seldom  the  psychometrist."  i d i o g r a p h i c method  demonstrated  can  and  and  Allport  had  forms o f knowledge.  d e s c r i b e d i t as  as the s c i e n c e o f  of the  1958).  t h e l o n g - s t a n d i n g d i s p u t e between  work o f Sidman  role  idiographic  1955;  champions o f c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g y psychology;  versus  r e g a r d i n g the  the  behavior  psychologist  82 to  ignore  the  individuals  more i n t e r e s t i n g  f r o m whom t h e  abstracted.  "The  "average  'average  man-made f i c t i o n , , and. t h e properly  understood  behavior of  a l l (or  are  in  classed At  lies  the  the  p.  a  issue  about  the  to  how  they are  to  reiterate  on  The  the  datum w i t h i n idiographic  to  the  incidence  and  a population; analysis  about  particular  the  i s on  to  the  be in  individuals  who  and  controversy  scientific  for  new  experiment  field"  (Beck,  reopen  the  1953,  argument  long-standing  focus of  present  both differences  each approach  position  of  nomothetic approach  the  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  however, the the  is  some  focus of  one  the  various behaviors within and  their  effects  b e h a v i o r w h i c h we  stated  and  this  the  (Beck, 1953).  previously  idiographic  variations  disadvantages of  their  interaction  total  personality  dissertation, primarily  is. not  focus of  t h e i r mutual  bringing  particular  different  related  dissertation..  person,  any  recognize  the  a  s p e c i e s can  i s the  point  r e l a t i v e a d v a n t a g e s and  and  placed  starting  purpose here  approaches, but  a  considering  liberated  always the  The  i s , in fact,  nomothetic-idiographic  "how  unknown a r e a s o f  353) .  behavior of  is  330).  the  of:  individual'  by  between  individual"  random s a m p l e o f )  i t " (p.  core of  imagination, into  only  differences  and  The now  i t i s within  identify position  emphasized, such  a  one  in as of  a this  is  theoretical  83 stance  that  As offers  the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the case  indicated,  the i n v e s t i g a t i o n  g e n e r a l normative  data  immigrant  adjustment..  variation  of the individual  conveyed  i n t h e form  toward  cases  the  individual  The  cannot  be a d e q u a t e l y  of the a c c u l t u r a t i o n and t h e i r o f each  coping  case  Both  immigrant  contents..  intraindividual (i.e..,  Chinese  identity,  Together  correlations identity,  expansion  with a c o m p o n e n t s and  the a i d o f the  o f the supplied c o n s t r u c t s  Western  of personal  identity,  made t o i n c o r p o r a t e c l i n i c a l  personal  identity, guilt,  c o n f u s i o n and u n c e r t a i n t y — s e e A p p e n d i x  observation,, l i f e , h i s t o r y  i n t e r v i e w i n f o r m a t i o n t o g i v e a more c o m p l e t e  the  individual,  the  A l s o , an e n d e a v o u r  use o f s t a t i s t i c a l  summarizing  broadly  data  picture of  and t h e p e r s o n a l m e a n i n g s o f v a l u e s and  summarize p a t t e r n s o b t a i n e d The  and  G) ,. an a t t e m p t i s  and  experiences.  their  strategies..  study begins  with  women,  process, the nature o f the  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e c o r e and t h e p e r i p h e r a l their  theoretically  t o s e e k an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  experiences o f these  format  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  o f a g r o u p summary.  p r a c t i c a l l y , , i t i s important  value c o n f l i c t s  o f group p a t t e r n s  However, t h e r i c h n e s s and t h e  and  construction  s t u d i e s ensue.  o f such  supported.  from  i s made t o d e l i n e a t e and the i n d i v i d u a l  analysis  cases  protocols.  i n the s i n g l e  i n t o p a t t e r n s have  In t h e a p p l i c a t i o n  of factor  c a s e and  been analysis  84 for  a single person,  individual consists of  of  applying  group, but  the  (p.  of  (1951) s t a t e d  mode o f  analysis  s i n g l e p e r s o n s ; and i s quite  personality'  as  as to  in  investigation to  the  according  applicable the  that  study  to  to  study of  not  them,  the  'study  groups"  179)., (1949) f u r t h e r  c o m b i n a t i o n s and qualitative difference  character of  case study.  acts  a l w a y s be  "Neither  i n measuring  discovered  (1946) work w i t h illustrated compared  the  of  the  understanding  use of  of  the  a  by  without  the  the  method  other"  of  (Burt,  the  of  consistency her  own  individual's  of  ideational children  an  purposes  Cluster  techniques  personality  major  an  principal life  statistical  in  e l d e r l y widow  themes.  Baldwin's  further  intraindividual correlations  to grouped data.  recognized  as  view,, t r a i t -  supplemented  nursery school use  expressed  a  to i n t r a i n d i v i d u a l  single  several  often, have  Baldwin's Personal  (1942) a d o p t e d the  patterns,  (1937) r e f e r r e d  "teleonomic trends."  investigating  in his  i s complete  Allport  the  among t r a i t s  that  i n r e l a t i o n to h i s or  analysis  that  w h i c h c a n n o t be  degree,, and  1949-, p.. 167).. statistics  stressed  interactions  assessment should  and  Watson  statistical  analysis  single  Burt  or  and  psychology, a neglected  "'statistical of  Burt  Mowrer  (1950, 1953)  a quantitative single  c a s e , and  approach t h i s was  as  also to  the  *  further  85 advocated  by S t e p h e n s o n  (1952) i n h i s d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e Q  techniqueSingle rationale  case  tradition  similarities (Allport, The  o f summarizing and e s t a b l i s h  methods h a v e  single  cases  to look a t  p a t t e r n s ; has a l s o been  supported  1937,. 1942; Du Mas, 1 9 5 5 ) . focus o f t h i s  individuality  their  Its  ( S h a p i r o , 1961, 1966; Chassan,, 1961, 1979).,  studies of concrete the  i s a n e s t a b l i s h e d method.  h a s b e e n e x p l a i n e d and s t a t i s t i c a l  been d e v e l o p e d The  research  life  chapter  i s the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f case  individuals,, i n particular  o f immigrant  experiences  women w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f  i n t h e hope o f t h e r e b y ,  some p a t t e r n s and modes o f  t o examine  adjustment..  deriving  86 Case 1 First Fitting  Component  i n to Canadian  /Holding  society  Hong Kong  and i n t e r e s t s feel  values  makes  me  rejected  Contents T r y t o f i t i n , t r y t o make myself  feel  l e s s - o f an  / F e e l alienated,- l i k e total  a  outsider  outsider Peer  group p r e s s u r e  i n Canada  /Ignoring  peer  group  pressure Taking  a- r i s k  Throwing and  away  /Not taking; a Chinese  virtues  traditions  risk  /Part of personal standards,  respect f o r  elders To  be common w i t h in  peer  group  everybody  /More  individualistic  i n Canada  Second: Component Conformity out  and f e a r  of breaking  of a t r a d i t i o n a l  mode  / R i s k i n g a more approach,,  individual  becoming  more  independent ContentsGo a l o n g  with  everybody  tide  from  with  Hong Kong  /To p l e a s e my own d e s i r e s  87  Contents Afraid  of being  taken  / B r a v e enough, t o t a k e  risks  advantage of emotionally Afraid: of going o u t , doing, i t o n my o w n ,  /Lead  less of a  sheltered  life  breaking out of  dependence Please, t e a c h e r more a p p e a r i n g , t o be  by  inquisitive  /Be  a passive  learner  88 Case 1 23 Single General  arts  "Everything process,  two  dilemma. relate  I do  r e m i n d s me  different  sets of  I want t o g r a b  to..  and  with  her  the  was  wrong w i t h  inculcated,  she  between  self-knowledqe value  was  and faced  the  two  but  still  clarification;  assess  an  in a  that  standards,,  t o Canada..  thought  personality..  the  cultural  with  feels  same  I could to  e a c h new  a p p r o p r i a t e response  Now  she  arrival felt  very  that her  t h a t had  been  difference in has  acquired  unending, p r o c e s s situation  according  the  Because o f  values  a drastic  the  On  s t a t e d t h a t she  her  cultures.  with  always  interview f u l l y capture  s c h i z o p h r e n i c , " " and  Hong Kong u p b r i n g i n g  values  the  f a m i l y i n V a n c o u v e r , C..1  something  the  others."  s u b j e c t ' s adjustment  confused,, " a l m o s t  through  t o something- s o l i d  to please  T h e s e words d u r i n g of  standards,  I h a v e t o c h o o s e , t o combine  please- myself  essence  on  of going  she  to her  has  more  of to  personal  standards;..  that  The  conflict  she  has  considered  situations  emulated  Canadian  heterosexual  -  certain  elicited  on  acceptable  the g r i d behaviors  ( e . g . , more c a s u a l a t t i r e ,  interaction,, general  reveal  friendliness)  relaxed and  has  89 rejected- t r a d i t i o n a l  Chinese  s o c i a l , d i s t a n c e between the reserved for  behavior).  a combination  approaches learning  has  conventional  a l s o expressed  part-time  and  o f v a l u e s , she  has  rote  school year). to opt  for  i n Canadian  to r e t a i n  (respect f o r e l d e r s ) i n her  with  the  traditions..  continued  female  a. p r e f e r e n c e  appears  the openness a v a i l a b l e  t h a t she  attire,  Hong Kong- l e a r n i n g  employment d u r i n g  t h e more r i g i d - C h i n e s e  to- n o t e value  sexes,  o f C a n a d i a n and  the c l a s h  flexibility versus  (e.g-.,,, f o r m a l  ( i . e . , , c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n combined  and  In v i e w o f  She  norms  It i s a core  relationship  the  society  important Chinese  with  teachersAnalysis of suggests  the  contents  a desire for fitting  awareness; o f p e e r  pressure  some c o r e  supplied  c o n s t r u c t s r e v e a l an  identity  (r -  ( r = -.76).,  .6 8) The  the  first  the  identity  Locked  split  ( r - -.48)  new  s o c i e t y , , an need  to  C o r r e l a t i o n s on  alignment  o f the  component, she  second  The  values-  emotional  more autonomy..  personal on  and  component  a concurrent  i n o p p o s i t i o n with  contents  fears of r e j e c t i o n  in  Chinese  first  i n t o her  and  validate  risking  o f the  with  Western,  Chinese  second  the  identity  component r e v e a l  exploitation  versus  i n the c u l t u r a l o p p o s i t i o n  appears and  t o be  expansion  grounding ( r = -.64)  more  component. between h e r  Chinese  and  Western  identity  is  90 further  supported  conflict rated  by o b s e r v a t i o n o f  situations..  i n opposing  personal  Chinese  "choosing  expansion  (with the  t h e o l d way  Chinese- i d e n t i t y , positively confusion  of  raw  a r e more a l i g n e d  identity  score: =  of  the  a l l conflict  with  situation: i n which  and- e x p a n s i o n  7,7,7)...  the  are  the- r a t i n g s on  exception  i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by  m o d e r a t e r a t i n g s on  identity  r e s p e c t for. t e a c h e r s "  personal  aligned:  r a t i n g s on* t h e  Western  c o n t i n g u i t y , while  i d e n t i t y and  Western, i d e n t i t y  and  the  Her  frequency situations  are  experience  of high (raw  of  to  score  =  5,6,7,6,-3,7,5,7,6,7,6,6) .. Grid an  data  individual  pressure  own  superordinate  component. into  person..  s o c i e t y versus feel  come t o terms' w i t h  her  system  w h i c h she  i n the  be  (i.e.,  conflict has  strives  components versus  and- t h e  first  connote rejection,,  ethnicity  and  component  i n v o l v e s : the  the  nature  (fitting and  attempt  relativity  of  to her  Hong Kong v a l u e s ) .  broader  second  an  second  r e j e c t e d ) i n d i c a t e s an  The  to  h o l d i n g Honq Kong v a l u e s  Canadian versus  migrated..  the  made b e t w e e n t h e  first  I t appears t h a t the  i n t e r e s t s makes me  Here t h e  Though b o t h  d i s t i n c t i o n - can  demonstrate  cultures;: amidst  r e s i s t a n c e t o conform-,, she  contained  Canadian  belief  analysis vividly  constructs of conformity  interpretative conflicts  component  c a u g h t between, two  and' t h e  become h e r  of  and  cultural  component  context  to  (conformity  and  fear  risking  of breaking out o f a t r a d i t i o n a l a more  independent)  individual  indicates  individuation,  approach  a more  self-assertion  mode v e r s u s  and b e c o m i n g  focused c o n f l i c t and  more concerning  behavioral  experimentation. In summary, divided  between  constructs with  apparent could of  as peer  polarization  values.  confusion  o f an  implicating  that  acceptance  and t h e need  t o make s e n s e  a realignment of values.  wrestling  and W e s t e r n  m i g r a t i o n has h e i g h t e n e d response  and  and i n d e p e n d e n c e .  between C h i n e s e  The p r e d o m i n a n t  individual  superordinate  a s c o n f o r m i t y and r e j e c t i o n ,  such  indicate  through  two c u l t u r e s ,  such  issues  the impression i s that  The  identity  the contrast  seems t o be t h a t o f o f h e r new  environment  Case First Giving  i n to maintain  2  Component /Pursuing  family  of  ties.  individual  social  course  development  Contents Not  to pursue  /Pursue  and d i s c u s s  radical  broader* s o c i a l  issues  change  with  relatives  them  Hong Kong  social  and i d e a l s  with  friends Parental  e x p e c t a t i o n s and  /Pursue general ideals  obligations Parental career Not  relations  care  about  their  expectations  expectations  Hong Kong Give  /Don't  and, r e l a t i v e s  /To  to j e o p a r d i z e c l o s e  family  social  jeopardize,, break o f f contact  and  with  them  friends /More  in- t o s o c i a l  constraints  i n d i v i d u a l i s m and  freedom  (family  and: f r i e n d s ) Second Commitment scholarly  to s o c i e t y  Component  and  /Importance  interests  needs and  of  individual  concerns  Contents More m e a n i n g f u l , more c o n c e r n  more d e p t h ,  regarding  others  /More  self-interests  Academic  and p e r s o n a l  personal  interests More c o n c e r n broader Social  with  social  o t h e r s and  and- e n v i r o n m e n t a l  values  interests;  /More concern: w i t h  self  issues /Individual making  concerns* Similar  / L a c k o f a c a d e m i c and  and  interests  /Gap  concerns,.  money  in values,  habits  lifestyle  are very  different  Case  2  26 Single Urban  planning An  the  examination of  process  of  adjustment  to Vancouver alone years the  of her  She  was  later  process This  of  re-entry  s p o u s e s and  and  her  was  lifestyle  aging  and  extended  family  initial after  However, she  she  could  had  not  social reunion  had  first to  enjoy  interests. she  initiated  a origin..  responsibilities  (i.e.., s i b l i n g s , to  activities.. was  very  past,  their  parental She  stated  stressful,  a taste of personal  " d i s c a r d her  came  i n communal  whom  c h i l d r e n ) ,, and' a r e a d j u s t m e n t and  able  culture of  of  She  the  political  parents  a reclaiming  period: o f  her  freedom..  linkage  to  family." At  Giving by  During  family  that  her  visa.  liberal  illuminates  undergone..  to her  living  especially  has  T h i s : move had  control of daily the  she  with..  involved  parents  new.  pursuit of  to l i v e  of migration  s t u d i e s , , she  her  j o i n e d - by  re-entry  toward  that  a student  freedom o f  i n the  volunteered  on  context  undergraduate  relative  l i v i n g , and  the  present,  she  i n to parental  others;  meaningful..  f e e l s * she  i n f l u e n c e may  nevertheless:, Parental  belongs be  such a c t i o n s  expectations  to n e i t h e r  culture.  negatively  perceived  r e m a i n most  have  particularly  conflicted Caucasian her  with  her heterosexual  male f r i e n d s  apparent  simply  subservience  In t h e l i g h t  of this  to d i s c o v e r the c o n f l i c t s appears t o handle  involvement.  find- i t hard  information, revealed  most c o n f l i c t s  situational  options.  F o r example,  i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g  i n the g r i d .  Content  she: t e n d s  career path  j e o p a r d i z i n g ' such  and; o b l i g a t i o n s ,  close; r e l a t i o n s "  attitudes. values  is  furthering  fear of  are c l o s e l y  a l i g n e d and  1  pursuit of social which espouses a  h e r newly a c q u i r e d  Canadian  liberal  Though t h e p o l e s o f f a m i l y v e r s u s - l i b e r a l  and h i g h l y s a l i e n t .  i n opposition to personal (r = -.59).  in conflict  with  a r e both  positively  T h i s d i s a g r e e m e n t on t h e  component a p p e a r s p o t e n t .  expansion be  with  men,  and f a m i l y - c e n t e r e d v a l u e s i s ;  are i n opposition,, they  construed first  philosophy  conflict  Chinese  component shows t h a t  H e r Hong Kong u p b r i n g i n g  business^oriented in direct  t o date  instead of  stand- i n c o n t r a s t to, t h e i n d i v i d u a l development.  not to d i s c u s s  interests.  a n a l y s i s o f the f i r s t  "parental expectations  She  by h e r c h o i c e s o f  p o l i t i c s , a t home,, becomes more w i l l i n g  philosophical-political  understand-  by c o m p r o m i s e and  T h i s c a n be i l l u s t r a t e d  pursues a p r a c t i c a l  to  t o f a m i l y demands.  avoidance..  and  1  Most o f her-  Chinese  identity  Her c o r e  role  h e r s e n s e o f who  identity  (r =  .77)  ( r = —..53) and a s a d a u g h t e r seems t o she i s .  96 The and  second  scholarly  needs  ;  and  component  interests  concerns.  self-oriented individual  dimension  n e e d s and  The  blocked  identity  .41)  and  The certain  identity, r a t i n g s of  (raw  combining  score =  raw  Personal  appear to  be  that this peripheral expansion.  expansion  and  on  only exception  i s aligned with  the  t o V a n c o u v e r and  rest  to a  Chinese  data observation  The  6,6,6,5).  that  -  i n opposition to  options..  r e t u r n from Toronto  work h e r e her  identity  academic  f o r growth  .46)  identity,  identity by  and  component.  (r =  an  first  area of personal  of personal  situational  which Chinese her  blocked  is- a l s o supported  i n the  opportunity  the p o s s i b i l i t y  Western  pursuit of  this; s o c i a l  expansion  a less  alignment extent  from the  first  individual  needs- r e p r e s e n t  development  the  i n the  and  support  component o f f e r s  her  to society  importance of  individual  development o f  could o f f e r  (r -  the  differ  social  a p p e a r s t o be  aligned  versus  -  (Here,  course- o f  component.)  r e v e a l s a commitment  in  relates  continued  This situation  to  graduate  involves  values, o f p a r e n t a l o b l i g a t i o n s with  educational pursuit.. Her  career choice  polarized  conflict  choosing; a c a r e e r practical the o u t l e t  to her  seems' t o o f f e r  between f a m i l y and (urban  planning)  f a m i l y and  for societal  the  resolution  social  which  values.  she  the  In  i s considered  which s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  involvement,  to  has  offers  probably  her  integrated  the  best  of  both  worlds,  o r what she  can  of  them. In seen  sum,  i n the  the  predominant problem of  s t r e n g t h of  her  social  adjustment  conscience  versus  established: family-centered, values  from Hong K o n g -  resolution  lies  of  acceptable  career  i n the  development  compromise.  identity  can  on  Her an  Case First  Overcoming  loneliness  separation  t o become o n e ' s  person,  s t r o n g : and,  3  Component  and  /Being own  dependent,, weak  submerged  and  i n group  independent  Contents /Very  More- i n d e p e n d e n t Stronger  character  overcoming  time  think  Separation  /Weaker c h a r a c t e r ,  loneliness  Independence, up^ and  in  to. grow  /Dependence  for. m y s e l f  from  family  to p r i n c i p l e s  believe  as  very  vulnerable  and  /To  friends Stick  dependent.  right  of or  what wrong,  I  enjoy  the  care* o f  family  and  friends  /Don't, have- an, o p i n i o n , listen  to  others''  opinion. /Companionship,,  Loneliness,  avoid  loneliness Do  everything  by  myself  /Someone  to  take  care  daily necessities  of  :  99 Second- Component  F o s t e r i n g , one''©  /Procrastinating;  personal  wasting  growth  and  time  Conents Increase- personal, Use  knowledge  time f o r p u r s u i t  interests Relaxation  of  own  /Uneducated /Waste  time, not  doing  anything /Waste e n e r g y i n u s e l e s s activities  100 3  Case  20 Single General  arts  She seven  siblings;.  further while  comes-, from  her  a big  The  main  education..  e n t r u s t i n g her  family, being  to  reason  Her  parents  the  care: o f a m a r r i e d  In- r e c o u n t i n g  Canada,, she  became v e r y e m o t i o n a l :  popular  active  e m i g r a t i n g she sociable missed  person  had; p r o d u c e d  loneliness.. "feeling  She- l a t e r  stop being  the  wasting  recognized baby o f  pursued  to  occupied;  program  to. l e a r n  landlady appears  with  uprooting  the  she  found  initial  time  and  her  after a  very  friends,  She  the  homesickness^ and claimed,,  was  i n s l e e p i n g - and  family."  time  to grow  To- cope w i t h  employment  joined she  in  withdrawn."  t h a t " i t was  after  her  school  chose  to l i v e  with  o c c a s i o n a l companionship.  acute  up  a regular exercise  also  adjustment  had. r e s u l t e d ; i n an  "being  f a m i l y and  part-time  relaxation;  whom she  t h a t the  depressed  a great deal of  l o n e l i n e s s , , she keep h e r s e l f  remembered  from  g r e a t e s t problem,, she  d e p r e s s e d ; and  eating." and  Her  sister  i n Hong Kong, b u t  of  to  experiences, i n  she  transformed  support  of  remained; i n Hong Kong  earlier  life  to. e x t r e m e l y  the e m o t i o n a l  separation  her  social  had; been  youngest  f o r m i g r a t i o n was  Vancouver.  and  the  was sense  t a x i n g and of  that  nostalgia,  a It  101 social  isolation  appears skills  that  she  to d e a l  and  emotional  was-  able  with  by  the  conflict  illustrate  her  also  interview  situations elicited on  coping  situation.  from, the  struggle  It  to d e v e l o p a r e p e r t o i r e of  t h i s , new  This, i n f o r m a t i o n  deprivation..  this  on  is. s u b s t a n t i a t e d  the  grid,  which  independence-dependence  continuum.. The  outstanding  salience This  this, e x e r c i s e s  reveals  a need  t o become s t r o n g  constructs  loneliness,  of  over  her  her  t o overcome  and  dependent,, weak and value  feature  first  entire belief  independent  rather  s u b m e r g e d i n a group..  reveal  separation  repeated and  strength  of  the  for succorance. with  Chinese  identity  to  Western, i d e n t i t y  and  component  expressed  wish  wasting analysis  to d e v e l o p  character, l a c k of  in  sharp  opinion,, .61)  is,  in opposition  to  (r -  component the  growth  is consistent  individuality  personal  versus  Chinese  traditional  of  elicited  second  and,  appears which  versus  time."  W e s t e r n values^ s u c h as the  first  content  " f o s t e r i n g , one's p e r s o n a l  procrastinating The  the  The  .60)  being  independence,  identity  (r =  ( r — -.60)..  subsume o r o v e r s h a d o w  involves  Personal  separation,  The  themes, o f  t o dependence,, v u l n e r a b i l i t y ,  aligned  than  is, the  system.  l o n e l i n e s s and  contrast need  component  with  which  autonomy and feminine  her involves  responsibility  virtues  of  102 dependence In abrupt  subjugation  t o g r o u p and  summary,, t h e o v e r a l l process of weaning—a  cultural of  and  transition  i t s immediate  placed, h e r s e l f effectance  indicates  and. a f f i r m e d  demands..  i n an e n v i r o n m e n t where  i n making  a clear  personal  development  an a d j u s t i v e  adoption while  primarily  developmental c r i s i s  has a c c e l e r a t e d  situational  indicate  rejected.  picture  family.  response..  of Western  values  traditional  which i n terms*  In m i g r a t i n g she has  an  she  has  to d e v e l o p  Results, i n terms of  Chinese values  are  103 Case 4 First Protected  m a r r i e d - and  life- i s also  Component  family  confining  /Unprotected  and  which  dependent  single  i s free  life  and  independent  Contents /Independence  Dependence Protective Married  /No  environment  family  /Single  life  with  / S t a y by  husband  Second J o b o p p o r t u n i t y and at  the expense o f people  life  survival indifference  and: stigma-  myself  Component /Less not  j o b o p p o r t u n i t y and. surviving  helping to  environment  /Freedom  Restriction Reunite  protective  of  i n favor of  o t h e r s and  lack  stigma  Contents More: j o b o p p o r t u n i t y  /Less  Maintain  /Not  survival  job opportunity to maintain  Indifference  /Helping  Social  /No  stigma  people  social  stigma  survival  10 4Case  4  29 Married Accounting C.4 m i g r a t e d , w i t h previous where  university  h e r f a m i l y t o Toronto..  training  in social  She; had  work f r o m  Hong  she c o u l d ; have e s t a b l i s h e d ; a. f r u i t f u l c a r e e r . .  However, t h i s was, impeded difficult  a r e a where she c o u l d have expanded  by m i g r a t i o n and f u r t h e r  economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s  herself  compounded: by t h e  i n Canada.  A f t e r a.  protracted  p e r i o d o f unemployment,, she f i n a l l y  retraining  i n accounting  underwent  t o o b t a i n work.  During t h e  i n t e r v i e w , , she r e l a t e d  her a c c u l t u r a t i v e  experiences  t a s k - o r i e n t e d - manner.  When asked, a b o u t  relation she  t o what  had a c q u i r e d  resigned  she- had l e f t i n Canada,  to her present  Elicited such  conflict  as m a r r i a g e ,  behind  how she f e l t i n  i n Hong Kong  security  i n marriage  situations  reveal  life  c a r e e r c h o i c e and c a r e e r change retraining  her husband).  component  ( p r o t e c t e d m a r r i e d ; and f a m i l y l i f e  confining  and d e p e n d e n t  versus  and i n d e p e n d e n t ) ,  (e.g.,  In t h e f i r s t  unprotected  i s also  single  the c o n t e n t s  environment,  events  and move t o  to r e u n i t e with  "dependence, p r o t e c t i v e  and what  and: j o b .  normal  Vancouver  i s free  in a  she appeared: q u i t e c o n t e n t and  l i v i n g . , on, h e r own,, p r o f e s s i o n a l  which  Kong  life  o f one p o l e  r e s t r i c t i o n and  105 married  family l i f e "  the  opposing  The  chosen pole  identity  (r =  The. s e c o n d  people." with  (r  =  finds job  she  Hence has  and  related  d e c i s i o n s with  different The locked  second  survival.  final  f r e e d o m and  forms of  each an  woman.  and  i n the  from  This brings  transferability  things,  she  i n which has  opted  here  is a  attributions  situation. belief  versus  in  and  The  she for  her  central  personal  a concession  to  security.  a mundane e x i s t e n c e  inferred  aligned  first  life  p i c t u r e gives: a compelling, sense of  into  are  helping  scheme o f  i s revealed  idealistic  only viable: a l t e r n a t i v e .  can. be  that  conflict  —..52')...  In both; c o m p o n e n t s ,  value  satisfaction  (r =  t o be  component  What  between h e r  t o be  career  appear  t o the  i t appears  life."'  Chinese  to p e o p l e "  satisfaction  does n o t  to  opportunity,  succumbed; t o a m a r r i e d  incongruence  issue: appears  indifference "job  p r o t e c t i o n ; - in- the  security  "job  ( r = -.42).  i s not  basic  the  and  identity  .00).  component,  reveals that  chosen pole  identity  .02,  in antithesis  t o be> a s s o c i a t e d with.  expense of  The  aligned  i n o p p o s i t i o n to expansion  survival,  personal  Western  appears;  .41)  a t the  closely  " i n d e p e n d e n c e , , f r e e d o m , and: s i n g l e  component  maintaining chosen  pole  are  her  core  i n the  which  she  someone  has  accepted  being as  A p a t t e r n of  self-abnegation  role  and  of wife  n o t i o n of  in acculturation.  She  career  identity has  experienced  some  106 form o f " s t a t u s d i s l o c a t i o n "  (Richmond,  e n v i r o n m e n t does not f a c i l i t a t e previous  occupational  diminished life's  would option  The p r o b l e m  recovery..  "dependent, others"  the t r a n s f e r of her which  has r e s u l t e d i n  p r o f e s s i o n a l c a p a c i t y and p r o b a b l y  meaning.  anticipate  identity  1 9 6 7 ) ; h e r new  entail  The p r e s e n t  indifferent."  would  dislodge a radical  f o r growth  that  i s that  Ideals  she does  some l o s s o f n o t seem t o  s o l u t i o n i s t o become s u c h as " f r e e d o m ,  h e r from t h i s reconstruing  adaptive  p o s i t i o n , and  of p r i o r i t i e s ,  seems e x t r e m e l y u n l i k e l y .  /  helping  an  107 Case- 5 First Desire  Component  for self-fulfilment  /Devoting needs  t o my  husband's  and o b l i g a t i o n s  Contents My f a m i l y  obligations  /My h u s b a n d ' s  family  obligations My f a m i l y  and f r i e n d s i n  /My h u s b a n d ' s  Hong Kong  Canada  F u t u r e employment Making  family i n  decisions  prospects with  /Lack of future  my  /To  follow  my  prospects  husband  husband  Second In  spite  o f communication  difficulties, beliefs as  religious  and s e e i n g  individuals  and  Component  cultural  people  broaden  /Emphasis  would  on r a c i a l and differences  limit  understanding  scope  understanding  Contents Can't  communicate,,  things Fit  my  little  i n common  ideals of C h r i s t i a n i t y  /Can  communicate,  things /Doesn't  more  i n common f i t my  Christianity  ideal of  108 B r o a d e n my Person,, n o t is  scope the r a c e ,  important  /Limit that  my  /Race more person  scope important  than  109 Case 5 25 Married Business  administration  She came as a s t u d e n t Upon u n i v e r i s t y g r a d u a t i o n year  she r e t u r n e d  t o spend some t i m e w i t h  filial  debt.  husband the  She l a t e r  dilemma  i n having  leaving  behind  During  migration  family  and p l a c e  not  and f r i e n d s  The  hand,  information  s i t u a t i o n s on t h e g r i d  issues:  marital  her of  relations.  (desire  husband's personal  life  choice  of  migration..  Chinese  tradition  decisions  were c o n t i n g e n t  she e x p r e s s e d  i s validated  such a s  upon h i s  regret f o r  Inspection  further  career  elicited  on t h r e e  main  d e v e l o p m e n t and  o f t h e components and  illustration..  for self-fulfilment  needs and o b l i g a t i o n s )  needs  by  which c e n t e r  d e c i s i o n making,  contents gives  component  f o r permanent  and m a j o r  conflict  their  family  h e r own n e e d s and d e s i r e s .  interview  interethnic  she spoke o f  h e r own  the p r e s c r i b e d  of settlement  On t h e o t h e r  fulfilling  for a  and t o r e p a y h e r  and h e r h u s b a n d ' s , and h e r f i n a l  one's husband,"  priorities.  t o Hong Kong  the i n t e r v i e w ,  t o c h o o s e between  On one hand,, she a c c e p t e d follow  her family  i n Canada.  came back t o V a n c o u v e r t o j o i n h e r  and h i s f a m i l y .  responsibilities  "to  and met h e r husband  The  first  versus devoting  to  reveals, the awareness  i n s p i t e of the s a l i e n c e  of her m a r i t a l  110 relationship.. of  The  religious, b e l i e f s .  communication, individual toward  (r =  Christian  inclusiveness  of  both components,  while .49  &  personal  broadened  .66)  are  influence  that  emphasize  identity  (r =  in alignment  and  her  attitudes  dating.  to W e s t e r n  identity  the  a l l cultures-,  Chinese  opposition  suggests  principles  w o r t h have d e f i n i t e l y  in diametrical  .82);  component  i n t e r r a c i a l p e e r g r o u p and  In is  second  .75  with  (r =  -.29  identity &  .45)  the  &  -.82)  (r =  and  .29-  &  expansion  Western  identity  pole. Component the  two  The  response  cultures  assertion  of  components  conflicts aligned In  to a  such a p o l a r i z a t i o n personal  (i.e.,  and  identity further  r a t i n g s - on  between W e s t e r n  and  strengthening  sum,  her  core  independent advocating pervasive  conflicting identity. certain  i s that of the  of  with Her  of a  an face  to  by  raw  identity  desire  Christian  enhancement o f a cultural  her  the data  to  to  tend  to  be  wife  establish  an  in  perhaps  have  values.  personal  with  Chinese  beliefs  appear  the  identity).  traditional  her  be in  between values..  associated  personal  in broadening  of  peripheral  indicated  supported  Western v a l u e s  influence;  in  role  as  Chinese  -  conflict  appears  situations  the  be  a potent  from core? to  with  seems, to  identity  indicates  extending  results  observation  trend  analysis  The  needs  c o n f l i c t of  a overall and  values.  Case 6 First  Component  Expanding, myself,, b e c o m i n g more  sociable,  creative  /Limiting  myself  security  and  and  to  routine  independent Contents Get  t o know more: p e o p l e  /More  Can  change  /Permanence,  field,  from  more  /Not  marketable  Get  more g e n e r a l  decision up  to  f o r myself routine  interesting  Job  Independence,  field  time  knowledge  /More  involves  making,  marketable academic  /Someone  knowledge  to r e l y  on  taking  responsibility  Second More p r i v a c y  Component  and t i m e f o r  /Emotional to  myself  responsiveness  others  Contents Less  involvement  /Deeper  More  privacy  /Less  Can  loose  have more  privacy  /Commitment  Convenience Casual,  understanding  is, v a l u a b l e  relationship  /Genuine  relationship  time  /No  f o r myself  f o r myself  time  112 Case 6 23 Single Science She the  closeness  During  the  certain and  interview,  Chinese  ties  she  and  family.  tradition,  through,"  migrated  an  In  more r i g i d  interpersonal  a more  The  first  crucial  (e.g.,  to  existence.  final  she  might  too  the  grid  living  and  passive  carefree  opposition identity  between C h i n e s e  (r -  .76).  The  social  she  between  career  and  formal behavior)  approach. by  the  appeal  independent" and  i n f e r r e d from  component  of  in  routine the  direct  i d e n t i t y ( r = -.78)  second  to  if  a split  home,  is characterized  be  in  1  Canada-  reveal  a more r e s t r i c t i v e can  followed  in  at  found would  family, marriage,  (e.g..,  professed  much c o u r a g e  have  been b o r n  of  career  a n a l y s i s , she  require  i n d i v i d u a l and  Conflict  relations  be  conception  leading  casual  only  could  "becoming more s o c i a b l e , c r e a t i v e and contrast  regarding  permanence  had  component  adjustment..  her.  s i t u a t i o n s on  behavior  her  that  the  or  to  considered  firmly believing  option  marriage,, l o n g - t e r m versus  t o Canada and  expressed, ambivalence  i t would  earlier  Conflict  family  Western c u l t u r e  f o r commitment  break  the  her  family  aspects of  "follow  had  of  with  independence) w h i l e  need the  migrated  deals  and  Western  113 specifically others  with  the l i m i t s of a f f e c t i v e  (more p r i v a c y a n d t i m e  responsiveness,, deeper Guilt  f o r s e l f versus-  with, l e s s  people  ( r = -.68) and e x p a n s i o n  primary  on t h e g r i d  relations.  considerable  doubt  show a s t r o n g as  involvement,  associated  with  the p e r s o n a l  (r =  indicate  openness,  and e x p a n s i o n  identity  position  with  interpersonal behavioral  which  interpretation  impression  are a s s o c i a t e d with family values  terms o f s o c i a l The  value  illustrates  a  and some  traditional  i n the dichotomous  and W e s t e r n v a l u e s . .  The  solution  of personal  identity  responsiveness.  conflict in this  Hsu's  that  conflicted  seems t o be t h e p e r i p h e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t in  such  changes.  suggests  are r e f l e c t e d of Chinese  Ratings  identity is  to note  superordinate values of self-expansion versus security,  on  values  Western  i t i s important  of t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese  overall  pole  s o c i a b i l i t y and c a s u a l  personal  The  a stable  of Chinese  However,  Western  identity  and u n c e r t a i n t y seem t o emerge.  experimentation.  combination  emotional  -.64).  and commitment, w h i l e  identity  whereas  I t i s : o u t s i d e o f t h i s , arena, t h a t  relation  responsibility  emotional  ( r = .59) a r e s t r o n g l y  responsiveness, i s a l i g n e d with  Ratings  with  u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and commitment) .  ( r = .84) and c o n f u s i o n  associated  involvement  (1971) c o n c e p t  case,  i n many  ways,  of psychosocial  114 homeostasis; which  claims  the Chinese  f a m i l y and  system- as: the p r i m a r y  and: c o n t i n u o u s ; s o u r c e  that  to extend  for  there  satisfaction  discloses of  i s , no  need  of a f f e c t i o n a l  h e r much need  reaching out  from  needs.  nourishment  t o peers...  this  from  of  kinship intimacy  permanent  The  and:  core  subject  home and  the  fears  Case 7 First Seeking and  individual  Component  happiness  /Fulfilling  expansion  responsibi-  l i t i e s , toward  family  Contents Seek p e r s o n a l  happiness  /Fulfill  obligations  to  parents Elderly—intrusion our  into  /Acceptance  of  elderly  lives  Career  development  /Family  expectations  Career  aspirations  /Family  obligations  Second Following  1  Component  t r a d i t i o n , of a moral  respectable  Chinese  woman  /Breaking tional  away  role  from  tradi-  expectations  Contents Keep d i g n i t y Chinese Old  as d i g n i f i e d ,  /Lose  dignity  /Real  love, and c a r e f o r  girl  people  are useless  elderly Choose husband married To  lose  Being  who  /Choose  before  rated  husband  married  love  the second  second  hasn't  /To wife  i s not  gain  /Being  who  before  love  t h e second  second  has  rated  wife i s  116 Case 7  Married, Architecture She later  and moved; t o V a n c o u v e r  During of  went t o u n i v e r s i t y i n t h e U n i t e d  the i n t e r v i e w ,  to s e t t l e  she d e s c r i b e d  contradiction,,"' p a r t i c u l a r l y  with  States,  close  married  to her f a m i l y .  her adjustment  her marriage  to a  as  "full  divorcee  a child  from; t h e p r e v i o u s  marriage..  The s t a t u s o f  such, a u n i o n  would,, by C h i n e s e  standards,  reduce  level  of a concubine.  Their  eventual  V a n c o u v e r was s o l e l y o u t o f f i l i a l of  the adverse  unemployed believed  economic  situation-, which  had h e l p e d  decisions,  dependence  learned  as o p p o s e d  i n Hong Kong.  i n d i v i d u a l i s m ' and t h a t  cannot  really  Grid on  choose  data  a career  and making  remarked  through  that  the p u r s u i t  [ s h e ] comes t o choose,,  [she],  t h e norm."  adjustment.  o r i e n t a t i o n toward  e m o t i o n a l warmth  However, she  She a l s o  and components, a n a l y s i s  her personal  strong  when  h e r an  to the t r a d i t i o n a l  " W e s t e r n v a l u e s , c a n become e x a g g e r a t e d of  had; l e f t  h e r t o be more  independent, e s p e c i a l l y i n developing personal  in  considerations, i n spite  a r c h i t e c t f o r o v e r a year..  that migration  settlement  h e r to. t h e  (e.g.,  Conflict  people  keeping  throw  further  light  situations reveal  and a c a p a c i t y f o r her grandmother  a t home,  a  117 settling  i n Vancouver  common-law w i t h individual  a divorcee)..  happiness  responsibilities) development  toward  parents  personal second role  are aligned  component  from  and m o r a l  traditional  personal  It  appears  as  a. d a u g h t e r  Chinese  that  the f i r s t  while  guilt  situational fear  identity (r =  of  This  of r e p r i s a l  C h i n e s e woman v e r s u s is  also very  ing  typical  equality.  reflects  ( r = .49).  her core  contains  role  primarily  partner.,  by g r i d  i n the  r a t i n g s , with  losing love).  much c u l t u r e - b o u n d  strong  observed and  l o s i n g the d i g n i t y o f a  moral/immoral  to  .51) i s a l i g n e d  i n d i c a t i n g ambivalence  (e.,g..,  stereotyped  of marriage  = 7,6,7,5,7,5,6,7,7,5,7,7)  options,  The  inconsistency  .50) and e x p a n s i o n  t h e s e c o n d component  —.65),  (r = -.54).  mixture  identity (r =  i s substantiated  (raw s c o r e  and  identity (r -  s e n s e o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n , as e x p r e s s e d  interview,  family  to o b l i g a t i o n s  love* and m a l e / f e m a l e  or l i f e  (seeking:  happiness  beliefs  component  living  fulfilling  in opposition  attitudes.  identity (r =  r o l e as a w i f e Her  personal  suggests, a p u z z l i n g  In, t h i s , component,, W e s t e r n  her  versus  to Chinese  and  component  Here, Western  in reaction  W e s t e r n views, o f r o m a n t i c  with  first  i d e n t i t y ( r = -.57) and; e x p a n s i o n  conceptions^  ranges  to her f a m i l y ,  and e x p a n s i o n  and e l d e r s .  i s aligned  The  reveals: that  career  .55)  t o be c l o s e  on a l l  perhaps respectable  Her c o n c e p t o f  morality  and c o n t r a d i c t o r y ,  reflect-  behaviors  of e i t h e r  culture  118 (e.g., role  filial  responsibility  and t h e h u s b a n d ' s  i n marriage- a r e a s s o c i a t e d with. C h i n e s e  i n d i v i d u a l i s m , and, r o m a n t i c  love are r e l a t e d  dominant  culture-,  while  to Western  v a l u e s ) .. We  a r e l o o k i n g a t an i n d i v i d u a l  feelings faith be  and- f i d e l i t y  in a conflict—the  versus  The c e n t r a l  her r i g h t  probably  reflects  same t i m e  attempts  conflict  to i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d - b e l i e f s  t r a c e d t o a- f e u d a l C h i n e s e  decline.  the  are locked  whose v a l u e s a n d  society  i s s u e appears  to disown  t o be h e r sense  attempt  some o f t h e s e  t o come t o t e r m s w i t h  which, c o u l d  now v e r y much i n  to personal happiness. a desperate  of her  of. d u t y  This incongruity  to c l i n g beliefs  on and a t as. s h e  h e r newly developed- values..  119 Case- 8 First Assimilation ferent  would mean d i f -  personal  standards,  l e s s emotional  support, from growing  and c u l t u r a l  Component /Preserving  Chinese  values  would: mean, c l o s e n e s s : t o and. d e p e n d e n c e on  family  f a m i l y and  e m p h a s i s on t h e  individual  Contents Integrate  into  new  society  IndependenceDifferent  family  cultural  values:  from-  support  D e v e l o p own f i n a n c i a l  values.  interests  /Closeness  from  t o f a m i l y and:  /More e m o t i o n a l from  family  cultural  friends.  and; f r i e n d s  /Not  support  parents^  d e v e l o p own, f i n a n c i a l  resources;  resources on own  /Similar and;  separation  Less- e m o t i o n a l  Rely  integrate  /Dependence  andi i n t e r e s t s Emotional  /Not  judgment  /Not  r e l y on own  judgment  1  120 Second C a r i n g , and- e t h n i c i t y  is.  Component /Not  important  important Contents Personal Racial  ^ love  and  identity  interest  i s important  /No /Not  love  or  interest  important  121 Case* 8 26 Single Pharmacy She  had  migrated  reconstructed with  her  with  her  adjustment,  some d i f f i c u l t  choices  f a m i l y t o Vancouver., she  but  remembered: b e i n g  none  As  she  faced  particularly  disturbing. Conflict  situations  on, the g r i d  decisions  surrounding, p l a c e  choice  friends  of  The- f i r s t regarding  and  cultural  integration  with  assimilation  Canadian  personal  and  emotional  support  component and  mixed  group of  relations  Canadian  and  r e s t r i c t e d - t o Chinese- men.. account observed her both  f o r the in- the  Chinese  from  second  to the  identity  p e r s o n a l meaning  The  chosen  her  Chinese  second  preference  and  to  social  for a  peers,, though d a t i n g  (r =  are .60  first  is  could  being  is striking  expansion  to the  ethnicity  identity  What  component  is irrelevant  self-reliance  The  T h i s element of  of  pole-  constructs relating  component).,  first  more  family..  (i.e.,  identity  constructs  the  remnants of a Chinese  is.that personal relating  and  standards,  reveals", s u b o r d i n a t e  heterosexual  settlement,,  superordinate  society..  different  life  preferences.  suggests  involves less  of education,,  dating  component  reveal ordinary  &  about  dominant, .53).  component  122 ( r =• .03)  and  weakly  aligned, to  Western; i d e n t i t y is; r e l a t e d  to  the  second  neither  (r =  .43)..  component  (r =  .20  &  .00) This she  observation  mostly  center-rates  and" W e s t e r n perhaps  identity  Her toward  and  with  stream of  development  high  suggestive  thought and  involving  and: b e h a v i o r a l  either  score =  4)  on  a neutral, p o s i t i o n  relatively are  r a t i n g s , i n which,  to  and  either  ratings of  Chinese  on  personal  a more p o t e n t  and  construction.  main  the  (raw  grid  a b s e n c e of. a l l e g i a n c e  expansion  self-identity,, values  an  However, the  meaningful  herself  i d e n t i t y , showing  implying  culture.  i s v a l i d a t e d , by  culture  the  appears  be  consolidation  personal  competence. is  to  indicated.  standards No  directed of  such  aas  family  strong, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  123 Case 9 " First Desire  t o be my  own  Component  individual  /Total conformity  and  socialization Contents Broaden horizon,,  personal  personal  development  development Not  /Lack o f  to follow  tradition  /Tradition,, the f a m i l y should  IndependenceFreedom need  together  /Dependence  t o be m y s e l f ,  no  /Fit  i n t o t h e mode  to, f i t i n t o s t e r e o -  typed Not  stay  roles:  submitting  parental  to fear of  authority  Educational exposure  k n o w l e d g e and: to different  /Fear  of parental  ity /Little  or  author-  manipulation  educational  opportunity  cultures. No  financial  Emotional people  security  s e c u r i t y with from  background  any  /Financial /Security similar  security with  people  cultural  background  from  Second Commitment  to- r e l i g i o n  Component /Lack o f  religious  commitment Content Religion—to  serve  God  /Not t o s e r v e  God  125 Case  »  30 Married Theology The  subject  settlement an  sounded  in: North  immigrant..  autonomy and  She  America,  achievement  major l i f e  in  that  means; t o an  from  family  life..  desire  s i t u a t i o n s on  can  be  versus  by  total  constructs  return  component  conformity  and  been  her  life  conflict  with  parents,  t r a d i t i o n , and  the  deference  had  [her]  own  and  my  away  c o n t r o l over  independent  t o be  is. a  person.."  decisions  her  to-- l i v e  by  financial  school. own. i n d i v i d u a l the  "independence,  knowledge" are  to> a u t h o r i t y  economic  she  show a. movement  her  and  consistent  risking: behavior  w h i c h d o m i n a t e many d e c i s i o n s .  development,, f u r t h e r i n g  as  for  socialization) reveals  personal  now  individual  had  to graduate  (desire  West  own  a greater  m a r r y a C a u c a s i a n , , make  first  She  grid  toward  illustrated  d e c i s i o n s , - t r a v e l and The  the  and  in a similar d i r e c t i o n .  as  to: be  her  desire  The  t o become h e r  i s observed  restrictions  This  herself,  "what  student  i n Hong Kong,.  were  about  a great  at various; periods, of  end—the  Conflict  as- a  Christian beliefs..  takings r i s k s  clarified  first  for expansion  goals  t o promote- h e r  enthusiastic  r e c a l l e d having  offered- opportunity Her  very  in d i r e c t  prescribed  conditions.  by  Supportive.  126 evidence  c a n be drawn f r o m  identity  (r =  t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s on  .74) and e x p a n s i o n  concomitant r e a c t i o n against and; g u i l t  ( r = -.6 5)'-  commitment theology  Ratings learned  on t h e g r i d  and- f i n a n c i a l  options  as s t r e n g t h e n i n g  is- affirmed  accumulationChinese  i n favor of a personal  -.50)  by h e r r e t u r n t o  i s associated  t o be c e n t e r - r a t e d  She p e r c e i v e s  identity  with  do n o t r e a l l y e n t e r  This  i s shown  by  and e x p a n s i o n  alliance.  (raw s c o r e  such  which she has  identity.  identity  a more m e a n i n g f u l  Western v a l u e s  (r -  studies-  show t h a t g u i l t  strong- r a t i n g s on p e r s o n a l  tends  identity  a  such as p a r e n t a l c o n s u l t a t i o n , j o b  security  indicating  -77) and  The second- component s u g g e s t s a  f o r advanced  family values  rejected  Chinese  t o r e l i g i o n , which  school  (r =  personal  Western  identity  = 4), implying into  that  t h e scheme o f  things The clear  p r o f i l e a p p e a r s t o b e a p e r s o n who  sense o f s e l f - i d e n t i t y i n r e l a t i n g  environment. values  There  i s a definite  which a r e r e p r e s e n t e d  She h a s c h o s e n a more combined  with  motivating  has developed  to t r a d i t i o n  reaction, against  in traditional  forces i n her  life.  Chinese  socialization.  i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c approach  h e r r e l i g i o u s , commitment,  and  which,  remain the  a  127 Case First  Concern  f o r o t h e r s and  10  Component  social  /Individual  c o n c e r n s and  lack of social  security  security  Contents Away f r o m  f r i e n d s and:  relatives  /Close  i n Hong, Kong-  More- p r o t e c t i o n  relatives  f o r work.  S e n s e o f community,  t o f r i e n d s , and  /No  mutual  protection  /Lack  f o r work  o f mutual  assistance  assistance Helping  people  /More  More e d u c a t i o n a l  /Fewer e d u c a t i o n a l oppor t u n i t i e s  opportunities  Second. Meaningful personal t i e s career  self-interests  and  Component /Less meaningful less  advancement  ties,  c a r e e r advancement  Contents Easy of  to. r e l a t e ,  more  sharing  /Very  little  to talk  about  past experiences  Chance o f  promotion  More- c o m f o r t a b l e  lifestyle  / L e s s chance  of  promotion  /Less, c o m f o r t a b l e lifestyle  128 Case  10  24 Single Pharmacy Emigrating, with initial  adjustment.  lifestyle  her e n t i r e family She remembered  d i f f e r e n c e s such as doing  r e l y i n g : o n Hong had  left  the  warmth  Kong, s e r v a n t s . .  appreciate  and f r i e n d l i n e s s  the l i b e r a l  The c o n f l i c t  aware o f some  housework  She m i s s e d  versus  the people  i n her suburban to like  values- i n t e g r a l  (i.e.., preference settlement)  adjustment: As n o t e d  for. e d u c a t i o n ,  which r e v e a l s  to t h i s society.. are very  and" p e r s o n a l  much concerns  work system,, peers.,  the general  a movement toward: W e s t e r n  by  neighbourhood.  place  t h r u s t of her  i d e a l s and: v a l u e s . ,  i n t h e f i r s t , component,, c o n s t r u c t p o l e s , s u c h  "work p r o t e c t i o n , s e n s e o f community, m u t u a l  and- more e d u c a t i o n a l contrast  she  C a n a d a and t o  s i t u a t i o n s on. t h e g r i d  along: t h i s - l i n e , , a m i x t u r e o f s o c i a l  as  being  behind;, however, t h i s was g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d  As t i m e went on,, s h e had grown  of  had a s s i s t e d h e r  assistance,  o p p o r t u n i t i e s " are c l o s e l y aligned: i n  to construct poles  friends,., s e l f — i n t e r e s t s  of "closeness  t o f a m i l y and  and l a c k o f work p r o t e c t i o n . "  Responses: s u g g e s t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s o c i a l opposed  t o s e l f - o r i e n t e d needs.  mirrors  her adoption  of l i b e r a l  c o n c e r n s as  T h i s component  probably  a t t i t u d e s i n Canada a s  129 compared Kong.  t o the- more b u s i n e s s - o r i e n t e d p h i l o s o p h y  The c h o s e n  Western  identity  The  second  construct poles  component  such  ethnic  g r o u p and f o r m e r  As  social  inferred sphere  concerns  peripheral notion  have  Western with  o f meaning with  Chinese  with  while  that her to i n c l u d e  t a k i n g , on a more  observation supports tend: t o augment  the  personal  t h e opposing; o p t i o n s  i s an a l i g n m e n t  1  and t h e a l i g n m e n t  identity.  of values  of Chinese  of core  tend  to  values  a  into, f u n c t i o n a l  h e r world:;  a clear  social  c l u s t e r s , , an.  identification  i s s u e s and a  values, i n her p e r s o n a l  terms o f c o n s t r u c t a p p l i c a t i o n , , b o t h within a different  with  of p e r i p h e r a l values  T h i s - could- i n d i c a t e  Western values, r e g a r d i n g  meaningful  poles are  .69)..  has been expanded  attitudes  way o f v i e w i n g  preservation  (r =  one's  effect.,  compartmentalization adaptive  identity  Raw, d a t a  is. observed  identity  The> c h o s e n  p e r s o n a l needs  and e x p a n s i o n  What  with  on p e r s o n a l  with  the r e s u l t s , , i t appears  position.  the r e v e r s e  lifestyle..  Chinese  from  that l i b e r a l  identity  suggests- an- e m p h a s i s  as- c a r e e r development,, c o m f o r t  a l i g n e d with  personal  are s t r o n g l y a l i g n e d  ( r = .90).  issues  strongly  o f Hong  context  life.  In  sets; o f v a l u e s a r e of her  life.  130 Case First Meaningful,,  11  Component /Casual,,  in-depth  superficial  relationship  relationship Contents Interested, i n in-depth  /Not i n t e r e s t e d  friendship Serious Consider  dating, as p a r t o f  process Dating  /Casual  relationship  superficial  /Unrelated  process  o f marriage  i s not f o r fun  /Dating- f o r f u n  I m p o r t a n c e o f f a m i l y and parental  /Unimportant  expectations  Second Professional,,  practical  career aspirations.  Component /Less  practical,  general  more  interests  Contents More p r a c t i c a l  training  Professional, training,, job  /Less  practical  /Fewer j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s  opportunities Less  interest  i n general  knowledge Respected  regardless of  whatever j o b  /Interest  i n general  knowledge /Lack, o f r e s p e c t jobs  f o r some  131 Case  11  22. Single General  arts.  She  emigrated  with  her  cultural  contact  confined  t o s c h o o l , work a n d  Conflict relations  outside  f a m i l y to Vancouver.  her  s i t u a t i o n s on  and  e t h n i c m i l i e u has church  marriage,  importance of  contrast covers  to a shallow  (r  .75),  personal  (r =  .61).  The  Western  confusion  (r =  identity  c a s u a l and  identity  dating  understanding..  as  the  (r -  (r = -.85),  and  first of  aligned  This sober  outlook  .55)  guilt  i n the  a process  (family,  Chinese  superficial  personal  are  relations  i s aligned with  =  around  family expectations"  a l l aspects" of p e r s o n a l  f r i e n d s h i p ) , , and  evolve  For example,  component, " s e r i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  been  activities.  the g r i d  career decisions..  Cross-  and  marriage,  identity  pole  expansion  i s aligned  with  ( r = -.63)  and.  -.59).  The- second, component r e v e a l s c a r e e r  concerns:,  "more  practical,, p r o f e s s i o n a l training,, job opportunity"  versus  "general  interests  seem m i n i m a l l y  and  knowledge."  related; to  Western  identity  options  tend  identity..  in  (r =  t o be  Chinese  .07) .  Career identity  A l s o , , raw  data  neutral,., u n r e l a t e d , t o  considerations, ( r = -.10) on  career  cultural  and  132 In clear  this  case,  affirmation  rejection  immigration  and p e r p e t u a t i o n  o f Western v a l u e s  Superordinate  problems a r e minimized  constructs  o f Chinese values  regarding  human  of  such, a s commitment and  she  considerations are primarily  utility,, quite clarified  factor  independent o f c u l t u r a l  that personal  i n her career  and a  relations.  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y determine her involvement with While- c a r e e r  by a  choice.  people.  defined  i n terms  identification,,  i n t e r e s t s w o u l d be a d e c i s i v e This could  loosening  when h e r r a n g e o f e x p e r i e n c e  interests  and c h a l l e n g e s . .  be a n a r e a o f  i s enhanced  by new  133 Case 12 First To  be i n t e g r a t e d :  Canadian  Component /Maintaining  into  culture  society  Chinese  means i s o l a t e d  from h o s t  society  Contents /Comfort,, l a c k , o f  Frustration  pressure Acceptance  by C a n a d i a n  /Rejection  society More c o n t a c t  with  society  /Isolation  Avoid, e x p l o i t a t i o n  /Be  G i v e up h e r i t a g e  /Maintain. Chinese  Fight  language  f o r one's r i g h t s  Second To  develop career of  i n spite  exploited culture  /Harmony  Component /Give  up  career  difficulties.  Contents Show i n t e r e s t a t work  /Show d i s i n t e r e s t  Conflicted  /Avoid, c o n f u s i o n  b e t w e e n two  cultures Ca nad i a n - r e c o g n i zed: professional  training  /Lack o f recognized training  134 Case  12  33 Married: Social  work  She  migrated  Vancouverhere,  he  stayed years  Since  returned  with he  holidays.  She  not  find  to t e a c h i n g  were e x t r e m e l y while  husband* and  could  i n Canada w i t h  environment  her  their  remembered  similar  preschool  parent  i n a new  education  as  her  Her  The  a d j u s t i n g to a  them b r i e f l y first  she- l e d the  culture..  employment  children.  during  secluded  summer  that  of a  r e t u r n t o work and  were made p o s s i b l e w i t h  new  of  chores life  early  the  experiences  s h o v e l l i n g ; snow, g e t t i n g ; g r o c e r i e s — d a i l y became m a g n i f i e d  to  i n Hong Kong; w h i l e : she  frustrating,  he- j o i n e d  children  single  continuing  h i s permanent r e t u r n  recentlyElicited  conflict  with, e t h n i c p a r e n t i n g motherhood. children  One  in- t h e i r  harmony, C h i n e s e they  should  and, f l u e n t their  be  one  situations and  the  hand,  in English.  upbringing-  She  belief  in full-time  concerned  career  conflicts  motherhood.  On  the  other  guilty  with, her  hand,  assertive  c o n f u s i o n may  feels  her  social  independent,,  f e a r s her she  versus  o b l i g e d to r a i s e  customs.  Furthermore,  development, which  demands o f  feels  as- C a n a d i a n s ,  career  primarily  heritage, stressing  l a n g u a g e and  raised  role  she  cultural  are  affect  about  her  traditional  135 The  b a s i c s t r u g g l e : appears: t o be h e r  super.ordina.te preservation reflects  c o n s t r u c t s of of  Chinese  some o f  "frustration,  .92)  need  while  rejection culture)  and are  on  component  chosen p o l e s  contact with  a l i g n e d with  Western  the o p p o s i n g , p o l e s ; ( l a c k o f  that with  Chinese  such  identity  d i s a c c o r d she  f o r c a r e e r development  education  are  expansion  (r = major  Her  interest  a l i g n e d with  It  i s unsure of  her  i n work and  results  conflict  appears  lives...  show a d i v i d e d c o r e  area  where she  assertiveness avenue o f cultural  At  (r =  to be- t h a t o f She  .62)  and  and  change  can  alienation.  she  a t work and  personal  feels  a. b r i d g e  effects  torn  between  a t home..  identity—a  the  The develop-  comparatively  expand W e s t e r n v a l u e s Her  the  the  c o n f i g u r a t i o n and  openness.. and  assimilation  i s aware- o f  present  should; expound  ment o f a w o r k - r e l a t e d safe  the  .70)  their she  in  continuing,  identity  this  values  Chinese  ( r = -.75).  p e r s p e c t i v e : o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n and  the  identity pressure,  alternative on  society,  is reflected  personal  versus? m a i n t a i n i n g , e t h n i c i t y . .  has  of  parenting.  component..  The  are  first  The  f o r acceptance,,  aligned with  Concern second  The  versus  i s o l a t i o n ; from' s o c i e t y , m a i n t a i n i n g  seems e v i d e n t position  culture.,  this: u n c e r t a i n t y .  avoid' e x p l o i t a t i o n " (r =  assimilation  confused  work i d e n t i t y  such  as  could  i n reducing, s o c i a l  and  be  an  136 Case First  Freedom  i n pursuing  self-  13  Component  /Security  and  tradition  development Contents More, f r e e d o m Transient Be  /Restraint  relations  /Permanence,  myself  /Submit  security  to o t h e r s '  opinions More c a r e e r Personal Broaden  development  /Less- c a r e e r  development  /Follow  knowledge  /Limit  development  tradition learning  opportuni-  ties  Second D u t y toward  parents,, s u p p o r t  and: a p p r o v a l  Component /Total  estrangement  from f a m i l y  Contents; Spend  time  with  parents  /Not  fulfilling  toward Companionship,  support  from  parents  /Alienation  family Family  approval  obligation  /Disapproval  137 Case- 13 26 Married Social  work  For living  the  first  in a university  Reacting: t o the brought girls' of  As  up  atmosphere  she- went t h r o u g h  r  to accept  she  with  the  example  said,  she  Migrating  paid  wondered' i f i t . was; w o r t h  a  own,  peers.. was  total  rejection  f a m i l y found  i t  considered' " e c c e n t r i c "  younger s i s t e r s  the  her  conservative  a cycle of  later,, her  a price  on  i n w h i c h she  change which t h e y to the  was  Canadian  (an o v e r p r o t e c t i v e f a m i l y and  school)  "a bad  residence  stifling  Chinese values..  hard and  years, o f m i g r a t i o n , , she  and  brothers."  f o r i n d e p e n d e n c e ' and widening  rift  with  often  her  family. Conflict concerning  s i t u a t i o n s , on  living  i m m i g r a t i o n : and choices  grid  reflect  c o n d i t i o n s , network o f  educational pursuit.  a p p e a r t o be  norms; t o w a r d  the  1  decisions  f r i e n d s , , permanent  Inherent  in  a m o v i n g away f r o m d e f i n e d  a more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c  1  these  Chinese  interpretation  of  standards. The are  component r e s u l t s  parallel  component security  to t h i s l i n e  (freedom and  show v a l u e of  reasoning.  i n pursuing  tradition)  c o n f i g u r a t i o n s which The  first  self-development  reveals, concerns about  versus the  pursuit  138 of  personal  growth  Here,, p e r s o n a l are  aligned  in relations,, career  i d e n t i t y (r =  with Western  o p p o s i t i o n . to> C h i n e s e situational Her is  :  second  approval  estrangement).  from  to c o n t r i b u t e  Also,, t h e  frequent  uncertainty  r e s t r a i n t and  She  has  available  revealed  family  rejected  has  managed- t o p l a c e  c o n f l i c t , more a t  or  choice  of  may  self  intrinsic  1  the  h a v e taken, a  values, (r =  i s occasional  .4 4) ..  suggest  versus  general  family. against  Chinese i d e n t i t y .  personal  family  elements of  rather  to  they  development  However, i t seems t h a t  her  r i g h t angles  parents,  total  expansion  more f l e x i b l e  severed  the  interview,  toward  values  confusion  i n Western s o c i e t y .  not  i n the  (duty  versus  to personal  dependence  has  in  i s . an. i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e a c t i o n  f o r the  .59)  R a t i n g s on  individual-centered  r a t i n g s on  emerged  the  opted  as  component  r e s p e c t i n g : the  What has  and  (r =  a similar interpretation..  Though f a m i l y - c e n t e r e d  subordinate p o s i t i o n to continue  .71)  i d e n t i t y (r - -.67).  feeling for family,  s u p p o r t and  education.  and- e x p a n s i o n  i d e n t i t y (r =  options; support  r e f l e c t e d i n the  conflict  .6 2)  and  t o one than  bonds, but  this  she  rather  potential  another,, where typical.  the  Case 14First  To  be a c c e p t e d  into  Canadian  Component  /To  be o n e s e l f  s o c i e t y r e q u i r e s t a k i n g on  tradition  different  alienation  values  may  and t o k e e p risk  Contents Acceptance Adjust  into society  t o new- s o c i e t y  Take o n a n o t h e r ' s Disrespectful  to  faster  values teachers  /Not  being  accepted  /Reserved, hot adjust /Be  oneself  /Tradition,  respect f o r  teachers  Second To  /Responsive  be r e s e r v e d i n  interaction  with  Component  others  t o new  influences  and  people  Contents Reserve- own  ideas,, n o t be  /Accepting  new  ideas.  influenced To  protect  /Be  myself  open  Superficial  relationship  /Good f r i e n d s h i p  Emotionally  unstable  /Emotionally  unhealthy  and  healthy  s t a b l e and  140 C a s e 14' 24 Single Electrical She first  engineering  recalled  arrival  migration friends  being, v e r y  i n . Canada..  has h e l p e d  guarded  On one hand,  h e r t o mature  people  p r e f e r some c o n t i n u i t y w i t h  on h e r  she b e l i e v e d  faster;  and has- had new e x p e r i e n c e s . .  she: would  with  that  s h e has met new  On t h e o t h e r  hand,  her previous  way o f  lifeConflict regarding validate  situations  on t h e g r i d  r e v e a l mixed  i n t e r p e r s o n a l relations,, ranging core  emotions,  values; such  t o a more open  as r e s p e c t  emotions  from, a need t o  f o r e l d e r s , to h i d i n g  interpretation  of male/female  friendship. There  i s some a m b i v a l e n c e  differences  of values  on  personal  concrete  component  i n the f i r s t relations  issue values  the c u l t u r a l  component  preserve  society,  tradition,  attitude  toward  illustrated  assimilation  The  first  into the  c o n t r a r y t o the need  and r i s k  alienation.  appears, t o be a r e l u c t a n c e t o t a k e and t h e v u l n e r a b i l i t y  and i t s e f f e c t  i n the second.  r e v e a l s , a d e s i r e t o be a c c e p t e d  mainstream o f Canadian oneself,  toward  of being  on  The  another's  influenced.  Her  a p p e a r s ambiguous,, as  i n t h e p o l a r o p p o s i t i o n between  t o be  Western  141 identity  (r =  overall  sense  ratings  of  The  .78)  of g u i l t  accepted  regarding  by  being  "responsiveness "good  trend  suggests  r e l a t i o n s , on  probably  the  a clash  has  the  experienced  seek, f u r t h e r  forms; o f  option  some  of  is aligned  and  health,"  (r =  core values..  and  —.75). Her  level  get meaningful extension.  with  previous  people"  stability  of  the  I t seems t h a t  The  is  need* f o r  a concrete, day-to-day can  her  concerns  friends,  room f o r e x p a n s i o n  a r e a where, she  where she- can  and  relations.  emotional  offer  personal  and  female,  i n f l u e n c e s and  friendship,  and. t h e  relations  It raises  i s q u e s t i o n i n g her  t o new  in  personal  superficial.  personal  potentially The  o f her  t o people,, she  o f c l o s e n e s s and toward  ( r — -.64)  options.,  component.  between male and  attitudes  could  rejected  second  increased: exposure  with  and  the degree o f openness w i t h  self-protection  fears  identity  and. c o n f u s i o n o b s e r v e d  c o n t r a d i c t o r y nature  d i s c l o s e d ; i n the  intimacy  and: C h i n e s e  are  verification  142; C a s e 15 First Fostering; a career  Component /Promoting and  full  family  motherhood;  life  Contents No t i m e w i t h  baby  /Closer more  Keep m y s e l f Mutual  occupied;  benefit  care o f each  breakup  spent  r  time  with  baby  /Idle  i n taking other  Improper growth o f  contact  /Conflicts  i n extended  family  child—  /Proper main  of marriage  growth o f linkage  child—  in marital  relations I  can; work  /Stay my Second  To  c o n s o l i d a t e m a r r i a g e and career  home and l o o k  after  child  Component /Marital reer  breakup  and c a -  dissatisfaction  Contents Strengthen Career  my  marriage  specialization  /Divorce /Do c l e r i c a l of  Work w i t h p e o p l e  o f my  own r a c e Root  to the f a m i l y  my  j o b the r e s t  life  /Work i n a p r e d o m i n a n t l y white  society  /Rootlessness  143 C a s e 15 32 Married Urban  planning  1  She  migrated  With a u n i v e r s i t y obtain  clerical  blocked her  with  h e r husband  degree  work'..  role  p r i m a r i l y i n the r o l e  accepted that two  as p a r t o f [her]  there  i s no t r u e  years,  prompted  by " a i m l e s s "  discrepancy her  own  Her husband  sees  [she] h a s  duty,  believes  and w h i c h  clerical  [she]  family."  After  s c h o o l ; t h i s , move was  work and t h e p e r c e i v e d  situations  surround  advancement and  "root  in direct  responsibilities  defiance  (e.g.,, r e t u r n  s t u d i e s while  to the f a m i l y " , not having  o f a homemaker,, w i f e  of conventional  home  a second  Chinese  child)  expectations  and m o t h e r .  Component a n a - l y s i s e m p h a s i z e s component  reveals, c o n f l i c t  role  Chinese  concept  family  The c h o s e n o p t i o n s  s a l e : o f home t o f i n a n c e  symbolizes  the  further  lagging-behind.  school,  with  only  o f a- "homemaker w h i c h  t o graduate-  and* c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t .  are  expectations.,  between h e r husband's, c a r e e r  Conflict  to  a s p i r a t i o n s were  e q u a l i t y i n a Chinese  she r e t u r n e d  t o Vancouver..  f r o m Hong, Kong,, she c o u l d  Her c a r e e r  by c o n f l i c t i n g  and c h i l d  values  this  o f working, r o l e  strengthening  o f work p e r h a p s  dilemma.  reflecting  versus  mothering a minor  The  first  mothering r o l e and  theme o f  Western c u l t u r e . improper  C o n s t r u c t s such  work.  both  (e.g.,, m a r i t a l be  roles  time  and  breakup,  the  with  baby,  occupied"' are  her preoccupation with  Emotional d i s t r e s s  integrate  could  "no  growth o f c h i l d , , keeping myself  aligned- to i l l u s t r a t e and  as  child-rearing  o f not being a b l e t o fear of negative  neglect of child's  consequences  upbringing)  inferred..  The  second  component h i g h l i g h t s  alignment  and- f a m i l y w i t h c a r e e r a d v a n c e m e n t , r e q u i r i n g specialization..  No  conflict  i s observed  in  of  marriage  more s t u d y  or  this  componen t . Chinese situation working  identity  i s - an ambiguous- g u i d e  for i t affirms  woman i n t h e  the r o l e  first  aligned  w i t h c a r e e r advancement  Thus, her  Chinese  antagonistic underlined  identity  i n the  second  f a m i l y r o o t s which in contrast  ambiguously  to  are  to menial  work.-  confirms  p r e s s u r e s i n her c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n , , which i s  by h e r  i n c r e a s e d sense  c a r e e r p u r s u i t s - i n the of  and  Western  o f mother i n c o n t r a s t  component,,, b u t  component, a f f i r m s m a r r i a g e  in this  first  of confusion regarding  component  and  decreased  confusion regarding career specialization  sense  i n the  second. Advanced^ s t u d y t h e s e w a r r i n g and partially  t a k e s on  i s possibly  a temporary  solution  to  c o n f u s i n g p r e s s u r e s , f o r i t both y e t puts o f f the potent c o n f l i c t  i n the  1.45 first  component.  advanced  study  identity  (r =  Given  .52)  and  secondary,  t o face..  situation..  the  p r o v i d e s an  the p o t e n c y  seems a l m o s t really  Also,  She  second  component w h i c h  unconflicted  expansion o f her like  (r —  basis  supports;  for personal  .59).  s i t u a t i o n , . Western a remote: c o n f l i c t  i s t o o overwhelmed  by  the  culture  she  has  yet  immediate  146 Summary o f C a s e In  Studies  summary,, c a s e  s t u d i e s r e v e a l a complex  acculturation..  What  this  life  from  the i n d i v i d u a l s '  looks l i k e  study  they  is- c o n c e r n e d  these  women f e e l ,  what  their  own p r o c e s s  o f adjustment,  experience  and a c t i n g  indicate  a c c u l t u r a t i o n ' t o be embedded  as (a) the c o n t e x t  involuntary, is, l e f t  whether  behind:  migration:  and remember i n  decisions..  come a l o n e  relationships,  a r e what  o f v a l u e s , how  for their  The f i n d i n g s  i n a host  of migration, voluntary  they  education,  opportunities, of  on c e r t a i n  with  and t h e r e a s o n s  choosing  such  focus  picture of  o r with  of factors versus,  f a m i l y , what  c a r e e r , ( b ) the r e a s o n s f o r  work,, p o l i t i c a l  stability,  (c) the f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e involved;:  or better strength  f a m i l y ties, i n preserving: h e r i t a g e or f a c i l i t a t i n g  a s s i m i l a t i o n , , (d) t h e i r  definition  of core  role  identity  (.i.e., daughter,,  wife,, mother,, w o r k i n g  woman) and whether  the h o s t  supports, the t r a n s f e r  o f this, major  culture  dimension,, (f)  (e) p e r s o n a l i t y - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  situational The  case: s t u d i e s d e m o n s t r a t e  the. d i v e r s i t y the  ;  core  1  o f these  clusters  concerned; w i t h preserving The; r e s t  demands and e m o t i o n a l  immigrant  of values  and' o u t l o o k , and  factors. t h e c o m m o n a l i t y and.  women..  The c o m m o n a l i t y o f  (ten out of f i f t e e n  p e r s o n a l development  family values  (five  both  cases) a r e  as o p p o s e d t o  and t r a d i t i o n a l  out of fifteen)  role  role  are associated  conceptions. with  147 individual  adjustment  clusters- of values ranging career  development  Despite personal  are  some,, b u t  another  (three out  of  fifteen)..  commonality of value  perceived  as  and  versus  definite  v a r i o u s modes o r  personal 1... reflects Chinese  importance,  of of  the  culture-  against  also  As  varies.  superficial  there  appear  to  patterns  which  handling  conflicts.  the: d i f f e r e n t  Chinese  Contained  toward  stereotyped, r o l e s  individuality..  family  supportive  others.  as  in  liberating.  structural  a reaction against  These e l e m e n t s  construed and  and  be  suggest The  strategies  alignment  of  as  the  systems..  Reaction  obligations  fifteen),  F o r example,  friendship  genuine  is- a d e s c r i p t i o n  value  of  structural  from  of  to r e l i g i o u s  c o n f i n i n g , by  are  strategies  are: i n f e r r e d  concerns  being, n u r t u r i n g and  and  However,, o f m a j o r  peripheral  themes,, d i v e r s i t y  i s observed..  restrictive  irresponsible  The  out  fifteen)  relations  following  (eight  of  example,, t h e meaning  reasonably  society.  ( f o u r out  T r a n s i e n t Western  they  host  relations  interpretations  relations by  the  the  a r e more d i s p e r s e d , , w i t h  from p e r s o n a l  s o c i a l , commitment  to  are  the  identity;  in this  category and  are  security,  submergence i n a c o l l e c t i v e  construed  Inherent  as: a b l o c k  in this  pattern  perceived: constraints, of  family,, dependence and  This  against  identity..  developing  mode o f a d j u s t m e n t  i s an  148 opting  f o r the  happiness  and  development  freedom.,  The  3,  socialization 7,  9,  13  are  adjustment.  In most o f  identity  are  in polar  personal  identity  Chinese  identity.  2.  and  no  are  and  these  on  noted  with  and 6,  14'.  core  s t r u c t u r a l pattern  or  cultures.  personal  in  can  involves  identity:  an  opposing  the be  identity,  p e r h a p s as  a result  of  i r r e s p e c t i v e of  a conflict  is illustrated  The  apparent  personal  pattern  can  base.  a; c o r e  This  identity  Western  a l t e r n a t i v e is. sought identity  this  pattern  A l l involve and  core  values  This  a less: c o n f l i c t i n g  culture  personal  like..  p o s i t e d , on  of  Western  the  c o n s t r u c t s , where p e r s o n a l  C u l t i v a t i o n of a  Where the  involving  12,  of  against  constructs  peripheral  cultivation  of  of  Western  alignment  and  d i s c o r d , between C h i n e s e an  and  in reaction  alignment  Presumably,  dominant  an  pattern  maneuvering around  identity-  3.,  this  Chinese  between C h i n e s e  i n C a s e s 1, with  of  p e r i p h e r a l values::  i n the  a  facilitates assimilation.  cases,  peripheral, conflict-free  values,  personal  which, f o r c e s  Western v a l u e s  divided  be  recognized  core  t h r u s t of  illustrative  personal, r e l a t i o n s , career be  major  r e s o l u t i o n i s forthcoming,  impasse- can with  i n d i v i d u a l expansion,  opposition,  with  Realignment  constructs  of  i s toward, w e s t e r n i z a t i o n ,  loosening, of C a s e s 2,  Western v a l u e s  by  between  Cases  8 and  5.  149' Central values  are s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d with  identity  cultural  while  o t h e r , hand, w a r r i n g to  values  recognition regarded  core  and- p e r i p h e r a l v a l u e cultural  organization,  this  d e a l i n g with  conflictful another,  adjustment:  Chinese  each  a solution  where  represent a  In terms o f c o n s t r u c t  a functional, chaotic,  n o n c o n f l i c t i n g way  potentially  C u l t u r e s a r e viewed  Case- 10 i s s u p p o r t i v e an a l i g n m e n t  and t h e a l i g n m e n t identity.  sets of values or  C u l t u r e may be  at right  angles t o  separate,, d i s t i n c t , , and n o t i n t o t a l  disagreement.  identity  T h i s poses  clusters  an o t h e r w i s e  world.  needs.  and t h e  transcended..  orientation. offers  T h i s mode  on t h e i n d i v i d u a l  Compartmentalization;  different  identity..  and p u r s u i t o f p e r s o n a l or  On t h e  between c u l t u r e s may c o n t r i b u t e  emphasis  as i r r e l e v a n t  4.  one  are neutral..  t h e enhancement o f an i n d i v i d u a l  r e p r e s e n t s a growing  of  identities  a personal  of core  of this  values  with  mode o f Western  of p e r i p h e r a l values  with  In t e r m s o f c o n s t r u c t a p p l i c a t i o n ,  c a n be m e a n i n g f u l  within a different  both  context  situation. 5.  reflects  A f f i r m a t i o n o f Chinese  This  strategy  t h e a f f i r m a t i o n and t h e p e r p e t u a t i o n o f  traditional identity  identity:.  values  i n a new c u l t u r a l  i s maintained  to ensure  environment.  Chinese  the sense o f c o n t i n u i t y  150 i n t e r r u p t e d ' by m i g r a t i o n . . constitute This  t h e main  confirmation  accompanied clear  with  Previous  and c o n s i s t e n t  o f Chinese  source  identity  a resistance  against  r e j e c t i o n o f Western values..  illustrated  by Case 11.  Chinese  p r i m a r y mode o f c o n s t r u i n g ,  cultural  values  of validation..  i s . by n e c e s s i t y a s s i m i l a t i o n and a  T h i s , p o s i t i o n can be  values  are affirmed  i n opposition  as t h e  to Western  values. 6.  P o s i t i v e expansion  pattern as  also  values.  values this  i s anchored  with This  against  pattern  adjustment  of t r a d i t i o n a l  is distinct  identity  i s observed..  present  on and i n c o n t r a s t  a broadening  Chinese  demonstrate  Chinese  identity:  r e t a i n s a sense o f c o n t i n u i t y with  expansion  identity,  against  from  tradition,  to Chinese r o l e s and  t h e mode o f r e a c t i o n  where a m a j o r a d o p t i o n  Western  This  o f Western  c u l t u r e may n o t be i n v o l v e d i n  C a s e s 4 and 15 a p p e a r t o  process..  this, strategy,, although  a weak r e l a t i o n s h i p i s  i n terms o f p o s i t i v e e x p a n s i o n  against  Chinese  identity.. Whatever indicate  that  the adaptive these  c o n f l i c t s , and frame idiosyncratic reflective value  immigrant life  patterns  of different  conflict..  s t r a t e g i e s , the f i n d i n g s women e x p e r i e n c e  individual  options, d i f f e r e n t i a l l y . .  of adjustment. experiences,  clearly  There are  Each p a t t e r n i s .  and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f  151 These- s i x p a t t e r n s appropriately than  viewed  confirmation.  would  i n the c o n t e x t That  1 9 7 9 ) , what at, l e a s t  i s true  anticipating  who  nor  a basis  i s there these  types  i s , generalizaton  of single  At present,  i s apt to manifest  patterns.  of adjustment  or stages  change, i s c u r r e n t l y unknown. kinds  o f patterns,, which  questions  is likely there  and: r e s e a r c h .  (Chassan, t o be t r u e f o r  a particular  pattern,-  the b r o a d e r  of adjustment.  can s e r v e  population  i s no b a s i s f o r  the p a t t e r n s  This  rather  undesirable.  studies  f o r understanding For example,  to a  above,  case  f o r one p e r s o n  some- o t h e r s . ,  a r e most  of d i s c o v e r y  be i n a p p r o p r i a t e , and as n o t e d  However, by t h e l o g i c  of  of adjustment  study  context  might How  be  they  has i n d i c a t e d s i x  as a- b a s i s  for further  152 Chapter The  An  Examination The  focus  situational  Nature  of  this  options  To  the  they  in their  cultural  things, which her  her  life...  and  the  She  option  of  ninety  subjects,  provide  then  rejected  useful  asked  These  to  i n each  of  asked  the and  to  by  opposing  for  the  and  and  being, and  and areas  of  chosen  a result,, a the  fifteen,  set  of  conflict be  other  acting,  financial,  involved  judgment, a  the  r e l a t i o n s with  adjusting  option  As  six  options.  s i t u a t i o n s can  arrangement,  in  subject  situation.  inference  recall  important  identify  s e v e n main, c a t e g o r i e s : personal  of  or  information  situations  to  to c l a s s i f y  ninety  generate nature  affirmed  s i t u a t i o n s were c o l l e c t e d from  These  moving,, l i v i n g  the  t o make a d e c i s i o n  important  i s formulated  education,  that  clarify  was  i n t e r e s t s , concerns  was,  of  immigrants.  subject  had  decision  polarized,  environment..  T h r o u g h a; p r o c e s s  situations-.  help  are  each c h a r a c t e r i z e d  categories  can  work w i t h  she  examination  of  will  seemed most main  i s an  kinds  Exploration  r e c a p i t u l a t e , , each  t o a new  total  and  1  s i t u a t i o n s , i n which  covered  chapter  The> a n a l y s i s  counsellors  Situations  S i t u a t i o n a l Options-  i n v o l v e d , , how  rejected.  Conflict  of  value, c o n f l i c t . values  of  VII  classified people,,  staying  into career  or  recreational  and  153 religious.  A reliability  check over  obtained  having  c a t e g o r i z e the  by  the v a r i o u s  The  1.  is  and  their  and  and  relations  with an  spouses  with  responsiveness  acceptance ment, and  friends  versus (d)  and  and  consist  with  respect  egalitarian  relationship.  differences  teachers  obedience  involving  on  casual  marriage. expansion  i n c l u d e d , (c) emotional relations.  and  openness  limited  which  for a u t h o r i t y versus  i n the  outlook  communication,  self-protectiveness  relations  unquestioning  of  u n i t y i n most  commitment,  covering  include a more  reflects  e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m , one rote learning  and  involve-  initiating  This sub-category  and  of  fulfilment  boyfriends,  are  with  questions  interracial  l o v e , and  chiefly  maintaining  cultural  main  Individual  o u t s i d e of one's p r i m a r y  aspects  seven  involving  s h a r i n g o f one's e t h n i c i d e n t i t y  Important  under  (a) r e l a t i o n s  unconventional  of companionship,  relations  on  people;  common-law c o h a b i t a t i o n and  Feelings  situations  the  family obligations  a conventional versus dating,  of  p e r i p h e r a l involvement.  at v a r i a n c e with (b)  other  f a m i l y , f o r example,  versus  cases,  is  sub-categories.  R e l a t i o n s with  parents  agreement  headings.  following is a description  categories  total  judges  .95  from  basic  based  the o l d  154 T a b l e : 7.1 of s i t u a t i o n s into and percentages  Classification  Category  1.  2.  3...  categories  No., o f Situations  Relations, with a)  parents  b)  s p o u s e s and  O d)  other people  26  28.86  family  8  8.88  boyfriends  8  8.88  friends  8  8.88  teachers  2  2.22  Career  and  Total:  %  and. e d u c a t i o n  a)  type  b)  return  c)  career versus  d)  preference  e)  part-time  Personal  of  Total:  institution,  program  to s c h o o l versus, working family  for work/educational  system  employment  acting  and  being  Total:  23  25.54  10  11.11  4  4.44  4  4.44  3  3.33  2  2.22  18  19.98  a)  friendliness  8  8.88  b)  general  5  5.55  c)  social-philosophical  4  4.44  d)  decision  1  1.11  lifestyle  making  outlook  155 Table  7.1  (continued)  Category  4.  No. o f Situations  Staying, o r moving a)  staying  stay  arrangement  living  on o n e ' s own with  6.  Financial  7.~  Recreational  7. 77  4  4. 44  Total:  7  7. 77  Total:  3  3. 33  Total:  2  2. 22  versus  versus  family  decisions;  activities  7  t o Hong: Kong  Living  living  12. 21  moving  i n Canada  return 5.  11  i n Vancouver  versus b)  Total:  %  and  religious  156 culture,  and  the  other  espousing  a more s t i m u l a t i n g  approach. 2.. choice  Career  and  education:  o f career,, type  of program  school,, home-career c o n f l i c t , preference  for specific  issue: surrounds the  perceived  the  need  the  utility  of  responsibilities regarding 3..  broadening  behavior  acquisition  stance.  regarding example,  main  emphasis, on  of p r a c t i c a l  or personal role  acting;:  employment  search  for  interests.  to  Family  in decisions  i n terms o f and  This^ c a t e g o r y the d e g r e e  feminine  passive  the  behavior  relaxed disposition..  self-oriented  outlook  needs and  also  S t a y i n g or moving;  the recent  is contrasted  materialistic around  questioned.  T h i s group c o n t a i n s d e c i s i o n s :  p l a c e o f permanent o r s t a y i n g i n Vancouver  being  and The  B e h a v i o r a l norms a t s c h o o l , , a t home and are  covers  of  warmth; i t i m p l i e s  of a s o c i a l - p h i l o s o p h i c a l  one's, e t h n i c community 4„  and  a more c a n d i d ,  traditional  The  the  e n v i r o n m e n t ) as o p p o s e d  important  friendliness  of customary  of  and  to  education.  Personal, being  sociability,,  with  p l a y an  continuing  interpersonal  adoption  i n a new  intellectual  system.  immigrant's  the  return  employment  of a career,, with  i n the  involve  institution,  part-time  for acquisition  and, s e c u r i t y  pursuit  or  concerns-  work/educational  s k i l l s , ( a p r e v a l e n t theme survival  Major  temporary  o r moving  settlement,  away t o  other  for  157 cities..  Deciding,  emotional are or  support  indicated.. returning  adjustment,  living this  i s , nostalgia  and  home o f  one's- f a m i l y  category.  6.  regarding,  7.  again The  financial  last  The recurrent  pattern  actions,.  What  situations  that  are  is a  site itself  behavior or  the  need  found  to  return  one's own  the  support  main c o n f l i c t  the  q u a l i t y of  f o r continuing-  one's  and  conflicts.,  of  simple matters settlement,  s i t u a t i o n s suggest  an  such  Conflict  as  financial  It  ordinary may  in r e l a t i o n s h i p s , career/education,  seemingly  life.  mundane  but. the- v e r y  struggle..  and  shows, a  these  potent value  The  dependence.  recreational  amid  with  investment.  everyday d e c i s i o n s  extremely  of  versus  consultation  and  comprises  i s that  versus  here.  involve  practical  is striking  arrangements, place The  immigrant  of - s i t u a t i o n a l , o p t i o n s  of  expansion  theme o f  family  stake  so. much the- e x t r a o r d i n a r y ,  manifest  etc.  from  t o enhance  examination  and  i n Canada,  independence versus  category  religious, a c t i v i t i e s  is, n o t  constitutes  i s at  involves  family  staying  L i v i n g on  Individuation  dependence  to  origin.  Financial decisions  conflict  involves  f o r and  L i v i n g arrangements::  traditional  proximity  i n d i v i d u a l m o b i l i t y and  A n o t h e r example  that  with  family  versus:  as  to< Hong Kong, a p e r s i s t e n t  t o one's r o o t s 5-  f a c t o r s such  social  living decisions,,  uneasy a l l i a n c e w i t h  158 traditional  guiding  values,  perspective  with  i n e v i t a b l e choice  dimensions:.  an  I t i s as  seem t o h e i g h t e n and  pressures,  The  Analysis The  from the  a, c a s e  of  the  an  contrast  and  interpretive constructs person  can that  one  to  system, o f  a l l o w s : one  are  the  and  nature  implicated,  o f d e c i s i o n making..  a n a l y s i s o f a. d e c i s i o n  raw  with  data the  (b)  and  a i d of  Cochran  the the  or  "the  Alignment (a)  emphasizes of  "overload  and  c)  a  person's "aligning  type of  reality  consequently,, a c t i n g  conflict,  affirmed: or  is  r e l a t i o n s h i p among  understand  the  (1980)  Aligning constructs, of  of  inferences.  certain goals:  use  presentation  i s made t o a l i g n  to o b s e r v e  to"* (p.. 136)..  clarify  the  inferences,"  is constructing,  reacting  a l t e r n a t i v e values,  situations belies its  alignment.  managed: t h r o u g h g r o u p i n g , " allow  an  case m a t e r i a l ,  constructs, accomplishes  constructs  by  attempt  and: t o draw some  r o l e s of  of  conflict  Following  b i p o l a r values  In o r g a n i z i n g the  opposing  choice.  is, i l l u s t r a t e d  constructs,  constructs  two  Decision  study.  elicited  supplied  a  between  a l l common s i t u a t i o n s  one's consciousness^  w h i c h demand a  of  This  awareness of a l t e r n a t i v e  i f suddenly  ordinariness  potency.  an  and  in this  particularly  polarized  on  i n the  a.  the  case, values  process  159 The with the  example  family," two  1  involves "living  the  raw  by m y s e l f  versus  data- a r e e x t r a c t e d f r o m  columns a r e c o n s i d e r e d  living  the g r i d  as a l t e r n a t i v e s  of  and  a  decision., Alignment  of  t h e more p o t e n t disapproval relations" "family  values  from are  the p o l e s o f such  "loneliness,  f a m i l y , independence,  p e r m a n e n c e and  companionship, security."  p e r s o n a l development,, e x p a n d i n g implicated directly  alienation  freedom,  s t r o n g l y related,, i n sharp  approval, support,  restraint,  as  t h e c o n s t r u c t s shows t h a t  transient  contrast to dependence,  Other  values  k n o w l e d g e and  when compared  t o t h e more  such  career  i n the p r o c e s s ; however, t h e y a r e not  affected  and  as-  are  as  influential  values. The  main p s y c h o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s a t t a c h e d  one's- own"'  a p p e a r t o be  support,, w h i l e  the a l t e r n a t i v e  means d e p e n d e n c e and split  and  subject's construed. costly,  the  can  way  and  According  alienation  values are  i n t e r r e l a t e d , , and  by  loss of  with  support.  the p o l a r i t y  to her  the  "living  to understand  what g o e s w i t h her  of  affectional  begin  situation  involving  examining of  one  i n d e p e n d e n c e and  to " l i v i n g  on  family  family"  This i s quite a  t h e dilemma o f with which  the  i t is  c o n s t r u c t i o n , independence i s from  what, one being  family. can  In t h i s  begin  way,  t o make  by  sense  s t r u c t u r e d and  i n f e r e n c e , t h e way  she  construes  the  160 reality  of her  situation  and  options,  and  the  risks  involved. An  inspection of  emotional conditions particular living  on  Western  the and  d e c i s i o n has o n e ' s own  the  opposite  the  personal  the  within  as  this  chosen pole with  Chinese  guilt of  though  strengthening  of  and  living  with  identity.  definitely pulled  Both o p t i o n s ,  construed  example and  d i l e m m a s and the  real  significance far  The  the  in  creating and  expanding  identity.  This way  are  are  reveals  i s s u e s which  rejected option  enhances  identity  directions.  confusion,  identity  engendered..  f a m i l y r e d u c e s g u i l t , , and Western  constructs  i s strongly aligned  i d e n t i t y , while  C h i n e s e and  supplied  and  beyond- t h e  many o t h e r s the  illustrate in a  p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f d e c i s i o n making  life  context  of  the  broader  impact o f  apparently  concrete  simple  the  i m m i g r a n t women. such d e c i s i o n s  situations.  The lies  161 An  Accepted Living  Value  1  Example from. Case  Rejected  Option  by  13  Living  myself  Constructs  Ratings  Option  with  Bipolar  Contrasts  7  2  Restraint  6>  4  Less  Companionship  I  7  Loneliness  Broaden  7  5  Limited  More  freedom  More c a r e e r  development  knowledge  family  career  development  learning  opportunities Personal  development  7  5  Follow  tradition  Fear of  embarrassment  3  4  Ignore  others' opinions  1  7 '  Alienation  1  6  Not  Support Spend  from f a m i l y  time  with  family  fulfill  parental.  obligations Family d i s a p p r o v a l  7  1  Approval  Permanence,  2  7'  Transient  1  7  Independence  6  3  Submit  security  Dependence Be- my  own  person  relations  to others'  opinions  162 Supplied  Constructs  Ratings  Bipolar  Contrasts-  Weakens::  Strengthens: Chinese  identity  2  7  Chinese  identity  Western  identity  7  2  Western  identity  7  5  Personal  6  5  Expansion  Personal  identity  Expansion  of personal  Guilt and  6  1  No  guilt  7  5  No  confusion  uncertainty  7" — 6 —  of  personal  identity  identity  Confusion  identity  very moderately  5 —  slightly  4 —  neutral/nonapplicable  3 —  slightly  2 —  moderately  1 —  very  uncertainty  and  16 3 Chapter  VIII  Discussion  The  results  principal  i n d i c a t e t h a t both  the f i r s t  components a r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y m e a n i n g f u l , i n  s e v e r a l m a j o r senses.. meaningful  They organized- c o n s t r u c t s , i n a  and i l l u m i n a t i n g way..  entitlements  which c h a r a c t e r i z e d  The  superordinate  the nature  of constructs  were r e f l e c t i v e  of subjective  experiences.  V a l i d a t i o n from  the subjects  independent of  judges s u b j e c t i v e l y v e r i f i e d  Through the interviews,, the subjects the meaning o f t h e c l u s t e r s t h r o u g h their  concrete  life  Lastly,, the superordinate when used strongly  with  options  o f t h e themes.  as  immigrants..  on c o r r e s p o n d i n g  validated  and a f f i r m e d , d e n o t i n g  of  information  themes,,  options, correlated  the meaningf ulness; o f the v a l u e  t o be' r e a s o n a b l y  to elaborate  o r named  In s h o r t ,  variations  and f r o m t h e  providing  entitlements  scores  adjustment  were a b l e  experiences  to re-rate situational  o f the clusters;  the o r g a n i z a t i o n  1  t h e c l u s t e r s and; t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  about  and second:  components..  clusters are  the dimensions o f  s t a b l e and a c c u r a t e  subsystems  meaning.. Second, group f i n d i n g s suggest  principal Western  component  identity  tends t o r e f l e c t  that both  i n p o l a r opposition..  the f i r s t C h i n e s e and  Personal  identity  164 and  expansion of personal  strongly and  t o one  component o r  uncertainty  aligned  with  tendency the  portrait  tend  one  t o be  construct  tend  to r e l a t e  other.  Guilt,  more w e a k l y and the  Western  component, t h e of  the  component o r  f o r C h i n e s e and  first  identity  other..  negligibly from  a  to c o n f l i c t  f i n d i n g s r e v e a l no  organization  confusion  Aside  identity  rather  within  orderly  the  on  group  process  of  acculturation. Third,  case  of construct (a)  studies  indicate six individual patterns  organization  a reaction against  in dealing  Chinese  with, p e r i p h e r a l v a l u e s  as  identity,  a result  b e t w e e n C h i n e s e and: W e s t e r n v a l u e s , , a core  personal  identity  response  to c o n f l i c t  lization  where c o r e  into of  values, in  identity  and  and  with  (c)  the  pattern,  there  patterns  of  are  While  there  six rather  construct  be  well-defined  organization,  an  adaptation  culture.  six patterns  require  will  a  affirmation  Western  Chinese in  identity  the  group  individual  which o f f e r  for psychological  of  separated  overall  possibilities The  are  implicated  i s no  core  compartmenta—  a c l e a r r e j e c t i o n of  not  realignment  cultivation  c l u s t e r s , , (e)  (f) p o s i t i v e expansion against  process..  a  c u l t u r e o r as  peripheral values  may  conflict:  a conflicted  between; c u l t u r e s , . , (d)  which Western v a l u e s  adjustment  of  value (b)  i r r e s p e c t i v e of  f u n c t i o n a l nonconf 1 i c t i n g  Chinese  with  different  in a  extension  new or  165 confirmation. that  what  others  However,  i s true  (Chassan,  There  a r e two m a j o r  findings.  considerations in  First,  most o f t h e  s e l e c t e d come f r o m a u n i v e r s i t y e n v i r o n m e n t  students,,  recent  university)..  immigrant  o r women: a b o u t  the s u b j e c t s  i s from  eight  characteristics  twenty  Second,  may a f f e c t  and c o n c e r n s  typical  of this  In v i e w o f t h e r e s t r i c t e d caution  i s . needed  present  data.  t h e age b r a c k e t o f Of t h e f i f t e e n  a r e married..  the r e s u l t s  more  of Chinese  to t h i r t y - t h r e e -  a r e s i n g l e and s e v e n  (i.e.,  to r e t u r n t o  a r e on a v e r a g e  than a normal p o p u l a t i o n  women from Hong Kong.  t h i s , sample subjects,  graduates,  Therefore,  educated  issues  f o r some  1979).  assessing, the present  highly  a r e g e n e r a l i z - a b l e : on t h e b a s i s  f o r one person, i s : a p t t o be t r u e  Limitations.  subjects  they  and. c o u l d  These reflect  group.  sample  i n education  and a g e ,  t o i n t e r p r e t and t o g e n e r a l i z e t h e  Further,, the evidence  m e t h o d o l o g y employed  and s h o u l d  i s limited  by t h e  be v a l i d a t e d by o t h e r  methods.  Theoretical  Implications  Conflict. significance Individual value  One f i n d i n g  i s the nature  and c o l l e c t i v e  conflicts  experienced  o f major  theoretical  of c o n f l i c t results  that  i s revealed..  s t r o n g l y suggest  by t h e s e  immigrant  that  women a r e  166 potent  and  pervasive.  nature cover every  The- p e r v a s i v e n e s s and  aspect  of  the  immigrant's  development, r e l a t i o n s h i p s , career  and  T h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as. r e v e a l e d  by  first  and  second  suggestive  of  A second c u l t u r e s are and  Western  extremity  feature cast  of  perspectives  being  constructs.  This  enter  identity..  Acculturation  nature of  core  as  cast  awareness o f  both  the  described  features  models, ( A d l e r ,  which a p r o c e s s of A third  not  cultures  1975;  to  also  in various  Atkinson,.  and  not  the  differences.  (1975) m o d e l  the  self  This  seems t o  are  in direct  which  and  former c u l t u r e  validate..  both  Chinese  to c e n t r a l  about  Chinese  central  Western v a l u e s  Harris's  expectations  o r may  i n the  contrasts  i d e n t i t y demands;: t h e  c u l t u r e may  that  show t h a t  antagonists  poses s i g n i f i c a n t  providing- a set of  is  a p p e a r s t o have h e i g h t e n e d  of  the  strongly  conflict  particularly  c u l t u r e shock e x p e r i e n c e s  significant  contents of  Results  both c u l t u r e s which are  and  commitment.  in diametrical opposition,  finding i s supportive  attributes  new  the  self-  conflict..  f i n d i n g means t h a t  but  This  the  present  peripheral  opposition  of  i n opposition.,  i d e n t i t y are  awareness o f  the  potent  life:  social  p r i n c i p a l components,; a r e  the  the  i s seen  which  as  the  heightened  illustrate  some  of  developmental t r a n s i t i o n  Morten  active contrast  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s that  & Sue,  1979),  i s taking  place.  conflict  in  abounds i n  the  167 ordinary. a  The  pattern  as>  of  exploration  the  the- f o r m o f  r  meaning o f  Other examples career  choice  include and  i s that  pervasive  and  transition of  and  :  the  f r i e n d s h i p and appropriate  and  very  actions and  i t s commitment-  interpersonal  behavior,  arrangements,, s t a y i n g  recreational decisions.  continuing  has  decisions  reflects  r e l a t i o n s with parents  change, l i v i n g  moving, f i n a n c i a l compelling  s i t u a t i o n a l options  such everyday p r a c t i c a l  f o r example  spouses,  of  ordinary  conflict.  raised  the  immigrant  a l t e r n a t i v e values  and  pressures,  What i s .  becomes t h e I t seems  or  basis  for  that  woman's c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h demand  a  choice. The conflict  assumptive  basis  within  process of  the  illuminated  by  organized.,  This  portraits  are  group data, subjects  an  necessity  contradictions  idiosyncratic  by  another.  richness  The  nature),  rich  of  more one  that  value be  analyzes  and  the  complexity of  that  group r e s u l t (of  therefore  t r a n s i t i o n f r o m one  and: t h e  find  complex p r o c e s s  i n d i v i d u a l and  these  mutually  p r o b e d e e p e r , we by  the  each of  what amounts t o  created  are  group  i t becomes: t h a t  I f we  d i f f e r e n t f o r each  suggests  The  more a p p a r e n t  a r i s e s from a v e r y  i s that  individual's constructs  limited.  positions..  study  a c c u l t u r a t i o n can  finds herself holding  p i c t u r e of  really  way  this  study s t r o n g l y  very  the  contradictory this  the  of  this  culture process  to  168 and  adjustment p a t t e r n s  through  patterns  the i n d i v i d u a l  managing c o n f l i c t psychological The  Richardson  cases,  the s t r u c t u r a l  As r e v e a l e d :  patterns of  have c e r t a i n i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r  pattern, r e f l e c t s  a reaction against  outlook  may  Chinese  Western values..  facilitate  This  a s s i m i l a t i o n but, as  (1967) s t a t e s , " t h o u g h he may become l i k e h i s  i n many ways, t h e new a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s and  behaviors context  t h a t he a c q u i r e s  of a basically  (p.. 4 ) .  of previous  a vastly dissimilar have  system.  different  immense  value  changes  adjustment  personality structure"  Chinese  identity  system..  with  implies a  the replacement o f  Such a  transformation  implications- f o r the e n t i r e construct  This rejection  emotions o f g u i l t ,  a l w a y s be s e t w i t h i n t h e  socialization  bonds and r e l a t i o n s w i t h  radical  will  A reaction against  rejection  man"  o f managing c o n f l i c t .  and a m a j o r a l i g n m e n t w i t h  newly a c q u i r e d  could  grasped  adjustment.  first  identity  hosts  be a d e q u a t e l y  an a n a l y s i s on a c a s e by c a s e b a s i s . .  Structural in  can o n l y  could  affect  traditional  o n e ' s e t h n i c community.  confusion  and g r i e f  may  i n t h i n k i n g and v a l u i n g . ,  i s similar  emotional Mixed  result  from  such  Such a p a t t e r n o f  to the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the  "marginal  a s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d * by S u e and Sue (1971) .. The  second  peripheral  pattern  suggests a realignment  values- as a r e s p o n s e  t o a: c o n f l i c t e d  on core..  What  169 is  manifested  peripheral Discord with  which  between W e s t e r n and C h i n e s e v a l u e s  no r e s o l u t i o n i n s i g h t . through a s p e c i f i c  friends) while  position  the c e n t r a l  of living  The  third  remain  pattern  Adjustment area  personal  needs w i t h  the adoption  this  t h e maximum o p p o r t u n i t y  t o be more d e f e n s i b l e a g a i n s t  be  individual The an  pattern  probably  f o r self-growth.  I t appears  the s t r e s s e s o f t r a n s i t i o n  at least,  way o f d e a l i n g w i t h  However, t h i s  contact  with  with  personality confusion  this  on  that are  choice,  y e t i t tends t o  outside  c u l t u r e as the  fourth pattern of compartmentalization  efficient  existence  of values  core  perceives i t .  cultures. for  education  of a  s t r a t e g y i s based  on p e r s o n a l  anchored,, t e m p o r a r i l y  potent  is; u s u a l l y  (e.g.,,, c a r e e r ,  r e l e v a n t and m e a n i n g f u l , ,  i t i s anchored  remains  i n v o l v e s the c u l t i v a t i o n  Since  because  conflict-free.  unclear..  identity..  personally  on  theme o f p e r s o n a l i t y and t h e  personal  offers  i s developed  c o n s t r u c t s which a r e r e l a t i v e l y  channelled or  i s an i d e n t i t y  the host  entails  t h e demands o f a double  both  set of norms—one  s o c i e t y and one f o r p r i v a t e  one's e t h n i c enclave..  The r a p i d c h a n g e s i n  t o accommodate s i t u a t i o n a l  i n oneself  seems t o be  and o n e ' s p e r s o n a l  demands may  create  relations.  F u r t h e r m o r e , d e p e n d i n g on t h e s i t u a t i o n a l  context  and  170 perspective,  such behaviors  may be i n t e r p r e t e d by o t h e r s as-  inconsistent or different. The  fifth  provides  p a t t e r n of a f f i r m a t i o n o f Chinese  a s e n s e o f c o n t i n u i t y i n a new  environment.  The i n d i v i d u a l may  problem  i n a d j u s t m e n t or,- e v e n  she  feel  may  Superficial desire  no need  repercussion secure  attitudes  the host  and v a l u e s .  the host  with  steps  society.  The  outside  host  notion  surrounding..  her r e j e c t i o n  This pattern  of her  behaviors,  o f Western  v a l u e s ; may p o s e d i f f i c u l t i e s - i n t e r m s o f a c c e p t a n c e the  no  consistent  s o c i e t y regarding  Also,  i s no  i s recognized,  ways o f t h i n k i n g .  e t h n i c m i l i e u and i s f a c e d from  there  i s p r a c t i s e d with  comes when; t h e i n d i v i d u a l  invalidation  that  or face  adaptation  t o change t r a d i t i o n a l  cultural  i f a, p r o b l e m  to confront  instrumental  feel  identity  from  appears; t o s u p p o r t  o f the " t r a d i t i o n a l i s t " ' as espoused  the  by Sue and Sue  (1971). The identity  last  pattern o f p o s i t i v e expansion against  seems t o r e t a i n  tradition.  Expansion  t h e s e n s e o f c o n t i n u i t y and  i s anchored on C h i n e s e  made p o s s i b l e by a f l e x i b l e This pattern,  like  Chinese  broadening  the others  o f r o l e s and  (e.g.,, r e a l i g n m e n t o f a core  values.  on  peripheral  values,  identity),  i n v o l v e s , c h a n g e and r i s k - t a k i n g , b u t , u n l i k e  some o t h e r s  cultivation  i d e n t i t y and  (e.g.,,. r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t  personal  Chinese  identity,  1.71 affirmation  o f Chinese  i d e n t i t y ) , does not e n t a i l  disowning o f o r stringent  attachment  heritage  consequences that  coping the  and t h e n e g a t i v e  strategy  t o one's  appears t o concur with  a radical  previous  follow.  This  the d e s c r i p t i o n  of  " A s i a n American"' (Sue & Sue, 1 9 7 1 ) . The  theoretical  structural  significance  patterns suggests  that  norm o r m o d e l b u t p o t e n t i a l l y adjustment.  The p a t t e r n s  conceptual discovery include  implied there  by t h e s i x  i s no c l e a r c u t  many d i v e r s e  seem t o c o n f i r m  strategies the basic  t y p o l o g i e s o f Sue and Sue ( 1 9 7 1 ) . further  expands t h e i r  alternative  of  theoretical  However,  this  model t o  and d i v e r s e ways o f m i n o r i t y  identity  development. In- a s s e s s i n g , t h e t h e o r e t i c a l structural the  patterns,let  broader context  and: e t h n i c typological 1973; (Taft, 1979).  us now r e v i e w  of cultural  identity..  contribution  (Stonequist,  them b r i e f l y  assimilation,,  T h e r e have b e e n  two m a i n  The p h a s e s  ways, s i m i l a r  transition approaches:  developmental  1967; A t k i n s o n , . M o r t e n & Sue  i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l m o d e l s a r e i n many  to the d i f f e r e n t  phenomenon o f c u l t u r e  shock  stages described  (Oberg,. 19 58;  K l e i n , . 1977; T a f t , . 1977) a s a p r o l o n g e d experience..  within  1937? Sue & Sue,. 1971; M a y o v i c h ,  Newman, 1976; DeVos, 1980) v e r s u s 1957; R i c h a r d s o n ,  o f the  i nthe  A d l e r , 1975; transitional  My a i m i s n o t t o a d v o c a t e one o r a n o t h e r o f  172 these  approaches or  present  finding  structural  by  to discuss  of adjustment  nature  their  ramifications.  patterns  reflecting  the  is primarily  construct  of  i n d i v i d u a l s i n a d j u s t i n g t o s i t u a t i o n s and  by  the  host  culture..  This  different  aspects, o f  cultural,  p e r s o n a l i t y and  these they  aspects may  point, one  they  do  adjustment dependent  or  not  recombine  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or  needed  the  their  present  concreteness  time,  factors.  (i.e.,  role  a type  or  neatly  with  or  a  investigation will  strongly reflect  i n d i v i d u a l s while  In  the  contribution  final of  generalization..  adjustment  rather  the  diversity  patterns and  Sue  important  most  M o r t e n & Sue,  paradigms  models  1979).  significant  patterns,  i n my  than c o n f i r m a t i o n  Such p a t t e r n s  conceptual  by  a l l , of  Atkinson,,  a n a l y s i s , the  the  the  developmental,, t r a n s i t i o n a l  A d l e r , . 1977;  that of discovery  present  espoused  h i g h l i g h t some, i f n o t  ( O b e r g , 1958;  be  various  Sue  i n the  or  in either interpretation..  b a s i c t y p o l o g i e s as  involved  Some o f  this  affirm  features  of  At  The  (1971) and  mirror  ways.  t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l s tend: t o s t a y a b s t r a c t . the  posed  some a t a n o t h e r ,  in different  Further  results of  values  upon a h o s t  f i t conveniently  another  a p p r o a c h ) ..  to c l a r i f y  However, t h e  situational  seem t o  organization  s t r u c t u r a l , a l i g n m e n t may  emerge a t one  separate  developmental  and  may  The  augment t h e  by o f f e r i n g  a  view, i s  or nature  of  feasible  173 alternative that  i n construing  t h e phenomenon o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n ,  i s , , i n terms o f t h e c o n s t r u c t  adjusting  i n d i v i d u a l , and w i t h i n  concreteness. o f s u b j e c t i v e Se 1 f - d e v e l o p m e n t . "must be s t u d i e d manifested  experiences. by P a r k  i n i t s grosser  i n i t s subjective  changed  (p.  8 8 7 ) . As r e v e a l e d  type o f p e r s o n a l i t y which  there  i t produces"'  i n the f i n d i n g s o f adjustment  a p p e a r t o be d i v e r s e  c h a n g e , and one o f t h e i s s u e s  o f personal  traditional  needs v e r s u s  ways o f d e a l i n g that  invading, c u l t u r e ,  keenly  judgment  felt  encouraged;  within  of society with  breaks  a new  the e f f e c t i s , , so t o speak, t o emancipate  from  and t o " f r e e t h e  the i n h i b i t i o n s o f  (Teggart,  conventional  1925,. p . 1 9 6 ) . T h e s e e f f e c t s  i n the case o f the Chinese  In h e r c u l t u r e , , t h e i d e a o f s e l f not  a w a r e n e s s and t h e  and c o l l i s i o n  i n d i v i d u a l " ' ( P a r k , 1928, p.. 88 7)  modes o f t h o u g h t " are  consistently  f a m i l y v a l u e s and  organization  down,, a s a r e s u l t o f c o n t a c t  individual  with  socialization..  "When t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  the  effects,, as  aspects as manifested i n  emerges^ i s t h a t o f s e l f - d e v e l o p m e n t — t h e pursuit  (1928) ,, m i g r a t i o n  i n c h a n g e s i n c u s t o m and i n t h e mores,, b u t i t  the  culture  t h e d i v e r s i t y and t h e  As s t a t e d  not merely  may be e n v i s a g e d  patterns,  life  organization, o f the  i m m i g r a n t woman..  as a separate e n t i t y i s  i d e n t i t y i s primarily defined  one's f a m i l y  (Abbott,. 1970; Hsu,, 1971)..  i n roles Hence,  acculturation stressing, tradition  appears t o f o s t e r  on- o n e hand,, t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f v a l i d a t i n g and v a l u e s  individual  As  d e v e l o p m e n t and f u l f i l m e n t .  are  and W e s t e r n c u l t u r e s must u l t i m a t e l y d i v e r g e . i s a l r e a d y known f r o m p r e v i o u s  concerned,,  there  norms.,  methodologies,, personal  context  1969; W e i s s , 1 9 7 0 ;  with  study  r e s e a r c h and t o e l u c i d a t e from  frame o f r e f e r e n c e o f t h e s e  women,, w i t h i n t h e  needs as opposed  strategies  environment.  t o f a m i l i a l and  i s t h a t the Chinese own i n d i v i d u a l  a r e used  such  t h e new  a r e observed  as f a v o r a b l e d e f i n i t i o n  d e c i d i n g t h e most: i m p o r t a n t  women  method o f a d j u s t m e n t .  t o cope with  Similar strategies  immigrant  the- t e c h n i q u e s : b y w h i c h women manage  pressures,  situation,  the importance o f  expectations.,  seem t o work o u t t h e i r  regarding  with a  i s able  Another h i g h l i g h t  Different  women  conventional. Chinese  o f t h e i r own p r i v a t e e x p e r i e n c e s ,  traditional  immigrant  and v a l u e s , c o n c u r r e n t  from p r e v i o u s  the present  self-development  :  roles  and a c o n f l i c t  As d i s t i n c t  (Abel &  i s a g r e a t e r awareness o f o p t i o n s  of traditional  dissatisfaction  and  research  1979; Chang, 1 9 8 0 ) , a s f a r a s C h i n e s e  outside  the  Both responses a r e  s i n c e t h e g o a l s o f the* v a l u e s o f  Hsu,, 1949; Huang, 1956; Fong & P e s k i n , Yao,  one's  a n d , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e need f o r  b a s i c a l l y incompatible Chinese  a. b a s i c c o n f l i c t by  role,  in- r e s e a r c h conflicts  o fthe  175 compartmentalization, Frost,  compromise  1977, p . 130).  The p r e s e n t  commonality p e r t a i n i n g of  women, w h i c h  Practical An  (Fransella &  f i n d i n g may r e f l e c t  to conflicts*and  coping  are irrespective of culture  a  strategies  bounds.  Implications  important  relationship the  and t h e l i k e  function  t o people  views expounded  o f research  lies  and i n d i v i d u a l s .  h e r e have  inits  The f i n d i n g s a n d  certain practical  implications. Idiosyncratic  nature o f adjustment.  basic  objective  value  systems o f Chinese  which v a l u e s  i n t h i s study  are affirmed,  of a diverse  i s t o examine t h e p e r s o n a l  i m m i g r a n t women a n d t o e x p l o r e  process o f acculturation. indicative  rejected  the  of values,  around  findings are  a response,  appears potent  the contradictoriness  and  as r e f l e c t e d i n pervasive,  and t h e m u t u a l  i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f C h i n e s e and Western v a l u e s . Western v a l u e s Chinese  culture  structures. variation conflicts.  stress  i n the  and i d i o s y n c r a t i c r e s p o n s e t o  The n a t u r e o f s u c h  centering  or polarized  The o v e r a l l  adjustment. conflict  To r e i t e r a t e , t h e  individualism  i s dedicated  The p r e s e n t  data  Prevailing  and i n d e p e n d e n c e  to family strongly  solidarity suggest  while  and r o l e  diverse  i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d t h e management o f v a l u e Adjustment  seems t o be d e p e n d e n t  upon a h o s t o f  176 factors: host  the strength o f family t i e s ,  society,  personal  styles  interaction  and s i t u a t i o n s ,  among  with the other  things. These  f i n d i n g s have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l l o r s  working with need  immigrant  women..  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  there  i sa  f o r an awareness o f b a s i c c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s  (Chinese  and W e s t e r n ) i n v i e w i n g  relationships,  t h e world", p e o p l e and  and t h e i n f l u e n c e t h e s e :  e x e r t on t h e p e r s o n a l  d i f f e r e n c e s can  response  o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r and t h e  heightened  awareness o f i s s u e s which  client. However, w h i l e are  likely  i t . would  t o be s a l i e n t  be i m p r u d e n t  f o r immigrant  t o impose n o r m a t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s o r  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s on- t h e s e personal  relations  irresponsible,  issues..  i n North  F o r example,,  immoral,, s h a l l o w ,  i s s u e o f how t o r e l a t e  Chinese  women immigrants,,  interpretations experienced speak—it  l i b e r a t i n g , g r o w t h f u l , . and  useful adjunct  To u n d e r s t a n d  While  to arise f o r different a n i s s u e as-  l i f e — w h a t i s a t stake  so t o  f o r a counsellor to explore the  frame o f r e f e r e n c e . .  adaptation o f Kelly's; Repertory very  is; l i k e l y  i ti s subject to quite  i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  client's, individual  interpretations.  to others  and e x p e r i e n c e s .  seems c r u c i a l  inter-  A m e r i c a m i g h t be i n t e r p r e t e d as-  f r i e n d l y , , t o name a f e w i n d i v i d u a l the  women i s . i m p o r t a n t ,  grid  The p r e s e n t . .  would  of counselling i n this  seem t o be a regard-.  177 Ordinary nature o f c o n f l i c t  situations..  A  noteworthy  o b s e r v a t i o n on: t h e a n a l y s i s o f c o n f l i c t , s i t u a t i o n s r e v e a l s t h e mundane and p r a c t i c a l which value- c o n f l i c t s incidents  nature o f the circumstances i n  are; g e n e r a t e d .  for granted.  pursuing  particular  occurrence  F o r example,, m o v i n g o u t o f home o r  academic  interests  i n Western s o c i e t y .  underlying, p o t e n t i a l  conflict,  continuity of tradition, Traditional  apparently  o f , f o r i n s t a n c e , an  t h e need  to assure  f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d ; v a l u e s c a n be a s t r e n g t h o r a  Problems a r i s e a different  cultural each  immigrant  women..  values are transplanted to  m i l i e u where t h e y a r e c h a l l e n g e d .  conflict  opposite potential alternative..  o f these  when f u n d a m e n t a l  elements, m a n i f e s t e d  It  c o n t a i n s a choice o f opposing  i n everyday  l i f e * s i t u a t i o n s ; the-  i n v o l v e s a deeply hoped-for,  In t h e f i n a l  analysis,  yet feared,  the o r d i n a r y nature o f  s i t u a t i o n s - may m i r r o r a s e a r c h and a s t r u g g l e o f  individual  cultural  normal  f a m i l y r o l e s and d e p e n d e n c e .  weakness i n t h e a d j u s t m e n t  seems t h a t  i s considered  However, t h e s e  common s i t u a t i o n s may be i n d i c a t i v e  an  everyday  and d e c i s i o n s c a n be t h e k i n d t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s  may t a k e  conflict  These  to find  h e r own m e a n i n g , p r o b a b l y  hybrid, living  traditions  as* a  and s h a r i n g t h e c u l t u r a l  o f two d i s t i n c t  peoples  (Park,. 1928)..  l i f e and Hence,  a w a r e n e s s o f t h e common-place n a t u r e o f c o n f l i c t situations,  sensitivity  to the feelings  :  reflected  i n such  178 s i t u a t i o n s , and the a p p r o p r i a t e would' be b e n e f i c i a l Attitude Progressive toward  in counselling  toward  assimilation  appears  continuum  American.  A similar  immigrants  and  and  condition  notion  acculturation.  t o be  effects  individual  and  :  attitudes  particularly  rather  and  the  productivity"  p. 164).  The  inherent i n  o f d i v e r s e ; modes/  than the mainstream  view.  assimilation  i n which  values are  attitudes  from a knowledge o f  the r i c h n e s s  b e s t w i t h t h e mode- o f a d j u s t m e n t  Presumably,  fits  Chinese v a l u e s  affirmed..  t h e o t h e r modes o f a d j u s t m e n t a r e f a u l t y .  really  the case?  is  demonstrable  in creating  of progressive  w h i l e Western  assumption  suggest conformity  case studies', a r e i n d i c a t i v e  are r e j e c t e d  The  Morishima-, 1982,  F o r example,, t h e n o t i o n  to North  " f a i l , to capture the  c a n n o t be p r e d i c t e d  p a t t e r n s of adjustment  an  i n t h e work w i t h  198 2 ) .  o f both c u l t u r e s  (Sue. and  findings,  i n terms o f  independence  view  a view regards*  process,, aiming towards  Such  the h o s t c u l t u r e  each culture""  Such  a s t a n c e o r outcome o f  p.. 8 ) .  or behaviors that  t h e mainstream-  i s reflected  of s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  interaction  this  woman.  ranging, from e t h n i c  refugees (Tyhurst,  towards  ( T y h u r s t , , 1982,  is  the immigrant  adjustment  that of a " u n i d i r e c t i o n a l  present  issues  the p r o c e s s of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . .  unidimensional  toward  of  the p r o c e s s o f  the measure o f s u c c e s s f u l  future  identification  Is i t b e n e f i c i a l  f o r an  But  immigrant  179 woman t o r e j e c t  her  beneficial?  noted,, i t i s unknown w h e t h e r the'se modes  adjustment relative  As are  types' o r  identity  values?'  stages.  a d v a n t a g e s and  p u r p o s e s such as and  prior  consolidation..  knowledge,, a more o p e n and  toward  satisfying  there  different  i n d i v i d u a l s , and  and-" an  as  The  a valuable  methodology w i t h i n  Subjects  whole e x e r c i s e . . particularly  that  study  on  value  F e e d b a c k on  the  p r i m a r y and  tool  ideally  the  the  suited  imposition this  has  been r e p o r t e d  of  seem paths that  for  of  but  one  possibility,  i n v e s t i g a t i o n can  how  the  how  and  subjects  useful  concrete  responsible the  they  Repertory g r i d in this  f o r each  be a to  research obtain  would found  the  positive,  situations  secondary  most a f f i r m i n g ' and  use  state  a t t i t u d e would  r e s p o n s e s were u n i f o r m l y  the  of  current  i n which t o t r y out  were a s k e d  The  their  different  a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l context  The  of  a t t i t u d e seem- a d v i s a b l e .  i n pinpointing  was  the  In v i e w o f  delineating  adjustment  for  quite different  are  present  some d e t a i l e d ' , i n f o r m a t i o n respond..  unknown a r e  It i s also possible  adjustment  experimental  Methodology.. regarded  Given  flexible  detrimental.  be  well-being,, a s s i m i l a t i o n ,  adjustment.  modes o f  caution  Also,  m i g h t be  different  mode would be  would t h i s  disadvantages  psychological  advantageous s i n c e  How  and'  optiontheme- o f  illuminating., as  study..  a clinical The  grid  assessment offers  an  180 idiographic  approach, d i s t i n c t  research  acculturation,- that i s able  on  individual and  c o n s t r u c t system,  to s p e c i f y  v a l u e , , i n my  conflicts  view,, l i e s  which are extremely grid  treats  although herself  the  may  reflects  be  reducing.- t h e or a  survey fuller  concrete  rich  as  i n which  the  spectrum  Value  inferred  from  confirms  than  series, of  test  use  form  of  value  value  of a c c u l t u r a t i o n .  construed  life  by  as  t h e method and  to  of  concrete  the  thereby  the  the  situations  It illustrates  conflict,  scores  of  choice of alternatives..  clusters.  and  subject to r e v e a l  psychological reality  o f d e c i s i o n m a k i n g and the- p r a c t i c a l  and  made i n e v e r y d a y  specific  p e r i p h e r a l value  expresses  m e t h o d o l o g y remains? f a i t h f u l lived  words,  cultural  p e r s o n a l i t y i n the  as  the  expresses  Rather  the  data  In o t h e r  woman  influences..  allows  grid's  i s because  o r i e n t a t i o n s are explored  the  The  p e r s o n a l , what she  to a standard  situation  c h o i c e s t h a t must be  the  immigrant  w i t h i n the d e f i n e d c o n t e x t  the  immigrants..  method  This  d e c i s i o n s i t u a t i o n s , , o p t i o n s and  of  contents,  i t generates  familial,., s o c i a l ,  and  of her  In summary,, t h i s  are  that  a microcosm.  s u b j e c t i v e and  individual  fact  i n content..  responses?,, t h e g r i d  attributions  context  i n the  interactions  the  and: i d e n t i t y p a t t e r n s . .  a whole range o f  historical  to tap  i t s s t r u c t u r e and  individual  t h e way  from previous, c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  The  core  the  and  and  process  confirming  i t s adaptation  within  181 the  present  Future  study..  D i r e c t i o n s f o r Research  Patterns- o f adjustment. adjustment  should  discovery  rather  indicated  various  process  best  The r e s u l t s o n p a t t e r n s o f  be v i e w e d  within  than confirmation., patterns  the context o f  This  of construct organization  o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n which can serve  extension,  verification,  questions  patterns  c a n be f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d .  manifest  a. p a r t i c u l a r  pattern  like?  i n the  as a b a s i s f o r  further questions  A number o f s i g n i f i c a n t  pattern?  study has  and r e s e a r c h . .  arising  from t h e  What a r e women who What l e d up t o e a c h  What a r e t h e a d v a n t a g e s , and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f e a c h  - pattern?  Do t h e p a t t e r n s  indicate different  adjustment o r perhaps d i f f e r e n t i m m i g r a n t men m a n i f e s t  similar  stages  types of  o f adjustment?  or different  Do  patterns?  Also,, t h r o u g h c o u n s e l l i n g ; immigrants,, t h e q u e s t i o n o f patterns, o f adjustment way. will  I t seems l i k e l y present  different largely  t h a t p e o p l e who a d j u s t types  f o r - more e f f e c t i v e  basis  f o rtheoretical  Identifying  differently  o f p r o b l e m s and r e q u i r e  strategies of counselling.  unknown, g e n e r a t i n g  searching a rich  different  c a n be; i n v e s t i g a t e d in; a p r a c t i c a l  Since  this  area i s  h y p o t h e s e s f o r s t u d y and m e t h o d s o f c o u n s e l l i n g c a n be and p r a c t i c a l  common c o n f l i c t s .  exploration.  H y p o t h e t i c a l l y , each  182. culture If  we  challenges: every  knew how- t h e s e  what t h e y  from on  immigrants  i n preventing  East  by a  I d e n t i f y i n g , common c o n f l i c t s  facilitate  the process  make t h e i r  transition  and  To c i t e one o b v i o u s ; e x a m p l e  r e s e a r c h , West c h a l l e n g e s  p e r s o n a l growth.  satisfyingly..  assist  from a r i s i n g . .  the present  c u l t u r e i n d i s t i n c t i v e ways...  c h a l l e n g e s emerge and' d e v e l o p ,  were,, we c o u l d  major problems  other  o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n and h e l p ;  stress  may immigrants  more m e a n i n g f u l l y , , p r o d u c t i v e l y , and  183 Summary  This; s t u d y  examines- t h e p e r s o n a l  women i m m i g r a n t s  i n the process  c u l t u r e , , with, p a r t i c u l a r identity,  each  provided  situation,  conflict, personal  major v a l u e  immigrants  two o p t i o n s  resulting value  i n twelve  construct  conflict  options  (bipolar  i n i t s favor..  Using  individual  concept  individual  value  constructs..  identity,  confusion  A Principal grid  principal meaning  Component  as l o y a l /  scale,  Chinese,  f o r the subjects  twelve their  options  identity,  expansion  of personal  a n a l y s i s , was c o n d u c t e d only  the twelve  on e a c h  elicited  The c o n s t r u c t s l o a d i n g h i g h e s t on t h e f i r s t  component  were a s s e s s e d  and g i v e n a s u p e r o r d i n a t e  reflected  such  A  and u n c e r t a i n t y , and g u i l t .  separately,, i n c l u d i n g  constructs.  From  which d e f i n e d t h e  They a l s o ' r a t e d  identity,  British  situations..  on t h e i r  s i x supplied: constructs concerning identity,, personal  methodology,  by a s k i n g  a 7-point  options  grid  f o r each person.  from each o p t i o n  their  Western  conflict,,  t o Vancouver,.  were e l i c i t e d  rated  on  Repertory  six individual  d i s l o y a l ) was e l i c i t e d  then  o f a d j u s t i n g t o a new.  and e m o t i o n a l i t y .  f e m a l e Hong Kong  Columbia  systems o f  a t t e n t i o n to value  Using; a v a r i a n t o f K e l l y ' s fifteen  value  t h i s meaning..  f o r a common c o r e o f theme o r name w h i c h  The* s e c o n d  principal  component was  18 4 treated  i n t h e same f a s h i o n .  subject  re-rated  the  second  the s i t u a t i o n a l  superordinate  comment on t h e v a l i d i t y constructs the  In the second options  interview,, each  on t h e f i r s t and.  themes,, and was a l s o a s k e d t o o f t h e themes and t h e way  were grouped.,  Option  scores  on: t h e f i r s t and.  second, components;, were t h e n c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  r a t i n g s on t h e s u p p l i e d  c o n s t r u c t s , and o n t h e  option superordinate  themes. The  r e s u l t s suggest  principal  that  the f i r s t  components; a r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y m e a n i n g f u l .  S u b j e c t s , were a b l e clustering  o f value  to provide  subjective validation  constructs  w h i c h were f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e d their  concrete  life  s t r o n g l y with  and t h e i r through  experiences  r e - r a t i n g , on t h e s i t u a t i o n a l options  component  strongly  options  both  i n p o l a r opposition..  are rather  C h i n e s e and Western, i d e n t i t y  themes,  about  The  components. principal  C h i n e s e and W e s t e r n  tend  i d e n t i t y and  to relate  rather  The e m o t i o n  w e a k l y and: n e g l i g i b l y a l i g n e d  component o r the' other..  principal  the f i r s t  Personal  identity  o f the  also correlated  t o o n e component o r t h e o t h e r .  constructs one  information  scores- on c o r r e s p o n d i n g  t e n d s to. r e f l e c t  expansion o f personal  respective  as immigrants.  Group f i n d i n g s , i n d i c a t e t h a t  identity  and t h e s e c o n d  Aside  with  from a tendency f o r  to- c o n f l i c t  on t h e f i r s t  component, t h e f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t no o r d e r l y  group  185 portrait  of  construct organization within  the p r o c e s s  of  acculturation.. 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Appendix B Preparation  Try life to  t o t h i n k o f something,  in: t h e l a s t  situations  and  couple  a new c u l t u r e  most  important Please  which  areas  think  that  has happened  of years while  i n Canada.  dealing- with  important,  Then  cover  o f your  your  which  main  Please  you r e j e c t e d  t h i n k o f t h e main v a l u e  that  Thank y o u v e r y much.  yourself  seem t o y o u t o be  interests,  concerns  life.  of the 6 important  and t h e o p t i o n  adjusting  i n your  c h o o s e 6 o f the  the t h i n g s  you. had- t o make a* d e c i s i o n . chose,  for interview  s i t u a t i o n s i n which identify  i n each  supported  each  the o p t i o n you  situation. option..  Then  •8  i—  1  CO Q  s (fl 8  H-  Ul  to  :ions  O  Ives :ions  .ze  o  ?  ^  (jj  to  CM  CM  CM  CM  -~J  CM  CM  CM  ~J  Ul  -J  ~J  Ul  Ul  CM  CM  *»  Ul  CM  Ul  CM CM Ul  CTv Ul  to  CM  to  •*»•  CM  Ul  to  CM to  1 to go CM CM  H  to  Ul  **  CM  r—  cr 0>  8c? D rr QJ O rt  CD  Pr o  CO  rt  £1 fl)  i-h i-h  m 10 rt co  3_ rt  8 3  to U) Ul  Ul U)  to  r—  g  cn t-  1  to u> ,£» Ul  i n t o graduate  8g  school  fl) H-  stay in Vancouver not to take job with SPEC more concern with s o c i a l issues never t a l k p o l i t i c s at home more w i l l i n g to date Chinese. pursue p h i l o s o p h i c a l / p o l i t i c a l return to Toronto take job with SPEC m a t e r i a l i s t i c concerns try to convince them impossible to get along w i t h  a  55  co rt rt  D  issues  them  9 rt  H-  Ift S. n  ft  fl) H-  o  "8 (0  fl)  ft CO  to  o  Ul  206 Appendix C continued Values rejected  Opposing values  academic & personal interests  1  6 6 5 7 5 4 6 4" 6 2 7 4  l a c k of academic interests.  more individualism & freedom  2  3 2 3 3 2 3 3 6 6 2 6 7  give i n to s o c i a l constraints  s o c i a l & environmental concerns.  3  7 7 4 7 4 4 6 4 7 1 7 4  individual concerns  more concern with myself  4  13  pursue r a d i c a l social, change with family  5  2 2 1 2 1 4 14 7 1 7 2  not to pursue & discuss  l i f e s t y l e habits are very d i f f e r e n t  6  4 4 4 4 4 6 4 6 4 4 4 7  s i m i l a r values & interest  strengthens Chinese identity  3 6 5 36 6 3 2 2 6 2 2  weakens Chinese identity  strengthens? Western identity  6 6 4 6 4) 3 5 4 6 2 6 6  weakens Western identity  strengthens personal identity  6 6 3 7" 3 5 7 4 5 3 6 5  weakens; personal identity  p o s i t i v e expansion of personal i d e n t i t y  6 5 4 7 2 5 7 4 5 3 6 4  negative expansion of personal identity  guilt  3 2 5 5 3 4 3 6 6 4 4 5  no g u i l t  confusion & uncertainty  5 6 6 2 6 5 6 6 6 4 3 5  no confusion & uncertainty  7 — very 6 — moderately 5 — slightly 4' — neutral/nonapplicable 3 — slightly 2 — moderately 1 — very  3 2 4* 4 1 4 1 7  14  more concern with others  207 Appendix  D  R e - r a t i n g ; Format  Situation  Grid  Options  Options  accepted  re jected'  same as; A p p e n d i x  e.g.  1 s t component  C  12 3 4 5 6 12 3 4 5 6 5 6 5 2 6 5 1 3 3 4 2 2 Pursuing  Giving  in to  individual  maintain  course  family  social  ties,  of  development  7 —  very  6 —  moderately  5 —  slightly  4 —  neutral/nonapplicable  3 —  slightly  2 —  moderately  1 —  very  208 Appendix Letter  My  name i s C h r i s t i n a  completing here  my  doctoral  pletion  of a d i s s e r t a t i o n  woman and  subjects three  who  are  since  your a r r i v a l  questions. affect  immigrant  prefer  information  of  about  immigrant  than  will  may  y o u r s e l f , , such have  be  women. .  s t u d y , you  identity  of  as  undergone  i n Canada. in this  gathered  s t u d y would  is totally  is strictly  t h e s t u d y a t any  Participation  y o u r marks o r y o u r  program.  com-  as a r e s u l t  I would  in. t h i s  things  Participation  withdraw- from  the  s t u d y , I hope t o  identity  This  counsellors  v a l u e s and  participation  information  In t h i s  o f the  f r o m Hong Kong w i t h more  participate  y o u r own  appreciated.  Part  requires  society.  i n Canada-  some i n t e r e s t i n g  Your  study.  immigrants  In a d d i t i o n , , as. you  the c h a n g e s  Columbia.  i n v a l u e s and  t o e d u c a t o r s , and  discover  i n Counselling- Psychology  programme  to Canadian  years residence  helpful  a graduate student  y o u r e x p e r i e n c e s as a C h i n e s e  the changes  your, a d j u s t m e n t  I am  of B r i t i s h  o f the* d o c t o r a l  l e a r n more a b o u t  subject  Lee..  degree  a t the U n i v e r s i t y  fulfilment  to  E  be v e r y much  voluntary  confidential.  time' o r r e f u s e  or withdrawal w i l l standing, w i t h i n  and a l l You  may  t o answer i n no  your  any  way  university  209 If call  you c h o o s e  me a t  an a p p o i n t m e n t  to p a r t i c i p a t e f o r further  i n t h i s study,,  information  a t U.B.C..  Thank you v e r y much f o r y o u r  attention,  please  and- t o s e t up  210 Appendix. F Subject  This about  is a doctoral  Form  dissertation  y o u r e x p e r i e n c e s as a C h i n e s e  changes  i n v a l u e s and  adjustment Your  participation  in this  Participation  from  questions.. affect  gathered  the  project  is strictly time  y o u r marks o r y o u r  your  be v e r y much  voluntary  and  that  confidential. or r e f u s e  P a r t i c i p a t i o n , or withdrawal  will  standing within  more  woman and. t h e  of  s t u d y would  is totally  s t u d y a t any  to l e a r n  immigrant  as a. r e s u l t  society.  information  withdraw  identity  to Canadian  appreciated. all  Consent  You  may  t o answer  any  i n no  your  way  university  programme..  time  Participation will  consist  f o r two  2-3  interview created  interviews  will  conflicts  to- C a n a d a .  Having  Date::;  of your  full  h o u r s ) ...  interviews  Briefly,  (total first  questions, regarding; events  which  w h i l e you, were a d j u s t i n g  interview w i l l test  involve  yourself  feedback  results-  knowledge o f ; do  two  the  f o r you  The- s e c o n d  interpretation  consent  involve  of  these- f a c t s ,  not consent  Signature:  I hereby: ..  and  211 Appendix Individual  Intraindividual  G. Cases  Correlations:  First  Case  Component  1  Second  Component  Chinese  Identity  -.76  .22  Western  Identity  .68  -.05  -.01  -.48  .18  -.64  -.22  .51  -.20  .17  Personal  Identity  Expansion o f  Personal  Identity  Guilt. Confusion For Western  and  Uncertainty  e x a m p l e , on i d e n t i t y are  the  first  component,, C h i n e s e  in opposition.,  component,, p e r s o n a l  i d e n t i t y and  identity  aligned,.  tend; t o  be  On  the  expansion  and:  second of  personal  212  Intraindividual  Correlations:  First  Component  Case 2  Second  Component  Chinese  Identity  .77  .07  Western  Identity  -.31  .35  —.53  .41  Personal Expansion  Identity of Personal  I d e n t i t y -.59  Guilt Confusion  and U n c e r t a i n t y  .46 ..  -.47  -.26  .30  .13  213  Intraindividual  Correlations:  First  Component  Case 3  Second  Component  Chinese  Identity  -.60  -.18  Western  Identity  .60  .18  .61  -.15  .41  -.05  .35  -.21  .43  .02  Personal  Identity  Expansion of Personal  Identity  Guilt Confusion  and U n c e r t a i n t y  214  Intraindividual  Correlations;:  First  Component  Case 4  Second  Component  Chinese  Identity  .41  .19  Western  Identity  .02  .00  -.24  -.42  -.52  -.36  -.13  -.21  .41  -.43  Personal  Identity  Expansion of Personal  Identity  Guilt Confusion  and U n c e r t a i n t y  215  Intraindividual  Correlations:  First  Component  Case 5  Second  Component  Chinese  Identity  -.29  -.82  Western  Identity  .29  .82  .75  .45  .49  .66  -.57  -.57  -.23  -.75  Personal  Identity  Expansion of Personal  Identity  Guilt Confusion  and U n c e r t a i n t y  216  Intraindividual  Correlations.:  First Chinese  Component  Case 6  Second  Component  Identity  -.78  .05  Western. I d e n t i t y  .76  -.19  Personal.  .52  -.68  .06  -.64  Expansion Guilt  Identity of Personal  Identity  .  Confusion  and U n c e r t a i n t y  .14-  .84  .16  .59  217'  Intraindividual  Correlations,:  First Chinese  Component  Case 7  Second  Component  Identity  -.65  -.15  Western. I d e n t i t y  .55  .51  -.57  .50  -.54  .49  .39  .09  .53  -.18  Personal  Identity  Expansion of Personal  Identity  Guilt Confusion  and U n c e r t a i n t y  218  Intraindividual  Correlations':  First  Component  Case 8  Second  Component  Chinese  Identity  .03  .43  Western  Identity  .20  .00  .60  -.15  .53  .02  -.32  .19  .12  .10  Personal  Identity  Expansion, o f P e r s o n a l  Identity  Guilt Confusion  and U n c e r t a i n t y  219  Intraindividual  Correlations:  First Chinese  Component  Case 9  r  Second  Component  Identity  -.50  Western- I d e n t i t y  .26  .00  Personal  .74>  -.07  .77  -.13  -.65  -.12  -.48  .47  Identity  Expansion of Personal  Identity  Guilt Confusion  and U n c e r t a i n t y  .12.  220  Intraindividual  Correlations:  First  Component  Case  10  Second  Component  Chinese  Identity  -.43  .69  Western  Identity  .90  -.22  Personal  Identity  Expansion of Personal  identity  Guilt Confusion  and U n c e r t a i n t y  .09'  .38  .22  .46  -.36  -.43  -.,16  -.34  221  Intraindividual  Correlations:  First  Component  Case  11  Second  Component  Chinese  Identity  .75  -.10  Western  Identity  -.85  .07  .55  -.38  .61  -.08  -.63  .23  -.59  .07  Personal Expansion  Identity of Personal  Identity  Guilt Confusion  and U n c e r t a i n t y  222  Intraindividual  Correlations:  First  Component  Case  12  Second  Component  Chinese  Identity  -.75  .47  Western  Identity  .92  .05  -.08  .62  I d e n t i t y -.08  .70  Personal Expansion  Identity of Personal  Guilt Confusion  and U n c e r t a i n t y  .29  -.42.  .10  -.59  223  Intraindividual  Correlations:  First  Component  Case  13  Second  Component  Chinese  Identity  -.67  .02  Western  Identity  .71  .05  .62  .27  .59  .44  .63  .09  -.18  .52  Personal Expansion  Identity of Personal  Identity  Guilt Confusion  and U n c e r t a i n t y  224  Intraindividual  Correlations:  First  Component  Case  14  Second  Component  Chinese  Identity  -.64  .21  Western  Identity  .78  -.39  -.02  .06  .24  -.75  .48  -.'29  .12  .22  Personal  Identity  Expansion of Personal  Identity  Guilt Confusion  and U n c e r t a i n t y  225  Intraindividual  Correlations:  First  Component  Case  15  Second  Component  Chinese  Identity  -.33  .47  Western  Identity  .22  -.17  -.17  .52  -.16  .59  -.10  -.09  .41  -.42  Personal Expansion  Identity of Personal  Identity  Guilt Confusion  and U n c e r t a i n t y  

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