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Psychological well-being and female clerical workers Peterson, Christine 1986

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PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AND F E M A L E C L E R I C A L WORKERS by CHRISTINE B.A.,  A  THESIS THE  PETERSON  University  SUBMITTED  of M a n i t o b a ,  IN  PARTIAL  REQUIREMENTS  1980  FULFILMENT  FOR T H E DEGREE  MASTER  OF  OF  ARTS  in THE  FACULTY  OF GRADUATE  Counselling  We  accept this to  THE  the  Psychology  thesis  required  UNIVERSITY  © Christine  as  conforming  standard  O F BRITISH  August  STUDIES  COLUMBIA  1986  Peterson,  1986  OF  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements  this  thesis  f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t  of  B r i t i s h Columbia,  it  freely  agree for  available  I agree  that permission  d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s understood that  that  for reference  the  and s t u d y .  or her representatives.  Counselling  1 Y 3  October  s h a l l make I  10,  further this  It  this  s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1 9 5 6 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada  Date  the  thesis  may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my  permission.  V 6 T  of  University  Library  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of  f i n a n c i a l gain  Department o f  the  for extensive copying of  s c h o l a r l y purposes  for  in partial fulfilment  1986  Psychology ,  Columbia  is  thesis my w r i t t e n  Abstract  This  s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d t o d i s c o v e r  of m a r i t a l well-being  and p a r e n t a l  o f women w o r k i n g  occupations. (1982a)  occupational quality  of  the  quality  of the  most i m p o r t a n t psychological Subjects  c l u s t e r s of  t o work),  environment  and t h e  are the  three the  study  were  female  employees of t h e U n i v e r s i t y of  Each  p a r t i c i p a n t completed a  containing  pertained  the  two  recruitment  background i n f o r m a t i o n ;  sections: of  the  first  demographic  t h e second  and  consisted  measure  the  above-named dependent v a r i a b l e s i d e n t i f i e d  by Warr  and  (1982a). The  life  study found  c y c l e stages,  of p a i d that  to isolate  short  and  Parry  designed  the  variables influencing  f o r the  and s e c r e t a r i a l  instruments  that  o f w o r k i n g women.  questionnaire  of  suggests  employment r e l a t i o n s h i p  B r i t i s h Columbia.  personal  which  nonoccupational  selected  to  and s e c r e t a r i a l  ( i . e. d e s i r e  well-being  psychological  i s b a s e d on Warr a n d P a r r y ' s  framework  involvement  the  inclerical  The r e s e a r c h  conceptual  clerical  s t a t u s on  the influence  women, i r r e s p e c t i v e  of  were h i g h l y c o m m i t t e d t o t h e c o n c e p t  employment.  while  that a l l  economic  Related  to this  considerations  i i  was t h e are  finding  important  motivators, is  work f o r p e r s o n a l  needs  s t r o n g and e x i s t s i r r e s p e c t i v e of f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o  economic The and  women's d e s i r e t o  gains. study a l s o  parental  found t h a t ,  status are  psychological  as expected,  marital  important determinants of the  well-being  of  n e a r l y a l l women were h i g h l y  working  women.  While  committed t o the concept  of p a i d employment, married working women r e v e a l e d highest  psychological  well-being,  group most s a t i s f i e d with  and a l s o  were the  f a m i l y and s o c i a l l i f e .  c o n t r a s t , as expected, p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d women the  lowest  psychological  significantly life.  less  Furthermore, the  to h o l d true f o r t h i s  with f a m i l y  well-being  By  showed  and and  i s s u e of m u l t i p l e  detriment t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l  In c o n c l u s i o n ,  well-being,  satisfied  the  were social  r o l e s as a  does not  appear  study.  the study  found that marriage  and  f a m i l y c o n t i n u e t o be, as they have been  historically,  f a c t o r s of  psychological  well-being  central of  importance  women,  employment i s a t  while  the same  in  the  the commitment time  before.  iii  stronger  to than  paid ever  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  L i s t of T a b l e s  v i  Acknowledgements  .viii  Dedication  x  CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION  1  Statement of the problem  2  Purpose of the study  7  S i g n i f i c a n c e of the study  8  CHAPTER I I : REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE H i s t o r i c a l View of Women's P a i d Employment  11 ......11  The C o n s t r u c t of P s y c h o l o g i c a l Weil-Being  18  Women and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Weil-Being  30  P s y c h o l o g i c a l Well-Being of Working Women  34  O c c u p a t i o n a l Involvement  35  Nonoccupational Environment  40  Q u a l i t y of the Employment R e l a t i o n s h i p  42 48  CHAPTER I I I : METHODOLOGY Sample  48  Materials  48  The Measures  50  P s y c h o l o g i c a l Well-Being  50  The  52  Index of Weil-Being  The A f f e c t Balance Scale iv  55  6 0  O c c u p a t i o n a l Involvement Scale Q u a l i t y of the Nonoccupational  Environment 6 3  Scale Q u a l i t y of the Employment R e l a t i o n s h i p  7 0  Research Hypotheses  7 4  CHAPTER IV: RESULTS Description  of  Sample  and  Demographic 7 4  Statistics Internal R e l i a b i l i t y Testing  6 4  of the Instrument  7 8 7 9  the Hypotheses  9 0  Summary CHAPTER V: DISCUSSION AND  CONCLUSION  9 2  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Sample  9 2  O c c u p a t i o n a l Involvement  9 3  Q u a l i t y of the Nonoccupational Environment  9 5  Q u a l i t y of the employment r e l a t i o n s h i p  9 7  Psychological  9 9  Well-Being  1 0 1  Limitations  1 0 2  Theoretical  Implications  Counselling  and P r a c t i c a l  Implications  1 0 7  Future Research  1 1 2  Conclusion  1 1 4  REFERENCES  1 1 5  Tables  1 2 9  Appendix A  1 4 6 v  List  of  Tables  Table  Page  1 Hoyt  Estimate  of  Reliability  Dependent R e s e a r c h 2 Analysis  of  3 One-way  4 Mean  5 Analysis  of  of  Variance  for  Occupational  Status  Involvement  132  Scores  for  Three 133  Variance  Analysis  Marital  for  the  Environment of  Quality  of  the  Scale  Variance  for  134 Demands  by  Status  135  7 Mean Demand S c o r e s  for  8 One-way  of  Analysis  Parental 9 Analysis  Occupational  Groups  Nonoccupational 6 One-way  the  131  by M a r i t a l  Occupational  Marital  for  130  Scale  Analysis  Involvement  for  Measures  Variance  Involvement  Coefficients  of  Three M a r i t a l Variance  for  Groups Demands  Status Variance  136 by 137  for  the  Job S a t i s f a c t i o n  Scale 138  vi  10 One-way  Analysis  Satisfaction 11 Mean  of  Variance  for  Job  by Age  139  Job S a t i s f a c t i o n  Scores  for  Five  Age  Groups ..140  12 Mean  Job S a t i s f a c t i o n  Scores  for  Five  Income  Levels 141  13 One-way Balance 14 Mean  Analysis Scale  Affect  of  Variance  by M a r i t a l  Balance  for  Affect  Status  Scores  for  142  Three M a r i t a l  Groups 1 43  15 One-way  Analysis  Well-Being 16 Mean  Index  Marital  of  by M a r i t a l of  Variance  for  Index  of  Status  Well-Being  Groups  Scores  144 for  Three 145  vii  Acknowledgements  T h i s t h e s i s would generous  help  not have been  p o s s i b l e without  the  of many  and  and encouragement  friends  collegues.  I would  l i k e to take  t h i s opportunity  express my  sincere  g r a t i t u d e to  all  though  space permits me  by name i n these b r i e f My Dr.  to  Kahn,  persons,  o n l y a few of  them  acknowledgements.  s p e c i a l thanks  Sharon  mention  these  to  goes to  my T h e s i s  f o r i n t r o d u c i n g me  Supervisor,  to the  critical  area of women and work,  and f o r her u n f a i l i n g  support  and enthusiasm  project  to  finish.  source of  support  Throughout and  for this  she has  been a constant  encouragement,  energy, and  from s t a r t  giving  freely  of  f o r t h i s I am e s p e c i a l l y  I would a l s o l i k e to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to my and Dr. comments  her  time  and  grateful. s i n c e r e thanks  and  Committee members, Dr.  D a n i e l Brown  Eleanore Vains for t h e i r various  constructive  and  manuscript.  suggestions The  on  finished version  much to t h e i r knowledgeable Thanks are  how  due  demystify  the  statistical  analysis.  the many women who  to  improve  the  of t h i s t h e s i s  owes  input.  Dr.  difficult  to  Mike task  As w e l l , I owe  McRae of  who  helped  computerized  a s p e c i a l debt to  chose to become p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s  viii  study.  Without  their participation,  the study  would  not have been p o s s i b l e . My g r e a t e s t Glen, f o r when i t  debt of g r a t i t u d e goes to my  providing  was most  acknowledge unfortunately  my  encouragement and  needed.  Finally,  parents,  did  especially  not l i v e  fruition.  ix  to see  husband,  moral  I would my  support like  father  this thesis  to who  reach  Dedication  This thesis  i s d e d i c a t e d to the memory of Donna Mary  Morgan whose d e t e r m i n a t i o n and courage remain an inspiration  to me.  X  1  CHAPTER I:  Women  have  composition Since  of  for  pay,  (Ostry  r a t e s have  had r i s e n  time  fifteen  years  labour  of  trends  based  for  rate  men  is  projected  clear  and  that  by  are  on  for  in  the  that  for all  the women force  survey  of  reported  a  in comparison The  of  It  Canadian  labour  to  emerging  continue.  75%  paid  of  The  labour  1984).  fully  the  1983).  figures  to  women women's  Canadian  women  era.  By 1971  i n the  1983  expected  1990,  be  1967),  51.6%,  A recent  war  Canadian  reveals  precisely  53.7  is  post  the  force  is  women (Labour  1983).  While  the  composition  sheer  of  significant.  the  Typically, i n or  numbers a r e labour  A generation  women u s u a l l y  found  1981  (Financial Post,  24-54 w i l l  Canada,  of  all  Denton,  and o l d e r 1984).  participation  the  (Labour Canada,  of  Canada,  force  in  climbed s t e a d i l y .  50%,  age  transformed  of  &  39.4%  more t h a n  (Statistics  aged  to  force  22.9%  c u r r e n t census data  first  trend  labour only  figure  79.0  the  when  participation  most  dramatically  1941,  worked  INTRODUCTION  only  meant the  seeking  force ago  the  withdrawal single paid  striking,  and  may act  the  be of  from t h e  changing  even  marriage work  d i v o r c e d were  employment.  more  Today the  for  place. to  be  trend  2  has  shifted  the  labour  divorced labour  with force  women  force  two  likely are  the  in  the  engage  d i v o r c e d or  have  working  important has  been  past  -  that  in  paid  20  changes  in  of  what is  Thus  the  forty  fact,  and  years of  divorce  of  rate. more  more  women  children the in  most Canada  especially  a  the  are  more  force  female  of  increased  that  seen  the  has  outside  have  case  entering  one  labour  entering  the  women  that  working  and d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n  the  and  means  mothers,  children,  In  married  female  preschool  growth  In  with  past  But  years  women  their  employment  the  number  of  today  separated  in  married.  risen.  mothers.  the  incline  probability not  factors  to  sharpest  among t h o s e  has  dramatically These  the  those  the  home.  significant  work  force.  Statement of the problem  The  impact  well-being  is  occupational It  is  level,  and  psychological successful  employment  dependent  expected,  employment  dentist  of  on  more  the  will to  psychological as  education,  socioeconomic  that  the  particularly  married  compared with  factors  and  example,  well-being  lawyer  such  marital  for  on women's  differ an  single  status.  experience  its  effect  for  the  equally mother  of on  highly  successful  working  as  a  3  clerk  typist  herself  struggling  and  her  professional positions domestic  the  least  to  and a r e more l i k e l y  to  such  to  areas  in  provide  pay f o r have  as  rely  family  on  date  among w o r k i n g utilized  has  extensive  professional  career  Holahan  1981;  Hunt & H u n t , 1982,  This assumption higher  threatened  economic  1982,  the  care  packages plans  Lower p a y i n g benefits.  jobs Women  mothers,  policies  such  as  credits. the  research  k i n d s of  The framework  woman  have  medical/dental  fringe  make s u c h  of  by  to  in p a r t i c u l a r single  & Gilbert,  dual  distinctions  most career  (Burke & W e i r ,  undertaken  frequently couple  1976a;  1979a; H o u s e k n e c t  or  Faver,  &  Macke,  Rapopport & Rapopport,  1976;  1983).  focus that  education  managerial  to  that  1984;  Yogev,  and  women. been  similar  benefit  leave.  and c h i l d t a x  failed  be  employee  s u r p r i s i n g l y , much of  has  with  paid  home h e l p and c h i l d  extended  government  allowance  Yet, to  such  these p o s i t i o n s ,  must  to  for  highly  men  likely  and a d d i t i o n a l p a i d m a t e r n i t y rarely  an e x i s t e n c e  Such women a r e more l i k e l y  resources  covering  out  Moreover,  married  overload.  financial  eke  children.  women  are  to  is  problematic  for  women  in general  have  and  consequently  to  positions.  The  it  rests  on  easy a c c e s s professional  professional  the to and  career  4  characterization women and  is  experiences depiction majority  of  dominated,  skewed  were  the  female  Studies lives  of  i n the  the  who "have  in  This  is  view  that  to  such  lower  the  The  status  the  role  in  most  of  60%  1981  of  or The  largest margin  - more t h a n  of  work  in  like  rewards economic  careers  are  g a i n and t h a t  for  (1978)  that  their  frequently  the jobs  Wright  suggests to  1/3  1983).  personal  As  all  service  important reason  the  professional  work f o r p e r s o n a l  The  Instead,  jobs.  to  female  non-professional  literature  contrast  secondary.  found i n  by a c o n s i d e r a b l e  work" a r e assumed not  women i n  rewards are  realities.  sales  employment.  relevant  in d i r e c t  motivated to  this  1983).  existence  c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e  out,  Indeed,  (Labour Canada,  engaged  with  employment  the  c l e r i c a l sector  investigating  working  explaining  than  clerical,  labour force  associated  points  in  employees  discount  is  most  jobs.  more.  female  women  basic t o be  that  Canada,  frequently  need  of  for  status  (Labour  was c o n c e n t r a t e d of  low  showed  e m p l o y e d women  to  women a r e  paying,  Canadian census  of  inadequate  counter  working  occupations  representative  n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l women.  low  population  not  clearly  of  is  is  women jobs.  espoused primarily monetary  5  While  it  may  non-professional than  that  makes  available  still  greater  Ferree  1976,  Rubin,  1976).  tendency  the  to  treat  regard  cycle.  The l i f e  of  individual  adolescence  that the  presence  to  cycle  is  absence  women  role  life  cycle  and t h i s  both  hinders  life  women.  The  very  of  one  society  b o t h on t h e  1962;  previous  on  the  a series  But  of  as  well  as  j o b and as  Oakley,  1974;  basis as of  of  the  life  progress  stages and  can be  as  the  expected stages  will  a  and  from  entailing  well  have  been  category  vary with  status  a  1985;  o l d age,  It  a  (Astin,  a p a r t n e r as  variance  job  r e s e a r c h has  defined  demands w i l l  a  with  a monolithic  children.  employment  least  network.  maintenance  here  through  and d e p a r t u r e of  on  in  through adulthood to or  the  social  distinction  for  effect  at  women a s  to  w i t h h a v i n g a job can  Komarovsky,  of  in  satisfaction  work p r o v i d e s  family's  shortcoming  women  erroneous  of  associated  an a d d i t i o n a l  without  arrival  be  For example,  1984;  A second  the  would  group  in one's accomplishments  the  job  therefore  importance,  to  that  lower  p a r t i c i p a t i o n , purpose  contributor  the  it  this  benefits  be d i s m i s s e d .  pride  report  women  for  psychological  s e n s e of  true  employment  satisfaction  not  jobs  professional  suggest  be  of  salient  employment  6  satisfaction.  Since,  o b l i g a t i o n s of  a single  most d e f i n i t e l y v a r y children,  i t i s expected  (Baruch,  the  woman w i t h o u t  from those  satisfactions derived as w e l l  f o r example,  roles  and  children  will  of a married  that  their  woman w i t h  attitudes  f r o m p a i d employment w i l l  Barnett  & R i v e r s , 1983).  differ  While s i n g l e  women r e p o r t a h i g h commitment t o t h e p a i d l a b o u r (Agassi,  1982; Warr  & Parry,  1982a),  Armstrong,  1984,  1980,  1982; H i l l e r  young  children,  Ferber,  Mothers  of  children,  a r e very  physically  involved i n  general, this employment question  task  priority  Converse  e v e n more recent has  pertinent  increase  have  committed t o p a i d  parenting  preschool well  as  and, i n  & Rodgers, 1976).  The  c y c l e stages  o f w o r k i n g women bear  women w i t h traditionally  employment.  as  1980).  paid  i n women's l a b o u r  been f o r m a r r i e d  which s t u d i e s  when we  Faver,  f o r them o v e r  r e l a t i o n s h i p of l i f e  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g  1982;  especially  emotionally  of  employment  & Philliber,  the task of  takes  (Campbell,  of the  1983; B a r n e t t ,  much  force  the presence  young c h i l d r e n i s n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h (Armstrong &  and  i n mind force  becomes that  the  participation  c h i l d r e n , that shown  to  to  be  group least  7  Purpose of the study  This that  research  is  views a s e r i e s  employment  status  well-being  of  out  that  a woman's the  and t h e  c o n t r i b u t i n g to  of  investigate variables  of  the  with  the  desire  quality  of  quality  of  current  marital  and p a r e n t a l  second  objective  her  nonoccupational  r e s e a r c h by d r a w i n g most  In  in  desire  to  (or,  three  most  influencing  the  study of  is  to  dependent  variables  a question, regards  involvement),  environment  and  of  will to  a the the  r e l a t i o n s h i p d e p e n d i n g on h e r status?  is  a sample  underrepresented  the  with  (occupational  h e r employment  theory  environment  independent  differences  work  (ie.  cluster  significant to  (1982a)  this  status.  woman's  A  of  aforementioned to  study  w o r k i n g women.  objective  relation  are  and/or parental  be  this  relationship  variables of  mere  psychological  her n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l  well-being  primary  involvement  satisfaction)  clusters  psychological  Parry's  h e r employment  job  the  framework  beyond  Specifically,  Warr and  q u a l i t y of  The  important v a r i a b l e s  occupational  quality  important  there  as  examine  more g e n e r a l l y ,  marital  of  within a conceptual  w o r k i n g women.  sets  work),  to  set  to  expand  from  the  the  on  previous  g r o u p of  literature  and  women most  8  over/represented  in  the  workplace:  the  pink  collar  worker. In  summary,  address the  is  question  how do m a r i t a l  quality  clerical  the  of  life  of  which t h i s  and p a r e n t a l  study  status  will  relate  women w o r k i n g i n s e c r e t a r i a l  to and  jobs?  S i g n i f i c a n c e of the study  The  p u r p o s e of  important  subject  sociologists. being  work i n  of  It  inquiry  has  unemployed i s  been  (Bradburn  al.  Gove & G e e r k i n ,  1976;  1982;  Warr,  1978,  substantial  investigate  &  1977;  an  both p s y c h o l o g i s t s  and  of  a  are  for  men  psychological Campbell  Levinson,  1978;  result  women's  paid  that  1965;  As  in  has  w i t h low  1982a).  impact  been  established  researchers  the  lives  Caplovitz,  increase  participation  for  associated  well-being r  men's  Tamir,  of  the  labour  now  force  beginning  employment  in  et  to  women's  lives. The  importance  self-evident. integral  of  psychological  Satisfaction  aspect  individual.  of  Life  philosophers,  of  the  with  religious  one's  overall  satisfaction  has  well-being life  health  of  l o n g been a  thinkers,  and  is  is an  every concern  psychologists.  9  Increasingly  i t i s becoming  p r a c t i t i o n e r s as well, the  growing  Since  everyday l i f e , relevance  concern  as witnessed,  appreciation  perspective.  a  of  work  a  i s an  medical  for example, in  "holistic integral  i t seems appropriate  in a population  of  health" aspect  of  to investigate i t s  for whom work is presently of  increasing importance. As  yet the relationship  between  psychological  well-being and women's paid employment remains (Baruch, et a l , 1983 Warr & Parry, for  this  i s the fact  formative  stage.  that  1982a).  unclear  One  reason  research remains  in the  H i s t o r i c a l l y , "women's work" has been  viewed only as occurring within  the boundaries of the  home, while paid employment has been considered work".  Contemporary  have also hidden  operated  assumptions  analytical within imbedded  within  For example, previous  largely  comparisons  well-being  between  of  long  these  standing  studies have focused the  psychological  of f u l l time homemakers and women engaged in  paid employment. considering  and models  the parameters  traditions. on  theories  "men's  only  While a  single variable focus  employment  status)  may  (i.e.  have  been  useful at the i n i t a l stage of research, recent  changes  in women's labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n patterns  require  multivariable investigations to identify  relationships  10  that  are  variable  hidden or  the  of  single  study  the  level  of  single  analysis.  Psychological factors  obscured at  is  well-being  w h i c h employment  is  v a r i a b l e approach to  investigate  within  the  context  lives,  including  additionally  of not  the  the  is  influenced  just the role  one.  significance of  paid  of  this  employment  " b i g g e r p i c t u r e " of  and e c o n o m i c  many  Moving beyond  only psychological  sociological  by  women's  factors  factors.  but  11  CHAPTER I I : REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  To u n d e r s t a n d t h e force  participation this  historical factors in  p i c t u r e of  section  w h i c h have c o n t r i b u t e d  will  work i n v o l v e m e n t be  followed  psychological women's  will  framework o u t l i n i n g t h e  women's  This  full  well-being  the  i n the  and  of  and  steady post  the  its  labour  commence w i t h  economic  to  by a r e v i e w  women's  a  social increase  war  period.  literature  on  relationship  to  p a i d and u n p a i d w o r k .  H i s t o r i c a l View of Women's Paid Employment  Women have a l w a y s of  their  over  work  the  period  involvement  past  the  family  the  typically it  the  economic  young and s i n g l e  understood that  w i t h matrimony responsibilities  when she of  child  unit  and t h e  the  enter  would r e t u r n  home  The a d v e n t away  of  from  the  wage economy factories  & Scott,  a woman's  care  considerably preindustrial  drew women  (Tilly  patterns  the  industry.  women t o  the  changed  home and i n t o  The f i r s t  was a l w a y s  However,  During  of  revolution  domain of  factory.  was t h e  true center  industrial  private  have  two c e n t u r i e s .  was a woman's the  worked.  1978).  real  of  were Yet  work began  to her  and h o u s e w o r k .  primary Women  1 2  who were  unfortunate  t h o s e who labour  were d e s e r t e d  force  During  the  Second  enticed  World  into  w o r l d wars  labour  this  of  in  response  p r o d u c t i o n and t h e  shortage  of  workers.  G o v e r n m e n t s p o r t r a y e d f a c t o r y work as  patriotic  duty.  social  the  work t o c o n t r i b u t e  Weiner, work  1985).  site  nontraditional and r i v e t e r s At  and p o o r .  return of  to  the  similarly  enticed  enticement  as  well  as  incentives  the to  the  is  In  the  return  just  to  private  sector  women who  took  as  of  women's  all cycle  (Crosby,  they  the  home.  on in  operators, exception. the  forces  governments  factory,  important here.  male  engaged  crane  return  the  of  readily available  u r g e d by t h e i r fact,  the  life  war e f f o r t  Women  the  to  Women o f  norm r a t h e r t h a n t h e  and i n t o to  of  welders,  and w i t h  home. home  of  Women  women were  the  the  mothers.  jobs.  end  stages  to  were  t y p i c a l w o r k i n g woman  D a y c a r e was  for  became  war's  from a b r o a d ,  out  single  b a c k g r o u n d s and i n a l l  went t o 1982;  young,  during  women  pressures  was no l o n g e r  was  society.  numbers  C o n s e q u e n t l y the  the  lifestyle  and e s p e c i a l l y  force  and  remained i n  s e c t o r s of  War, l a r g e  the war  However,  by most  two  for a husband,  or widowed,  permanently.  considered deviant  the  in t h e i r quest  were  to  enticed  women The  were  concept  Government  policies  a d v e r t i s e d and  provided  up t h e  traditional  roles  13  of  spouse  and  incentives effort  to  in  the  encourage  a replacement Private consumers  home  domestic  government  form of  family  women t o  r e b u i l d the  industry to  also this  (Friedan,  end  the  1963).  the  roles  allowances  targeted  desireable  more s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  provided  tax  in  nation  an  through  scheme.  campaign e x t o l l i n g  products  t o make  The  population  and  advertising the  mother.  launched  as a  prime massive  the  new t e c h n o l o g i e s  In  order  private  advertising  of  women  housewife  to  make  new  companies,  industry and  or,  first  mother  of  had  appear  attractive Yet,  despite  choose a c a r e e r market,  1984).  women  i n the  women's  increased  labour  Even more force  force  since  the  women have striking  1983,  past  sought fact  in  dramatic  continued  increase  seeking  employment.  m a r r i e d women  post  increase  war p e r i o d in  1984).  However labour has  in  married  proportion  p a i d employment. women's  has  Canada,  Canada,  century a large  to  labour  occurrerd for  participation and  the  in the  greatest  Statistics  about  women  (Statistics  the  p a r t i c i p a t i o n has  than  for  participation  1951  importantly,  (Labour Canada,  single  incentives  home r a t h e r  labour  steadily  Throughout  most  these v a r i o u s  of the  force  been  the  the  numbers  of  Whereas  in  1951,  14  22.5% of force,  Canadian by  1983  (Connelly,  women p a r t i c i p a t e d this  1978;  figure  Labour  Canada,  1984).  This  complex  fashion  to  had  in  labour  to  52.6%  jumped  Canada,  1983;  new d e v e l o p m e n t  the  the  Statistics  is  related  wholly unprecedented  economic  prosperity  and a c c o m p a n y i n g  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of  structure,  norms and  that  modern w e s t e r n  values  industrial  has  societies  social  occurred in  over  the  in  all  past  three  single  most  decades. In t e r m s  of  women's  important  economic  g r o w t h of  the  such as 1950  the  force  the  three all  years  1951-81 from  of  Canada,  male employees  unprecedented  producing i n d u s t r i e s ,  1980; the  11.1  Connelly,  occupational to  1984;  19.2  of  since 1978).  category, the  labour  1980).  went  Phillips & Phillips, In  1971,  important employer,  q u a r t e r s of  the  t h e s e newly c r e a t e d p o s i t i o n s  (Armstrong,  most  been  the  and p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  Canada,  expanded  Statistics was  finance  - and most  women  has  t e r t i a r y or s e r v i c e  trade,  clerical,  to  fact  (Statistics  Between  employment  all  female  in  the  the  tertiary  accounting  workers  country  for  1983; sector almost  and one h a l f  (Statistics  of  Canada,  1980). Coupled with t h i s labour  in  traditional  swelling female  expansion  of  occupations  demand f o r came  the  15  appearance  on t h e  N o r t h A m e r i c a n consumer  1 9 5 0 ' s of  a vast  Initially  luxuries  new  a r r a y of  available  refrigerators,  televisions  looked  increasingly  upon  necessities, America's  1983;  indeed  society' in h i s  both  to  so  the  demand  consumer  products  It  also  social  stigma  Whereas  in  the in  was  the  Galbraith  (Galbraith,  of  1958).  m a r r i e d women the  earnings  argued  that  eroding  the  families  this  new  traditional  with working  now a measure  of  respectability  positive  family's  more and  contribution  s t a n d a r d of early  1960's  living it  more women were  the  also  often straits,  imparted  to  viewed  betterment  (Weiner,  was  wives.  was  c o u l d now be to  new buy.  in d i r e  of  of  could  a family  employment  responded  lure  of  Her  &  consumerism  evidence  as  past  North  by J o h n K e n n e t h  l a b o u r and  to  by  (Armstrong  wife  By t h e that  absolute  working  working w i f e . terms  not  a  interpreted there  if  'affluent  reasonably  attached the  gradually  the  numbers of  effect  wealthy,  were  emergence of  for  c o n s u m e r i s m had t h e  the  The new  w h i c h employment  be  to  middle c l a s s  aptly  the  appliances.  luxuries"  1963).  in  like  as,  same t i t l e  increasing the  may  Friedan,  described  only  "affordable  n u r t u r i n g the  book o f  Thus  least  domestic  and t h e  r a p i d l y burgeoning  Armstrong, was  at  market  of  1985). becoming  expressing  clear  a desire  to  16  work  for  1963).  reasons  of  E c o n o m i c and s o c i a l  made p o s s i b l e evaluating Bradburn Veroff  and i n  the &  &  presaging  the  to  "the  to  by  analysts  and  uselessness  reported  that  past  husbands  what  the  confines  (Friedan,  Friedan's movement grow in  since  the  women's  funding,  as  1960's,  well.  of  identity  more commonly as  referred  "housewife's  as  feelings  of  Friedan's  women  desired  to  their  of  was  home and t h e  in order  to  expand lives  develop  of  their  their  the  vehicle  exerting towards and  an work  the  has  own  influence as  a  action  government  women's  continued not  vehicle  fulfillment,  Reproductive technology,  affirmative  establishment  of  The women's movement  development  governments  transformations  depression.  was  attitudes  personal  and  1963).  book  needed.  identifying  were d e s c r i b e d  they  and c h i l d r e n ,  identities  The  family physicans  and  Gurin,  book  gave c o n c r e t e  a name",  in 1969;  1965;  (1963)  landmark i n  The symptoms  boredom,  lives,  Friedan's  and a t t i t u d i n a l  problem without  interest  (Bradburn,  Cantril,  book F r i e d a n  (Friedan,  in North America  a new  life  1965;  was a  In h e r  syndrome".  encouraged  Betty  social  fulfillment  prosperity  of  Caplovitz,  Feld).  time.  fact  quality  Feminine Mystique  our  personal  programmes occupational  but  to  only for on  daycare and  the  training  17  courses  for  control So i t  women  and c h o i c e  is  not  have  since  given  in planning families  s u r p r i s i n g then  that  c h i l d r e n have  the  category  labour 1983;  growing  force  (Armstrong,  Statistics It  is  recession  of  least  great  of  the  Canada,  also  true  the  economic  1984;  Oppenheimer,  1977,  to m a i n t a i n the high  levels  traditionally  Given  then  numerous and is  the  the  Phillips,  e a r n e r has  of  in order to  since  Fox  & &  1983;  contemporary  become  insufficient  living.  Excessively  economy, have  supplement  or p r e v e n t  reasons  Armstrong 1978;  at  many  recently  the  the  or  Phillips,  construction,  benefits  &  work f o r  1984;  For  sectors  r e l y on s o c i a l  what  1982).  male  employment  unemployment  also  &  unemployment  to  to  Phillips  and  represent  m a r r i e d women,  Connelly,  of  resources  married  entering  Phillips  f a m i l y s t a n d a r d of  natural find  women  them,  1977;  o n l y one wage  1980's  come t o  (Armstrong,  Boyd,  lifestyles.  particularly  1970's,  necessity  Hess-Biber,  families  that  late  greater  1983).  m a j o r i t y of  Armstrong,1983;  of  1984;  and  by t h e  women w i t h p r e s c h o o l fastest  women  the  in  certain  for  example  forced the  wives  husband's  f a m i l y from h a v i n g  assistance.  that  the  complex, impact of  reasons  women a r e w o r k i n g  an i m p o r t a n t work on women's  question  are  arises:  well-being?  It  18  is  this  area  concern  to  Baruch,  et  al,  1976;  Burvell,  of  psychologists al,  1983;  1979  Gutek,  &  Fitzgerald 1977;  1982;  first  is  task  Construct  throughout  has  the been  has  political  or economic  to  a  more  have  data  the  b e c a u s e of  seen  &  Finlay-Jones  1970;  Gove,  1982;  1985;  1982a, what  1972;  Haw,  Roberts,  1982;  Nieva  &  Roberts  &  1982b). is  The  meant  by  the  as  of  life,  to  human  centuries an  of  life.  life  thought "happiness  ethical,  religious,  Within  the  last  century  from p h i l o s o p h i c a l  i n an  of  their  debate  economic  ongoing  Economic  acceptance  r e g a r d as  or  the  procedure  collection,  most  Well-Being  central  shifted  widespread  what  1981  quality  concern.  has  quality  gained  1980; et  1980;  Over the  scientific  demographic measure  been  focus  Baruch,  1983,  establish  greatest  1976b; C a m p b e l l ,  & Minor  & Parry,  upon  history.  the  the  well-being.  problem"  however  Warr,  of P s y c h o l o g i c a l  Reflection satisfaction  &  of  1985;  Krause,  clearly  term p s y c h o l o g i c a l  The  Harrison  Warr  to  (Astin,  & Crites,  1982;  Parry  Stevenson,  is  & Stopes-Roe,  McCrae,  1981;  which  Burke & W e i r ,  Cochrane  Gove & G e e r k i n , Kessler  research  search  and to  measurements  and objective  legitimacy nature;  19  that  is,  the  interchangeable In  1950's  psychologists  of  of  began  1965;  It  was  h o u s i n g and guarantee their  that  poorer  important  the  q u a l i t y of  life  argued  (Bradburn,  1965; that  to  higher  be  recognized  instruments  designed  & Capowitz,  Bradburn  Veroff  &  income,  did  not  necessarily  than those  need  1965;  values  Cantril,  feel living  What  was  p e r s o n and h i s / h e r  to  well-being develop  measure  and  Feld, better  better  the  basis  1969;  subjectively  to  feelings  on t h e  psychological a  however  established  conditions.  assess  researchers  expectations,  and  would  i n t e r a c t i o n of  To  Gurin,  etc.  individuals  the  environment.  Bradburn  the  Cantril,  life  1960's  question  socioeconomic  was  equal  to  neighbourhoods  q u a l i t y of  under  early  i n d i c a t o r s alone  & Capowitz, 1960).  and  evaluating  economic  of  units.  the  practice  standardization  new  perceptions,  (Bradburn, 1965;  Gurin  1969; et  al.,  1960). Out of emerged  a  new  psychology. Maslow,  this  concern branch  The f o u n d e r  who p o s t u l a t e d of  According  theory  to  his  of of  the  classification  for  human  subjective psychology,  this  new s c h o o l  existence needs  of  a  well-being humanistic was  hierarchical  (Maslow,  human needs a r r a n g e  Abraham  1954).  themselves  20  in  order  safety  of  and s e c u r i t y ,  belonging higher  make  order  independence 1954). lower  up  Physiological and t h i r d l y ,  the  needs  lower  the  and u l t i m a t e l y  self  to  the  o r d e r needs must gratified. satisfied  theory be  the  order  include  Central  c a n be were  potency.  need  for  for  the  for  love  and  while  the  freedom  and  actualization  is  (Maslow,  hypothesis  before  argued that  psychological  need  needs  need  satisfied  Maslow  needs,  that  higher  a s more  well-being  needs needs  would  be  enhanced. Maslow*s  hypotheses  concerning  well-being  were e x p l o r a t o r y  he  his  tested  theories  representative his  findings  further the  fact  from t h e classes  samples  that  (Hall  of  he  "healthy &  may c o n s t i t u t e nevertheless  on  the  Lindzey,  leaves  have  inadequate  1978).  A  sampling techniques  is  &  Lindzey,  subjects  1978).  socioeconomic  well-being.  to  as  exclusively  m i d d l e and  upper  Although t h i s  a significant  resources  than on  adjusted"  naturally arises  rather  groups  a n u m e r i c a l m a j o r i t y of it  that  based  recruited his  psychological  question  (Hall  and w e l l  The f a c t  generalization  Maslow's  u n d e r s t a n d i n g how l o w e r their  nature.  small  makes  questionable  criticism  in  psychological  the  fully  population,  research groups  Taken one to  group  whether satisfy  gap  in  perceive  step  further  people their  who basic  21  needs a r e needs of  therefore respect,  denied  self  Notwithstanding on  the  to  e s t e e m and  needs  the  and  experience  contribution  to  investigations  ( C a m p b e l l , et  Interest  the  i n the  grown c o n s i d e r a b l y  the  diversity  first  major  on a n a t i o n a l in  1957  scale  ( G u r i n et  their  framework G u r i n  stress.  The s u r v e y worries,  optimism  the  for  s i g n s of  stress,  classified those for  as  1950's,  the  life,  Subjects  anxiety,  healthy  States what  (1960)  as were  and  emotional  included  questions breakdown,  i t e m and an i t e m on who d i s p l a y e d  to  who r e p o r t e d a p r e v i o u s psychological  life  m e d i c a l model  w o r r y and  (moderate  of  orientation".  nervous  a happiness  has the  utilized  colleagues  a  life  too  United  study  developed  of  One of  quality  in psychological  future.  life  and so  i n the  This  and h i s  of  of  techniques.  and u s i n g a  they  significant  quality  "mental h e a l t h  fears  with  a need  a  interested  satisfaction  while  1960).  made a  the  undertaken  from p s y c h i a t r y  particularly  about  as  of  investigate  was  al.,  c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d Drawing  to  which  1976).  the  measurement  studies  satisfactions  quality  al,  higher  emphasis  later  since  the  Maslow's  life  assessment  has  of  of  of  actualization.  these c r i t i c i s m s  specific  contribute  gratification  counselling  fewer  depression high  were  well-being)  "breakdown" o r were d i a g n o s e d  felt as  22  ill  or  (Gurin  maladjusted et  al.,  question things  "pretty  happy"  important  American  the  Bradburn,  well-being)  "not it  public  the  how w o u l d y o u  say  Bradburn  were "very  happy".  This  subsequently  time  been  &  & Capowitz,  asked  happy", is  included  in  trends  Withey,  1965;  to  item  to assess  (Andrews  and  To  options:  opinion polls  over  1969;  item measure.  respondents  too  has  happiness Gurin  together  following  or  life  things  days?",  because  a number o f  of  used a s i n g l e  these  from  in  1976b;  Campbell  et  1976). It  c a n be a r g u e d t h a t  measure a c o n c e p t psychometric measures  as  of  D i e n e r & Emmons, shown  " v e r y happy") 1976a;  Campbell  single  item  low c o n v e r g e n t  Campbell,  to  example,  consistency.  Larsen,  tends  from  internal  1976a;  that  et  1976;  towards  continuum  al.,  1976).  1984;  subsequent to  u p p e r end  (Andrews  also  (Andrews &  Diener,  response the  providing  They have  In a d d i t i o n  subject  the  time,  reliablity  al,  1985).  gravitate of  et  to  suffers  r e l i a b l e over  Withey,  scales  For  item  happiness  be l e s s  shown t o have  r e s e a r c h has  r e l i a n c e on a s i n g l e  complex a s  weakness.  tend to  no e s t i m a t e s been  construct  "taking a l l  choose  al.,  the  (1960)  are  psychological  1960).  To measure colleagues  (low  &  3-step (i.e. Withey,  23  Rejecting  both the  m e d i c a l model and t h e  single  i t e m measurement  second  r e s e a r c h a p p r o a c h was  the  meaning  1969;  of  Bradburn  colleagues  theory  as  to  as  1965).  (Bradburn,  in  1969;  a whole  a  study  of  (Bradburn,  Unlike  Gurin  and  psycholgical  trait,  well-being  fluctuating  a  the  conceptualized  psychological  of  well-being  an e n d u r i n g p e r s o n a l i t y  state  environment  who  life  initiated  & Capowitz,  defined  affective  evaluate  psychological  (i960)  well-being  to  use  as  Bradburn's  a day t o  accordance Bradburn  to  &  day  one's  Capowitz,  1965). One s i g n i f i c a n t was  the  outcome  development  psychological  of  well-being,  worked d e m o n s t r a t i o n account  of  positive  independently global  of  s e n s e of  Bradburn  &  asserted  that  only  positive of  dissimilar  subsequent  which  provided a  negative  affect  social  contact,  1965).  another  variables.  is  it  has  been  were  to  1969;  were  not  related  to  studies  and  demonstrated  that  highly correlated exposure  a  Bradburn  dimensions  his  take states  (Bradburn,  but In  to  determine  Moreover,  and n e g a t i v e  one  replications  positive  well-being  of  skillfully  feeling  in order to  study  model  may be n e c e s s a r y  and  Capowitz,  (1965)  dimensional  it  individual  Bradburn's  a two  one a n o t h e r ,  independent  quite  that  of  new  with  increased  experiences,  24  extroversion,  higher  socioeconomic  status  levels (Baruch,  of et  al,  1969;  Bradburn  Hall,  1976;  Warr,  Baxter & Brownbridge, 1983).  the  Harding  other  health,  & Capowitz,1965;  hand,  (Costa  Brownbridge,  of  postulated  negative  while  greater  his  on  with  i l l  a  Warr,  investigations an  used  widely  psychological  nervous  Baxter  has  of  &  The  negative  affect  Bradburn chose  it  it  greater  affect  related  with  be  and  Affect  one of in  the  assesing  regarding  positive not  been  between  the  measurement becomes  life.  1982).  finding  has  over  to  instruments  be b o t h  and h i s  items  come t o  correlation  may  related  (Harding  negative  low  (1965;  positive  dissatisfaction  research  convincing,  critics.  of  negative  since  Bradburn's  independence  of  Bradburn  Bradburn developed h i s  well-being  Although  superfically  or  findings  most  excess  positively  an e x c e s s  which  the  of  1978;  affect,  significantly  1980;  1980;  Warr,  Negative  McCrae,  was  Balance Scale  at  1975;  and f e a r  unhappiness  B a s e d on t h e s e  first  Bradburn,  & McCrae,  anxiety  that  affect  happiness,  and  1983).  As a r e s u l t  to  &  1983;  Costa  Chiriboga,  correlates  neuroticism,  breakdown  1969)  1982;  education  result  affect  is  without  its  positive  and  of  technique.  clear  that  the  the  the  items Looking  positive  25  affect to  items  specific  general  allude  to  s u c c e s s and e n e r g y  events while  in  nature  positive  item  negative  counter  the  negative  (Diener,  "pleasure such as  1984).  over  to  for  day e x p e r i e n c e s  t h a n an a c c o u n t  of  and d u r a t i o n of 1976).  negative simple  a  low  affect.  notion  affect  emotional  feelings  Finally,  of  this  human  It  masks  (Cherlin  another  concerns. and  was  satisfaction affective  between that  significant  on  Although  the  the  cognitive  r a t h e r t h a n what or  feeling  between where one  intensity &  Reeder, could and  relatively  positive of  and  underlying  1976). study  Cantril  "satisfaction"  day  rather  frame  of  & Reeder,  been  positive  complexity  satisfaction-dissatisfaction discrepancy  time  independence a  states  (Cherlin  a short  may be t h e n  the  has  frequency,  states  no  failure".  frame o f  undertaken  same t i m e p e r i o d was C a n t r i l ' s  "happiness" emphasis  such  also  feeling  relative  correlation  of  negative  during  on  the  a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s " has  affective  the  more  example,  l i m i t e d time  such f e e l i n g  Reliance  encourage  of  For  technique  r e l y i n g on a  relation  events are  "disappointment over  B r a d b u r n ' s measurement criticized  in  (1965)  study  the  terms  used  interchangeably, experience  Bradburn  his  of  life  r e f e r r e d to  states.  Cantril's  measure was d e f i n e d a s aspires  to  as  be and  the  one's  26  actual  situation.  through  "11" w i t h  possible  situation  situation" present where  level  (Cantril,  of  a continuum  number "1"  representing  and number  "11" t h e  of  satisfacton  aspired,  1965).  major l i f e  Subjects  scale  areas  of  on e x t e r n a l  state,  Cantril's  more c o g n i t i v e  relativity  judgement of  al,  in  of  1976).  evoke  their with  to  be  to a  One  rate number  fell  on  potential  scale  is  the  comparison. an  "satisfaction"  emotional implies  one's current s i t u a t i o n  family,  responses  of  seems t o  worst  possible  they  s t a n d a r d s of  measure o f  that  comparisons  where  anchoring  "happiness" which  et  across  self  Unlike  (Campbell  satisfaction  Cantril's  placed  to  asked  by i n d i c a t i n g  "1"  this  then  others.  emphasis  "best  deserved  with  of  "the  compare or  were  from  t h i n k about  compared  drawback  relation  and  expected  perceived levels  this  running  i n d i v i d u a l s were a s k e d t o  they  their  On  This  f r i e n d s and accentuates  thereby  making  ratings problematic  a in  acquaintances the  aspect  of  interpersonal  (Campbell  et  al.,  1976). What scale  is  shown  a  Gurin's  is  significant  the  fact  that  downward (1960)  trend  first  remained c o n s t a n t  about C a n t r i l ' s unlike happiness, in  study,  when  satisfaction  used  national  which  surveys  reported satisfaction in  subsequent  has since has  national  27  surveys  (Campbell,  measuring o v e r a l l well-being  it  incorporates  life  is  health et  both happiness  al.,  a  fall  the  into  1960);  Capowitz,  1965);  standards  based  time  Interest  i n the  the  i n d i c a t o r s movement f o u n d i n g of  measurement Two  the  major  mid-1970's Withey,  of  to  1976b;  same t i m e  p e r i o d but  researchers  single  pervasive  studies quality  on  situation Bradburn  &  measure  of  between  devoted  to  the  gain social  stature to  with  subjective  life.  al.,  undertaken of  1976). of  similar  life  in  life  the  (Andrews  Working at each  other  conceptual  had d e f i n e d of  1974  even g r e a t e r  independently a  based  continued  In  quality  et  (Gurin  1965).  life  were  the  developed  While previous  of  of  studies  a mental  relationship  1970's.  quality  Campbell  1969;  (Cantril,  own j o u r n a l  assess  balance,  a satisfaction  attained  its  psychological  v a r y i n g w i t h the  quality  momentum t h r o u g h o u t  of  measures.  on " m a l a d j u s t m e n t "  perceived  and a t t a i n m e n t s  researcher  categories:  (Bradburn,  in  psychological  the  studies  affect  and f i n a l l y on t h e  that  general  t o n e and f e e l i n g s  well-being  the  early  three  or  and s a t i s f a c t i o n  a general  particular  Therefore,  satisfaction  approach which focused  emotional at  1980).  imperative  To s u m m a r i z e , well-being  1976,  the both  model.  well-being  experience,  &  as  a  assessed  28  by  a  global  researchers  "life now  argued  s h o u l d be measured While not  at  completely  overall  general one  theorized  the  that  domains,  for  domains  w o u l d be it  the  on  the  of  this  highlight  satisfaction contribution  would  q u a l i t y of  life  each  domain t o an  life  satisfaction  al.,  1976).  centrality  It of  the  various  relative  contribution  In o t h e r  words  w o u l d be subjective  the  expected  of  well-being  specific  provide  more  experience  than  Second, between  and  the  o v e r a l l measure 1976b;  d o m a i n s would d e t e r m i n e  the  have  to  overall  and most the  (Andrews  the  et and  each  that  Campbell  of  scope  closest to  within  domains  hypothesized  an  two-fold.  measure.  (Andrews & W i t h e y , was  or  life,  relationships  specific  now  determined  experience  of  was  facets  a p p r o a c h was  within of  it  of  family  satisfaction  patterns  an  well-being.  f o r t h c o m i n g from any s i n g l e  would  of  capable  specific  etc.  overall psychological  life  existence  marriage,  behind  specificity.  from a n o t h e r ,  work  these  well-being  of  factor  c o m b i n a t i o n of  status,  of  information  levels  dismissing  expression  measure,  subjective  several  individual  The r a t i o n a l e an  whole"  that  example  socioeconomic individual's  a  well-being  discriminating  First,  as  immediate  greatest &  well-being. domains  impact  Withey,  on  1976b;  29  Campbell  et  al.,  The most s t u d i e s and marital life,  i m p o r t a n t domains subsequent  satisfaction,  friends,  Withey, 1974,  1976b;  1975,  1981;  Snyder,  1975).  life  et  1976;  important  Cantril,  1976;  P e a r l i n & Johnson, In t h e  1965;  1980's  research  scientists  and g o v e r n m e n t s .  First,  social  distribution to  to  the  the  develop  the  quality  community al.,  1981;  Hall,  1975). quality  concern  Drawing  indicators  determine  the  been  Campbell et 1960,  a five  (1976)  within  housing,  &  of  among  life social  The C a n a d i a n goverment  $100,000 t o  and c o l l e a g u e s  subjective  secondly,  into  1976  have  overall  Radloff,  prominent  1976).  to  1972,  Spreitzer  which  al.,  programme i n v e s t i g a t i n g  twofold.  their  a  (Atkinson,  Campbell are  a sum o f  et  1975;  to  Canada  be  Gurin  (Andrews &  &Weir,  1983;  1976b;  family  Bernard,  Burke  education,  two  status,  self,  status  contributors  continues  research  1969;  (Andrews & W i t h e y ,  marital  1983;  domains  health,  1976;  allocated  al.,  by t h e s e  with  Freudiger,  Other  include  and n a t i o n  are:  satisfaction  Bradburn,  al.,  as  research  Barnett,  et  identified  revealed  work and s o c i o e c o n o m i c  Campbell  of  1976).  of  year  longitudinal  quality on  of  the  g o a l s of  life work  this  measures  the  of  quality  life  conditions  that  in of  study  descriptive  Canadian p o p u l a t i o n ;  those  has  of and and are  30  related time  to  changes  (Atkinson,  i n the  now  to  a  review  well-being  in  of  have  focus mirrored  it  research the  of  the  first  general  adhered to  over  work and scientists  life,  of  u n d e r s c o r e d the  the sexual  women as  nurturing,  qualities  deemed  childrearing,  was much b e t t e r 1983).  Sociological  similar  in  structural  breakdown c o u l d  that  changes  three  decades  of  mental  on  a strict  in  health  in  division  day.  Personality  to  women  theories  prevalent  for  the  the  of  orientation.  social theories  -  all  mothering  and  work  this  when t h e  nature  (Freudiger, period  Proponents  approach argued  be p r e v e n t e d  among  aggressive  w o r l d of of  between  supportive  task  inherent  which  l a b o u r by d e s c r i b i n g  and  theories  functionalist  women's  a view  men's  suited  their  of  emotional  while  of  based  d i v i s i o n of  ideal  past  roles  survey  was  existence  on  society.  scale  population  family  the  changing  large  the  research  becomes c l e a r  contemporary North American The  over  Well-Being  psychological the  indicators  1976).  Women and P s y c h o l o g i c a l  Turning  perceptual  of  that dominant  were the family male  31  role  was  occupational  that  of  housewife  strength first  of  this  This  asked  their  a large  at  of  mental  about  not  segment of  the  work et  given  home c o n s t i t u t e d  the  population  was  1942).  health,  (Gurin  surprise,  role  reflected  their  home l i v e s  approach should  work and women for  survey  female  (Parsons,  r e i g n i n g paradigm is  were  females about  dominant  and mother  U.S. national  respondents  and t h e  in  the  where  male  lives  and  al.,  1960).  that  men  basic  i n the  The  at  reality  1 9 5 0 ' s and  1960's. As more and more women j o i n e d of  the  first  questions  psychologically employee? lived  more  Early  longer  to  arise  studies  than  from  (Durkheim  1893/1984).  the  stressors  was  -  of  been a s i g n i f i c a n t  homemaker that  the  is  increase  the  heart  or  paid  homemakers  because  they  world  were  of  work  evidence  fact  that  to there  among w o r k i n g women  t y p i c a l l y considered  coronary  labour  Providing further  1  s u c h as  was w h i c h l i f e s t y l e  men  support Durkheim s hypothesis  those d i s e a s e s  one  suggested  working  protected  has  force  fulfilling  the  disease  "men's  (Haynes  &  of  diseases" Feinleib,  1980). However, role  is  suggests  this  preferable that  is to  overall,  not  to  that  say of  housewives  that  the  homemaker  employee.  Evidence  suffer  more  symptoms  32  of  psychological  e m p l o y e d women  distress  (Bernard,  Cochrane  & Stepes Roe,  Geerkin,  1977;  1982;  Nieva  dissatisfying monotony, been  family  and  housewives within 1980;  their  frequently marriages  McRae,  1975).  The  homemakers  report  recognition,  making  explanation  feelings  (Ferree,  does l i f e  1976,  to  the  differ  work p r o v i d e s  of  and s e l f  of  has  within  the  as  why  to  powerlessness  1984;  esteem,  Ingelhart,  Cumming,  Lazer  and C h i s h o l m , rates  housewives.  One  significant  finding  Rapopport,  network,  thus  working  integration,  all  of  1983;  1979).  sense  which are  vital  that  (Armstrong, 1985;  Gove  In a C a n a d i a n found that  suicide  than  explanation employment  underscoring  of  a  Astin,  (1975)  of  woman?  benefits  well-being  possible is  the  economic  social  psychological  lower  for  obvious  1977;  support  Gove &  Earning a salary  one  Geerkin,  had  1984; &  s t a t u s and  decision  Armstrong & Armstrong,  women  1976;  1976).  recognition  components  than  al.,  Kessler  that  of  report  et  Radloff,  isolation.  provides  illness  1976,  1972;  role  lack  this  addition  1984;  of  women's  Rubin,  employment, of  1981;  to  their  Ferree,  Gutek,  include:  How t h e n In  1981;  mental Campbell  Tudor,  and s o c i a l  linked  1972;  Gove & &  characteristics  and  the  &  sample, employed  full-time of  this  provides  a  affiliative  33  benefits It  Betz,  having a  also  enhances stress  of  has  experienced  & McRae, welcome  -  Crosby,  For example, from t h e of  life  against as  Job  a result  In summary, t h e years, of  the  of  family,  emphasis versus But  the  on t h e  reaching  the  dual-earner  such  the of  point  of  (in  may  f o r women  who  &  Harris,1978; offer  "loss of  some  purpose" home  syndrome". shifted  which sought  terms etc.)  labour  benefits  women's  is  also  r e s e a r c h has  stability,  of  the  "empty n e s t  stability  k i n d of  family  as  a  over  structural-functionalist  division  homemaking t o  Kessler  and  may  1 9 5 0 ' s and 1 9 6 0 ' s ,  relative  this  (Brown  the  social  1983;  grown c h i l d r e n l e a v i n g  focus  functional  sexual  by now  as  from  express  prevailing  of  1984;  Employment  involvement  feelings  al.,  housework  consequences  transitions  1981).  explanations  boredom o f  psychological  against  employment may p r o v i d e  childcare.  commonly r e f e r r e d t o  the  buffer  1978;  facing  the  a  Brown & H a r r i s ,  have p o s i t i v e  experienced  as  employment  (Baruch et  demands  protection  acting  that  roles  1982).  Richardson,  by  suggested  in other  reprieve  constant  are  been  well-being  1982;  job.  of  of  becoming rapidly  the a  paid  psychological  either-or  stability  of to  then  growing  employment well-being.  comparison i s obsolete becoming  to  as the  also the most  34  prevalent  family  Accordingly, examination affect  the  the of  focus the  of  psychological  the  -  i n the  to  have  psychological  a  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  fact  studies  often  basis  women on  the  demands,  socioeconomic  of  employment.  All  mediate  influence  the  psychological  of  is  better  the  as  for  this  fail life  to  longer how  the -  of  effect  employment on  & Weir,  women's  1976;  Ferree,  the  precise  s t a t u s and  well-being  (Warr &  l a c k of  cycle  factors  stage,  as can  Parry,  clarity  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e  status  well-being.  no  paid  Nevertheless,  of  women.  well-being  section,  (Burke  these  which  working  and i n c o n s i s t e n t  A major reason  that  variables  an  W o r k i n g Women  employment  remains both u n c l e a r  to  satified.  positive  1978).  1984).  shift,  now a r i s e s  hence  previous  well-being  Wright,  1982b).  be  London,  must of  which  W e i l - B e i n g of  As c i t e d  1976;  of  and  w o r k i n g women can b e s t  &  well-being  question  needs  Psychological  analysis  multiplicity  question  instead  appears  (Mortimer  psychological  The t h e o r e t i c a l applies;  pattern  well be  p a i d employment  is  groups  child as  the of  care  type  of  expected  to  on  women's  35  One for  conceptual  inclusion  employment (1982a).  of  of  that  variables  which  on  nonoccupational employment  be d i s c u s s e d  Occupational of  stressed  is  not d e c i d e d  employment may  be  here  is  to  solely  general.  Commitment, spent to  work  responsibilities, as  the  effect  of  well-being of  the  quality  of  the  these v a r i a b l e s  will  can  commitment  on  the  yet  still  the  with  as  one's  involves It  take job  interest  work  more  in than the  additional  upgrading and  one  current  includes on  to  present  words,  his/her  job.  one's  employment  be c o m m i t t e d t o  overtime, for  paid of  as  What needs  In o t h e r  moreover, on  to  basis  status.  enroll  well  be d e f i n e d  employment.  dissatisfied  situation  retraining,  paid  that  thoroughly  willingness  important  quality  and  E a c h of  o r employment  hours  most  psychological  involvement  employment  actual  three  Involvement.  commitment  be  Parry  turn.  Occupational  degree  f o r t h by Warr and  influence  environment  in  mere  involvement;  relationship.  framework  beyond  the  women's  occupational  provides a  variables  been p u t  suggest  p a i d employment are:  important  s t a t u s has They  clusters  model w h i c h  and/or  investment  in  36  advancement.  Studies  involvement parental  is  show t h a t  largely  status  Fine Davis,  1983;  Parry  &  dependent  (Baruch et  1976;  1979,  Warr,  women's  al.,  1982;  1982;  occupational  upon m a r i t a l  1983; Faver,  Waite,  Campbell 1984;  1983;  and/or et  al.,  Freudiger,  Warr  &  Parry,  1982a) . Single their  women w i t h o u t  career  and a r e  than m a r r i e d (Agassi, Parry,  1982;  wage-earner  Similarly  be  Yogev,  1982).  it  Parry,  and  strongly  committed without  role  attachment  having  to  the  few  this  family group  of  employment.  children  have  are expected  labour  1983;  principle  to p a i d  and t h u s  children  the  that  on  advancement  Fine-Davis,  Being  expected  m a r r i e d women  in  without  1976;  is  force  a  less  to  have  (Warr  and  1982a)  The d e g r e e are committed to  and  al.,  themselves  demanding homemaker a moderate  both with et  for  spend more t i m e  interested  Campbell  reponsibilities, women w i l l  more  women,  1982;  children  to  establish.  home have  been  and employment generally  to  which m a r r i e d  p a i d employment  Traditionally, considered has  been  hazardous  role.  c o m b i n a t i o n of  paid  women w i t h  children  much more  difficult  is  care  of  the  family  women's p r i m a r y viewed  as  It  worker,  has wife  an  and  obligation  'add-on'  and  been  argued that  the  and  mother  leads  to  37  role  strain  (overload  becomes a c a t a l y s t al.,  1976;  Hall,  stress  which  and a n x i e t y 1984;  in  turn  (Campbell  Gove & T u d o r ,  et  1973;  1975).  effects  of  Verbrugge  concluded  much as  Baruch  1981;  should  s t u d i e s have  beneficial  to  noted  al.,  that as  much  time  to  attend  employment  by  demands  of  housework  Crosby,  is  in  time as  it to  in  some  in their  (Barnett,  part  This  1983;  mental  stress  t e d i u m of  one  multiple  defined paid  in  responsibilities.  to  constant  example,  involvement  however,  health.  may enhance  though that  For  p e r week  better  role  1984;  1976).  well-being  h o u r s o r more  inconsistent.  a buffer  and t h e  been p r o b l e m a t i c  that  sufficient  also  health  multiple  with  from t h e  et  techniques.  flexibility  however,  a c t s as  Rubin,  be  suggested  argued,  it  mental  that  roles  responsibilities  1982;  measuring  is,  associated  in multiple  Richardson, It  be  temporary r e l i e f  care  (Barnett  detrimental  (1983)  i n as  providing  the roles  may  Involvement health  into  multiple  involvement  time  for  conflict)  Cooke & R o u s s e a u ,  Research  child  and  of  sampling study roles  It  household  was as  ten  could  be  work p r o v i d e s leaves  and which  employment  1982).  direct  these  greater  women and  contrast  with family  to  w h i c h u s u a l l y means a commitment of  full at  38  least  35  leaving  hours per much  expected, work  less  time  therefore,  would  full-time  less  that  stress  to  occupational  women have  It  it  is time  husbands  share  childcare  their  women  is time  overload  and  employed  on  a  previous  research  on  the  income well to  has  been  basis  of  professional  to  as  vs.  professional  purchase  assistance  homemaking t a s k s ,  combine  the  roles  of  thus  mother,  employee.  full  agreement jobs  & Parry, that  husbands  Mirowsky,  &  is  i n the  (Kessler  Warr  indicates  than  It  in part  c o u l d be a r g u e d t h a t  as  much e a s i e r  There  1984;  role  (i.e.  sufficient  with both c h i l d c a r e  two  thus  and f a m i l y .  less  discriminate  category  nonprofessional).  and  home  women engaged  s h o r t c o m i n g of  failure  wife  for  longer  basis.  Another  making  and f r e q u e n t l y  experience  subsequently  the  week  that  Huber,  women s t i l l  to  & McRae,  1982;  1982a,  the  are  1983).  to  juggling  &  A  study  depressed  rsponsibilities  agreement  relationships, the  bulk  of  the  in  if  (Ross,  attitudes  their  and  Rousseau,  recent  less  Although  that  housework  Cooke  expressing  bear  of  extent  of  1982b).  household  egalitarian  continue  to  responsibilities  e m p l o y e d women share  pressure  mitigated  c h a n g i n g and more men a r e principle  the  are in  reality  burden  of  39  responsibility (Armstrong, 1983;  for  1984;  Meissner,  Pleck,  1982;  professed  children  1974,  it  be l e s s  Occupational  that  strongly  women t o p a i d  involvement for  separated  especially  those  who  are  single  (Belle  with  & Tebbets, 1982;  may be t h a t and t h e lower  of  parents.  associated  1980,  one  1980;  Therefore,  until of  a reality  m a r r i e d women  committed  of with  than  other  expected  and  divorced Being  important  the  at  Keith  Tcheng-LaRoche  & Prince,  besides  income,  greater  women,  o p p o r t u n i t y for achievement  &  status  of is  parents Schaffer,  1981a).  also  sole  work  among s i n g l e  1982;  be  concerns  involvement  Brown,  to  But  it  enhancement  contribute  to  depression.  factors  it  have  involvement the  most  depression  1982;  1977,  importance  mothers.  Greater  In c o n c l u s i o n ,  will  the  less  Spitz,  into  is  high  is  &  employment.  moderately  provider  Huber  the  translates  expected  housework  Scheu,  1984).  regarding  is  and  1984;  Meiss &  relationships  will  g r o u p s of  1976,  Humphrey,  Vanek,  sharing  childcare  Ferree,  opinions  egalitarian actual  both  lowest  is  on  the  hypothesized the  while level  highest  basis  that  of  all  the  women w i t h o u t  degree  of  children  occupational  m a r r i e d women w i t h c h i l d r e n w i l l of  occupational  above  involvement.  have  40  Nonoccupational Environment.  Employment  status  is  only  one  of  a  number  factors  which determines  well-being.  The q u a l i t y  woman's  nonoccupational  environment  is  variable  in  the  study  of  psychological  Women whose p s y c h o l o g i c a l , a r e met  outside  from t a k i n g words a  of  ceiling  Conversely,  marital  (Warr & effect  f o r women  conditions,  for  social  employment  a job  disruption  Parry,  living  or  is  assess  the  status.  of  the  engage  Where  need a s  most  In  other  environmental  expected.  socioeconomic  explored  etc., and  status,  a  positive  psychological  of  women's been  from  the  relationship  environment have  been  indices  these  studies  Gordon & Kammeyer, 1980;  paid to  situation  socioeconomic suggest income  in a wife's  & London,  that  is  one  decision  (Armstrong & Armstrong, Mortimer  of  utilized  of  d e t e r m i n e d by h u s b a n d ' s  employment  and  nonoccupational  important v a r i a b l e s  in paid  gain  in adverse  measures  generally Findings  economic  to  is  breakdown,  have  quality  t h e s e have  expected  needs  well-being  low  nonoccupational  employment.  well-being.  predicted.  Few s t u d i e s women's  a  essential  1982a).  r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a i d employment well-being  of  and f i n a n c i a l  a r e not  on  example  an  of  1984;  to  1983; Nieva  41  & Gutek,  1981;  particularly in  the  Parry  strong  home.  groups class  observed  major  well-being Campbell Gove &  and  preschool 38  children  association  psychological women  is  s t u d i e s Warr  than  well in  and  between being  their  w i t h m a r r i a g e and f a m i l y  contributors  (Andrews  et  al.,  Tudor,  &  1973;  Gove,  divorced,  mental  mental  women,  and  less  illness  in  middle  likely  or o t h e r  to  1976;  al,  1976;  1975;  Gove,  Cummings e t  al.,  frequently  with  &  the  r e p o r t e d as  and d i v o r c e d m o t h e r s Schafer,  Bernard,  &  Style,  1972; 1983).  t h o s e who are  less  in  1969;  are  better  inclined  to for  behaviour  Burke & W e i r ,  C o c h r a n e - S t e p Roe, Spreitzer  &  1981; Snyder,  1983b).  nonoccupational being  (Gutek, 1982;  Gove,  maladaptive  1972;  two  1981;  institutionalized  Bradburn,  Tcheng-Laroche & P r i n c e , Satisfaction  are  psychological  especially  forms of  1976b;  et  Hughes  be  life  1983;  happier,  (Andrews & W i t h e y , Campbell  1976b;  m a r r i e d women  and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h ,  suicide  overall  Fine Davis,  separated  or  to  Withey,  1976;  single  Keith  of  a stronger  Compared w i t h  is  are  relationship  counterparts.  the  1975;  This  there  working c l a s s  Satisfaction of  when  status  of  1975).  In an e x a m i n a t i o n  (1982b)  employment  Shaw,  adverse  Nakamura  Pearlin  &  for  environment separated  & Nieva, Johnson,  1981; 1977;  42  Tcheng-Laroche has  been  task  found to  overload  1976;  Keith  employment this  economic  be  and  will  social  Schaefer,  network  1982)  Drawing  children,  is  al.,  expected  that  paid  well-being  for  psychological as  having a job  self-esteem (Barnett  that  the  et  and  rate  non-occupational  1983;  to  a  Keith  &  1979).  discussion  it  b o t h w i t h and  the  environment  provides  access  al.,  preceding  m a r r i e d women,  will  distress,  (Campbell et  Tcheng-Laroche & P r i n c e ,  from  hypothesized  It  dissatisfaction  financial  isolation  inasmuch  independence,  This to  1982).  enhance  women  social  1983).  related  & Schafer,  g r o u p of  major  & Prince,  quality  higher  than  is  without  of  their  their  single  counterparts.  Q u a l i t y of the Employment  A third  variable  involvement  and  environment  in  well-being of  the  the  Despite people's  which combines quality  determining  and women's p a i d  employment extensive lives,  satisfaction  the  Relationship.  of the  with  the  occupational  nonoccupational  relationship the  quality  relationship  (Warr & P a r r y ,  1982a).  research  the  as  with  highly  employment  into the  is  between  meaning  of  measurement  subjective  nature  work of of  in life the  43  quality define of  working l i f e  (Near & S m i t h ,  working l i f e ,  refers of  of  to  makes t h i s  1983).  o r more s p e c i f i c a l l y  individuals  employees  t o w a r d work  Since to  it  totally  with a l l  satisfaction  c a n be d e s c r i b e d a s  satisfaction  P a i d employment including  extrinsic  s t a n d a r d of as  pleasure  and It  well  as  been  primary motivations Therefore  it  income d o e s prestige  stimulation  is  satisfaction.  Most  been  the  Studies  of  on  the  for  to  or  job  balance  requirements a  comfortable and  be  to  is  assume  that  that  the gain.  income and  positively  related  Since to  challenge  contributors  of  of  financial  such f i n d i n g s ,  job  one  related.  that  job and  to  job  however,  have  work i n men's  satisfaction  of  Kallenberg,  positively  expected  pension  a sense  1985;  earlier  employment  experience  women's  totally  composite  security  important of  expect  employment,  example,  (Astin,  suggested for  part  currently to  i n t r i n s i c n e e d s s u c h as  also  are  are  many l i f e  financial  w o u l d be  appear  it  based  needs,  seems r e a s o n a b l e  job s a t i s f a c t i o n  on t h e  satisfied their  quality  dissatisfaction.  contribution  has  of  satisfies  living,  benefits  1977).  aspects  against  they  to  satisfaction,  be u n r e a l i s t i c  dissatisfied  of  job  the  orientation  roles  would  be e i t h e r  difficult  Essentially,  an o v e r a l l a f f e c t i v e  occupying.  concept  have  lives. shown  44  inconsistent job  satisfaction  secondary  is  (Waite,  non-professional Tebbets,  true  1982;  many women  enter  (1976b)  with s e l f .  self-esteem,  pride  well-being  experience  reasons, paid  that  of  feelings  of  work  life  Radloff  quality be v i e w e d roles  on  (i.e.  in  of  the  the  most is  et  al.,  as  of  Ferree, 1981)  employment  since  roles)  All  a sense  Walshok,  isolation  job s a t i s f a c t i o n  job,  1983;  women's  family  show  provider.  towards  1977;  of  employment.  well-being  on  family  contribute  the  self-confidence,  of  1983;  one  i.e.  w o r k i n g women  role  the  profound e f f e c t  of  the  cannot  with diverse  out  psychological  Baruch,  1981).  labour force  in  Fine-Davis,  Haavio-Mannila,  be  accomplishments  1985;  &  may  with  of  Belle  it  other  argue  levels  i n low p a y i n g ,  although  the  post  professional  Walshok,  in  (Astin,  However,  that  to  1984;  1976;  Studies  fosters  pride  these aspects  1984;  suggest  c o n t r i b u t o r s to  employment  as  Rubin,  suggest  report high  1984?  associated  Andrews and W i t h e y  well  1976,  many r e m a i n f o r  rewards  satisfaction  others  in  (Armstrong,  Ferree,  that  important  employment  still  jobs  findings  need,  related  among women e m p l o y e d  These  intrinsic  that  and  K o m a r o v s k y , 1967;  economic  some r e s e a r c h e r s  positively  1976)  job s a t i s f a c t i o n  1971;  While  education  positions of  results.  conflict  will  have a  (Barnett,  1982;  45  Beutall  & Greenhaus,  Gilbert,  1979a,  Richardson, This  is  1982,  1979b;  1981;  Warr  1983;  Rapoport & Parry,  p a r t i c u l a r l y true  combination  of  responsibilities readily  constitute  net  result  as  well  being as  Geerkin,  &  Holahan  Rapoport,  1982a;  time  and h o u s e h o l d  1982). The  and  the  tasks  can  an o v e r b u r d e n s o m e w o r k l o a d , w i t h  less  t i m e and e n e r g y  Pleck,  stress 1977;  for  &  1980;  Yogev,  employment  mothering  increased  1977;  1975,  f o r w i v e s and m o t h e r s .  full of  Hall,  both  the  roles  and  anxiety  (Gove  Pleck,  Staines  &  &  Lang,  1980). As w i t h will  occupational  vary with  1977;  life  Warr & P a r r y ,  without placed  children on them  children.  cycle  by o t h e r s  attitudes  of  to  b o t h of  which i n d i r e c t l y a  responsibilities demanding single her  woman f o r  life.  already  job  and  (Herman &  to  than role  be  offering  have  strain  single  women demands  expected  expectations affect  of  limited  we  o v e r b u r d e n e d mother and  with to  be  employment,  job s a t i s f a c t i o n . a number of  more s a t i s f i e d  example  Gyllstrom,  fewer  is  with  advancement  whom a j o b may be t h e  In t h i s  conflict  a r e m a r r i e d women  m a r r i e d woman w i t h may  role  For example,  are expected  The e f f e c t  words,  stage  1982a).  related  other  involvement,  central  would expect wife  may be  In family  a  less  than  a  focus  of  that  an  reluctant  46  to  assume  additional  responsibilities  while  a  woman  unencumbered by f a m i l y o r h u s b a n d would have more and e n e r g y  to  invest  Fine-Davis  1983;  Following quality  of  the  single  counterparts.  women  and  allow  et  with  clerical  r e p o r t demands  mother al,  since  secondary  (Bernard, is  children  will  be  which,  although  and  1976)  energy  for a  their  of  work to  expected more  lower  women  time  than  women  with  those  women  roles  roles  1974,  are  of  wife,  1975,  1981;  that  married  satisfied  with  i n s t a t u s and  woman t o  the  several  married  in excess  it  jobs  time  be  that  Secondly,  Finally,  r e p o r t e d to  1983;  on  relationship  demands on  children.  Campbell,  preceding discussion  greater  without  al.,  1980).  First,  will  homemaker  (Baruch et  employment  children  generally  the  job  proposed.  experience  their  her  Thomson,  from  hypotheses are will  in  time  pay,  accommodate  her  family. In summary, t h i s six  propositions:  1.  Women  without  occupational children  will  employment.  review  the  children will  involvement be  of  the  literature  report  while  married  least  committed  leads  the  to  highest  women  with  to  paid  47  2.  Married  women, b o t h w i t h a n d w i t h o u t  report greater  s a t i s f a c t i o n with  nonoccupational  environment  previously married  3.  Married  demands on  the quality  than  never  of  their  married  and  women.  women their  children, will  will  time  report  and  significantly  energy than  their  more single  counterparts.  4.  Women w i t h no c h i l d r e n w i l l  their  report  f e w e r demands on  t i m e a n d e n e r g y t h a n women w i t h c h i l d r e n .  5.  Married  women w i t h  and  secretarial  satisfaction  positions,  have c h i l d r e n .  6.  Married  and  rate  women w i l l their  than t h e i r  c a t e g o r i e s of widowed.)  will  report  clerical  greater  t h a n b o t h s i n g l e m o t h e r s a n d women who  not  higher  c h i l d r e n , employed i n  report greater  perceived single  do  life  satisfaction  psychological  well-being  women.  never married,  job  (Single includes  separated,  divorced  the and  48  CHAPTER I I I : METHODOLOGY  Sample  The s u b j e c t s clerical  and  selected  secretarial  University  of  because  appeared to  it  British  the  campus d u r i n g  the  study  of  study  interested  time.  In a d d i t i o n ,  Participation  were rates  questionnaires the  were  were  were  of  1983.  The n a t u r e  of  women  were a s k e d  if  completing  fifteen  minutes  outlining  in selected  p a r t i c i p a t e and  163  chosen  on  letters  up  the  representation  several  exceptionally  distributed  by  approached  left  picked  female  was  i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g by  e n c o u r a g i n g women t o  questionnaires  the  sample  i n v o l v i n g about  and q u e s t i o n n a i r e  offices  to  summer of  questionnaire,  their  employed  This  Subjects  e x p l a i n e d and  w o u l d be  a short  the  study are  workers  be a t y p i c a l  c l e r i c a l work f o r c e .  was  this  Columbia.  the  they  for  or  the  campus  completed  days  high,  later.  of  90.5% were  the  180  returned  researcher.  Materials  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e this  method  allows  the  f o r m a t was d e c i d e d upon researcher  access  to  because a  large  49  number of  subjects,  base  is  and  statistical outweigh format, the  purposes  the  main  namely  a  employees. version  of  such  level  of  study  of  a few  questionnaire (compared  to  five  clerical  marital  overall life  demand o r r o l e  measures  63  was  The  number  first  information and to  ages the  of job,  level. the  dependent  of  the  overload,  or  variables well-being,  nonoccupational job  An e l a b o r a t i o n of  follows.  final  A)  items.  satisfaction  quality  June  1983.  hours devoted  contains  measure.  (Appendix  status,  e d u c a t i o n and income  and a h a p p i n e s s  the  and d e m o g r a p h i c  work e x p e r i e n c e ,  section  U.B.C.  minor changes  contains  background  involvement,  dependent  benefits  in  and A u g u s t of  age,  environment,  the  the  was p r e - t e s t e d  in July  w h i c h measure  For  these  superficiality  questionnaire  The n e x t  job  of  the  covers  children,  study  questionnaire  pilot  of  as  cost.  data  technique).  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e section  substantial  in  this  relative  Following  distributed  low  disadvantage  its  The o r i g i n a l in  generates a  relatively  interview  1983  it  satisfaction e a c h of  the  50  The Measures  P s y c h o l o g i c a l Well-Being.  The  psychological  construct  overall  life  satisfaction  scales,  the  Bradburn  1969)  and  1976). codes tone  the  Index  Bradburn's subjects'  of  well-being  m e a s u r e d by  Affect  Balance  of W e l l - B e i n g  two  The  (Bradburn,  (Campbell  that  et  al.,  well-being  i n terms of t h e i r  affective  Index o f W e l l - B e i n g a t t e m p t s  same u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t from  perspective;  or  different  Scale  measure o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l  experiences  feeling.  measure t h e  was  of  is,  along  a  a  to  different  continuum  of  sat i s f a c t i o n - d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . Campbell measurement element.  (1976) f a v o u r e d  because  of  its  Life  (Campbell  consider  how  satisfied  et  with  their  Campbell  chose  the c o g n i t i v e  t o do  studies  employing  example, on that  younger  various  affective  on  One over  judgemental of  were a s k e d  to  they  important the a f f e c t i v e found  well-being  measures.  in  o f w e l l - b e i n g he  subjects consistently  rated  their  were reason  p a t t e r n s he  measures  of  the Q u a l i t y  dissatisfied  lives.  w i t h the response  study  and  a l . , 1976)  or  overall  l a t t e r approach  cognitive  S u b j e c t s i n h i s major  American  has  this  scale other For found  level  of  51  happiness hand,  higher  older  than o l d e r  subjects  satisfaction  with  report  lower  levels  words,  older  other  satisfaction whole  when  while  a r r i v e d at  their of  of  questions  addressing  than  short  reasons  experience  Affect  rather  U s i n g a time "the  past  few  environmental personality 0.50  of than  frame  of  c a u s e of  was c a l c u l a t e d  (affective judgemental  feeling  there  lives  as  not  yet  appear  that  overall  life  would of  feel  a  It  for  as  qualities  are  a more  also  scale.  cognitive  many  cogent  One a d v a n t a g e Scale  well-being  as  is a  feeling the  states focus  well-being  day-to-day  1971  between state)  the  becomes  study  than  one  and p e r c e i v e d  of  of  of  happiness  satisfaction  a high  over  enduring  a correlation  measures  indicating  trait.  experienced  rather  of his  an e n d u r i n g p e r s o n a l i t y  In a  experience)  of  not  Balance  days"  traits.  sense  having  perception  an a f f e c t  conceptualization  their  In  feelings.  well-being  Bradburn's  a  m e a s u r i n g more e n d u r i n g  term  employ  respondents  g o a l s may  Campbell's preference  of to  on  lives.  of  satisfaction.  subjects  one's  may be  Despite measure  their  other  levels  may r e p o r t  life  the  younger  life  back  their  On  higher  while  overall  younger  with  rather  lives  looking  satisfied  satisfaction  report  subjects  most  many  subjects.  (a  probability  52  that yet  t h e two one  items a r e t a p p i n g a s i m i l a r  c o u l d argue  that  state.  the present  of  this  of  W e i l - B e i n g was  life  In  used  satisfaction  Bradburn's  measure.  Balance  Scale w i l l  of  Well-Being  s u b j e c t s who also  rate  whether  score  This  well-being  will  as  to as  very  whose  be  used  on The  scores  and  fall  Well-Being  a sense  of  Index  unhappiness  whether satisfied  conversely  towards  Scale  a  Affect  ascertain  happy  of and  as  Bradburn's  extremely  of the  sense  the  a l s o have on  the  a  Affect  Index of Well-Being.  first  Well-Being the  attempt  Index  Scale.  the p e r c e i v e d  for  scale  themselves  subjects  The  The  study Campbell's  i s , s c o r e s on  an  themselves  end  nuances  be compared w i t h t h o s e  in  indicating  Balance  That  rate  dissatisfed  different  psychological  Balance  parallel  be  o f mind,  t o measure r e s p o n d e n t s '  or  Affect  t h e y may  state  method o f a p p r o a c h i n g quality  Scale developed  landmark  scale  is  Differential Tannenbaum  of  by  employs Campbell  the  Index  of  (1976) Life.  Quality  of American  in  format  of  the  of  et a l . ,  s t u d y The  first  (cited  life  t h e measurement  the  Semantic  developed  by  Osgood,  Suci  i n Campbell  et  a l , 1976).  and It  is  53  comprised of a  number of  wide range of  bipolar scales  qualities characteristic  which t a p of a  a  person's  l i f e as a whole. In d e v e l o p i n g t h i s i n s t r u m e n t a p o o l of items were c o m p i l e d from a sense  of  l i s t of  gratification  (Campbell e t  or  a l . , 1976).  respondents who view terms a r e  a d j e c t i v e s that  the  same p e o p l e  would you  l a t t e r q u e s t i o n has, method of  assumption  their lives  to the q u e s t i o n " t a k i n g how happy  disappointment This  h i g h e r l e v e l of h a p p i n e s s  deal with  i n more  who  measuring w e l l - b e i n g  was  that  a  response  consideration  were t h e s e  i n past s t u d i e s ,  life  report  or s a t i s f a c t i o n i n  say you  in  pleasurable  a l s o would  a l l things into  a  days"?  been a  or o v e r a l l  The  popular  happiness.  The advantage of the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l items i s the fact  that  differentiated  they  give  picture  the of  overall l i f e satisfaction  researcher  how  subjects  a  more  view  their  (Campbell et a l . , 1976).  Campbell's (1976) s c a l e i s composed of e i g h t p a i r s of a d j e c t i v e s .  The respondent  his/her perceived position  i s asked  w i t h an 'X'  to  indicate  i n one of  the  seven boxes a l o n g a continuum measuring p l e a s u r a b l e and d i s a p p o i n t i n g e x p e r i e n c e s of l i f e .  Internal Consistency  54  Both C r o n b a c h ' s measure  developed  Campbell 0.89.  et  al,  This  alpha  and omega  by H e i s e  1976)  figure  (a  reliability  and B o h r n s t e d t  were  (cited  in  c a l c u l a t e d and f o u n d t o  be  indicates  a very  high estimate  of  reliablity.  Inter-item  The  Correlation  eight  semantic  intercorrelated 0.40  to  0.61  relationships slightly  that  et  a  rather high  with  an  suggest  different  perspectives (Campbell  at  the  al.,  1976).  the  over  these  scales  nuances  toward  sample.  level;  average  that  these c o r r e l a t i o n s  subgroups of  differential  of  the  pleasurable  scales  are  ranging  from  .50.  Such  are  tapping  same  general  features  Additionally it  remained s t a b l e (Campbell et  of  was  across al.,  life found  various  1976).  Reliability  Campbell subsample initial  of  285  contact.  r e s p o n s e s of occasions  and c o l l e a g u e s subjects  eight  Stability  these  were  (1976)  months  correlations  i n d i v i d u a l s on  calculated  interviewed  in  the  order  two to  a small  after of  the the  separate determine  55  tendencies of  this  drawn in  to  respond  kind  are  similar  from " t e s t - r e t e s t "  terms  of  subjects change  the  an in  .43.  However,  fact  respondents  family)  thought  and t h u s  to  be  situtation.  do  was  a  substantial stability  precariously  argues  that lives  marital separation, stability  differ  allowing  The  o c c u r r e d i n the  an  they  experience  (1976)  the  reliability  between c o n t a c t  period  (eg.  Correlations  of  However,  to  life this  estimates  time  Campbell  c h a n g e s had i n these  to  opportunity  over  same m a n n e r .  data.  interval  their  correlation  he  i n the  some of  of  of  real  some  death  coefficient  under-estimation  low  of  within .43  the  is  true  reliability.  The A f f e c t Balance S c a l e .  The s e c o n d of  the  Balance  method  perceived Scale  quality  (ABS)  mid-1960's measures  for  conceptual variable  in  measurement  of  the  life  employs  by  Bradburn  Affect  (1969)  and  (1965).  Balance an  a p p r o a c h i n g the  developed  Bradburn and Capowitz The A f f e c t  of  Scale  attempt  problems  to  in  its  which  developed  construct  living.  framework t a k e s as  avowed h a p p i n e s s ,  was  the  operational  The  fundamental was  in  defined  underlying dependent as  being  56  synonomous  with p s y c h o l o g i c a l  composed of are  in  10 i t e m s  turn  negative  based  drawn on  well-being.  from a p o o l of  a wide  experiences.  The s c a l e  r a n g e of  Such  items  which  positive  experiences  and  would  be  c o n s i d e r e d common i n a h e t e r o g e n e o u s p o p u l a t i o n s u c h the  United  indicator (Gurin  States  et  al.,  economic  individual's  life.  withthe  unpleasurable t o n e of  the  i n d i c a t e d by  of  well-being  or  that  period  Bradburn  is  demographic,  Items  and  specific  were  made of  r a t h e r than the  attempt  was  d o m a i n s of as  general  pleasurable  and a f o c u s  that  psychological  an  to  common theme  experiences  feelings  1965;  as  social  u n d e r l y i n g assumption  a v o i d any r e f e r e n c e  possible  as  Cantril,  With  determinent  than  made t o  1960;  1965).  major  rather  Canada,  s t u d i e s already undertaken during  Capowitz, the  or  is  on t h e  an as  versus affective  particular  experiences  themselves. B a s e d on results  (Bradburn  dimensions and t h e  a cluster  emerged,  other  &  analysis  Capowitz,  one  a negative  affect  two  dimensions  items  were  intercorrerlated  were  negative not  items,  the  1965)  two  being a p o s i t i v e  these  the  it  of  was  w i t h one  however,  c o r r e l a t e d with those  the  the  another  items  i n the  In  that  study  independent  affect  cluster.  found  pilot  cluster  analysing positive as  i n one  other.  were  cluster In  other  57  words  these  poles  of  separate  two a p s e c t s one  found  underlying  dimensions  Additionally, to  relate affect  contact,  higher  well  as  variables,  life  symptoms  the  sets  fact  scores is  satisfaction  a better  affect  relate  than e i t h e r  of  from  to  a score  predictor  anxiety the  subscales  positive  derived  from  negative  happiness  of  the  of  a British  as  different  and  two  to  correlated and  and n e g a t i v e  the  social  and e x p o s u r e  health  that  were  variables.  Following  they  on  two  1983).  increased  status  1978).  that  of  with  i l l  positive  rather  Harding,  negative of  Warr,  extreme  and n e g a t i v e a f f e c t  Bradburn concluded  scales  1969;  different  whereas  of  summing t o t a l affect  but  affect  to  1969;  the  dimension  socioeconomic  physical  independence  a r e not  correlated highly  new e x p e r i e n c e s ;  (Bradburn,  well-being  (Bradburn,  positive  Positive  with  of  scales  and taken  separately. Harding's sample  using  (1983) the  analysis  Affect  Balance Scale  (ABS) w i l l  combined w i t h B r a d b u r n ' s o r i g i n a l  findings.  for  is  using Harding's  employed more analysis  than  Bradburn. Balance  powerful the  data  statistical  the  offers  to a  Harding short,  The  fact  techniques  non-parametric procedures  According  Scale  (1983)  probability  (1983) reliable  reason  that  he  in  his  adopted the  be  by  Affect  measure  of  58  psychological  Internal  well-being.  Consistency  The c o e f f i c i e n t separately  for  b o t h were  reasonably  affect  scale  (Harding,  Inter-item  positive  at  for  the  Based  to  for  computed scale  the  negative  on  ABS a p p e a r s  negative  0.65  and  positive  affect  these  scale  correlation  be a r e l i a b l e  inter-item  correlation  scale  0.39  and  1983).  correlations  measure.  of  for  Warr 0.47  and  was the  (1979) 0.48  0.38  for  negative found  for  the  the scale  inter-item positive  and  respectively.  Inter-scale  correlation  Results Harding's scales  high  and 0 . 5 9  the  and t h e  was  correlation  (Harding,  negative  positive  1983).  coefficients  The  the  (Cronbach's alpha)  from  (1983) to  be  non-significant  both Bradburn s 1  normative empirically  Pearson's  (1969)  samples  as  reveal  independent  correlation  of  well the  two  with r  =  as  a  0.002  59  (Harding, of  .02  support  men  the  independent  In  two  must  a study  observed scales  and  subscales.  the  caution  and a Q - v a l u e  for  negative found  1983)  to  women.  given  of  in  intercorrelated and  in  "working-class  mothers"  intercorrelation  of  studies  positive  and  studies  have  other  correlation,  i n t e r p r e t i n g any  p r e d o m i n a n t l y male  -0.21  the  that  average  These  show a s i g n i f i c a n t  be e x e r c i s e d  an  for nature  Yet,  scales  of  of  .09  r a n g i n g from an  employees  value  r = -0.38  Warr  between  Parry's a  results.  (1980)  (1978) the  two  study  of  significantly was  high  observed.  Reliability  The day  results  interval)  reliability. two  time  Positive Affect items over the  show  a test-retest a  Affect  Balance = 0.76.  0.90.  of  using  = 0.83;  scores  of  time.  n i n e month p e r i o d  gamma  Affect  The Q - v a l u e s  for  with  all  (three  level  of  between  the  statistic  Negative  =  the  except  0.81  and  one  being than  between s c o r e s o v e r much  Scores were  were:  individual  are c o n s i d e r a b l y higher  corresponding coefficients periods  high  association  the  uniformily high, These  experiment  moderately  Coefficients  periods  were  longer and  from  compared o v e r  significantly  a  three  lower.  Thus  60  we c a n short  i n t e r p r e t these period only.  p u r p o s e of the  past  the  Convergent  All  to  well-being  and  r  =  0.25,  scale  relation  between  it  over  remembered t h a t feeling  it  states  may not  a the  over  necessarily  traits.  to  Bradburn's  were  (Bradburn,  between  (positive while  the  the  happiness  (r = 0.32  or n e g a t i v e  1969;  items  scale)  of  r a n g e d from r =  to  for  the  r = -0.38.  The  and  r = 0.45) taken  Harding,  questioning  correlation  items  to  scale  be a b e t t e r  measure  correlated with ' indices  r a n g e d from r = - 0 . 2 4  B a l a n c e was h i g h e r positive  of  correlation  negative  life  measure  and s a t i s f a c t i o n  The  showing  to  scales  happiness/satisfaction  the  be  enduring personality  three  happiness  0.21  must a l s o  be s t a b l e  Validity  psychological  1983).  ABS i s  to  few weeks and t h e r e f o r e  be s e n s i t i v e  of  It  results  the  Affect  than  either  separately,  p r e d i c t o r of  happiness  thus and  satisfaction.  O c c u p a t i o n a l Involvement  The martial  demographic  data  and p a r e n t a l s t a t u s .  Scale.  collected  included  The p o s s i b l e  both  combinations  61  of  b e i n g m a r r i e d o r not  home o r family  not life  children  will  home;  married without children  at  underlying  home  will  have  the  Given  a  married  general  3.  single  four  single to  without home;  with the (1982)  women w i t h no c h i l d r e n occupational  high occupational c h i l d r e n at  which  to  performance  and  other job  Therefore,  and  have  especially  a job  a if  age. an  Occupational  be v i e w e d  attitudes  job  subjects.  as  a  towards  appears  to  attitudes  basic  be  Work  definition  in or  factorially  such  (Lodahl  global  work  in p a r t i c u l a r .  satisfaction the  involvement;  involvement,  can  involvement of  will  a d m i n i s t e r e d to a l l  assesses  r a t h e r than  home  home w i l l  assumptions  involvement  home  occupational  women w i t h c h i l d r e n a t  measure was  (c)  categories,  intermediate  preschool  at four  married  strongest  or  these  independent  1965).  single  home; and (d)  the  moderate  test  occupational  (a)  for  with c h i l d r e n at  these  low o c c u p a t i o n a l  Occupational measure  1.  women w i t h  Involvement  analyses  m a r r i e d women w i t h no c h i l d r e n a t  c h i l d r e n are of To  be:  having c h i l d r e n  b a s e d on Warr and P a r r y ' s  have  have a m o d e r a t e  relatively  single  be t h a t :  2.  as  separate  c h i l d r e n at  will  involvement;  4.  (b)  assumptions  involvement;  well  These w i l l  home.  research w i l l at  permit  cycles.  at  as  as & of  job  Kejner, work  62  involvement engaged scale  is  the  i n work.  tap the  person's  concept  N o r m a t i v e and  Warr,  to  of  the  Psychometric  Scale  was  of  Warr's studies, and  the  the  this  second  represented  by  s t u d i e s was  0.63  0.38  scale  the  work t o  a  Occupational  in  and 0.48  relationship  the  not  alpha  and  0.64  well  the  attempt  well-being  of  two  in February  1977  The  coefficient  for  respectively. (desired showing i n the of  590  psychometric  Involvement  interval)  of  replication  result  1977.  items  to  established.  a  place  respectively,  month  an  no known  correlation  six  (Occupational)  in  are  Work  between a l l (six  are  November  the  Work  findings  which took  item-whole  test-retest  of  on a p o p u l a t i o n  Since  findings  first  of  was  involvement  psychological  tested  on h i s  (1978)  homogeneity  corrected  of  male w o r k e r s .  undertaken  properties  (1979)  developed  The s c a l e was  collar been  importance  D a t a on  Wall's  u n d e r s t a n d some c o r r e l a t e s  has  work  be  Scale  Involvement  blue  on the  wants t o  worth.  Cook and  and w o r k .  which a person  The q u e s t i o n s  s e n s e of  Involvement  extent  60  a  internal Scale  as  the  two  The to  be  mean high)  significant scale.  In  a  participants  63  from S t u d y the  2  earlier  level  a  who were group  i n terms  stability  involvement  was  reinterviewed of  and matched  region,  coefficient  of  age 0.56  with  and  skill  for  work  found.  Quality  of  the  Nonoccupational  Environment  Scale.  The q u a l i t y presents  the  of  measure  difficult  is  satisfaction,  own i s  a rough  perceived  address  the  whether  workplace  needs. Index  at  measure  an  Therefore,  to  studies  a indicator  measure  used  The q u a l i t y includes In  on  its  of  more  addition a  of  the than  measure  environment  needs  to  o r not  environment  outside  of  is  a woman's  meeting  specific overall  it  as  Prior  since  nonoccupational  Well-Being  reference  best.  security.  Bradburn's Affect of  this  environment  financial  assessing  however,  index  nonoccupational  status  environment  t o measure  available.  r e l i e d on s o c i o e c o n o m i c  overall  the  nonoccupational  v a r i a b l e most  no s t a n d a r d i z e d have  the  is  her  social  and  Balance Scale  (Campbell, et domains sense  imperative  satisfaction-dissatisfaction  of  of  psychological (1969)  al.,  life  1976)  but  and  the  make  no  r a t h e r aim  to  happiness/satisfaction. to  with  obtain  a  specific  measure domains  of of  a  64  woman's  life  living;  leisure  and  family The  (i.e.  home and  time;  health;  questions  Nonoccupational  satisfaction  domains.  This  Satisfaction  latter  life;  two  Since been  data  on t h i s  coefficient  2.  1.  of an  particular i n one  measure. a l p h a 0.60  was  r e p o r t e d and  the  coefficient  for  the  employment  all  Cook  and  Wall  items  on  the  and  Life three  achievements  with l i f e s t y l e In t h i s  Satisfaction  there  is  and  study  only  Scale  has  little  normative  aforementioned  satisfaction  study  a  with l i f e  style  with personal  life  0.59.  Q u a l i t y of the Employment  women i n  life  Warr,  interpretable  satisfaction  a l p h a was  measure  employed.  In t h e for  the  Life  life.  Life  study  to  of  the  standards  were  Quality  from  satisfaction  subscales  used  by  with personal  this  only  For  of life  particular  adapted  yielded  structure:  one's  was  analyses  Scale  satisfaction  the  social  attempt  these  developed  Cluster  component  Scale  with  measure  Scale  Satisfaction  3.  education;  i n c l u d e d i n the  Environment  perceived  within  standard  life).  eight  (1979).  community;  Relationship.  four c a t e g o r i e s  relationship will  the  quality  of  be d e t e r m i n e d by a  job  65  satisfaction housewife  scale.  also  how women  Since  the  are expected  perceive  the  to  roles  to  p u r p o s e of  this  quality  which m a r i t a l  number of  The  measure  and/or  is  of  Hoppock Job S a t i s f a c t i o n  Job  satisfaction  ways s i n c e measures  the  researcher rely  long  as  only  well  on  eliciting  satisfaction reliability single  as  no  avoiding  low  the  instruments, was  the  chosen.  Hoppock  four  to  the  to  both  while a  job  number  (1935).  single  of Some  for  other  the  measures question  satisfaction  method of  limitation  In an a t t e m p t while  job  of  low  be made of  to circumvent at  or  evaluating  r e l i a b i l i t y c h e c k may  lengthy  degree  relate  measured a  obvious  reliability,  the  Scale  overall  the  on  by women.  response  has  effect  employment  determine  subject,  The l a t t e r  and  was a d m i n i s t e r e d .  cumbersome,  the  item measure.  p r o b l e m of  Scale  as  perceived  dissatisfaction.  to  work of  and  the  also  has been  original  are  their  parental status  demands e x p e r i e n c e d  mother  have a s a l i e n t  r e l a t i o n s h i p a r o l e demand s c a l e The  of  the  same  a  this time  sophisticated  job  satisfaction  i t e m Hoppock  Job  Satisfaction  66  An a d d i t i o n a l fact the  that job  the  it  various  there the  is  domains  which  variables  rates a  one's  risk  on t h e  is  been  asked  job s a t i s f a c t i o n  number of  survey  recent  validation  Stahl,  and  Manley  normed  occupational  was  reliable without  measure study  was  was  (1978).  of  This  the  scale  job which  interpersonal  social  the  life  Quality  same which  of  the  Therefore,  the  selected  because  measure  which  a b s o r b i n g an  developed  undertaken In  this  Hoppock's s c a l e  over  categories  and s e c r e t a r i a l  confounding  of  scale.  a  it taps  extensive  items.  Although t h i s  authors  a  of  essentially  the  Scale  measure  satisfaction  many  one's  Environment  researcher  life  quality  on  with  provide  satisfaction  with  the  satisfaction.  with  measuring  Hoppock J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n  overall  life  to  to  researcher  perceived  job  Nonoccupational  the  the  A job  satisfaction  already  offers  overall  is  satisfaction  combine  occurs  scales.  subject's  as  to  Hoppock's s c a l e  which s e t s out  w h i c h measure  problem  relations concept  of  of  subjects'  study  a real  satisfaction  only  In a  sense  potential  has  assesses  itself.  perceived  advantage  workers.  which  in  by  1935  McNichols,  replication a  wide  included  both  a  range  the of  clerical  67  The four  Hoppock  questions  Job  r a t e d on a s c a l e  dissatisfaction) score  is  question and  28.  (McNichols  et  summing  1  developed  al.,  of  (extreme  satisfaction). the  over  The  responses.  equally y i e l d i n g a score  coefficient  r e l i a b i l i t y of target  samples  levels,  N  samples  range  forty  Each  between  years  measure a p p e a r s t o  4  ago,  perform  1978).  evidence  of  Construct  alpha  across  the  effectiveness  values  0.890.  occupational across  These  these  correlation  high to.provide of  for  further  Hoppock's measure.  validity  analysis  correlation  structure  presenting  to  estimate  job scale  range of  alpha  sufficiently  Factor  in  a wide  The  from 0.758 are  was c a l c u l a t e d t o  Hoppock's f o u r - i t e m  = 29,094.  coefficients  were  consists  Consistency  The  four  weighted  scale  r a n g i n g from  (extreme  job s a t i s f a c t i o n  Internal  the  7 by  Although  Hoppock's well  to  derived is  Satisfaction  fact a  was  used  to  to a s c e r t a i n  measures univariate  of  a  evaluate  whether  single  measure o f  job  the  all  items  factor  thus  satisfaction  68  (McNichols et analysis that  involves  all  the  1978). a  component  variance  first  in  purpose  for  clusters  with  one  another.  explained the  factor,  The b a s i c  search  correlate  principal total  al.,  samples.  labelled  general  were a l s o h i g h a c r o s s  the  of  factor  variables The  from 58% t o  four  of  first  76% of  the  A l l loadings job  on  satisfaction,  samples,  r a n g i n g from 0 . 6 5  requires  that  to  0.92.  Convergent  validity  Convergent Satisfaction  validity  measure  t y p e s of  measures  similar  in  was  five  (McNichols et and  Rothe  satisfaction of  r = 0.92  the  Role  in  s c a l e s of al.,  they  to the  1978).  (1951)  other same  maximally area  evaluations.  found  be  JDI  significantly  Hoppock's  Index)  A d d i t i o n a l l y , when B r a y f i e l d  scores  scale.  Job  correlated  (Job D e s c r i p t i o n  their  index  computed a p r o d u c t - m o m e n t  between t h e  Job  different  be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  developed  Brayfield-Rothe  strain  the  their  Satisfaction with a l l  and  Hoppock's  on t h e  of  job  correlation  Hoppock s c a l e  and  69  Women w i t h c h i l d r e n a r e e n t e r i n g t h e work f o r c e i n r e c o r d numbers  and a r e  in  fact  the  fastest  growing  g r o u p o f w o r k i n g women ( S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a , 1 9 8 4 ) . Y e t , little these  research women  h a s been  cope  undertaken t o  w i t h and/or  juggle  discover  how  their  multiple  i ti s  expected  roles. As w i t h  occupational  t h a t the degree w o r k i n g women  involvement  of i n t e r r o l e  will  vary  strain  with l i f e  experienced  cycle stage.  by For  e x a m p l e , t h e p r e s e n c e o f d e p e n d e n t c h i l d r e n i n t h e home has  been f o u n d  strain  t o be p o s i t i v e l y  (Baruch  et  Role  strain  1982b).  al.,  1 9 8 3 ; Warr  in  strain will Little  t h i s study  be h i g h e s t research  few  research  five  Demand  (Baruch  e t a l . , 1983). that  instruments  undertaken t o  multipe  role  roles.  discover  As a  a r e a v a i l a b l e t o measure  ( P a r r y & Warr, 1980).  This  i t e m m e a s u r e d e v e l o p e d by Gove  Scale  1982a,  related t o the  i t i spredicted  h a s been  women c o p e w i t h t h e i r  a  Parry,  role  among w i v e s a n d m o t h e r s .  how  construct  &  i salso positively  number o f r o l e s a woman o c c u p i e s Therefore,  associated with  study  will  (1972).  result this employ  70  The s c a l e determine  is  composed of  whether  or  not  constantly  confronting  analysis  of  the  three  the  of  items  items  home and two of The s c a l e face  interview  children, of  both  men  items  refer  as  and  to  the  this  validity  in  the  Likert  scale  reliability  used  Prior  demands  Demand S c a l e , will  not  of  An  shows  in of  in  the  general. a face  to of  health  properties  been  role  that  effects  of  established. to  have  face  overload.  The  s t u d y was p r o v i d e d by  interpreting Hoyt's estimate  be d e t e r m i n e d  she  mental  appear  in this to  is  combined  does  measurement  researcher.  b a s e d on t h e  have  instrument  feels  t o demands  Psychometric  validity  to  others.  one component  studying  which aim  demand s c a l e  specifically  and women.  However,  the  from  employment and m a r r i a g e on t h e  reliablity  7-point  i n the  was d e v e l o p e d  items  respondent  demands  refer  the  the  five  the  findings  of  internal  using Nelson's  (1974)  Lertap procedure.  Research Hypotheses  Hypothesis Involvement .05),  for  1:  Scale  single  married c h i l d l e s s  Mean will  scores be h i g h e r ,  childless women,  women, single  on  the  Occupational  statistically when compared mothers  and  (a  =  with  married  71  mothers. The  first  hypothesis  variance  using  the  parental  s t a t u s and t h e  as  the  dependent  Hypothesis  and w i t h o u t  be t e s t e d  independent  by a n a l y s i s  v a r i a b l e s of  O c c u p a t i o n a l Involvement  2:  Mean  scores  Environment  (a =  .05),  children,  on t h e  Scale  Quality will  second  experimental variables  for married  be  the  hypothesis using  hypothesis  Quality  of  1.  the  higher with  married  mothers.  will  employ  the  same  the  same  independent  The d e p e n d e n t  the  of  women b o t h  when c o m p a r e d w i t h n e v e r  design  as  and  Scale  be  women, p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d women and s i n g l e The  marital  of  variable.  Nonoccupational statistically  will  variable  Nonoccupational  will  Environment  Scale.  Hypothesis  3: Mean s c o r e s  be s t a t i s t i c a l l y  (a  = .05)  compared w i t h women i n t h e women,  separated,  The t h i r d analysis  of  variable  levels  living  higher  Demand S c a l e  for married  categories  of  will  women,  never  married  by t h e  one-way  d i v o r c e d and widowed.  hypothesis  will  variance procedure.  with a  on t h e  are:  1)  be t e s t e d  The t h r e e  never m a r r i e d ;  p a r t n e r ; 3)  previously  2)  independent married  m a r r i e d but  or now  72  single  as  a result  Hypothesis  4:  be s t a t i s t i c a l l y  of  separation,  Mean s c o r e s (a =  .05)  compared w i t h c h i l d l e s s As w i t h employ t h e the  independent  and 2)  with  married  5:  be  independent  for  analysis  hypothesis of  will  mothers  when  4  also  will  variance procedure being:  Mean s c o r e s on t h e  statistically with  the  employ  1)  no  statistically  6:  of  Mean  with  children  compared w i t h  never  Satisfaction  .05)  when  higher  for  compared  with  mothers.  two h y p o t h e s i s ,  marital  married  using  and p a r e n t a l  Index  the  Affect will  f o r m a r r i e d women and  5  status.  Bradburn's  Well-Being  higher  hypothesis  design  s c o r e s on  and C a m p b e l l ' s (a = . 0 5 )  Job  =  same e x p e r i m e n t a l  variables  Scale  (a  children  first  the  Hypothesis Balance  3,  women and s i n g l e  As w i t h will  Demand S c a l e  children.  women  childless  higher  variable levels  Hypothesis scale w i l l  on t h e  death.  women.  hypothesis  one-way  d i v o r c e or  previously  be when  married  women. The one-way  sixth analysis  hypothesis of  will  variance.  be  subjected  The t h r e e  to  a  independent  73  v a r i a b l e l e v e l s b e i n g : 1)  never m a r r i e d ; 2 ) m a r r i e d  l i v i n g w i t h a p a r t n e r and 3)  or  previously married.  Duncan's m u l t i p l e comparisons w i l l be performed on the  f i r s t t h r e e hypotheses  and hypothses f i v e and  six  f o l l o w i n g s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s t o a s s e s s the d i f f e r e n c e s among i n d i v i d u a l means.  74  CHAPTER IV: RESULTS  This  chapter  statistical  describes  analysis  according  to  D a t a were  gathered,  the  the  the  of  the  discusses  them  proposed  in Chapter  Two.  t a b u l a t e d and a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g  outlined  tables  results  d a t a and  hypotheses  procedures  Frequency  of  the  were  in  the  produced  previous for  all  chapter. variablies;  means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s  were c a l c u l a t e d  continuous  null  variables.  a d v a n c e d and t h e  Six  results  of  the  D e s c r i p t i o n of Sample and Demographic  The  sample u s e d  in this  e m p l o y e d i n c l e r i c a l and University  of  British  questionnaires returned.  were  the  s u r v e y was  of  the  sample  Thirty-eight while and  14  20  women  (12.2%)  age  between  of  very  the  the  i n the  older close  were  Statistics  consisted  A 163  of  total  at  (85.7%)  group  of  to  the  matching  44 or  45 -  t h a n 55 y e a r s  the 190 were  responded  26 -  25 y e a r s  women  of  women who  a g e s of  age  the  presented.  More t h a n one h a l f  (23.3%) were  were  (8.5%) were  numbers come  Columbia.  35 y e a r s .  fell  are  secretarial positions  distributed;  The a v e r a g e  to  study  for  hypotheses  analysis  to  (55.8%) years. younger  54  age.  years These  percentage  75  distribution in  the  Canadian  figures the  by age  just  one  indicated  they  largest  half  of  or younger;  t h a n 55 y e a r s  older  1981  women  Canadian  (54.6%)  of  were m a r r i e d o r  group  of  been m a r r i e d ,  single  census between  labour  force  13.9% were of  age  45  The p r e s e n c e  (Statistics  in other  women  surveyed  living  with a  partner.  women  of  were  t h o s e who  F i f t e e n women  s e p a r a t e d and 5 (3.0%)  children  studies,  to  in  the  home  be n e g a t i v e l y  had  (9.2%) widowed.  has  been  correlated  women's  labour  force  participation  (Barnett,  Campbell  et  1976;  Gove £<  Tudor,  1973;  1982a).  This  effect  more  than  Philiber,  children  in  age.  there  home and  when  The r e s u l t s findings.  were c h i l d l e s s ,  age  when  the  of  Only  are  this  four  of  Moreover, six.  21 had o n l y 29  study  women  one c h i l d  The  to  1982;  Hiller  children  and no one had more t h a n t h r e e .  children. the  the  these  children  Warr & P a r r y ,  pronounced  pre-school support  al,  1980;  even more  (111)  to  the  45 o r 27.6%.  were d i v o r c e d , 9 (5.5%)  found,  (46.7%)  to  and  1984).  Over  never  older  15 y e a r s  According  i n the  25 y e a r s  54 and 9.5% were  The  one h a l f  25-44 were  29.9% were  Canada,  women  labour f o r c e .  under  a g e s of  while  g r o u p s of  & is two  are  of  seem  to  had  three  majority  and 27 had  women had c h i l d r e n  two under  76  Current  research  a t r e n d toward (Faver,  1984;  study  would  women  in  indicates  delayed  parenthood  Wilkie, tend  the  to  age  that  1981). support  category  there  in married  The  of  this  only  two  younger  had  t r e n d as  years  or  be  couples  findings  this 25  seems t o  children. The n a t i o n a l  average  w o r k i n g women was this  survey.  have  less  in  this  women  far  While  than h i g h  study  10.7% school  had l e s s  completed  high  education  and a r e l a t i v e l y  had c o m p l e t e d obtained 12. 40  Canadian school;  grade  technical  Sixty-two  (65%)  out  a total  years  and  (17) age  or g r a d u a t e d groups  respondents  >25  to  working  of  some  either  years,  have  (9.3%)  29  (17.8%)  Education  i n the  eighty  university  age  In t h e (62%)  -  grade  35  and  levels  Twenty-two  university (5).  had  education  groups.  taken  have  (17.8%)  t r a i n i n g beyond  age  of  post-secondary  twenty-nine  graduates. all  subject  (53.5%)  and a n o t h e r  34 members  had a t t e n d e d  one  women  The m a j o r i t y  force  study  from u n i v e r s i t y 45  of  had some u n i v e r s i t y  across  had  respondents  small percentage  or v o c a t i o n a l  high  of  only  12.  26.5% have  twelve  were e q u a l l y  above  completion  In t h i s  (38%)  attainment  Canadian  labour  (25.5%) were u n i v e r s i t y  of  of  by t h e  than grade  the  degree.  educational  surpassed  in  a university  of  of of  groups  45  courses younger the  129  whom  had  77  graduated. These with  figures  the  fact  required  only  that  high  the  work d i f f e r s  the  levels  time  jobs  the  of  occupied  widespread  -  less  part  full  In answer  20 h o u r s ,  week and 8  (4.9%)  researchers  differ  to  have  argue  parents  of  level  i n the  found  domain  psychological  income  to  the sample  full  were a s k e d  the 7  time  employment  question  to "how  (4.2%) worked  (3.0%) worked between 20  -  majority  40  10 10  30 h o u r s  t h e y worked more t h a n  well-being  the  component  women  per hours  (82.4%) worked  40  week.  psychological  others  said  this  time  time  between  The o v e r w h e l m i n g  Studies  between  Five  9 (5.5%) worked  e a c h week. hours per  p e r week.  for  committed  many h o u r s p e r week do y o u work o n l y hours or  by t h e s e  underemployment.  from  who worked  coupled  highlights  education  and e n e r g y  survey.  attainment  graduation  substantially  respondents  complete  educational  school  p r o b a b i l i t y of  Since  only  all  high  exceptionally and t h e  for  of  financial (Campbell, et  economic  (Keith  a real &  which  income  are c o r r e l a t e d .  psychological is  to  a surprisingly  well-being that  degree  stability well-being.  concern  Schafer,  i n the  1982;  While  low  is  1976) an  In lives  Pearlin  some  correlation  well-being al,  and  and still  important particular, of &  single Johnson,  78  1977;  Tcheng-Laroche,  presence in  the  of  two  &  incomes  Prince,  1983a,  can make a v e r y  overall perception  of  married  67  above  Of t h i s  group a f u r t h e r  a  family  income  indicates, at  the  that  single  lower  the  single  end  large  and  financial distress  were  of  income  the  discrepency  In  on o n l y  one  the  case  of  research  measures  internal  reliability.  not  maintained with study. of  had  Table  3  be p r e d o m i n a n t l y It  is  income  result the  thought  levels  of  a  second  single  associated  not  of  mother,  only  with  psychological  1977).  has  used  high respect  The L e r t a p  shown in  this  that  1974)  internal to  the  most  study  Nevertheless,  computer program ( N e l s o n , or  income  of the Instrument  dependent  estimates  the  87  (47.7%) As  v u l n e r a b i l i t y but a d d i t i o n a l l y  Previous  this  32  scale.  the  ( P e a r l i n & Johnson,  difference  a family  found to  in  is  had  The  Of t h e  $40,000.  is  income  Internal R e l i a b i l i t y  whether  of  women,  m a r r i e d women  income e a r n e r . relying  (77%)  in excess  real  well-being.  women who were $25,000.  1983b).  of  have the  high Lertap  was u s e d t o  ascertain  reliability  would  be  population surveyed  in  program employs H o y t ' s  reliability.  the  The e s t i m a t e  of  (1941) internal  79  reliability findings showing  of  from  earlier  the  measures  Testing  ranged  reliability  the  to  research.  c a n be f o u n d  for  of  in Table  (1983)  The  purpose  the nonoccupational  employment with  marital  significant advanced. whether  of  relation  dependent  differences F  Ratio  was  set  at  Duncan's M u l t i p l e to  assess  means.  Testing Hypothesis 1  the  to  to t e s t  environment, and  was  status. null  quality  To  employed  to  test  for were  determine  The l e v e l  Following  differences  variables  hypotheses  Comparison post  of  psychological  each h y p o t h e s i s . .05.  the  involvement,  to the independent  six  the  investigate  occupational  parent  or not to r e j e c t  performed  the  were u s e d  relationship  and/or  The  significance effects  breakdown  1.  was  quality  of  of  the  A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e and One-way  variables  well-being  confirming  complete  each  dependent  the  A  V a r i a n c e programs  hypotheses.  of  .93  Hypotheses  The S P S S : X Analysis  .71  of  significant hoc t e s t  among  was  individual  80  It  is  hypothesized  (a = . 0 5 ) ,  exists  childless mothers  Involvement  2  marital  married  of  status,  interactive  on t h e null a  single single  Occupational  32.7; was  greater  for  the  was  (separated,  widowed  for or  and  no  there  was  no  marital  See  and  was u p h e l d . for m a r i t a l  of  status  variance test  was the  among women on t h e  basis  for  33.4.  for  group  group The  to  paid  divorced)  3.  it  1,  . (never  living  3  higher  with  (separated, the  score  employment  previously  Table  status  on  more i m p o r t a n t t h a n  and m a r r i e d women.  There  status  group 2 ( m a r r i e d or and  for  level.  differences  mean  commitment  that  of  from  (1,154)  .05  Since  basis  Scale  The  indicating  significantly  2.  results  7.09  for parental  analysis  30.7;  the  of  beyond the  determine  status.  ANOVA  main e f f e c t  one-way  widowed o r d i v o r c e d ) the  of  women,  the  hypothesis  Involvement  was  a partner)  F Ratio  Table  the  to  Occupational  married)  on  two-way  effect  since  was o b s e r v e d a  marital  scores  childless  signficant  effect  However,  of  the  effect,  status  undertaken  mean  mothers  an  was no s i g n i f i c a n t  parental  the  difference  Scale.  indicated  significant  no s t a t i s t i c a l  married  An a n a l y s i s Table  between  women, and  that  married having is  a  for both  thus women  job  is  single  81  Duncan's indicated  procedure  that  significantly  group 3  Scale  revealed  single  specific is  items  women's either  just  lives.  t o work  Eighty-three  percent  work e v e n  U.I.C.  strongly These  agreed  figures  status  do not  to  paid  the  on t h e  basis single  particularly  as  labour  null  of  hypothesis  higher  found.  having  percent  of  Looking  would  Scale is  in  respondents  i m p o r t a n t t o me";  50%  they would  alot"  alot" won  a  still  that  hate  to  be  on  overall marital  they  lottery. prefer  were h i g h e r a n d f u l l y  a deterrent  it  the  if  they  that  the  at  to  "agreed q u i t e even  scores  a job  "agreed q u i t e  benefits  they  act  of  outcome  very  felt  suggest  When women's  t o why t h e  how i m p o r t a n t  " s t r o n g l y agreed" or  living  Involvement  O c c u p a t i o n a l Involvement  "having a job i s  if  Occupational  was not  Seventy-two  would c o n t i n u e  that  as  "agreed s t r o n g l y " or  statement also  the  women  on t h e  differed  4.  expected  childless  apparent  of  some c l u e s the  comparisons  from g r o u p 2 ( m a r r i e d o r  Table  item a n a l y s i s  was u p h e l d and for  See  multiple  (previously married)  (a = .05)  with a p a r t n e r ) . An  for  to 80%  welfare.  and p a r e n t a l  t o women's  commitment  force. commitment t o  marital  women  status  report  t h o s e who  employment was compared alone  somewhat  it  was  revealed  higher  scores,  were p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d .  This  82  finding  is  u n d e r s t a n d a b l e as  more r e a l  for  unattached  compounded by t h e fully  one  single  half  females,  presence  of  the  potential  of  poverty  a  fact  children.  previously  is  much  which  In t h i s  is  sample  m a r r i e d women  were  mothers.  Testing Hypothesis 2  It of  is  the  hypothesized  statistically  women, m a r r i e d  on t h e  Scale  will  when s i n g l e  women, m a r r i e d  Quality be  no  childless  mothers  and  mothers are compared.  Quality  of  the  of  variance  was no e f f e c t effect.  (ANOVA)  results  on  Nonoccupational Environment Scale  i n d i c a t e d a main  null  (a = .05)  childless  The a n a l y s i s  5)  mean s c o r e s  Nonoccupational Environment  different  single  that  effect  for marital  for parental status  The r e s u l t s ,  therefore,  (Table  status.  and no f a i l e d to  the  There  interactive reject  the  analysis  of  hypothesis. Secondary a n a l y s i s  variance  test  Environment effect  for  indicated  no  mean s c o r e s  on t h e Scale  using Quality  was  marital  of  the  undertaken status.  significant f o r Group  a one-way  following  However,  differences  1 (never  Nonoccupational a  this  overall  main test  between  married M = 42.2);  Group  83  2  (married  Group 3 This  or l i v i n g  (separated,  difference  Scale  is  on t h e  of  the two  satisfaction  satisfaction  of  subscales,  life.  carried  two component  They a r e  finally been  subscale  local  leisure  found  variance  time  far  below life  relative  the  then  that  among t h e  or m a r i t a l  status.  et of  no  of al., these  differences, status,  were  four  was  of  items.  house living  very l i t t l e life et  of  or and have  of  the  satisfaction  al.,  1976).  In  The  Quality  of  these  health,  four  items  marriage  and  1976).  Given  the  domains  it  not  significant  respondents  second  T h e s e domains  entitled  domains  (Campbell  no  standard  mean i m p o r t a n c e  unimportance  surprising detected  the  measuring  and t h e  with one's  Campbell  survey  level.  Environment  composed of  overall  1976b;  0.08  subscales.  explain  predicting  landmark  American L i f e  to  41.4).  further analysis  activities.  by o t h e r s in  Campbell's  family  is  district,  (Andrews & W i t h e y ,  fell  scale  and  =  first  Since  perceived satisfaction  apartment,  the  marital  overall  The l i f e s t y l e  the  with l i f e s t y l e  p a r e n t a l and  on t h e  widowed M  only at  d i s c o v e r e d on t h e out  = 43.5);  Nonoccupational  with personal  basis  or  significant  composed of  perceived  partner M  divorced  was  The Q u a l i t y  with a  on t h e  is  differences basis  of  were  parental  84  The  second  Nonoccupational personal the  life,  of  health,  Analysis  differences  of  on t h i s  items life  is  relating and  to  satisfaction  with  was  5.8  of  the  verge  life.  of  significantly  married  again of  life  (in  and f a m i l y significant categories  the  family  on  life  regard  puts  them on  with t h e i r  family  contrast  scored  by  item the  three  to  m a r r i e d women  score  Previously the  the  social  m a r r i e d women and  social  of  life,  With  mean of  This  women  "I am not  Single  with  and  never  mean  score  married  women  g r o u p s w i t h a mean  s u r e " and "I am m o d e r a t e l y  women r e p o r t e d a mean s c o r e  of  5.1  item.  These the  within  interesting  satisfied"  5.5.  lowest  between  life  various  health.  than both  On t h e  the  with  revealed  most  7).  married  lower  satisfied"). on t h i s  "very  women was  scored  4.5  that  family  a possible  m a r r i e d women. of  of  Previously  satisfaction  m a r r i e d women s c o r e d h i g h e s t  state  being  the  satisfaction  among t h e is  of  social  data  satisfaction  present  (out  the  Quality  Scale,  education  What  that  the  perceived  scale  respondents.  significant  of  Environment measures  domains of  life.  subscale  findings  are  i n a c c o r d w i t h the  domains a s s o c i a t e d  central  in  determining  Withey,  1976b;  Bernard,  with personal  life 1981;  view life  satisfaction Campbell  et  of many are  most  (Andrews al.,  &  1976;  85  Gove,  1972;  1983). as  If  Gove & T u d o r , satisfaction  b e i n g the  life  most  satisfaction  1976;  Gove,  with personal  Hughes & life  is  accepted  central  domain i n a s s e s s i n g  then  also  that  n e v e r m a r r i e d and p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d women do n o t  find  lives  married  as  pleasant  can  overall  be c o n c l u d e d  their  it  Style,  or as  satisfying  as  their  counterparts.  T e s t i n g Hypothesis 3  It Scale  is  hypothesized  will  married  not  differ  women,  never  that  mean s c o r e s  statistically married  on t h e  (a =  women  Demand  .05)  and  when  previously  m a r r i e d women a r e c o m p a r e d . A  one-way  significant of  difference  marital  (2,160)  analysis  status.  was  Hypothesis  on t h e  The  was  the  25.5)  w h i l e m a r r i e d women (M=  difference  22.5).  on t h e  1)  As  basis  6 of  .01  test  lay.  (Group  Demand S c a l e  Table the  r e p o r t e d the  Table  on t h e  a  5.58 level.  rejected.  differences  married  demands  (Group  beyond  Comparison  never  indicated  Demand S c a l e  therefore  The Duncan M u l t i p l e where  variance  F R a t i o from  significant  three  to d i s c o v e r  of  2) 7,  was  utilized  Women who  least  demands  r e p o r t e d the  indicates  between n e v e r  the  were (M = most mean  married  86  and m a r r i e d women i s  signficant  at  the  .05  level.  Testing Hypothesis 4  It Scale  is  hypothesized  will  not  differ  that  mean s c o r e s  statistically  w i t h c h i l d r e n and women w i t h o u t One-way significant  analysis difference  women w i t h o u t Ratio .001  The  to  35  children fewer  never  (M  indicated  demand s c a l e . significant  f o u r was t h e r e f o r e  they  The  Women  encountered  = 25.1) compared  F the  rejected.  has a r a n g e of  demands).  a and  beyond  confronted with these  encounter  i n d i c a t e d that  demands  the  i t e m Demand S c a l e  am c o n s t a n t l y  (I  when women  c h i l d r e n are compared. variance  3 8 . 7 8 was  Hypothesis  five  from 5 (I  8 of  .05)  Demand  between women w i t h c h i l d r e n  c h i l d r e n on  from T a b l e level.  of  (a=  on t h e  scores demands) without  significantly  w i t h t h o s e who  did  have c h i l d r e n (M = 2 0 . 4 ) .  Testing Hypothesis 5  It  is  hypothesized  Satisfaction .05)  when  women,  Scale  single  single  will  that not  childless  mean s c o r e s differ women,  on t h e  statistically married  Job (a  =  childless  m o t h e r s and m a r r i e d m o t h e r s a r e c o m p a r e d .  87  The ANOVA r e s u l t s (Table  9)  indicates  consequently the  no  results  marital low  the  and/or  were  time or job  if  less. they  measuring 45)  over  could  get  t o change  showed  Additionally,  -  it  was  all the  job  and  that  no  of  current  morderately  with scores  4.30;  children out  about h a l f  job  as  well  of  was a s i g n i f i c a n t women  higher  bracket. found t h a t  the their  their in  (over  the  age  levels  of  job  Table  women  31%  variable  particularly See  as  a  said  and a f u r t h e r  job  Older  of  respondents  women would change  significantly  o l d age  mothers  children  single  t h a n y o u n g e r women,  25-35 y e a r  childless  Satisfaction  reported  both t h e i r  H o w e v e r , age  Job  without  a better  job s a t i s f a c t i o n .  satisfaction  single  50% of  the  words,  signficant  regardless  with t h e i r  and  g r o u p s was u p h e l d .  4.67;  Almost h a l f  no single  on t h e  (single  effect  hypothesis  women,  children  Just  occupation.  the  null exist  of  satisfied  would l i k e  of  women,  Scale  In o t h e r  of  m a r r i e d w i t h c h i l d r e n 4.58 7).  main  are  aforementioned  satisfaction  possible they  no  parental status,  married without 4.51;  means  The  majority  job  the  differences  between The  there  childless  mothers.  significant  is  that  between  women, m a r r i e d  Scale  there  Job S a t i s f a c t i o n  interaction effect.  show  differences  married  on t h e  those  10 and  who  in 11.  reported  88  higher  family  significantly Table  incomes more  ($40,000  satisfied  with  plus)  also  were  their  jobs.  See  12.  Testing Hypothesis 6  It Affect Scale  is  hypothesized  Balance Scale will  be no  that  mean s c o r e s  on  and C a m p b e l l ' s Index  different  Bradburn's  of  statistically  Well-Being (a =  when n e v e r m a r r i e d women, m a r r i e d women and  .05),  previously  m a r r i e d women a r e c o m p a r e d . A one-way variable  of  analysis  marital  measured by t h e significant g r o u p s of  women.  The mean s c o r e m a r r i e d women  14.  See  by t h e  variable  dependent  between  Comparison  group 1  (a  showed no  the  13.  However,  Procedure =  (never  .05)  1.17  w i t h the  was  happiness  As i n d i c a t e d by t h e s e  no s i g n i f i c a n t  differences  Scale  women  of  or  exist  score  the  on t h e  different  the  applied  a  group  2  was  revealed.  and f o r  never  indicating  well-being.  results  overall  when  between  married)  higher  as  aforementioned  f o r m a r r i e d women was 2 . 1 0  s e n s e of  between  independent  Table  difference  and  v a r i a n c e on t h e  Balance Scale  difference  significant  greater  status  Affect  Duncan M u l t i p l e  (married)  of  See  Table  hypothesis Affect  marital  a  that  Balance  status  is  89  rejected. Psychological Campbell's and the  three  mentioned analysis  Index  as of  difference  well-being  of  W e l l - B e i n g as  levels the  =  of  with  the  Multiple  findings  m e a s u r e d by t h e  on  Affect  women w i t h a mean s c o r e rate  their  overall  of  as  findings that not  was  38.79.  on t h e  Affect  mean s c o r e s differ  when  rejected.  agreed  of  is,  as  married  a possible higher  16.  Scale, of  never  As the  56) than was  whose  with  the  hypothesis  Well-Being w i l l married  m a r r i e d women and p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d women a r e is  15).  m a r r i e d women  on C a m p b e l l ' s Index  statistically  women,  whose mean s c o r e  Table  Balance  signficant  well-being  or w e l l - b e i n g  previously  one-way  (Table  that  (out  married,  See  A  Procedure  Scale,  42.39  happiness  only  mean s c o r e  Comparison  measure  married  m a r r i e d women  Balance  never  well  never  using  previously  overall  psychological  b o t h women who have 3 8 . 4 4 as  dependent status  an  between  m a r r i e d women and p r e v o u s l y The Duncan  the  tested  variable.  revealed  .05)  was  marital  independent  variance (a  also  women, compared  90  Summary  To s u m m a r i z e , n u l l were  r e j e c t e d by t h e  variance. three  hypotheses  results  The f i n d i n g s  groups  of  of  women  of  the  were c o m p a r e d ,  never  least  between  demands  women  t h o s e who were  currently degree  married  married.  to  which  basis  significantly  well-being never  married  that  of  tested  also  mid-point  than  are  tested  impinge  the on  a  t i m e women were c o m p a r e d  the  The  findings  without  did  have  reported  three  that  their those  children.  categories  and  previously  on b o t h t h e  overall who  time  psychological  marital  married  of  children  demands on t h e i r  and C a m p b e l l ' s Index  rated  higher  the  others  women  currently  Balance Scale  well-being  four  who  The f i n d i n g s were  women  about  fewer  women a c r o s s  married,  married. Affect  were  counterparts six  time.  parental status.  encountered  Hypothesis  married  demands on t h e i r  from This  four  their  married,  never  on t h e  which  while  Hypothesis  hypothesis  than  in  of  time  fell  demands  of  six  n e v e r m a r r i e d and t h o s e who  woman's t i m e a n d e n e r g y . on t h e  were t h a t  most  and  a one-way a n a l y s i s three,  m a r r i e d women r e p o r t e d t h e Previously  four  hypothesis  m a r r i e d and p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d , women r e p o r t e d  three,  of  Bradburn Well-Being  happiness  have  never  or been  91  m a r r i e d as  well  as  The r e s u l t s and f i v e . two-way of  failed  These  analaysis  these  previously  three of  three  interaction would be  to  m a r r i e d women.  reject  hypothesis  variance.  It  hypotheses  observed.  Involvement  Scale  that  between p a r e n t a l  of  f o u n d and t h e  analysis  and n e v e r  m a r r i e d women r e p o r t e d a h i g h e r  Hypothesis  two  Quality  the  of  findings marital not  of  their  currently  hypothesis  hypothesis d i d not  results  of  married  commitment  five  are discussed  were  women on  the The  women s u r v e y e d  Finally,  statistically  reported on t h e  of did  perceived quality  that  to  women.  regardless  environment.  differ  significance  the  on t h e  marital and/or parental The  of  were t h a t  status  statistically  satisfaction  results  married  scores  main  Nonoccupational Environment S c a l e .  this  of  one  A  both p r e v i o u s l y  compared mean  nonoccupational  results  of  were t h a t  and/or parental  differ  status  interaction  marital status.  was  than  significant  significant  s t a t u s and  employment  each  hypothesis  secondary  paid  in  a  women on t h e O c c u p a t i o n a l  no  for m a r i t a l status  a  by  and p a r e n t a l  The f i n d i n g s  showed  two  were t e s t e d was p r o p o s e d  between m a r i t a l s t a t u s  w h i c h compared mean s c o r e s of  effect  hypotheses one,  of the job  basis  status.  and i n the  interpretation following  of  chapter.  these  92  CHAPTER V: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION  This of and  study  was c o n d u c t e d  m a r i t a l and p a r e n t a l sociological  research  environment, overall  on t h e  related  of  psychological  to  influence  psychological  p a i d employment  factors:  of the  the  secretarial  following  quality quality  discover  on c e r t a i n  c l e r i c a l and  focused  involvement,  status  factors  women w o r k i n g i n  to  the  for  jobs.  The  occupational  nonoccupational  employment  relationship  and  well-being.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Sample  The the  age  s p r e a d of  Canadian average  women were between Chapter  4).  t h o s e not majority few  women  sampled The  reported  terms  ages of  of  one  had  years  some p o s t  similar  one h a l f  25 and  of  to the  44 y e a r s  (see  women were m a r r i e d and of  were or of  educational  q u a r t e r were  under  had n e v e r  three  six  of  the  r a n k e d much h i g h e r  majority  fully  just  respondents  were o v e r  In  the  m a r r i e d most the  women s a m p l e d was  i.e.  Over h a l f  of  children  the  than  been m a r r i e d . childless  more  The  and o n l y  children.  a  Most  age. attainment the  national  secondary  university  the  women  average.  education  graduates.  It  and is  93  difficult the  to  sample  family  generalize  i n c l u d e d both  incomes)  Initially complete  the  were a l s o  as  well  only  m a r r i e d women as  full  survey;  single time  (with  because combined  women. asked  seven p a r t - t i m e  to  workers  results.  Involvement  With respect  to  occupational  women r e p o r t e d r e l a t i v e l y  highly  levels  w o r k e r s were  however  i n c l u d e d i n the  Occupational  the  r e g a r d i n g income  committed to  the  involvement  high levels  concept  of  most  i.e.  of  all  were  working o u t s i d e  the  home. There  was  involvement t h o s e who appears  scale did  to  proposition of  no  between  not.  At  contradict that  occupational  presence  difference  of  There  explain  finding.  for  example,  levels  may  women who first  of  that  occupational  had c h i l d r e n  sight,  Warr  involvement  children  idiosyncracies  the  and  this  are  the  for  women  and  commitment  several  factors  sample.  It  professional  remain committed  be due was  (1982a)  determinant  impedes  T h i s may  that  the  the  to  paid  which  could  in part noted  labour  to  the  earlier,  women w i t h h i g h to  and  finding  Parry's  c h i l d r e n a r e an i m p o r t a n t  employment. this  on  income  force  in  94  spite  of  the  motivation childcare role  presence  and  the  women were  they  not  thereby  levels  (40% had f a m i l y  incomes  had  e x c e s s of  in  like  professional  high  family  childcare the  labour  educational  than  level  account  did  positions  had  probability  of  it  large incomes  For these  educational  women,  levels  and  a strong motivation  The  ability  to  may be a f a c t o r  of  their  appears  clerk  typist,  to  the  the  low  and women  women more  and t h i s  high  relatively  afford  financial that  for  accounting  commitment  unusually the  a  $ 2 5 , 0 0 0 - $ 4 0 , 0 0 0 and 37%  expressed  average  despite  majority  resembled p r o f e s s i o n a l  their  they  Despite  may  occupational status  of  the  c u r r e n t l y occupy.  o v e r a l l high occupational  expected,  mean s c o r e s  those  married  of  high  terms  study the  for  involvement,  In  of  attributes  in this  they  women,  of the  furthermore  $40,000).  and home h e l p a l s o  force.  sampled  between  involvement.  high  amount sample  the  the  have  provide  h i g h combined f a m i l y  income may i n d i c a t e  occupational  this  however  and  had r e l a t i v e l y  incomes  In  they to  r e d u c i n g the  (indicating  underemployment)  percentage  because  resources  experience.  professionals,  high educational  for  children  financial  and home h e l p  overload  current  of  of  women.  single  involvement,  women were h i g h e r  Women  who  were  as than  separated,  95  divorced  or  commitment  widowed  to  paid  married.  This  is  potential  poverty  is  separated,  divorced  themselves  t o depend  default  (1983)  in  than  for  and  from t h e  husbands'  children) of  the  earned  The  receive  pensions.  m a r r i e d women  had  family  Status  and f o r  those  benefits  89%  (of  of  of  the  whom 50% had  per year incomes  while of  40%  between  had a f a m i l y  income  $40,000.  Q u a l i t y of the Nonoccupational  T h e r e was  no o v e r a l l  s c a l e measuring environment.  difference  37%  only  rate  substantial  study  $25,000  the On  subscales  satisfaction  very high  Moreover,  in t h i s  have  Canadian  payments,  than  component  of  t h o s e who a r e m a r r i e d .  less  excess of  issue  for  $ 2 5 , 0 0 0 - $ 4 0 , 0 0 0 and a f u r t h e r in  the  were  real  report a  few  p r e v i o u s l y m a r r i e d women  who  widowed g e n e r a l l y  figures  higher  much more  on f i n a n c i a l l y .  widowed,  women  because  general  on a l i m o n y and s u p p o r t  women who a r e  than  understandable  females  Women  significantly  employment  unattached  of  showed  with on  the  a  Environment  difference  quality separate  of  life)  lifestyle  the  analysis  (satisfaction personal  on  the  overall  nonoccupational of  the  with  lifestyle  there  was  satisfaction  again  two and no  subscale.  96  However,  on  the  personal  life  satisfaction  m a r r i e d women s c o r e d much h i g h e r items. that to  What  most  satisfaction state  These that  interesting  m a r r i e d women s c o r e d  present  of  is  with  of  findings  major  well-being Campbell Gove &  family  lend  al,  &  1973;  Gove,  separated  divorced,  mental  and  less  illness  women,  1976;  the  four is  relating life  view  and  1976b;  or other  forms  1976b;  Cochrane-Step  be  two  &  1981;  Gove,  1972;  Style,  1983).  t h o s e who are  less  in  inclined  maladaptive  Bradburn,  1969;  1981;  are  better  institutionalized  of  Roe,  are  Bernard,  especially  to  many  psychological  1983;  happier,  of  life  overall  m a r r i e d women  likely  (Andrews & W i t h e y , al,  to  Hughes  and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h ,  suicide  items  social  Fine Davis,  single  or  to  Withey,  1976;  Compared w i t h  mental  support  contributors  Tudor,  on t h e  life,  of  significant  w i t h m a r r i a g e and f a m i l y  (Andrews  et  highest  and  out  health.  satisfaction  the  on t h r e e  subscale  to for  behaviour  Campbell  Cummings  et  et al,  1975). These  findings  nonoccupational with personal research  nonoccupational  the  environment  life  which  for  are a l s o  shows  subscale  of  in accordance  that  environment  quality  is  of  the  satisfaction with  previous  satisfaction  with  frequently  reported  the as  97  being adverse t h o s e who  for  have  previously  children  at  m a r r i e d women home  Nieva,  1981;  Keith  Seals,  1977;  P e a r l i n & Johnson,  Prince,  1983a,  & Schafer,  was  difference  found to  in  be n o t  the  status  r e p o r t i n g moderately  with  their  half  the  a better  of  the  of  current  half  with  the  majority  said the  they  time  were  j o b as  further well  be an  as  women  higher  women,  Just  they  Almost could  to  get  change  occupation.  However,  variable  measuring  intervening  Older  significantly  their  if  of  satisfied  or l e s s .  would l i k e  found  &  parental  job s a t i s f a c t i o n .  third  This  &  satisfaction  j o b and a  o l d age  Crandall  m a r i t a l and/or  low  of  job  job  than younger  who  of  their  job s a t i s f a c t i o n .  year  level  respondents  job about  appeared to  showed  &  Tcheng-Laroche  women would change  both t h e i r age  London,  1977;  significant,  regardless  half  1982;  Nakamura  relationship  women,  over  (Gutek,  1983b).  Q u a l i t y of the employment  The  especially  (over  levels  of  particularly  in  the  age  job  those  of  45)  satisfaction in  the  23-35  bracket.  supports in  non-professional  the  her jobs  research study that  of  of older  Fine-Davis  women women  (1982)  employed were  in much  98  happier  with  younger  counterparts.  women  in  the  higher  content  income  brackets  more  finding  agrees with  that  socioeconomic  of  work  levels  of  is  no  hypothesis  that  experience  higher  of all  reason  the  s t a t u s was  status  for  women  were  women  may be  the  Education  level  variable  that  effects  of  same  therefore  can m o d i f y marital  satisfaction,  jobs.  above;  determinant of  to  fact  higher  of  children  that  this  job act  higher  support  the would  jobs.  virtually  educated.  for  This  That  reason  and  However  required  determine  parental in  as  an  this  all is, all  intervening  status the  further  One  dissatisfaction.  o r p e r h a p s even o v e r r i d e  underemployment.  Demand Scale  the  may  especially  fully  were  with c l e r i c a l  and  level  plus)  1983).  with  s a m p l e d were h i g h l y  exhibited  to  then  satisfaction  that  significantly  (Fine-Davis,  their  found  mentioned  women  reporting  underemployed  was  a significant  with  married  than  ($40,000  study  evidence  this  work  with t h e i r  the  job s a t i s f a c t i o n  There  good  satisfied  satisfaction,  socioeconomic  their  Additionally, it  significantly also  of  on  case  research  relationship.  would  the job of be  99  Warr and conflict of  this  to  the  That  study  children  (1982a)  vary with tend  demand  is,  their  will  Parry  to  stage.  The  view.  With  this  were m a r r i e d  ie.  that  h y p o t h e s e s were  signficantly  counterparts  without  both  women who  showed  cycle  support  scale,  both  life  hypothesized  higher  unmarried  role  findings regard  confirmed.  and women demands  women  with  than  and  did women  children.  Since children  39  it  of  the  89  may be  that  the  by m a r r i e d women was children  and  supports  earlier  may r e s u l t  not  in  due  the  (Brown & H a r r i s ,  h i g h demand l e v e l  marital that  stress  1978;  respondents  p r i m a r i l y to  findings  higher  married  status the  for  reported  presence  factor.  presence  levels  Pearlin,  the  had  of  of This  children  working  women  1975).  P s y c h o l o g i c a l Well-Being  The was  confirmed.  higher of  hypothesis  Married  s c o r e s on t h e  Well-Being)  Balance  and  women  reported  Life  Satisfaction  the  happiness  well-being significantly  measure  measure  (Index (Affect  Score).  These previous  regarding psychological  findings  research  are  in  accord  w h i c h shows t h a t  with  nearly  m a r r i e d women  all  report  100  a  higher  degree  satisfaction  than  Withey,  1976;  Bradburn, Gurin  avowed  other  Cambpell  al,  Tcheng-LaRoche  1972, et  1960; &  happiness  g r o u p s of  Bernard,  1969;  et  of  women 1974,  al.,  1969;  Spritzer  Prince,  and  (Andrews 1975,  Snyder,  1975;  Even  though  j o b s and e x h i b i t e d  of  nevertheless  levels  of  psychological well-being  counterparts This  who a l s o  finding  interpretation. explain choose  the to  job  subject  to  is The  results  factor  in  that  the  home w o u l d however  even  No  if  may  low  than t h e i r  single  satisfaction. more  than  be t h a t  women  to,  as  is  conditions  were  such that  would  continue  p a i d employment.  Therefore,  assumed t h a t  they  psychological  that  these  m a r r i a g e , f a m i l y and the  combined low  Additionally  job  income can c o m p e n s a t e satisfaction  in  findings  it  could  their to  be  can  be  benefit indicate  financial benefits f o r a low terms  of  for  indicated  committed to  from w o r k .  work  true  study  some  who  women who  this  derive  may  psychologically  d o u b t some  they  one  selection  women i n  employment was u n n e c e s s a r y  levels higher  are  not  these  reported  self  home  prefer  the  economic  of it  the  individuals.  some men, that  s h a r e d low  work o u t s i d e  healthier outside  they  1981; 1983;  women o c c u p i e d low s t a t u s job s a t i s f a c t i o n  &  Freudiger,  &  1983b).  life  status  of  a  j o b and  psychological  101  well-being.  Limitations  As  with  all  research  limitations.  Firstly,  specifically,  m a r r i e d women  than  50%  occupied  of  the  28%.  around  18%.  likely  is  its  general  sample to  mean of  reject  the  the  likely null  sample,  is  of  standard  In  has  certain  were  uneven;  slightly never  married  course,  for  hypothesis  the  deviation  was more  to  be  standard deviation  of  a d d i t i o n the  it  more  previously married  mean and  population.  the l e s s  whereas of  and  the  sizes  represented  subsample  The l a r g e r  study  subsample  The c a t e g o r y  representative the  the  this  the  larger  researcher  when  it  is  study  is  to  the fail  actually  false. Secondly a l i m i t a t i o n that of  respondents  characteristics  studies  utilizing  volunteers  tend  non-volunteers, to  were  Thirdly, fewer  than  35  this  voluntarily recruited.  have  been  found to  volunteer to  be  have h i g h e r  express higher  of  needs  a small  for  subjects. better social  social  percentage  hours per  occur  week  the A  fact number  in  research  For  example  educated class  than  status,  tend  a p p r o v a l and so of  were  women who included  on.  worked in  the  102  analysis.  Since  commitment  i n terms  this the  part  time  full of  employment  time  requires  and e n e r g y  group responded  it  somewhat  greater  may be  that  differently  to  questionnaire. Finally,  somewhat  this  atypical  may be assumed benefits  are  clerical  that  to  time  family  controversy  that  It the  findings  situation  for  different  -  (see  of  full  women's l i v e s .  these  of  higher the  than  it  fringe  those of  was  Thus  income and  bulk  private  this  implications.  m a r r i a g e and  however,  workers  were u n i o n i z e d .  level  up the  clerical  of  the  the female  sector.  Implications  theoretical  the  in  findings  commitment  they  their  make  work f o r c e  The  of  considerably  Theoretical  and  group  in that  n o n - u n i o n i z e d who  of  time  below).  but  These  to  women's  i n the  working  lives  surrounding must  time is  relate  several  the  apply only  that  have  p a i d employment,  be  theoretical  part  study  to  of  multiple  stressed  at  implications full  time  w o r k e r s may  a subject  centrality  for  women  roles the  in  outset  derived  from  employment.  The  well further  be  quite  research  103  First commitment  with to  s t u d y were cycle  the  that  all  women,  75%  h a v i n g a j o b was  surrounding employment  there the  et  al.  1963;  Krause,  1983,  Warr,  1980;  Wright,  structural  factors  Armstrong,  1984;  Oppenheimer,  1977,  While  economic  employment,  the  findings  occupational  desire  to  example,  80% of  paid  in  the  to  this  respondents  higher.  work even  if  Fully if  they  paid  replied  debate  seek  paid  (Astin, Friedan,  1981;  Parry  &  i n response  to  demands,  1985;  i.e.  Armstrong  Connelly,  for  with  &  1978;  & Phillips,  study  scale  related  even  of  needs,  motivation  paid  factors  employment  substantially continue  of  of  life  1976;  primarily  Phillips  involvement  engage  independently  personal  1977;  a  the  of  women  employer  Boyd,  this  them.  deal  Ferree,  or,  is  of  of  concept  great  (Armstrong,  gain  the  Nieva & Gutek,  and  1982;  findings  whether  1983;  1978),  women's  women s u r v e y e d  a  of  1985;  necessity  to  fulfill  ,  the  of  important" to  been  to  issue  irrespective  the  "very  has  primarily  Baruch  economic  of  question  1984;  for  the  labour force,  Fully  Second,  the  to  showed a h i g h commitment  employment. that  regard  1983). seeking  respect  to  suggest  that  women's  employment  can  exist  to  economic  indicated a U.I.C. half  gain.  preference  benefits  said  won a l o t t e r y .  For  they  were would  Moreover,  1 04  80% of not  the  women a g r e e d  who  economic  variables  important  dimension  work i n women's  gain  of  paid  use  i n the  employment,  on  job  maintenance 1984;  as  (Astin,  Komarovsky,  Wright,  1978).  benefits  women  considerably more  did  In  salient  occupational  involvement  recognize  the  of  economic  to  is  work,  both  to  family  Ferree,  1976,  Rubin,  1976;  psychological  employment  some c a s e s ,  extend  may be  considerations  with  the  must  that  issue  therefore aspects  of  even alone.  of  women's  adopt  models  work a s  p r o p o s e d by A s t i n  namely:  in nature);  that  the  paid  primary motivations  work a c t i v i t i e s  pleasure  1974;  a  well  employment.  One s u c h model  desire  1982;  words,  psychological  economics  who s e e s t h r e e  Betz,  with  economic  accomplishment,  contributor  economic  concerned  which  a  and i n  than  meaning  women w i t h  other  beyond,  the  an  work p r o v i d e s  Oakley,  associate  neglecting  the  1984; 1962;  only  In a d d i t i o n t o  as  Researchers  of  they  measure  p i c t u r e of  purpose,  well  that are  total  lives.  participation,  the  models  therefore  s e n s e of  as  would be b o r e d i f  work. Researchers  of  they  survival  pleasure  and  derives  the  underlying  needs  needs  (intrinsic  intellectual  from  the  and  (1984), women's (largely pleasure emotional  performance  and  1 05  accomplishment needs  of  (knowledge The p r e s e n t  were  important  well-being surveyed  that  work b e n e f i t s  study  found  working  happiest  well-being  with  working  their  women and  family  social  and  are  who  among the  1976;  Campbell  1981;  Near,  Rice  et  most  m a r r i a g e and f a m i l y the  the  v e r y much  contemporary  of  important  1976;  weight  domains  a reality.  society,  it  The  seems,  their  views  &  &  is  not  to  and  Stepes-Roe, 1983) of  surprising.  i n the over  majority  of  Withey,  centrality  historical  want  married  comprising  (Andrews  women  with  marriage  continuing  our  group  with the  work and c a r e e r s of  highest  and  Near & S m i t h ,  numbers of  paid  psychological  Cochrane  1978; the  chosen  life,  that  i n women's l i v e s  growing  d e c a d e s who have and f a m i l y  al,  to  previously  argued  women  the  satisfied  well-being  & Hunt,  finding  were  T h i s supports  have  most  r e p o r t e d the  lowest  less  family  psychological  commitment  also  the  life.  women's p s y c h o l o g i c a l  This  of  By c o n t r a s t ,  were much  many r e s e a r c h e r s  the Although  and  reported  else).  m a r r i a g e and  f a m i l y and s o c i a l  health.  well-being,  still  women.  contribution  someone  of  m a r r i e d w o r k i n g women  overall  Despite  that  r e p o r t e d a high degree  psychological  family  and f i n a l l y  determinants  of  employment,  their  some t a s k ) ;  last  few  marriage  heritage  is  of  in  women  combine  work  106  w i t h m a r r i a g e and This life  study  cycle  family.  therefore  theories  researchers  have  -  claimed  women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n  in  were h i g h l y  to  of  the  family  overall  life  is  however  fit  into  life  need  divorce,  the  employment third with  the  high  Hanson,  1983)  force  rather  (all  women  irrespective in  explaining  of  There  e v e n t s w h i c h do  the  family  life  single  not  cycle  -  parenting  important determinants  concerning  of  m a r r i a g e and  being  of  degree of  r e p o r t e d by a l l  controversy  in  women,  women, to  leads d i r e c t l y which  multiple  There the  working  commitment  implication, of  family  is  mental  a  has  roles great  health  paid to  the  to  do  and deal  effects  role of of  roles.  Some  stress  be  well  overload.  a  some  among w o r k i n g women.  important question  multiple  but  centrality  strain/role  have  -  family  well-being.  major t h e o r e t i c a l the  labour  of as  p a i d employment,  to  psychological  combined w i t h  use  1977;  r e m a r r i a g e and  t h e s e were shown  The c o n t i n u i n g  to  incorporate  women's p s y c h o l o g i c a l  in  explain,  the  cycle)  to  not  (Glick,  satisfaction  a  the  current definitions  s u c h as since  committed  supports  researchers  detrimental and a n x i e t y  argue effect  that on  multiple mental  (Gove & G e e r k i n ,  roles  health  1977;  Pleck,  clearly causing 1977;  1 07  Pleck,  Staines  maintained  that  psychological stress  the  et  ,  Crosby,  of  1983;  1984;  as  Betz,  Kessler  take  the  home can  housework  and t h e  others  actually  acting  To  work o u t s i d e  while  roles  by  al.  1981).  tedium  1980),  well-being  1978;  Richardson,  Lang, multiple  (Baruch,  Harris,  women,  &  the  a  enhance buffer  1982; &  have  Brown  McRae,  example  to  of  1982; working  provide r e l i e f constant  &  from  demands  of  childcare. In t h i s  study,  m a r r i e d women  children)  r e p o r t e d the  they  r e p o r t e d the  also  well-being. multiple women's  roles  to  are  responsibilities.  Counselling  for  are  less  that  pay  the  view  detrimental  Of c o u r s e , whether  housework  also  husbands  and P r a c t i c a l  The f a c t  example,  have  the  yet  and  in  it  that to is  husbands childcare  shown t h a t  share  with  psychological  support  well-being.  for  demands,  of  necessarily  Studies  whose  working  not  of  levels  shared i n the  responsibilities  level  would a p p e a r t o  know,  t h e s e women  women  highest  psychological  impossible of  This  highest  ( i n c l u d i n g those  working  household  depressed.  Implications  women show c o n s i d e r a b l e  combined w i t h  their  interest  steadily  in  growing  108  participation the  rates  since  practical significance One v e r y  were  highly  same  time  their  significant  the  jobs.  majority  1977;  the  with  divison  have  &  Clerical  associated  be"  is  general 1976; Hall  it  is  Glenn Howe,  with  component well-being 1983;  Kessler  are of  sense  of  mental h e a l t h & al. it  and  Withey, ,  1976; appears  f i n d i n g w o u l d be of p a r t i c u l a r  counsellors  vocational  Lowe,  replacement  1982),  women need  traditional  Feldberg,  combination  & McRae,  possible,  into  unusual  they  et  counsellors  vocational  end",  Campbell,  vocational  their  with  1977;  (Andrews  for  often  above  of  relevance  by v o c a t i o n a l  the  " b e i n g where y o u want  the  as  &  little  that  an age  women at  not  technological  therefore  early  yet  fact  and t h e  established  ,  1976;  most  creativity.  psychological  & Gordon,  in  "dead  workers  well  al.  that  dissatisfied  1972;  are  an i m p o r t a n t  Baruch et  is  1980;  l a b o u r and  autonomy and room f o r  was  largely  (Benet,  Taylor,  clerical  underscores  p a i d employment  were  jobs  1950's study.  finding  "status panic",  of  left  Since  this  Job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  Grandjean  1980).  early  of  committed to  among c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s  to  the  interests  to  broaden  and s t r i v e  stereotyped counsellors,  female even  Beginning at to  be  the  as  encouraged horizons  to a v o i d  of  falling  jobs.  All  today,  tend  too to  109  discourage that of  are  girls  the  necessary  occupational  cited  in Boulet This  by t h e  (Science  & Lavalle,  1984).  however  aspirations  h i g h degree  respondents  by t h e  of  in this  women who f i n d  etc.  their  -  of  to  they  are  socially  acceptable.  it  of  the  readily If  business  their  well-being clear,  that  lapse  into  positions.  the  As shown  risks, civil  occupation,  to  other  women  easy  for  thwarted  women  and  hand women  were  for  example,  service  professions,  trades  t h e y may f i n d  and o v e r a l l in  the  vocational counsellors c o n t r i b u t i n g to  by e n c o u r a g i n g them  clerical  any  that  not  psychological  not  their  either  or  satisfied  process.  will  by  positions,  t o p a i d employment  be e n c h a n c e d  traditional  too  aspirations  economy,  greater  commitment  women i n t e r m s of well-being  may be a l l  the  job s a t i s f a c t i o n may  females.  available  on  various  but  to  positions  non-clerical  their  limited  Canada,  i n t o c l e r i c a l type  for  is  of  and f a m i l y  striving  only  not  expansion  social  take  type  Council  higher career  encouraged to  nontraditional  this  courses  underemployment among t h e  lapse  because  is  to  adolescent  study,  vicissitudes  pressures  prerequisites  horizons  problem  vocational  -  from p u r s u i n g math and s c i e n c e  to and  It  likely  is aid  psychological p u r s u e or  to  secretarial  110  The  second  w i t h the of  findings  marriage  in  is  family  issue  this  demands on t h e i r This  concerning  and  concommitant wives  major c o u n s e l l i n g  1984).  with  1984;  b u r d e n s of  home  has  1984;  and  orientations. performances  Gilbert,  among f a m i l y  the  k i n d of  coping that  overload are  (Bailyn, 1974;  change  Fox  1977,  &  1980,  Vanek,  1974,  roles  share 1970;  Houseknecht should  are  in  the  Cooke  &  &  Macke,  work  towards  conventional  sex-role  the  exchange of  especially  outlined methods  the  for  Gordon & Kammeyer,  accomplished  strategies  to  Pleck,  partners  members  effective  1984;  multiple  less  research  even when w o r k i n g  that  1979a;  c o u l d be  other  1980;  that  higher  counterparts.  1976,  They c a n e n c o u r a g e  This  role  and  responsibilities  1975;  therefore  sustaining  wives.  of  Lavelle,  Gordon & H a l l ,  and  who s u g g e s t s  &  shown  extent  Counsellors  modifying  major  and c h i l d c a r e  Holahan &  1981).  the  Meissner,  the  single  findings  & Rapoport,  to  1980;  their  the  (Boulet  Research  Rousseau,  than  w i v e s and m o t h e r s  bear  tasks  alleviated  Mothers  significanly  to  Rapoport  the  reported  time  do  and  study  still  1982;  lives  roles.  that  Hess-Biber,  women's  to  importance  multiple  which suggests  household  in  continuing  of  congruent  continue  the  i m p l i c a t i o n has  by  husbands advocating  by H a l l  of  structure  role  (1975)  dealing of  with  external  111  demands etc.  i.e.  and  reduce  increased  also  to  one's  sharing,  hiring  restructure  of  outside  internal  self-expectations  help  demands,  and  self  ie.  imposed  demands. Further and t h e  with  regard to  c o n t i n u i n g commitment  counsellors  need  possibility  of  to  be  career.  decision  making s k i l l s  own v a l u e s  and l i f e  Finally, the  fact  that  they  social,  extraneous  forces  seriously  impinge  individuals  to  basis  establish  leave,  be  of  i n the  and  rather  family,  alert  to  conflicts  both  family  a f f o r d to  must  their  economic and  they  must  the among  life  discount  and  one  or  facilitate  clarify  remain ever clients  deliberate  their  private  stress way of  sector  findings have  upon d u a l better  cognizant and  milieu  will  actualize  s h o u l d be  where  choices  and t h e  to  of  operate  policy  freedom  c h o i c e s and  which  live  and p o l i t i c a l  upon the  these  programs  alleviation could  of  to  work  goals.  make  G o v e r n m e n t s and t h e  and  and h e l p women t o  counsellors  in a l a r g e r  on t h e  committed  automatically;  to  t o m a r r i a g e and  attitudinal  C o u n s e l l o r s c a n not  other  h i g h commitment  cognizant  serious  women who a r e h i g h l y  the  the  of  them.  encouraged  to  promote  changes  and  as  their  purpose  the  earner  families.  allowances  shared m a t e r n i t y / p a t e r n i t y  leave  for  This  maternity  s u c h as  already  1 12  exists  i n Sweden  both a c c e s s i b l e play  a role  (Kamerman, and  i n the  more e g a l i t a r i a n among our  The r e a l i t y labour  we r e s p o n d  to  the  society  i n Canada w i l l  occupational of  force  women's  is  challenges w i l l have  is can  s y s t e m by p r o m o t i n g  gender-free  i n the  that  Governments a l s o  educational  participation  we  and d a y c a r e  affordable.  and  youth.  1979)  here  i n the  outlook increased  to  determine  a  stay; the  how  kind  of  future.  Future Research  This research. only  low in  study  In t h e  at  owmen  It  would be  status terms  whether  yields  of  first  i n low  jobs  several place  status  interesting with  single  their  job status  m a r r i a g e and f a m i l y  -  It  also  would be  greater role  demands  i.e.  the  the for  to  compare  women  combined  mother roles  study  single  well-being for  looked  in  jobs  to  see  absence  of  which a r e  central  to  to  of  compare of  their  wife  single level  marriage  by a d d i n g an of  women  the  i n terms  institution the  future  in professional  interesting  w i t h m a r r i e d mothers  for  jobs.  two domains  satisfaction.  Does  present  can compensate  life  demands.  the  psychological  overall  mothers  possibilities  of  create  additional  and m o t h e r .  Of,  1 13  alternatively,  can m a r r i a g e  through the  sharing  chilcare?  Previous  variations extent role  to  in  women  1979a). are  of  most  1970;  Gordon &  Houseknect  of  of  likely  to  employment  are  help  & Macke,  1974;  Since  full  in  terms  it  is  time  of  were  number of  women a r e  study  distress  chores  the  (Bailyn,  & Gilbert,  1979a;  part it  compared f u l l  this full  study  surveyed positions.  requires greater  commitment  the  in  than p a r t  time  part  w o r k e r s may have  very d i f f e r e n t  o r by n e c e s s i t y that  that  time  energy  therefore  in a  choice  employed  employment  responded  found  &  1981).  t i m e and  expected  the  t h o s e who r e c e i v e  Holahan  As has a l r e a d y been m e n t i o n e d women who  to  Holahan  experience  with household  Hall,  have  that  experience  1984;  studies  and  shows  may c o n t r i b u t e  Rousseau,  A number  outside  amount  &  demands  responsibilities already  support  (Cooke  least  only  alleviate  w h i c h m a r r i e d women w i t h c h i l d r e n  who  because  household research  spousal  conflict  Gilbert,  of  work t o  time  time  manner. workers,  employment  Since either  would be v a l u a b l e t i m e and p a r t t i m e  to  a  large through have  workers.  a  11 4  Conclusion  In c o n c l u s i o n , family  continue  important working  women.  than  ever  this  study  society  to  at  i n the  applicable  combine  marriage  been  that  same  time,  of  paid  employment  cycle  history. to  well-being  the  life  the  If  —  the  female  most women  and  historically,  psychological  in recent  would appear  found t h a t  t h e y have  concept  stage  before  want  as  i n the  the  of  are  study  While  to  irregardless  it  be,  factors  commitment  large,  to  this  in  of  women's  is  higher  findings  population  of at  contemporary  work w i t h m a r r i a g e and  family.  115  REFERENCES  A g a s s i , J . 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Psychology of Women Quarterly, 7,  129  Tables  130  Table 1 Hoyt E s t i m a t e of  Reliability Coefficients  for  Dependent  Research Measures  Instrument  Campbell's  r  Index  Occupational  of W e l l - B e i n g  Involvement  Nonoccupational  Environment Scale  Demand S c a l e Job S a t i s f a c t i o n Affect  Scale  0.93 0.74 0.71 0.75  Scale  Balance Scale  0.84 0.76  131  Table  2  Analysis  of  Variance  for  the  Occupational  Involvement  Scale  Source  Main  SS  effect  Marital  Status  Parental  Status  df  MS  F  275. 82  2  1 37.91  3. ,95*  247. 47  1  247 .47  7. ,09*  84. 96  1  84 .96  2. ,43  0. 90  1  0 .90  0. .03  276. 71  3  92 .24  2. ,64  5376. 81  154  34 .91  Interaction M.S.  x  P.S.  Explained Residual  ** p <  .01  132  Table 3 One-way  Analysis  Involvement  Scale  Source  Variance  by M a r i t a l  SS  Between g r o u p s Within  of  groups  *2 < .05  for  Occupational  Status  df  MS  222.65  2  111.33  5699.47  160  35.62  F  3.13*  133  Table  4  Mean O c c u p a t i o n a l I n v o l v e m e n t  Scores  for  Three  Marital  Groups  Married  Never M a r r i e d  30.68*  32.71  •denotes p a i r s .05  level  of  groups  Previously  significantly  Married  33.42*  different  at  the  134  Table  5  Analysis  of  Variance  Nonoccupational  Source  Main  for  Environment  Marital  Status  Parental  Status  Quality  of  the  Scale  SS  effect  the  df  MS  F  216. 92  2  108 .46  3. ,11*  162. 72  1  162 .72  4. ,67*  103. 47  1  1 08.47  3., 1 1  1 .01  1  1 .01  0. ,03  217. 93  3  72 .64  2. ,08  Interaction M.S.  x P.S.  Explained Residual  * 2 < .05  5367. 01  1 54  34 .85  135  Table 6 One-way A n a l y s i s  of V a r i a n c e  f o r Demands  by  Marital  Status  Source  SS  Between g r o u p s Within  groups  *p < .01  df  MS  258.34  2  129.17  3701.45  160  23.13  F  5.58*  1 36  Table 7 Mean Demand S c o r e s  Married  for  Three M a r i t a l  Never M a r r i e d  22.53*  •denotes p a i r s .05  level  Groups  Previously  25.46*  of  groups  significantly  Married  23.82  different  at  the  137  Table 8 One-way A n a l y s i s  of  Variance  for  Demands by  Parental  Status  Source  SS  Between g r o u p s Within  groups  *p_ < .001  df  MS  768.71  1  768.71  3198.08  161  19.82  F  38.78*  138  Table  9  Analysis  of  Variance  Source  for  the  SS  Main e f f e c t Marital  Status  Parental  Status  Job S a t i s f a c t i o n  Scale  df  MS  F  33.12  2  16.56  0.97  9.72  1  9.72  0.57  14.93  1  14.93  0.88  10.27  1  10.27  0.60  43.34  3  14.45  0.85  2622.32  154  Interaction M.S.  x P.S.  Explained Residual  17.03  139  Table  10  One-way A n a l y s i s o f  Variance  for  Job S a t i s f a c t i o n  by  Age  Source  SS  Between g r o u p s Within  *p_ .001  groups  df  MS  312.08  4  78.02  2396.18  156  15.36  F  5.08*  1 40  Table  11  Mean J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n  Scores  for  F i v e Age G r o u p s  Group  M  25 y e a r s  or younger  17.10  26 -  35 y e a r s  17.16  36 -  45 y e a r s  17.24  46 -  55 y e a r s  20.00*  56 y e a r s  NoteAll  groups  other  level.  and o l d e r  20.90*  sharing *  groups  differ  do n o t  differ  significantly  significantly. at  the  p.  <.05  141  Table  12  Mean J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n  Scores  for Five  Income  Group  less  Levels  M  than  $15,000  18.33  $15,000  -  25,000  17.31*  $25,000  -  40,000  17.53  $40,000  19.19*  more t h a n  * denotes p a i r s the  p . <.05  of  level.  groups  significantly  different  1 42  Table  13  One-way A n a l y s i s by M a r i t a l  for Affect  Balance  Scale  Status  Source  SS  Between g r o u p s Within  of V a r i a n c e  groups  df  MS  24.74  2  12.38  791.76  156  5.24  F  2.36*  143  Table  14  Mean A f f e c t  Balance  Married  Scores  Never  .05  level  Three M a r i t a l  Married  of  groups  Groups  Previously  1.17*  2.10*  •denotes p a i r s  for  significantly  Married  1 .65  different  at  the  144  Table  15  One-way A n a l y s i s Marital  Variance:  Index  of W e l l - B e i n g  by  Status  Source  SS  Between g r o u p s Within  of  groups  *p_ < .05  df  MS  582.53  2  291.26  11732.58  158  74.26  F  3.92*  145  Table Mean  16 Index  of  Well-Being  Scores  for  Three  Marital  Groups  Married  Never  .05  level  Previously  38.44*  42.39*  •denotes p a i r s of  Married  groups  significantly  Married  38.79  different  at  the  1 46  Appendix A  148  C.  D.  E.  How  many a d u l t s are l i v i n g i n your household?  1. 2. 3.  I l i v e alone I l i v e w i t h my husband o r p a r t n e r I l i v e w i t h another a d u l t ( s ) (eg. roommate, p a r e n t , s i s t e r , etc.)  How  many c h i l d r e n do you have l i v i n g w i t h you?  0. 1. 2. 3.  no c h i l d r e n one c h i l d two c h i l d r e n t h r e e or more c h i l d r e n  I f you have c h i l d r e n l i v i n g w i t h you, what a r e t h e i r ages; Child  one 9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  How many y e a r s t o t a l work experience do you have, i n c l u d i n g p a r t - t i m e 1 and v o l u n t a r y work? 18  19  Child  two  Child  three  Child four F.  What i s the h i g h e s t grade l e v e l of education you have completed? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  G.  H.  l e s s than grade 12 - completed grade 12 t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g o r v o c a t i o n a l education beyond h i g h s c h o o l some c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y graduate from u n i v e r s i t y other (please s p e c i f y )  Average number o f hours per week you devote to your c u r r e n t j o b ? 20  I.  What would you e s t i m a t e your t o t a l combined f a m i l y income to be? 1. 2. 3. 4.  l e s s than $15,000 $15,000 t o $25,000 $25,000 t o $40,000 more than $40,000  22  21  149 Here are some words and phrases which I would l i k e you to use co d e s c r i b e ho«  v^erv 'tori  " ^  P""'  e X a m P l e  '  l f y O U  t J i a k  very boring put the number 1 i n the box co che r i g h t of the l i n e . I f you chink I * J T ^ ? _8' P « 1 i a the box to the r i g h t o f the l i n e . If you think i t i s somewhere i n between, s e l e c t the appropriate number and i n d i c a t e your choice i n the box provided. Please make a s e l e c t i o n f o r every l i n e . C e r e s C i  u t  c  h  e  n  u  a  b  w LU Ul m m m jjn rn m m fTJ  LU  LU  fTJ  iTJ  /__/  Jjj  ____/  j_kj  U_/  J_6j  FULL  fTJ  fTJ  jjj  JTJ  jTJ  fTJ  ~  DISCOURAGING  JTJ  JTJ  /TJ  fTJ  JTJ  fTJ  JTJ  DISAPPOINTING  JTJ  JTJ  JTJ  BORING ENJOYABLE USELESS FRIENDLY  BRINGS OUT TEE BEST IN ME  LU  fTJ  m rn m nn  LU  INTERESTING  I il  MISERABLE  m  WORTHWHILE  Jj_l  /5/  /6/  rn  fTJ  fTJ  TJ  J2_j  LONELY EMPTY HOPEFUL  REWARDING  Ml  DOESN'T GIVE ME MUCH CHANCE  For some people work i s jusc a means to get money, i t i s something they have to put up with. For others, work i s the c e n t r e of t h e i r l i f e , something t h a t r e a l l y matters to them. I would l i k e to ask you about your r e a c t i o n s to work i n g e n e r a l , and whether a c t u a l l y doing work i s Important to you p e r s o n a l l y . By "work" I mean h a v i n g a paid job. Here are some statements which people have made about work and working, i n general. Without l i m i t i n g yourself t o your present job would you i n d i c a t e , i n the box to the r i g h t - u s i n g the scale below - how s t r o n g l y you agree o r d i s a g r e e w i t h each comment? S e l e c t the number that most a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t s your c h o i c e . Remember, t h a t I am asking about paid jobs i n general, not simply your present j o b . -  No, I Strongly Disagree  -i 5  -/ 3/-  / 1/No, I disagree Quite A lot  No, I disagree just A little  I'm not sure about this  /"  Yes, I Agree just A little  -/ 7/  -/ 6/Yes, I Agree Quite A lot  Yes, -I Strongly Agree  Even i f I won a great deal of money i n a l o t t e r y I would continue to work somewhere.  JH  Having a job i s very important  JTT  to me.  I would hate to be on welfare. I would soon get very bdred i f I had no work t o do. The most important things chat happen to me i n v o l v e work If unemployment b e n e f i t was r e a l l y h i g h I would s t i l l p r e f e r co work.  (351 !36  150 Now c o n s i d e r some other aspects of your l i f e a t the present moment and i n d i c a t e how s a t i s f i e d you f e e l about each one i n t u r n . P l e a s e use the s c a l e below and i n d i c a t e i n che box to the r i g h t of each statement, the number which most a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t s your c h o i c e .  / 1/ lam Extremely Dissatisfied  / 2h  -/  lam Very Dissatisfied  3/  /  Uh  lam lam Moderately not s u r e Dissatisfied  The house or apartment  -/ 5/-  -/  I am Moderately Satisfied  6/-  -/7  I am Very Satisfied  that you l i v e i n .  I  I am Extremely Satisfied  37  The l o c a l d i s t r i c t that you L i v e i n . 38 tour standard of l i v i n g :  the things you can buy and  do. 39  The way you spend  your l e i s u r e  time. (Sol  Your present s t a t e of health.  ZJ  The education you have received.  JA2J Your s o c i a l  life.  Your f a m i l y  life. (44  Below a r e some statements concerning the number of demands you c o n f r o n t from o t h e r s . Using the s c a l e below, p l e a s e i n d i c a t e the number, i n the box to the r i g h t , which most a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t s your personal s i t u a t i o n .  A l l of the time  Most of the time  A good deal of the time  -nj-  About h a l f of the time  Occasionally  Seldom  Never  Does i t seem as i f others are always making demands on you? Do you o f t e n f e e l i t i s impossible to f i n i s h anything? J46"  At home does i t seem as i f you almost never have any peace and q u i e t ? At home does i t seem as i f you are always having to do something f o r someone else?  48  When you t r y t o do something a t home a r e you always i n t e r r u p t e d ? 49  Next, I would l i k e to s h i f t to another aspect of your l i f e , your job. The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s w i l l give you a chance to t e l l how s a t i s f i e d or d i s s a t i s f i e d you f e e l about your present j o b . Below you w i l l f i n d statements about your j o b , p l e a s e choose the response that d e s c r i b e s most a c c u r a t e l y how s a t i s f i e d or d i s s a t i s f i e d you f e e l about your c u r r e n t j o b . P l e a s e i n d i c a t e your c h o i c e i n the boxes p r o v i d e d . Which one of the f o l l o w i n g shows how much of the time you s a t i s f i e d w i t h your job? 1 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  feel  Never. Seldom. Occasionally. About h a l f o f the time. A good d e a l of the time. Most of the t i m e . A l l of the t i m e .  Choose the one o f the f o l l o w i n g statements which b e s t t e l l s w e l l you l i k e your j o b ? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  I I I I I I I  how  hate i t . dislike i t . don't l i k e i t . am i n d i f f e r e n t to i t . like i t . am e n t h u s i a s t i c about i t . love i t .  Which one of the f o l l o w i n g best t e l l s how you f e e l about changing your job? 1. I would q u i t t h i s j o b a t once i f I c o u l d . 2. I would t a k e almost any o t h e r j o b i n which I could earn as much as I am e a r n i n g now. 3. I would l i k e to change both my j o b and my o c c u p a t i o n . 4. I would l i k e to exchange my present j o b f o r another one. 5. I am not eager t o change my j o b , but I would do so i f I c o u l d get a b e t t e r j o b . 6. I cannot t h i n k of any j o b s f o r which I would exchange. 7. I would not exchange my j o b f o r another. Which one of t h e f o l l o w i n g shows how you t h i n k you compare w i t h o t h e r people? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  No one d i s l i k e s her j o b more than I d i s l i k e mine. I d i s l i k e my j o b much more than most people d i s l i k e t h e i r s . I d i s l i k e my j o b more than most people d i s l i k e t h e i r s . I l i k e my j o b about as w e l l as most people l i k e t h e i r s . I l i k e my j o b b e t t e r than most people l i k e t h e i r s . I l i k e ny j o b much b e t t e r than most people l i k e t h e i r s . No one l i k e s her job b e t t e r than I l i k e mine.  152  Next I have some q u e s t i o n s about how you have been f e e l i n g r e c e n t l y P l e a s e i n d i c a t e your c h o i c e i n the box to the r i g h t by s e l e c t i n g the number 1 i f your answer i s " y e s " and the number 2 i f your answer i s "no".  YES  During  = 1  NO  the p a s t few weeks d i d you  P a r t i c u l a r l y excited i n something?  or  feel  interested \5U  So r e s t l e s s t h a t you c o u l d n ' t s i t long i n a chair?  55;  Proud because someone had complimented you on something you had done?  V e r y l o n e l y or remote  Pleased  from o t h e r p e o p l e ?  to have a c c o m p l i s h e d  something?  56;  57  58  Bored? 5 T  On  top of the w o r l d ?  60"  D e p r e s s e d o r v e r y unhappy?  £1 That  t h i n g s were g o i n g y o u r way? 62  Upset because  someone c r i t i c i z e d  you? 63  = 2  

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