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Adult children of alcoholics : an integrated model of behavior roles Schneider, John Donald Jr. 1989

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ADULT CHILDREN OF ALCOHOLICS: AN INTEGRATED MODEL OF BEHAVIOR ROLES By JOHN DONALD SCHNEIDER, JR. B.S., Kearney State College, 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Counselling Psychology) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1989 (c) John Donald Schneider, Jr., 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Counselling Psychology The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date March 1989 DE-6(3/81) ii A B S T R A C T Five models of behavior roles (Black, 1981; Booz-Allen & Hamilton, 1974; Deutsch, 1983; Kritzberg, 1985; Wegscheider, 1981) consisting of 20 roles and 220 attributes were identified in the theoretical and clinical literature dealing with children of alcoholics. An integrated model of six behavior roles and 68 attributes of adult children of alcoholics was developed and presented for verification to 45 clinicians working with adults who grew up in a home with at least one alcoholic parent. The clinicians utilized a categorization methodology to sort the attributes into categories based on their experiences of the behaviors of adult children of alcoholics. The sorting data was analyzed by latent partition analysis and the results were used to revise and refine the integrated model. The final model consists of five behavior roles and 48 attributes; three of the roles, Invisible Child, Black Sheep, and Jester, closely resemble roles from the original models while two roles, Caretaker and Super Achiever appear for the first time. The development of an empirically derived model provides clarification of the similarities and differences of the five models of behavior roles of children of alcoholics identified in the literature. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ii LIST OF TABLES vii LIST OF FIGURES viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ix CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION AND RATIONALE 1 Background of the Problem 1 Statement of the Problem 6 Definition of Terms ,....7 Research Questions 8 Justification of the Study 8 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 11 Alcoholism and the Family 11 Problems and Risks Associated with Living in an Alcoholic Environment 14 Adult Children of Alcoholics 18 Roles 20 Models of Behavior Roles of Children of Alcoholics 25 Summary 30 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY 32 Design of the Study 32 Development of the Integrated Model 33 Explication of the Attributes 33 Formation of Integrated Model 34 Selection of Attributes to be Used for Verification of the Model 35 iv Verification of the Integrated Model 35 Categorization methodology 35 Latent partition analysis 38 Population 40 Task administration 40 CHAPTER IV: RESULTS 43 Characteristics of the Sample 43 Results from Latent Partition Analysis 44 Number of Manifest Categories 44 Number of Latent Categories 44 Joint Proportion Matrix 47 Phi Matrix (5 Category Model/68 Content Units) 48 Content units with strong primary loadings 48 Content units with moderate primary loadings 51 Content units with weak primary loadings 51 Omega Matrix 51 Analysis of the Final Model (5 Categories/48 Content Units) 52 Phi Matrix 54 Omega Matrix 54 Titles and Descriptions of Latent Categories 57 Caretaker 58 Super Achiever 58 Black Sheep 58 Invisible Child 59 Jester 59 Revision of the Integrated Model 59 V C H A P T E R V: DISCUSSION 63 Summarj' of Results 63 Research questions 63 First steps of test construction 64 Limitations of the Study 65 Conclusions 67 Future Research 68 R E F E R E N C E S 71 Appendix A: Attributes of Black's Behavior Roles 77 Appendix B: Attributes of Booz-AUen & Hamilton's Behavior Roles 82 Appendix C: Attributes of Deutsch's Behavior Roles 87 Appendix D: Attributes of Kritzberg's Behavior Roles 91 Appendix E: Attributes of Wegscheider's Behavior Roles 93 Appendix F: Evaluation of Attributes for Inclusion in the Integrated Model 100 Appendix G: Cluster of Attributes (68) of Integrated Model with A Priori Classifications 108 Appendix H: Final Cluster of Attributes (48) of the Integrated Model 112 Appendix I: S-Matrix (9 Category/68 Content Units) 116 Appendix J : Phi Matrices (68 Content Units) 126 Appendix K: Phi Matrix (5 Category/63 Content Units) 138 Appendix L : Phi Matrix (5 Category/51 Content Units) 140 Appendix M : Phi Matrix (5 Category/48 Content Units) 142 Appendix N: Omega Matrices (68 Content Units) 144 Appendix O: Omega Matrices (5 Categories/63 & 51 Content Units) 147 Appendix P: Instructions to Subjects 150 vi Appendix Q: Letter to Subjects (Authors of Models) 154 Appendix R: Letter to Subjects (Members of Canadian Association for Children of Alcoholics) 156 vii LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Five Models of Child Behavior Roles 3 Table 2. Family Characteristics 15 Table 3. Integrated Model of Behavior Roles of Children of Alcoholics 36 Table 4. Sample Source 41 Table 5. Percentage of Returns of the Sample 43 Table 6. Description of the Respondents 44 Table 7. Latent Structure as a Function of the Number of Categories 48 Table 8. Phi Matrix (5 Categories/68 Content Units). 49 Table 9. Omega Matrix (5 Categories/68 Content Units) 52 Table 10. Phi Matrix (5 Categories/48 Content Units) 55 Table 11. Omega Matrix (5 Categories/48 Content Units) 57 Table 12. Revised Integrated Model of Behavior Roles 62 viii LIST O F F I G U R E S Figure 1. Frequency Distribution for Each Number of Manifest Categories 45 Figure 2. Eigenvalues of Model Containing 68 Content Units 46 ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my thanks and appreciation to the members of my committee, Dr. J . Friesen, Dr. T. Rogers, and Dr. R. Tolsma for their encouragement, challenge, and direction during the process of writing this thesis. In particular I would like to thank John Friesen for introducing me to systems theory and the role of the family in one's developmental journey. And thanks to Todd Rogers for enkindling in me an excitement for statistics and research methodology and providing me the freedom to be responsible for my own learning. I would like to thank in a particular way my companion and wife Lucia Hogeveen for her continual support and understanding during the time of my graduate studies. I also want to acknowledge the friendship and encouragement of my good friend and professional colleague Dr. Ray Douziech. Finally, thanks to my Dad and Mom who have been inspirations for me with their courage and example as we continue the journey with each other through the experiences of our own changing role relationships. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND RATIONALE B A C K G R O U N D OF T H E P R O B L E M The National Association for Children of Alcoholics was formed in 1983 in the United States with a little over twenty members. Today the National Association has over 7000 members. A Canadian Association was formed in 1986 to support and serve as a resource for children of alcoholics of all ages and for those in a position to help them. Prior to 1983 children of alcoholics were the "forgotten children" (Cork, 1969). Estimates place the children of alcoholics population in North America at more than 28 million; of these, approximately 6 million are children living at home (Ackerman, 1987a; Black, 1981; Booz-Allen and Hamilton, 1974; Gravitz and Bowden, 1987; Werner, 1986). Alcoholism has long been known as a family problem (Cotton, 1979). Clinical research in the 1950's recorded the devastating impact of alcoholism on the families of alcoholics (Bailey, 1961; Ewing, Long, and Wenzel, 1961; Gliedman, 1957; Gliedman, Rosenthal, Frank, and Nash, 1956; Jackson, 1954; Kaufman, 1984; Newall, 1950; Macdonald, 1958; Steinglass, 1976). In the 1960's, research began pointing to the family system as playing a major role in the formation and maintenance of alcoholism in a member of the family (Jackson and Kogan, 1963; Kaufman, 1984; Kogan and Jackson, 1965; Moos, Bromet, Tsu, and Moos, 1979; Pixley and Steifel, 1963; Steinglass, 1976; Winokur and Clayton, 1968). The 1970's focused on the critical ingredient of family involvement for successful treatment outcomes with the alcoholic (Cadogan, 1973; Corder, Corder, and Laidlow, 1972; Davis, Berenson, Steinglass, and Davis, 1974; Edwards, Harvey, and Whitehead, 1973; Kaufman, 1984; Meeks and Kelley, 1970; Sands and Hanson, 1971; Steinglass, 1976). The alcoholic family is seen as a system that organizes itself around the problems associated with alcoholism (Brown, 1985; Kaufman, 1984; 2 Steinglass, 1980; Steinglass, Bennet, Wolin, & Reiss, 1987). However research has been unable to define a model of the typical alcoholic family (Kaufman, 1984; Orford, 1975; Steinglass, 1980; Steinglass et al., 1987). Only recently have the effects of familial alcoholism on children begun to be addressed in a manner consonant with a problem of such large dimensions (Ackerman, 1986). Treatment and intervention programs are changing their emphasis from the individual alcoholic to the family of the alcoholic. Many consider the most serious consequence of alcoholism to be the detrimental effect it has on the children of families involved (Callan and Jackson, 1986; El-Guebaly and Offord, 1979; Haberman, 1966; Kammeier, 1971). Several studies have investigated children of alcoholics as the casualties of living in a family with an alcoholic (Barnes, Benson, and Wilsnack, 1979; Werner, 1986). Few studies have looked at children of alcoholics who seem to be coping with the situation. In fact those who have adjusted to life in an alcoholic family without suffering undue personal consequences could be in the majority (Black, Bucky, and Wilder-Padilla, 1986). Several authors have developed models of behavioral roles children assume as a means of coping with the crises and tensions of living in an alcoholic environment (Black, 1981; Booz-Allen and Hamilton, 1974; Brenner, 1984; Deutsch, 1983; Kritzberg, 1985; Lawson, Peterson, and Lawson, 1983; Nardi, 1981; Seixas and Youcha, 1985; Wegscheider, 1981). These models are summarized in Table 1. Booz-Allen and Hamilton (1974) suggested a model of behavior roles or coping mechanisms based on their interviews with 50 children from alcoholic families in Pennsylvania in an exploratory study for the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The "Perfect Child" and "Super-Coper" are mirror images of goodness. They never do anything wrong and are involved helping others. The child who uses "Fight" is defiant and rebellious and often engages in socially unacceptable behavior. The child who employs the fourth mechanism, "Flight," utilizes several forms of escape to cope with their 3 living situation. According to Booz-Allen and Hamilton (1974) children in the same famity can develop either similar or quite different forms of coping with the same experiences. The particular coping mechanism chosen by the child is dependent on their unique personality and perceptions. Table 1 Models of Behavior Roles of Children of Alcoholics Booz-Allen and Hamilton Super-Coper Perfect Child Fight Flight Black Responsible One Placater Acting Out Child Adjuster Wegscheider Family Hero Scapegoat Mascot Lost Child Deutsch Hero Manager Scapegoat Kritzberg Hero Scapegoat Clown Lost One Placator Black (1981) offered a second model of behavior roles, she based her model on her clinical impressions with young children from alcoholic families: 4 Children growing up in alcoholic homes seldom learn the combinations of roles which mold healthy personalities. Instead, they become locked into roles based on their perception of what they need to do to survive and to bring some stability to their lives, (page 14) The "Responsible One," usually the oldest or an only child, assumes a great deal of responsibility for self and others in the family. The "Adjuster" follows directions and adjusts to the situation. They feel they do not have any choices in life. The "Placater" is the family comforter. They are often sensitive children who are rewarded for helping others but at the expense of not having their own needs met. The "Acting Out Child" is characterized by delinquency and other forms of socially unacceptable behavior. Wegscheider (1981) suggested a third model of behavior roles based on birth order rather than personality factors. Each role has its own set of characteristics and carries a particular risk for personality development and psychopathology. According to Wegscheider, children choose a defense and use the role to hide their feelings in hopes of obtaining some kind of reward from a system that does not have much to offer. The oldest child is the "Family Hero." Characterized by over-achievement, the hero, provides self worth for the family. The second born responds with socially unacceptable behavior and takes the focus off the family by acting out. This role of "Scapegoat" is characterized by delinquency and early involvement with the use and abuse of drugs and alcohol. Later born children are either the "Lost Child" or the "Mascot." The lost child withdraws from the family and helps by not being a problem. The lost child often feels lonely, hurt, and inadequate. The mascot distracts the family with clowning or annoying behavior. Wegscheider (1981) states that all members of a family have a role and every role is played by someone. The roles can be flexible with one person having more than one role in a small family and more than one person per role in a larger family. An only child takes on aspects of all the roles. 5 Deutsch (1983) suggested a model consisting of three roles: "Hero, Manager, and Scapegoat." The hero is an exemplary child who has managed to turn adversity into strength. The child who becomes the family manager is responsible for the family's affairs but at the expense of their own needs. The scapegoat is the rebel, getting into trouble to distract the family from their problems with the alcoholic. Based on his clinical impressions Kritzberg (1985) proposed a fifth model containing five roles. The "Hero" is the achiever in the family, trying in work or in school to make the family look good. The "Scapegoat" is often getting into trouble. Tension is lessened in the family by the diversions created by the "Clown." The peace-maker role in the family belongs to the "Placator." The "Lost One" helps the family by their non-presence. The behavior roles or coping mechanisms serve to provide children in troubled situations some sense of control and self-worth. Some of the behaviors also provide the children with personal rewards as they are praised for their accomplishments and appreciated for their help. While most of the roles have characteristics of value, they also have inherent dangers. One danger with playing a role is that the longer a person plays a role the more accustomed to the behaviors of the role the person becomes; they can become addicted to the role and unable to be flexible in different situations (Black, 1981). Another danger is that while the role may provide the child with some sense of personal gain or reward they pay the price of not having their own needs met (Lawson et al., 1983). The addiction to the role leads them to carry their surviving or coping behaviors with them when they leave the family (Ackerman, 1987b; Black, 1981; Booz-Allen and Hamilton, 1974; Brown, 1985; Cermak and Brown, 1982; Deutsch, 1983; Kritzberg, 1985; Wegscheider,1981). "If children do not resolve the problems created by parental alcoholism, they will carry them the rest of their lives" (Booz-Allen & Hamilton, 1974, p. 73). Roles that enabled them to survive while living as children in an alcoholic family become a source of unhealthy 6 extremes in adulthood (Black, 1981; Lawson et al., 1983). Problems are also created for the children if the alcoholic achieves sobriety without the children or family receiving treatment. The children will continue to experience problems when only the alcoholic parent is treated (Black, 1981; Booz-Allen & Hamilton, 1974; Cork, 1969: Deutsch, 1982; Lawson et al., 1983). S T A T E M E N T OF T H E P R O B L E M The theoretical and clinical literature dealing with children of alcoholics identifies five models of children's behavior roles. The five models (Black, 1981; Booz-Allen and Hamilton, 1974; Deutsch, 1983; Kritzberg, 1985; Wegscheider, 1981) contain overlapping constructs and are seen as closely related. The roles, containing both functional and dysfunctional behaviors, are defined as behaviors children assume to cope with the crises and tensions of living in an alcoholic family. The literature indicates children of alcoholics tend to carry the characteristics of their behavior roles into adulthood (Ackerman, 1987b; Black, 1981; Brown, 1985; Cermak and Brown, 1982; Wegscheider, 1981). The models of behavior roles are widely used, sometimes interchangeably, in self-help support groups for adult children of alcoholics. The behavior roles are also used by clinicians in the counselling process with children of alcoholics of all ages. The primary objective of this study is to develop an integrated model of behavior roles of adult children of alcoholics which can be verified by clinicians working with adult children of alcoholics. The models developed by Black (1981) and Wegscheider (1981) appear more often in the literature; however, there is no indication that one model is considered superior to the other four models. A logical process led to the decision to develop an integrated model which would make use of the overlapping constructs as well as retain the constructs unique to each model. 7 DEFINITION O F T E R M S Alcoholic An alcoholic as determined by the Goodwin criteria for drinking categories (Goodwin et al. (1974) is (1) a person who, for at least one year, drank daily and had six or more drinks at least 2 or 3 times a month; or drank 6 or more drinks at least once a week for more than 1 year, but reported no problems and (2) must have had alcohol problems in at least 3 of the following 4 groups: Group 1: Social disapproval of drinking by friends, parents; marital problem from drinking Group 2: Job trouble from drinking, traffic arrests from drinking, other police trouble from drinking Group 3: Frequent blackouts, tremor, withdrawal, convulsions, delirium tremens Group 4: Loss of control, morning drinking Alcoholic family A family with alcohol as an inseparable component of family life. Alcohol has become the central organizing principle around which the family is structured (Steinglass et al., 1987), "Alcoholic families must contend with a condition that (1) is chronic; (2) entails the use of a psychobiologically active drug; (3) is cyclical in nature; (4) produces predictable behavioral responses; and (5) has a definable course of development" (p. 10). Children of alcoholics Children who are "living or have lived with an alcoholic parent(s). 8 Adult children of alcoholics Adults who grew up in a family where one or both parents were alcoholic. Roles A role is an expected and repetitive set of behaviors taken on by an individual in a social context. R E S E A R C H QUESTIONS 1. What are the attributes of each of the roles in the five models of behavior roles of children of alcoholics identified in Table 1? 2. What are the roles of an integrated model of the behavior roles of adult children of alcoholics? 3. Can clinicians working with adult children of alcoholics verify the integrated model? 4. Can the authors of the five models verify the integrated model? JUSTIFICATION O F T H E S T U D Y The five models of behavior roles of children of alcoholics (Black, 1981; Booz-Allen and Hamilton, 1974; Deutsch, 1983; Kritzberg, 1985; Wegscheider, 1981) have yet to be empirically tested (Brenner, 1984; Clair and Genest, 1987). Four of the models (Black, 1981; Deutsch, 1983; Kritzberg, 1985; Wegscheider, 1981) are based on the clinical impressions of the authors and the fifth model (Booz-Allen and Hamilton, 1974) is based on interviews with 50 subjects in Pennsylvania, over 50% of whom responded to a newspaper advertisement for volunteers. In a 1988 article, Eisler, Dare, and Szmuckler, 9 warn about the dangers of "clinical" research falling into the trap of creating untestable hypotheses. What is unscientific about clinical data is not that they are subjective or idiosyncratic, but rather, that it is often unclear what, if anything, would count as evidence against them. The flexibility of the clinician's observational framework can allow the process of hypothesis making and information gathering to become an enclosed self-justifying system which cannot be refuted, (pp. 56-57) There are in excess of 28 million children of alcoholics in North America. The models of child behavior roles are built on the premise that children with alcoholic parents take on or are forced to take on different roles to maintain the stability of the family. While benefiting the family in the short term, the behavior roles cause serious difficulties for the individuals in the long term. The child behavior roles are an important component of the family system and could provide clarification of the family's role in perpetuating dysfunctional behavior (Brown, 1985; Jacob and Seilhamer, 1987). "Furthermore, the child's future psychosocial and alcohol abuse status is theoretically and empirically linked to contemporary patterns of family life - a relationship of particular importance given the high risk nature of alcoholics' offspring" (Jacob and Seilhamer, 1987, p. 569). The development of an integrated model, verified by clinicians working with adult children of alcoholics and the authors of the original five models, could serve as the basis for development of a measurement instrument to be used for further empirical verification of the child behavior roles. While the primary goal of this study concerns empirical verification of the child behavior roles, the study also contains clinical implications, These descriptions have been extremely valuable for adult children of alcoholics in two ways: they serve as powerful windows for seeing the underlying realities of living in an alcoholic home, and they help adult children of alcoholics to accurately connect their childhood experiences with what they are like as adults. (Cermak, 1988, p. 66) 10 The results of the proposed study could help clarify some of the differences among adult children of alcoholics. Such information, while contributing to the knowledge and understanding of what it means to be the child of an alcoholic, would also be valuable in the development of prevention and intervention programs for a population in need of help. As the roles are seen as applying to all families (Cermak, 1988; Hartman and Laird, 1983; Steinglass et al., 1987; Thornton and Nardi, 1975), the results could contribute to our understanding of family dynamics and interactions which extend beyond alcoholic families. 11 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A L C O H O L I S M A N D T H E F A M I L Y The research data (Ackerman, 1986; Kaufman, 1984; Steinglass, 1980; Steinglass et al., 1987) support the conclusion that a typical family pattern of alcoholism has yet to be found as families with an alcoholic member organize their interactions around alcohol in different ways. Kaufman and Pattison (1981) have constructed a typology of four types of alcoholic family systems: functional, neurotic enmeshed, disintegrated, and absent. The families in the functional family system appear to function well. They manage to get along with a minimum of conflict as they are able to isolate the alcoholic behavior. They are open to external change and are motivated to retain and rehabilitate the alcoholic member. The neurotic enmeshed family system's drinking behavior interrupts the day to day life of the family causing roles to shift and demanding adaptation by family members. Frequently characterized by high levels of conflict, stress in any one member is likely to affect the entire family. The neurotic enmeshed family system is the characteristic family system represented in the literature (Kaufman, 1984). In the disintegrated family system the drinking behavior has led to a progressive deterioration of what once was a reasonably functional family. The family and the alcoholic member are totally alienated. The fourth system, the absent family system, is characterized by loss of family of origin early in the drinking career of the alcoholic. The alcoholic is often younger, unmarried, and lacking in social skills due to the consequences of the early onset of serious drinking and alcoholism. Steinglass and his associates (Steinglass et al., 1987) describe the family's organization around alcohol using a developmental model. 12 The family is presumed to have a life cycle or life history that can be divided into a series of recognizable stages, each stage in turn associated with a series of developmental tasks, (p. 212) Growth and development of the family is accomplished by moving through a series of phases or stages, each with its own set of tasks. Successful completion of the tasks at an earlier stage provides the family with the resources to deal with the tasks of later stages. The early-phase (Steinglass et al., 1987) is the time for establishing boundaries and forming an identity for the new family. It is a time of newness and excitement as individuals from two different families of origin come together and begin to establish shared rules and belief systems. A basic tension with early phase families is balancing the need to form an independent family and yet remain connected to their families of origin. Alcohol is a question during the early phase; is the new family going to confront alcohol or accommodate to it? The struggles that go on in early-phase families around alcohol often have well antedated the actual formation of the new family. Many children growing up in alcoholic families come to their own marriages with firm ideas about whether or not alcoholism will be tolerated in them. A major factor in mate selection may well be whether or not there is evidence of alcoholism in the intended spouse (alcoholism here may mean either active drinking on the spouse's part or a history of alcoholism in the spouse's family of origin). On the other hand, many children of alcoholics seem totally obtuse regarding early signs of alcoholism in an intended spouse. (Steinglass et al., 1987, p. 88) The middle phase (Steinglass et al., 1987), a time of commitment and stability, is characteristically the longest phase and consists of three features. First, it is the time the family makes a commitment to a purpose or sense of direction as a family. The exploration of the early phase is replaced by organizational behavior which provides for 13 regularity of family life. The second feature is the establishment of rules for family roles and relationships. Consistency here does not necessarily mean rigidity. The family may decide that flexible role performance regarding work, child rearing, responsibility for social relationships, and so forth, is preferable to stereotyped and inflexible role assignments. But the key, once again, is that a commitment has been made; the family has made a choice. (Steinglass et al., 1987, p. 89) And the third feature is the emergence of regulatory behaviors. Daily routines, special events, and the family's method of problem solving are the regulatory behaviors which support and maintain the family's choices and commitments. Alcohol impacts the middle phase family by invading the regulatory behaviors. For example, alcohol becomes a part of the family's short term problem solving. If the family accommodates the alcohol, the middle phase can become developmentally more rigid. As a result any issues of individual development tend to be stifled or ignored. Thus for each type of regulatory behavior, invasion by alcohol takes a somewhat different form. But in each case, the regulatory behavior has been modified. And the direction of this modification is one that makes it more, rather than less, likely that alcoholism will continue to thrive. Hence the family system has been modified in a direction supportive of chronic alcoholism, and is now a system organized to maintain the constancy of its internal environment in the face of what was previously a destabilizing force-chronic alcoholism, (p. 73) During the late phase (Steinglass et al., 1987) the family shifts its focus from the present to the future. The late phase is the time for clarification and legacy. The family focus is on the future as they decide what is important for them as a family, what is the essence of their family and what do they want to pass on to the next generation. The family must also deal with the additions and losses of family members: grandparents dying, boy-friends, girl-friends, marriages. The tendency of the family is to fight against 14 any change, to preserve life as it is which, in turn, can lead to the family remaining stuck in the mid phase. But the family can also adapt to the changes and continue development. The goal of the late phase is to gather together the essence of who they are as family and transmit that essence to the next generation. It is a matter of taking their family legacy and putting it into a time capsule so their family identity will be preserved for future generations. Alcoholic families must ask themselves if their alcoholic identity will be a part of their legacy. Will it be put into their time capsule? Confronting the alcohol question in the late phase with its accompanying additions and losses of family members carries a greater impact than in the middle phase. There is increased pressure for the family to make a decision; will the alcoholism be carried into future generations? PROBLEMS A N D RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH LIVING IN A N A L C O H O L I C E N V I R O N M E N T Everyone who interacts with an alcoholic is affected in some way. The significant cost of alcoholism is its detrimental effect on the children of involved families as the non-alcoholic members often suffer more psychological and behavioral impact than the alcoholic (Steinglass et al., 1987). As shown in Table 2 families with an alcoholic member show more dysfunction and harmful interpersonal behavior than nonalcoholic families (Cermak and Brown, 1982; El-Guebaly, 1983; El-Guebaly and Offord, 1977, 1979; Elkin, 1984; Haberman, 1966; Jacob and Leonard, 1986; Kaufman, 1984; Moos and Billings, 1982). The family life of a child with one or both parents an alcoholic is characterized by being inconsistent, chaotic, unpredictable, and arbitrary (Gravitz and Bowden, 1987). As the alcoholism progresses the alcoholic becomes increasingly wrapped up in their addiction. Often the nonalcoholic parent becomes more and more preoccupied with the behavior of Table 2 Characteristics of Healthy Families Safety Family provides children with whatever is needed for their physical and emotional safety Open Communication Free communication with all members of family; direct, clear, and open with congruent messages Self-Care Positive value is placed on individuals actively taking good care of themselves Individualized Roles Filled according to unique strengths and needs of child; flexible Continuity Provided by special events and rituals of family Respect for Privacy Each member is a separate individual, clear boundaries between members Focused Attention  Schedule Child-centered Emotional Quality Full range of emotions available and modelled by parents Disruptions Caused by Parental Alcoholism Emotional unavailability of parent Loss of control in a parent Failure to protect children from hazards Direct physical abuse Secrets kept to keep the peace Facade of normality maintained Feelings hidden Children made into confidants "Scarcity" economy Alcoholic's needs come first Feeling responsible for other people's problems Family's needs dictate roles Roles become rigid, especially during times of stress Chaos Arbitrariness Dissolution of the family Parents become intrusive Secrets confused with privacy No respect for individual differences Determined by the alcoholism, not the child's needs Restricted range of emotions available Alcohol-affected emotions never reach resolution (Cermak, 1988, p. 57) 16 their alcoholic partner (Black, 1981; Brown, 1985; Clinebell, 1968; Hecht, 1973). Morehouse and Richards (1983) suggest that important parent functions-providing role stability, environmental consistency, dependability, and emotional availability-are subject to impairment in both the alcoholic and nonalcoholic parent. The child's responses to the impaired parental functions could include over dependence, clinging, exaggeration, lying, stealing, manipulation, demanding, selfish, withdrawing, and/or fantasizing (Morehouse and Richards, 1983). Cork (1969) suggests while parents in alcoholic families are able to provide for the physical needs of their children, the children's emotional needs are not met. Cotton (1979) concluded, in a study of 6251 alcoholics, that alcoholic parents produce alcoholic children. The conclusions are supported by Valiant (1983) who found 20-25% of the sons of alcoholics in North America and Western Europe became alcoholic, while 5-10% of daughters became alcoholic. Black (1986) suggests the rate may be as high as 60%. Goodwin (1985) found in a study of twins that alcoholism runs in families even when the children of alcoholic parents are raised by nonalcoholic adoptive parents. According to Goodwin (1985) only 1/2 of the alcoholics he studied had a history of alcoholism in their families. There is an ongoing debate in the literature over the source of alcoholism, particularly between genetic versus environmental influences (El-Guebaly and Offord, 1979). Cloninger, Bohman, and Sigvardson (1981) concluded The susceptibility to alcoholism is neither entirely genetic nor entirely environmental, nor simply the sum of separate genetic and environmental contributions. Rather, specific combinations of predisposing genetic factors and environmental stress appear to interact before alcoholism develops in most persons, (p. 861). Gravitz and Bowden (1987), based on their clinical experience, suggest children of alcoholics are at a high risk for marrying someone who is or who will become an alcoholic; not just once but sometimes repeating the alcoholic marriage cycle three or four times. 17 Werner (1986) found boys and children of alcoholic mothers to be a more vulnerable group than girls and children of alcoholic fathers. The results suggest that sex of child and sex of alcoholic parent are important intervening variables in determining the effect of alcoholism on a child (Ackerman, 1987b; Werner, 1986). Several studies have added to the list of problems confronting children of alcoholics. These problems include: low self-esteem, learning disabilities, anxiety, delinquency, suicide, excessive feelings of responsibility (Cutter and Cutter, 1987; El-Guebaly and Offord, 1977, 1979; Gravitz and Bowden, 1987), poor school performance (Haberman, 1966; Gabrielli and Mednick, 1983; Robins, West, Ratcliff, and Herjanic, 1978), and neuropsychological deficits (Tarter, Hegedus, Goldstein, Shelly, and Alterman, 1984). Difficulties with interpersonal relationships are also seen as a result of living in an alcoholic family environment (Chafetz, Blane, and Hill, 1971; Kammeier, 1971; Morehouse and Richards, 1983). According to Cermak and Brown (1982) adults from alcoholic families experience difficulty in their relationships with control, trust, acknowledging personal needs, and identifying and expressing feelings. Keltner, Mclntyre, and Gee (1986) found that in a sample of 90 adult children of alcoholics, first boms possess a greater resiliency to the stress and tension of living with an alcoholic parent, while last boms are more susceptible to dependency and alcoholism. They indicate that there is a need for further investigation into the effects of birth order on children of alcoholics. Researchers have found there are certain moderator variables which contribute to an individual being less vulnerable to the impact of a parent's alcoholism. Werner (1986), in a longitudinal study of 49 subjects followed from birth to age 18, found To the extent that the boys and girls in this study were able to elicit predominantly positive responses from their caregiving environment, they were found to be stress-resistant despite parental alcoholism and chronic poverty, (p. 39). 18 Other moderator variables include sex of child, sex of alcoholic parent, severity of family crisis, self-esteem, age of child at onset of alcoholism, resiliency to stress, cultural considerations, and degree of alcoholism experienced (Ackerman, 1987b; El-Guebaly, 1983; Werner, 1986). Black (1983), Booz-Allen and Hamilton (1974), Deutsch (1983), Kritzberg (1985), and Wegscheider (1981) suggest children of alcoholics adopt certain behavior roles as a means of coping with their alcoholic environment. A D U L T C H I L D R E N O F A L C O H O L I C S In the past five years, adult children of alcoholics have become an identified group requiring specialized treatment (Cermak and Brown, 1982). However, only 5-10% of adult children of alcoholics are seen in any form of treatment (Brown, 1985). For some adult children of alcoholics, the uncertainty which was a factor in shaping their lives as children extends its influence into their adult lives. Many adult children of alcoholics do not realize the extent the alcoholic environment has influenced their lives until they are helped to see how this occurred (Woititz, 1986), "For them, there exists no clear perspective of realitj', no clear role model, no pattern of appropriate behavior, and no consistent basis for developing self-esteem or respect for others" (p. 175). Based on her clinical impressions, Woititz (1983) lists 13 statements or perceptions of adult children of alcoholics. These include adult children of alcoholics: 1. Guess at what normal is. 2. Have difficulty following a project through from beginning to end. 3. Lie when it would be just as easy to tell the truth. 4. Judge themselves without mercy. 5. Have difficulty having fun. 6. Take themselves very seriously. 19 7. Have difficulty with intimate relationships. 8. Overreact to changes over which they have no control. 9. Constantly seek approval and affirmation. 10. Feel they are different from other people. 11. Are either super responsible or super irresponsible. 12. Are extremely loyal, even in the face of evidence that the loyalty is undeserved. 13. Are impulsive, (p. 4-5) Woititz (1983) suggests her perceptions are general and are not necessarily true for every adult child of an alcoholic. The perceptions are used as part of the program of adult children of alcoholic support groups. According to the Adult Children of Alcoholics of Greater Vancouver brochure (1987), one could be led to believe the perceptions are held to be true for all adult children of alcoholics: 1. We guess at what normal behavior is. 2. We have difficulty following a project through from beginning to end. 3. We lie when it would be just as easy to tell the truth. 4. We judge ourselves without mercy. 5. We have difficulty having fun. 6. We take ourselves very seriously. 7. We have difficulty with intimate relationships. 8. We overreact to changes over which we have no control. 9. We constantly seek approval and affirmation. 10. We feel we are different from other people. 11. We are either super responsible or super irresponsible. 12. We are extremely loyal, even in the face of evidence that the loyalty is undeserved. 13. We are impulsive, (p. 10) 20 Ackerman (1987b) labeled Woititz's statements personality characteristics in a national study of adult children of alcoholics in the United States. The study compared adult children of alcoholics and adult children of non-alcoholic parents on the personality characteristics of adult children of alcoholics. Adult children of alcoholics scored higher on every characteristic though levels of significance were not reported. Ackerman (1987b) also discovered variability among children of alcoholics and suggested that their scores were influenced by several moderator variables. Included among the moderator variables were sex of child, age of child at onset of alcoholism in the parent, self-esteem of child, sex of alcoholic parent, degree and kind of alcoholism experienced, child's resiliency to stress, and cultural considerations. In a similar vein, Brown (1987) contends the field has spent too much time trying to investigate the similarities among children of alcoholics and needs now to shift and explore the differences or variability among them. ROLES Formal roles, such as mother, father, wife, husband, son, daughter, stepmother, uncle, grandmother and, grandfather, are built into the structure of a family (Hartman and Laird, 1983). Several aspects of the formal roles need to be considered in assessing a family's role structure: role congruity, role continuity, role ambiguity, role complementarity, role competence, and role flexibility. Role congruity: Are the family's role prescriptions for a person congruent with the picture of the role held by the person themselves? Role continuity: Do preceding roles prepare a person for successive roles? Role ambiguity: Are there problems created by lack of clarity of expectations concerning the prescriptions for a particular role? Role complementarity: Do reciprocal roles fit with each other? Are they in harmonious balance? 21 Role competence: Have people had the opportunity to master social role behaviors? Role flexibility: How flexible are the roles? Can role responsibility be shifted? Can family members assume roles normally carried by another? "The family with a rigidly fixed role structure will have less ability to adapt or to change" (Hartman and Laird, 1983, p. 292). Members of a family also have informal roles which are important for the ongoing maintenance and function of the family system. The same issues for assessing the quality of the formal roles apply to the informal. In a healthy family, the child's unique strengths and needs are considered before ascribing roles (Cermak, 1988). The parents are responsible for establishing boundaries and maintaining clarity among the various family roles. For example, the parents would be responsible for discipline of the children in a family with clear boundaries. If the boundar3' was not maintained one could have a situation of a child acting like a parent as they discipline their siblings. The informal roles become patterned ways of interacting and are often passed on intergenerationally (Hartman and Laird, 1983; Steinglass et al., 1987; Thornton and Nardi, 1975). A natural part of growing up occurs when the children push the boundaries established by the parents. The boundaries and role expectations of a healthy family are flexible and open to change as children grow and develop. Confusion results when parents are not able to establish boundaries and maintain role clarity. The consequences for the child are to postpone or abandon childhood as they devote all of their energy to surviving the family situation (Brown, 1985, 1987; Cermak, 1988). Thornton and Nardi (1975) lay out a four stage developmental model of role acquisition which emphasizes the interactions between individuals and roles. At each stage of the model there is an interplay between individuals and role expectations. The expectations come from society in general, from the family, from others occupying the same role, from those who may benefit from the role, and from the individuals themselves. 22 The anticipatory stage is the initial stage of role acquisition. The individual begins to adopt the values of the role or position they are about to assume or would like to assume. The individual formulates their own idea of what the role will be like as they hear expectations from general sources. The individual's experience of the role may be quite different than the individual's anticipation as idealized expectations tend to be emphasized in the anticipatory stage. The formal stage is entered as the person takes on the new role and can begin to view it from the inside. There are usually expectations regarding behavior and abilities and the individual generally responds by conforming. The individual's attitudes regarding the role and expectations are not important in the formal stage. The individual is in the process of getting used to a new role and adjusts by meeting the requirements rather than modifying the role to fit themselves. The individual's personal expectations become important during the informal stage. The informal features are usually not part of the system. The shift is from one of "must" to one of "may." The informal stage allows the individual to begin to mold the role to fit self. There is more flexibility within roles at this stage. The roles become modified according to an individual's unique personality during the fourth or personal stage. The individual style is largely accepted by others. The individual's now responds to expectations by modifying the role rather than conforming to it as they did in earlier stages. According to Thornton and Nardi (1975) an individual's role performance is generally more effective in the later stages, with completion of the personal stage a requirement to be truly effective. It is not really until the formal and informal expectations have been encountered that the final processes of adjustment begin. It is then that individuals, now familiar with new positions and their requirements, modify and mold roles around 23 personality characteristics and the demands of other roles and achieve some balance among conflicting expectations. (Thornton and Nardi, 1975, p. 882) The individual derives satisfaction from the role when they have been able to modify the role to fit their unique personality; which is possible only in the personal stage. Problems in social and psychological adjustment surface when there is an incongruence between self and role (Thornton and Nardi, 1975). Such incongruence also leads to a perfunctory style of role performance. Alcoholic families experience difficulties with role behavior. As the parents become more and more concerned about alcohol and its effects on their interactions they become less involved with parenting (Black, 1981; Booz-Allen and Hamilton, 1974; Brown, 1985; Cermak, 1988; Clinebell, 1968; Hecht, 1973). Children in alcoholic families must deal with confusing and inconsistent expectations. There is confusion and uncertainty as to the parents' role, there is confusion with their own changing roles, and there is confusion with the role reversal which occurs when a child has to care for a helpless parent (Cermak, 1988; Clinebell, 1968; Nardi, 1981; Lawson, Peterson, and Lawson, 1983). "Children in the alcoholic family system are forced to play roles and meet parental needs that children in other families do not" (Hecht, 1973, p. 1767). Each person in the family has a set of duties and rights she or he is expected to enact on the basis of her or his position in the system. Although generally set, these roles are often altered as definitions of the situation change during family interactions. The introduction of alcoholism usually acts as one major cause in modifying the traditional role definitions of a family system. (Nardi, 1981, p. 239) There are certain demands or rules that confront children in alcoholic families. They are expected to keep alcoholism in the family secret and to deny there are any problems in the family (Black, 1981; Brenner, 1984; Brown and Beletis, 1986). They learn their own feelings are not important and those feelings are therefore not 24 acknowledged or expressed. And they are expected to take responsibility for their alcoholic parents, which can mean taking the blame for their parent's drinking. Children of alcoholic parents adopt new roles or strategies to cope with the stress of the alcoholic family's demands and rules (Nardi, 1981). These particular coping roles are found in all families from time to time as they deal with stress. However, in the alcoholic family they become rigid as the roles emerge to meet the family's needs (Cermak, 1988; Steinglass et al., 1987). The alcoholic family, especially when confronted with stress, is too insecure and fragile to permit flexibility (Deutsch, 1983). The roles serve the purpose of providing some stability to the family system (Kritzberg, 1985). Brenner (1984) states that stress is a part of our everj' day reality and must be dealt with by all families. Usually, children are not conscious of their particular manner of reacting to stress. They simply react with a strategy which will enable them to go on with their lives (Brenner, 1984). The coping strategies these children develop become habitual over time. Brenner (1984) outlines several strategies commonly used by children to cope with stress. She describes four categories of evasive actions: denial, regression, withdrawal, and impulsive acting out. Five of the ways children accept and face stress include altruism, humor, suppression, anticipation, and sublimation. She warns there is a chance that even children willing to accept and face stress will not always be successful: No matter how adept children become at coping with stress, it is never possible for them to be completely successful; to avoid all negative consequences; and to be able to take everything that comes. Children cannot cope on a daily basis without help and support from at least one caring adult, (p. 8) 25 M O D E L S OF B E H A V I O R ROLES O F CHILDREN O F A L C O H O L I C S Children of alcohlics assume certain behavioral roles as a means of coping with the stress and crises of living in an alcoholic environment (Black, 1981; Booz-Allen and Hamilton, 1974; Deutsch, 1983; Kritzberg, 1985; Wegscheider, 1981). Booz-Allen and Hamilton (1974) suggest a model of behavior roles or coping mechanisms based on their interviews with 50 children from alcoholic families in Pennsylvania in an exploratory study for the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. They found, not unexpectedly, that each child develops their own approach or strategy in response to emotional neglect and family conflict characteristic of alcoholic families. Emotional neglect and family conflict are the most frequently experienced problems for children of alcoholic parents (Booz-Allen and Hamilton, 1974). The behavior roles are adopted as a necessary means of survival. Each child in the family develops their own approach or strategy. Some children are able to not only survive, they manage to succeed. However, there are also those who are unable to cope and "they may survive but in such a damaged, brutalized state, that they are rarely able to become more than victims" (Booz-Allen and Hamilton, 1974, p. 42). Booz-Allen and Hamilton offer four behavior roles in their model. The perfect child and super-coper are mirror images of goodness. They never do anything wrong and are involved helping others. The child who uses fight is defiant and rebellious; often engaged in socially unacceptable behavior. Fight is a potentially dangerous coping behavior because it may escalate conflict with the child's parents or other authorities. Fight is usually combined with other roles. The child involved with the fourth mechanism, flight, utilizes several forms of escape to cope with their living situation. They may withdraw from the family physically, mentally, or emotionally. According to Booz-Allen and Hamilton (1974) children in the same family can develop either similar or quite different forms of coping with the same experiences. The 26 particular coping mechanism chosen by the child is dependent on their unique personality and perceptions. Wegscheider (1981) suggests a model of behavior roles based on birth order rather than personality factors. Each role has its own set of characteristics and carries a particular risk for personality development and psychopathology. According to Wegscheider, children choose a defense and use the role to hide their feelings in hopes of obtaining some kind of reward from a system that does not have much to offer. The oldest child is the family hero. Characterized by over-achievement, the hero, provides self worth for the family. The second born responds with socially unacceptable behavior and takes the focus off the family by acting out. The role of scapegoat is characterized by delinquency and early involvement with the use and abuse of drugs and alcohol. Later born children are either the lost child or the mascot. The lost child withdraws from the family and helps by not being a problem. The lost child often feels lonely, hurt, and inadequate. The mascot distracts the family with clowning or annoying behavior. The roles can be flexible with one person having more than one role in a small family and more than one person per role in a larger family. An only child takes on aspects of all the roles. Wegscheider (1981) states that all members of a family have a role and every role is played by someone. Once in a role the demands of the role trap the individual and the person slowly becomes the role. Based on her clinical impressions with young children from alcoholic families Black (1981) offers a third model of behavior roles: Children growing up in alcoholic homes seldom learn the combinations of roles which mold healthy personalities. Instead, they become locked into roles based on their perception of what they need to do to survive and to bring some stability to their lives, (p. 14) The responsible one, usually the oldest child or an only child, assumes a great deal of responsibility for self and others in the family. Children who assume the role of 27 responsible one provide stability not only for themselves but for the rest of their family as well. They often step in and do what has to be done in order to provide some consistency for the family. The parents appreciate the responsible, adult-like child who enables the alcoholic to worry more about their drinking and allows the non-alcoholic spouse more time to care for the alcoholic (Black, 1981). Responsible ones learn to rely only on themselves. They are often good organizers and leaders. They like to be in positions of control. Adjusters feel they do not have any choices in life. They find it easier to not draw attention to themselves so they follow along and adjust to whatever the situation demands. They feel they can manage in any situation but they stay away from leadership positions as they do not like to be put in charge. The children who use the adjuster role seem detached from their family. The placater is the family comforter. They are often sensitive children who are rewarded for helping others but at the expense of not having their own needs met. They try to mend the fears, the sadness, the problems of the family. Placaters spend a great deal of time pleasing others, they like to make other people feel good. They carry responsibility for others' emotional needs. The acting out child disrupts their own lives and the lives of their family with negative or socially unacceptable behavior. The disruptions serve to distract the family from their problems with alcohol. The acting out child is the assumed stereotype of a child of alcoholic parents (Black, 1981). According to Black (1981) there is not a definite pattern to the roles, they are the result of the evolution of the family system. Whatever the role or roles a child takes on, these children will suffer gaps in growth and development as a result. Deutsch (1983) maintains that, except for the cases where there is actual physical or sexual abuse or neglect, the real damage to children of alcoholic parents comes from the children's interpretation of the events in their families: 28 Children interpret these experiences, construct images of self, family, and world, and act upon those images. They simply adapt to survive, to get at least minimal needs met. Most often, they form narrow and rigid role structures, patterns of behavior consistent with their unconscious and unarticulated view of who they are, what they must do to contribute to the family, and win the family's love and protection in return, (p. 4) Deutsch (1983) suggests a model consisting of three roles: hero, manager, and scapegoat. The hero is an exemplary child who has managed to turn adversitjr into strength. The child who becomes the family manager is responsible for the family's affairs but, at the expense of their own needs. The scapegoat is the rebel; getting into trouble to distract the family from their problems with the alcoholic. Kritzberg (1985) contends children take on various roles to survive the rules of the alcoholic family: denial, silence, rigidity, and isolation. The roles serve the purpose of establishing some stability in a chaotic system. The roles also direct attention to the family member playing the roles distracting the family momentarily from the sometimes bizarre behavior of the alcoholic family. As the alcoholism progresses the rules and roles become more and more fixed and rigid. The assignment of the roles is dependent on the needs of the family. The roles often become blended with various people playing various roles at different times. Kritzberg's model (1985), based on his clinical impressions, consists of five roles: hero, scapegoat, lost one, clown, and placator. The hero is the achiever in the family, trying in work or in school to make the family look good. The scapegoat is often getting into trouble. The lost one helps by their non-presence; they are not a visible part of the family. Tension is lessened in the family by the diversions created by the clown. The peace-maker role in the family belongs to the placator. According to Kritzberg the roles are not limited to those in his model; families may create different roles in order to meet their particular demands. 29 The behavior roles or coping mechanisms serve to provide children in troubled situations some sense of control and self-worth. Some of the behaviors also provide the children with personal rewards. They are praised for their accomplishments, they are appreciated for their help, and they may acquire skills which will be useful in later work or personal situations (Brenner, 1984; Nardi, 1981). While most of the roles have characteristics of value, they also have inherent dangers. One danger is that the longer a person assumes a role the more accustomed to the behaviors the person becomes; they can become addicted to the role and unable to be flexible in different situations (Black, 1981). Another danger is that while the role may provide the child with some sense of personal gain or reward, they pay the price of not having their own needs met (Lawson, Peterson, & Lawson, 1983). The addiction to the role leads them to carry their surviving or coping behaviors with them when the3' leave the family (Brown, 1985; Brown and Beletis, 1986; Cermak, 1988; Cermak and Brown, 1982; Hecht, 1973). "If children do not resolve the problems created by parental alcoholism, they will carry them the rest of their lives" (Booz-Allen & Hamilton, 1974, p. 73). Roles that enabled them to survive while living as children in an alcoholic family become a source of unhealthy extremes in adulthood (Black, 1981; Lawson et al., 1983). Problems are also created for the children if the alcoholic achieves sobriety without the children or family receiving treatment. The children will continue to experience problems when only the alcoholic parent is treated (Black, 1981; Booz-Allen & Hamilton, 1974; Cork, 1969: Deutsch, 1983; Lawson et al., 1983). The literature is replete with examples of the problems and consequences of growing up in an alcoholic family. According to Brown (1985), We are beginning to comprehend the consequences of the adaptations and defenses developed by children that allow them to survive an unpredictable and often chaotic childhood. These strategies for survival have a significant negative impact for later life. (p. 241) 30 S U M M A R Y Alcohol is the central organizing principle in the alcoholic family environment. As a result all members suffer the consequences of one member's alcoholism. The most serious repercussions result from the destructive interaction patterns of the family system as family members reorganize to see reality through an alcoholic perspective. Steinglass and his associates (Steinglass et al., 1987) offer a developmental model of alcoholism which suggests that family patterns of behavior can be identified according to the stage of alcoholism or the stage of family development. Much of the children of alcoholics research has investigated the detrimental effect alcoholism has on the children of alcoholic families. Childhood in an alcoholic family is characterized by chaos and unpredictability. Children take on behavior roles in an attempt to maintain some stability for the family and cope with the tension and crises. As a result of the roles many children manage to survive their childhood by taking on parental responsibilities. All families have formal and informal role structures which help define their relationships with each other. Healthy families possess flexible roles which arise from an individual's needs and abilities. The family is able to be creative with its response when confronted with stress or crisis. Alcoholic families are characterized by rigid role structures where the roles rise from the needs of the family. The roles may help the alcoholic family in the short term, but according to Thornton and Nardi (1975) the individual will be affected in the long term. The role will not be a source of meaning if the individual is not able to mold the role to suit their unique personalities and needs. And there also exists more of a chance of a perfunctory style of performance when a rigid family role structure is trapped at the formal stage of acquisition. Five different models of behavior roles of children of alcoholics were identified in the literature. The five models (Black, 1981; Booz-Allen & Hamilton, 1974; Deutsch, 1983; 31 Kritzberg, 1985; Wegscheider, 1981) contain overlapping constructs and are seen as closely related.. The roles, containing both functional and dysfunctional behaviors, are defined as behaviors children assume to cope with the crises and tensions of living in an alcoholic environment. They serve to provide chilren in troubled situations some sense of control and self-worth. The models are widely used, sometimes interchangeably, by clinicians working with children of alcohlics of all ages and by self-help support groups for adult children of alcoholics. According to Clair and Genest (1987) the models have yet to be empirically tested. For children of alcoholics the problems do not stop when they leave home or the drinking ceases. It is very difficult for them to separate from their families; to leave is synonymous with giving up hope or abandoning the family or being abandoned. Children of alcoholics tend to stay emotionally attached to their families of origin as a means of maintaining an important role in the family. The enduring attachment is also seen as a means of maintaining the denial of being an alcoholic family. For all, to separate [to leave behind the behavioral roles of childhood] becomes a major barrier to forming healthy, primary attachments to their own families and causes great difficulty with intimate involvement in all other significant relationships. (Brown, 1985, p. 253) Many of the results attributed to children of alcoholics are derived from studies with small samples, studies using children of alcoholics who have other identified problems needing institutional help, and from clinical impressions. There is evidence in the literature that seems to indicate that, whatever the particular problems, children of alcoholics will carry those issues into their adulthood. There are more than 28 million children of alcoholics suffering a myriad of problems due to living with alcoholism. The literature is calling upon researchers to invest their time and energy designing valid studies to help unravel the complexities of alcohol and the family. 32 C H A P T E R III M E T H O D O L O G Y DESIGN O F T H E S T U D Y Five models of behavior roles of children of alcohlics were identified in the literature. The five models (Black, 1981; Booz-Allen and Hamilton, 1974; Deutsch, 1983; Kritzberg, 1985: Wegscheider, 1981) contain overlapping consrtucts and are seen as closely related. The primary objective of the present study was to develop and verify an integrated model of behavior roles of adult children of alcoholics. Such a model would serve as the basis for the construction of a measurement instrument to be used for further empirical verification of the behavior roles. While the actual instrument construction was beyond the scope of this study, the first three steps of Crocker and Algina's (1986) process of test construction listed below were chosen as an appropriate design for developing and verifying the integrated model of behavior roles, 1. Identify the primary purpose(s) for which the test scores will be used 2. Identify behaviors that represent the construct or define the domain 3. Prepare a set of test specifications, delineating the proportion of items that should focus on each type of behavior identified in step 2 4. Construct an initial pool of items 5. Have items reviewed (and revise as necessary) 6. Hold prelimina^ item tryouts (and revise as necessary) 7. Field-test the items on a large sample representative of the examinee population for whom the test is intended 8. Determine statistical properties of item scores and, when appropriate, eliminate items that do not meet preestablished criteria 33 9. Design and conduct reliability and validity studies for the final form of the test 10. Develop guidelines for administration, scoring, and interpretation of the test scores (e.g., prepare norm tables, suggest recommended cutting scores or standards for performance, etc.) (p. 66) In Crocker and Algina's list of test construction steps, steps 1-3 relate to the development of test specifications or, in the case of this study, a specification, in model form, of that which is to be measured. The remaining 7 steps, 4-10, the instrument construction phase, would be the object of a second study The method insures the future study will be able to build on the results of the present study. The primary purpose (step 1) of constructing a measurement instrument of the behavior roles is for research. A measurement instrument would be a contribution to the research efforts of a relatively new field and would enable further empirical verification fo the behavior roles. Potential clinical applications, a secondary purpose of constructing a measurement instrument, could lead to new and more effective programs of intervention and prevention with both children and adults who have experienced living with an alcoholic parent. The behaviors representing the construct of the roles (step 2) were identified by the development of the integrated model of behavior roles of adult children of alcoholics. The verification of the integrated model using categorization methodology and latent partition analysis produced an initial set of items (step 3) that focused on each of the behavior roles identified in step 2. D E V E L O P M E N T OF T H E I N T E G R A T E D M O D E L Explication of the Attributes Five models of behavior roles of children of alcoholics (Black, 1981; Booz-Allen and 34 Hamilton, 1974; Deutsch, 1983; Kritzberg, 1985; Wegscheider,1981) were identified in the literature. The attributes for each role of the five models, summarized earlier in Table 1, were explicated from the literature utilizing a three step process. First, attributes were assembled from the author's descriptions of their roles; second, other literature references of the five models were examined and attributes extracted according to each role of the particular model referenced; and third, the list of attributes within a particular role were examined and duplicate entries removed. The 220 attributes explicated from the literature are shown in Appendixes A - E . Formation of the Integrated Model The five models of behavior roles of children of alcoholics (Black, 1981; Booz-Allen and Hamilton, 1974; Deutsch, 1983; Kritzberg, 1985; Wegscheider,1981) contain overlapping constructs and are seen as closely related. The literature did not indicate that any one of the five models is considered superior to the other four. As a result the researcher decided to develop an integrated model which would make use of the overlapping constructs as well as retain the constructs unique to each model. The researcher conducted the integration procedure. The attributes for each of the 20 roles from the five models were put on a form, one role per form, with the role identity coded by number. The 20 forms were shuffled to guarantee a random order of the forms. The researcher then sorted the 20 forms according to similarities of attributes using the following procedure: 1. Take a quick look through the forms to become acquainted with the variety of roles to be sorted. 2. Beginning with the first form, think of what kind of role the attributes refer to with respect to behavior roles of children of alcoholics. 3. Take the next form and think of what role the attributes are characteristic of. If you think it should be grouped with the first then put the two together. 35 Otherwise, begin a second group by placing the new form apart from the first one. If you have doubt as to its similarity keep it separate. 4. Continue by picking up one form at a time and thinking what behavior role the attributes are characteristic of; then either put it in one of the groups already in front of you or start a new group. 5. When you are finished with all the forms, go through your groups and review each group with concern for whether the attributes in it are characteristic of the same behavior role. There can be as few as one form in a group or as many as you wish. 6. Record the form numbers according to the groups. The results of the sorting procedure, shown in Table 3, were designated the integrated model of behavior roles of children of alcoholics. The names for the integrated model reflect the nature of their roles and were developed by the researcher using logical analysis of the attributes within each role. The names are different than those used by the models in the literature to designate that the integrated model is a new and different model. Selection of Attributes to be Used for Verification of the Model Attributes were selected according to their uniqueness, their ability to reference only one role of the integrated model, and their ability to reference adult behaviors. Appendix F contains the evaluation of the attributes and Appendix G contains the cluster of attributes selected for the verification of the integrated model. Verification of the Integrated Model Categorization methodology. The model was verified using categorization methodology to collect the responses of subjects. The agreement among the responses was analyzed using latent partition analysis. The methodology has been successfully used to 36 Table 3 Integrated Model of Behavior Roles of Children of Alcoholics Family Director Premier Child Black/Responsible One Booz-Allen & Hamilton/Perfect Child Booz-Allen & Hamilton/Super Coper Deutsch/Hero Deutsch/Manager Kritzberg/Hero Wegscheider/Family Hero Black Sheep Black/Acting Out Child Booz-Allen & Hamilton/Fight Deutsch/Scapegoat Kritzberg/Scapegoat Wegscheider/Scapegoat Invisible Child Booz-Allen & Hamilton/Flight Kritzberg/Lost One Wegscheider/Lost Child Jester Kritzberg/Clown Wegscheider/Mascot Harmonizer Black/Adjuster Black/Placater Kritzberg/Placator examine similarities among teachers' categorizations of statements describing teaching-learning behavior and of facilitating student learning in the classroom (Miller, D. M . , Wiley, D. E . , Wolfe, R. G. , and Conry, R. F . , cited in Kuijt, 1978). Evans (1970) reports on studies examining judgmental classification of semantic differential scales and classification by university students of a selection of student behaviors. Kuijt (1978) used 37 categorization methodology to examine definitions in use by practitioners in the field of Transactional Analysis. The methodology was also used with graduate students in Counselling Psychology to examine the change processes involved in emotionally focused couples therapy (Greenberg, James, and Conry, 1988; James, 1985). Categorization methodology employs a free sort (F-sort) procedure for data collection. The F-Sort is a technique for observing and recording categorical judgements manifested when subjects perform a series of sorting manipulations of a given set of stimuli (Miller et al., cited in Kuijt, 1978). One method of categorization methodology makes use of a blind decision rule regarding the number of categories (Evans, 1970). There are no restrictions placed on the number of categories or the number of units in each category. Sorters are free to create and define their own sets of categories, guided only by the sorting cues given them. Evans (1970) discusses a second method which makes use of theoretical considerations to make an a priori decision on the number of categories. It is also possible to request a different number of categories during the latent partition analysis (described below). Subjects were asked to sort the stimuli into categories according to similarities which they perceived among the attributes. The subjects were then asked to label their categories reflecting the criteria the3' used in grouping the attributes. The criteria used by the subjects to group the attributes is important in the analysis and will be incorporated in making any necessary revisions to the integrated model. The sorting cue in this study was: "Put together those attributes which you think are characteristic of the same behavior role of adult children of alcoholics. If two attributes cannot be grouped together or you doubt their similarity, keep them separate. If an attribute seems to belong to more than one role or it is impossible to decide on a role for that attribute, place it in a reject category." The subjects were asked to explain their rationale for grouping particular attributes together. The subjects will also be asked to 38 explain why they placed any attributes in the reject category. A copy of the instructions provided for the respondents is contained in Appendix P. Latent partition analysis. Latent partition analysis is designed to study the relationships between two or more categorizations of the same set of items (Wiley, 1967). According to the model there is a latent partition which underlies the set of manifest partitions. "The items are assumed to be assigned to manifest categories according to independent, discrete probability distributions" (Wiley, 1967, p. 183). The latent partition analysis of sorting behavior produces three matrices; the S-matrix, the Phi-matrix, and the Omega-matrix. The S-matrix (the joint proportion matrix) has as many rows and columns as there are content units. An entry in an S-matrix corresponds to a pair of content units, and is the proportion of sorters in whose manifest categories those two content units were combined. The S-matrix is symmetric with its diagonal entries equal to 1.0 and represents a reduction of the data of the sorting experiment. The Phi-matrix or latent categories has as many rows as there are content units and as many columns as there are latent categories. Miller et al. (cited in Kuijt 1978) describes the latent categories: If there were two manifest categorizations of a set of content units, then one might consider looking at the refinement categorization defined by them - that is, at the intersections of the categories of two sets. If there are five content units: A B O D E and the two categorizations are: 1. (AB) (CDE) 2. (ABC) . (DE) then the refinement categorization is: (AB) (C) (DE) 39 The refinement categories consist of the content units that both sorters found similar. In L P A terminology, the refinement categories are called latent categories. The latent categorization is sufficient to explain each of the manifest categories in the sense that each manifest category is either a latent category or a union of latent categories. The content unit discriminations between the latent categories include all discriminations between content units in both manifest categorizations (p. 45). The entries in the Phi-matrix, called loadings, have been designated by Miller et al. (cited in Kuijt, 1978) as strong (.90 + ), moderate (.60 - .89), or weak (.30 - .59). Loadings greater than one and less than zero are indications of closeness of fit of the model. As a theoretical optimum, the row would have a 1 in the column corresponding to that latent category and O's in the other columns. According to Miller et al. (cited in Kuijt, 1978): a. Estimates from .50 to 1.50 should be considered as '1' signifying membership in the corresponding categories. b. Estimates from .20 to .50 should be considered ambiguous: therefore, tentative membership should be signified by the highest entry within this range in the row. c. Estimates below .20 should be considered as '0' signifying that the content unit is a non-member of the corresponding latent categories (p. 46). The third matrix, the Omega-matrix or confusion matrix is the probability of latent categorization combination. Kuijt (1978) describes the Omega-matrix: The Omega matrix has as many rows and columns as there are latent categories. A number in Omega corresponds to a pair of latent categories and is the probability, averaged over sorters, of the latent categories being merged in manifest partitions. More exactly, it is the probability that any particular pair of content units from each latent category will have been put in the same manifest category. A diagonal entry of Omega refers to a single latent category and is the 40 probability that a given pair of items from the latent category will be put together. When that probability is high, the descriptors and their latent category may be considered cohesive, (p. 47) . Population. The population of interest in the study was all therapists, counsellors, and psychologists in Canada and the United States working with adults who grew up in a family where one or both parents were alcoholics. The sample consisted of members from four groups of therapists working with adult children of alcoholics; members of the Canadian Association for Children of Alcoholics (CACOA), participants in a professional training conference in Seattle Washington for counsellors and therapists working with children of alcoholics (ACOA), counsellors with the British Columbia Alcohol and Drug programs who were participants in a famify therapy training program conducted by the Western Family Learning Institute (ADP), and the authors of the five models identified in the literature. Packets were sent to 116 counsellors and therapists described in Table 4. Task administration. The sorting procedures followed for the F-sort were those outlined by Millar et al. (cited in Kuijt, 1978). The descriptors were systematically changed to reflect the same person and tense to control for methods variance due to the writing style of the different authors. The descriptors were assigned a random number generated by a table of random digits (Glass and Hopkins, 1984), printed on 3.5" x 4.25" cards and assembled into decks. Each deck was pseudo-randomly ordered by cutting into thirds three times, shuffling twice, and cutting into thirds two more times. This insured the descriptors were presented to each sorter in a different order. A pilot study was conducted with six graduate students in counselling psychology to test the F-sort procedures. As the students experienced no difficulty in following the written instructions, sorters in the sample were presented with similar instructions specifying the task objectives and the sequence of tasks to follow in sorting the descriptors. 41 Table 4 Sample Source P R O V / S T A T E C A C O A A C O A C O N F ADP A U T H O R S T O T A L A L B 4 0 0 0 4 BC 2 0 40 0 42 M A N 1 0 0 0 1 NB 1 0 0 0 1 ONT 23 0 0 0 23 PQ 3 0 0 0 3 C A 0 0 0 1 1 CO 0 5 0 0 5 M A 0 0 0 1 1 ND 0 1 0 0 1 OR 0 4 0 0 4 SD 0 0 0 1 1 T X 0 0 0 1 1 W A 0 28 0 0 28 T O T A L 34 38 40 4 116 The instructions, a copy of which is presented in Appendix P, emphasize the sorting cue, time required, nature of the descriptors, and the nature of the categories as implied by the sorting cue. Sorters may form as few as three categories or as many as seven categories and they may put any number of descriptors into a category. Any descriptor that can't be placed in only one category is to be placed in a reject category. The sorters were asked to describe their categories to help the researcher describe, interpret, and name the latent categories identified by the analysis of the sorting procedure. Latent Partition Analysis, designed to study the relationships between two or more categorizations of the same set of items, was used to analyze the sorters' categorizations. The random numbers from each attribute were entered on the data record form according to the respondent's categorization. The random numbers were converted to the attribute numbers (1-68) and were then ready to be transferred to a fortran coding form to facilitate computer entry of the data. Each respondent was assigned one line of a fortran coding form; columns 1-10 contained demographic information and columns 11-78 represented the 42 68 attributes used in the categorization task. The attibutes were designated on the fortran coding form by a number ranging from 1-8, the number corresponding to the number of the category or role in which the respondent had sorted that particular attribute. The reject category was designated as #8. The data entries were checked for accuracy by a colleauge of the researcher on four occassions: (1) after entry of the random numbers on the data record form, (2) after conversion of the random numbers to the attribute numbers, (3) after entry on the fortran coding form, and (4) after the data had been entered into a computer file. The categorization data was then analyzed using latent partition analysis contained in the University of Alberta (Division of Educational Research Services) computer program SCAL06 by the University of British Columbia mainframe computer, a Michigan Terminal System (MTS), running on a Amdahl 5860 computer. 43 CHAPTER IV RESULTS CHARACTERISTICS OF T H E S A M P L E Responses were obtained from 50 members of the sample (total = 116); of these 45 returned sorted decks of descriptors. The return rate and percent of useable responses for the sample is summarized in Table 5. Five people returned their packages without completing the sorting task. Two of the authors of the five models reported they were too busy to take the time to participate in the study; two respondents felt they did not have the expertise or experience to be able to participate; and one respondent expressed reservations concerning the rigidity of the study's design. Table 5 Percentage of Returns of the Sample S O U R C E S E N T R E T U R N E D % U S E A B L E % % T O T A : C A C O A 34 18 52.9 15 44.1 33.3 A C O A C O N F 38 10 26.3 10 26.3 22.2 A D P 40 20 50.0 20 50.0 44.4 A U T H O R S 4 2 50.0 0 T O T A L 116 50 43.1 45 38.8 99.9 Respondents were asked to identify their years of experience in counselling, their highest degree, and specialized training in children of alcoholics. Degrees were categorized as No Degree, Two Year Degree (including Associate of Arts, Diplomas, and Certified 44 Addiction Counsellors), Bachelor's Degree (including B.A. , B.S., B.Ed., and B.S.W.), Master's Degrees (including M.A. , M.Ed. , M.S.W., R.S.W., M.Sc , and M.N.), and Doctoral Degrees (including Ph.D., and Ed.D.). These data are summarized in Table 6. Table 6 Description of the Respondents E D U C A T I O N # % E X P E R I E N C E # % No Degree 5 11 1-5 Years 15 33 2yr Degree 4 9 6-10 Years 14 31 Bachelor's 12 27 11-15 Years 11 25 Master's 21 45 16+ Years 5 45 Doctorate 3 6 Total 45 100 Total 45 100 R E S U L T S F R O M L A T E N T PARTITION A N A L Y S I S Number of Manifest Categories The F-sort by the 45 sorters produced manifest categories, shown in Figure 1, ranging from two to seven. The mode of the manifest categories was four, the median 4.47, and the mean 4.69. Number of Latent Categories Eight separate computer runs were performed on the 45 sets of manifest categories containing 68 content units using the University of Alberta (Division of Educational Research Services) computer program SCAL06. A different number of latent categories 45 Figure 1 Frequency Distribution for Each Number of Manifest Categories Number of Sorters 3 4 5 6 7 Number of manifest categories was requested on each run in order to establish the optimal number of latent categories. The first run requested the number of categories equal to the number of latent roots equal to or greater than 1.0 (Wiley, 1967). This produced a latent partition analysis of nine categories. The corresponding Phi-matrix was examined to check the contents of the latent categories. The examination revealed various anomolies; several content units had substantial secondary loadings on two and three categories, three units loaded substantially on four and five categories, and three categories seemed to be artificially divided as they contained content units that theoretically should go together. The latent roots (eigenvalues), shown in Figure 2, were then plotted and examined. Figure 2 Eigenvalues of Model Conta in ing 68 Content Uni t s eigenvalue Eigenvalues 13.978 12.053 8.361 3.394 2.596 2.223 1.543 1.102 1.003 0.907 0.930 0.789 0.763 .574 .661 .639 .535 .551 .507 . 478 .446 .440 . 416 0.396 0.374 \ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Ordinal numfier or l a t e n t root 47 The scree test indicates that 4 categories could be considered the best fit of the data (Cattell, 1966; Kuijt, 1978; James, 1985). However, there remains some argument in the literature as to the appropriate manner in which the number of latent categories is to be estimated. Different numbers of latent categories produce models which differ in their ability to fit the data both mathematically and substantively Miller et al. (cited in Kuijt, 1978). Therefore, ad hoc reasoning is used in combination with the Phi-matrix and the Omega-matrix to determine the optimal number of latent categories. Ad hoc reasoning consisted of looking at the size of the categories relative to the number of descriptors taken from the various roles of the integrated model, the coherence of the categories as representing behavior roles of adult children of alcoholics, and the redistribution of the descriptors as the number of latent categories was changed. The number of categories was specified on subsequent computer runs beginning with eight categories and proceeding to two categories. As the number of latent categories requested decreased the descriptors collapsed into different categories as shown in Table 7. The first model that was interpretable as behavior roles occurred at L=6 . The L = 6 model produced six categories recognizable as behavior roles although one category contained four descriptors which were found most often in the sorter's reject category. The descriptors in the sixth category were considered to be members of a reject category and not an example of a separate identifiable behavior role. The model produced by L = 5 contained five coherent categories representative of the integrated model of behavior roles of children of alcoholics. The descriptors from the Jester role joined with the Caretaker role at L = 4 to make up a new category, which lacked coherence as a behavior role. The model produced by L = 5 was considered the best solution. Joint Proportion Matrix The joint proportion matrix (S-matrix), a 68 by 68 table is presented in Appendix I. 48 Table 7 Latent Structure as a Function of the Number of Categories Number of Latent Categories 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 • IC IC IC IC IC IC IC BS BS BS BS BS BS BS BS BS/J BS/J/IC J J J J J C C C C C C C/J C/SA C/SA Rej Rej Rej Rej SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA Key: IC = Invisible Child, BS = Black Sheep, J=Jester, C = Caretaker, SA = Super Achiever, Rej = Reject Category Phi Matrix (5 Category Model/68 Content Units) Primary loadings of content units have been designated by Miller et al. (cited in Kuijt, 1978) as strong (.90 + ), moderate (.60 - .89), or weak (.30 - .59). The Phi Matrix for the 5 category/68 content units model, shown in Table 8, contains 43 units with strong loadings, 15 moderate, and 10 with weak loadings on their primary categories. Content units with strong primary loadings. Four of the 43 attributes with strong primary loadings have substantial (greater than .20) secondary loadings. Family counts on 49 Table 8 Phi Matrix (5 Categories/68 Content Units) # Stimulus 1 2 3 4 5 C A R E T A K E R 35. Manipulates others 0.501 -0.096 0.054 0.218 0.273 40. Flexible 0.549 -0.142 0.037 -0.048 0.419 41. Adapts to situations 0.577 -0.114 0.123 -0.063 0.411 4. Takes charge 0.579 0.556 -0.052 -0.013 -0.065 20. Motivated family look ok 0.649 0.492 -0.034 0.024 -0.111 7. Provides structure 0.700 0.423 -0.052 0.030 -0.063 10. Manages family affairs 0.834 0.373 -0.059 -0.016 -0.097 46. Tries reduce conflict 0.870 -0.198 -0.009 -0.078 0.464 43. Maintains order 0.876 0.187 0.095 -0.017 -0.073 42. Fears rocking boat 0.885 -0.331 0.463 -0.022 0.043 33. Discounts own needs 0.961 -0.179 0.116 0.005 0.041 13. Family counts on them 0.987 0.273 -0.069 -0.009 -0.152 17. Praise for caring 1.137 0.072 -0.068 -0.007 -0.154 5. Feels responsible 1.143 0.035 -0.074 0.013 -0.139 19. Acts as family savior 1.153 0.081 -0.066 -0.008 -0.128 37. Smooths over conflict 1.195 -0.270 -0.010 -0.068 0.154 38. Willing to lend ear 1.258 -0.181 -0.031 0.018 -0.115 36. Survival equals giving 1.400 -0.272 -0.088 0.010 -0.076 SUPER A C H I E V E R 30. Mirror of goodness 0.417 0.510 0.007 0.039 -0.016 28. Unable to relax 0.238 0.551 0.069 0.067 0.114 6. Takes life seriously 0.383 0.569 0.086 0.025 0.013 11. Have to be good 0.418 0.694 -0.009 -0.020 -0.047 1. Oldest or only child 0.257 0.715 -0.028 -0.011 0.039 18. Trouble feeling good -0.043 0.828 0.122 0.033 0.073 14. Does well athletically -0.198 0.853 0.036 0.081 0.159 8. Remains responsible 0.225 0.890 -0.040 0.001 -0.091 26. Never do enough -0.088 0.916 0.067 0.060 0.059 2. Often assumes leadership 0.109 0.923 -0.018 0.017 -0.012 9. Appears to function well -0.022 0.986 0.008 -0.041 0.092 24. Appears exemplary 0.063 1.005 -0.007 -0.006 -0.071 29. Success/no satisfaction -0.210 1.030 0.079 -0.010 0.081 3. Does well scholastically -0.044 1.037 -0.003 -0.025 -0.006 15. Leader among peers -0.110 1.407 -0.023 -0.020 0.082 25. Appears perfect -0.081 1.087 0.002 -0.030 0.022 12. Provide worth by success -0.019 1.093 -0.033 -0.003 -0.059 23. Achieves success in work -0.225 1.168 0.006 -0.028 0.090 27. Sue to stop par drink -0.180 1.198 -0.020 -0.012 -0.006 21. Super achiever (tries) -0.190 1.217 -0.020 -0.011 -0.021 50 INVISIBLE CHILD 22. Feels they don't fit 0.161 -0.035 0.500 0.369 0.105 50. Avoids alcoholic -0.073 0.102 0.625 0.290 -0.061 48. Lives in fantasy 0.085 -0.047 0.925 -0.030 0.021 54. Disassociates -0.045 0.006 0.926 0.145 -0.069 55. Non-presence 0.055 -0.033 0.942 0.022 0.047 45. Avoids other people 0.022 -0.016 1.021 -0.032 0.020 51. Withdraws into self -0.036 0.031 1.069 -0.032 -0.015 44. Keeps to self (loner) -0.064 0.021 1.106 -0.034 -0.039 52. Lost in the shuffle -0.028 0.005 1.123 -0.054 -0.019 49. Keeps a low profile -0.004 -0.010 1.130 -0.057 -0.039 47. Withdraws -0.037 0.006 1.137 -0.055 -0.047 53. Escapes by hiding -0.088 0.028 1.150 -0.059 -0.034 B L A C K SHEEP 59. Often lack skills 0.026 -0.015 0.198 0.569 0.225 58. Problems interacting 0.065 -0.038 0.121 0.789 0.125 56. Often lack education 0.075 -0.036 -0.033 0.814 0.205 64. Potentially dangerous 0.055 -0.023 0.044 0.843 0.085 57. Unable to control anger 0.099 -0.046 0.045 0.920 0.059 61. Acts phys aggressive 0.030 0.010 -0.045 1.019 -0.032 63. Family blames them -0.060 0.020 -0.031 1.042 -0.034 16. Acts verbal aggressive -0.009 -0.001 -0.032 1.055 0.009 60. Rebels -0.055 0.023 -0.035 1.086 -0.060 67. Fam says person is bad -0.049 0.011 -0.038 1.087 -0.055 62. Acts out -0.038 -0.000 -0.041 1.107 -0.064 68. Often getting in trouble -0.038 -0.000 -0.041 1.107 -0.064 65. Causes trouble -0.004 -0.020 -0.043 1.110 -0.053 66. Acts defiant / hostile -0.004 -0.020 -0.043 1.110 -0.053 J E S T E R 39. Takes in stride 0.428 -0.010 0.053 -0.069 0.467 32. Clowning or annoying -0.180 0.059 -0.012 0.061 1.116 34. Tries to be cute -0.064 0.022 -0.025 -0.049 1.126 31. Tries to be funny -0.022 0.008 -0.047 -0.057 1.159 51 them to take over when others flounder (#13) and survival equals giving to others (time, energy, empathy) (#36) from the Caretaker; and, repeated career successes rarely bring satisfaction (#29) and achieves success in work (#23) from the Super Achiever all load significantly on a secondary category. Content units with moderate primary loadings. Ten of the 15 attributes with moderate primary loadings, motivated to have the family look good (#20), provides structure for the family (#7), manages the family's affairs (#10), and fries to reduce the conflict in the family (#46) from Caretaker; they have to be good (#11), oldest or only child (#1), and remains exceptionally responsible (#8) from Super Achiever; avoids alcoholic by not being at home (#50) from Invisible Child, and they often lack education (#56) from Black Sheep have substantial secondary loadings. One, fears rocking the boat (#42) from Caretaker, has substantial secondary loadings in two additional categories. Content units with weak primary loadings. All 10 of the attributes with weak primary loadings possessed substantial secondary loadings. These content units include flexible (#40), adapts to a variety of situations (#41), and takes charge (#4) from Caretaker; appears as a mirror of goodness (#30), unable to relax (#28), and takes life seriously (difficulty having fun) (#6) from Super Achiever; feels they do not fit (misfit) (#22) from Invisible Child; they often lack learned skills (#59) from Black Sheep, and takes whatever occurs in stride (#39) from Jester. One content unit, manipulates others (#35) from Caretaker, had two substantial secondary loadings. Omega Matrix The diagonal of the Omega matrix, shown in Table 9, represents the cohesiveness of the latent categories. Category 1 is the least cohesive with a probability of .52 that its items will have been sorted together. Category 4 is the most cohesive with a probability of 52 Table 9 Omega Matrix (5 Categories/68 Content Units) Probability of Latent Category Combination 1 2 3 4 1 Caretaker 0.52 2 Super Achiever 0.42 0.73 3 Invisible Child 0.08 0.03 0.73 4 Black Sheep 0.04 0.03 0.08 0.80 5 Jester 0.10 0.04 0.16 0.10 .80 that its items will have been sorted together. The off-diagonal entries represent the probability that items from two different categories will be sorted together. Categories 1 and 2 can be seen to have a strong tendency to merge as there exists the probability of .42 that items from category 1 and category 2 will be sorted together. A N A L Y S I S OF T H E F I N A L M O D E L (5 CATEGORIES/48 C O N T E N T UNITS) Different combinations of the content units were experimented with in an attempt to arrive at a model which would consist of only those content units with a primary loading. The number of latent categories requested was set at five for the experimental runs. First, five descriptors were removed, fears rocking the boat (#42) which had significant secondary loadings on two additional categories; and manipulates others (#35), takes whatever occurs in stride (#39), flexible (#40), and adapts to a variety of situations 53 (#41), the members of the sixth category when L = 6. They were the content units most frequently placed in a reject category by the sorters due to their inability to sort them into only one category. Second, twelve descriptors were removed due to their weak or moderate primary loading and their substantial secondary loading of more than .20. Descriptors removed include takes charge (#4), motivated to have the family look good (#20), appears as a mirror of goodness (#30), takes life seriously (difficulty having fun) (#6), they have to be good (goodness has a compulsive quality) (#11), feels they do not fit (misfit) (#22), avoids alcoholic by not being at home (#50), provides structure for the family (#7), manages the family affairs (#10), oldest or only child (#1), unable to relax (#28), and tries to reduce the conflict in the family (#46). The composition of the categories did not change as the descriptors were removed. The Omega Matrix values, presented in Appendix N and Appendix O, did change as the categories were becoming less ambiguous. Three descriptors with secondary loadings, remains exceptionally responsible (#8), does whatever is necessary to maintain order (#43), and the family counts on them to take over when others flounder (#13), were experimented with in all possible combinations but eventually were eliminated as their secondary loadings remained substantial. Does whatever is necessary to maintain order (#43) acquired its secondary loading on category 2 when n = 51. Prior to that point it did not have a substantial secondary loading. One other descriptor, does well athletically (#14), began at n = 68 without a substantial secondary loading but obtained a secondary loading of -.230 on category 1 at n = 63. When the number of descriptors was further reduced to 51 the secondary loading on category 1 became -.153 and was no longer considered substantial. The secondary loadings on five descriptors changed from greater than .20 to less than .20 as the number of content units decreased from 68 to 48. They often lack education (#56) decreased from .205 to .110 at n = 63. After twelve more descriptors were removed 54 (n=51) repeated career successes rarely bring satisfaction (#29) changed from -.204 on categor}' 1 to -.113; achieves success in work (#23)decreased from -.222 on category 1 to -.127. After the remaining three descriptors were removed (n = 48) the secondary loading of survival equals giving to others (time, energy, empathy) (#36) changed from -.307 to -.151 on category 2 and they often lack learned skills (#59) secondary loading on category 3 changed from.207 to .197. Phi Matrix The five category model consisting of 48 content units, shown in Table 10, presents a model of 38 strong, 9 moderate, and one weak descriptor with no significant secondary loadings. Category 1, the Caretaker role, contains 7 items; category 2, the Super Achiever role, and category 3, the Black Sheep role, each contain 14 items; category 4, the Invisible Child role, contains 10 items; and category 5, the Jester role, contains 3 items. Omega Matrix The Omega Matrix, presented in Table 11, indicates that the Caretaker category with a probability of .64 is the least cohesive of the five categories and Black Sheep and Jester with a probability of .82 are the most cohesive. The Caretaker and Super Achiever with a joint probability of .393 are most often confused with sorters placing items from the two latent categories in their same manifest categories. The two categories appear for the first time as two separate categories. As the descriptors making up the two categories are often considered to be taken from synonymous roles in the literature it follows that the two categories could be confused. The integrated model represents the first attempt known to the researcher to classify the descriptors of the hero and responsible roles into two distinct categories. Four of the five categories improved their probability of cohesion and the fifth category, Super Achiever, remained the same as the content units were reduced from 68 55 Table 10 Phi Matrix (5 Categories/48 Content Units) # Stimulus 1 2 3 4 5 C A R E T A K E R 33. Discounts own needs 0.775 -0.061 0.017 0.134 0.025 19. Acts as family savior 0.910 0.194 -0.023 -0.023 0.002 24. Smooths over conflict 0.935 -0.097 -0.051 0.037 0.139 17. Praise for caring 0.994 0.172 -0.022 -0.029 -0.028 5. Feels responsible 0.946 0.138 -0.001 -0.037 -0.036 38. Willing to lend ear 1.116 -0.068 0.019 0.008 -0.059 36. Survival equals giving 1.203 -0.151 0.009 -0.038 -0.014 SUPER A C H I E V E R 18. Trouble feeling good 0.015 0.813 0.042 0.107 0.016 14. Does well athletically -0.097 0.817 0.106 0.029 0.019 26. Never do enough -0.014 0.887 0.068 0.060 0.008 2. Often assumes leadership 0.119 0.912 0.014 -0.020 -0.007 24. Appears exemplary 0.105 0.958 -0.015 -0.010 -0.024 9. Appears to function well 0.014 0.959 -0.032 0.011 0.058 3. Does well scholastically 0.063 0.979 -0.022 -0.002 -0.020 29. Success/no satisfaction -0.094 0.990 0.003 0.064 0.007 15. Leader among peers -0.026 1.014 -0.008 -0.027 0.008 12. Provide worth by success 0.078 1.083 -0.009 -0.037 -0.034 25. Appears perfect -0.016 1.048 -0.023 -0.001 -0.008 23. Success in work -0.098 1.119 -0.017 -0.003 0.029 27. Sue to stop par drink -0.037 1.125 -0.015 -0.030 -0.004 21. Super achiever (tries) -0.055 1.143 -0.015 -0.032 -0.017 B L A C K S H E E P 59. Often lack skills 0.043 -0.008 0.581 0.197 0.125 58. Problems interacting 0.054 -0.027 0.791 0.121 0.063 56. Often lack education 0.073 -0.023 0.825 -0.015 0.102 64. Potentially dangerous 0.048 -0.007 0.850 0.054 0.024 57. Unable to control anger 0.082 -0.025 0.919 0.054 0.025 61. Acts phys aggressive 0.008 0.027 1.011 -0.035 -0.030 63. Family blames them -0.041 0.012 1.027 -0.026 -0.008 16. Acts verb aggressive -0.011 0.004 1.046 -0.022 0.007 60. Rebels -0.040 0.016 1.068 -0.032 -0.027 67. Fam says person is bad -0.035 0.006 1.071 -0.031 -0.025 62. Acts out -0.028 -0.004 1.091 -0.033 -0.030 68. Often getting in trouble -0.028 -0.004 1.091 -0.033 -0.030 65. Causes trouble -0.003 -0.017 1.097 -0.033 -0.031 66. Acts defiant / hostile -0.003 -0.017 1.097 -0.033 -0.031 56 INVISIBLE CHILD 54. Disassociates -0.027 0.002 0.158 0.877 -0.067 48. Lives in fantasy 0.086 -0.044 -0.017 0.892 -0.067 55. Non-presence 0.030 -0.018 0.048 0.912 0.013 45. Avoids other people 0.004 -0.004 -0.011 0.981 0.006 51. Withdraws into self 0.012 0.010 -0.015 1.023 -0.011 44. Keeps to self (loner) -0.045 0.016 -0.022 1.059 -0.003 52. Lost in the shuffle -0.000 -0.001 -0.039 1.073 0.006 49. Keeps a low profile 0.001 -0.006 -0.045 1.081 -0.004 47. Withdraws -0.015 -0.000 -0.043 1.085 -0.012 53. Escapes by hiding -0.050 0.015 -0.042 1.100 -0.013 J E S T E R 32. Clowning or annoying -0.078 0.022 0.074 0.009 0.985 34. Tries to be cute 0.006 -0.003 -0.034 0.003 0.992 31. Tries to be funny 0.040 -0.013 -0.052 -0.020 1.079 57 Table 11 Omega Matrix (5 Categories/48 Content Units) Probability of Latent Category Combination 1 2 3 4 1 Caretaker 0.64 2 Super Achiever 0.39 0.73 3 Black Sheep 0.02 0.02 0.82 4 Invisible Child 0.05 0.03 0.07 0.79 5 Jester 0.07 0.03 0.17 0.08 to 48. Seven of the ten off-diagonal entries were lowered, one remained the same, and two increased slightly. Titles and Descriptions of Latent Categories New titles were developed for the integrated model (see Table 3). As the integrated model is seen to be a meta-model incorporating concepts from five different models it is important that the titles for the roles be ones that will not confuse people with the original models of behavior roles of children of alcoholics. The sorters were asked to provide names for their roles and a brief rationale for how they sorted the descriptors. Traditional roles from existing models were used by 26 subjects or 58%; 15 of those 26 or 58% used Wegscheider's role titles, the other 11 or 42% used role titles from more than one of the existing models. Two new titles, Caretaker and Super Achiever, appeared in 12 sorters' descriptions of their categories. The two new titles were used to replace two titles of the proposed integrated model; Caretaker replaced Family Director and Super Achiever replaced Premier Child. 58 Caretaker. The Caretaker role consists of seven descriptors with loadings ranging from .775 to 1.203 on the Phi matrix. Four items, discounts own needs, believe they do not deserve to have their needs met (#33), smooths over conflicts (#37), always willing to lend an ear and to serve as a mediator in stressful situations (#38), and survival equals giving (#23) are from Black's Placater role. Sometimes acts as family savior (guardian or caretaker) (#19) is from Booz-Allen and Hamilton's Super-Coper, receives praise for taking care of others (#17) is from Wegscheider's Family Hero, and feels responsible for everyone (#5) is from Black's Family Hero. Super Achiever. Fourteen descriptors make up the Super Achiever role. Their loadings range from .813 to 1.143. Six descriptors, have trouble feeling good (#18), if in university/college does well athletically (#14), does well scholastically (#3), appears to function unusually well (#9), leader among their peers (#15), and provides self-worth for the family by their successes (#12) are from Wegscheider's Family Hero. Deutsch's Hero role contributes six items, convinced that however much they may be accomplishing it is seldom, if ever, enough (#16), appears exemplary (#24), repeated career successes rarely bring satisfaction (#29), appears perfectionistic (#25), tries to stop parents drinking by achieving success (#27), and tries to be a super achiever (#21). Often assumes leadership roles (#2) is from Black's Responsible One and achieves success in work (#23) is from Kritzberg's Hero role. Black Sheep. The Black Sheep role contains 14 descriptors with loadings ranging from .581 for they often lack learned skills (#59) to 1.097 for cause trouble (troublemaker) (#65) and acts defiant or hostile (#66). The Black Sheep is the only category with contributions from each of the five original models. Black's Acting Out Child contributed four descriptors, they often lack learned skills (#59), they often lack education (#56), difficulty interacting with others in acceptable ways (#58), and they experience inability to control anger (#57). Four items, potentially dangerous (#64), acts physically aggressive (#61), acts 59 verbally aggressive (#16), and rebels (#60) are from Booz-Allen and Hamilton's Fight role. Deutsch's scapegoat role contributed family blames them for most of family problems and mishaps (#63) and family believes the person is bad (#67). Kritzberg's Scapegoat contributed often getting in trouble (#68) and from Wegscheider's Scapegoat came cause trouble (troublemaker) (#65) and acts defiant or hostile (#66). Invisible Child. The invisible child role contains 10 descriptors from three of the models. The loadings range from .877 for emotionally escapes by disassociating from the family (#54) from Booz-Allen and Hamilton's Flight to 1.100 for escapes by hiding (#53) also from Booz-Allen and Hamilton's Flight. Booz-Allen and Hamilton also contributed emotionally escapes by withdrawing into self (#51). Kritzberg's Lost One contributed draws attention by non-presence (#55). Six descriptors, often builds and lives in a fantasy world (#48), avoids other people (#45), keeps to self (loner) (#44), easily lost in the shuffle (#52), keeps a low profile (#49), and withdraws (always in the background) (#47), from Wegscheider's Lost Child make up the rest of the category. Jester. The Jester role is the smallest category with just three descriptors. Uses clowning or annoying behavior to attract attention (#32) from Wegscheider's Mascot and a loading of .995, tries to be cute (#34) and tries to be funny (#31) from Kritzberg's Clown. REVISION O F T H E I N T E G R A T E D M O D E L The attributes of the hero/responsible roles were considered to be the same role prior to the development and verification of the integrated model. Deutsch with his Hero and Manager roles was the only exception. However, the two attributes from Deutsch's Manager selected by the researcher for inclusion in the integrated model are not found in 60 the final model. The attributes, remains exceptionally responsible (#8) and manages the family's affairs (#10), were designated ambiguous descriptors by the sorters as they had substantial loadings on both Caretaker and Super Achiever. The sorters categorizations agreed with the researcher's integrated model that the hero/responsible attributes constitute two distinct roles. The fact that the Caretaker and Super Achiever were the categories most likely to be confused is an indication that this separation of the attributes into two roles is not yet well developed. A majority of the subjects sorted the items into two categories but there is still a tendency to go with the traditional single category. The Harmonizer role did not show up as a distinct role in the latent partition analysis. Descriptors from Black's Adjuster and Placater and from Kritzberg's Placator made up the Harmonizer role in the proposed integrated model. The descriptors from Black's Adjuster were removed from the final model due to their ambiguity as they had substantial secondary loadings. The three attributes, flexible (#40), adapts to a variety of situations (#41), and takes whatever occurs in stride (#39), were rejected by the sorters as items which were uncharacteristic of adult children of alcoholics. The items formed a coherent category when the number of latent categories was greater than five. However, they were in a category together based on the number of sorters who had rejected them as items. Sorters were instructed to reject items if the items appeared to be similar to more than one role or if it was impossible to decide on a role for the item. In explaining their rationale for rejecting the Adjuster items sorters gave comments such as, "ACOA's not flexible," "not characteristic of my clients," "nobodj' in this family takes things in stride." The four attributes from Black's Placater role, part of the Harmonizer role, are found in the Caretaker role of the verified model. The Placater is seen by Black (1981) as a distinct role; however, the researcher placed both Black's Placater and Adjuster in the same role of the proposed integrated model while the sorters rejected the Adjuster and placed the Placater items in the Caretaker role. Only three of the 45 sorters used Placater as the name of one of their categories. One of the three sorters put three of the five 61 Placater items in their Placater category; one placed four of the five Placater items, two of the Adjuster items, and two of the Black Sheep items in their Placater category, and the third sorter who designated one category as Placater placed four of the five Adjuster items in the category. The same sorter placed four of the five Placater items into a category designated as "resolves conflict" along with three items from the Caretaker role. Thus even among the three sorters who used the category of Placater there was little agreement as to the similarity of their items. The subjects, sorting bj' similarities, perceived the Placater items, discounts own needs, believe they do not deserve to have their own needs met (#33), smooths over conflicts (#37), always willing to lend an ear and serve as a mediator in stressful situations (#38), and survival equals giving to others (time, energy, empathy) (#36), similar enough to the other Caretaker items that they were included with the Caretaker role. The remaining Harmonizer item, Kritzberg's tries to reduce the .conflict in the family (#46), was eliminated from the final model because of a substantial secondary loading. Only two of the final 48 descriptors changed roles due to the results of the latent partition analysis. Often assumes leadership roles (#2) has shifted from the Caretaker role (Family Director) in the proposed integrated model to the Super Achiever role (Premier Child) in the revised integrated model. And receives praise for taking care of others (#17) has moved from the Super Achiever role to the Caretaker role. 62 Table 12 Revised Integrated Model of Behavior Roles of Children of Alcoholics Caretaker Black/Responsible One (1) Black/Placater (4) Booz-Allen & Hamilton/ Super Coper (1) Wegscheider/Family Hero (1) Super Achiever Black/Responsible One (1) Deutsch/Hero (6) Kritzberg/Hero (1) Wegscheider/Family Hero (6) Black Sheep Black/Acting Out Child (4) Booz-Allen & Hamilton/Fight (5) Deutsch/Scapegoat (2) Kritzberg/Scapegoat (1) Wegscheider/Scapegoat (2) Invisible Child Booz-Allen & Hamilton/Flight (3) Kritzberg/Lost One (1) Wegscheider/Lost Child (6) Jester Kritzberg/Clown (2) Wegscheider/Mascot (1) Numbers in parentheses represent number of attributes from original model contained in the role of the integrated model. 63 C H A P T E R V D I S C U S S I O N S U M M A R Y OF R E S U L T S Research Questions 1. What are the attributes of each of the roles in the five models of behavior roles of children of alcoholics identified in the literature? The attributes of the five models were explicated from the literature and appear in Appendices A - E . The five models are made up of 20 roles containing a total of 220 attributes. The attributes were evaluated by the researcher according to uniqueness, ability to reference only one role of a model, and ability to reference adult behaviors. This evaluation (see Appendix F) reduced the list to 68 attributes. 2. What are the roles of an integrated model of behavior roles of adult children of alcoholics? A categorization process was used by the researcher to sort the behavior roles according to the similarities of their attributes. The roles of the proposed integrated model consist of Family Director, Premier Child, Invisible Child, Black Sheep, Jester, and Harmonizer. 3. Can clinicians working with adult children of alcoholics verify the integrated model? The 68 descriptors of the integrated model were presented to a population of 116 clinicians in Canada and the United States. Responses were obtained from 50 members; of 64 this number, 45 were sorted according to the instructions of the categorization methodology. The 45 clinicians who were the subjects of the study used a free sort procedure (F-sort) to categorize the 68 attributes from the integrated model. Latent partition analysis was used to analyze the 45 sets of descriptors and produced a model consisting of five categories as representing the best solution of the data. The categories correspond to five of the six roles of the integrated model of behavior roles of children of alcoholics. The integrated model was structurally revised in accord with the data from the latent partition analysis. One role, Harmonizer, was removed and titles of two of the five roles were changed. The integrated model as verified by the clinicians consists of five roles, Caretaker, Super Achiever, Invisible Child, Black Sheep, and Jester. The five category model was further analyzed in an attempt to obtain items which would substantially load on only one category. The further analysis produced a model consisting of 48 content units with only substantial primary loadings. 4. Can the authors of the five models verify the integrated model? The authors of the five models of behavior roles of children of alcoholics identified in the literature did not complete the sorting task. Only two of the authors, C. Black (personal communication, August 15, 1988) and S. Wegscheider (personal communication, August 23, 1988) responded to the request to be a part of the study. They both expressed their interest in the study and asked to be informed of the results. However, they also indicated they were too busy to take time to complete the sorting task. First Steps of Test Construction The researcher has identified research as the primary purpose of constructing a measurement instrument of the behavior roles. A measurement instrument would be a contribution to the research efforts of a relatively new field and would enable further 65 empirical verification of the behavior roles. Potential clinical applications, a secondary purpose of constructing a measurement instrument, could lead to new and more effective programs of intervention and prevention with both children and adults who have experienced living with an alcoholic parent. The behavior roles identified in the integrated model and subsequently revised after the analysis of the verification process denote the domain of the behavior roles of adult children of alcoholics. The five category integrated model, consisting of 48 descriptors, represents the initial stage of preparing a set of test specifications for constructing an instrument for the integrated model. To complete the initial phase of Crocker and Algina's (1986) test construction outline new items need to be developed for the Caretaker and Jester roles in order that each role contain a full complement of between eight and 10 attributes. Such item development was beyond the scope of the present study. LIMITATIONS O F T H E S T U D Y Four of the five models of behavior roles identified in the literature were developed in the context of their authors' clinical experience. The subjects in this study, clinicians working with adults who had grown up in an alcoholic family, were asked to reflect on their clinical experience in completing the sorting task. Thus the integrated model was verified in a similar environmental context to the one used in the development of the original models. However, a limitation of the present study lies in the inability to equate the clinical experiences and personal expertise of the authors and the subjects. The failure to have any of the authors of the original models complete the sorting task constitutes a weakness the design of the study tried to control. Another limitation of the study lies with the self selection of the subjects. The subjects were volunteers from a larger population of clinicians working with adults from 66 alcoholic families. While four groups were identified as pools of potential subjects the claim cannot be made that the subjects in this study are representative of the population of the clinicians working with adult children of alcoholics. It would be interesting to know how the subjects self-selected to participate in this study. An important question which this study is unable to answer is how do the subjects who participated in this study differ from those who decided not to participate? The generalizability of the behavior roles is restricted to those adults from alcoholic families who are seen in therapy. The results cannot be attributed with any certainty to those adults who are in a position where they seem to be managing life and are not in need of the specialized help provided by counselling or therapy. Are these behaviors then truly reflective of the range of behaviors adults exhibit as a result of organizing their childhood and adolescent years around family alcoholism? Perhaps there exits functional alcoholic families who do not organize around alcohol; what might their behaviors look like? There remains some controversy as to whether or not someone can emerge from an alcoholic family unscathed (Ackerman, 1987b; Black, 1981, Black et al., 1986; Brown, 1988; Cermak & Brown, 1982). Brown (1988) is convinced it is a matter of time or of breaking the defence of denial, Adult children of alcoholics still bound by denial may be experiencing a wide range of recognized problems or they may be unaware of any difficulties at all. The latter are not likely to break denial or seek treatment until they do experience problems. Both groups, however, are bound by the central organizing principle of alcohol and the need for denial. They will be guided by patterns of behavior and relationship established and modeled in their first families, (p. 219) 67 CONCLUSIONS The primary purpose of this study was to develop an integrated model of the behavior roles of children of alcoholics which could be verified by clinicians working with adults who had grown up in an alcoholic family. Latent Partition Analysis has substantiated the existence of an integrated model consisting of five behavior roles and 48 attributes. The results provide initial empirical verification of the integrated model and the validity of the behavior roles. Three of the behavior roles from the integrated model, Invisible Child, Black Sheep, and Jester, are very similar to roles found in the early models proposed by Black (1981), Booz-Allen and Hamilton (1974), Deutsch (1983), Kritzberg (1985), and Wegscheider (1981). Two roles, Caretaker and Super Achiever, appear for the first time in the integrated model and the verification of their presence by the sorters represents a significant contribution of the integrated model. Caretaker. The responsible role often taking care of siblings and sometimes even the parents. Caretakers do not like conflict and will discount their own needs for the sake of helping the familj\ They feel responsible and giving to others is their way of coping. Super achiever. An exemplary child characterized by over-achievement. The successes of the super achiever provide self worth for the family. They hope their successes will stop the parent's drinking; when the drinking does not stop thej' feel they haven't done enough. They are found in leadership roles and are usually successful in whatever they attempt. Invisible child. They cope by avoiding the alcoholic and often the family. An invisible child keeps a low profile, withdraws, and sometimes creates and lives in a fantasy world. Black sheep. The rebel acts out and is often getting in trouble as a means of distracting the family from the problems caused by alcohol. They experience problems 68 interacting with people in acceptable ways as they are often verbally and physically aggressive. They are frequently blamed for the family's problems. As a result of their hostile or defiant behavior they tend to lack education and learned skills. Jester. The family clown or mascot who uses humor or annoying behavior to ease tensions in the family. The study provides clarification of the similarities and differences of the models of behavior roles identified in the literature. Rather than adding to the confusion by contributing yet another new conceptual level model, the present study provides a meta-model by synthesizing the roles and descriptors already developed in those earlier models and integrating them into an empirically derived model. C. Black (personal communication, June 11, 1988) emphasized how important it is for researchers to go beyond what she and the others have been able to do at the model development level. The present study goes beyond the conceptual and developmental level of the earlier models by providing empirical verification of an integrated model. An important contribution as no reports of previous empirical studies involving the models of behavior roles were found in the literature. F U T U R E R E S E A R C H Future research of children of alcoholics needs to include adults who are not in therapy or support groups. Both social role theory and family systems theory, reviewed earlier, point to the interactional and interpersonal dynamics as contributing to the formation and maintenance of the various behavior roles. A research method which could capture those dynamics would be valuable in contributing to our understanding of how people organize their lives around alcohol. 69 In summary, the results of the present study represent a good first effort in the process of empirically validating the existence of behavior roles among children of alcoholics. The items from the integrated model can now serve as prototypes for the development of the full complement of attributes needed for the construction of a measurement instrument. The instrument construction, the subject of a succeeding study, would contribute further to the empirical verification and the understanding of the behavior roles of children of alcoholics. An instrument would be able to distinguish differences among children of alcoholics by providing an unique profile of an individual's behavior role(s). The theory underpinning the formation of the behavior roles by individuals and families has yet to be firmly established, These classifications according to role remain extremely useful in providing a general description and thus a framework for beginning exploration of one's childhood adaptations to parental alcoholism. However, many ACOA's have been disappointed that these classifications do not also provide the prescription for change. These frameworks do not provide a dynamic theory of development that will enable clinicians to determine individual differences and tailor long-term psychodynamic treatment accordingly. (Brown, 1988, p. 20) Theory needs to be integrated from individual, family (systems), and social role perspectives to explain the formation of the behavior roles in children as they try to cope with the stresses and tensions of living in an alcoholic family. Brown (1988) provides an example by integrating cognitive, social learning, attachment, and system theories into a developmental framework as a means of understanding the individual differences among children of alcoholics. Brown's (1988) model includes the family or environmental system and the individual development which takes place in that system and the interaction between the two, 70 Attachment - early and ongoing - is based on denial of perception which results in denial of affect which together result in developmental arrests or difficulties. The core beliefs and patterns of behavior formed to sustain attachment and denial within the family then structure subsequent development of the self including cognitive, affective, and social development, (p. 5) The research efforts in the field of children of alcoholics has so far focused on their similarities (Brown, 1988). Descriptions of roles, common personalty characteristics, common problems, shared experiences have helped establish an identity for this relatively new population. The search now is to begin to discover the significant differences among children of alcoholics and to examine the factors which distinguish one from another. 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APPENDIX A: ATTRIBUTES OF BLACK'S BEHAVIOR ROLES 78 Black's Responsible One Oldest or only child Takes charge Often assumes leadership roles Feel responsible for everyone Learned early to set realistic goals and as young adult has realized a number of accomplishments (sooner than most) So busy being young adults, there was not time left to be children Don't know how to relax Take life seriously, difficulty having fun Rigid, inflexible Confidence in ability to achieve a great deal Black/white approach No sense of equal relationships Will align themselves with people who allow them to continue to be rigid, serious, and unfeeling, or, They separate themselves from others completely and continue to pursue very isolated lifestyles They provide structure for the family They become angry at themselves if they cannot control Their self-reliance leads to loneliness They often marry alcoholics Often excels in school Learns to manipulate others to get done what is necessary 79 Black's Placater Warm, sensitive, caring, listening Busy taking care of everyone else's emotional needs Grows up taking care of others (personally and occupationally) Discount own needs, believe they do not deserve to have their own needs met Survival equals giving to others (time, energy, empathy) Smooths over conflicts Always willing to lend an ear and to serve as a mediator in stressful situations Very sociable As adults often experience depression As adults feel lonely, apart As adults often in relationships with takers and those who refuse to take responsibility for themselves As adults spouse and children placated while personal feelings are pushed into the background As adults when their family grows up and children leave home, or if the marriage fails, alcohol may be chosen to fill the void Black's Acting Out Child Difficulty feeling good about themselves Difficulty expressing their own needs or having their needs met Difficulty interacting with others in acceptable ways Usually gravitate toward others with similar personality traits Socially isolated Sometimes institutionalized Begin using/abusing alcohol/drugs at early age Anger As adults often lack education As adults often lack learned skills As adults experience inability to control anger As adults often have illegitimate children or youthful marriages 81 Black's Adjuster Flexible Spontaneous Adjust, able to adapt to a variety of situations Follows directions well Avoid positions where they need to take control Take whatever occurs in stride Perceive selves as having no alternatives Never learned that choices were available to them Depressed Isolated Lonely Fears rocking the boat Will do whatever is necessary to maintain order Learn to subjugate their needs to those of their parents As adults they often do not have a sense of direction As adults they often do not have a sense of taking responsibility for the direction they would like their lives to take As adults they often experience relationship problems as they have difficulty developing trust 82 APPENDIX B: ATTRIBUTES OF BOOZ-ALLEN AND HAMILTON'S BEHAVIOR ROLES Booz-Allen and Hamilton's Super Coper Mirror image of goodness Active Does everything right; usually for other people, not necessarily for self Sometimes family saviour (oldest child may become family's guardian and caretaker Has friends who won't believe them when they say they can't handle something May be used in combination with flight Often parentified children Feel responsible for the other family members 84 Booz-Allen and Hamilton's Perfect Child Mirror image of goodness Never does anything wrong (just doesn't do anything) Never gives anyone any trouble Minds parents Rarely aggressive or defiant Good to excellent in school Fades into the woodwork to be brought out on ceremonial occasions (to be shown off as examples to others) May be used in combination with flight Booz-Allen and Hamilton's Fight Involves rebellion Physical and verbal aggression Defensiveness Acting out Socially unacceptable behaviour Sometimes end up in court or are placed out of the family Exclusively used by few children Usually used in combination with other methods of escape Potentially danger* 86 Booz-Allen and Hamilton's Flight Most common Child avoids alcoholic by not being at home Child escapes by hiding Child escapes by running away Child escapes by being heavily involved in other activities (school/clubs/church/friends) Child escapes by going to college/marriage/employment Emotional escape by withdrawing into self Emotional escape by disassociating from the family-May find comfort in religion May deaden their emotions; become cold and hard High academic achievement APPENDIX C: ATTRIBUTES OF DEUTSCH'S BEHAVIOR ROLES 88 Deutsch's Hero Super-achiever Always striving to please Appears exemplary Perfectionistic Unable to relax Convinced that however much they may be accomplishing it is seldom, if ever, enough Repeated career successes rarely bring satisfaction Achievement is look at as a means of stopping the parent's drinking As adults do not sense their own entitlement As adults do not sense the license to feel and show anger 89 Deutsch's Manager Skip their childhood Cut off their emotions Manage their family's affairs As adults they remain exceptionally responsible As adults appear aloof and rather jojdess As adults always need to be in control As adults often unaware of the source of their depression They are most likety to create situations in which thej' can continue to play the role (usually by marrying an alcoholic) 90 Deutsch's Scapegoat "Born to lose" attitude Retaliate Seek both attention and revenge through adventures with the dangerous and destructive Family believes the child is bad Child blamed for family's problems APPENDIX D: ATTRIBUTES OF KRITZBERG'S BEHAVIOR ROLES Kritzberg's Hero Motivated to have the family look good Achieves success in school or work Kritzberg's Scapegoat Often getting into trouble Kritzberg's Lost One Hides out Tries not to make waves Draws attention by non-presence Kritzberg's Clown Funny Tries to be cute Kritzberg's Placator Tries to reduce conflict in the family Smooths things over APPENDIX E: ATTRIBUTES OF WEGSCHEIDER'S BEHAVIOR ROLES 94 Wegscheider's Family Hero Oldest child Most likely to pursue natural abilities energetically Ever in danger of overextending self Physically: prone to stomach ulcers, migraines, heart attacks/strokes Type A workaholics Characteristic feelings: inadequacy and guilt; nothing the)' ever do is good enough to make things right with the family Anger (buried where it further feeds their guilt) Popular and admired yet lonely So intent on achieving; not enough time for relationships Overriding compulsion to pursue a goal that is forever out of reach Goodness has a compulsive quality; they have to be good Does everything right Appears to function unusually well As adults enter caretaking professions As adults Find it particularly hard to set and maintain suitable limits for their children Their successes provide self-worth for the family The child on whom the family counts to take over when others flounder Successful both at home and at school Does well scholastically and often athletically Receives praise for taking care of others Helps the teacher at school Leader among their peers As adults they do well no matter what career choice and often rise rapidly 95 As adults have trouble feeling good about themselves no matter how successful they become 111 at ease, even frightened, when not in control Their children who emulate them and fail are prone to alcoholism Wegscheider's Scapegoat Determined by position outside of family Often the second child Reliance on peers Acting out, nearly always involved in some kind of unsanctioned behavior Troublemaker or misfit Rationalization Irresponsibility Giving up easily Defiance, hostility Withdrawal Sulleness Involved with sexual activity at a young age hoping to find love and intimacy Child most likely to kill self (either accidently or on purpose) Appears to be consumed by anger Characteristic feeling is hurt Abuses alcohol and drugs Grow up to be a new generation of dependents Blamed for all family mishaps Feel abandoned May begin early in life to run around with gangs As a teenager may run against the law 97 Wegscheider's Mascot Usually a latecomer; often the youngest child Characteristic emotion is fear Clowning or annoying behavior to attract attention; serves to bring relief to the family (distraction and avoidance) Security comes from being in control (even if only for a short time) Physically: wiry; tense, tight muscles; tend to be smaller than siblings; stress related physical illnesses; hyperkinetic Emotionally: feel inadequate, unimportant, guilty, lonely (may be more intense because child is younger) Lonely even when center of attention Manipulator Limit their choices May escape into "delusions" Psychiatric illnesses and suicide are ways they use to get out of it all Immaturity Apparent fragility Overdressing Super-sexiness Other bids to attract attention Eventually may use tranquilizers to calm down 98 Wegscheider's Lost Child Loneliness is the characteristic feeling Loner Withdraw (always in the background) Isolated "Forgotten child" Blame selves for not fitting into the family Often build and live in a fantasy world Little experience in either expressing their own feelings or handling the expressions of others Relationship difficulties (few friends) Avoids trouble (offers relief b}' not being a problem) Physical symptoms: allergy and asthma, accidents, eating, bed wetters Sadness Confusion Fear Feel they have no choice High value on possessions and pleasures Low profile Independence Problems with sexual identity Overindulgence • "Quiet One" The "Angel" Feels hopeless and unimportant Easily lost in the shuffle Personality is flat and joyless Never speaks up; has no opinions 100 APPENDIX F: EVALUATION OF ATTRIBUTES FOR INCLUSION IN THE INTEGRATED MODEL 101 Evaluation Key: #=attribute kept for integrated model RW = attribute edited or rewritten M = attribute references more than one role D = attribute is a duplicate C = attribute references a child behavior A T T R I B U T E E V A L U A T I O N Black's Responsible One Oldest or only child #1 Takes charge #4 Often assumes leadership roles #2 Feel responsible for everyone #5 RW Learned early to set realistic goals and as young adult has realized a number of accomplishments (sooner than most) M So busy being young adults, there was not time left to be children C Don't know how to relax M Take life seriously, difficulty having fun #6 Rigid, inflexible M Confidence in ability to achieve a great deal M Black/white approach M No sense of equal relationships M Will align themselves with people who allow them to continue to be rigid, serious, and unfeeling, or, M They separate themselves from others completely and continue to pursue very isolated lifestyles M They provide structure for the family #7 RW They become angry at themselves if they cannot control M Their self-reliance leads to loneliness M They often marry alcoholics M Often excels in school C Learns to manipulate others to get done what is necessary D Black's Placater Warm, sensitive, caring, listening M Busy taking care of everyone else's emotional needs M Grows up taking care of others (personally and occupationally) M Discount own needs, believe they do not deserve to have their own needs met #33 RW Survival equals giving to others (time, energy, empathy) #36 Smooths over conflicts #37 Always willing to lend an ear and to serve as a mediator in stressful situations #38 Very sociable M As adults often experience depression M 102 As adults feel lonely, apart M As adults often in relationships with takers and those who refuse to take responsibility for themselves M As adults spouse and children placated while personal feelings are pushed into the background M As adults when their family grows up and children leave home, or if the marriage fails, alcohol may be chosen to fill the void M Black's Acting Out Child Difficulty feeling good about themselves M Difficulty expressing their own needs or having their needs met M Difficulty interacting with others in acceptable ways #58 Usually gravitate toward others with similar personality traits M Socially isolated M Sometimes institutionalized M Begin using/abusing alcohol/drugs at early age M Anger D As adults often lack education #56 RW As adults often lack learned skills #59 RW As adults experience inability to control anger #57 RW As adults often have illegitimate children or youthful marriages M Black's Adjuster Flexible #40 Spontaneous M Adjust, able to adapt to a variety of situations #41 RW Follows directions well M Avoid positions where they need to take control M Take whatever occurs in stride #39 RW Perceive selves as having no alternatives M Never learned that choices were available to them M Depressed M Isolated M Lonely M Fears rocking the boat #42 Will do whatever is necessary to maintain order #43 RW Learn to subjugate their needs to those of their parents M As adults they often do not have a sense of direction M As adults they often do not have a sense of taking responsibility for the direction they would like their lives to take M As adults they often experience relationship problems as they have difficulty developing trust M 103 Booz-Allen and Hamilton's Super Coper Mirror image of goodness D Active M Does everything right; usually for other people, not necessarily for self D Sometimes family saviour (oldest child may become family's guardian and caretaker #19 RW Has friends who won't believe them when they say they can't handle something M May be used in combination with flight M Often parentified children C Feel responsible for the other family members D Booz-Allen and Hamilton's Perfect Child Mirror image of goodness #30 RW Never does anything wrong (just doesn't do anything) M Never gives anyone any trouble M Minds parents M Rarely aggressive or defiant M Good to excellent in school D Fades into the woodwork to be brought out on ceremonial occasions (to be shown off as examples to others) M May be used in combination with flight M Booz-Allen and Hamilton's Fight Involves rebellion #60 RW Physical and verbal aggression #61/16 RW Defensiveness M Acting out D Socially unacceptable behaviour #62 RW Sometimes end up in court or are placed out of the family M Exclusively used by few children M Usually used in combination with other methods of escape M Potentially dangerous #64 Booz-Allen and Hamilton's Flight Most common M Child avoids alcoholic by not being at home #50 RW Child escapes by hiding #53 RW Child escapes by running away M Child escapes by being heavily involved in other activities (school/clubs/church/friends) M Child escapes by going to college/marriage/employment M Emotional escape by withdrawing into self #51 Emotional escape by disassociating from the family #54 May find comfort in religion M May deaden their emotions; become cold and hard M High academic achievement D 104 Deutsch's Hero Super-achiever #21 RW Always striving to please M Appears exemplary #24 Perfectionistic #25 RW Unable to relax #28 Convinced that however much the)' may be accomplishing it is seldom, if ever, enough #26 Repeated career successes rarely bring satisfaction #29 Achievement is look at as a means of stopping the parent's drinking #27 As adults do not sense their own entitlement M As adults do not sense the license to feel and show anger M Deutsch's Manager Skip their childhood M Cut off their emotions M Manage their family's affairs #10 RW As adults they remain exceptionally responsible #8 RW As adults appear aloof and rather joyless D As adults always need to be in control M As adults often unaware of the source of their depression M They are most likely to create situations in which thej' can continue to play the role (usually by marrying an alcoholic) M Deutsch's Scapegoat "Born to lose" attitude M Retaliate M Seek both attention and revenge through adventures with the dangerous and destructive D Family believes the child is bad #67 RW Child blamed for family's problems #63 RW Kritzberg's Hero Motivated to have the family look good #20 Achieves success in school or work #23 RW Kritzberg's Scapegoat Often getting into trouble #68 Kritzberg's Lost One Hides out D Tries not to make waves M Draws attention by non-presence #55 105 Kritzberg's Clown Funny #31 RW Tries to be cute #34 Kritzberg's Placator Tries to reduce conflict in the family #46 Smooths things over D Wegscheider's Family Hero Oldest child D Most likely to pursue natural abilities energetically M Ever in danger of overextending self M Physically: prone to stomach ulcers, migraines, heart attacks/strokes M Type A workaholics M Characteristic feelings: inadequacy and guilt; nothing they ever do is good enough to make things right with the family M Anger (buried where it further feeds their guilt) M Popular and admired yet lonely M So intent on achieving; not enough time for relationships M Overriding compulsion to pursue a goal that is forever out of reach M Goodness has a compulsive quality; they have to be good #11 RW Does everything right D Appears to function unusually well #9 As adults enter caretaking professions M As adults find it particularly hard to set and maintain suitable limits for their children M Their successes provide self-worth for the family #12 RW The child on whom the family counts to take over when others flounder #13 RW Successful both at home and at school C Does well scholastically and often athletically ,. / #3/14 RW Receives praise for taking care of others #17 Helps the teacher at school C Leader among their peers #15 As adults they do well no matter what career choice and often rise rapidly M As adults have trouble feeling good about themselves no matter how successful they become #18 RW 111 at ease, even frightened, when not in control M Their children who emulate them and fail are prone to alcoholism M 106 Wegscheider's Scapegoat Determined by position outside of family M Often the second child M Reliance on peers M Acting out, nearly always involved in some kind of unsanctioned behavior D Troublemaker or misfit #65/22 RW Rationalization M Irresponsibility M Giving up easily M Defiance, hostility #66 RW Withdrawal D Sulleness M Involved with sexual activity at a young age hoping to find love and intimacy M Child most likely to kill self (either accidently or on purpose) M Appears to be consumed b3' anger M Characteristic feeling is hurt M Abuses alcohol and drugs M Grow up to be a new generation of dependents M Blamed for all family mishaps D Feel abandoned D May begin early in life to run around with gangs M As a teenager may run against the law D Wegscheider's Mascot Usually a latecomer; often the youngest child M Characteristic emotion is fear M Clowning or annoying behavior to attract attention; serves to bring relief to the family (distraction and avoidance) #32 RW Security comes from being in control (even if only for a short time) M Physically: wiry; tense, tight muscles; tend to be smaller than siblings; stress related physical illnesses; hyperkinetic M Emotionally: feel inadequate, unimportant, guilty, lonely (may be more intense because child is younger) M Lonely even when center of attention M Manipulator #35 RW Limit their choices M May escape into "delusions" D Psychiatric illnesses and suicide are ways they use to get out of it all M Immaturity M Apparent fragility M Overdressing M Super-sexiness M Other bids to attract attention M Eventually may use tranquilizers to calm down M 107 Wegscheider's Lost Child Loneliness is the characteristic feeling D Loner #44 Withdraw (always in the background) #47 RW Isolated #45 RW "Forgotten child" D Blame selves for not fitting into the family M Often build and live in a fantasy world #48 RW Little experience in either expressing their own feelings or handling the expressions of others M Relationship difficulties (few friends) M Avoids trouble (offers relief by not being a problem) D Physical symptoms: allergy and asthma, accidents, eating, bed wetters M Sadness M Confusion M Fear M Feel they have no choice M High value on possessions and pleasures M Low profile #49 RW Independence M Problems with sexual identit}' M Overindulgence M "Quiet One" M The "Angel" M Feels hopeless and unimportant M Easily lost in the shuffle #52 Personality is flat and joyless M Never speaks up; has no opinions M 108 APPENDIX G: CLUSTER OF ATTRIBUTES (68) OF INTEGRATED MODEL WITH A PRIORI CLASSIFICATIONS 109 F A M I L Y DIRECTOR 1. Oldest or only child 2 Often assumes leadership roles 4. Takes charge 5. Feels responsible for everyone 6. Takes life seriously (difficulty having fun) 7. Provides structure for the family 8. Remains exceptionally responsible 10. Manages the family's affairs 19. Sometimes acts as family savior (guardian or caretaker) PREMIER CHILD 3. If in university/college does well scholastically 9. Appears to function unusually well 11. They have to be good (goodness has a compulsive quality) 12. Provides self-worth for the family by their successes 13. The family counts on them to take over when others flounder 14. Does well athletically 15. Leader among their peers 17. Receives praise for taking care of others 18. Have trouble feeling good about themselves no matter how successful they become 20. Motivated to have the famity look good 21. Tries to be a super-achiever 23. Achieves success work 24. Appears exemplary 25. Appears perfectionistic 110 26. Convinced that however much they may be accomplishing it is seldom, if ever, enough 27. Tries to stop the parent's drinking by achieving success 28. Unable to relax 29. Repeated career successes rarely bring satisfaction 30. Appears as a mirror image of goodness J E S T E R 31. Tries to be funny 32. Uses clowning or annoying behavior to attract attention 34. Tries to be cute 35. Manipulates others HARMONIZER 33. Discounts own needs, believe they do not deserve to have their own needs met 36. Survival equals giving to others (time, energy, empathy) 37. Smooths over conflicts 38. Always willing to lend an ear and to serve as a mediator in stressful situations 39. Takes whatever occurs in stride 40. Flexible 41. Adapts to a variety of situations 42. Fears rocking the boat 43. Does whatever is necessary to maintain order 46. Tries to reduce the conflict in the family INVISIBLE CHILD 44. Keeps to self (loner) I l l 45. Avoids other people 47. Withdraws (always in the background) 48. Often builds and lives in a fantasy world 49. Keeps a low profile 50. Avoids alcoholic by not being at home 51. Emotionally escapes by withdrawing into self 52. Easily lost in the shuffle 53. Escapes by hiding 54. Emotionally escapes by disassociating from the family 55. Draws attention by non-presence B L A C K S H E E P 16. Acts verbally aggressive 22. Feels they do not fit (misfit) 56. They often lack education 57. They experience inability to control anger 58. Difficulty interacting with others in acceptable ways 59. They often lack learned skills 60. Rebels 61. Acts physically aggressive 62. Acts out (nearly always involved in some kind of socially unacceptable behavior) 63. Family blames them for most of family problems and mishaps 64. Potentially dangerous 65. Cause trouble (troublemaker) 66. Acts defiant/hostile 67. Family believes the person is bad 68. Often getting into trouble 112 APPENDIX H: FINAL CLUSTER OF ATTRIBUTES (48) OF THE INTEGRATED MODEL 113 C A R E T A K E R 5. Feels responsible for everyone 17. Receives praise for taking care of others 19. Sometimes acts as family savior (guardian or caretaker) 33. Discounts own needs, believe they do not deserve to have their own needs met 36. Survival equals giving to others (time, energy, empathy) 38. Always willing to lend an ear and to serve as a mediator in stressful situations SUPER A C H I E V E R 2 Often assumes leadership roles 3. If in university/college does well scholastically 9. Appears to function unusually well 12. Provides self-worth for the family by their successes 14. Does well athletically 15. Leader among their peers 18. Have trouble feeling good about themselves no matter how successful they become 21. Tries to be a super-achiever 23. Achieves success work 24. Appears exemplary 25. Appears perfectionistic 26. Convinced that however much they may be accomplishing it is seldom, if ever, enough 27. Tries to stop the parent's drinking by achieving success 29. Repeated career successes rarely bring satisfaction J E S T E R 31. Tries to be funny 114 32. Uses clowning or annoying behavior to attract attention 34. Tries to be cute INVISIBLE CHILD 44. Keeps to self (loner) 45. Avoids other people 47. Withdraws (always in the background) 48. Often builds and lives in a fantasy world 49. Keeps a low profile 51. Emotionally escapes by withdrawing into self 52. Easily lost in the shuffle 53. Escapes by hiding 54. Emotionally escapes by disassociating from the family 55. Draws attention by non-presence B L A C K S H E E P 16. Acts verbally aggressive 56. They often lack education 57. They experience inability to control anger 58. Difficulty interacting with others in acceptable ways 59. They often lack learned skills 60. Rebels 61. Acts physically aggressive 62. Acts out (nearly always involved in some kind of socially unacceptable behavior) 63. Family blames them for most of family problems and mishaps 64. Potentially dangerous 115 65. Cause trouble (troublemaker) 66. Acts defiant/hostile 67. Family believes the person is bad 68. Often getting into trouble APPENDIX I: S-MATRIX (9 CATEGORY/68 CONTENT UNITS) JOINT PROPORTION ' S ' MATRIX t 2 1 1 .000 0 644 2 0 644 1 .000 3 0 689 0 667 4 0 578 0 778 5 0 533 0 578 6 0 533 0 533 7 0 533 0 644 8 0 600 0 7 11 9 0 622 0 667 10 0 533 0 644 1 1 0 644 0 6C2 12 0 68'J 0 800 13 0 5/8 0 600 14 0 533 0 511 15 0 600 0 800 IB 0 0 0 044 17 0 556 0 511 18 0 467 0 578 19 0 578 0 533 20 0 622 0 733 21 0 609 0. 800 22 0 069 0. 1 1 1 23 0 522 0 756 24 n 644 0 766 25 0 600 0. 711 26 0 556 0. 578 27 0 689 0 778 26 0 489 0 533 29 0 533 0 644 30 0 511 0 489 31 0 089 0 067 32 0 0 0 0 33 0 .289 0 311 34 0 .044 0 022 35 0 .200 0 178 36 0 .422 0 .400 37 0 . 333 0 . 333 38 0 444 0 . 400 3 4 5 0.689 0.578 0. 0 667 0 778 0. 1.000 0.66 7 0 0.66 7 1.000 0 0 444 0.667 I. 0.533 0 556 0. 0.533 0.667 0. 0.733 0 711 O. 0 733 0 667 0. 0 622 0.800 0 0 667 0 622 0 0 844 0 7 11 0 0 600 0.689 0. 0 622 0.422 0. 0.711 0 667 0. 0 0 0 022 0. 0.600 0 622 O 0.533 0.467 0. 0.533 0.644 0. 0.600 0 667 0. 0 844 0.667 0. 0.022 0.044 0. 0 800 0.600 0. 0 756 0.689 0. 0 / 7 8 0 667 0. 0 600 0.444 0. 0 844 0.644 0. 0 489 0.489 0. 0.622 0.467 0. 0 600 0.5 11 0 0 0 0 067 0 0 0- 0 0 0 0.244 0.356 0 0 044 0 044 0. 0.133 0.222 0. 0.444 0.533 0. 0.209 0 444 0. 0 422 0 444 0 6 7 533 0 .533 0 533 5/8 0 .533 0 .644 444 0 .533 0 533 667 0 .556 0 667 000 0 511 0 .600 511 1, 000 0 600 600 0 .600 1 000 600 0 644 0 609 511 0 556 0 .533 66/ 0 533 0 822 511 0 578 0 600 656 0 .556 0 600 689 0 .533 0 756 267 0 .467 0. 400 511 0 .556 0 556 022 0 067 0 .044 689 0 .444 0 622 400 0 .600 0 .467 7 1 1 0 511 0 .689 600 0. 533 0. .689 489 0 .600 0. 600 069 0 200 0 111 467 0 .556 0 .600 533 0 5/8 0 .644 444 0. .644 0. .600 400 0 578 0 556 467 0. 556 0. .600 467 0 .644 0. .444 400 0 .556 0 533 489 0 .444 0 444 067 0 0 0 .067 0 0 0 0 044 533 0 .533 0 400 022 0 022 0 044 333 0 .267 0 .244 711 0 .400 0 511 578 0 289 0 444 644 0. .467 0 511 8 9 10 0 .600 0 .622 0 .533 0 711 0 667 0 .644 0 733 0. 733 0 622 0 .711 0 667 0 .800 0 600 0. 511 0 .66/ 0 644 a 556 0 533 0 689 0 533 0 .822 1 000 0. 800 0 .711 0 .800 i 000 0 .556 0 7 11 0. 556 1 .000 0 689 0. 711 0 .644 0 667 0 822 0 .622 0. 7 11 0 .600 0 .800 0. 489 0 556 0 . 356 0 .778 0 733 0 .556 0 .022 0. 022 0 0 0 .600 0 489 0 .733 0 489 0 .511 0 . 467 0. 622 0. 46/ 0 . 900 0 711 0. .578 0 .711 0. .822 0. 778 0 622 0 022 0. 044 0. 067 0 733 0. 733 0 578 0 BOO 0. 800 0. 667 0 . 756 0. 733 0 644 0 556 0. 578 0 511 0 822 0. 756 0. 622 0 . 489 0. 444 0 . 467 0 .578 0. .600 0 467 0 600 0. 556 0 .556 0 022 0. 089 0 .089 0 .0 0 067 0 022 0 2ft'J 0. 244 0 . 3E6 0 0 0 067 0 .089 0. 178 0. 178 0 . 244 0 444 0. 311 0 .622 0 333 0. 356 0 467 0 489 0. 3/8 a 489 ruroror\jroro — — — — — — Ijl ft U J ro •• • ID CD N 01 u\ ft o o c o o o o o o o o o o o — o o o o o o o o o o - J O ft CJ> — O ft o"i ft N ro Oi - OA — coO-»* — roOiroft 050ft-»j--OftO>ft C D N O > - O A ^ I D O D » M N M » o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O r o O O f t — rororo X* rUOOrMCDOl Ol A CD O) CO UJ A O U A ro ~-4 ru U3 •"J ( O ft «o I D U J > Qro O O O O O O O O O O O O O — O O O O O O O O O D O ^cccoO<o^LriuicnocDcncnO'^cncDCi)0)c7iiTi^cccDcn o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O — OOOroOOtn — ro — ro rorururoAr\jrjcox>tuA .** rj ro ro -wwrcoi ru - o in O roiunjfUAMMiOAiu* * ru ru ro — ro ru r\j M — o O Ci O O O O O O O O O O O O O — C O O O O O O O O O O O GcomoifuuiOiMN W — O Oi Ul O O — U I W C S C D O O N OCClvinjuj^'UCO w — O"-»0)OO — O W I O O O O S 9 O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O r o O O f t O r o — ro O O O O O O O O O O O — O O O O O O O O O O O O O tJICJiO — C D f t U J f t L o -— — — ro ro — ft tJi -— ^  — roru_*kCJ>-u<Ouoi*uuiAi ft ft ru ft en m in ^O'CrumuiaOcncnrMM^w OO-OMOlOIIOO^^IVIV'Ul O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O C O O O O O O O O O O w O O 0 > r o r o r o r u ft ro w ru ro u r o A r u u i i u ci o n; 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BOO 0 . 844 0 578 0 .067 0 .400 0 .867 0 .444 0 . 467 800 0 0 0 . 556 0 578 0 556 0 689 489 0 111 0 . 378 0 568 0 . 444 0 467 644 0 0 0 . 358 0 . 800 0 . 378 0 .611 489 0 044 0 .533 0 378 0 .511 0 .511 044 0 . 156 0 .067 0 .044 0 .089 0 089 U22 0 .244 0 .0 0 .022 0 .022 0 .022 244 0 022 0 .444 0 . 400 0 444 0 . 333 022 0 . 156 0 .067 0 .06 7 0 .089 0 .044 178 0 .244 0 222 0 . 200 0 .200 0 . 178 333 0 .022 0 .733 0 .289 0 .689 0 .556 26 7 0 .0 0 .533 0 . 289 0 .533 0 .444 378 0 022 0 .711 0 311 0 .689 0 .600 289 0 044 0 .200 0 . 133 0 .222 0 . 156 222 0 044 0 . 178 0 . 133 0 .222 0 . 133 244 0 044 0 .222 0 . 156 0 .244 0 .200 133 0 .067 0 356 0 . 200 0 .333 0 .311 422 0 0 0 . 578 0 . 489 0 .600 0 .578 0 0 .044 0 .022 0 089 0 022 0 .044 0 0 .044 0 .044 0 067 0 .067 0 .044 222 0 022 0 . 444 0 267 0 .422 0 .311 a 0 .022 0 022 0 089 0 022 0 044 0 0 044 0 .044 0 . 156 0 .044 0 .044 0 0 .022 0 044 0 089 0 044 0 044 067 0 .244 0 044 0 . 156 0 .044 0 067 022 0 044 0 .022 0 . 156 0 .022 0 .0 0 0 022 0 022 0 111 0 .022 0 .022 0 0 022 0 0 0 111 0 .0 0 .0 022 0 178 0 0 0 089 0 .0 0 .0 0 0 .089 0 .044 0 089 0 .067 0 044 022 0 .711 0 022 0 067 0 .022 0 .022 022 0 .800 0 .022 0 089 0 .044 0 .022 022 0 689 0 0 0 089 0 022 0 .044 044 0 . 489 0 .0 0 111 0 .022 0 ,022 0 0 889 0 0 0 044 0 . .0 0 .044 06 7 0 933 0 0 0 044 0 0 0 067 0 0 911 0 0 0 044 0 .0 0 .022 0 0 844 0 0 0 . 067 0 .0 0 022 044 0. . 758 0 022 0 067 0 . 022 0 022 0 0 .933 0 0 0 044 0 .0 0 .022 0 0 .933 0 0 0 044 0 0 0 022 0 0 889 0 . 0 0 067 0 0 0 022 0 0 . .911 0 . 0 0 044 0 . .0 0 022 26 27 28 29 30 600 0 556 0 . 689 0 . 489 0 . 533 0 . 511 7 1 1 0 . 578 0 . 778 0 533 0 . 644 0 489 778 0. .600 0 . B44 0 . 489 0 . 622 0 600 667 0 444 0 . 644 0 489 0 . 467 0 . 511 444 0 . 400 0 . 467 0 . 467 0 . 400 0 489 644 0. 578 0 556 0 644 0 . 556 0 444 600 0 . 656 0 600 0 444 0 . 533 0 . 444 756 0 . 556 0 822 0 489 0 578 0 . 600 733 0. 578 0 . 756 0 . 444 0 . 600 0 . 556 644 0 . 511 0 . 622 0 467 0 . 467 0 . 556 778 0 622 0 . 711 0 . 4B9 0 . 578 0 . 756 778 0. 578 0 . 911 0 . 4U7 0 . 644 0 . 578 13 1 4 15 16 1? 16 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 4 I 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 SO 51 52 53 54 55 56 67 68 69 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 0 822 b 067 0 558 0 689 0 600 0 489 0 622 0 400 0 444 0 600 0 622 0 111 0 644 0 511 0 511 0 489 0 644 0 444 0 556 0 422 0 BOO 0 067 0 eon 0 689 0 733 0 578 0 800 0 489 0 644 0 489 0 022 0 356 0 0 0 022 0 0 0 067 0 0 a 1 1 1 0 0 0 044 0 533 0 067 0 489 0 556 0 489 0 400 0 556 0 378 0 356 0 533 0 600 0 178 0 622 0 556 0 667 0 867 0 578 0 556 0 800 0 378 0 556 0 089 0 489 0 556 0 533 0 444 0 656 0 444 0 378 0 511 0 7 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 578 0 667 0 578 0 467 0 689 0 467 0 511 0 5 1 1 1 000 0 b44 0 844 • 0 867 a 844 0 644 0 933 0 511 0 7 11 0 600 0 044 1 000 0 044 0 044 0 067 0 156 0 044 0 178 0 133 0 089 0 844 0 044 1 000 0 756 0 800 0 689 0 867 0 489 0 756 0 533 0 867 0 044 0 756 1 000 0 800 0 600 0 800 0 511 0 622 0 6B9 0 844 0 067 0 BOO 0 BOO 1 000 0 669 0 844 0 511 0 733 0 578 0 644 0 156 0 689 0 600 0 689 1 000 0 644 0 533 0 844 0 400 0 933 0 044 0 867 0 BOO 0 844 0 644 1 000 0 467 0 733 0 578 0 5 1 1 0 178 0 489 0 511 0 511 0 533 0 467 1 000 0 556 0 422 0 7 1 1 0 133 0 756 0 622 0 733 0 844 0 733 0 558 1 000 0 422 0 600 0 089 0 533 0 689 0 578 0 400 0 578 0 422 0 422 1 0 000 0 022 0 111 0 067 0 022 0 022 0 022 0 044 0 067 0 022 089 0 0 0 178 0 044 0 0 0 0 0 022 0 022 0 067 0 022 0 022 0 222 0 244 0 244 0 244 0 289 0 333 0 222 0 311 0 289 0 289 0 022 0 11 1 0 022 0 022 0 022 0 067 0 0 0 133 0 022 0 089 0 11 1 0 26 7 0 111 0 133 0 133 0 200 0 111 0 333 0 133 0 178 0 378 0 06 7 0 356 0 422 0 356 0 289 0 400 0 378 0 311 0 533 0 289 0 1 1 1 0 267 0 333 0 356 0 289 0 311 0 267 0 311 0 333 0 422 0 1 1 1 0 378 0 444 0 378 0 333 0 422 0 333 0 333 0 422 0 178 0 158 0 222 0 178 0 244 0 133 0 178 0 200 0 156 0 156 0 1 1 1 0 200 0 178 0 1 1 1 0 156 0 133 0 1 1 1 0 222 0 156 0 156 0 156 0 222 0 222 0 156 0 222 0 156 0 156 0 244 0 156 0 178 0 133 0 289 * 0 133 0 156 0 133 0 1 1 1 0 111 0 267 0 133 0 267 0 444 0 178 0 467 0 511 0 533 0 511 0 467 0 444 0 489 0 467 0 0 0 444 0 022 0 022 0 022 0 067 . 0 0 0 044 0 067 0 044 0 0 0 422 0 022 0 022 0 022 0 044 0 0 0 156 0 067 0 067 0 178 0 133 0 200 0 222 0 222 0 244 0 178 0 222 0 222 0 289 0 0 0 422 0 022 0 022 0 022 0 044 0 0 0 067 0 067 0 044 0 0 0 378 o. 0 0 0 0 022 0 089 0 0 0 089 0 089 0 089 0 0 0 444 0 022 0 022 0 022 0 067 0 0 0 067 0 067 0 044 0 06 7 0 356 0 067 0 089 0 022 0 0B9 0 067 0 133 0 089 0 022 0 022 0 422 0 022 0 044 0 044 0 1 1 1 0 022 0 133 0 089 0 067 0 0 0 422 0 044 0 022 0 022 0 067 0 022 0 067 0 06 7 0 067 0 0 0 400 0 022 0 022 0 022 0 067 0 0 0 044 0 044 0 044 0 0 0 422 0 022 0 022 0 0 0 044 0 0 0 067 0 044 0 022 0 0 0 400 0 022 0 022 0 022 0 067 0 0 0 133 0 067 0 06 7 0 0 0 356 0 044 0 0 0 0 0 089 0 022 0 156 0 067 0 089 0 022 0 400 0 044 0 022 a 022 0 1 1 1 0 044 0 133 0 067 0 1 1 1 0 0 ~0 511 0 022 0 0 0 0 0 I I I 0 0 0 156 0 044 0 06 7 0 0 0 444 0 044 0 0 0 022 0 1 1 1 0 022 0 1 1 1 0 067 0 089 0 022 0 356 0 0 0 022 0 0 0 067 0 022 0 067 0 0 0 044 0 044 0 333 0 022 0 044 0 022 0 044 0 022 0 v l 1 1 0 044 0 067 0 0 0 333 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 06 7 0 0 0 067 0 0 0 044 0 0 0 31 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0S9 0 0 0 067 0 044 0 044 0 0 0 333 0 044 0 0 0 0 0 089 0 022 0 1 1 1 0 044 0 067 0 0 0 333 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 08 7 0 0 0 067 0 0 0 044 0 0 0 333 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 06 7 0 0 0 087 0 0 0 044 0 0 0 333 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 089 0 0 0 067 0 022 0 044 0 0 0 333 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 06 7 0 0 0 067 0 0 0 044 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO — OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOODOOOOO . 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0B9 0 044 0 044 0 .044 0 044 49 0 0 0 022 0 022 0 06 7 0 022 0. 022 0 022 0 022 50 0 222 0 289 0 .311 0 244 0 2B9 0 289 0 .289 0 289 51 0 022 0 022 0 .022 0 089 0 .022 0 022 0 .022 0 022 52 0 0 0 022 0 022 0 089 0 022 0. .022 0 022 0 022 53 0 0 0 022 0 022 0 06 7 0 022 0. 022 0 .022 0 022 54 0 178 0 156 • 0 178 0 244 0 156 0. 158 0 156 0 156 55 0 111 0 06 7 0 089 0 133 0 067 0 .067 0 067 0 , 067 56 0 689 0 689 0 689 0 667 0 7 11 0. .711 0 .689 0 689 57 0 756 0 778 0 7 11 0 778 0. 800 0. .800 0 756 0 778 58 0 644 0 689 0 622 0 622 0. 7 11 0. 711 0 667 0 689 59 0 444 0 489 0 489 0 556 0 489 0 489 0 489 0 489 60 0 66 7 0 978 0 933 0 689 0 956 0 .956 0 956 0 978 6 1 1 000 0 867 0 844 0 733 0 . 889 . 0 8B9 0 . 844 0 867 62 0 867 1 000 0 933 0. 7 11 0 978 0 978 0 978 1 000 63 0 844 0 933 1 000 0. 644 0 . 911 0 911 0 956 0 933 64 0 733 0 711 0 644 1. 000 0 733 0 . 733 0 689 0 711 65 0 889 0 978 0 911 0 . 733 1 000 1. 000 0 956 0 978 66 0 689 0 978 0 911 0 733 1 000 1. 000 0 . 956 0 978 67 0 844 0 978 e 956 0. 689 0 . 956 0 . 956 1. 000 0 978 68 0 .867 1. 000 0 933 0 . 711 0 . 978 0 . 978 0 . 978 1. 000 TOLERANCE SPECIFICATIONS NOT MET IN 100 ITERATIONS FOR FACTOR 14, COSINE = 0 .99988794 10IEHANCE SPEC1FICA1I0IIS NOI MET IN 100 I1ERA1I0NS FOR FACIOH 2 1 , COSINE = 0 .99995017 t-O APPENDIX J: PHI MATRICES (68 CONTENT UNITS) PHI MATRIX STIMULUS 1 -DELTA* * 2 5 0 . AVOIDS ALCOHOLIC 0 . 378 5 5 . NON-PRESENCE 0 . 678 5 4 . DISASSOCIATES 0 . .654 4 8 . L I V E S IN FANTASY 0 . . 6 5 5 4 5 . AVOIDS OTHER PEOPLE 0 . 775 51 . WITHDRAWS INTO SELF 0 . 830 5 2 . LOST IN SHUFFLE 0 . 914 44 . KEEPS TO SELF/LONER 0 . 893 4 9 . KEEPS A LOW PROFILE 0 . 931 47 . WITHDRAWS 0 . 938 5 3 . ESCAPES BY HIDING 0 . ,956 46 . TRIES REDUCE CONFLIC 0 . , 492 3 3 . DISCOUNTS OWN NEEDS 0 . ,475 4 2 . FEARS ROCKING BOAT 0 . ,465 17 . PRAISE FOR CARING 0 , 763 37 . SMOOTHS OVER CONFLIC 0 . 670 36 . SURVIVAL=GIVING 0 . ,779 3 8 . WILLING TO LEND EAR 0 . 761 1 1 . HAVE TO BE GOOD 0 . 701 1 . OLDEST OR ONLY CHILD 0 . 575 3 0 . MIRROR OF GOODNESS 0 . ,509 2 5 . APPEARS PERFECT 0 . ,80 1 8 . REMAINS RESPONSIBLE 0 . 809 15. LEADER AMONG PEERS 0 . 743 9 . APPEARS TO FUNCTION 0 . 718 24 . APPEARS EXEMPLARY 0 . ,806 14 . DOES WELL ATHLETICAL 0 . 525 23 . SUCCESS IN WORK 0 . 815 3 . OOES WELL SCHOLAST 0 . 793 12. PROVIDE WORTH BY SUC 0 . 903 21 . SUPERACHI EVER(TRIES) 0 . 925 27 . SUC TO STOP PARDRINK 0 . 918 1 ) 3 t 1 5 0 .611 - 0 . 057 0 .037 0 .044 0 . 0 5 0 0 .871 - 0 . 067 - 0 .036 0 080 0 . 290 0 . 8 8 5 - 0 . 093 0 .027 0 .029 0 . 1 19 0 .894 0 . . 123 - 0 . 128 - 0 .049 - 0 .072 0 . 9 5 5 - 0 . .049 0 .017 0 . . 0 5 3 0 . 302 0 . 9 9 5 0 . .042 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 130 0 . 229 1 .098 0 . 039 0 . 0 5 1 - 0 . .086 - 0 .047 1 . 102 - 0 .048 0 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 4 0 - 0 . 165 1 .117 - 0 . ,051 - 0 . 0 2 2 0 .098 - 0 . 120 1 . 128 - 0 . .029 0 . 0 3 1 0 . .019 - 0 . 141 1 . 139 0 . ,007 0 . 0 7 2 - 0 . .111 - 0 , . 170 0 . 0 2 1 0 , .555 - 0 . 2 8 1 0 , . 183 - 0 . 330 0 . 0 1 0 0 , 556 - 0 . 424 0 . 2 2 0 0 . 385 0 .409 0 . , 567 - 0 . 246 0 . .072 0 . 175 - 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 837 0 . 2 3 3 0 . .288 - 0 .042 0 .047 0 , .950 - 0 .269 0 .010 0 .624 - 0 . 0 7 8 1 , 185 0 .026 - 0 .07 1 0 . 1 4 3 - 0 . 0 3 1 1 , .250 0 . 160 - 0 . . 328 0 . 138 0 . 0 2 5 0 . , 394 0 . 4 6 8 0 . 109 - 0 . 137 - 0 . 0 4 2 0 . . 172 0 .561 0 . . 116 0 . 2 3 3 0 . 0 3 0 0 . , 491 0 . 5 9 5 - 0 . ,097 0 . 166 0 .009 - 0 . , 105 0 . 6 0 0 0 . . 169 - 0 . . 204 0 .001 - 0 . , 105 0 .657 0 . .606 0 , 0 7 5 - 0 . 0 2 5 - 0 . 285 0 . 706 0 . 316 0 . ,045 0 .056 - 0 . , 109 0 . 708 0 . . 2 5 3 - 0 . .218 0 .042 0 . O i l 0 .774 0 . , 268 - 0 . . 0 7 5 - 0 .029 0 . 036 0 . 787 - 0 . . 393 0 . .438 0 .001 - 0 . 051 0 . 840 - 0 . ,111 - 0 . .015 0 .031 0 . 178 0 . 998 - 0 . 203 - 0 . 010 0 . 0 2 5 0 . 056 1 . 0 1 5 0 . ,079 - 0 .017 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 005 1 . 0 2 1 - 0 . 043 - 0 . .011 0 .017 0 . 103 1 . 0 6 8 - 0 . , 198 - 0 . .020 6 7 8 9 - 0 . 0 5 1 0 . 0 3 5 0 . 227 - 0 .017 0 . 0 6 3 - 0 .057 - 0 . 123 - 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 6 6 - 0 . 0 6 1 0 . 0 7 5 - 0 .077 - 0 .066 0 . 168 0 . 0 2 1 0 .051 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 103 - 0 . 178 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 .049 0 . 0 6 7 - 0 . 1 4 3 - 0 .017 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 1 6 - 0 .006 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 3 0 - 0 .007 0 . 0 7 3 0 . 0 1 8 - 0 . 0 1 1 . - 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 0 3 0 0 . 0 0 9 - 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 4 2 0 .044 - 0 . 002 0 .017 . . -0 . 0 0 1 0 . 0 5 8 - 0 .004 0 . 175 0 . 2 1 5 0 . 130 0 . 364 0 . 0 7 8 0 . 36 1 - 0 . 207 - 0 . 0 5 8 0 . 155 . 0 . 0 3 7 - 0 . 101 - 0 . 0 3 3 - 0 . 1 1 3 - 0 . 2 1 8 0 . 0 1 3 - 0 .017 0 . 2 1 3 0 . 2 9 2 0 . 2 9 3 0 . 1 14 - 0 .007 - 0 . 103 - 0 . 0 6 9 - 0 . 0 4 3 0 .029 - 0 . 0 5 1 - 0 .057 - 0 . 108 - 0 . 107 0 . 201 0 . 0 5 3 0 . 0 2 9 0 .016 0 . 0 3 1 - 0 .131 0 .014 - 0 . 108 - 0 . 101 - 0 . 0 5 5 0 .04 1 0 . .086 0 . 378 0 091 - 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 023 - 0 . 172 - 0 . .037 - 0 . 0 2 1 0 . 192 0 . 0 7 0 - 0 . .026 - 0 . 0 0 5 0 , . 108 0 .067 0 .097 0 .074 - 0 . .059 . - 0 . 0 1 0 0 .037 0 . 0 0 3 0 . . 163 0 . 106 - 0 . 153 - 0 . 0 0 1 0 . .079 0 . 266 - 0 . .006 0 . 0 2 5 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . .007 - 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 3 3 - 0 . 139 0 .014 0 . 0 0 0 - 0 . .032 0 . 0 4 0 0 . 0 0 2 0 .007 - 0 . .04 1 0 . 0 5 0 0 .006 0 . 0 2 0 2 2 0 . MOTIVATED FAM LOOKOK 0 . 6 8 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 2 1 1 0 . 3 1 2 0 . 6 5 9 0 .036 - 0 .094 - 0 . 1 3 1 - 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 1 19 . ACTS AS FAM SAVIOR 0 . 766 - 0 . 0 2 3 0 . 5 5 1 0 . 0 1 2 0 . 7 1 8 0 . 0 2 2 - 0 . 0 8 3 - 0 . 157 - 0 .024 - 0 . 0 0 6 13. FAM COUNTS ON THEM 0 . 8 1 5 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 464 0 . 160 0 .737 - 0 . 164 - 0 . 124 - 0 . 157 0 . 0 7 6 0 .014 2 . . OFTEN ASSUMES LEADER 0 . 7 4 1 - 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 321 0 .4 39 0 . 7 3 8 - 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 6 2 0 . 0 8 0 0 . 0 2 2 - 0 . 0 0 5 5 . FEELS RESPONSIBLE 0 . 6 9 9 - 0 . 0 7 3 0 .477 - 0 . 183 0 . 782 0 . 150 - 0 . 0 9 0 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 8 0 - 0 .047 4 3 . MAINTAINS ORDER 0 .664 0 .097 0 . 145 - 0 . 4 0 0 0 . 9 8 9 - 0 .204 - 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 350 0 .oes - 0 . 0 1 0 7 . PROVIDES STRUCTURE 0 . 6 9 2 - 0 . 0 4 9 - 0 . 1 16 - 0 . 0 9 8 1 . 153 0 . 0 5 6 0 . 0 0 6 0 .067 - 0 . 0 0 8 - 0 . 0 1 2 4 . TAKES CHARGE 0 . 768 - 0 .006 - 0 . 286 0 . 127 1 .267 - 0 .088 0 .094 - 0 . 158 0 . 0 4 2 - 0 . 0 1 1 10. MANAGES FAM AFFAIRS 0 .824 - 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 100 - 0 . 0 8 0 1 . 375 - 0 .079 - 0 . 0 3 8 - 0 . 120 0 .026 0 . 0 2 2 28 . UNABLE TO RELAX 0 . 496 - 0 .056 - 0 . 140 - 0 .007 0 .466 0 .621 0 . 0 1 2 0 . 377 - 0 . 283 0 . 0 0 6 2 2 . FEELS THEY DONT F IT 0 . . 428 0 . 382 - 0 , .071 - 0 .217 0 . .171 0 . 644 0 . .062 0 . 1 3 0 - 0 . ,024 - 0 .006 3 5 . MANIPULATES OTHERS 0 . . 302 - 0 . .055 - 0 . .006 - 0 . 308 0 . ,460 0 . 682 0 . . 138 0 , . 0 5 5 - 0 . . 174 0 .114 6 . TAKES L I F E SERIOUSLY 0 . 645 - 0 . ,057 - 0 . 103 0 . .009 0 . .548 0 . 7 13 0 . 064 •o . 345 - 0 . 369 - 0 . . 1 10 64 . POTENTIAL- DANGEROUS 0 . 658 - 0 . 042 0 . 032 0 . 038 - 0 . 091 0 . B45 0 . 018 - 0 . 077 0 . 273 - 0 007 5 8 . PROBLEMS INTERACTING 0 . 625 0 . 017 - 0 . 028 - 0 . 095 0 . 029 0 . 877 - 0 . 022 0 . 012 0 . 207 0 . 034 57 . UNABLE CONTROL ANGER 0 . 774 - 0 . 044 0 . 20 1 0 . 04 1 - 0 . 235 0 . 9 1 1 - 0 . 101 - 0 . 022 0 . 298 0 . 007 59 . OFTEN LACK S K I L L S 0 . 498 0 . 058 0 . 058 0 . 028 - 0 . 199 1 . 093 - 0 . 026 - 0 . 030 - 0 . 09G 0 . 087 56 . OFTEN LACK EDUCATION 0 . 7 12 - 0 . 154 0 . 066 0 . 044 - 0 . 152 1 . 105 0 . 006 - 0 . 090 0 . 1 1 1 0 . 068 3 9 . TAKES IN STRIDE 0 . 6 5 9 0 .004 - 0 . 103 0 . 0 7 1 0 . 112 - 0 .117 0 . 9 9 5 - 0 .094 0 .056 0 . 0 5 5 4 1 . ADAPTS TO SITUATIONS 0 .779 0 . 0 4 0 0 . 0 9 1 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 5 0 0 . 0 1 3 1 . 0 4 6 - 0 . 0 3 0 - 0 .011 - 0 . 040 4 0 . F L E X I B L E 0 . 750 - 0 .06 1 0 . 0 6 2 - 0 .044 - 0 .057 0 .069 1 . 0 4 8 - 0 . 0 0 6 - 0 , .029 - 0 . 0 4 3 2 9 . REPEATED SUC NO SATS 0 .826 - 0 .009 0 .007 0 .288 - 0 .239 - 0 .042 - 0 .008 0 . 9 8 1 0 . .006 - 0 .014 2 6 . NEVER DO ENOUGH 0 . 8 4 0 - 0 .034 - 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 3 5 - 0 .04 1 - 0 . . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 7 0 1 . 102 0 . 045 - 0 . 0 1 1 18. TROUBLE FEELING GOOD 0 .839 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 5 0 - 0 . . 133 0 . . 0 4 2 0 . .006 - 0 . .056 1. . 189 0 . 008 - 0 . 0 1 3 61 . ACTS PHYS AGGRESSIVE 0 .822 - 0 .046 - 0 . 0 9 5 - 0 .009 0 . 172 0 . . 347 0 .029 - 0 .077 0 . 691 - 0 .034 16 . ACTS VERB AGGRESSIVE 0 .889 - 0 .036 - 0 . .076 - 0 . .006 0 . 102 0 . 379 0 . ,008 - 0 . .062 0 . 704 0 . .004 6 5 . CAUSES TROUBLE 0 . .976 - 0 , ,010 0 . ,016 - 0 000 0 . 003 0 . 106 0 . 013 - 0 . .004 0 . 901 - 0 . 0 2 3 66 . ACTS DEFIANT/HOSTILE 0 . 976 - 0 . ,0 10 0 . 016 - 0 . 000 0 . 003 0 . 106 0 . 013 - 0 . 004 0 . 901 - 0 023 6 3 . FAM BLAMES THEM 0 . 881 0 . O i l - 0 . 006 - 0 . 021 - 0 . 002 - 0 . 030 - 0 . 005 ' 0 . 078 0 . 917 0 . 006 6 0 . REBELS 0 . 950 0 . 018 - 0 . 008 0 . 031 0 . O i l - 0 . 035 0 . 002 0 . 004 0 . 958 - 0 . 008 67 . FAM SAYS PERSON BAD 0 . 953 0 . 009 0 . 005 - 0 . 023 - 0 . 004 - 0 . 046 - 0 . 002 0 . 075 0 . 964 - 0 . 009 6 2 . ACTS OUT 0 . 984 0 . 010 0 . 000 - 0 . 001 0 . 017 - 0 . 024 - 0 . 000 0 . 020 0 . 97 1 - 0 . 013 68 . OFTEN IN TROUBLE 0 . 984 0 . 010 0 . 000 - 0 . 001 0 . 017 - 0 . 024 - 0 . 000 0 . 020 0 . 971 - 0 . 013 3 2 . CLOWNING OR ANNOYING 0 . 806 0 . 01 1 - 0 . 082 0 . 060 - 0 . 058 0 . 107 - 0 . 008 • - 0 . 034 0 . 019 0 . 979 34 . TRIES TO BE CUTE 0 . 804 - 0 . 007 - 0 . 042 - 0 . 036 0 . 029 0 . 070 - 0 . 016 0 . 022 - 0 . 059 0 . 996 31 . TRIES TO BE FUNNY 0 . 937 - 0 . 00 1 0 . 018 0 . 012 0 . 009 - 0 . 064 - 0 . 017 . - 0 . 029 0 . 004 1. 08 1 CO PHI MATRIX STIMULUS 1-DELTA* *2 1 2 3 11 . HAVE TO BE GOOD 0, ,690 0 .489 0 .017 0 .480 4 . TAKES CHARGE 0. .677 0 . . 583 0 .005 0 .539 2 0 . MOTIVATED FAM LOOKOK d . ,676 0 .698 0 .011 0 .499 7 . PROVIDES STRUCTURE 0. .629 0 .7 17 - 0 .037 0 . 247 4 2 . FEARS ROCKING BOAT 0 . ,462 0 . 726 0 . 399 - 0 . 329 4 6 . TRIES REDUCE CONFLIC 0 . ,486 0 . . 797 0 .011 - 0 . 344 3 3 . DISCOUNTS OWN NEEDS 0. ,477 0 .842 0 .004 - 0 . 482 10. MANAGES FAM AFFAIRS 0 . ,7 36 0 .889 0 .000 0 . 320 4 3 . MAINTAINS ORDER 0. ,633 0 .926 0 . 100 - 0 .17 1 13. FAM COUNTS ON THEM 0. ,817 1 .060 0 .007 0 .313 37 . SMOOTHS OVER CONFLIC 0 . .620 1 .099 0 .027 - 0 . 429 5 . FEELS RESPONSIBLE 0 . ,695 1 .14 1 - 0 .074 - 0 .046 3 8 . WILLING TO LEND EAR 0. ,655 1 . 143 - 0 .051 - 0 .095 17. PRAISE FOR CARING 0, .751 1 . 147 - 0 .015 0 .209 19. ACTS AS FAM SAVIOR 0. .768 1 . 161 - 0 .026 0 . 134 36 . SURVIVAL=GIVING 0. .718 1 .281 - 0 .095 - 0 . 162 5 0 . AVOIDS ALCOHOLIC 0. . 378 - 0 .032 0 .611 0 .058 5 5 . NON-PRESENCE 0, .676 - 0 . .006 0 .870 - 0 .001 54 . DISASSOCIATES 0. .653 - 0 .085 0 .883 0 .053 48 . L IVES IN FANTASY 0 .653 0 . 126 0 .887 - 0 . 178 4 5 . AVOIDS OTHER PEOPLE 0. .774 - 0 .010 0 .953 0 .048 51 . WITHDRAWS INTO SELF 0 . .828 - 0 .039 0 .990 - 0 .029 5 2 . LOST IN SHUFFLE 0 , ,913 - 0 .016 1 .092 0 .022 44 . KEEPS TO SELF/LONER 0. .893 - 0 .020 1 .098 0 .022 49 . KEEPS A LOW PROFILE 0, .930 0 .023 1 .114 0 .008 47 . WITHDRAWS 0 .938 - 0 .017 1 . 124 0 .040 5 3 . ESCAPES BY HIDING 0. .954 - 0 .075 1 . 132 0 .04 1 3 0 . MIRROR OF GOODNESS 0 . 487 0 .438 0 .020 0 .550 1 . OLDEST OR ONLY CHILD 0, .574 0 .231 - 0 .044 0 .628 2 5 . APPEARS PERFECT 0 . , 802 - 0 , .057 0 .009 0 /7 18 2. OFTEN ASSUMES LEADER 0, .712 0 .135 0 .005 0 . 739 14 . DOES WELL ATHLETICAL 0 . .510 - 0 . 320 - 0 .033 0 . 753 9 . APPEARS TO FUNCTION 0. .718 - 0 .008 0 .056 0 .865 2 3 . SUCCESS IN WORK 0. .809 - 0 , .221 - 0 .001 0 .896 15. LEADER AMONG PEERS 0, .738 - 0 . 165 - 0 .019 0 .911 8 . REMAINS RESPONSIBLE 0 . . 799 0 .264 0 .007 0 .912 24 . APPEARS EXEMPLARY 0, ,807 0 . 136 0. .042 0 .923 3 . DOES WELL SCHOLAST 0, , 77 1 - 0 .039 0 .024 1 .004 27 . SUC TO STOP PARDRINK 0. .897 - 0 . . 125 0 .011 1 .093 21 . SUPERACHIEVER(TRIES) 0 . .9 18 - 0 . 133 0 .013 1 . 106 12. PROVIDE WORTH BY SUC 0. .900 0 .027 0 .023 1 . 128 1 i 6 7 8 - 0 . . 100 0 . 166 - 0 .089 0 . 0 3 5 0 .025 - 0 . 194 - 0 .059 0 .038 0 . 105 - 0 .006 - 0 .003 - 0 .111 - 0 . 105 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . .001 - 0 . .055 0 . 144 - 0 .034: 0 .054 - 0 .009 0 .200 0 .014 0 . 174 - 0 . 1 19 - 0 .038 - 0 .288 0 . 186 0 . 192 0 . 1 16 0 . 354 0. . 380 0 . 360 0 .091 - 0 .214 - 0 .064 - 0 . 192 - 0 . 0 2 5 - 0 .084 0 .094 0 .023 - 0 . 263 0 . 392 - 0 .055 0 . 127 - 0 .009 - 0 . 187 - 0 . 150 - 0 . 128 0 .096 0 .010 - 0 .500 0 .212 0 .247 ' 0 .241 0 , 106 0 . 109 0 .029 - 0 .099 - 0 .058 - 0 . .051 0 .233 - 0 . 136 0 .096 - 0 . 1 1 2 - 0 . .112 0 .001 - 0 .257 - 0 .085 - 0 .007 - 0 .025 - 0 .003 - 0 . 148 - 0 .084 - 0 .007 - 0 . 011 0 . .224 - 0 .171 0 .047 - 0 . 1 15 - 0 .052 0 .038 0 .041 - 0 .053 0 . 234 - 0 . .016 0 .267 - 0 .042 0 .056 - 0 . 1 18 - 0 .002 0 . . 105 - 0 .052 0 .062 0 .080 - 0 . .075 - 0 .059 0 . 158 - 0 .060 • 0 .014 0 .050 0 .287 - 0 .094 - 0 .006 - 0 . 178 0 .002 0 . .229 0 .062 - 0 .043 - 0 .151 - 0 .018 - 0 .035 - 0 .026 - 0 .009 - 0 . 0 1 3 0 .010 - 0 . . 168 - 0 .006 - 0 .032 0 .078 0 .019 - 0 .131 - 0 . 0 2 5 - 0 .016 0 .038 0 .0 10 - 0 .14 1 - 0 . 0 4 3 - 0 .001 0 .047 - 0 .001 - 0 . 156 - 0 . 0 1 3 0 .023 0 . 0 5 3 - 0 .003 0 . .218 - 0 .147 - 0 .081 - 0 .088 0 .034 0 . .240 0 .018 0 .022 - 0 . 143 0 . 012 - 0 211 0 . 378 0 .085 0 .097 - 0 , .010 - 0 .082 0 . 136 0 .028 0 . 0 6 5 - 0 . .001 0 . .475 0 .072 0 . 181 - 0 . 187 - 0 . .002 - 0 . . 222 0 .065 0 . , 102 0 . 103 0 .075 0 . ,008 0 . 244 0 . ,089 - 0 .022 0 . ,026 0 . .006 0 .094 0 .177 - 0 .008 - 0 . .001 0 . 022 - 0 . 142 - 0 .042 - 0 . 0 0 9 - 0 , .020 - 0 .079 - 0 .016 - 0 .06 1 0 .04 1 0 .003 0 . .040 - 0 .061 , 0 .045 - 0 .036 - 0 .004 0 .029 0 .008 - 0 .023 - 0 . 0 2 3 0 .018 0 .011 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 .022 - 0 . 0 1 3 0 .007 0 .004 - 0 . 163 - 0 .027 0 .002 0 .000 X II CO i-o to 2 8 . UNABLE TO RELAX 0 . 4 7 8 0 . 191 - 0 . 0 4 6 0 . 158 0 . 5 3 1 0 . 426 - 0 . 0 0 7 - 0 . 249 0 . 0 0 5 2 2 . FEELS THEY DONT FIT 0 . 4 2 2 0 .07 1 0 . 385 - 0 . 167 0 . 6 0 2 0 . 160 0 . 0 4 9 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 0 7 3 5 . MANIPULATES OTHERS 0 . 280 0 . 364 - 0 . 0 4 6 - 0 . 189 0 . 6 0 5 0 . 103 0 . 1 19 - 0 . 145 0 . 1 10 6 . TAKES L I F E SERIOUSLY 0 . 6 2 0 0 . 2 8 9 - 0 .046 0 . 197 0 . 6 0 8 0 . 400 0 . 0 4 5 - 0 . 330 - 0 . 108 6 4 . POTENTIAL- DANGEROUS 0 . 6 5 9 - 0 . 0 3 1 - 0 . 0 4 1 0 . 0 2 5 0 . 8 4 8 - 0 . 0 7 5 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 2 5 7 - 0 . 0 1 0 5 8 . PROBLEMS INTERACTING 0 . 6 2 3 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 7 9 0 . 8 5 2 0 . 0 3 1 - 0 . 0 3 0 0 . 205 0 . 0 3 1 5 7 . UNABLE CONTROL ANGER 0 .77 1 0 . 0 5 9 - 0 .047 - 0 . 0 4 0 0 .934 - 0 . 0 3 9 - 0 . 0 9 1 0 . 269 0 . 0 0 2 5 9 . OFTEN LACK S K I L L S 0 . 502 - 0 . 0 7 2 0 .057 - 0 . 0 1 5 1 . 104 - 0 . 0 3 1 - 0 . 0 2 7 - 0 . 126 0 . 0 8 2 5 6 . OFTEN LACK EDUCATION 0 . 7 1 6 - 0 . 0 3 5 - 0 . 154 0 . 0 1 5 1 . 1 14 - 0 . 0 9 0 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 8 4 0 . 0 6 2 29 . REPEATED SUC NO SATS 0 . 8 0 8 - 0 . 192 - 0 . 0 1 2 0 . 246 - 0 . 0 1 8 0 . 9 5 1 0 . 0 0 8 - 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 1 2 2 6 . NEVER DO ENOUGH 0 . ,837 - 0 , .042 - 0 .036 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 2 3 1 . 102 - 0 . . 0 6 1 0 . . 0 4 5 - 0 , , 0 1 0 1 8 . TROUBLE FEELING GOOD 0 . ,845 - a .010 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 140 - 0 . . 0 2 3 1 , . 2 1 0 0 . , 0 5 3 0 . ,018 :° 012 3 9 . TAKES IN STRIDE 0 . ,650 - 0 .064 0 .007 0 . 137 - 0 . 129 - 0 . .080 0 . 992 0 . 066 0 . 057 4 0 . F L E X I B L E 0 . 751 0 . .008 - 0 . ,061 - 0 .058 0 . 068 - 0 . 005 • 1 . 063 - 0 . 030 - 0 . ,042 41 . ADAPTS TO SITUATIONS 0 . 783 0 . 041 0 . .039 - 0 . .011 0 . O i l - 0 . 031 1 . 066 - 0 . 010 - 0 . 039 61 . ACTS PHYS AGGRESSIVE 0 . 819 0 . 015 - 0 . 042 0 . 056 0 . 324 - 0 . 060 0 . 019 0 . 704 - 0 . 033 16 . ACTS VERB AGGRESSIVE 0 . 888 - 0 . 015 - 0 . 033 0 . ,036 0 . 362 - 0 . 049 0 . 001 0 . 7 14 0 . 004 65". CAUSES TROUBLE 0 . 976 0 . 013 - 0 . 010 - 0 . 006 0 . 111 - 0 . 008 0 . 017 0 . 906 •0 . 022 66. ACTS DEFIANT/HOSTILE 0 . 976 0 . 013 - 0 . 010 - 0 . ,006 0 . 1 1 1 - 0 . 008 0 . 017 0 . 906 - 0 . 022 6 3 . FAM BLAMES THEM 0 . 881 - 0 . 014 0 . O i l - 0 . 031 - 0 . 025 0 . 074 - 0 . 001 0 . 924 0 . 008 6 0 . REBELS 0 . 950 - 0 . O i l 0 . 018 0 . 030 - 0 . 029 - 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 005 0 . 966 - 0 . 007 67 . FAM SAYS PERSON BAD 0 . 953 - 0 . 003 0 . 008 - 0 . 036 - 0 . 039 0 . 070 0 . 003 0 . 971 - 0 . 008 6 2 . ACTS OUT 0 . 984 0 . 005 0 . 010 •0 . 004 - 0 . 019 0 . 015 0 . 003 0 . 978 - 0 . O i l 6 8 . OFTEN IN TROUBLE 0 . 984 0 . 005 0 . 010 - 0 . 004 - 0 . 019 0 . 015 0 . 003 0 . 978 - 0 . 0 ) 1 3 2 . CLOWNING OR ANNOYING 0 . 807 - 0 . 124 0 . 012 0 . 058 0 . 108 - 0 . 033 - 0 . 008 0 . 018 0 . 964 34 . TRIES TO BE CUTE 0 . 803 - 0 . 004 - 0 . 006 - 0 . 030 0 . 061 0 . 029 - 0 . 018 ' - 0 . 055 0 . 980 31 . TRIES TO BE FUNNY 0 . 938 0 . 045 - 0 . 002 0 . 007 - 0 . 056 - 0 . 033 - 0 . 016 0 . 003 1. 065 CO o PHI MATRIX STIMULUS 1-DELTA**2 1 3 4 5 6 7 35 . MANIPULATES OTHERS 0 263 0 .341 0 291 - 0 006 - 0 270 0 264 0 210 0 106 1 1 . HAVE TO BE GOOD 0 690 0 482 0 179 0 010 0 466 - 0 124 - 0 020 0 026 4 . TAKES CHARGE 0 676 0 582 - 0 1 16 - 0 007 0 539 0 004 0 010 - 0 005 2 0 . MOTIVATED FAM LOOKOK 0 674 0 692 - 0 105 0 017 0 466 - 0 096 0 043 - 0 003 7 . PROVIDES STRUCTURE 0 629 0 707 0 158 - 0 043 0 240 - 0 059 0 029 - 0 008 4 2 . FEARS ROCKING BOAT 0 463 0 . 709 0 073 0 422 - 0 345 0 234 - 0 02.3 - 0 039 46 . TRIES REDUCE CONFLIC 0 463 0 . 785 0 104 - 0 018 - 0 267 0 1 15 - 0 073 0 364 3 3 . DISCOUNTS OWN NEEDS 0 476 0 813 0 533 0 026 - 0 520 0 170 - 0 032 - 0 065 1 0 . MANAGES FAM AFFAIRS 0 735 0 884 - 0 07 1 - 0 O i l 0 330 - 0 133 - 0 002 0 025 4 3 . MAINTAINS ORDER 0 616 0 909 0 363 0 075 - 0 113 - 0 157 - 0 04 1 - 0 001 1 3 . FAM COUNTS ON THEM 0 818 1 .056 - 0 208 - 0 001 0 319 - 0 171 0 013 0 0 1 1 3 37 . SMOOTHS OVER CONFLIC 0 559 1 . 0 7 5 0 058 - 0 019 - 0 302 0 113 - 0 067 0 1 18 5 . FEELS RESPONSIBLE 0 693 1 . 122 0 088 - 0 065 - 0 068 - 0 076 0 009 - 0 053 3 8 . WILLING TO LEND EAR 0 650 1 . 122 - 0 071 - 0 031 - 0 132 0 177 0 027 - 0 1 17 17 . PRAISE FOR CARING 0 748 1 136 - 0 267 - 0 007 0 188 - 0 066 0 018 - 0 028 ?d 19 . ACTS AS FAM SAVIOR 0 768 1 . 150 - 0 147 - 0 021 0 119 - 0 075 0 007 ^0 0 1 3 i—i u 3 6 . SURVIVAL=GIV1NG 0 7 10 1 .259 - 0 109 - 0 076 - 0 196 0 124 0 021 - 0 056 ps 6 . TAKES L I F E SERIOUSLY 0 600 0 . 2 6 2 0 661 - 0 002 0 082 0 190 - 0 009 - 0 114 II 2 8 . UNABLE TO RELAX 0 465 0 167 0 663 - 0 010 0 061 0 108 0 034 0 001 2 9 . REPEATED SUC NO SATS 0 793 - 0 .206 1 067 - 0 028 0 245 - 0 055 - 0 073 - 0 005 2 6 . NEVER DO ENOUGH 0 811 - 0 .059 1 221 - 0 055 0 041 - 0 149 - 0 018 - 0 001 1 8 . TROUBLE FEELING GOOD 0 807 - 0 . 0 3 0 1 330 - 0 017 - 0 103 - 0 146 - 0 056 - 0 001 2 2 . FEELS THEY DONT F IT 0 410 0 053 0 338 0 431 - 0 242 0 167 0 356 - 0 0 1 0 5 0 . AVOIDS ALCOHOLIC 0 377 - 0 .032 0 028 0 621 0 064 - 0 081 0 293 - 0 014 4 8 . L I V E S IN FANTASY 0 651 0 . 122 0 154 0 900 - 0 156 - 0 101 - 0 040 0 053 54 . DISASSOCIATES 0 654 - 0 .086 - 0 050 0 909 0 042 0 078 0 155 - 0 076 5 5 . NON-PRESENCE 0 67 1 - 0 . 0 1 3 0 030 0 910 - 0 044 0 125 0 027 - 0 005 4 5 . AVOIDS OTHER PEOPLE 0 764 - 0 015 - 0 O i l 0 999 - 0 006 0 073 - 0 025 - 0 003 51 . WITHDRAWS INTO SELF 0 825 - 0 .046 0 145 1 031 - 0 067 0 005 - 0 039 - 0 021 44 . KEEPS TO SELF/LONER 0 889 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 070 1 108 0 052 - 0 089 - 0 026 0 022 52 . LOST IN SHUFFLE 0 9 13 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 046 1 1 15 0 029 - 0 024 - 0 046 0 O i l 4 9 . KEEPS A LOW PROFILE 0 928 0 026 - 0 077 1 129 0 032 - 0 058 - 0 048 0 013 47 . WITHORAWS 0 936 - 0 012 - 0 102 1 138 0 064 - 0 044 - 0 044 0 002 5 3 . ESCAPES BY HIDING 0 950 - 0 07 1 - 0 075 1 145 0 068 - 0 023 - 0 050 0 00 1 3 0 . MinnOR OF GOODNESS 0 . 474 0 429 - 0 072 0 044 0 475 - 0 008 0 060 0 028 1 . OLDEST OR ONLY CHILD 0 565 0 222 0 120 - 0 022 0 546 0 102 - 0 000 0 007 14 . DOES WELL ATHLETICAL 0 494 - 0 327 0 237 0 004 0 631 0 325 0 091 - 0 010 2 . OFTEN ASSUMES LEADER 0 7 1 1 0 132 0 140 - 0 001 0 7 12 0 011 0 028 - 0 001 2 5 . APPEARS PERFECT 0 790 - 0 057 0 368 - 0 O i l 0 7 16 0 023 - 0 035 - 0 005 2 3 . SUCCESS IN WORK 0 809 - 0 224 0 293 - 0 001 0 845 0 100 - 0 022 0 026 8 . REMAINS RESPONSIBLE 0 796 0 263 - 0 126 0 017 0 850 - 0 O i l 0 031 - 0 024 9 . APPEARS TO FUNCTION 0 7 14 - 0 004 0 014 0 042 0 854 0 063 - 0 017 0 078 1 5 . LEADER AMONG PEERS 0 7 39 - 0 165 0 1 17 - 0 018 0 861 0 205 - 0 001 - 0 002 24 . APPEARS EXEMPLARY 0 807 0 137 - 0 019 0 042 0 881 - 0 068 0 016 0 001 3 . DOES WELL SCHOLAST 0 769 - 0 039 - 0 035 0 034 0 937 0 085 0 002 - 0 008 27 . SUC TO STOP PARDRINK 0 895 - 0 125 0 044 0 019 1 023 0 005 0 O i l 0 015 21 . SUPERACHIEVER(TRIES) 0 917 - 0 132 0 046 0 020 1 039 0 000 0 012 0 004 12 . PROVIDE WORTH BY SUC 0 896 0 029 - 0 156 0 032 1 058 0 006 0 034 - 0 005 39 . TAKES IN STRIDE 0 606 - 0 053 - 0 180 - 0 012 0 163 1 021 - 0 039 0 067 41 . ADAPTS TO SITUATIONS 0 749 0 043 - 0 088 0 030 0 004 1 136 - 0 043 - 0 0 30 4 0 . F L E X I B L E 0 727 0 007 - 0 044 - 0 069 - 0 049 1 150 - 0 032 - 0 034 5 9 . ' OFTEN LACK S K I L L S 0 412 - 0 092 0 . 2 7 0 0 . 139 - 0 174 0 217 0 . 566 0 . 0 6 9 5 B . PROBLEMS INTERACTING 0 591 - 0 014 0 24 1 0 073 - 0 184 0 126 0 . 787 0 024 5 6 . OFTEN LACK EDUCATION 0 635 - 0 054 0 187 - 0 079 - 0 139 0 237 0 . 8 2 1 0 051 64 . POTENTIAL- DANGEROUS 0 626 - 0 046 0 1 16 0 010 - 0 085 0 178 0 852 - 0 017 57 . UNABLE CONTROL ANGER 0 725 0 039 0 182 0 O i l - 0 157 0 079 0 921 - 0 006 61 . ACTS PHYS AGGRESSIVE 0 82 1 0 012 - 0 062 - 0 039 0 045 0 023 1 037 - 0 031 6 3 . FAM BLAMES THEM 0 859 - 0 009 - 0 034 - 0 017 0 027 - 0 108 1 056 0 017 16 . ACTS VERB AGGRESSIVE 0 890 - 0 018 - 0 041 - 0 027 0 021 0 010 1 . 0 7 2 0 005 67 . FAM SAYS PERSON BAD 0 927 0 002 - 0 048 - 0 022 0 027 - 0 1 1 1 1 101 0 002 6 0 . REBELS 0 929 - 0 005 - 0 123 - 0 010 0 086 - 0 100 1 107 0 002 6 2 . ACTS OUT 0 963 0 01 1 - 0 103 - 0 018 0 053 - 0 103 1 127 - 0 003 6 8 . OFTEN IN TROUBLE 0 963 0 O i l - 0 103 - 0 018 0 053 - 0 103 1 127 - 0 003 65 . CAUSES TROUBLE 0 966 0 016 - 0 087 - 0 028 0 029 - 0 052 1 129 - 0 016 66 . ACTS DEFIANT/HOSTILE 0 966 0 016 - 0 087 - 0 028 0 029 - 0 052 1 129 - 0 016 3 2 . CLOWNING OR ANNOYING 0 804 - 0 124 - 0 013 0 019 0 044 0 015 0 086 0 973 34 . TRIES TO BE CUTE 0 802 - 0 006 0 054 - 0 003 - 0 037 - 0 003 - 0 033 0 990 31 . TRIES TO BE FUNNY 0 940 0 046 - 0 055 - 0 007 0 019 - 0 027 - 0 039 1 079 CO 133 PHI MATRIX: ST IMULUS 1 - D E L T A ' * 2 1 4 . TAKES CHARGE 0 6 6 3 0 596 4 2 . F E A R S ROCKING BOAT 0 4 6 2 0 677 7 . PROVIDES STRUCTURE 0 6 2 7 0 696 2 0 . MOTIVATED FAM LOOKOK 0 6 6 8 0 706 33 . DISCOUNTS OWN NEEDS 0 406 0 734 46 . T R I E S REDUCE C O N F L I C 0 458 0 758 4 3 . M A I N T A I N S ORDER 0 579 0 8 6 5 1 0 . MANAGES FAM A F F A I R S 0 7 3 5 0 893 37 . SMOOTHS OVER C O N F L I C 0 557 1 0 4 8 1 3 . FAM COUNTS ON THEM 0 8 1 2 1 0 7 2 5 . F E E L S R E S P O N S I B L E 0 6 8 8 1 0 9 9 38 . W I L L I N G TO LEND EAR 0 651 1 107 1 7 . P R A I S E FOR CARING 0 737 1 147 19 . ACTS AS FAM SAVIOR 0 767 1 153 3 6 . S U R V I V A L = G I V I N G 0 712 1 244 30 . MIRROR OF GOODNESS 0 466 0 441 2 8 . UNABLE TO R E L A X 0 4 1 5 0 118 6 . TAKES L I F E S E R I O U S L Y 0 556 0 209 1 1 . HAVE TO BE GOOD 0 6 9 0 0 4 8 0 1 . OLDEST OR ONLY CH ILD 0 5 6 5 0 223 18 . TROUBLE F E E L I N G GOOD 0 5 0 8 - 0 0 8 3 8 . REMAINS R E S P O N S I B L E 0 769 0 293 2 . OFTEN ASSUMES LEADER 0 7 1 1 0 140 14 . DOES WELL A T H L E T I C A L 0 4 9 5 - 0 332 26 . NEVER DO ENOUGH 0 574 - 0 105 24 . A P P E A R S EXEMPLARY 0 793 0 164 9 . A P P E A R S TO FUNCT ION 0 7 0 0 0 0 1 9 3 . DOES WELL SCHOLAST 0 744 - 0 0 0 8 29 . REPEATED SUC NO SATS 0 6 4 2 - 0 241 1 2 . P R O V I D E WORTH BY SUC 0 851 0 0 7 3 1 5 . LEAOER AMONG P E E R S 0 729 - 0 151 25 . A P P E A R S P E R F E C T 0 7 9 2 - 0 0 6 2 23 . S U C C E S S IN WORK 0 8 1 2 - 0 221 27 . SUC TO STOP PARDRINK 0 8 7 9 - 0 0 9 5 2 1 . S U P E R A C H I E V E R ( T R I E S ) 0 9 0 1 - 0 102 2 2 . F E E L S THEY DONT F I T 0 396 0 0 1 4 50 . AVOIDS A L C O H O L I C 0 377 - 0 031 54 . D I S A S S O C I A T E S 0 6 4 9 - 0 0 8 4 5 5 . NON- P R E S E N C E 0 671 - 0 0 2 3 48 . L I V E S IN F A N T A S Y 0 6 4 5 0 105 45 . AVOIDS OTHER P E O P L E 0 763 - 0 021 51 . WITHDRAWS INTO S E L F 0 8 2 4 - 0 061 44 . K E E P S TO S E L F / L O N E R 0 8 8 7 - 0 0 0 8 5 2 . LOST IN S H U F F L E 0 91 1 - 0 0 1 2 49 . K E E P S A LOW P R O F I L E 0 9 2 5 0 031 47 . WITHDRAWS 0 9 3 0 - 0 0 0 4 5 3 . E S C A P E S BY H I D I N G 0 9 4 5 - 0 0 6 4 35 . M A N I P U L A T E S OTHERS 0 2 5 2 . 0 . 2 9 9 39 . TAKES IN S T R I D E 0 526 - 0 . 0 4 6 4 1 . ADAPTS TO S I T U A T I O N S 0 6 8 8 0 031 40 . F L E X I B L E 0 6 8 2 - 0 011 59 . OFTEN LACK S K I L L S 0 407 - 0 124 58 . . PROBLEMS I N T E R A C T I N G 0 5 8 5 - 0 0 4 3 56 . OFTEN LACK EDUCATION 0 6 3 5 - 0 081 64 . P O T E N T I A L - DANGEROUS 0 6 2 7 - 0 0 6 5 57 . UNABLE CONTROL ANGER 0 72 1 0 016 6 1 . ACTS- PHYS A G G R E S S I V E 0 8 1 9 0 0 1 5 6 3 . FAM BLAMES THEM 0 8 5 9 - 0 0 0 2 16 . ACTS VERB A G G R E S S I V E 0 8 8 9 - 0 0 1 6 6 0 . R E B E L S 0 9 2 5 0 0 0 9 67 . FAM SAYS PERSON BAD 0 9 2 7 0 0 1 0 6 2 . ACTS OUT 0 96 1 0 0 2 3 68 . OFTEN IN TROUBLE. 0 961 0 0 2 3 6 5 . CAUSES T R 0 U 8 L E 0 9 6 4 0 0 2 4 66 . ACTS D E F I A N T / H O S T I L E 0 9 6 4 0 0 2 4 3 2 . CLOWNING OR ANNOYING 0 8 0 4 - 0 122 34 . T R I E S TO BE CUTE 0 801 - 0 0 1 1 31 . T R I E S TO BE FUNNY 0 9 4 0 0 0 5 0 L = 6 J 3 t I 5 6 0 514 - 0 0 3 4 - 0 0 6 4 - 0 0 1 2 - 0 004 - 0 324 0 444 0 2 9 2 - 0 01 1 - 0 0 4 0 0 380 - 0 0 3 3 - 0 0 4 0 0 0 3 4 - 0 0 0 8 0 433 - 0 0 0 4 - 0 154 0 0 2 7 - 0 0 0 3 - 0 170 0 0 9 6 0 337 0 0 1 5 ' - 0 0 6 3 - 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 4 0 175 - 0 0 5 8 0 360 0 135 0 120 - 0 0 5 7 - 0 0 0 9 - 0 0 0 2 0 301 - 0 0 2 2 - 0 170 - 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 5 - 0 301 0 0 0 1 0 170 - 0 0 5 2 0 1 17 0 182 - 0 0 2 2 - 0 2 3 2 - 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 2 - 0 0 2 3 - 0 0 4 7 - 0 0 3 3 0 0 2 2 - 0 0 5 3 - 0 206 - 0 0 30 0 194 0 0 2 7 - 0 1 17 - 0 0 0 4 - 0 0 3 1 - 0 123 0 0 0 2 - 0 0 2 7 0 0 0 7 - 0 0 3 1 - 0 102 0 0 0 1 - 0 0 1 2 - 0 3 1 0 - 0 0 7 5 0 141 0 0 2 2 - 0 0 5 7 0 476 0 0 2 3 - 0 0 6 2 0 0 4 2 0 0 2 8 0 5 7 3 0 0 4 6 0 2 4 0 0 0 7 0 - 0 001 0 6 0 0 0 0 5 2 0 321 0 0 2 5 - 0 113 0 6 4 8 0 0 1 4 - 0 126 - 0 0 1 9 0 026 0 708 - 0 0 3 3 0 0 8 0 - 0 0 1 2 0 006 0 843 0 105 0 122 0 0 3 2 - 0 0 0 4 0 8 5 5 - 0 0 2 5 - 0 1 14 - 0 0 0 3 •0 0 2 3 0 906 - 0 0 1 5 - 0 0 2 6 0 0 1 4 - 0 001 0 911 - 0 0 0 7 0 314 0 0 7 7 - 0 0 1 2 0 927 0 0 5 3 0 0 8 8 0 0 5 8 - 0 0 0 4 0 969 0 0 0 9 - 0 156 - 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 0 9 7 2 0 0 1 0 - 0 0 1 6 - 0 0 4 4 0 077 1 0 2 7 - 0 0 0 6 - 0 0 1 2 - 0 0 3 1 - 0 0 0 8 1 0 5 4 0 0 5 7 0 129 - 0 0 1 4 - 0 0 0 8 1 0 6 5 - 0 0 2 1 - 0 125 - 0 0 0 8 - 0 0 0 5 1 . 0 6 7 - 0 0 4 5 0 145 - 0 0 2 6 - 0 0 0 3 1 0 8 4 - 0 0 0 6 0 0 2 8 - 0 0 3 5 - 0 0 0 5 1 180 - 0 0 0 9 0 0 7 8 - 0 0 3 4 0 0 2 4 1 182 - 0 0 1 6 - 0 0 8 5 - 0 0 1 9 0 0 1 4 1 . 2 0 1 - 0 0 1 6 - 0 0 9 2 - 0 0 1 8 0 0 0 4 - 0 0 0 2 0 469 0 2 5 8 0 3 7 8 - 0 0 1 2 0 0 9 3 0 6 2 6 - 0 0 8 9 0 2 9 2 - 0 014 0 0 1 9 0 . 9 0 7 0 0 5 4 0 146 - 0 076 - 0 . 0 1 6 0 9 19 0 130 0 0 2 6 - 0 0 0 6 - 0 . 0 6 1 0 . 9 2 8 - 0 0 6 0 - 0 0 2 5 0 0 5 3 - 0 006 1 . 0 0 4 0 0 6 5 - 0 0 2 9 - 0 0 0 3 0 . 0 3 9 1 . 0 5 4 0 0 3 3 - 0 0 3 1 - 0 021 0 . 0 0 5 1 . 1 10 - 0 1 19 - 0 0 3 2 0 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 0 0 1 . 118 - 0 0 4 7 - 0 0 5 2 0 011 - 0 . 0 2 3 1 . 130 - 0 0 8 7 - 0 0 5 5 0 0 1 3 - 0 . 0 0 4 1 . 136 - 0 0 8 2 - 0 0 5 4 0 0 0 2 0 . 0 2 3 1 . 144 - 0 0 5 7 - 0 0 5 8 0 001 - 0 . 0 6 8 0 . 0 2 7 0 358 0 231 0 . 103 0 . 0 9 6 - 0 . 0 4 8 0 9 4 0 - 0 0 7 3 0 0 6 7 - 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 6 1 0 9 6 - 0 0 7 0 - 0 . 0 2 8 - 0 . 0 3 0 - 0 . 0 8 9 1 . 132 - 0 0 5 5 - 0 0 3 4 0 0 2 8 0 165 0 29 1 0 5 8 0 0 066 - 0 0 1 0 0 0 9 8 0 195 0 801 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 6 - 0 0 6 5 0 2 9 3 0 8 2 8 0 0 4 g 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 8 0 2 1 2 0 854 - 0 0 1 8 - 0 0 2 7 0 0 3 0 0 134 0 9 3 2 - 0 0 0 8 0 0 1 2 - 0 0 4 9 0 0 0 5 1 0 2 8 - 0 031 0 0 0 5 - 0 0 2 1 - 0 124 1 0 5 2 0 0 1 7 0 001 - 0 0 3 4 - 0 . 0 0 4 1 0 6 5 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 5 - 0 0 2 4 - 0 139 1 0 9 5 0 0 0 3 - 0 0 0 5 - 0 0 2 7 - 0 130 1 0 9 7 0 0 0 2 - 0 0 1 7 - 0 0 2 9 - 0 135. 1 . 117 - 0 0 0 2 - 0 0 1 7 - 0 0 2 9 - 0 135 1 . 1 17 - 0 0 0 2 - 0 0 2 9 - 0 0 3 7 - 0 . 0 7 7 1 120 - 0 0 1 5 - 0 0 2 9 - 0 0 3 7 - 0 . 0 7 7 1 . 120 - 0 . 0,15 0 0 4 6 0 0 1 6 0 0 0 8 0 0 8 4 0 967 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 5 0 0 1 3 - 0 . 0 2 8 0 9 8 3 - 0 0 1 9 - 0 0 1 1 - 0 0 3 9 - 0 0 4 1 1 0 7 2 P H I M A T R I X : L = 5 STIMULUS 1-DELTA**2 1 2 3 4 5 35 . MANIPULATES OTHERS 0 . 239 0 . 50 1 - 0 . 096 0 . 054 0 . 218 0 . 273 4 0 . FLEXIBLE 0 . 246 0 . 549 - 0 . 142 0 . 037 - 0 . 048 0 . 4 19 4 1 . ADAPTS TO SITUATIONS 0 . 289 0 . 577 - 0 . 114 0 . 123 - 0 . 063 0 . 41 1 4 . TAKES CHARGE 0 . 658 0 . 579 0 . 556 - 0 . 052 - 0 . 013 - 0 . 065 2 0 . MOTIVATED FAM LOOKOK 0 . 648 0 . 649 0 . 492 - 0 . 034 0 . 024 - 0 . 1 1 1 7 . PROVIDES STRUCTURE 0 . 622 0 . 700 0 . 423 - 0 . 052 0 . 030 - 0 . 063 10. MANAGES FAM AFFAIRS 0 . 702 0 . 834 0 . 373 - 0 . 059 - 0 . 016 - 0 . 097 46 . TRIES REDUCE CONFLIC 0 . 459 0 . 870 - 0 . 198 - 0 . 009 - 0 . 078 0 . 464 43 . MAINTAINS ORDER 0 . 567 0 . 876 0 . 187 0 . 095 - 0 . 017 - 0 . 073 4 2 . FEARS ROCKING BOAT 0 . 456 0 . 885 - 0 . 331 0 . 463 - 0 . 022 0 . 043 33 . DISCOUNTS OWN NEEDS 0 . 390 0 . 961 - 0 . 179 0 . 116 0 . 005 0 . 04 1 13. FAM COUNTS ON THEM 0 . 757 0 . 987 0 . 273 - 0 . 069 - 0 . 009 - 0 . 152 1 7 . PRAISE FOR CARING 0 . 708 1. 137 0 . 072 - 0 . 068 - 0 . 007 - 0 . 154 5 . FEELS RESPONSIBLE 0 . 678 1. 143 0 . 035 - 0 . 074 0 . 013 - 0 . 139 19 . ACTS AS FAM SAVIOR 0 . 740 1. 153 0 . 081 - 0 . 066 - 0 . 008 - 0 . 128 37 . SMOOTHS OVER CONFLIC 0 . 559 1. 195 - 0 . 270 - 0 . 010 - 0 . 068 0 . 154 38 . WILLING TO LEND EAR 0 . 653 1. 285 - 0 . 181 - 0 . 031 0 . 018 - 0 . 115 36 . SURVIVAL=GIVING 0 . 716 1. 400 -0. 272 - 0 . 088 ' 0. 010 - 0 . 076 3 0 . MIRROR OF GOODNESS 0. 461 0. 417 0. .510 0. 007 0. 039 - 0 . 016 2 8 . UNABLE TO RELAX 0 . 399 0 . 238 0 . 551 0 . 069 0. 067 0 . 114 6 . TAKES L IFE SERIOUSLY 0 . 513 0 . 383 0 . 569 0 . 086 0 . 025 0 . 013 1 1 . HAVE TO BE GOOD 0 . 678 0 . 4 18 0 . 694 - 0 . 009 - 0 . 020 - 0 . 047 1 . OLDEST OR ONLY CHILD 0 . 564 0 . 257 0 . 715 - 0 . 028 - 0 . 011 0 . 039 18 . TROUBLE FEELING GOOD 0 . 500 - 0 . 043 0 . 828 0 . 122 0 . 033 0 . 073 14 . DOES WELL ATHLETICAL 0. 442 - 0 . 198 0 . 853 0. .036 0. .081 0 . 159 8 . REMAINS RESPONSIBLE 0. 766 0 . 225 0 . .890 - 0 . .040 0 . 001 - 0 . 09 1 26 . NEVER DO ENOUGH 0. 568 - 0 . 088 0 . .916 0 . ,067 0 . .060 0 . 059 2 . OFTEN ASSUMES LEADER 0 . 711 0 . 109 0 . 923 - 0 . 018 0. ,017 - 0 . 012 9 . APPEARS TO FUNCTION 0 . 700 - 0 . 022 0. 986 0. 008 - 0 . 041 0 . 092 24 . APPEARS EXEMPLARY 0 . 787 0 . 063 1. 005 -0. 007 -0. 006 - 0 . 071 2 9 . REPEATED SUC NO SATS 0 . 628 - 0 . 210 1. 030 0. 079 - 0 . ,010 0 . 081 3 . DOES WELL SCHOLAST 0 . 745 - 0 . 044 1. .037 -0. ,003 - 0 . .025 - 0 . .006 15 . LEADER AMONG PEERS 0. 715 - 0 . 1 10 1. 047 -0. ,023 - 0 . ,020 0 . 082 2 5 . APPEARS PERFECT 0 . 790 - 0 . 081 1. .087 0 . 002 - 0 . .030 0 . 022 12. PROVIDE WORTH BY SUC 0 . 849 - 0 . 019 1. 093 - 0 . 033 - 0 . ,003 - 0 . 059 2 3 . SUCCESS IN WORK 0 . 806 - 0 . 225 1. 168 0 . ,006 - 0 . ,028 0 . 090 27 . SUC TO STOP PARORINK 0 . 880 - 0 . 180 1. 198 - 0 . ,020 - 0 . ,012 - 0 . 006 21 . SUPERACHI EVER(TRIES) 0 . 901 - 0 . 190 1. ,217 - 0 . .020 •0. .011 - 0 . .021 2 2 . FEELS THEY DONT FIT 0 . 380 0 . 161 - 0 . .035 0. ,500 0 . . 369 0 . 105 50 . AVOIDS ALCOHOLIC 0 . 374 - 0 . 073 0 . , 102 0 . ,625 0 . .290 - 0 . 06 1 48 . LIVES IN FANTASY 0 . 637 0 . 085 - 0 . 047 0 . 925 • - 0 . ,030 . 0 . 02 1' 54 . DISASSOCIATES 0 . 649 - 0 . 045 0 . 006 0 . ,926 0. . 145 - 0 . 069 55 . NON-PRESENCE 0 . 669 ' 0 . 055 - 0 . .033 0 . .942 0. .022 0 . 047 45 . . AVOIDS OTHER PEOPLE 0 . 764 0 . 022 - 0 , ,016 1. .021 - 0 . .032 0. .020 5 1 . WITHDRAWS INTO SELF 0 . 824 - 0 . 036 0, ,031 1. .069 - 0 . .032 - 0 . .015 44 . KEEPS TO SELF/LONER 0 . 875 - 0 . 064 0 . ,021 1. . 106 - 0 . .034 - 0 . 039 5 2 . LOST IN SHUFFLE 0 . 907 - 0 . 028 0. ,005 1. .123 - 0 .054 - 0 . 019 49 . KEEPS A LOW PROFILE 0 . 917 - 0 . 004 - 0 . ,010 1. . 130 -0, .057 - 0 . 039 47 . WITHORAWS 0 . 924 - 0 . 037 0 . ,006 1. , 137 - 0 . .055 - 0 . 047 5 3 . ESCAPES BY HIDING 0 . 942 - 0 . 088 0. .028 1, . 150 - 0 . .059 - 0 . 034 59 . OFTEN LACK SKILLS 0 . 388 0 . 026 - 0 . .015 0 . . 198 0. . 569 0. .225 58 . PROBLEMS INTERACTING 0 . 575 0 . 065 - 0 . .038 0 . .121 0 . 789 0 . 125 56 . OFTEN LACK EDUCATION 0 .611 0 .075 - 0 .036 - 0 .033 0 .814 0 . 205 64 . POTENTIAL- DANGEROUS 0 .6 10 0 .055 - 0 .023 0 .044 0 . 843 0 .085 57 . UNABLE CONTROL ANGER 0 .716 0 .099 - 0 .046 0 .045 0 .920 0 .059 61 . ACTS PHYS AGGRESSIVE 0 .819 0 .030 0 .010 - 0 .045 1 .019 - 0 .032 6 3 . FAM BLAMES THEM 0 . 854 - 0 .060 0 .020 - 0 .031 1 .042 - 0 .034 16 . ACTS VERB AGGRESSIVE 0 . 889 - 0 .009 -0 .001 - 0 .032 1 .055 0 .009 6 0 . REBELS 0 .9 19 - 0 .055 0 .023 - 0 .035 1 .086 - 0 .060 67 . FAM SAYS PERSON BAO 0 . 922 - 0 .049 0 .011 - 0 .038 1 .087 - 0 .055 6 2 . ACTS OUT 0 .955 - 0 .038 - 0 .000 - 0 .041 1 . 107 - 0 .064 6 8 . OFTEN IN TROUBLE 0 .955 - 0 .038 - 0 .000 - 0 .041 1 . 107 - 0 .064 6 5 . CAUSES TROUBLE 0 .963 - 0 .004 - 0 .020 - 0 .043 1 . 1 10 - 0 .053 66 . ACTS DEFIANT/HOSTILE 0 .963 - 0 .004 - 0 .020 - 0 .043 T . 1 10 - 0 .053 39 . TAKES IN STRIDE 0 .256 0 .428 - 0 .010 0 .053 - 0 .069 0 . 467 32 . CLOWNING OR ANNOYING 0 .699 - 0 . 180 0 .059 - 0 .012 0 .061 1 . 1 16 34 . TRIES TO BE CUTE 0 .683 -0 .064 0 .022 - 0 .025 - 0 .049 1 . 126 3 1 . TRIES TO BE FUNNY 0 . 727 -0 .022 0 .008 - 0 .047 - 0 .057 1 . 159 135 PHI MATRIX: L = 4 STIMULUS 1 - D E L T A " 2 1 i t I 28 . UNABLE TO RELAX 0 393 0 503 0 07 1 0 331 0 093 30. MIRROR OF GOODNESS 0 46 1 0 534 0 001 0 408 0 031 6 . TAKES L IFE SERIOUSLY 0 5 14 0 566 0 079 0 4 1 1 0 023 4 . TAKES CHARGE 0 652 0 609 - 0 063 0 539 - 0 038 1 . OLDEST OR ONLY CHILD 0 562 0 693 - 0 027 0 283 - 0 003 1 1 . HAVE TO BE GOOD 0 678 0 721 - 0 014 0 382 - 0 035 14 . OOES WELL ATHLETICAL 0 407 0 735 0 052 - 0 09 1 0 133 18 . TROUBLE FEELING GOOD 0 488 0 759 0 131 0 001 0 06 1 26 . NEVER DO ENOUGH 0 555 0 846 0 077 - 0 059 0 088 2 . OFTEN ASSUMES LEADER 0 710 0 900 - 0 014 0 083 0 024 8 . REMAINS RESPONSIBLE 0 767 0 909 - 0 041 0 142 - 0 014 9 . APPEARS TO FUNCTION 0 683 0 909 0 021 0 026 - 0 010 2 9 . REPEATED SUC NO SATS 0 604 0 933 0 094 - 0 169 0 026 15. LEADER AMONG PEERS 0 694 0 960 - 0 009 - 0 069 0 013 3 . DOES WELL SCHOLAST 0 741 0 993 0 006 - 0 074 - 0 013 24 . APPEARS EXEMPLARY 0 790 0 999 - 0 003 - 0 016 - 0 010 2 5 . APPEARS PERFECT 0 780 1 025 0 013 - 0 088 - 0 010 2 3 . SUCCESS IN WORK 0 776 1 063 0 024 - 0 186 0 01 1 12 . PROVIDE WORTH BY SUC 0 850 1 071 - 0 025 - 0 094 0 000 27 . SUC TO STOP PARDRINK 0 87 1 1 137 - 0 006 - 0 221 0 007 21 . SUPERACHIEVERt TRIES) 0 895 1 160 - 0 006 - 0 244 0 006 22 . FEELS THEY DONT FIT 0 380 - 0 061 0 493 0 261 0 399 50 . AVOIDS ALCOHOLIC 0 372 0 117 0 619 - 0 120 0 291 54 . DISASSOCIATES 0 645 0 024 0 916 - 0 082 0 138 4 8 . L IVES IN FANTASY 0 637 - 0 046 0 917 0 120 - 0 029 55 . NON-PRESENCE 0 669 - 0 048 0 934 0 114 0 030 4 5 . AVOIDS OTHER PEOPLE 0 764 - 0 024 1 013 0 059 - 0 030 5 1 . WITHOHAWS INTO SELF 0 824 0 029 1 062 - 0 030 - 0 035 44 . KEEPS TO SELF/LONER 0 874 0 028 1 099 - 0 081 - 0 041 5 2 . LOST IN SHUFFLE 0 907 0 008 1 115 - 0 026 - 0 058 49 . KEEPS A LOW PROFILE 0 915 0 003 1 120 - 0 015 - 0 066 47 . WITHDRAWS 0 922 0 019 1 128 - 0 057 - 0 065 5 3 . ESCAPES BY HIDING 0 942 0 030 1 143 - 0 100 - 0 065 32 . CLOWNING OR ANNOYING 0 155 - 0 300 0 049 0 551 0 290 20 . MOTIVATED FAM LOOKOK 0 634 0 572 - 0 049 0 574 - 0 012 34 . TRIES TO BE CUTE 0 14 1 - 0 322 0 035 0 667 0 180 7 . PROVIDES STRUCTURE 0 6 13 0 490 - 0 067 0 671 0 001 3 1 . TRIES TO BE FUNNY 0 155 - 0 336 0 017 0 721 0 178 35 . MANIPULATES OTHERS 0 234 - 0 150 0 051 0 737 0 264 10. MANAGES FAM AFFAIRS 0 682 0 469 - 0 078 0 779 - 0 057 39 . TAKES IN STRIDE 0 204 - 0 151 0 060 0 815 0 010 43 . MAINTAINS OROER 0 547 0 282 0 072 0 855 - 0 058 13 . FAM COUNTS ON THEM 0 7 14 0 409 - 0 094 0 893 - 0 067 4 0 . FLEXIBLE 0 222 - 0 254 0 038 0 917 0 017 41 . ADAPTS TO SITUATIONS 0 267 - 0 222 0 122 0 940 - 0 001 42 . FEARS ROCKING BOAT 0 448 - 0 252 0 436 0 979 - 0 046 3 3 . DISCOUNTS OWN NEEDS 0 384 - 0 109 0 091 1 050 - 0 019 1 7 . PRAISE FOR CARING 0 650 0 231 - 0 098 1 050 - 0 073 5 . FEELS RESPONSIBLE 0 625 0 187 - 0 105 1 074 - 0 050 19 . ACTS AS FAM SAVIOR 0 688 0 232 - 0 096 1 088 - 0 069 38 . WILLING TO LEND EAR 0 591 - 0 017 - 0 066 1 246 - 0 047 46 . TRIES REDUCE CONFLIC 0 428 - 0 276 - 0 009 1 253 - 0 015 37 . SMOOTHS OVER CONFLIC 0 560 - 0 213 - 0 034 1 373 - 0 080 36 . SURVIVAL=GIVING 0 655 - 0 104 - 0 123 1 392 - 0 052 59 . OFTEN LACK SKILLS 0 377 - 0 094 0 201 0 201 0 633 58 . PROBLEMS INTERACTING 0 576 - 0 073 0 1 18 0 161 0 84 1 56 . OFTEN LACK EDUCATION 0 607 - 0 too - 0 031 0 , 2 3 2 0 882 64 . POTENTIAL - DANGEROUS 0 612 - 0 045 0 04 1 0 1 19 0 889 57 . UNABLE CONTROL ANGER 0 7 16 - 0 052 0 040 0 142 0 961 6 1 . ACTS PHYS AGGRESSIVE 0 814 0 032 - 0 052 - 0 006 1 047 6 3 . FAM BLAMES THEM 0 850 0 038 - 0 036 - 0 107 1 074 16 . ACTS VERB AGGRESSIVE 0 888 0 004 - 0 036 - 0 017 1 095 6 0 . REBELS 0 9 12 0 050 - 0 041 - 0 122 1 114 67 . FAM SAYS PERSON BAD 0 9 15 0 .038 - 0 043 - 0 1 1 1 1 115 6 2 . ACTS OUT 0 946 0 031 - 0 047 - 0 106 1 . 134 68 . OFTEN IN TR0U8LE 0 946 0 031 - 0 047 - 0 106 1 134 65 . CAUSES TROUBLE 0 955 0 .010 - 0 .050 - 0 .060 1 . 138 6 6 . ACTS DEFIANT/HOSTILE 0 955 0 .010 - 0 050 - 0 .060 1 . 138 136 PHI MATRIX: L = 3 STIMULUS 1 - D E L T A 1 ' 2 1 2 3 3 5 . MANIPULATES OTHERS 0 . 160 0 . 340 0 . 144 0 301 40 . FLEXIBLE 0 . 090 0 . 343 0 . 157 0 060 39 . TAKES IN STRIDE 0 . 111 0 . 394 0 . 163 0 047 4 1 . ADAPTS TO SITUATIONS 0 . 138 0 . 397 0 . 247 0 041 46 . TRIES REDUCE CONFLIC 0 . 189 0 . 552 0 . 145 0 042 3 3 . DISCOUNTS OWN NEEDS 0 . 245 0 . 607 0 219 0 025 37 . SMOOTHS OVER CONFLIC 0 . 289 0 710 0 . 128 - 0 019 14. DOES WELL ATHLETICAL 0 . 363 0 . 806 - 0 . 001 0 112 28 . UNABLE TO RELAX 0 . 395 0 . 831 0 . 081 0 094 36 . SURVIVAL=GIVING 0 . 394 0 . 853 0 . 031 0 007 38. WILLING TO LEND EAR 0 . 402 0 856 0 069 0 004 18 . TROUBLE FEELING GOOD 0 . 452 0 . 900 0 . 092 0 042 3 0 . MIRROR OF GOODNESS 0 462 0 924 0 013 0 034 4 3 . MAINTAINS ORDER 0 . 500 0 937 0 155 - 0 032 2 6 . NEVER 00 ENOUGH 0 . 504 0 960 0 022 0 065 6 . TAKES L IFE SERIOUSLY 0 . 516 0 . 964 0 095 0 025 5 . FEELS RESPONSIBLE 0 . 515 0 . 981 - 0 002 - 0 011 29 . REPEATED SUC NO SATS 0 . 522 0 . 985 0 022 - 0 004 1 7 . PRAISE FOR CARING 0 . 552 1 . 016 - 0 . 000 - 0 036 1 . OLDEST OR ONLY CHILD 0 . 560 1 026 - 0 040 - 0 009 19 . ACTS AS FAM SAVIOR 0 . 582 1 043 0 006 - 0 031 7 . PROVIDES STRUCTURE 0 . 601 1 060 - 0 027 0 016 2 0 . MOTIVATED FAM LOOKOK 0 . 632 1 088 - 0 023 - 0 004 15 . LEADER AMONG PEERS 0 632 1 091 - 0 077 - 0 014 9 . APPEARS TO FUNCTION 0 . 641 1 098 - 0 031 - 0 033 4 . TAKES CHARGE 0 653 1 108 - 0 045 - 0 032 10. MANAGES FAM AFFAIRS 0 657 1 111 - 0 025 - 0 038 13. FAM COUNTS ON THEM 0 668 1 120 - 0 025 - 0 042 3 . DOES WELL SCHOLAST 0 673 1 126 - 0 063 - 0 04 1 2 3 . SUCCESS IN WORK 0 674 1 127 - 0 061 - 0 023 2 . OFTEN ASSUMES LEADER 0 678 1 128 - 0 061 0 004 1 1 . HAVE TO BE GOOO 0 679 1 129 - 0 018 - 0 038 25 . APPEARS PERFECT 0 705 1 152 - 0 059 - 0 040 24 . APPEARS EXEMPLARY 0 732 •1 174 - 0 067 - 0 036 8 . REMAINS RESPONSIBLE 0 742 1 182 - 0 084 - 0 031 27 . SUC TO STOP PARDRINK 0 750 1 189 - 0 100 - 0 030 21 . SUPERACHIEVERlTRIES) 0 764 1 200 - 0 104 - 0 033 12. PROVIDE WORTH BY SUC 0 769 1 204 - 0 103 - 0 031 22 . FEELS THEY DONT FIT 0 378 0 098 0 558 0 415 42 . FEARS ROCKING BOAT 0 316 0 368 0 584 - 0 002 5 0 . AVOIDS ALCOHOLIC 0 356 0 037 0 638 0 284 5 4 . DISASSOCIATES 0 632 - 0 053 0 965 0 131 48 . LIVES IN FANTASY 0 637 • 0 006 0 996- •0 030 55 . NOtf- PRESENCE 0 670 - 0 001 1 013 0 031 45 . AVOIDS OTHER PEOPLE 0 76 1 - 0 013 1 090 - 0 034 5 1 . WITHDRAWS INTO.SELF 0 813 - 0 013 1 127 - 0 044 44 . KEEPS TO SELF/LONER 0 858 - 0 051 1 160 - 0 052 5 2 . LOST IN SHUFFLE 0 896 - 0 037 1 186 - 0 067 49 . KEEPS A LOW PROFILE 0 906 - 0 035 1 193 - 0 075 47 . WITHORAWS 0 908 - 0 047 1 195 - 0 076 5 3 . ESCAPES BY HIDING 0 922 - 0 064 1 205 - 0 078 34 . TRIES TO 8E CUTE 0 056 0 088 0 131 0 216 31 . TRIES TO BE FUNNY 0 057 0 1 10 0 119 0 .216 3 2 . CLOWNING OR ANNOYING 0 095 0 031 0 132 0 . 323 59 . .OFTEN LACK SKILLS 0 374 0 024 0 241 0 .654 5 8 . PROBLEMS INTERACTING 0 574 0 021 0 147 0 . 863 56 . OFTEN LACK EDUCATION 0 600 0 .042 - 0 004 0 .910 64 . POTENTIAL- DANGEROUS 0 .611 0 .026 0 .057 0 .910 57 . UNABLE CONTROL ANGER 0 .7 16 0 .034 0 .059 0 .985 6 1 . ACTS PHYS AGGRESSIVE 0 .813 0 .030 - 0 .061 1 .065 63 . FAM BLAMES THEM 0 .845 - 0 .034 - 0 .055 1 .088 16 . ACTS VERB AGGRESSIVE 0 . 887 - 0 .011 - 0 .044 1 .113 60 . REBELS 0 .906 - 0 .030 - 0 .064 1 . 127 67 . FAM SAYS PERSON BAO 0 .910 - 0 .037 - 0 .064 1 . 130 62 . ACTS OUT 0 .941 - 0 .041 - 0 .067 1 . 149 68 . OFTEN IN TR0U8LE 0 .94 1 - 0 .04 1 - 0 .067 1 . 149 6 5 . CAUSES TROUBLE 0 .953 - 0 .034 - 0 .064 1 . 156 6 6 . ACTS DEFIANT/HOSTILE 0 .953 - 0 .034 - 0 .064 1 . 156 137 PHI MATRIX: L = 2 STIMULUS 1-DELTA' '2 1 2 40 . FLEXIBLE 0 . 083 0 . 372 0 . 139 39 . TAKES IN STRIDE 0 . 103 0 . 426 0 . . 125 4 1 . AOAPTS TO SITUATIONS 0 . 1 14 0 . 439 0 . . 156 4 2 . FEARS ROCKING BOAT 0 . 141 0 . 451 0. .252 46 . TRIES REDUCE CONFLIC 0 . 184 0 . 586 0 . ,111 3 3 . DISCOUNTS OWN NEEDS 0 . 227 0 . .652 0. , 124 37 . SMOOTHS OVER CONFLIC 0 . 284 0 . 748 0 . .030 14 . DOES WELL ATHLETICAL 0 . 360 0 . 828 0 . , 125 2 8 . UNABLE TO RELAX 0 . 395 0 . .865 0 . .14 1 36 . SURVIVAL=GIVING 0 . 394 0 . .884 0. ,017 38. WILLING TO LEND EAR 0 . 402 0 . 891 0 . ,029 18 . TROUBLE FEELING GOOD 0 . 452 0 . 938 0 . .083 3 0 . MIRROR OF GOODNESS 0 . 461 0 . 953 0 . ,039 4 3 . MAINTAINS ORDER 0 . 492 0 . 987 0 . .025 26 . NEVER DO ENOUGH 0 . 503 0 . 990 0 . 079 6 . TAKES L IFE SERIOUSLY 0 . 515 .1. 005 0 . .065 5 . FEELS RESPONSIBLE 0 . 513 1. 01 1 - 0 . ,021 29 . REPEATED SUC NO SATS 0 . 522 1. 018 - 0 . .003 17 . PRAISE FOR CARING 0 . 55 1 1. 048 - 0 . .050 1 . OLDEST OR ONLY CHILD 0 . 556 1. 052 - 0 . .036 19. ACTS AS FAM SAVIOR 0 . 581 • 1. 077 - 0 . .042 7 . PROVIDES STRUCTURE 0 . 597 1. ,089 - 0 . .001 15. LEADER AMONG PEERS 0 . 623 1. .114 - 0 . ,060 2 0 . MOTIVATED FAM LOOKOK 0 . 629 1. , 1 19 - 0 . .023 9 . APPEARS TO FUNCTION 0 . 638 1. .128 - 0 . .062 4 . TAKES'CHARGE 0 . 648 1. ,137 - 0 , ,067 10. MANAGES FAM AFFAIRS 0 . 655 1. . 143 - 0 . .065 13. FAM COUNTS ON THEM 0 . 665 1. , 152 - 0 , .069 3 . DOES WELL SCHOLAST 0 . 666 1. , 153 - 0 , .086 2 3 . SUCCESS IN WORK 0 . 668 1. , 154 - 0 , ,063 2. OFTEN ASSUMES LEADER 0 . 670 1. , 155 - 0 . .031 1 1 . HAVE TO BE GOOD 0 . 677 1. , 162 - 0 , .062 25 . APPEARS PERFECT 0 . 699 1. , 181 - 0 . .083 24 . APPEARS EXEMPLARY 0 . 725 1. ,203 •0, .082 8. REM4INS RESPONSIBLE 0 . 732 1. , 208 - 0 . .084 27 . SUC TO STOP PARDRINK 0 . 738 1. .213 - 0 . .090 21 . SUPERACHIEVERf TRIES) 0 . 750 1, ,224 - 0 .095 12. PROVIDE WORTH BY SUC 0 . 755 1, .228 - 0 .092 3 1 . TRIES TO BE FUNNY 0 . 056 0. . 123 0 . 308 34 . TRIES TO BE CUTE 0 . 055 0. . 102 0 .313 48 . L IVES IN FANTASY 0 . .086 0, . 132 0 . 389 47 . WITHORAWS 0 . .092 0. . 104 0 .413 49 . KEEPS A LOW PROFILE 0 . .093 0 . 115 0 .413 53 . ESCAPES BY HIDING 0 . .090 • 0 .088 0 .415 35 . MANIPULATES OTHERS 0. . 161 0 . 361 0 .417 5 2 . LOST IN SHUFFLE 0. .095 0 .113 0 .419 45 . AVOIDS OTHER PEOPLE 0. .098 0 . 124 0 .421 51 . WITHORAWS INTO SELF 0. .099 0 . 129 0 . 424 44 . KEEPS TO SELF/LONER 0. .096 0 .095 0 .427 32 . CLOWNING OR ANNOYING 0 .096 0 .041 0 . 440 5 5 . NON- PRESENCE 0 .117 0 . 126 0 .465 54 . DISASSOCIATES 0 . 158 0 .065 0 . 560 50 . AVOIDS ALCOHOLIC 0 . 192 0 .112 0 .609 22 . FEELS THEY DONT FIT 0 .281 0 . 162 0 . 731 59 . OFTEN LACK SKILLS 0. . 379 0 .039 0 .878 56 . - OFTEN LACK EDUCATION 0 .556 0 .020 1 .067 5 8 . PROBLEMS INTERACTING 0 .572 0 .018 1 .082 64 . POTENTIAL- DANGEROUS 0 . 586 0 .011 1 .096 57 . UNABLE CONTROL ANGER 0 . 684 0 .018 1 . 184 6 1 . ACTS PHYS AGGRESSIVE 0 . 722 - 0 .002 1 .218 63 . FAM BLAMES THEM 0 . 754 - 0 .069 1 .247 16 . ACTS VERB AGGRESSIVE 0 . 797 - 0 .044 1 .282 60 . REBELS 0 . 803 - 0 .066 1 .288 67 . FAM SAYS PERSON BAO 0 .807 - 0 .074 1 .291 6 2 . ACTS OUT 0 .834 - 0 .079 1 .312 68 . OFTEN IN TR0U8LE 0 .834 - 0 .079 1 .312 65 . CAUSES TROUBLE 0 . 846 - 0 .071 1 .321 66 . ACTS DEFIANT/HOSTILE 0 .846 - 0 .071 1 .321 APPENDIX K: PHI MATRIX (5 CATEGORY/63 CONTENT UNITS) 139 PHI MATRIX: L = 5 STIMULUS 1-1 DELTA* *2 4 . TAKES CHARGE 0 . 6 6 0 2 0 . MOTIVATED FAM L00K0K 0 . 6 5 2 7 . PROVIDES STRUCTURE 0 . 6 2 9 10. MANAGES FAM AFFAIRS 0 . 7 1 8 4 1 . TRIES REDUCE CONFLIC 0 . 455 3 8 . MAINTAINS ORDER 0 . 573 3 3 . DISCOUNTS OWN NEEDS 0 . 356 1 3 . FAM COUNTS ON THEM 0 . 783 5 . FEELS RESPONSIBLE 0 . 6 9 1 1 7 . PRAISE FOR CARING 0 . 728 36 . SMOOTHS OVER CONFLIC 0 . 5 4 4 19 . ACTS AS FAM SAVIOR 0 . 765 3 7 . WILLING TO LEND EAR 0 . 6 3 1 3 5 . SURVIVAL=GIVING 0 . 7 0 7 3 0 . MIRROR OF GOODNESS 0 . 4 6 3 28 . UNABLE TO RELAX 0 . 3 9 1 6 . TAKES L I F E SERIOUSLY 0 . 5 0 8 1 1 . HAVE TO BE GOOD 0 . 6 8 2 1 . OLDEST OR ONLY CHILD 0 . 562 18. TROUBLE FEELING GOOD 0 . . 5 0 3 8 . REMAINS RESPONSIBLE 0 . 763 14. DOES WELL ATHLETICAL 0 . 4 4 7 2 6 . NEVER DO ENOUGH 0 . 5 6 9 2 . OFTEN ASSUMES LEADER 0 . 7 1 1 2 4 . APPEARS EXEMPLARY 0 . 782 9 . APPEARS TO FUNCTION 0 , . 700 3 . DOES WELL SCHOLAST 0 . 743 2 9 . REPEATED SUC NO SATS 0 . . 6 3 3 15 . LEADER AMONG PEERS 0 . 7 2 0 12 . PROVIDE WORTH BY SUC 0 , .844 2 5 . APPEARS PERFECT 0 . . 791 2 3 . SUCCESS IN WORK 0 . . 8 1 0 27 . SUC TO STOP PARDRINK 0 , , 877 21 . SUPERACHIEVER(TRIES) 0 . . 9 0 0 2 2 . FEELS THEY DONT F IT 0 , . 369 4 5 . AVOIDS ALCOHOLIC 0 . . 375 49 . DISASSOCIATES 0 . .651 4 3 . L IVES IN FANTASY 0 . . 6 4 3 5 0 . NON-PRESENCE 0 . . 6 6 5 4 0 . AVOIDS OTHER PEOPLE 0 . . 760 46 . WITHDRAWS INTO SELF 0 . .826 3 9 . KEEPS TO SELF/LONER 0 . .877 47 . LOST IN SHUFFLE 0 . 906 4 4 . KEEPS A LOW PROFILE 0 . 919 4 2 . WITHDRAWS 0 . , 9 2 5 4 8 . ESCAPES BY HIDING 0 . 941 3 2 . CLOWNING OR ANNOYING 0 . 799 34 . TRIES TO BE CUTE 0 . 801 31 . TRIES TO BE FUNNY 0 . 920 54 . OFTEN LACK S K I L L S 0 . 374 5 3 . PROBLEMS INTERACTING 0 . 570 51 . OFTEN LACK EDUCATION 0 . ,597 5 9 . POTENTIAL- DANGEROUS 0 . 608 5 2 . UNABLE CONTROL ANGER 0 . 712 56 . ACTS PHYS AGGRESSIVE 0 . 820 5 8 . FAM BLAMES THEM 0 . 851 16 . ACTS VERB AGGRESSIVE 0 . 890 5 5 . REBELS 0 . 915 6 2 . FAM SAYS PERSON BAD 0 . 919 5 7 . ACTS OUT 0 . 952 6 3 . OFTEN IN TROUBLE 0 . 952 6 0 . CAUSES TROUBLE 0 . 962 61 . ACTS DEFIANT/HOSTILE 0 . 962 1 2 3 4 5 0 . 5 6 0 0 .534 - 0 . 0 3 8 - 0 . 0 3 0 - 0 .017 0 . 6 2 6 0 . 464 - 0 . 0 2 5 - 0 . 0 3 3 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 6 7 9 0 .391 - 0 . 0 3 2 - 0 . 0 2 2 0 .027 0 . 8 2 3 0 .319 - 0 . 0 3 8 - 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 2 5 0 . 8 2 5 - 0 . 224 0 . 0 3 3 0 . 401 - 0 .056 0 . 8 2 9 0 . 157 0 . 116 - 0 . 0 1 1 - 0 . 0 2 2 0 . 8 4 6 - 0 . 166 0 . 148 0 . 0 1 0 0 . . 0 2 6 0 . 9 8 1 0 . 201 - 0 . 0 4 5 - 0 .04 1 - 0 . 0 2 1 1 . 0 8 7 - - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 4 1 - 0 .061 0 . 0 0 9 1 . 0 9 5 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 3 9 - 0 .057 - 0 . 0 1 3 1 . 104 - 0 . 2 9 5 0 . 0 3 3 0 . 148 - 0 . 0 5 0 1 . 120 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 3 5 - 0 . 0 3 9 - 0 . 0 1 2 1 . 164 - 0 . 195 0 . 0 0 7 - 0 . 0 8 1 0 . 0 3 0 1 . 2 9 5 - 0 . 307 - 0 . 0 4 2 - 0 . 0 3 4 0 . 0 2 0 0 . 395 0 . 5 0 4 0 . 0 1 3 0 .017 0 . 0 3 5 0 . 181 0 . 5 9 2 0 . 0 7 6 0 . 0 5 2 0 . 0 7 9 0 . 3 0 7 0 . 6 1 2 0 . 0 9 5 - 0 . 0 4 5 0 . 0 4 0 0 . 4 1 7 0 . 6 7 4 - 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 2 9 0 . 2 4 4 0 . 720 - 0 . 0 2 0 0 . 0 1 8 - 0 . 0 0 8 - 0 . 0 4 9 0 . 8 5 7 0 . 1 1 7 0 . 0 3 9 0 . 0 3 5 0 . 2 2 8 0 . 8 8 5 - 0 . 0 4 2 - 0 . 0 5 4 - 0 . 0 0 9 - 0 . 2 3 0 0 .917 0 . 0 3 1 0 . 0 4 9 0 . 0 9 8 - 0 . 0 7 5 0 . 9 3 5 0 . 0 6 1 0 . 0 2 9 0 . 0 6 0 0 . 103 0 .937 - 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 1 3 0 . 0 8 0 1 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 1 7 - 0 . 0 3 3 - 0 . 0 1 9 - 0 . 0 2 4 1 . 0 1 1 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 0 6 7 - 0 . 0 4 2 - 0 . 0 3 2 1 . 0 5 1 - 0 . 0 1 1 - 0 .017 - 0 . 0 2 9 - 0 . 2 0 4 1 .067 0 . 0 6 8 0 .034 - 0 . 0 0 7 - 0 . 1 3 1 1 . 0 9 6 - 0 . 0 3 1 0 .017 - 0 . 0 1 3 - 0 . 0 0 2 1 . 101 - 0 . 0 4 4 - 0 . 0 3 3 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 7 8 1 . 1 14 - 0 . 0 0 8 - 0 .002 - 0 . . 0 3 1 - 0 . 2 2 2 1 . 2 1 0 - 0 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 4 2 - 0 . 0 2 6 - 0 . 155 1 .217 - 0 .036 - 0 .002 - 0 . . 0 2 1 - 0 . 1 7 2 1 . 2 4 2 - 0 . 0 3 8 - 0 . . 0 1 5 - 0 . .021 0 . 1 19 - 0 . 0 1 2 0 .506 0 .041 0 . . 387 - 0 . . 0 4 2 0 . 0 8 5 0 .616 - 0 . . 0 3 3 0 . . 284 - 0 . 0 4 5 0 .008 0 .917 - 0 . .072 0 . . 148 0 . 102 - 0 .068 0 . 920 0 . .049 - 0 . . 0 3 3 0 . 0 4 2 - 0 .026 0 . 9 3 8 0 .018 0 . ,031 0 .014 - 0 .010 1, . 0 1 3 0 , ,010 - 0 . .028 - 0 .026 0 .027 1 . 0 6 0 - 0 . .012 - 0 . 032 - 0 . 0 3 3 0 .001 1 . 0 9 3 - 0 . .004 - 0 . .042 - 0 . 0 1 3 - 0 . .004 1, .111 0 . .001 - 0 . 057 0 . .018 - 0 .028 1. . 1 19 - 0 . 009 - 0 . 062 - 0 . .016 - 0 . .009 1. . 125 - 0 , .018 - 0 . 061 - 0 . ,067 0 . .018 1. . 136 - 0 . .014 - 0 . 063 - 0 . . 1 16 0 . ,049 0 . .009 0 . .992 0 . 077 - 0 . 004 0 . 005 - 0 . 001 1:. 013 - 0 . 036 0 . .038 - 0 . ,014 - o . 024 1. .086 - 0 . 050 - 0 . 000 0 . 011 0 . 207 0 . 130 0 . 591 0 . 044 - 0 . 022 0 . 128 0 . 068 0 . 806 0 . .042 - 0 . ,009 - 0 . ,020 0 . . 1 10 0 . 838 0 . ,022 0 . ,002 0 . 049 0 . 028 0 . 862 0 . 067 - 0 . 027 0 . 049 0 . 027 0 . 933 0 . ,011 0 . ,022 - 0 . ,048 - 0 . 031 1. 025 - 0 . ,039 0 . 007 - 0 . 036 - 0 . 009 1. 042 - 0 . 017 0 . 006 - 0 . 034 0 . 005 1. 062 - 0 . ,035 0 . 009 - 0 . 04 1 - 0 . 028 1. 084 - 0 . 028 - 0 . 003 - 0 . 043 - 0 . 026 1. 086 - 0 . 018 - 0 . 015 - 0 . 046 - 0 . 031 1. 106 - 0 . 018 - 0 . 015 - 0 . 046 - 0 . 031 1 . 106 0 . 003 - 0 . 027 - 0 . 046 - 0 . 033 1. 113 0 . 003 - 0 . 027 - 0 . 046 - 0 . 033 1. 113 APPENDIX L: PHI MATRIX (5 CATEGORY/51 CONTENT UNITS) 141 P H I M A T R I X : L = 5 STIMULUS 1-1 DELTA * * 2 1 2 3 1 1 5 28 . MAINTAINS ORDER 0. .530 0 . 703 0 . 245 0 .119 -0 .017 -0 .005 23 . DISCOUNTS OWN NEEDS 0 .371 0 . 794 . -0 . 107 0 . 133 0 .022 0 .028 7 . FAM COUNTS ON THEM 0 . 752 0 .863 0 . 290 -0 .039 -0 .024 -0 .008 26 . SMOOTHS OVER CONFLIC 0. .539 0. .983 -0 . 164 0 .035 -0 .045 0 . 140 1 1 . PRAISE FOR CARING 0 . , 728 0 .991 0 . 1 10 -0 .035 -0 .0 16 -0 .029 13 . ACTS AS FAM SAVIOR 0. . 741 0 .993 0 .118 -0 .031 -0 .018 -0 .002 3. FEELS RESPONSIBLE 0. .699 0 .994 0 .078 -0 .042 0 .005 -0 .038 27 . WILLING TO LEND EAR 0. . 703 1 . 121 -0 .116 0 .003 0 .026 -0 .055 25 . SURVIVAL=GIVING 0. .739 1 . 193 -0 . 196 -0 .04 1 0 .016 -0 .009 12 . TROUBLE FEELING GOOD 0. . 497 0 .009 0 .801 0 . 109 0 .041 0 .021 8 . DOES WELL ATHLETICAL 0. .440 -0 . 153 0 .841 0 .031 0 . 104 0 .026 4 . REMAINS RESPONSIBLE 0, . 754 0 .231 0 .867 -0 .032 -0 .006 -0 .040 18. NEVER DO ENOUGH 0. . 567 -0 .011 0 .874 0 .06 1 0 .067 0 .011 1 . OFTEN ASSUMES LEADER 0 ,697 0 .113 0 .906 -0 .021 0 .014 -0 .005 16 . APPEARS EXEMPLARY 0. . 763 0 .111 0 .953 -0 .013 -0 .015 -0 .024 5. APPEARS TO FUNCTION 0 . 703 0. .027 0 .960 0 .010 -0 .033 0 .057 2 . DOES WELL SCHOLAST 0. . 743 0 .038 0 .985 -0 .004 -0 .022 -0 .016 2 0 . REPEATED SUC NO SATS 0, .639 -0 .113 0 .990 0 .066 0 .001 0 .012 9 . LEADER AMONG PEERS 0. . 731 -0 .059 1 .033 -0 .028 -0 .008 0 .011 17 . APPEARS PERFECT 0. . 785 -0 .020 1 .047 -0 .002 -0 .024 -0 .006 6 . PROVIDE WORTH BY SUC 0, .859 0 .060 1 .048 -0 .039 -0 .009 -0 .032 15. SUCCESS IN WORK 0, .826 -0 . 127 1 .131 -0 .003 -0 .019 0 .034 19 . SUC TO STOP PARDRINK 0. .889 -0 .066 1 . 140 -0 .031 -0 .016 -0 .001 14 . SUPERACHIEVERf TRIES) 0. .902 ' -0 , .086 1 . 159 -0 .034 -0 .016 -0 .013 37 . DISASSOCIATES 0. .637 -0 .034 0 .006 0 .884 0 . 16 1 -0 .066 32. L I V E S IN FANTASY 0. .647 0, .093 -0 .054 0 .898 -0 .013 0 .044 38 . NON- PRESENCE 0. 67 1 0 .030 -0 .021 0 .918 0 .05 1 0 .013 30 . AVOIDS OTHER PEOPLE 0. . 763 0. .006 -0 .009 0 .988 -0 .007 0 .006 34 . WITHDRAWS INTO SELF 0. . 825 -0 .005 0 .017 1 .029 -0 .012 -0 .009 29 . KEEPS TO SELF/LONER 0. ,882 -0 .040 0 .012 1 .066 -0 .019 -0 .004 35 . LOST IN SHUFFLE 0. ,908 -0 .005 -0 .003 1 .080 -0 .035 0 .007 33 . KEEPS A LOW PROFILE 0. ,919 0 .009 -0 .015 1 .088 -0 .04 1 -0 .004 31 . WITHDRAWS 0. .924 -0 .0 15 -0 .004 1 .092 -0 .039 -0 .012 36 . ESCAPES BY HIDING 0. ,947 - 0 . .056 0 .016 1 . 107 -0 .039 -0 .013 42 . OFTEN LACK SKILLS 0. 367 0. .022 -0 .002 0 .201 0 .581 0 . 128 4 1 . PROBLEMS INTERACTING 0. 559 0. .045 -0 .025 0 . 125 0 . 79 1 0 .064 39 . OFTEN LACK EDUCATION 0. ,594 0, ,051 -0 .017 -0 .011 0 .824 0 . 106 47 . POTENTIAL- DANGEROUS 0. ,609 0, ,037 -0 .002 0 .058 0 .850 0 .025 40 . UNABLE CONTROL ANGER 0. ,712 0, ,076 -0 .026 0 .057 0 .919 0 .026 44 . ACTS PHYS AGGRESSIVE 0. ,822 0, .011 0 .027 -0 .032 1 .011 -0 .031 46 . FAM BLAMES THEM 0. 853 -0 , .035 0 .010 -0 .023 1 .026 -0 .009 10 . ACTS VERB AGGRESSIVE 0. 892 -0 , ,013 0 .006 -0 .018 1 .046 0 .00 7 4 3 . REBELS 0 . 915 - 0 . 034 0 .014 -0 .029 1 .067 -0 .028 50 . FAM SAYS PERSON BAD 0. 921 - 0 . 028 0 .003 -0 .028 1 .070 -0 .026 45 . ACTS OUT 0. 955 - 0 . 020 -0 .008 -0 .029 1. .09 1 -0 .031 51 . OFTEN IN TROUBLE 0 . 955 -0 . 020 -0 .008 -0 .029 1 .09 1 -0 .031 48 . CAUSES TROUBLE 0 . 965 0 . 00 1 -0 .019 -0 .030 1. .097 -0 .032 49 . ACTS DEFIANT/HOSTILE 0 . 965 0. 001 -0 .019 -0 .030 1. .097 - 0 . .032 22 . CLOWNING OR ANNOYING 0 . 816 -0 . 084 0 .031 0 .010 0 . 073 0 . 985 24 . TRIES TO BE CUTE 0 . 794 0. 008 -0 .003 0 .003 - 0 . .034 0 .992 21 . TRIES TO BE FUNNY 0 . 934 0. 049 -0 .017 -0 . .020 - 0 . 052 1 .077 APPENDIX M: PHI MATRIX (5 CATEGORY/48 CONTENT UNITS) 143 PHI MATRIX: L = 5 STIMULUS 1-1 DELTA'* 2 1 2 3 4 5 21 . DISCOUNTS OWN NEEDS 0 . 380 0. .775 -0 .06 1 0 .017 0 . 134 0 .025 1 1 . ACTS AS FAM SAVIOR 0. . 694 0. .910 0 . 194 -0 .023 -0 .023 0 .002 24 . SMOOTHS OVER CONFLIC 0 . 531 0. ,935 -0 .097 -0 .051 0 .037 0. . 139 9 . PRAISE FOR CARING 0. .714 0. ,944 0 . 172 -0 .022 -0 .029 -0 .028 3. F E E L S RESPONSIBLE 0. .684 0. .946 0 . 138 -0 .001 -0 .037 -0 .036 25 . WILLING TO LEND EAR 0. . 738 1 . , 1 16 -0 .068 0 .019 0 .008 -0 .059 2 3 . SURVIVAL=GIVING 0. , 796 1 . , 203 -0 .151 0 .009 -0 .038 -0 .014 10. TROUBLE FEELING GOOD 0. . 509 0 ,015 0 .813 0 .042 0 . 107 0 .016 6 . DOES WELL ATHLETICAL 0. .445 - 0 . ,097 0 .817 0 . 106 0 .029 0. .019 16. NEVER DO ENOUGH 0. .575 - 0 . ,014 0 .887 0 .068 0 .060 0 .008 1 . OFTEN ASSUMES LEADER 0. .698 0. ,119 0 .912 0 .014 -0 .020 -0 .007 14 . APPEARS EXEMPLARY 0. . 751 0, . 105 0 .958 -0 .015 -0 .010 -0 .024 4 . APPEARS TO FUNCTION 0. .685 0. ,014 0 .959 -0 .032 0 .011 0 .058 2. DOES WELL SCHOLAST 0. . 746 0. ,063 0 .979 -0 .022 -0 .002 -0 .020 18 . REPEATED SUC NO SATS 0. .652 - 0 . ,094 0 .990 0 .003 0 .064 0 .007 7 . LEADER AMONG PEERS 0. . 726 -0 ,026 1 .014 -0 .008 -0 .027 0 .008 5. PROVIDE WORTH BY SUC 0. , 848 0. ,078 1 .038 -0 .009 -0 .037 -0 .034 15. APPEARS PERFECT 0. . 784 - 0 . ,016 1 .048 -0 .023 -0 .001 -0 .008 13. SUCCESS IN WORK 0. .831 - 0 . ,098 1 . 1 19 -0 .017 -0 .003 0 .029 17. SUC TO STOP PARDRINK 0. .886 - 0 . .037 1 . 125 -0 .015 -0 .030 -0 .004 12. SUPERACHIEVER(TRIES) 0. .900 - 0 . .055 1 . 143 -0 .015 -0 .032 -0 .017 39 . OFTEN LACK S K I L L S 0. . 367 0. .043 -0 .008 0 .581 0 . 197 0 . 125 38. PROBLEMS INTERACTING 0. . 559 0 .054 -0 .027 0 . 791 0 . 121 0 .063 36 . OFTEN LACK EDUCATION 0. . 595 0 .073 -0 .023 0 .825 -0 .015 0 . 102 44 . POTENTIAL- OANGEROUS 0. .609 0 .048 -0 .007 0 .850 0 .054 0 .024 37 . UNABLE CONTROL ANGER 0. .7 12 0. ,082 -0 .025 0 .919 0 .054 0 .025 4 1 . ACTS PHYS AGGRESSIVE 0 . 822 0 .008 0 .027 1 .011 -0 .035 -0 .030 4 3 . FAM BLAMES THEM 0. . 853 -0 .04 1 0 .012 1 .027 -0 .026 -0 .008 8. ACTS VERB AGGRESSIVE 0. . 892 - 0 . .011 0 .004 1 .046 -0 .022 0 .007 40 . REBELS 0. .916 - 0 . .040 0 .016 1 .068 -0 .032 -0 .027 47 . FAM SAYS PERSON BAD 0. .921 -0 .035 0 .006 1 .07 1 -0 .03 1 -0 .025 42. ACTS OUT 0 .955 -0 .028 -0 .004 1 .091 -0 .033 -0 .030 48 . OFTEN IN TROUBLE 0 . 955 -0 ,028 -0 .004 1 .09 1 -0 .033 -0 .030 4 5 . CAUSES TROUBLE 0. 965 - 0 . ,003 -0 .017 1 .097 -0 .033 -0 .031 46 . ACTS DEFIANT/HOSTILE 0, .965 -0 , .003 -0 .017 1 .097 -0 .033 -0 .031 34. DISASSOCIATES 0. .638 - 0 . .027 0 .002 0 . 158 0 .877 -0 .06 7 29 . L I V E S IN FANTASY 0. .646 0. .086 -0 .044 -0 .017 0 .892 0 .045 35. NON-PRESENCE 0. ,671 0. .030 -0 .018 0 .048 0 .912 0 .013 27 . AVOIDS OTHER PEOPLE 0. . 762 0. ,004 -0 .004 -0 .011 0 .981 0 .006 31 . WITHDRAWS INTO SELF 0. ,827 0. ,012 0 .010 -0 .015 1 .023 -0 .011 26 . KEEPS TO SELF/LONER 0. .883 - 0 . ,045 0 .016 -0 .022 1 .059 -0 .003 32. LOST IN SHUFFLE 0. 908 - 0 . .000 -0 .001 -0 .039 1 .073 0 .006 30. KEEPS A LOW PROFILE 0. .9 19 0, .001 -0 .006 -0 .045 1 .081 -0 .004 28 . WITHDRAWS 0. 924 - 0 . ,015 -0 .000 -0 .043 1 .085 -0 .012 33 . ESCAPES BY HIDING 0. .947 - 0 . ,050 0 .015 -0 .042 1 . 100 -0 .013 2 0 . CLOWNING OR ANNOYING 0. 816 - 0 . ,078 0 .022 0 .074 0 .009 0 . 985 22 . TRIES TO BE CUTE 0 . , 794 0. ,006 -0 .003 -0 .034 0 .003 0 . 992 19. TRIES TO BE FUNNY 0. 935 0. ,040 -0 .013 - 0 , 0 5 2 . -0 .020 1 .079 APPENDIX N: OMEGA MATRICES (68 CONTENT UNITS) 145 1 2 3 4 5 1 .78 2 .08 .64 3 .004 .39 .91 4 .05 .51 .60 .65 5 .15 .11 .09 .10 .49 6 .12 .26 .18 .21 .16 7 .10 .33 .59 .47 .15 8 .04 -.003 -.02 -.01 .55 9 .08 .11 .02 .08 .15 1 2 3 4 5 1 .58 2 .07 .78 3 .48 .01 .85 4 .09 .15 .07 .51 5 .38 .10 .58 .14 .72 6 .24 .12 .17 .16 .18 7 .003 .04 -.002 .57 .02 8 .09 .08 .02 .15 .06 1 2 3 4 1 .59 2 .36 .59 3 .07 .11 .75 4 .50 .54 .003 .92 5 .24 .20 .13 .18 6 .03 .10 .08 .01 7 .09 .07 .08 .02 1 2 3 4 1 .61 2 .46 .72 3 .07 .04 .74 4 .22 .16 .14 .58 5 .03 .04 .08 .09 6 .09 .03 .08 .16 1 2 3 4 1 .52 2 .42 .73 3 .04 .03 .80 4 .08 .03 .08 .73 5 .10 .04 .16 .10 6 7 8 9 .69 .19 .72 .001 .01 .08 .17 .06 .17 .82 6 7 8 .68 .001 1.05 .16 .17 .84 5 6 7 .60 .08 .78 .16 .16 .82 5 6 .79 .16 .83 5 .56 146 1 2 3 4 1 .80 2 .02 .74 3 .37 .08 .40 4 .02 .08 .05 .75 1 2 3 1 .54 2 .05 .65 3 .03 .08 .72 1 2 1 .50 2 .04 .49 147 APPENDIX O: OMEGA MATRICES (5 CATEGORIES/63 & 51 CONTENT UNITS) 148 OMEGA MATRIX (63 CONTENT UNITS) 1 2 3 4 5 1 .61 2 .46 .70 3 .06 .04 .74 4 .09 .03 .09 .79 5 .03 .03 .08 .17 .79 OMEGA MATRIX (51 CONTENT UNITS) 1 2 3 4 5 .64 .43 .73 .05 .03 .78 .02 .02 .06 .82 .07 .03 .08 .17 .82 APPENDIX P: INSTRUCTIONS TO SUBJECTS 151 B E H A V I O R R O L E S O F A D U L T C H I L D R E N O F A L C O H O L I C S A research project at the University of British Columbia Department of Counselling Psychology John Schneider, Investigator (604-228-4870) John Friesen, Ph.D., Supervisor (604-228-5259) A. EXPLANATION OF THE PROJECT: The primary purpose of this research project is to examine the behavior roles of adults who grew up in families where at least one parent was an alcoholic. Several models are identified in the theoretical and clinical literature dealing with children of alcoholics. This study is building on those models by beginning a process of empirical verification of the behavior roles. As you complete the sorting process, you are asked to keep in mind adults who are children of alcoholics as they presented themselves at the beginning of therapy or counselling. Your participation will require approximately 30 minutes to complete a sorting process. Please do not put your name on any of the cards to insure the confidentiality of your responses. Participation in this project is entirely voluntary and you may withdraw or refuse to participate at any time. Completion of the sorting process will be understood to mean that you have given your consent to participate in the project. B. INSTRUCTIONS FOR SORTING ATTRIBUTES INTO BEHAVIOR ROLE CATEGORIES OF ADULT CHILDREN OF ALCOHOLICS: PLEASE CARRY OUT THE FOLLOWING DIRECTIONS ONE STEP AT A TIME. 1. Check to see that your deck contains all the components shown in Diagram 1. , Blank Yellow Cards Blue Attribute Cards White ID Form Diagram 1 Arrangement of the deck before sorting 2. Fill in the information requested on the white ID form. 3. Set aside the white ID form and the yellow cards. You won't need them until later. 152 4. Take a quick look through the blue cards to become acquainted with the variety of attributes to be sorted. 5. Put together those attributes which you think are characteristic of the same behavior role of alcoholic offspring. Beginning with the first card, think of what behavior role the attribute is characteristic of. When you have decided, place the card down in front of you. 6. Take the next card and think of what behavior role the attribute is characteristic of. If you think it should be grouped with the first then put the two together. Otherwise, begin a second group by placing the new card apart from the first one. If you have doubt about its similarity keep it separate. If an attribute belongs to more than one role or it is impossible to decide on a role for that attribute, place it in a reject pile. 7. Continue by picking up one card at a time and thinking what behavior role the attribute is characteristic of; then either put it in one of the groups already in front of you or start a new group. You may have as few as three groups or as many as seven groups plus a reject pile. 8. When you are finished with all the cards, go through your groups and review each group with concern for whether the attributes in it are characteristic of the same behavior role. There can be as few as one attribute in a category or as many as you wish. 9. Take the yellow cards: place one card on the top of each group of attributes. Write a brief explanation of the rationale you used to group the particular attributes in that group. State why you placed any attributes in the reject pile. 10. Pick up the groups of cards and put them together, keeping the piles separated by the placement of the yellow card on top of each group. Place the extra yellow cards at the bottom of the deck. The arrangement of the groups of the cards is given in Diagram 2. Be sure to include your white ID form. 11. Put the cards and ID form in the small envelope and then into the enclosed addressed and stamped envelope to return your sorted deck. Thank you for your willingness to contribute to the ongoing development and understanding of the behavior roles of adult children of alcoholics. Extra Yellow Cards / Blue Attribute Cards / Yellow Card With Explanation of Reject Category / / Blue Attribute Cards / / / Yellow Card With Explanation of Category / / Blue Attribute Cards Yellow Card With Explanation of Category White ID Form Diagram 2 Arrangement of the deck after sorting APPENDIX Q: LETTER TO SUBJECTS (AUTHORS OF MODELS) 155 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FACULTY OF EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY 5780 TORONTO ROAD VANCOUVER, B.C. CANADA V6T-1L2 August 9, 1988 Dear ... A research project at the University of British Columbia is investigating the behavior roles of children raised in alcoholic families. The purpose of this research project is to develop an integrated model of child behavior roles of alcoholic offspring. It is my hope to use the integrated model as a basis for constructing a measurement instrument of child behavior roles. A measurement instrument would enable an empirical verification of the child behavior roles and would add to our knowledge and understanding of the particular strategies children use to cope with living in an alcoholic environment. Your work in the area of children and alcoholism is documented in the literature. Your model of behavior roles for children of alcoholic parents was one of the five models chosen to be integrated. I would like to ask for your participation in the project by completing a sorting task requiring approximately 30 minutes of your time. Participation in this project is entirely voluntary and you may withdraw or refuse to participate at any time. The task involves sorting attributes extracted from the roles of the models of child behavior roles chosen to be integrated (Booz-Allen and Hamilton, Black, Deutsch, Kritzberg, and Wegscheider-Cruze). The results of the sorting procedure will provide a verification of an integrated model I have developed. I trust that you will find the task interesting to you personally and that the results of this project will lead to further clarification of the models of child behavior roles. Thank you for your help. Sincerely, John Schneider 156 APPENDIX R: LETTER TO SUBJECTS (MEMBERS OF CANADIAN ASSOCIATION FOR CHILDREN OF ALCOHOLICS 157 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FACULTY OF EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY 5780 TORONTO ROAD VANCOUVER, B.C. CANADA V6T-1L2 August 9, 1988 Dear C A C O A Colleague, A research project at the University of British Columbia is investigating the behavior roles of children raised in alcoholic families. The purpose of this research project is to develop an integrated model of child behavior roles of alcoholic offspring. It is my hope to use the integrated model as a basis for constructing a measurement instrument of child behavior roles. A measurement instrument would enable an empirical verification of the child behavior roles and would add to our knowledge and understanding of the particular strategies children use to cope with living in an alcoholic environment. I am writing to you as a fellow member of the Canadian Association for Children of Alcoholics and as a clinician working with this population. Your name has been selected as a member of the study's sample. I would like to ask for your volunteer participation in the project. You can participate by completing a sorting task requiring approximately 30 minutes of your time. Participation in this project is entirely voluntary and you may withdraw or refuse to participate at any time. The task involves sorting attributes extracted from the roles of the models of child behavior roles chosen to be integrated (Booz-Allen and Hamilton, Black, Deutsch, Kritzberg, and Wegscheider-Cruze). The results of the sorting procedure will provide a verification of an integrated model I have developed. I trust that you will find the task interesting to you personally and that the results of this project will lead to further clarification of the models of child behavior roles. It would be most helpful if you could return your completed deck within one week; use the enclosed addressed and stamped envelope. Thank you for your help. Sincerely, John Schneider 

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