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Acculturation and value change : Chinese immigrant women Lee, Christina Chau-Ping 1984

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ACCULTURATION AND VALUE CHANGE: CHINESE IMMIGRANT WOMEN by C h r i s t i n a C h a u - P i n g L e e B.A. U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o M.Ed. U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o A THESIS SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d . A p r i l 1984 THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H © C C . L e e , 1984 COLUMBIA In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f ^ " ^ ^ /fycA*/ogy The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Apr;/ <9*t A b s t r a c t T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n examines the p e r s o n a l value systems o f Chinese- women immigrants i n the process o f a d j u s t i n g to Canadian c u l t u r e . Using a v a r i a n t o f K e l l y ' s (1955) Repertory g r i d methodology, f i f t e e n Hong Kong immigrants to Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia provided s i x i n d i v i d u a l c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s . For each s i t u a t i o n , two o p t i o n s were e l i c i t e d which d e f i n e d the c o n f l i c t , r e s u l t i n g i n twelve o p t i o n s f o r each person. A p e r s o n a l value c o n s t r u c t ( b i p o l a r concept such as l o y a l / d i s l o y a l ) was e l i c i t e d from each o p t i o n by asking f o r the major value i n i t s f a v o r . Using a 7-point s c a l e , s u b j e c t s then rated t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l o p t i o n s on t h e i r twelve i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e c o n s t r u c t s . They a l s o r a t e d t h e i r o p t i o n s on s i x s u p p l i e d c o n s t r u c t s concerning c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y and e m o t i o n a l i t y . A P r i n c i p a l Component a n a l y s i s was conducted on each g r i d s e p a r a t e l y , i n c l u d i n g o n l y the twelve e l i c i t e d c o n s t r u c t s . The c o n s t r u c t s l o a d i n g h i g h e s t on the f i r s t p r i n c i p a l component were assessed f o r a common core o f meaning and gi v e n a s u p e r o r d i n a t e theme which r e f l e c t e d t h i s meaning. The second p r i n c i p a l component was t r e a t e d i n the same f a s h i o n . In the second i n t e r v i e w , each s u b j e c t r e - r a t e d the s i t u a t i o n a l o p t i o n s on the f i r s t , and the I l l second s u p e r o r d i n a t e themes, and was a l s o asked to comment on the v a l i d i t y o f the themes and the way c o n s t r u c t s were grouped. Option s c o r e s on the f i r s t and the second components were then c o r r e l a t e d with o p t i o n r a t i n g s on the s u p p l i e d c o n s t r u c t s and on the s u p e r o r d i n a t e themes. The r e s u l t s suggest t h a t both the f i r s t and the second components are p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y meaningful. Aside from a tendency f o r Chinese and Western i d e n t i t y to c o n f l i c t on the f i r s t component, the f i n d i n g s suggest no o r d e r l y group p o r t r a i t o f c o n s t r u c t o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n the process of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l case s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e p e r v a s i v e value c o n f l i c t i n o r d i n a r y s i t u a t i o n s , with s i x reasonably d i s t i n c t s t r a t e g i e s of managing c o n f l i c t , i n f e r a b l e from the o r g a n i z a t i o n of c o n s t r u c t s . They a r e : (a) a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t Chinese i d e n t i t y , (b) a realignment with p e r i p h e r a l v a l u e s , (c) the c u l t i v a t i o n o f a core p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y , (d) c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n , (e) an a f f i r m a t i o n of Chinese i d e n t i t y , and ( f ) p o s i t i o n expansion a g a i n s t Chinese i d e n t i t y . Research S u p e r v i s o r : Dr. L a r r y Cochran i v Acknowledgements I wish t o express my g r a t i t u d e and a p p r e c i a t i o n to- my r e s e a r c h s u p e r v i s o r , Dr., L a r r y Cochran' f o r h i s continued support and d i r e c t i o n d u r i n g the development of t h i s t h e s i s . . I a l s o wish t o thank my committee members, Dr. Marv Westwood and Dr.. Gordon Nelson f o r t h e i r involvement and- encouragement.. In add i t i o n , , I would l i k e t o express a p p r e c i a t i o n t o the e x t e r n a l examiner, Dr.. M i l d r e d McCoy,, whose work i n t h i s area o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h , p r o v i d e d many v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s t o t h i s study. V Table o f Contents-Page-A b s t r a c t ....... .......... ..... ............... . ........................ ........... i i Acknowledgements ...................................... i v Table o f Contents v L i s t o f T a b l e s i x Chapter I:: I n t r o d u c t i o n • 1 Chapter II:: Review of the L i t e r a t u r e 4 A c c u l t u r a t i o n - 4 A c c u l t u r a t i o n o f Chinese immigrants ................... 6 Value as a- problem ...................................... 16 Chinese v e r s u s Western v a l u e s .............................. 19 P o s s i b l e e f f e c t s o f v a l u e c o n f l i c t ....... ............... .. 24 Chapter I I I : A c c u l t u r a t i o n and C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Methodologies ................................... 29 Content and methodology ...................................... 29' P e r s o n a l C o n s t r u c t t h e o r y .................................. 35. Repertory g r i d ................................................ 39" P r i n c i p a l Component a n a l y s i s o f a g r i d .................. 42 Repertory g r i d and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y 49 Chapter IV: Method . 52 S u b j e c t s . ........... ................... ........................ 52 S i t u a t i o n g r i d ........................................ 52 E l i c i t i n g elements to be judged 54' v i Page E l i c i t i n g : value- constructs- with which to judge elements; .. ... 54 Rating; each element on each, c o n s t r u c t ............. 56 V a l i d a t i n g : core and p e r i p h e r a l components .... 57 Procedure ................... .,....,...,.... ...........,.... .,................... 6 0 Data a n a l y s i s ; .............,. ..,.. ... ..,. .... ....................-... 61 Chapter V: Group R e s u l t s .................................... 63 P s y c h o l o g i c a l meaningf u l n e s s of components .......... 63 Group p a t t e r n s 68 Chapter V I : I n d i v i d u a l Cases ................................ 81 ft h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e : I d i o g r a p h i c versus: nomothetic approach ........................................... 81 Case 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . i ..... ... ....................., 86 Case 2 ... . .... .,. ....... .,... ... . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2 Case 3 . . 9/8- • Case 4 ................................................ 103 Case 5 . 10 7 Ca se 6 .,... . . . ... . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. 111 Case 7 . 115 Case 8 .. . . ... . 119 Case 9» ..... . ... ...... 12 3 Case 10 ..... . . . 127 v i i Page Cas-er II. .... .......<..<. •.. . . •• • 130 Case 12 ... 133 Case 13 ........- . . • . . 136 Case 14- ...... • 139 Case 15- .'. . - 14 2 Summary o f case studies- .......................................... 146 Chapter V I I : The. Nature- o f C o n f l i c t S i t u a t i o n s . ............ 152. An examination, o f s i t u a t i o n a l o p t i o n s ............................. 152 The a n a l y s i s o f a d e c i s i o n 158 Chapter VIIIr- D i s c u s s i o n 163 L i m i t a t i o n s ... ....................................... ......................... 165 T h e o r e t i c a l impl i c a t i o n s .......................................... 165 C o n f l i c t . ....................................... ... ....... 165 S t r u c t u r a l patterns; o f managing c o n f l i c t 168 Self-development ..... . ..... . ..... ... . . ... . . . . ... ..... . . . . ... . 17 3 P r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s ............................................. ............ 175 I d i o s y n c r a t i c : nature o f adjustment 175 Ord i n a r y nature o f c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s .............. 177 A t t i t u d e toward the pr o c e s s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n ...... 178 Methodology . ... . 179 Future d i r e c t i o n s , f o r r e s e a r c h .................................. 181 Pa t t e r n s o f adjustment 181 I d e n t i f y i n g common c o n f l i c t s 181 v i . i i Page S umma r y .............-.............. ~ . 18 3 L i s t o f References- 186 Appendix A: Advertisement f o r s u b j e c t s ........................ 203 Appendix B: P r e p a r a t i o n f o r i n t e r v i e w 204 Append i x C r Rating format ............., -.........-........... 20 5 Appendix D: R e - r a t i n g format ...................................... 207 Appendix- E: L e t t e r t o s u b j e c t ......................................... 208 Appendix F: S u b j e c t consent form 210 Appendix G: I n t r a i n d i v i d u a l c o r r e l a t i o n s ............................. 211 i x L i s t o f Tables* Page 5.1 C o r r e l a t i o n s , o f the named themes, with the* f i r s t and the second 1 p r i n c i p a l component 67 5.2 C o r r e l a t i o n s , o f Chinese i d e n t i t y with the f i r s t and the second p r i n c i p a l component 70 5.3 C o r r e l a t i o n s o f Western' i d e n t i t y with the f i r s t and the second p r i n c i p a l " component ................... 72* 5..4 C o r r e l a t i o n s , o f p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y with the f i r s t and the second p r i n c i p a l component ............... 73 5.5 C o r r e l a t i o n s - o f expansion o f p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y with the f i r s t and the second: p r i n c i p a l , component... 74 5.6 C o r r e l a t i o n s of" g u i l t with the f i r s t and the second? p r i n c i p a l component 76 5.7 C o r r e l a t i o n s o f c o n f u s i o n and u n c e r t a i n t y with the f i r s t and the second p r i n c i p a l , component. . 77 7.1 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s i t u a t i o n s i n t o c a t e g o r i e s and percentages. .. ... ............................ 154 Chapter- 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The s p e c i f i c problems, and needs o f immigrant women from the T h i r d World and e s p e c i a l l y P a c i f i c . Rim co u n t r i e s ; are a much n e g l e c t e d area, i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l research.. P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s on Chinese, immigrants,, conducted almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n the United: States,- have d e a l t p r i m a r i l y with demographic, h i s t o r i c a l o r p o l i t i c a l problems. Few s t u d i e s have focused on the p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f immigrant adjustment and l i t t l e , i f any, a t t e n t i o n has been paid, t o the s p e c i a l problems f a c i n g immigrant women.. The need f o r such a study becomes^ e v i d e n t when one c o n s i d e r s the t r a d i t i o n a l p l a c e o f women i n Chinese s o c i e t y , l i v i n g a s h e l t e r e d e x i s t e n c e r e l a t i v e t o t h a t o f women i n Canadian s o c i e t y . A Chinese immigrant woman moves from a, s o c i e t y i n which her v a l u e s and r o l e s a re d e f i n e d w i t h i n c u l t u r a l l y narrow l i m i t s t o a s o c i e t y i n which these are redefined, w i t h i n f a r broader l i m i t s . . At home, her r o l e i s p r i m a r i l y d e f i n e d as a mother, wife and daughter; abroad t h i s can be expanded: t o i n c l u d e s o c i a l , , e d u c a t i o n a l and work r o l e s , and many others.. Thus, i n a d d i t i o n to the problems o f adjustment faced by a l l immigrants (e.g.., speaking a new- language, u n f a m i l i a r customs and r u l e s o f conduct, f e e l i n g s o f being: uprooted),,, the Chinese woman i s now confronted: with r a d i c a l changes i n moral and? e t h i c a l , values,, l i f e - r o l e perceptions, and and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l pressures* and c o n f l i c t s t h a t accompany such changes. For t h i s reason,, a s p e c i f i c examination o f the p r o c e s s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n ; t h a t Chinese immigrant women undergo, i s long overdue.. The p r e s e n t d i s s e r t a t i o n , which focuses on Chinese' immigrant women i n Canada, attempts t o i n v e s t i g a t e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y the impact o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n and; the r e l a t e d i s s u e o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustment. The t h e o r e t i c a l base u n d e r l y i n g the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n is- l a r g e l y drawn from the work o f George A. K e l l y (195 5),.. p a r t i c u l a r l y the n o t i o n o f a p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t system with c o r e and p e r i p h e r a l subsystems.. Sup e r o r d i n a t e w i t h i n each s e l f - c o n s t r u c t system are the core c o n s t r u c t s which d e f i n e a person'^ i d e n t i t y . . The essence o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n " i s regarded; here as v a l u e / c o n s t r u c t change, s p e c i a l l y the c e n t r a l l y i n v o l v e d v a l u e s . The aim of t h i s , study i s t o examine the p e r s o n a l v a l u e  systems o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n t r a n s i t i o n , t o e x p l o r e the  s t r u c t u r e and con t e n t o f t h i s v a l u e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to value c o n f l i c t , , i d e n t i t y and e m o t i o n a l i t y . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l s o provides, the o p p o r t u n i t y t o as s e s s the Repertory grid: as a- c r o s s - c u l t u r a l methodology. T h i s method a l l o w s one to i d e n t i f y and measure va l u e c o n f l i c t w i t h i n the c o n s t r u i n g o f the a d j u s t i n g person- and to study which, v a l u e s are opposed,, affirmed; o r r e j e c t e d . This' d i s s e r t a t i o n begins with an e x t e n s i v e review of the l i t e r a t u r e on- a c c u l t u r a t i o n o f Chinese immigrants i n North America- with, emphasis: on women and value change.. Previous^ r e s e a r c h and5 methodblogiesv w i l l be c r i t i c a l l y assessed.. Since the Repertory grid" i s the main t o o l o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i t s t h e o r e t i c a l background w i l l be d e s c r i b e d to g i v e an o r i e n t a t i o n to. the present method-,, which i n v o l v e s i n d i v i d u a l case s t u d i e s o f f i f t e e n women immigrants; from Hong Kong. T h i s study i s intended' to c o n t r i b u t e to an understanding, o f the phenomenon of a c c u l t u r a t i o n , the frame of reference; o f a s p e c i f i c m i n o r i t y group and the problems t h a t a r i s e ' from adjustment.. In view of the growing, e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y and; m u l t i c u l t u r a l nature o f Canadian s o c i e t y , t h i s r e s e a r c h can lead 1 to- important p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y - i n the f i e l d o f c o u n s e l l i n g ; and: h e l p i n g immigrant women i n t e g r a t e i n t o society,, to f i n d new ways of b u i l d i n g a b r i d g e between the l i f e t h e y have l e f t and the one on which they are embarking. 4 Chapter II Review- of the L i t e r a t u r e - A c c u l t u r a t i o n A c c u l t u r a t i o n i s ; a nebulous term which has. been approached from d i f f e r e n t p e r spectives- i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . As; a r e s u l t of the appointment of a subcommittee on a c c u l t u r a t i o n i n the S o c i a l Science Research C o u n c i l i n the mid 1930s, a c c u l t u r a t i o n was. d e f i n e d as an area of study w i t h i n the domain of c u l t u r a l anthropology d e a l i n g with "those phenomena* which r e s u l t when, groups; of i n d i v i d u a l s having d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s come i n t o continuous f i r s t - h a n d c o n t a c t with subsequent changes i n the o r i g i n a l p a t t e r n o f e i t h e r , or both groups" (Redfield,. L i n t o n , & H e r s k o v i t s , 1936,, p.. 149) .. E a r l y r e s e a r c h on a c c u l t u r a t i o n , was conducted - w i t h i n the f i e l d ' o f anthropology,, mostly w i t h i n the framework of a d e s c r i p t i v e ' , n a t u r a l h i s t o r y t r a d i t i o n (Keesing, 1956). A l s o , most s t u d i e s focused; on the a c c u l t u r a t i o n of t h i r d world n a t i o n s to- i n d u s t r i a l i z e d ; western s o c i e t i e s (Siegel,. 1955). In a; 1979 r e v i e w on- a c c u l t u r a t i o n , Kim s t a t e d that s o c i o l o g i s t s have attempted to d i s t i n g u i s h between a c c u l t u r a t i o n and a s s i m i l a t i o n . . For example,, Gordon (1964) viewed; a c c u l t u r a t i o n as a l i m i t e d form of a s s i m i l a t i o n , a. 5 l i m i t e d : convergence toward the s o c i o c u l t u r a l mainstreams; of the host country.. Most s o c i o l o g i c a l , studies- have focused on i s s u e s r e l a t i n g to race r e l a t i o n s , , m i n o r i t y group p r e j u d i c e (.Spiro, 1955),. s o c i a l s t a t u s of e t h n i c groups and consequences* of m i n o r i t y group membership (Berry , 1951; Marden, 1952). Olmedo (19-79) s t a t e d that, the re c e n t trends of a c c u l t u r a t i o n r e s e a r c h included:, (a) a s h i f t toward a: g r e a t e r emphasis- on e t h n i c i t y , or e t h n i c i d e n t i t y , as rep r e s e n t e d i n attempts to understand e t h n i c groups i n t h e i r own terms r a t h e r than, by c o n t r a s t i n g them with other c u l t u r e s , or reference- groups (Barth,, 1969) , (b) a s h i f t i n the t a r g e t c u l t u r e s of i n t e r e s t to i n c l u d e European e t h n i c groups (Chance,. 1965), Asians, (Sue,, 1977), H i s p a n i c s ( C l a r k , Kaufman, &. P i e r c e , 1976), and (c) an, i n c r e a s e d emphasis; on m e t h o d o l o g i c a l issues', p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the d e f i n i t i o n and? measurement of a c c u l t u r a t i o n and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y (Szapocznik,, 1975; P a d i l l a , 1980).. In this, study, no d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between the terms: " a c c u l t u r a t i o n " and " a s s i m i l a t i o n , " I have used them i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y to- denote the adjustment process of immigrants to the host c u l t u r e as. a r e s u l t of c r o s s -c u l t u r a l contact.. Also,, the: essence of a c c u l t u r a t i o n i s co n s i d e r e d as v a l u e change, p a r t i c u l a r l y the c e n t r a l l y i n v o l v e d values.. 6 A c c u l t u r a t i o n of Chinese Immigrants I n f l u e n c e d by the various, t h e o r i e s of anthropology, s o c i o l o g y and psychology,, r e s e a r c h on a c c u l t u r a t i o n of Chinese immigrants* in. North America has. e x p l o r e d s e v e r a l major, a r e a s : f a m i l y l i f e ? (Hayner & Reynolds;, 19-37;; Lee, 1956,. I960;. Lyman, 1968; Abbott,. 1970); c u l t u r a l , values- and a t t i t u d e s - (Kuo &> L i n , 1977; Yao,, 19-79); c h i l d - r e a r i n g ( S d l l e n b e r g e r , 1968; K r i g e r & Kroes,, 1972); mental i l l n e s s and. c u l t u r e : c o n f l i c t (Sommers, 1960; Sue & Sue,. 1972r Bourne, 1975; Sue, Wagner, M a r g u i l l i s , & Lew,. 1976); d a t i n g and c o u r t s h i p (Huang,. 1965; Weiss, 1970); i n t e r r a c i a l marriage (Beaudry,. 1966); sex r o l e s (Fong. & Peskin, 1969);. i n t e r p e r s o n a l behavior and s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n (Abel & Hsu, 1949; Fong., 1965) ;. e t h n i c i d e n t i t y (Weisman, Snadomsky,. & Gannon, 1972;; Sung,. 1977); and s o c i a l m o b i l i t y (Tan, 1968; Kitano &. Sue,, 1973; Hong f i 1976) .. An attempt is. made here to present some of the major f i n d i n g s with, p a r t i c u l a r emphasis- on value change and; women. The c r e d i b i l i t y of such f i n d i n g s w i l l be examined i n the next chapter.. E a r l y studies; focused mainly on l a b o u r e r s and businessmen who migrated f o r economic or p o l i t i c a l reasons. With the i n f l u x of: new immigrants, l a t e r s t u d i e s c o n c e n t r a t e d more on p r o f e s s i o n a l s and c o l l e g e students who came e i t h e r as immigrants, or as students, who decided to s.tay permanently a f t e r graduation.. In i n t e r p r e t i n g ; such r e s u l t s , one must take- i n t o - a c c o u n t the v a r i a b l e s o f socio-economic-, status,, e d u c a t i o n , occupation', and age which can lead- to d i f f e r i n g ; degrees^ o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n . . E a r l y s t u d i e s (Hayner &« Reynolds;, 1937; Lee,. 1956,, 1960; Lyman,. 1968) revealed? s i g n i f i c a n t demographic, d e s c r i p t i v e ^ and h i s t o r i c a l data; r e g a r d i n g f irs.t. s e t t l e r s . . I t appeared t h a t these s e t t l e r s had a v e r y i n s u l a t e d l i f e s t y l e with minimal c o n t a c t with the host, c u l t u r e . . The f a m i l y c o n s t i t u t e d : the c e n t e r o f t h e i r l i v e s , , w i t h some dependence on community e t h n i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o f u l f i l l s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l needs. T r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s : and v a l u e s were- s t r i c t l y adhered t o . "The t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a o.f a good; husband i . S : t h a t o f as good provider.. He earns the money and he a l s o spends; i t . He is . expected to be- ki n d and sympathetic,, but i f he i s not, the w i f e must be t o l e r a n t and f o r b e a r i n g . A good wife i n the i d e o l o g y o f the c o n s e r v a t i v e Chinese o f America spends v e r y l i t t l e money and r a i s e s : as many c h i l d r e n as, p o s s i b l e — s o n s , , not daughters" (Hayner &> Reynolds, 1937,, p. 6 33). S i m i l a r v a l u e s and dependence on the husband r e g a r d i n g everyday matters, were a l s o noted by Lee (19-56, I960)., Lyman (1968) obs e r v e d t h a t except f o r o c c a s i o n a l v i s i t s t o the community,, the Chinese woman l e d a very secluded l i f e , "no vi r t u o u s , and r e s p e c t a b l e Chinese woman, whether married o r s i n g l e i s even p e r m i t t e d to show h e r s e l f i n p u b l i c " (p., 325) . Threat o f a s s i m i l a t i o n was: e x p e r i e n c e d p r i m a r i l y i n i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s ; , parents, feared- the independence o f c h i l d r e n might a f f e c t the c o h e s i o n o f the-f a m i l y . Abbott. (1970) e x p l o r e d the p s y c h o s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g and changing; values? of: Chinese immigrants with the C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l . Inventory.. T e s t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d , that, the m a j o r i t y o f s u b j e c t s tended, t o be s o c i a l l y n o n a s s e r t i v e and: i n d i r e c t ; they showed; considerable-s e l f - r e s t r a i n t , , unease i n group,, and p r e f e r r e d c o l l e c t i v i t y versus: i n d i v i d u a l i t y . Furthermore,. Abbott (1976) reviewed s t u d i e s on the Chinese p e r s o n a l i t y and extracted- two key components: i n t r a g r o u p dependency and; s e l f - r e s t r a i n t , and h o l i s t i c : p e r c e p t i o n o f phenomena as. wholes, r a t h e r than as parts.. Abbott stated, t h a t deference,* low i n d i v i d u a l i s m and i n d i r e c t approach might be explained' by the emphasis on s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f s e l f t o f a m i l y and. group, and the attempt to respondr to c u l t u r a l , norms, o f harmony and c o l l e c t i v i t y . . T h i s ; o b s e r v a t i o n was supported by s t u d i e s (Fenz &; Arkoff,. 1962; Meade,. 1970;; Sue & K i r k , 19-7 2) which showed t h a t i n comparison to Caucasian Americans, Chinese Americans: manifested g r e a t e r deference,, abasement, and* e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . Young (1972) conducted i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s to i n v e s t i g a t e - f a m i l y p a t t e r n s and values among Chinese Americans„ S p e c i f i c values, r e l a t i n g ; to su c c e s s , expenditure,, f a m i l y system and i n t e r e t h n i c - r e l a t i o n s were examined.. Responses; i n d i c a t e d s t r o n g f a m i l y o r i e n t a t i o n and delayed, g r a t i f i c a t i o n : i n a t t i t u d e s toward work,, education,, investment and goals.. S o c i a l c o n t a c t s w i t h i n one's^ e t h n i c group were: considered more meaningful., However, d i f f e r e n c e s concerning the i d e a l f a m i l y system were noted?; some had rejected! the' t r a d i t i o n a l extended f a m i l y i n f a v o r o f the North American p a t t e r n o f the nu c l e a r family.. Kuo and L i n (1977) and Yao (1979) examined the a s s i m i l a t i o n of contemporary immigrants,, most of whom were w e l l educated:.. They found a changing value system,, conservative- i n some areas, but l i b e r a l i n o t h e r s . R e s u l t s suggested, the p r e s e r v a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s such as; p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y , , f i l i a l piety,, and a f f e c t i o n f o r Chinese c u l t u r e and i d e n t i t y . However, i n these studies,, a t t i t u d e toward the 1 woman's t r a d i t i o n a l l y p a s s i v e r o l e appeared to-have changed. There was an: i n c r e a s i n g emphasis on husband-wife r e l a t i o n s and a g r e a t e r r e c o g n i t i o n of the e q u a l i t y o f woman,, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the wife's r o l e i n d e c i s i o n making and the p u r s u i t of a c a r e e r . The importance- of p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y was. f u r t h e r supported by studies* i n c h i l d - r e a r i n g (Sollenberger,. 1968 ; 10 K r i g e r &, Kroes,, 1972).. From i n t e r v i e w d a t a , S o l l e n b e r g e r (1968) found t h a t Chinese parents were much s t r i c t e r i n c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s a g g r e s s i v e behavior than Americans; emphasis was placed' on: t r a d i t i o n a l behavior of g e n t l e n e s s , manners and w i l l i n g n e s s : to conform.. K r i g e r and Kroes (1972) compared- Chinese mothers, with Jewish and: P r o t e s t a n t mothers;, i t seemed' t h a t Chinese mothers placed- a>. high value on s t r i c t n e s s and c o n t r o l o f behavior.. The emphasis on p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y was a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d by s t u d i e s on mental i l l n e s s and c u l t u r e c o n f l i c t , , p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n f l i c t with the parent g e n e r a t i o n (Sommers„ 1960; Sue & Sue, 1972; Bourne, 1975). The a u t h o r i t a r i a n nature of the p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n was based; on the> view, t h a t "one should serve one's parents- as one serves heaven"' (Sommers, I960,, p. 637). I t appeared that i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t was: heightened by migration.. "Most immigrant parents are l i k e l y to s t r e s s more r i g i d l y t h e i r Old' World t r a d i t i o n s i n a new country than i n t h e i r n a t i v e land,, to p r o t e c t themselves i n t h e i r strange and i n s e c u r e environment" (Sommers, 1960, p.. 643), whereas: the c h i l d r e n might f e e l c o n f l i c t s between t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with parents: on the- one hand and with peers on the other. A l s o , these immigrant children- experienced a g r e a t d e a l of pressure from parents to succeed a c a d e m i c a l l y . " i t was o f t e n necessary f o r the- f a m i l y to i n v e s t a l l of i t s 11 resources-, i n the education, of one's i n d i v i d u a l , , u s u a l l y the o l d e s t son.. The p r e s s u r e both to j u s t i f y his. s e l e c t i o n , and to. f u l f i l l the f i l i a l r o l e by b r i n g i n g honour to the f a m i l y was considerable"' (Bourne, 1975,. p. 273). Research f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y was h i g h l y v a l u e d among; many Chinese immigrants. In. the area- of i n t e r p e r s o n a l s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g , changes p a r a l l e l t o t h a t of the American mode o f e x p r e s s i o n were suggested (Abel &, Hsu, 1949'; Fong,, 1965; Yao,, 1979).. On the b a s i s o f the Rorschach data,. Abel and Hsu (1949) found g r e a t e r s p o n t a n e i t y and emotional e x p r e s s i v e n e s s from American-born Chinese than n a t i v e - b o r n Chinese.. Fong (1965) used the S t i c k F i g u r e s T e s t to examine the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r p e r s o n a l p e r c e p t i o n o f the e x p r e s s i v e manner o f American c u l t u r e . I t appeared t h a t the Chinese-were acq u i r i n g : a p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s p o s i t i o n to p e r c e i v e s o c i a l g e s t u r e s as Americans did.. Yao (1979) a l s o observed t h a t contemporary immigrants had become more a s s e r t i v e and competitive: and the t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s o f i n c o n s p i c u o u s n e s s and; f a t a l i s m had; d i m i n i s h e d . Such f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t , i n terms o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l f u n c t i o n i n g , , c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t f o r Chinese immigrants appeared t o have an e f f e c t o f increased; emotional e x p r e s s i o n and openness v e r s u s s e l f - c o n t r o l and r e t i c e n c e . Also,, understanding o f and s e n s i t i v i t y t o American - 12 behavioral, norms- seemed to have developed.. The o v e r a l l , impression' i n d i c a t e s ^ t h a t w i t h i n c r e a s e d exposure to and contact, with another culture,, t r a d i t i o n a l values:- appear to change,, the degree v a r y i n g according: to the s p e c i f i c values: involved.. R e s u l t s showed that f a m i l y values; such as. p a r e n t a l authority,, c o n t r o l and f i l i a l o b l i g a t i o n s were most r e s i s t a n t to. change., B e h a v i o r a i l y , Chinese immigrants, appeared* to have moved toward g r e a t e r s p o n t a n e i t y and assertiveness., However, when we examine the impact of a c c u l t u r a t i o n on s e * r o l e s and* h e t e r o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s , we begin to f i n d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a c t i o n between immigrant men and? women., A Rorschach study (Abel & Hsu, 1949) i n d i c a t e d t h a t females had " g r e a t e r freedom i n c r e a t i v e - p r o d u c t i v i t y and. emotional e x p r e s s i v e n e s s " than males (p., 301). Though c o n f l i c t was suggested by o v e r s e n s i t i v i t y , doubt and g u i l t , females; appeared to. be* b e t t e r a d j u s t e d . Males,, on- the o t h e r hand,, seemed^ to have a. c o n s t r i c t e d emotional c o n t r o l : a n x i e t y r e g a r d i n g sex: roles' and unresolved f e e l i n g s of r e b e l l i o n . . From a d e s c r i p t i v e l o n g i t u d i n a l study on i n n o v a t i v e d a t i n g and c o u r t s h i p p a t t e r n s of Chinese stu d e n t s , Huang (1956). found; a d i f f e r e n t i a l degree of a c c u l t u r a t i o n between the sexes* Females,, on the whole, appeared to be more s e n s i t i v e to a c c u l t u r a t i o n and; more ready to accept the 13 American i d e a l of sexual equality.. Males, however, concentrated on s u p e r f i c i a l i m i t a t i o n o f American c u l t u r e and' behavior... Weiss? (19-70) rev e a l e d t h a t a c c u l t u r a t i o n caused- many Chinese females to d e n i g r a t e their, male c o u n t e r p a r t s as i n h i b i t e d , , passive* and l a c k i n g i n sexual a t t r a c t i v e n e s s . . Females appeared to have i n t e r n a l i z e d the dominant Caucasian d a t i n g values to. a g r e a t e r extent than males, and to have adj u s t e d to a g r e a t e r extent to the new s o c i a l customs. Fong and: Peskin's (1969») study of sex r o l e s f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d the p o t e n t i a l s t r a i n i n male/female r e l a t i o n s . On the C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l Inventory,, females expressed more c o n f l i c t s ; than males over s o c i a l norms and r o l e 1 expectations,, as suggested by lowered' scores on S o c i a l i z a t i o n and- Good Impression scales.. Weisman,, Snaddmsky and' Gannon (1972) a l s o suggested a s t r o n g e r i n f l u e n c e of o r i e n t a l c u l t u r a l values among Chinese males; than among; Chinese females.. In terms : of i n t e r r a c i a l marriage among Chinese and1 Japanese, r e c e n t d a t a i n d i c a t e d an i n c r e a s i n g trend f o r i n t e r r a c i a l marriage to occur predominantly among- females (Sue & Morishima,, 1982).. In my view;, these r e s u l t s p o i n t toward a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the process of a c c u l t u r a t i o n among Chinese immigrant women from t h a t among men, a d i f f e r e n c e rooted i n t h e i r r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese 1 4 family- h i e r a r c h y . Because- the Chinese, woman begins, from a p o s i t i o n o f s u b o r d i n a t i o n to f her male- r e l a t i o n s , her exposure to Western values, and: s o c i a l norms may f o r c e her to' undergo a- f a r more r a d i c a l r e a p p r a i s a l o f her t r a d i t i o n a l views; and out l o o k than i s the case with her male 5 counterpart.. The- Chinese male can adapt h i m s e l f to the. more s u p e r f i c i a l a s p e c t s of Western: c u l t u r e without f e e l i n g s i g n i f i c a n t p r e s s u r e to a l t e r fundamentally h i s t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese- v a l u e s based on h i s : dominant p o s i t i o n - w i t h i n the family., The Chinese female cannot make such an easy a d a p t a t i o n . O b v i o u s l y , i f she remains; r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d and inoculated^ from Western v a l u e s and influences,, she may continue to accept, her subordinate p o s i t i o n . But to the exten t that she attempts, to br i d g e the gap: between her o l d and her new way of l i f e , , her p o s i t i o n becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y problematic- p r e c i s e l y because Western values: p l a c e such an emphasis on the e q u a l i t y of men and women w i t h i n the f a m i l y and: s o c i e t y a t l a r g e . Assuming t h a t the immigrant woman i n t e r a c t s with her new- s o c i e t y o n l y as a student or a member of the workforce, she w i l l immediately c o n f r o n t a set of value s i n c o n f l i c t with those she has. t r a d i t i o n a l l y h e l d . More i m p o r t a n t l y , these new va l u e s may ch a l l e n g e her to a l t e r her p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the- t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . Thus,, even i f she- o n l y attends u n i v e r s i t y c l a s s e s , she w i l l s u r e l y meet women from widely d i v e r s e backgrounds (e.g..,> p r o f e s s i o n a l s , , r e - e n t r y women,, married or d i v o r c e d women,, s i n g l e mothers, etc.,),, whose very l i f e e x periences may c r e a t e f o r her r o l e models c o n f l i c t i n g with her t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . T h i s viewpoint i s confirmed by the on l y study of the' a c c u l t u r a t i o n and' emotional adjustment of Chinese women (Chang,. 1980). T h i s study found that,, as Chinese women became more a c c u l t u r a t e d , there was a low c o r r e l a t i o n between t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s (e..g.., obedience to parents,, r e s e r v e d behavior, t h r i f t i n e s s , e t c . ) and c u r r e n t v a l u e s (e.g.., s o c i a b i l i t y , independence, competence, a f f e c t i o n , ambition) .. In the long run, of course, the immigrant Chinese man may a l s o f e e l the impact of continued exposure to Western values.. In the f i r s t few post immigration years however,, he can pursue h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l or academic g o a l s without f e e l i n g ; any d i r e c t c h a l l e n g e to h i s t r a d i t i o n a l dominant p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the family.. (Under c e r t a i n circumstances,-he may even f e e l a f f i r m e d i n h i s p o s i t i o n ; o f dominance w i t h i n the f a m i l y structure,, g i v e n the f a c t t h a t "male chauvinism"' c o n t i n u e s to be a widely h e l d value among some North American 5 males.) In sum,, the impact of Western v a l u e s seems to be more immediate and the c o n t r a s t with. Chinese values more s t r i k i n g f o r the immigrant woman than 16 f o r the man., Value as a. Problem Value has. been- d e f i n e d i n many d i f f e r e n t ways.. Kluckhohn (1952) d e f i n e s value, as "a conception,, e x p l i c i t or: i m p l i c i t , , d i s t i n c t i v e o f an i n d i v i d u a l . . . o f the d e s i r a b l e which i n f l u e n c e s ^ the: s e l e c t i o n from a v a i l a b l e modes, means and: ends o f behavior"' (p. 3 95) .. K e s s e l and McBrearty (1967) s t a t e t h a t v a l u e s are standards o f d e s i r a b i l i t y i n v o l v i n g the- cognitive-,, a f f e c t i v e and d i r e c t i v e elements o f the e v a l u a t i v e p r o c e s s . Such standards: o f d e s i r a b i l i t y are c o n s i d e r e d i n terms o f good-bad right-wrong appropr i a t e - i n a p p r o p r i a t e . Wilson (19-79) f u r t h e r s t a t e s , t h a t v a l u e s p r o v i d e c r i t e r i a by which g o a l s are chosen, i n d i c a t i n g ; t h a t something, ought t o be- p r e f e r r e d . They d e a l with modes o f conduct ( i n s t r u m e n t a l v a l u e s ) and5 end-states; o f e x i s t e n c e ( t e r m i n a l values) in. which they serve as guides,, h e l p i n g i n d i v i d u a l s , s i z e up s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t s of the environment by g i v i n g these aspects, meaning.. Values a l s o h e l p an i n d i v i d u a l to get. along with o t h e r s by s e r v i n g as standards f o r one's 1 concept of. o n e s e l f . Hence,, value.- s e r v e s a v a r i e t y o f f u n c t i o n s . I t gives, a sense of d i r e c t i o n and purpose t o l i v i n g ; ; i t p r o v i d e s a frame of r e f e r e n c e f o r understanding o n e s e l f and one's 17 environment; i f a f f i r m s ; one's* i d e n t i t y , , r o l e s , and, status.; i t g i v e s meaning and: c o n s i s t e n c y to i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . . Shared: v a l u e s can' p r o v i d e s p e c i f i c : r u l e s o f conduct,, help: one to p r e d i c t expectations: and. responses o f others- and to= behave m e a n i n g f u l l y o n e s e l f . Immigrants, moving from one c u l t u r e to another bring: with them a s e t of values,, a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s ; which i s a. r e f l e c t i o n ; o f childhood: s o c i a l i z a t i o n . "Every person experiences- the world through h i s o r her c u l t u r a l l y i n f l u e n c e d , v a l u e s , assumptions and b e l i e f s " (Adler,, 1975, p. 14) .. In i n t e r a c t i n g with the new c u l t u r a l environment, immigrants- e x p e r i e n c e and; c o n s t r u c t t h e i r world through t h i s , p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d , frame: of reference.. However, i f the h o s t c u l t u r e i s ; markedly d i s s i m i l a r t o the c u l t u r e of o r i g i n , , t h e r e w i l l be an. i n f l u x : o f new and d i v e r s e s t i m u l i and information,, and consequently d i f f e r e n c e s , i n norms, expectations,, and; a c c e p t a b l e behavior.. Such d i f f e r e n c e s can: be p a r t i a l l y o r t o t a l l y , i n c o n s i s t e n t with the immigrants" t y p i c a l way o f p e r c e i v i n g and v a l u i n g (Adler,. 1975) . Value p r e s e n t s a problem when immigrants, who have been c o n s i s t e n t l y affirmed* i n t h e i r v a l u e s and i d e n t i t y , , f i n d themselves, i n a new environment where they are c o n s i s t e n t l y i n v a l i d a t e d f o r t h e i r f o r m e r l y a p p r o p r i a t e v a l u e systems.. Much o f the meaning, o r d e r and: d i r e c t i o n of t h e i r l i v e s can. 18 be, l o s t through the d i s c o n f i r m a t i o n o r r e d u c t i o n o f values-which were once: formed t o d e a l with a now absent s e t o f r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . (McCoy,, 1981b). Value: then becomes, a, problem, i f the "frames- f o r endowing l i f e 1 with meaning; [are] s u b t l y transformed i n t o cages; i n which people endure what they cannot escape"' (Cochran,, 19-78,- pv 19).* The need f o r change becomes e v i d e n t as a. response to- the p e r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n c e s , , p a r t i c u l a r l y when t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a s , v a l u e s and modes o f be h a v i o r are experien c e d as; i n a p p r o p r i a t e o r inadequate t o f u n c t i o n i n g i n a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l environment.. With- the encroachment o f Western i n f l u e n c e , the Chinese immigrant woman may find? her values, and r o l e s f u l l y v a l i d a t e d : w i t h i n her f a m i l y and e t h n i c e n c l a v e . But. once, she s t e p s o u t s i d e o f such boundaries, i n t o a work, e d u c a t i o n a l o r s o c i a l s e t t i n g , , with c o n s i s t e n t and prolonged i n t e r a c t i o n with Westerners, her b a s i c values, may be p a r t i a l l y o r t o t a l l y i n v a l i d a t e d . . Thus,, with a c c u l t u r a t i o n , she i s faced, with the p o s s i b i l i t y o f expanding and r e v i s i n g her v a l u e s and i d e n t i t y , , but c o n c o m i t a n t l y , with the f e e l i n g o f r e g r e t and l o s s o f her former s e c u r i t y and t r a d i t i o n a l emotional bonds;.. I f our c o n c e p t i o n o f the p a r t i c u l a r problems faced' by Chinese* women i n a c c u l t u r a t i o n i s : correct,, then an 19' understanding o f t h e i r s t a r t i n g p o i n t in; t h i s process, ( i . e . . , t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l system o f v a l u e s ) i s o f c r u c i a l importance to the study o f t h i s e n t i r e process;.., Chinese v e r s u s Western Values-The term "Chinese" needs; c l a r i f i c a t i o n . x In t h i s study, I am s p e c i f i c a l l y concerned with the adjustment o f immigrants, from the Hong; Kong r e g i o n , though I f e e l t h a t the r e s u l t s ? may have applications;,, t o v a r y i n g degrees, f o r immigrants from Mainland China o r Taiwan. Abbott (197 0) reviewed, the h i s t o r y o f Chinese p h i l o s o p h y i n o r d e r to understand i t s v a l u e system.. He s t a t e d t h a t "the Chinese t r a d i t i o n a l l y view t h e i r world as being i n a c o n s t a n t harmonious movement"' (p.. 47). Harmony i s the key concept i n a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Concern, f o r o t h e r people becomes the e x p r e s s i o n o f harmony i n a l l area; o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . , Hsu (1971) a l s o s t a t e d t h a t the Chinese c o n c e p t i o n o f human being (Jen) i s based; on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s t r a n s a c t i o n with o t h e r people., The emphasis i s , on i n t e r p e r s o n a l t r a n s a c t i o n , "how. i t f i t s o r f a i l s to f i t the i n t e r p e r s o n a l standards of s o c i e t y and culture"" (Hsu,, 1971, p., 29) . A- b a s i c assumption o f such a world view and; concept o f human being i s o t h e r - o r group-orientedness. and the i n d i v i d u a l ' s; r o l e i n m a i n t a i n i n g harmony and congruity.. 20 W i t h i n t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n , , the f a m i l y i s the most important system' o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and " ' a l l v a l u e s are determined by r e f e r e n c e to the maintenance,, c o n t i n u i t y and f u n c t i o n o f the f a m i l y group"' (Lee, 1953,, p. 272). Family s o l i d a r i t y i s - h i g h l y valued:.. I n d i v i d u a l f e e l i n g s and be h a v i o r s are s a c r i f i c e d : t o f u r t h e r the w e l f a r e , p r i d e and r e p u t a t i o n o f the family.. The i n d i v i d u a l can b r i n g c r e d i t o r disgrace- t o the en t i r e - family., " i t i s the f e e l i n g o f ''we1.'5 (not '"11 as; i n the f a m i l y o f the Western world) ,. which i s cherished,, c u l t i v a t e d and f i n a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the p e r s o n a l i t y o f the grown-up ad u l t s . . . . A Chinese does not l i v e f o r h i m s e l f and" f o r h i m s e l f a l o n e . He i s . the son o f h i s p a r e n t s , the descendant o f his. ancestors,, the p o t e n t i a l f a t h e r o f his- c h i l d r e n , , and: the p i l l a r o f the family" 1 (Lee,, 1953,. p. 253) . F e e l i n g s o f shame and g u i l t are i n s t i l l e d during: s o c i a l i z a t i o n (Hu, 194 4 ) , and there is; a strong, appeal t o g r a t i t u d e and:, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . . In o r d e r to m a i n t a i n harmony,, s t r i n g e n t s e l f - c o n t r o l i s . p r a c t i s e d , and r e i n f o r c e d . W i t h i n such a, family,, the r o l e s are r i g i d l y p r e s c r i b e d , by age;, sex and g e n e r a t i o n a l status.. The f a t h e r - s o n r e l a t i o n s h i p , i s the c e n t r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the f a m i l y and i s viewed as a l i n k t o p o s t e r i t y (Lang,- 1946 ;. Levy, 1949.;; Anshen,, 1959-; Fong,, 1973) . The b i r t h o f a son is; p r e f e r a b l e t o t h a t o f a daughter ( F u j i t o m i & Wong, 21 1976).. T h i s s t r e s s ; on the male l i n e a g e has, profound; implication's' f o r the s u b j u g a t i o n and; d e v a l u a t i o n o f women. The r o l e o f women i s . a p t l y conveyed; by the po p u l a r code o f feminine e t h i c s , "the three- obediences,,"' which states; t h a t "a woman i s to- obey her f a t h e r a t home, her husband a f t e r the marriage,, and: her e l d e s t son a f t e r the death of; her husband." At an e a r l y age,, g i r l s are made aware t h a t they w i l l sooner o r l a t e r be married out of the f a m i l y . Often daughters a re r e f e r r e d t o as; "goods- [on] which one l o s e s one's c a p i t a l " ' (Baker,, 1979,. p. 41), because a l l the e f f o r t invested; i n r a i s i n g , a daughter i s handed ; over t o the husband"s f a m i l y when she marries.. The whole* t r a i n i n g o f the- daughter i s aimed, a t f i t t i n g her to, be a wife,, mother, and. worker f o r the husband's: family.. "Lack o f learning: i s a woman*rs v i r t u e " ' and e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , are o f t e n denied? (Levy,, 19-4:9'; Fried,, 1953,; Wright, 1964;, Das, & Bard i s , 1979;: Baker,, 1979) .. To t h i s p o i n t , we have d i s c u s s e d the nature o f Chinese values; as. they, are r e f l e c t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e , , p h i l o s o p h y and h i s t o r y o f China.. These v a l u e s are not o n l y o f h i s t o r i c a l , but a l s o o f contemporary s o c i a l and. p s y c h o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . That they p e r s i s t to i n f l u e n c e the o u t l o o k o f present-day Chinese men and: women i s c l e a r l y demonstrated by a; s e r i e s o f r e c e n t s t u d i e s i n Hong Kong . 2 2 (Liu,. 1964; S t o o d l ey, 1967; Dawson, Law, Leung.,, & Whitney, 1.971;; Podmore> & Chaney, 1973, 19741; Harding,. 1978) . L i u (.1964) used, an a d a p t a t i o n o f Kluckhohn-Strodtbeck v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n s c a l e t o e s t a b l i s h that,, although there were s i g n i f i c a n t v a l u e d i f f e r e n c e s (many o f which, c o u l d be accounted f o r by d i f f e r e n c e s i n age, e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l status);, nonetheless; " s t r o n g v e s t i g e s * of the C o n f u c i a n h e r i t a g e p e r s i s t t o the p r e s e n t day" (p.. 55) . He found a marked consensus- among- Hong Kong: teenagers„ and^ p a r e n t s t h a t , although t h e r e was a strong, t r e n d toward i n d i v i d u a l i s m and " f u t u r e " o r i e n t a t i o n , the t r a d i t i o n a l views r e g a r d i n g f a m i l y cohesiveness,. r e s p o n s i b l i t y toward elders,, and c u l t u r a l r i t u a l s s t i l l had s u b s t a n t i a l support. Hong Kong* p a r e n t s and youths; are i n a g r a d u a l p r o c e s s o f change, as demonstrated i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y , m a r i t a l c h o i c e and r e l a t i o n s . , The Stoodley (1967) study,, supported: by Podmore and Chaney (1974), i n d i c a t e d ; the emergence o f a v a r i a n t o f the c o n j u g a l f a m i l y ( f r e e c h o i c e o f marriage, w i f e ' s r o l e i n d e c i s i o n making and f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ) with the coexistence- of a p p a r e n t l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y norms: s t r o n g support and r e s p e c t f o r p a r e n t s ; d e f e r e n c e t o p a r e n t a l wishes, with some r e c e n t l y developed forms o f n e g o t i a t i o n and accomodation. The p e r s i s t e n c e : o f p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e was f u r t h e r demonstrated:- by Podmore and Chaney's (197 3) S'tudy on the o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e o f young; Hong: Kong a d u l t s . Dawson,. Law, Leung, and- Whitney (1971) examined a t r a d i t i o n a l - m o d e r n a t t i t u d e change* model with the use o f the G a l v a n i c S k i n Response (GSR) measurement o f important v e r s u s unimportant Chinese concepts;. They found t h a t the more h i g h l y valued, C o n f u c i a n concepts- were l e s s v u l n e r a b l e to induced pressures, t o change i n a modern d i r e c t i o n , , were a s s o c i a t e d with h i g h e r a t t i t u d i n a l c o n f l i c t , , and i n v o l v e d h i g h e r GSR a r o u s a l -Harding' (1978) explored; the c e n t r a l i t y o f moral values; i n Chinese and Western subjects; by using the Repertory grid;. In; the Western group,, there was. more emphasis on the i n d i v i d u a l per se.. In the Chinese group,., s e l f - r e s p e c t was i n close- c o n j u n c t i o n with s o c i a l harmony and r e s p e c t from and; f o r others.. The Chinese,. Harding; noted;, used c o n s t r u c t s such as. " r e s p e c t by others,'" " p o s s i b i l i t y o f being disgraced,"' "avoids, confrontation,,"* "aware o f o t h e r s ' responses, to myself." The Westerners, f a v o r e d such, c o n s t r u c t s as: "accepts s e l f , " " o b l i g a t i o n to s e l f , " "importance o f i n d i v i d u a l needs,."' etc*. A l s o , d i s t a n c e between^ s o c i a l , s e l f and, i d e a l s e l f was: s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l e r among Chinese than among Westerners.. Emotions such as g u i l t and shame were s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d with core 24 Chinese, v a l u e s . P o s s i b l e E f f e c t s o f Value C o n f l i c t These and o t h e r works; (Ho,s 1976; Tinloy,. 1978). l e a v e l i t t l e doubt t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese v a l u e s o f f i l i a l p i e t y , s e l f - c o n t r o l , s o c i a l harmony,, shame and g u i l t s t i l l exert, c o n s i d e r a b l e : i n f l u e n c e on both Chinese men and women.. And yet,,, i t seems e v i d e n t to me t h a t w i t h i n t h i s framework of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s , men and women f i n d themselves; i n d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s . . The dominant, p o s i t i o n o f the male and the dominated p o s i t i o n o f the female are co n s i d e r e d c r u c i a l i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t socia-l and f a m i l i a l harmony on which: the Chinese p l a c e so much emphasis. (Lang, 1946; Baker,. 1979) . But l e t us= now assume t h a t these immigrants are suddenly exposed t o a v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l environment,, one which s t r e s s e s i n d i v i d u a l i s m , autonomy,, emotional expression,, competitiveness,, etc.. Park (1928) comments; t h a t w i t h m i g r a t i o n "the cake of custom i s broken and- the i n d i v i d u a l i s f r e e d f o r new e n t e r p r i s e s and; f o r new a s s o c i a t i o n s . , One of t h e consequences o f m i g r a t i o n i s to c r e a t e a s i t u a t i o n i n which the: same i n d i v i d u a l — w h o may o r may not be mixed b l o o d — f i n d s h i m s e l f s t r i v i n g to- l i v e i n two d i v e r s e c u l t u r a l groups.. T h i s is; the 'marginal man.'7 I t i s i n the mind o f t h a t marginal man t h a t c o n f l i c t i n g c u l t u r e s meet and fuse"' (p. 881) .. But what of. the "marginal woman"? Such a q u e s t i o n i s not beside; the p o i n t y e s p e c i a l l y when one- i s ; d e a l i n g w i t h a c u l t u r e which r i g i d l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s between men and women. Although both face s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e i r new? country„ each begins; from a* d i f f e r e n t p o i n t o f development. The dominant p o s i t i o n ; o f the.- male:* does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t he has: an advantage- i n a c c u l t u r a t i o n . . On the contrary,, t h a t v e r y domination; can a c t as. a. hindering, factor,, i f he i s r e i n f o r c e d , i n h i s t r a d i t i o n a l values.. On the o t h e r hand,., the dominated o r su b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n - o f the woman means t h a t the process: o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n she undergoes, may be more- d i f f i c u l t - but a l s o more wide-ranging; and, more profound i n its-, impact.. At p r e s e n t we have no t h e o r e t i c a l , model of c u l t u r a l t r a n s i t i o n : which takes; these d i f f e r e n c e s ; i n t o account.. We do know, from works; such as: those- by A d l e r (19-7 5)-,- (which did; not d i s t i n g u i s h between men. and women) t h a t the immigrant may undergo; d i f f e r e n t developmental s t a g e s in. t h i s p r o c e s s . An i n i t i a l c o n t a c t phase is; f o l l o w e d by d i s i n t e g r a t i o n and- c o n f u s i o n over i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y , l e a d i n g t o a, st r o n g r e j e c t i o n o f the host culture.. L a t e r , one may come to= terms; with the d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s ; between.the old, and the new c u l t u r e i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e a synthesis,, a new framework of meaning f o r l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . 26 We a l s o know t h a t t h e r e may be d i f f e r e n t types o f adjustment. Sue and Sue (1971) c o n c e p t u a l i z e d t h r e e t y p o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r s o f Chinese Americans ( a g a i n no d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between male and female) e x p e r i e n c i n g v a l u e c o n f l i c t : 1. The " t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s " who r e s i s t a s s i m i l a t i o n by m a i n t a i n i n g l o y a l t y t o f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and by a s s o c i a t i n g p r e d o m i n a n t l y w i t h o t h e r Chinese, thus i n s u l a t i n g themselves from the i n f l u e n c e o f Western c u l t u r e . 2. The "mar g i n a l men" who may become o v e r w e s t e r n i z e d i n d e f i a n c e o f p a r e n t a l v a l u e s . They may attempt t o a s s i m i l a t e i n t o the h o s t s o c i e t y and d e f i n e s e l f - w o r t h i n terms o f acceptance by Cau c a s i a n s . 3. The " A s i a n Americans" who t r y t o f o r m u l a t e a new i d e n t i t y by p r e s e r v i n g Chinese v a l u e s and r e c o n c i l e v i a b l e a s p e c t s o f t h e i r c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e w i t h the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n . None o f these models, s i g n i f i c a n t though they a r e , take i n t o account the d i f f e r e n c e s between Chinese men and women. Nor do they f o c u s d i r e c t l y on a c c u l t u r a t i o n and the p r o c e s s o f v a l u e c o n f l i c t and d e c i s i o n making w i t h i n t h i s d e f i n e d c o n t e x t . Do the v a l u e s o f Chinese women change o r p e r s i s t when they emigrate t o a Western s o c i e t y ? Which v a l u e s are a f f i r m e d 2 7 and which are expanded, rejected or pol a r i z e d i n t h e i r process of adjustment? What are some of the personal reactions involved? An in-depth exploration of these issues on an i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l can generate important information about these questions. In turn, t h i s information can be useful i n counselling and a s s i s t i n g the "marginal woman" i n assuming a f u l l and rewarding p o s i t i o n i n the mainstream of her new soc i e t y . In a f i e l d where so l i t t l e i s known, i t i s more important to seek the r i g h t questions rather than merely to pose questions of unknown merit. Accordingly, a major objec t i v e of t h i s study i s to use case studies to explore how immigrant women a l t e r t h e i r construct systems i n adjusting to a new cul t u r e . This exploration involves two aspects. F i r s t , and most important, each g r i d ( K e l l y , 1955) serves as a basis f o r a case study on how at l e a s t one woman construed her options. From t h i s perspective, f i f t e e n case studies are used to construct i n d i v i d u a l p o r t r a i t s of the a c c u l t u r a t i o n experience. Second, the s i t u a t i o n s themselves are a valuable source of information on the way c o n f l i c t a r i s e s . Treated as a var i a n t of Flanagan's (1954) C r i t i c a l Incident Technique, these s i t u a t i o n s are grouped into categories to portray the d i f f e r e n t kinds of c o n f l i c t s and decisions 28 i n v o l v e d i n a d j u s t i n g to a. new country.. Lastly,, an attempt w i l l be made t o examine group patterns;.. These patterns, can serve comparative purposes, and* p r o v i d e an a l t e r n a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e - t o the i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s t u d i e s . 29 Chapter I I I A c c u l t u r a t i o n - and C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Methodologies: Content and- Methodology As we: have seen, many a c c u l t u r a t i o n s t u d i e s have e x p l o r e d topics; such as f a m i l y l i f e , , g e n e r a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s , , c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s , , c h i l d - r e a r i n g and sex r o l e s ; o t h e r s have measured f a c t o r s such as language, f r i e n d s , , r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n , socioeconomic or o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s as i n d i c a t o r s of a s s i m i l a t i o n (Lai,. 1971)-. Examination of the content of such s t u d i e s r e v e a l s t h a t v e r y few focus, on v a l u e s and: value change. Values may be p a r t i a l l y explored^ i n a d i r e c t manner as p a r t of a g e n e r a l study on f a m i l y l i f e (Abbott,. 1970), a t t i t u d e s (Kuo & L i n , 1977; Yao, 1979) or emotional adjustment (Chang, 1980). Another approach to values; has been i n d i r e c t . Values are; i n f e r r e d : from t e s t r e s u l t s obtained i n the study of o t h e r v a r i a b l e s , i n c l u d i n g s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n (Fong, 1965);,, dating. (Huang, 1956; Weiss, 19-70),, c h i l d - r e a r i n g (Sollenberger,, 1968; K r i g e r & Kroes, 1972), and p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Abel & Hsu, 1949; Sue- & K i r k , 1972; Sue & Frank, 1973). Furthermore,, most studies, were conducted, on a g e n e r a l population,, with no account taken of the d i s t i n c t i o n 30 between: males and females, a f a c t o r of c r u c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e to an e x p l o r a t i o n of values.. Though there are- g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s which apply to both men and: women, some key va l u e s p e r t a i n i n g to t h e i r development and. a f f e c t i n g the process o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n are c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t . Such l i m i t a t i o n s i n terms- of content pose d i f f i c u l t i e s i n understanding the adjustment experiences of the: immigrant women., In terms of methodology, most a c c u l t u r a t i o n studies, have u t i l i z e d approaches involving, p r i m a r i l y f a c t o r s such as h i s t o r i c a l e vidence, survey data, ethnographic observations; and psychometric: assessment. H i s t o r i c a l methods i n e a r l i e r s t u d i e s (Hayner. & Reynolds,- 1937"; Lyman,. 1968) r e l y h e a v i l y on documentary evidence, records, and* anecdotes f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . . These s t u d i e s tend to look at d i f f e r e n t facets, of the immigrants' l i v e s . . Values; and. t h e i r r e l a t e d : changes, are o f t e n i n f e r r e d from- the i n f o r m a t i o n gathered., Such an approach requires-that, the i n t e r p r e t e r and the t a r g e t share and; agree upon the meaning, of the behavior being i n v e s t i g a t e d . . A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d f i e l d work, p a r t i c u l a r l y p a r t i c i p a n t observation, and- interviews,, have a l s o been used ( S o l i e n b e r g e r , 1968 ; Weiss,, 1970). Although such ethnographic r e s e a r c h gives, a more complete p i c t u r e of the immigrant's r e a l l i f e environment i n terms of a 31 n a t u r a l i s t i c s e t t i n g , , a l l such s t u d i e s are hampered by severe l i m i t a t i o n s stemming: from the observer's: bias, and u n r e l i a b i l i t y , , the s u b j e c t ' s r e a c t i v i t y , , the- communication o f i n t e r v i e w material,, and: c u l t u r a l e q u i v a l e n c e o f r e c o r d i n g - c o d i n g procedures,. Thus,, as, one o b s e r v e r remarked about Weiss' study o f Chinese dating, b e h a v i o r , " i t . i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine the e x t e n t to which his. r a c i a l background and h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s may have s e l e c t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e d h i s s u b j e c t sample and t h e i r responses" (Fong.,, 1973, p. 122). The experimenter's b i a s appears t o be a l i a b i l i t y i n S o l l e n g e r g e r ' s study on-c h i l d - r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s . . The study may a l s o be a f f e c t e d by the f a c t t h a t some i n t e r v i e w s were conducted by Western, i n t e r v i e w e r s and. some- by Chinese t r a n s l a t o r s . Again., w i t h i n such an approach,, v a l u e s are i n v e s t i g a t e d i n an i n d i r e c t f a s h i o n and are based on i n f e r e n c e s from o t h e r findings:. Another method i s survey r e s e a r c h , mostly used i n s o c i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s ( L a i , 1971; Kuo & L i n , 1977; Yao„ 1979-; Chang, 1980) . Here,, measurement t o o l s such as. q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and, sometimes, i n t e r v i e w s are used. Questionnaires; are c o n s t r u c t e d t o o b t a i n s t a n d a r d i z e d information, from respondents, such as:, the percentage o f respondents who hold c e r t a i n c u l t u r a l b e l i e f s . . Responses are o f t e n l i m i t e d t o L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e s o r f o r c e d - c h o i c e r e p l i e s . . For example, i n Kuo and Lin- ( 1 9 - 7 7 ) a r q u e s t i o n n a i r e forms three d i s t i n c t i v e , i n d i c a t o r s - o f Chinese-Amer i c a n c e n t r i p e t a l tendencies;: Yao's (19-79) a t t i t u d e survey examines; e x t r i n s i c * and ; i n t r i n s i c c u l t u r a l t r a i t s ; and i n Chang; (1980), an a c c u l t u r a t i o n index of' a d j e c t i v e s i s developed t o d e s c r i b e v a l u e s o f a c c u l t u r a t e d women.-Although survey r e s e a r c h has p r o v i d e d ""indispensable,, b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n on; the fundamental b e l i e f s , o f a. s o c i e t y , a t a g i v e n moment" ( Z a v a l l o n i , 1980, p., 100) and has; p r o b a b l y i n d i c a t e d the d i r e c t i o n of f u t u r e r e s e a r c h , f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s ; r e q u i r e d t o o b t a i n g r e a t e r s p e c i f i c i t y o f the- v a r i a b l e s involved., An obvious, l i m i t a t i o n , , Z a v a l l o n i (1980) notes,, is, the communality between the i n d i v i d u a l and the group as; determined; by the use- o f aggregate responses o b t a i n e d from, a sample o f i n d i v i d u a l s and expressed: through average f r e q u e n c i e s . As a- r e s u l t , the response o b t a i n e d may be s u p e r f i c i a l and r e s t r i c t i v e i n content,, and: the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f such d a t a c o u l d be; "too s p e c u l a t i v e and. always v u l n e r a b l e to what Campbell (1969) c a l l s ' r i v a l hypotheses"" ( Z a v a l l o n i , . 1980, p. 99). Most p s y c h o l o g i c a l a c c u l t u r a t i o n s t u d i e s are based on s t a n d a r d i z e d p e r s o n a l i t y and p r o j e c t i v e tests.. Examples i n c l u d e the use of the C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l Inventory 3 3< i n Abbott (1970) and Fong; and Peskin, (1969),. the S t i c k F i g u r e s T e s t i n Fong (1965), the Rorschach i n Abel and Hs,u (1949) , the N u nnally's q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n Sue, Wagner, M a r g u l l i s and Lew (1976), the Minnesota M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory i n Sue= and Sue (197 4) , the Omnibus P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory and the Strong V o c a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t Blank: i n Sue and K i r k (1972) and Sue and: Frank. (197 3) •• Such psychometric assessment i n v o l v e s the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s t i m u l i m a t e r i a l to the s u b j e c t s and the measurement and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e i r responses a c c o r d i n g to c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d i z e d norms. Often,, such t e s t s t are a d m i n i s t e r e d to the Chinese group,, or,, i f a comparative approach i s adopted,, to s e v e r a l e t h n i c groups f o r comparison o f test, scores, and' i n f e r e n c e s . . Besides the numerous unr e s o l v e d q u e s t i o n s concerning, p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t i n g , , a p p l i c a t i o n o f such instruments; c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y i s o f t e n confounded: by such problems- as c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y , , c u lture-bound s t i m u l u s and norms, among o t h e r things.. As Z a v a l l o n i (198 0) s t a t e s t h a t most o f these instruments measure imposed e t i c v a r i a b l e s and comparison i s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y i n d e f e n s i b l e . . Another source o f m a t e r i a l on a c c u l t u r a t i o n i s d e r i v e d from, the c l i n i c a l approach (Sommers, 1960; Sue & Sue, 197 2, 1973;- Bourne, 1975) .. Mental h e a l t h a t t i t u d e s , problems o f the c l i e n t , , and the c l i n i c a l judgment of the t h e r a p i s t 34 c o n s t i t u t e the; basis; of such data.. Again,, c o n f l i c t s , o f values, and; i d e n t i t y are- u s u a l l y i n f e r r e d - from these case s t u d i e s . And the- s o l u t i o n t o such c o n f l i c t s , a c c o r d i n g t o Sue and; Sue (1971) and. Sue (19-77) , l i e s i n the development o f a b i c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . To summarize, previous; r e s e a r c h on the a c c u l t u r a t i o n of Chinese immigrants has p r o v i d e d i n v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r a d a p t a t i o n to a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l environment. Although the c o n t e n t o f these s t u d i e s has; been; diverse; and a, v a r i e t y o f methodologies has been used (each, methodology with i t s own s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses), the q u e s t i o n o f value, change and; c o n f l i c t ( p a r t i c u l a r l y as r e g a r d s women) has never been addressed d i r e c t l y o r explored: thoroughly., I t appears; t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f s t u d i e s on. a c c u l t u r a t i o n of Chinese immigrants; has adopted an e m p i r i c a l o r comparative- approach p r i m a r i l y with the use o f s t a n d a r d i z e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s . . I t a l s o appears t h a t the u n d e r l y i n g assumption o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n i s measured by an A n g l o - c o n f o r m i t y model (Gordon,, 19-78) ranging on a dimension from e t h n i c to American,, u n a c c u l t u r a t e d to a c c u l t u r a t e d . An a l t e r n a t i v e t o the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l study o f v a l u e s would s h i f t the study o f the aggregate to t h a t of the i n d i v i d u a l and:, as: noted by Z a v o l l o n i ( 1980),. would i n c l u d e 35 i d i o s y n c r a t i c p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes,, r e l a t i o n s h i p s among, values,, judgments; and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , o f the world, and the i n t e g r a t i o n o f new e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h i n an e x i s t i n g ; c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e . . In my assessment o f r e s e a r c h methodologies, the Repertory g r i d ( K e l l y , 1955) seems to- be a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e . The technique f o c u s e s on the c l i e n t s ' view o f the world i n t h e i r own terms; r a t h e r than on the p r a c t i c e o f c a t e g o r i z i n g them i n terms o f a standard, p r o f e s s i o n a l ' c o n c e p t u a l framework ( B a n n i s t e r , 196 5). " i t recommends i t s e l f p r i m a r i l y because i t leads- us away from the p r a c t i c e o f t r y i n g t o locate* [ c l i e n t s ] on our own. p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l dimensions towards- the p r a c t i c e - o f i n i t i a l l y scanning, those? dimensions on which the [ c l i e n t ] , l o c a t e s us and the r e s t o f the world with which he i s c o n f r o n t e d " ( B a n n i s t e r , 1965,, p. 981). P e r s o n a l C o n s t r u c t Theory The t h e o r e t i c a l base u n d e r l y i n g the Repertory g r i d i s l a r g e l y d e r i v e d from the work o f G- A., K e l l y (195 5) on P e r s o n a l C o n s t r u c t t h e o r y . The following, d i s c u s s i o n i s by no means an e x h a u s t i v e a n a l y s i s ; o f K e l l y ' s theory.. Rather, a t t e n t i o n i s focused on those p a r t s o f h i s t h e o r y t h a t are r e l e v a n t t o the- p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . . 36 T h i s t h e o r y is; based on the c o n c e p t i o n o f human being as' af s c i e n t i s t whose u l t i m a t e aim i s to p r e d i c t and to c o n t r o l his. o r her own world.. T h i s i s accomplished by s e t t i n g , hypotheses,, t e s t i n g and. r e v i s i n g , them. Inherent i n t h i s theory i s the assumption t h a t , a lthough r e a l i t y i s assumed t o e x i s t , , i n d i v i d u a l s ; respond to r e a l i t y o n l y as they see and 1 i n t e r p r e t ; i t . Hence, i n d i v i d u a l s d evelop t h e i r unique and i d i o s y n c r a t i c framework o f i n t e r p r e t i n g ; and making, sense o f events and experiences.. T h i s framework i s - the p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t system, and each new event o r ex p e r i e n c e i s construed o r in t e r p r e t e d - in. r e l a t i o n t o t h i s e x i s t i n g system.. Using t h e i r c o n s t r u c t s as guides o r " t r a n s p a r e n t patterns; o r templates"" (Kel l y , , 1955, p.. 8 ) , i n d i v i d u a l s can a n t i c i p a t e and p r e d i c t events and i n t e g r a t e t h i s knowledge w i t h i n an. a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d meaningful system. W i t h i n such a model, i t i s assumed t h a t " a l l o f our pr e s e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , o f the u n i v e r s e are s u b j e c t to r e v i s i o n o r replacement"' ( K e l l y , 1955, P. 15) — a p o s i t i o n , which- K e l l y terms c o n s t r u c t i v e a l t e r n a t i s m . T h i s process takes, p l a c e through c o n s t r u i n g and. r e c o n s t r u i n g . In construing: ( p l a c i n g an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) , an i n d i v i d u a l notes, f e a t u r e s i n a- s e r i e s o f elements which c h a r a c t e r i z e s some of the elements, and are p a r t i c u l a r l y u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f others.. Thus he e r e c t s c o n s t r u c t s , o f s i m i l a r i t y and c o n t r a s t . Both the s i m i l a r i t y and the c o n t r a s t are i n h e r e n t i n the same c o n s t r u c t (K e l l y , . 1955) .. And the b a s i c - nature of a c o n s t r u c t i s the way in. which some t h i n g s are construed as; being a l i k e and y e t d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r s . S i n c e the p r e s e n t study is, focused on the v a l u e system of the ; Chinese immigrant woman,, the shaping o f her i d e n t i t y as; a, r e s u l t o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n , and" the p e r s o n a l r e a c t i o n s involved,, a c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f some b a s i c K e l l i a n terms such as core and p e r i p h e r a l c o n s t r u c t s , and some e m o t i o n - r e l a t e d c o n s t r u c t s i s i n order.. A core c o n s t r u c t is. d e f i n e d by i.ts i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r o t h e r constructs., A core c o n s t r u c t i s maximally embedded in= a c o n s t r u c t system.; by v i r t u e o f numerous', s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s . . A more p e r i p h e r a l c o n s t r u c t i s more1 m i n i m a l l y embedded by v i r t u e of; fewer and weaker r e l a t i o n s , t o o t h e r constructs.. In t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l viewpoint,, meaning i s r e l a t i o n a l , and the meaningfulness o f a c o n s t r u c t i s p a r t i a l l y a f u n c t i o n of the e x t e n t o f i t s r e l a t i o n s t o o t h e r c o n s t r u c t s (Hinkle,. 1965). "Core c o n s t r u c t s are those which govern a person's maintenance p r o c e s s e s — t h a t is , , those by which he m a i n t a i n s h i s i d e n t i t y and e x i s t e n c e " ( K e l l y , , 1955, p.. 482)*. St e f a n (1977) d e f i n e s core c o n s t r u c t s i n terms o f their, s uperordinancy; they are "those c o n s t r u c t s i n the s t r u c t u r e which i d e n t i f y a p a t t e r n 38 or i d e n t i t y f o r a loo s e grouping' of constructs......by which the c o n s t r u i n g i n d i v i d u a l , comes to p o s i t an i d e n t i t y o r meaning- to h i s behavior" (p. 282) . Stefan f u r t h e r proposes to. look a t the s e l f as a b a s i c core i d e n t i t y , which can- be e l a b o r a t e d , r a t h e r than to hold a view t h a t one i s c o n t i n u a l l y i n the process of s t r u c t u r i n g a new and updated s e t of core c o n s t r u c t s . Thus, as. observed by v a r i o u s t h e o r i s t s , core c o n s t r u c t s are b a s i c to the maintenance of p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y , , are i m p l i c a t e d i n ot h e r c o n s t r u c t s and more r e s i s t a n t to change., P e r i p h e r a l c o n s t r u c t s occupy a l e s s c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n and are those which can be a l t e r e d without s e r i o u s m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the core s t r u c t u r e . In thi s , study, core and p e r i p h e r a l c o n s t r u c t s are defined, i n terms of t h e i r r e l a t i v e  c e n t r a l i t y i n the system. In' the process of expanding or' r e v i s i n g one's constructs,, emotions such as : g u i l t or t h r e a t are experienced., Such emot i o n — r e l a t e d c o n s t r u c t s convey "the i d e a t hat there i s a c e r t a i n awareness of the f a t e of p a r t o r a l l of the construct, system being at stake" (McCoy, 1977,, p. 104). Here we w i l l c l a r i f y g u i l t and bewilderment which are- d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to t h i s study. G u i l t is; the 1 p e r c e p t i o n of one's apparent dislodgement-from one's core r o l e s t r u c t u r e . W i t h i n one's core r o l e s t ructure- there are those frames which enable one to 39 p r e d i c t and. c o n t r o l the e s s e n t i a l i n t e r a c t ions* o f o n e s e l f with o t h e r persons and with s o c i e t a l groups ( K e l l y , 1955)... G u i l t i s experienced when one perceives, o n e s e l f as not f u l f i l l i n g one's- core r o l e which maintains, the s e l f as an i n t e g r a l being.. Bewilderment i s an awareness of imminent comprehensive change 1 i n non-core s t r u c t u r e . . When a l l the world seems to p s y t u r v e y , when- th i n g s are c u r i o u s e r and c u r i o u s e r , but s e l f c o n s t r u c t s have not been i n v a l i d a t e d , , bewilderment d e s c r i b e s the r e s u l t i n g , sense of p r e c a r i o u s n e s s (McCoy, 1977).. In the present context,, bewilderment implies-r e a c t i o n s such as c o n f u s i o n and uncertainty.. Repertory G r i d : K e l l y d e v i s e d the- Repertory g r i d as a method f o r e x p l o r i n g the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n s t r u c t system. I t s primary concern is= to c o n c e p t u a l i z e and to e l u c i d a t e the s u b j e c t i v e ' frame of r e f e r e n c e of i n d i v i d u a l s , i n order to g a i n access to.- t h e i r o utlook on the world,, how they o r g a n i z e events and a n t i c i p a t e * experiences.. I t a l s o taps, the i n d i v i d u a l ' s view of the s e l f and of others,, and the o p t i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n one's c o n s t r u c t system. The g r i d can be- looked at as a form o f s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w . I t is- both p r o j e c t i v e and i d i o g r a p h i c v I t seeks d i r e c t l y and e x p l i c i t l y to measure the s u b j e c t ' s view 40 of h i s s i t u a t i o n , , whereas a t r a d i t i o n a l experimental approach tends to measure the experimenter"s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f the s i t u a t i o n and i n f e r the nature of the s u b j e c t ' s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n from the- response ( B a n n i s t e r , 1962). In theory, s i n c e the g r i d i s based on the assumption of m a n — t h e — s c i e n t i s t with h i s or her i m p l i c i t system o f viewing- the world,, i t i s a means; of e x p l o r i n g the content and the s t r u c t u r e of: such, an i m p l i c i t system,, which i s l i k e -"networks o f meaning; through which persons: see and handle the u n i v e r s e of s i t u a t i o n s through which they move" ( F r a n s e l l a , & B a n n i s t e r , 1977,. p. 2).. T h e r e f o r e , g r i d r e s u l t s ; can be seen, as a s u b j e c t i v e map of the c o n s t r u c t system,, "a s o r t o f i d i o g r a p h i c cartography" ( F r a n s e l l a - &, B a n n i s t e r , 1977, p. 3). In p r a c t i c e , , the g r i d may be d e f i n e d as any form of s o r t i n g ' task which a l l o w s f o r the assessment of the content and' the s t r u c t u r e between constructs; ( F r a n s e l l a & B a n n i s t e r , 1977). The- content i n v o l v e s the concerns and the i n t e r e s t s o f the ; i n d i v i d u a l ; the s t r u c t u r e i s the type of r e l a t i o n s h i p and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the constructs. ( B a n n i s t e r & Mair, 1.968)., A g r i d is: a s e t of elements (people,, objects,, e t c . ) which have been judged on a s e t of c o n s t r u c t s ( b i p o l a r concepts, such as> f r i e n d l y / u n f r i e n d l y ) , t y p i c a l l y using 2-, 41 3—,. 5-,, and 7-point scales; f o r rating, elements. G r i d data are organized' i n t o a matrix as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Appendix C. In t h i s g r i d , , which w i l l , be used i n the present study, r i v a l options: from s i x pr o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e d the elements., Twelve c o n s t r u c t s were e l i c i t e d and' used to rate, o p t i o n s on a 7-point scale., One o f the most u s e f u l aspects of a-, g r i d i s that the r e l a t i o n s among c o n s t r u c t s can be- assessed by Product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s (among oth e r types of c o r r e l a t i o n s ) . . For example, i n the g r i d , the c o r r e l a t i o n between " p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and o b l i g a t i o n s " and "not to j e o p a r d i z e c l o s e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s " ' i s ..88. They are s t r o n g l y related.. To f u l f i l l p arental, e x p e c t a t i o n s and o b l i g a t i o n s i s not to j e o p a r d i z e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s . Not to f u l f i l l these e x p e c t a t i o n s (by pursuing s o c i a l i d e a l s ) i s to break o f f c o n t a c t . This; is; q u i t e a potent alignment and one can; r e a d i l y begin to grasp the subject's, s i t u a t i o n and the ex t r e m i t y w i t h which i t i s framed*., By c o n t r a s t , the c o r r e l a t i o n between 1 "not to j e o p a r d i z e c l o s e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s ' " and "pe r s o n a l c u r i o s i t y " i s o n l y —.,12.- The two value c o n s t r u c t s are n e g l i g i b l y related., C u r i o s i t y has no d i r e c t bearing on f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s . In t h i s way, by- seeing what goes, with what,, one can begin to* make sense of the way the content i s s t r u c t u r e d , and by i m p l i c a t i o n , the way she construes her de c i s i o n s . . 42 The d i f f i c u l t y with c o r r e l a t i o n s - i s t h a t they are so-numerous., For 12 constructs,, there- a re 66 i n t e r -c o r r e l a t i o n s . One way to reduce the co m p l e x i t y o f c o r r e l a t i o n s , t o a more manageable and: c l e a r basis; f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s through the use of a P r i n c i p a l Component analysis-. P r i n c i p a l Component a n a l y s i s , o f a g r i d v A P r i n c i p a l . Component a n a l y s i s i s a method f o r reducing: the c o m p l e x i t y o f d a t a by showing dominant c l u s t e r s : Q r p a t t e r n s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p . The f i r s t p r i n c i p a l component accounts, f o r maximum v a r i a n c e w i t h i n a< grid.. The second p r i n c i p a l component accounts f o r a maximum o f remaining v a r i a n c e and i s u n c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the f i r s t . , And so on:.. A component i s s p e c i f i e d * by i t s ; l a t e n t r o o t (amount o f v a r i a n c e accounted f o r ) , , i t s c o n s t r u c t v e c t o r ( l o a d i n g o f c o n s t r u c t s on the component—can be thought o f as c o r r e l a t i o n s o f c o n s t r u c t s w i t h a h y p o t h e t i c a l o r s u p e r o r d i n a t e c o n s t r u c t ) , , and: i t s element v e c t o r ( s c o r e s o f elements on component). As a l e a s t squares, approach, the a n a l y s i s makes no assumptions r e g a r d i n g the data being analyzed: (e.g.,,, the form o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n ) . I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y an a n a l y s i s o f the t o t a l v a r i a t i o n i n a g r i d ( S l a t e r , 1964J; Hope, 1968) . In i t s , a p p l i c a t i o n t o a g r i d produced: by a s i n g l e p erson, the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s , i d i o g r a p h i c . For example, the c o r r e l a t i o n s between c o n s t r u c t s o r the l o a d i n g s on a component are not estimates of a true r e l a t i o n w i t h i n a p o p u l a t i o n o f people.. Rather,, the c o r r e l a t i o n or loading, d e s c r i b e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h i n the. data of a grid.. That i s , w i t h i n the context o f a s e t of elements, a g i v e n c o n s t r u c t i s shown;, to c o r r e l a t e to some degree with another c o n s t r u c t or to load to some degree on a component.. Within the microcosm of the i n d i v i d u a l , , the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s an i n d i c a t o r of s u b j e c t i v e meaning,, t h e extent to which constructs; or c l u s t e r s are related., T y p i c a l l y , the aim of a P r i n c i p a l Component a n a l y s i s of a g r i d i s not to draw c o n c l u s i o n s about ot h e r cases, nor to i n f e r what is; happening i n some oth e r p a r t of one's c o n s t r u c t system, but to; d e s c r i b e what i s there i n a grid.. The problems i n v o l v e d i n a random sampling of elements and' c o n s t r u c t s from a. p r i v a t e u n i v e r s e are f o r m i d a b l e , and f o r the purpose of th i s - study and' most studies,, unnecessary.. There i s no need to i n f e r to a. p o p u l a t i o n . Some i n v e s t i g a t o r s (e.g..,, Wilson,. 1976) recommend, the use of three times the number of elements as c o n s t r u c t s i n o rder to improve the s t a b i l i t y of c o n s t r u c t r e l a t i o n s . . But as F r a n s e l l a and' B a n n i s t e r (1977) note, what seems d e s i r a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l l y i s not always d e s i r a b l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , , at l e a s t with an i d i o g r a p h i c ; instrument.. For example,, an i n c r e a s e in. elements might i n c r e a s e the chance of f a t i g u e , boredom, and; c o n f u s i o n , which can 44 decrease: s t a b i l i t y . . Also,- this: s t r e s s upon a presumably more, t r u e r e l a t i o n s h i p neglects; the ve r y purpose f o r which a g r i d i s g i v e n , namely to d e s c r i b e r e l a t i o n s - w i t h i n the context o f c e r t a i n elements.. In a case study, one is* not so much concerned; with a random sample as: with a p e r s o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t sample.. For example,, i n t h i s study, there was no e f f o r t whatever t o e l i c i t a; random sample' of s i t u a t i o n s and c o n s t r u c t s . Rather, an e f f o r t was. made to e l i c i t s i g n i f i c a n t c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s and the c o n s t r u c t s used- t o i n t e r p r e t those s i t u a t i o n s . As. S l a t e r has r e p e a t e d l y cautioned, i n h i s works (1965, 1969,. 1976 „ 1977) , a grid: r e p r e s e n t s an i n t e r a c t i v e system i n which c o n s t r u c t s are r e l a t e d i n element space. Whether the c o n s t r u c t s might r e l a t e d i f f e r e n t l y w i t h i n the context o f another s e t of elements i s i r r e l e v a n t . . For example,, r a t h e r than use const r u c t s , to r a t e s i t u a t i o n a l options,.- one might use them t o r a t e people,, c u l t u r e s , o r a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n s . To go f u r t h e r a f i e l d , one might use them to rate: insects.. There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t with a, determined effort,., one- co u l d f i n d a: s e t of elements: w i t h i n which the c o n s t r u c t r e l a t i o n s v a r i e d perhaps q u i t e a b i t , but such a demonstration i s * of. l i t t l e importance. What i s important i s how the c o n s t r u c t s r e l a t e w i t h i n the context o f elements f o r which they are most u s e f u l or ap p l i c a b l e , , primary uses r a t h e r than remote uses. However,, perhaps the most s t r i k i n g reason, f o r n e g l e c t i n g suggestions; such as Wilson's is ; t h a t the r e l a t i o n s among; constructs, u s i n g 10 x 10 o r 12' x. 12 g r i d s (and* o t h e r sizes- as; w e l l ) have been shown i n a v a r i e t y o f ways to be reasonably dependable, as w i l l be d e s c r i b e d s h o r t l y . The importance o f P r i n c i p a l Component a n a l y s i s f o r t h i s study is< t h a t i t : d i v i d e s c o n s t r u c t s i n t o core and p e r i p h e r a l c l u s t e r s or themes. R e c a l l t h a t a core c o n s t r u c t i s d e f i n e d by i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r o t h e r constructs*. A core c o n s t r u c t i s maximally embedded i n a c o n s t r u c t system by v i r t u e o f numerous strong r e l a t i o n s . . A more1 p e r i p h e r a l construct, i s more m i n i m a l l y embedded by v i r t u e o f fewer and" weaker r e l a t i o n s - to other c o n s t r u c t s . In. t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l viewpoint, meaning: i s r e l a t i o n a l , and: the meariingfulness o f a c o n s t r u c t i s p a r t i a l l y a f u n c t i o n of the extent o f i t s ; r e l a t i o n s , to o t h e r c o n s t r u c t s ( H i n k l e , 1965)"... I t is; assumed; that r e l a t i o n s among^ constructs; can be measured by c o r r e l a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s . Since,, i n a P r i n c i p a l Component ana l y s i s , , the f i r s t p r i n c i p a l component accounts f o r the maximum amount of v a r i a n c e i n a. g r i d , { ^ r e d e f i n i t i o n i t i s c e n t r a l . C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , the c o n s t r u c t s t h a t loadf h e a v i l y on the f i r s t p r i n c i p a l component w i l l be c e n t r a l or core constructs... In c o n t r a s t , the second and' t h i r d p r i n c i p a l components, become i n c r e a s i n g l y p e r i p h e r a l , and the 46 c o n s t r u c t s which load' h e a v i l y on them become i n c r e a s i n g l y p e r i p h e r a l as w e l l . There i s growing- evidence t h a t core c o n s t r u c t s are d i f f e r e n t from more p e r i p h e r a l constructs,, and d i f f e r e n t i n t h e o r e t i c a l l y p r e d i c t a b l e ways. Asch (1946) showed t h a t c e n t r a l c o n s t r u c t s - were more i n f l u e n t i a l i n impression formation and change than p e r i p h e r a l constructs.. In a follow-up study, Wishner (1960) showed that c e n t r a l i t y could, be measured by the extent to which, a c o n s t r u c t c o r r e l a t e d with o t h e r c o n s t r u c t s w i t h i n a s e t o f c o n s t r u c t s . That i s , a core c o n s t r u c t was more i n f l u e n t i a l in. impression formation and- change due to i t s g r e a t e r number of r e l a t i o n s with or i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r other c o n s t r u c t s , as measured by c o r r e l a t i o n s . Bender (1969) found t h a t core- c o n s t r u c t s were used more e x t e n s i v e l y than p e r i p h e r a l constructs^ to i n t e r p r e t people and t h e i r actions,, while Lemon and Warren (1974) found core c o n s t r u c t s to be more s a l i e n t in. i n d i v i d u a l s ' d e s c r i p t i o n s , of o t h e r people., Cochran (1978) showed t h a t core c o n s t r u c t s were more i n f l u e n t i a l i n d e f i n i n g s o c i a l s i t u a -t i o n s than p e r i p h e r a l c o n s t r u c t s . In a p a r t i a l r e p l i c a t i o n , Cochran (1981) f u r t h e r showed that core c o n s t r u c t s were more i n f l u e n t i a l , , or a t l e a s t more s t r o n g l y i n v o l v e d , i n the construed p o l i c i e s of a c t i o n s toward others.. In v a r i o u s ways,, these s t u d i e s provide support f o r the assumption^ t h a t core c o n s t r u c t s are more meaningful and-ean be i d e n t i f i e d : by the s t r e n g t h of t h e i r i n t e r c o r r e l a -t i o n s or loadings; on the f i r s t p r i n c i p a l component. Since S l a t e r (1965) c l a r i f i e d the advantages and p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f applying- P r i n c i p a l Component a n a l y s i s to g r i d data,, the use of t h i s technique has become widespread and r a t h e r customary among pe r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t r e s e a r c h e r s . S l a t e r (1976, 1977). has thoroughly d i s c u s s e d most o f i t s advantages; and; l i m i t s . . However, of immediate rele v a n c e are q u e s t i o n s o f r e l i a b i l i t y . . Are the r e l a t i o n s among c o n s t r u c t s , upon which P r i n c i p a l Component a n a l y s i s i s based-,,, r e l i a b l e ? In p a r t i c u l a r , , can one count on the p r i n c i p a l components f o r the purposes of this- study? One: o b j e c t i o n might be that r a t i n g s are so u n r e l i a b l e , , unlike- say t e s t s c o r e s , that a g r i d i s i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from a random s e t of numbers.. To assess t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , . Slater. (1977) has developed; a GRANNY program which generates and analyses g r i d s of randomly s e l e c t e d numbers, which can. be a d j u s t e d f o r 2-,, 5—, and; 7-point s c a l e s o f judgment. The most s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e between a randomly generated g r i d and an a c t u a l one i s that there is; a l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e i n the s i z e of the f i r s t p r i n c i p a l component. More b r o a d l y , S l a t e r (1977) has concluded t h a t "experimental g r i d s h a r d l y ever resemble a r r a y s of random numbers,, even remotely" (p. 136). 48 The p a t t e r n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s among constructs; i s not a random happening.,, but a r e f l e c t i o n of what those c o n s t r u c t s mean to a. person i n complex i n t e r a c t i o n with a s e t of elements, as has become apparent i n s e v e r a l hundred published' studies.. For example,, Mair (1966) used d i c t i o n a r y meanings; to determine which o f a s e l e c t i o n of c o n s t r u c t s would" be- s t r o n g l y related- (e.g.,, synonyms),, n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d (e.g..,. antonyms),., and5 weakly r e l a t e d . He found that: the- average r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r a group o f s u b j e c t s d e r i v e d from a g r i d were c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with p r e d i c t e d r e l a t i o n s . Further,, the p a t t e r n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s found i n a g r i d tends to be c o n s i s t e n t from one time to another,, t y p i c a l l y ranging- from c o n s i s t e n c y c o r r e l a t i o n s of .60 to .80 ( F r a n s e l l a & Bannister,, 1977). Indeed,-. an e x t e n s i v e l y r e p l i c a t e d f i n d i n g i s t h a t those who m a n i f e s t low degrees of p a t t e r n and c o n s i s t e n c y also, manifest b e haviors t h a t lead 1 to a d i a g n o s i s o f t h o u g h t - d i s o r d e r e d schizophrenia. (Adams-Webber,. 1979)., Those who m a n i f e s t symptoms which lead to a d i a g n o s i s of thought d i s o r d e r tend: to produce g r i d s t h a t more c l o s e l y resemble a, randomly generated a r r a y of numbers.. But s t i l l , t here i s c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e - between the two. In a? d i s c u s s i o n of how grid: data d i f f e r s , from the-assumptions, o f population- s t a t i s t i c s , S l a t e r (1977) has noted t h a t even- i f s t a t i s t i c a l arguments or evidence of 49-o t h e r kinds show that g r i d s are g e n e r a l l y r e l i a b l e , the r e l i a b i l i t y o f a; p a r t i c u l a r instance- remains open, to doubt. What i s needed i s not s t a t i s t i c a l evidence of a general, nature, but r e l e v a n t evidence about the s u b j e c t which supports or v e r i f i e s the content of the g r i d . To t h i s end, a v a l i d a t i o n - procedure (Harding, 19-78; McCoy, 1979) i s employed: in: t h i s ; study (see d e t a i l s - i n the next c h a p t e r ) . Repertory g r i d and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y . . E s s e n t i a l to c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h i s the r e s p e c t f o r the i n t e g r i t y of another c u l t u r a l v i e w p o i n t . This, r e q u i r e s access to t h a t p o i n t of view which must n e c e s s a r i l y be on i t s own terms - and not those which we might impose on i t (McCoy,. 1981a). I t appears t h a t P e r s o n a l Construct theory, with i t s emphasis; on the i n d i v i d u a l frame o f r e f e r e n c e and. the i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of events,, can be- a p p l i c a b l e a c r o s s c u l t u r e s . I r v i n e and C a r r o l (1980) a l s o s t a t e d t h a t K e l l y ' s theory and the Repertory g r i d are p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l f o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h . They remarked t h a t the methodology is, d i r e c t l y d e r i v e d from the theory and from e s t a b l i s h e d o b j e c t - s o r t i n g techniques f o r measurement of concept formation.. Hence the phenomenon of t e s t t a k i n g i s e x p l i c a b l e and i s observable as an a c t o f c o n s t r u i n g i n i t s e l f , which is. the b a s i c conception of human experience i n the theory. They f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t s i m i l a r to o t h e r 50 i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g models l i k e - t h a t developed by T r i a n d i s . (1972) ,5 the g r i d "allows, f o r the presence- o f c u l t u r e - s y n t o n i c c o n t e n t i n the t e s t i n g , s i t u a t i o n , . .... they are g e n e r a l methods,, having, some degree o f a p r i o r c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . . . . " ' (p. 232). The u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e g r i d t o c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h was; f u r t h e r noted, by Ryle (197 5) : " i n s o c i o l o g y and a n t h r o p o l o g y — w h e r e perceptions, o f r o l e and c a s t e are o f t e n of c e n t r a l c o n c e r n — t h e c a p a c i t y o f grid; technique to e l i c i t the s u b j e c t ' s own, judgments i n his; own terms would-seem to be o f v a l u e " (p. 138). P r e v i o u s and ongoing; s t u d i e s have p r o v i d e d s u p p o r t i v e evidence- r e g a r d i n g the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l use o f the g r i d . Harding; (1978), u s i n g the Repertory g r i d , e x p l o r e d some o f the d i f f e r e n c e s between Chinese and Western v a l u e systems, p a r t i c u l a r l y the; c e n t r a l i t y o f moral v a l u e s , the p s y c h o l o g i c a l meaningf ulness; of the core- c l u s t e r o f c o n s t r u c t s , and; the d i f f e r e n t emotions involved, with the core r o l e s t r u c t u r e . In a d d i t i o n , a r e c e n t s i n g l e case study (Harding, 1980) explored, the changing v a l u e s experienced by a, 25 year o l d Chinese woman and. i l l u s t r a t e d the c o n f l i c t s between t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese and Western values., An ongoing l o n g i t u d i n a l study by McCoy (1980, 1981b) involves, the phenomenon o f c u l t u r e - s h o c k e d marriages and 51 the experience of e x p a t r i a t e wives, who are i n the p r o c e s s of c u l t u r e t r a n s i t i o n . , These are- Western wives married to Chinese husbands whose r e - e n t r y t o Hong Kong from a. Western c u l t u r a l environment has- r e s u l t e d : in- c o n s t r u c t changes. Repertory g r i d t e s t i n g over a p e r i o d of two years; was obtained from samples of women from f o u r d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l backgrounds-, both before and ; a f t e r c u l t u r a l entrance.. These few s t u d i e s have i l l u s t r a t e d the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the grid- method. The g r i d "allows the s u b j e c t to r e v e a l h i s own judgments i n h i s own v o c a b u l a r y r e g a r d i n g some important s e t of elements i n h i s own experience"' (McCoy, 1981a,- p.. 46), and as p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , i t taps the s u b j e c t ' s p e r s o n a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f , say, people,, events or t h i n g s , r a t h e r than examining t h i s through a s t a n d a r d i z e d normative framework. Chapter IV Method Subjects. F i f t e e n s u b j e c t s are r e c r u i t e d from the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia through l e t t e r s ; t o the Chinese Students A s s o c i a t i o n , , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House and. an advertisement (see Appendix. A) i n "Ubyssey" (the U.B.C. student newspaper).. T h i s i s a v o l u n t e e r sample o f Chinese, immigrant women from Hong' Kong who have been i n Canada f o r a t l e a s t t h r e e y e a r s . Their, ages range from twenty to t h i r t y - t h r e e . . Of the f i f t e e n subjects,, e i g h t are s i n g l e and seven are m a r r i e d . S i t u a t i o n G r i d A. s i t u a t i o n g r i d i s designed p r i m a r i l y to model, the. d e c i s i o n , s i t u a t i o n s t h a t immigrants- are faced with i n t h e i r process: of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . . P s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , the h e a r t of d i f f i c u l t y i n adjustment i s v a l u e c o n f l i c t i n d e c i s i o n s i t u a t i o n s . , In o r d e r to- c a p t u r e t h i s s i g n i f i c a n c e , the s u b j e c t s are asked- to speak f o r themselves and to draw from t h e i r own p e r s o n a l experiences:, the c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s , , the options, and the v a l u e a t t r i b u t i o n s , to- each option.. In thisv way,, the s i t u a t i o n g r i d , i l l u s t r a t e s f i d e l i t y to the s t r u c t u r e of t h e s i t u a t i o n as construed by the i n d i v i d u a l s , how they are faced : with c o n f l i c t i n g o p t i o n s and v a l u e s i n 53 s i t u a t i o n s , and: how. t h e y a c t u a l l y respond, f e e l , p o l a r i z e d o r "pulled, a p a r t " i n d e c i s i o n making. ntA s i t u a t i o n i s d e f i n e d i n the c o n t e x t o f a range o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f which o n l y one comes, i n t o b e i n g " (Cochran,, 1978,, p.. 734) ,. o r as, Bateson (1972) a s s e r t s , a s i t u a t i o n i s d e f i n e d not o n l y by what happened but by what c o u l d have happened but d i d not. In a n a l y z i n g s i t u a t i o n s , , we are viewing c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t permit some freedom o f c h o i c e o r some a l t e r n a t i v e : c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n . In sum,, the r a t i o n a l e o f the s i t u a t i o n g r i d i s t o remain f a i t h f u l to the c o n t e x t o f the s i t u a t i o n as l i v e d . Value o r i e n t a t i o n s ? are. e x p l o r e d as c o n c r e t e c h o i c e s t h a t must, be made in< everyday l i f e s i t u a t i o n s and: are i n f e r r e d from, s p e c i f i c c h o i c e of. a l t e r n a t i v e s . . T h a t i s , the s u b j e c t provides: r e a l o p t i o n s i n r e a l , s i t u a t i o n s and: the v a l u e s t h a t are important and. meaningful i n d e c i d i n g upon those options.. These are r e a l l i f e experiences- i n the s u b j e c t -i v e world o f the immigrant.. The purpose i s to examine the s p e c i f i c v a l u e s i n v o l v e d and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these v a l u e s w i t h i n the d e c i s i o n making pr o c e s s i n the d e f i n e d c o n t e x t o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n . Each subject,, t h e r e f o r e , completes: the s i t u a t i o n g r i d . Completing the gr i d : i n v o l v e s three major steps:, e l i c i t i n g elements t o be: judged,, e l i c i t i n g and s u p p l y i n g c o n s t r u c t s with which to; judge elements- and r a t i n g each, element on each, c o n s t r u c t * E l i c i t i n g , elements t o be judged. The purpose o f t h i s e x e r c i s e was, to e l i c i t r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s i n which v a l u e c o n f l i c t s ^ were experienced; i n the pro c e s s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n . An i n i t i a l p i l o t u s i n g a f u l l e r v e rsion, o f Flanagan's (1954) C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique proved t o be too time-consuming; and wearing on the s u b j e c t . Consequently the •following procedure was adopted.. P r i o r t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n , , each s u b j e c t was- g i v e n a handout cont a i n i n g , s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s (see Appendix B ) . B r i e f l y , each s u b j e c t was asked: t o r e c a l l s i x s i t u a t i o n s i n which, she had' t o make a d e c i s i o n i n a d j u s t i n g t o the new c u l t u r a l environment. These s i t u a t i o n s : i n v o l v e d t h i n g s which seemed most important t o the- subject,, and covered her main i n t e r e s t s , , concerns o r important areas o f her l i f e . , She was then asked to i d e n t i f y the o p t i o n she chose and the o p t i o n she re j e c t e d , i n each s i t u a t i o n (e..g..,. l i v i n g on. one's own versus- l i v i n g with, f a m i l y ) . E l i c i t i n g v a l u e c o n s t r u c t s with which to judge  elements.. A f t e r e l i c i t i n g the c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s and, options,, the v a l u e which s u p p o r t e d each o p t i o n was e l i c i t e d by a s k i n g the s u b j e c t to r e f l e c t , on the pro c e s s o f d e c i s i o n making and: to come up wit h the reasons f o r j u s t i f y i n g o r choosing the o p t i o n . The main reason which forwarded the accepted 5 o p t i o n was used as one p o l e of a v a l u e c o n s t r u c t 55 (e.g. ,. the main reason f o r the accepted o p t i o n o f l i v i n g on one's own was-- to be more independent). The s u b j e c t was then asked to g i v e the reasons which argue i n f a v o r o f the r e j e c t e d option.. The main reason which was; most a p p e a l i n g was used as the p o l e o f a v a l u e c o n s t r u c t f o r the r e j e c t e d 1 o p t i o n (e.g.,, the main reason which argued* i n f a v o r o f the r e j e c t e d o p t i o n o f l i v i n g with f a m i l y was to g e t a p p r o v a l from p a r e n t s ) . A f t e r e l i c i t i n g the twelve v a l u e c o n s t r u c t s a s s o c i a t e d with the accepted and the r e j e c t e d o p t i o n s , the b i p o l a r c o n t r a s t s ; to the twelve v a l u e c o n s t r u c t s were then e l i c i t e d (e.g.. ,, becoming more independent versus, f o l l o w i n g t r a d i t i o n ) . As a r e s u l t , twelve v a l u e c o n s t r u c t s and t h e i r b i p o l a r c o n t r a s t s were e l i c i t e d from the s u b j e c t and: were used on the s i t u a t i o n grid., In a d d i t i o n to; the twelve e l i c i t e d v a l u e c o n s t r u c t s , six; supplied; c o n s t r u c t s were a l s o provided;. They were: (a)< p o t e n t i a l f o r s t r e n g t h e n i n g versus, weakening Chinese i d e n t i t y , (b) p o t e n t i a l f o r s t r e n g t h e n i n g v e r s u s weakening Western i d e n t i t y , (c) p o t e n t i a l f o r s t r e n g t h e n i n g versus weakening p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y , , (d) p o t e n t i a l f o r expansion of p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y , , (e) p o t e n t i a l f o r g u i l t , and ( f ) p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n f u s i o n and; uncertainty.. The r o l e o f the s u p p l i e d c o n s t r u c t s i s to a i d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o see how i d e n t i t y and emotions, are a l i g n e d with c e r t a i n 56 value, c l u s t e r s . For example, i s g u i l t or c o n f u s i o n involved: with c e r t a i n c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s : o r i s Chinese o r Western, i d e n t i t y more a l i g n e d with a c e n t r a l o r p e r i p h e r a l c l u s t e r o f v a l u e s ? I t i s important here t o note the d e f i n i t i o n of the s u p p l i e d constructs.. G u i l t and c o n f u s i o n have a l r e a d y been d e f i n e d within* the K e l l i a n t r a d i t i o n on pages 38 and 39 o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . Chinese i d e n t i t y g e n e r a l l y r e f e r s t o the sense o f e t h n i c i d e n t i t y a s s o c i a t e d with the immigrant's n a t i v e culture., For instance,, s i n c e they are immigrants from Hong Kong,, they have a c e r t a i n sense of c u l t u r a l heritage,, and ways o f d o ing and s a y i n g t h i n g s t y p i c a l , o f t h a t c u l t u r e . When, they emigrate to a Western c u l t u r e such as Canada, there are d i f f e r e n t standards which are t y p i c a l o f t h i s s o c i e t y ; Western i d e n t i t y r e f e r s to t h e i r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and r e l a t i o n s h i p with such i d e a l s and h a b i t s . Lastly,, p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y r e f e r s to the immigrant's; p e r s o n a l sense of c o n t i n u i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y her own f e e l i n g o f uniqueness and i n d i v i d u a l i t y . Rating each element on each c o n s t r u c t . As a r e s u l t , each s u b j e c t was a d m i n i s t e r e d a g r i d comprised of twelve s i t u a t i o n a l o p t i o n s as elements - and twelve v a l u e s as c o n s t r u c t s . . A l s o , s i x s u p p l i e d c o n s t r u c t s were used to-r a t e the s i t u a t i o n a l o p t i o n s . Each s u b j e c t was asked to r a t e each element on each 57 c o n s t r u c t , using a s c a l e of 7 to 1 to r e p r e s e n t the b i p o l a r nature o f the c o n s t r u c t dimension. For example, the s u b j e c t was to r a t e each s i t u a t i o n a l o p t i o n on " i n d e p e n d e n c e / f o l l o w i n g t r a d i t i o n " dimension on a s c a l e of 7 to 1 a c c o r d i n g to how f a r the s i t u a t i o n a l o p t i o n was d e s c r i b e d by o r r e l a t e d to the c o n s t r u c t ( i . e . , 7 — v e r y , 6 — m o d e r a t e l y , 5 — s l i g h t l y , 4 — n e u t r a l / n o n a p p l i c a b l e , 3 — s l i g h t l y , 2 — m o d e r a t e l y , 1 — v e r y . See Appendix C f o r r a t i n g f o r m a t ) . The same r a t i n g procedure a p p l i e s to the s u p p l i e d c o n s t r u c t s ; t h a t i s , the s u b j e c t was asked t o r a t e each s i t u a t i o n a l o p t i o n on each s u p p l i e d c o n s t r u c t dimension using a s c a l e o f 7 t o 1. V a l i d a t i n g core and p e r i p h e r a l components. The meaningfulness o f the core and p e r i p h e r a l components was v a l i d a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g ways. F i r s t , the d a t a from each i n d i v i d u a l g r i d were submitted to P r i n c i p a l Component a n a l y s i s . The f i r s t and the second component were e x t r a c t e d , and the c o n s t r u c t l o a d i n g s were ordered from h i g h e s t to lowest on each component. F o l l o w i n g the procedure of Harding (1978) and McCoy (1979) , the top f o u r c o n s t r u c t s were s e l e c t e d to c h a r a c t e r i z e each component. However, i n t h i s study, i f a c o n s t r u c t loaded h e a v i l y or supplemented a new dimension of meaning, i t would be added. I f . a c o n s t r u c t had a low l o a d i n g ( t h i s a p p l i e s o n l y to the second component), i t would be d e l e t e d . In t h i s way, two 58 c l u s t e r s , o f v a l u e s were formed f o r each person. For each c l u s t e r , , a- s u p e r o r d i n a t e c o n s t r u c t o r theme was c o n c e p t u a l -i z e d which seemed t o r e f l e c t the meaning, o f the: c l u s t e r . . Two named themes, were obtained,, one f o r the f i r s t component and one f o r the secondr (examples can be seen i n Chapter V I ) . The themes and c l u s t e r s were checked by an independent judge who s u b j e c t i v e l y v a l i d a t e d : the common core of meaning o f the c l u s t e r s - and the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the s u p e r o r d i n a t e theme. McCoy (1979) emphasized the s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t p l a y e d by the person i n t e r p r e t i n g and naming the component., "Naming f a c t o r s i s a f i n e a r t ... the process o f a b s t r a c t i o n i n naming i s c e r t a i n l y not the same- e x e r c i s e o f mathematical o b j e c t i v i t y . . In f a c t , s u b j e c t i v e i n t u i t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e g r e a t l y to the c r e a t i v i t y r e q u i r e d t o meet the c h a l l e n g e of i n t e g r a t i n g a number o f h i g h loading; elements i n t o a. s i n g l e concept name" (p.,303) Second,, the value; c l u s t e r s ; and the s u p e r o r d i n a t e themes o f the f i r s t and, the second component were presented to the s u b j e c t f o r s u b j e c t i v e v a l i d a t i o n t o see i f a n a l y s i s was- p e r s o n a l l y meaningful and. r e f l e c t i v e o f her s i t u a t i o n . A l l p o r t (194 2) discussed, the r a r e but p o t e n t i a l l y important use o f " r e b u t t a l " t h a t may be o f f e r e d by a s u b j e c t t o another's: a n a l y s i s o f h i m s e l f . He c i t e d two examples: Freud's, c r i t i q u e o f W i t t e l ' s , biography (1924) published: as an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the biography i t s e l f . , and 59-the p h i l o s o p h e r ' s answer to h i s c r i t i c s in. the series* known as the L i b r a r y of L i v i n g P h i l o s o p h y , i l l u s t r a t e d i n the volume devoted t o John Dewey (1939).. In these cases,, the s u b j e c t "has the o p p o r t u n i t y to c o r r e c t , or a t l e a s t protest,, the statements o f f a c t and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s made by h i s b i o g r a p h e r s " ( A l l p o r t , , 194:2, p. 44) . In t h i s study,, s u b j e c t i v e v e r i f i c a t i o n was sought and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the f i n a l naming o f the components. Furthermore,, the s u b j e c t was asked to r e - r a t e the s i t u a t i o n a l options, on the super— o r d i n a t e themes, and these r e - r a t i n g s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h o p t i o n s c o r e s f o r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e component t o a s s e s s the p s y c h o l o g i c a l meaningfulness o f the core and p e r i p h e r a l components. The following, i s ; an example o f the preamble e x p l a n a t i o n to the v a l i d a t i o n procedure:: "From the g r i d : r a t i n g s , I was a b l e to use the computer t o show which values; go with, which v a l u e s and to t r y to- o r g a n i z e your v a l u e s into- o v e r a l l themes.. Here i s a. l i s t o f what you might t h i n k of as the c e n t r a l theme o f your adjustment ( r e f e r to the v a l u e c l u s t e r s and the s u p e r o r d i n a t e theme o f the f i r s t component), the v a l u e s on t h i s s i d e a l l go t o g e t h e r in. c o n t r a s t to these v a l u e s . What I have t r i e d , to do i s to study these v a l u e s v e r y c l o s e l y and g i v e them an o v e r a l l name o r theme,, something t h a t c a p t u r e s the essence o f your e x p e r i e n c e . " 60 A f t e r this^ i n t r o d u c t i o n , q u e s t i o n s were asked to understand the s u b j e c t ' s r e a c t i o n . For example, "How do the r e s u l t s s t r i k e ' you? What does t h i s mean f o r you?" The s u b j e c t ' s response was recorded., Then, the- paper c o n t a i n i n g the v a l u e c l u s t e r s and the named theme were removed.. The s u b j e c t was asked t o r e - r a t e the s i t u a t i o n a l o p t i o n s from her f i r s t g r i d with the s u p e r o r d i n a t e theme as a c o n s t r u c t on a s c a l e o f 7 t o 1 (see Appendix, D f o r r e - r a t i n g format) .. The same procedure, was repeated f o r the. v a l u e c l u s t e r s and the named theme o f the second component. For example, "Quite independent o f the primary theme,, s o r t o f secondary,, these v a l u e s seem to go t o g e t h e r i n c o n t r a s t t o these ones,, how do you f e e l about i t ? " " A gain, s u b j e c t i v e v a l i d a t i o n was recorded and, the s u b j e c t asked to r e - r a t e the s i t u a t i o n a l options, with the second s u p e r o r d i n a t e theme on. a s c a l e of 7 t o 1. Procedure The data were gathered p e r s o n a l l y by the author with each s u b j e c t i n two s e p a r a t e i n t e r v i e w s from March to May 1983.. P r i o r to the interview,, each s u b j e c t was informed t h a t t h i s was a d i s s e r t a t i o n t o i n v e s t i g a t e v a l u e and i d e n t i t y change of Chinese immigrant women (see Appendix E and F f o r l e t t e r t o s u b j e c t and consent form)„ and, t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n 61 was v o l u n t a r y and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n would be respected.. A l l d a t a would be p r e s e r v e d anonymously upon the completion o f t h i s study. The f i r s t i n t e r v i e w involved, the e l i c i t a t i o n o f c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s and o p t i o n s , followed, by the e l i c i t a t i o n o f t h e i r r e l a t e d v a l u e c o n s t r u c t s and b i p o l a r c o n t r a s t s . The s u b j e c t was then asked to r a t e the s i t u a t i o n a l o p t i o n s on the twelve e l i c i t e d and the s i x s u p p l i e d c o n s t r u c t s . A P r i n c i p a l Component a n a l y s i s was conducted on each i n d i v i d u a l grid,, from which o n l y the f i r s t and the second component were e x t r a c t e d . Before the second i n t e r v i e w , the author, t o g e t h e r with the- a s s i s t a n c e of an independent c o l l e a g u e , grouped the c o n s t r u c t s t h a t l o a d h e a v i l y on the f i r s t and the second component and gave each c l u s t e r a s u p e r o r d i n a t e theme o r name, one f o r the f i r s t component and one f o r t h e second. Each s u b j e c t was c o n t a c t e d f o r a second i n t e r v i e w to g i v e feedback and. i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f her g r i d r e s u l t s . . She was then asked f o r s u b j e c t i v e v a l i d a t i o n and f o r r e - r a t i n g of the s i t u a t i o n a l o p t i o n s on the s u p e r o r d i n a t e themes. Data A n a l y s i s For each i n d i v i d u a l g r i d , a P r i n c i p a l Component a n a l y s i s was performed to o r g a n i z e c o n s t r u c t s i n t o c l u s t e r s and to see which s i t u a t i o n a l o p t i o n s were p a r t i c u l a r l y s a l i e n t f o r each c l u s t e r . . The o p t i o n scores;, f o r the f i r s t and the second: components; were c o r r e l a t e d with the s u p p l i e d c o n s t r u c t s to. determine how i d e n t i t y and; emotion were aligned.. Together with, i n f o r m a t i o n from the interviews; the g r i d data, from each i n d i v i d u a l were analyzed and i n t e r p r e t e d to; g a i n an understanding of how each was managing the d e c i s i o n s and v a l u e c o n f l i c t s thought to be p r o b l e m a t i c i n a c c u l t u r a t i o n . , For example, are Chinese and Western i d e n t i t y i n a c c o r d , c o n f l i c t , , o r separated i n r e l a t i o n to the c o n s t r u c t c l u s t e r s ? Is one p e r s o n a l l y a l i g n e d with Chinese o r Western i d e n t i t y on a c e n t r a l o r p e r i p h e r a l component? Through i n s p e c t i o n o f these and o t h e r q u e s t i o n s , i t was hoped f u l l e r p o r t r a i t s would; emerge of the ways these immigrants cope wi t h problems o f adjustment.. Chapter V Group Results. A P r i n c i p a l Component a n a l y s i s was performed on each g r i d , i n d i v i d u a l l y . , Since t h i s study i s focused- upon the meaningf ulness, o f c o n s t r u c t s , and; s i n c e p r i o r r e s e a r c h and theo r y i n d i c a t e t h a t those c o n s t r u c t s , which are more i n t e r r e l a t e d are a l s o more: p e r s o n a l l y meaningful ( c e n t r a l r a t h e than p e r i p h e r a l ) , , the components were not r o t a t e d . The f i r s t component d e f i n e s a dimension o f v a r i a t i o n t h a t i s assumed to be more p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y c e n t r a l and meaningful w h i l e the second component d e f i n e s , one t h a t i s more p e r i p h e r a l and l e s s m e a n i n g f u l . For comparative purposes and f o r an a l t e r n a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e f o r case s t u d i e s ( p r e s e n t e d i n the next chapter),, a P r i n c i p a l Component a n a l y s i s , was, a l s o conducted' w i t h a varimax r o t a t i o n . . However,, c o r r e l a t i o n s o f the o p t i o n o r component s c o r e s between unrotated and; r o t a t e d components were so hig h t h a t the r o t a t i o n would add l i t t l e to the, p r e s e n t r e s u l t s . For the f i r s t components,, the median c o r r e l a t i o n was .82 with range from 1.00 to .7 0.. For the second components, the median c o r r e l a t i o n was .81 wi t h a range from .99 t o .69. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Meaningfulness o f Components The meaningfulness of the component c l u s t e r s o f 6 4 c o n s t r u c t s , was v a l i d a t e d i n f o u r steps., F i r s t , f o r each, i n d i v i d u a l g r i d , the c o n s t r u c t l o a d i n g s were ordered from h i g h e s t t o lowest on each component. F o l l o w i n g the procedure o f Harding (1978) and McCoy (1979), the top f o u r c o n s t r u c t s were s e l e c t e d to c h a r a c t e r i z e each component. However, i n t h i s study,, i f a c o n s t r u c t loaded h e a v i l y o r supplemented: a. new dimension- o f meaning, i t would be added. I f a c o n s t r u c t had. a low l o a d i n g ( t h i s a p p l i e s o n l y t o the second component), i t would- be d e l e t e d . In t h i s way,, two c l u s t e r s ; o f c o n s t r u c t s were formed f o r each person.. For each c l u s t e r , a s u p e r o r d i n a t e c o n s t r u c t o r theme was c o n c e p t u a l i z e d which seemed t o make sense o f the c l u s t e r . While this- s t e p r e q u i r e s c o n s i d e r a b l e s e n s i t i v i t y and sometimes; knowledge o f the person and her s i t u a t i o n , a s a t i s f a c t o r y theme was developed f o r each c l u s t e r o f each person.. Some themes seemed t o f i t b e t t e r than others,: but g e n e r a l l y , each c l u s t e r manifested a r e c o g n i z a b l e , common core, o f meaning. The themes, and c l u s t e r s ; were checked by an independent judge,, who s u b j e c t i v e l y v a l i d a t e d the sense, of each c l u s t e r and the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f the theme. T h i s s t e p , then,, i n d i c a t e s t h a t the c l u s t e r s were meaningful t o at l e a s t two independent judges. Second, the a p p r o p r i a t e c l u s t e r s were presented t o each s u b j e c t f o r p e r s o n a l v a l i d a t i o n . Most s u b j e c t s s t a t e d t h a t the c l u s t e r i n g o f c o n s t r u c t v a l u e s i n t o themes c l a r i f i e d the o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e i r value systems,, and s t r o n g l y a f f i r m e d the v a l i d i t y of the c l u s t e r s f o r them. Some a d d i t i o n a l l y mentioned that, they were aware of t h e i r v a l u e s and the way they were i n t e r c o n n e c t e d , and that the c l u s t e r s a f f i r m e d t h e i r b e l i e f s . Some reacted with sadness, s i l e n c e , and oth e r forms; of r e c o g n i t i o n . The c l u s t e r s were e n l i g h t e n i n g , but probably of a c o n f r o n t a t -i o n a l nature the s u b j e c t s were unprepared to face so d i r e c t l y . . Through these r e a c t i o n s and a f f i r m a t i o n s , - the p s y c h o l o g i c a l meaningfulness of the c l u s t e r s was v a l i d a t e d by every person i n the sample.. T h i r d , and more i n d i r e c t l y d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w , each person was able c o n s i s t e n t l y to e l a b o r a t e the meaning of. the c l u s t e r s through providing; i n f o r m a t i o n about the l i f e each was l i v i n g as an immigrant.. The added i n f o r m a t i o n tended to make the c l u s t e r s even more s e n s i b l e , and o c c a s i o n a l l y , to r e s o l v e q u e s t i o n s and puzzlements about the c l u s t e r s . . L a s t , the s u p e r o r d i n a t e c o n s t r u c t s or named, themes were used; to re-rate: s i t u a t i o n a l options,, and; these r a t i n g were c o r r e l a t e d with o p t i o n scores- f o r r e s p e c t i v e components.. As can be seen i n Table 5.1, the c o r r e l a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g the f i r s t component are very strong.. The averag c o r r e l a t i o n : i s .81. The c o r r e l a t i o n s - i n v o l v i n g the second 6 6 component are moderately strong.. The average c o r r e l a t i o n i s .53. U n l i k e normative v a r i a b l e s , i t i s not necessary that a g r i d be s t a b l e . That i s , a. g r i d p a r t i a l l y involves: a frame o f mind as w e l l a s an o u t l o o k or system of c o n s t r u i n g , and frames of mind may change. In other words, a person i n a happy mood might construe somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y from when i n a sad mood.. However,, the c o r r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e r e a s o n a b l y s t a b l e systems of meaning, and a d i f f e r e n c e between the f i r s t component and the second component.. T h e o r e t i c a l l y , i f a, core c l u s t e r i s composed: of the most meaningful c o n s t r u c t s , i t seems l i k e l y that, one would be more c l e a r and s t a b l e using; them r a t h e r than the more p e r i p h e r a l c l u s t e r of constructs... A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the s t a t i s t i c a l procedure might not capture secondary c l u s t e r s as a c c u r a t e l y as primary c l u s t e r s . . In summary, the; meaning f u l n e s s of the- c l u s t e r s , was v a l i d a t e d i n f o u r ways. The c l u s t e r s proved, meaningful to two independent judges,, to the extent that a common core of meaning c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d , and named. The c l u s t e r s were meaningful to s u b j e c t s , who s t r o n g l y a f f i r m e d them. The meanings of the c l u s t e r s were e l a b o r a t e d c o n s i s t e n t l y i n d i s c u s s i o n s of t h e i r l i v e s , as immigrants. And the r e - r a t i n g s : i n d i c a t e that, the dimensions of v a r i a t i o n appear to be r easonably s t a b l e sub-systems of meaning. 6 7 Table 5.1 C o r r e l a t i o n s ' of the named themes with the f i r s t and the second p r i n c i p a l component Subject F i r s t Component Second Component 1 .75 .44 2 .76 .53 3 .94 -.02 4 .87 .55 5 .69 .84 6 .72 .42 7 .77 .55 8 .76 .55 9 .96 .60 10 .82: .63 11 '..89- .64 12 .77 .54 13 .75 .21 14 .54 .51 15 .76 .59 68 Group P a t t e r n s For each i n d i v i d u a l , , the r a t i n g s : on s u p p l i e d c o n s t r u c t s were c o r r e l a t e d with the o p t i o n s c o r e s of both the f i r s t and second components.. The c o r r e l a t i o n s , are a i d s f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g , the components and are o f major importance i n the case studies.. For example, i f Chinese i d e n t i t y c o r r e l a t e s s t r o n g l y with, the f i r s t , component,, but not. the second, component, then one i s a b l e to i n t e r p r e t t h a t component more b r o a d l y as a grouping, o f v a l u e s o f primary importance f o r an immigrant's sense o f e t h n i c o r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . However, i t i s a l s o o f i n t e r e s t t o examine these c o r r e l a t i o n s for' a group p a t t e r n . I n i t i a l l y , . , hypotheses were framed f o r each s e t o f c o r r e l a t i o n s . , I t was expected t h a t the f i r s t component would r e f l e c t Chinese i d e n t i t y , p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y , and: g u i l t w h i le the second component would r e f l e c t Western i d e n t i t y , , expansion o f p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y , and confusion: and u n c e r t a i n t y . However, these hypotheses are somewhat redundant and- s u b j e c t to m i s p l a c e d emphasis. F i r s t , the case s t u d i e s are o f primary importance i n t h i s study,, and the hypotheses merely d e f i n e one p a t t e r n of a d a p t a t i o n expected i n case studies.. Second, the hypotheses tend to suggest a more formal, s e t of e x p e c t a t i o n s than- i s a c t u a l l y the: case, and which m i s l e a d i n g l y overshadow the major aim of the study, which is; e x p l o r a t i o n and d i s c o v e r y . However,. 69 the group t e s t s , are s t i l l o f v a l u e i n s i m p l y i n d i c a t i n g whether t h e r e is: a*, tendency f o r the s u p p l i e d c o n s t r u c t s to r e l a t e to one component, o r the o t h e r i n t h i s , sample. For each person,, the c o r r e l a t i o n s o f components with s u p p l i e d c o n s t r u c t s ; were transformed i n t o F i s h e r Z s c o r e s . Given a. s u p p l i e d construct,, each person r e c e i v e d two scores,, one f o r the f i r s t component: and one f o r the second.. S i n c e each p a i r o f s c o r e s was from one i n d i v i d u a l , a c o r r e l a t e d t.-test was used to determine i f there was; a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . Table- 5.2 r e c o r d s the c o r r e l a t i o n s o f Chinese i d e n t i t y with the f i r s t and second components f o r each s u b j e c t . Using a; c o r r e l a t e d _ - t e s t , the mean d i f f e r e n c e i s s i g n i f i c a n t , , t (14) = 2.45, p <.05. Chinese i d e n t i t y tends to r e l a t e more s t r o n g l y to the f i r s t component than, t o the second component, o r to the c e n t r a l c o n s t r u c t s more than p e r i p h e r a l c o n s t r u c t s . As. can be; seen,, the m a j o r i t y o f c o r r e l a t i o n s , are s u b s t a n t i a l . . However, two s u b j e c t s (5 and 1.0): show a s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the second component.. 70 C o r r e l a t i o n s : of Chinese i d e n t i t y with the f i r s t and the second p r i n c i p a l component Table 5.2. Su b j e c t F i r s t Component Second Component 1 .76 .22 2 .77 .07 3 .60 .18 4 .41 .19 5 .29 .82 6 .78 .05 7 .65 .15 8 .03 .43 9 .50 .12 10 .43 .69 11 .75 .10 12 .75 .47 13 .67 .02 14 .64 .21 15 .33. .47 71 Table 5.3 r e c o r d s the c o r r e l a t i o n s o f Western i d e n t i t y w i t h the f i r s t and second components f o r each subject.. Using a c o r r e l a t e d ^ - t e s t , the mean d i f f e r e n c e i s s i g n i f i c a n t , t (14) = 3.04,, p <.01. Western i d e n t i t y tends to r e l a t e more s t r o n g l y t o the f i r s t component than t o the second component. Only s u b j e c t 5 m a n i f e s t s a s u b s t a n t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n with the second component. F u r t h e r , Western i d e n t i t y tends t o be opposed t o Chinese i d e n t i t y on the f i r s t component.. Those o p t i o n s which s t r e n g t h e n Chinese i d e n t i t y tend t o weaken Western i d e n t i t y , and v i c e v e r s a . Table 5.4 r e c o r d s the c o r r e l a t i o n s o f p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y w ith the f i r s t and second components f o r each subject.. Using a. c o r r e l a t e d t - t e s t , the mean d i f f e r e n c e i s not s i g n i f i c a n t , t (14) = .66, n. s.. As can be seen, there i s a tendency f o r p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y t o c o r r e l a t e s t r o n g l y with one component o r the o t h e r , but wit h no marked p a t t e r n toward a p a r t i c u l a r component f o r the group. Table 5.5 r e c o r d s the c o r r e l a t i o n s o f expansion o f p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y with the f i r s t and second components-Using a c o r r e l a t e d _ t - t e s t , the mean d i f f e r e n c e i s not s i g n i f i c a n t , _t (14) = -.41, n. s. Once a g a i n , there are many st r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n s with both components. 72 Table 5.3 C o r r e l a t i o n s o f Western i d e n t i t y w i t h the f i r s t and the second p r i n c i p a l component S u b j e c t F i r s t Component Second Component 1 .68 .05 2 .31 .35 3 .60 .18 4 .02 .00 5 .29 , .82 6 .76 .19 7 .55 .51 8 .20 .00 9 .26 ..00 10 ' .90 .22 11 .85 .07 12 .92 .05 13 ..71 .0 5 14 .78 .39 15 .22 .17 73 Table 5.4 C o r r e l a t i o n s o f p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y w i t h the f i r s t and the second p r i n c i p a l component Su b j e c t F i r s t Component Second Component 1 .01 .48 2 .53 .41 3 .61 .15 4 .24 .42 5 .75 .45 6 .52 .68 7 .57 .50 8 .60 .15 9 .74 .07 10 .09 .38 11 .55 .38 12 .08 .62 13 .62 .27 14. .02 .06 15 .17 .52 74 Table 5.5 C o r r e l a t i o n s o f expansion o f p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y with the f i r s t and; the second p r i n c i p a l component Sub j e c t F i r s t Component Second Component 1 .18 .64 2 .59 .46 3 .41 .05 4 .52 .36 5 .49- .66 6 .06 .64 7 .54 .49 8 .53 .02 9> .77 .13 10 .22 .46 11 .61 .18 12 .08 .70 13 .59 .44 14 .24 .75 15 .16 .59 Table 5.6 records the corr e l a t i o n s of g u i l t with the f i r s t and second components. Using a correlated t.-test, the mean difference i s not s i g n i f i c a n t , _t (14) = .71, n. s. While there are some strong c o r r e l a t i o n s , o v e r a l l , they appear to be weaker than those involving i d e n t i t y . Table 5.7 records the co r r e l a t i o n s of confusion and uncertainty with the f i r s t and second components. Usinq a correlated t - t e s t , the mean difference i s not s i g n f i c a n t , t (14) = —.56 n.s. Once again, there are a few substantial c o r r e l a t i o n s with components, but most are weak or n e g l i g i b l e . One s t a t i s t i c a l objection to these comparisons has been advanced. Since an unrotated f i r s t component maximizes variance accounted for, leaving l e s s for the second component, i t i s argued that the f i r s t component i s necessarily more r e l i a b l e , in the sense of i n t e r n a l consistency, and w i l l necessarily have higher external r e l a t i o n s . The d i f f i c u l t y with t h i s argument i s that i t rests upon the assumptions of population s t a t i s t i c s , which have dubious a p p l i c a b i l i t y to an idiographic g r i d (Slater, 1977, pp. 127-138). For example, constructs are not items of a t e s t . 76 Table 5.6 C o r r e l a t i o n s o f g u i l t w i t h the f i r s t and the second p r i n c i p a l component Su b j e c t F i r s t Component Second Component 1 .22 .51 2. .47 .26 3 .35 .21 4 .13 .21 5 .57 .57 6 .14 .84 . 7 .39 .09 8 .32 .19 9 .65 .12 10 .36 .43 11 .63 .23 12 .29 .42 13 .6 3 .09 14 .48 .29 15 .10 .09 77 Table C o r r e l a t i o n s o f c o n f u s i o n f i r s t and the second: 5.7 and: u n c e r t a i n t y w i t h the p r i n c i p a l component Su b j e c t F i r s t Component Second Component 1 .20 .17 2 .30 .13 3 .43 .02 4 .41 .43 5 .23 .75 6 .16 .59 7 .53 .18 8 .12 .10 9 .48 .47 10 .16 .34 11 .59 .07 12 .10 .59 13 .18 .52 14 -12 .22 15 .41 .42 78 S e l e c t i o n of elements; and constructs- i s j u s t the o p p o s i t e of random; they are selected* f o r p e r s o n a l meaningfulness. There i s no necessary assumption of g e n e r a l i t y beyond the elements and c o n s t r u c t s to a u n i v e r s e of elements and constructs.. Also,, while a more r e l i a b l e component might have higher e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s g e n e r a l l y , i t cannot be assumed to have hig h e r r e l a t i o n s s p e c i f i c a l l y . In f a c t , the f i r s t component has h i g h e r r e l a t i o n s o n l y f o r Chinese and Western i d e n t i t y . . In a d d i t i o n , g i v e n the evidence f o r r e l i a b i l i t y (as s t a b i l i t y ) , the second component does show reasonable s t a b i l i t y f o r an e x p l o r a t o r y study, although i t i s c e r t a i n l y l e s s than t h a t shown f o r the f i r s t component. However, t h i s i s s u e may be by-passed, i n e f f e c t . The major f i n d i n g i s that Chinese and Western i d e n t i t y tend to be i n p o l a r o p p o s i t i o n on the f i r s t or c e n t r a l component. The c o r r e l a t i o n between Chinese and. Western i d e n t i t y may be assessed i n another way. Using a Z score a v e r a g i n g procedure- f o r the 15 correlation's'', the average c o r r e l a t i o n i s -.86. S u b j e c t s tend to r a t e o p t i o n s on Chinese i d e n t i t y i n n e a r l y the o p p o s i t e way on Western i d e n t i t y . . Next, by simply examining T a b l e s 5.2 and 5.3,. i t i s apparent that i f Chinese and Western i d e n t i t y were included, i n the g r i d , they would; l a r g e l y f a l l i n t o alignment with the core dimension of v a r i a t i o n , u n l i k e p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y , expansion of p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y , g u i l t , and confusion, and u n c e r t a i n t y , and 79 i r r e s p e c t i v e of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s to the second component. The average c o r r e l a t i o n between Chinese i d e n t i t y and the f i r s t component i s .58. The average c o r r e l a t i o n between Western i d e n t i t y and the f i r s t component i s .61. In summary, both the f i r s t and second components are p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y meaningful. The f i r s t component tends to r e f l e c t Chinese and Western i d e n t i t y i n p o l a r o p p o s i t i o n . P e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y and expansion of p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y tend to r e l a t e r a t h e r s t r o n g l y to one component or the other while the emotions ( g u i l t , c o n f u s i o n and u n c e r t a i n t y ) are more weakly and n e g l i g i b l y a l i g n e d with one component or the o t h e r . The number of s u b j e c t s and the nature of the sample do not a l l o w one to make a strong normative g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , nor would t h i s be d e s i r a b l e from the p e r s p e c t i v e of t h i s study, which i s concerned with case s t u d i e s and a d i f f e r e n t type of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . That i s , what i s true f o r one person i s apt to be true f o r at l e a s t some o t h e r s (Chassan, 1979). The aim of t h i s study i s to i d e n t i f y i n d i v i d u a l p a t t e r n s that are obscured or i n v i s i b l e i n grouped d a t a . However, pr o v i d e d that e x c e p t i o n s are not dismissed as e r r o r , the group data p r o v i d e some i n t e r e s t i n g t r e n d s . A sense of i d e n t i t y seems to- be p e r v a s i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the value d e c i s i o n s of t h i s group of immigrants. Often, the c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y of o r i g i n e n t e r s e v a l u a t i o n i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n to 80 the c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y o f the host c o u n t r y . In c o n t r a s t , emotions are not s t r o n g l y a l i g n e d g e n e r a l l y with e i t h e r component. What t h i s means i s t h a t one can not o r d i n a r i l y a l l e v i a t e g u i l t , f o r i n s t a n c e , by s t r e n g t h e n i n g Chinese i d e n t i t y o p t i o n s a t the expense o f Western i d e n t i t y o p t i o n s , o r v i c e v e r s a . One may e x p e r i e n c e g u i l t e i t h e r way one moves, which v i r t u a l l y e l i m i n a t e s any simple s o l u t i o n . A c c o r d i n g l y , i t i s t o i n d i v i d u a l cases one must t u r n i n or d e r to determine the p o t e n t i a l l y r i c h and d i v e r s e ways t h a t people attempt t o r e s o l v e the dilemmas of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . 81 Chapter VI I n d i v i d u a l Cases A H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e : I d i o g r a p h i c v e r s u s Nomothetic  Approach D i v e r s e o p i n i o n s have been expressed r e g a r d i n g the p l a c e o f nomothetic ( B i l l s , . 1938) versus i d i o g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s (Beck, 1953; Du Mas, 1955; A l l p o r t , 1958). A l l p o r t (1942) noted t h a t as e a r l y as 1904, Windelband had c h r i s t e n e d the o p p o s i t i o n i n terms we here adopt: he spoke of nomothetic and i d i o g r a p h i c forms o f knowledge. Spearman (1934) observed the l o n g - s t a n d i n g d i s p u t e between the champions o f c l i n i c a l psychology and o f s t a t i s t i c a l p sychology; he d e s c r i b e d i t as the " a n c i e n t b a t t l e between i n t u i t i o n i s t and p s y c h o m e t r i s t . " James (1891) d e f i n e d psychology as the s c i e n c e o f " f i n i t e i n d i v i d u a l minds." The work of Sidman (1952) and Bakan (1954) emphasized the r o l e of the i d i o g r a p h i c method i n psychology. They demonstrated t h a t o n l y under v e r y s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s do "averaged curves" have the same form as any o f the " i n d i v i d u a l " curves from which they are d e r i v e d and t h a t one can seldom draw meaningful i n f e r e n c e s about i n d i v i d u a l p r o c e s s e s from group s t a t i s t i c s . Tryon (1934) s t r e s s e d the same p o i n t t h a t the i n t e n s i v e study o f the average b e h a v i o r of a s p e c i e s g e n e r a l l y l e a d s the comparative p s y c h o l o g i s t 82 to i g n o r e the more i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between i n d i v i d u a l s from whom the "average i n d i v i d u a l " i s a b s t r a c t e d . "The 'average i n d i v i d u a l ' i s , i n f a c t , a man-made f i c t i o n , , and. the b e h a v i o r o f a s p e c i e s can be p r o p e r l y understood o n l y by c o n s i d e r i n g v a r i a t i o n s i n b e h a v i o r o f a l l ( o r a random sample of) the i n d i v i d u a l s who are c l a s s e d i n i t " (p. 330). At the core of the n o m o t h e t i c - i d i o g r a p h i c c o n t r o v e r s y l i e s the i s s u e o f : "how l i b e r a t e d i s the s c i e n t i f i c i m a g i n a t i o n , always the s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r new experiment i n t o unknown areas o f any p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d " (Beck, 1953, p. 353) . The purpose here is . not to reopen the argument about the r e l a t i v e advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f both approaches, but to r e c o g n i z e t h e i r l o n g - s t a n d i n g d i f f e r e n c e s and to r e i t e r a t e the d i f f e r e n t focus o f each approach and how they are r e l a t e d to the p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . . The focus of the nomothetic approach i s p l a c e d on the i n c i d e n c e and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of some one datum w i t h i n a p o p u l a t i o n ; however, the focus of the i d i o g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s i s on the v a r i o u s b e h a v i o r s w i t h i n one person, t h e i r mutual i n t e r a c t i o n and t h e i r e f f e c t s i n b r i n g i n g about the t o t a l b e h a v i o r which we i d e n t i f y as a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n a l i t y (Beck, 1953). The p o s i t i o n of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d and now emphasized, i s p r i m a r i l y i d i o g r a p h i c and i t i s w i t h i n such a t h e o r e t i c a l 83 stance t h a t the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the case s t u d i e s ensue. As i n d i c a t e d , the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f group p a t t e r n s o f f e r s g e n e r a l normative d a t a toward an understanding o f immigrant adjustment.. However, the r i c h n e s s and the v a r i a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l cases cannot be ad e q u a t e l y conveyed i n the form o f a group summary. Both t h e o r e t i c a l l y and p r a c t i c a l l y , , i t i s important t o seek an understanding o f the i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s o f these immigrant women, t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the a c c u l t u r a t i o n p r o c e s s , the nature o f the va l u e c o n f l i c t s and t h e i r c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s . . The format o f each case study begins with a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the core and the p e r i p h e r a l components and t h e i r contents.. Together with the a i d o f the i n t r a i n d i v i d u a l c o r r e l a t i o n s o f the s u p p l i e d c o n s t r u c t s ( i . e . . , Chinese i d e n t i t y , Western i d e n t i t y , p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y , expansion o f p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y , g u i l t , and c o n f u s i o n and u n c e r t a i n t y — see Appendix G) ,. an attempt i s made to i n c o r p o r a t e c l i n i c a l observation,, l i f e , h i s t o r y data and i n t e r v i e w i n f o r m a t i o n to g i v e a more complete p i c t u r e o f the i n d i v i d u a l , and the p e r s o n a l meanings o f v a l u e s and e x p e r i e n c e s . A l s o , an endeavour i s made to d e l i n e a t e and summarize p a t t e r n s o b t a i n e d from the i n d i v i d u a l p r o t o c o l s . The use of s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s i n the s i n g l e case and the summarizing o f such cases i n t o p a t t e r n s have been b r o a d l y supported. In the a p p l i c a t i o n o f f a c t o r a n a l y s i s 84 f o r a s i n g l e person, Burt and Watson (1951) s t a t e d t h a t i n i n d i v i d u a l psychology, a n e g l e c t e d mode of i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f a p p l y i n g s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s t o the study not o f group, but o f s i n g l e persons; and a c c o r d i n g to them, " ' s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s i s q u i t e as a p p l i c a b l e to the 'study o f the s i n g l e p e r s o n a l i t y ' as to the study o f groups" (p. 179)., Bu r t (1949) f u r t h e r s t r e s s e d t h a t the p a t t e r n s , combinations and i n t e r a c t i o n s among t r a i t s often, have a q u a l i t a t i v e c h a r a c t e r which cannot be expressed as a d i f f e r e n c e of degree,, and t h a t i n h i s view,, t r a i t -assessment should always be supplemented by the method o f case study. " N e i t h e r i s complete without the o t h e r " ( B u r t , 1949-, p.. 167).. A l l p o r t (1937) r e f e r r e d to i n t r a i n d i v i d u a l s t a t i s t i c s i n measuring the c o n s i s t e n c y of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a c t s i n r e l a t i o n to h i s o r her own p r i n c i p a l l i f e purposes o r " t e l e o n o m i c t r e n d s . " Baldwin's P e r s o n a l C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s (1942) adopted s t a t i s t i c a l t e chniques i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g the s i n g l e p e r s o n a l i t y of an e l d e r l y widow and d i s c o v e r e d s e v e r a l major i d e a t i o n a l themes. Baldwin's (1946) work with n u r s e r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d the use o f i n t r a i n d i v i d u a l c o r r e l a t i o n s as compared to grouped d a t a . Mowrer (1950, 1953) a l s o r e c o g n i z e d the use of a q u a n t i t a t i v e approach to the * understanding of the s i n g l e case, and t h i s was f u r t h e r 85 advocated by Stephenson (1952) i n h i s development o f the Q t e c h n i q u e -S i n g l e case r e s e a r c h i s an e s t a b l i s h e d method. I t s r a t i o n a l e has been e x p l a i n e d and s t a t i s t i c a l methods have been developed ( S h a p i r o , 1961, 1966; Chassan,, 1961, 1979)., The t r a d i t i o n o f summarizing s i n g l e cases t o loo k a t s i m i l a r i t i e s and e s t a b l i s h patterns; has a l s o been supported ( A l l p o r t , 1937,. 1942; Du Mas, 1955). The focus o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f case s t u d i e s o f c o n c r e t e i n d i v i d u a l s , , i n p a r t i c u l a r t o examine the i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f immigrant women w i t h i n the con t e x t o f t h e i r l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s i n the hope o f thereby, d e r i v i n g some p a t t e r n s and modes o f adjustment.. 86 Case 1 F i r s t Component F i t t i n g i n to Canadian / H o l d i n g Hong Kong values s o c i e t y and i n t e r e s t s makes me f e e l r e j e c t e d Contents T r y to f i t i n , t r y to make / F e e l alienated,- l i k e a myself f e e l less- of an t o t a l o u t s i d e r o u t s i d e r Peer group pressure i n Canada / I g n o r i n g peer group p r e s s u r e Taking a- r i s k /Not taking; a r i s k Throwing away Chinese v i r t u e s / P a r t of p e r s o n a l and t r a d i t i o n s standards, r e s p e c t f o r e l d e r s To be common with everybody /More i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c i n peer group i n Canada Second: Component Conformity and f e a r of breaking / R i s k i n g a more i n d i v i d u a l out of a t r a d i t i o n a l mode approach,, becoming more independent Contents-Go along with t i d e with /To please my own d e s i r e s everybody from Hong Kong C o n t e n t s A f r a i d o f b e i n g t a k e n a d v a n t a g e o f e m o t i o n a l l y A f r a i d : o f g o i n g o u t , d o i n g , i t o n my own, b r e a k i n g o u t o f d e p e n d e n c e P l e a s e , t e a c h e r m o r e b y a p p e a r i n g , t o b e i n q u i s i t i v e 87 / B r a v e e n o u g h , t o t a k e r i s k s / L e a d l e s s o f a s h e l t e r e d l i f e / B e a p a s s i v e l e a r n e r 88 Case 1 23 S i n g l e General a r t s " E v e r y t h i n g I do reminds me o f going through the same p r o c e s s , two d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f s t a n d a r d s , always i n a dilemma. I want t o grab on t o something- s o l i d t h a t I c o u l d r e l a t e to.. I have to choose, to combine standards,, t o please- myself and to p l e a s e o t h e r s . " These words d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w f u l l y c a p t u r e the essence o f the s u b j e c t ' s adjustment to Canada.. On a r r i v a l with her f a m i l y i n Vancouver, C..1 s t a t e d t h a t she f e l t v e r y confused,, "almost schizophrenic,"" and thought t h a t something was wrong with her p e r s o n a l i t y . . Because o f her Hong Kong u p b r i n g i n g and the c u l t u r a l v a l u e s t h a t had been i n c u l c a t e d , she was faced with a d r a s t i c d i f f e r e n c e i n v a l u e s between the two c u l t u r e s . Now she has a c q u i r e d more self-knowledqe but s t i l l f e e l s the unending, p r o c e s s o f v a l u e c l a r i f i c a t i o n ; with each new s i t u a t i o n she has to assess an a p p r o p r i a t e response a c c o r d i n g to her p e r s o n a l standards;.. The c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s - e l i c i t e d on the g r i d r e v e a l t h a t she has emulated c e r t a i n a c c e p t a b l e b e h a v i o r s c o n s i d e r e d Canadian (e.g., more c a s u a l a t t i r e , r e l a x e d h e t e r o s e x u a l i n t e r a c t i o n , , g e n e r a l f r i e n d l i n e s s ) and has 89 rejected- t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese norms (e.g-.,,, formal a t t i r e , s o c i a l , d i s t a n c e between the sexes, c o n v e n t i o n a l female r e s e r v e d b e h a v i o r ) . She has a l s o expressed a. p r e f e r e n c e f o r a combination o f Canadian and Hong Kong- l e a r n i n g approaches ( i . e . , , c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n combined with r o t e l e a r n i n g and p a r t - t i m e employment d u r i n g the s c h o o l y e a r ) . In view of the c l a s h o f v a l u e s , she appears to opt f o r the f l e x i b i l i t y and the openness a v a i l a b l e i n Canadian s o c i e t y v ersus the more r i g i d - Chinese t r a d i t i o n s . . I t i s important to- note t h a t she has continued to r e t a i n a core Chinese v a l u e ( r e s p e c t f o r e l d e r s ) i n her r e l a t i o n s h i p with t e a c h e r s -A n a l y s i s of the c o n t e n t s o f the f i r s t component suggests a d e s i r e f o r f i t t i n g i n t o her new society,, an awareness; o f peer p r e s s u r e and a c o n c u r r e n t need to v a l i d a t e some core Chinese v a l u e s - C o r r e l a t i o n s on the s u p p l i e d c o n s t r u c t s r e v e a l an alignment with Western, i d e n t i t y ( r - .6 8) i n o p p o s i t i o n with Chinese i d e n t i t y ( r = -.76)., The c o n t e n t s o f the second component r e v e a l f e a r s o f r e j e c t i o n and emotional e x p l o i t a t i o n v e r s u s r i s k i n g more autonomy.. Locked i n the c u l t u r a l o p p o s i t i o n i n the f i r s t component, she appears to be grounding p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y ( r - -.48) and expansion ( r = -.64) more on the second component. The s p l i t between her Chinese and Western i d e n t i t y i s 90 f u r t h e r supported by o b s e r v a t i o n o f the r a t i n g s on* the c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s . . Chinese and Western i d e n t i t y are r a t e d i n opposing c o n t i n g u i t y , while the- r a t i n g s on p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y and expansion are more a l i g n e d with Western, i d e n t i t y (with the e x c e p t i o n o f the s i t u a t i o n : "choosing the o l d way o f r e s p e c t for. t e a c h e r s " i n which Chinese- i d e n t i t y , p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y and- expansion are p o s i t i v e l y a l i g n e d : raw score: = 7,7,7)... Her e x p e r i e n c e o f c o n f u s i o n i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the frequency o f h i g h t o moderate r a t i n g s on a l l c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s (raw s c o r e = 5,6,7,6,-3,7,5,7,6,7,6,6) .. G r i d data and component a n a l y s i s v i v i d l y demonstrate an i n d i v i d u a l caught between, two c u l t u r e s ; : amidst the p r e s s u r e and' the r e s i s t a n c e to conform-,, she s t r i v e s to become her own person.. Though both components connote s u p e r o r d i n a t e c o n s t r u c t s o f c o n f o r m i t y v e r s u s r e j e c t i o n , , an i n t e r p r e t a t i v e d i s t i n c t i o n - can be made between the nature of c o n f l i c t s c o n t a i n e d i n the f i r s t and- the second component. I t appears t h a t the f i r s t component ( f i t t i n g i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y v e r s u s h o l d i n g Honq Kong v a l u e s and i n t e r e s t s makes me f e e l r e j e c t e d ) i n d i c a t e s an attempt to come to terms' with her e t h n i c i t y and the r e l a t i v i t y o f her b e l i e f system ( i . e . , Canadian v e r s u s Hong Kong v a l u e s ) . Here the c o n f l i c t i nvolves: the broader c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t to which she has migrated.. The second component ( c o n f o r m i t y and f e a r o f b r e a k i n g out o f a t r a d i t i o n a l mode v e r s u s r i s k i n g a more i n d i v i d u a l approach and becoming more independent) i n d i c a t e s a more focused c o n f l i c t c o n c e r n i n g i n d i v i d u a t i o n , s e l f - a s s e r t i o n and b e h a v i o r a l e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . In summary, the i m p r e s s i o n i s t h a t o f an i n d i v i d u a l d i v i d e d between two c u l t u r e s , i m p l i c a t i n g s u p e r o r d i n a t e c o n s t r u c t s such as c o n f o r m i t y and r e j e c t i o n , and w r e s t l i n g with i s s u e s such as peer acceptance and independence. The apparent p o l a r i z a t i o n between Chinese and Western i d e n t i t y c o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t m i g r a t i o n has heightened the c o n t r a s t o f v a l u e s . The predominant response seems to be t h a t o f c o n f u s i o n and the need t o make sense o f her new environment through a r e a l i g n m e n t o f v a l u e s . Case 2 F i r s t Component G i v i n g i n to ma i n t a i n f a m i l y t i e s . Contents Not to pursue and d i s c u s s broader* s o c i a l i s s u e s with Hong Kong r e l a t i v e s f r i e n d s P a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and o b l i g a t i o n s P a r e n t a l and, r e l a t i v e s c a r e e r e x p e c t a t i o n s Not to j e o p a r d i z e c l o s e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s and Hong Kong f r i e n d s Give in- to s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s ( f a m i l y / P u r s u i n g i n d i v i d u a l course of s o c i a l development /Pursue r a d i c a l s o c i a l change and i d e a l s with them /Pursue g e n e r a l s o c i a l i d e a l s /Don't care about t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s /To jeopardize,, break o f f c o n t a c t with them /More i n d i v i d u a l i s m and freedom and: f r i e n d s ) Second Component Commitment to s o c i e t y and /Importance of i n d i v i d u a l s c h o l a r l y i n t e r e s t s needs and concerns Contents More meaningful, more depth, /More s e l f - i n t e r e s t s more concern r e g a r d i n g o t h e r s Academic and p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s More concern with o t h e r s and broader s o c i a l i s s u e s S o c i a l and- environmental concerns* S i m i l a r v a l u e s and i n t e r e s t s /Lack of academic and p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s ; /More concern: with s e l f / I n d i v i d u a l concerns,. making money /Gap i n v a l u e s , l i f e s t y l e h a b i t s are v e r y d i f f e r e n t Case 2 26 S i n g l e Urban p l a n n i n g An examination o f the c o n t e x t o f m i g r a t i o n i l l u m i n a t e s the p r o c e s s o f adjustment t h a t she has undergone.. She came to Vancouver alone on a student v i s a . During the f i r s t y ears o f her undergraduate studies,, she was a b l e to e njoy the r e l a t i v e freedom o f her new. l i f e s t y l e i n communal l i v i n g , and i n the p u r s u i t o f l i b e r a l p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s . She was l a t e r joined- by her a g i n g p a r e n t s whom she v o l u n t e e r e d to l i v e with.. This: move had i n i t i a t e d a p r o c e s s of r e - e n t r y t o her f a m i l y and c u l t u r e o f o r i g i n . . T h i s r e - e n t r y i n v o l v e d a r e c l a i m i n g of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s toward p a r e n t s and extended f a m i l y ( i . e . . , s i b l i n g s , t h e i r spouses and c h i l d r e n ) ,, and' a readjustment to p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l o f d a i l y l i v i n g and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . . She s t a t e d t h a t the i n i t i a l period: o f r e u n i o n was v e r y s t r e s s f u l , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r she had had a t a s t e o f p e r s o n a l freedom.. However, she c o u l d not " d i s c a r d her p a s t , her l i n k a g e to her f a m i l y . " At p r e s e n t , she feels* she belongs to n e i t h e r c u l t u r e . G i v i n g i n to p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e may be n e g a t i v e l y p e r c e i v e d by o t h e r s ; nevertheless:, such a c t i o n s remain most meaningful.. P a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s have p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n f l i c t e d with her h e t e r o s e x u a l involvement. Most o f her-Caucasian male f r i e n d s simply find- i t hard 1 to understand-her apparent s u b s e r v i e n c e t o f a m i l y demands. In the l i g h t o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t o d i s c o v e r the c o n f l i c t s r e v e a l e d i n the g r i d . She appears t o handle most c o n f l i c t s by compromise and avoidance.. T h i s can be i l l u s t r a t e d by her c h o i c e s o f s i t u a t i o n a l o p t i o n s . For example, she: tends not to d i s c u s s p o l i t i c s , a t home,, becomes more w i l l i n g t o date Chinese men, and pursues a p r a c t i c a l c a r e e r path i n s t e a d o f f u r t h e r i n g p h i l o s o p h i c a l - p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s . Content a n a l y s i s o f the f i r s t component shows t h a t " p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and; o b l i g a t i o n s , f e a r o f j e o p a r d i z i n g ' such close; r e l a t i o n s " are c l o s e l y a l i g n e d and 1 stand- i n c o n t r a s t to, the i n d i v i d u a l p u r s u i t o f s o c i a l development. Her Hong Kong u p b r i n g i n g which espouses a b u s i n e s s ^ o r i e n t e d p h i l o s o p h y and f a m i l y - c e n t e r e d v a l u e s is; i n d i r e c t c o n f l i c t with her newly a c q u i r e d Canadian l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e s . Though the p o l e s of f a m i l y versus- l i b e r a l v a l u e s are i n opposition,, they are both p o s i t i v e l y construed and h i g h l y s a l i e n t . T h i s disagreement on the f i r s t component appears p o t e n t . Chinese i d e n t i t y ( r = .77) i s i n o p p o s i t i o n t o p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y (r = —..53) and expansion ( r = -.59). Her core r o l e as a daughter seems to be i n c o n f l i c t with her sense o f who she i s . 96 The second component r e v e a l s a commitment t o s o c i e t y and s c h o l a r l y i n t e r e s t s - v e r s u s the importance o f i n d i v i d u a l needs ; and concerns. (Here, i n d i v i d u a l needs- r e p r e s e n t s e l f - o r i e n t e d needs and d i f f e r from the p u r s u i t o f an i n d i v i d u a l course- o f s o c i a l development i n the f i r s t component.) The development o f t h i s ; s o c i a l and academic dimension c o u l d o f f e r her the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r - growth t h a t appears to be blocked i n the f i r s t component. P e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y ( r - .41) and expansion ( r = .46) appear to be a l i g n e d and support the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h i s p e r i p h e r a l component o f f e r s a l e s s blocked a r e a o f p e r s o n a l expansion. The alignment o f p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y , expansion and to a c e r t a i n e x t e n t Western i d e n t i t y i n o p p o s i t i o n to Chinese i d e n t i t y , is- a l s o supported by raw d a t a o b s e r v a t i o n on r a t i n g s of s i t u a t i o n a l options.. The o n l y e x c e p t i o n i n which Chinese i d e n t i t y i s a l i g n e d with the r e s t r e l a t e s t o her r e t u r n from Toronto t o Vancouver and continued graduate work here (raw s c o r e = 6,6,6,5). T h i s s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v e s her combining values, of p a r e n t a l o b l i g a t i o n s with e d u c a t i o n a l pursuit.. Her c a r e e r c h o i c e seems' to o f f e r the r e s o l u t i o n t o the p o l a r i z e d c o n f l i c t between f a m i l y and s o c i a l v a l u e s . In choosing; a c a r e e r (urban planning) which i s c o n s i d e r e d p r a c t i c a l t o her f a m i l y and which s i m u l t a n e o u s l y o f f e r s her the o u t l e t f o r s o c i e t a l involvement, she has probably i n t e g r a t e d the best of both worlds, or what she can of them. In sum, the predominant problem of adjustment can seen i n the s t r e n g t h of her s o c i a l conscience v e r s u s e s t a b l i s h e d : f a m i l y - c e n t e r e d , values from Hong Kong- Her r e s o l u t i o n l i e s i n the development of i d e n t i t y on an a c c e p t a b l e c a r e e r compromise. Case 3 F i r s t Component Overcoming l o n e l i n e s s and s e p a r a t i o n to become one's own person, strong: and, independent Contents More- independent Stronger c h a r a c t e r i n overcoming l o n e l i n e s s Independence, time to. grow up^ and t h i n k for. myself S e p a r a t i o n from f a m i l y and f r i e n d s S t i c k to p r i n c i p l e s of what I b e l i e v e as r i g h t or wrong, Loneliness, Do e v e r y t h i n g by myself /Being dependent,, weak and: submerged i n group /Very dependent. /Weaker c h a r a c t e r , v e r y v u l n e r a b l e /Dependence /To enjoy the care* of f a m i l y and f r i e n d s /Don't, have- an, o p i n i o n , l i s t e n to others'' opinion. /Companionship,, a v o i d l o n e l i n e s s /Someone to take care of d a i l y n e c e s s i t i e s 99 Second- Component Fostering, one''© p e r s o n a l growth Conents Increase- personal, knowledge Use time f o r p u r s u i t of own i n t e r e s t s R e l a x a t i o n / P r o c r a s t i n a t i n g ; and wasting time /Uneducated /Waste time, not d o i n g anything /Waste energy i n u s e l e s s a c t i v i t i e s 1 0 0 Case 3 20 S i n g l e General a r t s She comes-, from a b i g f a m i l y , being the youngest of seven s i b l i n g s ; . The main reason f o r m i g r a t i o n was to f u r t h e r her education.. Her parents remained; in Hong Kong while e n t r u s t i n g her to the care: of a married s i s t e r i n Vancouver. In- r e c o u n t i n g her e a r l i e r experiences, i n Canada,, she became very e m o t i o n a l : she remembered her popular and a c t i v e s o c i a l l i f e i n Hong Kong, but a f t e r e m i g r a t i n g she had; been transformed from "being a very s o c i a b l e person to. extremely depressed and withdrawn." She missed the emotional support of f a m i l y and f r i e n d s , the s e p a r a t i o n had; produced a g r e a t d e a l of homesickness^ and l o n e l i n e s s . . Her g r e a t e s t problem,, she claimed,, was " f e e l i n g depressed; and wasting time i n sleeping- and e a t i n g . " She- l a t e r r e c o g n i z e d that " i t was time to grow up and stop being the baby of the f a m i l y . " To- cope with her l o n e l i n e s s , , she pursued p a r t - t i m e employment a f t e r s c h o o l to keep h e r s e l f o c c u p i e d ; she j o i n e d a r e g u l a r e x e r c i s e program to. l e a r n r e l a x a t i o n ; she a l s o chose to l i v e with a l a n d l a d y with whom she found o c c a s i o n a l companionship. I t appears that the i n i t i a l adjustment was taxing and that u p r o o t i n g had. resulted; i n an acute sense of n o s t a l g i a , 101 s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n and emotional d e p r i v a t i o n . . I t a l s o appears t h a t she was- able to develop a r e p e r t o i r e of coping s k i l l s to d e a l with this, new s i t u a t i o n . This, i n f o r m a t i o n from, the i n t e r v i e w is. s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s e l i c i t e d on the g r i d , which i l l u s t r a t e her s t r u g g l e on t h i s independence-dependence continuum.. The o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e of her f i r s t component is, the s a l i e n c e t h i s , e x e r c i s e s over her e n t i r e b e l i e f system. T h i s r e v e a l s a need to overcome l o n e l i n e s s and s e p a r a t i o n , to become strong and independent r a t h e r than being dependent,, weak and submerged i n a group.. The e l i c i t e d value c o n s t r u c t s r e v e a l repeated themes, of independence, l o n e l i n e s s , s e p a r a t i o n and s t r e n g t h of c h a r a c t e r , i n sharp c o n t r a s t to dependence,, v u l n e r a b i l i t y , l a c k of opinion,, and, the need f o r succorance. P e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y ( r - .61) is, a l i g n e d with Western, i d e n t i t y ( r = .60) i n o p p o s i t i o n to Chinese i d e n t i t y ( r — -.60).. The f i r s t component appears to subsume or overshadow the content of the second which i n v o l v e s " f o s t e r i n g , one's p e r s o n a l growth versus p r o c r a s t i n a t i n g and wasting time." The component a n a l y s i s i s c o n s i s t e n t with her expressed wish to develop i n d i v i d u a l i t y which i n v o l v e s Western values^ such as p e r s o n a l autonomy and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y versus the t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese feminine v i r t u e s of 102 dependence and s u b j u g a t i o n to group and f a m i l y . In summary,, the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e i n d i c a t e s p r i m a r i l y an abrupt process of w e a n i n g — a developmental c r i s i s which c u l t u r a l t r a n s i t i o n has a c c e l e r a t e d and. a f f i r m e d i n terms* of i t s immediate s i t u a t i o n a l demands.. In m i g r a t i n g she has placed, h e r s e l f i n an environment where she has to develop e f f e c t a n c e i n making an a d j u s t i v e response.. Results, i n d i c a t e a c l e a r adoption of Western values i n terms of p e r s o n a l development while t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese val u e s are r e j e c t e d . 103 Case 4 F i r s t Component P r o t e c t e d married- and f a m i l y /Unprotected s i n g l e l i f e l i f e - i s a l s o c o n f i n i n g and which i s f r e e and dependent independent Contents Dependence P r o t e c t i v e environment Married f a m i l y l i f e R e s t r i c t i o n Reunite with husband /Independence /No p r o t e c t i v e environment / S i n g l e l i f e /Freedom /St a y by myself Second Component Job o p p o r t u n i t y and s u r v i v a l a t the expense o f i n d i f f e r e n c e to people and: stigma-Contents More: job o p p o r t u n i t y M a i n t a i n s u r v i v a l I n d i f f e r e n c e S o c i a l stigma /Less job o p p o r t u n i t y and. not s u r v i v i n g i n f a v o r of h e l p i n g o t h e r s and l a c k of stigma /Less job o p p o r t u n i t y /Not to maintain s u r v i v a l / H e l p i n g people /No s o c i a l stigma 10 4-Case 4 29 Mar r i e d Accounting C.4 migrated, with her f a m i l y to Toronto.. She; had pr e v i o u s u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g i n s o c i a l work from Hong Kong where she could; have e s t a b l i s h e d ; a. f r u i t f u l career.. However, t h i s area where she could have expanded h e r s e l f was, impeded by m i g r a t i o n and f u r t h e r compounded: by the d i f f i c u l t economic circumstances i n Canada. A f t e r a. p r o t r a c t e d p e r i o d o f unemployment,, she f i n a l l y underwent r e t r a i n i n g i n acc o u n t i n g to o b t a i n work. During the interview,, she r e l a t e d her a c c u l t u r a t i v e experiences i n a task-oriented- manner. When asked, about how she f e l t i n r e l a t i o n to what she- had l e f t behind i n Hong Kong and what she had a c q u i r e d i n Canada, she appeared: q u i t e content and r e s i g n e d to her present s e c u r i t y i n marriage and: job. E l i c i t e d c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s r e v e a l normal l i f e events such as marriage, c a r e e r choice and c a r e e r change (e.g., living., on, her own,, p r o f e s s i o n a l r e t r a i n i n g and move to Vancouver to r e u n i t e with her husband). In the f i r s t component ( p r o t e c t e d married; and f a m i l y l i f e i s a l s o c o n f i n i n g and dependent versus unprotected s i n g l e l i f e which i s f r e e and independent), the contents of one po l e "dependence, p r o t e c t i v e environment, r e s t r i c t i o n and 105 m a r r i e d f a m i l y l i f e " are c l o s e l y a l i g n e d i n a n t i t h e s i s to the opposing pole "independence,, freedom, and: s i n g l e l i f e . " ' The chosen pole appears; to be> a s s o c i a t e d with. Chinese i d e n t i t y ( r = .41) i n o p p o s i t i o n to expansion (r = —..52')... The. second component r e v e a l s that "job o p p o r t u n i t y , m a i n t a i n i n g s u r v i v a l , and i n d i f f e r e n c e to people" are chosen at the expense of "job s a t i s f a c t i o n and h e l p i n g people." The chosen pole does not appear to be a l i g n e d with p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y ( r = -.42). In both; components, Western i d e n t i t y i s not r e l a t e d to the scheme of things, ( r = .02, .00). Hence i t appears that i n the f i r s t component, she has succumbed; to a married l i f e i n which she f i n d s p r o t e c t i o n ; - in- the second component she has opted f o r job s e c u r i t y and s u r v i v a l . What i s r e v e a l e d here i s a b a s i c incongruence between her value a t t r i b u t i o n s and her f i n a l d e c i s i o n s with each c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n . The c e n t r a l issue: appears to be an i d e a l i s t i c b e l i e f i n p e r s o n a l freedom and c a r e e r s a t i s f a c t i o n versus a concession to d i f f e r e n t forms of s e c u r i t y . The p i c t u r e gives: a compelling, sense of someone being locked i n t o a mundane e x i s t e n c e which she has accepted as the o n l y v i a b l e : a l t e r n a t i v e . A p a t t e r n of s e l f - a b n e g a t i o n can. be i n f e r r e d from her core r o l e of wife and c a r e e r woman. T h i s b r i n g s i n the n o t i o n of i d e n t i t y t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y i n a c c u l t u r a t i o n . She has experienced some 106 form of " s t a t u s d i s l o c a t i o n " (Richmond, 1967); her new environment does not f a c i l i t a t e the t r a n s f e r of her p r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y which has r e s u l t e d i n d i m i n i s h e d p r o f e s s i o n a l c a p a c i t y and probably some l o s s of l i f e ' s meaning. The problem i s that she does not seem to a n t i c i p a t e recovery.. The present s o l u t i o n i s to become "dependent, i n d i f f e r e n t . " I d e a l s such as "freedom, h e l p i n g o t h e r s " would d i s l o d g e her from t h i s adaptive p o s i t i o n , and would e n t a i l a r a d i c a l r e c o n s t r u i n g of p r i o r i t i e s , an o p t i o n f o r growth that seems extremely u n l i k e l y . / 107 Case- 5 F i r s t Component D e s i r e f o r s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t Contents My f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s My f a m i l y and f r i e n d s i n Hong Kong Future employment p r o s p e c t s Making d e c i s i o n s with my husband /Devoting to my husband's needs and o b l i g a t i o n s /My husband's f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s /My husband's f a m i l y i n Canada /Lack of fu t u r e p r o s p e c t s /To f o l l o w my husband Second Component In s p i t e of communication d i f f i c u l t i e s , r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and seeing people as i n d i v i d u a l s broaden scope and understanding Contents Can't communicate,, l i t t l e t h i n g s i n common /Emphasis on r a c i a l and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s would l i m i t understanding /Can communicate, more things i n common F i t my i d e a l s of C h r i s t i a n i t y /Doesn't f i t my i d e a l of C h r i s t i a n i t y 108 Broaden my scope / L i m i t my scope Person,, not the r a c e , that /Race more important than i s important person 109 Case 5 25 Married Business a d m i n i s t r a t i o n She came as a student and met her husband i n Canada. Upon u n i v e r i s t y g r a d u a t i o n she returned to Hong Kong f o r a year to spend some time with her f a m i l y and to repay her f i l i a l debt. She l a t e r came back t o Vancouver to j o i n her husband and h i s f a m i l y . During the i n t e r v i e w , she spoke of the dilemma i n having to choose between her own f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and her husband's, and her f i n a l c h o i ce of l e a v i n g behind f a m i l y and f r i e n d s f o r permanent migration.. On one hand,, she accepted the p r e s c r i b e d Chinese t r a d i t i o n "to f o l l o w one's husband," and major l i f e d e c i s i o n s such as m i g r a t i o n and place of sett l e m e n t were co n t i n g e n t upon h i s p r i o r i t i e s . On the other hand, she expressed r e g r e t f o r not f u l f i l l i n g her own needs and d e s i r e s . The i n t e r v i e w i n f o r m a t i o n i s v a l i d a t e d by e l i c i t e d c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s on the g r i d which center on three main i s s u e s : m a r i t a l d e c i s i o n making, career development and i n t e r e t h n i c r e l a t i o n s . I n s p e c t i o n of the components and t h e i r contents g i v e s f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t i o n . . The f i r s t component ( d e s i r e f o r s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t versus devoting to her husband's needs and o b l i g a t i o n s ) reveals, the awareness of p e r s o n a l needs i n s p i t e of the s a l i e n c e of her m a r i t a l 110 r e l a t i o n s h i p . . The second component suggests the i n f l u e n c e o f r e l i g i o u s , b e l i e f s . C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s that emphasize communication, i n c l u s i v e n e s s of a l l cultures-, and i n d i v i d u a l worth have d e f i n i t e l y broadened her a t t i t u d e s toward i n t e r r a c i a l peer group and d a t i n g . In both components, Chinese i d e n t i t y ( r = -.29 & -.82) i s i n d i a m e t r i c a l o p p o s i t i o n to Western i d e n t i t y ( r = .29- & .82); w h i le p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y ( r = .75 & .45) and expansion ( r = .49 & .66) are i n alignment with the Western i d e n t i t y p o l e . Component a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s a potent c o n f l i c t between the two c u l t u r e s extending from core? to p e r i p h e r a l values.. The response to such a p o l a r i z a t i o n appears to be the a s s e r t i o n of a p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y as i n d i c a t e d i n the components r e s u l t s and f u r t h e r supported by raw data o b s e r v a t i o n ( i . e . , r a t i n g s - on s i t u a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with c o n f l i c t s between Western and- Chinese i d e n t i t y tend to be a l i g n e d with the s t r e n g t h e n i n g of p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y ) . In sum, her core r o l e of a t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese wife seems, to be c o n f l i c t i n g with her d e s i r e to e s t a b l i s h an independent i d e n t i t y . Her C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f s i n perhaps advocating c e r t a i n Western val u e s appear to have a p e r v a s i v e in f l u e n c e ; i n broadening her v a l u e s . The o v e r a l l trend i s t h at of an enhancement of p e r s o n a l needs and i d e n t i t y i n the face of a c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t of v a l u e s . Case 6 F i r s t Component Expanding, myself,, becoming more s o c i a b l e , c r e a t i v e and independent Contents Get to know more: people Can change from f i e l d to f i e l d , more i n t e r e s t i n g Job marketable Get more g e n e r a l knowledge Independence, i n v o l v e s d e c i s i o n making, t a k i n g up r e s p o n s i b i l i t y / L i m i t i n g myself to s e c u r i t y and r o u t i n e /More time f o r myself /Permanence, r o u t i n e /Not marketable /More academic knowledge /Someone to r e l y on Second Component More p r i v a c y and time f o r myself Contents Less involvement More p r i v a c y Convenience C a s u a l , loose r e l a t i o n s h i p /Emotional responsiveness to o t h e r s /Deeper understanding /Less p r i v a c y /Commitment is, v a l u a b l e /Genuine r e l a t i o n s h i p Can have more time f o r myself /No time f o r myself 112 Case 6 23 S i n g l e Science She migrated with her f a m i l y to Canada and c o n s i d e r e d the c l o s e n e s s of f a m i l y t i e s c r u c i a l to her adjustment.. During the i n t e r v i e w , she expressed, ambivalence r e g a r d i n g c e r t a i n a spects of Western c u l t u r e (e.g., c a s u a l r e l a t i o n s and independence) w h i l e f i r m l y b e l i e v i n g that her. p r o f e s s e d need f o r commitment and permanence could only be found 1 i n the Chinese f a m i l y . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , she would " f o l l o w t r a d i t i o n , i t would r e q u i r e too much courage to break through," an o p t i o n she might have followed i f she had migrated e a r l i e r or had been born i n Canada-C o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s on the g r i d r e v e a l a s p l i t between the more r i g i d c o n c e p t i o n of f a m i l y , marriage, c a r e e r and i n t e r p e r s o n a l behavior (e.g.., l i v i n g at home, formal marriage,, long-term c a r e e r and p a s s i v e s o c i a l behavior) versus a more i n d i v i d u a l and c a r e f r e e approach. The f i r s t component i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the appeal of "becoming more s o c i a b l e , c r e a t i v e and independent" in c o n t r a s t to l e a d i n g a more r e s t r i c t i v e and r o u t i n e e x i s t e n c e . C o n f l i c t can be i n f e r r e d from the d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n between Chinese i d e n t i t y ( r = -.78) and Western i d e n t i t y ( r - .76). The second component d e a l s 113 s p e c i f i c a l l y with the l i m i t s of a f f e c t i v e involvement with o t h e r s (more p r i v a c y and time f o r s e l f versus- emotional responsiveness,, deeper understanding, and commitment) . G u i l t ( r = .84) and c o n f u s i o n ( r = .59) are s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d with, l e s s people involvement, whereas emotional responsiveness, i s a l i g n e d with the p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y pole ( r = -.68) and expansion ( r = -.64). Ratings on the g r i d i n d i c a t e a s t a b l e p o s i t i o n on primary r e l a t i o n s . I t is: o u t s i d e of this, arena, t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e doubt and u n c e r t a i n t y seem to emerge. Ratings show a strong r e l a t i o n of Chinese i d e n t i t y with v a l u e s such as r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and commitment, while Western i d e n t i t y i s a s s o c i a t e d with openness, s o c i a b i l i t y and c a s u a l e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . However, i t i s important to note that p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y and expansion are a s s o c i a t e d with a combination of t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese f a m i l y values and some Western i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r a l changes. The o v e r a l l impression suggests c o n f l i c t e d s u p e r o r d i n a t e v a l u e s of s e l f - e x p a n s i o n versus t r a d i t i o n a l s e c u r i t y , which are r e f l e c t e d i n the dichotomous i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Chinese and Western values.. The s o l u t i o n seems to be the p e r i p h e r a l development of p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y i n terms of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i v e n e s s . The value c o n f l i c t i n t h i s case, i n many ways, i l l u s t r a t e s Hsu's (1971) concept of p s y c h o s o c i a l 114 homeostasis; which c l a i m s the Chinese f a m i l y and k i n s h i p system- as: the primary and: continuous; source of i n t i m a c y and: t h a t there is, no need to extend from t h i s permanent core f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n of a f f e c t i o n a l needs. The s u b j e c t d i s c l o s e s her much need nourishment from home and the f e a r s o f r e a c h i n g out to peers... Case 7 F i r s t Component Seeking i n d i v i d u a l happiness and expansion Contents Seek p e r s o n a l happiness E l d e r l y — i n t r u s i o n i n t o our l i v e s Career development Career a s p i r a t i o n s / F u l f i l l i n g r e s p o n s i b i -l i t i e s , toward f a m i l y / F u l f i l l o b l i g a t i o n s to parents /Acceptance of e l d e r l y / F a m i l y e x p e c t a t i o n s /Family o b l i g a t i o n s Second 1 Component F o l l o w i n g t r a d i t i o n , of a moral /Breaking away from t r a d i -r e s p e c t a b l e Chinese woman t i o n a l r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s Contents Keep d i g n i t y as d i g n i f i e d , Chinese g i r l Old people are u s e l e s s Choose husband who hasn't married before To l o s e l o v e Being the second wife i s not second r a t e d /Lose d i g n i t y /Real love, and care f o r e l d e r l y /Choose husband who has married before /To g a i n love /Being the second wife i s second r a t e d 116 Case 7 Married, A r c h i t e c t u r e She went to u n i v e r s i t y i n the United S t a t e s , married l a t e r and moved; t o Vancouver to s e t t l e c l o s e to her f a m i l y . During the i n t e r v i e w , she d e s c r i b e d her adjustment as " f u l l of contradiction,,"' p a r t i c u l a r l y her marriage to a d i v o r c e e with a c h i l d from; the p r e v i o u s marriage.. The s t a t u s of such, a union would,, by Chinese standards, reduce her to. the l e v e l of a concubine. T h e i r e v e n t u a l settlement i n Vancouver was s o l e l y out of f i l i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i n s p i t e of the adverse economic situation-, which had; l e f t her an unemployed a r c h i t e c t f o r over a year.. However, she b e l i e v e d that m i g r a t i o n had helped her to be more independent, e s p e c i a l l y i n dev e l o p i n g a car e e r and making p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s , as opposed to the t r a d i t i o n a l dependence lea r n e d i n Hong Kong. She a l s o remarked t h a t "Western values, can become exaggerated through the p u r s u i t of i n d i v i d u a l i s m ' and that when [she] comes to choose,, [she], cannot r e a l l y choose the norm." G r i d data and components, a n a l y s i s throw f u r t h e r l i g h t on her p e r s o n a l adjustment. C o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s r e v e a l a s t r o n g o r i e n t a t i o n toward people and a c a p a c i t y f o r emotional warmth (e.g., keeping her grandmother at home, 117 s e t t l i n g i n Vancouver to be c l o s e to her f a m i l y , and l i v i n g common-law with a divorcee).. The f i r s t component (seeking: i n d i v i d u a l happiness and expansion versus f u l f i l l i n g f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ) r e v e a l s : that p e r s o n a l happiness and c a r e e r development are a l i g n e d i n o p p o s i t i o n to o b l i g a t i o n s toward parents and e l d e r s . Here, Western i d e n t i t y ( r -.55) i s a l i g n e d i n r e a c t i o n to Chinese i d e n t i t y ( r = —.65), p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y ( r = -.57) and; expansion (r = -.54). The second component suggests, a p u z z l i n g mixture of s t e r e o t y p e d r o l e conceptions^ and moral a t t i t u d e s . T h i s i n c o n s i s t e n c y ranges from t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese b e l i e f s of marriage to Western views, of romantic love* and male/female e q u a l i t y . In, this, component,, Western i d e n t i t y ( r = .51) i s a l i g n e d with p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y ( r = .50) and expansion (r = .49). It appears that the f i r s t component r e f l e c t s her core r o l e as a. daughter while the second component c o n t a i n s p r i m a r i l y her r o l e as a wife or l i f e partner., Her sense of c o n t r a d i c t i o n , as expressed i n the i n t e r v i e w , i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by g r i d r a t i n g s , with s t r o n g g u i l t (raw score = 7,6,7,5,7,5,6,7,7,5,7,7) observed on a l l s i t u a t i o n a l o p t i o n s , i n d i c a t i n g ambivalence and perhaps f e a r of r e p r i s a l (e.,g.., l o s i n g the d i g n i t y of a r e s p e c t a b l e Chinese woman versus l o s i n g l o v e ) . Her concept of m o r a l i t y i s a l s o very much culture-bound and c o n t r a d i c t o r y , r e f l e c t -ing t y p i c a l moral/immoral behaviors of e i t h e r c u l t u r e 118 (e.g., f i l i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the husband's dominant r o l e i n marriage- are a s s o c i a t e d with. Chinese culture-, while i n d i v i d u a l i s m , and, romantic love are r e l a t e d to Western val u e s ) .. We are l o o k i n g at an i n d i v i d u a l whose values and f e e l i n g s are locked i n a c o n f l i c t — t h e c o n f l i c t of her f a i t h and- f i d e l i t y to i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d - b e l i e f s which, could be t r a c e d to a- f e u d a l Chinese s o c i e t y now very much i n d e c l i n e . The c e n t r a l i s s u e appears to be her sense of. duty versus her r i g h t to p e r s o n a l happiness. T h i s i n c o n g r u i t y p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t s a desperate attempt to c l i n g on and at the same time to disown some of these b e l i e f s as. she attempts to come to terms with her newly developed- values.. 119 Case- 8 F i r s t Component A s s i m i l a t i o n would mean d i f - / P r e s e r v i n g Chinese values 1 f e r e n t p e r s o n a l and c u l t u r a l would: mean, closeness: to st a n d a r d s , l e s s emotional and. dependence on f a m i l y support, from f a m i l y and growing emphasis on the i n d i v i d u a l Contents I n t e g r a t e i n t o new s o c i e t y Independence-D i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l values: andi i n t e r e s t s Emotional s e p a r a t i o n from-f a m i l y and; f r i e n d s Less- emotional support from f a m i l y Develop own f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s Rely on own judgment /Not i n t e g r a t e /Dependence / S i m i l a r c u l t u r a l values. and; i n t e r e s t s / C l o s e n e s s to f a m i l y and: f r i e n d s . /More emotional support from parents^ /Not develop own, f i n a n c i a l resources; /Not r e l y on own judgment 120 Second Component Caring, and- e t h n i c i t y is. /Not important important Contents ^ P e r s o n a l love and i n t e r e s t /No love or i n t e r e s t R a c i a l i d e n t i t y i s important /Not important 121 Case* 8 26 S i n g l e Pharmacy She had migrated with her f a m i l y to Vancouver., As she r e c o n s t r u c t e d her adjustment, she remembered: being faced with some d i f f i c u l t c h o i c e s but none p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t u r b i n g . C o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s on, the g r i d r e v e a l o r d i n a r y l i f e d e c i s i o n s surrounding, p l a c e of education,, settlement,, c h o i c e of f r i e n d s and d a t i n g p r e f e r e n c e s . The- f i r s t component suggests s u p e r o r d i n a t e c o n s t r u c t s r e g a r d i n g c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n and the p e r s o n a l meaning of i n t e g r a t i o n with Canadian society.. The chosen pole-i n v o l v e s d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l standards, more s e l f - r e l i a n c e and l e s s emotional support from family.. The second component reveals", s u b o r d i n a t e c o n s t r u c t s r e l a t i n g to s o c i a l and h e t e r o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s ( i . e . , her p r e f e r e n c e f o r a mixed group of Canadian and Chinese peers,, though d a t i n g i s r e s t r i c t e d - to Chinese- men.. T h i s element of e t h n i c i t y c o u l d account f o r the remnants of a Chinese i d e n t i t y being observed in- the second component)., What i s s t r i k i n g about her i s . that p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y and expansion are dominant, both r e l a t i n g to the f i r s t component ( r = .60 & .53). Chinese i d e n t i t y i s i r r e l e v a n t to the f i r s t component 122 ( r =• .03) and weakly aligned, to the second ( r = .43).. Western; i d e n t i t y is; r e l a t e d to n e i t h e r component ( r = .20 & .00) T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s v a l i d a t e d , by g r i d r a t i n g s , i n which, she mostly c e n t e r - r a t e s h e r s e l f (raw s c o r e = 4) on Chinese and" Western i d e n t i t y , showing a neutral, p o s i t i o n and perhaps implying an absence of. a l l e g i a n c e to e i t h e r c u l t u r e . However, the r e l a t i v e l y high r a t i n g s on p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y and expansion are s u g g e s t i v e of a more potent and meaningful c o n s t r u c t i o n . Her main stream of thought appears to be d i r e c t e d toward the development and the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of a-s e l f - i d e n t i t y , , i n v o l v i n g p e r s o n a l standards such as f a m i l y v a l u e s and: b e h a v i o r a l competence. No strong, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with e i t h e r c u l t u r e i s i n d i c a t e d . 123 Case 9 " F i r s t Component D e s i r e t o be my own i n d i v i d u a l / T o t a l c o n f o r m i t y and s o c i a l i z a t i o n Contents Broaden horizon,, p e r s o n a l development Not t o f o l l o w t r a d i t i o n Independence-Freedom to be myself, no need to, f i t i n t o s t e r e o -typed r o l e s : Not s u b m i t t i n g t o f e a r of p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y E d u c a t i o n a l knowledge and: exposure t o d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s . No f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y Emotional s e c u r i t y with people from any background /Lack o f p e r s o n a l development / T r a d i t i o n , , the f a m i l y should s t a y t o g e t h e r /Dependence / F i t i n t o the mode /Fear of p a r e n t a l author-i t y o r m a n i p u l a t i o n / L i t t l e e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y / F i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y / S e c u r i t y with people from s i m i l a r c u l t u r a l background Second Component Commitment to- r e l i g i o n /Lack o f r e l i g i o u s commitment Content R e l i g i o n — t o serve God /Not to serve God 125 Case » 30 M a r r i e d Theology The s u b j e c t sounded very e n t h u s i a s t i c about her s e t t l e m e n t in: North America, f i r s t as- a student and now as an immigrant.. She r e c a l l e d having a g r e a t d e s i r e f o r autonomy and achievement i n Hong Kong,. The West had offered- o p p o r t u n i t y f o r expansion i n a s i m i l a r d i r e c t i o n . Her major l i f e g o a l s were to become her own i n d i v i d u a l and to promote- her C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f s . . She had been c o n s i s t e n t i n takings r i s k s at various; periods, of her l i f e and she c l a r i f i e d t h a t "what i s observed as r i s k i n g : behavior is. a means; to an e n d — t h e d e s i r e to: be [her] own person.." C o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s on the g r i d show a. movement away from f a m i l y r e s t r i c t i o n s toward a g r e a t e r c o n t r o l over her l i f e . . T h i s can be i l l u s t r a t e d by her d e c i s i o n s to-- l i v e by h e r s e l f , marry a Caucasian,, make independent f i n a n c i a l d e c i s i o n s , - t r a v e l and r e t u r n to graduate s c h o o l . The f i r s t component ( d e s i r e to be my own. i n d i v i d u a l v e r s u s t o t a l c o n f o r m i t y and s o c i a l i z a t i o n ) r e v e a l s the c o n s t r u c t s which dominate many d e c i s i o n s . "independence, p e r s o n a l development,, f u r t h e r i n g knowledge" are i n d i r e c t c o n f l i c t with the deference to> a u t h o r i t y p r e s c r i b e d by p a r e n t s , t r a d i t i o n , and economic c o n d i t i o n s . Supportive. 126 evidence can be drawn from the c o r r e l a t i o n s on p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y ( r = .74) and expansion ( r = -77) and a concomitant r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t Chinese i d e n t i t y ( r - -.50) and; g u i l t ( r = -.6 5)'- The second- component suggests a commitment to r e l i g i o n , which is- a f f i r m e d by her r e t u r n t o theolo g y s c h o o l f o r advanced s t u d i e s -Ratings on the g r i d show t h a t g u i l t i s a s s o c i a t e d with l e a r n e d f a m i l y v a l u e s such as p a r e n t a l c o n s u l t a t i o n , j o b s e c u r i t y and- f i n a n c i a l a c c u m u l a t i o n - She p e r c e i v e s such o p t i o n s as s t r e n g t h e n i n g Chinese i d e n t i t y which she has r e j e c t e d i n f a v o r o f a p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y . T h i s i s shown by strong- r a t i n g s on p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y and expansion i n d i c a t i n g a more meaningful a l l i a n c e . Western i d e n t i t y tends t o be c e n t e r - r a t e d (raw scor e = 4 ) , im p l y i n g t h a t Western v a l u e s do not r e a l l y e n t e r i n t o the scheme o f t h i n g s -The p r o f i l e appears t o be a person who has developed a c l e a r sense o f s e l f - i d e n t i t y i n r e l a t i n g to t r a d i t i o n and environment. There i s a d e f i n i t e r e a c t i o n , a g a i n s t Chinese v a l u e s which are re p r e s e n t e d i n t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . She has chosen a more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c approach which, combined with her r e l i g i o u s , commitment, remain the m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e s i n her l i f e . 127 Case 10 F i r s t Component Concern f o r o t h e r s and s o c i a l s e c u r i t y Contents Away from f r i e n d s and: r e l a t i v e s i n Hong, Kong-More- p r o t e c t i o n f o r work. Sense of community, mutual a s s i s t a n c e H e l p i n g people More e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s / I n d i v i d u a l concerns and l a c k o f s o c i a l s e c u r i t y / C l o s e to f r i e n d s , and r e l a t i v e s /No p r o t e c t i o n f o r work /Lack o f mutual a s s i s t a n c e /More s e l f - i n t e r e s t s /Fewer e d u c a t i o n a l oppor t u n i t i e s Second. Component Meaningful p e r s o n a l t i e s and c a r e e r advancement Contents Easy to. r e l a t e , more s h a r i n g o f p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s Chance o f promotion More- co m f o r t a b l e l i f e s t y l e / L e s s meaningful t i e s , l e s s c a r e e r advancement /Very l i t t l e t o t a l k about /Less chance o f promotion /Less, c o m f o r t a b l e l i f e s t y l e 128 Case 10 24 S i n g l e Pharmacy Emigrating, with her e n t i r e f a m i l y had a s s i s t e d her i n i t i a l adjustment. She remembered being aware o f some l i f e s t y l e d i f f e r e n c e s such as doing housework v e r s u s r e l y i n g : on Hong Kong, servants.. She missed the people she had l e f t behind;, however, t h i s was g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d by the warmth and f r i e n d l i n e s s i n her suburban neighbourhood. As time went on,, she had grown t o l i k e Canada and to a p p r e c i a t e the l i b e r a l values- i n t e g r a l t o t h i s society.. The c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s on. the g r i d a re v e r y much along: this- l i n e , , a mixture of s o c i a l and" p e r s o n a l concerns ( i . e . . , p r e f e r e n c e for. e d u c a t i o n , work system,, peers., p l a c e o f s e t t l e m e n t ) which r e v e a l s the g e n e r a l t h r u s t o f her adjustment: a movement toward: Western i d e a l s and: values., As noted i n the f i r s t , component,, c o n s t r u c t poles, such as "work p r o t e c t i o n , sense o f community, mutual a s s i s t a n c e , and- more e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s " are c l o s e l y aligned: i n c o n t r a s t to c o n s t r u c t p o l e s o f " c l o s e n e s s to f a m i l y and friends,., s e l f — i n t e r e s t s and l a c k o f work p r o t e c t i o n . " Responses: suggest the development of s o c i a l concerns as opposed t o s e l f - o r i e n t e d needs. T h i s component p r o b a b l y m i r r o r s her a d o p t i o n o f l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e s i n Canada as 129 compared to the- more b u s i n e s s - o r i e n t e d p h i l o s o p h y of Hong Kong. The chosen c o n s t r u c t p o l e s are s t r o n g l y a l i g n e d with Western i d e n t i t y ( r = .90). The second component suggests- an- emphasis on p e r s o n a l i s s u e s such as- c a r e e r development,, comfort with one's e t h n i c group and former l i f e s t y l e . . The> chosen poles are s t r o n g l y a l i g n e d with Chinese i d e n t i t y ( r = .69).. As i n f e r r e d from the r e s u l t s , , i t appears that her p e r s o n a l sphere of meaning has been expanded to i n c l u d e s o c i a l concerns with p e r s o n a l needs taking, on a more p e r i p h e r a l p o s i t i o n . Raw, data o b s e r v a t i o n supports the n o t i o n t h a t l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e s tend: to augment p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y and expansion while the opposing; o p t i o n s tend to have the r e v e r s e e f f e c t . , What is. observed 1 i s an alignment of core values with Western i d e n t i t y and the alignment of p e r i p h e r a l v a l u e s with Chinese i d e n t i t y . This- could- i n d i c a t e a com p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n of v a l u e s into, f u n c t i o n a l c l u s t e r s , , an. a d a p t i v e way of viewing her world:; a c l e a r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with Western values, r e g a r d i n g s o c i a l i s s u e s and a p r e s e r v a t i o n of Chinese values, i n her p e r s o n a l l i f e . In terms of c o n s t r u c t a p p l i c a t i o n , , both sets; of valu e s are meaningful w i t h i n a d i f f e r e n t c ontext of her l i f e . 130 Case 11 F i r s t Component Meaningful,, i n - d e p t h r e l a t i o n s h i p Contents Interested, i n in-dep t h f r i e n d s h i p S e r i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p Consider dating, as p a r t of pr o c e s s o f marriage Dating i s not f o r fun Importance of f a m i l y and p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s /Casual,, s u p e r f i c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p /Not i n t e r e s t e d / C a s u a l s u p e r f i c i a l / U n r e l a t e d p r o c e s s /Dating- f o r fun /Unimportant Second Component P r o f e s s i o n a l , , p r a c t i c a l c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s . Contents More p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g P r o f e s s i o n a l , t r a i n i n g , , job o p p o r t u n i t i e s Less i n t e r e s t i n g e n e r a l knowledge Respected r e g a r d l e s s o f whatever job /Le s s p r a c t i c a l , more g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t s / L e s s p r a c t i c a l /Fewer j ob o p p o r t u n i t i e s / I n t e r e s t i n g e n e r a l knowledge /Lack, o f r e s p e c t f o r some jobs 131 Case 11 22. S i n g l e G e n e r a l arts. She emigrated with her f a m i l y to Vancouver. C r o s s -c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t o u t s i d e her e t h n i c m i l i e u has been c o n f i n e d to s c h o o l , work and church a c t i v i t i e s . C o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s on the g r i d e v o l v e around p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s and c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s . . For example, i n the f i r s t component, " s e r i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p , d a t i n g as a p r o c e s s o f marriage, importance o f f a m i l y e x p e c t a t i o n s " are a l i g n e d i n c o n t r a s t t o a s h a l l o w understanding.. T h i s sober o u t l o o k c o v e r s a l l aspects" of p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s ( f a m i l y , marriage, f r i e n d s h i p ) , , and i s a l i g n e d with the Chinese i d e n t i t y p o l e ( r = .75), p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y (r - .55) and expansion ( r = .61). The c a s u a l and s u p e r f i c i a l i s a l i g n e d with Western i d e n t i t y ( r = - . 8 5 ) , and g u i l t (r = -.63) and. c o n f u s i o n ( r = - . 5 9 ) . The- second, component r e v e a l s c a r e e r concerns:, "more p r a c t i c a l , , p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g , , j o b o p p o r t u n i t y " v e r s u s " g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t s and knowledge." Career c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , seem m i n i m a l l y r e l a t e d ; t o Chinese i d e n t i t y (r = -.10) and Western i d e n t i t y (r = .07) . Also,, raw d a t a on c a r e e r o p t i o n s tend to be neutral,., unrelated, to c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . . 132 In t h i s case, immigration problems are minimized by a c l e a r a f f i r m a t i o n and p e r p e t u a t i o n o f Chinese v a l u e s and a r e j e c t i o n o f Western v a l u e s r e g a r d i n g human r e l a t i o n s . S u p e r o r d i n a t e c o n s t r u c t s such, as commitment and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y determine her involvement with p e o p l e . While- c a r e e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are p r i m a r i l y d e f i n e d i n terms o f u t i l i t y , , q u i t e independent o f c u l t u r a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , , she c l a r i f i e d t h a t p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s would be a d e c i s i v e f a c t o r i n her c a r e e r c h o i c e . T h i s c o u l d be an area o f l o o s e n i n g when her range o f ex p e r i e n c e i s enhanced by new i n t e r e s t s and challenges.. 133 Case 12 F i r s t Component To be in t e g r a t e d : i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y Contents F r u s t r a t i o n Acceptance by Canadian s o c i e t y More c o n t a c t with s o c i e t y Avoid, e x p l o i t a t i o n Give up h e r i t a g e language F i g h t f o r one's r i g h t s / M a i n t a i n i n g Chinese c u l t u r e means i s o l a t e d from host s o c i e t y /Comfort,, lack, o f p r e s s u r e / R e j e c t i o n / I s o l a t i o n /Be e x p l o i t e d /Maintain. Chinese c u l t u r e /Harmony Second Component To develop c a r e e r i n s p i t e / G i v e up c a r e e r o f d i f f i c u l t i e s . Contents Show i n t e r e s t a t work C o n f l i c t e d between two c u l t u r e s Ca nad i an-r ecogn i zed: p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g /Show d i s i n t e r e s t /Avoid, c o n f u s i o n /Lack o f r e c o g n i z e d t r a i n i n g 134 Case 12 33 Married: S o c i a l work She m i g r a t e d with her husband* and c h i l d r e n to Vancouver- Since he could not f i n d s i m i l a r employment here, he r e t u r n e d to t e a c h i n g i n Hong Kong; while: she s t a y e d i n Canada with t h e i r p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . The e a r l y y e a r s were extremely f r u s t r a t i n g , a d j u s t i n g to a new environment while he- j o i n e d them b r i e f l y d u r i n g the summer h o l i d a y s . She remembered her f i r s t e xperiences of s h o v e l l i n g ; snow, getting; g r o c e r i e s — d a i l y chores t h a t became magnified as she- l e d the secluded l i f e of a s i n g l e parent i n a new c u l t u r e . . Her r e t u r n to work and c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n were made p o s s i b l e with h i s permanent r e t u r n r e c e n t l y -E l i c i t e d c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s are p r i m a r i l y concerned with, e t h n i c p a r e n t i n g and the r o l e demands of c a r e e r versus motherhood. One one hand, she f e e l s o b l i g e d to r a i s e her c h i l d r e n in- t h e i r c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e , s t r e s s i n g s o c i a l harmony, Chinese language and customs. On the other hand, they should be r a i s e d as- Canadians, independent,, a s s e r t i v e and, f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h . She f e a r s her c o n f u s i o n may a f f e c t t h e i r u p b r i n g i n g - Furthermore, she f e e l s g u i l t y about her c a r e e r development, which c o n f l i c t s with, her t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f i n f u l l - t i m e motherhood. 135 The b a s i c struggle: appears: t o be her confused super.ordina.te c o n s t r u c t s of a s s i m i l a t i o n versus p r e s e r v a t i o n of Chinese culture., The f i r s t component r e f l e c t s some of th i s : u n c e r t a i n t y . The chosen poles of " f r u s t r a t i o n , need f o r acceptance,, c o n t a c t with s o c i e t y , avoid' e x p l o i t a t i o n " are a l i g n e d with Western i d e n t i t y ( r = .92) while the opposing, poles; ( l a c k of p r e s s u r e , r e j e c t i o n and i s o l a t i o n ; from' s o c i e t y , m a i n t a i n i n g Chinese c u l t u r e ) are a l i g n e d with Chinese i d e n t i t y ( r = -.75). I t seems e v i d e n t that with such d i s a c c o r d she i s unsure of her p o s i t i o n on p a r e n t i n g . Concern f o r c a r e e r development i s r e f l e c t e d i n the second component.. Her i n t e r e s t i n work and continuing, e d u c a t i o n are a l i g n e d with p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y ( r = .62) and expansion ( r = .70) The major c o n f l i c t appears to be- that of a s s i m i l a t i o n versus? maintaining, e t h n i c i t y . . She i s aware- of the a l t e r n a t i v e perspective: of a c c u l t u r a t i o n and the e f f e c t s t h i s has on t h e i r lives... At present she f e e l s torn between the v a l u e s she should; expound at work and at home.. The r e s u l t s show a d i v i d e d core c o n f i g u r a t i o n and the develop-ment of a work-related p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y — a c o m p a r a t i v e l y safe area where she can expand Western val u e s such as a s s e r t i v e n e s s and openness.. Her work i d e n t i t y could be an avenue of change and a. bridge i n reducing, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l a l i e n a t i o n . 136 Case 13 F i r s t Component Freedom i n pursuing s e l f -development Contents More, freedom T r a n s i e n t r e l a t i o n s Be myself More c a r e e r development P e r s o n a l development Broaden knowledge / S e c u r i t y and t r a d i t i o n / R e s t r a i n t /Permanence, s e c u r i t y /Submit to o t h e r s ' o p i n i o n s /Less- c a r e e r development / F o l l o w t r a d i t i o n / L i m i t l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i -t i e s Second Component Duty toward parents,, support / T o t a l estrangement and: approval from f a m i l y Contents; Spend time with parents /Not f u l f i l l i n g o b l i g a t i o n toward parents Companionship, support from / A l i e n a t i o n f a m i l y Family approval / D i s a p p r o v a l 137 Case- 13 26 Married S o c i a l work For the f i r s t years, of migration,, she was on her own, l i v i n g i n a u n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n c e with Canadian peers.. Reacting: to the s t i f l i n g atmosphere i n which she was brought up (an o v e r p r o t e c t i v e f a m i l y and a c o n s e r v a t i v e g i r l s ' school) r she- went through a c y c l e o f t o t a l r e j e c t i o n o f Chinese values.. M i g r a t i n g l a t e r , , her f a m i l y found i t hard t o accept the change which they considered' " e c c e n t r i c " and "a bad example to the younger s i s t e r s and b r o t h e r s . " As she s a i d , she p a i d a p r i c e f o r independence' and o f t e n wondered' i f i t . was; worth the widening r i f t with her f a m i l y . C o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s , on1 the g r i d r e f l e c t d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , network o f frie n d s , , permanent immigration: and e d u c a t i o n a l p u r s u i t . Inherent i n these c h o i c e s appear to be a moving away from d e f i n e d 1 Chinese norms; toward a more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s t a n d a r d s . The component r e s u l t s show v a l u e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s which are p a r a l l e l t o t h i s l i n e of r e a s o n i n g . The f i r s t component (freedom i n p u r s u i n g self-development v e r s u s s e c u r i t y and t r a d i t i o n ) reveals, concerns about the p u r s u i t 138 o f p e r s o n a l growth i n r e l a t i o n s , , c a r e e r and e d u c a t i o n . Here,, p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y ( r = .6 2) and- expansion (r = .59) are a l i g n e d with Western i d e n t i t y ( r = .71) and i n o p p o s i t i o n . to> Chinese i d e n t i t y ( r - -.67). Ratings on the s i t u a t i o n a l options; support a s i m i l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . . Her f e e l i n g f o r f a m i l y , as r e v e a l e d i n the i n t e r v i e w , i s : r e f l e c t e d i n the second component (duty toward p a r e n t s , support and a p p r o v a l from f a m i l y v e r s u s t o t a l estrangement). Though f a m i l y - c e n t e r e d v a l u e s have taken, a s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n to i n d i v i d u a l - c e n t e r e d v a l u e s , they c o n t i n u e to c o n t r i b u t e to p e r s o n a l expansion ( r = .4 4) .. Also,, the f r e q u e n t r a t i n g s on c o n f u s i o n may suggest g e n e r a l u n c e r t a i n t y r e s p e c t i n g : the c h o i c e o f s e l f v e r s u s f a m i l y . What has emerged i s . an. i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the r e s t r a i n t and dependence 1 i n t r i n s i c t o Chinese i d e n t i t y . She has opted f o r the more f l e x i b l e p e r s o n a l development a v a i l a b l e i n Western s o c i e t y . However, i t seems t h a t she has not r e j e c t e d o r severed her f a m i l y bonds, but r a t h e r has managed- to p l a c e the elements o f t h i s p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t , more a t r i g h t angles to one another,, where the c o n f l i c t i s o c c a s i o n a l r a t h e r than t y p i c a l . Case 14-F i r s t Component To be accepted i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y r e q u i r e s t a k i n g on d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s /To be o n e s e l f and to keep t r a d i t i o n may r i s k a l i e n a t i o n Contents Acceptance i n t o s o c i e t y A d j u s t t o new- s o c i e t y f a s t e r Take on another's v a l u e s D i s r e s p e c t f u l t o t e a c h e r s /Not b e i n g accepted /Reserved, h o t a d j u s t /Be o n e s e l f / T r a d i t i o n , r e s p e c t f o r tea c h e r s To be r e s e r v e d i n i n t e r a c t i o n with o t h e r s Contents Second Component /Responsive to new i n f l u e n c e s and people Reserve- own ideas,, not be i n f l u e n c e d To p r o t e c t myself S u p e r f i c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p E m o t i o n a l l y u n s t a b l e and unhealthy / A c c e p t i n g new ideas. /Be open /Good f r i e n d s h i p / E m o t i o n a l l y s t a b l e and h e a l t h y 140 Case 14' 24 S i n g l e E l e c t r i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g She r e c a l l e d being, very guarded with people on her f i r s t a r r i v a l in. Canada.. On one hand, she b e l i e v e d t h a t m i g r a t i o n has helped her to mature f a s t e r ; she has met new f r i e n d s and has- had new experiences.. On the other hand, she: would p r e f e r some c o n t i n u i t y with her p r e v i o u s way of l i f e -C o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s on the g r i d r e v e a l mixed emotions r e g a r d i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , , ranging from, a need to v a l i d a t e core values; such as r e s p e c t f o r e l d e r s , to h i d i n g emotions, to a more open i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of male/female f r i e n d s h i p . There i s some ambivalence toward the c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s of v a l u e s i n the f i r s t component and i t s e f f e c t on c o n c r e t e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n the second. The f i r s t component reveals, a d e s i r e to be accepted i n t o the mainstream of Canadian s o c i e t y , c o n t r a r y to the need to be o n e s e l f , p r e s e r v e t r a d i t i o n , and r i s k a l i e n a t i o n . The i s s u e appears, to be a r e l u c t a n c e to take on another's v a l u e s and the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of being i n f l u e n c e d . Her a t t i t u d e toward a s s i m i l a t i o n appears ambiguous,, as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the p o l a r o p p o s i t i o n between Western 141 i d e n t i t y ( r = .78) and: Chinese i d e n t i t y ( r — -.64) and. the o v e r a l l sense of g u i l t and. c o n f u s i o n observed i n her r a t i n g s of accepted and r e j e c t e d options., The c o n t r a d i c t o r y nature of her p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s i s d i s c l o s e d ; i n the second component. I t r a i s e s concerns r e g a r d i n g the degree of openness with f r i e n d s , the forms; of i n t i m a c y between male and female, and the need* f o r s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n by being s u p e r f i c i a l . I t seems that with increased: exposure to people,, she has experienced some f e a r s of c l o s e n e s s and i s q u e s t i o n i n g her p r e v i o u s a t t i t u d e s toward p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . The o p t i o n of " r e s p o n s i v e n e s s to new i n f l u e n c e s and people" i s a l i g n e d with "good f r i e n d s h i p , emotional s t a b i l i t y and h e a l t h , " and c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y o f f e r room f o r expansion (r = —.75). The trend suggests a c l a s h of core values.. Her p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , on a c o n c r e t e , day-to-day l e v e l are probably the a r e a where, she can get meaningful v e r i f i c a t i o n and where she- can seek, f u r t h e r e x t e n s i o n . 142; Case 15 F i r s t Component Fostering; a c a r e e r /Promoting f u l l motherhood; and f a m i l y l i f e Contents No time with baby / C l o s e r c o n t a c t r spent more time with baby Keep myself occupied; / I d l e Mutual b e n e f i t i n t a k i n g / C o n f l i c t s i n extended care of each o t h e r f a m i l y Improper growth of c h i l d — /Proper growth of c h i l d — breakup of marriage main l i n k a g e i n m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s I can; work /Stay home and look a f t e r my c h i l d Second Component To c o n s o l i d a t e marriage and / M a r i t a l breakup and ca-c a r e e r r e e r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n Contents Strengthen my marriage / D i v o r c e Career s p e c i a l i z a t i o n /Do c l e r i c a l job the r e s t of my l i f e Work with people of my /Work i n a predominantly own race white s o c i e t y Root to the f a m i l y / R o o t l e s s n e s s 143 Case 15 32 Ma r r i e d Urban 1 p l a n n i n g She migrated with her husband and c h i l d to Vancouver.. With a u n i v e r s i t y degree from Hong, Kong,, she could o n l y o b t a i n c l e r i c a l work'.. Her c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s were f u r t h e r blocked by c o n f l i c t i n g r o l e expectations., Her husband sees her p r i m a r i l y i n the r o l e of a- "homemaker which [she] has accepted as p a r t o f [her] duty, and which [she] b e l i e v e s t h a t there i s no true e q u a l i t y i n a Chinese f a m i l y . " A f t e r two y e a r s , she retu r n e d to graduate- s c h o o l ; this, move was prompted by " a i m l e s s " c l e r i c a l work and the p e r c e i v e d d i s c r e p a n c y between her husband's, c a r e e r advancement and her own l a g g i n g - b e h i n d . C o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s surround f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and* c a r e e r development. The chosen o p t i o n s (e.g.,, r e t u r n to s c h o o l , sale: of home to fi n a n c e s t u d i e s while home symbolizes " r o o t to the f a m i l y " , not having a second c h i l d ) are i n d i r e c t d e f i a n c e of c o n v e n t i o n a l Chinese e x p e c t a t i o n s of a homemaker,, wife and mother. Component ana-lysis emphasizes t h i s dilemma. The f i r s t component reveals, c o n f l i c t of working, r o l e versus mothering r o l e with Chinese val u e s s t r e n g t h e n i n g mothering r o l e and the concept of work perhaps r e f l e c t i n g a minor theme of Western c u l t u r e . C o n s t r u c t s such as "no time with baby, improper growth o f c h i l d , , keeping myself occupied"' are aligned- t o i l l u s t r a t e her p r e o c c u p a t i o n with c h i l d - r e a r i n g and work. Emotional d i s t r e s s o f not being a b l e t o i n t e g r a t e both r o l e s and the f e a r o f n e g a t i v e consequences (e.g.,, m a r i t a l breakup, n e g l e c t o f c h i l d ' s upbringing) c o u l d be i n f e r r e d . . The second component h i g h l i g h t s alignment o f marriage and- f a m i l y with c a r e e r advancement, r e q u i r i n g more study o r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . . No c o n f l i c t i s observed i n t h i s componen t . Chinese i d e n t i t y is- an ambiguous- guide i n t h i s Western s i t u a t i o n f o r i t a f f i r m s the r o l e o f mother i n c o n t r a s t t o working woman i n the f i r s t component,,, but i n the second component, a f f i r m s marriage and f a m i l y r o o t s which are a l i g n e d with c a r e e r advancement i n c o n t r a s t to menial work.-Thus, her Chinese i d e n t i t y ambiguously c o n f i r m s a n t a g o n i s t i c p r e s s u r e s i n her c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n , , which i s u n d e r l i n e d by her i n c r e a s e d sense o f c o n f u s i o n r e g a r d i n g c a r e e r p u r s u i t s - i n the f i r s t component and decreased sense of c o n f u s i o n r e g a r d i n g c a r e e r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n the second. Advanced^ study i s p o s s i b l y a temporary s o l u t i o n t o these warring and c o n f u s i n g p r e s s u r e s , f o r i t both p a r t i a l l y takes on y e t puts o f f the potent c o n f l i c t i n the 1.45 f i r s t component. A l s o , the second component which supports; advanced study p r o v i d e s an u n c o n f l i c t e d b a s i s f o r p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y ( r = .52) and expansion ( r — .59). Given the potency of her s i t u a t i o n , . Western c u l t u r e seems almost secondary, l i k e a remote: c o n f l i c t she has y e t r e a l l y to face.. She i s too overwhelmed by the immediate s i t u a t i o n . . 146 Summary of Case S t u d i e s In summary,, case s t u d i e s r e v e a l a complex p i c t u r e of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . . What t h i s study is- concerned with are what l i f e looks l i k e from the i n d i v i d u a l s ' f o cus of v a l u e s , how these women f e e l , what they experience and remember i n t h e i r own process of adjustment, and the reasons f o r t h e i r choosing and a c t i n g on c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n s . . The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e a c c u l t u r a t i o n ' to be embedded i n a host of f a c t o r s such as (a) the context of m i g r a t i o n , v o l u n t a r y versus, i n v o l u n t a r y , whether they come alone or with f a m i l y , what is, l e f t behind: r e l a t i o n s h i p s , c a r e e r , (b) the reasons f o r m i g r a t i o n : e d u c a t i o n , work,, p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y , or b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s , (c) the f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e involved;: s t r e n g t h of f a m i l y t i e s , i n preserving: h e r i t a g e or f a c i l i t a t i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n , , (d) t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n of core r o l e i d e n t i t y (.i.e., daughter,, wife,, mother,, working woman) and whether the host c u l t u r e supports, the t r a n s f e r of this, major r o l e dimension,, (e) p e r s o n a l i t y - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and' o u t l o o k , and ( f ) s i t u a t i o n a l demands and emotional f a c t o r s . The case: s t u d i e s demonstrate both the commonality and. the. d i v e r s i t y of these immigrant women.. The commonality of the ; core 1 c l u s t e r s of value s ( t e n out of f i f t e e n cases) are concerned; with p e r s o n a l development as opposed to p r e s e r v i n g f a m i l y v a l u e s and t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e c o n c e p t i o n s . The; r e s t ( f i v e out of f i f t e e n ) are a s s o c i a t e d with 147 i n d i v i d u a l adjustment to the host s o c i e t y . The p e r i p h e r a l c l u s t e r s - of v a l u e s are more dispersed,, with concerns ranging from p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s ( e i g h t out of f i f t e e n ) , c a r e e r development ( f o u r out of f i f t e e n ) to r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l , commitment (three out of f i f t e e n ) . . D e spite the commonality of value themes,, d i v e r s i t y i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i s observed.. For example, f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s are p e r c e i v e d as being, n u r t u r i n g and s u p p o r t i v e by some,, but r e s t r i c t i v e and confining, by o t h e r s . As another example,, the meaning of f r i e n d s h i p a l s o v a r i e s . T r a n s i e n t Western r e l a t i o n s are construed as s u p e r f i c i a l and i r r e s p o n s i b l e versus genuine and l i b e r a t i n g . However,, of major importance, there appear to be r e a s o n a b l y d e f i n i t e s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n s which suggest v a r i o u s modes or s t r a t e g i e s of handling c o n f l i c t s . The f o l l o w i n g is- a d e s c r i p t i o n of the: d i f f e r e n t s t r a t e g i e s as they are: i n f e r r e d from the s t r u c t u r a l alignment of the p e r s o n a l value systems.. 1... Reaction a g a i n s t Chinese i d e n t i t y ; T h i s p a t t e r n r e f l e c t s a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the perceived: c o n s t r a i n t s , of Chinese c u l t u r e - Contained i n t h i s category are o b l i g a t i o n s toward family,, dependence and s e c u r i t y , stereotyped, r o l e s and submergence i n a c o l l e c t i v e i d e n t i t y . . These elements are construed as: a block a g a i n s t d e v e l o p i n g i n d i v i d u a l i t y . . Inherent i n t h i s mode of adjustment i s an 148 o p t i n g f o r the Western v a l u e s of i n d i v i d u a l expansion, happiness and freedom., The major t h r u s t of p e r s o n a l development i s toward, w e s t e r n i z a t i o n , which, f o r c e s a loosening, of s o c i a l i z a t i o n and f a c i l i t a t e s a s s i m i l a t i o n . Cases 2, 3, 7, 9, 13 are i l l u s t r a t i v e of t h i s p a t t e r n of adjustment. In most of these cases, Chinese and Western i d e n t i t y are i n p o l a r o p p o s i t i o n , with an alignment o f p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y with Western v a l u e s i n r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t Chinese i d e n t i t y . 2. Realignment on p e r i p h e r a l values:: Where the core c o n s t r u c t s are d i v i d e d between Chinese and Western v a l u e s and no r e s o l u t i o n i s forthcoming, maneuvering around t h i s impasse- can be noted i n the alignment of p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y with p e r i p h e r a l , c o n f l i c t - f r e e c o n s t r u c t s i n v o l v i n g personal, r e l a t i o n s , c a r e e r and the l i k e . . T h i s p a t t e r n can be r e c o g n i z e d i n Cases 1, 6, 12, 14'. A l l i n v o l v e opposing core v a l u e s , with d i s c o r d , between Chinese and Western i d e n t i t y - Presumably, an a l t e r n a t i v e is. sought in the p e r i p h e r a l constructs, where p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y can be posited, on a less: c o n f l i c t i n g base. 3., C u l t i v a t i o n of a core p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y : The dominant s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n i n v o l v e s an apparent c u l t i v a t i o n of a; core p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y , i r r e s p e c t i v e of c u l t u r e or perhaps as a r e s u l t of a c o n f l i c t between c u l t u r e s . T h i s p a t t e r n i s i l l u s t r a t e d by Cases 8 and 5. 149' C e n t r a l v a l u e s are s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d with a p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y while c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t i e s are neutral.. On the other, hand, warring v a l u e s between c u l t u r e s may c o n t r i b u t e to the enhancement of an i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y . . T h i s mode r e p r e s e n t s a growing emphasis on the i n d i v i d u a l and the r e c o g n i t i o n and p u r s u i t of p e r s o n a l needs. C u l t u r e may be regarded as i r r e l e v a n t or transcended.. 4. Compartmentalization; T h i s poses a s o l u t i o n where core and- p e r i p h e r a l v a l u e c l u s t e r s each r e p r e s e n t a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n . In terms of c o n s t r u c t o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h i s o f f e r s a f u n c t i o n a l , n o n c o n f l i c t i n g way of d e a l i n g with an otherwise c h a o t i c , p o t e n t i a l l y c o n f l i c t f u l w orld. C u l t u r e s are viewed at r i g h t angles to one another, separate,, d i s t i n c t , , and not i n t o t a l disagreement. Case- 10 i s s u p p o r t i v e of t h i s mode of adjustment: an alignment of core v a l u e s with Western i d e n t i t y and the alignment of p e r i p h e r a l values with Chinese i d e n t i t y . In terms of c o n s t r u c t a p p l i c a t i o n , both s e t s of v a l u e s can be meaningful w i t h i n a d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t o r s i t u a t i o n . 5. A f f i r m a t i o n of Chinese i d e n t i t y : . T h i s s t r a t e g y r e f l e c t s the a f f i r m a t i o n and the p e r p e t u a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s i n a new c u l t u r a l environment. Chinese i d e n t i t y i s maintained to ensure the sense of c o n t i n u i t y 150 i n t e r r u p t e d ' by migration.. Previous c u l t u r a l v a l u e s c o n s t i t u t e the main and c o n s i s t e n t source of v a l i d a t i o n . . T h i s c o n f i r m a t i o n of Chinese i d e n t i t y is. by n e c e s s i t y accompanied w i t h a r e s i s t a n c e a g a i n s t a s s i m i l a t i o n and a c l e a r r e j e c t i o n of Western values.. This, p o s i t i o n can be i l l u s t r a t e d by Case 11. Chinese values are a f f i r m e d as the primary mode of c o n s t r u i n g , i n o p p o s i t i o n to Western v a l u e s . 6. P o s i t i v e expansion a g a i n s t Chinese i d e n t i t y : T h i s p a t t e r n a l s o r e t a i n s a sense of c o n t i n u i t y with t r a d i t i o n , as expansion i s anchored on and i n c o n t r a s t to Chinese i d e n t i t y , with a broadening of t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s and v a l u e s . T h i s p a t t e r n i s d i s t i n c t from the mode of r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t Chinese i d e n t i t y where a major adoption of Western v a l u e s i s observed.. Western c u l t u r e may not be i n v o l v e d i n t h i s adjustment process.. Cases 4 and 15 appear to demonstrate this, strategy,, although a weak r e l a t i o n s h i p i s pre s e n t i n terms of p o s i t i v e expansion a g a i n s t Chinese i d e n t i t y . . Whatever the ad a p t i v e s t r a t e g i e s , the f i n d i n g s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h at these immigrant women experience i n d i v i d u a l c o n f l i c t s , and frame l i f e options, d i f f e r e n t i a l l y . . There are i d i o s y n c r a t i c p a t t e r n s of adjustment. Each p a t t e r n i s . r e f l e c t i v e of d i f f e r e n t experiences, and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of value c o n f l i c t . . 151 These- s i x p a t t e r n s of adjustment are most a p p r o p r i a t e l y viewed i n the context of d i s c o v e r y r a t h e r than c o n f i r m a t i o n . That i s , g e n e r a l i z a t o n to a p o p u l a t i o n would be i n a p p r o p r i a t e , and as noted above, u n d e s i r a b l e . However, by the l o g i c of s i n g l e case s t u d i e s (Chassan, 1 9 7 9 ) , what i s true f o r one person i s l i k e l y to be true f o r at, l e a s t some- others., At pr e s e n t , there i s no b a s i s f o r a n t i c i p a t i n g who i s apt to ma n i f e s t a p a r t i c u l a r pattern,-nor i s there a b a s i s f o r understanding the broader c o n t e x t of these p a t t e r n s . For example, the p a t t e r n s might be types of adjustment or stages of adjustment. How they change, i s c u r r e n t l y unknown. T h i s study has i n d i c a t e d s i x kind s of patterns,, which can serve as a- b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s and: r e s e a r c h . 152 Chapter VII The Nature of C o n f l i c t S i t u a t i o n s An Examination of S i t u a t i o n a l Options-The focus of t h i s chapter i s an examination of s i t u a t i o n a l options 1 and the kinds of d e c i s i o n that generate value, c o n f l i c t . E x p l o r a t i o n can help c l a r i f y the nature of v a l u e s involved,, how they are p o l a r i z e d , a f f i r m e d o r r e j e c t e d . The> a n a l y s i s w i l l p r ovide u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r c o u n s e l l o r s i n t h e i r work with immigrants. To r e c a p i t u l a t e , , each s u b j e c t was asked to r e c a l l s i x s i t u a t i o n s , i n which she had to make a d e c i s i o n i n a d j u s t i n g to a new c u l t u r a l environment.. These s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v e d things, which seemed most important to the s u b j e c t and covered her main i n t e r e s t s , concerns and important areas of her l i f e . . . She was, then asked to i d e n t i f y the o p t i o n chosen and the o p t i o n r e j e c t e d i n each s i t u a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , , a t o t a l of n i n e t y s i t u a t i o n s were c o l l e c t e d from the f i f t e e n , s u b j e c t s , each c h a r a c t e r i z e d by opposing o p t i o n s . Through a; process of i n f e r e n c e and judgment, a set of c a t e g o r i e s i s formulated to c l a s s i f y the c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s - . These n i n e t y s i t u a t i o n s can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o seven main, c a t e g o r i e s : r e l a t i o n s with other people,, c a r e e r and e d u c a t i o n , p e r s o n a l being, and a c t i n g , s t a y i n g or moving,, l i v i n g arrangement, f i n a n c i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l and 153 r e l i g i o u s . A r e l i a b i l i t y check over .95 agreement i s obtained by having judges c a t e g o r i z e the s i t u a t i o n s under the v a r i o u s headings. The f o l l o w i n g i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the seven main c a t e g o r i e s and t h e i r s u b - c a t e g o r i e s . 1. R e l a t i o n s with other people; (a) r e l a t i o n s with parents and f a m i l y , f o r example, i n v o l v i n g q u e s t i o n s of t o t a l versus p e r i p h e r a l involvement. I n d i v i d u a l f u l f i l m e n t i s at v a r i a n c e with f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s and u n i t y i n most cas e s , (b) r e l a t i o n s with spouses and b o y f r i e n d s , i n v o l v i n g a c o n v e n t i o n a l versus an unconventional outlook on c a s u a l d a t i n g , common-law c o h a b i t a t i o n and i n t e r r a c i a l marriage. F e e l i n g s of companionship, l o v e , and commitment, expansion and s h a r i n g of one's e t h n i c i d e n t i t y are i n c l u d e d , (c) r e l a t i o n s with f r i e n d s c h i e f l y c o v e r i n g emotional r e s p o n s i v e n e s s o u t s i d e of one's primary r e l a t i o n s . Important aspects c o n s i s t of communication, openness and acceptance versus s e l f - p r o t e c t i v e n e s s and l i m i t e d i n v o l v e -ment, and (d) r e l a t i o n s with teachers which i n c l u d e m a i n t a i n i n g r e s p e c t f o r a u t h o r i t y versus i n i t i a t i n g a more e g a l i t a r i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s sub-category r e f l e c t s b a s i c c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system, one based on unquestioning obedience and r o t e l e a r n i n g from the o l d 154 T a b l e : 7.1 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s i t u a t i o n s i n t o c a t e g o r i e s a n d p e r c e n t a g e s C a t e g o r y No., o f S i t u a t i o n s % 1. R e l a t i o n s , w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e T o t a l : 26 2 8 . 8 6 a ) p a r e n t s a n d f a m i l y 8 8.88 b) s p o u s e s a n d b o y f r i e n d s 8 8.88 O f r i e n d s 8 8.88 d ) t e a c h e r s 2 2.22 2. C a r e e r and. e d u c a t i o n T o t a l : 23 2 5 . 5 4 a ) t y p e o f i n s t i t u t i o n , p r o g r a m 10 1 1 . 1 1 b) r e t u r n t o s c h o o l v e r s u s , w o r k i n g 4 4.44 c ) c a r e e r v e r s u s f a m i l y 4 4.44 d ) p r e f e r e n c e f o r w o r k / e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m 3 3.33 e ) p a r t - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t 2 2.22 3... P e r s o n a l a c t i n g a n d b e i n g T o t a l : 18 1 9 . 9 8 a ) f r i e n d l i n e s s 8 8.88 b) g e n e r a l l i f e s t y l e 5 5.55 c ) s o c i a l - p h i l o s o p h i c a l o u t l o o k 4 4.44 d ) d e c i s i o n m a k i n g 1 1.11 Table 7.1 (continued) 155 Category No. of S i t u a t i o n s % 4. Staying, or moving T o t a l : 11 12. 21 a) s t a y i n g i n Vancouver ver s u s moving 7 7. 77 b) stay i n Canada ve r s u s r e t u r n to Hong: Kong 4 4. 44 5. L i v i n g arrangement T o t a l : 7 7. 77 l i v i n g on one's own versus l i v i n g with f a m i l y 6. F i n a n c i a l d e c i s i o n s ; T o t a l : 3 3. 33 7.~ R e c r e a t i o n a l and r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s T o t a l : 2 2. 22 156 c u l t u r e , and the other espousing a more s t i m u l a t i n g approach. 2.. Career and e d u c a t i o n : Major concerns- i n v o l v e the c h o i c e of career,, type of program or i n s t i t u t i o n , r e t u r n to school,, home-career c o n f l i c t , p a r t - t i m e employment and the p r e f e r e n c e f o r s p e c i f i c work/educational system. The main issue: surrounds the u t i l i t y of a career,, with emphasis, on the p e r c e i v e d need f o r a c q u i s i t i o n of p r a c t i c a l employment s k i l l s , (a p r e v a l e n t theme i n the immigrant's search f o r s u r v i v a l and, s e c u r i t y i n a new environment) as opposed t o the p u r s u i t of i n t e l l e c t u a l or p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s . Family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s p l a y an important r o l e i n d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . 3 . . Personal, being and acting;: This^ category covers i n t e r p e r s o n a l behavior i n terms of the degree of s o c i a b i l i t y , , f r i e n d l i n e s s and warmth; i t i m p l i e s the broadening of customary feminine p a s s i v e behavior and the a d o p t i o n of a more candid , r e l a x e d d i s p o s i t i o n . . The r e c e n t a c q u i s i t i o n of a s o c i a l - p h i l o s o p h i c a l o utlook i s c o n t r a s t e d with t r a d i t i o n a l s e l f - o r i e n t e d needs and m a t e r i a l i s t i c s t a n c e . B e h a v i o r a l norms at school,, at home and around one's, e t h n i c community are a l s o being questioned. 4„ Staying or moving; T h i s group c o n t a i n s d e c i s i o n s : r e g a r d i n g p l a c e of permanent or temporary s e t t l e m e n t , f o r example, s t a y i n g i n Vancouver or moving away to o t h e r 157 c i t i e s . . Deciding, f a c t o r s such as p r o x i m i t y to f a m i l y and e m o tional support versus: i n d i v i d u a l m o b i l i t y and expansion are i n d i c a t e d . . Another example i n v o l v e s s t a y i n g i n Canada, or r e t u r n i n g to< Hong Kong, a p e r s i s t e n t theme of immigrant adjustment, that i s , n o s t a l g i a f o r and the need to r e t u r n to one's r o o t s and home of o r i g i n . 5- L i v i n g arrangements:: L i v i n g on one's own v e r s u s l i v i n g with one's- f a m i l y c o n s t i t u t e s the main c o n f l i c t of t h i s c a t e g o r y . I n d i v i d u a t i o n from f a m i l y v e r s u s t r a d i t i o n a l dependence i s at stake here. 6. F i n a n c i a l d e c i s i o n s i n v o l v e c o n s u l t a t i o n with f a m i l y regarding, f i n a n c i a l support and investment. The c o n f l i c t again i n v o l v e s independence versus dependence. 7. The l a s t c a t e g o r y comprises r e c r e a t i o n a l and r e l i g i o u s , a c t i v i t i e s to enhance the q u a l i t y of one's l i f e . The examination of - s i t u a t i o n a l , o p t i o n s shows, a r e c u r r e n t p a t t e r n of p r a c t i c a l everyday d e c i s i o n s and actions,. What i s s t r i k i n g i s that amid these mundane s i t u a t i o n s are found extremely potent value c o n f l i c t s . , I t is, not so. much the- e x t r a o r d i n a r y , but. the- very o r d i n a r y that i s a s i t e f o r continuing- struggle.. C o n f l i c t may m a n i f e s t i t s e l f i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s , c a r e e r / e d u c a t i o n , s o c i a l b ehavior or seemingly simple matters such as l i v i n g arrangements, place of s e t t l e m e n t , f i n a n c i a l decisions,, e t c . The s i t u a t i o n s suggest an uneasy a l l i a n c e with 158 t r a d i t i o n a l g u i d i n g v a l u e s , an awareness of a l t e r n a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e with an i n e v i t a b l e c h o i c e between two opposing dimensions:. I t i s as i f suddenly a l l common s i t u a t i o n s seem to heighten one's consciousness^ of a l t e r n a t i v e values, and p r e s s u r e s , which demand a c h o i c e . The A n a l y s i s of a D e c i s i o n The o r d i n a r i n e s s of the c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s b e l i e s i t s potency. T h i s is, i l l u s t r a t e d by an a n a l y s i s of a. d e c i s i o n from a, case study. F o l l o w i n g the raw data p r e s e n t a t i o n of the e l i c i t e d b i p o l a r v a l u e s and with the a i d of the s u p p l i e d c o n s t r u c t s , an attempt i s made to a l i g n the c o n s t r u c t s and: to draw some i n f e r e n c e s . In o r g a n i z i n g case m a t e r i a l , Cochran (1980) emphasizes the r o l e s of c o n t r a s t and alignment. Alignment of c o n s t r u c t s , accomplishes c e r t a i n g o a l s : (a) "overload i s managed: through grouping," (b) "the r e l a t i o n s h i p among c o n s t r u c t s a l l o w one to use or understand a person's i n t e r p r e t i v e system, of i n f e r e n c e s , " and c) " a l i g n i n g c o n s t r u c t s allows: one to observe the type of r e a l i t y a. person i s c o n s t r u c t i n g , and consequently,, a c t i n g on and r e a c t i n g to"* (p.. 136).. A l i g n i n g c o n s t r u c t s , i n t h i s case, can c l a r i f y the nature of c o n f l i c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y the v a l u e s t h a t are i m p l i c a t e d , affirmed: or p o l a r i z e d i n the process of d e c i s i o n making.. 159 The example i n v o l v e s " l i v i n g by myself v e r s u s l i v i n g w i t h family," 1 the raw data- are e x t r a c t e d from the g r i d and the two columns are c o n s i d e r e d as a l t e r n a t i v e s o f a d e c i s i o n . , Alignment o f the p o l e s o f the c o n s t r u c t s shows t h a t the more potent v a l u e s such as " l o n e l i n e s s , a l i e n a t i o n and d i s a p p r o v a l from f a m i l y , independence, freedom, t r a n s i e n t r e l a t i o n s " are s t r o n g l y re l a t e d , , i n sharp c o n t r a s t t o " f a m i l y a p p r o v a l , support, companionship, dependence, r e s t r a i n t , permanence and s e c u r i t y . " Other v a l u e s such as-p e r s o n a l development,, expanding knowledge and c a r e e r are i m p l i c a t e d i n the p r o c e s s ; however, they are not as d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d when compared t o the more i n f l u e n t i a l v a l u e s . The main p s y c h o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s attached to " l i v i n g on one's- own"' appear to be independence and the l o s s o f f a m i l y support,, while the a l t e r n a t i v e o f " l i v i n g with f a m i l y " means dependence and a f f e c t i o n a l s u pport. T h i s i s q u i t e a s p l i t and one can begin to understand the dilemma o f the s u b j e c t ' s s i t u a t i o n and the p o l a r i t y with which i t i s c o n s t r u e d . A c c o r d i n g to her c o n s t r u c t i o n , independence i s c o s t l y , i n v o l v i n g a l i e n a t i o n from f a m i l y . In t h i s way, by examining what goes with what, one can begin to make sense of the way her v a l u e s are being s t r u c t u r e d and i n t e r r e l a t e d , , and by i n f e r e n c e , the way she c o n s t r u e s the 160 r e a l i t y o f her s i t u a t i o n and o p t i o n s , and the r i s k s i n v o l v e d . An i n s p e c t i o n o f the s u p p l i e d c o n s t r u c t s r e v e a l s the emotional c o n d i t i o n s and the i d e n t i t y i s s u e s which t h i s p a r t i c u l a r d e c i s i o n has engendered.. The chosen p o l e o f l i v i n g on one's own i s s t r o n g l y a l i g n e d with g u i l t and Western i d e n t i t y , w h ile the r e j e c t e d o p t i o n o f l i v i n g with f a m i l y reduces g u i l t , , and enhances Chinese i d e n t i t y . Chinese and Western i d e n t i t y are d e f i n i t e l y p u l l e d i n o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s . Both o p t i o n s , though c r e a t i n g c o n f u s i o n , are construed as s t r e n g t h e n i n g and expanding p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y . T h i s example and many o t h e r s i l l u s t r a t e i n a c o n c r e t e way the dilemmas and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f d e c i s i o n making w i t h i n the r e a l l i f e c o n t e x t o f the immigrant women. The s i g n i f i c a n c e and the broader impact of such d e c i s i o n s l i e s f a r beyond- the a p p a r e n t l y simple s i t u a t i o n s . 161 An Example from. Case 13 Accepted O p t i o n Rejected Option L i v i n g by myself L i v i n g with f a m i l y Value 1 C o n s t r u c t s Ratings B i p o l a r C o n t r a s t s More freedom 7 2 R e s t r a i n t More c a r e e r development 6> 4 Less c a r e e r development Companionship I 7 L o n e l i n e s s Broaden knowledge 7 5 L i m i t e d l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s P e r s o n a l development 7 5 Follow t r a d i t i o n Fear of embarrassment 3 4 Ignore o t h e r s ' o p i n i o n s Support from f a m i l y 1 7 ' A l i e n a t i o n Spend time with f a m i l y 1 6 Not f u l f i l l p arental. o b l i g a t i o n s Family d i s a p p r o v a l 7 1 Approval Permanence, s e c u r i t y 2 7' T r a n s i e n t r e l a t i o n s Dependence 1 7 Independence Be- my own person 6 3 Submit to o t h e r s ' o p i n i o n s 162 Sup p l i e d C o n s t r u c t s Ratings Strengthens: Chinese i d e n t i t y 2 7 Western i d e n t i t y 7 2 P e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y 7 5 Expansion o f p e r s o n a l 6 5 i d e n t i t y G u i l t 6 1 Confusion and 7 5 u n c e r t a i n t y B i p o l a r Contrasts-Weakens:: Chinese i d e n t i t y Western i d e n t i t y P e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y Expansion o f p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y No g u i l t No c o n f u s i o n and u n c e r t a i n t y 7" — v e r y 6 — moderately 5 — s l i g h t l y 4 — n e u t r a l / n o n a p p l i c a b l e 3 — s l i g h t l y 2 — moderately 1 — v e r y 16 3 Chapter V I I I D i s c u s s i o n The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t both the f i r s t and second: p r i n c i p a l components are p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y m e aningful, i n s e v e r a l major senses.. They organized- c o n s t r u c t s , i n a meaningful and i l l u m i n a t i n g way.. The s u p e r o r d i n a t e e n t i t l e m e n t s which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the nature o f the c l u s t e r s ; o f c o n s t r u c t s were r e f l e c t i v e o f s u b j e c t i v e adjustment e x p e r i e n c e s . V a l i d a t i o n from the s u b j e c t s and from the independent judges s u b j e c t i v e l y v e r i f i e d 1 the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the c l u s t e r s and; the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f the themes. Through the interviews,, the s u b j e c t s were a b l e to e l a b o r a t e the meaning o f the c l u s t e r s through p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r c o n c r e t e l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s as immigrants.. Lastly,, the s u p e r o r d i n a t e e n t i t l e m e n t s o r named themes,, when used to r e - r a t e s i t u a t i o n a l o p t i o n s , c o r r e l a t e d s t r o n g l y with o p t i o n s s c o r e s on co r r e s p o n d i n g components.. In s h o r t , the meaningf ulness; o f the va l u e c l u s t e r s are v a l i d a t e d and a f f i r m e d , d e n o t i n g the dimensions o f v a r i a t i o n s t o be' r e a s o n a b l y s t a b l e and a c c u r a t e subsystems o f meaning.. Second, group f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t the f i r s t p r i n c i p a l component tends t o r e f l e c t both Chinese and Western i d e n t i t y i n p o l a r opposition.. P e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y 164 and expansion o f p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y tend to r e l a t e r a t h e r s t r o n g l y t o one component o r the o t h e r . G u i l t , c o n f u s i o n and u n c e r t a i n t y tend to be more weakly and n e g l i g i b l y a l i g n e d with one component o r the other.. A s i d e from a tendency f o r Chinese and Western i d e n t i t y to c o n f l i c t on the f i r s t component, the f i n d i n g s r e v e a l no o r d e r l y group p o r t r a i t of c o n s t r u c t o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n the p r o c e s s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n . T h i r d , case s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e s i x i n d i v i d u a l p a t t e r n s o f c o n s t r u c t o r g a n i z a t i o n i n d e a l i n g with v a l u e c o n f l i c t : (a) a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t Chinese i d e n t i t y , (b) a realignment with, p e r i p h e r a l v a l u e s as a r e s u l t o f a c o n f l i c t e d c o r e between Chinese and: Western values,, (c) the c u l t i v a t i o n o f a c o r e p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y i r r e s p e c t i v e o f c u l t u r e o r as a response to c o n f l i c t between; cultures,., (d) compartmenta— l i z a t i o n where core and p e r i p h e r a l v a l u e s are separated i n t o f u n c t i o n a l nonconf 1 i c t i n g c l u s t e r s , , (e) an a f f i r m a t i o n o f Chinese i d e n t i t y with a c l e a r r e j e c t i o n o f Western v a l u e s , and ( f ) p o s i t i v e expansion a g a i n s t Chinese i d e n t i t y i n which Western v a l u e s may not be i m p l i c a t e d i n the adjustment process.. While t h e r e i s no o v e r a l l group p a t t e r n , there are s i x r a t h e r w e l l - d e f i n e d i n d i v i d u a l p a t t e r n s o f c o n s t r u c t o r g a n i z a t i o n , which o f f e r d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l a d a p t a t i o n i n a new c u l t u r e . The s i x p a t t e r n s w i l l r e q u i r e e x t e n s i o n o r 165 c o n f i r m a t i o n . However, they are generaliz-able: on the b a s i s t h a t what i s true f o r one person, is: apt to be true f o r some o t h e r s (Chassan, 1979). L i m i t a t i o n s . There are two major c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n assessing, the presen t f i n d i n g s . F i r s t , most of the s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d come from a u n i v e r s i t y environment ( i . e . , students,, r e c e n t graduates, or women: about to r e t u r n to u n i v e r s i t y ) . . T h e r e f o r e , the s u b j e c t s are on average more h i g h l y educated than a normal p o p u l a t i o n of Chinese immigrant women from Hong Kong. Second, the age bracket of this, sample i s from twenty to t h i r t y - t h r e e - Of the f i f t e e n s u b j e c t s , e i g h t are s i n g l e and seven are married.. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may a f f e c t the r e s u l t s and. could r e f l e c t i s s u e s and concerns t y p i c a l of t h i s group. In view o f the r e s t r i c t e d sample i n education and age, c a u t i o n i s . needed to i n t e r p r e t and to g e n e r a l i z e the pre s e n t d a t a . Further,, the evidence i s l i m i t e d by the methodology employed and should be v a l i d a t e d by other methods. T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s C o n f l i c t . One f i n d i n g of major t h e o r e t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s the nature of c o n f l i c t that i s revealed.. I n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e r e s u l t s s t r o n g l y suggest that value c o n f l i c t s experienced by these immigrant women are 166 potent and p e r v a s i v e . The- p e r v a s i v e n e s s and the potent nature cover every a s p e c t o f the immigrant's l i f e : s e l f -development, r e l a t i o n s h i p s , c a r e e r and s o c i a l commitment. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as. r e v e a l e d by the c o n t e n t s o f the f i r s t and second p r i n c i p a l components,; are s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t i v e o f the e x t r e m i t y o f c o n f l i c t . . A second f e a t u r e o f the nature o f c o n f l i c t i s t h a t c u l t u r e s are c a s t i n opposition., R e s u l t s show t h a t Chinese and Western i d e n t i t y are i n d i a m e t r i c a l o p p o s i t i o n , both p e r s p e c t i v e s being p r e s e n t p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the c e n t r a l c o n s t r u c t s . T h i s f i n d i n g means t h a t Western v a l u e s are not p e r i p h e r a l but e n t e r the core as a n t a g o n i s t s to Chinese i d e n t i t y . . A c c u l t u r a t i o n appears to have heightened the awareness o f both c u l t u r e s which are c a s t i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n and poses s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r a s t s and d i f f e r e n c e s . T h i s f i n d i n g i s s u p p o r t i v e o f H a r r i s ' s (1975) model which a t t r i b u t e s c u l t u r e shock e x p e r i e n c e s to c e n t r a l and s i g n i f i c a n t i d e n t i t y demands;: the former c u l t u r e i s seen as providing- a s e t of e x p e c t a t i o n s about the s e l f which the new c u l t u r e may or may not v a l i d a t e . . T h i s heightened awareness of both c u l t u r e s a l s o seems to i l l u s t r a t e some o f the f e a t u r e s d e s c r i b e d i n v a r i o u s developmental t r a n s i t i o n models, ( A d l e r , 1975; Atkinson,. Morten & Sue, 1979), i n which a p r o c e s s of a c t i v e c o n t r a s t i s t a k i n g p l a c e . A t h i r d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s t h a t c o n f l i c t abounds i n the 167 o r d i n a r y . The e x p l o r a t i o n o f s i t u a t i o n a l o p t i o n s r e f l e c t s a p a t t e r n of such everyday p r a c t i c a l d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s as> f o r example r the- form o f r e l a t i o n s with p a r e n t s and spouses, the meaning o f f r i e n d s h i p and i t s commitment-Other examples i n c l u d e a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r , c a r e e r c h o i c e and change, l i v i n g arrangements,, s t a y i n g o r moving, f i n a n c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . What is. c o m p e l l i n g i s t h a t the v e r y o r d i n a r y becomes the b a s i s f o r p e r v a s i v e and : c o n t i n u i n g c o n f l i c t . I t seems t h a t t r a n s i t i o n has r a i s e d the immigrant woman's con s c i o u s n e s s o f a l t e r n a t i v e v a l u e s and p r e s s u r e s , which demand a c h o i c e . The assumptive b a s i s o f t h i s study i s t h a t v a l u e c o n f l i c t w i t h i n the process o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n can be i l l u m i n a t e d by the way an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n s t r u c t s are organized., T h i s study s t r o n g l y suggests t h a t group p o r t r a i t s are v e r y l i m i t e d . The more one a n a l y z e s the group d a t a , the more apparent i t becomes: t h a t each o f these s u b j e c t s f i n d s h e r s e l f h o l d i n g what amounts to m u t u a l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y p o s i t i o n s . . I f we probe deeper, we f i n d t h a t t h i s p i c t u r e of c o n t r a d i c t i o n s c r e a t e d by the group r e s u l t r e a l l y a r i s e s from a v e r y r i c h and complex pr o c e s s (of n e c e s s i t y d i f f e r e n t f o r each i n d i v i d u a l and t h e r e f o r e i d i o s y n c r a t i c by n a t u r e ) , o f t r a n s i t i o n from one c u l t u r e to another. The r i c h n e s s and: the c o m p l e x i t y o f t h i s p rocess 168 and adjustment p a t t e r n s can o n l y be adequately grasped through an a n a l y s i s on a case by case basis.. S t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n s o f managing c o n f l i c t . As revealed: i n the i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s , the s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n s o f managing c o n f l i c t have c e r t a i n i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustment. The f i r s t pattern, r e f l e c t s a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t Chinese i d e n t i t y and a major alignment with Western values.. T h i s newly a c q u i r e d o u t l o o k may f a c i l i t a t e a s s i m i l a t i o n but, as Richardson (1967) s t a t e s , "though he may become l i k e h i s h o s t s i n many ways, the new a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s and be h a v i o r s t h a t he a c q u i r e s w i l l always be s e t w i t h i n the cont e x t o f a b a s i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e " (p.. 4 ) . A r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t Chinese i d e n t i t y i m p l i e s a r e j e c t i o n o f p r e v i o u s s o c i a l i z a t i o n with the replacement o f a v a s t l y d i s s i m i l a r v a l u e system.. Such a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n c o u l d have immense i m p l i c a t i o n s - f o r the e n t i r e c o n s t r u c t system. T h i s r e j e c t i o n c o u l d a f f e c t t r a d i t i o n a l emotional bonds and r e l a t i o n s with one's e t h n i c community. Mixed emotions o f g u i l t , c o n f u s i o n and g r i e f may r e s u l t from such r a d i c a l changes i n t h i n k i n g and valuing., Such a p a t t e r n o f adjustment i s s i m i l a r to the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the "marginal man" as conceptualized* by Sue and Sue (1971) .. The second p a t t e r n suggests a realignment on p e r i p h e r a l values- as a response t o a: c o n f l i c t e d core.. What 169 i s manifested i s an i d e n t i t y which i s developed on p e r i p h e r a l c o n s t r u c t s which are r e l a t i v e l y c o n f l i c t - f r e e . D i s c o r d between Western and Chinese v a l u e s remains potent with no r e s o l u t i o n i n s i g h t . Adjustment is; u s u a l l y c h a n n e l l e d through a s p e c i f i c area (e.g.,,, c a r e e r , e d u c a t i o n o r f r i e n d s ) w h i l e the c e n t r a l theme o f p e r s o n a l i t y and the p o s i t i o n o f l i v i n g remain unclear.. The t h i r d p a t t e r n i n v o l v e s the c u l t i v a t i o n o f a core p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y . . Since t h i s s t r a t e g y i s based on p e r s o n a l needs with the a d o p t i o n o f v a l u e s t h a t are p e r s o n a l l y r e l e v a n t and meaningful,, t h i s p a t t e r n p r o b a b l y o f f e r s the maximum o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f - g r o w t h . I t appears to be more d e f e n s i b l e a g a i n s t the s t r e s s e s o f t r a n s i t i o n because i t i s anchored on p e r s o n a l c h o i c e , y e t i t tends t o be anchored,, t e m p o r a r i l y a t l e a s t , o u t s i d e c u l t u r e as the i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s i t . The f o u r t h p a t t e r n o f c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n seems to be an e f f i c i e n t way o f d e a l i n g with the demands o f both c u l t u r e s . However, t h i s e n t a i l s a double s e t of norms—one f o r c o n t a c t with the host s o c i e t y and one f o r p r i v a t e e x i s t e n c e with one's e t h n i c enclave.. The r a p i d changes i n p e r s o n a l i t y to accommodate s i t u a t i o n a l demands may c r e a t e c o n f u s i o n i n o n e s e l f and one's p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . Furthermore, depending on the s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t e x t and 170 p e r s p e c t i v e , such b e h a v i o r s may be i n t e r p r e t e d by o t h e r s as-i n c o n s i s t e n t o r d i f f e r e n t . The f i f t h p a t t e r n o f a f f i r m a t i o n o f Chinese i d e n t i t y p r o v i d e s a sense of c o n t i n u i t y i n a new c u l t u r a l environment. The i n d i v i d u a l may f e e l t h a t t h e r e i s no problem i n adjustment or,- even i f a, problem i s r e c o g n i z e d , she may f e e l no need to c o n f r o n t o r f a c e the host s o c i e t y . S u p e r f i c i a l i n s t r u m e n t a l a d a p t a t i o n i s p r a c t i s e d with no d e s i r e t o change t r a d i t i o n a l ways o f t h i n k i n g . The r e p e r c u s s i o n comes when; the i n d i v i d u a l s t e p s o u t s i d e o f her secure e t h n i c m i l i e u and i s faced with c o n s i s t e n t i n v a l i d a t i o n from the host s o c i e t y r e g a r d i n g b e h a v i o r s , a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s . A l s o , her r e j e c t i o n o f Western values; may pose d i f f i c u l t i e s - i n terms o f acceptance from the h o s t surrounding.. T h i s p a t t e r n appears; t o support the n o t i o n o f the " t r a d i t i o n a l i s t " ' as espoused by Sue and Sue (1971). The l a s t p a t t e r n o f p o s i t i v e expansion a g a i n s t Chinese i d e n t i t y seems t o r e t a i n the sense o f c o n t i n u i t y and t r a d i t i o n . Expansion i s anchored on Chinese i d e n t i t y and made p o s s i b l e by a f l e x i b l e broadening o f r o l e s and v a l u e s . T h i s p a t t e r n , l i k e the o t h e r s (e.g.,, realignment on p e r i p h e r a l v a l u e s , c u l t i v a t i o n o f a core p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y ) , involves, change and r i s k - t a k i n g , but, u n l i k e some o t h e r s (e.g.,,. r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t Chinese i d e n t i t y , 1.71 a f f i r m a t i o n o f Chinese i d e n t i t y ) , does not e n t a i l a r a d i c a l disowning o f o r s t r i n g e n t attachment t o one's p r e v i o u s h e r i t a g e and the n e g a t i v e consequences t h a t f o l l o w . T h i s coping s t r a t e g y appears to concur with the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the " A s i a n American"' (Sue & Sue, 1971). The t h e o r e t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i m p l i e d by the s i x s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n s suggests t h a t there i s no c l e a r c u t norm or model but p o t e n t i a l l y many d i v e r s e s t r a t e g i e s o f adjustment. The p a t t e r n s seem t o c o n f i r m the b a s i c c o n c e p t u a l t y p o l o g i e s o f Sue and Sue (1971). However, t h i s d i s c o v e r y f u r t h e r expands t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l model t o i n c l u d e a l t e r n a t i v e and d i v e r s e ways o f m i n o r i t y i d e n t i t y development. In- assessing, the t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f the s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n s , l e t us now review them b r i e f l y w i t h i n the broader c o n t e x t o f c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n , , t r a n s i t i o n and: e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . . There have been two main approaches: t y p o l o g i c a l ( S t o n e q u i s t , 1937? Sue & Sue,. 1971; Mayovich, 1973; Newman, 1976; DeVos, 1980) v e r s u s developmental ( T a f t , 1957; Richardson, 1967; Atkinson,. Morten & Sue 1979). The phases i n the developmental models are i n many ways, s i m i l a r t o the d i f f e r e n t stages d e s c r i b e d i n the phenomenon o f c u l t u r e shock (Oberg,. 19 58; A d l e r , 1975; Klein,. 1977; Taft,. 1977) as a prolonged t r a n s i t i o n a l experience.. My aim i s not to advocate one o r another o f 172 these approaches o r to d i s c u s s t h e i r r a m i f i c a t i o n s . The p r e s e n t f i n d i n g o f adjustment p a t t e r n s i s p r i m a r i l y s t r u c t u r a l by nature r e f l e c t i n g the c o n s t r u c t o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n a d j u s t i n g to s i t u a t i o n s and v a l u e s posed by the host culture.. T h i s s t r u c t u r a l , alignment may m i r r o r d i f f e r e n t aspects, of adjustment dependent upon a h o s t of c u l t u r a l , p e r s o n a l i t y and s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . Some o f these a s p e c t s may emerge a t one time, some a t another, o r they may separate o r recombine i n d i f f e r e n t ways. At t h i s p o i n t , they do not seem to f i t c o n v e n i e n t l y o r n e a t l y with one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o r another ( i . e . , a type o r a developmental approach) .. F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l be needed to c l a r i f y t h e i r r o l e i n e i t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . . However, the p r e s e n t r e s u l t s s t r o n g l y r e f l e c t the d i v e r s i t y and the c o n c r e t e n e s s of i n d i v i d u a l s while v a r i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l models tend: to s t a y a b s t r a c t . The p a t t e r n s a f f i r m the b a s i c t y p o l o g i e s as espoused by Sue and Sue (1971) and h i g h l i g h t some, i f not a l l , o f the important f e a t u r e s i n v o l v e d i n the developmental,, t r a n s i t i o n a l models (Oberg, 1958; Adler,. 1977; Atkinson,, Morten & Sue, 1979). In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , the most s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n o f the adjustment p a t t e r n s , i n my view, i s t h a t o f d i s c o v e r y r a t h e r than c o n f i r m a t i o n or g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . . Such p a t t e r n s augment the nature o f p r e s e n t c o n c e p t u a l paradigms by o f f e r i n g a f e a s i b l e 173 a l t e r n a t i v e i n c o n s t r u i n g the phenomenon of a c c u l t u r a t i o n , t h a t i s , , i n terms of the c o n s t r u c t o r g a n i z a t i o n , o f the a d j u s t i n g i n d i v i d u a l , and w i t h i n the d i v e r s i t y and the concreteness. o f s u b j e c t i v e l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s . Se 1 f-development. As s t a t e d by Park (1928) ,, m i g r a t i o n "must be s t u d i e d not merely i n i t s g r o s s e r e f f e c t s , , as manifested i n changes i n custom and i n the mores,, but i t may be envisaged i n i t s s u b j e c t i v e a s p e c t s as manifested i n the changed type o f p e r s o n a l i t y which i t produces"' (p. 887). As r e v e a l e d i n the f i n d i n g s o f adjustment p a t t e r n s , there appear t o be d i v e r s e ways of d e a l i n g with c u l t u r e change, and one o f the i s s u e s t h a t c o n s i s t e n t l y emerges^ i s t h a t o f s e l f - d e v e l o p m e n t — t h e awareness and the p u r s u i t o f p e r s o n a l needs v e r s u s f a m i l y v a l u e s and t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . . "When the t r a d i t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s o c i e t y breaks down,, as a r e s u l t o f c o n t a c t and c o l l i s i o n with a new invading, c u l t u r e , the e f f e c t i s , , so t o speak, to emancipate the i n d i v i d u a l " ' (Park, 1928, p.. 88 7) and to " f r e e the i n d i v i d u a l judgment from the i n h i b i t i o n s o f c o n v e n t i o n a l modes of thought" (Teggart, 1925,. p. 196). These e f f e c t s are keenly f e l t i n the case o f the Chinese immigrant woman.. In her culture,, the id e a o f s e l f as a separate e n t i t y i s not encouraged; i d e n t i t y i s p r i m a r i l y d e f i n e d i n r o l e s w i t h i n one's f a m i l y (Abbott,. 1970; Hsu,, 1971).. Hence, a c c u l t u r a t i o n appears t o f o s t e r a. b a s i c c o n f l i c t by s t r e s s i n g , on- one hand,, the importance o f v a l i d a t i n g one's t r a d i t i o n and v a l u e s and, on the o t h e r hand, the need f o r i n d i v i d u a l development and f u l f i l m e n t . Both responses are b a s i c a l l y i n c o m p a t i b l e s i n c e the g o a l s o f the* v a l u e s o f Chinese and Western c u l t u r e s must u l t i m a t e l y d i v e r g e . As i s a l r e a d y known from p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h (Abel & Hsu,, 1949; Huang, 1956; Fong & P e s k i n , 1969; Weiss, 1970; Yao, 1979; Chang, 1980), as f a r as Chinese immigrant women are concerned,, there i s a g r e a t e r awareness o f o p t i o n s o u t s i d e o f t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s and v a l u e s , c o n c u r r e n t with a d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and a c o n f l i c t with conventional. Chinese norms., As d i s t i n c t from p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h and methodologies,, the p r e s e n t study i s a b l e t o e l u c i d a t e from the p e r s o n a l frame o f r e f e r e n c e o f these women,, w i t h i n the con t e x t o f t h e i r own p r i v a t e e x p e r i e n c e s , the importance o f self-development needs as opposed t o f a m i l i a l and t r a d i t i o n a l expectations., Another h i g h l i g h t i s t h a t the Chinese immigrant women seem t o work out t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l method o f adjustment. D i f f e r e n t s t r a t e g i e s are used t o cope with the new environment. S i m i l a r s t r a t e g i e s are observed in- r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g the- techniques: by which women manage c o n f l i c t s and: p r e s s u r e s , such as f a v o r a b l e d e f i n i t i o n o f the s i t u a t i o n , d e c i d i n g the most: important r o l e , 175 c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n , compromise and the l i k e ( F r a n s e l l a & F r o s t , 1977, p. 130). The p r e s e n t f i n d i n g may r e f l e c t a commonality p e r t a i n i n g t o c o n f l i c t s * a n d c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s o f women, which are i r r e s p e c t i v e o f c u l t u r e bounds. P r a c t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s An important f u n c t i o n o f r e s e a r c h l i e s i n i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o people and i n d i v i d u a l s . The f i n d i n g s and the views expounded here have c e r t a i n p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . I d i o s y n c r a t i c n a t u r e o f adjustment. To r e i t e r a t e , the b a s i c o b j e c t i v e i n t h i s s t u d y i s t o examine the p e r s o n a l v a l u e systems o f Chinese immigrant women and t o e x p l o r e which v a l u e s a re a f f i r m e d , r e j e c t e d o r p o l a r i z e d i n the p r o c e s s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n . The o v e r a l l f i n d i n g s are i n d i c a t i v e o f a d i v e r s e and i d i o s y n c r a t i c response t o adjustment. The nat u r e o f such a response, as r e f l e c t e d i n the c o n f l i c t o f v a l u e s , appears p o t e n t and p e r v a s i v e , c e n t e r i n g around the c o n t r a d i c t o r i n e s s and the mutual i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f Chinese and Western v a l u e s . P r e v a i l i n g Western v a l u e s s t r e s s i n d i v i d u a l i s m and independence w h i l e Chinese c u l t u r e i s d e d i c a t e d t o f a m i l y s o l i d a r i t y and r o l e s t r u c t u r e s . The p r e s e n t d a t a s t r o n g l y suggest d i v e r s e v a r i a t i o n i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and the management o f v a l u e c o n f l i c t s . Adjustment seems t o be dependent upon a ho s t o f 176 f a c t o r s : the s t r e n g t h o f f a m i l y t i e s , i n t e r a c t i o n with the hos t s o c i e t y , p e r s o n a l s t y l e s and s i t u a t i o n s , among o t h e r t h i n g s . These f i n d i n g s have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l l o r s working with immigrant women.. In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r e i s a need f o r an awareness o f b a s i c c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s (Chinese and Western) i n viewing the world", people and r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and : the i n f l u e n c e these d i f f e r e n c e s can e x e r t on the p e r s o n a l response o f the c o u n s e l l o r and the c l i e n t . However, while heightened awareness o f i s s u e s which are l i k e l y t o be s a l i e n t f o r immigrant women i s . important, i t . would be imprudent t o impose normative e x p e c t a t i o n s o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s on- these issues.. For example,, i n t e r -p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n North America might be i n t e r p r e t e d as-i r r e s p o n s i b l e , immoral,, s h a l l o w , l i b e r a t i n g , growthful,. and f r i e n d l y , , t o name a few i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . While the i s s u e o f how to r e l a t e t o o t h e r s i s ; l i k e l y t o a r i s e f o r Chinese women immigrants,, i t i s s u b j e c t t o q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e s . To understand an i s s u e as-experienc e d i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e — w h a t i s a t stake so to s p e a k — i t seems c r u c i a l f o r a c o u n s e l l o r to e x p l o r e the c l i e n t ' s , i n d i v i d u a l frame o f reference.. The present.. a d a p t a t i o n o f K e l l y ' s ; Repertory g r i d would seem t o be a ver y u s e f u l a d j u n c t o f c o u n s e l l i n g i n t h i s regard-. 177 O r d i n a r y nature o f c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s . . A noteworthy o b s e r v a t i o n on: the a n a l y s i s o f c o n f l i c t , s i t u a t i o n s r e v e a l s the mundane and p r a c t i c a l nature o f the cir c u m s t a n c e s i n which value- c o n f l i c t s are; g e n e r a t e d . These everyday i n c i d e n t s and d e c i s i o n s can be the kind t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s may take f o r g r a n t e d . For example,, moving out o f home o r pur s u i n g p a r t i c u l a r academic i n t e r e s t s i s c o n s i d e r e d normal oc c u r r e n c e i n Western s o c i e t y . However, these a p p a r e n t l y common s i t u a t i o n s may be i n d i c a t i v e o f , f o r i n s t a n c e , an underlying, p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t , the need t o assure c o n t i n u i t y o f t r a d i t i o n , f a m i l y r o l e s and dependence. T r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d ; v a l u e s can be a s t r e n g t h o r a weakness i n the adjustment o f these immigrant women.. Problems a r i s e when fundamental v a l u e s are t r a n s p l a n t e d t o a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l m i l i e u where they are c h a l l e n g e d . I t seems t h a t each c o n f l i c t c o n t a i n s a c h o i c e o f opposing elements, manifested i n everyday l i f e * s i t u a t i o n s ; the-o p p o s i t e p o t e n t i a l i n v o l v e s a d e e p l y hoped-for, yet f e a r e d , a l t e r n a t i v e . . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , the o r d i n a r y nature o f c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s - may m i r r o r a se a r c h and a s t r u g g l e o f an i n d i v i d u a l t o f i n d her own meaning, probably as* a c u l t u r a l h y b r i d , l i v i n g and s h a r i n g the c u l t u r a l l i f e and t r a d i t i o n s o f two d i s t i n c t peoples (Park,. 1928).. Hence, awareness o f the common-place nature o f c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s , s e n s i t i v i t y to the f e e l i n g s : r e f l e c t e d i n such 178 s i t u a t i o n s , and the a p p r o p r i a t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i s s u e s would' be b e n e f i c i a l i n c o u n s e l l i n g the immigrant woman. A t t i t u d e toward the p r o c e s s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n . P r o g r e s s i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n appears to be the mainstream- view toward the p r o c e s s of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . . Such a view regards* the measure o f s u c c e s s f u l adjustment i n terms o f an u n i d i m e n s i o n a l continuum ranging, from e t h n i c t o North American. A s i m i l a r n o t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n the work with immigrants and r e f u g e e s ( T y h u r s t , 198 2). The assumption i s t h a t o f a " u n i d i r e c t i o n a l process,, aiming towards the f u t u r e and towards a stance o r outcome o f demonstrable c o n d i t i o n o f s a t i s f a c t i o n , independence and p r o d u c t i v i t y " (Tyhurst,, 1982, p.. 8 ) . Such a t t i t u d e s suggest c o n f o r m i t y toward the host c u l t u r e and : " f a i l , to capture the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s o f both c u l t u r e s i n c r e a t i n g a t t i t u d e s o r b e h a v i o r s t h a t cannot be p r e d i c t e d from a knowledge o f each culture"" (Sue. and Morishima-, 1982, p. 164). The p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the r i c h n e s s i n h e r e n t i n i n d i v i d u a l case studies', are i n d i c a t i v e o f diverse; modes/ p a t t e r n s o f adjustment r a t h e r than the mainstream view. For example,, the n o t i o n o f p r o g r e s s i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n f i t s b e s t with the mode- of adjustment i n which Chinese v a l u e s are r e j e c t e d w h ile Western v a l u e s are affirmed.. Presumably, the o t h e r modes o f adjustment are f a u l t y . But i s t h i s r e a l l y the case? Is i t b e n e f i c i a l f o r an immigrant 179 woman to r e j e c t her p r i o r values?' How would t h i s be b e n e f i c i a l ? As noted,, i t i s unknown whether the'se modes o f adjustment are types' o r s t a g e s . A l s o , unknown a r e t h e i r r e l a t i v e advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s f o r d i f f e r e n t purposes such as p s y c h o l o g i c a l well-being,, a s s i m i l a t i o n , and i d e n t i t y c o n s o l i d a t i o n . . Given the c u r r e n t s t a t e o f knowledge,, a more open and f l e x i b l e a t t i t u d e would seem advantageous s i n c e t h e r e might be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t paths toward s a t i s f y i n g adjustment. I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t d i f f e r e n t modes o f adjustment are i d e a l l y s u i t e d f o r d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s , and t h a t the i m p o s i t i o n o f but one mode would be d e t r i m e n t a l . In view o f t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , c a u t i o n and-" an e x p e r i m e n t a l a t t i t u d e seem- a d v i s a b l e . Methodology.. The p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n can be regarded as a v a l u a b l e study i n which t o t r y out a r e s e a r c h methodology w i t h i n a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t and to o b t a i n some detailed', i n f o r m a t i o n on how the s u b j e c t s would respond.. S u b j e c t s were asked how u s e f u l they found the whole exercise.. The responses were u n i f o r m l y p o s i t i v e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n p i n p o i n t i n g c o n c r e t e s i t u a t i o n s and' d e l i n e a t i n g the value r e s p o n s i b l e f o r each o p t i o n -Feedback on the primary and the secondary theme- o f adjustment was most a f f i r m i n g ' and i l l u m i n a t i n g . , The use o f the Repertory g r i d as a c l i n i c a l assessment t o o l has been r e p o r t e d i n t h i s study.. The g r i d o f f e r s an 180 i d i o g r a p h i c approach, d i s t i n c t from previous, c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h on a c c u l t u r a t i o n , - t h a t i s a b l e to tap the i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t r u c t system, i t s s t r u c t u r e and c o n t e n t s , and to s p e c i f y c o n f l i c t s and: i d e n t i t y patterns.. The g r i d ' s value,, i n my view,, l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t i t generates d a t a which are extremely r i c h i n content.. T h i s i s because the g r i d t r e a t s the i n d i v i d u a l as a microcosm. In o t h e r words, although the way i n which the immigrant woman expresses h e r s e l f may be s u b j e c t i v e and p e r s o n a l , what she expresses r e f l e c t s a whole range o f f a m i l i a l , . , s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n s and i n f l u e n c e s . . Rather than reducing.- the i n d i v i d u a l t o a standard s e r i e s , o f t e s t s c o r e s or survey responses?,, the g r i d a l l o w s the s u b j e c t to r e v e a l a f u l l e r spectrum o f her p e r s o n a l i t y i n the form o f c o n c r e t e d e c i s i o n s i t u a t i o n s , , o p t i o n s and v a l u e a t t r i b u t i o n s w i t h i n the d e f i n e d c o n t e x t o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n . In summary,, t h i s methodology remains? f a i t h f u l to the c o n t e x t o f the s i t u a t i o n as l i v e d and construed by the immigrants.. Value o r i e n t a t i o n s are e x p l o r e d as c o n c r e t e c h o i c e s t h a t must be made i n everyday l i f e s i t u a t i o n s and are i n f e r r e d from s p e c i f i c c h o i c e o f a l t e r n a t i v e s . . The method confirms the p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y o f the core and the p e r i p h e r a l value c l u s t e r s . I t i l l u s t r a t e s the p r o c e s s o f d e c i s i o n making and v a l u e c o n f l i c t , thereby c o n f i r m i n g the- p r a c t i c a l use o f the method and i t s a d a p t a t i o n w i t h i n 181 the p r e s e n t study.. Future D i r e c t i o n s f o r Research Patterns- o f adjustment. The r e s u l t s on p a t t e r n s o f adjustment should b e s t be viewed w i t h i n the co n t e x t o f d i s c o v e r y r a t h e r than confirmation., T h i s study has i n d i c a t e d v a r i o u s p a t t e r n s o f c o n s t r u c t o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the pro c e s s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n which can serve as a b a s i s f o r e x t e n s i o n , v e r i f i c a t i o n , f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s and research.. A number o f s i g n i f i c a n t q u e s t i o n s a r i s i n g from the p a t t e r n s can be f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d . What are women who ma n i f e s t a. p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n l i k e ? What l e d up to each p a t t e r n ? What are the advantages, and disadvantages o f each - p a t t e r n ? Do the p a t t e r n s i n d i c a t e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f adjustment o r perhaps d i f f e r e n t stages o f adjustment? Do immigrant men m a n i f e s t s i m i l a r o r d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s ? Also,, through c o u n s e l l i n g ; immigrants,, the q u e s t i o n o f patterns, o f adjustment can be; i n v e s t i g a t e d in; a p r a c t i c a l way. I t seems l i k e l y t h a t people who a d j u s t d i f f e r e n t l y w i l l p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t types o f problems and r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t s t r a t e g i e s o f c o u n s e l l i n g . Since t h i s area i s l a r g e l y unknown, g e n e r a t i n g hypotheses f o r study and s e a r c h i n g for- more e f f e c t i v e methods o f c o u n s e l l i n g can be a r i c h b a s i s f o r t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n . I d e n t i f y i n g common c o n f l i c t s . H y p o t h e t i c a l l y , each 182. c u l t u r e challenges: every o t h e r c u l t u r e i n d i s t i n c t i v e ways... I f we knew how- these c h a l l e n g e s emerge and' develop, and what they were,, we c o u l d a s s i s t immigrants i n p r e v e n t i n g major problems from a r i s i n g . . To c i t e one obvious; example from the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h , West c h a l l e n g e s East by a s t r e s s on p e r s o n a l growth. I d e n t i f y i n g , common c o n f l i c t s may f a c i l i t a t e the process of a c c u l t u r a t i o n and ; h e l p immigrants make t h e i r t r a n s i t i o n more meaningfully,, p r o d u c t i v e l y , and s a t i s f y i n g l y . . 183 Summary This; study examines- the p e r s o n a l value systems of women immigrants i n the process of a d j u s t i n g to a new. cul t u r e , , with, p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to value c o n f l i c t , , i d e n t i t y , and e m o t i o n a l i t y . Using; a v a r i a n t of K e l l y ' s Repertory g r i d methodology, f i f t e e n female Hong Kong immigrants to Vancouver,. B r i t i s h Columbia p r o v i d e d s i x i n d i v i d u a l c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s . . From each s i t u a t i o n , two o p t i o n s were e l i c i t e d which d e f i n e d the c o n f l i c t , r e s u l t i n g i n twelve o p t i o n s f o r each person. A p e r s o n a l value c o n s t r u c t ( b i p o l a r concept such as l o y a l / d i s l o y a l ) was e l i c i t e d from each o p t i o n by asking f o r the major v a l u e i n i t s favor.. Using a 7-point s c a l e , s u b j e c t s then r a t e d t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l o p t i o n s on t h e i r twelve i n d i v i d u a l value constructs.. They a l s o ' r a t ed t h e i r o p t i o n s on s i x supplied: c o n s t r u c t s concerning Chinese, i d e n t i t y , Western i d e n t i t y , , p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y , expansion of p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y , c o n f u s i o n and u n c e r t a i n t y , and g u i l t . A P r i n c i p a l Component a n a l y s i s , was conducted on each g r i d separately,, i n c l u d i n g o n l y the twelve e l i c i t e d c o n s t r u c t s . The c o n s t r u c t s l o a d i n g h i g h e s t on the f i r s t p r i n c i p a l component were assessed f o r a common core of meaning and g i v e n a s u p e r o r d i n a t e theme or name which r e f l e c t e d t h i s meaning.. The* second p r i n c i p a l component was 18 4 t r e a t e d i n the same f a s h i o n . In the second interview,, each s u b j e c t r e - r a t e d the s i t u a t i o n a l o p t i o n s on the f i r s t and. the second s u p e r o r d i n a t e themes,, and was a l s o asked t o comment on the v a l i d i t y o f the themes and the way c o n s t r u c t s were grouped., Option s c o r e s on: the f i r s t and. the second, components;, were then c o r r e l a t e d with o p t i o n r a t i n g s on the s u p p l i e d c o n s t r u c t s , and on the s u p e r o r d i n a t e themes. The r e s u l t s suggest t h a t the f i r s t and the second p r i n c i p a l components; are p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y m e a n i n g f u l . Subjects, were a b l e t o p r o v i d e s u b j e c t i v e v a l i d a t i o n o f the c l u s t e r i n g o f v a l u e c o n s t r u c t s and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e themes, which were f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e d through i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r c o n c r e t e l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s as immigrants. The r e - r a t i n g , on the s i t u a t i o n a l o p t i o n s a l s o c o r r e l a t e d s t r o n g l y with o p t i o n s scores- on co r r e s p o n d i n g components. Group f i n d i n g s , i n d i c a t e t h a t the f i r s t p r i n c i p a l component tends to. r e f l e c t both Chinese and Western i d e n t i t y i n p o l a r opposition.. P e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y and expansion o f p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y tend t o r e l a t e r a t h e r s t r o n g l y t o one component or the o t h e r . The emotion c o n s t r u c t s are r a t h e r weakly and: n e g l i g i b l y a l i g n e d with one component or the' other.. A s i d e from a tendency f o r Chinese and Western, i d e n t i t y to- c o n f l i c t on the f i r s t p r i n c i p a l component, the f i n d i n g s suggest no o r d e r l y group 185 p o r t r a i t of c o n s t r u c t o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n the process of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . . I n d i v i d u a l case- s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e p e r v a s i v e value c o n f l i c t i n o r d i n a r y s i t u a t i o n s , with s i x r e a s o n a b l y d i s t i n c t s t r a t e g i e s of managing c o n f l i c t , i n f e r a b l e from the o r g a n i z a t i o n of c o n s t r u c t s . 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Boston,. Massachusetts: A l l y n & Bacon Inc., 1980. Appendix A Adv e r t i s e m e n t f o r s u b j e c t s ATTENTION' China*. Femai* Students: Share your experience* and your insigtits> by participatine in a doctoral study-on the valua change* Chines*' woman undergo when emigrating: from Hong. Kong, to Canada; Pteeaa contact' Chri*, Laa at 204. Appendix B P r e p a r a t i o n f o r i n t e r v i e w T r y to t h i n k of something, that has happened i n your l i f e in: the l a s t couple of years while a d j u s t i n g y o u r s e l f to a new c u l t u r e i n Canada. Then choose 6 o f the s i t u a t i o n s dealing- with the th i n g s which seem to you to be most important, which cover your main i n t e r e s t s , concerns and important areas of your l i f e . P l ease t h i n k of the 6 important s i t u a t i o n s i n which you. had- to make a* d e c i s i o n . Please i d e n t i f y the o p t i o n you chose, and the o p t i o n you r e j e c t e d i n each s i t u a t i o n . Then t h i n k o f the main v a l u e that supported each option.. Thank you very much. •8 CO Q H-o .ze O Ives :ions :ions ? 1 Ul to ^ (jj to CM CM CM CM -~J CM CM CM CM ~J Ul -J ~J CM Ul Ul CM CM CM CM Ul *» Ul CTv CM Ul Ul Ul to to U) CM to H to •*»• CM r— CM Ul * * Ul to to CM r— cr 0> CO rt 8c? D rr QJ O rt Pr o i-h i-h £1 CD fl) m 10 rt co 3_ rt 8 3 o "8 (0 fl) i—1 s (fl 8 g to U) Ul cn t-1 to u> ,£» Ul ft CO to go into graduate school stay in Vancouver not to take job with SPEC more concern with s oc i a l issues never talk p o l i t i c s at home more w i l l i n g to date Chinese. pursue p h i l o s o p h i c a l / p o l i t i c a l issues return to Toronto take job with SPEC m a t e r i a l i s t i c concerns try to convince them impossible to get along with them 8g fl) H-a 5 5 ft fl) H-co rt rt D 9 rt H- I ft S. n to o Ul 206 Appendix C continued Values rejected academic & personal 1 6 6 5 7 5 4 6 4" 6 2 7 4 interests more individualism 2 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 6 6 2 6 7 & freedom more concern with 4 13 3 2 4* 4 1 4 17 14 myself pursue radical social, change with family 5 2 2 1 2 1 4 14 7 1 7 2 l i f e s t y l e habits 6 4 4 4 4 4 6 4 6 4 4 4 7 are very different Opposing values lack of academic interests. give in to social constraints social & environ- 3 7 7 4 7 4 4 6 4 7 1 7 4 individual mental concerns. concerns more concern with others not to pursue & discuss similar values & interest strengthens Chinese identity strengthens? Western identity strengthens person-al identity positive expansion of personal identity g u i l t confusion & uncertainty 3 6 5 3 6 6 3 2 2 6 2 2 6 6 4 6 4) 3 5 4 6 2 6 6 6 6 3 7" 3 5 7 4 5 3 6 5 6 5 4 7 2 5 7 4 5 3 6 4 3 2 5 5 3 4 3 6 6 4 4 5 5 6 6 2 6 5 6 6 6 4 3 5 weakens Chinese identity weakens Western identity weakens; personal identity negative expans-ion of personal identity no g u i l t no confusion & uncertainty 7 — very 6 — moderately 5 — sl i g h t l y 4' — neutral/nonapplicable 3 — s l i g h t l y 2 — moderately 1 — very 207 Appendix D Re-rating; Format S i t u a t i o n G r i d Options Options accepted re jected' same as; Appendix C e.g. 1 s t component 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 6 5 2 6 5 1 3 3 4 2 2 G i v i n g i n to m a i n t a i n f a m i l y t i e s , Pursuing i n d i v i d u a l course of s o c i a l development 7 — v e r y 6 — moderately 5 — s l i g h t l y 4 — n e u t r a l / n o n a p p l i c a b l e 3 — s l i g h t l y 2 — moderately 1 — v e r y 208 Appendix E L e t t e r to s u b j e c t My name i s C h r i s t i n a Lee.. I am a graduate student completing my d o c t o r a l degree i n Counselling- Psychology here at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Part of the f u l f i l m e n t of the* d o c t o r a l programme r e q u i r e s the com-p l e t i o n of a d i s s e r t a t i o n study. In t h i s study, I hope to l e a r n more about your experiences as a Chinese immigrant woman and the changes i n values and i d e n t i t y as a r e s u l t of your, adjustment to Canadian s o c i e t y . I would p r e f e r s u b j e c t s who are immigrants from Hong Kong with more than three years r e s i d e n c e i n Canada- T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be h e l p f u l to educators, and c o u n s e l l o r s of immigrant women. . In addition,, as. you p a r t i c i p a t e in. t h i s study, you may d i s c o v e r some i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g s about yourself,, such as the changes your own v a l u e s and i d e n t i t y have undergone s i n c e your a r r i v a l i n Canada. Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study would be very much a p p r e c i a t e d . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t o t a l l y v o l u n t a r y and a l l i n f o r m a t i o n gathered i s s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . You may withdraw- from the study at any time' or refuse to answer any q u e s t i o n s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n or withdrawal w i l l i n no way a f f e c t your marks or your standing, w i t h i n your u n i v e r s i t y program. 209 I f you choose to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study,, p l e a s e c a l l me at f o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n and- to set up an appointment a t U.B.C.. Thank you ve r y much f o r your a t t e n t i o n , 210 Appendix. F Subject Consent Form T h i s i s a d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n p r o j e c t to l e a r n more about your e x p e r i e n c e s as a Chinese immigrant woman and. the changes i n v a l u e s and i d e n t i t y as a. r e s u l t of your adjustment to Canadian s o c i e t y . Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study would be very much a p p r e c i a t e d . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t o t a l l y v o l u n t a r y and t h a t a l l i n f o r m a t i o n gathered i s s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . You may withdraw from the study at any time or r e f u s e to answer any questions.. P a r t i c i p a t i o n , or withdrawal w i l l i n no way a f f e c t your marks or your standing w i t h i n your u n i v e r s i t y programme.. P a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l c o n s i s t of two i n t e r v i e w s ( t o t a l time f o r two i n t e r v i e w s 2-3 hours) ... B r i e f l y , the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w w i l l i n v o l v e questions, regarding; events which c r e a t e d c o n f l i c t s f o r you while you, were a d j u s t i n g y o u r s e l f to- Canada. The- second i n t e r v i e w w i l l i n v o l v e feedback and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of your t e s t r e s u l t s -Having f u l l knowledge of these- f a c t s , I hereby: consent ; do not consent .. Date::; S i g n a t u r e : 211 Appendix G. I n d i v i d u a l Cases I n t r a i n d i v i d u a l C o r r e l a t i o n s : Case 1 F i r s t Component Second Component Chinese I d e n t i t y -.76 .22 Western I d e n t i t y .68 -.05 P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y -.01 -.48 Expansion o f P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y .18 -.64 G u i l t . -.22 .51 Confusion and U n c e r t a i n t y -.20 .17 For example, on the f i r s t component,, Chinese and: Western i d e n t i t y are i n opposition., On the second component,, p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y and expansion of p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y tend; to be aligned,. 212 I n t r a i n d i v i d u a l C o r r e l a t i o n s : Case 2 F i r s t Component Second Component Chinese I d e n t i t y .77 .07 Western I d e n t i t y -.31 .35 P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y —.53 .41 Expansion of P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y -.59 .46 .. G u i l t -.47 -.26 Confusion and U n c e r t a i n t y .30 .13 213 I n t r a i n d i v i d u a l C o r r e l a t i o n s : Case 3 F i r s t Component Second Component Chinese I d e n t i t y -.60 -.18 Western I d e n t i t y .60 .18 P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y .61 -.15 Expansion of P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y .41 -.05 G u i l t .35 -.21 Confusion and U n c e r t a i n t y .43 .02 214 I n t r a i n d i v i d u a l C o r r e l a t i o n s ; : Case 4 F i r s t Component Second Component Chinese I d e n t i t y .41 .19 Western I d e n t i t y .02 .00 P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y -.24 -.42 Expansion of P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y -.52 -.36 G u i l t -.13 -.21 Confusion and U n c e r t a i n t y .41 -.43 215 I n t r a i n d i v i d u a l C o r r e l a t i o n s : Case 5 F i r s t Component Second Component Chinese I d e n t i t y -.29 -.82 Western I d e n t i t y .29 .82 P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y .75 .45 Expansion of P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y .49 .66 G u i l t -.57 -.57 Confusion and U n c e r t a i n t y -.23 -.75 216 I n t r a i n d i v i d u a l C o r r e l a t i o n s . : Case 6 F i r s t Component Second Component Chinese I d e n t i t y -.78 .05 Western. I d e n t i t y .76 -.19 Personal. I d e n t i t y .52 -.68 Expansion of P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y .06 -.64 G u i l t . .14- .84 Confusion and U n c e r t a i n t y .16 .59 217' I n t r a i n d i v i d u a l C o r r e l a t i o n s , : Case 7 F i r s t Component Second Component Chinese I d e n t i t y -.65 -.15 Western. I d e n t i t y .55 .51 P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y -.57 .50 Expansion of P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y -.54 .49 G u i l t .39 .09 Confusion and U n c e r t a i n t y .53 -.18 218 I n t r a i n d i v i d u a l C o r r e l a t i o n s ' : Case 8 F i r s t Component Second Component Chinese I d e n t i t y .03 .43 Western I d e n t i t y .20 .00 P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y .60 -.15 Expansion, of P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y .53 .02 G u i l t -.32 .19 Confusion and U n c e r t a i n t y .12 .10 219 I n t r a i n d i v i d u a l C o r r e l a t i o n s : Case 9r F i r s t Component Second Component Chinese I d e n t i t y -.50 .12. Western- I d e n t i t y .26 .00 P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y .74> -.07 Expansion of P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y .77 -.13 G u i l t -.65 -.12 Confusion and U n c e r t a i n t y -.48 .47 220 I n t r a i n d i v i d u a l C o r r e l a t i o n s : Case 10 F i r s t Component Second Component Chinese I d e n t i t y -.43 .69 Western I d e n t i t y .90 -.22 P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y .09' .38 Expansion of P e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y .22 .46 G u i l t -.36 -.43 Confusion and U n c e r t a i n t y -.,16 -.34 221 I n t r a i n d i v i d u a l C o r r e l a t i o n s : Case 11 F i r s t Component Second Component Chinese I d e n t i t y .75 -.10 Western I d e n t i t y -.85 .07 P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y .55 -.38 Expansion of P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y .61 -.08 G u i l t -.63 .23 Confusion and U n c e r t a i n t y -.59 .07 222 I n t r a i n d i v i d u a l C o r r e l a t i o n s : Case 12 F i r s t Component Second Component Chinese I d e n t i t y -.75 .47 Western I d e n t i t y .92 .05 P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y -.08 .62 Expansion of P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y -.08 .70 G u i l t .29 -.42. Confusion and U n c e r t a i n t y .10 -.59 223 I n t r a i n d i v i d u a l C o r r e l a t i o n s : Case 13 F i r s t Component Second Component Chinese I d e n t i t y -.67 .02 Western I d e n t i t y .71 .05 P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y .62 .27 Expansion of P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y .59 .44 G u i l t .63 .09 Confusion and U n c e r t a i n t y -.18 .52 224 I n t r a i n d i v i d u a l C o r r e l a t i o n s : Case 14 F i r s t Component Second Component Chinese I d e n t i t y -.64 .21 Western I d e n t i t y .78 -.39 P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y -.02 .06 Expansion of P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y .24 -.75 G u i l t .48 -.'29 Confusion and U n c e r t a i n t y .12 .22 225 I n t r a i n d i v i d u a l C o r r e l a t i o n s : Case 15 F i r s t Component Second Component Chinese I d e n t i t y -.33 .47 Western I d e n t i t y .22 -.17 P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y -.17 .52 Expansion of P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y -.16 .59 G u i l t -.10 -.09 Confusion and U n c e r t a i n t y .41 -.42 

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