UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Psychological well-being and female clerical workers Peterson, Christine 1986

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PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AND F E M A L E CLERICAL WORKERS by C H R I S T I N E P E T E R S O N B . A . , University of Manitoba, 1980 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S in T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S Counselling Psychology W e accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A August 1986 © Christine Peterson, 1986 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology Department o f , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 1 9 5 6 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V 6 T 1 Y 3 O cto ber 10, 1986 Date A b s t r a c t T h i s s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d t o d i s c o v e r the i n f l u e n c e of m a r i t a l and p a r e n t a l s t a t u s on the p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g of women wo r k i n g i n c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l o c c u p a t i o n s . The r e s e a r c h i s based on Warr and P a r r y ' s (1982a) c o n c e p t u a l framework which s u g g e s t s t h a t o c c u p a t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t ( i . e. d e s i r e t o w o r k ) , the q u a l i t y of the n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l environment and the q u a l i t y of t h e employment r e l a t i o n s h i p a r e the t h r e e most i m p o r t a n t c l u s t e r s of v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c i n g the p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g of w o r k i n g women. S u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d f o r the stu d y were female c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l employees of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Each p a r t i c i p a n t c o m p l e t e d a s h o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n i n g two s e c t i o n s : the f i r s t p e r t a i n e d t o the r e c r u i t m e n t of demographic and p e r s o n a l background i n f o r m a t i o n ; the second c o n s i s t e d of i n s t r u m e n t s d e s i g n e d t o i s o l a t e and measure the above-named dependent v a r i a b l e s i d e n t i f i e d by Warr and P a r r y ( 1 9 8 2 a ) . The s t u d y found t h a t a l l women, i r r e s p e c t i v e of l i f e c y c l e s t a g e s , were h i g h l y committed t o the concept of p a i d employment. R e l a t e d t o t h i s was the f i n d i n g t h a t w h i l e economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e i m p o r t a n t i i motivators, women's desire to work for personal needs is strong and exists i r r e s p e c t i v e of factors related to economic gains. The study also found that, as expected, marital and parental status are important determinants of the psychological well-being of working women. While nearly a l l women were highly committed to the concept of paid employment, married working women revealed the highest psychological well-being, and also were the group most s a t i s f i e d with family and s o c i a l l i f e . By contrast, as expected, previously married women showed the lowest psychological well-being, and were s i g n i f i c a n t l y less s a t i s f i e d with family and s o c i a l l i f e . Furthermore, the issue of multiple roles as a detriment to psychological well-being does not appear to hold true for th i s study. In conclusion, the study found that marriage and family continue to be, as they have been h i s t o r i c a l l y , factors of central importance in the psychological well-being of women, while the commitment to paid employment i s at the same time stronger than ever before. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract i i L i s t of Tables v i Acknowledgements . v i i i Dedication x CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1 Statement of the problem 2 Purpose of the study 7 Significance of the study 8 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 11 H i s t o r i c a l View of Women's Paid Employment ......11 The Construct of Psychological Weil-Being 18 Women and Psychological Weil-Being 30 Psychological Well-Being of Working Women 34 Occupational Involvement 35 Nonoccupational Environment 40 Quality of the Employment Relationship 42 CHAPTER II I : METHODOLOGY 48 Sample 48 Materials 48 The Measures 50 Psychological Well-Being 50 The Index of Weil-Being 52 The Affect Balance Scale 55 i v Occupational Involvement Scale 6 0 Quality of the Nonoccupational Environment Scale 6 3 Quality of the Employment Relationship 6 4 Research Hypotheses 7 0 CHAPTER IV: RESULTS 7 4 Description of Sample and Demographic S t a t i s t i c s 7 4 Internal R e l i a b i l i t y of the Instrument 7 8 Testing the Hypotheses 7 9 Summary 9 0 CHAPTER V: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 9 2 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Sample 9 2 Occupational Involvement 9 3 Quality of the Nonoccupational Environment 9 5 Quality of the employment relat i o n s h i p 9 7 Psychological Well-Being 9 9 Limitations 1 0 1 Theoretical Implications 1 0 2 Counselling and P r a c t i c a l Implications 1 0 7 Future Research 1 1 2 Conclusion 1 1 4 REFERENCES 1 1 5 Tables 1 2 9 Appendix A 1 4 6 v L i s t of T a b l e s T a b l e Page 1 Hoyt E s t i m a t e of R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Dependent Research Measures 130 2 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r the O c c u p a t i o n a l Involvement S c a l e 131 3 One-way A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r O c c u p a t i o n a l Involvement by M a r i t a l S t a t u s 132 4 Mean O c c u p a t i o n a l Involvement Scores f o r Three M a r i t a l Groups 133 5 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r the Q u a l i t y of the N o n o c c u p a t i o n a l Environment S c a l e 134 6 One-way A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r Demands by M a r i t a l S t a t u s 135 7 Mean Demand Scores f o r Three M a r i t a l Groups 136 8 One-way A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r Demands by P a r e n t a l S t a t u s 137 9 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r the Job S a t i s f a c t i o n S c a l e 138 v i 10 One-way A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e for Job S a t i s f a c t i o n by Age 139 11 Mean Job S a t i s f a c t i o n Scores f o r F i v e Age Groups . . 140 12 Mean Job S a t i s f a c t i o n Scores f o r F i v e Income L e v e l s 141 13 One-way A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r A f f e c t Ba lance S c a l e by M a r i t a l S t a t u s 142 14 Mean A f f e c t Ba lance Scores f o r Three M a r i t a l Groups 1 43 15 One-way A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r Index of W e l l - B e i n g by M a r i t a l S t a t u s 144 16 Mean Index of W e l l - B e i n g Scores for Three M a r i t a l Groups 145 v i i Acknowledgements This thesis would not have been possible without the generous help and encouragement of many friends and collegues. I would l i k e to take t h i s opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to a l l these persons, though space permits me to mention only a few of them by name in these brief acknowledgements. My special thanks goes to my Thesis Supervisor, Dr. Sharon Kahn, for introducing me to the c r i t i c a l area of women and work, and for her u n f a i l i n g support and enthusiasm for t h i s project from sta r t to f i n i s h . Throughout she has been a constant source of support and encouragement, giving freely of her time and energy, and for t h i s I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l . I would also l i k e to express my sincere thanks and appreciation to my Committee members, Dr. Daniel Brown and Dr. Eleanore Vains for their various constructive comments and suggestions on how to improve the manuscript. The finished version of t h i s thesis owes much to th e i r knowledgeable input. Thanks are due to Dr. Mike McRae who helped demystify the d i f f i c u l t task of computerized s t a t i s t i c a l analysis. As well, I owe a special debt to the many women who chose to become participants in t h i s v i i i study. Without their p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the study would not have been possible. My greatest debt of gratitude goes to my husband, Glen, for providing encouragement and moral support when i t was most needed. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to acknowledge my parents, e s p e c i a l l y my father who unfortunately did not l i v e to see t h i s thesis reach f r u i t i o n . i x Dedication This thesis i s dedicated to the memory of Donna Mary Morgan whose determination and courage remain an ins p i r a t i o n to me. X 1 CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION Women have d r a m a t i c a l l y t rans formed the c o m p o s i t i o n of the l abour f o r c e i n the post war e r a . S ince 1941, when o n l y 22.9% of a l l Canadian women worked f o r pay , (Os try & Denton , 1967), women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s have c l i m b e d s t e a d i l y . By 1971 the f i g u r e had r i s e n to 39.4% (Labour Canada, 1983). The most c u r r e n t census data of 1981 r e v e a l s tha t for the f i r s t t ime more than 50%, p r e c i s e l y 51.6%, of a l l women f i f t e e n y e a r s of age and o l d e r are in the l abour f o r c e ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1984). A r e c e n t Canadian survey of l abour f o r c e t r e n d s based on 1983 f i g u r e s r e p o r t e d a p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e of 53.7 f o r women i n comparison to 79.0 f o r men ( F i n a n c i a l P o s t , 1984). The emerging t r e n d i s c l e a r and i s expected to c o n t i n u e . I t i s p r o j e c t e d t h a t by 1990, f u l l y 75% of Canadian women aged 24-54 w i l l be in the p a i d l a b o u r f o r c e (Labour Canada, 1983). W h i l e the sheer numbers are s t r i k i n g , the chang ing c o m p o s i t i o n of the l a b o u r f o r c e may be even more s i g n i f i c a n t . A g e n e r a t i o n ago the ac t of marr iage for women u s u a l l y meant wi thdrawal from the work p l a c e . T y p i c a l l y , o n l y the s i n g l e and d i v o r c e d were to be found i n or seek ing p a i d employment. Today the t r e n d 2 h a s s h i f t e d w i t h t h e s h a r p e s t i n c l i n e i n women e n t e r i n g t h e l a b o u r f o r c e among t h o s e m a r r i e d . In t h e c a s e o f d i v o r c e d women t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f t h e i r e n t e r i n g t h e l a b o u r f o r c e h a s n o t r i s e n . B u t what h a s i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y i n t h e p a s t 20 y e a r s i s t h e d i v o r c e r a t e . T h e s e two f a c t o r s - t h a t t o d a y m a r r i e d women a r e more l i k e l y t o e n g a g e i n p a i d e m p l o y m e n t a n d t h a t more women a r e d i v o r c e d o r s e p a r a t e d - means t h a t more c h i l d r e n h a v e w o r k i n g m o t h e r s . In f a c t , one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t c h a n g e s i n t h e f e m a l e l a b o u r f o r c e i n C a n a d a h a s b e e n t h e number o f m o t h e r s , a n d e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e w i t h p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , w o r k i n g o u t s i d e t h e home. T h u s t h e p a s t f o r t y y e a r s h a v e s e e n a s i g n i f i c a n t g r o w t h a n d d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e f e m a l e work f o r c e . Statement of the problem The i m p a c t o f e m p l o y m e n t on women's p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g i s d e p e n d e n t on s u c h f a c t o r s a s e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l , m a r i t a l a n d s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . I t i s e x p e c t e d , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f e m p l o y m e n t a n d more p a r t i c u l a r l y i t s e f f e c t on p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g w i l l d i f f e r f o r t h e h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l l a w y e r m a r r i e d t o an e q u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l d e n t i s t c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e s i n g l e m o t h e r w o r k i n g a s a 3 c l e r k t y p i s t s t r u g g l i n g to eke out an e x i s t e n c e f o r h e r s e l f and her c h i l d r e n . Moreover , h i g h l y p a i d p r o f e s s i o n a l women m a r r i e d to men w i t h s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n s are the l e a s t l i k e l y to be t h r e a t e n e d by domest ic o v e r l o a d . Such women are more l i k e l y to have f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s to pay f o r home h e l p and c h i l d c a r e and are more l i k e l y to have employee b e n e f i t packages c o v e r i n g such areas as extended m e d i c a l / d e n t a l p l a n s and a d d i t i o n a l p a i d m a t e r n i t y l e a v e . Lower p a y i n g jobs r a r e l y p r o v i d e such e x t e n s i v e f r i n g e b e n e f i t s . Women i n these p o s i t i o n s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r s i n g l e mothers , must r e l y on government economic p o l i c i e s such as f a m i l y a l lowance and c h i l d tax c r e d i t s . Y e t , s u r p r i s i n g l y , much of the r e s e a r c h undertaken to date has f a i l e d to make such k i n d s of d i s t i n c t i o n s among working women. The framework most f r e q u e n t l y u t i l i z e d has been tha t of the d u a l c a r e e r c o u p l e or p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r woman (Burke & W e i r , 1976a; F a v e r , 1984; Holahan & G i l b e r t , 1979a; Houseknect & Macke, 1981; Hunt & Hunt , 1982, Rapopport & Rapopport , 1976; Yogev, 1982, 1983). T h i s focus i s p r o b l e m a t i c for i t r e s t s on the assumpt ion tha t women i n g e n e r a l have easy acces s to h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and c o n s e q u e n t l y to p r o f e s s i o n a l and m a n a g e r i a l p o s i t i o n s . The p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r 4 c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i s not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of most working women and i s c l e a r l y inadequate for e x p l a i n i n g the e x p e r i e n c e s of n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l women. Indeed, t h i s d e p i c t i o n i s skewed counter to b a s i c r e a l i t i e s . The m a j o r i t y of working women are to be found i n female dominated , low p a y i n g , low s t a t u s j o b s . The 1981 Canadian census showed t h a t more. than 60% of a l l employed women were i n c l e r i c a l , s a l e s or s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s (Labour Canada, 1983). The l a r g e s t p o p u l a t i o n of female employees by a c o n s i d e r a b l e margin was c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the c l e r i c a l s e c t o r - more than 1/3 of the female l abour f o r c e (Labour Canada, 1983). S t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g the r o l e of work i n the l i v e s of women engaged in n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l jobs f r e q u e n t l y d i s c o u n t the e x i s t e n c e of p e r s o n a l rewards a s s o c i a t e d w i t h such employment. I n s t e a d , economic need i s c o n s i d e r e d to be the most important reason f o r employment i n lower s t a t u s j o b s . As Wright (1978) p o i n t s o u t , the r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e suggests t h a t women who "have to work" are assumed not to l i k e t h e i r j o b s . T h i s i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to the f r e q u e n t l y espoused view that women in p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r s are p r i m a r i l y m o t i v a t e d to work for p e r s o n a l g a i n and tha t monetary rewards are s e c o n d a r y . 5 Whi le i t may be t r u e that women i n n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l jobs r e p o r t lower job s a t i s f a c t i o n than p r o f e s s i o n a l women i t would be erroneous to suggest tha t employment t h e r e f o r e h i n d e r s l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n for t h i s group of women. The p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e n e f i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h a v i n g a job can not be d i s m i s s e d . For example, at the very l e a s t a job makes a v a i l a b l e an a d d i t i o n a l s o c i a l network. But of s t i l l g r e a t e r impor tance , work p r o v i d e s one w i t h a sense of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , purpose i n s o c i e t y as w e l l as p r i d e i n one ' s accompl ishments both on the job and as a c o n t r i b u t o r to the f a m i l y ' s maintenance ( A s t i n , 1985; F e r r e e 1976, 1984; Komarovsky, 1962; O a k l e y , 1974; R u b i n , 1976). A second shor tcoming of p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has been the tendency to t r e a t women as a m o n o l i t h i c c a t e g o r y wi thout r e g a r d to d i s t i n c t i o n on the b a s i s of l i f e c y c l e . The l i f e c y c l e i s here d e f i n e d as the p r o g r e s s of the i n d i v i d u a l through a s e r i e s of s tages from a d o l e s c e n c e through a d u l t h o o d to o l d age, and e n t a i l i n g the presence or absence of a p a r t n e r as w e l l as the a r r i v a l and d e p a r t u r e of c h i l d r e n . I t can be expected t h a t for women r o l e demands w i l l vary wi th s tages of the l i f e c y c l e and t h i s v a r i a n c e w i l l have a s a l i e n t e f f e c t on both employment s t a t u s and employment 6 s a t i s f a c t i o n . S i n c e , f o r example, the r o l e s and o b l i g a t i o n s of a s i n g l e woman w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n w i l l most d e f i n i t e l y v a r y from th o s e of a m a r r i e d woman w i t h c h i l d r e n , i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and s a t i s f a c t i o n s d e r i v e d from p a i d employment w i l l d i f f e r as w e l l ( B a r u c h , B a r n e t t & R i v e r s , 1983). W h i l e s i n g l e women r e p o r t a h i g h commitment t o the p a i d l a b o u r f o r c e ( A g a s s i , 1982; Warr & P a r r y , 1982a), the pr e s e n c e of young c h i l d r e n i s n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h employment (Armstrong & Armstrong, 1983; B a r n e t t , 1982; F a v e r , 1984, F e r b e r , 1980, 1982; H i l l e r & P h i l l i b e r , 1980). Mothers of young c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , a r e v e r y much e m o t i o n a l l y as w e l l as p h y s i c a l l y i n v o l v e d i n the t a s k of p a r e n t i n g and, i n g e n e r a l , t h i s t a s k t a k e s p r i o r i t y f o r them over p a i d employment (C a m p b e l l , Converse & Rodgers, 1976). The q u e s t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of l i f e c y c l e s t a g e s t o the p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g of working women becomes even more p e r t i n e n t when we bear i n mind t h a t the r e c e n t i n c r e a s e i n women's l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been f o r m a r r i e d women w i t h c h i l d r e n , t h a t group which s t u d i e s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y shown t o be l e a s t committed t o p a i d employment. 7 Purpose of the study T h i s r e s e a r c h i s set w i t h i n a c o n c e p t u a l framework t h a t views a s e r i e s of important v a r i a b l e s beyond mere employment s t a t u s as c o n t r i b u t i n g to the p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g of working women. S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s study se t s out to examine Warr and P a r r y ' s (1982a) theory tha t a woman's o c c u p a t i o n a l involvement ( i e . d e s i r e to work) , the q u a l i t y of her n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l environment and the q u a l i t y of her employment r e l a t i o n s h i p ( o r , more g e n e r a l l y , job s a t i s f a c t i o n ) are the t h r e e most important c l u s t e r s of v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c i n g the p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g of working women. The p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e of t h i s s tudy i s to i n v e s t i g a t e the a forement ioned c l u s t e r of dependent v a r i a b l e s w i t h r e l a t i o n to the independent v a r i a b l e s of m a r i t a l a n d / o r p a r e n t a l s t a t u s . In a q u e s t i o n , w i l l there be s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h r e g a r d s to a woman's d e s i r e to work ( o c c u p a t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t ) , the q u a l i t y of her n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l environment and the q u a l i t y of her employment r e l a t i o n s h i p depending on her c u r r e n t m a r i t a l and p a r e n t a l s t a t u s ? A second o b j e c t i v e i s to expand on p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h by drawing a sample from the group of women most u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d in the l i t e r a t u r e and most 8 over /represented in the workp lace : the p i n k c o l l a r worker . In summary, the q u e s t i o n which t h i s s tudy w i l l address i s how do m a r i t a l and p a r e n t a l s t a t u s r e l a t e to the q u a l i t y of l i f e of women working i n s e c r e t a r i a l and c l e r i c a l jobs? Significance of the study The purpose of work i n men's l i v e s has been an important s u b j e c t of i n q u i r y f o r both p s y c h o l o g i s t s and s o c i o l o g i s t s . I t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t for men be ing unemployed i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g (Bradburn & C a p l o v i t z , 1965; Campbel l et a l . r 1976; Gove & G e e r k i n , 1977; L e v i n s o n , 1978; T a m i r , 1982; W a r r , 1978, 1982a). As a r e s u l t of the s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n women's l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h e r s are now b e g i n n i n g to i n v e s t i g a t e the impact of p a i d employment i n women's l i v e s . The importance of p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g i s s e l f - e v i d e n t . S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h one ' s l i f e i s an i n t e g r a l aspec t of the o v e r a l l h e a l t h of every i n d i v i d u a l . L i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n has long been a concern of p h i l o s o p h e r s , r e l i g i o u s t h i n k e r s , and p s y c h o l o g i s t s . 9 Increasingly i t is becoming a concern of medical practitioners as well, as witnessed, for example, in the growing appreciation of a "holistic health" perspective. Since work is an integral aspect of everyday l i f e , i t seems appropriate to investigate i t s relevance in a population for whom work is presently of increasing importance. As yet the relationship between psychological well-being and women's paid employment remains unclear (Baruch, et a l , 1983 Warr & Parry, 1982a). One reason for this is the fact that research remains in the formative stage. Historically, "women's work" has been viewed only as occurring within the boundaries of the home, while paid employment has been considered "men's work". Contemporary analytical theories and models have also operated within the parameters of these hidden assumptions imbedded within long standing traditions. For example, previous studies have focused largely on comparisons between the psychological well-being of f u l l time homemakers and women engaged in paid employment. While a single variable focus (i.e. considering only employment status) may have been useful at the i n i t a l stage of research, recent changes in women's labour force participation patterns require multivariable investigations to identify relationships 10 that are h idden or obscured at the l e v e l of s i n g l e v a r i a b l e a n a l y s i s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g i s i n f l u e n c e d by many f a c t o r s of which employment i s j u s t one. Moving beyond the s i n g l e v a r i a b l e approach the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s s tudy i s to i n v e s t i g a t e the r o l e of p a i d employment w i t h i n the contex t of the "bigger p i c t u r e " of women's l i v e s , i n c l u d i n g not o n l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s but a d d i t i o n a l l y s o c i o l o g i c a l and economic f a c t o r s . 11 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE To unders tand the f u l l p i c t u r e of women's l abour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l commence w i t h a h i s t o r i c a l framework o u t l i n i n g the economic and s o c i a l f a c t o r s which have c o n t r i b u t e d to the s teady i n c r e a s e i n women's work involvement i n the post war p e r i o d . T h i s w i l l be f o l l o w e d by a review of the l i t e r a t u r e on p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to women's p a i d and unpaid work. H i s t o r i c a l View of Women's Paid Employment Women have always worked. However, the p a t t e r n s of t h e i r work involvement have changed c o n s i d e r a b l y over the pas t two c e n t u r i e s . D u r i n g the p r e i n d u s t r i a l p e r i o d the f a m i l y was the economic u n i t and the home was a woman's t r u e c e n t e r of i n d u s t r y . The advent of the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n drew women away from the p r i v a t e domain of the home and i n t o the wage economy of the f a c t o r y . The f i r s t women to enter f a c t o r i e s were t y p i c a l l y young and s i n g l e ( T i l l y & S c o t t , 1978). Yet i t was always unders tood t h a t a woman's r e a l work began w i t h matrimony when she would r e t u r n to her p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of c h i l d c a r e and housework. Women 1 2 who were u n f o r t u n a t e i n t h e i r ques t f o r a husband, and those who were d e s e r t e d or widowed, remained i n the l a b o u r f o r c e permanent ly . However, t h i s l i f e s t y l e was c o n s i d e r e d d e v i a n t by most s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y . D u r i n g the two wor ld wars and e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the Second World War, l a r g e numbers of women were e n t i c e d i n t o the l abour f o r c e in response to the p r e s s u r e s of war p r o d u c t i o n and the shortage of male w o r k e r s . Governments p o r t r a y e d f a c t o r y work as women's p a t r i o t i c d u t y . Consequent ly the t y p i c a l working woman was no l o n g e r young, s i n g l e and p o o r . Women of a l l s o c i a l backgrounds and i n a l l s tages of the l i f e c y c l e went to work to c o n t r i b u t e to the war e f f o r t ( C r o s b y , 1982; W e i n e r , 1985). Daycare was r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e on the work s i t e for mothers . Women engaged i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l j o b s . Women w e l d e r s , crane o p e r a t o r s , and r i v e t e r s became the norm r a t h e r than the e x c e p t i o n . At war ' s end and w i t h the r e t u r n of the f o r c e s from a b r o a d , women were urged by t h e i r governments to r e t u r n to the home. In f a c t , j u s t as they were e n t i c e d out of the home and i n t o the f a c t o r y , women were s i m i l a r l y e n t i c e d to r e t u r n to the home. The concept of ent icement i s important h e r e . Government p o l i c i e s as w e l l as the p r i v a t e s e c t o r a d v e r t i s e d and p r o v i d e d i n c e n t i v e s to women who took up the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s 13 of spouse and mother . The government p r o v i d e d tax i n c e n t i v e s i n the form of f a m i l y a l l o w a n c e s i n an e f f o r t to encourage women to r e b u i l d the n a t i o n through a replacement p o p u l a t i o n scheme. P r i v a t e i n d u s t r y a l s o t a r g e t e d women as prime consumers and to t h i s end launched a massive a d v e r t i s i n g campaign e x t o l l i n g the new t e c h n o l o g i e s of the home ( F r i e d a n , 1963). In o r d e r to make new domest ic p r o d u c t s d e s i r e a b l e p r i v a t e companies , o r , more s p e c i f i c a l l y , the a d v e r t i s i n g i n d u s t r y f i r s t had to make the r o l e s of housewife and mother appear a t t r a c t i v e Y e t , d e s p i t e these v a r i o u s i n c e n t i v e s f o r women to choose a c a r e e r i n the home r a t h e r than in the l abour market , women's l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n has i n c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y s i n c e 1951 ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1984). Even more i m p o r t a n t l y , the g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e i n l abour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n has o c c u r r e r d f o r m a r r i e d women (Labour Canada, 1983, S t a t i s t i c s Canada , 1984). Throughout the past c e n t u r y a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of s i n g l e women have sought p a i d employment. However the most s t r i k i n g f a c t about women's l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the post war p e r i o d has been the dramat i c and c o n t i n u e d i n c r e a s e i n the numbers of m a r r i e d women seek ing employment. Whereas i n 1951, 14 22.5% of Canadian women p a r t i c i p a t e d in the l a b o u r f o r c e , by 1983 t h i s f i g u r e had jumped to 52.6% ( C o n n e l l y , 1978; Labour Canada, 1983; S t a t i s t i c s Canada , 1984). T h i s new development i s r e l a t e d i n complex f a s h i o n to the whol ly unprecedented economic p r o s p e r i t y and accompanying t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , norms and v a l u e s tha t has o c c u r r e d i n a l l modern western i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s over the pas t three decades . In terms of women's employment the s i n g l e most important economic f a c t has been the unprecedented growth of the t e r t i a r y or s e r v i c e p r o d u c i n g i n d u s t r i e s , such as t r a d e , f i n a n c e and p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s i n c e 1950 ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1980; C o n n e l l y , 1978). Between the y e a r s 1951-81 the o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y , c l e r i c a l , expanded from 11.1 to 19.2 of the l a b o u r f o r c e - and most of these newly c r e a t e d p o s i t i o n s went to women (Armstrong , 1984; P h i l l i p s & P h i l l i p s , 1983; S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1980). In 1971, the t e r t i a r y s e c t o r was the most important employer , a c c o u n t i n g f o r a lmost three q u a r t e r s of a l l female workers and one h a l f of a l l male employees i n the c o u n t r y ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1980). Coupled wi th t h i s s w e l l i n g expans ion of demand for l a b o u r i n t r a d i t i o n a l female o c c u p a t i o n s came the 15 appearance on the Nor th American consumer market i n the 1950's of a vas t new a r r a y of domest ic a p p l i a n c e s . I n i t i a l l y l u x u r i e s a v a i l a b l e o n l y to the wea l thy , r e f r i g e r a t o r s , t e l e v i s i o n s and the l i k e were g r a d u a l l y l ooked upon i n c r e a s i n g l y a s , i f not a b s o l u t e n e c e s s i t i e s , a t l e a s t " a f f o r d a b l e l u x u r i e s " by N o r t h A m e r i c a ' s r a p i d l y burgeoning midd le c l a s s (Armstrong & A r m s t r o n g , 1983; F r i e d a n , 1963). The new consumerism was indeed n u r t u r i n g the emergence of the ' a f f l u e n t s o c i e t y ' d e s c r i b e d so a p t l y by John Kenneth G a l b r a i t h in h i s book of the same t i t l e ( G a l b r a i t h , 1958). Thus i n c r e a s i n g numbers of m a r r i e d women responded both to the demand for l a b o u r and the l u r e of new consumer p r o d u c t s which employment e a r n i n g s c o u l d buy. I t may a l s o be reasonab ly argued t h a t t h i s new consumerism had the e f f e c t of e r o d i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l s t igma a t t a c h e d to f a m i l i e s w i th working w ives . Whereas i n the past a working wi fe was o f t en i n t e r p r e t e d as ev idence of a f a m i l y in d i r e s t r a i t s , there was now a measure of r e s p e c t a b i l i t y imparted to the working w i f e . Her employment c o u l d now be viewed i n terms of p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n to the bet terment of the f a m i l y ' s s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g (Weiner , 1985). By the e a r l y 1960's i t was a l s o becoming c l e a r tha t more and more women were e x p r e s s i n g a d e s i r e to 16 work for reasons of p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t ( F r i e d a n , 1963). Economic and s o c i a l p r o s p e r i t y i n N o r t h Amer ica made p o s s i b l e and i n f a c t encouraged a new i n t e r e s t i n e v a l u a t i n g the q u a l i t y of l i f e ( B r a d b u r n , 1969; Bradburn & C a p l o v i t z , 1965; C a n t r i l , 1965; G u r i n , V e r o f f & F e l d ) . B e t t y F r i e d a n ' s (1963) book The  Feminine Mys t ique was a landmark i n i d e n t i f y i n g and p r e s a g i n g the s o c i a l and a t t i t u d i n a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of our t i m e . In her book F r i e d a n gave c o n c r e t e i d e n t i t y to "the problem wi thout a name", more commonly r e f e r r e d to by a n a l y s t s and f a m i l y p h y s i c a n s as "housewife ' s syndrome". The symptoms were d e s c r i b e d as f e e l i n g s of boredom, u s e l e s s n e s s and d e p r e s s i o n . F r i e d a n ' s women r e p o r t e d tha t what they d e s i r e d was to expand t h e i r l i v e s , pas t the c o n f i n e s of home and the l i v e s of t h e i r husbands and c h i l d r e n , in order to d e v e l o p t h e i r own i d e n t i t i e s ( F r i e d a n , 1963). F r i e d a n ' s book was the v e h i c l e the women's movement needed. The women's movement has c o n t i n u e d to grow s i n c e the 1960 ' s , e x e r t i n g an i n f l u e n c e not o n l y in women's a t t i t u d e s towards work as a v e h i c l e f o r p e r s o n a l development and f u l f i l l m e n t , but on governments as w e l l . R e p r o d u c t i v e t e c h n o l o g y , daycare f u n d i n g , a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n programmes and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of government o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g 17 c o u r s e s f o r women have s i n c e g i v e n women g r e a t e r c o n t r o l and c h o i c e i n p l a n n i n g f a m i l i e s and l i f e s t y l e s . So i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g then tha t by the 1980's m a r r i e d women w i t h p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n have come to r e p r e s e n t the f a s t e s t growing c a t e g o r y of women e n t e r i n g the l a b o u r f o r c e (Armstrong , 1984; P h i l l i p s & P h i l l i p s , 1983; S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1983). I t i s a l s o t r u e tha t p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e the r e c e s s i o n of the l a t e 1970's , m a r r i e d women, or at l e a s t the grea t m a j o r i t y of them, a l s o work for reasons of economic n e c e s s i t y (Armstrong , 1984; Armstrong & Armstrong ,1983 ; Boyd, 1977; C o n n e l l y , 1978; Fox & H e s s - B i b e r , 1984; P h i l l i p s & P h i l l i p s , 1983; Oppenheimer, 1977, 1982). For many contemporary f a m i l i e s o n l y one wage e a r n e r has become i n s u f f i c i e n t to m a i n t a i n the f a m i l y s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g . E x c e s s i v e l y h i g h l e v e l s of unemployment r e c e n t l y i n c e r t a i n t r a d i t i o n a l l y male s e c t o r s of the economy, for example n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and c o n s t r u c t i o n , have f o r c e d wives to f i n d employment in o r d e r to supplement the husband's unemployment b e n e f i t s or prevent the f a m i l y from h a v i n g to r e l y on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . G i v e n then tha t the reasons women are working are numerous and complex, an important q u e s t i o n a r i s e s : what i s the impact of work on women's w e l l - b e i n g ? I t 18 i s t h i s area of r e s e a r c h which i s of the g r e a t e s t concern to p s y c h o l o g i s t s ( A s t i n , 1985; B a r u c h , 1980; B a r u c h , et a l , 1983; Burke & W e i r , 1976b; C a m p b e l l , et a l , 1976; Cochrane & S t o p e s - R o e , 1981 F i n l a y - J o n e s & B u r v e l l , 1979 F i t z g e r a l d & C r i t e s , 1970; Gove, 1972; Gove & G e e r k i n , 1977; H a r r i s o n & Minor 1982; Haw, 1982; K e s s l e r & M c C r a e , 1982; K r a u s e , 1983, 1985; N i e v a & Gutek , 1981; P a r r y & Warr , 1980; R o b e r t s , Rober t s & Stevenson , 1982; Warr & P a r r y , 1982a, 1982b). The f i r s t task i s to c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h what i s meant by the term p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . The Construct of Psychological Well-Being R e f l e c t i o n upon the q u a l i t y of l i f e , or l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n has been c e n t r a l to human thought throughout h i s t o r y . Over the c e n t u r i e s the "happiness problem" has been seen as an e t h i c a l , r e l i g i o u s , p o l i t i c a l or economic c o n c e r n . W i t h i n the l a s t c e n t u r y however the focus has s h i f t e d from p h i l o s o p h i c a l debate to a more s c i e n t i f i c procedure of economic and demographic da ta c o l l e c t i o n , i n an ongoing s e a r c h to measure the q u a l i t y of l i f e . Economic measurements have ga ined widespread acceptance and l e g i t i m a c y because of what most r e g a r d as t h e i r o b j e c t i v e n a t u r e ; 19 tha t i s , the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of equa l and i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e u n i t s . In the 1950's and e a r l y 1960's however p s y c h o l o g i s t s began to q u e s t i o n the e s t a b l i s h e d p r a c t i c e of e v a l u a t i n g the q u a l i t y of l i f e on the b a s i s of economic i n d i c a t o r s a lone ( B r a d b u r n , 1969; Bradburn & C a p o w i t z , 1965; C a n t r i l , 1965; G u r i n , V e r o f f & F e l d , 1960). I t was argued tha t h i g h e r income, b e t t e r hous ing and neighbourhoods e t c . d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y guarantee tha t i n d i v i d u a l s would s u b j e c t i v e l y f e e l t h e i r q u a l i t y of l i f e to be b e t t e r than those l i v i n g under poorer soc ioeconomic c o n d i t i o n s . What was important was the i n t e r a c t i o n of the person and h i s / h e r env ironment . To a s s e s s p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g r e s e a r c h e r s r e c o g n i z e d a need to d e v e l o p new ins t ruments des igned to measure p e r c e p t i o n s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , f e e l i n g s and v a l u e s ( B r a d b u r n , 1969; Bradburn & C a p o w i t z , 1965; C a n t r i l , 1965; G u r i n et a l . , 1960). Out of t h i s concern f o r s u b j e c t i v e w e l l - b e i n g emerged a new branch of p s y c h o l o g y , h u m a n i s t i c p s y c h o l o g y . The founder of t h i s new s c h o o l was Abraham Maslow, who p o s t u l a t e d the e x i s t e n c e of a h i e r a r c h i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of human needs (Maslow, 1954). A c c o r d i n g to h i s t h e o r y human needs arrange themselves 20 i n o r d e r of p o t e n c y . P h y s i o l o g i c a l needs, need for s a f e t y and s e c u r i t y , and t h i r d l y , the need f o r l o v e and b e l o n g i n g make up the lower o r d e r needs w h i l e the h i g h e r o r d e r needs i n c l u d e the need for freedom and independence and u l t i m a t e l y s e l f a c t u a l i z a t i o n (Maslow, 1954). C e n t r a l to the theory i s the h y p o t h e s i s that lower order needs must be s a t i s f i e d be fore h i g h e r needs can be g r a t i f i e d . Maslow argued t h a t as more needs were s a t i s f i e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g would be enhanced. Maslow*s hypotheses c o n c e r n i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g were e x p l o r a t o r y i n n a t u r e . The f a c t that he t e s t e d h i s t h e o r i e s on s m a l l groups r a t h e r than r e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples makes g e n e r a l i z a t i o n based on h i s f i n d i n g s q u e s t i o n a b l e ( H a l l & L i n d z e y , 1978). A f u r t h e r c r i t i c i s m of Maslow's sampl ing t e c h n i q u e s i s the f a c t t h a t he r e c r u i t e d h i s s u b j e c t s e x c l u s i v e l y from the "hea l thy and w e l l a d j u s t e d " middle and upper c l a s s e s ( H a l l & L i n d z e y , 1978). A l t h o u g h t h i s group may c o n s t i t u t e a n u m e r i c a l m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n , n e v e r t h e l e s s i t l e a v e s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s e a r c h gap i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g how lower soc ioeconomic groups p e r c e i v e t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . Taken one s t ep f u r t h e r the q u e s t i o n n a t u r a l l y a r i s e s as to whether peop le who have inadequate r e s o u r c e s to f u l l y s a t i s f y t h e i r b a s i c 21 needs are t h e r e f o r e d e n i e d g r a t i f i c a t i o n of the h i g h e r needs of r e s p e c t , s e l f esteem and a c t u a l i z a t i o n . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g these c r i t i c i s m s Maslow's emphasis on the s p e c i f i c needs and s a t i s f a c t i o n s which c o n t r i b u t e to the e x p e r i e n c e of l i f e made a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the l a t e r q u a l i t y of l i f e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ( C a m p b e l l , et a l , 1976). I n t e r e s t in the assessment of the q u a l i t y of l i f e has grown c o n s i d e r a b l y s i n c e the 1950's , and so too has the d i v e r s i t y of measurement t e c h n i q u e s . One of the f i r s t major s t u d i e s to i n v e s t i g a t e the q u a l i t y of l i f e on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e was undertaken i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s in 1957 ( G u r i n et a l . , 1960). T h i s s tudy u t i l i z e d what c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as a "mental h e a l t h o r i e n t a t i o n " . Drawing from p s y c h i a t r y and u s i n g a m e d i c a l model as t h e i r framework G u r i n and h i s c o l l e a g u e s (1960) were p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e m o t i o n a l s t r e s s . The survey they deve loped i n c l u d e d q u e s t i o n s about w o r r i e s , f e a r s of a nervous breakdown, s a t i s f a c t i o n wi th l i f e , a happiness i tem and an i tem on opt imism f o r the f u t u r e . S u b j e c t s who d i s p l a y e d fewer s i g n s of s t r e s s , a n x i e t y , worry and d e p r e s s i o n were c l a s s i f i e d as h e a l t h y (moderate to h i g h w e l l - b e i n g ) wh i l e those who r e p o r t e d a p r e v i o u s "breakdown" or f e l t a need f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g were d iagnosed as 22 i l l or m a l a d j u s t e d (low p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g ) (Gur in et a l . , 1960). To measure the c o n s t r u c t of happiness G u r i n and c o l l e a g u e s (1960) used a s i n g l e i tem measure. To the q u e s t i o n " t a k i n g a l l t h i n g s t o g e t h e r how would you say t h i n g s are these days?" , respondents were asked to choose from the f o l l o w i n g o p t i o n s : "very happy", " p r e t t y happy" or "not too happy". T h i s i tem i s important because i t has s u b s e q u e n t l y been i n c l u d e d in a number of p u b l i c o p i n i o n p o l l s to as ses s t r e n d s in American l i f e over time (Andrews & W i t h e y , 1976b; B r a d b u r n , 1969; Bradburn & C a p o w i t z , 1965; Campbel l et a l . , 1976). I t can be argued t h a t r e l i a n c e on a s i n g l e i tem to measure a concept as complex as happiness s u f f e r s from psychometr i c weakness. For example, s i n g l e i tem measures tend to be l e s s r e l i a b l e over t i m e , p r o v i d i n g no e s t i m a t e s of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . They have a l s o been shown to have low convergent r e l i a b l i t y (Andrews & W i t h e y , 1976a; C a m p b e l l , et a l , 1976; D i e n e r , 1984; L a r s e n , D iener & Emmons, 1985). In a d d i t i o n subsequent r e s e a r c h has shown t h a t s u b j e c t response to 3 - s t ep s c a l e s tends to g r a v i t a t e towards the upper end ( i . e . "very happy") of the cont inuum (Andrews & Withey , 1976a; Campbel l et a l . , 1976). 23 R e j e c t i n g both the m e d i c a l model and the use of a s i n g l e i tem measurement to e v a l u a t e l i f e as a whole a second r e s e a r c h approach was i n i t i a t e d to the s tudy of the meaning of p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g ( B r a d b u r n , 1969; Bradburn & C a p o w i t z , 1965). U n l i k e G u r i n and c o l l e a g u e s ( i960) who c o n c e p t u a l i z e d p s y c h o l g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g as an e n d u r i n g p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t , B r a d b u r n ' s t h e o r y d e f i n e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g as a day to day a f f e c t i v e s t a t e f l u c t u a t i n g i n accordance to one ' s environment ( B r a d b u r n , 1969; Bradburn & C a p o w i t z , 1965). One s i g n i f i c a n t outcome of B r a d b u r n ' s (1965) s tudy was the development of a two d i m e n s i o n a l model of p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g , which p r o v i d e d a s k i l l f u l l y worked d e m o n s t r a t i o n that i t may be necessary to take account of p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s t a t e s i n d e p e n d e n t l y of one a n o t h e r , i n o r d e r to determine a g l o b a l sense of i n d i v i d u a l w e l l - b e i n g ( B r a d b u r n , 1969; Bradburn & C a p o w i t z , 1965). Moreover , Bradburn a s s e r t e d tha t p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e d imens ions were not o n l y independent of one another but were r e l a t e d to q u i t e d i s s i m i l a r v a r i a b l e s . In h i s s t u d i e s and subsequent r e p l i c a t i o n s i t has been demonstrated tha t p o s i t i v e a f f e c t i s h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l c o n t a c t , exposure to new e x p e r i e n c e s , 24 e x t r o v e r s i o n , h i g h e r l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n and soc ioeconomic s t a t u s ( B a r u c h , et a l , 1983; B r a d b u r n , 1969; Bradburn & Capowi tz ,1965 ; Cos ta & McCrae , 1980; H a l l , 1976; H a r d i n g 1982; C h i r i b o g a , 1975; W a r r , 1978; W a r r , Baxter & Brownbr idge , 1983). N e g a t i v e a f f e c t , on the o ther hand, c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i th i l l h e a l t h , n e u r o t i c i s m , a n x i e t y and f e a r of a nervous breakdown (Costa & McCrae , 1980; Warr , Baxter & Brownbr idge , 1983). As a r e s u l t of h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s Bradburn (1965; 1969) p o s t u l a t e d tha t an excess of p o s i t i v e over n e g a t i v e a f f e c t was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to g r e a t e r h a p p i n e s s , wh i l e an excess of n e g a t i v e a f f e c t r e l a t e d to g r e a t e r unhappiness or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l i f e . Based on these f i n d i n g s Bradburn deve loped h i s A f f e c t Balance S c a l e which has s i n c e come to be one of the most w ide ly used r e s e a r c h ins t ruments i n a s s e s i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g (Hard ing 1982). A l t h o u g h B r a d b u r n ' s f i n d i n g r e g a r d i n g the independence of n e g a t i v e and p o s i t i v e a f f e c t i s s u p e r f i c a l l y c o n v i n c i n g , i t has not been wi thout i t s c r i t i c s . The low c o r r e l a t i o n between p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a f f e c t may be both the r e s u l t of the items Bradburn chose and h i s measurement t e c h n i q u e . L o o k i n g f i r s t at the items i t becomes c l e a r tha t the p o s i t i v e 25 a f f e c t i tems a l l u d e to success and energy in r e l a t i o n to s p e c i f i c events w h i l e the n e g a t i v e events a r e more g e n e r a l i n nature ( D i e n e r , 1984). For example, the p o s i t i v e i tem "p leasure over accompl ishments" has no n e g a t i v e counter such as "disappointment over f a i l u r e " . B r a d b u r n ' s measurement t e c h n i q u e a l s o has been c r i t i c i z e d for r e l y i n g on a l i m i t e d time frame of day to day e x p e r i e n c e s of a f f e c t i v e f e e l i n g s t a t e s r a t h e r than an account of the r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y , i n t e n s i t y and d u r a t i o n of such f e e l i n g s t a t e s ( C h e r l i n & Reeder , 1976). R e l i a n c e on such a s h o r t time frame c o u l d encourage a low c o r r e l a t i o n between p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a f f e c t . I t may be then tha t the r e l a t i v e l y s imple n o t i o n of the independence of p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a f f e c t masks a c o m p l e x i t y of u n d e r l y i n g e m o t i o n a l f e e l i n g s ( C h e r l i n & Reeder , 1976). F i n a l l y , another s i g n i f i c a n t s tudy undertaken d u r i n g t h i s same time p e r i o d was C a n t r i l ' s (1965) s tudy of human c o n c e r n s . A l t h o u g h C a n t r i l used the terms "happiness" and " s a t i s f a c t i o n " i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y , h i s emphasis was on the c o g n i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e of l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n r a t h e r than what Bradburn r e f e r r e d to as a f f e c t i v e or f e e l i n g s t a t e s . C a n t r i l ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n - d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n measure was d e f i n e d as the d i s c r e p a n c y between where one a s p i r e s to be and one ' s 26 a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n . On a cont inuum r u n n i n g from "1" through "11" w i t h number "1" r e p r e s e n t i n g "the worst p o s s i b l e s i t u a t i o n and number "11" the "best p o s s i b l e s i t u a t i o n " i n d i v i d u a l s were asked to t h i n k about t h e i r presen t l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t o n and compare t h i s w i t h where they a s p i r e d , expected or deserved to be ( C a n t r i l , 1965). S u b j e c t s were then asked to r a t e t h e i r p e r c e i v e d l e v e l s of s a t i s f a c t i o n a c r o s s a number of major l i f e areas by i n d i c a t i n g where they f e l l on t h i s s c a l e compared w i t h o t h e r s . One p o t e n t i a l drawback of C a n t r i l ' s s e l f a n c h o r i n g s c a l e i s the emphasis p l a c e d on e x t e r n a l s t a n d a r d s of c o m p a r i s o n . U n l i k e "happiness" which seems to evoke an e m o t i o n a l s t a t e , C a n t r i l ' s measure of " s a t i s f a c t i o n " i m p l i e s a more c o g n i t i v e judgement of one ' s c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to t h a t of f a m i l y , f r i e n d s and a c q u a i n t a n c e s (Campbel l et a l , 1976). T h i s a c c e n t u a t e s the aspec t of r e l a t i v i t y i n responses thereby making i n t e r p e r s o n a l comparisons of r a t i n g s p r o b l e m a t i c (Campbel l et a l . , 1976). What i s s i g n i f i c a n t about C a n t r i l ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e i s the f a c t tha t u n l i k e h a p p i n e s s , which has shown a downward t r e n d i n n a t i o n a l surveys s i n c e G u r i n ' s (1960) f i r s t s t u d y , r e p o r t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n has remained c o n s t a n t when used in subsequent n a t i o n a l 27 surveys ( C a m p b e l l , 1976, 1980). T h e r e f o r e , in measuring o v e r a l l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n or p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g i t i s i m p e r a t i v e tha t the r e s e a r c h e r i n c o r p o r a t e s both happiness and s a t i s f a c t i o n measures . To summarize, the e a r l y s t u d i e s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g f a l l i n t o three g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s : a mental h e a l t h approach which focused on "maladjustment" ( G u r i n et a l . , 1960); a g e n e r a l a f f e c t b a l a n c e , based on e m o t i o n a l tone and f e e l i n g s v a r y i n g w i t h the s i t u a t i o n a t a p a r t i c u l a r t ime ( B r a d b u r n , 1969; Bradburn & C a p o w i t z , 1965); and f i n a l l y a s a t i s f a c t i o n measure of w e l l - b e i n g based on the p e r c e i v e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a n d a r d s and a t t a i n m e n t s ( C a n t r i l , 1965). I n t e r e s t i n the q u a l i t y of l i f e c o n t i n u e d to g a i n momentum throughout the 1970's . In 1974 the s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s movement a t t a i n e d even g r e a t e r s t a t u r e wi th the founding of i t s own j o u r n a l devoted to s u b j e c t i v e measurement of the q u a l i t y of l i f e . Two major s t u d i e s were undertaken i n the mid-1970 ' s to a s ses s the q u a l i t y of l i f e (Andrews & W i t h e y , 1976b; Campbel l et a l . , 1976). Working at the same time p e r i o d but i n d e p e n d e n t l y of each o t h e r both r e s e a r c h e r s deve loped a s i m i l a r c o n c e p t u a l model . Whi l e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s had d e f i n e d w e l l - b e i n g as a s i n g l e p e r v a s i v e q u a l i t y of l i f e e x p e r i e n c e , a s se s sed 28 by a g l o b a l " l i f e as a whole" measure, these r e s e a r c h e r s now argued tha t s u b j e c t i v e w e l l - b e i n g shou l d be measured at s e v e r a l l e v e l s of s p e c i f i c i t y . Whi l e not c o m p l e t e l y d i s m i s s i n g the e x i s t e n c e of an o v e r a l l g e n e r a l w e l l - b e i n g f a c t o r c a p a b l e of d i s c r i m i n a t i n g one i n d i v i d u a l from a n o t h e r , i t was now t h e o r i z e d tha t the c o m b i n a t i o n of s p e c i f i c f a c e t s or domains , f or example m a r r i a g e , f a m i l y l i f e , soc ioeconomic s t a t u s , work e t c . de termined an i n d i v i d u a l ' s o v e r a l l p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . The r a t i o n a l e beh ind t h i s approach was t w o - f o l d . F i r s t , an e x p r e s s i o n of s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h i n s p e c i f i c domains of l i f e e x p e r i e n c e would p r o v i d e more i n f o r m a t i o n on the q u a l i t y of l i f e e x p e r i e n c e than would be for thcoming from any s i n g l e measure. Second, i t would h i g h l i g h t p a t t e r n s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h i n s p e c i f i c domains and the c o n t r i b u t i o n of each domain to an o v e r a l l measure of l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n (Andrews & W i t h e y , 1976b; Campbel l et a l . , 1976). I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d tha t the scope and c e n t r a l i t y of the v a r i o u s domains would determine the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n of each to o v e r a l l w e l l - b e i n g . In o ther words the c l o s e s t and most immediate domains would be expected to have the g r e a t e s t impact on s u b j e c t i v e w e l l - b e i n g (Andrews & Wi they , 1976b; 29 Campbel l et a l . , 1976). The most important domains r e v e a l e d by these two s t u d i e s and subsequent r e s e a r c h a r e : m a r i t a l s t a t u s , m a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s e l f , f a m i l y l i f e , f r i e n d s , work and soc ioeconomic s t a t u s (Andrews & Withey , 1976b; B a r n e t t , et a l . , 1983; B e r n a r d , 1972, 1974, 1975, 1981; B r a d b u r n , 1969; Burke & W e i r , 1976 Campbel l et a l . , 1976; F r e u d i g e r , 1983; S p r e i t z e r & Snyder , 1975). Other domains which have been i d e n t i f i e d as important c o n t r i b u t o r s to o v e r a l l q u a l i t y of l i f e i n c l u d e h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n , h o u s i n g , community and n a t i o n (Andrews & Withey , 1976b; Campbel l et a l . , 1976; C a n t r i l , 1965; G u r i n et a l . , 1960, 1981; H a l l , 1976; P e a r l i n & Johnson , 1975; R a d l o f f , 1975). In the 1980's r e s e a r c h i n t o the q u a l i t y of l i f e c o n t i n u e s to be a prominent c o n c e r n among s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s and governments . The Canadian goverment has a l l o c a t e d a sum of $100,000 to a f i v e year l o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h programme i n v e s t i g a t i n g the q u a l i t y of l i f e i n Canada ( A t k i n s o n , 1976). Drawing on the work of Campbel l and c o l l e a g u e s (1976) the g o a l s of t h i s s tudy are t w o f o l d . F i r s t , to deve lop d e s c r i p t i v e measures of s u b j e c t i v e s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s of the q u a l i t y of l i f e and t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n ; and s e c o n d l y , to determine those c o n d i t i o n s tha t are 30 r e l a t e d to changes i n the p e r c e p t u a l i n d i c a t o r s over t ime ( A t k i n s o n , 1976). Women and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Well-Being T u r n i n g now to a review of r e s e a r c h on women's p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g i t becomes c l e a r tha t changes i n the focus of r e s e a r c h over the past t h r e e decades have m i r r o r e d the changing r o l e s of women i n contemporary Nor th American s o c i e t y . The f i r s t l a r g e s c a l e survey of menta l h e a l t h i n the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n was based on t h e o r i e s which adhered to the e x i s t e n c e of a s t r i c t d i v i s i o n between work and f a m i l y l i f e , a view p r e v a l e n t among s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s of the day . P e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r i e s u n d e r s c o r e d the s e x u a l d i v i s i o n of l abour by d e s c r i b i n g women as n u r t u r i n g , e m o t i o n a l and s u p p o r t i v e - a l l q u a l i t i e s deemed i d e a l for the task of mother ing and c h i l d r e a r i n g , wh i l e men's i n h e r e n t a g g r e s s i v e nature was much b e t t e r s u i t e d to the w o r l d of work ( F r e u d i g e r , 1983). S o c i o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s of t h i s p e r i o d were s i m i l a r i n t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n . Proponents of the s t r u c t u r a l f u n c t i o n a l i s t approach argued that f a m i l y breakdown c o u l d be p r e v e n t e d when the dominant male 31 r o l e was o c c u p a t i o n a l and the dominant female r o l e was t h a t of housewife and mother (Parsons , 1942). The s t r e n g t h of t h i s r e i g n i n g paradigm i s r e f l e c t e d i n the f i r s t U . S . n a t i o n a l survey of mental h e a l t h , where male respondents were asked about t h e i r work l i v e s and females about t h e i r home l i v e s ( G u r i n et a l . , 1960). T h i s approach shou l d not s u r p r i s e , g iven tha t men at work and women at home c o n s t i t u t e d the b a s i c r e a l i t y f o r a l a r g e segment of the p o p u l a t i o n i n the 1950's and 1960's . As more and more women j o i n e d the l abour f o r c e one of the f i r s t q u e s t i o n s to a r i s e was which l i f e s t y l e was p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y more f u l f i l l i n g - homemaker or p a i d employee? E a r l y s t u d i e s suggested t h a t homemakers l i v e d l o n g e r than working men because they were p r o t e c t e d from the s t r e s s o r s of the w o r l d of work (Durkheim 1893/1984). P r o v i d i n g f u r t h e r ev idence to support D u r k h e i m 1 s h y p o t h e s i s i s the f a c t t h a t there has been a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e among working women of those d i s e a s e s t y p i c a l l y c o n s i d e r e d "men's d i s e a s e s " such as c o r o n a r y hear t d i s e a s e (Haynes & F e i n l e i b , 1980). However, t h i s i s not to say that the homemaker r o l e i s p r e f e r a b l e to tha t of employee. E v i d e n c e suggests t h a t o v e r a l l , housewives s u f f e r more symptoms 32 of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s and mental i l l n e s s than employed women ( B e r n a r d , 1972; Campbel l et a l . , 1976; Cochrane & Stepes Roe, 1981; F e r r e e , 1976, 1984; Gove & G e e r k i n , 1977; Gove & T u d o r , 1972; K e s s l e r & McRae, 1982; N ieva & Gutek , 1981; R a d l o f f , 1975). The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i r r o l e t h a t homemakers r e p o r t d i s s a t i s f y i n g i n c l u d e : l a c k of s t a t u s and r e c o g n i t i o n , monotony, and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n . E a r n i n g a s a l a r y has been l i n k e d to women's d e c i s i o n making w i t h i n the f a m i l y and t h i s p r o v i d e s one e x p l a n a t i o n as to why housewives f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t f e e l i n g s of power les sness w i t h i n t h e i r m a r r i a g e s ( F e r r e e , 1976, 1984; R a p o p p o r t , 1980; R u b i n , 1976). How then does l i f e d i f f e r f o r the working woman? In a d d i t i o n to the obv ious economic b e n e f i t s of employment, work p r o v i d e s s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n , a sense of r e c o g n i t i o n and s e l f esteem, a l l of which are v i t a l components of p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g (Armstrong , 1984; Armstrong & A r m s t r o n g , 1983; A s t i n , 1985; Gove & G e e r k i n , 1977; I n g e l h a r t , 1979). In a Canadian sample , Cumming, L a z e r and C h i s h o l m , (1975) found that employed women had lower r a t e s of s u i c i d e than f u l l - t i m e housewives . One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g i s tha t employment p r o v i d e s a support network, thus u n d e r s c o r i n g the a f f i l i a t i v e 33 b e n e f i t s of h a v i n g a j o b . I t a l s o has been suggested that employment enhances w e l l - b e i n g by a c t i n g as a b u f f e r a g a i n s t s t r e s s e x p e r i e n c e d i n o ther r o l e s (Baruch et a l . , 1983; B e t z , 1982; Brown & H a r r i s , 1978; C r o s b y , 1984; K e s s l e r & McRae, 1982). For example, employment may p r o v i d e a welcome r e p r i e v e from the boredom of housework and the c o n s t a n t demands of c h i l d c a r e . Employment a l s o may have p o s i t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l consequences f o r women who are f a c i n g l i f e t r a n s i t i o n s (Brown & H a r r i s , 1 9 7 8 ; R i c h a r d s o n , 1981). Job involvement may o f f e r some p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t f e e l i n g s such as " loss of purpose" e x p e r i e n c e d as a r e s u l t of grown c h i l d r e n l e a v i n g home - commonly r e f e r r e d to as the "empty nest syndrome". In summary, the focus of r e s e a r c h has s h i f t e d over the y e a r s , from the s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l i s t e x p l a n a t i o n s of the 1950's and 1960's , which sought to express the f u n c t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y ( i n terms of s t a b i l i t y of the f a m i l y , s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y , e t c . ) of the then p r e v a i l i n g s e x u a l d i v i s i o n of l abour to a growing emphasis on the r e l a t i v e b e n e f i t s of p a i d employment v e r s u s homemaking to women's p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . But by now t h i s k i n d of e i t h e r - o r comparison i s a l s o r e a c h i n g the p o i n t of becoming o b s o l e t e as the d u a l - e a r n e r f a m i l y i s r a p i d l y becoming the most 34 p r e v a l e n t f a m i l y p a t t e r n (Mortimer & London, 1984). A c c o r d i n g l y , the focus of a n a l y s i s must s h i f t , to an examinat ion of the m u l t i p l i c i t y of v a r i a b l e s which a f f e c t the p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g of working women. The t h e o r e t i c a l q u e s t i o n of which i s b e t t e r no l o n g e r a p p l i e s ; i n s t e a d the q u e s t i o n now a r i s e s as to how the p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs - and hence the w e l l - b e i n g - of working women can best be s a t i f i e d . P s y c h o l o g i c a l W e i l - B e i n g of Working Women As c i t e d i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , p a i d employment appears to have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on women's p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g (Burke & W e i r , 1976; F e r r e e , 1976; W r i g h t , 1978). N e v e r t h e l e s s , the p r e c i s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between employment s t a t u s and w e l l - b e i n g remains both u n c l e a r and i n c o n s i s t e n t (Warr & P a r r y , 1982b). A major reason for t h i s l a c k of c l a r i t y i s the f a c t t h a t s t u d i e s o f t e n f a i l to d i f f e r e n t i a t e groups of women on the b a s i s of l i f e c y c l e s t a g e , c h i l d c a r e demands, soc ioeconomic s t a t u s as w e l l as type of employment. A l l these f a c t o r s can be expected to mediate the i n f l u e n c e of p a i d employment on women's p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . 35 One c o n c e p t u a l model which p r o v i d e s a framework f o r i n c l u s i o n of important v a r i a b l e s beyond mere employment s t a t u s has been put f o r t h by Warr and P a r r y (1982a). They suggest tha t the three most important c l u s t e r s of v a r i a b l e s which i n f l u e n c e the e f f e c t of p a i d employment on women's p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g a r e : o c c u p a t i o n a l invo lvement ; q u a l i t y of the n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l environment and q u a l i t y of the employment r e l a t i o n s h i p . Each of these v a r i a b l e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t u r n . Occupational Involvement. O c c u p a t i o n a l involvement can be d e f i n e d as one ' s degree of commitment to p a i d employment. What needs to be s t r e s s e d here i s that commitment to p a i d employment i s not d e c i d e d s o l e l y on the b a s i s of one ' s p r e s e n t employment or employment s t a t u s . In o ther words, one may be t h o r o u g h l y d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h h i s / h e r c u r r e n t employment s i t u a t i o n yet s t i l l be committed to work in g e n e r a l . Commitment, moreover , i n v o l v e s more than a c t u a l hours spent on the j o b . I t i n c l u d e s the w i l l i n g n e s s to work o v e r t i m e , take on a d d i t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , e n r o l l f or job upgrad ing a n d / o r r e t r a i n i n g , as w e l l as i n t e r e s t and investment in 36 advancement. S t u d i e s show t h a t women's o c c u p a t i o n a l involvement i s l a r g e l y dependent upon m a r i t a l a n d / o r p a r e n t a l s t a t u s (Baruch et a l . , 1983; Campbel l et a l . , 1976; F i n e D a v i s , 1979, 1982; F a v e r , 1984; F r e u d i g e r , 1983; P a r r y & Warr , 1982; W a i t e , 1983; Warr & P a r r y , 1982a) . S i n g l e women wi thout c h i l d r e n spend more t ime on t h e i r c a r e e r and are more i n t e r e s t e d i n advancement than m a r r i e d women, both w i t h and wi thout c h i l d r e n ( A g a s s i , 1982; Campbel l et a l . , 1976; F i n e - D a v i s , 1983; P a r r y , 1982; Yogev, 1982). Be ing the p r i n c i p l e wage-earner for themselves and hav ing few f a m i l y r e p o n s i b i l i t i e s , i t i s expected tha t t h i s group of women w i l l be s t r o n g l y committed to p a i d employment. S i m i l a r l y m a r r i e d women wi thout c h i l d r e n have a l e s s demanding homemaker r o l e and thus are expected to have a moderate attachment to the l a b o u r f o r c e (Warr and P a r r y , 1982a) The degree to which m a r r i e d women w i t h c h i l d r e n are committed to p a i d employment i s much more d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , c a r e of the f a m i l y and home have been c o n s i d e r e d women's p r i m a r y o b l i g a t i o n and employment has been viewed as an ' a d d - o n ' and g e n e r a l l y hazardous r o l e . I t has been argued t h a t the c o m b i n a t i o n of p a i d worker , wi fe and mother l e a d s to 37 r o l e s t r a i n ( o v e r l o a d and c o n f l i c t ) which in t u r n becomes a c a t a l y s t f or s t r e s s and a n x i e t y (Campbel l et a l . , 1976; Cooke & Rousseau, 1984; Gove & T u d o r , 1973; H a l l , 1975). Research i n t o the d e t r i m e n t a l mental h e a l t h e f f e c t s of m u l t i p l e r o l e s i s , however, i n c o n s i s t e n t . Verbrugge (1983) c o n c l u d e d tha t m u l t i p l e r o l e involvement may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b e t t e r h e a l t h . Involvement i n m u l t i p l e r o l e s a l s o may enhance mental h e a l t h i n as much as i t a c t s as a b u f f e r to s t r e s s by p r o v i d i n g temporary r e l i e f from the c o n s t a n t demands of c h i l d c a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and the tedium of housework (Barne t t 1982; Baruch et a l . , 1983; C r o s b y , 1984; R i c h a r d s o n , 1981; R u b i n , 1976). I t s h o u l d be noted though tha t some of these s t u d i e s have been p r o b l e m a t i c i n t h e i r sampl ing and measuring t e c h n i q u e s . For example, one s tudy which suggested t h a t involvement i n m u l t i p l e r o l e s was b e n e f i c i a l t o w e l l - b e i n g d e f i n e d p a i d employment as ten hours or more per week ( B a r n e t t , 1982). I t c o u l d be a r g u e d , however, tha t p a r t t ime work p r o v i d e s g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y i n as much as i t l eaves women w i t h s u f f i c i e n t t ime to a t t e n d to househo ld and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T h i s i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to f u l l t ime employment which u s u a l l y means a commitment of at 38 l e a s t 35 hours per week and f r e q u e n t l y l o n g e r thus l e a v i n g much l e s s t ime for home and f a m i l y . I t i s e x p e c t e d , t h e r e f o r e , that women engaged i n p a r t t ime work would e x p e r i e n c e l e s s r o l e o v e r l o a d and subsequent ly l e s s s t r e s s than women employed on a f u l l - t i m e b a s i s . Another shor tcoming of p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has been the f a i l u r e to d i s c r i m i n a t e on the b a s i s of o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y ( i . e . p r o f e s s i o n a l v s . n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l ) . I t c o u l d be argued t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l women have s u f f i c i e n t income to purchase a s s i s t a n c e w i t h both c h i l d c a r e as w e l l as homemaking t a s k s , thus making i t much e a s i e r to combine the r o l e s of mother , wi fe and employee. There i s agreement tha t the p r e s s u r e of j u g g l i n g two f u l l time jobs i s m i t i g a t e d to the ex tent tha t husbands share i n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of housework and c h i l d c a r e ( K e s s l e r & McRae, 1982; Cooke & Rousseau, 1984; Warr & P a r r y , 1982a, 1982b). A recen t s tudy i n d i c a t e s tha t employed women are l e s s depres sed i f t h e i r husbands share househo ld r s p o n s i b i l i t i e s (Ross , Mirowsky , & Huber , 1983). A l t h o u g h a t t i t u d e s are chang ing and more men are e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r agreement in p r i n c i p l e to e g a l i t a r i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n r e a l i t y women s t i l l c o n t i n u e to bear the bulk of the burden of 39 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for both c h i l d c a r e and housework (Armstrong , 1984; F e r r e e , 1976, 1984; Huber & S p i t z , 1983; M e i s s n e r , Humphrey, Mei s s & Scheu , 1977, 1980; P l e c k , 1982; Vanek, 1974, 1984). T h e r e f o r e , u n t i l p r o f e s s e d o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g the importance of e g a l i t a r i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p s t r a n s l a t e s i n t o a r e a l i t y of a c t u a l s h a r i n g i t i s expec ted t h a t m a r r i e d women w i t h c h i l d r e n w i l l be l e s s s t r o n g l y committed than o t h e r groups of women to p a i d employment. O c c u p a t i o n a l involvement i s expected to be moderate ly h i g h for s e p a r a t e d and d i v o r c e d women, e s p e c i a l l y those who are mothers . Be ing the s o l e p r o v i d e r i s one of the most important concerns of s i n g l e p a r e n t s . G r e a t e r involvement at work i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e s s d e p r e s s i o n among s i n g l e p a r e n t s ( B e l l e & T e b b e t s , 1982; Brown, 1982; K e i t h & S c h a f f e r , 1980, 1982; Tcheng-LaRoche & P r i n c e , 1981a). But i t may be t h a t b e s i d e s g r e a t e r income, s t a t u s enhancement and the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r achievement a l s o c o n t r i b u t e to lower d e p r e s s i o n . In c o n c l u s i o n , on the b a s i s of a l l the above f a c t o r s i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d tha t women wi thout c h i l d r e n w i l l have the h i g h e s t degree of o c c u p a t i o n a l involvement w h i l e m a r r i e d women w i t h c h i l d r e n w i l l have the lowest l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t . 40 N o n o c c u p a t i o n a l E n v i r o n m e n t . Employment s t a t u s i s on ly one of a number of f a c t o r s which determines w e l l - b e i n g . The q u a l i t y of a woman's n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l environment i s an e s s e n t i a l v a r i a b l e in the study of p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . Women whose p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l and f i n a n c i a l needs are met o u t s i d e of employment are not expected to g a i n from t a k i n g a job (Warr & P a r r y , 1982a). In o ther words a c e i l i n g e f f e c t on w e l l - b e i n g i s e x p e c t e d . C o n v e r s e l y , f o r women l i v i n g i n adverse e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s , f o r example low soc ioeconomic s t a t u s , m a r i t a l d i s r u p t i o n or breakdown, e t c . , a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a i d employment and p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g i s p r e d i c t e d . Few s t u d i e s have e x p l o r e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p of women's n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l environment and p a i d employment. Where measures have been u t i l i z e d to a s ses s the q u a l i t y of women's n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n these have g e n e r a l l y been i n d i c e s of soc ioeconomic s t a t u s . F i n d i n g s from these s t u d i e s suggest tha t economic need as de termined by husband's income i s one of the most important v a r i a b l e s i n a w i f e ' s d e c i s i o n to engage i n p a i d employment (Armstrong & A r m s t r o n g , 1983; Gordon & Kammeyer, 1980; Mort imer & London, 1984; Nieva 41 & Gutek , 1981; Shaw, 1975). T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g when there are p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n in the home. In an examinat ion of 38 s t u d i e s Warr and P a r r y (1982b) observed a s t r o n g e r a s s o c i a t i o n between employment s t a t u s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l be ing i n groups of working c l a s s women than i n t h e i r middle c l a s s c o u n t e r p a r t s . S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h marr iage and f a m i l y l i f e are two of the major c o n t r i b u t o r s to o v e r a l l p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g (Andrews & Wi they , 1976b; B e r n a r d , 1981; Campbel l et a l . , 1976; F i n e D a v i s , 1983; Gove, 1972; Gove & T u d o r , 1973; Gove , Hughes & S t y l e , 1983). Compared w i t h s i n g l e women, e s p e c i a l l y those who are s e p a r a t e d or d i v o r c e d , m a r r i e d women are i n b e t t e r mental and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h , h a p p i e r , l e s s i n c l i n e d to s u i c i d e and l e s s l i k e l y to be i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d f o r mental i l l n e s s or o ther forms of m a l a d a p t i v e behav iour (Andrews & W i t h e y , 1976b; B r a d b u r n , 1969; Burke & W e i r , 1976; Campbel l et a l , 1976; C o c h r a n e - S t e p Roe, 1981; Cummings et a l . , 1975; Gove, 1972; S p r e i t z e r & Snyder , 1975; T c h e n g - L a r o c h e & P r i n c e , 1983b). S a t i s f a c t i o n wi th the n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l environment i s f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d as be ing adverse for s e p a r a t e d and d i v o r c e d mothers (Gutek, Nakamura & N i e v a , 1981; K e i t h & S c h a f e r , 1982; P e a r l i n & Johnson , 1977; 42 T c h e n g - L a r o c h e & P r i n c e , 1983). T h i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n has been found to be r e l a t e d to f i n a n c i a l d i s t r e s s , task o v e r l o a d and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n (Campbel l et a l . , 1976; K e i t h & S c h a f e r , 1982). I t i s expected t h a t p a i d employment w i l l enhance p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g for t h i s group of women inasmuch as hav ing a job p r o v i d e s economic independence , s e l f - e s t e e m and a c c e s s to a major s o c i a l network ( B a r n e t t et a l . , 1983; K e i t h & S c h a e f e r , 1982) T c h e n g - L a r o c h e & P r i n c e , 1979). Drawing from the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d that m a r r i e d women, both w i t h and wi thout c h i l d r e n , w i l l r a t e the q u a l i t y of t h e i r n o n - o c c u p a t i o n a l environment h i g h e r than t h e i r s i n g l e c o u n t e r p a r t s . Quality of the Employment Relationship. A t h i r d v a r i a b l e which combines w i t h o c c u p a t i o n a l involvement and the q u a l i t y of the n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l environment i n d e t e r m i n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between w e l l - b e i n g and women's p a i d employment i s the q u a l i t y of the employment r e l a t i o n s h i p (Warr & P a r r y , 1982a). D e s p i t e e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h i n t o the meaning of work in p e o p l e ' s l i v e s , as w i th the measurement of l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n the h i g h l y s u b j e c t i v e nature of the 43 q u a l i t y of working l i f e makes t h i s concept d i f f i c u l t to d e f i n e (Near & S m i t h , 1983). E s s e n t i a l l y , the q u a l i t y of working l i f e , or more s p e c i f i c a l l y job s a t i s f a c t i o n , r e f e r s to an o v e r a l l a f f e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n on the p a r t of i n d i v i d u a l s toward work r o l e s they are c u r r e n t l y o c c u p y i n g . S ince i t would be u n r e a l i s t i c to expect employees to be e i t h e r t o t a l l y s a t i s f i e d or t o t a l l y d i s s a t i s f i e d wi th a l l a s p e c t s of t h e i r employment, job s a t i s f a c t i o n can be d e s c r i b e d as the composi te ba lance of s a t i s f a c t i o n a g a i n s t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . P a i d employment s a t i s f i e s many l i f e requ irements i n c l u d i n g e x t r i n s i c needs , f or example, a c o m f o r t a b l e s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g , f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y and pens ion b e n e f i t s as w e l l as i n t r i n s i c needs such as a sense of p l e a s u r e and c o n t r i b u t i o n ( A s t i n , 1985; K a l l e n b e r g , 1977). I t has been suggested e a r l i e r that one of the p r i m a r y m o t i v a t i o n s f o r employment i s f i n a n c i a l g a i n . T h e r e f o r e i t seems r e a s o n a b l e to assume that income and job s a t i s f a c t i o n would be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d . S i n c e income does appear to be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to job p r e s t i g e i t i s a l s o expected t h a t c h a l l e n g e and s t i m u l a t i o n are important c o n t r i b u t o r s to job s a t i s f a c t i o n . Most of such f i n d i n g s , however, have been based on the e x p e r i e n c e of work in men's l i v e s . S t u d i e s of women's job s a t i s f a c t i o n have shown 44 i n c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s . Whi le some r e s e a r c h e r s suggest job s a t i s f a c t i o n i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to post secondary e d u c a t i o n and employment i n p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s (Waite , 1976) s t i l l o t h e r s r e p o r t h i g h l e v e l s of job s a t i s f a c t i o n among women employed i n low p a y i n g , n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l jobs (Armstrong , 1984; B e l l e & T e b b e t s , 1982; F e r r e e , 1976, 1984? H a a v i o - M a n n i l a , 1971; Komarovsky, 1967; R u b i n , 1976; Walshok, 1981). These f i n d i n g s suggest tha t a l t h o u g h i t may be t r u e t h a t many women en ter the l abour f o r c e out of economic need, many remain for o ther r e a s o n s , i . e . the i n t r i n s i c rewards a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a i d employment. Andrews and Withey (1976b) argue tha t one of the most important c o n t r i b u t o r s to p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s e l f . S t u d i e s of working women show t h a t employment f o s t e r s f e e l i n g s of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , s e l f - e s t e e m , p r i d e i n accompl i shments on the j o b , as w e l l as p r i d e i n the r o l e of f a m i l y p r o v i d e r . A l l these a s p e c t s of work c o n t r i b u t e towards a sense of w e l l - b e i n g ( A s t i n , 1985; B a r u c h , et a l . , 1983; F e r r e e , 1984; F i n e - D a v i s , 1983; R a d l o f f 1977; Walshok, 1981) However, the q u a l i t y of women's employment e x p e r i e n c e cannot be viewed i n i s o l a t i o n s i n c e c o n f l i c t w i t h d i v e r s e l i f e r o l e s ( i . e . f a m i l y r o l e s ) w i l l have a pro found e f f e c t on job s a t i s f a c t i o n ( B a r n e t t , 1982; 45 B e u t a l l & Greenhaus , 1982, 1983; H a l l , 1975, Holahan & G i l b e r t , 1979a, 1979b; Rapoport & R a p o p o r t , 1980; R i c h a r d s o n , 1981; Warr & P a r r y , 1982a; Yogev, 1982). T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e for wives and mothers . The c o m b i n a t i o n of f u l l t ime employment and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of mother ing and househo ld t a s k s can r e a d i l y c o n s t i t u t e an overburdensome w o r k l o a d , w i t h the net r e s u l t be ing l e s s t ime and energy for both r o l e s as w e l l as i n c r e a s e d s t r e s s and a n x i e t y (Gove & G e e r k i n , 1977; P l e c k , 1977; P l e c k , S t a i n e s & L a n g , 1980). As w i t h o c c u p a t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t , r o l e c o n f l i c t w i l l v a r y w i t h l i f e c y c l e s tage (Herman & G y l l s t r o m , 1977; Warr & P a r r y , 1982a). For example, s i n g l e women wi thout c h i l d r e n are expected to have fewer demands p l a c e d on them by o t h e r s than are m a r r i e d women w i t h c h i l d r e n . The e f f e c t of r o l e s t r a i n i s expected to be r e l a t e d to a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s of employment, both of which i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t job s a t i s f a c t i o n . In o t h e r words, a m a r r i e d woman w i t h a number of f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s may be more s a t i s f i e d w i t h a l e s s demanding job o f f e r i n g l i m i t e d advancement than a s i n g l e woman for whom a job may be the c e n t r a l focus of her l i f e . In t h i s example we would expect t h a t an a l r e a d y overburdened mother and wife may be r e l u c t a n t 46 to assume a d d i t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w h i l e a woman unencumbered by f a m i l y or husband would have more t ime and energy to i n v e s t in her job (Baruch et a l . , 1983; F i n e - D a v i s 1983; Thomson, 1980). F o l l o w i n g from the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n on the q u a l i t y of the employment r e l a t i o n s h i p s e v e r a l hypotheses are p r o p o s e d . F i r s t , tha t m a r r i e d women w i l l e x p e r i e n c e g r e a t e r demands on t h e i r time than t h e i r s i n g l e c o u n t e r p a r t s . S e c o n d l y , women w i t h c h i l d r e n w i l l r e p o r t demands in excess of those women wi thout c h i l d r e n . F i n a l l y , s i n c e work r o l e s are g e n e r a l l y r e p o r t e d to be secondary to r o l e s of w i f e , homemaker and mother ( B e r n a r d , 1974, 1975, 1981; C a m p b e l l , et a l , 1976) i t i s expected tha t m a r r i e d women w i t h c h i l d r e n w i l l be more s a t i s f i e d w i t h c l e r i c a l jobs which , a l t h o u g h lower i n s t a t u s and p a y , a l l o w t ime and energy f o r a woman to accommodate her f a m i l y . In summary, t h i s review of the l i t e r a t u r e l eads to s i x p r o p o s i t i o n s : 1. Women wi thout c h i l d r e n w i l l r e p o r t the h i g h e s t o c c u p a t i o n a l involvement w h i l e m a r r i e d women w i t h c h i l d r e n w i l l be the l e a s t committed to p a i d employment. 47 2. M a r r i e d women, both w i t h and w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n , w i l l r e p o r t g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the q u a l i t y of t h e i r n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l environment than never m a r r i e d and p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d women. 3. M a r r i e d women w i l l r e p o r t s i g n i f i c a n t l y more demands on t h e i r time and energy than t h e i r s i n g l e c o u n t e r p a r t s . 4 . Women w i t h no c h i l d r e n w i l l r e p o r t fewer demands on t h e i r time and energy than women w i t h c h i l d r e n . 5. M a r r i e d women w i t h c h i l d r e n , employed i n c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l p o s i t i o n s , w i l l r e p o r t g r e a t e r j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n than b o t h s i n g l e mothers and women who do not have c h i l d r e n . 6. M a r r i e d women w i l l r e p o r t g r e a t e r l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n and r a t e t h e i r p e r c e i v e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g h i g h e r than t h e i r s i n g l e women. ( S i n g l e i n c l u d e s the c a t e g o r i e s of never m a r r i e d , s e p a r a t e d , d i v o r c e d and widowed.) 48 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY Sample The s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d for t h i s study are female c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l workers employed by the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s sample was chosen because i t appeared to be a t y p i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the c l e r i c a l work f o r c e . S u b j e c t s were approached on the campus d u r i n g the summer of 1983. The nature of the s tudy was e x p l a i n e d and the women were asked i f they would be i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g by c o m p l e t i n g a s h o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i n v o l v i n g about f i f t e e n minutes of t h e i r t i m e . In a d d i t i o n , l e t t e r s o u t l i n i n g the s tudy and q u e s t i o n n a i r e were l e f t i n s e l e c t e d campus o f f i c e s e n c o u r a g i n g women to p a r t i c i p a t e and completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were p i c k e d up s e v e r a l days l a t e r . P a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s were e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h , of the 180 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d i s t r i b u t e d 163 or 90.5% were r e t u r n e d to the r e s e a r c h e r . Materials The q u e s t i o n n a i r e format was d e c i d e d upon because t h i s method a l l o w s the r e s e a r c h e r acces s to a l a r g e 49 number of s u b j e c t s , i t generates a s u b s t a n t i a l data base and i s r e l a t i v e l y low i n c o s t . For the s t a t i s t i c a l purposes of t h i s s tudy these b e n e f i t s outweigh the main d i s a d v a n t a g e of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e format , namely i t s r e l a t i v e s u p e r f i c i a l i t y (compared to the i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e ) . The o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p r e - t e s t e d i n June 1983 in a p i l o t study of f i v e U . B . C . c l e r i c a l employees . F o l l o w i n g a few minor changes the f i n a l v e r s i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix A) was d i s t r i b u t e d in J u l y and August of 1983. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n s 63 i t e m s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n c o v e r s background and demographic i n f o r m a t i o n such as age , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , number and ages of c h i l d r e n , work e x p e r i e n c e , hours devoted to the j o b , l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n and income l e v e l . The next s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s the dependent v a r i a b l e s which measure o v e r a l l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n or w e l l - b e i n g , job invo lvement , q u a l i t y of the n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l env ironment , demand or r o l e o v e r l o a d , job s a t i s f a c t i o n and a happ ines s measure. An e l a b o r a t i o n of each of the dependent measures f o l l o w s . 50 The Measures Psychological Well-Being. The p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t of w e l l - b e i n g or o v e r a l l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n was measured by two d i f f e r e n t s c a l e s , the Bradburn A f f e c t Balance Scale (Bradburn, 1969) and the Index of Well-Being (Campbell et a l . , 1976). Bradburn's measure of p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g codes s u b j e c t s ' experiences i n terms of t h e i r a f f e c t i v e tone of f e e l i n g . The Index of Well-Being attempts to measure the same u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t from a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e ; that i s , along a continuum of sat i s f a c t i o n - d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . Campbell (1976) favoured t h i s l a t t e r approach of measurement because of i t s c o g n i t i v e and judgemental element. Subjects i n h i s major study on the Q u a l i t y of  American L i f e (Campbell et a l . , 1976) were asked to c o n s i d e r how s a t i s f i e d or d i s s a t i s f i e d they were o v e r a l l with t h e i r l i v e s . One important reason Campbell chose the c o g n i t i v e over the a f f e c t i v e s c a l e has to do with the response p a t t e r n s he found i n other s t u d i e s employing v a r i o u s w e l l - b e i n g measures. For example, on a f f e c t i v e measures of w e l l - b e i n g he found that younger s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e n t l y r a t e d t h e i r l e v e l of 51 happiness h i g h e r than o l d e r s u b j e c t s . On the o ther hand, o l d e r s u b j e c t s r e p o r t h i g h e r l e v e l s of s a t i s f a c t i o n wi th t h e i r l i v e s w h i l e younger respondents r e p o r t lower l e v e l s of o v e r a l l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n . In o ther words, o l d e r s u b j e c t s may r e p o r t a sense of s a t i s f a c t i o n when l o o k i n g back on t h e i r l i v e s as a whole wh i l e most younger s u b j e c t s h a v i n g not yet a r r i v e d at many of t h e i r l i f e g o a l s may not f e e l as s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r l i v e s . I t would appear tha t q u e s t i o n s a d d r e s s i n g one ' s p e r c e p t i o n of o v e r a l l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n may be measuring more e n d u r i n g q u a l i t i e s r a t h e r than s h o r t term f e e l i n g s . D e s p i t e C a m p b e l l ' s p r e f e r e n c e for a more c o g n i t i v e measure of w e l l - b e i n g there a r e a l s o many cogent reasons to employ an a f f e c t s c a l e . One advantage of B r a d b u r n ' s A f f e c t Ba lance S c a l e i s h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of w e l l - b e i n g as a d a y - t o - d a y e x p e r i e n c e r a t h e r than an e n d u r i n g p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t . U s i n g a t ime frame of f e e l i n g s t a t e s e x p e r i e n c e d over "the past few days" the focus becomes one of e n v i r o n m e n t a l cause of w e l l - b e i n g r a t h e r than e n d u r i n g p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . In a 1971 s tudy a c o r r e l a t i o n of 0.50 was c a l c u l a t e d between the measures of happiness ( a f f e c t i v e f e e l i n g s t a t e ) and p e r c e i v e d s a t i s f a c t i o n (a judgemental e x p e r i e n c e ) i n d i c a t i n g a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y 52 that the two items are tapping a s i m i l a r s t a t e of mind, yet one c o u l d argue that they may be d i f f e r e n t nuances of t h i s s t a t e . In the present study Campbell's Index of Weil-Being was used to measure respondents' sense of l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n or p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g and Bradburn's A f f e c t Balance s c a l e w i l l be used as a p a r a l l e l measure. That i s , scores on Bradburn's A f f e c t Balance Scale w i l l be compared with those on The Index of Well-Being i n an attempt to a s c e r t a i n whether s u b j e c t s who r a t e themselves as extremely s a t i s f i e d a l s o r a t e themselves as very happy and c o n v e r s e l y whether s u b j e c t s whose scores f a l l towards the d i s s a t i s f e d end of the Well-Being S c a l e a l s o have a score i n d i c a t i n g a sense of unhappiness on the A f f e c t Balance S c a l e . The Index of Well-Being. The f i r s t method of approaching the measurement of the p e r c e i v e d q u a l i t y of l i f e employs the Index of Well-Being Scale developed by Campbell et a l . , (1976) for the landmark study The Q u a l i t y of American L i f e . T h i s s c a l e i s i n the format of the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l f i r s t developed by Osgood, Suci and Tannenbaum ( c i t e d i n Campbell et a l , 1976). I t i s 5 3 comprised of a number of b i p o l a r s c a les which tap a wide range of q u a l i t i e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a person's l i f e as a whole. In developing t h i s instrument a pool of items were compiled from a l i s t of a d j e c t i v e s that deal with a sense of g r a t i f i c a t i o n or disappointment i n l i f e (Campbell et a l . , 1976). This assumption was that respondents who view t h e i r l i v e s i n more pleasurable terms are the same people who a l s o would report a higher l e v e l of happiness or s a t i s f a c t i o n i n response to the question "taking a l l things i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n how happy would you say you were these days"? The l a t t e r question has, i n past s t u d i e s , been a popular method of measuring w e l l - b e i n g or o v e r a l l happiness. The advantage of the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l items i s the f a c t that they give the researcher a more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p i c t u r e of how subjects view t h e i r o v e r a l l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n (Campbell et a l . , 1976). Campbell's (1976) s c a l e i s composed of e i g h t p a i r s of a d j e c t i v e s . The respondent i s asked to i n d i c a t e his/her perceived p o s i t i o n with an 'X' i n one of the seven boxes along a continuum measuring pleasurable and d i s a p p o i n t i n g experiences of l i f e . I n t e r n a l Consistency 54 Both C r o n b a c h ' s a l p h a and omega (a r e l i a b i l i t y measure deve loped by He i se and Bohrns ted t ( c i t e d i n Campbel l et a l , 1976) were c a l c u l a t e d and found to be 0 .89 . T h i s f i g u r e i n d i c a t e s a v e r y h i g h e s t i m a t e of r e l i a b l i t y . I n t e r - i t e m C o r r e l a t i o n The e i g h t semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s are i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d at a r a t h e r h i g h l e v e l ; r a n g i n g from 0.40 to 0.61 w i t h an average over . 50 . Such r e l a t i o n s h i p s suggest t h a t these s c a l e s are t a p p i n g s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t nuances of the same g e n e r a l p e r s p e c t i v e s toward the p l e a s u r a b l e f e a t u r e s of l i f e (Campbel l et a l . , 1976). A d d i t i o n a l l y i t was found tha t these c o r r e l a t i o n s remained s t a b l e a c r o s s v a r i o u s subgroups of the sample . (Campbel l et a l . , 1976). R e l i a b i l i t y Campbel l and c o l l e a g u e s (1976) i n t e r v i e w e d a s m a l l subsample of 285 s u b j e c t s e i g h t months a f t e r the i n i t i a l c o n t a c t . S t a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n s of the responses of these i n d i v i d u a l s on the two s e p a r a t e o c c a s i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d i n o r d e r to determine 55 t e n d e n c i e s to respond i n the same manner. C o r r e l a t i o n s of t h i s k i n d are s i m i l a r to e s t i m a t e s of r e l i a b i l i t y drawn from " t e s t - r e t e s t " d a t a . However, they do d i f f e r in terms of the i n t e r v a l t ime between c o n t a c t a l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s an o p p o r t u n i t y to e x p e r i e n c e s u b s t a n t i a l change i n t h e i r l i f e s i t u t a t i o n . The s t a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n over t h i s p e r i o d was a p r e c a r i o u s l y low . 4 3 . However, Campbel l (1976) argues tha t some r e a l changes had in f a c t o c c u r r e d in the l i v e s of some of these respondents (eg . m a r i t a l s e p a r a t i o n , death w i t h i n he f a m i l y ) and thus the s t a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of .43 i s thought to be an u n d e r - e s t i m a t i o n of the t r u e r e l i a b i l i t y . The Affect Balance Scale. The second method of a p p r o a c h i n g the measurement of the p e r c e i v e d q u a l i t y of l i f e employs the A f f e c t Ba lance S c a l e (ABS) deve loped by Bradburn (1969) and Bradburn and Capowitz (1965) . The A f f e c t Ba lance S c a l e was deve loped i n the mid-1960 ' s i n an attempt to c o n s t r u c t o p e r a t i o n a l measures f o r problems i n l i v i n g . The u n d e r l y i n g c o n c e p t u a l framework takes as i t s fundamental dependent v a r i a b l e avowed h a p p i n e s s , which was d e f i n e d as be ing 56 synonomous wi th p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . The s c a l e i s composed of 10 items drawn from a p o o l of i tems which are i n t u r n based on a wide range of p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s . Such e x p e r i e n c e s would be c o n s i d e r e d common i n a heterogeneous p o p u l a t i o n such as the U n i t e d S t a t e s or Canada, as i n d i c a t e d by s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s t u d i e s a l r e a d y undertaken d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d ( G u r i n et a l . , 1960; C a n t r i l , 1965; Bradburn and C a p o w i t z , 1965). With the u n d e r l y i n g assumpt ion that the major de terminent of w e l l - b e i n g i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l r a t h e r than economic or demographic , an at tempt was made to a v o i d any r e f e r e n c e to s p e c i f i c domains of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e . Items were made as g e n e r a l as p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e common theme of p l e a s u r a b l e v e r s u s u n p l e a s u r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e s and a focus on the a f f e c t i v e tone of f e e l i n g s r a t h e r than the p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i e n c e s t h e m s e l v e s . Based on a c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s of the p i l o t s tudy r e s u l t s (Bradburn & C a p o w i t z , 1965) two independent d imens ions emerged, one be ing a p o s i t i v e a f f e c t c l u s t e r and the o ther a n e g a t i v e a f f e c t c l u s t e r . In a n a l y s i n g these two d imens ions i t was found that the p o s i t i v e i tems were i n t e r c o r r e r l a t e d w i t h one another as were the n e g a t i v e i t ems , however, the items in one c l u s t e r were not c o r r e l a t e d w i t h those i n the o t h e r . In o ther 57 words these two a p s e c t s of w e l l - b e i n g are not extreme p o l e s of one u n d e r l y i n g d imens ion but r a t h e r two separate d imens ions ( B r a d b u r n , 1969; H a r d i n g , 1983). A d d i t i o n a l l y , p o s i t i v e a f f e c t and n e g a t i v e a f f e c t were found to r e l a t e to d i f f e r e n t s e t s of v a r i a b l e s . P o s i t i v e a f f e c t c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y w i t h i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l c o n t a c t , h i g h e r soc ioeconomic s t a t u s and exposure to new e x p e r i e n c e s ; whereas n e g a t i v e a f f e c t c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p h y s i c a l symptoms of i l l h e a l t h and a n x i e t y (Bradburn , 1969; Warr , 1978). F o l l o w i n g from the independence of the p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e s u b s c a l e s as w e l l as the f a c t t h a t they r e l a t e to d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s , Bradburn c o n c l u d e d tha t a score d e r i v e d from summing t o t a l s cores on the p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a f f e c t s c a l e s i s a b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r of h a p p i n e s s and l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n than e i t h e r of the two s c a l e s taken s e p a r a t e l y . H a r d i n g ' s (1983) a n a l y s i s of a B r i t i s h p r o b a b i l i t y sample u s i n g the A f f e c t Ba lance S c a l e (ABS) w i l l be combined w i t h B r a d b u r n ' s o r i g i n a l f i n d i n g s . The reason for u s i n g H a r d i n g ' s (1983) data i s the f a c t tha t he employed more powerfu l s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s i n h i s a n a l y s i s than the n o n - p a r a m e t r i c p r o c e d u r e s adopted by B r a d b u r n . A c c o r d i n g to H a r d i n g (1983) the A f f e c t Balance S c a l e o f f e r s a s h o r t , r e l i a b l e measure of 58 p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . I n t e r n a l C o n s i s t e n c y The c o e f f i c i e n t (Cronbach ' s a lpha) was computed s e p a r a t e l y f o r the p o s i t i v e and the n e g a t i v e s c a l e and both were r e a s o n a b l y h i g h at 0.65 for the p o s i t i v e a f f e c t s c a l e and 0.59 for the n e g a t i v e a f f e c t s c a l e ( H a r d i n g , 1983). Based on these c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s the ABS appears to be a r e l i a b l e measure. I n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n The i n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n was 0.38 f o r the p o s i t i v e s c a l e and 0.39 f o r the n e g a t i v e s c a l e ( H a r d i n g , 1983). Warr (1979) found i n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n s of 0.47 and 0.48 f o r the p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n t e r - s c a l e c o r r e l a t i o n R e s u l t s from both B r a d b u r n 1 s (1969) as w e l l as H a r d i n g ' s (1983) normat ive samples r e v e a l the two s c a l e s to be e m p i r i c a l l y independent w i th a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t P e a r s o n ' s c o r r e l a t i o n of r = 0.002 59 ( H a r d i n g , 1983) and a Q - v a l u e r a n g i n g from an average of .02 f o r men and .09 for women. These s t u d i e s support the independent na ture of the p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e s u b s c a l e s . Y e t , g i v e n tha t o ther s t u d i e s have found the two s c a l e s to show a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n , c a u t i o n must be e x e r c i s e d i n i n t e r p r e t i n g any r e s u l t s . In a s tudy of p r e d o m i n a n t l y male employees Warr (1978) observed an i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d v a l u e between the two s c a l e s of -0 .21 and i n P a r r y ' s (1980) s tudy of " w o r k i n g - c l a s s mothers" a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n of r = - 0 . 3 8 was o b s e r v e d . R e l i a b i l i t y The r e s u l t s from a t e s t - r e t e s t experiment ( t h r e e day i n t e r v a l ) show a moderate ly h i g h l e v e l of r e l i a b i l i t y . C o e f f i c i e n t s of a s s o c i a t i o n between the two t ime p e r i o d s u s i n g the gamma s t a t i s t i c were: P o s i t i v e A f f e c t = 0 .83; N e g a t i v e A f f e c t = 0.81 and A f f e c t Ba lance = 0 .76 . The Q - v a l u e s for the i n d i v i d u a l items were u n i f o r m i l y h i g h , w i t h a l l except one b e i n g over 0 .90 . These s cores are c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r than the c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o e f f i c i e n t s between s c o r e s over much longer p e r i o d s of t i m e . Scores compared over a t h r e e and n ine month p e r i o d were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r . Thus 60 we can i n t e r p r e t these r e s u l t s to be s t a b l e over a s h o r t p e r i o d o n l y . I t must a l s o be remembered tha t the purpose of the ABS i s to measure f e e l i n g s t a t e s over the past few weeks and t h e r e f o r e i t may not n e c e s s a r i l y be s e n s i t i v e to e n d u r i n g p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . Convergent V a l i d i t y A l l three s c a l e s of B r a d b u r n ' s measure of p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h ' i n d i c e s of happiness and s a t i s f a c t i o n ( B r a d b u r n , 1969; H a r d i n g , 1983). The c o r r e l a t i o n between items q u e s t i o n i n g h a p p i n e s s / s a t i s f a c t i o n ( p o s i t i v e s c a l e ) ranged from r = 0.21 and r = 0 .25 , wh i l e the c o r r e l a t i o n f o r the n e g a t i v e s c a l e ranged from r = -0 .24 to r = - 0 . 3 8 . The r e l a t i o n between the happ ines s i tems and the A f f e c t Ba lance was h i g h e r (r = 0.32 to r = 0.45) than e i t h e r the p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e s c a l e taken s e p a r a t e l y , thus showing i t to be a b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r of happ ines s and l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n . Occupational Involvement Scale. The demographic data c o l l e c t e d i n c l u d e d both m a r t i a l and p a r e n t a l s t a t u s . The p o s s i b l e combinat ions 61 of be ing m a r r i e d or not as w e l l as h a v i n g c h i l d r e n at home or not w i l l permi t s epara te a n a l y s e s for four f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e s . These w i l l be: (a) s i n g l e wi thout c h i l d r e n at home; (b) s i n g l e w i t h c h i l d r e n a t home; (c) m a r r i e d wi thout c h i l d r e n at home; and (d) m a r r i e d w i t h c h i l d r e n at home. G i v e n these four c a t e g o r i e s , the u n d e r l y i n g assumptions based on Warr and P a r r y ' s (1982) r e s e a r c h w i l l be t h a t : 1. s i n g l e women w i t h no c h i l d r e n at home w i l l have the s t r o n g e s t o c c u p a t i o n a l invo lvement ; 2. m a r r i e d women wi th no c h i l d r e n at home w i l l have a moderate or i n t e r m e d i a t e o c c u p a t i o n a l invo lvement ; 3. s i n g l e women w i t h c h i l d r e n at home w i l l have a moderate to h i g h o c c u p a t i o n a l invo lvement ; and 4. m a r r i e d women w i t h c h i l d r e n a t home w i l l have a r e l a t i v e l y low o c c u p a t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y i f the c h i l d r e n are of p r e s c h o o l age . To t e s t these assumptions an O c c u p a t i o n a l Involvement measure was a d m i n i s t e r e d to a l l s u b j e c t s . O c c u p a t i o n a l involvement can be viewed as a g l o b a l measure which a s se s se s a t t i t u d e s towards work in g e n e r a l r a t h e r than to a job i n p a r t i c u l a r . Work or o c c u p a t i o n a l involvement appears to be f a c t o r i a l l y independent of o ther job a t t i t u d e s such as job performance and job s a t i s f a c t i o n (Lodah l & K e j n e r , 1965). T h e r e f o r e , the b a s i c d e f i n i t i o n of work 62 involvement i s the extent to which a person wants to be engaged i n work. The q u e s t i o n s on the work involvement s c a l e tap the concept of the importance of work to a p e r s o n ' s sense of worth . Normative and Psychometr i c Data on the O c c u p a t i o n a l Involvement S c a l e Warr , Cook and W a l l ' s (1979) Work ( O c c u p a t i o n a l ) Involvement S c a l e was deve loped in an attempt to unders tand some c o r r e l a t e s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g and work. The s c a l e was t e s t e d on a p o p u l a t i o n of 590 b lue c o l l a r male workers . S i n c e no known r e p l i c a t i o n has been undertaken on h i s f i n d i n g s the p s y c h o m e t r i c p r o p e r t i e s of t h i s s c a l e are not w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . W a r r ' s (1978) f i n d i n g s are a r e s u l t of two s t u d i e s , the f i r s t which took p l a c e i n F e b r u a r y 1977 and the second in November 1977. The i n t e r n a l homogeneity of the Work Involvement S c a l e as r e p r e s e n t e d by the a l p h a c o e f f i c i e n t for the two s t u d i e s was 0.63 and 0.64 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The mean c o r r e c t e d i tem-whole c o r r e l a t i o n ( d e s i r e d to be h igh) was 0.38 and 0.48 r e s p e c t i v e l y , showing a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a l l s i x i tems i n the s c a l e . In a t e s t - r e t e s t ( s i x month i n t e r v a l ) of 60 p a r t i c i p a n t s 63 from Study 2 who were r e i n t e r v i e w e d and matched w i t h the e a r l i e r group i n terms of r e g i o n , age and s k i l l l e v e l a s t a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.56 f o r work involvement was found . Q u a l i t y of the N o n o c c u p a t i o n a l Environment S c a l e . The q u a l i t y of the n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l environment p r e s e n t s the v a r i a b l e most d i f f i c u l t to measure s i n c e no s t a n d a r d i z e d measure i s a v a i l a b l e . P r i o r s t u d i e s have r e l i e d on soc ioeconomic s t a t u s as a i n d i c a t o r of o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n , however, t h i s measure used on i t s own i s a rough index at b e s t . The q u a l i t y of the n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l environment i n c l u d e s more than p e r c e i v e d f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y . In a d d i t i o n a measure a s s e s s i n g the n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l environment needs to address whether or not a woman's environment o u t s i d e of the workplace i s meet ing her s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs . B r a d b u r n ' s A f f e c t Balance S c a l e (1969) and the Index of W e l l - B e i n g ( C a m p b e l l , et a l . , 1976) make no r e f e r e n c e to s p e c i f i c domains of l i f e but r a t h e r aim to measure an o v e r a l l sense of h a p p i n e s s / s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s i m p e r a t i v e to o b t a i n a measure of s a t i s f a c t i o n - d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s p e c i f i c domains of a 64 woman's l i f e ( i . e . home and community; s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g ; l e i s u r e t ime; h e a l t h ; e d u c a t i o n ; s o c i a l l i f e and f a m i l y l i f e ) . The e i g h t q u e s t i o n s i n c l u d e d i n the Q u a l i t y of the N o n o c c u p a t i o n a l Environment S c a l e attempt to measure p e r c e i v e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h these p a r t i c u l a r l i f e domains . T h i s measure was adapted from the L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n S c a l e deve loped by Warr , Cook and W a l l (1979) . C l u s t e r a n a l y s e s of items on the L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n S c a l e y i e l d e d an i n t e r p r e t a b l e three component s t r u c t u r e : 1. s t a n d a r d s and achievements w i t h i n one ' s l i f e ; 2. s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l i f e s t y l e and 3. s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p e r s o n a l l i f e . In t h i s s tudy on ly the l a t t e r two s u b s c a l e s were employed. S i n c e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n S c a l e has o n l y been used i n one study t h e r e i s l i t t l e normat ive data on t h i s measure. In the a forement ioned study a c o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a 0.60 for s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l i f e s t y l e was r e p o r t e d and for s a t i s f a c t i o n wi th p e r s o n a l l i f e the c o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a was 0 .59 . Quality of the Employment Relationship. For women i n a l l four c a t e g o r i e s the q u a l i t y of the employment r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l be de termined by a job 65 s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e . S ince the r o l e s of mother and housewife a l s o are expected to have a s a l i e n t e f f e c t on how women p e r c e i v e the q u a l i t y of t h e i r employment r e l a t i o n s h i p a r o l e demand s c a l e a l s o was a d m i n i s t e r e d . The purpose of t h i s measure i s to determine the degree to which m a r i t a l a n d / o r p a r e n t a l s t a t u s r e l a t e to the number of demands e x p e r i e n c e d by women. The Hoppock Job Sat i s f a c t i o n Scale Job s a t i s f a c t i o n has been measured a number of ways s i n c e the o r i g i n a l work of Hoppock (1935) . Some measures are long and cumbersome, both f o r the r e s e a r c h e r as w e l l as the s u b j e c t , w h i l e o ther measures r e l y o n l y on the response to a s i n g l e q u e s t i o n e l i c i t i n g p e r c e i v e d o v e r a l l j ob s a t i s f a c t i o n or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . The l a t t e r method of e v a l u a t i n g job s a t i s f a c t i o n has the obv ious l i m i t a t i o n of low r e l i a b i l i t y as no r e l i a b i l i t y check may be made of a s i n g l e i tem measure. In an attempt to c i rcumvent t h i s problem of low r e l i a b i l i t y , w h i l e at the same t ime a v o i d i n g the l eng thy s o p h i s t i c a t e d job s a t i s f a c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s , the four item Hoppock Job S a t i s f a c t i o n S c a l e was chosen . 66 An a d d i t i o n a l advantage of Hoppock's s c a l e i s the f a c t tha t i t a s s e s se s on ly s u b j e c t s ' s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the job i t s e l f . In a s tudy which s e t s out to measure the v a r i o u s domains which combine to p r o v i d e a p e r c e i v e d sense of one ' s o v e r a l l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n t h e r e i s a r e a l r i s k to the r e s e a r c h e r of confounding the v a r i a b l e s which measure l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h i s p o t e n t i a l problem o c c u r s w i t h many of the job s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e s . A job s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e which r a t e s a s u b j e c t ' s p e r c e i v e d q u a l i t y of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s on the job i s measuring e s s e n t i a l l y the same concept as s a t i s f a c t i o n wi th one ' s s o c i a l l i f e which has a l r e a d y been asked on the Q u a l i t y of the N o n o c c u p a t i o n a l Environment s c a l e . T h e r e f o r e , the Hoppock Job S a t i s f a c t i o n S c a l e was s e l e c t e d because i t o f f e r s the r e s e a r c h e r a r e l i a b l e measure which taps o v e r a l l job s a t i s f a c t i o n wi thout a b s o r b i n g an e x t e n s i v e number of survey i t e m s . A l t h o u g h t h i s measure was deve loped in 1935 a recen t v a l i d a t i o n study was undertaken by M c N i c h o l s , S t a h l , and Manley (1978). In t h i s r e p l i c a t i o n the a u t h o r s normed Hoppock's s c a l e over a wide range of o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s which i n c l u d e d both c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l w o r k e r s . 67 The Hoppock Job S a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e c o n s i s t s of four q u e s t i o n s r a t e d on a s c a l e r a n g i n g from 1 (extreme d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n ) to 7 (extreme s a t i s f a c t i o n ) . The s c o r e i s d e r i v e d by summing the r e s p o n s e s . Each q u e s t i o n i s weighted e q u a l l y y i e l d i n g a score between 4 and 28. A l t h o u g h deve loped over f o r t y y e a r s ago , Hoppock ' s job s a t i s f a c t i o n measure appears to p e r f o r m w e l l (McNichol s et a l . , 1978). Internal Consistency The c o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a was c a l c u l a t e d to e s t i m a t e the r e l i a b i l i t y of Hoppock's f o u r - i t e m job s c a l e f o r four t a r g e t samples a c r o s s a wide range of o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l s , N = 29 ,094 . The a l p h a v a l u e s a c r o s s these samples range from 0.758 to 0 .890 . These c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h t o . p r o v i d e f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of Hoppock's measure. Construct v a l i d i t y F a c t o r a n a l y s i s was used to e v a l u a t e the c o r r e l a t i o n s t r u c t u r e to a s c e r t a i n whether a l l i tems were i n f a c t measures of a s i n g l e f a c t o r thus p r e s e n t i n g a u n i v a r i a t e measure of job s a t i s f a c t i o n 68 (McNicho l s et a l . , 1978). The b a s i c purpose of f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e s a s e a r c h for c l u s t e r s of v a r i a b l e s tha t a l l c o r r e l a t e w i t h one a n o t h e r . The f i r s t p r i n c i p a l component e x p l a i n e d from 58% to 76% of the t o t a l v a r i a n c e i n the four samples . A l l l o a d i n g s on the f i r s t f a c t o r , l a b e l l e d g e n e r a l job s a t i s f a c t i o n , were a l s o h i g h a c r o s s the samples , r a n g i n g from 0.65 to 0 .92 . Convergent v a l i d i t y Convergent v a l i d i t y r e q u i r e s t h a t Hoppock's Job S a t i s f a c t i o n measure and o ther maximal ly d i f f e r e n t types of measures in the same a r e a be s i g n i f i c a n t l y s i m i l a r i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s . Hoppock's Job S a t i s f a c t i o n was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a l l f i v e s c a l e s of the JDI (Job D e s c r i p t i o n Index) (McNicho l s et a l . , 1978). A d d i t i o n a l l y , when B r a y f i e l d and Rothe (1951) deve loped t h e i r index of job s a t i s f a c t i o n they computed a product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n of r = 0.92 between the s c o r e s on the Hoppock s c a l e and the B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e s c a l e . Role s t r a i n 69 Women w i t h c h i l d r e n a r e e n t e r i n g the work f o r c e i n r e c o r d numbers and a r e i n f a c t the f a s t e s t growing group of w o r k i n g women ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1984). Y e t , l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been un d e r t a k e n t o d i s c o v e r how the s e women cope w i t h and/or j u g g l e t h e i r m u l t i p l e r o l e s . As w i t h o c c u p a t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t the degree of i n t e r r o l e s t r a i n e x p e r i e n c e d by wor k i n g women w i l l v a r y w i t h l i f e c y c l e s t a g e . For example, the presence of dependent c h i l d r e n i n the home has been found t o be p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r o l e s t r a i n (Baruch e t a l . , 1983; Warr & P a r r y , 1982a, 1982b). R o l e s t r a i n i s a l s o p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o the number of r o l e s a woman o c c u p i e s (Baruch e t a l . , 1983). T h e r e f o r e , i n t h i s study i t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t r o l e s t r a i n w i l l be h i g h e s t among wives and mothers. L i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been undertaken t o d i s c o v e r how women cope w i t h t h e i r m u l t i p e r o l e s . As a r e s u l t few r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o measure t h i s c o n s t r u c t ( P a r r y & Warr, 1980). T h i s study w i l l employ a f i v e i t e m measure d e v e l o p e d by Gove (1972). Demand Scale 70 The s c a l e i s composed of f i v e i tems which aim to determine whether or not the respondent f e e l s she i s c o n s t a n t l y c o n f r o n t i n g demands from o t h e r s . An a n a l y s i s of the items i n the demand s c a l e shows tha t three of the items r e f e r s p e c i f i c a l l y to demands i n the home and two of the items r e f e r to demands i n g e n e r a l . The s c a l e was deve loped as one component of a face to face i n t e r v i e w s t u d y i n g the combined e f f e c t s of c h i l d r e n , employment and marr iage on the mental h e a l t h of both men and women. Psychometr i c p r o p e r t i e s of r e l i a b l i t y and v a l i d i t y have not been e s t a b l i s h e d . However, t h i s ins trument does appear to have face v a l i d i t y i n the measurement of r o l e o v e r l o a d . The 7 - p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e used i n t h i s s tudy was p r o v i d e d by the r e s e a r c h e r . P r i o r to i n t e r p r e t i n g the f i n d i n g s based on the Demand S c a l e , H o y t ' s e s t i m a t e of i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y w i l l be de termined u s i n g N e l s o n ' s (1974) L e r t a p p r o c e d u r e . Research Hypotheses H y p o t h e s i s 1: Mean s c o r e s on the O c c u p a t i o n a l Involvement S c a l e w i l l be h i g h e r , s t a t i s t i c a l l y (a = . 0 5 ) , f or s i n g l e c h i l d l e s s women, when compared wi th m a r r i e d c h i l d l e s s women, s i n g l e mothers and m a r r i e d 71 mothers . The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s w i l l be t e s t e d by a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e u s i n g the independent v a r i a b l e s of m a r i t a l and p a r e n t a l s t a t u s and the O c c u p a t i o n a l Involvement S c a l e as the dependent v a r i a b l e . H y p o t h e s i s 2: Mean s c o r e s on the Q u a l i t y of the N o n o c c u p a t i o n a l Environment S c a l e w i l l be h i g h e r s t a t i s t i c a l l y (a = . 0 5 ) , f o r m a r r i e d women both wi th and wi thout c h i l d r e n , when compared wi th never m a r r i e d women, p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d women and s i n g l e mothers . The second h y p o t h e s i s w i l l employ the same e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n u s i n g the same independent v a r i a b l e s as h y p o t h e s i s 1. The dependent v a r i a b l e w i l l be the Q u a l i t y of the N o n o c c u p a t i o n a l Environment S c a l e . H y p o t h e s i s 3: Mean scores on the Demand S c a l e w i l l be s t a t i s t i c a l l y (a = .05) h i g h e r f o r m a r r i e d women, compared w i t h women i n the c a t e g o r i e s of never m a r r i e d women, s e p a r a t e d , d i v o r c e d and widowed. The t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s w i l l be t e s t e d by the one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e p r o c e d u r e . The three independent v a r i a b l e l e v e l s a r e : 1) never m a r r i e d ; 2) m a r r i e d or l i v i n g w i t h a p a r t n e r ; 3) p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d but now 72 s i n g l e as a r e s u l t of s e p a r a t i o n , d i v o r c e or d e a t h . H y p o t h e s i s 4: Mean s cores on the Demand S c a l e w i l l be s t a t i s t i c a l l y (a = .05) h i g h e r for mothers when compared w i t h c h i l d l e s s women. As w i t h h y p o t h e s i s 3, h y p o t h e s i s 4 w i l l a l s o employ the one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e procedure w i t h the independent v a r i a b l e l e v e l s b e i n g : 1) no c h i l d r e n and 2) w i t h c h i l d r e n . H y p o t h e s i s 5: Mean s cores on the Job S a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e w i l l be s t a t i s t i c a l l y (a = .05) h i g h e r f o r m a r r i e d women w i t h c h i l d r e n when compared w i t h c h i l d l e s s women and s i n g l e mothers . As w i t h the f i r s t two h y p o t h e s i s , h y p o t h e s i s 5 w i l l employ the same e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n u s i n g the independent v a r i a b l e s of m a r i t a l and p a r e n t a l s t a t u s . H y p o t h e s i s 6: Mean s cores on B r a d b u r n ' s A f f e c t Ba lance S c a l e and C a m p b e l l ' s W e l l - B e i n g Index w i l l be s t a t i s t i c a l l y (a = .05) h i g h e r f o r m a r r i e d women when compared w i t h never m a r r i e d and p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d women. The s i x t h h y p o t h e s i s w i l l be s u b j e c t e d to a one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e . The three independent 73 v a r i a b l e l e v e l s being: 1) never married; 2)married or l i v i n g with a partner and 3) p r e v i o u s l y married. Duncan's m u l t i p l e comparisons w i l l be performed on the f i r s t three hypotheses and hypothses f i v e and s i x f o l l o w i n g s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s to assess the d i f f e r e n c e s among i n d i v i d u a l means. 74 CHAPTER IV: RESULTS T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s the r e s u l t s of the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the data and d i s c u s s e s them a c c o r d i n g to the hypotheses proposed i n Chapter Two. Data were g a t h e r e d , t a b u l a t e d and a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g to the p r o c e d u r e s o u t l i n e d in the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . Frequency t a b l e s were produced f o r a l l v a r i a b l i e s ; means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d for the c o n t i n u o u s v a r i a b l e s . S ix n u l l hypotheses were advanced and the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s are p r e s e n t e d . Description of Sample and Demographic S t a t i s t i c s The sample used i n t h i s s tudy c o n s i s t e d of women employed i n c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l p o s i t i o n s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A t o t a l of 190 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d ; 163 (85.7%) were r e t u r n e d . The average age of the women who responded to the survey was 35 y e a r s . More than one h a l f (55.8%) of the sample f e l l between the ages of 26 - 44 y e a r s . T h i r t y - e i g h t women (23.3%) were 25 y e a r s or younger w h i l e 20 (12.2%) were in the age group 45 - 54 y e a r s and 14 (8.5%) were o l d e r than 55 years of age . These numbers come very c l o s e to matching the percentage 75 d i s t r i b u t i o n by age groups of women 15 y e a r s and o l d e r i n the Canadian l abour f o r c e . A c c o r d i n g to 1981 census f i g u r e s j u s t under one h a l f (46.7%) of women between the ages of 25-44 were i n the Canadian l a b o u r f o r c e w h i l e 29.9% were 25 y e a r s or younger; 13.9% were 45 to 54 and 9.5% were o l d e r than 55 years of age ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1984). Over one h a l f (54.6%) of the women surveyed i n d i c a t e d they were m a r r i e d or l i v i n g w i t h a p a r t n e r . The l a r g e s t group of s i n g l e women were those who had never been m a r r i e d , 45 or 27.6%. F i f t e e n women (9.2%) were d i v o r c e d , 9 (5.5%) s e p a r a t e d and 5 (3.0%) widowed. The presence of c h i l d r e n in the home has been found, i n o t h e r s t u d i e s , t o be n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d to women's l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( B a r n e t t , 1982; Campbel l et a l , 1976; Gove £< T u d o r , 1973; H i l l e r & P h i l i b e r , 1980; Warr & P a r r y , 1982a). T h i s e f f e c t i s even more pronounced when there are more than two c h i l d r e n i n the home and when the c h i l d r e n are of p r e - s c h o o l age . The r e s u l t s of t h i s s tudy seem to support these f i n d i n g s . Only four women had three c h i l d r e n and no one had more than t h r e e . The m a j o r i t y (111) were c h i l d l e s s , 21 had one c h i l d and 27 had two c h i l d r e n . Moreover , o n l y 29 women had c h i l d r e n under the age of s i x . 76 C u r r e n t r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t there seems to be a t r e n d toward d e l a y e d parenthood i n m a r r i e d c o u p l e s ( F a v e r , 1984; W i l k i e , 1981). The f i n d i n g s of t h i s s tudy would tend to support t h i s t r e n d as o n l y two women i n the age c a t e g o r y 25 y e a r s or younger had c h i l d r e n . The n a t i o n a l average of e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t of working women was f a r surpassed by the respondents of t h i s s u r v e y . Whi l e 10.7% of Canadian working women have l e s s than h i g h s c h o o l c o m p l e t i o n o n l y one s u b j e c t i n t h i s s tudy had l e s s than grade 12. The m a j o r i t y of women i n the Canadian l a b o u r f o r c e (53.5%) have completed h i g h s c h o o l ; 26.5% have some p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n and a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l percentage (9.3%) have a u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e . In t h i s s tudy twenty -n ine (17.8%) had completed grade twelve and another 29 (17.8%) had o b t a i n e d t e c h n i c a l or v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g beyond grade 12. S i x t y - t w o (38%) had some u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n and 40 (25.5%) were u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e s . E d u c a t i o n l e v e l s were e q u a l l y h i g h a c r o s s a l l age g r o u p s . Twenty-two (65%) out of a t o t a l of 34 members i n the age groups 45 y e a r s and above had e i t h e r taken u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e s (17) or graduated from u n i v e r s i t y ( 5 ) . In the younger age groups >25 to 45 y e a r s , e i g h t y (62%) of the 129 respondents had a t t ended u n i v e r s i t y - 35 of whom had 77 g r a d u a t e d . These f i g u r e s for e d u c a t i o n a l a t ta inment c o u p l e d w i t h the f a c t tha t a l l the jobs o c c u p i e d by these women r e q u i r e d o n l y h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n h i g h l i g h t s the e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n f o r t h i s sample and the p r o b a b i l i t y of widespread underemployment. S i n c e the time and energy committed to f u l l t ime work d i f f e r s s u b s t a n t i a l l y from p a r t t ime employment o n l y respondents who worked f u l l t ime were asked to complete the s u r v e y . In answer to the q u e s t i o n "how many hours per week do you work o n l y 7 (4.2%) worked 10 hours or l e s s per week. F i v e (3.0%) worked between 10 - 20 h o u r s , 9 (5.5%) worked between 20 - 30 hours per week and 8 (4.9%) s a i d they worked more than 40 hours each week. The overwhelming m a j o r i t y (82.4%) worked 40 hours per week. S t u d i e s d i f f e r i n the degree to which income and p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g are c o r r e l a t e d . Whi l e some r e s e a r c h e r s have found a s u r p r i s i n g l y low c o r r e l a t i o n between the domain of f i n a n c i a l w e l l - b e i n g and p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g ( C a m p b e l l , et a l , 1976) s t i l l o t h e r s argue t h a t economic s t a b i l i t y i s an important component of p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . In p a r t i c u l a r , income l e v e l i s a r e a l concern i n the l i v e s of s i n g l e p a r e n t s ( K e i t h & S c h a f e r , 1982; P e a r l i n & Johnson , 78 1977; T c h e n g - L a r o c h e , & P r i n c e , 1983a, 1983b). The presence of two incomes can make a very r e a l d i f f e r e n c e i n the o v e r a l l p e r c e p t i o n of w e l l - b e i n g . Of the 87 women who were m a r r i e d 67 (77%) had a f a m i l y income above $25,000. Of t h i s group a f u r t h e r 32 (47.7%) had a f a m i l y income in excess of $40,000. As T a b l e 3 i n d i c a t e s , s i n g l e women, were found to be p r e d o m i n a n t l y at the lower end of the income s c a l e . I t i s thought t h a t the l a r g e d i s c r e p e n c y i n the income l e v e l s of s i n g l e and m a r r i e d women i s the r e s u l t of a second income e a r n e r . In the case of the s i n g l e mother, r e l y i n g on o n l y one income i s a s s o c i a t e d not o n l y w i t h f i n a n c i a l v u l n e r a b i l i t y but a d d i t i o n a l l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s ( P e a r l i n & Johnson , 1977). Internal R e l i a b i l i t y of the Instrument P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has shown tha t most of the dependent measures used i n t h i s study have h i g h i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the L e r t a p computer program ( N e l s o n , 1974) was used to a s c e r t a i n whether or not h i g h i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y would be m a i n t a i n e d w i t h r e s p e c t to the p o p u l a t i o n surveyed in t h i s s t u d y . The L e r t a p program employs H o y t ' s (1941) e s t i m a t e s of r e l i a b i l i t y . The e s t i m a t e of i n t e r n a l 79 r e l i a b i l i t y ranged from .71 to .93 c o n f i r m i n g the f i n d i n g s of e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h . A complete breakdown showing the r e l i a b i l i t y f o r each of the dependent measures can be found in T a b l e 1. T e s t i n g the Hypotheses The SPSS:X (1983) A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e and One-way A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e programs were used to t e s t the hypothese s . The purpose was to i n v e s t i g a t e the dependent v a r i a b l e s of o c c u p a t i o n a l in vo lvemen t , q u a l i t y of the n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l env i ronment , q u a l i t y of the employment r e l a t i o n s h i p and p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g w i t h r e l a t i o n to the independent v a r i a b l e s of m a r i t a l a n d / o r parent s t a t u s . To t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s s i x n u l l hypotheses were advanced . The F R a t i o was employed to determine whether or not to r e j e c t each h y p o t h e s i s . The l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e was set at . 0 5 . F o l l o w i n g s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s Duncan's M u l t i p l e Comparison post hoc t e s t was performed to as ses s the d i f f e r e n c e s among i n d i v i d u a l means. T e s t i n g H y p o t h e s i s 1 80 I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t no s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e (a = . 0 5 ) , e x i s t s between the mean s c o r e s of s i n g l e c h i l d l e s s women, m a r r i e d c h i l d l e s s women, s i n g l e mothers and m a r r i e d mothers on the O c c u p a t i o n a l Involvement S c a l e . An a n a l y s i s of the two-way ANOVA r e s u l t s from T a b l e 2 i n d i c a t e d an F R a t i o of 7.09 (1,154) for m a r i t a l s t a t u s , s i g n f i c a n t beyond the .05 l e v e l . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r p a r e n t a l s t a t u s and no i n t e r a c t i v e e f f e c t , T a b l e 2. S i n c e t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the b a s i s of m a r i t a l s t a t u s and p a r e n t a l s t a t u s the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was u p h e l d . However, s i n c e a main e f f e c t for m a r i t a l s t a t u s was observed a one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e t e s t was undertaken to determine the d i f f e r e n c e s on the O c c u p a t i o n a l Involvement S c a l e among women on the b a s i s of m a r i t a l s t a t u s . The mean f o r group 1, . (never m a r r i e d ) was 3 2 . 7 ; f or group 2 ( m a r r i e d or l i v i n g w i t h a p a r t n e r ) was 30 .7 ; and f o r group 3 ( s e p a r a t e d , widowed or d i v o r c e d ) was 33 .4 . The h i g h e r the score the g r e a t e r the commitment to p a i d employment thus i n d i c a t i n g t h a t for p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d women ( s e p a r a t e d , widowed or d i v o r c e d ) h a v i n g a job i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more important than i t i s f or both s i n g l e and m a r r i e d women. See T a b l e 3. 81 Duncan's procedure for m u l t i p l e comparisons i n d i c a t e d t h a t group 3 ( p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d ) d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y (a = .05) from group 2 (marr i ed or l i v i n g wi th a p a r t n e r ) . See T a b l e 4. An i tem a n a l y s i s of the O c c u p a t i o n a l Involvement S c a l e r e v e a l e d some c l u e s as to why the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was u p h e l d and the expected outcome of h i g h e r s c o r e s for s i n g l e c h i l d l e s s women was not found . L o o k i n g a t s p e c i f i c i tems on the O c c u p a t i o n a l Involvement S c a l e i t i s apparent j u s t how important h a v i n g a job i s i n women's l i v e s . Seventy-two p e r c e n t of the respondents e i t h e r "agreed s t r o n g l y " or "agreed q u i t e a l o t " to the statement "having a job i s very important to me"; 50% a l s o " s t r o n g l y agreed" or "agreed q u i t e a l o t " tha t they would c o n t i n u e to work even i f they won a l o t t e r y . E i g h t y - t h r e e percent f e l t they would s t i l l p r e f e r to work even i f U . I . C . b e n e f i t s were h i g h e r and f u l l y 80% s t r o n g l y agreed they would hate to be on w e l f a r e . These f i g u r e s suggest tha t o v e r a l l m a r i t a l and p a r e n t a l s t a t u s do not ac t as a d e t e r r e n t to women's commitment to the p a i d labour f o r c e . When women's commitment to employment was compared on the b a s i s of m a r i t a l s t a t u s a lone i t was r e v e a l e d t h a t s i n g l e women r e p o r t somewhat h i g h e r s c o r e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those who were p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d . T h i s 82 f i n d i n g i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e as p o t e n t i a l p o v e r t y i s much more r e a l f o r unat tached females , a f a c t which i s compounded by the presence of c h i l d r e n . In t h i s sample f u l l y one h a l f of the p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d women were s i n g l e mothers . T e s t i n g H y p o t h e s i s 2 I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t mean s c o r e s on the Q u a l i t y of the N o n o c c u p a t i o n a l Environment S c a l e w i l l be no d i f f e r e n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y (a = .05) when s i n g l e c h i l d l e s s women, m a r r i e d c h i l d l e s s women, m a r r i e d mothers and s i n g l e mothers are compared. The a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) r e s u l t s on the Q u a l i t y of the N o n o c c u p a t i o n a l Environment S c a l e (Tab le 5) i n d i c a t e d a main e f f e c t f o r m a r i t a l s t a t u s . There was no e f f e c t for p a r e n t a l s t a t u s and no i n t e r a c t i v e e f f e c t . The r e s u l t s , t h e r e f o r e , f a i l e d to r e j e c t the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . Secondary a n a l y s i s u s i n g a one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e t e s t on the Q u a l i t y of the N o n o c c u p a t i o n a l Environment S c a l e was undertaken f o l l o w i n g a main e f f e c t for m a r i t a l s t a t u s . However, t h i s t e s t i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s o v e r a l l between mean s c o r e s f o r Group 1 (never m a r r i e d M = 4 2 . 2 ) ; Group 83 2 ( m a r r i e d or l i v i n g w i t h a p a r t n e r M = 4 3 . 5 ) ; and Group 3 ( s e p a r a t e d , d i v o r c e d or widowed M = 4 1 . 4 ) . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t o n l y at the 0.08 l e v e l . The Q u a l i t y of the N o n o c c u p a t i o n a l Environment S c a l e i s composed of two s u b s c a l e s , the f i r s t measur ing p e r c e i v e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l i f e s t y l e and the second s a t i s f a c t i o n wi th p e r s o n a l l i f e . S i n c e no d i f f e r e n c e s , on the b a s i s of p a r e n t a l and m a r i t a l s t a t u s , were d i s c o v e r e d on the o v e r a l l s c a l e f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s was c a r r i e d out on the two component s u b s c a l e s . The l i f e s t y l e s u b s c a l e i s composed of four i t e m s . They are p e r c e i v e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h one ' s house or apar tment , l o c a l d i s t r i c t , s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g and f i n a l l y l e i s u r e t ime a c t i v i t i e s . These domains have been found by o t h e r s to e x p l a i n v e r y l i t t l e of the v a r i a n c e in p r e d i c t i n g o v e r a l l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n (Andrews & W i t h e y , 1976b; Campbel l et a l . , 1976). In C a m p b e l l ' s landmark survey e n t i t l e d The Q u a l i t y of  American L i f e the mean importance of these four i tems f e l l f a r below the domains of h e a l t h , marr iage and f a m i l y l i f e (Campbel l et a l . , 1976). Given the r e l a t i v e unimportance of these domains i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g then that no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were d e t e c t e d among the respondents on the b a s i s of p a r e n t a l or m a r i t a l s t a t u s . 84 The second s u b s c a l e of the Q u a l i t y of the N o n o c c u p a t i o n a l Environment S c a l e , s a t i s f a c t i o n wi th p e r s o n a l l i f e , measures p e r c e i v e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h i n the domains of h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n s o c i a l l i f e and f a m i l y l i f e . A n a l y s i s of the data r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s on t h i s s c a l e among the v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s of r e s p o n d e n t s . What i s most i n t e r e s t i n g and s i g n i f i c a n t i s that m a r r i e d women s c o r e d h i g h e s t on the items r e l a t i n g to s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h f a m i l y l i f e , s o c i a l l i f e and p r e s e n t s t a t e of h e a l t h . With r e g a r d to s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h f a m i l y l i f e the mean of m a r r i e d women was 5.8 (out of a p o s s i b l e 7 ) . T h i s s core puts them on the verge of be ing "very s a t i s f i e d " wi th t h e i r f a m i l y l i f e . P r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d women by c o n t r a s t s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than both m a r r i e d women and never m a r r i e d women. On the s o c i a l l i f e i tem the mean score of m a r r i e d women was 5 . 5 . P r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d women a g a i n s c o r e d the lowest of the t h r e e groups w i t h a mean of 4.5 ( i n between "I am not sure" and "I am moderate ly s a t i s f i e d " ) . S i n g l e women r e p o r t e d a mean score of 5.1 on t h i s i t e m . These f i n d i n g s are in a c c o r d w i t h the view of many t h a t the domains a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p e r s o n a l l i f e are most c e n t r a l i n d e t e r m i n i n g l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n (Andrews & Withey , 1976b; B e r n a r d , 1981; Campbel l et a l . , 1976; 85 Gove, 1972; Gove & T u d o r , 1976; Gove, Hughes & S t y l e , 1983). I f s a t i s f a c t i o n wi th p e r s o n a l l i f e i s a c c e p t e d as b e i n g the most c e n t r a l domain i n a s s e s s i n g o v e r a l l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n then i t a l s o can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t never m a r r i e d and p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d women do not f i n d t h e i r l i v e s as p l e a s a n t or as s a t i s f y i n g as t h e i r m a r r i e d c o u n t e r p a r t s . Testing Hypothesis 3 I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d tha t mean s c o r e s on the Demand S c a l e w i l l not d i f f e r s t a t i s t i c a l l y (a = .05) when m a r r i e d women, never m a r r i e d women and p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d women are compared. A one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on the Demand S c a l e on the b a s i s of m a r i t a l s t a t u s . The F R a t i o from T a b l e 6 of 5.58 (2,160) was s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .01 l e v e l . H y p o t h e s i s t h r e e was t h e r e f o r e r e j e c t e d . The Duncan M u l t i p l e Comparison t e s t was u t i l i z e d to d i s c o v e r where the d i f f e r e n c e s l a y . Women who were never m a r r i e d (Group 1) r e p o r t e d the l e a s t demands (M = 25.5) w h i l e m a r r i e d women (Group 2) r e p o r t e d the most demands (M= 2 2 . 5 ) . As T a b l e 7, i n d i c a t e s the mean d i f f e r e n c e on the Demand S c a l e between never m a r r i e d 86 and m a r r i e d women i s s i g n f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . T e s t i n g H y p o t h e s i s 4 I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t mean scores on the Demand S c a l e w i l l not d i f f e r s t a t i s t i c a l l y (a= .05) when women wi th c h i l d r e n and women wi thout c h i l d r e n are compared. One-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between women w i t h c h i l d r e n and women wi thout c h i l d r e n on the demand s c a l e . The F R a t i o from T a b l e 8 of 38.78 was s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .001 l e v e l . H y p o t h e s i s four was t h e r e f o r e r e j e c t e d . The f i v e i tem Demand S c a l e has a range of s cores from 5 (I am c o n s t a n t l y c o n f r o n t e d wi th these demands) to 35 (I never encounter demands). Women wi thout c h i l d r e n i n d i c a t e d tha t they encountered s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer demands (M = 25.1) compared w i t h those who d i d have c h i l d r e n (M = 2 0 . 4 ) . T e s t i n g H y p o t h e s i s 5 I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d tha t mean scores on the Job S a t i s f a c t i o n S c a l e w i l l not d i f f e r s t a t i s t i c a l l y (a = .05) when s i n g l e c h i l d l e s s women, m a r r i e d c h i l d l e s s women, s i n g l e mothers and m a r r i e d mothers are compared. 87 The ANOVA r e s u l t s on the Job S a t i s f a c t i o n S c a l e (Tab le 9) i n d i c a t e s there i s no main e f f e c t and c o n s e q u e n t l y no i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t . In o ther words, the r e s u l t s show tha t t h e r e are no s i g n f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the means of s i n g l e c h i l d l e s s women, m a r r i e d c h i l d l e s s women, s i n g l e mothers and m a r r i e d mothers . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s tha t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t on the Job S a t i s f a c t i o n S c a l e between the a forement ioned groups was u p h e l d . The m a j o r i t y of women, r e g a r d l e s s of c u r r e n t m a r i t a l a n d / o r p a r e n t a l s t a t u s , r e p o r t e d m o r d e r a t e l y low job s a t i s f a c t i o n ( s i n g l e wi thout c h i l d r e n 4 .30; m a r r i e d without c h i l d r e n 4 .67; s i n g l e w i t h c h i l d r e n 4 .51; m a r r i e d wi th c h i l d r e n 4.58 - a l l s c o r e s out of a p o s s i b l e 7 ) . J u s t over 50% of the respondents s a i d they were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r job about h a l f of the time or l e s s . Almost h a l f the women would change t h e i r job i f they c o u l d get a b e t t e r job and a f u r t h e r 31% would l i k e to change both t h e i r job as w e l l as t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n . However, age was a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e i n measuring job s a t i s f a c t i o n . O l d e r women (over the age of 45) showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r l e v e l s of job s a t i s f a c t i o n than younger women, p a r t i c u l a r l y those i n the 25-35 year o l d age b r a c k e t . See T a b l e 10 and 11. A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t was found t h a t women who r e p o r t e d 88 h i g h e r f a m i l y incomes ($40,000 p l u s ) a l s o were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s a t i s f i e d wi th t h e i r j o b s . See T a b l e 12. T e s t i n g H y p o t h e s i s 6 I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t mean s c o r e s on B r a d b u r n ' s A f f e c t Ba lance S c a l e and C a m p b e l l ' s Index of W e l l - B e i n g S c a l e w i l l be no d i f f e r e n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y (a = . 0 5 ) , when never m a r r i e d women, m a r r i e d women and p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d women are compared. A one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e on the independent v a r i a b l e of m a r i t a l s t a t u s by the dependent v a r i a b l e as measured by the A f f e c t Ba lance S c a l e showed no o v e r a l l s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the a forement ioned groups of women. See T a b l e 13. However, when the Duncan M u l t i p l e Comparison Procedure was a p p l i e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (a = .05) between group 2 (marr ied) and group 1 (never m a r r i e d ) was r e v e a l e d . The mean score for m a r r i e d women was 2.10 and for never m a r r i e d women 1.17 wi th the h i g h e r s core i n d i c a t i n g a g r e a t e r sense of happ ines s or w e l l - b e i n g . See T a b l e 14. As i n d i c a t e d by these r e s u l t s the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t on the A f f e c t Ba lance S c a l e between women of d i f f e r e n t m a r i t a l s t a t u s i s 89 r e j e c t e d . P s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g a l s o was t e s t e d u s i n g C a m p b e l l ' s Index of W e l l - B e i n g as the dependent measure and the three l e v e l s of m a r i t a l s t a t u s p r e v i o u s l y mentioned as the independent v a r i a b l e . A one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e r e v e a l e d an o v e r a l l s i g n f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (a = .05) between never m a r r i e d women, m a r r i e d women and p r e v o u s l y m a r r i e d women (Table 15) . The Duncan M u l t i p l e Comparison Procedure agreed w i t h the f i n d i n g s on p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g as measured by the A f f e c t Ba lance S c a l e , tha t i s , m a r r i e d women w i t h a mean score of 42.39 (out of a p o s s i b l e 56) r a t e t h e i r o v e r a l l happiness or w e l l - b e i n g h i g h e r than b o t h women who have never m a r r i e d , whose mean score was o n l y 38.44 as w e l l as p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d women whose mean score was 38 .79 . See T a b l e 16. As wi th the f i n d i n g s on the A f f e c t Ba lance S c a l e , the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t mean s c o r e s on C a m p b e l l ' s Index of W e l l - B e i n g w i l l not d i f f e r s t a t i s t i c a l l y when never m a r r i e d women, m a r r i e d women and p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d women are compared i s r e j e c t e d . 90 Summary To summarize, n u l l hypotheses t h r e e , four and s i x were r e j e c t e d by the r e s u l t s of a one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e . The f i n d i n g s of h y p o t h e s i s t h r e e , i n which three groups of women were compared, never m a r r i e d , m a r r i e d and p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d , were t h a t never m a r r i e d women r e p o r t e d the l e a s t demands on the time w h i l e m a r r i e d women r e p o r t e d the most demands on t h e i r t i m e . P r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d women f e l l about the m i d - p o i n t between those who were never m a r r i e d and those who are c u r r e n t l y m a r r i e d . H y p o t h e s i s four a l s o t e s t e d the degree to which demands from o t h e r s impinge on a woman's t ime and energy . T h i s t ime women were compared on the b a s i s of p a r e n t a l s t a t u s . The f i n d i n g s of h y p o t h e s i s four were t h a t women wi thout c h i l d r e n encountered s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer demands on t h e i r t ime than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s who d i d have c h i l d r e n . H y p o t h e s i s s i x t e s t e d the r e p o r t e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g of women a c r o s s three m a r i t a l c a t e g o r i e s never m a r r i e d , c u r r e n t l y m a r r i e d and p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d . The f i n d i n g s were tha t on both the Bradburn A f f e c t Ba lance S c a l e and C a m p b e l l ' s Index of W e l l - B e i n g m a r r i e d women r a t e d t h e i r o v e r a l l happiness or w e l l - b e i n g h i g h e r than those who have never been 91 m a r r i e d as w e l l as p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d women. The r e s u l t s f a i l e d to r e j e c t hypotheses one, two and f i v e . These three h y p o t h e s i s were t e s t e d by a two-way a n a l a y s i s of v a r i a n c e . I t was proposed i n each of these t h r e e hypotheses t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between m a r i t a l s t a t u s and p a r e n t a l s t a t u s would be o b s e r v e d . The f i n d i n g s of h y p o t h e s i s one which compared mean s c o r e s of women on the O c c u p a t i o n a l Involvement S c a l e showed no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between p a r e n t a l s t a t u s and m a r i t a l s t a t u s . A main e f f e c t for m a r i t a l s t a t u s was found and the r e s u l t s of secondary a n a l y s i s were t h a t both p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d and never m a r r i e d women r e p o r t e d a h i g h e r commitment to p a i d employment than c u r r e n t l y m a r r i e d women. H y p o t h e s i s two compared mean s c o r e s of women on the Q u a l i t y of the N o n o c c u p a t i o n a l Environment S c a l e . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s h y p o t h e s i s were tha t r e g a r d l e s s of m a r i t a l a n d / o r p a r e n t a l s t a t u s the women surveyed d i d not d i f f e r s t a t i s t i c a l l y on the p e r c e i v e d q u a l i t y of t h e i r n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l env ironment . F i n a l l y , the r e s u l t s of h y p o t h e s i s f i v e were tha t r e p o r t e d job s a t i s f a c t i o n d i d not d i f f e r s t a t i s t i c a l l y on the b a s i s of m a r i t a l a n d / o r p a r e n t a l s t a t u s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these r e s u l t s are d i s c u s s e d in the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . 92 CHAPTER V: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION T h i s s tudy was conducted to d i s c o v e r the i n f l u e n c e of m a r i t a l and p a r e n t a l s t a t u s on c e r t a i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to p a i d employment f o r women working in c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l j o b s . The r e s e a r c h focused on the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : o c c u p a t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t , q u a l i t y of the n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l env ironment , q u a l i t y of the employment r e l a t i o n s h i p and o v e r a l l p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Sample The age spread of the women sampled was s i m i l a r to the Canadian average i . e . j u s t under one h a l f of the women were between the ages of 25 and 44 y e a r s (see Chapter 4 ) . Over h a l f of the women were m a r r i e d and of those not m a r r i e d most had never been m a r r i e d . The m a j o r i t y of the respondents were c h i l d l e s s and o n l y a few women r e p o r t e d t h r e e or more c h i l d r e n . Most c h i l d r e n were over s i x y e a r s of age . In terms of e d u c a t i o n a l a t ta inment the women sampled ranked much h i g h e r than the n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e . The m a j o r i t y had some post secondary e d u c a t i o n and f u l l y one q u a r t e r were u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e s . I t i s 93 d i f f i c u l t to g e n e r a l i z e r e g a r d i n g income l e v e l s because the sample i n c l u d e d both m a r r i e d women (wi th combined f a m i l y incomes) as w e l l as s i n g l e women. I n i t i a l l y o n l y f u l l t ime workers were asked to complete the s u r v e y ; however seven p a r t - t i m e workers were a l s o i n c l u d e d i n the r e s u l t s . Occupational Involvement With r e s p e c t to o c c u p a t i o n a l involvement most of the women r e p o r t e d r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l s i . e . a l l were h i g h l y committed to the concept of working o u t s i d e the home. There was no d i f f e r e n c e on the o c c u p a t i o n a l involvement s c a l e between women who had c h i l d r e n and those who d i d n o t . At f i r s t s i g h t , t h i s f i n d i n g appears to c o n t r a d i c t Warr and P a r r y ' s (1982a) p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t c h i l d r e n are an important de terminant of o c c u p a t i o n a l involvement f o r women and tha t the presence of c h i l d r e n impedes commitment to p a i d employment. There are s e v e r a l f a c t o r s which c o u l d e x p l a i n t h i s f i n d i n g . T h i s may be due i n p a r t to the i d i o s y n c r a c i e s of the sample . I t was noted e a r l i e r , for example, that p r o f e s s i o n a l women wi th h i g h income l e v e l s may remain committed to the l abour f o r c e i n 94 s p i t e of the presence of c h i l d r e n because they have m o t i v a t i o n and the f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s to p r o v i d e c h i l d c a r e and home h e l p thereby r e d u c i n g the amount of r o l e o v e r l o a d they e x p e r i e n c e . In t h i s sample the women were not p r o f e s s i o n a l s , however the m a j o r i t y had h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s ( i n d i c a t i n g the p r o b a b i l i t y of c u r r e n t underemployment) and fur thermore a l a r g e percentage had r e l a t i v e l y h i g h combined f a m i l y incomes (40% had f a m i l y incomes between $25,000-$40,000 and 37% had incomes in excess of $40 ,000) . For these women, l i k e p r o f e s s i o n a l women, h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s and h i g h f a m i l y income may i n d i c a t e a s t r o n g m o t i v a t i o n f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t . The a b i l i t y to a f f o r d c h i l d c a r e and home h e l p a l s o may be a f a c t o r a c c o u n t i n g for the h i g h l e v e l of expressed commitment to the l a b o u r f o r c e . In terms of t h e i r f i n a n c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s i t appears tha t the women sampled i n t h i s s tudy resembled p r o f e s s i o n a l women more than they d i d the average c l e r k t y p i s t , and t h i s may account f o r t h e i r u n u s u a l l y h i g h o c c u p a t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t , d e s p i t e the r e l a t i v e l y low s t a t u s of the p o s i t i o n s they c u r r e n t l y occupy . D e s p i t e o v e r a l l h i g h o c c u p a t i o n a l invo lvement , as e x p e c t e d , mean s c o r e s of s i n g l e women were h i g h e r than those of m a r r i e d women. Women who were s e p a r a t e d , 95 d i v o r c e d or widowed showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r commitment to p a i d employment than women who were m a r r i e d . T h i s i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e because the i s s u e of p o t e n t i a l p o v e r t y i s i n g e n e r a l much more r e a l f or unat tached females than for those who are m a r r i e d . The s e p a r a t e d , d i v o r c e d and widowed g e n e r a l l y have o n l y themselves to depend on f i n a n c i a l l y . Canadian S t a t u s of Women (1983) f i g u r e s r e p o r t a very h i g h r a t e of d e f a u l t on a l imony and support payments, and for those women who are widowed, few r e c e i v e s u b s t a n t i a l b e n e f i t s from the husbands' p e n s i o n s . Moreover , 89% of the p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d women in t h i s s tudy (of whom 50% had c h i l d r e n ) earned l e s s than $25,000 per year w h i l e 40% of the m a r r i e d women had f a m i l y incomes of between $25,000-$40,000 and a f u r t h e r 37% had a f a m i l y income i n excess of $40,000. Quality of the Nonoccupational Environment There was no o v e r a l l d i f f e r e n c e on the o v e r a l l s c a l e measur ing the q u a l i t y of the n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l env ironment . On a s epara te a n a l y s i s of the two component s u b s c a l e s ( s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l i f e s t y l e and s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p e r s o n a l l i f e ) t h e r e was a g a i n no d i f f e r e n c e on the l i f e s t y l e s a t i s f a c t i o n s u b s c a l e . 96 However, on the p e r s o n a l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n s u b s c a l e m a r r i e d women s c o r e d much h i g h e r on t h r e e out of four i t e m s . What i s most i n t e r e s t i n g and s i g n i f i c a n t i s tha t m a r r i e d women s c o r e d h i g h e s t on the i tems r e l a t i n g to s a t i s f a c t i o n wi th f a m i l y l i f e , s o c i a l l i f e and p r e s e n t s t a t e of h e a l t h . These f i n d i n g s l e n d support to the view of many tha t s a t i s f a c t i o n wi th m a r r i a g e and f a m i l y l i f e are two of the major c o n t r i b u t o r s to o v e r a l l p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g (Andrews & W i t h e y , 1976b; B e r n a r d , 1981; Campbel l et a l , 1976; F i n e D a v i s , 1983; Gove, 1972; Gove & T u d o r , 1973; Gove, Hughes & S t y l e , 1983). Compared w i t h s i n g l e women, e s p e c i a l l y those who are s e p a r a t e d or d i v o r c e d , m a r r i e d women are in b e t t e r mental and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h , h a p p i e r , l e s s i n c l i n e d to s u i c i d e and l e s s l i k e l y to be i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d f o r mental i l l n e s s or o ther forms of m a l a d a p t i v e behav iour (Andrews & Wi they , 1976b; B r a d b u r n , 1969; Campbel l et a l , 1976; C o c h r a n e - S t e p Roe, 1981; Cummings et a l , 1975). These f i n d i n g s for the q u a l i t y of the n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l environment s u b s c a l e of s a t i s f a c t i o n wi th p e r s o n a l l i f e are a l s o i n accordance w i t h p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h which shows t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l environment i s f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d as 97 b e i n g adverse f o r p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d women e s p e c i a l l y those who have c h i l d r e n at home (Gutek, Nakamura & N i e v a , 1981; K e i t h & S c h a f e r , 1982; London, C r a n d a l l & S e a l s , 1977; P e a r l i n & Johnson , 1977; Tcheng-Laroche & P r i n c e , 1983a, 1983b). Quality of the employment re l a t i o n s h i p The d i f f e r e n c e i n the l e v e l of job s a t i s f a c t i o n was found to be not s i g n i f i c a n t , w i t h the m a j o r i t y of women, r e g a r d l e s s of c u r r e n t m a r i t a l a n d / o r p a r e n t a l s t a t u s r e p o r t i n g moderate ly low job s a t i s f a c t i o n . J u s t over h a l f of the respondents s a i d they were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r job about h a l f of the t ime or l e s s . Almost h a l f the women would change t h e i r job i f they c o u l d get a b e t t e r job and a f u r t h e r t h i r d would l i k e to change both t h e i r job as w e l l as t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n . However, age appeared to be an i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e in measur ing job s a t i s f a c t i o n . O l d e r women (over the age of 45) showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r l e v e l s of job s a t i s f a c t i o n than younger women, p a r t i c u l a r l y those i n the 23-35 year o l d age b r a c k e t . T h i s s u p p o r t s the r e s e a r c h of F i n e - D a v i s (1982) who found i n her study of women employed in n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l jobs that o l d e r women were much 98 h a p p i e r w i t h the content of t h e i r work than t h e i r younger c o u n t e r p a r t s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t was found tha t women in h i g h e r income b r a c k e t s ($40,000 p l u s ) were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s a t i s f i e d wi th t h e i r j o b s . T h i s f i n d i n g a l s o agrees w i t h the study mentioned above; tha t soc ioeconomic s t a t u s was a s i g n i f i c a n t de terminant of work s a t i s f a c t i o n , w i th women of h i g h e r soc ioeconomic s t a t u s r e p o r t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r l e v e l s of job s a t i s f a c t i o n ( F i n e - D a v i s , 1983). There i s no ev idence then to support the h y p o t h e s i s that m a r r i e d women w i t h c h i l d r e n would e x p e r i e n c e h i g h e r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h c l e r i c a l j o b s . One good reason f o r t h i s may be the f a c t tha t v i r t u a l l y a l l of the women sampled were h i g h l y e d u c a t e d . That i s , a l l were underemployed and for t h i s reason a l l e x h i b i t e d the same l e v e l of job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . E d u c a t i o n l e v e l t h e r e f o r e may ac t as an i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e tha t can modify or perhaps even o v e r r i d e the e f f e c t s of m a r i t a l and p a r e n t a l s t a t u s on job s a t i s f a c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y in the case of underemployment. However f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h would be r e q u i r e d to f u l l y de termine t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . Demand Scale 99 Warr and P a r r y (1982a) h y p o t h e s i z e d tha t r o l e c o n f l i c t w i l l v a r y wi th l i f e c y c l e s t a g e . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s s tudy t end to support t h i s v iew. Wi th r e g a r d to the demand s c a l e , both hypotheses were c o n f i r m e d . That i s , both women who were m a r r i e d and women w i t h c h i l d r e n showed s i g n f i c a n t l y h i g h e r demands than d i d t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i e . unmarr ied women and women wi thout c h i l d r e n . S i n c e 39 of the 89 m a r r i e d respondents had c h i l d r e n i t may be that the h i g h demand l e v e l r e p o r t e d by m a r r i e d women was due p r i m a r i l y to the presence of c h i l d r e n and not the m a r i t a l s t a t u s f a c t o r . T h i s s u p p o r t s e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s t h a t the presence of c h i l d r e n may r e s u l t i n h i g h e r s t r e s s l e v e l s for working women (Brown & H a r r i s , 1978; P e a r l i n , 1975). Psychological Well-Being The h y p o t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g was c o n f i r m e d . M a r r i e d women r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r s c o r e s on the L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n measure (Index of W e l l - B e i n g ) and the happ ines s measure ( A f f e c t Ba lance S c o r e ) . These f i n d i n g s are i n a c c o r d wi th n e a r l y a l l p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h which shows tha t m a r r i e d women r e p o r t 100 a h i g h e r degree of avowed happ ines s and l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n than o ther groups of women (Andrews & Withey , 1976; B e r n a r d , 1972, 1974, 1975, 1981; B r a d b u r n , 1969; Cambpel l et a l . , 1969; F r e u d i g e r , 1983; G u r i n et a l , 1960; S p r i t z e r & Snyder , 1975; Tcheng-LaRoche & P r i n c e , 1983b). Even though these women o c c u p i e d low s t a t u s jobs and e x h i b i t e d low l e v e l s of job s a t i s f a c t i o n they n e v e r t h e l e s s r e p o r t e d h i g h e r l e v e l s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g than t h e i r s i n g l e c o u n t e r p a r t s who a l s o s h a r e d low job s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h i s f i n d i n g i s s u b j e c t to more than one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The f a c t o r of s e l f s e l e c t i o n may e x p l a i n the r e s u l t s in t h a t i t may be tha t women who choose to work o u t s i d e the home a r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y h e a l t h i e r i n d i v i d u a l s . No doubt some women who work o u t s i d e the home would p r e f e r not t o , as i s t r u e f o r some men, however the women in t h i s s tudy i n d i c a t e d tha t even i f economic c o n d i t i o n s were such t h a t t h e i r employment was unnecessary they would c o n t i n u e to be committed to p a i d employment. T h e r e f o r e , i t can be assumed t h a t they d e r i v e some p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e n e f i t from work. A d d i t i o n a l l y these f i n d i n g s c o u l d i n d i c a t e tha t m a r r i a g e , f a m i l y and the f i n a n c i a l b e n e f i t s of a combined income can compensate for a low s t a t u s job and low job s a t i s f a c t i o n i n terms of p s y c h o l o g i c a l 101 w e l l - b e i n g . L i m i t a t i o n s As w i t h a l l r e s e a r c h t h i s study has c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s . F i r s t l y , the subsample s i z e s were uneven; s p e c i f i c a l l y , m a r r i e d women r e p r e s e n t e d s l i g h t l y more than 50% of the subsample whereas never m a r r i e d o c c u p i e d 28%. The c a t e g o r y of p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d was around 18%. The l a r g e r the sample , of c o u r s e , the more l i k e l y i s i t s mean and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the mean and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n the l a r g e r the sample the l e s s l i k e l y i s i t f or the r e s e a r c h e r to f a i l to r e j e c t the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s when i t i s a c t u a l l y f a l s e . Secondly a l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s s tudy i s the f a c t t h a t respondents were v o l u n t a r i l y r e c r u i t e d . A number of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been found to occur in r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s u t i l i z i n g v o l u n t e e r s u b j e c t s . For example v o l u n t e e r s tend to be b e t t e r educated than n o n - v o l u n t e e r s , have h i g h e r s o c i a l c l a s s s t a t u s , tend to express h i g h e r needs for s o c i a l a p p r o v a l and so on . T h i r d l y , a s m a l l percentage of women who worked fewer than 35 hours per week were i n c l u d e d i n the 102 a n a l y s i s . S ince f u l l t ime employment r e q u i r e s g r e a t e r commitment i n terms of t ime and energy i t may be tha t t h i s p a r t t ime group responded somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . F i n a l l y , t h i s group of c l e r i c a l workers was somewhat a t y p i c a l i n t h a t they were u n i o n i z e d . Thus i t may be assumed tha t t h e i r l e v e l of income and f r i n g e b e n e f i t s are c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r than those of the n o n - u n i o n i z e d who make up the bu lk of the female c l e r i c a l work force i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . Theoretical Implications The f i n d i n g s of t h i s s tudy have s e v e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . These r e l a t e to women's commitment to f u l l t ime p a i d employment, the c e n t r a l i t y of m a r r i a g e and f a m i l y i n the l i v e s of working women and the c o n t r o v e r s y s u r r o u n d i n g m u l t i p l e r o l e s in women's l i v e s . I t must be s t r e s s e d at the o u t s e t however, tha t the t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s d e r i v e d from these f i n d i n g s a p p l y o n l y to f u l l t ime employment. The s i t u a t i o n for p a r t t ime workers may w e l l be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t - but that i s a s u b j e c t f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h (see b e l o w ) . 103 F i r s t w i t h r e g a r d to the i s sue of women's commitment to the l a b o u r f o r c e , the f i n d i n g s of t h i s s tudy were t h a t a l l women, i r r e s p e c t i v e of the l i f e c y c l e showed a h i g h commitment to the concept of p a i d employment. F u l l y 75% of the women surveyed r e p l i e d t h a t h a v i n g a job was "very important" to them. Second, t h e r e has been a g r e a t d e a l of debate s u r r o u n d i n g the q u e s t i o n of whether women seek p a i d employment p r i m a r i l y to f u l f i l l p e r s o n a l needs , ( A s t i n , 1984; Baruch et a l . , 1983; F e r r e e , 1976; F r i e d a n , 1963; K r a u s e , 1983, 1985; N ieva & Gutek , 1981; P a r r y & W a r r , 1980; W r i g h t , 1978), o r , p r i m a r i l y i n response to economic n e c e s s i t y and employer demands, i . e . s t r u c t u r a l f a c t o r s (Armstrong , 1985; Armstrong & A r m s t r o n g , 1984; Boyd, 1977; C o n n e l l y , 1978; Oppenheimer, 1977, 1982; P h i l l i p s & P h i l l i p s , 1983). Whi le economic g a i n i s a m o t i v a t i o n f o r s eek ing employment, the f i n d i n g s of t h i s s tudy wi th r e s p e c t to the o c c u p a t i o n a l involvement s c a l e suggest t h a t women's d e s i r e to engage i n p a i d employment can e x i s t i n d e p e n d e n t l y of f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to economic g a i n . For example, 80% of the respondents i n d i c a t e d a p r e f e r e n c e for p a i d employment even i f U . I . C . b e n e f i t s were s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r . F u l l y h a l f s a i d they would c o n t i n u e to work even i f they won a l o t t e r y . Moreover , 1 04 80% of the women agreed they would be bored i f they d i d not work. R e s e a r c h e r s who use models tha t measure o n l y economic v a r i a b l e s t h e r e f o r e are n e g l e c t i n g an important d imens ion i n the t o t a l p i c t u r e of the meaning of work i n women's l i v e s . In a d d i t i o n to the economic g a i n of p a i d employment, work p r o v i d e s women w i t h a sense of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , p u r p o s e , accompl i shment , both on the job as w e l l as a c o n t r i b u t o r to f a m i l y maintenance ( A s t i n , 1984; B e t z , 1982; F e r r e e , 1976, 1984; Komarovsky, 1962; O a k l e y , 1974; R u b i n , 1976; W r i g h t , 1978). In o ther words, the p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e n e f i t s women a s s o c i a t e w i t h p a i d employment extend c o n s i d e r a b l y beyond, and i n some c a s e s , may be even more s a l i e n t than economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a l o n e . R e s e a r c h e r s concerned w i t h the i s s u e of women's o c c u p a t i o n a l involvement must t h e r e f o r e adopt models which r e c o g n i z e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s of work as w e l l as the economics of employment. One such model i s tha t proposed by A s t i n (1984) , who sees t h r e e p r i m a r y m o t i v a t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g women's d e s i r e to work, namely: s u r v i v a l needs ( l a r g e l y economic i n n a t u r e ) ; p l e a s u r e needs ( i n t r i n s i c p l e a s u r e of work a c t i v i t i e s and the i n t e l l e c t u a l and e m o t i o n a l p l e a s u r e t h a t d e r i v e s from the performance and 1 05 accomplishment of some t a s k ) ; and f i n a l l y c o n t r i b u t i o n needs (knowledge that work b e n e f i t s someone e l s e ) . The p r e s e n t s tudy found tha t marr iage and f a m i l y were important de terminant s of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g of working women. A l t h o u g h most women surveyed r e p o r t e d a h i g h degree of commitment to p a i d employment, m a r r i e d working women r e p o r t e d the h i g h e s t p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g and a l s o were the group h a p p i e s t w i t h t h e i r f a m i l y and s o c i a l l i f e , and w i t h t h e i r o v e r a l l h e a l t h . By c o n t r a s t , p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d working women r e p o r t e d the lowest p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g , and were much l e s s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r f a m i l y and s o c i a l l i f e . T h i s suppor t s the views of many r e s e a r c h e r s who have argued tha t marr iage and f a m i l y are among the most important domains c o m p r i s i n g women's p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g (Andrews & Wi they , 1976; Campbel l et a l , 1976; Cochrane & S tepes -Roe , 1981; N e a r , R i c e & Hunt , 1978; Near & S m i t h , 1983) T h i s f i n d i n g of the c o n t i n u i n g c e n t r a l i t y of marr iage and f a m i l y i n women's l i v e s i s not s u r p r i s i n g . D e s p i t e the growing numbers of women i n the l a s t few decades who have chosen work and c a r e e r s over marr iage and f a m i l y the weight of our h i s t o r i c a l h e r i t a g e i s s t i l l v e r y much a r e a l i t y . The m a j o r i t y of women i n contemporary s o c i e t y , i t seems, want to combine work 106 w i t h marr iage and f a m i l y . T h i s s tudy t h e r e f o r e s u p p o r t s the use of f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e t h e o r i e s - not to e x p l a i n , as some r e s e a r c h e r s have c l a i m e d ( G l i c k , 1977; Hanson, 1983) women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l abour f o r c e ( a l l women were h i g h l y committed to p a i d employment, i r r e s p e c t i v e of the f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e ) - but r a t h e r i n e x p l a i n i n g o v e r a l l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n among working women. There i s however a need to i n c o r p o r a t e events which do not f i t i n t o c u r r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s of the f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e -such as d i v o r c e , r emarr iage and s i n g l e p a r e n t i n g s i n c e these were shown to be important d e t e r m i n a n t s i n women's p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . The c o n t i n u i n g c e n t r a l i t y of marr iage and f a m i l y i n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l be ing of working women, combined wi th the h i g h degree of commitment to p a i d employment r e p o r t e d by a l l women, l eads d i r e c t l y to the t h i r d major t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n , which has to do w i t h the important q u e s t i o n of m u l t i p l e r o l e s and r o l e s t r a i n / r o l e o v e r l o a d . There i s a grea t d e a l of c o n t r o v e r s y c o n c e r n i n g the mental h e a l t h e f f e c t s of m u l t i p l e r o l e s . Some r e s e a r c h e r s argue tha t m u l t i p l e r o l e s c l e a r l y have a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on mental h e a l t h c a u s i n g s t r e s s and a n x i e t y (Gove & G e e r k i n , 1977; P l e c k , 1977; 1 07 P l e c k , S t a i n e s & L a n g , 1980), w h i l e o t h e r s have m a i n t a i n e d t h a t m u l t i p l e r o l e s a c t u a l l y enhance p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g by a c t i n g as a b u f f e r to s t r e s s ( B a r u c h , et a l . , 1983; B e t z , 1982; Brown & H a r r i s , 1978; C r o s b y , 1984; K e s s l e r & McRae, 1982; R i c h a r d s o n , 1981). To take the example of working women, work o u t s i d e the home can p r o v i d e r e l i e f from the tedium of housework and the c o n s t a n t demands of c h i l d c a r e . In t h i s s t u d y , m a r r i e d women ( i n c l u d i n g those w i t h c h i l d r e n ) r e p o r t e d the h i g h e s t l e v e l of demands, yet they a l s o r e p o r t e d the h i g h e s t l e v e l s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . T h i s would appear to support the view t h a t m u l t i p l e r o l e s are not n e c e s s a r i l y d e t r i m e n t a l to women's p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . Of c o u r s e , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to know, f o r example, whether the husbands of these women shared i n the housework and c h i l d c a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . S t u d i e s a l s o have shown t h a t working women whose husbands share i n househo ld r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are l e s s d e p r e s s e d . C o u n s e l l i n g and P r a c t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s The f a c t that women show c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n working for pay combined w i t h t h e i r s t e a d i l y growing 108 p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s s i n c e the e a r l y 1950's u n d e r s c o r e s the p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s s t u d y . One very s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g was tha t most women were h i g h l y committed to p a i d employment yet a t the same t ime the m a j o r i t y were l a r g e l y d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r j o b s . Job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s in f a c t not unusua l among c l e r i c a l workers (Benet , 1972; Glenn & F e l d b e r g , 1977; Grandjean & T a y l o r , 1980; Howe, 1977; Lowe, 1980). C l e r i c a l jobs are "dead end", they are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h "s ta tus p a n i c " , and the c o m b i n a t i o n of the d i v i s o n of l abour and t e c h n o l o g i c a l replacement have l e f t c l e r i c a l workers w i t h l i t t l e sense of autonomy and room for c r e a t i v i t y . S i n c e i t i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d "being where you want to be" i s an important component of mental h e a l t h and g e n e r a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g (Andrews & W i t h e y , 1976; Baruch et a l . , 1983; C a m p b e l l , et a l . , 1976; H a l l & Gordon , 1976; K e s s l e r & McRae, 1982), i t appears t h e r e f o r e t h a t the above f i n d i n g would be of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e f o r v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r s B e g i n n i n g at as e a r l y an age as p o s s i b l e , women need to be encouraged by v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r s to broaden the h o r i z o n s of t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and s t r i v e to a v o i d f a l l i n g i n t o t r a d i t i o n a l s t e r e o t y p e d female j o b s . A l l too o f t e n v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r s , even today , t end to 109 d i s c o u r a g e g i r l s from p u r s u i n g math and s c i e n c e c o u r s e s that are the neces sary p r e r e q u i s i t e s to t h i s expans ion of o c c u p a t i o n a l h o r i z o n s (Sc i ence C o u n c i l of Canada, c i t e d i n B o u l e t & L a v a l l e , 1984). T h i s problem however i s not l i m i t e d to the v o c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s of a d o l e s c e n t f emales . As shown by the h i g h degree of underemployment among the women respondents i n t h i s s t u d y , i t may be a l l too easy f o r women who f i n d t h e i r h i g h e r c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s thwarted - by the v i c i s s i t u d e s of the economy, s o c i a l and f a m i l y p r e s s u r e s e t c . - to l a p s e i n t o c l e r i c a l type p o s i t i o n s because they are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to women and s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e . I f on the o ther hand women were encouraged to take g r e a t e r r i s k s , f or example, by s t r i v i n g for n o n - c l e r i c a l c i v i l s e r v i c e p o s i t i o n s , v a r i o u s b u s i n e s s p r o f e s s i o n s , t r a d e s or any n o n t r a d i t i o n a l type o c c u p a t i o n , they may f i n d tha t not o n l y i s t h e i r commitment to p a i d employment s a t i s f i e d but t h e i r job s a t i s f a c t i o n and o v e r a l l p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g may be enchanced i n the p r o c e s s . I t i s c l e a r , t h a t v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r s w i l l not l i k e l y a i d women i n terms of c o n t r i b u t i n g to t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g by encourag ing them e i t h e r to pursue or to l a p s e i n t o t r a d i t i o n a l c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l p o s i t i o n s . 110 The second major c o u n s e l l i n g i m p l i c a t i o n has to do w i t h the f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g the c o n t i n u i n g importance of marr iage and f a m i l y i n women's l i v e s and the concommitant i s s u e of m u l t i p l e r o l e s . Mothers and wives i n t h i s s tudy r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n l y h i g h e r demands on t h e i r t ime than t h e i r s i n g l e c o u n t e r p a r t s . T h i s i s congruent w i t h the f i n d i n g s of o ther r e s e a r c h which suggests that wives and mothers even when working s t i l l c o n t i n u e to bear the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f or househo ld t a s k s (Bou le t & L a v e l l e , 1984; Fox & H e s s - B i b e r , 1984; M e i s s n e r , 1975; P l e c k , 1977, 1980, 1982; Rapoport & R a p o p o r t , 1976, 1980; Vanek, 1974, 1984). Research has shown t h a t m u l t i p l e r o l e s are a l l e v i a t e d to the ex tent t h a t p a r t n e r s share i n the burdens of home and c h i l d c a r e ( B a i l y n , 1970; Cooke & Rousseau, 1984; Gordon & H a l l , 1974; Gordon & Kammeyer, 1980; Holahan & G i l b e r t , 1979a; Houseknecht & Macke, 1981). C o u n s e l l o r s t h e r e f o r e s h o u l d work towards m o d i f y i n g and s u s t a i n i n g l e s s c o n v e n t i o n a l s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s . They can encourage the exchange of r o l e performances among f a m i l y members e s p e c i a l l y husbands and w i v e s . T h i s c o u l d be a c c o m p l i s h e d by a d v o c a t i n g the k i n d of c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s o u t l i n e d by H a l l (1975) who suggests that e f f e c t i v e methods of d e a l i n g wi th r o l e o v e r l o a d are to change the s t r u c t u r e of e x t e r n a l 111 demands i . e . i n c r e a s e d s h a r i n g , h i r i n g of o u t s i d e h e l p e t c . and a l s o to r e s t r u c t u r e i n t e r n a l demands, i e . reduce one ' s s e l f - e x p e c t a t i o n s and s e l f imposed demands. F u r t h e r w i th r e g a r d to the h i g h commitment to work and the c o n t i n u i n g commitment to m a r r i a g e and f a m i l y , c o u n s e l l o r s need to be c o g n i z a n t and a l e r t to the p o s s i b i l i t y of s e r i o u s a t t i t u d i n a l c o n f l i c t s among women who are h i g h l y committed to both f a m i l y l i f e and c a r e e r . C o u n s e l l o r s can not a f f o r d to d i s c o u n t one or the o ther a u t o m a t i c a l l y ; r a t h e r they must f a c i l i t a t e d e c i s i o n making s k i l l s and h e l p women to c l a r i f y t h e i r own v a l u e s and l i f e g o a l s . F i n a l l y , c o u n s e l l o r s must remain ever c o g n i z a n t of the f a c t t h a t they and t h e i r c l i e n t s l i v e and opera te i n a l a r g e r s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l m i l i e u where extraneous f o r c e s and d e l i b e r a t e p o l i c y c h o i c e s s e r i o u s l y impinge upon the freedom and the w i l l of i n d i v i d u a l s to make c h o i c e s and to a c t u a l i z e them. Governments and the p r i v a t e s e c t o r shou ld be encouraged on the b a s i s of these f i n d i n g s to promote changes and e s t a b l i s h programs which have as t h e i r purpose the a l l e v i a t i o n of s t r e s s upon d u a l earner f a m i l i e s . T h i s c o u l d be i n the way of b e t t e r a l l owances f o r m a t e r n i t y l e a v e , shared m a t e r n i t y / p a t e r n i t y l eave such as a l r e a d y 1 12 e x i s t s i n Sweden (Kamerman, 1979) and daycare tha t i s both a c c e s s i b l e and a f f o r d a b l e . Governments a l s o can p l a y a r o l e i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system by promot ing a more e g a l i t a r i a n and g e n d e r - f r e e o c c u p a t i o n a l o u t l o o k among our y o u t h . The r e a l i t y of women's i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l abour f o r c e i s here to s t a y ; how we respond to the c h a l l e n g e s w i l l determine the k i n d of s o c i e t y we i n Canada w i l l have i n the f u t u r e . Future Research T h i s s tudy y i e l d s s e v e r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . In the f i r s t p l a c e the presen t s tudy looked o n l y at owmen i n low s t a t u s j o b s . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to compare s i n g l e women in low s t a t u s jobs w i t h s i n g l e women i n p r o f e s s i o n a l jobs i n terms of t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g to see whether job s t a t u s can compensate for the absence of marr iage and f a m i l y - two domains which are c e n t r a l to o v e r a l l l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n . I t a l s o would be i n t e r e s t i n g to compare s i n g l e mothers w i t h m a r r i e d mothers i n terms of t h e i r l e v e l of demands. Does the i n s t i t u t i o n of m a r r i a g e c r e a t e g r e a t e r demands for the mother by add ing an a d d i t i o n a l r o l e i . e . the combined r o l e s of wi fe and mother . O f , 1 13 a l t e r n a t i v e l y , can marr iage work to a l l e v i a t e demands through the s h a r i n g of househo ld r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and c h i l c a r e ? P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h a l r e a d y shows t h a t v a r i a t i o n s i n s p o u s a l support may c o n t r i b u t e to the ex tent to which m a r r i e d women w i t h c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e r o l e c o n f l i c t (Cooke & Rousseau, 1984; Holahan & G i l b e r t , 1979a). A number of s t u d i e s have found t h a t women who are most l i k e l y to e x p e r i e n c e d i s t r e s s because of o u t s i d e employment are those who r e c e i v e the l e a s t amount of h e l p w i t h househo ld chores ( B a i l y n , 1970; Gordon & H a l l , 1974; Holahan & G i l b e r t , 1979a; Houseknect & Macke, 1981). As has a l r e a d y been mentioned t h i s study surveyed o n l y women who were employed i n f u l l t ime p o s i t i o n s . S i n c e f u l l t ime employment r e q u i r e s g r e a t e r commitment i n terms of t ime and energy than p a r t t ime employment i t i s expected t h e r e f o r e the p a r t t ime workers may have responded i n a very d i f f e r e n t manner. S ince a l a r g e number of women are p a r t time w o r k e r s , e i t h e r through c h o i c e or by n e c e s s i t y i t would be v a l u a b l e to have a s tudy tha t compared f u l l t ime and p a r t t ime w o r k e r s . 1 1 4 Conclusion In c o n c l u s i o n , t h i s s tudy found tha t marr iage and f a m i l y c o n t i n u e to be, as they have been h i s t o r i c a l l y , important f a c t o r s in the p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g of working women. Whi le at the same t i m e , women's commitment to the concept of p a i d employment i r r e g a r d l e s s of s tage i n the l i f e c y c l e — i s h i g h e r than ever b e f o r e i n recent h i s t o r y . 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A comparat ive s tudy of the work s a t i s f a c t i o n of females w i t h f u l l - t i m e employment and f u l l - t i m e housekeep ing . Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, 117-118. Weiner , L . Y . (1985). From working g i r l to working mother: The female l a b o u r f o r c e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1820-1980. Chape l H i l l , NC: U n i v e r s i t y of N o r t h C a r o l i n a P r e s s . Welch , S. & Booth , A . (1977) . Employment and h e a l t h among m a r r i e d women wi th c h i l d r e n . Sex Roles, 3, 385-397. W i l k i e , J . R. (1981). The t r e n d toward d e l a y e d p a r e n t h o o d . Journal of Marriage and the Family, 43, 583-591. W r i g h t , J . D . (1978). Are working women r e a l l y more s a t i s f i e d ? Ev idence from s e v e r a l n a t i o n a l s u r v e y s . Journal of Marriage and the Family, 40, 301-313. 1 28 Yogev, S. (1982) . Are p r o f e s s i o n a l women overworked? O b j e c t i v e vs s u b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n of r o l e l o a d s . Journal of Occupational Psychology, 55, 165-169. Yogev, S. (1983) . Judg ing the p r o f e s s i o n a l woman: Changing r e s e a r c h , changing v a l u e s . Psychology of Women Quarterly, 7, 129 Tables 130 T a b l e 1 Hoyt E s t i m a t e of R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s for Dependent Research Measures Instrument r C a m p b e l l ' s Index of W e l l - B e i n g 0.93 O c c u p a t i o n a l Involvement S c a l e 0.74 N o n o c c u p a t i o n a l Environment S c a l e 0.71 Demand S c a l e 0.75 Job S a t i s f a c t i o n S c a l e 0.84 A f f e c t Ba lance S c a l e 0.76 131 T a b l e 2 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r the O c c u p a t i o n a l Involvement S c a l e Source SS df MS F Main e f f e c t 275. 82 2 1 37 .91 3. ,95* M a r i t a l S t a t u s 247. 47 1 247 .47 7. ,09* P a r e n t a l S t a t u s 84. 96 1 84 .96 2. ,43 I n t e r a c t i o n M . S . x P . S . 0. 90 1 0 .90 0. .03 E x p l a i n e d 276. 71 3 92 .24 2. ,64 R e s i d u a l 5376. 81 154 34 .91 * * p < .01 132 T a b l e 3 One-way A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e for O c c u p a t i o n a l  Involvement S c a l e by M a r i t a l S t a t u s Source SS df MS F Between groups 222.65 2 111.33 3.13* W i t h i n groups 5699.47 160 35.62 *2 < .05 133 T a b l e 4 Mean O c c u p a t i o n a l Involvement Scores for Three M a r i t a l  Groups M a r r i e d Never M a r r i e d P r e v i o u s l y M a r r i e d 30.68* 32.71 33.42* •denotes p a i r s of groups s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at the .05 l e v e l 134 T a b l e 5 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e for the Q u a l i t y of the  N o n o c c u p a t i o n a l Environment S c a l e Source SS df MS F Main e f f e c t 216. 92 2 108 .46 3. ,11* M a r i t a l S t a t u s 162. 72 1 162 .72 4. ,67* P a r e n t a l S t a t u s 103. 47 1 1 08 .47 3. , 1 1 I n t e r a c t i o n M . S . x P . S . 1 . 01 1 1 .01 0. ,03 E x p l a i n e d 217. 93 3 72 .64 2. ,08 R e s i d u a l 5367. 01 1 54 34 .85 * 2 < .05 135 T a b l e 6 One-way A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e for Demands by M a r i t a l S t a t u s Source SS df MS F Between groups 258.34 2 129.17 5.58* W i t h i n groups 3701.45 160 23.13 *p < .01 1 36 T a b l e 7 Mean Demand Scores for Three M a r i t a l Groups M a r r i e d Never M a r r i e d P r e v i o u s l y M a r r i e d 22.53* 25.46* 23.82 •denotes p a i r s of groups s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at the .05 l e v e l 137 T a b l e 8 One-way A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e for Demands by P a r e n t a l S t a t u s Source SS df MS F Between groups 768.71 1 768.71 38.78* W i t h i n groups 3198.08 161 19.82 *p_ < .001 138 T a b l e 9 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r the Job S a t i s f a c t i o n S c a l e Source SS df MS F Main e f f e c t 33.12 2 16.56 0.97 M a r i t a l S t a t u s 9.72 1 9.72 0.57 P a r e n t a l S t a t u s 14.93 1 14.93 0.88 I n t e r a c t i o n M . S . x P . S . 10.27 1 10.27 0.60 E x p l a i n e d 43.34 3 14.45 0.85 R e s i d u a l 2622.32 154 17.03 139 T a b l e 10 One-way A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r Job S a t i s f a c t i o n by  Age Source SS df MS F Between groups 312.08 4 78.02 5.08* W i t h i n groups 2396.18 156 15.36 *p_ .001 1 40 T a b l e 11 Mean Job S a t i s f a c t i o n Scores f o r F i v e Age Groups Group M 25 y e a r s or younger 17.10 26 - 35 y e a r s 17.16 36 - 45 y e a r s 17.24 46 - 55 y e a r s 20.00* 56 y e a r s and o l d e r 20.90* Note - groups s h a r i n g * do not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y . A l l o t h e r groups d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y at the p . <.05 l e v e l . 141 T a b l e 12 Mean Job S a t i s f a c t i o n Scores f o r F i v e Income L e v e l s Group M l e s s than $15,000 18.33 $15,000 - 25,000 17.31* $25,000 - 40,000 17.53 more than $40,000 19.19* * denotes p a i r s of groups the p . <.05 l e v e l . s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t 1 42 T a b l e 13 One-way A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e for A f f e c t Ba lance S c a l e  by M a r i t a l S t a t u s Source SS df MS F Between groups 24.74 2 12.38 2.36* W i t h i n groups 791.76 156 5.24 143 T a b l e 14 Mean A f f e c t Ba lance Scores for Three M a r i t a l Groups M a r r i e d Never M a r r i e d P r e v i o u s l y M a r r i e d 2.10* 1.17* 1 .65 •denotes p a i r s of groups s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at the .05 l e v e l 144 T a b l e 15 One-way A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e : Index of W e l l - B e i n g by M a r i t a l S t a t u s Source SS df MS F Between groups 582.53 2 291.26 3.92* W i t h i n groups 11732.58 158 74.26 *p_ < .05 145 T a b l e 16 Mean Index of W e l l - B e i n g Scores for Three M a r i t a l  Groups M a r r i e d Never M a r r i e d P r e v i o u s l y M a r r i e d 42.39* 38.44* 38.79 •denotes p a i r s of groups s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at the .05 l e v e l 1 4 6 Appendix A 148 C. How many adults are l i v i n g i n your household? 1. I l i v e alone 2. I l i v e with my husband or partner 3. I l i v e with another a d u l t ( s ) (eg. roommate, parent, s i s t e r , etc.) D. How many c h i l d r e n do you have l i v i n g w i t h you? 0. no c h i l d r e n 1. one c h i l d 2. two c h i l d r e n 3. three or more c h i l d r e n E. I f you have c h i l d r e n l i v i n g with you, what are t h e i r ages; C h i l d one C h i l d two C h i l d three C h i l d four 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 F. What i s the highest grade l e v e l of education you have completed? 1. l e s s than grade 12 - -2. completed grade 12 3. t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g or v o c a t i o n a l education beyond high school 4. some c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y 5. graduate from u n i v e r s i t y 6. other (please s p e c i f y ) G. How many years t o t a l work experience do you have, i n c l u d i n g part-time and voluntary work? H. Average number of hours per week you devote to your current job? I. What would you estimate your t o t a l combined family income to be? 1. l e s s than $15,000 2. $15,000 to $25,000 3. $25,000 to $40,000 4. more than $40,000 1 18 19 20 21 22 149 Here are some words and phrases which I would l i k e you to use co describe ho« v^erv 'tori " ^ P " " ' e X a m P l e ' l f y O U t J i a k very boring put the number 1 in the box co che right of the l i n e . If you chink I * J T ^ ? C e r e s C i _ 8 ' P u t c h e n u a b « 1 i a the box to the right of the l i n e . If you think i t i s somewhere in between, select the appropriate number and indicate your choice i n the box provided. Please make a selection for every l i n e . BORING ENJOYABLE USELESS LU m rn w m m LU m m Ul jjn fTJ LU fTJ LU LU iTJ I il m FRIENDLY /__/ Jjj ____/ j_kj U_/ J_6j Jj_l FULL fTJ fTJ jjj JTJ jTJ fTJ ~ DISCOURAGING JTJ JTJ /TJ fTJ JTJ fTJ JTJ DISAPPOINTING JTJ JTJ JTJ fTJ m rn m nn BRINGS OUT TEE BEST IN ME / 5 / / 6 / fTJ fTJ rn TJ INTERESTING MISERABLE WORTHWHILE LONELY EMPTY HOPEFUL REWARDING DOESN'T GIVE ME MUCH CHANCE J2_j Ml For some people work i s jusc a means to get money, i t i s something they have to put up with. For others, work i s the centre of their l i f e , something that r e a l l y matters to them. I would l i k e to ask you about your reactions to work i n general, and whether actually doing work i s Important to you personally. By "work" I mean having a paid job. Here are some statements which people have made about work and working, i n general. Without l i m i t i n g yourself to your present job would you indicate, i n the box to the-right - using the scale below - how strongly you agree or disagree with each comment? Select the number that most accurately r e f l e c t s your choice. Remember, that I am asking about paid jobs i n general, not simply your present job. / 1/- -/ 3/- -i 5 /" -/ 6/- -/ 7/ No, I Strongly Disagree No, I disagree Quite A l o t No, I disagree just A l i t t l e I'm not sure about th i s Yes, I Agree just A l i t t l e Yes, I Agree Quite A l o t Yes, -I Strongly Agree Even i f I won a great deal of money in a lott e r y I would continue to work somewhere. Having a job i s very important to me. I would hate to be on welfare. I would soon get very bdred i f I had no work to do. The most important things chat happen to me involve work If unemployment benefit was r e a l l y high I would s t i l l prefer co work. J H JTT (351 !36 150 Now consider some other aspects of your l i f e at the present moment and indicate how s a t i s f i e d you f e e l about each one i n turn. Please use the s c a l e below and i n d i c a t e i n che box to the r i g h t of each statement, the number which most accurately r e f l e c t s your choice. / 1/ / 2h - / 3 / / Uh -/ 5/- -/ 6/- -/7 I l a m l a m l a m l a m I am Extremely Very Moderately not sure Moderately Dis s a t i s f i e d D i s s a t i s f i e d Dissatisfied S a t i s f i e d The house or apartment that you l i v e i n . The l o c a l d i s t r i c t that you Live i n . tour standard of l i v i n g : the things you can buy and do. The way you spend your leisure time. Your present state of health. The education you have received. Your s o c i a l l i f e . Your family l i f e . I am Very Satisfied I am Extremely S a t i s f i e d 37 38 39 (Sol ZJ JA2J (44 Below are some statements concerning the number of demands you confront  from others. Using the scale below, please indicate the number, i n the box to the r i g h t , which most accurately r e f l e c t s your personal situ a t i o n . -nj-A l l of Most of A good deal About half Occasionally Seldom the the of the of the time time time time Never Does i t seem as i f others are always making demands on you? Do you often f e e l i t i s impossible to f i n i s h anything? At home does i t seem as i f you almost never have any peace and quiet? At home does i t seem as i f you are always having to do something for someone else? J 4 6 " 48 When you t r y to do something at home are you always interrupted? 49 Next, I would l i k e to s h i f t to another aspect of your l i f e , your job. The f o l l o w i n g questions w i l l give you a chance to t e l l how s a t i s f i e d or d i s s a t i s f i e d you f e e l about your present job. Below you w i l l f i n d statements about your job, please choose the response that describes most accurately how  s a t i s f i e d or d i s s a t i s f i e d you f e e l about your current job. Please i n d i c a t e your choice i n the boxes provided. Which one of the f o l l o w i n g shows how much of the time you f e e l s a t i s f i e d with your job? 1 Never. 2. Seldom. 3. Occasionally. 4. About ha l f of the time. 5. A good deal of the time. 6. Most of the time. 7. A l l of the time. Choose the one of the f o l l o w i n g statements which best t e l l s how w e l l you l i k e your job? 1. I hate i t . 2. I d i s l i k e i t . 3. I don't l i k e i t . 4. I am i n d i f f e r e n t to i t . 5. I l i k e i t . 6. I am e n t h u s i a s t i c about i t . 7. I love i t . Which one of the f o l l o w i n g best t e l l s how you f e e l about changing your job? 1. I would q u i t t h i s job at once i f I could. 2. I would take almost any other job i n which I could earn as much as I am earning now. 3. I would l i k e to change both my job and my occupation. 4. I would l i k e to exchange my present job f o r another one. 5. I am not eager to change my job, but I would do so i f I could get a b e t t e r job. 6. I cannot t h i n k of any jobs f o r which I would exchange. 7. I would not exchange my job f o r another. Which one of the f o l l o w i n g shows how you think you compare with other people? 1. No one d i s l i k e s her job more than I d i s l i k e mine. 2. I d i s l i k e my job much more than most people d i s l i k e t h e i r s . 3. I d i s l i k e my job more than most people d i s l i k e t h e i r s . 4. I l i k e my job about as w e l l as most people l i k e t h e i r s . 5. I l i k e my job b e t t e r than most people l i k e t h e i r s . 6. I l i k e ny job much better than most people l i k e t h e i r s . 7. No one l i k e s her job better than I l i k e mine. 152 Next I have some questions about how you have been f e e l i n g r e c e n t l y Please i n d i c a t e your choice i n the box to the r i g h t by s e l e c t i n g the number 1 i f your answer i s "yes" and the number 2 i f your answer i s "no". YES = 1 NO = 2 During the past few weeks d i d you f e e l P a r t i c u l a r l y excited or i n t e r e s t e d i n something? So r e s t l e s s that you couldn't s i t long i n a chair? Proud because someone had complimented you on something you had done? Very l o n e l y or remote from other people? Pleased to have accomplished something? Bored? On top of the world? Depressed or very unhappy? That things were going your way? Upset because someone c r i t i c i z e d you? \5U 55; 56; 57 58 5 T 60" £ 1 62 63 

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