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The importance of counsellor functions as perceived by school-related groups in West Vancouver Grant, Kathleen Patricia 1991

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THE IMPORTANCE OF COUNSELLOR FUNCTIONS AS PERCEIVED BY SCHOOL-RELATED GROUPS IN WEST VANCOUVER By KATHLEEN PATRICIA GRANT B. Ed., The University of British Columbia, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Counselling Psychology) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1991 © Kathleen Patricia Grant, 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Coimsellina Psychology The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date April 29, 1991 DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT A counse l l or task check l i s t comprised of 168 tasks descr ibed i n behaviora l terms, was completed by 15/18 counse l lors i n West Vancouver. I t , along with 11 statements which perta ined to recommendations from the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of Educat ion 's 1980 Task Force report on c o u n s e l l i n g , provided the information necessary to design a survey instrument us ing a f i v e po in t L i k e r t s c a l e . I t s purpose was to support the t h e s i s that although s c h o o l - r e l a t e d groups: s tudents , parents , t eachers , c o u n s e l l o r s , and admin i s t ra tors ; would d i f f e r i n t h e i r percept ions o f the importance of c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s , there would be some which would be ra ted h igh i n importance among a l l f i v e groups. A random sample of students i n Grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 (n=360), and parents with c h i l d r e n i n Kindergarten to Grade 12 (n=360), as wel l as a l l the teachers (n=256), counse l lors (n=15), and adminis trators (n=33) were surveyed. Return rates v a r i e d among the groups from a low of 17.9% f o r the parents to 54.5% f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . Resu l t s obtained supported the t h e s i s at both the elementary and secondary l e v e l s . H i e r a r c h i c a l l i s t s f o r both l e v e l s ranked the items by average scores i n order to i l l u s t r a t e the importance the groups as a whole p laced on each task . Recommendations were then made to a s s i s t counse l lors i n the process of d r a f t i n g and a r t i c u l a t i n g a r o l e and job d e s c r i p t i o n f o r themselves. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF FIGURES v i i ACKNOWLErJGEMENTS v i i i CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER TW3: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 14 A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' Percept ions 24 Teachers ' Percept ions 31 Students ' Percept ions 37 Parents ' Percept ions 41 CHAPTER THREE: METHOD 52 Development of the Survey Instrument 52 Subjects 56 Procedure 59 Return Rate 60 Data A n a l y s i s 64 CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS 65 Part 1 65 Part 2 91 Elementary Leve l 92 Secondary Leve l 94 CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION 98 Part 1 98 Part 2 102 Elementary Leve l 102 Secondary Leve l 107 Conclus ion 122 i v REFERENCES 126 APPENDIX A: COUNSELLOR TASK CHECK LIST 134 APPENDIX B: LETTER TO COUNSELLORS 141 APPENDIX C : RESULTS OF THE COUNSELLOR TASK CHECK LIST 143 APPENDIX D: SURVEY ON THE IMPORTANCE OF COUNSELLOR FUNCTIONS IN WEST VANCOUVER 152 APPENDIX E : LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO STUDENTS 160 APPENDIX F : LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL SENT TO STUDENTS 162 L e t t e r of Transmi t ta l Sent to Parents 163 L e t t e r of Transmi t ta l Sent to Teachers , C o u n s e l l o r s , and Admini s tra tors 165 APPENDIX G: HIERARCHICAL LISTS 167 T o t a l Elementary 167 T o t a l Secondary 173 V LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1: Percentage of Counse l lors Performing the Same Tasks . . . 54 TABLE 2: Return Rate of the Survey on the importance of Counse l lor Funct ions i n West Vancouver 60 TABLE 3: F i n a l Return Rate f o r the Survey on the Importance of Counse l lor Funct ions i n West Vancouver 62 TABLE 4: Resul t s f o r Item 1 (Counsel lors should be employed i n each of the d i s t r i c t ' s schools) 67 TABLE 5: Resu l t s f o r Item 2 (The r a t i o of students to a counse l l or should be approximately 250:1) 69 TABLE 6: Resul t s f o r Item 3 (Counsel lors should be f u l l - t i m e counse l lors ) 71 TABLE 7: Resul t s f o r Item 4 (Counsel lors should be par t - t ime c o u n s e l l o r s , par t - t ime teachers) 74 TABLE 8: Resu l t s f o r Item 5 (Teaching assignments given to counse l lors should be as c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to c o u n s e l l i n g as poss ib le ) 76 TABLE 9: Resu l t s f o r Item 6 (Adminis trat ion should avoid ass ign ing tasks of a c l e r i c a l or admin i s t ra t ive nature to counse l lors ) 79 TABLE 10: Resu l t s f o r Item 7 (Counsel lors should be p r i m a r i l y concerned with s e r v i c e to the students and c o n s u l t a t i o n with the s t a f f ) 81 TABLE 11: Resul t s f o r Item 8 (Counsel lors should have a p r o f e s s i o n a l c e r t i f i c a t e i n teaching) 83 TABLE 12: Resu l t s f o r Item 9 (Counsel lors should have a minimum of two years success fu l classroom teaching experience) . 85 v i TABLE 13: Resu l t s f o r Item 10 (Counsel lors should have a Masters degree i n c o u n s e l l i n g or one equiva lent to i t ) 87 TABLE 14: Resu l t s f o r Item 11 (To a l low counse l lors to use t h e i r time more e f f e c t i v e l y a t r a i n e d s t a f f a ide should be assigned t o each c o u n s e l l i n g department) 90 TABLE 15: Elementary Leve l Funct ions with Scores i n the 4 to 5 Range from a l l F i v e School -Related Groups 92 TABLE 16: Elementary Leve l Funct ions with Average Scores i n the 4 to 5 Range 94 TABLE 17: Secondary Leve l Funct ions with Scores i n the 4 t o 5 Range from a l l F i v e School-Re l a t ed Groups 96 TABLE 18: Elementary Level Funct ions with Average Scores i n the 4 t o 5 Range 103 TABLE 19: Secondary Leve l Funct ions with Average Scores i n the 4 to 5 Range from a l l F i v e School -Related Groups 108 v i i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1: Graph of the Data i n Table 4 68 FIGURE 2: Graph of the Data i n Table 5 70 FIGURE 3: Graph of the Data i n Table 6 72 FIGURE 4: Graph of the Data i n Table 7 74 FIGURE 5: Graph of the Data i n Table 8 77 FIGURE 6: Graph of the Data i n Table 9 79 FIGURE 7: Graph of the Data i n Table 10 81 FIGURE 8: Graph of the Data i n Table 11 83 FIGURE 9: Graph of the Data i n Table 12 86 FIGURE 10: Graph of the Data i n Table 13 88 FIGURE 11: Graph of the Data i n Table 14 90 v i i i ACKN0WLELX3EMENTS I would l i k e t o thank the s tudents , parents , t eachers , c o u n s e l l o r s , and adminis trators i n the West Vancouver school d i s t r i c t f o r t h e i r cooperat ion i n completing the survey forms. I am g r a t e f u l f o r the ass i s tance I rece ived from the members of my committee, D r . N. Amundsen, D r . R. Young f o r h i s input and e d i t i n g , and D r . H . R a t z l a f f f o r h i s exper t i s e with the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . My f i n a l acknowledgement i s reserved f o r my three young c h i l d r e n who sometimes r e l u c t a n t l y had to share my time with t h i s p r o j e c t . L i t e r a l l y with me every step of the way, t h e i r love and pat ience was apprec iated more than they w i l l ever know. 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Since the e a r l y 1960's, volumes of mater ia l have been w r i t t e n on c o u n s e l l i n g i n the North American school system. Journals and textbooks are r e p l e t e with a r t i c l e s submitted by notable p r o f e s s i o n a l s who have de f ined , researched, c r i t i q u e d , or theor ized about var ious aspects of c o u n s e l l i n g i n the schools . P o l i c y statements, p o s i t i o n papers , b r i e f s , and reports w r i t t e n by major c o u n s e l l i n g as soc ia t ions a t both the n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l or s ta te l e v e l s have o u t l i n e d p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s to c o u n s e l l i n g ; descr ibed r e q u i s i t e school guidance s e r v i c e s ; def ined counse l lor r o l e and f u n c t i o n ; set minimum standards f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g of c o u n s e l l o r s ; and e s tab l i shed c r i t e r i a f o r t h e i r s e l e c t i o n . Yet debate on these t o p i c s has not abated because few of the p o l i c i e s or recommendations have been implemented i n the schools . In the past the school counse l lor has been descr ibed i n ra ther d iverse but equa l ly uncomplementary terms as a "thoroughly confused fel low" (Shertzer & Stone, 1963, p .138) , a "marginal man" (McCully , 1962, p .476) , a " d i s c i p l i n a r i a n " , "giver of advice", and " c l e r i c a l a s s i s t a n t to students" (Dahlem, 1969, p .225) . As an "arm of the adminis trat ion" ( F r i e d l a n d , 1969, p .266) , the counse l lor has been l ikened t o a "junior adminis trator" (Gannon, 1965, p .41 ) , and an "executive ass i s tant" (Canadian School Trustees A s s o c i a t i o n , 1980, p .140) . Perhaps Arbuckle best summed up the s i t u a t i o n when he s ta ted: "We can hard ly t a l k about the p r o f e s s i o n a l school counselor as long as we have 50 s ta te vers ions of who he i s , with the only 2 l e v e l o f agreement being the genera l l y low s ta tus of the counselor" (1961, p .129) . Although t h i s statement per ta ined to the s i t u a t i o n of school counse l lors i n the United States more than 25 years ago, Canada's present s i t u a t i o n s t i l l does not p a r a l l e l i t . Every province does not have a ver s ion of who the counse l lor i s . For example, i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the M i n i s t r y of Educat ion 's P u b l i c Schools Ac t does not acknowledge the p o s i t i o n of school c o u n s e l l o r , and there fore has not def ined a r o l e f o r h im/her . Yet t h i s same M i n i s t r y i s aware of the func t ion of c o u n s e l l i n g i n the school system as evidenced by the f a c t that f o r decades i t has been request ing on forms that i t sends schools (J-Forms) , the amount of time a l l o c a t e d by adminis trators t o c o u n s e l l i n g i n the o v e r a l l school schedule, as wel l as a breakdown of the percentage of time teachers were assigned to devote to c o u n s e l l i n g . So, i f teachers have been given time to counsel then i t stands to reason that not only they have perce ived themselves as counse l lors but that s i g n i f i c a n t others have as w e l l . And with no set counse l lor r o l e d e f i n i t i o n , teachers out of necess i ty have had to i n t e r p r e t and def ine i t f o r themselves, which has l ed not j u s t to 12 p r o v i n c i a l vers ions of who the counse l l or i s , nor to 75 d i s t r i c t ones, but to as many d i f f e r e n t vers ions as there are teachers who have u n o f f i c i a l l y been a c t i n g as p r a c t i s i n g counse l lors i n the B . C . school system. Further e l a b o r a t i o n on t h i s po in t can be made by quot ing an observat ion made by Re i ser and Stoner (1969): "One need not delve too f a r i n t o the l i t e r a t u r e and repor t s of research to l e a r n tha t the funct ions and r o l e o f the school counselor have not been agreed upon. Not only do a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , t eachers , parents , and 3 students have diverse and varied perceptions of the functions and the role of the school counselor, but counselors themselves are not in accord" (p.126). More recently, comparable statements have been reiterated by Day and Sparacio (1980), as well as Kornick (1984). During the past 10 years most professional organizations concerned with education and counselling have acknowledged such a problem in British Columbia and have, through reports and policy statements, brought i t to the attention of the Ministry of Education. For example, the B.C. School Counsellors Association (BCSCA) forwarded to i t two briefs entitled: Report on Standards and  Qualifications for B.C. School Counsellors (1977), and The Role of the School Counsellor (1978). A few months later the Ministry reacted by establishing a Task Force with a mandate to draft a set of guidelines for the counselling services in the secondary schools. Slowly the concern for counselling was gaining momentum. In 1978 Rey Carr of the University of Victoria was granted funding by the Educational Research Institute of B.C. to undertake a project to review al l studies done at the three B.C. universities that were related to school counselling in the province. After reviewing a total of 80 studies and discarding those that did not use an empirical method of data collection, he based his findings on 24 of them and drew some interesting conclusions in a very comprehensive report entitled The State of School Counselling in British Columbia. Carr (1978) discovered enough evidence to substantiate Reiser and Stoner's (1969) claim that the counselling role has been defined by many different groups: teachers, principals, parents, students, and educators; as well as the fact that they did not necessarily 4 agree with each other. He pointed out that this lack of agreement in turn led to confusion among counsellors as to whom their clients actually were, as well as indecision about directions they should take with regard to an educational and counselling philosophy. Carr was also able to conclude that because counsellors had no "mainstream identity" they were vulnerable to attack and criticism by individuals in those groups (p.48). Carr (1978) emphasized the importance of counsellors having a clear role description but then cited three factors that minimized their opportunity to develop an effective one which was "responsive to student needs" (p.48). He listed these as "indiscriminate hiring practice" which not only interfered with the counsellors' professional commitment but contributed to the "demoralization of counselling as a profession", as well as a lack of specific skills and basic posture on the part of counsellors (p.48). He made the point that although some counsellors had extensive training, the majority had l i t t l e background in counselling and were "struggling desperately to maintain effectiveness" (p.45). He further concluded that because people in the field of counselling lacked skills, limited service was being provided. Carr (1978) called upon districts to adopt clear job and role descriptions and set appropriate standards and qualifications for their counsellors. He also focussed on the fact that there was a severe shortage of counsellors particularly at the elementary level. For example, if the BCSCA recommendation of 600 students to one counsellor was followed, there would be a provincial shortfall of 540 counsellors. Yet at the same time, he pragmatically acknowledged the 5 monumental cost associated with hiring more counsellors, or teachers who could assume the teaching responsibilities of counsellors, thereby enabling them to be assigned to full-time counselling positions. Carr (1978) stressed the importance of universities offering more undergraduate counselling courses for teachers in training so that they would have the opportunity to better understand counselling theories and practices although they had no intention of becoming counsellors. He also recommended that universities and districts join forces and offer in-service training programs for counsellors so that they could continue with their own professional development, and at the same time act as resources for in-service provided to teachers and principals. Carr's (1978) recommendations aside, there was l i t t l e in the report to be optimistic about. With so much evidence presented, i t was difficult to dispute his claims that the system of counselling was undersupported and underfunded at both the Ministry and district level, and that given the political climate and economic outlook, the future of counselling was grim. His ultimate conclusion that counselling was in trouble from within and without was a sorry testimonial to the state of counselling in B.C. In 1980 the Ministry of Education released the Task Force Report and distributed i t to schools throughout the province. It was hailed as a f i r s t step towards standardizing counselling services, defining the counsellor's role and function, and setting minimum standards for the qualifications and selection of counsellors. That same year the Canadian School Trustees Association (CSTA) also published a Position 6 Paper on School Guidance Services which addressed the state of guidance and counselling services in provincial schools. It clearly outlined areas of responsibility for a l l the groups interested in counselling in the school system: counsellors, teachers, administrators, the school board, parents, the community, and the Department of Education. It also put forth 12 recommendations. In February 1981, the Counselling Psychology Department at the University of British Columbia hosted an invitational meeting which was attended by superintendents, administrators, counsellors, trustees, teachers, and professors, who were representatives of either a professional organization or the University of Victoria or Simon Fraser University. A direct result of this meeting was the formation of The Action Committee on Counselling Services which was comprised of 12 individuals who represented the above-mentioned groups as well as the Ministry of Education. Its mandate was to develop a model counselling program and encourage school districts in B.C. to implement the Task Force report's recommendations. The question that remains unanswered is why the Ministry of Education itself either did not adopt the Task Force report's recommendations and direct schools in the province to implement them, or reject them in favour of some others. Instead, the status quo in counselling was maintained even though the Ministry had stated that i t was an unsatisfactory situation and had the necessary information to make changes to i t . A year later, when the Canadian Guidance and Counselling Association published A Position Paper on Guidance and  Counselling Services in Canada, the Ministry of Education s t i l l had taken no action with regard to the Task Force report. 7 In 1983 The Action Committee on Counselling Services, which had two Ministry of Education members on i t , published A Guide for  Developing and Implementing a District Policy. Although this guide is extremely comprehensive and would certainly facilitate implementation of the Task Force report's recommendations, i t appears to place the responsibility of doing so in the hands of individual districts or schools. It has been endorsed by the Association of British Columbia School Superintendents, the British Columbia School Counsellors' Association, the Executive of the British Columbia Teachers' Federation, the Executive of the British Columbia School Trustees' Association, The Department of Counselling Psychology, Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia, as well as faculty members involved in the counselling program at Simon Fraser University. The guide's contents have also received support from the British Columbia Home and School Association, the Faculty of Education, University of Victoria, and the Occupational Training Council of British Columbia. Conspicuous through its absence is any endorsement or mention of support from the Ministry of Education. To date, neither the guide, nor any of the reports, position papers, policy statements, or briefs, have had enough of an impact on the Ministry of Education in British Columbia to motivate i t to formally acknowledge the position of school counsellor and provide a job description for him/her. Despite the interest and amount of input from so many of the province's professional organizations there is s t i l l no common set of guidelines for the provision of counselling services in the province's schools. And although the school districts have a l l of the information and recommendations that have 8 been generated by these organizations, they are under no obligation to act upon them unless directed to do so by the Ministry of Education. With no direction forthcoming, i t is their right to control the plight of counsellors and the services they provide. So, for the past few years, while counsellors optimistically anticipated definitive guidelines from the Ministry of Education that would enhance their situation, their positions and services were being eroded as districts grappled with cutback budgets which were insufficient to meet al l of their educational needs. In many cases counsellors were being expected to at least maintain the status quo, but with less assigned time and resources, and with more assigned counsellees making demands upon them. The CSTA (1980) recognized this situation when i t stated: "In a time of economic restraint, declining enrollment, and an increasing demand for accountability, a lack of a clear job description accepted by school staffs, administration, and trustees has resulted in cutbacks in guidance services" (p.140). As long as there are no standardized guidelines in effect for counselling, nor a clear job description, counsellors must either function within the parameters set by their schools or districts, although "discrepancies exist between the wanted role of the counselor and the actual role he assumes" (Stevic, 1966, p.96), or actively engage themselves in working toward changing their counselling situation. According to Shertzer and Stone (1963), counsellors "cannot wait for an occupational identity to be handed to [them]" (p.163). Bentley (1965) accurately summarizes the authors' position on this 9 subject when he states that they "express pessimism that an ideal role definition will ever f i l t e r down to the ranks from the upper echelons of leadership (whoever they are) and therefore the responsibility rests largely with the counselor to define his own role and identity" (p.134). Stevic (1966) is also of the opinion that counsellors must become actively involved in redefining or defining their role. He believes that i t is important to investigate with the counsellors' assistance the reasons for the discrepancies in their role as well as the possibilities which exist for eliminating them. Counsellors cannot wait any longer for external forces to define their role for them. In order to be able to provide counselling services in the schools that have the support of the student body, staff, administration, and parents, counsellors must have a clear idea of their role and function, and communicate i t to these various groups. Wilgus and Shelley (1988) support this when they state: "Counselors must generate a role definition for themselves and be able to clearly articulate that role" (p. 265). According to Drury (1984), this is imperative i f counsellors do not want to contribute to their own extinction which she sees as a distinct possibility given the political issue of funding. To quote a phrase from Hoyt (1970), counsellors must become "evolutionary but not revolutionary agents of change" (p.114). An accurate assessment was made by the CSTA (1980) when i t observed that counsellors feel "confused about their role. They feel pulled in a l l directions by the differing expectations of the Department of Education, school administrators, other school staff, 10 parents, and employers. In seeking to please a l l , they succeed in pleasing none" (p.140). Furthermore, expectations were on the increase. In September 1987, the Ministry of Education mandated for inclusion in the secondary schools' curriculum a Family Life program for a l l students. Schools were served notice that as of September 1989 a ful l guidance program for Kindergarten to Grade 10 would be introduced. Traditionally counsellors have been involved with these types of programs. The Ministry of Education, however, made no mention of the personnel i t expected to teach these courses. If the expectation was that counsellors were to assume these teaching responsibilities, the question that needed to be asked was whether they would be in addition to the services already provided, or in lieu of them. A school's administration could decide that for the sake of expediency, counsellors should teach the Family Life and Guidance courses. If so, would the administrators be prepared to hire more counsellors to satisfy the school's and Ministry's needs? Fortunately, many school districts' administrators and counsellors were able to avoid addressing this question when the Ministry of Education postponed the compulsory implementation of the Family Life and Guidance Program. Yet, this postponement is not indefinite. A new Learning for Living curriculum is being prepared and counsellors will soon be forced to examine their role in relation to i t . How will counsellors preserve or maintain the myriad of services they already provide and at the same time implement new government-mandated programs with additional responsibilities? Will they be expected to? Can counsellors answer these questions when there is no consensus on their role? Again, the need to determine in behavioral terms the specific tasks counsellors are expected to perform is underscored. Another question to be grappled with is that with so much expected of counsellors by so many interested groups, how are counsellors to decide upon a set of priorities with regard to their functions which would meet the needs of all these groups? It is the thesis of this paper that although school-related groups differ in their perceptions of the importance of counsellors' functions, there are some functions at both the elementary and secondary levels that would rate high in importance among a l l groups, thereby enabling counsellors to define or redefine their role based in part on these groups' perceptions. Once the functions valued by each group have been identified, counsellors will be able to use this knowledge in conjunction with the research and information provided by the previously-mentioned professional organizations, to help them build a case towards developing a counselling program based on current perceptions in their district, and not simply on past traditions. If counsellors are not being allocated enough time and resources to meet the needs of the various school-related groups, then the decision as to which functions to cut back on does not have to be an independent arbitrary one, but instead can be made by the counsellors as a group using the study's findings as a basis for discussion. In clearly setting their own needs-based priorities counsellors will no longer have to attempt to "be all things to all people" (Friedland, 1969, p.264), consequently diluting their effectiveness everywhere. 12 This study was a comprehensive one that not only identified the functions deemed most important by school-related groups at the elementary and secondary levels, but also addressed the issues which pertain to the structure of counselling positions, as well as the training and qualifications of counsellors. Specifically the purposes of this study were: 1. To determine the opinions of school-related groups in West Vancouver regarding the recommendations made by the Ministry of Education's Task Force report that pertain to: a) the necessity of employing counsellors in the schools; b) the ratio of counsellors to students; c) the structure of counselling positions, (counsellor/teacher, part or full-time counsellors); d) counsellors' teaching assignments; e) the assignment of administrative tasks to counsellors; f) counsellors' primary responsibilities; g) counsellor training and qualifications; h) the use of staff aides in counselling departments. 2. To determine the counsellors' present functions in the district's schools. 3. To determine the counsellor functions deemed considerably to very important by all five groups. To l i s t hierarchically the counsellor functions from the highest average scores to those with the lowest average scores for the groups in total at both the elementary and secondary levels. To examine the similarities and differences between the groups' perceptions of important functions. 14 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE In 1965 when the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) published its "Statement of Policy for Secondary School Counselors", that outlined among other things, the professional identity, responsibilities, and preparations of school counsellors, i t recognized that this document was not an accurate characterization of existing conditions, but was rather a description of what should be in the future. It was a well-intentioned point of reference for counsellors as well as others who sought definition or clarification of the school counsellor's role. It appealed to practising counsellors who were aware of the "evolutionary status of their profession", and who would "actively promote its growth and thereby change" (ASCA, p.141). In retrospect i t appears that its tenets and theories did not translate rapidly enough into significant action leading to change within the school system, as far as counsellor critics were concerned, as evidenced by the plethora of disparaging articles which soon appeared in professional journals and texts. Not only the disparity between the counsellor's role and function, but also the lack of implemented standards relating to counsellor training and qualifications were addressed. To say the literature has not been kind to the counselling profession would be an understatement. Yet, however uncomplementary and unsavoury the articles may have been, they have succeeded in confronting counsellors and the public with the harsh reality of 15 unsatisfactory conditions regarding counselling in the schools, and have proposed ideals to aim for. Authors such as Shertzer and Stone (1963) recognized the difficulty inherent in criticizing counsellors when they stated: Generally, any critical statement about counselors devotes a large proportion of its allocated space to extolling their virtues and achievements. Only after praise and self-congratulation can a few barbed comments be subtly inserted. Thus is the medecine diluted, the unpleasant p i l l made palatable. But, the sugarcoating detracts from the urgency that should be conveyed. The point here is not to praise or to condemn but, rather, to generate a greater appreciation for the complexities each counselor faces in ful f i l l i n g his obligations to attain his own professional status (p.163). The disparity between the expectations and enactment of the counsellors' role has been well-documented in the literature. Numerous studies have been conducted to determine the perceptions of those involved in and affected by counselling in the schools: administrators, teachers, counsellors, students, and parents. Many of the articles contain comments that are critical in nature leading one to conclude that counsellors s t i l l have a way to go before attaining professional status, and that the issue of their role and function is as contentious as ever. Before elaborating upon the various groups' perceptions of the school counsellors' role and function, i t is important to establish the climate within which the studies occurred. This end can be 16 accomplished by presenting some of the views found in journals and textbooks devoted to the counselling profession. However, l i t t l e purpose would be served reviewing literature concerned with the role and function of counsellors that was published before the ASCA Policy Statement in 1965. It is this document that can be credited with taking a f i r s t step towards standardizing the role of the school counsellor. Of interest are the following years that did or did not see an improvement in school counselling services directly attributable to the clarification of the counsellors' role. The ASCA Policy Statement (1965) was released at a time when counsellors, according to Shertzer and Stone (1965), were well into an occupational identity crisis, as evidenced by the fact that as an occupational group, counsellors had difficulty in adequately answering the basic questions: "Who am I and what do I do as a counselor" (p.235)? These authors also proposed that an occupational identity would lead "to a commitment to the tasks of the occupation", thereby enabling counsellors to differentiate the services they provided to students, from those provided by other school personnel (p. 236). Roeirmich's (1967) study determined that counsellors did indeed perform many tasks that did not require a specific counselling and training background, and identified three contributing factors. First, he maintained that restrictions were placed upon counsellors by previous administrative structures based on the previous training level of counsellors. He suggested that unless the administrative structure was changed to accommodate a "new role" for professionally trained counsellors, their talent would not be "optimally utilized". Second, he found that the expectations that parents and students had of counsellors did not encompass the "competencies and potentials of 'newly-trained' counsellors", in the areas of personal counselling and decision making. As a result, even i f the administrative structure was modified, there would be no significant increase in the utilization of counsellors' time until the attitudes of the students and parents had changed. Third, the perceptions of the counsellors held by teachers, administrators, parents, and students were identified as being ones that did not reflect "the professional service [counsellors were] capable of providing" (p.316). Additional factors that contributed to the inappropriate utilization of counsellors' time, were identified as being "previous 'sets' regarding function and role, lack of opportunities to implement the highest level of counselling skills, and personal inadequacies among counselors" (p.316). A very blunt opinion supporting the notion of inappropriate utilization of counsellors' time was proffered by Noble (1968) when he claimed that counselling and guidance as practised in the United States was a fraud. He based this claim on time studies (Gold, 1962; Gannon, 1965; Pruett & Brown, 1966), that found that counsellors were busy performing tasks that could not be construed as activities related to guidance and counselling. He contended that counsellors spent only a "minor portion of their time in guidance and practically none in counselling" (p.94). Arbuckle (1970) also questioned the appropriateness of the tasks performed by counsellors. He maintained that counsellors had assumed certain functions which rightfully belonged to effective teachers. He sought to determine whether counsellors actually performed a unique service for which they were specially educated and trained or whether they were actually teachers performing teaching or administrative functions. He recognized the importance of the tasks that counsellors were expected to perform, but questioned whether counsellors should be permitted to claim professional status when they were simply performing the tasks of teachers or administrators. Similar sentiments were expressed by Carmical and Calvin (1970) when they stated that because of the varying abilities, preparation, and duties of the personnel occupying counselling positions in the schools, counsellor functions had not reached a standardized level. They even went so far as to say that the "expectations of role and function clarification resulting from the ASCA Policy Statement (1965) [had] not been fulfilled" (p.280). Hoyt (1970) placed the onus of role clarification on the counsellors themselves. He challenged them to not only have a clear and accurate notion of their role within the school system but to communicate i t to school administrators and other professional educators. He insisted that counsellors when necessary, should be both able and willing to assert: "This is not part of my role" (p.113). He also had l i t t l e sympathy to offer counsellors who complained of being kept so busy with noncounsellor duties that they had no chance of being able to act as a "real" counsellor. He proposed that counsellors should be able to keep themselves completely occupied with guidance work. So much so that i t would be very difficult to assign them any other nonguidance functions. Hoyt's (1970) position appears to be an elaboration of a point 19 previously made by Shertzer and Stone (1963) when they raised the issue of counsellors permitting themselves to be loaded down with tasks unrelated to counselling. They even offered a rather disturbing insight as a possible reason, by suggesting that in a "subtle and shrewd way", counsellors avoided "facing the issue of a real test of their skills and services by tacit acceptance of inappropriate assignments" (p.135). Martinson and Winborn (1964) also addressed the issue of counsellors shying away from personal counselling with students, in a study conducted with 30 individuals who had a minimum of the equivalent of a Master's Degree in guidance and counselling and possessed a valid state counsellor's certificate. They determined through the use of self-reports that these counsellors "never really practiced or applied their skills on an individual basis" (p.86). One explanation related to faulty perceptions of the counsellors' role not only by administrators and other instructional staff but also by the counsellors themselves. For example, although the counsellors indicated that individual counselling should receive major emphasis, the time devoted to i t was out of proportion to its importance. By the counsellors' own admission their job was described "in terms of pupil accounting, ranging from attendance to the granting of excuses, administering discipline, recording test data, substitute teaching, pre-college advising, sponsoring group activities, administering financial aid, conducting employment services, instructing in remedial services, orientation, and 'some' individual counseling" (p.86). A major factor that contributed to the discrepancy between what counsellors should do and what they actually did was attributed to the fact that in order to gain school acceptance, counsellors accepted without question various kinds of tasks. They assumed responsibilities unrelated to counselling in order to demonstrate that they were providing a service understood by everyone, thereby proving that they were needed. A second reason came as a direct result of this. "Counsellors [strove] to be of assistance so that people [would] like them, so that they [would] have a good reputation, and people [would] refer students to them for assistance" (p.86). Martinson and Winborn (1964) also maintained that counselling was perceived as a f r i l l by many "uninformed outsiders", so in order to justify their existence counsellors had to perform many tasks to please others, and in so doing had to abdicate their responsibility to the students. The third contributing factor was based on the premise that because counsellors acquired their positions as a result of being teachers first, they s t i l l tended to cling to elements of the teachers' role; partially because the counsellors' role was so ill-defined, but also because i t was easier to gain acceptance if counsellors could identify with the teachers, which meant assuming some of their duties and responsibilities. However, as pointed out by the authors, as teachers' needs were expressed and fulfilled, the counsellors' role became vague and misperceived. Furthermore after successfully handling teacher tasks for a number of years, these counsellors lacked the confidence to handle many personal counselling situations. So, many of them allowed "their lack of confidence to 21 become a reason for failure to get involved in any counseling" (p.87). It was also proposed that counsellors could "be excused from counselling activities by becoming furiously engaged in other kinds of activity" (p.87). According to Martinson and Winborn (1964) everyone could find numerous excuses to perpetually postpone involvement in an area in which he/she felt uncertain, that is, personal counselling. However, a point they stressed was that "a condiderable amount of lack of confidence [had] a legitimate basis in lack of competence" (p.87). Counsellors, they contended, used the excuse of being too busy to avoid: (a) engaging themselves in a constant self-improvement program; (b) involving themselves with professional organizations; and (c) doing professional reading, in order to keep abreast of counsellor affairs. Shertzer and Stone (1965) demonstrated support for this viewpoint when they stated: "All counselors are familiar with the factor of lack of time for a l l have used i t as a ready rationalization" (p.237). They also were of the opinion that some counsellors were "so timid about working with emotional issues at a level appropriate to their competencies that they [were] completely unwilling to discuss substantive personal issues with students" (p.238). Carroll (1968) supported some of Martinson and Winborn's (1964) contentions. She maintained that counsellors participated in the distortion of their function by "submitting to the expedient." She was of the opinion that "administrators, teachers, parents, and students [had] a conception of the role of the counselor which [was] 22 out of touch with reality" (p.21). She believed that they perceived the counsellor either as "manipulating and pretentious, or as an all-seeing, all-knowing paragon able to attempt any task" (p.21). She further elaborated that counsellors were none of these, but were rather the focal point of pupil personnel services whose duties must not be nebulous. Carroll (1968) also upheld the notion that counsellors created the dilemma of their professional identification. She based this on the contention that definition of the counsellors' role came from their actions: the inappropriate tasks they performed. Therefore i t made sense for teachers to perceive counsellors "as academicians who [balanced] class loads, [pacified] parents, [maintained] the status quo, or [acted] as patsys or puppets of the administration." And for counsellors to see themselves "in the untenable position of clerk, right arm, or f i x - i t person" (p.22). In other words, counsellors had no one to blame but themselves for the predicament they found themselves in. Roth's (1968) data substantiated this claim. He found that the amount of time counsellors spent on administrative tasks was largely through their own choice. These comments which were critical of the counsellors' role and functions in the 60s and early 70s do not appear to have been ignored by the ASCA. In the 70s i t published four new or revised official statements for counsellors at the elementary (ASCA, 1978), middle/junior high (ASCA, 1978), secondary (ASCA, 1977), and post-secondary (ASCA, 1974) levels. In 1981 i t also published The  Practice of Guidance and Counselling by School Counselors, which incorporated the four previous role statements. It could be speculated that these definitive role statements helped curb the volume of criticism directed at the counsellors' role and functions, but i t appears that they did not cause the criticism to abate entirely (Hays, 1980; Day & Sparacio, 1980; Schmidt, 1984; Peer, 1985, Remley & Albright, 1988; Wilgus & Shelley, 1989; and Gibson, 1990). However i t should be noted hat the criticism became less general and more specific to various aspects of the counsellors' role and functions. For example, some recent studies and papers focussed on: the counsellors' role in appropriate and relevant guidance programs (Hays, 1980; Peers, 1985); the discrepancies between the counsellors' actual and intended roles (Day & Sparazio, 1980); the evolution of the counsellors' role to become more realistic and capable of meeting future demands (Kornick, 1984; Schmidt, 1984); the survival of the counselling profession (Drury, 1984); and some school-related groups' perceptions of the counsellors' role and functions (Remly & Albright, 1988; Gibson, 1990). One theme that did not change much over time was the belief that counsellors had to take responsibility for getting themselves out of the predicament they had gotten themselves into by performing tasks that were unrelated to the counsellors' role. In the 60s Shertzer and Stone (1963) summed up the situation rather succinctly when they stated that counsellors would continue to be the "target of criticism and [would] in fact deserve the contradictory blur of perceptions held of them until they themselves [did] something about i t " (p.137). Nearly twenty years later similar sentiments were expressed by Day and Sparacio (1980) when they proposed that counsellors should: "Clarify their role and function and communicate that description in understandable operational terminology to their supervisors, peers and students" (p.274). Failure to do so could result in the realization of Hays' (1980) prediction that the American school counsellor would be slated for extinction unless changes were made. Drury (1984) supported this position when she stated that "counselors must stop contributing to their own extinction and take a proactive role in ensuring the survival and growth of the profession" (p. 238). Like many of her predecessors she believes that counsellors should be "clear, firm and persistent in presenting the counseling role to those who are important and influential" (p.238). She felt i t was critical for counsellors to "take a stand rather than constantly placate and accommodate" (p.238). However, before attempting to determine the steps required to clarify the counsellors' role and functions, i t is important to present an overview of the perceptions held of counsellors by administrators, teachers, students, and parents. As was previously mentioned, much of the research cited originated in the 60s and early 70s when dissatisfaction with the counsellors' role appeared to be at its peak. Administrators' Perceptions According to Miller (1965) activities deemed appropriate for counsellors by administrators included ones of an instructional or quasi-instructional nature such as curriculum, testing, attendance, and schedule-making. Doi's (1976) study indicated that principals at the elementary level placed a high priority for counsellors on individual counselling and behaviour management problems and expected them to have the appropriate skills to do so. They also deemed 25 important skills related to discipline, small group counselling, teacher consultation, and classroom management techniques, which counsellors would employ in a l l three areas of counselling; preventive, developmental and remedial. A more recent study by Bonebrake and Borgers (1984) which surveyed counsellors and administrators at the upper elementary, middle and junior/high levels, found agreement that counsellors should primarily be involved with: (a) individual counselling, (b) teacher consultation, (c) student assessment, (d) parent consultation, and (e) evaluation of guidance. It also determined that counsellors should be least involved in: (a) research, (b) functioning as principal, (c) supervising of lunch-room, (d) discipline, and (e) teaching non-guidance classes. Interestingly enough, in a study by Remly and Albright (1988) who gathered data by interviewing middle school principals, they had to conclude that there was no consensus of opinion among the principals on the appropriate role of the middle school counsellor even though they a l l believed that counsellors made positive contributions to the school. Arbuckle (1970) contended that there were two opposing perceptions regarding counsellors. He maintained that teachers and administrators perceived counsellors as being not too different in training or attitude from themselves, and that they believed counsellors should perform school-based activities. However, he did not agree with this premise. His difference of opinion was stressed rather emphatically when he stated: "The compiling of information of a semi-public nature, the making up of records, the writing of evaluative and critical recommendations on students is primarily the 26 task of the administrator, not the counselor" (p.329). He also suggested that another reason for the demise of counsellors was the fact that the organization of a school took precedence over the individuals who made up the organization. This obviously included students and counsellors. Hanson (1967) had previously made an observation related to the school's organization. He determined that the counsellor-pupil ratio which is set by the administration had an effect on the type of activities counsellors engaged in. He found that the larger the student load, the less time counsellors had to work with individual students. The decrease in individualized attention signalled an increase in managerial tasks which indirectly benefitted students; a case in point of the organization being more important than the individuals. The contrasting point of view outlined by Arbuckle (1970) and held in his opinion by children, the community, and theorists was that counsellors had a "discrete and definable function, quite different from that of the teacher or administrator", and that they therefore required a different kind of professional training (p.326). He supported this viewpoint and believed counsellors' functions should be determined by empirical research based on the needs of the children in the community. He also proposed that "the counselor should be the one person in the school who has at least some chance of bridging the gap between the youth culture and the adult culture" (p.329). That he had very definite views regarding counsellors' role and function is evidenced by the following passage. The counselor should have two predominant roles, neither 27 of which would clash with each other. Remedially he should function in a therapeutic role with individuals and groups, including children, teachers and administrators, and parents. Preventively he should function as a consultant so that something might be done to make the educational experience more relevant for each individual child. He should work for a curriculum that would reflect a belief in individual differences and the worth of each individual. He should be an expert in the area of human communication and learning and growth. He would know much about people and their behavior, especially the people of the community in which he works (p.329). Maser (1971) acknowledged that a discrepancy did exist between counsellors' and administrators' perceptions of the counsellors' role. He attributed i t to the necessity of counsellors performing duties outside the counselling paradigm. Noncounselling functions that resembled those of administrators, attendance officers, secretaries and clerks, he deemed as being necessary. Arbuckle (1970) termed them essential but disagreed that counsellors had to perform them. However, as Friedland (1969) pointed out, i t was not usually up to counsellors to determine the functions that they would assume responsibility for. He purported that the counsellors' role was misconceived by principals and administrative personnel. He was of the opinion that the direction and quality of the guidance services in individual schools was often dictated by the way the principal 28 perceived those services. Carroll (1968) similarly opined that counsellors were being "plagued by administrative undermining" of their role (p.21). She maintained that because administrators did not know what the functions were, they tried to put them into a framework with which they were familiar. Arbuckle (1967) classified those administrators as inadequate individuals who had to determine for themselves the professional tasks of a l l their staff. He contrasted them with personally secure and professionally competent administrators who could admit they knew l i t t l e about personnel services and were concerned enough about employing someone who had some professional sk i l l and understanding. Shertzer and Stone (1963) cited studies which concluded that the administrator viewed the counsellor as a "jack-of-all trades." They also alleged that counsellors were being denied the opportunity to work as full-time counsellors instead of teacher/counsellors because "administrative officials of the school" wanted i t that way (1965, p.237). Their strong conviction was straightforwardly stated as follows: Counsellors in full-time positions dim the shining spotlight traditionally accorded administrators in the school. By dividing the counselor's functions, by draining away his time in a multiplicity of activities, the administrator makes the counselor a marginal man, and renders him ineffective and less of a threat. This kind of misutilization of staff, while resulting in the removal of a competitor, 29 negatively affects the school's guidance services by forcing the counselor to be ineffective as a counselor (1965, p.237). All the same, credit must be granted Arbuckle (1961) for truly focussing attention on the counsellors' marginal status with this very apt and oft-quoted description: It is interesting to note that of all these groups [teachers, administrators, and special service administrators], i t is only the school counselor who is willing to accept the part-time, dual-role status. Other professional workers may spend only part of their time in the services of the school, but they are not part-time doctors, or part-time nurses, or part-time psychiatrists. They are medical doctors, or nurses, or psychologists or psychiatrists. Like pregnancy, "they are or they ain't", and there is no in-between status. We have no doctor-teacher, or nurse-principal, or psychologist-janitor, but we have thousands of teacher-counselors, or even more absurd, principal-counselors, and even, horror added upon horror, superintendent-counselors. Even worse, this schizophrenic fellow doesn't seem to mind this dual or triple status, and goes blithely walking off in several directions, at the same time, quite unaware that one set of feet is falling over the other (p.56). Two studies that specifically addressed principals' perceptions 30 of the dual-role status of teacher/counsellors arrived at opposite conclusions. Principals in a study by Mort (1977) purported that counselling time should be more effectively arranged. They disagreed with the practice of assigning small amounts of counselling time to several teachers citing inefficient use of time and lack of continuity. They recognized that when counsellors operated as teacher-counsellors with large teaching loads, they tended to use time designated for counselling to prepare for classes. On the other hand Misuraca (1976) determined that principals predominantly believed that counsellors should teach, primarily because they perceived i t would keep counsellors in touch with the students and increase their credibility among staff and students. Argument was also made that many rural schools were not large enough to warrant a full-time counsellor. Shertzer and Stone (1965) did not blame administrators entirely for the plight of the counselling services in the schools. They also maintained that although counsellors had not been given enough administratively assigned time, they themselves failed to assume the responsibility of using i t for personal counselling when the time had been made available to them. Their rationalization for this was that counsellors sought "to avoid the ambiguity and uncertainty experienced in the more intimate interpersonal relationship which is counseling" (p.237). This reinforced a previously held conviction that "giving tests and being an administrator's handyman [was] the easiest, most secure role for the counselor" (Shertzer & Stone, 1963, p.138). 31 Teachers' Perceptions Regarding teachers' perceptions, Haettenschwiller and Jabs (1969) presented the view that teachers could not "see where the counselor's efforts [had] any significant impact upon the school's raison d'etre - namely, education" (p.118). They proposed that the role of teacher was not seen as supporting the role of the counsellor. They maintained that although the counsellor's primary commitment was to the student, this relationship would be more meaningful with teacher support. Like others, Haettenschwiller and Jabs held counsellors accountable for failing "to establish their position as central to the organization" (p.119). They also determined that significant differences existed with regard to the definition of the counsellors' role which in turn led to wide disparities in the expectations and enactment of their role. Quinn (1969) also broached the subject of discord between teachers and counsellors. He asserted that both groups were responsible for the lack of harmony between them. On the part of teachers he maintained that "some good teachers (especially those with long years of service) [looked] upon guidance as an innovation, a f r i l l , not necessarily the 'sine qua non' of the most successful teaching situation" (p.171). He concluded, based on 30 years experience, that these teachers were of the mind that what they were doing since they had started teaching was 'guidance', and that they were under the impression that they were totally competent to perform guidance activities and saw no need for specialists such as counsellors. Another contributing factor for the disharmony was attributed to 32 the teachers' perception that the counsellor was a part of the administration. Quinn (1969) further stated that i f the counsellor was accepted by the teachers i t would merely have been because of his perceived administrative status, and not because of a sound interpersonal relationship between them. The third reason offered to explain the dichotomy between teachers and counsellors was the existence of poorly and inadequately trained counsellors. Quinn pointed out that where expertise did not exist, there could be no recognition of competence. With regard to counsellors, Quinn (1969) questioned how they contributed to the "persona non grata concept" (p.171). He offered as one explanation the fact that counsellors could be guilty of furthering communication and semantic difficulties because of the use of their professional vocabulary. He maintained that counsellors failed to clarify to teachers the role of the counsellor in the total guidance program of the school, and needed to develop and strengthen interpersonal relationships with the teachers. He also felt i t was of utmost importance that counsellors established in the minds of teachers an appreciation of them being key members of the guidance team, so that they saw themselves as integral parts of the total guidance activity, not ancillary to i t . Quinn's ultimate aim was that teachers would "cease to think of administration by administrators, teaching by teachers, and guidance by the school counselor; [they would] see more fully the necessity of the team approach to a sound educational program" (p.172). In addressing the issue of teacher/counsellor discord, Friedland (1963) described an interesting paradox. -He stated that although the 33 merits of the counselling function were perceived as being important in American education, the implementation of that function by counsellors was less than enthusiastically received in the schools. He proposed that a number of factors were significant in contributing to the discord that existed between the two aforementioned parties. Friedland (1963) attributed one of the major causes of dissension to the real and inherent differences in the roles of teachers and counsellors. Using the research by sociologist Daniel Lortie (1964) who found that the major source of satisfaction and reward for teachers was based on student mastery of subject matter, he postulated that counsellors often ended up on a collision course with teachers rather than on parallel paths, because counsellors were more concerned about students as whole persons, which included their emotional and social dimensions, not just their academic ones. The example of a teacher intent upon maintaining high and uniform standards and a counsellor concerned about the low self-concept and emotional insecurity of a student was used to illustrate how a counsellor, through his/her activity, could be placed in the position of diminishing or thwarting the reward system of that teacher. Friedland maintained that repetition of such a scenario would lead to considerable resentment. The second factor Friedland (1963) identified was a restatement of a well documented notion: the discrepancy between what counsellors actually did and what teachers, parents, and others conceived their role to be. He hypothesized that counsellors were perceived as being and doing a scattered potpourri of things, and when they did not do them, expectations went unmet, although many of them were erroneous 34 or unrealistic, thereby widening the gap in the relationship between teachers and counsellors. Related to this contention in his estimation, was the fact that counsellors did do a potpourri of things. Friedland's (1963) statement that the counsellor was seen by many teachers as a "pseudo-administrator, a supervisor, a public- and parent-relations man, a student advocate, a standardized test giver, and even a general cr i t i c " (p.264), was merely an elaboration of many of the previously mentioned authors' findings. Even the third cause identified as contributing to counsellor-teacher friction was not a novel one. Lack of effective communication often has been cited as precluding harmony and promoting discord between counsellors and teachers. Friedland did make the point however, that these two parties would often complain about the situation, and would not take the necessary steps to remediate i t . As a consequence the situation either remained the same or got worse. Friedland (1963) also insightfully pinpointed many of the overt manifestations of teacher-counsellor discord. And although he maintained that these were outgrowths of the previously-mentioned causes he foresaw them as contributing to teacher-counsellor friction in a more direct and more damaging way. The f i r s t of these he termed "status symbol differences" (p.265), which significantly set counsellors apart from their teacher colleagues. These included their environment, schedule, workload, and status within the school. Regarding their environment, he enumerated several status symbols. For example, counsellors had their own office, with their name somewhere in evidence, a telephone connecting them to the outside 35 world, and a secretary to help them. However, Stefflre (1968) made the observation that when counsellors moved out of the classroom and into their private offices they paid the price of not only alienating themselves from their teacher-colleagues, but that they physically isolated and segregated themselves from them as well. Concerning schedules, Friedland (1963) suggested that counsellors were spared being victims of "Pavlovian bells" (p.265), because their time was their own; that is, they could make staffroom visits, and have their coffee breaks and lunch at their convenience. They had the luxury of planning their own day and had control over their appointments, which often meant seeing only one student at a time. This led to the misinterpretation that counsellors not only had a lighter work load, but that they truly were inaccessible to spontaneous teacher contacts, thus lending further credence to Stefflre's (1968) claim. Taylor (1969) addressed the work-load issue when he expressed the opinion that many teachers would look upon counsellors' work as a "soft berth" (p.215). He even went so far as to suggest that they would hint that counsellors were being relieved of some or a l l of their teaching hours in exchange for handing out advice that they provided every day in the classroom. Friedland (1963) coupled the freedom of time element with the fact that counsellors were generally spared "annoyance duties" (p.265), such as study hall supervision, cafeteria or hall duty, home room, attendance registers, and test proctoring, in order to further substantiate the lack of harmony between counsellors and teachers. Counsellors were perceived as having special status. Unlike the 36 teachers, they also had exposure to the outside world. They were able to take "college trips, go to conventions and meet representatives of industry and higher education" (p.265). They represented the school and often their name appeared on school documents. If that was not enough, Friedland (1963) also identified areas that counsellors ventured into which impacted with equal negativity on the teacher-counsellor relationship. Programming, for example, was one of them. The point was made that although counsellors were responsible for helping students select programs of studies most appropriate to their needs, programming results could be counted on to e l i c i t a number of misconceptions. He summed i t up best when he said: "Picture the Latin teacher who is upset about decreasing enrollments, the Industrial Arts person who doesn't like the quality of students taking his course, the Math teacher who angrily wants to know, "What's that kid doing in my class? You should have made him take Basic Math instead" (p.265). Class size difficulties were also added to the l i s t of negative forces. For example, counsellors did not endear themselves to their colleagues when they placed new students into fu l l classes because of the dictates of the students' programs. Conflict with teachers vis^a vis curriculum was also suggested as another contributing factor. The counsellors' student-centered focus often clashed with the teachers' subject matter focus. Even the counsellors' involvement with students was addressed as a possible negative influence. Friedland (1963) proposed that the situation involving a counsellor listening to student and parent complaints held a number of negative 37 and threatening connotations to some teachers. Students' Perceptions Grant's research in 1954 focussed on the help given to students by counsellors in three major areas; educational planning, vocational planning, and personal-emotional problems. His findings indicated that students preferred counsellors as their f i r s t source of help with educational and vocational planning but not with personal-emotional problems. Regarding the latter, counsellors were perceived as playing a minor role. Years later, Kaback's (1963) study came to a similar conclusion. The counsellors' function was perceived by students as being one which dealt with school-related problems, not personal ones. Gibson (1962) found in his research conducted in 12 secondary schools in three different states, that more than a quarter of the students did not feel that counsellors had assisted them personally in any way. He also determined that 56% of them were unsure of the activities which constituted the guidance program in their school, and that one third of them reported that the guidance program had not been described, explained, or outlined to them during their entire time in high school. These findings supported one of Arbuckle's (1963) claims. He contended that the functions of school counsellors should have been geared to the needs of the tens of millions of children in the school system, but unfortunately they were the ones who had the least effect on the determination of the counsellors' function. Peterson (1966) proposed that the students' perception of the 38 counsellors' role and their willingness to refer themselves to them were closely related. She maintained that self-referrals would either not occur or be limited i f : (a) students perceived that the counsellors were "too busy to see them" (p.157); (b) they saw them as disciplinarians, moralizers, givers of information or educational programmers; and (c) their role was structured so that the students expected to be called in rather than initiating the interviews themselves. Two surveys conducted in 1967 found that the perceptions high school students had of counsellors limited their interaction with them. Larson and Rice determined that formally defined counsellors were used primarily as program planners. Bigelow and Humphreys came to the conclusion that students felt counsellors were there to help them with "vocational and educational future, schoolwork adjustment, and curriculum and teaching procedure" (p.159). They also concluded that whereas counsellors felt i t was their responsibility to assist students with personal problems, students would not bring them to their attention because they did not perceive i t to be a part of the counsellors' role. Carroll (1968) aptly summarized the difference in perceptions when she stated that the counsellor thought of himself "as an agent of the child, but the child [did] not always see him as such" (p.22). Students in a study by Kavic (1977) supported this notion. It was determined that although the majority of them stated that they trusted counsellors to maintain confidentiality they would not seek out counsellors with problems of a personal nature, or ones related to romance, loneliness, drugs, religion, or sex. The areas they identified as ones that they would potentially discuss with 39 counsellors would be those related to parental pressures, student/parent conflicts, and values. Joshi (1977) made an interesting discovery when he presented students with a choice of discussing personal problems with a counsellor or a homeroom teacher with some training in counselling. His results indicated that 69% of the students he surveyed preferred a counsellor. He also established that a reduced majority, 55%, would seek out assistance from a counsellor instead of a teacher with regard to resolving problems related to the classroom. Kavic's students also overwhelming denied that they would go to a classroom teacher for counselling although they frequently mentioned how unavailable counsellors were. Joshi's students were clear however about what they perceived to be the most important aspects of a counsellor's role; timetabling and providing information on colleges and universities. To reduce the discrepancy between counsellors and students perceptions, Bigelow and Humphreys (1967) recommended an investigation into counsellor-role understanding by counsellors as well as by those who use their services. Ultimately counsellors would have to decide i f they were prepared to accept the challenge of changing the students' perceptions or restrict their functions to f i t the image the students had of them. Stiller and Gannon's (1968) study involving 13,000 students found, to the authors' surprise, that the majority of students did not see counsellors as the major source of assistance in program planning. Although students reported that they had received a "great deal" or "some" help from their counsellors, parents were cited as 40 being influential particularly at the Grade 8 and 9 level. By the 12th grade their popularity had diminished in favor of significant others. Similar findings pertained to planning for future work. At the Grade 12 level parents and significant others were almost equally influential with counsellors third in importance. Regarding counsellor interviews, over 80% at all grade levels reported that they were helpful. However, only one in six thought that they had helped them a "great deal" to understand their abilities, interests or limitations. Almost half the students thought that they had helped "some" while one in three or four felt they had received "very l i t t l e " or "no" help. Of interest is the fact that the percentage of students who thought they had been helped a "great deal" diminished from the 8th to the 12th grade, thereby indicating that as the students matured they perceived the counsellor as being less important. Guidance classes were similarly perceived. At the Grade 8 and 9 level around 25% of the students thought that the group guidance classes had been a great deal of help, whereas over 50% of the seniors thought that these classes were of l i t t l e or no help. Holly (1969) summarized the perceptions 36 boys from the California Youth Authority (CYA) Training School had of counsellors. In their opinion, they needed someone they could talk to and discuss their problems with when teachers did not have the time. They felt that i f there had been a counsellor to go to when they were in elementary school and f i r s t starting to experience difficulties, they could have been more successful in high school. They wanted closer relationships between counsellors and students. Many of the boys had never talked to a counsellor, and perceived that counsellors as well as teachers were interested in only a few students instead of each of the students in the school. They expressed interest in preventive counselling and believed that closer working relationships between parents and counsellors would have solved problems earlier thus preventing severe ones from developing later on. They wanted schools to offer small group counselling or applied psychology classes to help them to better understand themselves. They wanted the focus of counselling to be less concerned with choosing classes, making class changes, and investigating future vocations, and more oriented to the students and their personal problems. It is interesting to note that l i t t l e difference is apparent between the previous authors' findings and the perceptions of the 36 boys who were assigned by court order to the CYA Training School. Murgatroyd's (1977) research like many other studies confirmed what the delinquent boys had stated. The students he surveyed perceived counsellors as senior teachers with a great deal of administrative responsibility, whose role involved offering help on career and school matters. Few of the students indicated a willingness to approach the counsellors with personal problems. Parents' Perceptions Evraiff (1961) was one of the f i r s t to survey parents' perceptions of counsellor functions. According to his research, a rank order of counselling duties by the parents placed programming at the top of the l i s t , followed by handling school problems, counselling pupils on future careers, and counselling pupils on 42 personal matters. Bergstein and Grant (1961) conducted their initial study with parents living in a Long Island suburb. They determined that counsellors were rated as more helpful than family friends or school principals with regard to educational-vocational-personal problems, and least helpful with personal-emotional-social problems. From this investigation they developed another study in 1964 and found that "when parents conceived a school person as a helper to a child with a problem, they seldom conceived him as a person of below average help and most often conceived him as a person of above average help" (p.71). Data analysis corroborated their previous finding that counsellors were most frequently designated as helpers with problems of an educational and vocational nature and were not perceived as resource persons for pupils with personal-emotional-social problems. They also reported that parents of students in higher grades conceived counsellors to be more helpful to their children than did parents of lower grade students. Dunlop (1965) concluded from his research that out of the following seven task areas; (a) vocational, (b) educational, (c) personal, (d) testing and diagnosis, (e) administrative-clerical, (f) teacher role, and (g) counselling profession responsibilities, the parents surveyed believed counsellors should perform tasks in the areas of educational and vocational guidance, but merely as advice givers. They also believed counsellors needed to spend time performing administrative-clerical tasks. Dunlop (1965) also found differences in the perceptions of mothers of college-bound children and mothers of job-bound ones. The 43 former supported vocational guidance while the latter tended to be more positive towards personal counselling. Both groups however, favoured counsellors performing tasks in the discipline and administrative-clerical areas. A study in 1966 compared parents' attitudes toward personnel services and student adjustment in 21 North Dakota secondary schools, 10 with guidance programs, and 14 without (Wigtil, Munger, Brooks, Flannery). It found that parental attitudes towards specified services were affected by counselling programs. In contrast to parents of children in non-guidance schools, parents of children in guidance schools were more sure that there was a school staff member who; (a) could be consulted i f a student had problems, (b) could give students personal attention, (c) would attempt to understand emotional causes behind misbehavior, (d) would try to adjust the curriculum to the slow and rapid learners, and (e) would conduct follow-up studies. These parents also differed from their counterparts in that they felt encouraged about school visitations where they would be given help in understanding their children through personal interviews with faculty members. They indicated as well that they felt test results would be explained to them upon request, and were more sure that test results were being explained to their children. They also felt that efforts were being made to provide the students with up-to-date occupational information. In 1968 Ketterman studied the perceptions that the general public had of school counsellors' functions. His findings yielded five significant findings. First, the general public preferred counsellors over teachers and principals to perform the following functions: (a) educational, vocational, and personal counselling; (b) test diagnosis and interpretation; (c) providing educational and vocational information; and (d) consulting parents and teachers about students' school adjustment and achievement. Second, no consistent response pattern emerged from the sample of the general public. With the exception that "the middle-class and the younger respondents tended to assign counselors counselor functions to a slightly greater extent than did other subgroups in the respective classifications" (p.45), variables such as sex, age, social status, marital status, and school age children made l i t t l e difference to the outcome. Third, the general public did not assign counsellor functions to principals and teachers. Fourth, the general public supported the employment of school counsellors, and fifth, experience with school counsellors did not affect the general public's assignment of counsellor functions. No significant difference was detected between groups who had no experience with counsellors, and those who had talked to, read about, or had counsellors when they were in school. The general public's priorities regarding counsellor functions resembled those of the parents mentioned previously. They gave strongest support to educational and vocational counselling, followed by personal counselling, test diagnosis and interpretation, and providing educational and vocational information. Hanson (1968) focussed her study on the expectations middle-class parents had of counsellors at the junior high level. A questionnaire was designed based on the American Personnel and Guidance Association's (APGA) recommendations for the counsellor's role and function. It consisted of 35 items divided almost equally 45 into four sections: (a) Counselor's Assistance in Academic Areas; (b) Personal Relationships between Counselor and Counselee; (c) Preference for Authoritarian versus Permissive Counselors; and (d) Professional Duties of the Counselor. Hanson determined that these parents were between 90 to 100% in agreement that counsellors should perform the following eight rank-ordered items. 1) See their child at least once a year. 2) Help their child work with teachers. 3) Give their child suggestions and let him choose what he wishes to do. 4) Expect the parent and child to assume the responsibilities agreed upon. 5) Work with parents and their child i f a dropout problem existed. 6) Know [their] community. 7) Get home instruction for their child, i f the child was i l l for a long period of time. 8) Feel welcome in the parents' homes (p.119). With a range of agreement between 7 and 19%, the parents obviously did not agree that counsellors should: 9) Conduct group discussions of children's problems. 10) Tell parents what to do. 11) Tell their children what to do. 12) Help with special needs such as clothing, lunches, medical care, etc. (p.119). Instead of including items related to the personal characteristics of counsellors, Hanson (1968) provided space for the respondents to comment. Parents appeared to feel that training was more important than the counsellors' age or sex. Hanson's conclusion was that in general, the middle-class population supported APGA's recommendations for the counsellor's role. A study in 1971 by Jacobs, Krueger, Lesar, and Redding also examined the perceptions of parents of junior high school students in a midwestern, rural, middle class community. They developed a questionnaire that was comprised of 42 questions divided equally into the six areas developed by Dunlop (1965): (a) vocational, (b) educational, (c) personal-social, (d) testing and diagnosis, (e) administrative-clerical, and (f) counselling profession responsibilities; and mailed i t to the homes of seventh and eighth grade students, classified as low, average or high achievers. The findings determined that the majority of parents agreed that counsellors should perform the listed tasks in five of the areas. Confirming previous studies, educational tasks received the most support from parents with 89% agreement. The area of vocational tasks was a close second with 87%. Counselling profession responsibilities received 77%, testing and diagnosis, 73%, and personal-social tasks, 65%. With regard to the sixth area, administrative-clerical tasks, 51% of the parents did not agree that counsellors should perform the tasks. Comparing the responses of parents of children in the three levels of achievement resulted in significant differences being recorded in only two of the six areas. In the administrative-clerical area 56% of the parents of high and average achievers felt counsellors should not be responsible for the tasks, as opposed to only 36% of the parents of low achievers. In the testing and diagnosis area, 74% of the parents of high achievers and 77% of the parents of average achievers agreed that counsellors should perform the tasks, whereas only 60% of parents of low achievers were of the same opinion. However, 31% of them were undecided. No significant differences were found between parents who 47 had children only in elementary and junior high, and those who had children in junior and senior high. Nor was there any significant difference between the perceptions of parents who had previously had a conference with a counsellor and those who had not. The study concluded that parents in this particular community generally agreed that the work counsellors were doing was the kind of work the parents thought they should be doing. It also indicated that most parents were anxious to work cooperatively with the school to help their children. Two suggestions were made to enhance the parent-counsellor relationship. First, more attention should be given to parents of low achievers to help them reach a better understanding of how the counsellors could be of more assistance to them. And second, parents should be given more opportunities to talk with counsellors about their children. It was proposed that parent conferences would be beneficial to students, parents, and counsellors. Jarvis (1981) reported the results of a survey conducted by the Canadian Home and School and Parent-Teacher Federation. This nationwide survey differed markedly from the community studies in that i t determined that a very high percentage of parents were unaware of the services available at any particular grade level. For the most part however, they did feel they were available by the eighth grade in secondary school. A lack of communication between the counsellors and those who use their services was cited as a probable cause for this apparent lack of awareness. The second point that Jarvis (1981) underscored related to training. Parents "did not feel there was a guarantee of adequate training of personnel providing guidance services" (p.48). The parents regarded specific training as essential as well as the need for counsellors to be up-to-date with the current needs of business, industry, and continuing education. Results of the report also indicated that parental expectations of counselling services differed in the early grades. Parents felt counsellors should help identify early learning difficulties and assist in the social development of younger students. Regarding testing, 89% of the parents were in favour of achievement testing at regular intervals in areas such as reading, mathematics, and language. Eighty-three percent of them believed that ability testing should also be administered regularly with the "general" results made available to parents, counsellors, and students. Interest testing for adolescents was given similarly strong support. It was proposed that testing would be used to help align students' abilities and interests with prospective careers, as well as detect difficulties early enough to be able to provide remedial action. Parents also stressed their need to be involved in guidance counselling sessions. Furthermore they exhibited an awareness that the priority given guidance counselling services by administrators varied in rural and urban areas in some provinces and recommended that financial allocations be adequate to provide a uniformly high standard of service with well-trained personnel and relevant materials. In conclusion, the research cited illustrates that the perceptions held of the counsellors' role and function by administrators, teachers, students, and parents have been and continue to be diverse and sometimes conflicting in nature between the groups as well as among them. To summarize, the administrators perceived i t was important for counsellors to be involved in activities of an instructional or quasi instructional nature such as curriculum, attendance and schedule making (Miller, 1965). They also expected counsellors to be involved not only in individual counselling (Arbuckle, 1970; Doi, 1976; Bonebrake and Borgers, 1984), but also as consultants to parents and teachers (Arbuckle, 1970; Bonebrake and Borgers, 1984). The teachers perceived the counsellors to be part of the administrative team performing tasks that would be better ascribed to them (Friedland, 1963; Quinn, 1969). For the most part they were critical of the tasks counsellors performed, but the literature revealed nothing specific that the teachers felt the counsellors should be responsible for. Students perceived i t important that counsellors help them with educational and vocational planning (Grant, 1954; Kaback, 1963; Bigelow and Humphreys, 1967; Murgatroyd; 1977), program planning (Larson and Rice, 1967), timetabling (Joshi, 1977), school work adjustment (Bigelow and Humphreys, 1967), as well as providing them with information on colleges and universities (Joshi, 1977). The parents were the most specific with regard to counsellor functions. It was their perception that counsellors be responsible for programming (Evraiff, 1961), educational and vocational counselling (Evraiff, 1961; Bergstein and Grant, 1961; Dunlop, 1965; Ketterman, 1968; Jacobs et al, 1971), and personal counselling (Evraiff, 1961; Ketterman, 1968; Jacobs et al, 1971). They also 50 indicated that counsellors should be performing administrative-clerical tasks as well as those related to discipline (Dunlop, 1965). They felt counsellors should be involved in test diagnosis and interpretation (Ketterman, 1968; Jarvis, 1981). They believed counsellors should handle students' problems at school (Evraiff, 1961), and consult parents and teachers about students' school adjustment and achievement (Ketterman, 1968). It was their opinion that counsellors should also be involved in responsibilities related to the counselling profession (Jarvis, 1981). Hanson (1968) presented the most specific information when she determined that parents perceived counsellors should perform the following tasks: (a) see their child at least once a year; (b) help their child work with teachers; (c) give their child suggestions and let him choose what he wishes to do; (d) expect the parent and child to assume the responsibilities agreed upon; (e) work with parents and their child i f a dropout problem existed; (f) know their community; (g) get home instruction for their child, i f the child was i l l for a long period of time; (h) feel welcome in the parents' homes. It is quite evident that discrepancies have existed and again, continue to exist between the groups' expectations of the counsellors and the functions they perform. No argument has been presented to deny that counsellors have been expected to perform a myriad of tasks. What has been established is that with so many demands being placed upon counsellors by the school-related groups, the counsellors cannot meet a l l of their expectations. And i f counsellors were to attempt to restrict their functions to f i t the groups' perceptions, how could they decide which groups' perceptions should take priority? It has already been determined that in attempting to please everyone counsellors have been held accountable for not pleasing anyone. Echoing Shertzer and Stone (1963), Day and Sparacio (1980), and Drury (1984) i t is time counsellors assumed responsibility for their role. They must become involved in the process of defining i t then communicating i t to interested parties. They should have the confidence to state what does or does not comprise their role. Furthermore they should be willing to attempt to change perceptions i f necessary. This study was undertaken to assist them in this process by identifying the functions deemed important by the school-related groups. The following chapter establishes the steps taken to accomplish this end. 52 CHAPTER THREE METHOD The purpose of this study was to determine the functions being performed by school counsellors in West Vancouver, with a view to surveying five school-related groups in an effort to identify the counsellor functions deemed most important by them at both the elementary and secondary levels. It was also the intent of this study to solicit the opinions of these groups regarding eight recommendations made in the Ministry of Education's Task Force report on counselling that specifically pertained to; (a) the necessity of employing counsellors in the schools, (b) the ratio of counsellors to , students, (c) the assignment of full-time counsellor positions to counsellors, (d) the nature of counsellors' teaching assignments i f required, (e) the importance of counsellors not being assigned tasks of a clerical or administrative nature, (f) counsellors' primary responsibilities, (g) counsellor qualifications, and (h) the assignment of trained staff aides to counselling departments. Development of the Survey Instrument The attainment of the objectives of this study required a number of steps. Primary among them was the identification of the actual functions performed by the counsellors in West Vancouver. To achieve this end, the Counsellor Task Check List (Appendix A) was devised. It was based in large part on a 1970 study by Herman Roemmich entitled Counsellor Functions in Terms of Behavioral Tasks that 53 consisted of a l i s t of 132 different counsellor functions. Because Roemmich's study so aptly described in behavioral terms the tasks performed by counsellors, 125 of the items were used to form three-quarters of the Counsellor Task Check List. The remaining quarter of i t consisted of items identified as counsellor functions gleaned from four other sources; lists of counsellors' duties and responsibilities generated by principals and counsellors in the secondary schools in West Vancouver, discussions with district counsellors and personal counselling experience. In total, the Counsellor Task Check List consisted of 168 items divided into the following 14 sections: (a) Clerical, (b) Conferences, (c) Guidance, (d) Information, (e) Interaction with Parents, (f) Interaction with Teachers, (g) Meetings, (h) New Students, (i) Programming, (j) Research, (k) School-related Activities, (1) Special Abilities/Needs, (m) Students, (n) Testing. On the last page of the Check List another section was provided with space for the inclusion of additional tasks performed by district counsellors. Each of the 18 school counsellors in West Vancouver was then sent a copy of the Counsellor Task Check List with a letter of transmittal explaining its purpose (Appendix B). Fifteen of the 18 counsellors completed the Check List for a return rate of 83%. The percentage of counsellors performing specific tasks ranged from zero to 100. Of the 168 listed tasks, only 24 were performed by 100% of the counsellors. Conversely 15 of the tasks were not performed by any counsellors. A breakdown of the percentage of counsellors performing the same 54 tasks is indicated in Table 1. Table 1 Percentage of Counsellors Performing the Same Tasks Percentage of counsellors Number of tasks 100 24 93 20 87 12 80 9 73 5 67 9 60 6 53 14 47 10 40 8 33 9 27 7 20 9 13 6 7 5 0 15 The average number of tasks performed by counsellors was 97 or 58% of the listed tasks. The Results of the Counsellor Task Check List in Appendix C provides complete details of the percentage of counsellors performing each of the 168 tasks. The wide range in the percentage of counsellors performing particular tasks can be attributed to a number of factors. First, i t must be noted that three of the 18 counsellors who responded work at the elementary level, and would therefore not perform many of the tasks which would pertain to the secondary level. Second, counsellors are assigned to grades in the secondary schools and perform tasks specific to the age level with which they work. Therefore, although counsellors may have previously performed various tasks, they would not necessarily be performing them in a given year because of their counselling assignment. Some tasks are definitely characteristic of a grade level. Third, one of the counsellors' classification is that of Coordinator, Career Development Programme which again would have certain tasks unique to i t . The Counsellor Task Check List was successful in identifying the tasks performed by counsellors in West Vancouver. The next step was to use this information to design an instrument in order to survey the district's school-related groups as to the importance they placed on each of the tasks. The survey instrument was entitled Survey on  the Importance of Counsellor Functions in West Vancouver (Appendix D). Part 1 listed eight recommendations made in the Ministry of Education's Task Force report on counselling, but broken down into 11 statements. Respondents were asked to rate, using a five point ordinal Likert scale which ranged from 1 (not important) to 5 (very important), the level of importance they felt each recommendation should be given. Part 2 listed 140 tasks identified as being performed by West Vancouver counsellors. From the original Check List, 28 tasks were discarded because they were either not being performed by counsellors, or were being performed by only a few of them. (Discarded items are marked with an * on the Results of the Counsellor Task Check List form in Appendix C.) Using the same scale, respondents were asked to rate the level of importance they 56 felt each task should be given at both the Elementary and Secondary levels. To facilitate administering the survey and then collecting the data, the survey was printed on a different colour of paper for each of the five subject groups; green for parents, yellow for students, pink for teachers, white for counsellors, and blue for administrators. A short check l i s t on the front page of the survey further served to identify the subjects as being part of the appropriate group. Subjects As mentioned, parents, administrators, counsellors, teachers, and students constituted the five school-related groups. Because of the size of the student and parent populations, a simple random sample of each group, using a table of random numbers, was drawn from school lis t s , supplied by principals. To receive lists of students from the schools, a copy of a letter from the Superintendent of Schools in West Vancouver, granting permission to conduct the survey, was fi r s t sent to each of the two primary, nine elementary, and three secondary schools' principals. The student lists were used to identify the students in Grades 6, 8, 10 and 12, as well as the entire parent population. The total student population was 4,827. Because of the difficulty in determining whether the students lived with one or both parents, the parent population was defined as the students' families. As many families had more than one child in the school system, the field to draw from was less than the student 57 population. When the random selections were made, i t was necessary to make a couple of extra selections to ensure that the parents drawn did not receive more than one survey. A decision was made to over sample in the hope that enough surveys would be completed to adequately represent the views of the student and parent populations. The number of parents surveyed was 360; proportionately divided according to school population in al l of the district's schools. An equal number of students were also randomly and proportionately selected in groups of 90 from Grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 from a l l but the primary schools at the elementary level and the three secondary schools. The selections were made from the following fields: Grade 6 (n = 379), Grade 8 (n = 390), Grade 10 (n = 425), and Grade 12 (n = 458). Total number of students in these four grades was 1,652. The choice to survey students in Grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 was not an arbitrary one. Grade 6s were chosen because they represented the highest grade in elementary school and could have some perceptions as to what they would expect a counsellor to do in elementary school based either on their own experiences or observations of others'. And although they had no experience at the high school level, their input was desired because they could furnish insight into their basic expectations of secondary school counsellors. Grade 8s were chosen because they were into their second year of high school and were likely to have experienced contact with counsellors in a number of settings. They could also identify what they felt was important to them as they progressed through the grades. 58 Grade 10s represented the middle group. No longer freshmen and not yet seniors, they had their own distinct needs and expectations. It was felt that they could identify counsellor functions important to them up to this point in their education as well as what they would expect from them in their senior years. Grade 12s were in a good position to enlighten others as to their perceptions because they were just completing their education. Their memories were s t i l l fresh, they could look in retrospect at their elementary, junior, and senior years, and indentify the counsellor tasks they felt were most important. As the total number of teachers, counsellors, and administrators employed in West Vancouver totalled 304, i t was decided that a l l of them should be extended the opportunity to provide input into the importance of counselling services and functions. The three groups divided as follows: 256 teachers, which included part-time and full-time personnel; 33 administrators, which included vice-principals, principals, district administrators, assistant superintendents and the superintendent; as well as 15 counsellors, 10 of whom were from the secondary schools, 3 from Special Education and 2 from the Work Experience Programme. In that the five school-related groups consisted of parents, administrators, teachers, counsellors, and students in West Vancouver, the results obtained from the study are generalizable to this community. 5 9 Procedure After the random sample for the students was made, they were informed by a letter of transmittal distributed from the schools, that they had been chosen to participate in the survey and were asked to have their parents sign the consent part of the letter (Appendix E). They were also informed of the general purpose of the survey and provided with information as to when they could expect to receive i t as well as the process for returning i t . Parents and students then had their survey forms and a letter of transmittal, personalized with their names and signed by the author, sent home via the student, attached to his/her report card (Appendix F). The teaching staff; teachers, counsellors, and administrators, also had personalized letters of transmittal (Appendix F) and their surveys sent to all the schools in the district as well as to the administrative offices. The date and method of return were mentioned on the first page of the survey, with consideration being given to the threat of an impending postal strike. The surveys were sent out in June after the academic school year had ended so as not to precipitate the loss of any school time by students f i l l i n g out their surveys during classes. However, sending the surveys home attached to report cards necessitated that a postage paid addressed envelope accompany them. To minimize cost, instead of using stamps on the 1024 envelopes required, a business reply envelope was printed and attached to each survey form. Postage was then paid only on the returned ones. 60 Return Rate The return rate varied among the groups. After the date specified for returning the completed surveys had expired, a tally of the forms was undertaken. The results are indicated in Table 2. Table 2 Return Rate of the Survey on the Importance of Counsellor Functions in West Vancouver Group Completed Surveys Surveys Sent Return Rate Parents 52 360 14. .4% Students 48 360 13, .3% Teachers 50 256 19. .5% Counsellors 8 15 53. .3% Administrators 17 33 51. .5% A decision was then made to conduct a telephone follow-up targetting the parent group and the students in grades 8, 10, and 12. Recognizing the length of the survey and the fact that i t could present difficulties to Grade 6 students, this group was excluded from the follow-up so as to avoid exerting any undue pressure on them. Because all district teachers, counsellors, and administrators were given the opportunity to participate in the survey, i t was felt that they would respond i f they chose to and should not have to be 61 pressured into doing so. Therefore, they were not included in a follow-up. The purpose of the follow-up was two fold. First, to determine whether or not the parents and students actually received the surveys, bearing in mind that they were distributed with the students' report cards. Second, because of the anonymous nature of the forms, to either thank the parents and students for returning them, or to remind them that i t was not too late to do so. Over a period of six days, 650 phone calls were made. This effort netted some interesting information. Thirty-seven of the surveys sent to the students had not been received by them. This indicated that they had also not received their report cards. The primary reason they gave for the withholding of their reports was their negligence to return books or equipment or pay the related f ines. Of the parents, 25 of them had failed to receive a survey. Some of the surveys were obviously s t i l l attached to withheld reports, but i t could also be speculated that others just did not make i t home, they were lost along the way; a feasible explanation if one considers that reports were sent with students randomly selected from Grades 1 through 12. Immediately after the telephone follow-up, 8 surveys were received from parents and 11 from students. The discovery of the surveys that were not received and the inclusion of the newly returned ones, including an additional one from an administrator, caused some adjustment to the return rate. The final results are indicated in Table 3. 62 Table 3 Final Return Rate of the Survey on the Importance of Counsellor Functions in West Vancouver Group Completed Surveys Surveys Received Return Rate Parents 60 335 17. .9% Students 59 323 18. ,2% Teachers 50 256 19. ,5% Counsellors 8 15 53. .3% Administrators 18 33 54. .5% It should be noted however that the return rate would have been slightly higher among the teachers and parents i f al l the returned surveys were useable. Unfortunately this was not the case. One elementary teacher returned his/her incomplete survey with a comment apologizing for not having the knowledge or background to complete i t . A secondary teacher returned his/ her survey with a rather strongly worded comment suggesting counsellors in his/her school were not doing their job, that they were more a hinderance than a help. It appears these teachers misunderstood the intent of the survey. It was not meant as an evaluation of counselling programs or of counsellors' performance, but rather as an instrument which would allow teachers like themselves the opportunity to express their i perceptions of the most important tasks counsellors should perform. One parent returned his/her survey stating that he/she was 63 ill-qualified to complete i t because he/she was a new arrival in the district and had no previous experience with counsellors. Including these extra returned but unuseable surveys in the return rate would increase i t for parents from 17.9% to 18.2% and for teachers from 18.2% to 20.3%. The return rates for the parents, students, and teachers were less than desired. However, consideration must be given to the fact that the survey was lengthy and did require two answers to each of the 151 items (one for elementary and one for secondary). And although a telephone follow-up was conducted, a decision was made not to exert too much pressure on the respondents even though according to Bradburn and Sudman (1988) "cooperation rates are increased when the number of callbacks is increased" (p. 122). Because of the low cooperation rate of the parents, students, and teachers, care must be taken in generalizing their results. The counsellors' return rate was 53.3% and the administrators' was 54.5%. These return rates represent percentages of the total population of counsellors and administrators. As a result, the counsellors and administrators are better represented than the parents, students, and teachers. Because of the counsellors' and administrators' higher cooperation rates, their results are generalizable to the population. In spite of the return rate, the parents', students', and teachers' opinions will be considered with the other two groups because although their return rates ranged from 18.2% to 20.3%, this does, respectively, represent approximately 2%, 4%, and 20% of West Vancouver's public schools' parent, student, and teacher populations. 64 Data Analysis In order to analyse the data from the surveys the data had to be transferred by hand onto Fortran coding sheets and then entered by a data processor into the university computer using the SPSSX program. Once the data were in the computer, the mean and standard deviation for each item in each group at both the elementary and secondary levels were computed, thus allowing the items to be hierarchically ranked. Means and standard deviations for al l the groups combined were also computed. This presented an overall picture of the most important to least important counsellor functions at both the elementary and secondary levels. The next step in analyzing the data consisted of computing two-tailed t tests for every item in each group in order to determine any statistically significant difference between the means at the elementary and secondary levels. Considering the scope of the counsellor functions listed, i t was expected that a large number of them would be significantly different. Of equal interest however are those that were not. To determine i f the five groups differed among themselves with regard to each particular item at the elementary and secondary level, a one-way analysis of variance was conducted. If statistically significant the F value indicated this difference within the groups at both the elementary and secondary levels. Because of the large number of tests conducted (t tests and an analysis of variance), and in order to decrease the chance of making a Type I error, the level of significance was set at .001 (Bonferroni in Glass and Hopkins, 1984). The next chapter presents an overview of the results. 65 C H A P T E R F O U R R E S U L T S P a r t 1 T o r e c a p i t u l a t e , t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h e s u r v e y c o n t a i n e d 1 1 s t a t e m e n t s t h a t p e r t a i n t o c o u n s e l l o r s a n d c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f i t e m 4 w h i c h r e l a t e s t o t h e p a r t - t i m e c o u n s e l l o r / t e a c h e r s t a t u s f o r c o u n s e l l o r s , t h e r e s t a r e a c t u a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s m a d e b y t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n ' s T a s k F o r c e r e p o r t ( 1 9 8 0 ) . A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e s t h a t n o n e o f t h e 11 i t e m s r e c e i v e d a s c o r e o f l e s s t h a n 2 w h i c h w o u l d t h e r e b y c a t e g o r i z e i t a s b e i n g n o t i m p o r t a n t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e l e a s t t h a t c a n b e s a i d i s t h a t n o n e o f t h e g r o u p s r e j e c t e d o u t r i g h t a n y o f t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . I n f a c t , o n l y a c o u p l e o f t h e m h a d a t o t a l a v e r a g e i n t h e 2 ( o f  l i t t l e i m p o r t a n c e ) r a n g e : #4 ( C o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d b e p a r t - t i m e c o u n s e l l o r s , p a r t - t i m e t e a c h e r s ) ; a n d #11 ( T o a l l o w c o u n s e l l o r s t o u s e t h e i r t i m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y a t r a i n e d s t a f f a i d e s h o u l d b e a s s i g n e d t o e a c h c o u n s e l l i n g d e p a r t m e n t ) . H o w e v e r , s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s d o e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e v a l u e s a c c o r d e d t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s b y t h e f i v e s c h o o l - r e l a t e d g r o u p s ; b o t h f r o m w i t h i n t h e m o n p a r t i c u l a r i t e m s , a s w e l l a s b e t w e e n t h e m a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y l e v e l s . A r e v i e w o f t h e r e s u l t s a f f o r d s s o m e i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s . O n e o f t h e m o s t o b v i o u s i s t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( p = < . 0 0 1 , a s m e a s u r e d b y t w o - t a i l e d t t e s t s ) b e t w e e n t h e e l e m e n t a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y l e v e l s i n 1 0 o u t o f 1 1 r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w i t h t h e t o t a l 66 average for secondary always greater than elementary. This could be interpreted to mean that the recommendations are deemed to be significantly more important at the secondary level than at the elementary one, with only one exception. At both levels, there was no significant difference between the groups with regard to the part-time status of counsellors. This item, #4, received a total average score of 2.92 at the elementary level and 2.86 at the secondary one. In that the scores are fairly close, i t could be suggested that at both levels there was agreement in general as to the relatively low level of importance attributed to this item. However, in order to glean a greater appreciation of the groups' perceptions of these recommendations, a closer inspection of the data is required. To facilitate this, the data for each of the 11 items will be presented in tables and illustrated in figures, and comments on the individual items will be made. By way of review, the scores indicated below were used on the survey: 5= Very important 4= Of considerable importance 3= Of some importance 2= Of l i t t l e importance 1= Not important 1. Counsellors should be employed in each of the district's schools. As presented in Table 4 and illustrated in Figure 1, scores for the parents, students, and teachers at the elementary level, f e l l within the 3-4 range, whereas for the administrators and counsellors scores slightly higher than 4 were recorded. These five groups perceived i t to be somewhat to considerably important to have counsellors at the elementary level. They did however, register their perceptions that i t was more important to have them at the 67 secondary level. Significant differences were recorded between the parents', students', and teachers' elementary scores and their secondary ones. These three groups a l l awarded this recommendation scores in the 4 range while the counsellors and administrators accorded i t scores of 5 with no deviation whatsoever. There appeared to be consensus of opinion in that no significant differences were recorded among the groups at either the elementary or secondary level at the .001 level of statistical significance. Table 4 Results for Item 1 (Counsellors should be employed in each of the  district^s schools) Level  Elementary Secondary Group M SD M SD T-value Prob. Total 3. ,60 1. .24 4. 71 .72 12. .61 <. .001 Parents 3. .66 1, .21 4. 73 .69 6. .66 <. .001 Students 3. .23 1, .17 4. 60 .90 9. .10 <, .001 Teachers 3. .75 1. .35 4. 68 .67 5. .02 <. .001 Counsellors 4. .14 ,90 5. 00 .00 2, .52 .045 Administrators 4. ,07 1. .22 5. 00 .00 2. .95 .014 (F= 2.41; p=.052) (F= 1.29; p=.277) Figure 1 Graph of the Data in 5.00 4.00 Mean 3.00 Score 2.00 1.00 P S T C A Group Note. P= Parents, S= Students, T= Teachers, C= Counsellors, and A= Administrators as listed in the tables. 2. The ratio of students to a counsellor should be approximately 250:1. At the secondary level the counsellors were the only group to unanimously award this recorrrrtendation a score of 5 with no deviation (see Table 5). Of interest is the fact that there was no significant difference between their secondary and elementary scores. Counsellors perceived i t to be considerably important to have a ratio of 250:1 at the elementary level and very important at the secondary level. No other group gave this item as high a score at either 69 level. And although there was no significant difference between the administrators' elementary and secondary scores their averages! were lower than the counsellors', particularly at the elementary level. For the parents and students groups, significant differences between the scores do exist. Differences were also noted for the teachers but not to the same level of significance as the parents and teachers (see Figure 2). However, in every case higher values for the 250:1 ratio were recorded at the secondary level. Within the groups, significant differences were recorded but they were not deemed to be significant. At both levels, i t was the students who accorded this item the lowest scores. Table 5 Results for Item 2 (The ratio of students to a counsellor should be  approximately 250:1) Level  Elementary Secondary Group M SD M SD T-value Prob. Total 3. .28 1. .31 4.06 1 .10 8. .43 <. .001 Parents 3. .30 1. .18 4.32 .89 5. .56 <, .001 Students 2. .93 1. .24 3.65 1 .30 4. .84 <. .001 Teachers 3. .48 1. .39 4.09 .92 3. .41 .002 Counsellors 4. .57 .79 5.00 .00 1. .44 .200 Administrators 3. .57 1. .60 4.17 1 .03 1. .77 .111 (F= 3.27; p=.013) (F= 4.56; p=.002) 70 Figure 2 i Graph of the Data in Table 5 1 5.00 4.00 Mean 3.00 Score 2.00 1.00 P S T C A Group 3. Counsellors should be full-time counsellors. As evidenced in Table 6 and illustrated in Figure 3 the counsellors awarded this recommendation the highest scores at both the elementary and secondary levels. However, unlike previous scores of 5, this one did not receive full consensus, averaging 4.43 at elementary and 4.63 at secondary. Nevertheless, counsellors perceive i t to be considerably to very important for them to have full-time counselling positions in elementary and secondary schools. Students at the secondary level were close in opinion to the counsellors, awarding this recommendation the next highest score. In comparison, teachers, parents and administrators rated i t in the 3 71 range perceiving i t to be somewhat to considerably important. At the elementary level, there was no significant difference in the scores awarded by the teachers, counsellors, or administrators from what they awarded at the secondary level. This was not the case with the parents and students whose scores in the 2 range were the lowest ones. As a result, significant differences (p= <.001) were recorded. Nowhere was the difference more acute than with the students who considered i t to be of considerable importance to have counsellors in full-time counselling positions at the secondary level, but only of l i t t l e to some importance at the elementary level. Within the groups, differences appeared at the secondary level (p= .004) but not at the elementary one (p= .108). Table 6 Results for Item 3 (Counsellors should be full-time counsellors) Level  Elementary Secondary Group M SD M SD T-value Prob. Total 3, .06 1 .52 3. 73 1 .50 8. .29 < , .001 Parents 2. .97 1 .63 3. 73 1 .47 5. .29 <. .001 Students 2. .90 1 .35 4. 02 1 .20 7. .35 <, .001 Teachers 3. .05 1 .47 3. 09 1 .64 1. .77 .085 Counsellors 4. .43 .79 4. 63 .74 1. .00 .356 Administrators 3. .44 1 .87 3. 36 1 .82 1. .48 .166 (F=l. .93; 108) (F= 4. 08; .004) 72 Figure 3 Graph of the Data in Table 6 5.00 Score 2.00 1.00 P S T C A Group 4. Counsellors should be part-time counsellors, part-time teachers. As previously stated this item was not one of the Ministry of Education's Task Force report recommendations. Its purpose on the survey was to e l i c i t opinions vis a vis counsellors being employed as full-time counsellors or part-time counsellors/ part-time teachers. The data in Table 7 indicate that the teachers appear to be the strongest proponents of the latter (see also Figure 4). At both levels with no significant difference between the scores, they are the highest among the groups. However, i t must be noted that the 73 teachers' scores are in the 3 range thereby suggesting that they feel i t is only somewhat to considerably important for counsellors to work as counsellors/teachers. As well, their scores f a l l within the same range regarding the prior full-time counselling recommendation. Therefore i t would not be out of line to suggest that the teachers do not greatly favour one counselling position structure over the other. By way of contrast, the counsellors expressed a strong difference of opinion. Regarding the part-time counselling/teaching position they gave i t the lowest scores of the groups; 2.14 at elementary and 2.00 at secondary. Conversely, as has already been established, the counsellors gave the full-time counselling recommendation the highest scores. Parents, students, and administators awarded this item scores in the 2 range at both the elementary and secondary levels, and with only one exception these scores were less than those of the full-time counselling recommendation. The sole exception rests with the students who registered the same score at the elementary level for both this item and the previous full-time counselling one. At the elementary level no significant difference was recorded among the groups. However, the difference of opinion between the teachers and counsellors appears to have resulted in a highly significant difference being recorded (p= <.001) within the groups at the secondary level. Table 7 Results for Item 4 (Counsellors should be part-time counsellors,  part-time teachers) Level Elementary Secondary Group M SD M SD T-value Prob. Total 2 .92 1 .52 2 86 1.52 1 .14 .254 Parents 2 .87 1 .65 2 64 1.56 .84 .407 Students 2 90 1 46 2. 57 1.43 2 .18 .034 Teachers 3 25 1 52 3. 66 1.40 1 .31 .199 Counsellors 2 .14 1 .22 2 00 1.20 .00 1.000 Administrators 2 79 1 42 2. 83 1.53 .56 .591 .92; P=- 454) (F= <• L89; p=<.001) Figure 4 Graph of the Data in Table 7 5.00 4.00 Mean 3.00 Score 2.00 1.00 P S T C A Group 75 5. Teaching assignments given to counsellors should be as closely related to counselling as possible. The Ministry of Education's Task Force Report recommended that counsellors' positions be full-time counselling ones. It recognized however that this could not always be the case. Therefore i t made the recommendation that for those counsellors who had to teach, their assignments should be as closely related to counselling as possible. This would presumably include courses related to family l i f e , health and guidance, career preparation, to name a few. Examining the data in Table 8 i t is obvious that the counsellors overwhelmingly agreed with this recommendation, particularly at the elementary level, where they awarded i t the highest score of 5 with no deviation. A 4.88 score at the secondary level, although slightly lower, appears to be a strong endorsement as well. At the secondary level, parents followed by students accorded this recommendation the next highest scores; 3.67 and 3.39 respectively. They placed more importance on this recommendation than both the teachers and administrators. Incidentally i t was the administrators who awarded i t the lowest score (2.42). So, for parents and students, this recommendation was perceived as being somewhat to considerably important, whereas the teachers and administrators perceived i t to be of l i t t l e to some importance. The wide discrepancy between the five groups' scores yielded a significant difference among them (p= <.001). Between the elementary and secondary levels significant differences existed for the parents and students who awarded lower scores at the elementary level. The teachers awarded i t the lowest score (2.75), closely followed by the students (2.86). The parents, students, and teachers perceived i t to be of l i t t l e importance to somewhat important that counsellors' teaching assignments be as closely related to counselling as possible. Parents and administrators, who rated i t equally at 3.07, perceived i t to be somewhat important. And as was previously mentioned, i t was the counsellors who unanimously agreed that i t was a very important recatiriendation. Although there was a wide range of scores, as illustrated in Figure 5, the difference within the groups was not deemed to be significant (p=.011). Table 8 Results for Item 5 (Teaching assignments given to counsellors should  be as closely related to counselling as possible) Level  Elementary Secondary Group M SD M SD T-value Prob. Total 3. .01 1, .58 3. 34 1.57 5. .66 < .001 Parents 3. .07 1. .65 3. 67 1.55 3, .77 < .001 Students 2. .86 1. .36 3. 39 1.47 3. .51 .001 Teachers 2. .75 1. .61 2. 85 1.53 2. .50 .017 Counsellors 5. .00 .00 4. 88 .35 .00 1 .000 Administrators 3. .07 1. .86 2. 42 1.73 .00 1 .000 (F= = 3.39; .011) (F=5. 17; p=<.001) 77 Figure 5 Graph of the Data in Table 8 5.00 4.00 Mean 3.00 Score 2.00 1.00 P S T C A Group 6. Administration should avoid assigning tasks of a clerical or administrative nature to counsellors. The results in Table 9 indicate that there was no dissension among the counsellors at the elementary level who perceived this recommendation to be very important by awarding i t a score of 5. The next highest scores at the elementary level were granted by the teachers (3.25) and administrators (3.19), whose scores in the 3 range were not only in sharp contrast to the counsellors' high score of 5, but were also an expression of their opinions that this recommendation was only somewhat important. Parents who awarded it the lowest score of 2.76, and students with their score of 2.84, deemed i t to be in the range of l i t t l e importance to somewhat  important. At the secondary level, counsellors again rated this recommendation highest with their score of 4.88, which is close to being classified as very important. Teachers and administrators, s t i l l with scores in the 3 range, did nevertheless award i t higher scores at this level which resulted in a difference being recorded for the teachers but not to a high level of significance (p=.007). No significant difference was recorded for the administrators (p=.166). The situation was similar with the parents and students whose secondary level scores were higher than their elementary ones. This resulted in a significant difference being recorded for the parents (p=<.001) and to a lesser degree the students (p=.002). In a l l , with the exception of the counsellors who awarded i t the highest scores at both levels, the other four groups awarded this recommendation higher scores at the secondary level than they did at the elementary one. Among the groups, consistency of opinion was reinforced with no significant differences being recorded at either level. Table 9 Results for Item 6 (Administration should avoid assigning tasks of a  clerical or administrative nature to counsellors) Level Elementary Secondary Group M SD M SD T-value Prob. Total 3 .03 1 .40 3.42 1 .32 6 .10 < .001 Parents 2 76 1 .40 3.33 1 .37 4 .21 < .001 Students 2 84 1 .17 3.22 1 .29 3 .19 .002 Teachers 3. 25 1 .45 3.54 1 .21 2 86 .007 Counsellors 5. 00 .00 4.88 .35 .00 1 .000 Administrators 3. 19 1 .64 3.36 1 .50 1 48 .166 (F= 2.41; p=.052) (F= 1.29; p=.277) Figure 6 Graph of the Data in Table 9 5.00 4.00 Mean Score 3.00 2.00 ^Secondary -Elementary 1.00 P S T C A Group 80 7. Counsellors should be primarily concerned with service to the students and consultation with the staff. Counsellors were of like mind when they awarded high scores of 5 to this item at both the elementary and secondary levels (see Table 10, Figure 7). Perhaps because of the motherhood nature of this recommendation, i t also elicited scores in the 4 range from the parents, teachers, administrators, and students at the secondary level, and of those four groups, a l l but the students at the elementary one. Surprisingly, the students differed from their counterparts at this level and awarded i t a score in the 3 range. However, there was not enough variation in the groups' scores to record any significant difference among them. At the secondary level, with the exception of the counsellors who awarded this item equal scores of 5, the other four groups awarded i t scores which were higher than their elementary ones. A l l their scores were in the 4 range, with the students recording the largest difference between their elementary and secondary scores. As a result, a significant difference registered for them (p= <.001). Where the groups do not differ much is in their almost uniform support of this recommendation, as evidenced by the fact that no significant difference emerged from among them. To summarize, 9 out of 10 of the scores at the elementary and secondary levels were in the range to suggest i t was either of considerable importance or very  important that the counsellors primary responsibilities were service to the students and consultation with the staff, while only 1 out of 10 deemed i t to be in the range of somewhat important. Table 10 Results for Item 7 (Counsellors should be primarily concerned with  service to the students and consultation with the staff) • Level Elementary Secondary Group M SD M SD T-value Prob. Total 4 14 1 .08 4.52 .78 6 .42 < .001 Parents 4 27 1 .10 4.64 .71 3 14 .003 Students 3. 81 1 .13 4.50 .79 5 65 < .001 Teachers 4. 26 .99 4.38 .81 2 23 .033 Counsellors 5. 00 00 5.00 .00 00 1 .000 Administrators 4. 19 1 .05 4.29 .99 1. 48 .166 (P= = 2.90; P= 023) (F= 1.89; p=.117) Figure 7 Graph of the Data in Table 10 5.00 4.00 Mean 3.00 Score 2.00 1.00 P S T C A Group 8. Counsellors should have a professional certificate in teaching. Presented in Table 11 and illustrated in Figure 8, scores recorded by the teachers, counsellors, and administrators which a l l registered in the 4 range, appear to withdraw any support for the argument that counsellors in the school system do not necessarily have to be teachers f i r s t . At both the elementary and secondary levels, with no significant difference between them, these groups felt i t was considerably to very important that counsellors have a professional certificate in teaching. With scores in the 3 range, again at both levels, the parents and students considered this recommendation to be somewhat to considerably important. Of interest is the fact that the three groups employed in the system; the teachers, counsellors, and administrators, are the ones who deemed this recommendation to be more important than the students and parents did. At both levels i t was the parents who fractionally awarded i t the lowest scores, while the administrators granted i t the highest ones. Within the groups the range in scores was great enough to warrant significant differences being recorded; p= <.001 at the elementary level but not to the same degree at the secondary one p= .003. 83 Table 11 Resul t s f o r Item 8 (Counsel lors should have a p r o f e s s i o n a l  c e r t i f i c a t e i n teaching) Leve l Elementary Secondary Group M SD M SD T-value Prob. T o t a l 3 .94 1. 35 4 .15 1.23 4 .06 < .001 Parents 3 48 1. 50 3 .88 1.39 2 .77 .008 Students 3 60 1. 33 3 89 1.29 2 .99 .004 Teachers 4. 55 1. 01 4 57 .94 .81 .422 Counse l lors 4. 57 • 79 4 38 .92 .00 1 .000 Admin i s tra tors 4. 88 • 34 4. 86 .36 .00 1 .000 (F= = 7.94; P=< .001) (F= 4.14; p=.003) F igure 8 Graph of the Data i n Table 11 5.00 4.00 Mean Score 3.00 2.00 Secondary Elementary 1.00 P S T C A Group 84 9. Counsellors should have a minimum of two years successful classroom teaching experience. It is one thing to have a professional teaching certificate and another to have experience in the school system. Not only did the teachers, counsellors, and administrators recognize the importance of counsellors having a professional teaching certificate, as evidenced in the response to the previous recommendation, but they also wholeheartedly endorsed the idea that counsellors have a minimum of two years successful classroom teaching experience. With scores in the 4 range at both the elementary and secondary levels (see Table 12, and Figure 9), i t is apparent that these three groups are of the opinion that i t is in the range of being considerably to very important that counsellors be experienced teachers fi r s t . It was the teachers who were the strongest proponents of this, awarding i t the highest scores at both levels, followed by the administrators then counsellors. And surprisingly enough, a l l three groups gave similar endorsement to this recommendation at the two levels, recording no measurable differences between their scores; p= 1.000 in a l l cases. However, i t should be noted that of a l l five groups, the counsellors' and administrators' elementary scores for this recortmendation were slightly higher than their secondary ones, which could be interpreted to mean that they considered i t to be marginally more important that counsellors at this level have a minimum of two years teaching experience. The parents and students perceived this recommendation to be somewhat to considerably important, with their scores at the low end of the 3 range at elementary, and at the high end in the same range 85 at secondary. Among the groups, the differences in their scores resulted in significant differences being recorded at both levels (p= <.001). Table 12 Results for Item 9 (Counsellors should have a minimum of two years  successful classroom teaching experience) Level  Elementary Secondary Group M SD M SD T-value Prob. Total 3. .76 1. .40 Parents 3. .30 1. .57 Students 3. ,30 1. .31 Teachers 4. .63 .90 Counsellors 4. .43 .79 Administrators 4. ,50 .82 (F= 10.18; p=<.001) 4.03 1.29 3.84 <.001 3.75 1.50 2.55 .014 3.64 1.30 3.25 .002 4.70 .79 .00 1.000 4.25 .87 .00 1.000 4.43 .85 .00 1.000 (P= 6. .03; p=<. 001) 86 Figure 9 Graph of the Data in Table 12 5.00 4.00 Mean 3.00 Score 2.00 1.00 P S T C A Group 10. Counsellors should have a Masters degree in counselling, or one equivalent to i t . As far as the administrators and counsellors are concerned, i t is in the range of being considerably to very important that counsellors have a Masters degree in counselling, or one equivalent to i t . At both levels i t was the administrators who awarded this reccrtmendation the highest scores in the 4 range, closely followed by the counsellors (see Table 13 and Figure 10). Scores for these two groups were slightly higher at the secondary level but not high enough to record any significant difference. Incidentally, the other three groups also recorded higher scores at the secondary level which resulted in significant differences being recorded for the parents 87 and students (p= <.001) and to a lesser degree, the teachers (p=.007). At this level, parents and students with scores in the high 3 range, considered this recommendation to be close to being considerably important. Whereas the teachers with their score in the lower range of 3, perceived i t to be slightly higher than somewhat  important. Of interest though is the fact that i t was the teachers who considered i t the least important that counsellors have a Masters or equivalent degree. At the elementary level, the parents, students, and teachers were very close in their perceptions. All three groups awarded this recommendation scores in the bottom to mid 3 range. Scoring similarities appear to have resulted in no significant differences being recorded at either level among the groups. Table 13 Results for Item 10 (Counsellors should have a Masters degree in  counselling, or one equivalent to it) Level  Elementary Secondary Group M SD X SD T-value Prob. Total 3. 52 1. .31 3.79 1 .25 6. .28 <.001 Parents 3. 32 1. .44 3.88 1 .23 3. .75 <.001 Students 3. 54 1, .27 3.82 1 .18 4. .16 <.001 Teachers 3. 32 1. .32 3.34 1 .41 2. ,86 .007 Counsellors 4. 14 1. .07 4.25 1 .04 .00 1.000 Administrators 4. 38 .62 4.43 .76 2. .35 .039 (F= = 2 .76; P=< ,029) (F= 2.79; p=.028) Figure 10 Graph of the Data in Table 13 Mean Score 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 Secondary Elementary S T C Group 11. To allow counsellors to use their time more effectively a trained staff aide should be assigned to each counselling department. Even a cursory look at Table 14 and Figure 11 indicates that no item more closely demonstrated as sharp a contrast between the groups' scores as this one did, particularly at the elementary level. In awarding i t a score in the 4 range, counsellors were alone in their belief that this recommendation was considerably important. All other groups awarded i t scores in the 2 range, perceiving i t to be in the range of l i t t l e to some importance that counselling departments have a trained staff aide. There was no significant difference between the counsellors' elementary score and their secondary one, although i t was slightly higher in the 4 range. Again counsellors were responsible for awarding this recommendation the highest score. Significant differences were measured however, for the parents (p= .001), and students (p= <.001), who awarded i t higher scores at the secondary level. Parents and students registered scores in the 3 range, feeling i t was in the range of being somewhat to considerably important that counselling departments have a staff aide. And although the teachers accorded this recommendation a higher score, i t was s t i l l in the 2 range; of l i t t l e importance to somewhat important. The administrators responded in a similar fashion to the teachers. They increased their score at the secondary level but s t i l l kept i t in the 2 range. However, unlike the teachers, no significant difference appeared between their elementary and secondary scores. Within the groups, differences were recorded at both levels; p= .009 at elementary, and p= .004 at secondary but they were not deemed to be significant. 90 Table 14 Results for Item 11 (To allow counsellors to use their time more effectively a trained staff aide should be assigned to departments] Level Elementary Group M SD Secondary M SD T-value Prob. Total 2. 48 1 35 2. 99 1.42 6. 48 <.001 Parents 2. 55 1 29 3. 00 1.46 3. 40 .001 Students 2. 63 1 32 3. 24 1.32 4. 06 <.001 Teachers 2. 03 1. 21 2. 49 1.32 3. 03 .005 Counsellors 4. 00 1 67 4. 38 1.41 1. 00 .363 Admini strators 2. 20 1 47 2. 77 1.30 1. 84 .096 (F= = 3 .48; P=-009) (F= 4 .01; p=.004) Figure 11 Graph of the Data in Table 14 5.00 4.00 Mean Score 3.00 2.00 1.00 Secondary lementary A Group 91 Further coirment will be made on these recommendations following presentation of the results of Part 2 at both the elementary and secondary levels. Part 2 Part 2 of the survey is comprised of 140 tasks described in behavioral terms which were previously determined to be performed by counsellors in the West Vancouver school district. These tasks were then grouped under 13 headings: (a) Clerical, (b) Conferences, (c) Guidance, (d) Information, (e) Interaction with Parents, (f) Interaction with Teachers, (g) Meetings, (h) New Students, (i) Programming, (j) School-Related Activities, (k) Special Abilities/Needs, (1) Students, and (m) Testing. The intent of this section of the survey was to e l i c i t opinions from the five school-related groups to support the thesis that although these groups differed in their perceptions of the level of importance of counsellor functions, they would be in agreement as to the high level of importance of some of them. Once these functions were identified, counsellors would be able to use this data to assist them in developing a counselling program based on the groups' perceptions and not just on past traditions. For the purpose of this study a high level is considered to be in the 4 to 5 range, (of  considerable importance to very important). 92 Elementary Level At the elementary level, surprisingly enough only 3 out of 140, or 2% of the functions obtained average scores in the 4 to 5 range from a l l five groups. They are listed in Table 15 with the groups' total means and standard deviations. Table 15 Elementary Level Functions With Scores in the 4 to 5 Range From All  Five School-Related Groups. Item M SD 1. 53 Listen to parents about 'problem' children. 4.46 .91 2. 64 Listen to teachers about 'problem' students. 4.41 .94 3. 66 Attend counsellor meetings within the school. 4.14 1.19 In that a l l five groups awarded the functions in Table 15 scores in the 4-5 range, consensus of opinion was fairly obvious. However i t appears this was the exception not the rule. The students were as consistent in their scoring pattern in Part 2 as they were in Part 1. They awarded only 6/140 tasks scores in the 4 to 5 range, whereas the counsellors were responsible for 10 times that amount. They accorded a full 60/140 tasks, scores which ranged from a low of 4.000 to a high of 5.000. No other group was as liberal in scoring as they were. In fact, the other three groups were quite close in the number of functions they rated as being considerably to very  important. Twenty-three out of 140 functions f e l l within the 4 to 5 range for the parents, 26/140 for the teachers, and 29/140 for the administrators. In perspective, almost four to five times as many functions as the students, but s t i l l less than half the counsellors' number. With such a disparity in the number of high-scoring functions among the groups, i t is no wonder that only three of them managed to garner consistent scores in the 4 to 5 range. And in keeping with the basic intent of the thesis, a report on the results of the elementary part of the survey could be considered complete. It has been established that 3/140 functions satisfied the specified criterion; they were deemed to be in the range of considerable  importance to very important by a l l five school-related groups. However, in keeping with the spirit of the study which is to identify functions perceived as important by these groups, i t would be counterproductive not to examine the overall picture presented by the data. Although a number of functions did not unanimously receive scores in the 4 to 5 range, they did however manage aggregate ones that placed them in the same range. In total, 15/140 functions received average scores that ranged from 4.02 to 4.46. In order to facilitate reference and discussion, the l i s t of the functions with high averages is reproduced in Table 16 although i t can also be found in Appendix G: Hierarchical Lists under Total Elementary. A discussion of the results in Table 16 and those from Part 1 will be conducted in the next chapter after the results of the secondary level have been presented. 94 Table 16 Elementary Level Functions With Averaged Scores in the 4 to 5 Range. Item M SD 1. 53 Listen to parents about 'problem' children. 4.46 .91 2. 64 Listen to teachers about 'problem' students. 4.41 .94 3. 25 Engage in conference with a teacher about a student. 4.28 1 .07 4. 54 Counsel parents regarding counselees. 4.19 1 .07 5. 116 Counsel students with personal problems. 4.17 1 .19 6. 66 Attend counsellor meetings within the school. 4.14 1 .19 7. 55 Assist parents in identifying within-school resource groups. 4.12 1 .13 8. 104 Identify students with special needs. 4.09 1 .17 9. 70 Attend within-school special services meetings. 4.07 1 .12 10. 119 Counsel students concerning learning difficulties. 4.07 1 .07 11. 24 Participate in case conferences with staff. 4.06 1 .14 12. 67 Attend counsellor meetings within the district. 4.05 1 .11 13. 112 Counsel students in accepting themselves as individuals. 4.04 1 .15 14. 56 Write letters to parents concerning students. 4.04 1 .18 15. 26 Partipate in conference with the principal. 4.02 1 .19 Secondary Level Whereas only 3/140 or 2% of the counsellor functions were unanimously deemed to be high in importance at the elementary level, almost seven times that amount were recorded at the secondary one. Twenty out of 140 or 14% of the functions received average scores in the 4 to 5 range from a l l five school-related groups, further supporting the thesis that some counsellor functions would be rated high in importance among a l l five groups. When one considers that only these 20 surfaced from among the 140 listed, i t must be recognized that they represent what these groups collectively agree to be the most important functions counsellors should perform in secondary schools. They are not however, the only ones to receive high scores. The number of functions which were accorded scores in the 4 to 5 range varied greatly among the groups, from a high of 88/140 or 62% for the counsellors to a low which was half that, 44/140 or 31% for the students. Skewed towards the students were the teachers with 51/140 or 36% and the administrators with 55/140 or 39%. The number the parents recorded f e l l almost midway between the students and counsellors with 63/140 or 45%. To facilitate discussion, the 20 fucnstions are being listed in Table 17 according to their total averages. Table 17 Secondary Level Functions With Scores in the 4 to 5 Range From All Five School-Related Groups Item M SD 1. 53 Listen to parents about 'problem' children. 4.60 .78 2. 64 Listen to teachers about 'problem' students. 4.57 .81 3. 114 Counsel students in career planning. 4.56 .71 4. 124 Counsel potential dropouts. 4.55 .79 5. 121 Counsel students concerning failing grades. 4.53 .75 6. 116 Counsel students with personal problems. 4.52 .81 7. 25 Engage in conference with a teacher about a student. 4.51 .86 8. 126 Assist students in making application to colleges and universities. 4.49 .78 9. 138 Check grade twelves for graduation requirements. 4.46 .94 10. 120 Counsel students in regard to educational and vocational plans. 4.41 .86 11. 66 Attend counsellor meetings within the school. 4.38 .98 12. 115 Counsel students about program changes. 4.34 .90 13. 29 Participate in defining the objectives of the guidance program. 4.30 .86 14. 111 Counsel students regarding potentials and limitations. 4.30 .90 15. 118 Counsel students regarding their development of special abilities. 4.26 .92 16. 47 Present information (other than scholarship) to individual students. 4.23 .99 17. 104 Identify students with special needs. 4.23 .97 18. 52 Present occupational information to groups of students. 4.20 .88 19. 20 Control use of confidential files of students. 4.20 1.12 20. 113 Counsel students in expressing and developing awareness of feelings and values. 4.14 1.08 Note. The items marked with an asterisk are the only three that received scores in the 4-5 range from a l l five groups at the elementary level. Having presented the r e s u l t s from Parts 1 and 2 f o r both the elementary and secondary l e v e l s , a d i s c u s s i o n o f them i s now warranted and w i l l be conducted i n the fo l lowing chapter . CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION Part 1 It appears the counsellors were the greatest supporters of the Ministry of Education's Task Force report recommendations. They were the only group to consistently award scores in the 4 (of considerable  importance) and 5 (very important) range to 10 of the 11 recommendations at both the elementary and secondary levels. As illustrated in Figures 1 to 11, no other group was as uniform in scoring as the counsellors. Tables 15 to 17 in the previous chapter presented the relative importance the five school-related groups assigned to each of the 11 reccmnendations. By averaging a l l five groups' scores, a total picture of the importance of each recommendation emerged. (See Appendix G: Hierarchical Lists; Total Elementary and Total Secondary for the complete rank order of recommendations.) Not surprisingly the lists are not identical, but they are an interesting study as to what the groups in total perceived to be important at each level. This information can now be used to help West Vancouver counsellors in conjunction with the administrative personnel establish or refine counselling policies and priorities which pertain to: (a) the necessity of employing counsellors in elementary and secondary schools; (b) counsellor qualifications, training, and experience; (c) the ratio of counsellors to students; (d) the structure of the counsellors' positions; (e) the counsellors' teaching assignments i f any; and (f) the use of staff aides in counselling departments. It has been reported in the previous chapter that a l l five school-related groups endorsed the concept of counsellors continuing to be employed in the district's schools. This directly supports Ketterman's (1968) finding that the general public supported the employment of school counsellors. At the elementary level, the groups' scores were in the range of some to considerable importance, whereas at the secondary level, significantly higher scores for a l l five groups deemed this recommendation to be considerably to very  important. With regard to the counsellors' qualifications, training, and experience, the three groups working in the schools; the administrators, teachers, and counsellors, perceived i t to be considerably to very important at both the elementary and secondary levels, with no significant difference in their scores, that counsellors have a professional teaching certificate and a minimum of two years teaching experience. The administrators and counsellors gave similar endorsement to counsellors having a Masters' degree in counselling. This is a strong reinforcement of Arbuckle's (1970) call for specialized training for counsellors. The teachers aligned themselves on this recommendation with the parents and students who perceived a l l three recommendations to be in the range of being somewhat to considerably important. This supports Joshi's (1981) finding that parents deemed i t essential that counsellors have specific training. Without exception, more importance was placed at the secondary level than the elementary one with significant differences being recorded. Not surprisingly the counsellors were the greatest supporters of 100 r the recommendation that the ratio of students to counsellors be 250:1. They considered i t to be considerably important at the elementary level and very important with a unanimous score of 5 at the secondary one. Similarly, higher scores were recorded at the secondary level for the other four groups with significant differences being recorded for a l l but the administrators. It is fair to suggest that more importance was placed on the recommended ratio at the secondary level than at the elementary one. It became quite clear that counsellors preferred full-time counselling positions over part-time teaching/counselling ones. In fact, a l l groups with the exception of the teachers placed more importance, albeit in varying degrees, on counsellors having full-time counselling positions, particularly at the secondary level. However, i f counsellors did have to teach, they strongly endorsed the recommendation at both the elementary and secondary levels that their teaching assignments should be as closely related to counselling as possible. The counsellors' high scores of 5.00 at elementary, and 4.88 at secondary, were the exceptions rather than the rule as far as the other groups were concerned. At the elementary level, the students and teachers deemed this recommendation to be in the range of l i t t l e to some importance whereas the parents and administrators were close in opinion that i t is of some importance. At the secondary level, no scores came close to the counsellors'. The parents and students with scores in the 3 range differed from the teachers and administrators who awarded this recommendation scores in the 2 range. Of interest is the fact that i t was the administrators who awarded i t the lowest score at the secondary level. Perhaps 101 these administrators reflect the opinions of the administrators in Misuraca's (1976) study who believed that counsellors should teach. Or, perhaps the administrators' concerns about timetabling and the delivery of programs take precedence over the counsellors' needs. In lieu of hiring part-time teachers to teach one or two blocks of classes i t may be more expedient for the administrators to have counsellors teach them, irrespective of whether they relate to counselling. The counsellors, those who actually perform the job, were the only group to perceive the importance of having a trained staff aide assigned to counselling departments. For both the elementary and secondary levels they awarded this recommendation scores in the 4 range deeming i t to be considerably to very important. The other four groups awarded i t scores in the 2-3 range deeming i t to be of l i t t l e to some importance. With the myriad of tasks counsellors are expected to perform perhaps the intent of this recommendation is to ensure that counsellors do not get bogged down with the clerical and administrative tasks so aptly alluded to by Gold (1962), Shertzer and Stone (1962), Gannon (1965), Pruett and Brown (1966), Roemmich (1967), Roth (1968), and Arbuckle (1970). Besides being of assistance in the process of defining the counsellors' role, this information can also be used as a precautionary measure should consideration ever be given to privately contracting counselling services. Any organization or agency contemplating a move into the school system should be well-advised that the school-related personnel; teachers, counsellors, and administrators, strongly endorsed the recommendations that 102 c o u n s e l l o r s b e f i r s t a n d f o r e m o s t q u a l i f i e d , e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s . T h e y s h o u l d a l s o b e a w a r e t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a n d c o u n s e l l o r s d e e m e d i t t o b e c o n s i d e r a b l y i m p o r t a n t t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s h a v e a M a s t e r s d e g r e e i n c o u n s e l l i n g o r o n e e q u i v a l e n t t o i t . U l t i m a t e l y i t i s h o p e d t h a t t h e d i s t r i c t ' s c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m w i l l e v o l v e t o s u c h a d e g r e e t h a t i t i s d e e m e d t o b e s e n s i t i v e t o t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e f i v e s c h o o l - r e l a t e d g r o u p s , a n d a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h a t w h i c h i s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e m . W i t h r e g a r d t o c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e w e l l - s u p p o r t e d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s b e p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h s e r v i c e t o t h e s t u d e n t s a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e s t a f f , c a n b e v i e w e d a s a b a s e l i n e s t a t e m e n t t o w h i c h t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s r e l a t e . E v i d e n c e t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s c a n b e f o u n d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f P a r t 2 o f t h e s u r v e y . P a r t 2 E l e m e n t a r y L e v e l T o q u i c k l y r e v i e w , o n l y t h r e e f u n c t i o n s w e r e p e r c e i v e d b y a l l f i v e g r o u p s a s b e i n g c o n s i d e r a b l y t o v e r y i m p o r t a n t . T h e y p e r t a i n e d t o c o u n s e l l o r s l i s t e n i n g t o p a r e n t s a b o u t ' p r o b l e m ' c h i l d r e n , l i s t e n i n g t o t e a c h e r s a b o u t ' p r o b l e m ' s t u d e n t s , a n d a t t e n d i n g c o u n s e l l o r m e e t i n g s w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l . T h e f i r s t t w o f u n c t i o n s s u p p o r t e d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' a n d p a r e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d b e c o n s u l t a n t s t o p a r e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s ( K e t t e r m a n , 1968; A r b u c k l e , 1970; B o n e b r a k e a n d B o r g e r s , 1984). I t w a s a l s o t h e p a r e n t s w h o p e r c e i v e d t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d b e i n v o l v e d i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e l a t e d t o t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o f e s s i o n , s u c h a s 103 attending meetings (Joshi, 1981). Every one of the five-school related groups has some involvement in these three functions. Parents discuss children with counsellors, teachers discuss students with them, counsellors interact with other counsellors, and administrators act as liaisons with each of the groups. Although these three functions were the only ones to receive high scores from a l l five groups, fifteen others managed to garner scores in the 4-5 range when the groups' totals were averaged. Reproduced in Table 18 from the Results chapter, i t is important to discuss them because they present a more complete picture of that which is deemed important at the elementary level. Table 18 Elementary Level Functions With Average Scores in the 4-5 Range Total Elementary Item 1. 53 2. 64 3. 25 4. 54 5. 116 6. 66 7. 55 8. 104 9. 70 10. 119 11. 24 12. 67 13. 112 14. 56 15. 26 Listen to parents about 'problem' children. Listen to teachers about 'problem' students. Engage in conference with a teacher about a student. Counsel parents regarding counselees. Counsel students with personal problems. Attend counsellor meetings within the school. Assist parents in identifying within-school resource groups. Identify students with special needs. Attend within-school special services meetings. Counsel students concerning learning difficulties. Participate in case conferences with staff. Attend counsellor meetings within the district. Counsel students in accepting themselves as individuals. Write letters to parents concerning students. Participate in conference with the principal. 104 At f i r s t observation i t is interesting to note how solidly these 15 functions relate to the motherhood recommendation that counsellors be primarily concerned with service to the students and consultation with the staff. It also appears to lend solid support to Doi's (1976) findings at the elementary level. Clearly 8/15 tasks; numbers 2,3,5,8,10,11,13,and 15, relate to the counsellors' interaction with students and staff, while 3/15; numbers 6,9, and 12, indirectly do. The remaining 4/15; numbers 1,4,7, and 14, represent the consensus of opinion among the groups that at this level the parents are an extremely important and valued part of the counselling process. What has surfaced from the 140 possible choices are functions that can be compartmentalized into four areas: counsellors' interaction with (a) parents, (b) students, (c) staff, and (d) the counsellors' commitment to attend meetings and conferences with personnel concerned about the students' welfare. Were a synopsis required of the counsellors' role at this time i t would not be difficult to suggest that i t would be a very student-oriented one. It does not stretch the imagination to think that an elementary counsellor could be kept fully occupied providing such services to students as identifying those with special needs, counselling others with personal problems, learning difficulties, and problems with self-esteem, as well as interacting with the significant people in the students' lives; the parents and teachers. Certainly the five groups have indicated that i t is important for the counsellors to work in conjunction with both the parents and teachers for the benefit of the students. They perceive i t to be in the range of considerably to very important that counsellors not only listen to 105 parents about their 'problem' children, but that they counsel them as well about their children. Furthermore they are expected to assist parents in identifying within-school resource groups and keep, parents informed about their children in school by writing them letters. With regard to staff, the value of their experience, observations, assessments, and input is highlighted by the importance given to the function that counsellors listen to teachers about 'problem' students. How are counsellors expected to achieve this limited l i s t of functions? According to the data i t has been deemed important that they involve themselves in personal interviews with students, teachers, and parents, and attend case conferences and special-services meetings with the required personnel, which could be parents, teachers, and administrators or district staff. To keep abreast of professional development concerns they are expected to attend meetings within the school and district. In retrospect, a fair amount of responsibilities were generated from only 15 functions. What cannot be ignored however is the fact that in the next range of scores, (3.00 to 3.99; of some to considerable  importance), there are 64 functions listed, some of which are only fractionally less than 4.00 (see Appendix G: Hierarchical Lists, Total Elementary). Depending upon the ratio of elementary counsellors to students and the structure of their counselling positions (full-time counselling or part-time counselling/teaching), elementary counsellors could use the l i s t of functions in the 3-4 range as a basis for discussion in determining with their administrators, the 106 ones they could realistically be expected to perforin. For example, i t is quite probable that counsellors could organize, maintain and control use of the students' confidential fil e s , but i t may not be possible for an itinerant elementary counsellor responsible for a number of schools to teach guidance classes. All items that refer to guidance classes would have to be ignored although they were deemed to be in the range of somewhat to considerably important by a l l five groups. It would make sense for elementary counsellors to carefully study the l i s t of tasks in order to appreciate the importance being placed on the functions by the five school-related groups. They may be struck by the level of importance placed on some of them. As for the low end of the l i s t , (1.00-1.99, not important to of  l i t t l e importance), i t is heartening to discover that i t is replete with tasks that unquestionably belong at the secondary school level; for example, functions related to graduation, scholarship, universities, and occupations. There is one exception however, #90 (Plan assembly programs) which placed 138/140. This item highlights the fact that the five school-related groups did not place much importance on functions that were unrelated to providing a counselling service to students although they were s t i l l considered worthwhile ventures. Further examples include #96, (Chaperone school social functions) which ended up with a rank of 114/140, #99 (Supervise activities during athletic events), averaged out at 123/140, while #98 (Coach athletic teams), rated even lower at 129/140. One possible explanation is that these types of functions reduce the counsellors' availability to the students, their parents, 107 and teachers. In the same scoring vicinity is an item, #44, which refers to disciplining students for rule infractions. The four adult groups awarded this function scores of 2.00 or less, clearly indicating that they did not perceive i t to be important that counsellors assume this responsibility. Of interest though is the higher score of 2.89 that the students awarded i t . Although this function received scores that ranked i t from 129 to 137.5 out of 140 for the adult groups, the students' scores placed i t at 93.5/140, leaving one to assume that they believed i t was more important for counsellors to discipline them than the other groups did, particularly the counsellors who awarded i t the lowest score. Teachers and administrators concurred with the counsellors. They also awarded this item scores in the 1-2 range that placed i t among the bottom six on their lists. Perhaps the students were expressing a preference as to whom they would like to discipline them, whereas the other groups were stating that this function should not be a part of the counsellors' role. Secondary Level As evidenced in the Results chapter, 20/140 functions at the secondary level were unanimously deemed to be high in importance by the five school-related groups, as opposed to 3/140 at the elementary level. To facilitate discussion they are listed in Table 19. 108 Table 19 Secondary Level Functions with Average Scores in the 4 to 5 Range  from a l l Five School-Related Groups Item 1. 53 2. 64 3. 114 4. 124 5. 121 6. 116 7. 25 8. 126 9. 138 10. 120 11. 66 12. 115 13. 29 14. 111 15. 118 16. 47 17. 104 18. 52 19. 20 20. 113 Listen to parents about 'problem' children. Listen to teachers about 'problem' students. Counsel students in career planning. Counsel potential dropouts. Counsel students concerning failing grades. Counsel students with personal problems. Engage in conference with a teacher about a student. Assist students in making application to colleges and universities. Check grade twelves for graduation requirements. Counsel students in regard to educational and vocational plans. Attend counsellor meetings within the school. Counsel students about program changes. Participate in defining the objectives of the guidance program. Counsel students regarding potentials and limitations. Counsel students regarding their development of special abilities. Present information (other than scholarship) to individual students. Identify students with special needs. Present occupational information to groups of students. Control use of confidential files of students. Counsel students in expressing and developing awareness of feelings and values. At f i r s t glance, one is struck by the number of functions that relate specifically to interacting with students or consulting staff. 14/20 or 70% (numbers 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,10,12,14,15,16,18, and 20), f a l l within the realm of the previously-discussed and well-supported recommendation that counsellors be primarily concerned with service to the students and consultation with the staff. As well, the remaining 6/20 or 30% (numbers 1,9,11,13,17, and 19) can indirectly 109 be considered to be student-oriented. The second notable fact is that the same two functions: #53 (Listen to parents about 'problem' children), and #64 (Listen to teachers about 'problem' students), topped the l i s t at the secondary level as well as the elementary one. Perhaps inherent in the groups' perception of the importance of these two functions, is the conviction they have that the parents and teachers are the two greatest sources of not only information about the students, but also of referrals. In light of the fact that these two functions are the groups' most important ones at both levels, i t could only be beneficial for counsellors to examine their schedules throughout the school year to determine i f they are making themselves accessible enough to the parents and teachers as well as whether they are setting aside adequate time for parent/counsellor or teacher/counsellor meetings and interviews. The third striking factor about this l i s t is the prominence given to counselling students in career planning. That this is the highest ranking function that directly pertains to counselling students, speaks volumes on the importance the five groups place on career planning. It is also surprising that its prominence has not diminished much since Bergstein and Grant (1961), Evraiff (1961), and Dunlop (1965) conducted their studies and i t continues to support what the students and parents previously thought to be important. Furthermore i t is interesting to note the absence of #33 (Teach career education in guidance classes), for i t is quite apparent that the groups are registering their preference for more individualized 110 career planning. It is not difficult to understand when one considers that almost every student in a school's population could benefit from i t . However i t would certainly take a coimtitment on the part of administrators and counselling departments to ensure that students had access to a comprehensive career planning program. And at what cost? Would a community be prepared to support more counselling time for such a program? Because time is essentially what is needed. The secondary schools in West Vancouver a l l have career resource centres that contain occupational and educational information as well as related computer software. But the potential of these centres has yet to be maximized, in essence because of the diversity of other functions counsellors have been performing with the high number of students they have been assigned. The placement of item 124 (Counsel potential dropouts) in the fourth position out of 140, could be interpreted not only as a strong endorsement of the value the groups hold on acquiring an education but also as a demonstration of their sensitivity to the plight of students contemplating quitting school. Interestingly enough i t also reinforces a perception parents held 20 years ago regarding counsellors performing this function (Hanson, 1968). That the following two items which refer to counselling students about failing grades and personal problems appear next on the l i s t is not surprising i f one considers that potential dropouts typically have experience with both. The groups appear to recognize the detrimental effect academic and personal problems have on students' performance in school. By rating these two items so highly i t could be construed that the groups support the individual interviews the counsellors conduct with students. Failing grades are often a presenting issue. Many times they are symptomatic of greater problems in the student's l i f e ; for example, learning disabilities or difficulties, a lack of effective study skills or poor work habits, a dysfunctional family, social adjustment concerns and so forth. With the high level of importance accorded personal counselling, counsellors should feel renewed confidence in the priority they have traditionally given i t as they have attempted to determine the student's underlying issues and the most effective manner in which to deal with them. Of interest, though only marginally so, is the fact that the administrators awarded the lowest score of the groups (4.29) to counselling students with personal problems. And as to be expected, the counsellors awarded i t the highest score (4.88), followed by the parents (4.66), teachers (4.53), then students (4.36). However, i t is significant not to overlook the fact that each of the groups considered this item to be well within the range of considerably to very important. The overwhelming suppport for this item directly contradicts previously-mentioned findings by Grant (1954), Kaback (1963), Larson and Rice (1967), Bigelow and Humphreys (1967), Kavic (1977), and Murgatroyd (1977), who a l l more or less determined that there was l i t t l e support or interest in counsellors doing personal counselling with students. From the previous literature i t was only parents who supported counsellors being involved in personal counselling with students. However, i t must be considered that 15 to 30 years ago, counsellors did not often discuss with students issues related to child abuse, sexual abuse, depression, suicide, substance abuse, gender confusion, pregnancy, 112 adoption syndrome, or restricted access to college or university. Today's counsellors are only too aware of these and other issues. The seventh item (Engage in conference with a teacher about a student), could be perceived as a more preventive measure than the second one which advocates listening to teachers about problem students. Counsellors could spend considerable time discussing students with their teachers. They have easy access to the files and background information and are generally the first to be informed by the parents of any concerns related to the students' physical or emotional well-being. If the counsellors decide that the students' classroom performance or behaviour may be affected and i f the information is not of a confidential nature then i t is incumbent upon them to alert the teachers and perhaps discuss strategies that may be required in order for the teachers to work more effectively with the students. Conversely i f the teachers observe changes in the students' performance or demeanour they should feel comfortable discussing their concerns with the counsellors. The importance attributed to this item once again indicates the groups' perception of the desirability of counsellors making themselves available for discussion regardless of who initiates i t ; parents, teachers or administrators. As a service to their colleagues, the counsellors should give every consideration to making themselves as approachable and helpful as their time and responsibilities permit. The next items, #8 (Assist students in making application to colleges and universities), #9 (Check grade twelves for graduation requirements), and #10 (Counsel students in regard to educational and 113 vocational plans), can easily be grouped and f a l l for the most part under the auspices of counsellors working with senior students. It should be noted however that educational and vocational counselling generally occurs at each grade level but perhaps not to the same extent as at the senior one when the students are preparing themselves for the world of work or further education. Many counsellors who work with the senior students can confidently state that they have treated these three items as priorities. Now they can be assured that the services they have been rendering are perceived to be high in importance among a l l five school-related groups, and not just among the parents and students as was previously established. Counsellors have a right to be assured, i f one considers the fact that the entire grade twelve population can benefit to varying degrees from the counsellors' services. For a significant portion of the counsellors' time is devoted to ensuring that the grade twelve students have selected the appropriate courses to satisfy not only graduation requirements but also the prerequisites for the post-secondary programs they are interested in. Even as a means to this end, counsellors must discuss with the students their educational and vocational plans. The f a l l months are usually spent verifying that the students are in the correct course of studies. By November the focus changes to the eighth item which pertains to assisting students in making application to colleges and universities. From the early admission dates of the American universities to the end of February deadline for the local ones, counsellors could spend three months fairly preoccupied with the duties related to assisting students with their future plans. Their 114 responsibilities vary from organizing university representatives' visits, post-secondary liaison days, career fairs, and writing reference letters, to actually helping students complete their application and scholarship forms, and providing them with a l l the necessary transcripts and documentation. It is not difficult to rationalize the prominence given the 11th item (Attend counsellor meetings within the school), because presumably through direct or indirect experience, teachers, administrators and counsellors would be only too familiar with what transpires in them. Of interest though is the fact that the parents and students also perceived i t to be considerably to very important. It should be noted however, that i t was the parents who previously maintained that counsellors should be involved with responsibilities related to the counselling profession (Jarvis, 1981). Without question such meetings are an opportune time for counsellors to communicate with each other or with their administrative team as they discuss common concerns, problems or cases. They provide counsellors the opportunity to share expertise, feedback, and resources, as well as to remain cohesive as a unit instead of working in isolation. That item #115 (Counsel students about program changes) is twelfth and within the top 10% of the 140 functions is not surprising when one considers that counsellors start this task in late August, devote most of their time to i t in September, then continue to address i t throughout the school year. Reasons vary but include: (a) the premise that there are different teaching/learning styles and students want the best educational f i t as they perceive i t to be; (b) students' previous positive or negative experiences with teachers 115 resulting in them requesting changes into or out of classes; (c) students' poorly planned or inappropriate i n i t i a l course selections; (d) a means to review graduation requirements or prerequisites for post-secondary programs; and as well (e) a safe presenting issue that permits students to arrange an appointment with a counsellor when in fact they wish to discuss other issues that may be of a sensitive nature. How often have counsellors encountered students who stated that they were thinking of dropping a course only to find shortly into the interview that the course was really not the issue, that a l l along, the students were intent upon discussing completely unrelated concerns. Program change reasons can legitimize students' appointments with counsellors without betraying their confidentiality. Generally students share their concerns with their peers, but sore times they need distance from them and a chance to sort things out before they are comfortable discussing them with others. To this end, i t is easy for them to relate to their peers without being dishonest that they saw a counsellor because they were thinking of changing a course. Once again, the support for this function confirms previous perceptions held by students and parents (Evraiff, 1961; Larson and Rice, 1967). The 13th item (Participate in defining the objectives of the guidance program), although given strong endorsement by a l l parties involved, may not be possible to undertake at the district level, seeing as the Ministry of Education for the past few years has had committees working on a comprehensive K-10 guidance program, that has yet to be implemented. And not only are these committees defining 116 the objectives of i t , they are also planning the lessons. As a point of reassurance, some members of the committee are school counsellors from within the province. However, counsellors can certainly voice their opinions with regard to implementation of the government's guidance program. If the counsellors' resources and facilities are already overextended, then they must ensure that they are involved in the decision-making process that determines when and by whom the program will be taught. Failure to do so could result in the government-mandated guidance program being imposed upon counselling departments thereby severely restricting their ability to perform even customary services without an increase in time and personnel. It is rather uncanny how the next two items #14 (Counsel students regarding potentials and limitations), and #15 (Counsel students regarding their development of special abilities), as well as #17 (Identify students with special needs) were awarded such close scores because they really are parts of the same process. A process, i t should be added, that is undertaken not as a matter of routine, but rather one that is initiated as a result of concerns expressed by the students, their parents, teachers, or counsellors. Causes for concern include poor academic performance, behavioral problems at home or at school, and major discrepancies between the amount of effort expended by students on their schoolwork and the results achieved on quizzes and tests, indicating possible under or over achievement. Teachers' observations expressed to counsellors are often a first alert to students in difficulty who may have special needs that require attention. Counsellors then determine i f the students' performance is characteristic or i f a new trend is developing. Students' files with pertinent information such as previous assessments, teachers' observations, interim reports, report card marks and comments, a l l provide the counsellors with background information that must be considered in order to help them understand the students. But with regard to students' potential and limitations so many factors can come into play. It is incumbent upon the counsellors to attempt to determine i f other mitigating factors are interfering with the students' academic performance. In interviews with the students no areas should be left unexplored. And i f diagnostic testing or special education assessments are warranted to identify the students' special needs or to determine their strengths and weaknesses so that appropriate remediation can be recommended, then the students must be adequately prepared for them. In the follow-up i t is one thing to discuss their strengths and weaknesses, potential and limitations, and i t is quite another to convey to them measures that could be undertaken to address their needs, as well as programs they could be successful in with their abilities. It is the intent of the 15th item (Counsel students regarding their development of special abilities) to do precisely that, which is most likely why i t received such strong support. Special abilities should be considered in the context of their uniqueness to students. The focus of the counselling sessions should be on options the students have to develop them, programs that would best suit them and maximize their potential, as well as future possibilities in the fields of work and education. Career planning, the third item, would be an integral phase at this stage of the 118 students' development. And like other counselling issues i t would have to be handled with sensitivity. For the ideal -outcome would be to have students emerge from the counselling sessions aware and enthusiastic about what they could do with their abilities as opposed to grieving over what they could not do. The importance placed on this task as well as the other previously-mentioned ones that refer to counsellors working one on one with students, may strengthen their demand for a more manageable student to counsellor ratio. Two of the remaining four items that received high scores pertain to counsellors presenting information to students; information other than scholarship to individuals and occupational information to groups. That these items placed within the top 15% of the tasks, can be construed as quite a directive from the school-related groups. However i t certainly underscores the need for counsellors to be up-to-date sources of information. Students have so many questions related to such a variety of topics that counsellors cannot afford to be ill-informed, which requires that they strive to be as well-read and involved in professional development as their time and responsibilities permit. Not an easy task when their work load is considered. It also requires that counsellors are accessible enough to the students. If service-oriented tasks are what the groups perceive to be considerably to very important for the students, then counsellors must not allow themselves to be bogged down with less important functions. The 19th item (Control use of confidential files) is a task traditionally performed by counsellors and obviously one the groups believe is important enough for them to continue. The final item in the 4 to 5 range relates to counselling students in expressing and developing awareness of feelings and values. It is apparent that the five groups perceived the importance of allowing students the opportunity to explore feelings and values; to learn how to communicate their feelings to others, to assert themselves, to come to terms with the meaning and origin of values, and to explore their own set of them. Discussion on feelings and values is obviously perceived as a worthwhile venture that could lead to the exploration of so many other issues such as coping with peer pressure, cultural differences, decision-making, and conflict resolution. Counselling could be done in both group or individual sessions. Perhaps when the Ministry of Education implements the new Learning for Living guidance program into the school system, exploration of feelings and values will be a part of the course. Until such time counsellors will have to do their best to meet the students' needs concerning issues related to them in individual counselling sessions, unless they already have a component on feelings and values in their schools' guidance programs. The above-mentioned twenty items represent the tasks that were awarded scores in the 4-5 range by each of the five school-related groups. The picture enlarges somewhat i f aggregate scores are studied in the Total Secondary section (Appendix G), with 52 tasks listed with average scores between 4.00 - 5.00. This number represents 37 or 247% more tasks than at the elementary level. In setting about to establish guidelines for the counsellors' role and their responsibilities within the schools, i t would bode 1 well for counsellors to examine the Total Secondary hierarchical l i s t (Appendix G). In so doing i t may assist them in determining that some of the tasks could be performed by counsellors at specific grade levels, instead of all counsellors in the department feeling pressured to take responsibility for them. It would also be a useful exercise to examine the least important functions, even just to confirm in the counsellors' minds that these tasks are not perceived as being important for counsellors to perform. It could then become a question of choice, not expectation or mandate, that they perform them. In summary, this study was ultimately undertaken to provide data to counsellors that would assist them in defining or redefining their role. The process now requires counsellors to request that the executive of their Local Specialist Association (LSA) in counselling lobby the West Vancouver Teachers' Association (WVTA) to bargain on behalf of the counsellors to have them included as 'teachers with special responsibilities' in the next negotiated contract. Only then would the School Board be obliged to draft a job description for the district's counsellors. Once that had been attained, the counsellors' LSA executive could undertake to sit on a committee with representatives from the WVTA and School Board to decide on the job description language. If and when counsellors get this opportunity, i t is hoped that they would consider the following recommendations which have emerged as a result of this study. First, that they adopt the recommendations made by the Ministry of Education's Task Force report (1980) which were strongly supported by the five school-related groups in West Vancouver. These include counsellors: 121 a) continuing to be employed in the district's schools; b) having a Master's degree in counselling or one equivalent to i t ; c) having a professional teaching certificate and a minimum of two years teaching experience; d) being employed in full-time counselling positions, and e) having teaching assignments that relate as closely as possible to counselling i f counsellors must teach. According to the data obtained by this study, there should be no difficulty obtaining consensus among the counsellors regarding these recommendations. Second, at the secondary level, counsellors should request that every consideration be given to reducing the student to counsellor ratio. Ideally the Task Force report's recommendation of 250:1 is a goal worth striving for but the cost implications must be kept in mind. However, this reduction in ratio should remain a goal even i f i t is a long term one. Third, that the counsellors, in collaboration with personnel from the WVTA and the School Board, review the findings of this study to assist them in drafting a job description that would accurately describe the counsellors' role and functions at both the elementary and secondary levels. Fourth, that the elementary and secondary counsellors articulate their job description to the other four school-related groups so that a l l parties involved with counsellors would have a sound understanding of what the counsellors were expected to do. However, before proceeding with these recortmendations i t is important to bear in mind that there are limitations imposed on this study by the caution that must be taken in generalizing to the parent, student, and teacher populations because of their low cooperation rates. These groups' opinions may not adequately 122 represent parents^ students; and teachers' views. It is hoped that this will not detract too much from the potential value of this study. Conclusion This study was conducted f i r s t to determine the functions actually performed by counsellors in West Vancouver. A Counsellor Task Check List that described in behavioral terms 168 functions was devised then administered to the district's 18 counsellors. With a return rate of 83% i t was determined that the counsellors performed approximately 140 of the 168 tasks. An instrument using a five point ordinal Likert scale, entitled Survey on the Importance of Counsellor Functions in West Vancouver, was then designed based on eight recommendations reorganized into 11 statements, from the Ministry of Education's Task Force report on counselling (1980), as well as the 140 tasks performed by the district counsellors. It was administered to a random sample of parents and students, as well as a l l the teachers, counsellors, and administrators in West Vancouver. The purpose of the survey was to test the thesis that although school-related groups would differ in their perceptions of the importance of counsellor functions, there would be some functions that would rate high in importance among a l l five groups. This information could then be used by district counsellors to assist them in defining or redefining their role based in part on the groups' perceptions of important functions. With return rates which varied from 17.9% for the parents to 54.5% for the administrators, data collected and analyzed supported 123 the above thesis. Three out of 140 tasks at the elementary level were deemed to be considerably to very important with scores in the 4.00 - 5.00 range, while 20/140 tasks were awarded scores in the same range at the secondary level by a l l five groups. Hierarchical lists which were composites of the five groups' scores were prepared illustrating average scores for each recommendation and function at both the elementary and secondary levels. When average scores for the groups were considered, 15/140 functions at the elementary level received scores in the 4.00 - 5.00 range while 52/140 functions were awarded similar scores at the secondary level. These lists provided additional information for consideration by the counsellors. By examining the low end of each of these lists counsellors could have a clear idea of the functions the groups perceived to be unimportant or of l i t t l e importance. Numerous mentions have been made of the fact that the counsellors' role is always being defined by others; teachers, students, parents, administrators, and counsellors themselves. Counsellors now have the opportunity to review the findings of this study and as individuals or a group, compare the tasks they have traditionally been performing with the importance placed on them by the school-related groups. For some there may be an element of surprise, for others renewed confidence in the priority they have been according certain tasks. Counsellors may also recognize the shortcomings of their counselling programs. They may realize as well that tasks they have resented being expected to perform are considered to be of l i t t l e importance. This type of evidence may be useful in motivating them to assert that specific functions are not 124 and should not be a part of the counsellors' role. In fact, this study could be used as the basis for the development of a role for counsellors that would truly reflect the perceptions of the school-related groups. Hopefully there would be aspects of i t that would be unique to West Vancouver. To this end, i t has been suggested that counsellors become involved in the process of having their positions negotiated in the district's next collective agreement. Four recommendations were made to assist the counsellors in drafting and articulating a job description for both the elementary and secondary levels. This survey could also be adapted for use in other districts. It could be used in whole or in part to enable a district to compare itself to another. For example, in surveying its school-related groups with regard to only the functions deemed considerably to very  important for West Vancouver, a district could determine i f there was a significant difference between them. Functions specific to a district could also be added and measured. A logical next step could be an evaluation of the tasks performed by counsellors. Once a district's counsellors had established a role for themselves with specific functions listed, a study could then be undertaken to determine the level of satisfaction the school-related groups had of the counsellors' performance of them. But fi r s t and foremost the counsellors must, through discussion and negotiation by their representatives in their teachers' association, convince the district's administrators and school board to adopt the we11-supported Ministry of Education's recommendations, and establish a role and job description for themselves. 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Unpublished major paper, Department of Counselling, U.B.C: Vancouver. Remley, T.P., & Albright, P.L. (1988). Expectations for middle school counselors: Views of students, teachers, principals, and parents. The School Counselor, 35, 290-296. Riese, H.C., & Stoner, W.G. (1969). Perceptions of the functions and role of the school counsellor. The School Counselor 17, 126-130. Roemnich, H. (1967). Counselor functions in terms of behavioral tasks. The School Counselor, 14, 312-317. Ross, P. (1978). Elementary school counselling in B.C. Results of a survey. Unpublished major paper, Department of Counselling, U.B.C.: Vancouver. Schmidt, J.J. (1984). School counseling: Professional directions for the future. The School Counselor, 31, 385-392. Sherman, R., & Shapiro, I. (1969). Teacher-counselor communication. The School Counselor, 17, 55-62. Shertzer, B., & Stone, S.C. (1963). A problem in role definition. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 41, 687-693. Shertzer, B., & Stone, S.C. (1963). The militant counselor. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 42, 342-347. Shertzer, B., & Stone, S.C. (1963). The school counselor and his publics: A problem in role definition. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 41_, 687-693. Shertzer, B., & Stone, S.C. (1965). Challenges confronting counselors. The School Counselor, 12, 235-241. Shertzer, B., & Stone, S.C. (1968). Fundamentals of counseling, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Shertzer, B., & Stone, S.C. (Eds.) (1970). Introduction to guidance: Selected readings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Shumake, G.F., & Oelke, M.C. (1967). Counselor function inventory. The School Counselor, 15, 130-133. 133 Stevic, R. (1966). A new strategy for assessing counselor role. The School Counselor, 14, 94-96. Stiller, A., & Gannon, F.B. (1968). Differential perceptions of counselor role: Implications for program modification. The  School Counselor, 15, 198-203. Taylor, R.E. (1969). How does the counselor's chair fit? The  School Counselor, 16, 210-215. Trotzer, J.P., & Kassera, W.J. (1971). Do counselors do what they are taught? The School Counselor, 18, 335-341. Walpole, R.E. (1974). Introduction to statistics. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Wilgus, E., Shelley, V. (1988). The role of the elementary school counsellor: Teacher perceptions, expectations, and actual functions. The School Counselor, 35, 259-266. Wittmer, J. (1971). The school counselor: A catalyst in the guidance program. The School Counselor, 18, 342-348. Wrenn, C.G. (1962). The counselor in a changing world. Washington: American Personnel and Guidance Association. 1 APPENDIX A Counsellor Task Check List This check l i s t is comprised of a l i s t of tasks which research indicates school counsellors perform. In order to compare the importance of each task i t is necessary to determine the tasks performed specifically by the West Vancouver counsellors. The degree to which each task is performed is unimportant. If at any time during the past school year you performed the tasks listed please check Yes . If you did not, check No . A. CLERICAL 1. Assess and sign a l l interim reports. Yes No 2. Record grades on report cards. Yes No 3. Write coirments on report cards. Yes No 4. Maintain permanent record cards. Yes No 5. Record material on permanent record cards. Yes No 6. Check permanent record cards for completeness. Yes No 7. Maintain confidential files of students. Yes No 8. Organize confidential files of students. Yes No 9. Control use of confidential files of students. Yes No 10. File material in confidential files of students. Yes No 11. Furnish pupil data to receiving schools for transfers.Yes No B. CONFERENCES 12. Conduct group conferences with teachers. Yes No 13. Participate in case conferences with staff. Yes No 14. Engage in conference with a teacher about a student. Yes No 15. Participate in conferences with the principal. Yes No 16. Participate in conferences with parents to interpret school policy. Yes No 17. Participate in conferences with resource persons. Yes No C. GUIDANCE 18. Participate in defining objectives of the guidance program. Yes No 19. Coordinate various aspects of the guidance proram. Yes No 20. Order tests for the guidance program. Yes No 21. Teach guidance classes. Yes No 22. Interpret the guidance and counselling program to school personnel. Yes No 23. Interpret the guidance and counselling program to the community. Yes No 24. Conduct research to evaluate effectiveness of guidance program. Yes No 25. Serve as chairman of the school guidance committee. Yes No D. INFORMATION 26. Collect scholarship information. Yes No 27. Present scholarship information to individual students. Yes No 28. Present scholarship information to groups of students.Yes No 29. Collect college catalogues and other information about colleges and universities. Yes No 30. Present information (other than scholarship) to individual students. Yes No 31. Write letters to secure occupational information. Yes No 32. Collect occupational information. Yes No 33. File material in occupational files. Yes No 34. Present occupational information to individual students. Yes No 35. Present occupational information to groups of students. Yes No 36. Arrange field visits of students for occupational information. Yes No 37. Conduct field visits of students for occupational information. Yes No E. INTERACTION WITH PARENTS 38. Counsel parents regarding counselees. Yes No 39. Listen to parents about 'problem' children. Yes No 40. Assist parents in identifying within-school resource groups. Yes No 41. Write letters to parents concerning students. Yes No 42. Make home visitations. Yes No 43. Obtain progress reports on students for parents. Yes No 44. Check and monitor students' attendance for parents. Yes No 45. Discuss academic and attendance reports with parents. Yes No F. INTERACTION WITH TEACHERS 46. Consult feeder school teachers about incoming students. Yes No 47. Assist teachers in diagnosing learning difficulties of students. Yes No 48. Counsel teachers regarding counselees. Yes No 49. Listen to teachers about 'problem' students. Yes No 50. Assist teachers in identifying within-school resource persons. Yes No G. MEETINGS 51. Attend counsellor meetings within the school. Yes No 52. Attend counsellor meetings within the district. Yes No 53. Attend counsellor meetings outside the district. Yes No 54. Attend professional meetings such as PSA meetings or BCSCA meetings. Yes No 55. Attend special services meetings. Yes No H. NEW STUDENTS 56. Register new students. Yes No 57. Interview new students. Yes No 58. Orientate new students to the school. Yes No 59. Conduct follow-up of new students to determine adjustment to school environment. Yes No 60. Conduct follow-up of new students to determine academic adjustment. Yes No 61. Conduct group orientation sessions with incoming students. Yes No I. PROGRAMMING 62. Construct the master timetable. Yes No 63. Develop procedures for course programming. Yes No 64. Implement procedures for course programming by working with other teachers. Yes No 65. Conduct course programming sessions with parents. Yes No 66. Conduct course programming sessions with students. Yes No 67. Check and finalize students course programs. Yes No 68. Schedule students in classes. Yes No 69. Check summer school results and make appropriate program changes for the students. Yes No 137 70. Arrange course transfers for students within the school. Yes No 71. Participate in school curriculum planning and development. Yes No J. RESEARCH 72. Conduct follow-up studies of graduates. Yes No 73. Conduct follow-up studies of drop-outs. Yes No 74. Conduct follow-up studies of special referrals. Yes No 75. Conduct follow-up studies of students counselled by guidance personnel. Yes No 76. Conduct research on employment opportunities. Yes No 77. Conduct research on student characteristics. Yes No 78. Conduct research on broader problems of professional concern, possibly for publication. Yes No K. SCHOOL-RELATED ACTIVITIES 79. Teach classes in regular school subjects. Yes No 80. Teach remedial classes. Yes No 81. Tutor students in remedial subjects. Yes No 82. Teach career education classes. Yes No 83. Teach classes in occupational information. Yes No 84. Keep attendance records. Yes No 85. Supervise recording of grades on report cards. Yes No 86. Supervise study hall. Yes No 87. Plan career day programs. Yes No 88. Plan assembly programs. Yes No 89. Participate in committee activities. Yes No 90. Participate in developing administration policies. Yes No 91. Prepare handbook of school rules and policies for distribution. Yes No 92. Coordinate Home & Hospital-Bound services. Yes No 93. Collect homework when students are i l l for a short period. Yes No 94. Chaperone school social functions. Yes No 95. Sponsor non-class activities such as special clubs and interest groups. Yes No 96. Coach athletic teams. Yes No 97. Supervise activities during athletic events. Yes No 98. Participate in defining the objectives of a peer-counselling program. Yes No 99. Interpret the peer-counselling program to school personnel. Yes No 100.Interpret the peer-counselling program to the community. Yes No 101.Coordinate various aspects of the peer-counselling program. Yes 102.Implement a peer-counselling program in the school. Yes 103.Serve as a class adviser. Yes 104.Participate in defining the objectives of a teacher-adviser program. Yes 105.Interpret the teacher-adviser program to school personnel. Yes 106.Interpret the teacher-adviser program to the community. Yes 107.Coordinate various aspects of the teacher-adviser program. Yes 108.Implement a teacher-adviser program in the school. Yes L. SPECIAL ABILITIES/NEEDS 109. Develop procedures for grouping of students. Yes 110. Develop procedures for classroom placement of students with special abilities or needs. Yes 111.Identify students with special needs. Yes 112.Identify students with special abilities. Yes 113.Make classroom placements of students with special abilities or needs. Yes 114.Identify referral agencies for special need cases. Yes 115. Develop referral procedures for within-school system special services. Yes 116. Develop referral procedures to community agencies. Yes 117. Make referrals to agencies for special need cases. Yes M. STUDENTS 118. Counsel students regarding potentials and limitations.Yes 119. Counsel students in accepting themselves as individuals. Yes 120. Counsel students in expressing and developing awareness of feelings and values. Yes 121. Counsel students in career planning. Yes 122. Counsel students about program changes. Yes 123. Counsel students with personal problems. Yes 124. Counsel students regarding rule infractions. Yes 125. Counsel students regarding their development of special abilities. Yes 126. Counsel students concerning learning difficulties. Yes 127. Counsel students in regard to educational and vocational plans. Yes 128. Counsel students concerning failing grades. Yes 129. Counsel students who are delinquent in attendance. Yes 139 130. Counsel underachievers. Yes No 131. Counsel potential dropouts. Yes No 132. Assist students in making personal decisions. Yes No 133. Assist students in making application to colleges and universities. Yes No 134. Assist students in identifying resource persons. Yes No 135. Assist students in the selection of extra-curricular activities. Yes No 136. Assist students in preparing employment applications. Yes No 137. Telephone employees to solicit employment for students. Yes No 138. Furnish pupil data to employers. Yes No 139. Place students in part-time and summer jobs. Yes No 140. Place students in permanent jobs. Yes No 141. Appraise and interpret student behavior through use of interview and personal contact. Yes No 142. Appraise and interpret student behavior through use of tests and inventories. Yes No 143. Appraise and interpret student behavior from cumulative records. Yes No 144. Make referrals for within-school system special services. Yes No 145. Refer students to community agencies. Yes No 146. Evaluate transcripts of students. Yes No 147. Check seniors' for graduation requirements. Yes No 148. Write letters of recommendation. Yes No 149. Provide information about individual students to colleges or universities at which the student has applied. Yes No 150.Interview each student once a year. Yes No 151 .Write reports of individual interviews for the confidential f i l e . Yes No 152.Interpret school regulations to students. Yes No 153. Discipline students for rule infractions. Yes No 154. Discuss academic and attendance reports with students.Yes No N. TESTING 155. Administer group intelligence tests to groups of students. Yes No 156. Administer group intelligence tests to individuals. Yes No 157. Administer individual intelligence tests to students. Yes No 158. Administer interest inventories to groups. Yes No 159. Administer interest inventories to individuals. Yes No 160. Administer personality and attitude inventories to students. Yes No 161. Administer group tests required by the school or central office. Yes No 140 162.Administer group tests required by the Ministry of Education. Yes _ No 163.Supervise the administration of psychological tests to students. Yes No 164.Score and grade psychological tests. Yes _ No 165.Interpret psychological test information to the principal. Yes No 166.Interpret test scores to individual teachers. Yes No 167.Interpret test scores to parents. Yes No 168.Interpret test scores to individual students. Yes No 0. COMMENTS Although this l i s t of tasks is fairly exhaustive there may be others that you perform in your role as a counsellor that have not been included. It would be appreciated i f you could write them in the space provided. Any comments which could be useful would also be greatly appreciated. APPENDIX B Letter to counsellors Date Dear As you are aware I have spent the last few months doing research for my thesis. I am in the process of developing the major questionnaire that will be used to survey the perceptions of school-related groups in West Vancouver on the importance of the various counselling services offered. Because there is no set role definition for counsellors in this district i t appears that different expectations exist for counsellors in both the secondary and elementary schools. It is extremely important that the questionnaire used for the survey accurately reflects the tasks West Vancouver's counsellors perform. Only then, can comparisons be made with regard to the services deemed most important by the groups involved. Enclosed with this letter is a Counsellor Task Check List. This check l i s t will be used to identify the tasks performed specifically by the West Vancouver counsellors. Once the check l i s t has been completed and the data compiled, a questionnaire using a five point Likert scale will be developed to determine the similarities and differences between the school-related groups regarding the importance of the listed tasks. Each counsellor's input would be greatly appreciated so that the most accurate reflection of tasks can be made. While completing the questionnaire counsellors may find that some tasks are not applicable to their counselling situation, i.e. checking graduation requirements is a task that would not be performed by Elementary counsellors. However, because the object of the questionnaire is to determine the counsellors' functions, I would ask that either Yes or No be checked for each task. To ensure anonymity please do not write your name on any of the pages. Completed forms should be mailed as soon as possible in the self-addressed envelope. I would appreciate receiving them by . Thank you for your cooperation. If you have any questions regarding the forms or the study please do not hesitate to call me at -Sincerely, Kathy Grant APPENDIX C RESULTS OF THE COUNSELLOR TASK CHECK LIST The number and equivalent percentage of respondents who stated that they performed the listed task are recorded in in the Yes column. A l l items were assigned a Yes or No answer. Number of respondents =15 A. CLERICAL 1. Assess and sign a l l interim reports. Yes # 7 % 47 2. Record grades on report cards. Yes 7 47 3. Write comments on report cards. Yes 12 80 4. Maintain permanent record cards. Yes 3 20 5. Record material on permanent record cards. Yes _4 27 6. Check permanent record cards for completeness. Yes 9 60 7. Maintain confidential files of students. Yes 15 100 8. Organize confidential files of students. Yes 14 93 9. Control use of confidential files of students. Yes 11 87 10. File material in confidential files of students Yes 15 100 11. Furnish pupil data to receiving schools for transfers. Yes 13 87 B. CONFERENCES 12. Conduct group conferences with teachers. Yes 12 80 13. Participate in case conferences with staff. Yes i i 100 14. Engage in conference with a teacher about a student. Yes 15 100 15. Participate in conferences with the principal. Yes 15 100 16. Participate in conferences with parents to interpret school policy Yes 14 93 17. Participate in conferences with resource persons. Yes l i 100 144 c GUIDANCE 18. Participate in defining objectives of the # guidance program. Yes _8 53 19. Coordinate various aspects of the guidance program. Yes 8 53 20. Order tests for the guidance program. Yes 6 40 21. Teach guidance classes. Yes _8 53 22. Interpret the guidance and counselling program to school personnel. Yes _5 33 23. Interpret the guidance and counselling program to the community. Yes _5 33 24. Conduct research to evaluate effectiveness of guidance program. Yes _0 0 25. Serve as chairman of the school guidance committee. Yes T D. INFORMATION 26. Collect scholarship information. Yes _7 47 27. Present scholarship information to individual students. Yes _8 53 28. Present scholarship information to groups of students. Yes _6 40 29. Collect college catalogues and other information about colleges and universities. Yes _8 53 30. Present information (other than scholarship) to individual students. Yes 12 80 31. Write letters to secure occupational information. Yes 4 27 32. Collect occupational information. Yes 6 40 33. File material in occupational f i l e s . Yes _5 33 34. Present occupational information to individual students. Yes _9 60 35. Present occupational information to groups of students. Yes _7 47 36. Arrange field visits of students for occupational information. Yes _3_ 20* 37. Conduct field visits of students for occupational information. Yes _2 13* 145 E. INTERACTION WITH PARENTS 38. Counsel parents regarding counselees. Yes # 15 % 100 39. Listen to parents about 'problem' children. Yes i l 100 40. Assist parents in identifying within-school resource groups. Yes 13 87 41. Write letters to parents concerning students. Yes 12 80 42. Make home visitations. Yes _4 27 43. Obtain progress reports on students for parents. Yes 14 93 44. Check and monitor students' attendance for parents. Yes 14 93 45. Discuss academic and attendance reports with parents. Yes i i 93 F. INTERACTION WITH TEACHERS 46. Consult feeder school teachers about incoming students. Yes _7_ 47 47. Assist teachers in diagnosing learning difficulties of students. Yes 13 87 48. Counsel teachers regarding counselees. Yes 14 93 49. Listen to teachers about 'problem' students. Yes 15 100 50. Assist teachers in identifying within-school resource persons. Yes 14 93 G. MEETINGS 51. Attend counsellor meetings within the school. Yes 13 , 87 52. Attend counsellor meetings within the district. Yes 14 93 53. Attend counsellor meetings outside the district. Yes 10 67 54. Attend professional meetings such as PSA meetings or BCSCA meetings. Yes 14 93 55. Attend special services meetings. Yes 15 100 146 H. NEW STUDENTS # % 56. Register new students. Yes 1_1 73 57. Interview new students. Yes 14 93 58. Orientate new students to the school. Yes I I 73 59. Conduct follow-up of new students to determine adjustment to school environment. Yes 14 93 60. Conduct follow-up of new students to determine academic adjustment. Yes 14 93 61. Conduct group orientation sessions with incoming students. Yes _4 27 I. PROGRAMMING 62. Construct the master timetable. Yes 2 13* 63. Develop procedures for course programming. Yes 11 73 64. Implement procedures for course programming by working with other teachers. Yes 10 67 65. Conduct course programming sessions with parents. Yes 10 67 66. Conduct course programming sessions with students. Yes 12 80 67. Check and finalize students course programs. Yes 11 73 68. Schedule students in classes. Yes _8 53 69. Check summer school results and make appropriate program changes for students. Yes 12 80 70. Arrange course transfers for students within the school. Yes 12 80 71. Participate in school curriculum planning and development. Yes _6 40 J. RESEARCH 72. Conduct follow-up studies of graduates. Yes 1 7* 73. Conduct follow-up studies of drop-outs. Yes _0 0* 74. Conduct follow-up studies of special referrals. Yes _5 33* 75. Conduct follow-up studies of students counselled by guidance personnel. Yes _2 20* 76. Conduct research on employment opportunities. Yes 2 13* 77. Conduct research on student characteristics. Yes _4 27* 78. Conduct research on broader problems of 147 # a professional concern, possibly for publication. Yes _5 33* K. SCHOOL-RELATED ACTIVITIES 79. Teach classes in regular school subjects. Yes 10 67 80. Teach remedial classes. Yes 3 20* 81. Tutor students in remedial subjects. Yes 5 33 82. Teach career education classes. Yes 5 33 83. Teach classes in occupational information. Yes 4 27 84. Keep attendance records. Yes _8 53 85. Supervise recording of grades on report cards. Yes 4 27 86. Supervise study hall. Yes 0 0* 87. Plan career day programs. Yes 3 20* 88. Plan assembly programs. Yes 6 40 89. Participate in committee activities. Yes 13 87 90. Participate in developing administration policies. Yes _8 53 91. Prepare handbook of school rules and policies for distribution. Yes 3 20* 92. Coordinate Home & Hospital-Bound services. Yes 10 67 93. Collect homework when students are i l l for a short period. Yes 13 87 94. Chaperone school social functions. Yes _9 60 95. Sponsor non-class activities such as special clubs and interest groups. Yes 10 67 96. Coach athletic teams. Yes 7 47 97. Supervise activities during athletic events. Yes 12 80 98. Participate in defining the objectives of a peer-counselling program. Yes _3_ 20* 99. Interpret the peer-counselling program to school personnel. Yes _0 0* 100.Interpret the peer-counselling program to the community. Yes 7* 101.Coordinate various aspects of the peer-counselling program. Yes _0 0* 102.Implement a peer-counselling program in the school. Yes 1 7* 103 .Serve as a class adviser. Yes _3 20* 104.Participate in defining the objectives of a teacher-adviser program. Yes _0 0* 105.Interpret the teacher-advisor program to school personnel. Yes _0 0* 106.Interpret the teacher-advisor program to the # % community. Yes _0 0' 107.Coordinate various aspects of the teacher-adviser program. Yes _0 0' 108.Implement a teacher-adviser program in the school. Yes 0 0' 109.Develop procedures for grouping of students. Yes J_ 47 110.Develop procedures for classroom placement of students with special abilities or needs. Yes 8 53 111.Identify students with special needs. Yes 14 93 112.Identify students with special abilities. Yes 13 87 113.Make classroom placements of students with special abilities or needs. Yes i l 87 114.Identify referral agencies for special need cases. Yes i i 100 115.Develop referral procedures for within-school system special services. Yes 10 67 116.Develop referral procedures to community agencies. Yes _8 53 117.Make referrals to agencies for special need cases. Yes 15 100 M. STUDENTS 118.Counsel students regarding potentials and limitations. Yes 15 100 119.Counsel students in accepting themselves as individuals. Yes i i 100 120.Counsel students in expressing and developing awareness of feelings and values. Yes 15 100 121.Counsel students in career planning. Yes 13 87 122.Counsel students about program changes. Yes 14 94 123.Counsel students with personal problems. Yes 15 100 124.Counsel students regarding rule infractions. Yes _6 40 125.Counsel students regarding their development of special abilities. Yes i i 100 126.Counsel students concerning learning difficulties. Yes i i 100 127.Counsel students in regard to educational and vocational plans. Yes 15 100 128.Counsel students concerning failing grades. Yes 14 93 129.Counsel students who are delinquent in attendance. Yes 15 100 130.Counse1 underachievers. Yes 14 93 131.Counsel potential dropouts. Yes 15 100 # a "5 132.Assist students in making personal decisions. Yes 15 100 133.Assist students in making application to colleges and universities. Yes 10 67 134.Assist students in identifying resource persons. Yes 14 93 135.Assist students in the selection of extra-curricular activities. Yes 13 87 136.Assist students in preparing employment applications. Yes _9 60 137.Telephone employees to solicit employment for students. Yes 2 13* 138.Furnish pupil data to employers. Yes 7 47 139.Place students in part-time and summer jobs. Yes 6 40 140.Place students in permanent jobs. Yes 7* 141.Appraise and interpret student behavior through use of interview and personal contact. Yes 14 93 142.Appraise and interpret student behavior through use.of tests and inventories. Yes _9 60 143.Appraise and interpret student behavior from cumulative records. Yes 13 87 144.Make referrals for within-school system special services. Yes 14 93 145.Refer students to community agencies. Yes 15 100 146.Evaluate transcripts of students. Yes 10 67 147.Check seniors' for graduation requirements. Yes 6 40 148.Write letters of recommendation. Yes 12 80 149.Provide information about individual students to colleges or universities at which the student has applied. Yes 8 53 150.Interview each student once a year. Yes _9 60 151.Write reports of individual interviews for the confidential f i l e . Yes 11 73 152.Interpret school regulations to students. Yes 15 100 153.Discipline students for rule infractions. Yes _8 53 154.Discuss academic and attendance reports with students. Yes 14 93 N. TESTING 155.Administer group intelligence tests to groups of students. Yes _0 0* 156.Administer group intelligence tests to individuals. Yes _0 0* # % 157.Administer individual intelligence tests to students. Yes 0 0* 158.Administer interest inventories to groups. Yes _5 33 159.Administer interest inventories to individuals. Yes _8 53 160.Administer personality and attitude inventories to students. Yes _5 33 161.Administer group tests required by the school or central office. Yes _3 20* 162.Administer group tests required by the Ministry of Education. Yes _2 13* 163.Supervise the administration of psychological tests to students. Yes 0 0* 164.Score and grade psychological tests. Yes _0 0* 165.Interpret psychological test information to the principal. Yes _2 13* 166.Interpret test scores to individual teachers. Yes 7 47 167.Interpret test scores to parents. Yes 1_ 47 168.Interpret test scores to individual students. Yes _8 53 O. COMMENTS Four counsellors responded to this section. The tasks they submitted include the following: 1. "My role is not specifically as a counsellor. Other tasks that I perform relate more to my job as work-experience coordinator." 2. "Most of my time i s spent on one-to-one counselling and also keeping in contact with parents, teachers, administrators, district staff and other resource personnel. I'm not sure this form fairly reflects my responsibilities. It appears to be more geared to a high school counsellor's position." 3. "Help teachers, principal clarify perceptions of a problem. Help teachers work through personal problems which inhibit performance. Help teachers, principals work through inter-collegial conflict. Bridge communication breakdown between school and home." 4. "Counsel parents and teachers on personal matters. Counsel clients re suicide attempts or the thought of going that far. Evening counselling by telephone when clients get my number at home." Comments deemed useful were submitted by three counsellors. They include: 1. "I plan to become more involved in section J." (Research) 2. "I have made the assumption that most questions relate to school functions." 3. "Our job in the elementary school is extremely different. Most of these tasks referred to in your survey are never part of our system. Our work is much more intensely concentrated on emotional issues." 4. "Some questions seem redundant (e.g., 16, 38, 39, 45, 167) but may be desired for an internal validity check. The counselling program of schools vary, therefore duties may change periodically as with progressing with a grade level from grade 7 through grade 12. This should be noted." 152 APPENDIX D SURVEY ON THE IMPORTANCE OF COUNSELLOR FUNCTIONS IN WEST VANCOUVER Please complete the following survey and return i t in the postage paid envelope by . In the event of postal disruptions the survey can be returned to Sentinel Secondary School, 1250 Chartwell Drive, West Vancouver, or to the school you are affiliated with. SURVEY GROUPS Identify the group you are associated with by placing checks in the appropriate spaces. Do not write your name on any of the pages. Parent with child(ren) in grade(s) . Student Grade 6 Grade 8 Grade 10 Grade 12 Teacher Elementary Secondary District Counsellor Elementary Secondary District Administrator Elementary Secondary District PART 1 Listed are a number of statements which pertain to counsellors and counselling services. Rate the level of importance you feel each statement should be given by circling the appropriate number for both Elementary  and Secondary school counsellors. Key Very important = 5 Of considerable importance = 4 Of some importance = 3 Of l i t t l e importance - 2 Not important - 1 COUNSELLORS Elementary Secondary 1. Counsellors should be employed in each of the district's schools. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 2. The ratio of students to a counsellor should be approximately 250:1. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 3. Counsellors should be full-time counsellors. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 4. Counsellors should be part-time counsellors, part-time teachers. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5. Teaching assignments given to counsellors should be as closely related to counselling as possible. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 153 Key Very important = 5 Of considerable importance = 4 Of some importance = 3 Of l i t t l e importance = 2 Not important = 1 Elementary Secondary 6. Administrators should avoid assigning tasks of a clerical or adminstrative nature to counsellors. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 7. Counsellors should be primarily concerned with service to the students and consultation with the staff. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 8. Counsellors should have a professional certificate in teaching. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 9. Counsellors should have a minimum of two years successful classroom teaching experience. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 10. Counsellors should have a Masters degree in counselling or one equivalent to i t . 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 11. To allow counsellors to use their time more effectively a trained staff aide should be assigned to each counselling department. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 PART 2 COUNSELLOR FUNCTIONS Use the same key to rate the level of importance you feel each task performed by counsellors in West Vancouver should be given. A. CLERICAL 12. Assess and sign a l l interim reports. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 13. Record grades on report cards. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 14. Write comments on report cards. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 15. Maintain permanent record cards. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 16. Record material on permanent record cards. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 17. Check permanent record cards for completeness. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 18. Maintain confidential files of students. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 19. Organize confidential files of students. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 20. Control use of confidential files of students. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 21. File material in confidential files of students. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 22. Provide pupil data to receiving schools for transfers. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 154 Key Very Important = 5 Of considerable importance - 4 Of some importance = 3 Of l i t t l e importance = 2 Not important = 1 B. CONFERENCES Elementary Secondary 23. Conduct group conferences with teachers. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 24. Participate in case conferences with staff. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 25. Engage in conference with a teacher about a student. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 26. Participate in conferences with the principal. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 27. Participate in conferences with parents to interpret school policy. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 28. Participate in conferences with resource persons. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 C. GUIDANCE 29. Participate in defining the objectives of the guidance program. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 30. Coordinate various aspects of the guidance program. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 31. Order tests for the guidance program. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 32. Teach guidance classes. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 33. Teach career education in guidance classes. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 34. Teach family l i f e education in guidance classes. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 35. Teach values education in guidance classes. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 36. Teach study skills in guidance classes. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 37. Teach decision-making skills in guidance classes. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 38. Teach communication skills in guidance classes. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 39. Teach personal awareness in guidance classes. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 40. Teach social awareness in guidance classes. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 41. Interpret the guidance and counselling program to school personnel. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 42. Interpret the guidance and counselling program to the community. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 155 Key Very important = 5 Of considerable importance = 4 Of some importance = 3 Of l i t t l e importance = 2 Not important = 1 D. INFORMATION Elementary Secondary 43. Collect scholarship information. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 44. Present scholarship information to individual students. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 45. Present scholarship information to groups of students. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 46. Collect college catalogues and other information about colleges and universities. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 47. Present information (other than scholarship) to individual students. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 48. Write letters to secure occupational information. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 49. Collect occupational information. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 50. File material in occupational files. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 51. Present occupational information to individual students. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 52. Present occupational information to groups of students. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 E. INTERACTION WITH PARENTS 53. Listen to parents about 'problem' children. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 54. Counsel parents regarding counselees. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 55. Assist parents in identifying within-school resource groups. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 56. Write letters to parents concerning students. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 57. Make home visitations. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 58. Obtain progress reports on students for parents. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 59. Check and monitor students' attendance for parents. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 60. Discuss academic and attendance reports with parents. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 F. INTERACTION WITH TEACHERS 61. Consult other school teachers about incoming students. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 62. Assist teachers in diagnosing learning difficulties of students. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 63. Counsel teachers regarding counselees. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 64. Listen to teachers about 'problem' students. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 156 Key Very inportant = 5 Of considerable importance - 4 Of some importance - 3 Of l i t t l e importance = 2 Not important = 1 Elementary Secondary 65. Assist teachers in identifying within-school resource persons. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 G. MEETINGS 66. Attend counsellor meetings within the school. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 67. Attend counsellor meetings within the district. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 68. Attend counsellor meetings outside the district. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 69. Attend professional meetings such as Local Specialist Association meetings or B.C. School Counsellors Association meetings. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 70. Attend within-school special services meetings. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 H. NEW STUDENTS 71. Register new students. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 72. Interview new students. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 73. Orientate new students to the school. 5 4 3 21 5 4 3 2 1 74. Conduct follow-up of new students to determine adjustment to school environment. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 75. Conduct follow-up of new students to determine academic adjustment. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 76. Conduct group orientation sessions with incoming students. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 I. PROGRAMMING 77. Develop procedures for course programming. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 78. Implement procedures for course programming by working with other teachers. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 79. Conduct course programming sessions with parents. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 80. Conduct course programming sessions with students. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 81. Check and finalize students course programs. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 82. Schedule students in classes. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 83. Check summer school results and make 157 Key Very important = 5 Of considerable importance = 4 Of some importance = 3 Of l i t t l e importance = 2 Not important = 1 Elementary Secondary appropriate program changes for students. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 84. Arrange course transfers for students within the school. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 85. Participate in school curriculum planning and development. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 J. SCHOOL-RELATED ACTIVITIES 86. Teach classes in regular school subjects. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 87. Tutor students in remedial subjects. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 88. Keep attendance records. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 89. Supervise recording of grades on report cards. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 90. Plan assembly programs. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 91. Participate in committee activities. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 92. Participate in developing administration policies. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 93. Prepare handbook of school rules and policies for distribution. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 94. Coordinate Home & Hospital-Bound services. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 95. Collect homework when students are i l l for a short period. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 96. Chaperone school social functions. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 97. Sponsor non-class activities such as special clubs and interest groups. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 98. Coach athletic teams. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 99. Supervise activities during athletic events. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 100. Initiate a peer-counselling program in the school. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 101. Initiate a teacher-adviser program in the school. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 K. SPECIAL ABILITIES/NEEDS 102. Develop procedures for grouping of students. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 103. Develop procedures for classroom placement of students with special abilities or needs. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 104. Identify students with special needs. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 105. Identify students with special abilities. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 158 Key Very important = 5 Of considerable importance = 4 Of some importance = 3 Of l i t t l e importance = 2 Not important = 1 Elementary Secondary 106. Make classroom placements of students with special abilities or needs. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 107. Identify referral agencies for special need cases. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 108. Develop referral procedures for within-school system special services. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 . 109. Develop referral procedures to community agencies. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 110. Make referrals to agencies for special need cases. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 L . STUDENTS 111. Counsel students regarding potentials and limitations. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 112. Counsel students in accepting themselves as individuals. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 113. Counsel students in expressing and developing awareness of feelings and values. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 114. Counsel students in career planning. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 115. Counsel students about program changes. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 116. Counsel students with personal problems. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 117. Counsel students concerning rule infractions. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 118. Counsel students regarding their development of special abilities. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 119. Counsel students concerning learning difficulties. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 120. Counsel students in regard to educational and vocational plans. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 121. Counsel students concerning failing grades. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 122. Counsel students who are delinquent in attendance. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 123. Counsel underachievers. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 124. Counsel potential dropouts. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 125. Assist students in making personal decisions. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 126. Assist students in making application to colleges and universities. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 127. Assist students in identifying resource persons. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 128. Assist students in the selection of extra-curricular activities. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 Key Very important = 5 Of considerable importance - 4 Of some importance = 3 Of l i t t l e importance = 2 Not important = 1 129. Assist students in preparing employment applications. 130. Furnish student data to employers. 131. Place students in part-time and summer jobs. 132. Appraise and interpret student behavior through use of interview and personal contact. 133. Appraise and interpret student behavior through use of tests and inventories. 134. Appraise and interpret student behavior from cumulative records. 135. Make referrals for within-school system special services. 136. Refer students to community agencies. 137. Evaluate transcripts of students. 138. Check grade twelves for graduation requirements. 139. Write letters of recommendation. 140. Provide information about individual students to colleges or universities at which the student has applied. 141. Interview each student once a year. 142. Write reports of individual interviews for the confidential f i l e . 143. Interpret school regulations to students. 144. Discipline students for rule infractions. 145. Discuss academic and attendance reports with students. M. TESTING 146. Administer interest inventories to groups. 147. Administer interest inventories to individuals. 148. Administer personality and attitude inventories to students. 149. Interpret test scores to individual teachers. 150. Interpret test scores to parents. 151. Interpret test scores to individual students. 159 Elementary Secondary 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 Thank you for completing this survey. Please return i t in the self-addressed envelope. 160 A P P E N D I X E L e t t e r o f T r a n s m i t t a l t o S t u d e n t s D a t e D e a r A s a s t u d e n t i n g r a d e i n a W e s t V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l , y o u r n a m e w a s c h o s e n a t r a n d o m t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a S u r v e y o n t h e  I m p o r t a n c e o f C o u n s e l l o r F u n c t i o n s i n W e s t V a n c o u v e r w h i c h I a m c o n d u c t i n g i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f a M a s t e r o f A r t s d e g r e e i n C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y . T h i s s t u d y i s b e i n g s u p e r v i s e d b y D r . R i c h a r d Y o u n g , D e p a r t m e n t o f _ C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I f y o u w i s h t o p a r t i c i p a t e y o u m u s t h a v e p a r e n t a l p e r m i s s i o n . Y o u w i l l t h e n b e r e q u e s t e d t o c o m p l e t e a t a l a t e r d a t e , t h e s u r v e y f o r m w h i c h w i l l a s k y o u t o r a t e o n a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e t h e i m p o r t a n c e y o u p l a c e o n i t e m s r e l a t e d t o c o u n s e l l o r s a n d c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s . C o m p l e t i o n o f t h e s u r v e y s h o u l d t a k e l e s s t h a n o n e h o u r . P e r m i s s i o n t o c o n d u c t t h i s s u r v e y h a s b e e n g r a n t e d b y t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #45, M r . W i l l i a m J . M a y . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s u r v e y i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e o v e r a l l i m p o r t a n c e p a r e n t s , s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s , c o u n s e l l o r s , a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s p l a c e o n i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s a t b o t h t h e e l e m e n t a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y l e v e l s , a s w e l l a s t h e i r o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g s e v e n r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s m a d e b y t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n ' s T a s k F o r c e R e p o r t o n C o u n s e l l i n g . A f t e r t h e s u r v e y s h a v e b e e n c o l l e c t e d , t h e d a t a w i l l b e a n a l y s e d . L i s t s r a n k i n g c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s f r o m v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o n o t i m p o r t a n t w i l l b e c o m p i l e d . C o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n g r o u p s w i l l t h e n b e m a d e t o i d e n t i f y t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e m . D i s t r i c t c o u n s e l l o r s w i l l t h e n b e g i v e n t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o a s s i s t t h e m i n f u r t h e r d e f i n i n g o r r e d e f i n i n g t h e i r r o l e b a s e d o n t h e e x p r e s s e d o p i n i o n s o f t h e f i v e s c h o o l - r e l a t e d g r o u p s . A l t h o u g h y o u r o p i n i o n s w o u l d b e g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d , y o u a r e u n d e r n o o b l i g a t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s u r v e y . I f y o u d o , complete confidentiality will be assured. Identification by group is a l l that i s required. Names are not to be written on any of the survey pages. Please have your parents complete the consent form on the bottom of the page and return i t to your school. If you have any questions or concerns please do not hesitate to call me at Sentinel Secondary School Yours truly, Mrs. K. Grant Teacher/Counsellor Sentinel Secondary School. CONSENT FORM Dear Mrs. Grant: I consent I do not consent for my son/daughter to participate in a Survey on the  Importance of Counsellor Functions in West Vancouver. Date: Parent/Guardian signature: 162 APPENDIX F LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL SENT TO STUDENTS Date Dear Attached is the Survey on the Importance of Counsellor Functions  in West Vancouver which you were chosen at random to participate in. This study is being conducted in partial fulfillment of my Master of Arts degree in Counselling Psychology and is being supervised by Dr. Richard Young, Department of Counselling Psychology, University of British Columbia, Please take the time to read the instructions and answer a l l items for both the Elementary and Secondary levels. Completion of the survey should take less than one hour. Do not write your name on any of the pages. Identify yourself only through the group you belong to. You are under no obligation to complete the survey. A decision not to will in no way affect your standing at school. If the survey is completed i t will be assumed that consent has been given. The completed survey can be returned to me in the postage paid self-addressed envelope. In the event of postal disruptions the survey can be dropped off at the closest West Vancouver public school where i t will then be forwarded to me at Sentinel School. Thank you for your cooperation. If you have any questions or concerns about the survey please do not hesitate to call me at Sentinel Secondary School, Yours truly, Mrs. K. Grant Teacher/Counsellor Sentinel Secondary School 163 LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL SENT TO PARENTS Date Dear As a parent of a child or children in the West Vancouver school system your name was chosen at random to participate in a Survey on the Importance of Counsellor Functions in West  Vancouver which I am conducting in partial fulfillment of a Master of Arts degree in Counselling Psychology. This study is being supervised by Dr. Richard Young, Department of Counselling Psychology, U.B.C, The purpose of the survey is to determine the overall importance parents, students, teachers, counsellors, and administrators place on individual counsellor functions at both the elementary and secondary levels, as well as their opinions regarding seven recommendations made by the Ministry of Education's Task Force Report on Counselling. After the surveys have been collected, the data will be analysed. Lists ranking counsellor functions from very important to not important will be compiled. Comparisons between groups will then be made to identify the similarities and differences between them. District counsellors will then be given this information to assist them in further defining or redefining their role based on the expressed opinions of the five school-related groups. Although your opinions would be greatly appreciated you are under no obligation to participate in the survey. If you wish to participate, please complete the attached survey form. If the survey is completed i t will be assumed that consent has been given. Completion of the survey should take less than one hour. Confidentiality will be assured. Identification by groups is a l l that is required. Names are not to be written on any of the survey pages. Permission to conduct this survey has been granted by the Superintendent of School District #45, Mr. William J. May. Completed surveys should be returned to me in the postage paid self-addressed envelope by . In the event of postal disruptions the surveys can be dropped off at the closest West Vancouver public school where they will then be forwarded to me at Sentinel. If you have any questions or concerns please do not hesitate to call me at Sentinel Secondary School - - - • Yours truly, Mrs. K. Grant Teacher/Counsellor Sentinel Secondary School LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL SENT TO TEACHERS, COUNSELLORS, AND ADMINISTRATORS Date Dear As a(n) in the West Vancouver school system I would like to extend to you an invitation to participate in a Survey on the Importance of Counsellor Functions in West  Vancouver which I am conducting in partial fulfillment of a Master of Arts degree in Counselling Psychology. This study is being supervised by Dr. Richard Young, Department of Counselling Psychology, U.B.C. The purpose of the survey is to determine the overall importance parents, students, teachers, counsellors and administrators place on individual counsellor functions at both the elementary and secondary levels, as well as their opinions regarding seven recommendations made by the Ministry of Education's Task Force Report on Counselling. After the surveys have been collected, the data will be analysed. Lists ranking counsellor functions from very important to not important will be compiled. Comparisons between groups will then be made to identify the similarities and differences between them. District counsellors will then be given this information to assist them in further defining or redefining their role based on the expressed opinions of the five school-related groups. Although your opinions would be greatly appreciated you are under no obligation to participate in the survey. If you wish to participate, please complete the attached survey form. If the survey has been completed i t will be assumed that consent has been given. Completion of the survey should take less than one hour. Confidentiality will be assured. Identification by groups is a l l that is required. Names are not to be written on any of the survey pages. 166 P e r m i s s i o n t o c o n d u c t t h i s s u r v e y h a s b e e n g r a n t e d b y t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #45, M r . W i l l i a m J . M a y . C o m p l e t e d s u r v e y s s h o u l d b e r e t u r n e d t o me a t S e n t i n e l b y p r e f e r a b l y t h r o u g h y o u r s c h o o l ' s p o n y o r i n t h e p o s t a g e p a i d s e l f - a d d r e s s e d e n v e l o p e i f t h e r e a r e n o p o s t a l d i s r u p t i o n s . I f y o u h a v e a n y q u e s t i o n s o r c o n c e r n s p l e a s e d o n o t h e s i t a t e t o c a l l me a t S e n t i n e l S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l , Y o u r s t r u l y , M r s . K . G r a n t T e a c h e r / C o u n s e l l o r S e n t i n e l S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l APPENDIX G HIERARCHICAL LISTS GROCJP= Total LEVEL= Elementary PART 1 Statements Pertaining to Counsellors. RANK M Item 1. 4.138 7 2. 3.937 8 3. 3.759 9 4. 3.598 1 5. 3.523 10 6. 3.282 2 7. 3.062 3 8. 3.029 6 9. 3.006 5 10. 2.924 4 11. 2.479 11 Counsellors should be primarily concerned with service to the students and consultation with the staff. Counsellors should have a professional certificate in teaching. Counsellors should have a minimum of two years successful classsroom teaching experience. Counsellors should be employed in each of the district's schools. Counsellors should have a Masters degree in counselling or one equivalent to i t . The ratio of students to a counsellor should be approximately 250:1. Counsellors should be full-time counsellors. Administrators should avoid assigning tasks of a clerical or administrative nature to counsellors. Teaching assignments given to counsellors should be as closely related to counselling as possible. Counsellors should be part-time counsellors, part-time teachers. To allow counsellors to use their time more effectively a trained staff aide should be assigned to each counselling department. PART 2 Counsellor Functions. M= 4. 00 -• 4.99 (Of considerable importance to very important.) RANK M ITEM 1. 4. 457 53 Listen to parents about 'problem' children. 2. 4. 406 64 Listen to teachers about 'problem' students. 3. 4. 282 25 Engage in conference with a teacher about a student. 4. 4. 185 54 Counsel parents regarding counselees. 5. 4. 169 116 Counsel students with personal problems. 6. 4. 139 66 Attend counsellor meetings within the school. 7. 4. 115 55 Assist parents in identifying within-school resource groups. 8. 4. 088 104 Identify students with special needs. 9. 4. 070 70 Attend within-school special services meetings. 10. 4. 065 119 Counsel students concerning learning difficulties. 11. 4. 063 24 Participate in case conferences with staff. 12. 4. 052 67 Attend counsellor meetings within the district. 13. 4. 041 112 Counsel students in accepting themselves as individuals. 14. 4. 040 56 Write letters to parents concerning students. 15. 4. 017 26 Participate in conferences with the principal M= 3.00 -• 3.99 (Of some to considerable importance.) 16. 3. 988 20 Control use of confidential files of students 17.5 3. ,983 107 Identify referral agencies for special need cases. 3. 983 113 Counsel students in expressing and developing awareness of feelings and values. 19.5 3. ,977 18 Maintain confidential files of students. 3. 977 62 Assist teachers in diagnosing learning difficulties of students. 21. 3. 976 29 Participate in defining the objectives of the guidance program. 22. 3. 971 118 Counsel students regarding their development of special abilities. 23. 3. 930 105 Identify students with special abilities. 24. 3. ,919 108 Develop referral procedures for within-school 169 system special services. 25. 3. 892 65 Assist teachers in identifying within-school resource persons. 26. 3. 890 28 Participate in conferences with resource persons. 27. 3. 883 123 Counsel underachievers. 28. 3. 874 30 Coordinate various aspects of the guidance program. 29. 3. 869 63 Counsel teachers regarding counselees. 30. 3. 866 121 Counsel students concerning failing grades. 31. 3. 863 58 Obtain progress reports on students for parents. 32. 3. 855 110 Make referrals to agencies for special need cases. 33. 3. 782 27 Participate in conferences with parents to interpret school policy. 34. 3. 773 109 Develop referral procedures to community agencies. 35. 3. 759 106 Make classroom placements of students with special abilities or needs. 36. 3. 750 69 Attend professional meetings such as Local Specialist Association meetings or B.C. School Counsellors Association meetings. 37. 3. 688 22 Provide pupil data to receiving schools for transfers. 38. 3. 680 74 Conduct follow-up of new students to determine adjustment to school environment. 39. 3. 676 23 Conduct group conferences with teachers. 40. 3. 672 60 Discuss academic and attendance reports with parents. 41. 3. ,665 103 Develop procedures for classroom placement of students with special abilities or needs. 42. 3. 661 111 Counsel students regarding potentials and limitations. 43. 3. 659 124 Counsel potential dropouts. 44. 3. 636 41 Interpret the guidance and counselling program to school personnel. 45. 3. 624 75 Conduct follow-up of new students to determine academic adjustment. 46. 3. 613 19 Organize confidential files of students. 47. 3. .601 61 Consult other school teachers about incoming students. 48. 3. ,599 135 Make referrals for within-school system special services. 49. 3. ,570 122 Counsel students who are delinquent in attendance. 50. 3. ,545 37 Teach decision-making skills in guidance classes. 51. 3. ,448 36 Teach study skills in guidance classes. 52. 3. ,434 21 File material in confidential files of students. 53.5 3. ,430 38 Teach communication skills in guidance classes. 3. ,430 39 Teach personal awareness in guidance classes. 170 55. 3. 429 125 Assist students in making personal decisions. 56. 3. 423 40 Teach social awareness in guidance classes. 57. 3. 396 132 Appraise and interpret student behavior through use of interview and personal contact. 58. 3. 366 32 Teach guidance classes. 59. 3. 287 117 Counsel students concerning rule infractions. 60. 3. 273 73 Orientate new students to the school. 61. 3. 260 145 Discuss academic and attendance reports with students. 62. 3. 259 42 Interpret the guidance and counselling program to the community. 63. 3. 253 151 Interpret test scores to individual students. 64. 3. 246 72 Interview new students. 65. 3. 219 85 Participate in school curriculum planning and development. 66. 3. 193 127 Assist students in identifying resource persons. 67. 3. 190 136 Refer students to community agencies. 68. 3. 175 34 Teach family l i f e education in guidance classes. 69. 3. 174 68 Attend counsellor meetings outside the district. 70. 3. 170 150 Interpret test scores to parents. 71.5 3. 158 31 Order tests for the guidance program. 3. 158 35 Teach values education in guidance classes. 73. 3. 136 142 Write reports of individual interviews for the confidential f i l e . 74. 3. 113 83 Check summer school results and make appropriate program changes for students. 75. 3. 097 149 Interpret test scores to individual teachers. 76. 3. 095 134 Appraise and interpret student behavior from cumulative records. 77. 3. 071 76 Conduct group orientation sessions with incoming students. 78. 3. 070 12 Assess and sign a l l interim reports. 79. 3. 012 33 Teach career education in guidance classes. M= 2. 00 -- 2.99 (Of l i t t l e to some importance.) 80. 2. 994 14 Write comments on report cards. 81. 2. 989 59 Check and monitor students' attendance for parents. 82. 2. ,988 15 Maintain permanent record cards. 83. 2. 982 81 Check and finalize students' course programs. 84.5 2. ,976 17 Check permanent record cards for completeness. 2. ,976 141 Interview each student once a year. 86. 2. 965 102 Develop procedures for grouping of students. 87. 2. ,964 84 Arrange course transfers for students within the school. 88. 2. 959 133 Appraise and interpret student behavior 171 through use of tests and inventories. 89. 2. 953 120 Counsel students in regard to educational and vocational plans. 90. 2. 947 115 Counsel students about program changes. 91. 2. 905 80 Conduct course programming sessions with students. 92. 2. 870 148 Administer personality and attitude inventories to students. 93. 2. 858 114 Counsel students in career planning. 94. 2. 852 143 Interpret school regulations to students. 95. 2. 842 100 Initiate a peer-counselling program. 96. 2. 839 16 Record material on permanent record cards. 97. 2. 825 101 Initiate a teacher-adviser program in the school. 98. 2. 819 137 Evaluate transcripts of students. 99. 2. 763 94 Coordinate Home & Hospital-Bound services. 100. 2. 754 128 Assist students in the selection of extra-curricular activities. 101. 2. 716 147 Administer interest inventories to individuals. 102. 2. 689 78 Implement procedures for course programming by working with other teachers. 103. 2. 673 77 Develop procedures for course programming. 104. 2. 665 71 Register new students. 105. 2. 621 57 Make home visitations. 106. 2. 611 79 Conduct course programming sessions with parents. 107. 2. 587 92 Participate in developing administration policies. 108. 2. ,584 82 Schedule students in classes. 109. 2. -573 91 Participate in committee activities. 110. 2. 538 86 Teach classes in regular school subjects. 111. 2. 535 97 Sponsor non-class activities such as special clubs and interest groups. 112. 2. 497 146 Administer interest inventories to groups. 113. 2. 487 47 Present information (other than scholarhip) to individual students. 114. 2. 276 96 Chaperone school social functions. 115. 2. -235 44 Present scholarship information to individual students. 116. 2. ,233 87 Tutor students in remedial subjects. 117. 2. .221 93 Prepare handbook of school rules and policies for distribution. 118. 2. ,212 45 Present scholarship information to groups of students. 119.5 2. 191 52 Present occupational information to groups of students. 2. ,191 95 Collect homework when students are i l l for a short period. 121. 2. ,186 126 Assist students in making application to colleges and universities. 122. 2. ,178 43 Collect scholarship information. 123. 2. ,158 99 Supervise activities during athletic events. 124. 2. ,150 139 Write letters of recommendation. 125. 2.119 51 Present occupational information to individual students. 126. 2.089 144 Discipline students for rule infractions. 127. 2.088 49 Collect occupational information. 128. 2.076 89 Supervise recording of grades on report cards 129. 2.071 98 Coach athletic teams. 130. 2.058 13 Record grades on report cards. 131. 2.039 138 Check grade twelves for graduation requirements. 132. 2.029 88 Keep attendance records. M= 1.000 - 1.999 (Not important to of l i t t l e importance.) 133. 1 .955 48 134. 1 .936 50 135. 1 .932 46 136. 1 .910 129 137. 1 .826 140 138. 1 .795 90 139. 1 .671 130 140. 1 .567 131 Write letters to secure occupational information. File material in occupational fil e s . Collect college catalogues and other information about colleges and universities. Assist students in preparing employment applications. Provide information about individual students to colleges or universities at which the student has applied. Plan assembly programs. Furnish student data to employers. Place students in part-time and summer jobs. 173 GROUP= Total LEVEL= Secondary PART 1 Statements Pertaining to Counsellors. RANK M Item 1. 4.708 1 Counsellors should be employed in each of the district's schools. 2. 4.522 7 Counsellors should be primarily concerned with service to the students and consultation with the staff. 3. 4.153 8 Counsellors should have a professional certificate in teaching. 4. 4.056 2 The ratio of students to a counsellor should be approximately 250:1. 5. 4.027 9 Counsellors should have a minimum of two years successful classsroom teaching experience. 6. 3.790 10 Counsellors should have a Masters degree in counselling or one equivalent to i t . 7. 3.728 3 Counsellors should be full-time counsellors. 8. 3.422 6 Administrators should avoid assigning tasks of a clerical or administrative nature to counsellors. 9. 3.344 5 Teaching assignments given to counsellors should be as closely related to counselling as possible. 10. 2.994 11 To allow counsellors to use their time more effectively a trained staff aide should be assigned to each counselling department. 11. 2.856 4 Counsellors should be part-time counsellors, part-time teachers. / / PART 2 Counsellor Functions. M= 4. 00 -• 4.99 (Of considerable importance to very important.) RANK M ITEM 1. 4. 599 53 Listen to parents about 'problem' children. 2. 4. 571 64 Listen to teachers about 'problem' students. 3. 4. 563 114 Counsel students in career planning. 4. 4. 552 124 Counsel potential dropouts. 5. 4. 527 121 Counsel students concerning failing grades. 6. 4. 516 116 Counsel students with personal problems. 7. 4. 514 25 Engage in conference with a teacher about a student. 8. 4. 492 126 Assist students in making application to colleges and universities. 9. 4. 464 138 Check grade twelves for graduation requirements. 10. 4. 413 120 Counsel students in regard to educational and vocational plans. 11. 4. 390 54 Counsel parents regarding counselees. 12. 4. 383 66 Attend counsellor meetings within the school. 13. 4. 376 46 Collect college catalogues and other information about colleges and universities. 14. 4. 337 115 Counsel students about program changes. 15. 4. 335 119 Counsel students concerning learning difficulties. 16.5 4. 311 24 Participate in case conferences with staff. 4. 311 55 Assist parents in identifying within-school resource groups. 18. 4. 306 127 Assist students in identifying resource persons. 19. 4. 302 29 Participate in defining the objectives of the guidance program. 20. 4. 297 111 Counsel students regarding potentials and limitations. 21. 4. 269 112 Counsel students in accepting themselves as individuals. 22. 4. 257 118 Counsel students regarding their development of special abilities. 23. 4. 234 47 Present information (other than scholarship) to individual students. 24. 4. 228 104 Identify students with special needs. 25. 4. 203 52 Present occupational information to groups of students. 26. 4. 201 20 Control use of confidential files of students. 175 27. 4. 200 30 Coordinate various aspects of the guidance program. 28. 4. 191 123 Counsel underachievers. 29. 4. 183 18 Maintain confidential files of students. 30. 4. 181 51 Present occupational information to individual students. 31. 4. 165 56 Write letters to parents concerning students. 32. 4. 164 70 Attend within-school special services meetings. 34. 4. 148 26 Participate in conferences with the principal. 4. 148 67 Attend counsellor meetings within the district. 4. 148 107 Identify referral agencies for special need cases. 36. 4. 141 62 Assist teachers in diagnosing learning difficulties of students. 37. 4. 138 113 Counsel students in expressing and developing awareness of feelings and values. 38. 4. 134 44 Present scholarship information to individual students. 39. 4. 132 105 Identify students with special abilities. 40. 4. 093 60 Discuss academic and attendance reports with parents. 41. 4. 088 28 Participate in conferences with resource persons. 42. 4. 087 45 Present scholarship information to groups of students. 43. 4. 081 65 Assist teachers in identifying within-school resource persons. 44. 4. 077 23 Conduct group conferences with teachers. 45. 4. 066 108 Develop referral procedures for within-school system special services. 46. 4. 049 63 Counsel teachers regarding counselees. 47. 4. 033 74 Conduct follow-up of new students to determine adjustment to school environment. 48. 4. 022 49 Collect occupational information. 50. 4. 005 43 Collect scholarship information. 4. 005 58 Obtain progress reports on students for parents. 4. 005 106 Make classroom placement of students with special abilities or needs. 52. 4. 000 27 Participate in conferences with parents to interpret school policy. M= 3.00 - 3.99 (Of some to considerable importance.) 54. 3.967 81 Check and finalize students' course programs. 3.967 110 Make referrals to agencies for special need 176 cases. 3. 967 125 Assist students in making personal decisions. 56. 3. 962 122 Counsel students who are delinquent in attendance. 57. 3. 957 80 conduct course programming sessions with students. 58. 3. 956 140 Provide information about individual students colleges or universities at which the student has applied. 59. 3. 955 83 Check summer school results and make appropriate program changes for students. 61. 3. 951 75 Conduct follcw-up of new students to determine academic adjustment. 3. 951 84 Arrange course transfers for students within the school. 3. 951 129 Assist students in preparing employment applications. 63. 3. 933 103 Develop procedures for classroom placement of students with special abilities or needs. 64. 3. 921 37 Teach decision-making skills in guidance classes. 65. 3. 916 33 Teach career education in guidance classes. 66. 3. 911 139 Write letters of recommendation. 67. 3. 910 36 Teach study skills in guidance classes. 68. 3. 899 135 Make referrals for within-school system special services. 69. 3. 888 41 Interpret the guidance and counselling program to school personnel. 70. 3. 879 61 Consult other school teachers about incoming students. 71. 3. ,875 40 Teach social awareness in guidance classes. 72. 3. 874 69 Attend professional meetings such as Local Specialist Association meetings or B.C. School Counsellors Association meetings. 73.5 3. ,857 48 Write letters to secure occupational information. 3. 857 109 Develop referral procedures to community agencies. 75. 3. ,850 22 Provide pupil data to receiving schools for transfers. 76.5 3. ,831 132 Appraise and interpret student behavior through use of interview and personal contact. 3. ,831 145 Discuss academic and attendance reports with students. 78. 3. 816 38 Teach communication skills in guidance classes. 79. 3. ,793 39 Teach personal awareness in guidance classes. 80. 3. .789 19 Organize confidential files of students. 81. 3. .768 32 Teach guidance classes. 82. 3. ,737 136 Refer students to communisty agencies. 83. 3. .720 72 Interview new students. 84. 3. ,710 73 Orientate new students to the school. 177 85. 3. 691 151 Interpret test scores to individual students. 86. 3. 676 34 Teach family l i f e education in guidance classes. 87. 3. 661 117 Counsel students concerning rule infractions. 88. 3. 654 85 Participate in school curriculum planning and development. 89. 3. 619 141 Interview each student once a year. 90. 3. 606 21 File material in confidential files of students. 91. 3. 555 137 Evaluate transcripts of students. 92. 3. 543 77 Develop procedures for course programming. 93. 3. 534 35 Teach values education in guidance classes. 94. 3. 533 12 Assess and sign a l l interim reports. 95.5 3. 514 50 File material in occupational fi l e s . 3. 514 142 Write reports of individual interviews for the confidential f i l e . 97. 3. 508 78 Implement procedures for course programming by working with other teachers. 98. 3. 486 100 Initiate a peer-counselling program in the school. 99. 3. 433 42 Interpret the guidance and counselling program to the community. 100. 3. 432 79 Conduct course programming sessions with parents. 101. 3. 427 150 Interpret test scores to parents. 102. 3. 415 76 Conduct group orientation sessions with incoming students. 103. 3. 413 31 Order tests for the guidance program. 104. 3. 410 147 Administer interest inventories to individuals. 105. 3. 388 148 Administer personality and attitude inventories to individuals. 106. 3. 380 14 Write comments on report cards. 107. 3. 344 68 Attend counsellor meetings outside the district. 108. 3. 320 149 Interpret test scores to individual teachers. 109. 3. 319 101 Initiate a teacher-adviser program in the school. 110. 3. 309 15 Maintain permanent record cards. 111. 3. 295 130 Furnish student data to employers. 112. 3. 286 134 Appraise and interpret student behavior from cumulative records. 113. 3. 279 59 Check and monitor students' attendance for parents. 114. 3. 251 17 Check permanent record cards for completeness. 115. 3. ,234 128 Assist students in the selection of extra-curricular activities. 116. 3. ,185 146 Administer interest inventories to groups. 117. 3. ,181 133 Appraise and interpret student behavior through use of tests and inventories. 118. 3. ,172 102 Develop procedures for grouping of students. 178 119. 3. 133 82 Schedule students in classes. 120. 3. 108 16 Record material on permanent record cards. 121. 3. 087 143 Interpret school regulations to students. M= 2.00 -• 2.99 (Of l i t t l e to some importance.) 122. 2. 995 71 Register new students. 123. 2. 956 94 Coordinate Home & Hospital-Bound Services. 124. 2. 831 86 Teach classes in regular school subjects. 125. 2. 809 92 Participate in developing administration policies. 126. 2. 780 91 Participate in committee activities. 127. 2. 720 97 Sponsor non-class activities such as special clubs and interest groups. 128. 2. 659 131 Place students in part-time and summer jobs. 129. 2. 566 57 Make home visitations. 130. 2. 541 96 Chaperone school social functions. 131. 2. 481 95 Collect homework when students are i l l for a short period. 132. 2. 377 93 Prepare handbook of school rules and policies for distribution. 133. 2. 263 98 Coach athletic teams. 134. 2. 258 99 Supervise activities during athletic events. 135. 2. 240 144 Discipline students for rule infractions. 136. 2. 215 87 Tutor students in remedial subjects. 137. 2. 213 13 Record grades on report cards. 138. 2. 191 89 Supervise recording of grades on report cards. 139. 2. 165 88 Keep attendance records. 140. 2. 022 90 Plan assembly programs. 

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