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Sandplay : a comparative study Cockle, Susan M. 1993

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SANDPLAY: A COMPARATIVE STUDYby SUSAN M. COCKLEB.A., University of Alberta, 1987.A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTERS OF ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESDEPARTMENT OF COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGYWe accept this thesis as conforming to therequired standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAAPRIL, 1993Susan Cockle, 1993Department of CCXYLI/152114-AAThe University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate^25/93_In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature)DE-6 (2/88)ABSTRACTDifferences in play themes, play characteristics,object use, and narratives, of coping and difficultycoping children were examined. Five subjects, fromgrades 2 and 3, were each assigned to the coping group(CG) and difficulty coping group (DCG). Theyparticipated individually in sandplay, on four separateoccasions, over a two month period.The primary purpose of this study was to determinethe differences in - sandplay of the two groups, in orderto determine the assessment and therapeutic value ofthis technique.Qualitative analysis indicated that the CG tend toview their world as more balanced, vital, and organized,where others guide them, and they are safe. They showresourcefulness in dealing with adversity and have hopefor the future. The DCG tend to perceive their world asbarren, a struggle, and consisting of threat and danger.They tend to lack resourcefulness in dealing withadversity and have a lack of hope for the future.Supervisor : Dr. John AllanDepartment of Counselling PsychologyFaculty of EducationUniversity of British ColumbiaTABLE OF CONTENTSPageABSTRACT^TABLE OF CONTENTS^LIST OF TABLESACKNOWLEDGEMENT^ viDEDICATION viiCHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION^ 1Rationale^ 1Purpose 5Problem 6Definitions 7Significance^ 7CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH^ 8History 8Procedure^ 13Role of the counsellor^ 16Process 20Related research^ 29Future research 45CHAPTER THREE: DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY^ 47Site selection^ 47Subjects^ 47Materials 49Procedure 50Data Collection^ 52Data Analysis 53CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS 56Coping Group^ 56Difficulty Coping Group^ 123Summary 203CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION 227Interpretation of results^ 217Implications^ 227Limitations 228Directions for future research 229ivREFERENCES^ 231APPENDICES^ 237Appendix A. Initial Contact Letter^ 237Appendix B. Letter of Consent 238Appendix C. Sandbox Observation Scale^ 240LIST OF TABLESTable^ Page1^Difference in Sandplay Characteristics ofCoping and Difficulty Coping Children^2042^Difference in Object Use of Coping andDifficulty Coping Children^ 2083^Difference in Sandplay Themes of Copingand Difficulty Coping Children^2104^Difference in Sandworld Characteristicsof Coping and Difficulty Coping Groups^213Difference in Narrative Score of Copingand Difficulty Coping Groups^ 214ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSMy heart felt thanks goes to my supervisor, Dr.John Allan, whose encouragement, excitement, and supportof this project were conveyed from the onset. I alsogreatly appreciate the opportunity I had to furtherdevelop my clinical skills under his supervision.Thankyou also to Dr. Du-Fay Der whoseencouragement, support, knowledge, and sensitivity mademy Masters programme most enjoyable.My thanks also to Dr. Larry Cochran for his inputas a member of the examining committee and for enhancingmy interest and knowledge in narrative analysis. Alsoto Dr. Walter Boldt for his invaluable assistance andpatience with the methodology and data analysis.I greatly appreciate the support and cooperation ofthe New Westminister School District, and in particularschool Principle Mr. Rick Day, school Counsellor Mrs.Ronnie Riehm, and teachers Miss Maureen Baker, MissKathy Gilchrist, Mr. Rick Mulholland and Mrs. DeidreThomson. I especially would like to thank the childrenand their parents for their enthusiastic participationin this project.A big thankyou to my parents Eve and Derek Cocklefor designing and building the sand trays, for being onthe look out for miniature figures to add to mycollection, for their constant support and guidance, andfor encouraging me to be the best that I can be. I alsowould like to thank my mother for her assistance inediting and proof reading.I am also thankful for the support andencouragement given to me throughout this process by myfellow student, Mrs. Meiyan Yip, whose sense of humour,how-to-type books, editing skills, car rides, and lemonbars were greatly appreciated.Lastly, thankyou to my husband David Hornbeck, whowholeheartedly supported my decision to pursue a Mastersdegree in another province, and who was behind me everystep of the way. His patience, understanding andencouragement made it much easier to attain my goals.DEDICATIONTO MY HUSBAND,DAVID,viiMY ENCOURAGER, SUPPORTER AND FRIEND.1CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTIONRationale The use of play as a therapeutic technique or as anassessment tool is a relatively new concept, but onewhich has recently generated a great deal of interest(Harper, 1991). There are many theories of the use ofplay in child therapy and assessment which includedevelopmental, client centered, psychoanalytic andbehaviourial approaches (Schaefer & O'Connor, 1983;Schaefer, 1987). Within the client-centered orrelationship approach, the child is encouraged toexpress him or herself freely, to release pent upemotions and repressed feelings and to work throughfeelings, so that the child becomes true to his/her coreself and functions in terms of his/her potentials andabilities (Moustakas, 1959).The underlying assumption behind this play therapyapproach is that there is a powerful force within eachindividual to continuously strive toward emotionalgrowth and wellbeing (Axline, 1969). This powerfulforce within the child is activated by the therapeuticprocess, once an atmosphere of trust and safety has beendeveloped between the child and the therapist.2Therefore, the emphasis is on the relationship betweenthe therapist and child, and the therapeutic environmentwhich the therapist creates. It is necessary for thetherapist to create a "safe and protected space" wherethe child feels free and accepted enough to fullyexplore their inner self. Kalff (1980) stated that:This free and protected space occurs in thetherapeutic situation when the therapist isable to accept the child fully, so that heor she, as a-person, is a part of everythinggoing on in the room just as much as is thechild himself. When a child feels that heis not alone -not alone in his distress butalso in his happiness- he then feels freebut still protected in all his expressions. (p.30)According to Landreth (1983, 1991), play isthe natural and comfortable medium of expression forchildren, whereby they can express their feelings,describe experiences, disclose wishes and achieve selffulfilment. Thus play is to the child whatverbalization is to the adult. If the child's primarymode of expression is through play, the toys in theplayroom become the child's tools of communication.Landreth (1983) contended that a few carefully selected3play media can provide children with an opportunity toact out their feelings and difficulties.Lebo (1987) cautioned that playrooms should besupplied with materials proven valuable from a clinicalpoint of view and the toys should be selected in anobjective manner. Ginott (1961) suggested that toys inthe counselling room should; (a) permit reality testing,(b) allow the child to express needs symbolically and(c) encourage catharsis and insights. Once an optimalenvironment of relevant play materials and a "safe andprotected space" is provided by the counsellor, theemotional healing of the child can occur (Allan, 1988).One such relevant play material, which is used inchild counselling as a therapeutic technique and as anassessment tool, is a sand tray. Axline (1969) includeda low sand box or sand table in her original list ofrecommended toys for a therapeutic play room and shesuggested that a seat built part way around is an idealsetting for placing soldiers, animals and cars.Likewise, Moustakas (1959), recommended the use of sandin counselling sessions both in home and clinicalsettings.In his research, Lebo (1987) examined the verbalexpressions of twenty children, while using a particular4toy, in a nondirective play session. The number ofstatements, as well as the emotional expressiveness ofthe statements were taken into account and calculated.Of the sixty two toys empirically examined, the sand boxwas ranked third highest in terms of the obtained VerbalIndex. The highest ranking items were the doll houseand furniture, followed by art supplies. It wouldtherefore appear that a sand tray is an important andnecessary item to include in any counselling playroom,as it fosters the emotional and verbal expression of thechild and as Reed (1975) concluded, "the sandbox is alegitimate branch of play therapy" (p.13).In 1929, Lowenfeld (1979) developed the techniqueof using miniature figures in a sand tray, to encouragechildren to develop and create a symbolic representationof their world in concrete form. The sand world is anexpression of their experiential world and a projectionof their feelings emotions and attitudes toward theexternal world (Harper, 1991).Buhler (1951) developed a projective diagnostictest based on this "world technique", whereby themes andcharacteristics of the sand worlds were used todistinguish children with different symptoms andemotional concerns. The use of the sand tray as atherapeutic technique has been further developed byKalff (1980), who labelled this process nsandplay".Kalff maintained that the sandplay themes of childrenchange over time as a function of the therapeuticprocess and the inner healing of the child.It would therefore appear that sandplay is one typeof projective technique which can be used with childrento gain greater understanding of their experiences,perceptions, and concerns, and which can help themachieve positive change and emotional growth.Purpose As a child counsellor, I see the need to gain moreinformation on the experiences, concerns, andperceptions of child clients, in order to betterunderstand clients and provide the most effectivetreatment to meet their needs. As the use of playtherapy in the counselling of children is a relativelynew approach, it is vital that research be conducted onthe effectiveness and usefulness of play therapytechniques, in order to determine if a play therapyapproach facilitates the expression of feelings andconcerns, and promotes positive change in children.Furthermore, it is important that child counsellorsunderstand the play of well functioning children, in6order to determine norms and guidelines with which toassess the functioning of those having difficultyfunctioning.The purpose of this study was to identify thepatterns of sandplay themes, sandworld characteristics,object use, sandplay characteristics and narratives, oftwo groups of children (coping and having difficultycoping). The assessment and therapeutic value of thistechnique was then ascertained.ProblemThe problem of this study was to identify thepatterns of play themes, play characteristics, objectuse and narratives, elicited by the sandplay technique,of children who are a) coping and b) having difficultycoping. The children in this study were grade two andthree, elementary school children. Play themes, playcharacteristics, object use and narratives werecategorized according to the Sandbox Observation Scale for Children (Reed, 1975) (see Appendix C), Buhler's(1951a) clinical characteristics (aggressive, unpeopled,empty, closed, rigid, and disorganized), Harper's (1991)world themes (sexual, withdrawal, nurturance,depression/ loss, protection, conflict, chaos,fantasy/wish fulfilment, and domestic), and Arnold's7(1962) story sequence analysis approach.Definitions SAND TRAY: An apparatus filled with sand in which theclient places miniature objects to make a scene.SANDPLAY: The process of selecting miniature objects,creating a scene in the sand, and exploring the scene.SAND WORLD: The finished scene.Sianificance As previously stated, the field of play therapy andthe use of play in child counselling is arelatively recent approach which to date has not beensufficiently researched. It is important additionalresearch be conducted in this area to examine theefficacy of this approach, to educate and updateprofessionals, and to encourage greater acceptance andunderstanding of this approach.Most importantly, additional research on playtherapy will ultimately help clients receive the mosteffective and beneficial treatment to meet their needs.As the sandplay technique is an element of play therapy,it is critical that this technique be closely examinedand evaluated in order to provide additional resourcesfor professionals providing therapy for children.8CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE RESEARCHThe sandplay technique, used as an assessment andtreatment tool in child counselling, has not been wellresearched in the past. The few articles describingthis technique are generally of poor quality, and themajority of articles are narrative descriptions of casestudies. For the focus of this chapter, the limitedbody of research on this technique will be examined, butas a form of introduction the history, procedure, roleof the counsellor, and process of the sandplay techniquewill first be presented.HistoryThe technique of sandplay originated from the workof Margaret Lowenfeld (Stewart, 1982), a childpsychiatrist, who in 1925 in London, England began tocollect a miscellaneous mass of materials and toys whichshe kept in a "Wonder Box" (Lowenfeld, 1979, p.3).Lowenfeld credited the idea of using miniature toys andarticles, in her treatment of children to H.G. Wells'1911 book, "Floor Games", in which he described playingon the floor, with his two sons, with miniature figuresand animals.In 1929, at the Institute of Child Psychology,Lowenfeld added to her playroom two zinc trays, placed9on tables, one filled with sand and the other withwater. During play sessions, children repeatedlycombined the articles from the "Wonder Box" with thesand in the zinc tray. The miniature articles in thecabinet or "Wonder Box" became known by the children as"The World" (Lowenfeld, 1979, p.4). Therefore, it wasthrough the spontaneous creation by the childrenthemselves, that this new technique, called the "WorldTechnique," developed (Thompson, 1990).A person who observed and was influenced byLowenfeld's work at the Institute of Child Psychology,was Charlotte Buhler. From 1935 to 1945 she worked atmodifying the World Technique to use as a diagnostictest, for which she produced a draft manual in 1949(Bowyer, 1970). Buhler eventually settled in the UnitedStates, where she introduced this method, and shecontinued to focus on the standardized use of the Worldtechnique in diagnostic testing (Thompson, 1990). In theearly nineteen fifties, Buhler (1951a) conductedcomparative research between children of variouscountries, ages, emotional states and behavioralcharacteristics. From her findings, she concluded thatthe worlds of "normal", "problem" and "retarded"children varied in terms of violence, number of people,1 0emptiness, repetition, enclosure, disorganization andschematic arrangement. Furthermore, she found that theworlds of American children were very aggressive andpopulated, Dutch children's worlds were less aggressive,less populated and very ordered, Norwegian worldsdepicted open landscapes, British worlds were moreenclosed, and prior to the Second World War, Austrianworlds depicted the greatest amount of soldiers. Fromher research, Buhler developed the clinical categoriesof; aggressive, unpeopled, empty, closed, rigid, anddisorganized which distinguished the worlds of childrenwith varying symptoms. Buhler (1950b) labelled her useof this technique as a projective test, "The World Test"and her approach utilized a standard set of 160 itemsbut did not include the use of sand.In 1942, a modified version of the World Techniquewas introduced in Sweden. This technique was developedfurther and in 1949, Swedish psychiatrist Dr. GostaHarding, standardized it as a projective test anddeveloped a detailed manual. This work was conducted atthe Erica Institute in Stockholm, thus the use of thistechnique as a diagnostic tool became known as theErica-Method (Sjolund, 1981). The Erica-Method has beenused widely in Sweden and all of Scandinavia since it11was developed, and Erica materials are commonly found inthe offices of child psychologists today. Thesematerials consist of 360 miniature toys which aredivided into 10 categories and arranged according toaggressive or peaceful themes (Sjolund, 1981).Meanwhile, in Great Britain, in the nineteenforties, the use of this technique was spreading, and by1950 Ruth Bowyer (1970), who was also directlyinfluenced by Lowenfeld, began her work in Scotland. Atthat time, she reported that materials for the WorldTechnique could be found in most child guidance clinicsthroughout Scotland. Bowyer (1970) went on to studydevelopmental norms of the World technique, as well asthe use of this technique with special populations suchas the deaf and "mentally impaired". Norms for theWorld Test with adults and without the use of sand, hadbeen previously studied by Bolgar and Fischer (1947) butBowyer was the first to determine developmental normsfor the sand worlds of children. Bowyer (1970) foundthat 2-3 year olds showed chaotic sand worlds andstructure increased as the children aged. She alsodiscovered that 2-4 year olds were destructive in thesand (pouring sand over people, burying toys), but byage seven there was a constructive use of sand (making12hills, valleys, roads). Bowyer also concluded thatempty worlds, except in the case of very young children,were made by severely disturbed people and after the ageof five, only disturbed people made worlds where oralaggressive and burying themes were present.In 1956, Dora Kalff. (1990), a Swiss Jungian childanalyst, also went to study with Lowenfeld in London andlater returned to Zurich to continue consulting withCarl Jung. Kalff was interested in this technique as apsychotherapeutic, healing tool and she adopted it asher own and named it "Sandspiel" or "Sandplay". Kalff(1990) went on to introduce this technique to the C.J.Jung Institute of San Francisco and she is credited withdeveloping this approach, formulating theoreticalprinciples and training clinicians around the world(Allan & Berry, 1987). In fact, through her lectures inJapan, Kalff influenced the work of Professor Kawai whowent on to develop the widespread clinical use of thesandPlay technique in his country (Fujii, 1979). Kalffhas had such an impact on the field through her trainingand lecturing, that in some places the professionalcommunity looks upon sandplay as being somethingexclusively Jungian (Thompson, 1990).Procedure Lowenfeld (1979) suggested that an ideal playtechnique must:Give a child power to express his ideas andfeelings, must be independent of knowledge orskill, must be capable of the representationof thought in several planes at once, mustallow of [sic], representation of movement andyet be sufficiently circumscribed to make awhole, must combine elements of touch andsensation, as well as of sight, and be entirelyfree from necessary relation to reality. (p.4)Thus, the sand tray was carefully and specificallyselected to fulfil the aforementioned criteria.The dimensions of the sand tray itself arespecific, in order to permit the client to view thewhole tray at a glance, without having to move theirhead from side to side (Bradway, 1990). Lowenfeld(1979) suggested that the dimensions of the tray be75x50x7 centimetres, or approximately 19x28x3 inches.The limited size of the sand tray also provides theclient with a sense of containment and providesboundaries for issues, thus increasing feelings ofsafety. Ryce-Menuhin (1992) suggested that this1314contained space enables the client's fantasies to beboth held within limits and to go free.Traditionally sand trays were made of metal butmore recently, although the recommended dimensionsremain the same, the most commonly used material iswood. The inside of the sand tray is painted blue, togive the appearance of water and sky, and the tray isalso waterproofed to permit the addition of water.Ideally, two sand trays are made available to theclient, one containing dry sand, and the othercontaining wet sand. The client is then invited to makea "picture" or "scene" in the sand, using the widevariety of miniature figures and objectsavailable.Lowenfeld (1979) outlined six categories ofminiature objects which need to be made available to theclient:Living Creatures: domestic, soldiers,entertainers people of other races, wild and domesticanimals.Fantasy and Folk -Lore: figures and animals,including prehistoric and space items.Scenery: buildings, trees, bushes, flowers,fences, gates and bridges.Transportation: road, rail, sea and air.15Equipment: roadways, buildings, gardens,playground and fairs, hospitals and schools.Miscellaneous objects.Furthermore, Allan and Berry (1987) suggested thatnatural objects, such as shells, driftwood, stones,bones and eggs also be included, as well as, symbolicobjects such as wishing wells, treasure chests andjewellery. They further recommended that "familiesu ofobjects be made available, such as a family of pigs,dinosaurs and a miniature doll family. Ammann (1991)cautioned that it is not the amount of available objectswhich is important, but the symbolic value attached tothe figures. .Therefore, it is important to includeugly, dark, evil and fearsome objects, as well as,light, friendly, beautiful and wholesome ones. However,Ryce-Menuhin (1992) strongly recommended that amultitude of objects be made available to the client sothat the varied and rich inner world of the client canbe adequately represented.The miniature objects are commonly displayedstanding on toy shelves. Thompson (1990) suggested thatto prevent the clients becoming overwhelmed withstimuli, the miniatures be placed in such a manner thatthe client has their back to them when making their sand16world. Lowenfeld (1951) also stated that the clientshould not be overwhelmed by a multiplicity of choiceand the toys themselves should not offer suggestions tothe client.Role Of The Counsellor When the child is producing their sand world,verbalizations from the counsellor are minimal, to avoiddisruption of the therapeutic process (Bradway, 1979).Weinrib (1983) suggested that the counsellor sitquietly, at a little distance, observing the reactionsand behaviour of the client and the development of thepicture. However, Bonny (personal communication,November, 1992) recommended that the therapist "sitwith" not in observation of the client. He suggestedthat the therapist consciously try not to think aboutthe process and emerging symbols, to prevent theunconscious influencing on the sand world. Instead, thetherapist should focus on his or her breathing and bodyposturing and remain fully present with the client sothat the therapist and client can experience the powerof the process, in it's entirety, together.Interpretation is seldom needed during this processbecause the psychological issues are resolved orunderstood on an unconscious, symbolic level (Allan &17Berry, 1987). Likewise, Kalff (1980) stated that it isunnecessary for the counsellor to communicate his/herinsights to the child in words, but the counsellor couldinterpret the emerging symbols internally. Kalff feltthat the counsellor's understanding of the problem oftencreated an atmosphere of trust between the counsellorand child.However, Kalff further suggested that under certaincircumstances sand worlds could be interpreted to thechild, in a way that connects the sand world to thechild's real life situation. Similarly, Reed (1980)suggested that if interpretations are to be made to theclient they have to be in accordance with the client'sfeelings regarding their sand world. She believed thatan "almost symbiotic contact occurs between therapistand client" (p.28), where, for a moment, the therapistenters into the feelings of the client, but stillremains objective in order to understand the unconsciousprocesses being presented.There is no right or wrong way to this technique. Achild may make intricate designs in the sand, may simplyplace miniatures on a flat surface, or may engage in acombination of the above approaches (Dundas, 1990).Lowenfeld (1979) described sand worlds as being either18static (a stationary picture) or full of movement. In asand world full of movement, the child may spontaneouslynarrate and elaborate upon what is occurring as thepicture develops. If this is the case, the counsellorshould not remain a removed observer, but should "gowith" the child in full exploration of the sand world.On the other hand, if the child becomes completelyabsorbed in the creation of the sand world, thecounsellor should then allow the exploration andexperiencing of this medium without interruption.Once the child has finished the sand world, thecounsellor may then ask him/her to describe the scene.Oaklander (1978), a gestalt psychotherapist, describedher work with the sand tray as being similar to her workwith drawings or dreams. She asks the child to describethe scene, tell a story about it, tell what is happeningand what is going to happen and she may then ask thechild to identify with an object or dialogue betweenobjects. However, for some clients the process ofsandplay in and of itself, may be extremely powerful andtherapeutic, without additional guidance from thecounsellor. Weinrib (1983) stated that, "the making ofthe sand picture is in itself a creative and symbolicact ... which in itself can be healing" (p.23).19When exploring the finished sand world with thechild, it is important to remember that only the childunderstands, either consciously or unconsciously, themeaning or significance of a selected object. Lowenfeld(1979) warned that it is only chance whether an objectwill exactly express the meaning desired by the childand frequently an approximation has to be made. Shestated:To the individual who has taken up the houseit may represent "a house", but it may alsoand with equal possibility represent nothingof the sort. It may be the nearest object hecan find to stand to him for the idea of"safety" of "being under observation" of "therestriction of urban life" of "family" orsimply of a conveniently sized object he canuse as a plinth later to put a horseman on toform a statue. (p.255)Similarly, Vinturella and James (1987) cautionedthat a counsellor should not adhere to a fixedinterpretation of symbols, as a symbol can have severalmeanings and it's subjective meaning for the child mustbe respected. Counsellors are therefore stronglycautioned against imposing sweeping generalizations or20interpretations onto a sand world, without taking thechild's point of view, concerns and personalinterpretations into account. To avoid the problems ofthe counsellor being biased to the symbolic content ofthe child's sandplay, Vinturella and James (1987)recommended that person-centred techniques, such asrestatement of content, and reflection of feelings beused in order to clarify the meaning of the sandpicture, as the child sees it.At the end of this process, the sand world needs tobe recorded and it can be sketched or photographed andthen made into slides. In order to take the client'sperspective into account, it is important to make thesketch or take the photograph from the direction inwhich the client created the sand world. Bradway (1979)contended that further insights can emerge as the clientand counsellor view the progression and changes overtime, over a series of slides. Furthermore, Aite (1978)stated that when a client asks to view the slides orphotographs of their sand worlds it signifies that theyhave taken a further step in integrating the image on amore conscious level.Process "The process begins when the counsellor invites the21child to play with the sand..." (Allan, 1988, p.214).The creations which appear in the sand are a symbolicrepresentation of the client's inner world, thoughts andfeelings. The sand world can be thought of as a three-dimensional representation of the client's intrapsychicsituation (Kalff, 1980). The process of sandplay allowsthe unconscious to direct conscious action and expressitself symbolically (Dundas, 1990).The child must choose the objects which will makeup a scene. This choice occurs on both a conscious andunconscious level, as the child finds him or herselfbeing drawn to a particular object and then mustconsciously choose to accept or reject it. Reed (1980)contended that children will be "led" to the materialwhich best tells their story. In fact, a client may becompletely unaware of an object sitting on the shelfuntil they are consciously ready, for whatever reason,to acknowledge it (Ammann, 1991).Once the materials have been chosen and the sandworld is emerging, there is often an outpouring ofpowerful emotions, such as tears, laughter, trembling,or wonder (Reed, 1980). Amman (1991) further confirmedthat the client may experience physiological changessuch as shaking, perspiring, fainting, needing to22urinate, and crying, as well as a release of tension inthe stomach, an improvement in sensory perception, andfeelings of relaxation, calm, happiness and well-being.This release of energy during this process results incatharsis.Once the images have been formed in the sand, theissues can be evaluated, further clarified, and workedon (Reed, 1980). The conscious recognition andunderstanding of unconscious issues leads the clientalong the path toward greater self-understanding andultimately toward self-acceptance and emotional growth.Ammann (1991) contended that there are two pathsalong which a client can travel, depending on theirissues. The first is the path toward healing. Thehealing process is activated in those who haveexperienced early childhood trauma. Ammann (1991)stated that the therapeutic process, in these cases,leads into the deep-seated layers of experience whichare beyond conscious and verbal awareness. Healingoccurs, as over time sandplay emphasizes images of thehealthy core of the individual and this becomes the newfoundation upon which the personality is built.The second path which Ammann (1991) outlined istransformation of one's personal worldview. Within this23process, the client typically has a healthy foundationin life, but has a world view which is too narrow,onesided, or disturbed. The client is said to sensethat something is wrong with themselves and they areoften lead by a conscious need to change.This differentiation of the sandplay process issimilar to that proposed by Weinrib (1983), whodistinguished between the processes of psychologicalhealing and that of expansion of consciousness.Psychological healing was described as the restorationof an emotional wound, and expanded consciousness wassaid to be the awareness of what one feels, thinks, anddoes with the capacity to make choices of one's actions.Within sandplay the former process is primarilyunconscious, whereas the latter is more conscious.Throughout the sandplay process, the counsellorobserves changes in the themes and symbols, and movementthrough various stages. Kalff (1980) adopted ErichNeumann's theory of the stages of ego development todescribe the stages of sandplay development. Thesestages are (a) the animal, vegetative stage, (b) thefighting stage, and (c) the adaptation to thecollective. She described the first stage as consistingpredominantly of animals and vegetation. The second24stage was described as depicting reoccurring battles,which occur particularly in puberty. Following thisstage, the child was said to gain inner strength and heor she can then actively deal with the difficulties intheir environment. During the last stage, the childfeels accepted by the environment as a person and fullmember of society.Allan (1988) also suggested three stages insandplay development: (a) chaos, (b) struggle, and (c)resolution. During the stage of chaos the childtypically "dumps", objects into the sand. There isusually an absence of animal, plant or human life. Allancontended that this stage reflects the emotional turmoiland chaos in the child's life.In the struggle stage, battles occur betweenstrong, powerful forces and at the beginning of thisstage there is no clear winner or hero. Over timehowever, the battles become more organized, intense andbalanced, and a clear winner emerges over "dark forces"(p.302).The stage of resolution was said to depict therestoration of balance between nature and people. Scenestypically depict an organized and realistic world, asanimals are in their natural habitat, with fences25protecting them, roadways winding evenly through townsand crops and trees baring fruit. The counsellor sensesa resolution of the problem and the feeling of wholenessor completion.Vinturella and James (1987) suggested that thestages of sandplay reflect the three stages of playtherapy. The first stage shows the child introducingtheir problem in the sand. The second stage shows thechild's attempts to disclose feelings and thoughtsconcerning their problem, and the third stage shows thechild's resolution of the problem. The final stage isaccompanied by a decrease in anxiety and an increase inself-control and self-esteem.Reed (1975) noted that "aggression and chaos areoften the first evidence of inner turmoil or signal forclinical help" (p.28). Aggression and chaos typicallymanifest themselves by way of guns, cannons, soldiers,war, and killing, and reflect the child'sdissatisfaction with their present living conditions.Furthermore, Reed (1975) confirmed that once aggressiveand chaotic feelings have been sufficiently vented,"order, control, pattern and logic begin to show"(p.28).With this reordering or centering of the creations26and the subsequent centering of the child, images ofsquares and circles appear within the sand worlds. Kalff(1980) described the circle as a "symbol of perfectionand of perfect being" (p.24), which is associated withGodliness. The square was said to appear when wholenessis developing. Likewise, Lowenfeld (1979) referred tothe appearance of the "mandala" or patterned circle,within the sand worlds and she elaborated that circularmovement is a sign of progression, as it requires fargreater muscle control than movement in a straight line.Not only is change observed in the composition ofthe sand worlds over time, but change is also observedwithin the client (Weinrib, 1983). Weinrib (1983)observed that introverted and very tense clients tendedto relax, and hyperactive clients tended to calm down.When the sandplay process is complete, the child appearsto be more at peace with him or herself and more atpeace with the outer world. At this point in theprocess, clients will often state that they do not needto come for counselling any longer (Allan & Berry,1987). Furthermore, symptoms, such as, headaches(Bowyer, 1970), enuresis (Carey, 1990), encopresis, pica(Carey, 1990), aggression (Vinturella & James, 1987),asthma (Bowyer, 1970), and thumb sucking (Bowyer, 1970)27were said to disappear.The use of sandplay is recommended (a) to increasereading, writing, listening, and language skills(Barbour, Webster, & Drosdeck, 1987), (b) to aid inconcept development (McIntyre, 1982; Elder, 1973), (c)with those who have experienced traumatic events (James,1989; Miller & Boe, 1990), (d) with persons diagnosedwith dissociative disorders (Sachs, 1990) and chronicschizophrenia (Funai, 1989), (e) with families within afamily therapy context (Carey, 1991), and (f) as a toolto evaluate the effectiveness of therapy (Tetsuo, Oda, &Hazama, 1982).Moreover, most recently, a group of Jungiananalysts in Milan (cited in Ryce-Menuhin, 1992) examinedthe differences in the sand worlds of children who hadcancer and accurately determined who was likely to liveand who was likely to die. The use of this techniquewith the terminally ill is therefore also recommended.The benefits of the sandplay process are apparentlynumerous as; (a) it requires no skill or talent, likedrawing or painting, where clients may be self-consciousof their skill level (Oaklander, 1978; Bradway, 1979;Lowenfeld, 1979; Stewart, 1990; Vinturella & James), (b)it provides a direct and natural link to the play28behaviour of childhood (Stewart, 1990), (c) it canfacilitate growth and positive change whether or not thesymbols or myths are recognized or understood by thetherapist (Reed, 1975), (d) it creates an ideal tactile,kinaesthetic, visual, and creative experience(Oaklander, 1978; Reed, 1975), (e) it has no agebarriers (Allan & Berry, 1987; Ryce-Menuhin, 1992), (f)it may be implemented by therapists who have a basictraining in play therapy (Allan & Berry, 1987), (g) itlends itself well to non-verbal or less verbal clients(Lowenfeld, 1979; Weinrib, 1983), (h) it initiates apsychic process, much like dreaming, where bothconscious and unconscious processes are activated(Ammann, 1991; Weinrib, 1983), (i) it is especiallysuited for those who suffer from disturbances of earlychildhood, as the client is lead back into deeper layersof the psyche (Ammann, 1991), (j) there is an inherentfocusing or limiting effect as the physical boundarieskeep out distractions and help the client with his/herown limit setting (Vinturella & James, 1987; Carey,1990), and (k) transference issues may be lessened asthe sand tray becomes the transference vessel ratherthan the counsellor (Carey, 1990).However, Vinturella and James (1987) cautioned that29sandplay is not magical, as it's therapeuticeffectiveness depends on the counsellor's ease with themedium and ability to modify and use it according to hisor her orientation and the needs of the client.Related ResearchThe research article by Buhler and Carrol (1951) istypical of the research that was being conducted byBuhler and her followers in the early nineteen fifties(Buhler, 1951a, 1951b; Lumry, 1951). However, followingthis period of time there was seemingly no furtherresearch interest in this area, until the nineteenseventies, when Bowyer (1970), Reed (1975), andLowenfeld (1979) wrote books on the topic of sandplay,and Kamp and Kessler (1970) and Bradway (1979) publishedarticles. These publications and more recent bookspublished in this area (Ryce-Menuhin, 1992; Amman, 1991;Dundas, 1990; Kalff, 1980; Bradway, 1990; Weinrib, 1983)have generated another surge of interest in the use ofsandplay as a counselling technique. In fact, sandplayis said to be enjoying a recent resurgence in popularityin both the United States and Europe (Kubler-Ross,1988).Buhler and Carrol (1951) compared the judgements oftwo teachers and descriptions of 30 children with the30results of the World Test. The researchers selected 30students from two schools; seven "good" students andfive "medium" students from Y street school, and 16"good" and two "poor" students from X street school.Ages ranged from 9 to 12 years, and I.Q. scores rangedfrom 90-100, to 130-140. The children were given thetest twice, with an interval of about one month.The teachers were asked to rank order the childrenin terms of overall adjustment. They grouped thechildren into four categories: ++ group were equallybalanced within themselves and with the environment, +-were well balanced within themselves but not with theirenvironment, -+ seemed to worry frequently or have innerdifficulties, but dealt well with their environment, and-- were not well adjusted in any direction. There were10 ++ children, 12 medium children, and 8 in the --group.The worlds were categorized in terms of theemotional symbols of (a) danger (accidents, fire,aggression), (b) emptiness (unpeopled, fewer than 50elements, fewer than 5 types of elements), and (c)distortion (closed, disorganized, rigid).The results of the data analysis showed that therewas a striking difference between the composition of the31first and the second worlds of the highest adjustmentgroup. While the first world of the subjectsdistinguished between groups, there were no differencesin the emotional symbols present in the second worlds ofthe subjects. In the children's first world, emotionalsymbols increased as the level of adjustment decreased.The mean number of emotional symbols for the ++ groupwas < 1, in the medium group < 2, and in the -- groupbetween 2 and 3 emotional symbols.The percentage of aggressive symbols was identicalin the first world of all three groups, and theyincreased in nearly the same proportion from the firstto the second world. Closed, disorganized and rigidsymbols however did distinguish between groups; 20% werefound in the worlds of the well adjusted group, 66% inthe medium group, and 100% in the poorly adjusted group.There were too few "empty" symbols from which to drawany conclusions.The researchers concluded that two or moreemotional symbols, with closed, disorganized, and rigidsymbols, in world one, were the decisive criterion fordeeper emotional troubles in children.The teachers' ratings were compared with the BrownPersonality Inventory and the California Test of32Personality, which was reportedly in high agreement withteacher judgements and was standardized in agreementwith teacher opinions. A wide disagreement was foundbetween the California adjustment scores and theteacher's judgement scores, and no better agreement wasfound with the Brown Personality Inventory. Therefore,these results showed a great threat to the reliabilityof the study, as there was no consistency in thecategorization of subjects and the subsequent assignmentto groups. This also threatened the validity of thestudy as the results were therefore not accurate.Although the researchers did not emphasize thelimitations of their study, the tentative conclusionthat there are "possibilities" in determining a child'semotional disturbance seems to indicate their awarenessthat only limited conclusions, at best, can be drawnfrom this research.In response to Buhler's poorly controlled study,Lumry (1951) examined the characteristics of the worldtest of groups of normal, withdrawing, retarded, andstuttering children. There were 25 children in eachgroup, and age, gender, and intelligence were allcontrolled for. Lumry examined the results of the WorldTest for Buhler's clinical characteristics (empty,33closed, aggressive, unpeopled, rigid, disorganized).She discovered that the number of clinicalcharacteristics differentiated the normal group from thewithdrawing, retarded, and stuttering groups, but didnot differentiate between the groups with psychologicaldifficulties. Furthermore, the results of this studyindicated that the appearance of two or more clinicalcharacteristics reflected psychological difficulties.It was found that the absence of people, which occurredin 50% of children with psychological problems and noneof the normal group, was quite likely to indicatemaladjustment. Aggressive tendencies appeared to alarger extent in the withdrawing and stuttering groups,and limited use of materials was observed morefrequently in the retarded group. Closure was used inthe maladjusted groups to close off a group ofdisorganized elements. However, all of these symptomswere observed in varying degrees in all four groups.In their research article, Kamp and Kessler (1970)examined the results of the World Test with 4 groups of20 "normal" children aged 6 to 9 years. They discoveredthat the 6 year olds showed equal amounts ofjuxtapositional (unconventional heterogeneity) andschematic configurations (homogeneous grouping), the3 4seven year olds showed schematic arrangements, but bothjuxtapositional and depictive configurations (>2 typesof elements in configuration) were present, at age eightdepictive configurations were typical, and at age ninedepictive configurations with a shift toward realistic(items could function if occurring in reality) occurred.Therefore as developmental age increases, there is anincrease in more mature forms of arrangement.The researchers then calculated mean I.Q. scoresfor the subjects and found that the more intelligentchildren attained a higher World level score. However,it was found chronological age was a greater predictorof World level than was I.Q., as higher World levelswere attained in older children with a lower mental age,than in younger children with a higher mental age. Therewas no marked difference in World level between boys andgirls of the same age. However, in general, girls usedmore animals and indoor toys, and boys used morevehicles, fences, and soldiers.Following a battery of psychological tests, it wasfound that 2 seriously disturbed and 9 moderatelymaladjusted children omitted people and soldiers.Therefore omitting people was seen as pointing to adisturbance in interpersonal relations. Five children35enclosed a major part of their world, 3 of which weremoderately disturbed, 1 severely disturbed and 1 normal.Therefore enclosed worlds were seen as an indication ofemotional maladjustment. Furthermore, most childrenspent more than 4/5 of the time placing objects, however15 children spent less than 3/5 of the time placingobjects choosing instead to move objects. Of this group7 were clearly disturbed, 6 were borderline, and 2showed no signs of maladjustment. The researchers feltthat a great amount of movement is related tomaladjustment. Lastly, verbalizations were rare in allof the groups.Fujii (1979) studied the retest reliability of thesandplay technique to determine if the sandplay ofindividuals showed stability over time and could beidentified as being made by the same person. There were4 groups of 20 boys, between 12-15 years of age. Thegroups were elementary, junior high school, delinquent,and emotionally disturbed. The boys engaged in sandplayon two occasions over a two-three week period. Tenjudges were then chosen to categorize and match thephotographs. It was found that trained judges matchedsignificantly more correctly than untrained judges. Thesandplay of junior high students was easiest to match.36The researcher concluded that there are some reliableaspects to the sandplay technique, but the ability toeasily change the sand world, although seen as a meritin counselling, is a disadvantage in the use of sandplayas a tool in personality assessment.Aoki (1981) followed up on the aforementionedresearch and examined the retest reliability ofsandplay. There were 88 subjects, between 10 and 15years, divided into four groups; elementary, junior highschool, delinquent, and emotionally disturbed. Themethod was identical to the above study. The resultsshowed that the emotionally disturbed group tooksignificantly more time than the other three groups, andthe delinquent grouped used less toys than the othergroups. It was also discovered that the adjusted groupseasily changed from one pattern to another, but themaladjusted group lacked flexibility and focused on aspecific pattern in successive sessions. The researcherconcluded that this stability reflected the individualscore problem which needed to be expressed over and overagain.The following case studies describe the use ofsandplay in counselling settings.Noyes (1981), in her narrative, case study article,37described her use of sandplay to improve the readingscores of children, in a learning disabilities class.Noyes stated that sandplay aids in the learning processas it has a calming effect on the child, and it createsan immediate and deeper rapport between teacher andchild, thus contributing to academic growth. Sandplaywas also said to help reading, as working in the sandtrains and uses the creative right brain in the visualskills needed to connect the graphic information on thepage with the child's total experience. The child wassaid to project a picture of his or her inner life ontothe sand, which results in a decrease in the pressure offantasies. Noyes contended that this process leaves themind clear and more able to focus on reading. Shestated that vitality and inner motivation bloom becausethe child's energies are no longer used in inappropriateways of defending his or her individuality, such as,tantrums, daydreams, or fights.Noyes began using the sandplay technique regularlywith her pupils and she noticed that after a few weeksthere was greater academic improvement than she wasaccustomed to seeing without the use of this technique.She also noticed that attendance improved, the childrenwere no longer sent to the office for misbehaving, one3 8boy stopped soiling his pants, another child's handsstopped trembling, a withdrawn child started smiling andspeaking up, and another child's daily headaches ceased.To illustrate this technique, a case study waspresented. The client was seen for reading every dayand participated in sandplay once a week. At the end ofhis sandplay sessions his reading was measured by theWoodcock Reading Mastery Test at the 5.6 grade level.Three months prior to this, his reading level wasmeasured at the 2.5 grade level.Noyes discovered that the degree of improvementshown by the students was much higher the year when sheused sandplay, than the two previous years. The averagegrowth in reading as measured by the Woodcock test, wasnine months for the first year, eight months for thesecond year, and one year six months during the year sheused sandplay. Noyes noticed that the sixth graderswere the most involved in this technique and theirscores showed the greatest increase.The results of this article need to be acceptedcautiously, as there were no controls for extraneousvariables such as experimenter effects (Pygmalioneffect), sampling biases, and the effects of novelty.However, the contribution this article makes to the39field of play therapy is significant as it demonstratedthe effectiveness of sandplay as a counselling/learningtoo l.Harper (1991) investigated the sandplay of sexuallyabused, physically abused, both physically and sexuallyabused, and non-abused children. The subjects were agedbetween 3 years, 5 months; and 9 years, 10 months, andall were of average intellectual potential. Nobackground information was made available to theresearcher, until after the assessment and report werecompleted.On the basis of background information, thesubjects were divided into three groups: sexuallyabused, physically abused, and physically and sexuallyabused. Data were collected over a four year period.Subjects in a control group were selected who had nosuspected history of abuse. There were 20 girls and 20boys in each of the four groups and four, one hoursessions were allotted to each child.Each world was classified according to threemeasures: Lowenfeld's criteria of complete or incompleterepresentational, reality-in-flux, fantasy, and mixed;Buhler's clinical characteristics of aggressive,unpeopled, empty, closed, rigid, and disorganized, and40the researcher's world themes of sexual, withdrawal frompeople, need for nurturance, depression and loss, needfor protection, conflict, chaos, fantasy, wishfulfilment, and domestic.The researcher found that the sexual abuse groupcreated worlds which were complete representational,mixed, incomplete representational, closed, aggressive,and rigid. Moreover, themes focused on sexuality, andneed for nurturance and protection.Fantasy/wish fulfilment defined the sand worlds ofthe control group, as well as incompleterepresentational, complete representational and domesticworld themes.The physical abuse group showed incomplete, fantasyworlds as well as aggressive, disorganized and rigidworlds. The world themes of conflict, chaos andfantasy/ wish fulfilment were apparent.The researcher reported that the physical/sexualabuse group created incomplete representational andfantasy worlds, with aggressive, closed, anddisorganized themes. The world themes also showedconflict and all of the other categories exceptdomestic.Harper concluded that the results of her study41suggest that the type of abuse which a child experienceshas a differential effect on play behaviours in astructured setting. She noted that the first worlds ofthe sexual abuse group were often definitive and thesubsequent ones were a repetition of the first. Theresearcher also stated that although the sexually abusedchildren presented as those who had gratification fromtheir interpersonal environments and were moreintegrated, their play behaviours generated feelings ofunease in the researcher and she was left with theimpression that "beneath the surface there was a subtleand pervasive emotional disturbance which would perhapsnot become apparent until triggered by developmentalcrises such as puberty, courtship, marriage, orchildbirth" (p.97). Lastly, Harper concluded thatalthough the smallness of the sample and subjectivenature of the data limited the generalizations thatcould be made, the results of the study suggested thatthe type of abuse experienced by children has adifferential effect on their behaviours as manifested intheir play and the ways in which they interact withtheir environment.The researcher's conclusion that the results of thestudy suggest that the type of abuse experienced by42children has a differential effect on their playbehaviours, in a structured setting appears to besupported by the data. The researcher also acknowledgedthat the generalizability of the study is limited. Theconclusion that the type of abuse effects the waychildren interact with their environment is notsubstantiated by this study as the researcher did notexamine how abused children interact in theirenvironment per se. Furthermore, the researcher'scomments that the sexually abused children, while theypresented as well-adjusted on the surface, harboured asubtle and pervasive emotional disturbance was notsubstantiated by the data and seemed to be a clearexample of the researcher being emotionally involvedwith the research topic and hence biasing theobservations.The researcher did not overtly suggest researchquestions for future study, however the manner in whichshe conducted this study provides credibility to thesandplay technique and it provides the field of playtherapy with a model of how to conduct concrete researchstudies.In her case study article, Carey (1990) describedthe sandplay of a nine year old boy who was referred for43counselling due to his enuresis, encopresis, and pica.The case example was thoroughly explained and thesandplay process clearly outlined. However, like othersources describing the sandplay method and process(Weinrib, 1983; Kalff, 1980), frequent psychologicalterms and jargon were used, for example "collectiveunconscious", "preverbal uroboric level of the psyche","the Great Mother" and "phallic potency". This serves tolimit the understandability and universality of thearticle, as only a certain portion of the populationwith specific training, can truly comprehend what ismeant by such terms.Furthermore, Carey failed to provide information asto how she determined what a particular symbolsignifies. For example, fire was said to symbolizepositive masculine potency, castration anxiety, innerrage or feeling out of control, yet there was no mentionof how this was determined or of further sources whichreinforce this opinion. Therefore this article could bestrengthened if the information was more frequentlyreinforced with supporting references. In generalhowever, this article provided a clear description ofthe sandplay process and the movement from chaos, to adeeper uncovering of feelings, to integration of44feelings. Furthermore, it provided a concrete exampleof how positive change can occur and symptoms can beeradicated, when using this technique in childcounselling.Vinturella and James (1987), in their case-studyarticle, described the sandplay of an 8 year old boy,who was referred for counselling because of moodchanges, aggressive behaviours, disinterest in schoolwork, and his poor relationship with his mother, sincethe recent death of his father.Vinturella and James described how the clientworked through his feelings of his father's death andsubsequent reconnection with his mother throughsandplay. They concluded that one of the most promisinguses of sandplay is training parents to use thetechnique with their children at home and they suggestedthat in the future sand trays may be found in homeplayrooms, as well as in play therapy rooms.Allan and Berry (1987) in their case study article,described the use of sandplay with a boy who wasreferred for counselling because he exhibitedinappropriate behaviour in the school and playground.Initially the client was said to be experiencing innerturmoil and confusion. He was feeling controlled and45trapped, as was symbolized by the items in his sandworld. In subsequent sessions, the slow process ofdifferentiation, regulation, and separation of variousemotions was observed. Order and identity were restoredand the family seemed more intact. At the end ofcounselling, the client's impulsive and aggressivebehaviours had diminished, his social skills hadimproved, and he was channelling his energy inappropriate directions.The writers' conclusions that this technique can beused by and with many people, adds to thegeneralizability of this method to various settings andpopulationsFuture ResearchAs can be seen from the aforementioned literaturereview there is a lack of concrete research which hasbeen conducted in this area, yet patterns appear to beemerging from the case study articles which have beenexamined. It would seem from the articles of Carey,Vinturella and James, and Allan and Berry that stages ofsandplay do indeed occur over time and similardevelopments happen with each client as the processdevelops i.e. stating the problem or feelings,struggling to overcome the problem, and resolution. It46would seem important that future research examine thisprocess of change over time in order for a moregeneralizable and detailed description of stages ofsandplay to be developed.Likewise, the efficacy of this approach needs to bemore concretely examined. Controlled experimentalstudies which examine the efficacy of this techniquecompared to other techniques, or no treatment need to beconducted in order to increase the credibility of thefindings found in case-studies.Lastly, further research, similar to that conductedby Harper, needs to be done to identify the differencesin sandplay between various groups of children. Thiswould serve to provide a greater understanding ofchildren who have experienced emotional difficulties,and thus help counsellors to better treat and helpclients attain positive growth and emotional healing.This research study endeavours to fulfil some ofthese needs.47CHAPTER THREE: DESIGN AND METHODOLOGYSite SelectionThe population, from which the sample for thisstudy was chosen, were students of Lord KelvinElementary School in the school district of NewWestminster, in the Province of British Columbia. Beforecontacting personnel at the field site, permission forthis study was sought from the Ethical Committee of theUniversity of British Columbia. To obtain furtherpermission, the District Superintendent of Schools, Dr.Mary Lyons, and the school principal, Mr. Rick Day, werecontacted. Formal written permission was also receivedfrom the parents of the children selected for the study(see Appendixes A and B). Time was spent with theteachers in the school to inform them of the study, toexplain the criteria for selection of the subjects, andto elicit their cooperation in releasing students fromtheir classrooms. The school counsellor, Mrs. RonnieRhiem, was asked to assist in the selection process. Aprivate room was arranged where the study could beconducted without unnecessary distractions andinterruptions.SubiectsThe children who participated in this research48project were from grades two and three, and were between6 years, 11 months and 8 years, 7 months. The mean agewas 7 years, 9 months in the coping group (CG), and 8years, 0 months in the difficulty coping group (DCG).There were four females and one male in the CG, andthree females and two males in the DCG.The purposeful sampling strategy of typical caseselection was used to assign five subjects, of normalintelligence, to the CG and five subjects to the DCG.Therefore a sample of 10 subjects was obtained from thetotal population of 79 children. Four subjects wereautomatically excluded from the study due to their priorcounselling involvement with the researcher. Sample sizewas relatively small as this was a case study design andused replication logic to increase generalizability.Along with the school counsellor, the teachers ofthe aforementioned grade levels identified the childrenas coping or having difficulty coping. A coping childwas defined as one who gets along well with teachers andpeers, and who shows average developmental mastery oflearning skills. A child who shows difficulty copingwas defined as one who fails to get along with teachersand peers, and fails to master the work skills necessaryat the child's grade level (Allan and Crandall, 1986).Personal G.4. files containing psychometric testingreports (including I.Q. scores, Individual EducationPlans (IEP'S), previous report cards, and otherpertinent records were available in order to make thebest selection of subjects on the criteria.To minimize experimenter bias, the allocation ofsubjects into the CG and DCG was not revealed to theresearcher until after the data collection wascompleted. For the duration of the field work, thesubjects were identified only by name and assignednumber.Materials Two wooden sand trays, painted blue in the insideto represent water, of the recommended dimensions(75x50x7 centimetres) were provided. One sand traycontained dry sand and the other contained damp sand.Water was made available. Six categories of miniatureobjects recommended by Lowenfeld (1979) were present:living creatures, fantasy and folk-lore, scenery,transportation, and miscellaneous objects, as well as,the additional categories recommended by Allan & Berry(1987) of natural objects, and symbolic objects. AsAmmann (1991) suggested, ugly, dark, evil and fearsomeobjects were included within those categories, as well4950as, light, beautiful, friendly and wholesome ones.The miniature objects were grouped in baskets anddisplayed on shelves. The toys and the sand trays wereat the appropriate level for the height of the subjects.The sand trays were placed on a table in such a mannerthat the subjects had their backs to the miniatures whencreating their sand world thus reducing stimulusoverload. Videotaping equipment and a photographiccamera were visible in the room.Procedure Each child was individually introduced to theplayroom and was given a short period of time to explorethe surroundings. He or she was informed that theresearcher's name was Ms. Cockle whose job it is to talkto and play with children. They were notified thattheir teacher and parent(s) thought they would like tocome and play, and they were instructed that they wouldcome to this room to play for four times beforeChristmas.The researcher answered any questions that thechildren asked and endeavoured to make a connection anddevelop a working rapport with each subject. Once thechild appeared comfortable in the room, the researcherinvited him or her to make a picture or scene in the51sand tray using any of the miniature articles theywished. The child was informed that they had half anhour to complete this task and a picture would be takenof the sand world upon its completion.In order to minimize experimenter effects, when thechild was involved in the sandplay process theresearcher assumed the role of observer. However, whena child engaged the researcher in dialogue or insistedshe help place objects in the sand tray, the child wasresponded to in a manner that acknowledged and validatedhis/her needs, yet care was taken to limit researcherinfluence on the sand world.The sand in each sand tray was smoothed over beforeeach child entered the room in order to minimizesuggestion. Once the child completed the sandplay, thesand world was photographed and the child was asked todescribe the creation. The accompanying story waswritten by the researcher.In order to limit the threat of maturation oninternal validity, the researcher ensured that the datawas not collected when a subject was reluctant to attenddue to a popular activity, such as gym, music, Christmasconcert rehearsals, or a film.52Data CollectionData were collected and patterns were determinedwith the use of the Sandbox Observation Scale For Children (Reed, 1975), which categorizes data in termsof; Approach, Choice of Sand, Orientation, Form, Choiceof Materials, Movement-Action, Conceptual Level: Design,Feeling Projected-Impression, Creative Level,Verbalization While Making The Picture, SubjectsResponse to Finished Picture, and Therapist's Role. Theresearcher circled the adjective which best describedthe sandplay in the aforementioned categories.The data were also examined according to theclinical categories of Aggressive, Unpeopled, Empty,Closed, Rigid, and Disorganized as outlined by Buhler(1951a) and according to the world themes of Sexual,Withdrawal, Nurturance, Depression and Loss, Protection,Conflict, Chaos, Fantasy/Wish Fulfilment, and Domestic,as described by Harper (1991).Furthermore, the narratives accompanying the sandworlds were categorized and scored according to thestory sequence analysis approach developed by Arnold(1962). In this approach the moral of the story isemphasized. When the moral is applied to the person'ssubjective circumstances an "import", or significance,53or meaning of the story is found (p. 51). Once storyimports are taken in sequence, the child's personal viewof life emerges.Data Analysis The data were examined by way of qualitative,descriptive measures, according to the aforementionedcriteria (Buhler's clinical characteristics, Harper'sworld themes, Reed's observation scale, and Arnold'sstory sequence analysis), in the following ways:1. Photograph AnalysisThe photograph for each subject was examined interms of play themes, symbols and content. Descriptivecomparisons were made of the photographs of the copingand the difficulty coping groups.2. Narrative AnalysisThe narrative describing the sand worlds of eachsubject was examined for the story import and thenscored. Accurate imports were developed by (a) makingthem specific to the individual child's story, (b) usingthe actual words of the story whenever possible, (c)including all the nuances of the story, (d) linking theimport to whatever came before and what comes next, and(e) writing the import from the point of view of thedominant story character. The imports were then judged54to be positive or negative depending on the outcome ofthe story. The scoring category; 1) achievement,success, happiness, and active effort, 2) right andwrong, 3) human relationships, or 4) reaction toadversity was then determined and a score between -2 and+2 was assigned. In general, +2 means positive action,+1 means positive plans or thoughts or a lack of extremepositivity, -1 means a lack of positive action, and -2indicates negative impulses, or malicious actions orattitudes (Arnold, 1962). Descriptive comparisons werethen made of the story imports of the two groups.3. Process AnalysisThe sand play process, as observed on thevideotape, was examined and descriptive comparisons weremade of the process of the two groups.4. Sequence AnalysisThe set of four photographs, narratives and theprocess over time were examined and descriptivecomparisons made of the sandplay of the two groups.Upon qualitative study of the data, it wasdetermined that sandplay themes were best described as;danger/threat (at risk of harm), death/destruction(disintegration of life), struggle (fighting betweenopposing forces), safety (being protected and secure),55fantasy (unreal imaginings or dreams), nurturance(images of loving, tenderness, and care-taking),dependency (reliance on others to guide and lead),empowerment (strength in self to resolve issues), andrestoration (reparation of previous concerns/damage).Moreover, the sand world compositions were bestdescribed by adapting Buhler's (1951a) characteristicsand using (a) unpeopled, (b) empty (< 15 items), (c)disorganized (chaotic arrangement and/or littleassociation between objects), (d) barren (lacking insigns of growth and life), (c) crowded (abundance ofobjects packed into tray), (d) unbalanced (portions oftray unused or used sparsely compared to otherportions), (e) vital (abundance of life, growth, andvibrancy), (f) peopled, (g) organized (coherent groupingand ordering of objects), and (h) balanced (even use ofthe tray).Profile analysis was then used to examine thedifferences between the two groups on sandplaycharacteristics, object use, sandplay themes, and sandworld characteristics.56CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTSThe students involved in this research projectparticipated eagerly and enthusiastically and theirrespective teachers were most accommodating andsupportive. Each child was willing and able to engagein sandplay on four occasions throughout the two monthperiod. The data were therefore collected mostefficiently and the results are seen as an accuraterepresentation of each child's emotional functioning.In order to protect the confidentiality of thesubjects, they will be referred to in the followingdiscussion by assigned number.Coping GroupSublect 006 Biographical information. This female subject was 7 years 5 months at theonset of this study. She was described by her teacheras doing very well academically, she tries hard, wantsto succeed, applies her knowledge, is self motivated,and a good listener. Furthermore, she was said to becooperative, friendly, organized, helpful, and have highself esteem.In terms of social behaviours she has friends, gets57along well with others, is happy, confident and able tovoice her concerns. She belongs to a two parent family,is the eldest child and has a sister three years herjunior. Her mother was said to be very positive,supportive, and involved in her school life.Fiaure 1. 006 Sandplay #1.Picture analysis.This sand world depicted a volcano upon which stoodthree female figures. The tray had characteristics ofbeing empty and barren, and showed the world theme offantasy, as fantasy figures were used.Narrative analysis.58"The girl has a wish. She's having a wish for aprince. The Godmother, she thinks she's going to dothat and she's happy."Import: "wishes will come true."Category 1, Score +2Process analysis.This subject made some verbalizations while makingthe sand world but was predominantly quiet and sheappeared somewhat nervous. The feelings projected wereof happiness and outer calm, but the volcano mayrepresent inner nervous feelings. There was one changein the process, as she removed male figures from thetray in favour of female ones. The form was of a wholelogical picture, wet sand was chosen, and the sand wasmoulded by the subject.She worked from the same side of the tray, objectswere placed closest to where she stood, and she onlylooked at the basket containing people. The sand worldwas static as there was no movement within the tray. Theminimal verbalizations were lighthearted and cheerful.The subject did not try to engage the researcher andthere was minimal emotional energy invested in theprocess, although objects were chosen deliberately andwith care.59The entire process of making the sand world lasted5 minutes, whereupon she pronounced, "there, done".There were 3 items in the tray, all of which were femalefigures (I domestic, 2 fantasy).Fiaure 2. 006 Sandplay #2.Picture analysis.The second sand world depicted a village. Thetheme was fantasy and the tray had the characteristicsof being organized, peopled, and balanced.Narrative analysis. "Once upon a time there was two ladies. And onelady and one boy was getting married. So everybody60lined up to see them get married. The fairy Godmotherlooked at the two people, dressed them up and they weregetting married. Everywhere, all the time, andeverybody got in line to see them."Import: "you will be well looked after and otherswill want to take notice of you."Category 3, Score +2.Process analysis.During the making of the sand world, the entiretray was used and the subject worked from the back ofthe tray to the front, moving around the tray in theprocess. Once again the subject was quiet and thecompleted sand world was static. The sand choice wasdry and the subject took time to ensure the sand wasflat before adding the objects. This was one continuousprocess without a change in idea.The projected feelings were happiness, gaiety,colourfulness, peacefulness and magic. Once again thepredominant theme was fantasy and the tray was organizedyet natural. There was a sense of vibrancy and lifeemanating from the creation. The process of making thesand world lasted 12 minutes, whereupon the subjectdeclared "I'm finished". There were 74 items in thetray including 42 marbles. The choice of objects were61scenery (houses, pagodas, bridge, telephone pole,trees), transportation (horse and cart), symbolic(jewels,), friendly wild/domestic animals (dog, deer), 4female figures (3 fantasy, 1 domestic) and one malefigure (domestic).Fiaure 3. 006 Sandplay 3.Picture analysis.Once again a village was erected in the far end ofthe tray and buildings were placed in an organizedmanner. The sand was moulded in the centre to form avery predominant circle in which the wishing well,62jewels, and lady were placed. This seemed to be thefocal point of the tray and reinforced the fantasytheme. The world looked orderly, calm, colourful,welcoming, peopled, and balanced.Narrative analysis. "Once upon a time there was a girl and she wasgetting some water. And the fairy Godmother she wasgoing home. And she didn't know how to get to the fairyGodmother's house. If she finds the shiny rocks thenshe could go. So she was stuck in the water and shecan't get out and she was so stuck. It was fast sand."Import: " we get stuck if others are not there tolead and guide us."Category 3, Score -1.Process analysis. This subject's sandplay was once again conducted insilence and she became absorbed in the process offlattening the wet sand, choosing objects, and placingthem in the sand. She worked both slowly anddeliberately. The corners were filled first and thenobjects were placed around the periphery, moving inwardto the centre of the tray. Water was added.A whole logical picture was evident and this wasone continuous process without changes in ideas. Once63again there was no attempt made to engage the researcherin the process. The final sand world was static. Thenarrative suggested the theme of dependency. After 16minutes of this process the subject declared,"finished". There were 49 items present in the tray,including 23 marbles. The choice of items were scenery(houses, bridges, trees, pagoda), symbolic objects(jewels, wishing well, gold,), natural objects (pinecones, stone), and two female figures (fantasy).riaure 4. 006 Sandplay #4Picture analysis.This sand world was more free and spontaneous in64appearance as houses were scattered around the tray. Itappeared to be open and light hearted. There were noobjects which suggested negativity, threat, or danger.The characteristics were open and unpeopled, and thetheme was fantasy.Narrative analysis."Once upon a time there was nine animals and theywere looking at a tree. The tree felled and they wereso sad. It was their favourite trees. There were somehidden marbles. If you find one marble the marbles willbe magic to put the tree up, or if you find the houses'magic then your tree will grow up. There's some hiddenmarbles under the houses. They should find it. If theydon't they'll be very sad. One day they found one.They put one marble on the tree and it stood up and theylived happily ever after".Import: "if special things in life fall apart, wecan find the power to restore them."Category 4, Score +2.Process analysis. This sandplay seemed to signal a movement away fromthe previous theme as the main female characters wereabsent. Furthermore, the subject chatted frequentlyduring the sandplay process and engaged the researcher65in dialogue about birthdays, Christmas, school concert,and how much fun it was to play in the sand. On thisoccasion, the subject buried marbles and encouraged theresearcher to close her eyes and search for them. Themarbles were then buried under the houses. Despite thisplayful interaction, the subject worked independently ofthe researcher when making the actual sand world.Sand choice was dry and the subject moved aroundthe tray as she created her sand world. Once again thesand was flattened and the sand world was static. Theoverall theme, as reinforced by the narrative, wasempowerment and the feeling projected was happiness. Thesand world was a whole logical picture and there was nochange in idea. The subject made some verbalizationswhile making her world and pronounced "finished" 13minutes into the process. There were 31 items presentin the tray. The choice of items were scenery (houses,trees, bridges, pagodas), friendly wild animals(turtles, frog, dog, deer, giraffes, zebra, swan),symbolic objects (jewels, treasure chest, castle), andnatural objects (shells).Sandolav process over time.Initially, the subject placed only a few objects inthe tray and took very little time to complete this66process. It seemed as if she was testing the situationand was not comfortable to fully express herself. Thesecond, third and fourth sand worlds took longer tocomplete, appeared full of life and growth, and showedlittle difference in the quality or characteristics overtime. Each of these four sand worlds had a focal pointin the middle of the tray, and the organization,fluidity, and choice of positive objects, particularlyin the latter three worlds, suggested she was operatingin the stage of wholeness. It therefore appeared thatshe moved from a stage of simplicity to one ofwholeness.^The subject seemed to cautiously examinethe researcher in the initial two sessions, but becameprogressively more friendly and talkative as therelationship developed. She seemed to feel free toexperiment with sand choice and formation, and noparticular preference was observed over time.The narrative imports: "wishes will come true","you are important to others and others will help you","we get stuck if others are not there to lead and guideus", and "if special things in life fall apart, we canfind the power to restore them", confirm the visualrepresentations of the sandplay, as they indicate herpositive and hopeful outlook on life, and her feelings67of personal power, yet they show developmentallyappropriate reliance on others for guidance and support.Sublect 003 Bioaraohical information.This female subject was 8 years 6 months at theonset of the study. She was described by her teacher asa confident, happy, and healthy child, who has positivesocial skills, good peer interactions, and goodleadership ability. She was said to have excellentproblem solving abilities, be a self-motivated learner,and be functioning academically between a grade threeand five level.Furthermore, this child was said to come from a twoparent family which was supportive of her and veryinvolved and interested in her school life. She isinvolved in many activities and outings with her familyand she is the youngest of two children.68Fiaure 5. 003 Sandplay #1.Picture analysis.The first picture consisted of items which wereplaced closest to the outside of the tray leaving thecentre empty, thus giving the impression of an emptytray which was unpeopled. The picture projectedfeelings of peacefulness and calm.Narrative analysis."One house and houses are closest with theirneighbours. There is a turtle that walked along. Themonkeys sit on the bench. There is one walkway over the69bridge and two rabbits in the bed. It's a beach, asandy beach. The turtle is going to walk and he mightbug the monkeys. The monkeys will bug the rabbit andthey will fight. The people from the houses will comeout and tell them to go away. So they go away."Import: "if our actions upon others produceconflict, we will be made to go away". This import wasdeveloped with the turtle as the dominant storycharacter.Category 2, Score -1.process analysis.The subject chose dry sand, it remained flattenedand she worked from the same side of the tray. Thesandplay was one continuous process and there was nochange in idea. The sand world was static and thesubject completed the work in silence and moved quicklybetween the shelves of miniatures and the sand tray. Shebegan placing objects at the far end of the tray andworked toward her. She did not engage the researcher inthe process. The process lasted 2 minutes, after whichthe subject declared "done".The feeling projected was humorous, as she laughedthroughout her narrative, and the theme was one offantasy. There were 13 objects present in the tray. The70choice of objects were scenery (trees, bridge, houses),friendly wild animal (turtle), miscellaneous (bunnies inbed, 3 monkeys), and natural objects (shells).Fiaure 6. 003 Sandplay #2Picture analysis.The configuration of objects in this sand world wasopen and natural and, as the centre of the tray wasused, it did not appear empty. The overall presentationwas organized, and the theme was fantasy.71Narrative analysis."There's two houses and a lady went out to get somewater. The penguin is running across the bridge. Thepenguin's going to the castle and the deer are in onecorner watching the wagon. The lady is trying to findthe treasure. The wagon wants to go see the deers. Thedeers are going to run to the castle. The penguin'sgoing to go into the wagon. The wagon's going to runafter the deer. The ladies going to go into her house.This lady is going to take all the treasures and runinto this house."Import "everyday life is frantic and busy, yeteveryone gets what they want."Category 1, Score +2Process analysis.On this occasion the subject chose wet sand and itremained smooth. She worked from the same side andbegan placing the objects closest to her, moving towardthe back of the tray. She worked very quickly, insilence, and did not engage the researcher in theprocess.Objects were carefully chosen and the subjectactively searched for objects on the shelf. This wasone continuous process, there was no change in idea, and,72the sand world took the form of a whole logical picture.The world was static and the feeling projected washumorous, as she laughed throughout this process and inparticular when relaying the story.This process lasted 3 minutes whereby shepronounced "I'm done". There were 13 objects placed inthe tray. The choice of objects were scenery (houses,bridge), symbolic (treasure chest, jewel, wishing well,castle), friendly wild animals (deer, penguin),transportation (horse and cart), and two female figures(fantasy).Fiaure 7. 003 Sandplay #3.73Picture analysis.The third picture contained some of the elements ofthe second and first, as well as new items. Items wereplaced around the periphery and also in the inside. Thescene was bright and colourful, and the trees andplacement of the other objects gave a sense ofliveliness and growth. The characteristics werepeopled, vital, balanced, and organized.Narrative analysis."There's deers in front of the brown house and allthree of the ladies want to get them away. So these twopeople are getting rid of the deers. There's jewels bythe castle and there's trees all around all the housesand so they get more air. The rabbits are sleeping inbed even when people are shooing all the deers away.The unicorn is standing up. The turtles are walkingaround the castle to see the horses. The buggy with thelittle mouse is going to the castle, across the bridgesto help the ladies with the deers. This tall house isthe mouse's house. The peach house is the fairy and theother lady's house. The brown house and peach houseshare the well. The rabbit's from the tall brown house.This house is where the horses park their place righthere. The turtles live there. The monkeys live in74there. The mouse is going to try to find the jewels.The fairy's going to go after the mouse. This lady'sgoing to stay here and fetch water. These people aregoing to get the deers away and go take the jewels fromthe treasure place. The turtles start yelling at them.The horses with the wagon are going to park there and goand get the people inside the house and stop the peoplefrom stealing the jewels. The monkeys are going to takethe stuff from the brown house. Then the unicorn isgoing to stop the monkeys."Import: "you will try to get rid of that whichdoesn't belong and will stop those who do wrong."Category 2, Score +2Process analysis.The subject chose dry sand and left the sand init's original flat position. She moved around the trayas she worked and developed a whole logical picture.There was no change in idea, as this was one continuousprocess. The subject was silent and she did not try toengage the researcher. She worked very quickly, waslight on her feet when choosing objects, smiledfrequently, and openly laughed when telling hernarrative.The sand world was static but due to her quick body75movements and story, the entire process projectedfeelings of spontaneity, movement, humour, and gaiety.This sandplay seemed very cartoon like and the overalltheme was one of fantasy.The entire process of making the sand world lasted5 minutes and there were 50 objects placed in the sand.The choice of objects were scenery (trees, bridges,houses, pagodas), symbolic (unicorn, wishing well,treasure chest, castle), friendly wild animals (deer,turtle), transportation (horse and cart), four femalefigures (1 warrior, 1 fantasy, 1 domestic, 1 religious)and one male figure (religious), and miscellaneousobjects (bunnies in bed, bunny in pram, 3 monkeys).76Fiaure 8. 003 Sandplay #4Picture analysis.This picture contained an abundance of trees andcolourful flowers. Previously used items were present,as well as new items. The sand world was very balanced,organized, peopled and natural. The sand world looksserene, vibrant, and colourful.Narrative analysis."There's these big flowers growing on the beach. Sotwo ladies and a man are trying to stop the flowersgrowing on the beach. A bird comes along and finds a77mirror on the ground and he can't figure out what it is.So the other bird flies over and tells him it's amirror. The unicorn is trying to save a baby from goingover the bridge. The flowers keep on growing. The treesare getting more and more too and they don't like it andthey try to stop the flowers and trees from growing.The birds and unicorn and the deer are bugging thepeople. And the unicorn is making the baby laugh sothat he will go behind the trees and be safe from thepoisonous flowers growing. And the people just foundout there are poisonous flowers growing and they have togo back over the bridge to find cover. Then all thepeople except for the man go behind the tree and takecover, 'cause he wants the birds. And he takes themirror and flowers and trees and kills them. The peoplefeel good as they don't want the birds on the beach".Import: "Others will get rid of that which seemsout of place and overpowering".Category 4, Score +2.Process analysis.The subject chose dry sand and she moved around thebox while placing the objects. The sand world was awhole logical picture and it was created in onecontinuous process. The sand remained flat and the sand78world was static. The subject was silent during thecreation of the sand world, but she laughed during thenarration of her story. She did not engage theresearcher in dialogue. She moved and worked quickly,but thoughtfully selected and placed objects. Theprocess began by placing objects around the peripheryand then moving inward.The theme suggested by the narrative was dependencyand after 6 minutes she pronounced, "done". There were59 objects placed in the sand world. The choice ofitems were scenery (trees, flowers, bridges), symbolic(unicorn, mirror), friendly wild animals/birds (deer,birds), two female figures, one male (cavalier), and ababy.Sandolav process over time.This subject's sandplay was somewhat lifeless atthe beginning as no people and only a few animals wereinitially depicted. Over time however, the sand worldsprogressively contained more people, objects, animals,and symbols of growth (flowers, trees). The third andfourth sand worlds were very similar in choice ofobjects, characteristics, and form. They gave theimpression of fluidity, completeness, and containment.These latter two sand worlds were indicative of the79stage of wholeness. It therefore appeared that shemoved from a stage of simplicity to one of wholeness.This subject progressively took more time to completeher sand worlds and she showed a preference for drysand. She remained quiet over the four sessions and wasnot talkative with the researcher, however shedemonstrated her very dominant sense of humour, as hernarrations were accompanied by greater laughter overtime.The narrative imports; "if your actions upon othersproduce conflict, you will be made to go away","everyday life is frantic, hectic, and busy, yeteveryone gets what they want", you will try to get ridof that which doesn't belong and will stop those who dowrong", "you will get rid of that which seems out ofplace and overpowering", indicated a very strong socialconscience and a concern with behaving according tosocietal norms. Furthermore, there was a sense ofpositive outcomes, optimism, and personal power. Thenarratives, provided a deeper level meaning to thatwhich was directly observable in the sand worlds.Sublect 009 Bioaraphical information.This male subject was 8 years 0 months at the onset80of this study. He was described by his teacher as selfmotivated, an average learner, able to cope with anystress in the classroom, independent, and helpful. Hisschool work was at grade level but messy.He was said to want to please others, particularlythe teacher, and work hard to quickly eradicateconflict. He has positive peer interactions, hasfriends, and is pleasant to be around. He is able toproblem solve should difficulties arise.He is the eldest child in a two parent family andhis younger siblings are twins. His parents were saidto be involved and interested in their son's school lifeand extra curricular sports activities.81Fiaure 9. 009 Sandplay #1.Picture analysis.The first sand world contained many objects, wassomewhat overcrowded, and seemed to have no logicalreasoning behind the placement of objects. The worldseemed cluttered and the numerous objects from variouscategories made it disorganized, and some objects seemedout of place (e.g. hockey player, skeleton).The presence of military objects and fightingfigures suggested themes of aggression and conflict.However, there seemed to be a strong fantasy element82also present, which was seen in the symbolic objectsused.Narrative analysis.The Wrong Stuff at the Right Time"This is a train statue. There's a king statue,cannons, and army tanks trying to blow up the statue.There are three golden balls and they're trying to blowthem up too. There's a flag and a lizard stepping overa car. The forest has a baby deer and a dad deer.They're looking out. There's a goalie looking at them.There's a black batman and a grey batman. They'refighting. There's two bridges. Behind one of thebridges is treasure. The army people are trying to lookfor it. They've got that statue instead. They'll lookfor the treasure next. There's a well that you can getwater. There's a train that has two golden balls sideby side. There's two aeroplanes, one is guarding thetreasure and one is looking at the two batmans and one'slooking at this wagon. There's a tree house that's atthe side. This is where the Governor lives. Beside thetrain there's this big house that looks after thestatue".Import: "at times the wrong stuff can happen and wewill be vulnerable, but we will be looked after by83others".The title of this narrative seemed to encapsulatethe meaning therefore it was used in the development ofthe import.Category 4, Score +2.Process analysis.The subject chose wet sand and chose to place itemson top of the sand without disturbing it. He workedfrom the same side of the tray, moving from theperiphery inward. The form represented several ideasbut there was no change in idea, as it was onecontinuous process. The subject was quiet throughoutand did not engage the researcher.The overall theme, as suggested by the narrative,was dependency and the feelings projected werespontaneous, busy and colourful. The sand world wasstatic.After 15 minutes the subject declared that he was"done". There were 62 articles present in the sandtray. The choice of articles were military (tanks,cannons), scenery (trees, bridges, pagoda, fences,houses), symbolic (totem poles, treasure chest, castle,unicorn, wishing well, marbles, flag), vehicles (train,aeroplanes, car, horse and wagon, motor cycle), domestic84animals (dogs), friendly wild animals (deer), five malefigures (2 superheroes, hockey player, 2 fantasy), andfantasy items (skeleton, dinosaur).Fiaure 10. 009 Sandplay #2.Picture analysis.This sand world showed an abundant variety ofobjects but there appeared to be little connection ordifferentiation between objects. The theme appeared tobe fantasy and the world was disorganized.Narrative analysis."There are three alligators and one hippo. And onone side there is a sun and on the other there is a85moon. There's a dump truck and some diggers digging updirt. There's some statues, there's an elf cutting upwood. And a tree and a truck and there's some hardthings. Beside one of the houses there is a hide out.There's a golden unicorn and some balls. These peopleare good guys (in red tee pee) and these people are badguys (in blue tee pee). When the bad guys come they runinto their hide out".Import: "when faced with adversity you run andhide".Category 4, Score +1.Process analysis.On this occasion the subject chose dry sand andmoved around the box while making the scene. The formor finished sand world included several ideas, but theprocess of making the sand world was one continuousprocess without a change in idea. The sand was notmoved during the process, and the sand world was static.There was no apparent pattern to the placement ofobjects, as they were scattered throughout the tray.The subject was silent during the making of thesand world and there was no attempt to involve theresearcher. The feeling projected was somewhatnonexpressive and scattered. The overt theme was86fantasy, however the import of the narration suggests atheme of safety.The subject completed this process in 14 minuteswhereupon he declared "that's it", and there were 60objects placed in the tray. The choice of objects weresymbolic (totem poles, jewels, unicorn, sun, moon,treasure chest), fierce wild animals (alligators),friendly wild/domestic animals (horse, cow, deer,hippo), vehicles (emergency, dump trucks, aeroplanes),scenery (houses, tents, bridges, tree), natural objects(feathers, pine cones), eight male figures (2superheroes, 2 warriors, 2 fantasy, 2 domestic), onefemale (mermaid), and miscellaneous objects (bunny inpram, 3 monkeys).87Fiaure 11. 009 Sandplay #3.picture analysis. The third sand world was more organized and figureswere grouped in clear arrangements. The tray was fullbut not over crowded. There appeared to be arelationship between objects and the sand world seemedto tell one story instead of several. The sand worldwas bright and colourful and the theme was fantasy.However, the snakes covering the treasure, the mansurrounded by alligators, and the web over the bridgesuggest a theme of being guarded or covering up. The88characteristics of this tray are order and balance.Narrative analysis.Everything You Can Think Of"There's two bridges with a spider web over it.There's seven deer, two giraffes. There's five bigballs and inside of the big balls are little marbles.There's a swing, and a prince, and three alligatorstrying to eat him. There is treasure being guarded bythree snakes. There's a tent with two people sleepinginside. There's batman on a motor cycle. There's adump truck and a motor boat on back. There's trees,houses. That's it. (When asked what happened to theprince he stated the following). Oh, the prince getsaway. There's also a jaguar, a tiger, a polar bear, anda cat in a huddle".Import: "when faced with adversity you can get awayfrom it".Category 4, Score +2.Process analysis.The subject chose wet sand on this occasion and hedid not move the sand, choosing instead to have itremain flat. He moved around the box as he worked andit was one continuous process, without a change in idea.He began working in the centre of the tray and then89moved outwards. He used a lot of energy in the makingof his sand world, as he constantly moved back and forthbetween the shelves and the sand tray.The subject was quiet throughout this process andhe did not engage the researcher. The feelingsprojected were fantasy and the theme was empowerment, asthe character himself can escape from danger.The entire process lasted 12 minutes, after whichthe subject declared "finished". There were 75 objectspresent in the tray, 28 of which were marbles. Thechoice of items were scenery (trees, bridges, pagodas,tent), vehicles (motorcycle, truck), symbolic (treasurechest, jewels, wishing well, unicorn, castle, church),friendly wild animals (deer, cubs), fierce wildanimals/reptiles (alligators, snakes), and male figures.90Fiaure 12. 009 Sandplay #4.Picture analysis.The fourth sand world seemed to be more organized,as objects were placed behind fences and in similargroupings. The theme appeared to be fantasy. Thecharacteristics were peopled, organized, and balanced.Narrative analysis."Here's a big fence and it has all the valuables init. There is a castle that has a bridge over it and onthe other side it has a bridge too. There's eightturtles and two of them are looking at the deers.91There's cement down beside an army tank. The tankslooking over the bridge and looking at the valuables tomake sure nobody steals them. There's a statue, aneagle on a piece of wood and there's some towers".Import: "things of value will be well protected andlooked after by others".Category 3, Score +2.Process analysis.Wet sand was chosen for this sand world and thesand remained flat throughout. The subject moved aroundthe tray while making the picture, which was a wholelogical picture. There was no change in idea, thereforethe sandplay was one continuous process. Objects wereplaced on the right hand side and the subject workedtowards the left. The sand world was static. Thesubject did engage the researcher on this occasion andhe spoke at length of his previous hockey game were heenjoyed much success. He also made some verbalizationsconcerning the sand world. The subject seemed morerelaxed and friendly toward the researcher. The feelingprojected was colourful and positive and the overalltheme was safety.This process lasted 17 minutes whereupon hedeclared, "I'm done". There were 86 items present, 3492of which were marbles and jewels. The items chosen werescenery (trees, bridges, pagodas, fences), symbolic(unicorn, castle, jewels, wishing well), military(tank), friendly wild animals (turtles, deer, swan), andfierce wild animals (alligators).Sandolav Drocess over time.Initially, this subject depicted a crowded worldfilled with many seemingly random ideas, and symbols ofaggression. The second world was just as crowded butthere was a sharp decrease in aggressive symbols. Bythe third session, the sand world was becoming moreorganized and symbols of aggression (snakes, alligators)were more contained and seemed to have an objective(guarding). Furthermore, objects, instead of beingrandomly placed, now appeared in groups, and areas ofthe tray were designated for a specific purpose (forest,jewels, cubs in a huddle). The fourth sand world showeda continuation of this progression as it was morecontained and organized. This subject appeared to havemoved from an initial stage of chaos to one of order.These observations confirmed the teacher's statementsthat this subject's work was "messy". It would appearthat he has many ideas in his head which he needs timeto categorize and order. It would also seem that this93sandplay process has helped him in ordering histhoughts.The narrative imports; "at times the wrong stuffcan happen and we need to be well looked after", "whenfaced with adversity you run and hide", "when faced withadversity you can get away from it", "things of valuewill be well protected and looked after", suggested thatthis subject has a need to avoid conflict and be lookedafter by others. The tendency to avoid conflict wasclearly identified by the teacher as a personalitycharacteristic. Furthermore, these imports suggestedthat the client feels secure in his environment, as heknows he will be looked after by others.An object which appeared in every sand world wasthat of the deer on the periphery, looking onto theaction. This would appear to be a personal symbol forthis subject, and it seems to reinforce thecharacteristics of a passive onlooker who does not wantto become involved in conflict.Subiect 005 Bioaraphical information.This female subject was 8 years 0 months at theonset of this study. She was described by her teacheras a good learner, and listener, enthusiastic regarding,....s 4...!..0..7..Y.1^v.:tr.^... . ^. ..11C+1%.144.^..0.r. I.^, . , . ..  :,...,fi, •W". % . '''...,^,•'•••''.1. ' ..... Lo.....*+,0^— ,• .^:^•^'' .'^, • . , •• •-'• ...^.:—....^-i7 '.1—^•^..-' : ,''•^' ‘•^ -t ,•••^. v .0. .:,::..^' ^. .■-•'^-*^- '^494learning, academically average, with low average writtenskills.She was said to have positive social skills andbelong to a group of friends. She was described associally confident, happy, and having good self esteem.She is able to problem solve should difficulties ariseThis subject is the eldest of two children in hertwo parent family. Her family were described as beingvery positively involved in her life. She also was saidto interact very positively with her younger sister.Fiaure 13. 005 Sandplay #1.95Picture analysis.The first picture depicted a beach like scenecomplete with turtles, a frog and swan. There is asense of peacefulness and calm. The scene is unpeopled,empty, open, and balanced. The theme seems to be one offantasy.Narrative analysis."A daddy turtle is at home waiting for the mummyturtle and three little babies to come home fromwalking. The frogs were in the pool and a swan. Themummy turtle and the baby turtles come home and thedaddy turtle puts them to bed. Then they wake up andplay with the frog".Import: "when parents look after the needs ofchildren, the children can have fun and play".Category 3, Score +2.Process analysis.The subject chose dry sand and moved around thetray as she made her creation. A whole logical picturewas made and it was one continuous process without achange in idea. She was quiet during her sand play anddid not engage the researcher. The sand was moved toform a hill and two ponds. The sand world was static.The feelings projected were light hearted, happy,96positive, and peaceful. The overall theme wasdependency. The process of making the sand world lasted6 minutes and 13 items were present. The choice ofobjects were scenery (trees) and friendly wild animals(turtles, swan).Figure 14. 005 Sandplay #2.Picture analysis.The second picture also showed objects distributedevenly throughout the tray. The shark gives the world asense of danger and threat, however this seems to bebalanced by the presence of the smiling cartoon like97dragon and the unicorn.The theme is fantasy and the characteristics areunpeopled, open, balanced, and organized.Narrative analysis."The shark is guarding his treasure and the unicornis crossing a bridge. An alligator just finishedbuilding his cabin. The shark will eat everybody andhe'll be fat."Import: "you will aggress upon others, in order toprotect that which is of valuable to you".Category 3, Score +2.Process analysis.The subject chose wet sand on this occasion, placedobjects on top of the sand, and moved around the tray.She was very quick on her feet, smiled throughout thisprocess, and openly laughed when relaying her story.She created a whole logical picture which was onecontinuous process without a change in idea. She wasprimarily quiet but did announce what she had chosenfrom the shelf. She did not request the researchersinvolvement in making her sand world.The finished sand world was static. The primarytheme, as seen in the narrative, was empowerment. Thefeeling projected was humorous.98This entire process lasted 3 minutes upon which shedeclared "finished". There were 16 objects present inher sand tray. The choice of objects were scenery(house, bridge, trees), symbolic (treasure chest,unicorn), fantasy (dragon), and fierce wild animal(shark).Fiaure 15. 005 Sandplay #3.Picture analysis.This picture depicted a sand world full of treesand some flowers. The composition was open, welcoming,balanced, vital, and organized. It was also unpeopled.99The overall theme seemed to be fantasy.Narrative analysis.The Lazy Day"A swan is guarding it's treasure. Three lambs arecrossing a bridge. The deers are lying down in theforest with a well".Import: "when special things are protected we canrelax".Category 3, Score +2..Process analysis.The subject chose dry sand and moved around thetray as she created her sand world. The form was awhole logical process, which was one continuous processwithout a change in idea. The sand was moved to form apond, however the sand world itself was static.The subject was silent and the objects were placedsporadically in no particular order. As she created hersand world, she moved quickly between the toy shelvesand the sand tray, she was light on her feet, had lotsof energy, and she smiled throughout this process. Shedid not request the researcher's involvement.The feelings projected were humorous and calm, andthe overall theme was safety. The subject required 5minutes to complete this process, after which she100declared "finished". There were 33 objects present inthe tray. The choice of objects were symbolic (wishingwell, gold, treasure chest), scenery (trees, bridge,buildings, flowers), and friendly wild and domesticanimals (deer, swan, sheep).Figure 16. 005 Sandplay #4.Picture analysis.This sand world appeared sparse, empty, and lackingin colour. Once again the sand world was unpeopled,open, balanced (objects are spread out around the entiretray), and friendly in appearance. The underlying theme101seemed to be fantasy.Narrative analysis.The Desert"Frogs are relaxing in the pool. A frog is under agiant mushroom. A jaguar is going to get some water out• of the well. Deers are looking at the frogs by a sandcastle and the bridge. The jaguar's going to get adrink of water. When the wave comes the sand castlewill fall. At the end they all go to sleep."Import: "we can relax and enjoy the day when ourbasic needs are met".Category 3, Score +2.Process analysis.The subject chose dry sand and moved around thetray as she created. She made a whole logical picture,which was one continuous process without a change inidea. The sand was moved to form a pond, but the sandworld itself was static. The subject was quietthroughout this process and did not engage theresearcher. She moved quickly between the objects andsand tray, and smiled during this process. She waslight on her feet and it appeared as if she were almostskipping.The feelings projected were of peace and calm, and102the overall theme was nurturance. After 4 minutes shedeclared "finished" and she placed 12 objects in thesand world. The choice of objects were symbolic(castle, wishing well, bridge), friendly wild animals(frogs, deer, baby jaguar), and scenery (palm tree,mushroom).Sandolav "process over time.This subject continuously made organized, open, andbalanced sand worlds. From the onset of this process,she appeared to be in the stage of wholeness. The firstthree worlds became progressively more complex, howeverthe final world was far more simplistic in appearance.Therefore, there seemed to be a shift to the stage ofsimplicity.There was not one object that appeared repeatedly,therefore this subject's self symbol did notunequivocally emerge.The narrative imports; "when parents look after theneeds of children, the children can have fun and play","in order to protect their valuables, people willaggress upon others", "when special things are protectedwe can relax", "we can relax and enjoy the day when ourpersonal needs are met", extract the specific meaning ofthe sand worlds and take this meaning to a deeper level103of understanding. This child appears to feel secure inthe knowledge that her developmental needs and concernsare being taken care of by the adults in her life.This subject indicated a preference for dry sandand the time taken to complete each sand world remainedrelatively constant throughout. Her strong sense ofhumour and fun was observed consistently. There was nochange in her interaction with the researcher, as sheremained relatively quiet over the four sessions and didnot verbally share anything of her personal life.Subiect 004 Biographical information.This female subject was 6 years, 11 months at theonset of this study. She was said to be functioningacademically at age level and doing well in all areas.She likes school, was described as a motivated learner,who works without much teacher intervention. She isable to direct herself through her own work programme.She was described as popular and able to get alongwell with others. She has two or three close friends atschool. Furthermore, her teacher described her as ableto verbalize her concerns versus resorting to force tosolve a problem. She was described as friendly, happy,and outgoing. Her confidence and self esteem were104reportedly increasing following a difficult year ofmarital separation and difficulties with her previousschool in Ontario.She currently lives with her mother and has minimaltelephone contact with her father, who continues toreside in Ontario. The family experienced a separationlast year. She is an only child.Fiaure 17. 004 Sandplay #1.Picture analysis.This picture showed a bright, colourful, livelyscene where flowers and trees grow. The sand world was105busy, open, and welcoming. There was a strong familyemphasis as families (tigers, bears, humans) weregrouped closely together. The sand world seemed to havethe overall theme of fantasy and the characteristics ofpeopled, open, and vital.Narrative analysis."This is really nice. They really like the thingshere. This is a forest with no snakes and no sharks andno alligators. There's pandas, birds, leopards,dinosaurs, treasure, and a pond. These guys are goingto the swan to get married and they go home. This girlis getting married. Nice pandas and birds and penguins.Yuck, cockroaches! I hate them. There's this fairy andthese little bears and beautiful rocks. It happens, andeverything dies from the hot sun and the dinosaurs wreckthe place and it's like a war".Import: "life is really nice, but after somethinghappens, the niceness is destroyed and it becomes like awar".Category 4, Score -1.Process analysis.This subject chose damp sand and moved around thetray as she created her sand world. She moved the sandto create three ponds. At the onset of the session, she106engaged the researcher in dialogue and disclosedpersonal information such as her recent move fromOntario, her yearning for her father, her trip toVancouver Aquarium, halloween, shopping, favouritetelevision shows, and how she likes her mother. Shealso described what she was creating in the sand tray,therefore she engaged in constant dialogue.The sand world was a whole logical picture, but itwas not one continuous process as there were two majorchanges in ideas where items (animals, snakes, sharks,alligators) were added to the tray and later removed.However, there were similar minor changes in ideas whennegative or frightening images (giant shark, skeleton,mummy, dracula, spider web) were picked off the shelf,but then quickly put back down saying how she could notuse these objects. It appeared as if she weresubconsciously drawn to these negative objects butconsciously was not ready to face them.The sand world was static. The feelings projectedwere ambiguity (polarized positive and negative),avoidance, and defense. The overall theme wasdestruction.The subject took the allotted 30 minutes tocomplete her sandplay and she was reminded when it was107time to leave. There were 64 items present in the tray.The choice of objects were scenery (trees, flowers,rocks), friendly wild animals (pandas, cubs, penguin,birds, chick), fierce wild animal (tiger), symbolic(treasure chest, jewels), fantasy (dinosaur, giantswan), 10 female figures (3 domestic, 5 fantasy, 1bride, 1 female bear), and 6 male figures (2 domestic, 1fantasy, 1 scarecrow, 1 groom, 1 male bear).Fiaure 18. 004 Sandplay #2.Picture analysis.The second sand world appeared organized and open,108was peopled, and looked inviting. The entire tray wasused and the objects were placed in a manner thatsuggested balance. The theme seemed to be fantasy.Narrative analysis."This is a picture with hidden jewels and there'sold houses and nice animals. I like this sand picture.It looks pretty. The animals are going to be dry, andthe people will die and even the animals. But there'sonly one to help them and it's batman. There's only onemore to help the other batman. And the other batmanhelps the black batman to save the people. Then thepeople will be alive again with their children and thefairy God mother helped the batman and the other batman.She helped the most. Now the batman are dead. Soeveryone was happily from the fairy Godmother and thebatman. Everyone is happy. That's what happened and Ilike this picture of this place."Import: "you will be torn apart and others willhelp you at their own expense, but you will eventuallysurvive and be happy".Category 4, Score +2.Process analysis.The subject chose wet sand and she worked from thesame side, creating a whole logical picture. The sand109world was active and the sand was moved to create ponds.The objects were first placed around the periphery andthen moved inwards. There were two major changes inideas as items (tent, bed with bunnies, baby incarriage, trees, bridge) were removed from the tray.Objects (3 stones) were buried in the sand.The subject talked constantly while creating hersand world and she engaged the researcher in dialogue.She spoke repeatedly of her father, and of her favouritetelevision shows and classmates. Furthermore, shelaughed repeatedly while making her creation and tellingher stories, but this seemed more of a nervous laughterrather than finding things funny.The feeling projected from her sandplay was ofhidden turmoil. The actual sand world appearedpositive, peaceful and calm, however taken with thenarration it projected feelings of a facade of calm,hiding an inner struggle for emotional survival. Theoverall theme seemed to be struggle.The subject took the entire 30 minutes to engage inher sand play. There were 28 objects present in thetray. The choice of objects were symbolic (wishingwell, castle, totem poles, hidden jewels, treasurechest), scenery (houses, pagoda, bridge), friendly wild110animals (cubs, hippo), 3 female figures (1 domestic, 2fantasy) and 1 child.Fiaure 19. 004 Sandplay #3.Picture analysis.This sandplay continually change and evolved andtwo distinct sand worlds were made. The first appearedto be a continuation of the previous world. Items whichhad been removed from the previous tray (tents, bunniesin bed) were added and objects (unicorn, totem, wishingwell, deer family) were hidden under the buildings. Theworld appeared barren as there was no sign of growth and111life. It was unpeopled, organized, and open. Thehidden precious objects projected feelings of protectionand safety.The second sand world was colourful and muchmovement was portrayed. The characteristics werepeopled and flowing. The buried fierce, wild animalsand young girl hiding in the treasure chest, suggestedthe themes of safety and fantasy.Narrative analysis.A- "This house is a chinese store. The unicorn ishidden in the house to keep him safe".B- "The animals are going up there to see the kingexcept the horse, he's drinking. This is a great place.These animals were going everywhere and some likedmermaids and frogs, and horses, and tigers, and jaguars,and pandas, and lions, and deer, and people, and thenice bright sunshine in the sky, and rabbits that arehibernating, and frogs that are sun tanning. I like thiswhat I made. This girl was living in a wooden house.She's been looking and looking everywhere for nicethings and petting the animals and feeding them. Thenshe found the treasure. She's been lying in it andplaying in it. Then this lion came, and jaguar came,and tiger came, and little pandas, and animals come over112to see the treasure. Everyone came to see the treasure.And even the baby ones. The frogs came over and therewas beautiful and it was beautiful around this treasure.It was beautiful. There was rocks, there was balls,there was everything, and people, and even the kids.The turtles and the deer came over to the treasure, andthe babies and the swan came over, and they all likedthe treasure. And the tigers were sleeping, and thelions, and the jaguars, the people and children. Thelittle girl shared the treasure and the fairy made thetigers and jaguars asleep".Import: "if you look hard for beauty and a betterliving place, you will find it and can surround yourselfin it, others will then be drawn to you and will keepyou safe from danger".Category 4, Score +2.Process analysis.The subject chose wet sand and moved around thetray as she created her sand worlds. The process wasactive, two whole logical pictures were created, andthere were three changes in ideas. Everything thesubject picked off the shelves was used in the tray,except the large devil figure. This object was placedin the middle of the tray but was quickly removed as the113subject said she did not need it.Once again there was constant talking as shecreated her sand world and the subject spoke with theresearcher about her birthday, her dislike of Chinesepeople and spicy Chinese food, Christmas songs, goingwith her father on a trip "in nature", and her nickname. She decided to make a picture of a foresttherefore she finished one tray and went on to the next.During this creation the subject seemed hesitantand asked the researcher what objects she needed in thetray. She however was able to create her sand worldwithout the researcher offering suggestions. She becamecompletely absorbed in this process when asked todescribe her sand world and she moved the objects aroundto tell her story and buried the fierce animals at theend. Objects (flower, panda) were placed on the edge ofthe tray.In the first sand world, sand was moved to create apond. The projected feelings were of threat and needfor safety and protection, as well as lacking growth andvitality. There were 21 objects present in the tray.The choice of objects were scenery (houses, bridge,tents), symbolic (castle, totem poles, wishing well,unicorn), transportation (horse and cart), and friendly114animals (deer family, rabbits in bed).In the second sand world, the sand was movedfrequently to make five ponds. The projected feelingswere of life and growth, self worth (girl looking fortreasure and sleeping in chest), and the hiding anddisempowering of dangerous forces (fairy making fiercewild animals sleep and buried). There were 41 itemspresent. The overall theme in both sand worlds wassafety. The choice of items were scenery (tents,flowers, sun, rocks, house), friendly animals (turtles,frogs, swan, horse, cubs, deer), fierce wild animals(shark, large jaguar, tiger, lion), symbolic (castle,jewels, treasure chest, unicorn), and 7 female figures(1 domestic, 5 fantasy, 1 child).115Figure 20. 004 Sandplay #4.Picture analysis.The first stage depicted wild animals in a forest,with a deer family living in a tent. The scene wasopen, yet barren as there was only one tree present.The second stage of the sandplay process sawflowers, jewels, and a precious clam shell being added.However, a construction vehicle was also added and beganto completely destroy the world. The world becamethreatening and filled with aggression and destruction.The final stage depicted the epitome of threat and116danger with the large shark and devil figure beingpresent. The world had become disorganized and closed.The flowers and construction vehicle were removed andall figures were hidden under the sand, away from theshark and devil. The overall themes were of threat,aggression, and need for protection.Narrative analysis."One day there was a forest. There was animalslike water monkeys, deer, tigers, bears, flowers, andhippopotamuses. And then one time a big truck come byand they ruined the whole place. A truck came by to thejungle and they had a turtle. They gave the turtle backto the wild. They put him back in the water. They wentback home and they were so happy they didn't wreck thewhole thing.The animal saw a light in the dark and it was adevil that was very mean and he flew into the air intothe night. He told a good girl to be bad and do badstuff. He flew into the air that night and saw thisjungle and he scared every animal that they all gotaway. The hippopotamus came into his house. He gotcovered. The cubby bear got covered too and got intohis cave. The lion got into his cave. All the animalswere frightened. There was water, water, and water117everywhere. There was water everywhere. The waterdidn't shine any more. Everything became disaster. Thetrees started to die and fell into the water. Thepandas lived with the monkeys so they could stay awayand they went into his cave and then the balls gotcovered with all the sand that was in the jungle andthey didn't like it. The deer lived with the deerfamily. The fairy disappeared. She died in the sand.She disappeared into the water. She tried to fixeverything but she died in the water. All the animalsdied in the jungle. Everyone was so sad that thereindeer got pulled over and got covered in all thesand. The flowers disappeared and the whole thing wasgoing wrong.There was water everywhere, even around the deer'sfamily and everything was wrong. Everything happened.Everything got down so the water got covered and coveredand covered. Everything became all dead, all dead.That thing was not happy any more.One time there was a shark that came alive. A biglong, long shark and it lived there forever and ever.And I saw that story. It was a nice story but it wasnot a happy ending story. The big shark came and atethe tree and the tree was gone and the shark did not118know that all the animals and the oyster got covered. Sohe didn't eat anything else. But he found the goldcovered rocks. They were the powerfullest,powerfullest, the powerfullest but he just ate them. Onetime the shark in the water got all down, the sand cameoff and onto the water. Everyone was safe. All thesand came off. One was very nice. All the tiger's gotoff. The shark still couldn't stand the sand cominginto the water and building him up. And he was gone andhe was dead and that's the end of the shark."Import #1: "devilish people will terrify and saddenyou, others will be powerless to help, and you will haveto cover up this disaster."Import #2: "other destroyers will take all thepower, but you will be safe, as they will go away andthat will be the end of them".Category 4, Score +1.Process analysis.The subject chose wet sand and moved around thetray as she created her sand world. A whole logicalpicture was created and it was one continuous processwith constant movement and development, but three mainideas were evident. The sand world was active and thesand was moved repeatedly to make ponds, rivers and119caves, and to bury objects.The subject talked incessantly while making herscene. She spoke of Christmas, her birthday, and didimpressions of cartoon characters. Then she spoke ofthe picture she was creating. She stated that she hadseen this scene before when she went camping with herfather. She also spoke of how her mother hates snakesand how she hates the large shark figure.Initially, she spoke of how beautiful the place wasand how no one would come to wreck it and she removedthe fierce lion from the scene, saying how much shehated wild animals. But her defenses and inhibitionsleft her as she began narrating the story and indeed thescene was wrecked and it became a very frighteningplace.The subject became completely absorbed in thisprocess and when telling her story she seemed to becomelost in her sand world, be in a trance, and not groundedin reality. The feelings projected in this sand worldwere destruction, fear, powerlessness, and need forsafety and protection. The overall theme was ofdanger/threat. There were 18 objects present in thefinal tray. The choice of objects were scenery (tent,marbles, clam shell), friendly wild animals (cubs,120hippo, deer, monkeys), and fierce figures (devil,shark). The subject required the entire allotted 30minutes to finish her work.Sandolav Process over time.The first sand worlds were full and rich andappeared to represent wholeness, however there wereglimpses of this being pseudo wholeness. The removal offierce objects in the first sand world suggested ahiding or denial of negative feelings. The burial ofjewels in the second tray hinted at the need to protectthat which is precious. This occurred beneath thefacade of a whole, complete world. The first worldduring the third session, once again repeated the themeof burying that which is precious, but the second traybegan to show a crack in the facade, as fierce objectswere shown in pursuit of a child. However, by the endof this session they were also hidden from sight andburied. By the fourth session, the facade wasshattered, as the client's deeper fears and concernsbroke through her defenses and utter destructionemerged. This client had therefore moved from the stageof pseudo wholeness to destruction.The narrative imports; "life is really nice, butafter something happens the niceness is destroyed and it121becomes like a war", "you will be torn apart, otherswill help you at their own expense, but you willeventually survive and be happy", "if you look hard forbeauty and a better living place, you will find it andcan surround yourself in it, others will then be drawnto you and will keep you safe from danger", "devilishpeople will terrify and sadden you, others will bepowerless to help, and you will have to cover up thisdisaster, "other destroyers will take all the power, butyou will be safe, as they will go away and that will bethe end of them", suggest that this child feelsemotionally and perhaps physically destroyed by someone•with power over her. Despite this however, there aresigns that she is hopeful (finding the treasure) andfeels that she will be safe in the future. It isperhaps these signs of hope and optimism that allow thischild to function in a very coping manner on thesurface, however, as this sand play process hasuncovered, she is experiencing emotional turmoil in herinner world.This story sequence analysis very clearly indicatedthat the subject first felt safe in disclosing a glimpseof her true inner world through story, versus visuallywithin her sand world. In fact, the subject actively122avoided those articles which appeared too threatening.It seemed that once those threatening articles werevisible in the sand world her defenses reacted quicklyto remove and deny them, but her defenses were unable toprevent the leaking out of negative thoughts andfeelings through her story.Likewise, throughout this process she brieflyacknowledged fierce articles but then quickly deniedthem. However, these same articles came to be used inher final sand world. This seems to indicate that shewas subconsciously drawn to these articles butconsciously was not ready to fully accept them.Initially, the sand worlds were static but theybecame more active, climaxing in the final sand worldwhich was filled with movement and change. The sandpreference was wet, and the subject openly dialoguedwith the researcher, disclosing personal experiencesfrom the onset of this process. The item which appearedto represent her personal symbol was the tiger cub, asit appeared at some point during each session. The tigercub was initially placed in a family setting, or with apeer (leopard), but it was then depicted more inisolation. In the final sand world, it was the objectconfronted first by the bulldozer, and it was placed123looking at the flowers as if seeking sanctuary. Thetiger cub is seen as strong and capable, yet, being ababy, still vulnerable and in need of protection. Thisimage seems to accurately capture the characteristics ofthis subject.Difficulty Copina GroupSubject 001 Bioaraphical information.This female subject was 8 years 0 months at theonset of this study. She was described by her teacheras having a fluctuating academic performance, low mathskills, and average reading ability. She was said togive up very easily, have very low levels of selfcompetence and confidence, and have poor self esteem.However, she was described as being very guarded andable to present herself as if she has good self esteemon the surface and it is only when you get to know herthat her low self esteem becomes very evident.In terms of social behaviours, she has a tendencyto monitor and "tattle" on others in the classroom andthis does not make her popular with her classmates. Sheis borderline unpopular, has poor social skills, and wasdescribed as being very emotionally needy. On occasionshe has been known to burst into tears when limits have124been placed on her behaviours. She demands muchattention from the teacher.However, since the Christmas break, and followingthe termination of this study, a turn around has beingevidenced and her attention seeking behaviours havegreatly decreased. Furthermore, her confidence level isbuilding and she is now more willing to take risks andtry to complete her work.This subject is an only child in a single parentfamily. She lives with her mother and has not seen herfather since she was approximately three years old.There has been apparent difficulties with alcoholaddiction in her home.125Fiaure 21. 001 Sandplay #1.Picture analysis. This scene was crammed full of objects from variouscategories. It appeared crowded, disorganized, andchaotic. There was no logical pattern for the placementof objects and the primary theme seemed to be chaos.Narrative analysis."Once upon a time, Cinderella was washing thecastle. It was a very, very, very big castle. Therewas a letter from a charming man. This man brought overa letter and dropped it off and walked back to the126palace. And so Cinderella was washing everything andsuddenly her mean, ugly mum said, "we've got a letterfrom the ball". "Please can I go", Cinderella beggedher mother. Her sister says, "Look at her, don't youbelieve your ears, she's all crummy and gooey."They're going off. The fairy Godmother turnedCinderella into a beautiful girl. And then the baby ofCinderella says "I'm shrinking into the sand" and youcan never see her again. So and then you can never seeyour Cinderella. Then she found a jewel and threw itinto a pond. Then she got into the car and they wentall the way to the castle. The horses were tired as itwas a very, very, very long way. The horses sat down,Cinderella was into the ball. Then suddenly the princeasks her to marry him and Cinderella says yes and theygot married on Saturday and they lived happily everafter."Import: "even after having a hard life and beingbelittled, your dreams will come true, but at theexpense of losing those close to you."Category 4, Score +1.Process analysis.This subject chose dry sand and she moved aroundthe tray as she created her picture. She began by127placing the fantasy items in the tray (castle, bridges,treasure, buildings, figures), which seemed to be themain focus of the scene, and then she continued to addmiscellaneous objects almost as a distraction from theprimary focus.The sand world took the form of several ideas, butit was one continuous process without a change in idea.The sand world was active and the sand remaineduntouched, apart from one of the figures being buried.The subject was relatively quiet throughout theprocess, but did talk to the researcher about a dreamshe had last night about a friendly turtle. Furthermore,she began to describe her sand world spontaneously. Shenamed the figures and said that the turtle was caught inquick sand at the top of the tray.The feelings projected were colourful, spontaneous,but disorganized. The primary theme was fantasy andthere was a secondary theme of loss. There were 115objects present in the tray. The choice of objects werescenery (trees, houses, bridges, stones), symbolic(castle, unicorn, wishing well, treasure chest, jewels,totem pole), 3 female figures (fantasy), 1 male(fantasy), 3 babies, friendly wild animals (deer,turtles, frogs, birds, monkeys, chicken), fierce figures128(dracula, skeleton), and miscellaneous objects (chinesefigures, golden palm tree, moon, shell in a bottle).The subject required the entire allotted 30 minutes.Fiaure 22. 001 Sandplay #2.Picture analysis.This sand world was more organized and far lesscrowded. The principal players were placed in the fronthalf of the tray, but there was not an abundance ofobjects to distract from them. There was a feeling ofconflict or destruction, as the skeletons were halfburied and tangled up in one another, the male figures129looked like they had fallen down, and the older femalefigure was also buried.The characteristics of the sand world were peopled,barren, and depressed, and there were no signs of growthand vitality.Narrative analysis."This is Rapunzel. It's halloween night. Theskeletons are for halloween. One folds back his headand he broke his bones. The other one, he was walkingby, he fell and his head touched his feet and he wasstuck like that forever and he was screaming, "help".She was Rapunzel for halloween . Her brother and sisterwere the devils. So they walked along with theirsister. They came to a spooky, creepy, house and soRapunzel wanted to walk into it. She walked into it andshe was stuck in there forever. Grandpa and grandmawere at home waiting for her to come home and shedidn't. Grandma was lost. She was walking along thebridge and she fell down in the river. She was dead andthey lived happily ever after".Import: "scary things will paralyse you, and otherswill be lost without you and they will perish".Category 3, Score -2.Even though the familiar ending of "happy ever130after" was used by the subject, it was not included inthe meaning of the story as the true ending seemed to bethe death of the grandmother and the stereotypical fairytale ending did not reflect the content of the story.Process analysis.The subject chose dry sand but she also made acircle and added stone animals and water to the wettray, but later removed them, after washing themvigorously.Before creating her sand world in the dry sandtray, the subject insisted on washing all marbles untilthey were clean and free from sand and she dried themindividually. She worked from the same side of the drysand tray. This was one continuous process, without achange in idea, and it was a whole logical picture. Thesand remained flat except for the burying of figures.The sand world was active.The subject spoke briefly to the researcher tellingthat she had just watched a movie called "Rapunzel",that she hates wet sand, and she also spoke of theobjects as she added them to the tray. At the end ofthe process, she quickly asked to dismantle her work andshe seemed very threatened by the content she haddepicted.131The feelings projected were depressive, lacking incolour, and negative. The overall themes werehelplessness, destruction, and death. There were 56items present, 39 of which were shells or marbles. Thechoice of articles were scenery (bridges, pagoda,marbles), symbolic (unicorn, castle), natural objects(shells), 4 female figures (3 domestic, 1 fantasy), 3male figures (domestic), fierce objects (skeletons), andfriendly animals (owl, elephant). The subject neededthe entire 30 minutes and had to be reminded when toleave.Fiaure 23. 001 Sandplay #3.132Picture analysis.The subject chose to make two sand worlds, one dryand one wet. The dry sand world was colourful andbright, as well as balanced, open, organized, andwelcoming. It projected images of fantasy andprotection (animals guarding treasure). However, uponcloser inspection, the presence of the skeletons, buriedgrandmother, church, and fallen dear suggested a themeof death.The wet sand world depicted animals and marblesscattered throughout the tray, and a large circular pondfilled with water. The majority of the animals werescattered haphazardly and gave the feeling ofdestruction. This sand world appeared desolate, cold,barren, and unwelcoming. The characteristics wereunpeopled, and there was an absence of growth andvitality.Narrative analysis.Narrative #1: "Once upon a time, she was going tolook for flowers for her grandma, and she found a bigone, but it was too big for her. She saw a small one,picked it up, and carried it all the way over tograndma's house. And grandma was on the roof and thenshe died because she ate a poisonous apple. So they133buried her up. And she was looking for her and shewouldn't find her anywhere. She walked and she wasstepping on something. And then she digged. "It'sgranny, Oh I better dig her back up before daddy findsout" (subject reburies her). Suddenly the flowersstarted to grow when the sun came out. And so shewalked with the flowers and left her grave."Import #1: "no matter what you do for others, theywill die and you will have to hide this and walk awayfrom it all".Narrative #2: "The turtle is dirty and he wants towash off and he washed off but he went back on (thedirt). This turtle was super dirty and he was playingin mud balls. The animals were clean and they wanted tobe dirty, but they couldn't be dirty 'cause they woulddie, 'cause they hate dirt. But the turtles didn't mindgoing in the dirt, but they died. Anyway this owl wasthe luckiest one as he was so high up that he didn't dieand they lived happily ever after".Import #2: "if you are involved in the dirty sideof life you will die, but if you are lucky and stayabove the dirt you will survive".Category 1, Score +1.134Process analysis.The subject chose both wet and dry sand and movedaround the trays as she created her sand worlds. Therewere three main ideas observed. Each sand world was awhole logical picture and both were active in nature.The subject was primarily silent, she moulded thesand in the wet tray, and added water. The sand wasmoved in the dry tray only for the burial of thegrandmother. The subject relayed her story with muchintensity and upon reaching the burial of grandma shebecame completely absorbed, silent, and mesmerized, asif in a trance. The overall themes seem to be of deathand survival. The feeling projected was helplessness,but also hope for the future.The subject placed 61 objects in the dry tray, 25of which were marbles. The choice of objects werescenery (flowers, bridges, house, sun), fierce figures(tiger, dragon, skeletons), friendly animals (dragon,deer), and 2 female figures (domestic, fantasy).The wet sand world included 39 objects, 27 of whichwere marbles. The choice of objects were scenery(marbles), and friendly animals. The subject requiredthe allotted 30 minutes to complete her work.135Fiaure 24. 001 Sandplay #4.Ficture analysis.The subject once again used both sand trays butchose the dry one first of all. This tray appearedbarren as there were few signs of life and growth. Theuse of the church and the male religious figuresuggested a spiritual theme. The tray was alsobalanced, peopled, and appeared cold. The wet tray wasempty, barren, and lifeless. It seemed to contain theoverspill from the dry tray. The dominant theme wasdifficult to discern just from viewing the pictures.Narrative analysis."Once upon a time there was a girl. She was at136school and she had to walk fifty five blocks to herhouse. She was so tired when she got home, she yelled"father, father, father are you here?" Then she slippedand said, "Oh, I got to go get my sister". "Sister,sister father's dead". "Oh what nonsense". "Oh you'reright, we have to get granny". "I'll go get her". "Oh,no the maid's dead, now we have to go get grandpa"."Okay come on". "Grandpa's dead now, we have to buryhim". He's dead 'cause he fell down. Dad's dead andthey now have to make a cross. Now they prayed, blah,blah, blah and they lived happily ever after.Import: "some of your family members will not bethere for you as they will be dead, so you will have tobury them and move on".Category 3, Score +1.Process analysis.The subject thoughtfully chose the dry sand andmoved around the tray as she created. This was onecontinuous process without a change in idea and the sandworld was in the form of a whole logical picture. Thesand was moved frequently at the beginning, as thesubject made shapes (star, heart) in the sand and it wasalso moved in the burial of the father figure. This wasan active sand world. The wet sand was flattened before137the addition of the clam shell. The subject spokeconstantly on this occasion and engaged the researcherby asking her to bury objects which the subject then hadto find. This procedure was reversed and thisreciprocal hide and seek lasted 15 minutes.When working on the sand world the subject workedquickly and with much intensity, as if she knew exactlywhat she was going to create. She began to narrate herstory spontaneously and it was relayed with muchemotional intensity, and at times the subject becamevery frenetic and sounded panic stricken. After thestory was completed, the researcher asked the subjectwhat the clam shell and treasure were for. She repliedthat the clam shell cannot be touched as there is a babyclam inside and if it is touched it will die.Furthermore, the treasure was hidden by grandpa and theothers are trying to find it, which they hate.The feelings projected were depressive andnegative, and the theme was of death. There were 41items present, 28 of which were marbles. The choice ofobjects were scenery (pagoda, marbles), symbolic(treasure chest, church, clam shell), 4 female figures(2 domestic, 2 fantasy), 2 male figures (1 domestic, 1religious), friendly animals (deer), and a baby. The138subject used the entire allotted 30 minutes.At the end of the process, the subject was asked ifshe had known anyone who had died recently. Sheanswered that her nanny and grandpa died lately, as wellas her step brother's mother who died from "sleeping"(pill induced suicide). Her nanny was so sick andgrandpa died because he went to his favourite park thathe hadn't seen in forty years and he was going toMexico. Her mother's brother died when a man came inand stabbed him, but she wasn't there as she was in hermother's tummy at that time. She went on to say thather other grandpa was almost killed as someone broke inand wanted to kill him. So she was going to give him abell that he would nail by his window and would ring ifanyone came in.This disclosure very clearly indicated that thesandplay process facilitated the expression of thisgirl's real life issues and fears.Sandolav process over time.Initially, this subject's sandplay was overcrowdedand chaotic. The tray included the central objectswhich tell this child's inner story, but those objectswere crowded out by many others, making it verydifficult to discern the central theme. By the second139session however, the unnecessary items were omitted andthe world was more open. The core issue of death wasnow beginning to surface as objects were seen lying onthe ground, mangled, and buried.The first world in the third session showed amovement toward balance, life, and wholeness, but as theprocess progressed themes of death and destruction wereadded. The second tray of this session reinforced theemergence of destruction, but the striking circularpattern and the centering of the owl figure alsoindicated a sense of ambivalence between destruction andwholeness.The sense of moving forward toward wholeness isobserved in the final tray as the family figures areseen leaning on the church. There is a centeringoccurring as the main point of the world occurs in themiddle of the tray. Two figures are shown lying downdead and the other family members are also dead, but theaddition of the baby in the pram and the treasure in thecorner provide symbols of rebirth and personal value.This process over time appears to be a spiritual layingto rest of the grief and loss she has experienced in herfamily.The narrative imports; "even after having a hard140life and being belittled, your dreams will come true,but at the expense of losing those close to you", "scarythings will paralyse you, and others will be lostwithout you, and they will perish", "no matter what youdo for others, they will die and you will have to hidethis and walk away from it all", "if you are involved inthe dirty side of life you will die, but if you arelucky and stay above the dirt you will survive", "someof your family members will not be there for you as theywill be dead, so you will have to bury them and moveon", indicated this child's great need to express herfeelings regarding the death of family members and hertendency to cover up her feelings. In fact, her teacherknew nothing of the deaths that this child hadexperienced therefore suggesting that she was veryefficient at burying her feelings.Once again the initial narrative provided the firstclue to the child's emotional functioning, and theissues then became visible within the second sand world.The initial imports implied self blame regarding thedeaths of others, however as the process continued thereappeared to be a shift in understanding, that no matterwhat she did these people would have died and that theyhave indeed left her. The resounding message for the141need to grieve and then move forward is seen as agrowthful and positive outlook on the future. It isinteresting to note that since this child participatedin this study her behaviours have improved in theclassroom. It is hoped that this process has allowedher to lay some of her feelings to rest and be betterable to live in the moment and move forward in herlearning and social interactions.Although there was not a consistent personal symbolseen in every tray, the most powerful symbols which arerepeated are the owl, clam shell, treasure, women,church, castle, and baby in a pram. These symbols mayrespectively represent her wise self, her vulnerableself, her self worth, her feminine side, her spiritualself, her strength, and her dependant self. It istherefore evident that despite having a "hard life" thischild does indeed have the potential strength within herto succeed and function more positively.Sublect 002 Biographical information.This female subject was 8 years 3 months at theonset of this study. She was described by her teacheras being approximately two years behind in her academicfunctioning. She reportedly works very slowly and her142emotional instability has impacted upon her learning.The teacher believes that academic difficulties arepurely emotion rather than being intellectual.At times she was said to display very regressivespeech and behaviours. Her negative feelings would alsofrequently pour out at inopportune times, and this wasused as a way to gain greater attention in a groupsituation. In the past, the subject would cry andtantrum when faced with a limit but this has ceased.In general this subject is seen as being veryemotionally needy.Her social skills were described as poor and she isoften involved in fights and arguments with peers,resulting in tears. She was described as sociallyimmature and unpopular, however she does respond well toyounger children, or those who are somewhat helpless.She reportedly identifies herself as a victim and sheoperates in the world according to this stance.She is the youngest of seven children, but the onlyone living with her mother at this point in time. All ofher siblings are or have been in foster care. There havereportedly been frequent changes of adult male partnersin her home. Her environment has been most unstable andhas included alleged sexual abuse, and witnessing of143physical violence. Her mother appears to be interestedin her daughter's school functioning.Fiaure 25. 002 Sandplay #1.Picture analysis.The first picture depicted a tray filled withdomestic and wild animals. Large, fierce animals werepresent alongside friendly ones. The tray lookeddisorganized as there is no apparent pattern ofplacement for the animals, however the pigs and horseswere arranged in family groupings in the midst ofscattered families. The world was also unpeopled and144barren in appearance, and the presence of fierce animalsmade it look threatening and unwelcoming.Narrative analysis."These animals live all on a farm. The guy(panther) is walking along the farm and he eats a littleguy. Then there's a scarecrow and the cow is runningfor it and knocks it down. It (cow) goes back to whereit was. Then the hippopotamus comes along and eats him.Then there's this thing and it goes over the cow and thelama and the hippo walks on it and knocks them down andit disappears. Then the little lama goes under the cowand jumps up on him and goes to the bathroom on him.Then the horse is running through and she makes all thepeople mad, so the horse gets all eaten up and he'sgone. And the other horse got really mad, so she getsthe baby horse and they were together."Import: "even if you get stepped on and swallowedup by others, the family will stay together".Category 4, Score +2.Process analysis.The subject chose both sand trays but made her sandworld in the wet tray. The subject placed objectsclosest to where she sat and there were numerous changesin ideas. She initially made a scene with a swan145swimming in a pond and a large shark eating it. However,as if anxious of the overt violence she portrayed, shesaid she did not like this and quickly dismantled it.All in all, the subject made 4 changes in ideas.However the final sand world was a whole logicalpicture.The subject engaged the researcher from the verybeginning and talked about school activities, and whatprevious subjects had done. She demanded theresearcher's assistance in this process and said "helpme" on three occasions. Furthermore, she stronglydisapproved of the video camera and said, "if that thingwatches me once more, I'm going to kill myself. Ifthings watch me I feel like I'm going to get kidnapped".Her level of anxiety visibly decreased once theresearcher empathized with her.The sand in the tray was purposefully flattened andmoved to bury a baby cat. The feelings projected weredepressive, lacking in colour, and negative. Theoverall theme was danger/threat. There were 37 objectsplaced in the tray and this was an active sand world.The choice of items were fierce wild animals, domesticanimals, and scenery (marbles).After she created this sand world, she chose to146bury her hands in the dry sand tray and the researcherhad to find them. It seemed as if she desired physicalas well as verbal contact with the researcher.The subject used the entire allotted 30 minutes andwas very reluctant to leave.Fiaure 26. 002 Sandplay #2.Picture analysis.This picture was in great contrast to the previousone as it only contained scenery or symbolic items andit lacked any signs of life. The sand world wasbalanced, unpeopled, organized, and open. However, it147also seemed barren, as it was devoid of life and growth.Narrative analysis."It's an earthquake. It's a palace and it has twobridges and it has buried treasure in it. There'smarbles and sand running down it, it's an earthquake. Ithas a nice tree and a unicorn and a wishing well.There's no people around it. It's an old thing carvedby an Indian. The dinosaurs were going to go in butthey all got killed."Import: "even if life is nice, it will becomeunstable and dangerous".Category 1, Score -2.Process analysis.The subject used both dry and wet sand but made hercreation in the dry tray. There was one change in idea,as the subject removed all items from the tray and thenreplaced them. Her final product was a whole logicalpicture. She worked from the same side of the sandtray.The sand was moved repeatedly as the subject choseto run it through her fingers and bury the treasurechest. Once again the researcher's help was demandedand she verbally engaged the researcher throughout. Shespoke of the tooth fairy, Santa, and visiting her148siblings on the weekend. There was constant dialogue asshe made her sand picture.Once the items had been added, the subject thenrepeatedly began yelling "earthquake" and droppedmarbles onto the scene, therefore it was an active sandworld. She complained that there were not enoughmarbles and she removed the ones in the tray andrepeated this process. She then added sand to themarbles and began to drop this on the scene also.After this process, she suddenly became aware ofthe video camera and asked if it was watching her. Shethen dived under the table to hide but shortlythereafter asked if she could see herself on the screen.When telling the story to accompany her sandpicture, she quickly moved to the wet tray and beganplaying in the sand. She seemed uncomfortable andsomewhat threatened by the content of her world. Sheremoved the items immediately following this process.Instead of leaving at this point, this subjectchose to bury her hands in the sand. She requestedconstant interaction and mutual play with theresearcher. She was very reluctant to leave after the30 minutes had expired.The theme was destruction and the scene was lacking149in colour, depressive, and negative, and there were nosigns of life and vitality. There were 35 objects inthe tray, 26 of which were marbles. The choice ofobjects were scenery (bridges, pagodas), and symbolic(unicorn, wishing well, treasure chest, castle, totempole, marbles).Figure 27. 002 Sandplay #3.Picture analysis.This subject made two sand pictures. The dry sandpicture looked colourful, growthful, serene, vital, and150inviting. The world was simplistic, as there was not alarge variety of objects, yet it was filled with treesand appeared balanced. The characteristics were peopledand organized, and it seemed to have a fantasy theme.The wet sand picture was a volcano. The face onthe outside made it appear happy and light hearted, butthe fact that it is a volcano suggests underlyingpowerful and turbulent feelings, with the potential toexplode.Narrative analysis."This is a palace. This is a cottage. This is thefather of Bambie, and mother of Bambie, and Bambie.They're trying to find this little girl. I believe hername is Goldilocks. Goldilocks lives in this palace.This is Goldilocks. This is in a whole forest. Thecottage looks like a marshmallow and there's a wholebunch of trees. They find Goldilocks and she is goingto feed them some bread. Oh, I've been looking all overfor you guys. Here's half a piece of bread for you,half a piece for you, half a piece for you. Yum, Yum.Here's some milk for you, here's some for you, and somefor you. Goldilocks, Goldilocks, Ya, yes, yes, et toi,et toi. Bambie you poor little thing. Bambie, Bambie,Bambie, Bambie, Bambie! Bambie just about got151kidnapped. That's the end".Import: "even when you seek to have your basicneeds met, you are still faced with the threat of beingtaken away from those who care for you".Category 3, Score -1.Process analysis.This subject once again chose both wet and drysand. She engaged the researcher throughout and askedher to help in the process. The subject lacked energyand insisted the researcher pick the objects off theshelf which she desired, and place the trees in thetray.Furthermore, she engaged in chatter throughout thisprocess, she spoke of a new student in her class, hownoisy the room was, if I had spelled her name correctly,and what the previous subject had made (this was notdisclosed to her). She also made funny faces at thecamera, and yelled at her volcano to stop staring ather.She spent time smoothing out the sand, with theresearcher's help, and she requested that the researchersprinkle sand (rain) on her hands. She disclosed thatshe was "the boss" of her sand picture, and that itlooked like a painted picture to her. This seemed to152give her much pleasure and a sense of competence andaccomplishment.Half way through the narrative, when the dialoguestarted, the subject appeared to go into a trance andbecame completely emotionally involved in this process.The pitch and intensity of her voice rose and shesounded panicked. Furthermore, her speech becamerepetitious and she even switched languages.There were two main changes in ideas during thisprocess and in each case she made a whole logicalpicture. This was an active sand world. The sandplayprojected ambiguous feelings of nurturance and threat.The overall theme seemed to be danger/threat.There were 38 objects present in the tray. Thechoice of objects were scenery (trees, houses), friendlywild animals (deer), and a female figure (child). Thesubject required the entire 30 minutes and was reluctantto return to her classroom.153• now_^ •• .•Fiaure 28. 002 Sandplay #4.Picture analysis.This picture appeared to be of total devastation.Objects were placed in the sand but then knocked over.The scene looked disorganized, threatening, andunpeopled, and the overall theme was destruction.Narrative analysis."It has lots of animals, deers, bears, giraffes,elephants, and houses, and trees, and a turtle, and biglittle things, and a castle. I need marbles for an154earthquake. There's an earthquake. There's a rockthat's been there for a long time. Bambie has a littlesilver rock and the baby has it's own rock and there'sanother rock. And there's a sudden boom, boom of anearthquake. Boom, boom, boom, boom! It went in theturtle's shell and the turtle's shell breaks and thenthe earthquake's over and the whole place is ruined. Theanimals are dead. Everything's down because of thatnasty earthquake and I'm sad 'cause all the animals aredead".Import: "even if you've had a firm foundation for along time, your life can suddenly break apart and beruined".Category 1, Score -2.Process analysis.This subject worked in both trays but created hersand world in the dry tray. She lacked a great deal ofenergy throughout this process and sat on a chair andinstructed the researcher to collect the items sherequested, and help her to put them in the tray. Herdemeanour was passive and helpless.At the beginning of the story telling, the subjectrepeated what objects were in the tray. Her monotonousvoice seemed to indicate that she was emotionally lost155in the tray and she would have continued in this vein ifan idea had not sprung to mind. As soon as the storywas finished, she instructed the researcher to put awaythe articles and in the meantime she buried her hands inthe wet sand tray. Once the dry tray was emptied, shemoved back to it and requested the research to bury herhands. She then moved back and forth between both trayssmoothing the sand and burying her hands with theresearcher's assistance.The subject talked constantly throughout thisprocess. She worked from the same side of the tray andcreated a whole logical picture. This was onecontinuous process, but there was one change in idea tobury her hands. It was an active sand world.The feelings projected were negative andthreatening, and the overall theme was destruction.There were 66 items present, 18 of which were marbles.The choice of objects were scenery (houses, trees),friendly wild animals (deer, giraffes, baby elephant,cub), and symbolic (castle, totem poles, marbles). Thesubject was very disappointed that this was her finalsession and she had difficulty leaving the researcher.She needed the entire 30 minutes to complete thisprocess.156$andolav orocess over time.This subject's sand world initially appearedbalanced, organized, and open, but it was alsodisjointed and the presence of fierce wild animalsindicated there may be threatening or disruptiveexperiences in this child's inner world. The secondsand world showed a distinct absence of life and growthand the earthquake clearly suggested that all was notwell in her world. The third sand world showed signs oflife and growth, and was very calm and positive on theoutside, but the narrative regarding a kidnappingindicated that there was potential danger. It was notuntil the fourth sand world however that thesesuggestions of destruction and danger came together inpowerful visual form. These destructive, threatening,and chaotic images were clearly revealed. This subjecttherefore, moved from the stage of simplicity, intopseudo wholeness (almost a calm before the storm), andthen into destruction/chaos.The narrative imports; "even if you get stepped onand swallowed up by others, your family will staytogether", "even if life is nice, it will becomeunstable and dangerous", "even when you seek to haveyour basic needs met, you are still faced with the157threat of being taken away from your family", "even ifyou've had a firm foundation for a long time, your lifecan suddenly break apart and be ruined", drew attentionto the unstable and precarious nature of this child'senvironment, and her apparent fear of being removed fromher home. She appears to be anxious and somewhatpessimistic regarding her future and the reportedinstability in her life has apparently effected the wayin which she views her world. The threatening andunstable nature of her world was communicated clearlyfrom the outset of this process through narrative, butit was not until the fourth session that this becameclearly visible within her sand tray.There was little difference in the process overtime as the subject continued to constantly engage theresearcher, require the allotted time, request theresearchers help, and act in a somewhat helpless,dependant manner.Sublect 007 Bioaraphical information.This male was 7 years 0 months at the onset of thisstudy. He was described by his teacher as havingdifficulty in all subject areas. He is easilydistracted, very talkative and has hyperactive158tendencies. He often shares information atinappropriate times and talks to any adult about what isbothering him in his life. He seeks much positivereinforcement and recognition, and becomes very proud ofhimself when he completes a new task. He was describedas having low self esteem, being dependant, and at timesshowing regressive behaviours and speech.Furthermore, he was described as having fewfriends, as his peers tend to avoid him due to hisinappropriate behaviours, and he has had difficultieswith hitting and kicking children on the playground. Onthe other hand, he is also very loving toward his peerson occasion, and he had one good friend when in gradeone.This subject is the eldest child of two children ina step-family. He lives with his father, step mother,and four year old brother, and visits periodically withhis natural mother. The natural family have beenseparated since the youngest child was an infant. Thissubject was apprehended from his natural mother due toallegations of physical abuse but was quickly returneddue to insufficient evidence. There appears to beconflict between the step mother and natural mother.The step mother is involved in the subject's schooling.159Fiaure 29. 007 Sandplay #1.Picture analysis.The subject chose to work in both sand trays. Asonly the top half of the dry tray was used, it appearedbarren and unbalanced. The military figures and weaponsgave it an overall theme of conflict. The tray has thecharacteristics of aggressive, empty, and threatening.The wet tray contained four objects, 2 militaryfigures, the treasure chest, and a king. once again itseemed empty, cold, threatening and aggressive. Theoverall theme seemed to be conflict.160Narrative analysis."There's lots of cannons so bad guys won't get me.Cannons go boom, boom. The base is getting blowed up.Let's get the bad guys. The king got frozen into astatue. One day when the king got walking he saw somevillages. A baby jumped out of the house. The soldiershave a hiding place. The bad guys stole the treasurechest. Actually they didn't know the treasure box wasunder their nose. No one can see anybody, everyonedied. Now they're ghosts. This is World War II. Thisguy shot this guy and the king chopped him in half.Then trees growed so they could hide and climb up thetrees. There's something big going on. They want tofind out what it is. Boom Booms! The stolen treasurebelongs to the king. Over the days the trees grow back.They were shot down and used to be alive. They shot bowsand cheered for the bad guys. They didn't want them tolive. And then the little weasel came that was fouryears old. He put up the flag, so they started gettingblown up, and they're mad, and they get all theircannons behind all their trees. They all have a tree tohide in. They pretend it's not even an army base. It'sdisguised as a forest. Then this little weasel kid putsup a flag. Guess what happens, the weasel kid blows161their cover. They set him up right here and shoot him.They shoot him 'cause no one likes him. They're so mad,so, so mad and his friend is disappointed, sodisappointed. They planned this because they're bad guykids".Import: "when you make mistakes, harmful peoplewill be maddened and disappointed in you, and they willget rid of you". This import was developed from thepoint of view of the characters "me"/ "weasel kid" whoappeared to be one and the same. The subject indicatedthat himself and the weasel kid were persecuted by "badguys", and it appeared that as the story continued "me"actually became the "weasel kid".Category 3, Score -2.Process analysis.The subject chose both trays and he worked from thesame side of the trays. Five changes in ideas wereobserved as the subject initially depicted a tigersinking in the sand, then a shark biting himself,followed by a tank and army men sinking in a whirlpool,then horses and a church, and finally the scene observedin the photograph.This subject was extremely talkative and overtlyfriendly toward the researcher. He engaged in constant162chatter. He spoke of his birthday being last week andof numerous stories which spontaneously came to mind.For example, he stated that his father told him to uppercut someone on the road if they tried to steal him. Hestated, "that's all I learned from my dad". After theking fell over in the sand tray, he said, in a veryregressed voice, that a rake fell on his head when hewas two years old. Furthermore, he frequently spoke ofhimself in the third person and in a very regressivemanner e.g. "me smart, me play, goody gumdrops". Hedisclosed that he speaks in this manner when he feelsshy. He also picked up the father doll from the familyfigures, punched him repeatedly in the face, with aclosed fist, and stated "family boom, boom".At one point in time, the subject became acutelyaware of the video camera and said, "you not takepicture of me, me hiding". He briefly cowered under thetable but then quickly said it was okay. Moreover,during the sandplay process he worriedly asked if he wasrunning out of time and he demanded the researcher'sassistance in the process. In general, the subject wasfrenetic, scattered, and very involved in his play.There was constant movement of the subject and ofthe objects in the trays, therefore the sand worlds were163active. The sand was moved to make hills and bury thetreasure chest. The overall feelings projected by thesand worlds were negative and depressive. The dominanttheme was struggle.There were 30 objects placed in the dry sand tray.The choice of items were scenery (trees), military(cannons, soldiers, flag), symbolic (treasure chest),and a friendly animal (horse). There were four objectsplaced in the wet tray, the choice of which weremilitary (2 soldiers) and symbolic (king, treasurechest).The subject used the allotted 30 minutes and wasextremely reluctant to leave the research room.164Fiaure 30. 007 Sandplay #2.Picture analysis.The finished sand world appeared stark, barren, anddesolate, without any type of scenery, vitality, orgrowth. The presence of alligators and military objectsgave a feeling of threat and danger.The characteristics of the sand world wereunpeopled and empty, and the theme was struggle.Narrative analysis."This jet bomber bombs on the bad guys and crashes165'cause there's a forest. The animals don't like it. Thegood guys don't like the trees piled up on the base andthey crash. Bombs away! The plane crashes thealligators. These guys need trees everyday. The treesget shot mostly everyday. Alligators hide in theforest. The forest grows when there is no war. Thecannons shoot at the trees. The dad crocodile is in thetrees. He has to stay there so no one can see him. Theygo out the opening and charge! It's not a forest, it'sa crocodile hide out. One daddy shark comes and eatsthe others (crocodiles) when they're bad. Then the dadjumps, eats something, and crashes.The alligator ate a baby. He's spotlighted, shoothim down! The cannons are incase they shoot peopledown. One got shot. It all gets buried from the sandand no one knows. They brang out the tank and droppedit, boom! Then he came in and they filled up the holeand had their eye on the rock. The plane comes out andflies away. Then he throws the tank out of this world".Import: "even when you hide from conflict, you willbe found out and punished for being bad, and no one willknow". This import was developed from the point of viewof the alligators, as they appeared throughout thenarrative.166Category 4, Score -2.Process analysis.The subject was very eager to involve himself insandplay and did so immediately upon entering the room.He chose to work in both sand trays. His work in thewet tray consisted primarily of throwing bombs(marbles).In the dry sand tray, the process evolvedconstantly and rapidly. Initially, the sand scenelooked much like the previous session however, the scenequickly changed to that of a desert devoid of trees, andfull of sharks and alligators. Furthermore, the sharkswere quickly removed from the scene and the subjectadamantly refused the researcher take a picture of thesharks. He seemed threatened by the overtly negativeand threatening nature of the sharks. There were 3major changes in ideas.The subject spoke constantly throughout thisprocess as he was either narrating his play ordisclosing personal information, such as wishing hecould call his father and tell him what he was doing andthat he loved him, or his trip to Disneyland.While creating his sand world the subject movedaround the sand trays. The sand was moved to form hills"Nemo167and also to bury the alligators and aeroplane. The sandworld was active and the process was a whole logicalpicture but numerous ideas were noted. The feelingsprojected were destructive and negative, and the overalltheme was struggle.There were a total of 13 objects present in thetray. The choice of objects were military (cannons,tank, flag, plane), transportation (motor bike), andfierce wild animals (alligators). The subject requiredthe entire 30 minutes and he was extremely reluctant toleave, saying he wished he could do sandplay every day.Fiaure 31. 007 Sandplay #3.168Picture analysis.The finished sand world was barren and empty inappearance, and lacked signs of growth, warmth, andvitality. The alligators were positioned upside downgiving the impression of destruction. The predominantselection of fierce objects suggested a theme of threat.Only the upper left quadrant of the sand tray was used,therefore making it very unbalanced.The characteristics were unpeopled and empty.Narrative analysis."This is the desert so the army has got to watchout. They've got to be careful in this desert becauseof the wild life. It's sometimes good but they'reusually buried in the sand. They think these(alligators) are dinosaur bones. They're frozen 'causethey got hit by a freeze ray. These snakes got hit by afreeze ray too.The bat's the only one. He's the master and he'sgliding. He has to go to the bat cave, but they firedthe cannon in his bat wings. Bat is a bad guy. He wasa mad scientist and he was terminated into the bat guy.He fell in the giant garbage can as he was sucked in,but his brother brang him in. He came back with nothingbut sharp razor teeth. He made a trap. Finally someone169dug him up. The army didn't want animals here so theyflied away. I am a mad scientist. You guys turned meinto a bat. He bit everyone. The alligator jumped atthe bat. I'm tired of being ordered around. Theneveryone bites the bat. He was shot down and can't flyaway. Good, we don't want you. They don't like what batdoes.The bat and alligator fight. The alligator bitesme. He bites him back. There was a fight between allof them, but he just swished his wings. He could flynow. Come back and fight. Then the alligators wereterminated. They were wondering who was going to win.The bat and alligator fight. The alligator's eye is redas he's so mad. He's (bat) sucking his blood. He lovesblood. They thought bat was dead but something insidehim started beating again. I'm putting you (alligator)in the County jail. The bat is the winner. They're alldead."Import: "if you voice your anger towards others,you will endure conflict and be defeated". As thealligator appeared first in the story and the storyended when it was terminated, the import was developedwith it as the main character.Category 3, Score -2.170Process analysis.The subject used the entire room on this occasionto narrate his sandplay. He flew the bat around theroom, used the garbage can, and stood on a chair when itwas called for in his play. The process was far morecontinuous than previously observed and there was only 1change in idea, when the army people were removed fromthe tray. The sand world took the form of a wholelogical picture.The subject spoke constantly throughout thisprocess and at the beginning of the session his speechwas very regressed. However, by the end of session hewas expressing himself in a developmentally appropriatemanner. As well as narrating his play, he told theresearcher about insects and how, on one occasion, hecaught a fruit bat. The subject identified so stronglywith the bat that he tried to make a deal with theresearcher to take it home until his next session.Although the subject spoke constantly during thisperiod, he was very emotionally involved in his play anddid not request the researcher's assistance. He didhowever express concern that the researcher would beleaving following one more session.The sandplay process was active and the feelings171projected were negative and aggressive. The overalltheme was struggle. There were 9 objects present in thetray. The choice of objects were fierce wild animals(alligators, snakes, bat, bear cubs). One of thealligators was called "dad alligator". The subject usedthe entire 30 minutes and began to whine and showreluctance to leave when the time had expired.Figure 32. 007 Sandplay #4.Picture analysis.The sand world was barren and empty, with no signsof growth and vitality. Only the bottom right quadrantof the sand tray was used, thus making the sand world172unbalanced. The picture of the sandplay in progressshowed the theme of destruction. The completed worldappeared peopled, empty, and aggressive, and the majortheme appeared to be conflict.Narrative analysis."These Batmans are brothers and they can jump.This bat is a bad guy. He's gliding into this Batman.The Batmen kicked him over there. A devil is going todance. The devil's tail can poke people and they dieand his tail shoots out poison. If he pokes himself itdoesn't affect him. He makes his tail point to the goodguys so he can kill them. Actually this (horns) is hisantennae. They're razor sharp. (Fighting ensues).Batman is really hurt and no one sees where he is.Then the X 100 blows up the mummy and it smacks on thedevil. Robin turns into one of his Batman suits and hekicks, and the cannon goes off, and he accidently kicksthe sand, and Batman comes out, and he slides into thebat, and the bat makes him fly up. They woke Batman upso he's going to kill the bat and he throwed 50,000pounds. Then he poured poison into him and he says, "Iam Batman's friend", and they think of a dirty scheme."O.K. Batman you pretend you are on his side", and theytie them together. And with one swing of his powerful173wand he lets them go. I don't like the devil, I likeBatman. The Indian is going to shoot the devil."Import: "when you are hurt, your friends will helpyou and then you can over power and out think harmfulpeople".Category 3, Score +2.Process analysis.The subject only chose dry sand on this occasionand he attempted to lift the wet tray out of the way toshow the researcher how strong he was. He moved aroundthe whole room once again enacting his sandplay. Thiswas one continuous process, without a change in idea,and the finished sand world was a logical picture. Thesand remained primarily flat except for the burying ofobjects.The subject spoke constantly during this processand as well as narrating his play, he told theresearcher that his father used to be a professionalwrestler, who pounded Batman and sent him to bed. Healso spoke of his sorrow of his impending move.During the sandplay, the subject became veryemotionally involved and did not request theresearcher's assistance. He acted out and gave soundeffects to many fights and battles between the objects174in the tray.There was constant movement observed both withinand outside the tray, therefore this was an active sandworld. The projected feelings were destruction and goodversus evil. The overall theme was struggle.There were 9 items in tray and the choice of itemswere military (aeroplane, tank), fierce figures (devil,skeleton, bat), 3 male figures (2 super heroes, 1indian), and a neutral object (candy cane). At the endof this process, the subject repeatedly asked theresearcher if she would remember him and he stated threetimes that he had to remember the researcher. He wantedher to take a picture of him to remember him by. He usedthe entire 30 minutes and was very reluctant to leave.175Sandolav process over time.This subject's sand worlds were initially hostile,conflictual, barren, and empty, and they remained thisway throughout this process. He therefore appeared tobe in the stages of destruction/simplicity and nomovement was seen toward another stage. He became morefocused as the process developed as there was a decreasein the number of ideas presented.The emergence of the alligators in the second trayseemed to be the emergence of his self symbol, and thisseemed to represent his anger. However, the alligatorswhere later defeated and were replaced by the bat as theobject which received most of the subject's energy. Thefact that the subject wished to take the bat homefurther confirmed his strong identification with thissymbol, and he appeared to be identifying with theaggressor part of himself.The narrative imports; "when you make mistakes,harmful people will be maddened and disappointed in you,and they will get rid of you", "even when you hide fromdanger, you will be found out and punished for being badand no one will know", "if you voice your anger towardsothers, you will endure conflict and be defeated", "whenyou are hurt, your friends will help you and then you176can over power and out think harmful people", suggestthat this child experiences feelings of rejection,helplessness, and a lack of personal power. Hisinvestment in others to make him strong, suggests thathe does not have a strong sense of Self and thisconfirms the observations made by his teacher. However,there is a glimmer of hope that he can feel somepersonal power, especially when he has successful peerinteractions. The sandplay process appears to havecreated a space where this child can begin to feelempowered.Sublect 008 Bioaraohical information.This male subject was 8 years 3 months at the onsetof this study. He was described by his teacher asfunctioning within the average range for most subjectsbut needing extra help with math. He needs strongguidance and encouragement from the teacher to produce.He was said to lack motivation and drive, and he givesup on tasks extremely easily. Furthermore, hereportedly is very reserved and often seems preoccupied.He also becomes easily upset, has low frustrationtolerance, and poor problem solving abilities. Whenupset this subject was said to cry, however recently he177has been able to hold back his tears more often. Healso suffers from stomach aches when upset. In general,he is lacking in self confidence and has low selfesteem.However, this subject is well liked by his classmates and he does have friends. He actively avoidsconflict on the playground with older children.He is the middle child in a two parent family. Hehas an older brother who is reportedly popular,athletic, outgoing, and capable, and a younger sisterwho appears emotionally and socially well adjusted. Hismother is very involved in her son's school life and sheis reportedly very concerned and worried regarding hisfunctioning.178Fiaure 33. 008 Sandplay #1.Picture analysis.This sand world depicted two camps of soldiers,where one camp (the researcher's) was completelydestroyed by the other. The military objects andfigures were turned upside down, giving the feeling ofdestruction. The tray showed characteristics ofdisorganized, peopled, barren, and crowded, and it hadthemes of conflict and chaos.Narrative analysis."This is an Indian camp ground. The Indian has an179everlasting supply of tomahawks. Everyone goes in there(tee pee) and they bring their prisoners. They scalpthem. Those guys are all dead. Your guys were shotwith sleeping gas so they're really not dead. This guysays shoot me and he stands in front of the cannon. Hedoesn't want to live, that's why he went into the war.This guy's also not watching what he's doing andshooting. Even the horse is dead. The horse is beingburied and it has to try and get out. He's walkingright in front of the cannon. My guys' never gotkilled".Import: "when in the middle of conflict, you feellike you don't want to live and you want others to getrid of you". The import was developed from the point ofview of the soldier (this guy) as his motivations andactions appeared throughout the story.Category 4, Score -2.Process analysis.The subject chose dry sand and the sand remainedflat, only being moved to bury objects. He moved aroundthe tray as he worked and he requested the researchersit directly opposite him and take an active role in thesandplay. The researcher was urged to control the leftof the tray throughout these four sessions. This was180one continuous process and there were no changes inideas. A whole logical picture resulted and the worldwas active.The subject spoke constantly and he engaged theresearcher in conversation about the objects in theroom. He presented as being somewhat domineering andverbally aggressive toward the researcher. Heconstantly told the researcher what to do and stated"don't you know anything?", "you don't know anythingabout war". During his narration, he also madestatements to the researcher such as "my guys are goingto win as I have the winning stuff, I told you I'm thestrongest, I knew I would win, I had all the strongstuff". Winning and subsequently feeling powerful weretherefore extremely important to him.The feelings which the sandplay projected werenegative, destructive, aggressive, and hopeless. Theoverall theme was struggle.The subject chose 52 objects, the majority of whichwere military (cannons, tanks, soldiers, flag), withsome scenery (tee pees), and transportation (horse andcart, horses). The subject was very reluctant to leaveafter 30 minutes had elapsed, as he wished to continuehis play.181Fiaure 34. 008 Sandplay #2.Picture analysis.This sand world depicted two armies in oppositionto one another. One side was completely annihilated andthe other had members still alive. The finished trayappeared destructive, chaotic, aggressive, anddisorganized. The overall theme was conflict. The traywas peopled but there were no signs of growth andvitality, and it appeared barren and lifeless.Narrative analysis."It's going to be a China war. These guys are182smart, your guys are dumb, as they're getting married inthe middle of the war. I think you should put this guyright here (in front of the cannon). He wants to getshot. His mum and dad decided he had to go in the war.He didn't want to go in the war. It's his mum and dad'sfault. That's why he wants to die. I'm going to shootthis guy right now. "Shoot me or I'll kill you". Theywant to get married in the war, as they want to die. Ineed a totem pole for good luck. The Indian's made themfor good luck. First your side gets hit with sleepbombs, then they blind them, and then they die. He getsburied. He has time to get out, but it's too hard."Import: "when others force you into the middle ofconflict, you want to die and this is too hard toprevent.Category 4, Score -2.Process analysis.On this occasion, the subject chose wet sand and heplaced objects in the tray closest to where he stood.He again insisted that the researcher construct the lefthand side of the tray and he passed her the objects sheshould use. Furthermore, during this process herepeatedly told her, "you get wiped out again", "youhaven't a chance", and "you're going to lose again".183Fighting ensued and there was a progressive cycleof violence, beginning with the researcher's side being"sleep gased", blinded, and then killed. The subjecttook great delight in being the triumphant victor, andhaving power seemed very important to him.The sand was moved in the tray to bury soldiers forcamouflage and a victim was buried under a mound. Themaking of the sand world was one continuous process andthere were no changes in idea. The form was a wholelogical picture and the world was active. The subjectspoke constantly during this process and he accused theresearcher of purposefully taking one of his figures asshe knew he liked it.The projected feelings were hopeless, depressive,and negative. The overall theme was struggle.The subject included 41 objects in his sand world.The choice of objects were military (soldiers, tanks,cannon, vehicle), symbolic (totem poles, flash light), 2male figures (fantasy), and a bride and groom. Theentire 30 minutes were utilized, but the subject lefteagerly as it was time for recess.184Fiaure 35. 008 Sandplay #3.Ficture analysis.This sand world appeared barren and hostile, asthere were no signs of growth and vitality, and fightingwas occurring. Once again two opposing sides weredepicted, with one side being annihilated. However,signs of life emerged outside the tray, as a village wasadded, along with wild animals. In general, the traywas relatively empty and organized, and the overalltheme appeared to be conflict.185Narrative analysis."There's a sand wall. A man will have troublegetting through. It's going to be a city. It's inChina. There's a city outside. Those people are saferon your (the researcher's) side as the tray is higher.The shark comes up only when they need it. My (thesubject's) soldiers are hidden so they're camouflaged.It's hard for your side to take aim. I'm the Chinese,you're the Japanese. Japan guys are dumb. Shark eatsyour side, "mmm, tasty people, my dinner is served.That's my dinner, that's my dinner, that's my dinner".The shark pukes them up as he's full. The gorilla comesand takes two men to the hot lava, in the volcano. "No,no". He drops them in. The deer got into the warsomehow. Dad deer charges at your men. He's dead. Thedeer died and was landing on top of him. He's tooheavy. He can get him off but he doesn't. Oh the deeris not dead, he just fell. Well isn't that guy going topush the deer off? (He tries, but two deer land onhim). The baby deer ambushes my side from behind. Thedeer wipes out my side, but they come back alive."Import: "even though you have the strength to geton top of life, it's just too difficult, and no matterhow hard you try it won't be enough".186Category 1, Score -2.Process analysis.The subject chose dry sand in which to create hissand world. He initially added houses but then movedthem to the exterior of the tray, making one change inidea. He moved around the sand tray and he developed awhole logical picture. The sand was formed to provideprotective barriers, within which objects were buried.The subject spoke about his sand world constantlyand he also dialogued with the researcher about a moviehe had seen. During the play, he accused the researcherof stealing one of his figures and he motioned to hither on the head with the shark, but did not make directcontact. He continued to be somewhat hostile to theresearcher and verbally spoke his disapproval e.g."well", when the researcher did not reset her side ofthe tray immediately.This sand world was active. The feeling projectedwas helplessness, and the overall theme was struggle forsurvival. There were 33 objects used, including theobjects on the outside of the tray. The choice ofobjects were military (soldiers), scenery (houses),fierce wild animals (shark, gorilla), and friendly wildanimals (deer). The subject required the entire 30187minutes to conduct his sandplay and was reluctant toleave, saying he was having fun.Fiaure 36. 008 Sandplay #4Picture analysis.This sand picture depicted two opposing sidesfighting over a treasure chest. It appeared barren andcold, as there were few signs of life and growth, yet itwas organized. The overall theme was conflict.Narrative analysis."The fat Sumo wrestler is the guard of thetreasure. Whoever comes near it dies. Indians are best188as they have longer lasting weapons. They stole gunsfrom anyone that had them. They put an arrow in themiddle of this guy's head (wrestler). It's like thisguy wants to get shot. He's just standing there saying,"I want to die". He doesn't want to be a cowboy anymore. This treasure was to be stolen by pirates, but Ikilled them all. They want the treasure (fightingensues). Now I have to scalp him. There's only onespot he can be killed, his chin. He's immortal. He canonly be killed on the chin. Indians sculpted him. Theypulled his head off and threw it in the lava and theIndians get the treasure. All Indians are alive. Thetreasure tells them they're okay."Import "you have to fight and fend of others inorder to get the feeling that you are okay". Thisimport was developed with the Indians as the dominantcharacter. This subject actually identified that he wasthe Indians.Category 1, Score +2.Process analysis.The subject chose dry sand and placed objectsclosest to where he stood. He created a whole logicalpicture and this was one continuous process without achange in idea. There was no movement of the sand,189except for the burial of the Sumo wrestler. The subjectspoke constantly throughout.The subject engaged in more solitary play andbecame absorbed in this process. He did not try to pullthe researcher into the play and he was notargumentative or sullen.The feelings projected in the sandplay were ofpower and death, and the overall theme was struggle forsurvival. The subject included 25 objects in his tray,and the choice of objects were military (soldiers), andsymbolic (treasure). He used the entire 30 minutes.Sandplav process over time.This subject's initial sand world indicated that hewas in the stage of destruction, however over time theprocess became more organized and there was somemovement observed toward the stage of struggle (i.e.organized fighting). - By the third and fourth sessionsthe level of destruction slightly decreased and becamemore focused onto particular figures, instead ofwidespread annihilation as was previously observed.A further progression was noted in the choice ofobjects used, as domestic figures and objects (houses)were added and by the fourth session a symbolic object(treasure chest) was the main focal point. This190suggested that there was a decrease in energy beinginvested in fighting and destroying, and other morepositive elements were permitted entry into his world.The addition of the treasure chest in the final sandworld was seen as a symbol of hope and determination tofight for that which has significance and worth (perhapshis Self).The narrative imports; "when in the middle ofconflict, you feel like you don't want to live and youwant others to get rid of you", "when others force youinto the middle of conflict, you want to die and this istoo hard to prevent", "even though you have the strengthto get on top of life, it's too difficult, and no matterhow hard you try it won't be enough", "you have to fightand fend off others in order to get the feeling that youare okay", also reflected this movement from pessimisticself destruction to slightly more optimistic strugglefor survival.The narrative imports take the meaning of thissubject's play to a deeper level and clearly outline hisstruggle for personal survival. His play is thereforeseen as a loud cry for help.191Sublect 010 Bioaraohical information.This subject was 8 years 7 months at the onset ofthis study. She was described by her teacher asfunctioning poorly academically, having poor math skillsand no reading skills. She cannot problem solve, hasdifficulty with new concepts, and has poor long termmemory. However, she was described as a very goodlistener, and able to comprehend oral stories. Ingeneral, she was said to have low self esteem, beextremely passive, show no initiative or responsibility,and have little motivation or self confidence.However, she has good social skills and is verywell liked by her classmates, as she shows caring,understanding, and sensitivity toward them.She is the second youngest in a family of ninechildren.192Fiaure 37. 010 Sandplay #1.Picture analysis.The first sand picture was barren, empty,unpeopled, and depressive in appearance. It included abucket filled with water and 9 turtles. As few clueswere given to the meaning of the sand tray, the overalltheme could not be ascertained at this point.Narrative analysis."A mama and baby turtle were walking on a beach andthey bumped into two more turtles. Then they becamefriends. The babies started to playing together and the193mums started talking together. Then a mama turtle withtwo kids came and the mamas talked while the four kidsplayed. Then another turtle came and then two moreturtles came. Then they were all friends. Then theytook a swim and they're all friends".Import: "if you talk with and play with others, youwill have many friends".Category 4, Score +2.Process analysis.The subject chose wet sand and carefully flattenedit before adding objects. The sand was also moved inthe burial of the turtles and in the making of a pondwhich was later covered over. This was one continuousprocess without a change in idea, and she worked fromone side of the tray. The subject spoke very softly asshe conducted her sandplay. She seemed most fascinatedwith the turtles.During her sandplay, she very carefully placed babyturtles with their mothers, and at one point she buriedthe babies so the mothers could find them without anydifficulty. Furthermore, she showed a strong dislike tothe babies being dirty and she therefore washed them.The world was active in nature.The sand world was positive but lacked colour,194vitality, and growth. The subject showed very flataffect, and this depressive quality was felt in her sandworld. The overall theme was nurturance.The subject included 10 objects in her sand world,9 friendly wild animals (turtles), and a neutral object(bucket of water). She used the allotted 30 minutes andwas reluctant to leave.Fiaure 38. 010 Sandplay #2.Picture analysis.This subject chose to make two sand worlds. The195first was of friendly wild animals scattered around thewet tray. This sand world appeared barren, empty, anduninviting. It was unpeopled and as two turtle familieswere shown, it seemed to have a theme of nurturance.The second sand world contained an abundance oftrees and domestic animals. Like animals werepositioned closely to one another, and the tray appearedorganized, balanced, vibrant, and welcoming. It was alsounpeopled and the theme seemed to be domestic.Narrative analysis."The baby cow is beside it's mother and it'slearning to walk. The horse family have two girls and abrother. The tiny little baby stays by it's mum. Thewatch dogs are watching the wolves. There's a girl cowand a boy cow, a dad and two brothers. They're runningeverywhere. The duck bites the little baby. The mumgets mad and the duck gets scared away. The mum's madat the ducks if they get too close to the babies. Oneday there was a flock of sheep. Then they startedliving there. Then some cows came to live there. Itwas beginning to be a forest. Then some horses came byto live in there. Some goats, dogs, wolves, cats, andpigs. Then it became a forest."Import: "even when you are close to your mother and196others are watching over you, you will be hurt and yourworld will change".Category 1, Score -2.Process analysis.The subject initially headed straight for theturtles and continued her theme from the previous week.Wet sand was chosen and it was flattened by the subject.The sand was moved to protect the baby turtle from thealligator and seagull. The subject once again cleanedthe sand off the turtles and began placing them withtheir mothers. This was one continuous process butthere was one major change in idea, as she decided tocreate another sand world. She created a whole logicalpicture and worked from the same side.In the second sand world there was no movement ofsand. The subject spoke of buying shells for her motherfor Christmas, and her mother living on a farm whenyoung and being bitten by a pig. She also provided acontinuous narration of her play. She was very slow,lacked energy, spoke very softly, and had flat affect.The feeling projected in the first sand world wasdepressive, but nurturing. The overall theme was ofthreat/danger. The feeling projected in the secondworld was also nurturing, and the overall theme was of197physical hurt. Both sand worlds were active.There were 18 objects in the first tray, all ofwhich were friendly animals. In the second tray therewere 63 items, the choice of which were scenery (trees),and domestic animals. The subject completed the firsttray in 8 minutes but took the entire 30 minutes tocomplete both creations. At the end of this process shetold the researcher "all done".Figure 39. 010 Sandplay #3.Picture analysis.This sand tray was filled with insects, reptiles,198and friendly wild animals. It was unpeopled, organized,and balanced, but looked threatening, and unwelcoming.The overall theme was threat/danger.Narrative analysis."One day in the hot desert there were seven spidersand one fly and they all ate him. And then thecrocodiles came to eat the spiders, and the snakes atethe cockroaches. The frogs hopped over to see what wasthe matter. Then one of the snakes saw them and startedslithering after them. Then all the cockroaches bit thesnake's tail."Import: "small people will be harmed by biggerpeople, but if the hurting does not stop, they will getthere own back".Category 3, Score +1.Process analysis.The subject chose dry sand, the sand remained flatand she moved around the tray. This was a continuousprocess, there was no change in idea, and the subjectcreated a whole logical picture. The sand world wasstatic.The subject spoke constantly throughout thisprocess, telling the researcher about each animal (e.g.the turtle is scared), about her sister's baby being199held over the rail of a shark tank and almost beingdropped in, of a dead baby bird, and a garter snakebeing in her mother's bath when she was a child. Shespoke quietly and very slowly.The sand world appeared aggressive, negative, andlacking in colour. The predominant theme wasthreat/danger. There were 29 objects in the tray, 22 ofwhich were fierce animals, and the remainder werefriendly, wild animals. The subject required 24 minutesto complete this process, after which she declared, "I'mdone".Fiaure 40. 010 Sandplay #4.200Picture analysis.This sand world contained shells, turtles, frogs, awishing well and feather. It appeared barren, cold, andlacking in growth and vitality. The tray wasunbalanced, empty, and unpeopled. The overall theme ofthis work was not apparent from examining thephotograph.Narrative analysis."One day there was a sand dollar that made theturtles curious. They all gathered around it and one ofthem sat on top of it and it broke. Then they lookedinside of it and there was a pearl. They took the pearlout of it's mouth. The pearl had a reflection and thenthe turtles dropped it, and put it back into the sanddollars mouth, and the sand dollar swam away. Then itcame back and they made friends.Import: "you may be broken and have part of yourSelf taken away, but you will get it back and then youwill be able to make peace with others".Category 4, Score +2.Process analysis.The subject chose wet sand which remained flat. Sheworked from the same side and the objects were closestto where she sat. This was one continuous process201without a change in idea, and it was a whole logicalpicture. It was a static sand world.The subject spoke throughout this process but shespoke softly, sighed frequently, and lacked energy. Shespoke of an adult male family friend calling her houselast night, when he was drunk and called her funnynames. She said she once saw a dead turtle as this mankilled it. She also spoke of a girl she knew who was inthe newspaper, who had a baby and called her "mean" and"a liar". She offered no further information on thisbut it was evident that it was greatly bothering her.The sandplay, and in particular the narrative,projected feelings of hope for the future despiteprevious hurts. The overall theme was of restoration.There were 29 objects placed in the sand tray. Thetype of objects were natural objects (shells, feather),symbolic (wishing well), and friendly, wild animals(turtles, frogs). The subject took 25 minutes tocomplete this process, after which she declared "I'mdone".Sandiplav process over time.This subjects initial sand world was barren andlifeless, however there was an increase in growthfulobjects in the second session. In fact, the second sand202world of the second session appeared balanced, friendly,and full of life but seemed incomplete due to thelimited variety of objects used. This subject seemed tomove from a stage of simplicity, to that of pseudo-wholeness, and once she felt safe in freely expressingherself, a negative, threatening world emerged. Thefinal sand world returned once again to the stage ofsimplicity and there was a distinct impression that partof this world, or as the import suggested part of herSelf was missing. However, the emergence of the firstsymbolic object (wishing well) suggested that there ishope for positive change in the future.The narrative imports; "if you talk with and playwith others you will have many friends", "even when youare close to your mother and others are watching overyou, you will be hurt and your world will change","small people will be harmed by bigger people, but ifthis pursuit continues they will get there own back","you may be broken and have part of your Self takenaway, but you will get it back and then you will be ableto make peace with others", reinforce this descent frompseudo-wholeness into the expression of hurt feelings.The expression of positive change occurred quicker innarrative form, as opposed to visual form. Similarly,203the expression of hope and forgiveness is seen moreclearly in narrative form, versus visual form.Summary The preceding results will now be furthersummarized and categorized in terms of sandplaycharacteristics, object use, sandplay themes, sand worldcharacteristics, and narrative.204Table 1Difference in Sandplay Characteristics of Cooing andDifficulty Cooing Groups Sandp layCharacteristics CG DCG DifferenceWet Sand World 57% 38% 19%Dry Sand World 43% 63% 20%Both Trays 0% 40% 40%Water Added 5% 8% 3%Static 86% 8% 78%Active 14% 92% 78%Sand Movement 52% 38% 14%Continuous Process 81% 46% 35%Exceeds Sand Tray 5% 17% 12%Washing 10% 13% 5%Burying 14% 63% 39%As can be seen from Table 1, there was littledifference in the type of sand chosen, the addition ofwater, the movement of sand, or in the act of washing inboth groups.However, only the DCG chose to use both sand trays205in one session. On four occasions the DCG chose to maketwo distinct sand worlds in one session, yet on only oneoccasion did this occur in the CG. Only children in theDCG, and one in the CG who expressed emotional fears andconcerns, positioned objects outside the boundaries ofthe tray.Of the total amount of sand worlds made by the CG,86% were static, however, only 8% of the DCG made staticsand worlds. Likewise, 14% of sand worlds in the CGwere active as compared with 92% in the DCG. The onlysubject to create active worlds in the CG was the onewith apparent underlying emotional concerns.Although members in the CG tended not to showmovement within their sand world, movement and energywere typically expressed through their bodies, as theysmiled more often, worked more quickly, and moved backand forth repeatedly between the sand trays and toyshelves. In comparison, members of the DCG eitherexpended excessive amounts of energy all over the room,or seemed somewhat depressed in their movements andactions.In terms of the flow of the sandplay, it was foundthat the DCG were far more likely to change their ideasin the middle of the process. While the CG typically206engaged in one continuous process without a change inidea. The only subject in the CG to demonstrate changesin ideas was the one with underlying emotional concerns.Furthermore, the act of burying showed a cleardifference between the two groups as 63% of sand worldsin the DCG, and 14% of sand worlds in the CG depictedburying. Two of the three occasions of burying in theCG, was by the subject who showed emotionaldifficulties.The amount of talking during the process alsodifferentiated the two groups. The CG was quiet on 14occasions, showed some talk on 1 occasion, and constanttalk on 5 occasions. However, the DCG was quiet on 1occasion, showed some talk on 3 occasions, and constanttalk on 16 occasions. Four of the five occasions whereconstant talk was indicated in the CG, was by thesubject with apparent emotional concerns.In general, the subjects in the DCG showed animmediate need to engage the researcher in their processand share information about their life. In contrast,the CG was far more wary of the researcher and took moretime to be trusting and share information spontaneouslyabout themselves.Nonetheless, two members of the DCG were extremely207apprehensive and suspicious of the video camera andstated that harm would come to them as a result of beingtaped. The CG showed no concern with the video camera.The time taken to complete the sand worldssignificantly distinguished the two groups. The CG tookan average of 12.9 minutes to complete each sand world.Once the process was completed, they indicated verballythey were finished and eagerly returned to class. Theonly subject to require the allotted 30 minutes was theone demonstrating emotional difficulties. However, theDCG took an average of 29.45 minutes to complete theprocess and only one of the subjects stated she wasfinished before the allotted time expired. Further,this group was reluctant to return to class.208Table 2Difference in Obiect Use of Coping and DifficultyCoping GroupsCG DCG DifferenceObjects UsedScenery 218 128 90Transportation 26 3 23Domestic Animals 10 75 65Friendly Wild Animals 122 101 21Fierce Wild Animals 20 42 12Military 9 127 118Natural Objects 16 31 15Domestic Figures 39 23 16Fierce Figures 1 8 7Fantasy Figures 22 10 12Symbolic Objects 216 212 4Houses 88 39 49As can be seen from Table 2, the CG chosesignificantly more items of scenery than the DCG.Differences were also observed in the amount oftransportation chosen, as the CG chose more vehiclesthan the DCG.209On the other hand, the DCG used significantly moredomestic animals and military objects in their sandworlds. However, only male subjects in both groups usedmilitary figures. Therefore, these figures aredifficult to compare due to the gender differences inthe groups. It was further discovered that femalesubjects tended to choose female figures and malesubjects tended to choose male figures.There were greater amounts of fierce wild animalsand fierce figures, and far fewer houses observed in theDCG, but there was not a great difference in the use offriendly wild animals, domestic figures, and symbolicobjects. The greater use of fantasy figures by the CGcorresponded to the higher incidence of fantasy themesfound within their sand worlds.In general, the total number of objects used wasalmost identical for both groups (CG^821, DCG^815).Likewise, both groups showed a tendency to reuse some ofthe same objects from tray to tray, and the repeated useof a particular object was seen as an emergence of aself symbol.210Table 3Difference in Sandolay Themes of Copina and DifficultyCooina Groups Sandplay ThemesCG DCG DifferenceRestoration 0% 5% 5%Struggle 5% 40% 35%Danger/Threat 5% 20% 15%Death/Destruction 5% 25% 20%Safety 15% 0% 15%Fantasy 25% 5% 2%Nurturance 5% 5% 0%Dependency 25% 0% 25%Empowerment 15% 0% 15%Table 3 indicates that the DOG showed significantlygreater occurrences of struggle, danger/threat, anddeath/destruction, as compared with the CG. Thesethemes present in the CG, were only shown by the subjectwith apparent underlying emotional conflicts. On thecontrary, the CG showed a greater incidence of fantasy,dependency, empowerment, and safety themes. There was211no difference on the theme of nurturance.It was found that the sand world itself did notconvey the primary theme of the work, but it was theentire sandplay process, including the narrative, whichmore fully imparted the theme.There were no consistent patterns found in themedevelopment over time, as each child showed a unique wayof moving through the process. However, both groups didshow a tendency to show moderately emotional themes atthe beginning and move toward more complex, emotionallydeeper themes. For the CG this movement was from lighthearted, fantasy themes, to the expression ofdevelopmental issues, such as a need for others toprotect and meet their basic needs.For the DCG there was typically an initial attemptto cover up emotional concerns either by (a) overcrowding the tray so there was no main focal point, (b)omitting negative items or events in the sand tray andreferring to them only in the narrative, or (c) creatinga pleasant sand world and accompanying narrative, butconsistently acknowledging and dissmissing fierceobjects on the toy shelves. On the latter twooccasions, there was a sense of pseudo-wholeness, as thesand world would contain many desirable characteristics212on the surface, but there would be a hint, eitherthrough the picking up and constant denying of fierceobjects or through the story narrative, which suggestedunderlying difficulties. As the process developed,there was a progressive uncovering of emotional concernsand by the fourth session these deeper level issues hadclearly surfaced.Although these issues did not surface visually insome cases until the fourth session, the narrative oftenreflected issues and concerns before this time. By thefourth session the narrative began to show signs of thesubject being able to cope with the problem.213Table 4Difference in Sand World Characteristics of Copina andDifficulty Copina Groups Sand World CG DCG DifferenceCharacteristicsUnpeopled 33% 50% 17%Empty 24% 29% 5%Disorganized 14% 21% 7%Balanced 62% 38% 24%Vital 38% 13% 25%Peopled 67% 50% 17%Organized 71% 46% 25%Barren 24% 75% 51%Unbalanced 0% 17% 17%Crowded 14% 13% 1%According to Table 4, the sand worlds of the CGdiffered from those of the DCG as they consistentlyshowed more desirable characteristics (balanced,organized, peopled, and vital), with less undesirablecharacteristics (unpeopled, empty, disorganized, barren,and unbalanced). There was no difference on the crowded214characteristic.The characteristic which showed the greatestdifference was barren, as the DCG showed a lack ofgrowth and life in 75% of sand worlds, as compared with24% in the CG. The characteristic which was only seenin the worlds of the DCG was unbalanced, that is wherepart of the tray was left unused.Table 5Difference in Narrative Score of Cooing and DifficultyCol:Dina Grouts Category CG DCG Difference1.^Success,happiness,^etc. (2)^+4 (6)^-5 92. Right & wrong (2)^+1 (0)^0 13. Human relationships (7)^+11 (7)^-3 144. Reaction to adversity (9)^+13 (7)^+1 12Note. Number in bracket denotes number of entries ineach category.Table 5 indicates that the majority of childrenwhere not concerned with the issues of right and wrong.Furthermore, on only two incidents, with a score of +4,215was achievement and success identified for the CG, butthis category was identified on six occasions, totalling-5, for the DCG. This suggests that achievement,happiness, and success may be taken for granted in theCG but remains an issue with the DCG. The low score inthis category suggests that these children arestruggling to feel successful, confident, and happy.The category of human relationships was equallyimportant to both groups but the higher score of the CGsuggests they perceive human relationships as helpful,positive, and rewarding and the low score of the DCGsuggests they perceive human relationships as negative,threatening, and potentially harmful.The category of reaction to adversity received thegreatest number of entries in the CG. The high score inthis category suggests that coping children are able todevelop positive actions, plans or thoughts when facedwith adversity. However, the relatively low score inthe DCG suggests they lack positive action, thoughts,and plans when faced with adversity.The total score for the CG was +29, out of apossible score of +40, while the DCG scored -7.The emotional intensity in which the narrativeswere relayed also distinguished the groups. The CG216tended to relay their stories in a light hearted, jovialmanner, without much emotional intensity, and the storywas typically short. However, the DCG tended to telllonger stories, which were emotionally charged, and attimes they became so absorbed in the process that theyseemed to be in a trance like state and oblivious totheir immediate surroundings.The narrative analysis were therefore found to bean invaluable way of determining each child's corebelief system regarding the world in which they live.Consequently, it has become evident that there arevery clear differences between the CG and the DCG onsandplay characteristics, object use, sandplay themes,sand world characteristics, and narrative, and thefollowing chapter will discuss the interpretation andimplications of these results.217CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSIONThe primary focus of this study was to examine thedifferences in sandplay of coping children anddifficulty coping children. Results of the sandplayprocess were analyzed and presented in the previouschapter. This final chapter is divided into foursections: (a) interpretation of results, (b)implications, (c) limitations, and (d) directions forfuture research.Interpretation of Results Results will be examined in the order they werepresented in the previous chapter i.e. sandplaycharacteristics, object use, sandplay themes, sand worldcharacteristics, and narrative analysis.Sandolav Characteristics The use of both sand trays during one session bythe DCG, the exceeding of the boundaries of the sandtrays, and excessive use of time, suggests that childrenhaving difficulty coping have trouble adhering toboundaries and limits. It would seem that on occasiontheir emotional concerns are overwhelming, thereforedifficult to contain, and they need to make use of everyopportunity to express their emotional needs, wants, andperceptions. The finding that the DCG tended to218position articles outside of the tray, supports Bowyer's(1970) findings that after the age of three, "normal"children adhered to the boundaries of the sand tray.Furthermore, the consistent verbal declarations by theCG, which announced the completion of their sandplay,suggests that they do have very clear limits and firmboundaries.Similarly, the striking difference that the CGcreated static sand worlds and DCG created active sandworlds, may suggest that children having difficultycoping experience pressure of their emotional issues,which results in an increase in psychic energy thatbecomes released in the sand tray during the sandplayprocess. The static sand worlds of the CG suggest thattheir inner world is more calm and stable, and they donot need a release of emotional tension as intense asthe DCG.The tendency for the CG to engage in one continuousprocess without a change in idea, suggests once againthat they experience relative emotional stability andcalm. However, the tendency to repeatedly change ideasin the DCG suggests that, (a) they have an abundance ofemotional issues fighting for expression and/or, (b)they have strong ego defenses which react when it is not219safe for issues to surface into consciousness, and theseissues are quickly changed and expressed in anotherform.The above hypothesis may also account for thehigher incidence of burying objects in the DCG. Theburial of objects may signify a need to hide feelings orundesirable parts of one's self from others or even fromoneself. This finding partially supports theobservations of Bowyer (1970) who stated that after theage of five only emotionally disturbed persons buried inthe sand.The tendencies to engage the researcher verbally,to talk constantly, and to require the allotted time,further outlines the great need of the DCG to expresstheir issues and concerns at every possible moment.Furthermore, the immediate development of rapport withthe researcher (a stranger), the reluctance to leave andreturn to class, and the tendency to be verydisappointed not to see the researcher again at the endof the study (as seen in two cases) corresponded toBowlby's (1988) insecurely attached, anxious resistantchild. This type of child was described as seekingattention, and being either tense, impulsive, and easilyfrustrated, or passive and helpless. In the DCG this220description corresponded, in varying degrees, to theteacher-described attributes of all five children. Incontrast, the teacher-described attributes of the CGcorresponded to Bowlby's (1988) description of thesecurely attached child, which was cheerful,cooperative, popular with other children, resilient, andresourceful.Obiect Use The significantly lesser use of scenery in theDCG, suggests they view their internal and externalworld as lacking in life and growth. Likewise, the veryinfrequent use of transportation may indicate that theyfail to experience a sense of movement and progression.This tendency for the CG to use more items oftransportation corresponded to Bowyer's (1970) findingsthat "normal" populations showed a strong interest intransportation between ages 5 and 8.The abundant use of military objects by the malesin the DCG, suggests that they have their need forpersonal power met through aggressive actions towardothers. This phenomenon of only males using militaryfigures contradicts the findings of Buhler (1951a) whodiscovered that the use of soldiers and fighting wasgreater in groups of girls as compared to boys. However,221it confirms the work of Kamp & Kessler (1970) who foundthat boys used more soldiers than girls. In order forhypotheses to be postulated on this phenomenon, furtherstudy which controls strictly for gender is necessary.The frequent use of domestic animals in the DCGappears to substitute for the lesser use of fantasy anddomestic figures. In fact, if the use of domestic andfriendly wild animals, and domestic and fantasy figuresare grouped together and totalled for both groups, thereis a minimal difference (17). It can therefore be saidthat the DCG preferred to relay their experiences inanimal versus human form. In her research of "normal"populations, Bowyer (1970) discovered that the youngestage group (2-4 yrs.) typically used animals assubstitutes for people. Therefore the use of animals,perhaps instead of people, in the DCG suggests that theyexperience relative emotional delays as compared withthe CG.The greater use of fierce figures and fierceanimals in the DCG suggests that they perceive theirworld as more threatening and dangerous as compared withthe CG.Lastly, the significantly greater use of houses inthe CG suggests that they are perhaps more ready to222focus on issues of domesticity and family life, ascompared with the DCG, who may be too threatened bythese images at this point in the process.However, the above interpretations are made and areto be taken tentatively, as the researcher does not wishto make the often made mistake of over interpreting andcompartmentalizing this holistic process.Sandolav Themes The finding that the DCG showed significantlygreater amounts of struggle in their sand worlds,corresponded to the findings of Allan & Berry (1987) whostated that struggle was a stage in the sand playprocess. The finding that the theme ofdeath/destruction was prevalent in the DCG suggests adeeper, more primitive level of struggle, that of thestruggle for survival. It is hypothesized that one ofthe ways to progress through the sandplay process, isthrough the stages of death/destruction, danger/threat,struggle, and restoration. Following the stage ofrestoration, it is suggested that, if a client were toreside in a stable environment and continue in sandplay,themes of safety, dependency, empowerment, and fantasywould emerge. However, further research over a longerperiod of time would need to examine these questions.223The abundance of fantasy themes in the CG suggeststhat these children have freedom from intense concernsand issues, and therefore have the emotional energy toallow their minds to imagine and be creative. This useof fantasy supports the findings of Harper (1991) whofound that a control group showed the highest amount offantasy themes in their sand worlds.However, the surprising finding that the CG showedconsistent themes of dependency, indicates that thesandplay process elucidates the concerns of welladjusted children, and clarifies that coping childrenhave a need to rely on others to guide, support, andlead them. This developmentally appropriate need wasnot found in the DCG. Therefore, it is suggested thatthese children have learned, perhaps through previousfailures, not to rely on or place importance on others,to guide, support and lead them. This tendency forchildren not to rely on others and become emotionallyself-sufficient corresponds to Bowlby's (1988)description of a detached child.In general, this study has shown that each childmoves through the sand play process in a personalizedmanner. However, patterns have emerged which show thatsome difficulty coping children initially disguise their224issues and concerns, and once safety has developed theyare able to give them freer expression. On the contrary,other difficulty coping children pour out theiremotional concerns from the onset. It is suggested thatchildren with immediate, overwhelming emotional concernsand little ego strength, will emit their concerns at thefirst possible opportunity. Those with greater egostrength, less pressure of their emotional issues, and astrong social self will ensure that safety has developedbefore they divulge their concerns and show experienceswhich may be socially undesirable. It is furthersuggested that as children mature and become moresocially aware, they will become more concerned with thedevelopment of safety before expressing their emotionalissues.Moreover, as sandplay themes were only clearlydiscernable when the entire process, i.e. sand world,narrative, and procedure, was observed, it is of vitalimportance that clinicians honour the entire sandplayprocess as a whole, before exploring the meaning of thecreation.Sand World Characteristics This study indicates that coping children tend tomake more balanced, vital, peopled, and organized225worlds, where difficulty coping children tend to makemore unpeopled, barren, and unbalanced worlds. Thisphenomenon of the DCG being behind in desirablecharacteristics and ahead in undesirablecharacteristics, confirmed the research of Bowyer (1970)who discovered that clinical sand worlds showed typicalcharacteristics of normal children of a youngerdevelopmental age. The sand worlds of the DCG suggestthey experience delays in their emotional development ascompared with the CG.Furthermore, the high incidence of barren worlds inthe DCG suggests they tend to view their inner and outerworlds as bleak, and lacking in growth, life, andhealth.Narrative Analysis In general, the CG relayed narratives with meaningsof hope, personal power to overcome obstacles, optimismabout the future, and faith in others to meet theirneeds, while the DCG tended to relay narratives withmeanings of despair, disempowerment, pessimism for thefuture, and a lack of hope.The children in the DCG who showed glimmers of hopeand personal power, were seen as having better chancesof resolving their issues and coping better in their226environment in the future. In fact, the maindistinguishing factor between the subject who wasdesignated coping by her teacher, but showed underlyingemotional turmoil, was that she showed initiative inovercoming adversity and had hope for the future.Similarly, the subject in the DCG who showed markedimprovements after this study was completed also showedsigns of hope and optimism for the future.These results correspond to the findings ofMazundar and Solanski (1979) who found that emotionallydisturbed children told stories with more unfavourablethemes, more conflicts of security versus insecurity,and were not likely to look to the future with optimism,as compared with a non-disturbed group.Furthermore, the tendency for the DCG to becomemore entranced in their story telling, further suggeststhat these children experience a greater intensity ofissues, which at times can become completely emotionallyabsorbing.The DCG tended on occasion to represent issues innarrative form, before they were shown visually in thesand world. Furthermore, when those issues emergedvisually, the narrative then began to indicate resourcesto deal with the problem. These factors suggest that227(a) it is safer to disclose issues initially throughstory, perhaps as this is less tangible than visualform, and (b) ego needs to protect the self from obvioushurt, and will only allow issues to blatantly surfaceonce some strength and resources have developed. Thisfinding further supports the sandplay process as afacilitator of the strengthening and empowerment of theclient. However, further research, with more subjects,conducted over a longer period of time, would need tomore clearly examine this phenomenon.World ViewIn general, the CG tend to view their world as morebalanced, vital, and organized, where others guide them,and they are safe from personal threat and danger. Theyshow resourcefulness in dealing with adversity and havehope for the future.In contrast, the DCG tend to perceive their worldas barren, a struggle and consisting of personal threatand danger. They tend to lack resourcefulness indealing with adversity, do not rely on others to guideand lead them, and show some lack of hope for thefuture.Implications This study has shown that through sandplay a228child's emotional concerns and issues clearly surface,therefore this technique can be used for assessment aswell as treatment purposes. However, as some children'sissues were found not to surface until safety had beenestablished, it is vitally important that, in order toreceive accurate findings during assessment, thistechnique be used only once rapport and safety havedeveloped. Likewise, this technique, when used as anassessment tool, should be used over a minimum of foursessions, as it was discovered that issues, whichinitially were buried or disguised by the client,surfaced in this amount of time.As a treatment technique, sandplay was found to bemost beneficial in encouraging children to work throughand express their emotional issues. Furthermore, thisstudy provides counsellors with information regardingthe play themes and narratives of coping children anddifficulty coping children, and this may helpcounsellors more clearly understand the world view oftheir clients, and allow them to more effectivelydevelop treatment goals and assessments of clients'progress.LimitationsThe significance and generalization of these229conclusions are limited to children with averageintelligence, from grade two and three. Moreover, smallsample size limits the generalizability of this study,and gender differences in the two groups may haveimpacted upon the results. Although attempts were madeto control for socio-economic status, more children fromsingle parent families were in the DCG. However,information on the social class standing of thesefamilies was not provided. Lastly, the selection ofstudents was limited to the teachers' understanding ofthe criteria on which the children were judged.Directions for Future Research This research provided the formulation of severalquestions which should be examined by future research:1. What are the stages of sandplay development ofdifficulty coping children over an extended period oftime?2. Does the sandplay technique used over time, aid inthe development of a sense of hope and empowerment indifficulty coping children?3. What gender differences occur in sandplay developmentof difficulty coping children over time?In conclusion, this study has contributed someinsight into the sandplay of coping and difficulty230coping children, and the feelings and beliefs of thesechildren. It is hoped that counsellors can use thisinformation to more clearly assess the functioning ofchild clients and provide a safe, enjoyable, andpowerful medium within which the client can fullyexpress and explore his/her issues.It is also hoped that this research has outlinedthe importance of creating a safe and protected space,where children having difficulty coping can unloadthemselves of the emotional burdens which they carry,and move toward obtaining greater feelings of personalpower and hope.Lastly, it is hoped that in the future, childrenhaving difficulty coping will have more frequentopportunities to express their concerns throughexpressive media, such as sandplay, in settings outsideof the counsellor's play room, such as classrooms,hospital rooms, and home play rooms.231REFERENCESAite, P. (1978). Ego and Image: Some observations on thetheme of sandplay. Journal of Analytical Psycholoav, al, 332- 338.Allan, J. (1988). 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Variations on a theme by Lowenfeld:Sandplay in focus. In K. Bradway (Ed.), Sandplay studies: Origins, theory and practice. (pp.5-20).Boston: Sigo Press.Vinturella, L. & James, R. (1987). Sand play: atherapeutic medium with children. Elementary School Guidance & Counseling, 21, 229-238.Weinrib, E.L. (1983). Images of the self: The sandplaytherapy process. Boston: Sigo Press.Wells, H.G. (1911). Floor Games. New York: Arno Press.237Appendix AInitial Contact to Parents of Children AttendingLord Kelvin Elementary SchoolDear Parent/Guardian:Recently I, Susan Cockle (732-3472), agraduate student at the University of British Columbia,who is studying under the supervision of Dr. John Allan(822-5259), from the department of CounsellingPsychology, contacted Lord Kelvin Elementary School forpermission to do research involving some of the childrenattending this school.This research project is designed to examine theplay behaviours and themes of children who are copingwell in the classroom, and those who are havingdifficulty coping and may benefit from one on onecounselling. For this project, the children will beasked to make a picture in a sandbox using miniatureobjects and then tell a story of their creation. As Iwish to examine change in the play over time, thechildren will be asked to make a picture in the sand onfour occasions during a two month period. The researchwill be conducted during school hours and will takeapproximately half an hour on each of the fouroccasions. Every effort will be made to ensure that thechildren will not miss academic class time andparticipation in this project will not affect grades.Mutual consent will be obtained from both parents andteachers concerning the most appropriate time for thechild to participate.Since 1987 I have been counselling elementaryschool aged children using play techniques and I amknowledgeable and practised in the use of sandplay withchildren. In the past two years I have conducted fourpresentations to students and experienced practitionersalike, on this sandplay technique.The purpose of this letter is to request yourpermission to contact you further regarding thisresearch. Should you then approve of the project, asecond consent form will be forwarded to you. Please beassured that if you wish to say no to this project, itwill not jeopardize your child's education program inany way.Please check the appropriate box below.I do consent for contact^I do not consentand my first name and telephone^for contact^number is ^238Appendix BConsent Form for Parents of Children Attending LordKelvin Elementary School.TITLE OF THESIS: THE SANDPLAY TECHNIQUE WITH CHILDRENWHO ARE COPING AND THOSE WHO ARE HAVING DIFFICULTYCOPING.INVESTIGATORS: Susan Cockle B.A.(Special), M.A. thesisdepartment of Counselling Psychology, University ofBritish Columbia (732-3472). Dr. John Allan, Ph.D.,department of Counselling Psychology, University ofBritish Columbia (822-5259).PURPOSE OF THE THESIS: The purpose of this thesis is todetermine if the play of children who are coping,differs from the play of those who are having difficultycoping and if the sandplay method can bring aboutpositive change over time.PROCEDURE: Each child will be seen individually andasked to make a picture in the sand using miniatureobjects. Upon the completion of the picture, the childwill be asked to tell a story of their creation. Thesand picture will then be recorded by a photographiccamera and the whole process will be videotaped in orderto help the researcher in recording the details.The child will be seen on four occasions over a twomonth period and approximately 30 minutes of the child'stime will be involved on each occasion.The privacy of the child will be strictlymaintained. Each child will be assigned a number codeand all data concerning the child will be filed underthat number. The content of the sand pictures will notbe discussed with the child. During the research onlythe child's name will be made available to theresearcher. Upon completion of the study all files,including video tapes, concerning the children will bedestroyed.When reporting the results of this study no dataidentifying the children or their families will be used.The privacy and confidentiality of all the participantswill be strictly upheld.239The investigator will be available to parents on aregular basis to explain the procedure and to answer anyquestions that may arise regarding the project.The subject has the right to withdraw from theproject at any time.I consent / do not consent for^  to participate in this study.I acknowledge receipt of this consent form.Parent's/Guardian'sSignature^240Appendix CSANDBOX OBSERVATION SCALE FOR CHILDRENName of subject:^  Date:^Therapist:^  B.D.:Number of picture in series:^ Age:1. Approach Enthusiastic Apathetic Non-CommittalChanges:^2. Choice of Sand Dry Damp3. Orientation A. Handedness: Left RightB. Worked from: Left to Right Right to leftC. Objects closest to where subject stoodD. Moved around boxE. Worked from same side4. Forma whole logical picture several ideas confusedundifferentiated5. Choice of Materials A. People1. Human: men, women, children, family2. Other than human: fantasy, grotesque,caricatures, mythological, symbolicB. Animals: prehistoric, wild, domestic, birds, seacreatures, amphibious, serpents, dragons-incorrect habitat/separatedC. Objects: sea shells, bones, rocks, fossils,jewels, vegetation, transportation vehicles,castles, houses, churches, war materials, bridgesD. Geological-Topographical Formation:1. Volcanoes, earthquakes2. Earth, walls, tunnels, holes, caves3. Mountains, hills, lakes, ponds, ocean, realwater6. Movement-ActionPeople^Animals^Objects^Water (boats,^fish)7. Conceptual Level: DesignA. Whole Logical PictureSequence Progress^Perseverate Regress241Several Ideas Confused UndifferentiatedB. Change of IdeaOne continuous process^Number of changes^C. Overall ThemeDomestic Military Reality Fantasy BizarreDestructive Aggressive8. Feelina oroiected- Impression (non-verbaltherapist's response to picture)A. Colourful^Humorous^Gay^HappyB. Confusing^Non-ExpressiveC. Peaceful^CalmD. Lacking colour^DepressiveE. Positive^Spontaneous^Moving9. Creative Level A. All over lay outExceptional^Good^FairB. Ingenuity (adaption of materials at hand)Exceptional^Good^Fair10. Verbalization while making the pictureQuiet Some Constant HummingStory: Taped Written Picture11. Subject's response to finished pictureSatisfied (verbally, visually, tactilly) ExcitedRelieved Proud Emotional Indifferent12. Therapist's role Mother^FatherCasual observer Assistant Co-worker (workingindependently from child)13. Reason for subiect doina a picture Regular appointment Deviation in behaviourTherapist's suggestion

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