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Motivation and adjustment and story sequence analysis Smitton, J. Alan 1993

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MOTIVATION AND ADJUSTMENT ANDSTORY SEQUENCE ANALYSISbyJ. Alan SmittonB.Ed., University of British Columbia, 1986A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES(Department of Counselling Psychology)We accept this thesis as conformingto the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAOCTOBER, 1993©J. Alan SmittonIn presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature)Department of^ALCa_&( AL?The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate el-c) (e 072DE-6 (2/88)ABSTRACTThis study examined the relationship betweenadjustment and motivation in upper elementary aged students.18 students from grades six and seven wrote stories to a tenpicture Children's Apperception Test-Human figures. Fromthese stories the childrens' motivational levels were derived.The stories were scored utilizing the scoring method outlinedin Magda B. Arnold's Story Sequence Analysis (1962). Thesescores were then correlated with adjustment scores obtainedfrom the Child and Adolescent Adjustment Profile (CAAP).Aggregate descriptive results indicated a relationship of 0.50existed between adjustment and motivation. To furtherexplore the relationship six case studies were chosen from thelarger group of 18. The imports of each student in the casestudies were presented to the teacher. The imports insequence (known as a sequence analysis) reveal the child'sbeliefs, attitudes and convictions. The teacher was asked tocomment on the accuracy of the sequence analysis. To furtherassess the level of adjustment beyond the Child and Adolescent Adjustment Profile, the teacher was interviewedby the researcher using a questionnaire developed from theCAAP. The findings of this study indicated that:(a) the sequence analysis presented to the teacher was a fairiirepresentation of the student's level of motivation andsubsequent level of achievement; (b) that several areas ofresearcher/teacher dialogue on adjustment were reflected inthe sequence analysis; and (c) that both the sequence analysisand dialogue on adjustment supported the empirical finding ofthis study.Supervisor:Dr. Larry CochranDepartment of Counselling PsychologyFaculty of EducationUniversity of British ColumbiaTABLE OF CONTENTSABSTRACT^  iiTABLE OF CONTENTS^  ivLIST OF TABLES v i iACKNOWLEDGEMENT^ viiiDEDICATION^  i xCHAPTER ONE:  1The Problem^  1Background to the Problem^ 1Definitions^  3Instruments  5Purpose of the Study^  6CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH ANDRELATED LITERATURE 10Theory of Adjustment^ 10Achievement Motivation 20Arnold's Theory of Motivation^ 23Story Sequence Analysis^ 2 5Summary^ 3 3CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD^ 35Research Hypotheses and Question 35Instruments^ 35ivSample Description^  37Sampling Procedure  38Data Collection^  39Data Analysis  40CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS^  43Research Hypotheses  43Research Question^  46Case Studies  46CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION^  66Interpretation of Results  66Cross Case Analysis^  74Summary^  77Limitations of Study^  78Implications for Practice  79Implications for Further Research^ 80REFERENCES^  83APPENDICES  91Appendix A. Student Stories^ 92Appendix B. Teacher Questionnaire^ 105Appendix C. Researcher/Teacher Dialogue^ 107Appendix D. Letter Granting PermissionFrom District^ 124Appendix E. Letter of Introduction toParents 126Appendix F. Letter of Permission forParents^ 128viLIST OF TABLESTABLE^ PAGEI^Correlation between the Motivational Index 45and the five adjustment categories of theChild and Adolescent Adjustment Profile.vi iACKNOWLEDGEMENTSMy heartfelt thanks goes to Dr. Larry Cochran whoinspired me to develop a class assignment into this thesis. Iappreciate the encouragement he gave me when things gotrough.To Dr. Magda Arnold I send my deepest gratitude forthe many hours she spent not only with me both in person buton the phone and for the countless hours she spent reviewingmy work. It was truly an honor and a privilege to work withher. She is an inspirational person.Thank you to the Surrey School District and inparticular Mr. Graham Cooper, Principal and to Pat Hansen andRen Morley for their valuable time and input.A special note of appreciation goes to Dr. RobertCarlisle who believed in my abilities and encouraged metowards graduate school. His gentleness and kindness isalways remembered.To Therese and Barry MacDonald, my friends whosupported and encouraged me - thank you!Without Rose this may have not been completed. Icannot begin to express my thanks for your devotion, love andacceptance that was always unconditionally given to me.viiiDEDICATIONFor my partner and friendRosemarieixCHAPTER ONEThe following topics will be included in this chapter:(a) statement of the problem, (b) background to the problem,(c) definitions, (d) achievement as adjustment,(e) instruments, (f) purpose of the research, (g ) background tothematic apperception and (h) introduction to Arnold's work.The ProblemWhy do some students succeed while other students fail?What makes a seemingly intelligent student continue toreceive poor grades? What makes an average student strivefor higher grades? Is it simply that some are more intelligentthan others; is it the quality of instruction, their homeenvironment, their genetic makeup, or...? If we can find theunderlying answers to these questions we would be in a betterposition to influence learning in the classroom.Background to the ProblemMotivation has been recognized as an important factor thatinfluences a child's learning, adjustment and achievement.^In1935, Murray and Morgan published the Thematic ApperceptionTest (TAT). Murray developed this test as a clinical tool tomeasure need motivation. A need, according to Murray(1938), is a construct that moves us either towards or awayfrom some activity be it physical or psychological. The1original scoring manual contained a total of 20 needs, many ofwhich were dichotomous (Reeve, 1992). In 1948, McClellandand Atkinson used the TAT as part of their experimentalresearch to examine the relative strength of three motives:need for achievement, need for affiliation and need for power(Reeve, 1992). To assess the strength of these motives,McClelland developed an elaborate scoring system. In 1962,Arnold, also using the TAT, produced another scoring system toassess motivation. Her scoring system is loosely based onthat of McClelland's, but unlike McCelland's where the score isderived by looking for examples of needs, Arnold's is based onhow an individual views their world, as either positive ornegative.While it is important to recognize McClelland and othersfor their work on achievement motivation, it is Arnold's workthat has significance for this thesis. Her approach tomotivation is important because it allows the tester to viewthe client's world and to identify the motives, beliefs andconvictions that contribute to their high or low achievement.The present study will examine the relationship betweenadjustment and motivation using Arnold's story sequenceanalysis and relate levels of adjustment and motivation tostudent achievement.2DefinitionsAdjustment The term adjustment has its roots in biology. It was notuntil the turn of the century that it appeared in psychologicalliterature (McPherson and White, 1980). At that time,adjustment was used as a synonym for habituation andadaptation i.e. a person's ability to live well within his/herenvironment and fulfill his/her needs.While this definition will be used, for the purpose of thisresearch, adjustment will be related more specifically tosocial and internal adjustment. That is, how an individualinteracts with others, how they view themselves and theworld (Battle, 1992).Achievement According to Popplestone, McPherson and White (1980),achievement can be defined as an outcome, accomplishment ora successful end. Arnold (1962) states that high achieversbelieve that success and happiness follow ethical, wellintentioned, rational actions. Low achievers believe successis the result of selfish or ill intentioned actions or is a matterof luck, chance or fate. Level of achievement is very individualand is closely related with level of motivation. Persons whoare highly motivated are task oriented and focus more on thequality of their work than on success.3Motivation Motivation can be described as an inner urge that prompts aperson to action. Arnold (1962) states that motivation iscomprised of two central components: emotion, want ordesired goal, and action taken in pursuit of the goal.Motivation can be either positive (constructive) or negative(non-constructive). Positively motivated persons believe thatfailure can be overcome by personal effort and initiative.Negatively motivated individuals believe that failure must beovercome by illegitimate means or is avoided by fate.Adjustment as an Achievement According to Battle (1992) one of the best ways to studyadjustment is to examine achievement. When examiningadjustment as an achievement, researchers can use qualitativedata to determine if the individual is adjusting satisfactorilyor unsatisfactorily. In other words, if a person has obtained ahigh level of achievement, it can be stated that they are welladjusted. It may also be stated that those attaining a lowlevel of achievement will be evaluated as being maladjusted.In Taylor's (1990) literature review on low-achievingchildren and school social adjustment, she found that a modestrelationship existed between levels of academic achievementand levels of social adjustment. Her own research (Taylor,1990) provided additional evidence that low achieving4children experienced some form of adjustment problems inschool from initiating fights to withdrawal and shyness.InstrumentsFor the purpose of this study, adjustment will be measuredby the Child and Adolescent Adjustment Profile (CAAP). Thisprofile utilizes five adjustment factors, each of whichcontain four sub-factors: (a) Peer relations - gets along withothers, joins others freely, invites others to play, laughs andsmiles easily, (b) Dependency  - wants help for things couldhave done on own, becomes discouraged when attemptingthings, asks unnecessary questions instead of working on own,asks for help when could have worked things out on own,(c) Hostility - flares up if not have own way, upset if others donot agree, picks quarrels, doesn't respond to discipline,(d) Productivity - works hard on assignments, stays withwork, makes use of abilities, does work carefully,(e) Withdrawal - sits and stares doing nothing, does thingsslowly, appears indifferent or uninterested, daydreams.Test - retest reliability coefficients done on the CAAP arehigh, ranging from .78 to .90 (Ellsworth, 1981).To measure motivation in children the Childrens'Apperception Test - Human figures (CAT-H) was used. In asummary of research articles comparing the ThematicApperception Test (TAT) to the CAT-H, Bellak and Bellak5(1976) concluded that CAT-H pictures are as useful and asvalid as the TAT. Whereas Arnold (1962) used the TAT topredict achievement motivation in both adults and children,the CAT-H can also be used to predict achievement motivationin children.The CAT-H is based on the same principle as the TAT. BothTAT and CAT-H enable the examiner to analyze the unconsciousfantasies of the test taker by means of evaluating the storiestold to a set of pictures. The CAT-H is based on the assumptionthat it is easier for children to identify with childhoodsituations than with the emotional situations presented in theTAT picture-cards (Bellak and Bellak, 1976).Purpose of StudyThe purpose of this study is: 1) to distinguish highachievers from low achievers by utilizing thematicapperception (CAT-H), 2) identify the level of motivationthrough the use of import story sequence analysis and providea rationale why a student may be achieving at that level;3) show an overall correlation between achievementmotivation and adjustment; 4) show a correlation betweenmotivation as reported by the motivational index and each ofthe five adjustment categories as reported by the CAAP and5) to replicate Arnold's research findings. While Arnoldcompared motivational index to grade point averages, this6study will compare motivational index to adjustment asreported by the CAAP.Background to Thematic Apperception Thematic apperception (TAT and CAT-H) has been widelyused in clinical settings for over four decades (Vane, 1981;Reuman, Alwin, and Veroff, 1982). Many researchers (Murray,1938; McCelland, 1953; Lazarus, 1961) have studiedscholastic achievement motivation using thematicapperception. Magda Arnold (1962) designed four scoringcategories and successfully used them to discriminateachievers from non-achievers. In a study conducted on 51seventh grade students using thematic apperception (TAT),Arnold found a multiple correlation of .75 between themotivational index and grades.Introduction to Arnold's Work Stories told in response to illustrations such as the TATmay be abstracted into imports. An import is the meaning orsignificance of the plot and outcome that is contained in thestory. The import portrays an attitude and/or expresses aconviction held by the storyteller. The imports can then bescored in accordance with a specific set of scoring criteriadeveloped by Arnold through her investigations (Cochran,1986). When imports are set down one after the other insequence, the storyteller's train of thought is revealed.7Once an import is derived from the story, the import can bescored. There are four main scoring categories:1) Achievement, 2) Right and Wrong, 3) HumanRelationships and 4) Reaction to Adversity. Each one of theseis further defined into sub-categories. There are 17 generaltypes of sub-categories and 216 specific categories (Cochran,1986). Positive imports are scored from +1 to +2, whilenegative imports receive either a -1 or a -2.Consider the following story told by a grade seven boy: "Hewas thinking if he should take after his father or grandfather.His father was a violinist and his grandfather was a greatbaseball player, I guess he'll take baseball" (Arnold, 1962, p.183).Arnold's import states, "You wonder whom to take as yourrole model, the artist or the athlete, and you decide for thelater" (p. 184). The score assigned to this import is -1 IA1 c. It is rated under category I: Achievement, success,happiness, active effort (or lack of it) subsection A: Goals,purposes.The import is scored as a negative, -1 because it impliesthat "Lesser goals are preferable because they require lesseffort" (pp. 227-228). The story implies little or no activeeffort on behalf of the writer to make a decision and there isno acknowledgement of the work that is involved in attaining8his chosen career.9CHAPTER TWOREVIEW OF THE LITERATUREThe following review relates first to literatureassociated with the general topic of adjustment followed byan examination of Arnold's (1962) use of the TAT, storysequence analysis and related research. The relationshipbetween adjustment/maladjustment and motivation will beexamined with respect to elementary school students in theclassroom setting. In conducting a literature review on MagdaArnold's (1962) work on the TAT and story sequence analysis,Psychological Abstracts, ERIC, and Dissertation Abstractswere consulted. This researcher found limited reference toher work in current literature. Dr. Arnold ( personalconversation, March, 1992) was unaware of any recentreferences to her work. To her knowledge, the only researchutilizing story sequence analysis was conducted by doctoralstudents that she supervised in the late nineteen-fifties andearly sixties. For the purposes of this study, primaryconsideration will be given to Arnold's literature review as itpertains to academic achievement motivation.Theory of AdjustmentThere is no singular definition of adjustment. Rather,adjustment is generally defined in terms of adapting to1 0emotional, social or environmental influences (Battle, 1992;Phares, 1984). It is often synonymous with normality orpsychological soundness (Battle, 1992). Specifically,adjustment describes how an individual adapts to internal andenvironmental demands. The student who behaves well isthought to be adjusted, while another who behaves less well isconsidered maladjusted.The etiology of adjustment is rooted in the biologicalsciences. According to Popplestone, McPherson and White(1980), one of the first appearances in the psychologicalliterature related adjustment to Psychophysics, ". . .the studyof the relationships between the physical attributes of stimuliand the sensing of them" (p. 8). Shaffer (1936), explainedpersonal adjustment as the compatibility between inner orprivate wishes and outer or social demands. Battle (1992)stated, ". . . behaviour can be conceptually viewed as being anadaptation to physical demands or as an adjustment topsychological demands" (p. 101).Zachry (1929) suggested that adjustment was a functionof a child's ability to adapt positively to his/her environment.She suggested that a child's adjustment largely rests on theirhabitual patterns and on their heredity. Children and Adjustment (Zachry, 1929) examines several case studies of"difficult" elementary aged children. Each case deals indepth11with the extended family and the family medical background.She suggests that understanding these influencing factorsassists teachers to intervene effectively and assist themaladjusted student to become a more productive member ofthe class.The theory of psychological adjustment is oftenassociated with various theories of personality ( Phares,1984; Singh, 1977). Each theory of personality frompsychoanalytic to existential paradigms includes some form ofpersonal adjustment ( Battle, 1992; Phares, 1984; Singh,1977 ). Accordingly, there are a number of personalityvariables that may disturb the process of adjustment includinganxiety, conflict, frustration and learning (Singh, 1977).However, no single paradigm is capable of accounting for allthe complexities of adjustment.Prevalence and Sex of Maladjusted Students McGhee and Short (1991) suggested that socialmaladjustment presented the biggest concern in the schoolsystem. They define social maladjustment as " . . . apersistent refusal to meet minimum standards of conduct dueto conflict between the individual's value system and age-appropriate social norms" (p. 285). Surveying just over sixthousand students from all school grade levels in two schooldistricts, they found that the overall prevalence of social12maladjustment was 12% and that twice as many males asfemales were identified as socially maladjusted.Silvern and Katz's (1986) study supports the work ofMcGhee and Short (1991). In a survey of fourth, fifth and sixthgrade students and their teachers, Silvern and Katz found boyswere prone to externalizing behaviour including fighting, namecalling and verbalizing inappropriately in class while girlswere prone to internalizing, withdrawing kinds of behaviour.Overall, boys were more likely to be labelled as havingadjustment problems in the areas of disruptiveness,aggression and noncompliant behaviour. The authors cautionthat because girls tend to internalize and their behaviour ischaracterized by social immaturity, depression, socialisolation and poor self-esteem, their adjustment problemsmay go unnoticed in a classroom. Teachers tend to bechallenged by disruptive behaviour therefore boys are labelledmaladjusted more often than girls (Wentzel, 1991).McKim and Cowen (1987) cite several studies reportingincreased behavioural adjustment for girls as compared withboys, particularly on teacher ratings and behaviour observationmeasures. Understandably from the teachers perspective, achild who is either doing well academically or non-disruptivein the classroom is seen as adjusting well. Much of schoolrevolves around a hidden curriculum of social control and13classroom management (Lepper and Hodell, 1989).Among males, predictors of maladjustment appear to bemore closely related to overt measures including aggression,noncompliant behaviours and inattentiveness. Predictors ofmaladjustment for females appear to be less clear but arerelated to affective measures that include cooperation,generosity and compassion (Dodge and Feldman, 1990;Feshbach and Feshbach, 1987).School Adjustment A number of studies have examined the relationshipbetween adjustment and elementary school students (Battle,1990; McConnell et al, 1984; Groninick and Ryan, 1990;Haynes, 1990; Jenkins-Friedman and Murphy, 1988). Battle's(1990) review of the literature on reading and maladjustmentindicated that "Adequate achievement in reading is essentialfor the child's feelings of well-being and appears to be highlyrelated to healthy personality adjustment" (p. 40). Dechant(1968) stated, "The relationship between reading disabilityand emotional and social maladjustment frequently is circularin nature" (p. 40). Several other researchers (Berkowitz andRothman, 1955; Fraiser and Combs, 1958; and Spache, 1957)support this position. Children who are unsuccessful inlearning to read develop maladjustment problems bothpersonally, emotionally and socially. Symptoms may include14nervousness, withdrawal, aggression, defeatism and chronicworry. Children who are successful readers have a positiveself-image and regard themselves as capable. Failure to graspthe fundamentals of reading can lead to negative self-appraisal and emotional maladjustment. Emotionalmaladjustment often finds its outlet in behavioral problemswithin the classroom.Based on teacher adjustment evaluations of 130 childrenkindergarten to grade five, McConnell et. al. (1984) identifiedseveral children as failing to make good social adjustment toschool. These children were compared with a control groupthat was rated as making good social adjustment on 15dependent adjustment variables. The authors found thatchildren who were viewed as having adjustment difficultiesvaried significantly from those children not experiencingdifficulties. They differed in the areas of readingachievement, intellectual self-concept, amount of negativeencounters with teachers, compliance with teacher demands,on-task time and overall self-concept as measured by ThePrimary Self-Concept Inventory. Grolinick and Ryan (1990) studied self-perception,motivation and behavioural adjustment in children withlearning disabilities. They compared learning disabledchildren with low achieving and non-learning disabled children15and found that children who were classified as learningdisabled or low achieving were more likely to score low on abehavioural adjustment rating scale.^Specifically, thesestudents were rated by teachers as having difficulties in theareas of acting-out, shyness and withdrawal. Children withlearning disabilities reported lower levels of self-esteem thannon-learning disabled children. The academic self-perceptionsof learning disabled children was similar to that of lowachieving children.^Overall, it was found that learningdisabled and low achieving students experienced motivationalhardships as well as behavioural difficulties in the classroom.Jenkins-Friedman and Murphy (1988) selected 128gifted students from grades four through eight to examine therelationship between students' self concept and adjustment tobeing enrolled in gifted classes. The authors believed thatchildren who had a low self-concept would not adjust well tobeing labelled as gifted. They discovered that maladjustedgifted students perceived that ". . . others did not see them ina similarly positive way with regard to getting along withothers, adjustment to the gifted education program andperformance in school" (p. 29). This group was found to beless realistic about themselves, took less risks, had difficultyin setting standards for their work and had difficulty incompleting assignments.16Using a teacher questionnaire to assess schooladjustment in general behaviour, group participation andattitudes towards authority, Hayes (1990) correlated theresults of the teacher questionnaire with the results of theTennessee Self-Concept Scale which was given to individualstudents. Hayes concluded that a child's self-concept is apowerful indicator of adjustment in the above mentionedareas. Specifically she stated that ". . . if children viewthemselves negatively - as incorrigible, lacking discipline, andill mannered - they were likely to behave that way. Childrenbecome what they believe themselves to be" (p 205). Thissupports the previously discussed literature that addressesself-concept as a component to adjustment. According toBattle (1992) a healthy self-concept is one of the essentialingredients of healthy adjustment. Specifically self-conceptaffects the child's accomplishments, interactions with others,achievement patterns and overall state of well-being.Corkey (1983) examined perceived self-competence andschool adjustment and found that a strong relationship existedbetween the Perceived Competence Scale for Children  scoresand the scores attained on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills. Healso found that a significant relationship existed betweenschool adjustment as measured by the Revised Children's Anxiety Scale and school achievement. It appeared that17students who view themselves as competent tended to dobetter academically. Also students who have a more positiveself-concept reflected a lower anxiety rate and were found tobe more friendly and socially competent.Achievement and Adjustment Feldhusen et al. (1970) in a five year longitudinal studyexamining classroom behaviour and school achievement foundthat students identified as having aggressive and disruptiveproblems consistently lagged academically behind thosestudents who were noted for socially approved behaviours.They also indicated that the IQ of low achieving andaggressive/disruptive groups tended to be lower than thecontrol groups. They suggest that this is due in part toenvironmental influences experienced both at home and schooland that disruptive behaviour often precedes academic failure.In another study, Larson (1989) found that earlysecondary school students who were identified as at-risk orhigh risk by teacher ratings and by the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills were overall rated as less socially adjusted.Larson found that inappropriate social behaviours weresignificantly negatively correlated with achievement.Similarly, Taylor (1990) studied specific behavioursub-types of low achieving students and what effect behaviourhad on school adjustment. The study sampled 147 elementary18school aged students, of which 33 were identified as low-achievers using the California Achievement Test. Studentsbelow the 40th percentile constituted the low-achieving group.Children identified as low-achievers were further divided intotwo clusters based on teacher assessments of behaviour.These groups were compared with 33 students identified asaverage achieving. Compared to average achieving studentsone cluster was more withdrawn, shy, and anxious and theywere more likely to be unhappy, depressed and sad. The othercluster, in comparison to the average achieving group, wererated as less cooperative, more disruptive and more likely tostart fights. This group was also more aggressive with peers,more defiant, obstinate and stubborn.Jenson (1958) observed that low achievers encountermore adjustment problems than do high achievers. Lavin's(1965) findings support those of Jenson. He discovered thatstudents with higher academic performance were found to bebetter adjusted. They were found to be more responsible,more stable emotionally, more independent and less anxious.Achievement and Peer Relations According to Coie and Koeppl (1990), the relationshipbetween academic performance and peer relationships has beenwell documented. They found that correlations betweenacademic achievement and sociometric status ranged from .2019to .40. They suggested that aggression is one of the salientcharacteristics of children who are rejected by their peers.This aggression often finds its outlet as disruptive behavior inthe classroom. Thus, these students spend more time off-taskand more time negatively interacting with teachers and otherschool personnel. These students are generally rejected bytheir peers both on the playground as well as in the classroom.An earlier study conducted by Green et al. (1987), whichassessed the relationship among children's social competenceand children's academic achievement supported Coie and Koeppl(1990) findings. Green et al. found that children who werehigh academic achievers were more accepted and less rejectedand disliked by peers. Teachers viewed these students as lessdeviant and had more positive interactions with them.The preceding discussion on adjustment demonstratedthat there are several factors affecting a student's adjustmentto school and that adjustment is linked with academicachievement. This study will later consider the relationshipbetween adjustment and achievement levels of students.Achievement MotivationThere exists an abundance of literature on achievementmotivation. However for the purposes of this study only thatof McCelland and his colleagues will be addressed as it relatesmore specifically to Arnold's work. This will be followed by20an indepth review of Arnold's (1962) theory of motivation.The purpose of achievement motivation theory is toexplain and predict behaviour in achievement situations and toexplore an individual's motives in achieving a goal (Stipek,1988). Achievement motivation attempts to study thevariables that determine the level of accomplishment that isobtained (Popplestone, McPherson & White, 1980). Atkinson(1964) conceptualized achievement motivation as a conflictbetween a tendency to approach tasks and a tendency to avoidtasks. In other words, individuals who believe that they arecompetent at a task perceive the probability of success ashigher and consequently are more likely to approach the taskthan individuals who believe that they lack competenciesneeded to complete the task.McClelland (1961, 1971, 1978) supported by Schroth(1979) suggested that an individual's motivation is anunconscious trait resulting primarily from early childhoodexperiences. These experiences are stored as memories thatlater affect motivation levels. Motives determine the amountof effort, persistence and energy a student will directtowards a task. It also influences preference and choice ofactivities. McClelland believed that based on early childhoodexperience some individuals behave as though they have a highneed to achieve, to be successful and reach standards of21excellence while others behave as though their fear of failureis greater than their desire to succeed.McClelland and Atkinson (McClelland & Atkinson, 1948;McClelland et al., 1953) believed that if an individual wasmotivated towards a particular goal, thoughts pertaining tothe motive would be in the forefront of their awareness.Accordingly, the use of the TAT with its ambiguous pictureswould elicit the thoughts that most readily come to mind.McCelland and colleagues (1953) using the TATidentified numerous achievement themes within the story.Stories were scored based on the absence or presence ofreference to achievement. Achievement was then examined interms of success or failure and the level of each was said tobe a person's need for achievement. What the story said or theoutcome of the story was not of particular relevance.In reviewing McClelland and Atkinson (1948) andMcClelland et al. (1953), Arnold suggested that a story has ameaning beyond individual themes and cannot be fragmentedinto isolated parts. Arnold believed that an individual'smotivating tendencies shape the story's action and areexpressed in the story outcome. Scoring is based on what thestory says and on the story outcome. The story as a whole is amore accurate reflection of an individual's beliefs andmotives.22While McClelland and colleagues were more concernedwith the attainment of success or failure (achievement level),Arnold was more interested in identifying the beliefs,convictions and attitudes held by high and low achievers.Arnold's Theory of MotivationAccording to Arnold (1962) a person's motives must beunderstood before their level of motivation can be assessed."A motive is a want that leads to action. A motive is activefrom the moment an individual has decided on the appropriateaction until their goal is accomplished, even though that actionmay not be continuous" (p. 32). Therefore motivation has twocentral components: (1) emotion, want, or desired goal and(2) action taken in pursuit of the goal. A motive is anappraisal of something as either good or bad, here and now,and includes a tendency towards action.The desired goal becomes a motive only when action istaken in a realistic, planful and constructive manner (Teglasi,1993). The difference between an emotion and a motive is thatan emotion does not always lead to action; a motive does. Anemotion is an evaluative part of the process of wantingsomething, however there must also a deliberate decision totake a course of action to acquire the goal. Once the decisionis made the actions become critical steps in securing the goal.23Imagination, Memory and Storytelling Imagination is a map of what an individual thinks couldhappen before they decide on a course of action. Whenpresented with a TAT picture an individual recalls similarsituations or events held in memory; imagination bringspossible alternatives and their consequences based on thatmemory to this new event. Arnold (1962) argues that thefreer one is of rigid emotions, attitudes and habitualconvictions, the more creative imagination one will possess.Imagination is an important component of action. Once achoice is identified the imagined outcome will be extrapolatedfrom a learned experience stored in memory. Although thechoice may cause an emotional response it may or may not leadto action. If the decision is evaluated as desirable it can leadto action and then becomes a motive (Arnold, 1962, 1990).An imagined outcome can only become a motive when we act onit. Memory and imagination allow the storyteller to tell astory with a plot and outcome based on a picture stimulus as itrelates to a past personal experience. Accordingly, it is theimagined response that becomes important and not the lengthof the story or how well the plot and outcome have beenconstructed (Arnold, 1962). The problem is set and how it isresolved reveals the storyteller's motives, which areblueprints for action.24Motives and Attitudes When motives become habitual they become attitudes.Attitudes are impulses to action that have become habitual.They can happen immediately, by intuitive appraisals or byreflective judgments.^Motivating attitudes predict action.Specifically, ". . . motivating attitudes are habitual tendenciesto engage in overt action which is either constructive(positive) or non-constructive (negative)"^(Arnoldp. 43). Habitual attitudes can be either constructivelymotivating or non-constructively motivating.The preceding discussion of Arnold's theory ofmotivation offered an examination of the salient componentsof her theory. While it is not the object of this thesis toexamine these components in detail, they provide an essentialbackground to the formulation of import and sequence analysis.Story Sequence AnalysisStory sequence analysis' are based on stories writtenabout specific pictures. Individuals are presented with aseries of ten to twenty pictures and asked to write a storyabout each one. Each story must contain a plot (whichdescribes actions) and outcome (which shows whether thisaction is likely to be chosen by the storyteller). Each storymust contain a problem and describe the action taken toovercome that problem. The story is a sample of the25storyteller's motivating attitudes. A sequence of no less thanten stories uncovers the concerns that pre-occupy thestoryteller. The stories reveal the individual's values, theirpreferred actions and their convictions (Arnold, 1962).The Outcome The story outcome is paramount for inferring motivation(Arnold, 1962). Because the outcome brings together all theelements previously discussed, (the problem, goal and actiontaken to attain the goal), the outcome is the culmination ofefforts directed towards attaining the goal or solving thedilemma. If the goal is attained by daydreaming the outcomeis not a result of enterprising behaviour. Motivating outcomesare realistic, instrumental actions taken in accordance withplanning and effort.An outcome may be either positive or negative. However,it is not the positive or negative nature of the outcome that isimportant, rather it is the conviction and motivating attitudethat is important. Once these attitudes and convictions areuncovered they can be extracted from the story and formedinto an import.Imports The TAT scoring systems of Murray (1943), Atkinsonand McCelland (1948) and McCelland et al. (1953) dividesstories into needs, drives and themes for the purposes of26scoring achievement motivation. Arnold (1962) insisted thata story is not a collection of themes, drives and needs. Rather,a story has a meaning that cannot be interpreted by isolatingand analyzing individual themes; the whole story delivers adifferent message than does the sum of the parts.Arnold (1962) proposed that an import be formed foreach story. An import ". . . leaves out incidental details butpreserves the kernel - the meat of the story" (p. 32). Theimport condenses the complete story into its significantmessage which expresses the writer's conviction. Arnoldpresented four guidelines for formulating an import: (1) setaside theoretical preconceptions, (2) abstract the essentialmessage from the details of the story as it applies to thewriter's life situations, (3) do not assume that everything isrooted in a specific childhood experience and (4) write theimport from the point of view of the main character; it isirrelevant whether or not the writer identifies with the maincharacter. It is important that the scorer formulate theimport in such a way as not to allow any prejudices to enter.When the imports are read in sequence, a picture of theindividual emerges portraying the story teller's attitudes,convictions and intentions for action.Scoring It is the import of the story that is scored. The import27abstracts the plot and outcome into a one or two sentencesummary. The story length is irrelevant, making it possible toscore both long and short stories, which is advantageous forchildren's stories.The import is scored numerically as either a positive(constructive) or a negative (non-constructive). Scores rangefrom +2 to -2. The overall final score denotes the consistencyof achievement motivating attitudes.Motivational Index In order to compare raw scores, Arnold (1962)developed the motivational index (M.I.). Using a ten cardsequence, the total score an individual may receive rangesfrom -20 to +20. The M.I. converts import scoring totals andreflects the story teller's motivational consistency from 0 to200. Arnold originally developed the M.I. to compare scores ofindividuals who had completed either a ten, fifteen, or twentycard set.The M.I. is based on a mathematical formula that isconsistent regardless of the number of pictures used. Scorestotalling between 100 and 200 are positive while scoresbetween 0 and 100 are negative. Reliability of the M.I. is high,ranging from r = .76 to r = .89 (see Arnold, 1962 pp. 149-151).28Research using Story Sequence Analysis Burkard (1958) used story sequence analysis todiscriminate between effective and ineffective teachers. Shehypothesised that those teachers who were rated as effectiveby their students would have a higher achievement motivationscore than those rated as ineffective. Three hundred teachers,teaching grades four through twelve were selected for thesample. Each teacher was rated by their students using aseven question evaluation form developed by Burkard.Teachers also completed a 12 card TAT and the OtisIntelligence Test.Of those 300 teachers, one hundred were selected for thestudy. Teachers were divided into pairs; one teacher who washigh-rated was matched with one who was low-rated. Thesequence analysis revealed that the high-rated group had moreconstructive attitudes in their story imports. Thecorrelational relationship between the sequence analysisscores and the scores obtained from the pupils' rating wassignificant for both elementary and secondary teachers rangingfrom .73 to .96. Correlations between teacher I.Q. andstudent's rating was minimal.Burkard's study demonstrated that high-rated teacherswere consistently liked more by their students. Theseteachers displayed more constructive, positive attitudes.29According to Arnold (1962 ), people with positive motivationmay be well liked, but they appear to be well liked becausethey have constructive attitudes; they do not have suchattitudes because they are well liked.In a study to determine personality differences betweenoffenders and non-offenders, Petrauskas (1958) investigatedthe motivational characteristics of Navy men who at one timeor another were disciplined under the Military Code of Justice.Thirty offenders and thirty non-offenders were chosen; age andlength of service were consistent. Each participant was givena 13 card TAT test.He concluded that non-offenders obtained higherachievement motivation scores and told stories that hadconstructive attitudes towards self and others, problems,work and success and duties and obligations. Offenders hadlower achievement scores and told stories that were lessconstructive.To determine the consistency of the scores, inter-raterreliability was conducted. Petrauskas used three raters.Rater A scored all sixty records correctly; he distinguishedbetween all offenders and non-offenders. Raters B and Cscored 48 out of 60 records correctly. According to Arnold(1962 ) all raters were successful far beyond chance indetermining offenders from non-offenders.30Gavin (1960) examined motivation and schoolachievement. He chose a total of 100 seniors from twocolleges; fifty men and fifty women. He obtained participants'grade point average (GPA) and had each participant completethe American Council on Education Intelligence Test, 1952(ACE) and a twelve card TAT.Gavin correlated the results of the TAT ( motivation )scores and GPA ( achievement ) scores. The correlation formen was .85; for women the correlation was .83. When ACEscores were included in the preceding correlations littlenumerical difference was found. For men the correlation was.87, and for women the score was .84. The correlationbetween ACE and TAT was .58 for men and .47 for women.Gavin reported that students scoring high on the ACE butlow on the TAT had correspondingly low GPA's. On the otherhand, those students scoring low on the ACE but scoring highon the TAT had higher GPA's. He reported that those studentswith low ACE scores and high GPA's told stories that showedpositive, constructive attitudes while those with high ACEscores and low GPA's told stories that portrayed negativeattitudes.Arnold's (1962) investigation of the relationshipbetween school achievement, motivation and intelligence atthe grade seven level lends support to Gavin's (1960) study.31Fifty-one grade seven students were given a 12 card TAT andthe Otis intelligence test. GPA's were also calculated for eachchild. Correlations obtained between the TAT and GPA was r =.75 while the correlation between TAT and ACE was r = .47.The multiple correlation between GPA, TAT (motivation) andOtis I.Q. (intelligence) was r = .84. Results are consistent;the ability to predict achievement motivation using storysequence analysis is strong.Honor and Vane (1972) examined the relativecontribution of IQ scores and motivational factors usingArnold's TAT scoring system on 50 high achieving and 50 lowachieving high school students. The correlation between IQ andGPA was .51 while the correlation between TAT and GPA was.88. Overall the authors were able to classify students with95% accuracy. Using an alternative measure of achievementmotivation only 75% of the students were correctly classified.Intelligence and Motivation There appears to be a moderate relationship betweenintelligence and motivation (college men r = .58, collegewomen r = .47, seventh graders r = .58). The relationshipbetween intelligence and achievement is less significant(college men r = .37, college women r = .22 and for seventhgraders r = .55). The correlation between intelligence andacademic achievement, according to Battle (1990), is .30.32This supports Arnold's view that a student's high intelligencedoes not ensure that they will do well academically.SummaryThis chapter reviewed literature on adjustment andachievement motivation addressed through the followingsubtopics: (a) theory of adjustment, (b) achievementmotivation, (c) Arnold's theory of motivation, (d) storysequence analysis. Conclusions that may be drawn include:(a) A strong relationship exists between adjustment,achievement and motivation; (b) High achievers displayconsistent attitudes that can be distinguished from lowachievers; (c) Children who are well adjusted possess thesame characteristics as do high achievers (e.g. a good self-concept); (d) Teacher reports on achievement and adjustmentprovide a valid measure of a child's personality; (f) Thereliability of Arnold's (1962) sequence analysis is consistentand can predict achievement motivation with a high degree ofaccuracy; (g) Intelligence and motivation are not synonymous,in fact a child who is high in intelligence but low inmotivation may not do well in school; (i) Motivation is notstatic and can change over time.It is interesting to note that Arnold's scoring systemcontains ethical and social normative aspects that much of thepreviously discussed research does not include (Vane, 1981).33A review of Arnold's scoring categories clearly sets forth abelief about how a highly motivated individual views theirworld. Vane believes that these same or similar beliefs wouldbe held by a well-adjusted person. This thesis is designed tomeasure levels of student motivation and adjustment. Itconveys this information utilizing data from students andteachers.34CHAPTER THREERESEARCH METHODThe chapter is organized into the following sections:(a) research hypotheses and question; (b) instruments used;(c) sample description; (d) sampling procedure; (e) datacollection and (f) data analysis.Research Hypotheses and QuestionHypotheses a) There is a positive significant correlation betweenmotivation and school adjustment. Constructive motivation,as measured by Arnold's Story Sequence Analysis and reportedby the Motivational Index (MI), will be positively correlatedwith the Child and Adolescent Adjustment Profile (CAAP).b) A positive relationship exists between the motivationalindex and each of the five adjustment categories of the CAAP.Question a)^Does the qualitative portrait of the individual asevidenced in Arnold's story sequence analysis parallel theverbal reports as given by the teacher?InstrumentsTwo instruments were required for this study: theChildrens' Apperception Test - Human figures and the Child andAdolescent Adjustment Profile.The Childrens' Apperception Test - Human figure (CAT-H)35was developed by Bellak (1965). According to Bellak, theCAT-H was created as a childhood alternative to the TAT. Hesuggested that the CAT-H presented picture themes moreappropriate to situations and problems in a child's life (eating,rivalry, aggression, loneliness, interactions with parentalfigures etc.). The CAT-H is based on the same principle as theTAT, that is, to enable the examiner to analyze the beliefs,convictions and attitudes of the test taker by means ofevaluating the stories told to a set of pictures. WhereasArnold used the Thematic Apperception Test to measureachievement motivation, this researcher chose to use the OAT-H because it is child specific.The Child and Adolescent Adjustment Profile (CAAP) wasdeveloped by Ellsworth (1981). The CAAP is a twenty item, 4point Likert-type scale questionnaire designed to be used byteachers, counsellors and clinicians to rate levels ofadjustment. This scale permits degrees of agreement anddisagreement. The test contains five scales: (1) PeerRelations; (2) Dependency; (3) Hostility;(4) Productivity and (5) Withdrawal.CAAP ReliabilityTwo tests of reliability were reported in the CAAPmanual. The first was an estimate of internal consistency.Alpha Coefficients ranged from .80 to .90. The other test of36reliability was an estimate of test-retest stability. Alphacoefficients ranged from .78 to .89. The normative populationconsisted of 248 children ages 6-18.CAAP Validity The manual reports adjustment scores for various groupsof youngsters including those referred to mental healthcenters, probation offices, those experiencing difficulty withclassroom behaviour and children in a control group. The CAAPscales statistically differentiated all other groups from thenormal/control group on both parent reports andagency/teacher reports.Researcher/Teacher Dialogue The researcher and teacher discussed the adjustment ofeach of the six students involved in the study. Discussion wasguided by a questionnaire designed by the researcher (seeAppendix B). The questionnaire consisted of questions basedon the five adjustment categories of the CAAP.Sample DescriptionSurrey school district is the second largest in theprovince of British Columbia serving over 48,000 students. Awide range of prosperity exists in the Surrey school districtincluding students from both lower socio-economic andaffluent backgrounds. The school selected for the survey wasan elementary school with a population of 420 students. The37school had a mix of students from all socio-culturalbackgrounds and is not considered a "needs" school by thedistrict.Sampling ProcedureA convenience sampling size of 18 ( n=18 ) studentswas chosen because of the exploratory nature of this study.Eight males and ten females were selected from a pool of 56students based on the quality of their stories; the subjects'stories contained both a plot and outcome. The eighteenstudents were selected from two classrooms, a grade sevenand five/six split from an elementary school within the Surreyschool district.In order to obtain a neutral sample population, the writerchose an elementary school that had a large mix of studentsfrom all socio-cultural backgrounds. A number of studies haveindicated that socio-cultural disadvantages are well knowncorrelates of lower academic achievement (Jencks, 1972; andGray, MacPherson & Raffee, 1983).To secure the population, five teachers were asked tovolunteer their classrooms; two teachers agreed. Approvalwas obtained from the school's administrative officer andfrom the district officials (see Appendix D).Parents Two letters were sent to the parents of the students38involved. The first (see Appendix E) was sent by theadministrative officer introducing the researcher and thenature of the research. The second letter (see Appendix F)indicated that student participation in the study was voluntaryand anonymous and requested parents to sign and return apermission form that was attached to the letter. All studentsin the two classrooms received permission from their parentsto participate in the study.Data CollectionStudents Data collection took place two weeks prior to SpringBreak. At this time the grade five/six and grade seven classwere surveyed.To facilitate group data collection for the CAT-H, thewriter first demonstrated through example how to write astory containing both a plot and an outcome. This was done inthe classroom. Following Arnold's (1962, p.49) protocol foradministering the TAT, the writer displayed two picturestaken from Life magazine. Students were asked to firstverbally tell a story about the picture, then second, asked towrite a story. Stories were discussed as to whether theycontained both plot and outcome. When the studentsdemonstrated an understanding of the concepts they wereasked to write stories relating to the CAT-H pictures.39Seven minutes were allotted per story. At the end ofseven minutes they were asked to finish the story they wereon. If they completed the story before time was called, theywere instructed to complete any unfinished stories. Atvarious times throughout the procedure students were verballyreminded of the protocol; each story required a plot andoutcome.The grade five/six test administration was done in twoparts; before and after lunch. The grade seven testadministration was completed in one sitting.Teachers Upon completion of the CAT-H, teachers were given theCAAP to be completed, one for each student. They wereadvised to return the completed CAAP forms in a sealed brownenvelope to the researcher's school mail slot.Case Studies To facilitate data collection this researcher conductedan on-site informal interview with the teacher of the sixstudents who were selected for case study. With the teacher'spermission the conversation was recorded. Sequence analysisresults were also discussed at this time.Data AnalysisDescriptive statistics of the data were derived utilizingSYSTAT: The System for Statistics version Release 5.140(Wilkinson, 1989). The Pearson Product-Moment Correlationwas used to analyze the data, and the criterion for judgementof statistical significance was p<.05 using a two-tail test.Two correlational values are reported. The first relatesto the Motivational Index and the raw scores obtained from theCAAP. The second relates to the Motivational Index and each ofthe five adjustment categories found on the CAAP.To examine the correlations further, the previouslymentioned six case studies will be presented. The data will bepresented in three parts. The first section containsstatistical analysis of the data; the second part contains theteacher's report of the student's level of adjustment acrossthe five categories of the CAAP.In the the third section the researcher presents theresults of the motivational index and the story sequenceanalysis to the teacher. Both the researcher's and Arnold'sstory sequence analysis will be presented along with theteacher's comments as transcribed from theresearcher/teacher conversation.To judge the accuracy of the researcher's imports for thesix case studies, the work was checked by M. B. Arnold(personal communication , April 27, 1993). A further checkon the researcher's accuracy was completed on six otherstudents by the researcher's supervisor. While the41researcher's imports tended to be "wordier", Arnold's areconcise.42CHAPTER FOURRESULTSThis study was designed to examine motivation throughthe use of thematic apperception and to measure therelationship between motivation and five areas of adjustmentas measured by the CAAP. Qualitatively this study set out toreport the level of congruence between story sequenceanalysis and teacher reports on student adjustment.Hypotheses a) There was a positive significant correlation betweenmotivation and school adjustment. The Pearson coefficientresult of r = 0.509 was found between the motivational indexand CAAP. The critical r value for n =18 was 0.468 at the p<.05 level. A two-tail test was used.b) A positive relationship existed between the motivationalindex and each of the five adjustment categories of the CAAP.This study did not establish a statistically significantcorrelation between the motivational index and each of thefive adjustment categories of the CAAP.Table I reports the correlation between the variables.The critical r value for n = 18 was 0.468 at the p< .05 levelusing a two-tail test. The correlation between productivityand the M.I., r = .444, was the only correlation close to43obtaining statistical significance.44Table ICorrelation between the Motivational Indexand the Five Adjustment Categories of theCAA PPearson Product-Moment Correlation( n = 18 students)PR^DEP^HOST^PROD^WITHM.I.^0.218^0.415^0.353^0.444^0.280PR= Peer relations; DEP= dependency; HOST= hostilityPROD= productivity and WITH= withdrawalM.I.= Motivational Index45Research Question Does the qualitative portrait of the individual asevidenced in Arnold's story sequence analysis parallel theverbal reports as given by the teacher?The student imports as completed by the researcher andArnold will be presented. This will be followed by the storysequence analysis (the numbers appearing in the analysisrelate to the researcher's imports) and a summary of thesalient points of adjustment and level of achievement asreported in the teacher/researcher interview. The summaryof each case study will identify the parallels of the sequenceanalysis and teacher report. Students' stories are presentedin Appendix A.Case study oneResearcher's Imports1. Although you fight temptation and wait, eventually you givein to it and when you do you are punished. +1 IB 2d2. When you try with all your strength you can be successful.+2 IB 1 a3. When you are ignored by adults you bother them until theynotice you. -1 IIA lb4. Sometimes play can turn into disaster. -2 IIIA 2aii5. When others are unaware you do things without worryingwhat they may do when they find out. -1 IIIC 2a466. When you go off on your own your parents will find you.-1 IIA 1 b7. You awake to find your nightmare is only a dream.-2 IVA 3a8. When you are punished for no reason you laugh at those whopunish you. -2 IIIF 1 a9. If you are not vigilant others can do you serious harm.-2 IVA 4a10. Even if you deserve punishment, the ones that punish youwill also be punished. -2 HA 3dArnold's Imports1. Sometimes temptation is too strong to resist but you getpunished afterwards. -1 IIA 1 f2. If you try with all your strength you will succeed. +2 IB 1 a3. You may have to annoy adults to make them pay attention toyou. -1 IIA 1 b4. But sometimes impulsive action can lead to disaster.-2 III 2aii5. And other times the fates are kind when you tempt them.-1 IIA 1 b6. No matter what you do you can always depend on parents tolook after you. - 1 IIA 1 b7. You may have a fright, but find it's only a nightmare.- 1 IVA 3a478. When people punish you without cause, you laugh at them.-2 IIIF 3a9. But calamity may come if you don't look out. -2 IVA 2c10. Still, even if you deserve punishment, the people whopunish you will rue the day. -2 IIA 3dStory Sequence AnalysisWith a motivational score of 45, lm is not highlymotivated. lm finds it difficult to stay on task and needs a lotof reminders to complete his assignments (1). He is capableof success but success can be elusive ( 2, 9 ). He is easilydistracted by others and what others are doing can become hisfocus ( 1, 5 ). Although he feels safe with authority figures( 6 ) he must push to get their attention (3). He is disdainfulof those who punish him ( 8, 10 ). At first he is suspicious ofothers especially those who have power over him ( 8, 9, 10 ).Overall, he finds that he has little control over what happensto him ( 7, 9 ).Teacher Commentslm was a popular young lad who got along well with hispeers. He was part of a larger group of boys both at home andat school; he was very loyal to this group. He was a followerand because of that he tended to get into group initiated fights.He didn't feel academics was his strength and thus was easilydrawn off-task by others especially in unstructured situations.48His work habits were poor; he spent several years in learningassistance. He liked to daydream and was more interested inrecess and lunch time activities. He was slow to do his work.When disciplined he reacted well although it took him awhileto trust me. He liked to please others as he didn't want themto think ill of him. Despite the lack of academic enthusiasm,the teacher felt that he adjusted well and progressed steadily.SummaryThe story sequence analysis substantiates the teacher'sreport. Both assessments indicated that 1m was a follower;he was easily distracted by others; he was not highlymotivated and had difficulty staying on task. 1 m does not feelin control of what happens to him which would of courseadversely affect his level of motivation.Case Study 2Researcher's Imports1. When you wait until the circumstances are right you enjoyyour reward. +2 IC lb2. When the odds are against you, you persist and aresuccessful and those who love you celebrate with you.+2 IB 1 a3. Sharing time with loved ones brings warmth and happiness,+2 IIIA 3a4. and when you get the courage to try something new your49family supports you. +2 IIIA 2a5. When you are frightened you cry but later the feelings pass.-1 IVA 6c6. When there is danger you will overcome it. +2 IVA 1a7. You are no longer afraid because it was only a nightmare.-1 IVA 6c8. When you are mocked by others they too will be punished.+2 IVB lb9. When you err you apologize and ensure that it will nothappen again. +2 IIA 1d10. If you are bratty you will be punished. +2 HA laArnold's Imports1. You may have to wait before you get an unexpected pleasure.+2 IIA 4b2. If you work hard you'll win even in an unequal contest andall will be happy. +2 IA 1a3. You love people who spend time with you, +2 IIIA 3a4. and when you try something new your family supports you.+2 IIIA 1 b.5. When you are frightened you cry, but your fear passes.-1 IVA 1 a6. But the danger may be real though you can overcome it andsee that it doesn't recur. +2 IVA 1 a7. More likely it's only a nightmare. -2 IVA 1 a508. And when you get into trouble and others mock you they getinto trouble too. +2 IIIB 1 b9. You may forget what you are supposed to do but youapologize and don't do it again, +2 HA 1 a10. but if you are bratty you will be punished. +2 IIA laStory Sequence Analysis2f's motivational index score was 165 indicating highachievement motivation. Relationships are very important toher making her feet comfortable, warm, loved and cared for(3, 4 ). She has a high regard for discipline ( 8, 10 ). Shedemonstrates a positive attitude towards work (2) and stayson task until assignments are completed (1). She isconsiderate of others ( 9). She feels supported by her family(4) yet is fearful of new situations. She may becomeemotional about things that she is afraid of (5) however sheovercomes her fears ( 6 ).Teacher CommentsTeacher 2f was considered a very bright girl. She hadproblems getting along with her peers. She kept very much toherself and only had one friend who stayed very close to her.She had a tendency to be sullen and sulky around others andfelt that adults were always against her, especially hermother. Others found that they could easily bother her and shewas a target for their teasing. When disciplined she would51blame others and not take ownership. She was a diligentworker who always completed assignments before the allottedtime. Her work was done thoroughly and carefully. Once sheput her mind to something it was always done with excellence.She shied away from creative tasks preferring activities withright or wrong answers. She adjusted well to grade sevendespite her sullenness.SummaryThe story sequence analysis parallels the teacher reportin that both agree 2f was a highly motivated student. Herimports suggested that she had a positive attitude towardswork and relationships, however the teacher report suggestedshe had difficulty in relationships. This difficulty was notrevealed in her story sequence analysis.Case Study 3Researcher's Imports1. You hope to get something different and eventually you do.-1 IB 2a2. You try to win but you need other's support to win. -1 IB 1 a3. It is important to take the opportunity when it comes as itmay not do so again. -1 IB 1 f4. When you were young you worried but in the end you followthe others and are safe. -1 IB 1 a5. Others are aware of what you are doing but do not interfere.52+1 IIIA lc6. When you reach your goal you rest. +1 IB 5a7. At first no one believes you, but later they do. -1 IIIA 3a8. Your innocence is sometimes doubted by those close to you.-1 IIIA 2a9. When you cannot get others to help you you help yourselfand feel better for it. +2 IB 1 a10. Sometimes you're treated unfairly by others despitefeeling your actions are justified. -1 IIA 1 fArnold's Imports1. You may not like the daily routine but if you wait it willchange. -1 IB 1 a2. You can't win if you are overmatched but in the end someonewill help. -1 IB 1 c3. But it's better not just to wait but to use the opportunitywhen it comes. -1 IB 1 f4. When you are young and exposed someone will take care; allyou may have to do is to go on with them and find safety atlast. -1 IA 3ai5. You may keep your head down but parents know what you areup to. +1 IIIA 1a6. Still you can make up your own game and succeed at it.+1 IA 1 a7. Even if you didn't do anything people may chase you but in53the end they believe you. -1 IIIA 3a8. Sometimes people tell on you though you didn't do anything;in the end parents believe you. -1 IIIA 2a9. Your very weakness may make you do something to helpyourself. +2 IB 1 a10. Sometimes you are treated unfairly because others don'ttell the whole story. -1 IIA 1 fStory Sequence Analysis3f's motivational index score was 85 indicating lowerachievement motivation. She would like to be successful ( 6 )however she feels opportunities are fleeting ( 3 ). When facedwith circumstances she does not like she waits passively forhelp or for things to change ( 1, 2 ). She feels like a victim,unfairly treated by others ( 7, 10 ). When she becomesinvolved in an unfamiliar activity she may become fearful ( 4 ).She feels most comfortable doing things her own way (6). Shehas a pervasive sense of hopelessness.Teacher CommentsAlthough 3f got along with her peers in the classroomshe had few friends. She was very much a loner who did nottry to become part of a group. If she was cajoled she wouldjoin in. Academically, she experienced many problems. Shebecame easily discouraged and would often daydream. If shewas not checked she could spend the whole period on one54question. She wanted to be invisible so she never asked forhelp. She was Miss Avoider. Her work was messy andincomplete; rarely did she complete assignments. Whendisciplined she would burst into tears and because of thatdiscipline was often avoided. Her adjustment to grade sevenwas difficult. She began the year with a truancy problem butonce it was resolved things improved.SummaryBoth the teacher report and story sequence analysisagree that 3f was a passive, discouraged child; she did notpursue relationships or expect to succeed. Her discouragementwas displayed through a sense of hopelessness, avoidance, lackof initiative and poor academic performance.Case Study 4Researcher's Imports1. When you wait to be joined by others you enjoy a greatactivity. +2 IIIA 3b2. When you try with all your might you are successful.+2 IB la3. You prefer to do things together; it is better than doing italone. +2 IIIA 3a4. Others can be overjoyed at finding someone but they canforget about you as you cry alone. -2 IIIA 1c5. When you ignore your responsibilities someone comes and55takes over. -1 IVA 1 a6. When you are alone you think about the great times ahead.-1 IB 2e7. Even though you protect yourself, others will seek revengeon a grander scale. -2 IVA 4d8. You persist in getting your own way but in order to avoid anargument you give into the demands of others, - 1 IIA 3c9. but you do take your responsibilities seriously. +2 IIA 4b10. Even though you are fearful of punishment, you accept itfor it only lasts for a moment. +1 IIC 2Arnold's Imports1. You may have to wait but in the end you enjoy what youexpect. +2 IIA 4a2. When you try with all your might you succeed. +2 IB la3. Doing things alone is no fun so you get others to do themtogether. +2 IIIA 3a4. In our joy at finding someone who was lost we may forgetanother who is afraid and crying. -2 IIIA 1c5. When you shirk your responsibility someone is sure to comeand calm everything down. - 1 IVA 1a6. While others sleep you think about the great times ahead.-2 IA 2c7. You may try to fight danger but it will swallow you up.-2 IVA 4d568. You may not do what you should the first time but in the endyou give in. -1 HA 3c9. In fact, when necessary you do what you should withoutbeing told. +2 HA 4b10. When you know you'll be punished you may be scared butyou take it because it only lasts for a moment. +1 HC 2Story Sequence Analysis4f's motivational score was 105 indicating that she ismotivated but not highly so. Relationships are important toher and she likes working with others ( 1, 3 ). She usuallytakes her responsibilities seriously ( 9 ) but knows others willcover for her if she avoids them ( 5 ). Initially she may not dowhat is asked and when she is disciplined accepts theconsequences ( 8, 10 ). When she tries really hard she issuccessful ( 2 ). She sometimes feels out of control ( 7, 4 ).Although she thinks about great things there is little effort toachieve them because there is a feeling that things will notwork out ( 7, 6 ).Teacher Comments4f was a very popular student with her classmates. Theyall wanted to be her friend. She was a good influence on othersand a natural leader, avoiding confrontations and helpingothers solve their problems. She could be very empathic. Shewanted to do well in all areas of her life and was a good all57around person. Her biggest discouragement was her grades.She would receive C's and high C's but her parents expected andwanted more. She found this very frustrating. Although herassignments were completed they were often below thestandard required for an A grade. She had difficulty staying ontask with individual assignments however, in a groupassignment she became the leader and kept the group on task.When disciplined she accepted her consequences. She adjustedvery well and had a great year.SummaryThe importance of relationships to 4f was revealedthrough her imports and supported by the teacher's report.Both sources suggested that she performed more effectively aspart of a group than on individual assignments. Although shewould like to achieve higher grades, there was little efforttowards that end as she felt that she wouldn't be successful.Case Study 5Researcher's Imports1. Although you don't like something others can talk you intoit. +1 IIIC 1 b2. You struggle to win but after a hard struggle you realize thefruitlessness and accept defeat peacefully. +2 IIIB 1 c3. It is nice for a son to spend time with his father andeventually they do. -1 IIIA 1 c584. You may be worried and excited at the same time but in theend things turn out well. +1 IB 1 a5. It is nice to dream about things to come and when they do itis fine. -1 IB 2b6. Sometimes you wonder about the things you will encounterin the future and you may see it as a frightening adventure.-2 IVA 1 b7. When the adventure starts going wrong you have the abilityto find your way out. +2 IVA la8. When parents are angry at you they forgive you and everyoneis happy. +1 IIA 4a9. If you shout loud enough your parents will meet your needs.+1 IVA 1 a10. When others become angry with you you may decide not doit again. +2 IIC 1 bArnold's Imports1. You may not like something but when urged you finally do it.+1 HA 2a2. You may fight to win but when you can't you learn to live inpeace. +2 IIIB 1 c3. People may want to spend time together and eventually theydo. -1 IIIA 1 c4. And when you make plans you may be worried whetherthey'll work, but they do. +1 IB 1 a595. It's nice to dream about things to come and it's fine whenthey do. -2 IA 2c6. In your dreams you may even pretend to be on a frighteningadventure. -2 IVA 1 b7. But when you are in a real frightening adventure you willfind your way out. +2 IVA la8. And when you get into mischief parents will forgive you andeveryone will be happy. +1 IIA 4a9. If you shout loud enough parents may get angry but they willsatisfy your needs. +1 IVA 1 a10. But if you are punished for being naughty you mend yourways and are never naughty again. +2 IIC laStory Sequence Analysis5m is a moderately motivated student with a M.I. of 125.He often needed to be urged to complete tasks ( 1, 9 ). Whenprovoked he defends himself, however he knows when he willbe defeated and withdraws ( 2, 7 ). In his dreams he is a heroand consequently he has a propensity to daydream ( 5, 6 ). Inreality he is apprehensive that things will not work out ( 4 ).He responds well to discipline and accepts the consequencesfor misbehaviour ( 8, 10 ). He would like to have relationshipswith people but does not actively pursue them ( 3 ).Teacher Comments5m was a loner although he had one friend. He segregated60himself from others and the students indicated that he put apartition between them and himself. He never sought others.He liked to work on his own and became frustrated whenrequired to work in a group. He lacked cooperative skills. Hewas seldom disciplined as there was rarely a need to otherthan to get him to school on time in the morning. Otherstudents would bother him. He would come back with a quickretort and a fight would start. He was a diligent worker. Hisassignments were always completed but he didn't work to hispotential. He was a B student but there was a concern that hewas not challenged enough. He would daydream and appearlethargic. He adjusted to grade seven well but the biggestconcern was his inability to interact socially.Summary5m's social isolation was indicated in his story sequenceanalysis and confirmed by the teacher report. He would haveliked to have relationships with others but he did not have theconfidence to pursue them. Outwardly he displayed his lack ofconfidence by isolating himself from others. His M.I. revealeda moderate level of motivation which was reflected in hisconsistently moderate academic performance.Case Study SixResearcher's Imports1. Having your way is pleasurable but others can interfere and61ruin your fun. -1 IB 1a2. At first when you think you may not succeed you try harder.But if that isn't successful you wait for someone to make amistake then you succeed. +1 IE la3. Sometimes your first reaction to new relationships isnegative but when you think about how they think about you,you treat them better. +1 IIIA 3a4. If you want a relationship bad enough all you have to do isfollow them. -1 IIIA 4c5. You rush in thinking it is an emergency only to find it issomething minor. You fix it and everything is okay. +2 IV A la6. If you are caught doing something wrong you will only getscolded. -1 HA 1g7. Sometimes you try to do the right thing but it turns outbadly and you become lost forever. -2 IVA 4a8. Although you are asked to behave you do not. Instead youare punished. Later you are told how to behave and you do.+1 IIA 1ci9. You sometimes wish others would not bother you so youwouldn't have to hit them all the time but they never will.-2 IIIB 2b10. When you disobey you are punished. +2 HA laArnold's Imports1. If you are lucky others won't interfere in your fun. -1 lB 1a622. And when others seem to be winning you try with all yourmight and when they make a mistake, you succeed. +1 IE la3. You may want to get rid of responsibility but when youthink of the way your father took on his responsibility, youchange your mind. +1 IIIA 3a4. If you want friendship bad enough all you have to do is stickaround and the rest will follow. -1 IIIA 1 b5. You may rush to help thinking it's an emergency but find it'sonly a minor upset. You fix it and everything is okay.+2 IVA 1 a6. But when you make mischief you get scolded though in theend things calm down. -1 IIA 1 g7. You may try to fight an intruder with insufficient weaponsbut that is no good. -2 IVA 4a8. When you misbehave despite a warning you are punished.But when you decide to be good all is forgiven. +1 IIA 1c9. You may wish others would behave too, so you wouldn't haveto hit them all the time, but they never will. -2 IIIB 1 d10. When you don't do what you are supposed to do you arepunished. +2 IIA 1 aStory Sequence Analysis6m is moderately motivated with an MI of 100. Althoughhe is tempted not to complete tasks, he does ( 3 ). He seeshimself as popular and is willing to help out friends in need63( 4, 5 ). He usually accepted punishment when he misbehaved(8, 10 ) however he sometimes thinks he can get away lightlyand pushed the limits ( 6, 7, 8 ). He wants people to do thingshis way and if they don't he is disruptive (1 , 9 ). He isinterested in being successful but he is content to wait untilthe circumstances are favorable ( 2 ).Teacher Comments6m was a highly visible, attention seeking student. Heloved to be the center of attention and was popular with hisclassmates. He could work independently but liked tochallenge the rules. In group situations he found it difficult toconcentrate; he was too interested in what was going onaround him. Once an assignment was given and he knewexactly what was expected of him, he could organize himselfand complete the task. He wanted to do well but was notespecially self-motivated or self-disciplined yet he couldwork steadily and neatly at a task; in that way he was aproduct oriented person. He rarely got into fights but did getinto many altercations with girls. He was a disruptiveinfluence on the playground and I received many complaintsabout him. He was a high C student but could do better. Hisadjustment to grade seven was good; he was very energeticand if he could redirect his energies he had the potential to domuch better.64Summary6m's imports suggest that he saw himself as a popularindividual.^Motivationally, the imports indicate that hegenerally looked for the easy way out. His propensity tochallenge the rules was reflected in both the imports andteacher report. He found it difficult to concentrate on hiswork as he was more interested in what was happening aroundhim. This was reflected in his average to low academicperformance. At a deeper level his sequence analysissuggested that he was content to wait for success rather thanactively pursue it.65CHAPTER FIVEDISCUSSIONThe primary interest of this study was to replicateArnold's work through the study of the relationship betweenadjustment and motivation in late elementary school-agedchildren. Results of the 18 students who participated in thisstudy were analyzed and presented in the previous chapters.This final chapter is divided into four sections:(a) Interpretation of results; (b) Limitations of the study;(c) Implications for practice and (d) Implications for futureresearch.Interpretation of ResultsThe qualitative significance of Arnold's story sequenceanalysis is consistent with teacher reports of adjustment.This insight provides a deeper understanding of a child'ssuccess and provides reasons for their good or pooradjustment.While some researchers indicate that school successhas more to do with heredity and home environment (Zachry,1929) and conditions of learning (Gagne, 1974), this studyset out to determine the relationship between adjustment(how well a student responds to the demands of school life)and motivation to achieve (achievement motivation). Researchon the relationship between achievement motivation and66adjustment has suggested that students who positively meetthe demands of school life are motivated to achieve. As theliterature in chapter two indicated, children who do not adjustwell in school do not do well academically. Determining whichstudents are poorly adjusted enables us to identify whichstudents will have academic difficulties. Story sequenceanalysis reveals the reasons for poor academic performanceand maladjustment which once identified can be effectivelyaddressed by both teachers and school counsellors.Before commencing a discussion of significant findings,it is helpful to briefly step back and review the significance ofachievement motivation, Arnold's motivational theory andadjustment. The study of achievement motivation is concernedwith the level of accomplishment that is actually obtained.Before achievement can occur, motivation must be present.Motivation deals with the appraisal of goals and the choice ofaction that leads to or away from that goal. Behaviour andattitude are important constructs of motivation. It is thebehaviour and attitude that lead to success or failure. As isobvious by the above definitions, achievement motivation andmotivation are related, interconnected constructs difficult todefine separately.One way to assess an individual's level of motivation isto use a projective test such as the thematic apperception test67or the children's apperception test in which the individualwrites a story about a picture. Arnold believed that throughthe process of telling a story a person's personalitycharacteristics, convictions, attitudes, actions andbehaviours would be revealed. From the story an import (whichis the essence or moral of the story) could be obtained. With asequence of imports an assessment of an individual's level ofmotivation could be attained. She classified motives that leadto success as positive or constructive, while motives leadingto low success or no success were classified as being negativeor non-constructive.Working with thousands of imports Arnold identified fourgeneral categories. From these categories she developed ascoring system that allowed individual imports to be scored aseither positive or negative. These four categories are: (1)success and failure; (2) right and wrong; (3) social relationsand (4) reactions to adversity.Scored imports are added together and converted to apossible score of 0 - 200. Converted scores reveal anindividual's level of motivation. Scores above 100 revealpositive or constructive motives while scores below 100reveal negative or non-constructive motives. The higher themotivational level the more likely the student is orientedtowards success.68No decisive definition for adjustment exists in theliterature; many terms are used including learning, motivation,frustration, anxiety, accommodation, adaptation andhabituation. Popplestone, McPherson and White (1980)suggested that adjustment is any operation whereby anorganism becomes more favorably related to the environment.For the purpose of this thesis, adjustment was examined interms of social and internal adaptation. That is, interpersonalinteractions with others and how an individual copes withinternal, intrapersonal demands of school.To measure adjustment the Child and AdolescentAdjustment Profile was used (Ellsworth, 1980). The CAAPmeasures adjustment over five areas: (1) peer relations; (2)dependency; (3) hostility; (4) productivity and (5)withdrawal.In general, results of this study indicated that studentswho adjusted positively to the challenges of school life werepositively motivated and had a higher level of achievement asindicated by the researcher/teacher dialogue. These resultsgenerally support the recent findings of Taylor (1990) whoreported that children who were well adjusted had higherlevels of achievement motivation.^Arnold (1962) correlatedthe motivational index with grades and found scores rangingbetween 0.75 and 0.85. The current study with its limited69sample size correlated motivational index and adjustment andis reflective of Arnold's work. The overall relationshipbetween motivation and adjustment was found to besignificant (with alpha = .05).Having first considered the results collectively, thepresent discussion will now address specific details of thecorrelations between the CAAP and the motivational index.This discussion will also include a comparison to Arnold'sscoring categories.The correlation between the M.I. and peer relations was0.218. The correlation was not significant, perhaps due to thesmall sample size, however it does lend support to Coie andKopple's (1990) findings which reported correlations of 0.20to 0.40 between peer relations and achievement. Peerrelations, a student's interaction with their classmates is animportant component of adjustment. Studies cited earlier(McGhee and Short, 1991; Taylor, 1990) suggested thatstudent's who experience difficulties with peer relationseither withdraw or become aggressive. Maladjustment isrelated to poor academic performance.Comparing peer relations to Arnold's scoring categories,peer relations fall under the heading of category Ill: HumanRelationships. Constructively motivated students viewrelationships as inherently good and desirable; they seek70interactions with others. Low achievers view peer relationswith caution. They may either avoid relationships or viewthem with distrust and uncertainty.The relationship between dependency and the M.I was notsignificant at r = 0.415. Although the sample size was small,the results were close to the critical value r = 0.46.Dependency was defined as a student's inability to be self-monitoring and to become easily frustrated with assignments.Students who demonstrate dependency have little self-confidence. They seek reassurance to assure themselves thatwhat they are doing is correct. Teacher ratings of dependencyindicate that those students who continuously seek assistancebecome easily frustrated and suffer other adjustmentproblems such as being labeled by their peers (Feshbach andFeshbach, 1987).Dependency corresponds to Arnold's category I;Achievement, success, happiness and active effort.Constructively motivated students believe that success is aresult of personal effort. They have a positive attitude anduse personal initiative and self control to completeassignments. Non-constructively motivated students questiontheir abilities and seek reassurance from either the teacher orfellow students. They view their success as a matter of luckrather than as a result of hard work.71The correlation between hostility and the M.I. was notsignificant and was measured at r = 0.353. Although this studydid not produce significance, research by Feldhausen, Thurstonand Benning's (1970) reported a positive correlation betweenhostility and achievement. They noted that children whosebehaviour was aggressive and disruptive achieved atsignificantly lower levels than non-aggressive, non-disruptivechildren.Arnold suggested that individuals who have hostiletendencies view the world as an unsafe place and believe thatit is acceptable to use others to get what is wanted. Moreover,success may attained by using force or threat of force.Hostility is scored under both category I; Achievement,success, happiness and active effort (or lack of it) andcategory II; Right and wrong.The correlation that came closest to the critical valuewas between the M.I. and productivity. The correlation was0.444. Productivity was defined as the ability to work hard ata task until completion and to complete the task carefully andto the best of ability. As previously indicated in the literaturereview (Wentzel, 1991) students who were task oriented andgoal directed possessed a positive attitude about theircapabilities to handle and complete assignments. Lowachievers struggled with task completion which often lead to72lower levels of achievement.Productivity, as scored under category I, is a positive,constructive motive. According to Arnold, motivated personspossess a positive attitude towards work. Work is viewed asvaluable as it brings intrinsic rewards, and success isbelieved to be a result of personal initiative and active effort.The final correlation, between withdrawal and the M.I.was 0.28. The writer ponders whether the correlation may beartificially low as Lepper and Hodell (1989) suggest thatchildren who are withdrawn conform to the social control andclassroom management model. Adjustment problems that theymay have often go unnoticed by teachers.Students who withdraw, according to the CAAP,daydream, sit and stare, do things slowly and appearindifferent and uninterested. Non-constructive motivationalpatterns of students whose imports indicate withdrawal maybe scored under category I; achievement, success, happinessand active effort (or lack of it) and/or category IV; reaction toadversity. Under category I success comes from wishing,hoping, dreaming and passive attitudes. Under category IVadversity is evaded by withdrawal.The present study clearly demonstrated that motivationand the level of achievement a student attains is directlyrelated to how successfully the student has adjusted.73Scheiders (1960) believed that motivation is determined byadjustment and that motivation is the driving force behindadjustive behaviours found in education and learning.Cross case analysisImports laid down in sequence reveal a student's beliefsand convictions. The more constructive these beliefs andconvictions are the more positively motivated the student.This study sought to measure a student's level of motivationand to relate it to their level of adjustment. Case studies ofthe child with the highest M.I. and the child with the lowestM.I. will be presented for further discussion. Discussion willbegin with student 2f who has a motivational index of 165 andwill be followed by student 1m who has a motivational indexof 45. Student records from kindergarten through grade sevenwere consulted for this discussion.2f2f's imports clearly suggest that she is highly motivated.Her sequence analysis stated that she had a positive attitudetowards work and that her work was done with care. She had ahigh regard for discipline and relationships were important toher.Comments on previous report cards attested to 2f's highlevel of achievement. She made the honor role twice.Throughout her reports teachers stated that they were74impressed by her mature work ethic, study habits, herresponsibility in accomplishing tasks and her desire to dowell. Socially, teachers state that she was polite andconsiderate, always willing to work with others.Teacher comments presented in chapter four of thisstudy contradict previous teacher reports, the M.I. and herwritten grade 7 report. The teacher was concerned about 2f'ssullenness and "poor me" attitude. She also remarked on 2f'sinability to get along with her peers and her tendency to beimpatient and sharp in her dealings with her classmates. Herimports suggested that she may approach tasks or people thatshe is unsure of with caution until she feels comfortable(imports 4, 5 and 6). These imports may account for her peerinteractions. According to Silvern and Katz (1986)behaviours such as social isolation and withdrawal are signalsof maladjustment in girls. However, no prior comments couldbe found in reference to her sullenness or poor me attitude. Itcould be speculated that these current problems are a result ofadolescence, recent personal problems, or the result of teacherbias whereby the teacher may have underestimated the actualadjustment level of the child. The sequence analysis andmotivational index score support previous teachers' commentsthat 2f is well adjusted. Although the M.I. does not correspondwith the teacher's report, historically it does.751m1 m's motivational index score was 45 indicating lowmotivation. In reviewing 1 m's sequence analysis it was foundthat he had difficulty staying on task and that he needed to befrequently reminded to complete assignments. He was easilydistracted by others and could become more interested in whatothers were doing rather than in his own work. While he feltthat he could be successful he found it difficult to maintainhis focus and hence success was fleeting. He felt he had littlecontrol over what happened to him.In previous reports, teachers indicated that 1m haddifficulty in many academic areas, including math, writing andespecially reading. Percentages reported in these three areasranged in the fifties to low sixties. To secure help withLanguage Arts, 1m was referred to Learning Assistance.Dechant (1968) and Battle (1990) stated that students withearly reading difficulties experience adjustment difficulties.Several comments addressing completion ofassignments and poor work habits were made. Other teachercomments indicated that if 1m were to take more time, bemore conscientious and put in more effort, he would be moresuccessful in school. Although 1 m's teacher reported that shefelt he adjusted well, all supporting evidence suggestedotherwise.76Review of 1 m's progress from kindergarten to gradeseven revealed a clear pattern; his grades deteriorated overthe years. Feldhusen, Thurston and Benning (1970) found intheir longitudinal study that students experiencingunderachievement difficulties were likely to continue on adownward spiral. From the foregoing discussion it may behypothesized that 1m is of average intelligence but suffersfrom low motivation and adjustment difficulties. It may alsobe speculated that 1m suffers from a low self-concept basedon 1 m's teacher's comments that he is a follower and is drawninto group fights. Other indicators of adjustment problems arehis propensities for daydreaming and his lack of academicenthusiasm.The two cases studies previously discussed revealconstructive and non-constructive motivational patterns. Theconstructive patterns of 2f indicated that success comesthrough active effort and decision to accomplish tasks withoutinterference. Doing her best is important. Alternatively, 1 m'spattern revealed non-constructive attitudes. He was easilydistracted from tasks and viewed success as elusive andindependent of his effort.SummaryThis study began with the observation that a relationshipexisted between motivation and adjustment and that the level77of motivation affected the level of achievement a studentattained. Using Arnold's (1962) story sequence analysis itbecame clear that it was possible to distinguish students withconstructive motivation from those with non-constructivemotivation. The sequence analysis also explained where thestudent was experiencing adjustment difficulties.From the empirical investigation in this presentstudy, it has been demonstrated that:1. a relationship exists between a student's level ofadjustment and level of motivation and these factors affecttheir level of achievement;2. specific adjustment difficulties were identified and theteacher generally supported the research findings;3. school records agreed with the research finding;4. this study successfully replicated Arnold's findings.Limitations of StudyThe significance and generality of these conclusions arelimited by the following factors:1. The sample size of 18 was one of convenience and notrandom.2. The limited number of participants does not allow formaking predictions to the general population.3.^The reliability of the imports and scores could beimproved by utilizing inter-rater reliability.78improved by utilizing inter-rater reliability.4. There was no control for teacher responses on the CAAP. Itwas not possible to verify that the teachers views representeda realistic evaluation of the student.5. All six case study students were taught by one teacher.Teacher bias may have been a factor in reporting adjustment orachievement levels in the interview.6. The researcher could not ensure that individual studentsunderstood story protocol. The large group format made itdifficult to monitor whether the students were writing thestories correctly.7. A seven point Likert-type scale may provide a bettermeasure of adjustment than the four point scale used in thisstudy.8. Achievement motivation was not correlated with gradepoint average.9. The CAT-H was used rather than the TAT. Studies indicatethat the TAT lends itself to more global interpretation whilethe CAT-H is more situation specific. The TAT may haveprovided a more accurate appraisal of student motivation.Implications for PracticeThe findings of this study provide practical value forschool counsellors. Story sequence analysis provides valuableinformation to teachers and counsellors. It offers specific79insight to individual student adjustment, motivation andachievement levels.Assessment of students using Arnold's (1962) storysequence analysis provided a view of the student's beliefs andattitudes and highlighted the reasons for their difficulty inadjustment. Story sequence analysis is a quick and accuratemethod of assessment. Student's enjoy either writing storiesor having their stories recorded. Once trained in the method ofstory sequence analysis, a counsellor would be able to providehelpful suggestions to the teacher to assist students tobecome more successful. In individual or group counsellingsessions the counsellor can address the underlying beliefs,convictions and attitudes that affect the child's academicperformance and adjustment to school.Arnold's work has also been used successfully withcareer choice. At the secondary school level this may providevaluable information to a counsellor working with a studentwho is unsure as to the appropriate career path. In her bookStory Sequence Analysis Arnold positively identifiedcompetent candidates entering the seminary from those whowould not be competent.Implications for Future ResearchThe current research provides a foundation for future80work.Future research may consider tracking studentmotivation and adjustment over time. A longitudinal study ofa random sample of more than 30 subjects could be trackedthrough specific stages of elementary and secondary education.At each interval subjects would be required to complete a 10card TAT which would be augmented by a teacher completedadjustment profile. To ensure accuracy of imports and scores,inter-rater reliability would be conducted. This study wouldexamine whether motivation is consistent over time andwhether story sequence analysis consistently explainsadjustment levels?Another option that may be considered for futureresearch is assessment, intervention, post assessment. Canadjustment and motivation be changed through effectiveintervention? The results of this study could profoundlyaffect the manner in which adjustment difficulties arehandled. 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(ERIC DocumentReproduction Service No. ED 223 704)Reynolds, C. K. & Kamphaus, K. W. (Eds.) (1984). Handbook ofpsychological and educational assessment of children.New York: Oxford University Press.88Rogers, C. R. (1963). On becoming a person. Boston: HoughtonMifflin.Rogers, C. R. (1980). A way of being. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Schaughency, E. (1987). Self-concept and aggression inelementary school students. Journal of Clinical Child Psycholgy, 16, 116-121.Scheiders, A. A. (1960). Personality adjustment and mental health. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Silvern, L.E. & Katz, P.A. (1986). Gender roles and adjustmentin elementary school children: A multidimensionalapproach. Sex Roles, 14 %, 181-200.Singh, S. N. (1977). Adjustment problems and personalitycharacteristics of pre-adolescents.^Bhelupur, Varanasi:Rupa Psychological Center.Smith, C. P. (Ed) (1992). Motivation & personality: handbook of thematic content analysis. New York: CambridgeUniversity Press.Smith, D. J. (1981). Opinions of school, academic motivationand school adjustment in the first year of secondaryschool. Educational Studies, Z, 177-183.Steggart, F. X. (1961). An analysis of some personal and executive characteristics of participants in a university program for executive development for federal personnel.Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Loyola University,Chicago.Stipek, D. J. (1988). Motivation to learn. Boston: Allyn andBacon.89Taylor, A. R. (1990). Behavioral subtypes of low-achievingchildren: differences in school social adjustment.Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 11,487-498.Teglasi, H. (1993). Clinical use of story telling: emphasizingthe TAT with children and adolescents. Massachusetts:Allyn and Bacon.Thomas, A. D. & Dudek, S. Z. (1985). Interpersonal affect inTAT responses: A scoring system. Journal of Personalityand Development, 19, 30-37.Vane, J. R. (1981). The TAT: A Review. Clinical Psychology Review. 1 319-336.Wilkinson, L. (1989). SYSTAT: The system for statistics.Evanston, IL: SYSTAT, Inc.Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory of achievementmotivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 92,548-573.Wentzel, K. R. (1991). Social and academic goals at school: motivation and achievement in context. New York: JAIPress Inc.Zachry, C. B. (1929). Personality adjustments of school children. New York: Charles Scribiner's Sons.90Appendix A91Student Stories1m1. There were three kids at a table waiting for dinner andtheir mom brings out dinner but they can't eat until their momcomes back from next door so they sit there and sit there buttheir mom wasn't home yet. So one of the kids didn't care whattheir mom said so he started to eat and so the other twodecided to eat too. Then their mom came home and they all gotin trouble and they got sent to bed.2. There were three kids having a tug-a-war on a pile of sand.Then there was two against one so the boy by himself startedto pull like crazy and the other two boys started to sink in thesand and the boy by himself pulled once with all of hisstrength and made the two boys fall on their face.3. There was a man watching T.V. with his son on the floor byhimself so the boy wanted his dad to play with him but the dadwanted to watch T.V. So the boy crawled up on his dad and hithim in the head so his dad's pipe fell and broke on the floor.The boy's dad was mad but then he thought and found out thiswould not have happened if he was playing with his son so heplayed with his son happily.4. There was a boy and a baby and their mom. They were goingfor a picnic and the mom stopped but the boy didn't and the boyran into his mom and she dropped the baby and she fell off thecliff. Someone found the baby and boy. They were okay but themom was dead.5. There was two boys in a crib and the parents asleep but theboys were awake and the window was open. They walked tothe window and climbed onto the roof and fell asleep but theparents found them in the morning.6. There were two parents and a boy and the boy wasn't asleepso he got up and went fishing and fell asleep on the dock and92his parents didn't know that he was gone and in the morningthe parents found him.7. There was a boy and he was having a bad nightmare aboutthat he was getting chased by a huge man that was trying toeat him. The huge man grabbed him and went to put him in hismouth but the boy woke up and didn't go back to sleep.8. There were three parents and the mom is giving the littleboy trouble. She grabs him and put him over her knee and giveshim a big spanking for no reason but the little boy went to hisroom laughing at his mom and pointing at her.9. There was a baby in a crib and he was all alone. His parentwent to the store and they would be right back. A robber camein the window and killed the baby and stole all the parentsjewelry and their car. He made a run for the car and droveaway. When the parents came home they saw their baby dead.10. There was a boy and his dad and the boy swore at his dad.When he got out of the bath his dad put him over his knee andspanked him. For about two weeks the boy's bum was red as acherry but the dad went to jail for child abuse.932f1. There were three young children sitting at a table withbowls in front of them waiting to eat. They had to wait untiltheir parents sat down with them before they could eat.Finally their parents came and they got to enjoy their meal.2. The tug of war had begun. Ally was on one side and Suzy andSam were on the other. Sally was thinking to herself, "I'mnever going to win, this just isn't fair. They have two people,they have more strength." As all these thoughts ran throughher mind she kept pulling and as each though got worse shepulled with all her might. The next thing she knew, Suzy andSam had passed the line. She had won. She jumped inexcitement. When she got home her family celebrated for thiswas the first time in her life she had won.3. Grandpa was sitting in his chair telling his young grandsonJimmy old war stories. Jimmy just loved old war stories. Allthe guns and bombs and action excited him. His grandfatherwent on with these stories until 8:30 pm which was Jimmy'sbed time. As Jimmy got up to go to bed he went and gave hisgrandpa a hug to let him know he thought of him as Number One.4. Mom was taking her two children for a walk. As theywalked it got windy. Mom's hat started blowing away so shehad to carry a baby and hold her hat down. She thought thatthis was ridiculous but her daughter had finally gotten thecourage to ride her bike so she kept walking. Finally it startedto pour down with rain so they headed back. Luckily herhusband drove by so they got a ride. They put the bike in thetrunk. When they reached home they all got changed into dryclothes. Then they ate dinner and sat around a warm fire.5. Jim and Carol Walters were sleeping in their bed. Their sixmonth old baby Tanya was sleeping in her crib beside the bedtoo. All of a sudden a tree branch broke and frightened Tanyaand she started to cry. She woke her parents up in alarm. She94cried and cried for 10 minutes straight. Finally she got tosleep. Her parents went to sleep too and that was the lasttime she cried all night.6. There was a family camping at a lake. They were sleepingand all of a sudden they heard growling and somethingswooping at the tent. Went he father looked out he saw that itwas a bear. So he took out a gun and shot him. The nextmorning whey they woke up they left for a hotel where therewere no bears that could get to them.7. It was about midnight. Linda was sleeping. She was havinga horrible nightmare. It was about a huge man that waschasing her everywhere she went. She ran down main streets,back streets and everywhere, but it didn't matter where shewent. He was everywhere. Suddenly she woke up and found shewas only having a nightmare and fell asleep once again.8. Mom was sitting on the footstool yelling at Tom for notputting his toys away. His sister and brother were sitting onthe couch passing looks and whispering things about him. Momheard them and yelled at them for butting into someone else'sbusiness so they were all in an equal amount of trouble andwere all sent to their rooms.9. Little Timothy was all alone in his crib. He started cryingbut nobody came so he cried louder and still nobody came. Thephone rant. No one answered that either. No one was home.About 30 minutes later his mother came running into the room.She had forgotten all about him and gone out. She apologizedand from then on she stayed in the same room as him as henapped.10. A woman was undressing her kid so he could have a bath.He kept on squirming and would not stay still. It took thewoman 15 minutes to get the kid in the bathtub. When he gotin he started squirming everywhere. He got in trouble forbeing bratty and he couldn't play with his friends for a week.953f1. The children will start to eat their breakfast and think wealready had this yesterday. I don't like it they all say. Thenlunch comes and the youngest thinks I hope we get somethingdifferent but they just get soup. Dinner comes and they all getsomething different.2. They are trying to win but one side has two people and theother has one. The person with one is thinking if I want to winI have to get someone else but I can't leave. 10 minutes latersome other people walk by and see it's not fair so they join inand help him win.3. The little boy is thinking when I get older and he is notaround I will sit there and be like him and sit there. I wonderhow old I am and how long I will have to wait. So the manleaves and he jumps up and sits there. He thinks, why wait, Imight not live long.4. It was a windy day and the air was blowing all over. One ofthe little kids are being cared for because he is too young andmight get blown away. When they get to the mall they all thinksafe at last.5. The little boy is sleeping then the parents go in to go to bedbut the baby wakes up. Just when the parents go in she doesn'tsay anything but the parents knew. She finally goes to sleepand then they do.6. The kid wakes up in the morning and has nothing to do so hemakes up his own game. See how far he can get the leaves. Hegot it to the tree so he had reached his goal. Then he fellasleep.7. The bad big man is chasing that boy cause he thinks he stolesomething but he didn't. He chased him quite far then hebelieved him.968. He got in trouble because the neighbors told on him. He wasthinking why am I getting in trouble. I didn't do anything tothem. The mother was thinking how did they know if it washim or not? So she stopped yelling at him.9. The child couldn't talk so he couldn't yell for his mother. Sohe had to get up for a glass of water. He felt better after hisdrink and went back to bed.10. The child was getting in trouble because he was hittinghis sister, but his sister didn't tell all of the story. He thoughtit wasn't fair.974f1. The kids sat at the dinner table waiting, very hungry to eat.They feasted their eyes upon the supper. Then their parentsarrived. They said their prayers and enjoyed a great supper.2. It's sports day. The kids are having a tug of war fight. Eachside is pulling as hard as they can until boom! All of the kidson the left fall into the pit. The kids on the right had put alltheir might into it and won.3. A man sits thinking. The little one on the right sitsthinking of what the man might be thinking. The the childjumps onto the lap of the man and gives him a big hug. They sitand think together.4. On a nice sunny day a mother and her tow children go for awalk into the forest. All of a sudden the smallest one takesoff. The mother can't find her child anywhere. In themeantime her other child gets scared and cries. All of asudden the youngest one runs out from behind a rock. Themother hugs him. Forgetting about the child on the bike whocries alone.5. The baby girl cries. The parents try to sleep pulling thecovers over their heads. Big brother who is four comes intothe room and sings until they both fall asleep.6. Mom and Dad curled up together fast asleep in the corner.As little Billy lays there thinking of the great time he'll havefishing in the morning.7. The mean ugly old giant captured a poor small town'sperson. The town person in fear, throws a rock, but in revengethe giant eat the town person.8. It was Friday night and Mother had a guest over. I got inheck for still being up. My mother told me to go to bed three98times. I heard her the first time. I'm not stupid. I gave up andwent to bed without arguing.9. I was babysitting when I head a child screaming. I ranupstairs and opened the door. The poor little kid was sittingup stiff as a board. He had a bad dream.10. Scott was a bad boy. Scott was scared. He knew what wasgoing to happen. He closed his eyes and shouted. It stung for amoment and then it was over.995m1. One evening a family had sat down to dinner and the childdidn't like the peas so the parents tried and tried to get him toeat the peas. They talked and finally talked him into eating thepeas.2. The two boys were struggling against each other pulling andpulling trying to prove that they were stronger and better.They hated each other so they kept on pulling. Finally after along while the two boys decided that neither would win so theylearned not to fight and also not to have to prove something toother people.3. The little boy was thinking to himself that he would like tospend some time with his father because his father alwaysjust sits there with his pipe and cane. While the fatherthought to himself it would be nice to take his son fishing orto a movie. After awhile, the father talked to his son aboutdoing something together more often so they did.4. It was a sunny afternoon and everyone was happy. Theywere meeting some friends for a picnic. Mom was worried ifthey would find their friends or not while the little boy wasexited just for going on a picnic. Everything turned out goodand they found their friends.5. The babies were asleep for their nap having dreams ofbottles and the lunch. While mom was preparing lunch thebabies woke up and had lunch. The day was fine.6. While the parents were sleeping during the night on thecamping trips, the little boy was awake wondering about bearsand tigers in the forest, pretending he was on a big frighteningadventure.7. The little boy was frightened of the big giant eating him.He was sliding and sliding on the sloped muddy wall of the100giants house when he found a long wire and found his way outof the big mud house.8. While the mother was feeling angry at the little boy sheforgave him for breaking the vase and let him out of the corner.Everyone went back to dinner and everyone was happy.9. The baby screamed with hunger which led to the mothergetting the baby up with frustration and feeding her breakfast.10. The mother spanked the child with anger because he hadgone to the washroom in his pants again. After the spanking,the child decided not to do that ever again and from then on hewent in the toilet.1016m1. They were three best friends, Mark, Brian and Kelly. Theywere sitting at a table in Brian's house eating dinner. Mark andKelly were staying overnight like they did every Saturday atone or anothers house and this time it was at Brian's. They allliked to stay at Brian's house because his mom let them stayup as late as they wanted. There was a downfall. Brian'ssister was a pest but tonight she could not wreck watchingmovies or playing with Nintendo and talking about boy things.They all thought they were lucky tonight.2. Jake was having a tug-of-war with his younger brothersMike and Jo Jo. He thought "oh no, they're winning". He tuggedreal hard and almost pulled them in but they held steady. Afteranother four minutes of pulling, Jo Jo let go and Jake pulled sohard he pulled Mike into the pond.3. There once was a rich man name Alfred Ill. Two monthsago, his brother and his brother's wife died in a car accidentand left him with their two year old son. He did not like thekid that much and was already thinking about sending the boyto boarding school as he watched the sun set. Then he thought,my dad hopefully never thought that about me and from then onhe treated the boy as his own son.4. A guy one day (we won't mention his name for the sake ofembarrassment) was following a beautiful woman on his bikeeverywhere she went. Of course she did not realize it. He hada deep crush on her but thought he was too ugly to ask her out.So he just followed her and eventually she realized it and fellin love. A year later she married him.5. The baby was crying and the parent rushed in from dinnerwith their friend to find it was only a poopy diaper. Theychanged it and sang a lullaby to make it go to sleep and fallasleep. She did.1026. My parents were sleeping. Jo-Jo was in their bed alsosleeping when he heard the cat purr. He got out of bed andcrept to the kitchen where he got out his favorite pots and ametal spoon. He started banging on the pots and woke thewhole house. Mom got up and scolded him and we all went tosleep.7. Everybody screamed as the giant came near. He ate everyliving thing in sight. Everybody ran except James. James tookout his small bow and hit the giant in the mouth. Then he raninto the forest and the giant gave chase. They ran so deep intothe forest that neither ever made it out again.8. We had company over and like usual when we have companyMark started to act up. Before the company came over momtold him not to because this was one of dad's special clients.Also, like usual, he didn't listen. As soon as the company cameover he asked for 4 chocolate cookies and mom shook her headno. Mark started to cry and that embarrassed dad so he senthim to his room. He came back down so mom took him by theshoulder and told him how to behave and he did.9. Mom sent Billy to bed. A half an hour later she sent me tobed. As I passed Billy's room I saw him all curled up in bed. Ithought, I wish he would be this way always, quiet, peacefuland not a pest. That way I wouldn't get in trouble for hittinghim all the time. Oh well, in reality it will never happen.10. Rocky just came in and was all muddy from playing in theswamp near the house. He would not take a bath so his fatherspanked his butt and threw him in the bath. He was sent to bedwithout dinner.103Appendix B104Teacher QuestionnaireTeacher QuestionnaireforImports/Adjustment1. How does ^ get along with his/her peers?Does he/she join freely with others and invite others toplay? Do they laugh and smile easily?2. During work times does  ^workindependently or do they ask for help when they couldhave, in your estimate, done the work on their own? Dothey become easily discouraged and unable to work ontheir own?3. If you needed to discipline  ^did theyrespond appropriately? Do they get into fights? Whenthey didn't get their own way, would they get angry?4. When you assigned a task did^worksteadily at the assignment? Did they do their work neatlyand carefully? Do you feel they worked to theirpotential?5. Did ^_ have a propensity to daydream orappear indifferent or uninterested? Did they ever seemlethargic?6. Overall, how has ____ _________ adjusted to theacademic demands of grade seven?105Appendix C106Researcher/Teacher Dialogue1mR: How did he get along with his peers?T: Fine. He had a group that he's been here with sincekindergarten so he was a pretty well established Sinclair boy.He had his buddies that he was loyal to and they connectedquite a bit outside of school.R: Did he invite others to play with him?T: Yes, he had a really kind side. His group may not have beenas open as he was but he had a really sweet kind side and aconscience. He had a real conscience.R: During work times did he work independently and do as hewas asked?T: Yes, but that's a hard question for me because everyone inmy room does, they have to. I could see him being easilydistracted in certain classroom situations.R: Did he ever become easily discouraged or unable do his workon his own?T: Very much so. He did not feel that academics were hisstrength.R: If you needed to discipline how would he respond?T: He wouldn't want to hurt you or let you down. I rememberthere was a situation at the end of last year before we went ona camping trip and he was very easily led but I do rememberhim coming back after school and apologizing.R: So he didn't really get into fights?107T: No, no lots of fights. His group against other groups.R: And if he didn't get his own way would he get angry?T: Yes.R: When he was assigned a task would he work steadily at it?T: In my room yes, but outside the situation he wouldn't be asself motivated as he should be.R: And the quality of his work?T: Not great. But that doesn't mean that he didn't do his best.I think he went to L.A. for a few years and as I said academicswere not his strength.R: Do you think he worked to his potential?T: You know, I do.R: Did he have a propensity to daydream, appear indifferent oruninterested?T: Oh yes, oh yes. When's recess, can't wait for lunch,planning the football gameR: And was he lethargic?T: Yes.R: So overall how do you feel he adjusted to Grade 7?T: I think he did it adequately. He progressed steadily andsurely. I think he had a good year.1082fT: Bright girl.R: Did she get along with her peers?T: No.R: Did she join freely or invite others?T: No. Megan kidnapped her and she was under Megan's wingand shadow all year. Sullen and sulky. She felt that adultswere all against her. She had no respect for her parents. It'shard to know when they're 12 years old, is this just a thing, isthis cool to do or is this something really deep seated. Shewas always criticizing her parents, thinking poor me, thinkingshe had it tough.R: During work times did she work independently?T: Yes. She's introverted so she would like that.R: She did her own work without being asked?T: Yes, she would. She was a bright girl.R: She wouldn't become easily distracted or discouraged?T: No, not easily distracted. She could get easily discouragedbecause she was into her sullen, sulky mood. I don't know ifthis was a phase or if it was truly her. She was poor me.R: If you needed to discipline how would she respond?T: Dump on other people. It wouldn't be her fault.R: Did she get into disagreements, arguments, fights?109T: Well she and Megan were 12 going on 16 in their looks andin how they wanted to project themselves. People like Caseywould be around at their heels all the time bugging them,pressing the right buttons and she had buttons all over her.She could be easily bugged. Everybody was sort of a nerd in hereyes. So yes she could get into fights easily and they were allimmature little dorks compared to her in her estimation.These were all very draining kids when I think back.R: If you assigned a task would she work steadily at it?T: Yes, she would and quietly.R: And did she do her work carefully and neatly?T: Yes.R: And do you feel she worked to her potential?T: Yes, I think she did. I remember once we had a mythassignment and we all read them out and presented them andher's was dead like a myth that we'd read and she was put outand outraged that she was accused of plagiarizing. She wasn'tthe most creative kid. She didn't like tasks that required herto be creative, she liked the more right answer kinds ofthings. So in that aspect, if you're looking for something likegrammar or math where there was one answer she liked thatbut if it was something where she had to go with it no. Sheliked to be directed so it depends what area you're talkingabout there.R: So for the most part she wouldn't take initiative to do herown?T: No, I guess she really didn't have the confidence for it.R: Do you think she worked to her potential?110T: In the right answer kind of channel yes, in the take a riskcreative area it would be no.R: Did she ever have a propensity to daydream or appeardisinterested?T: Constantly, constantly.R: Did she appear lethargic?T: Sloggy.R: So how did you feel she adjusted?T: She was new to Grade 7. She was a bit of a worry becauseshe was so sullen and she got in with Megan and the wholething was listen to this, you know what my mom did, and woeis me and how bad they had it. It's hard for me to knowbecause I don't know where she came from. She certainly cameto school everyday and she did what she was expected to doand she was a bright girl and very good in some areas such asmath. I think there were some high expectations on heracademically. In certain areas I think she was just as stiltedwhen she left as when she arrived.1113fT: A sweetheart.R: How did she get along with her peers?T: Very well, she wouldn't cause any problems. She had aterrible, terrible truancy record when she arrived. There wasalot of work done on that to try and get her to school. Shedidn't want to make waves so she'd rather be a victim than notget along with someone.R: Did she join freely or invite others to join her?T: Well she certainly wouldn't invite others because she wasnot a leader in any way. No she wouldn't join freely, she wouldhave to be cajoled.R: During work times did she work independently?T: Even if it was erasing the same thing time and time again.Yes, she would look busy.R: And did she do her own work?T: Yes. If you didn't check her she still might be on number oneafter 20 minutes. Rather than ask for help she'd avoid.R: Did she ever become easily discouraged or not want to workon her own?T: Yes. Math was terrible for her. She hated math andwouldn't even try. She hated getting one to one help on thatbecause she'd had alot of that.R: So she was self-conscious about that?112T: Yes.R: If you needed to discipline her would she respondappropriately?T: She'd probably burst into tears. You wouldn't want to haveto. You wouldn't have to discipline her. She'd just want to beinvisible.R: Did she ever get into fights or arguments at school?T: Only with me about not coming to school. No she'd neverget into an argument or disagreement. No. She was MissAvoider and if I'm not at school I don't have to think about it.R: So getting her own way was not really important to her?T: Not at all.R: If you assigned a task would she work steadily at it?T: Oh yes, she was quiet, hiding behind the hair kind of kid.She might not get off la but she wouldn't bother anyone.R: Did she do her work neatly and carefully?T: No.R: Do you feel she worked to her potential?T: If she was a low average in ability yes. I was happy withsome things about her. I was happy that she came to school ona regular basis, that she smiled and showed me her sense ofhumour by the end of the year and that she sort of lightened upby the end of the year, in those ways yes. Academically shedidn't progress tremendously but my philosophy is that if yourattitude changes that's more important. If your attitudetowards the work changes then your ability will change. Shehad a tremendous year in that respect.113R: Did she ever have a propensity to daydream?T: Yes.R: Was she lethargic?T: Yes.R: So overall your rating of her adjustment to grade 7?T: Well, the fact that she smiled at the end of the year and shehad a biting sense of humour. She was dead on with herperceptions of people; she was probably just learning disabledin some way but yeah, I was pleased with her. I think shetrusted me more by the end.1144fT: We finally came to a bit of a positive leader.R: How did she get along with her peers?T: Tremendously. They all wanted to get along with her.R: And she freely joined with others and invited them to join?T: She did. She was a very positive leader not at allappreciated by her parents but a very positive leader.R: She laughed and smiled a fair bit?T: Oh yes, and brushed her hair and put on make up and madeboys swoon as she walked by their desk.R: During work times she would work independently?T: Oh yes, she wanted to do well in all areas of her life. Herlooks and her social areas were a tad above her academic, butshe wanted to do well. She wanted to be a real all around kid.R: So she never really became easily discouraged or^ ?T: No. Her big discouragement was that she got C's and C+'s. Iremember she was really hurt at one point with her report cardbecause her parents thought that she wasn't working and theywanted her to get A's and B's but she's not an A and B kid. Theywere always comparing her to her brother and it must havebeen awful for her. So she didn't get discouraged in school butshe sure would outside.R: If you needed to discipline did she respond appropriately?T: Very much so. She could always walk a mile in someoneelse's shoes and she would always be protective of other115people and empathize. I really liked her.R: My sense is that she didn't get into many fights ordisagreements?T: She got into alot of solving problems and trying totroubleshoot.R: Could she work steadily at an assignment?T: Oh yes, and she could be a leader. If you gave her some ofthe integrated kids she would really take care of them. Shewas really kind.R: She worked neatly and carefully?T: Yes she did.R: Do you feel she worked to her potential?T: Yes I do, I really do.R: And she didn't daydream or appear disinterested?T: Yes she did. She didn't daydream but she looked withdrawnand upset, biting her lip alot of the time.R: Lethargic wouldn't be a word you would use to describe her?T: No, not her. She was more of a worrier.R: Her adjustment overall?T: I think she had a great year. She was like our little studentcouncil president.1165mR: How did he get along with his peers?T: Not well. He was an outsider . He and Eric were pals. Ithink he is probably gay too, not that that particularcharacteristic would interfere with his relationships with anyof the other kids but he certainly wasn't as interested in goingout. He had different interests and I think the kids felt he wasputting up a partition between he and they. Sensitive sweet,really kind, always been picked on and teased but put up a bigfalse front like he didn't care. He and Eric were really goodpals. He also had a truancy problem.R: Did he join freely with others or invite others to join him?T: No.R: Did he smile or laugh easily?T: No.R: During work times did he work independently?T: Yes, he could. Bright, very bright boy.R: So in your estimate he could do his own work?T: Not a problem. He could not work well in a group thoughbecause he would get frustrated with kids or he certainly didnot have alot of cooperative group skills.R: Did he ever become easily discouraged and unable to workon his own?T: No. Work was what he felt good about.R: If you needed to discipline him did he respond117appropriately?T: The only discipline I ever had to do with him was gettinghim to school on time or getting to school period and he'd havelame excuses.R: Did he ever get into fights, disagreements, arguments?T: Yeah, he wouldn't be looking for it but kids didn't like him.Because kids didn't like him he built a shield around himself.If someone said something to him he had a quick retort so hegot into fights as far as that goes.R: If he didn't get his own way would he get angry?T: No.R: When you assigned a task would he work steadily at it?T: Oh yes, he could work in any kind of situation.R: Was his work done neatly and carefully?T: Not as neatly and carefully as it could be. It got better asthe year went on.R: Do you feel he worked to his potential?T: No. He was a B student but I think he was sort of semi-gifted. To be honest I don't think he was challenged enough tobring out his potential. His challenge was in the social realm.R: Did he have a propensity to daydream, appear indifferent ordisinterested?T: Yes.118R: Lethargic?T: Yes. Quite lethargic.R: Overall your rating of his adjustment to Grade 7?T: Well, I think he had a good year. I think he had addressedsome issues in his life for instance about not coming to schooland I think he felt comfortable with Brent and myself. Hereally had a pal in Eric. He really got into some projects andwas very pleased with himself with them.R: So you feel he adjusted fairly well to Grade 7.T: I think we made progress.1196mR: So you're saying 6m wasT: How did he get along with his peers? He was very highlyvisible and attention seeking and a real tease. He could drivesome people crazy with his teasing but if you could handle thatthen you might think he was quite funny. He loved to be thecenter of attention. His way of relating I would say was totease kids and that was a turn off for alot.R: Other than the teasing he would laugh fairly easily?T: Too easily, yes he loved too laugh.R: So that was a hamper to his work?T: It could be if he wasn't in a structured situation.R: During work times could he work independently?T: Yes he could. He worked quite well independently once heknew he had no choice about it. He could also work okay in agroup as long as the expectations were all laid out. He wasn'tthe kind of kid that could do well by finding his own partnerand going to find a space somewhere.R: So in your estimation he would have a hard time working onhis own. If you gave him a task telling him what he had todoT: He could probably organize himself, because he's bright andhe did want to do well. He liked to achieve but I didn't find himto be very self motivated or self disciplined.R: Would he become easily discouraged?120T: No, I wouldn't say that but he would have to have someinput from somebody else to kick start him again.R: So you might have to go over...T: Or he might say "Look I'm stuck, can you help?" and then hecould go again but I don't think he could do that just sitting byhimself.R: If you needed to discipline him did he respondappropriately?T: Once, he knew yes, once there was a certain tone set in theclass. Once he knew the teacher meant business but if hedidn't have any respect for you he would carry on.R: Did he ever get in to fights or disagreements?T: Yes, easily. If I remember correctly, alot with the girls.He used to drive the girls crazy because he was such a tease.He wouldn't get into alot of power struggles with other guys,not sort of fist fight on the play ground type of fights but hewas a disruptive influence and I would have alot of complaintsabout him. I do think his heart was in the right place, thatwas his way of relating.R: If he didn't get his own way would he get angry?T: Yes.R: When assigned a task would he work steadily at it?T: Yes, he was a product oriented kind of guy. He liked that.Once he got rid of the work he would like to play. He needed astructured, quiet classroom.R: Did he do his work fairly neatly?121T: Yes.R: And do you think he worked to his potential?T: No, I don't think so. He was a C+, B but he could have donebetter.R: Did he have a propensity to daydream?T: No, he never sat still long enough. He was more on thehyper, highly visible side.R: He was never lethargic then?T: No.R: So overall Pat, how do you feel that he adjusted to Grade 7?T: I think he was under control but in Grade 8 there would bereal concern. He has alot going for him, alot of potential, alotof strengths but it would be to his distinct advantage tochannel it into positive endeavors.122Appendix DLetter Granting PermissionFrom District123SincerelDistrict Principal124PREY BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES ^14225 - 56th Avenue, Surrey, B.C. V3W 1H9 • Telephone (604) 596-7733 • Facsimile (604) 597-01911992 05 06Alan SmittonDept. of Counselling PsychologyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouver, BCV6T 1Z4Dear Alan:This is to advise you that your request to conduct your thesis research projectin Dr. F.D. Sinclair school has been endorsed by the Research and EvaluationDepartment with the understanding that you will seek voluntary teacherinvolvement and parental consent for the students included. We ask that youcomplete the enclosed form for your records and that you submit a copy of yourthesis after completion of the project.Barbara Holmes,Research AssociateDonna Van Sant,Research Associatecc: Graham Cooper, PrincipalDr. F.D. Sinclair ElementaryBH/HC:67SSCHOOLDISTRICT 36SURREYAppendix ELetter of Introduction toParents125SCHOOLDISTRICT 36126 SURREYDR. F.D. SINCLAIR ELEMENTARYMR. G. COOPER - PRINCIPAL596-1537September 14, 1992Dear Parents:Enclosed please find a letter introducing Alan Smitton, ourschool counsellor. As you will note, Mr. Smitton is requestingpermission for your son or daughter to participate in a researchproject. I am writing to inform you that I am aware of his workand support this study. If you have any questions please do nothesitate to contact me.Yours truly,G. CooperPrincipalAppendix FLetter of Permission forParents127THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 128Department of Counselling PsychologyFaculty of Education5780 Toronto RoadVancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1L2Tel: (604) 822-5259Fax: (604) 822-2328Dear Parents:As a counsellor and a graduate student in the department ofCounselling Psychology at the University of British Columbia, Iam requesting permission for your daughter or son to participatein an activity to collect data for the completion of my thesistitled Thematic Apperception and Achievement Motivation inChildren. The activity involves showing the students a picture andhaving them write a story about that picture. Eight pictureswill be shown thus each student will write eight stories. Theentire process will take approximately one hour and will be donein class, during the school day. I will collect the stories andthey will be scored by myself and my thesis supervisor, Dr. LarryCochran. It is anticipated that the scoring will allow us toinfer the child's level of achievement motivation. The resultsof the scores will be confidential. Student names will not be used. Students will be assigned a coded number foridentification purposes.This writing activity is a part of the school curriculum andis a valuable process for children. If you do not wish yourdaughter's or son's stories to be used, I will simply discardthem after completion. There are no right or wrong ways to writethe stories; there are no right or wrong answers.In addition to the childrens' stories, teachers will beasked to complete a short twenty question profile that rates achild's adjustment. I am the only person who will have access tothe results of the profile thus ensuring strict confidentiality.References to this data will be coded to ensure anonymity.It is hoped that the results of this pilot project can bepackaged and given to teachers to assist them to betterunderstand their students through story writing. If you have anyquestions or concerns, please feel free to call myself or Mr.Cooper at the school. My faculty supervisor, Dr. Larry Cochranmay also be contacted at 882-5259.^2Upon completion of my thesis, a copy will be made availableto the school for your reference. Thank-you for your support!Yours truly,Alan Smitton, Counsellor129THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 130Department of Counselling PsychologyFaculty of Education5780 Toronto RoadVancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1L2Tel: (604) 822-5259Fax: (604) 822-2328CONSENT FORMPlease complete this form and have your child return it to theirteacher.1. I give/do not give permission to use my child's stories inthe thesis entitled Thematic Apperception and Achievement Motivation in Children. 2. I acknowledge that the teacher will be completing anadjustment rating profile on my child.3. I have received a copy of this consent form for my ownrecords.Child's NameParent(s) NameParent(s) Signature

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