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Motivation and adjustment and story sequence analysis Smitton, J. Alan 1993

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MOTIVATION AND ADJUSTMENT AND STORY SEQUENCE ANALYSIS by J. Alan Smitton B.Ed., University of British Columbia, 1986  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Counselling Psychology)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA OCTOBER, 1993  J.AlanSmito ©  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  (Signature)  Department of^ALCa_&( The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  elc) (e 072 -  AL?  ii  ABSTRACT This study examined the relationship between adjustment and motivation in upper elementary aged students. 18 students from grades six and seven wrote stories to a ten picture Children's Apperception Test-Human figures. From these stories the childrens' motivational levels were derived. The stories were scored utilizing the scoring method outlined in Magda B. Arnold's Story Sequence Analysis (1962). These scores were then correlated with adjustment scores obtained from the Child and Adolescent Adjustment Profile (CAAP). Aggregate descriptive results indicated a relationship of 0.50 existed between adjustment and motivation. To further explore the relationship six case studies were chosen from the larger group of 18. The imports of each student in the case studies were presented to the teacher. The imports in sequence (known as a sequence analysis) reveal the child's beliefs, attitudes and convictions. The teacher was asked to comment on the accuracy of the sequence analysis. To further assess the level of adjustment beyond the Child and Adolescent Adjustment Profile, the teacher was interviewed by the researcher using a questionnaire developed from the CAAP. The findings of this study indicated that: (a) the sequence analysis presented to the teacher was a fair  representation of the student's level of motivation and subsequent level of achievement; (b) that several areas of researcher/teacher dialogue on adjustment were reflected in the sequence analysis; and (c) that both the sequence analysis and dialogue on adjustment supported the empirical finding of this study. Supervisor: Dr. Larry Cochran Department of Counselling Psychology Faculty of Education University of British Columbia  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT^  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS ^  iv  LIST OF TABLES ^  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ^  viii  DEDICATION ^  ix  CHAPTER ONE: ^  1  The Problem ^  1  Background to the Problem ^ 1 Definitions ^  3  Instruments ^  5  Purpose of the Study^  6  CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH AND RELATED LITERATURE ^  10  Theory of Adjustment ^  10  Achievement Motivation^  20  Arnold's Theory of Motivation ^ 23 Story Sequence Analysis ^  25  Summary^  33  CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD ^ 35 Research Hypotheses and Question ^ 35 Instruments ^  35  Sample Description ^  37  Sampling Procedure ^  38  Data Collection^  39  Data Analysis ^  40  CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS^  43  Research Hypotheses ^  43  Research Question^  46  Case Studies ^  46  CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION ^  66  Interpretation of Results ^ 66 Cross Case Analysis^  74  Summary^  77  Limitations of Study^  78  Implications for Practice ^  79  Implications for Further Research ^ 80 REFERENCES^  83  APPENDICES ^  91  Appendix A. Student Stories ^ 92 Appendix B. Teacher Questionnaire ^ 105 Appendix C. Researcher/Teacher Dialogue ^ 107 Appendix D. Letter Granting Permission From District ^ 124 Appendix E. Letter of Introduction to Parents ^  126  vi  Appendix F. Letter of Permission for Parents ^  128  vi i  LIST OF TABLES TABLE^  PAGE  I^Correlation between the Motivational Index 45 and the five adjustment categories of the Child and Adolescent Adjustment Profile.  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My heartfelt thanks goes to Dr. Larry Cochran who inspired me to develop a class assignment into this thesis. I appreciate the encouragement he gave me when things got rough. To Dr. Magda Arnold I send my deepest gratitude for the many hours she spent not only with me both in person but on the phone and for the countless hours she spent reviewing my work. It was truly an honor and a privilege to work with her. She is an inspirational person. Thank you to the Surrey School District and in particular Mr. Graham Cooper, Principal and to Pat Hansen and Ren Morley for their valuable time and input. A special note of appreciation goes to Dr. Robert Carlisle who believed in my abilities and encouraged me towards graduate school. His gentleness and kindness is always remembered. To Therese and Barry MacDonald, my friends who supported and encouraged me - thank you! Without Rose this may have not been completed. I cannot begin to express my thanks for your devotion, love and acceptance that was always unconditionally given to me.  ix  DEDICATION  For my partner and friend Rosemarie  1  CHAPTER ONE The following topics will be included in this chapter: (a) statement of the problem, (b) background to the problem, (c) definitions, (d) achievement as adjustment, (e) instruments, (f) purpose of the research, (g ) background to thematic apperception and (h) introduction to Arnold's work. The Problem Why do some students succeed while other students fail? What makes a seemingly intelligent student continue to receive poor grades? What makes an average student strive for higher grades? Is it simply that some are more intelligent than others; is it the quality of instruction, their home environment, their genetic makeup, or...? If we can find the underlying answers to these questions we would be in a better position to influence learning in the classroom. Background to the Problem Motivation has been recognized as an important factor that influences a child's learning, adjustment and achievement.^In 1935, Murray and Morgan published the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). Murray developed this test as a clinical tool to measure need motivation. A need, according to Murray (1938), is a construct that moves us either towards or away from some activity be it physical or psychological. The  2  original scoring manual contained a total of 20 needs, many of which were dichotomous (Reeve, 1992). In 1948, McClelland and Atkinson used the TAT as part of their experimental research to examine the relative strength of three motives: need for achievement, need for affiliation and need for power (Reeve, 1992). To assess the strength of these motives, McClelland developed an elaborate scoring system. In 1962, Arnold, also using the TAT, produced another scoring system to assess motivation. Her scoring system is loosely based on that of McClelland's, but unlike McCelland's where the score is derived by looking for examples of needs, Arnold's is based on how an individual views their world, as either positive or negative. While it is important to recognize McClelland and others for their work on achievement motivation, it is Arnold's work that has significance for this thesis. Her approach to motivation is important because it allows the tester to view the client's world and to identify the motives, beliefs and convictions that contribute to their high or low achievement. The present study will examine the relationship between adjustment and motivation using Arnold's story sequence analysis and relate levels of adjustment and motivation to student achievement.  3  Definitions Adjustment The term adjustment has its roots in biology. It was not until the turn of the century that it appeared in psychological literature (McPherson and White, 1980). At that time, adjustment was used as a synonym for habituation and adaptation i.e. a person's ability to live well within his/her environment and fulfill his/her needs. While this definition will be used, for the purpose of this research, adjustment will be related more specifically to social and internal adjustment. That is, how an individual interacts with others, how they view themselves and the world (Battle, 1992). Achievement According to Popplestone, McPherson and White (1980), achievement can be defined as an outcome, accomplishment or a successful end. Arnold (1962) states that high achievers believe that success and happiness follow ethical, well intentioned, rational actions. Low achievers believe success is the result of selfish or ill intentioned actions or is a matter of luck, chance or fate. Level of achievement is very individual and is closely related with level of motivation. Persons who are highly motivated are task oriented and focus more on the quality of their work than on success.  4  Motivation Motivation can be described as an inner urge that prompts a person to action. Arnold (1962) states that motivation is comprised of two central components: emotion, want or desired goal, and action taken in pursuit of the goal. Motivation can be either positive (constructive) or negative (non-constructive). Positively motivated persons believe that failure can be overcome by personal effort and initiative. Negatively motivated individuals believe that failure must be overcome by illegitimate means or is avoided by fate. Adjustment as an Achievement According to Battle (1992) one of the best ways to study adjustment is to examine achievement. When examining adjustment as an achievement, researchers can use qualitative data to determine if the individual is adjusting satisfactorily or unsatisfactorily. In other words, if a person has obtained a high level of achievement, it can be stated that they are well adjusted. It may also be stated that those attaining a low level of achievement will be evaluated as being maladjusted. In Taylor's (1990) literature review on low-achieving children and school social adjustment, she found that a modest relationship existed between levels of academic achievement and levels of social adjustment. Her own research (Taylor, 1990) provided additional evidence that low achieving  5  children experienced some form of adjustment problems in school from initiating fights to withdrawal and shyness. Instruments For the purpose of this study, adjustment will be measured by the Child and Adolescent Adjustment Profile (CAAP). This profile utilizes five adjustment factors, each of which contain four sub-factors: (a) Peer relations - gets along with others, joins others freely, invites others to play, laughs and smiles easily, (b) Dependency - wants help for things could have done on own, becomes discouraged when attempting things, asks unnecessary questions instead of working on own, asks for help when could have worked things out on own, (c) Hostility - flares up if not have own way, upset if others do not agree, picks quarrels, doesn't respond to discipline, (d) Productivity - works hard on assignments, stays with work, makes use of abilities, does work carefully, (e) Withdrawal - sits and stares doing nothing, does things slowly, appears indifferent or uninterested, daydreams. Test - retest reliability coefficients done on the CAAP are high, ranging from .78 to .90 (Ellsworth, 1981). To measure motivation in children the Childrens' Apperception Test - Human figures (CAT-H) was used. In a summary of research articles comparing the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) to the CAT-H, Bellak and Bellak  6  (1976) concluded that CAT-H pictures are as useful and as valid as the TAT. Whereas Arnold (1962) used the TAT to predict achievement motivation in both adults and children, the CAT-H can also be used to predict achievement motivation in children. The CAT-H is based on the same principle as the TAT. Both TAT and CAT-H enable the examiner to analyze the unconscious fantasies of the test taker by means of evaluating the stories told to a set of pictures. The CAT-H is based on the assumption that it is easier for children to identify with childhood situations than with the emotional situations presented in the TAT picture-cards (Bellak and Bellak, 1976). Purpose of Study The purpose of this study is: 1) to distinguish high achievers from low achievers by utilizing thematic apperception (CAT-H), 2) identify the level of motivation through the use of import story sequence analysis and provide a rationale why a student may be achieving at that level; 3) show an overall correlation between achievement motivation and adjustment; 4) show a correlation between motivation as reported by the motivational index and each of the five adjustment categories as reported by the CAAP and 5) to replicate Arnold's research findings. While Arnold compared motivational index to grade point averages, this  7  study will compare motivational index to adjustment as reported by the CAAP. Background to Thematic Apperception Thematic apperception (TAT and CAT-H) has been widely used in clinical settings for over four decades (Vane, 1981; Reuman, Alwin, and Veroff, 1982). Many researchers (Murray, 1938; McCelland, 1953; Lazarus, 1961) have studied scholastic achievement motivation using thematic apperception. Magda Arnold (1962) designed four scoring categories and successfully used them to discriminate achievers from non-achievers. In a study conducted on 51 seventh grade students using thematic apperception (TAT), Arnold found a multiple correlation of .75 between the motivational index and grades. Introduction to Arnold's Work Stories told in response to illustrations such as the TAT may be abstracted into imports. An import is the meaning or significance of the plot and outcome that is contained in the story. The import portrays an attitude and/or expresses a conviction held by the storyteller. The imports can then be scored in accordance with a specific set of scoring criteria developed by Arnold through her investigations (Cochran, 1986). When imports are set down one after the other in sequence, the storyteller's train of thought is revealed.  8  Once an import is derived from the story, the import can be scored. There are four main scoring categories: 1) Achievement, 2) Right and Wrong, 3) Human Relationships and 4) Reaction to Adversity. Each one of these is further defined into sub-categories. There are 17 general types of sub-categories and 216 specific categories (Cochran, 1986). Positive imports are scored from +1 to +2, while negative imports receive either a -1 or a -2. Consider the following story told by a grade seven boy: "He was thinking if he should take after his father or grandfather. His father was a violinist and his grandfather was a great baseball player, I guess he'll take baseball" (Arnold, 1962, p. 183). Arnold's import states, "You wonder whom to take as your role model, the artist or the athlete, and you decide for the later" (p. 184). The score assigned to this import is -1 IA 1 c. It is rated under category I: Achievement, success, happiness, active effort (or lack of it) subsection A: Goals, purposes. The import is scored as a negative, -1 because it implies that "Lesser goals are preferable because they require less effort" (pp. 227-228). The story implies little or no active effort on behalf of the writer to make a decision and there is no acknowledgement of the work that is involved in attaining  9  his chosen career.  10  CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The following review relates first to literature associated with the general topic of adjustment followed by an examination of Arnold's (1962) use of the TAT, story sequence analysis and related research. The relationship between adjustment/maladjustment and motivation will be examined with respect to elementary school students in the classroom setting. In conducting a literature review on Magda Arnold's (1962) work on the TAT and story sequence analysis, Psychological Abstracts, ERIC, and Dissertation Abstracts were consulted. This researcher found limited reference to her work in current literature. Dr. Arnold ( personal conversation, March, 1992) was unaware of any recent references to her work. To her knowledge, the only research utilizing story sequence analysis was conducted by doctoral students that she supervised in the late nineteen-fifties and early sixties. For the purposes of this study, primary consideration will be given to Arnold's literature review as it pertains to academic achievement motivation. Theory of Adjustment There is no singular definition of adjustment. Rather, adjustment is generally defined in terms of adapting to  11  emotional, social or environmental influences (Battle, 1992; Phares, 1984). It is often synonymous with normality or psychological soundness (Battle, 1992). Specifically, adjustment describes how an individual adapts to internal and environmental demands. The student who behaves well is thought to be adjusted, while another who behaves less well is considered maladjusted. The etiology of adjustment is rooted in the biological sciences. According to Popplestone, McPherson and White (1980), one of the first appearances in the psychological literature related adjustment to Psychophysics, ". . .the study of the relationships between the physical attributes of stimuli and the sensing of them" (p. 8). Shaffer (1936), explained personal adjustment as the compatibility between inner or private wishes and outer or social demands. Battle (1992) stated, ". . . behaviour can be conceptually viewed as being an adaptation to physical demands or as an adjustment to psychological demands" (p. 101). Zachry (1929) suggested that adjustment was a function of a child's ability to adapt positively to his/her environment. She suggested that a child's adjustment largely rests on their habitual patterns and on their heredity. Children and Adjustment (Zachry, 1929) examines several case studies of "difficult" elementary aged children. Each case deals indepth  12  with the extended family and the family medical background. She suggests that understanding these influencing factors assists teachers to intervene effectively and assist the maladjusted student to become a more productive member of the class. The theory of psychological adjustment is often associated with various theories of personality ( Phares, 1984; Singh, 1977). Each theory of personality from psychoanalytic to existential paradigms includes some form of personal adjustment ( Battle, 1992; Phares, 1984; Singh, 1977 ). Accordingly, there are a number of personality variables that may disturb the process of adjustment including anxiety, conflict, frustration and learning (Singh, 1977). However, no single paradigm is capable of accounting for all the complexities of adjustment. Prevalence and Sex of Maladjusted Students McGhee and Short (1991) suggested that social maladjustment presented the biggest concern in the school system. They define social maladjustment as " . . . a persistent refusal to meet minimum standards of conduct due to conflict between the individual's value system and ageappropriate social norms" (p. 285). Surveying just over six thousand students from all school grade levels in two school districts, they found that the overall prevalence of social  13  maladjustment was 12% and that twice as many males as females were identified as socially maladjusted. Silvern and Katz's (1986) study supports the work of McGhee and Short (1991). In a survey of fourth, fifth and sixth grade students and their teachers, Silvern and Katz found boys were prone to externalizing behaviour including fighting, name calling and verbalizing inappropriately in class while girls were prone to internalizing, withdrawing kinds of behaviour. Overall, boys were more likely to be labelled as having adjustment problems in the areas of disruptiveness, aggression and noncompliant behaviour. The authors caution that because girls tend to internalize and their behaviour is characterized by social immaturity, depression, social isolation and poor self-esteem, their adjustment problems may go unnoticed in a classroom. Teachers tend to be challenged by disruptive behaviour therefore boys are labelled maladjusted more often than girls (Wentzel, 1991). McKim and Cowen (1987) cite several studies reporting increased behavioural adjustment for girls as compared with boys, particularly on teacher ratings and behaviour observation measures. Understandably from the teachers perspective, a child who is either doing well academically or non-disruptive in the classroom is seen as adjusting well. Much of school revolves around a hidden curriculum of social control and  14  classroom management (Lepper and Hodell, 1989). Among males, predictors of maladjustment appear to be more closely related to overt measures including aggression, noncompliant behaviours and inattentiveness. Predictors of maladjustment for females appear to be less clear but are related to affective measures that include cooperation, generosity and compassion (Dodge and Feldman, 1990; Feshbach and Feshbach, 1987). School Adjustment  A number of studies have examined the relationship between adjustment and elementary school students (Battle, 1990; McConnell et al, 1984; Groninick and Ryan, 1990; Haynes, 1990; Jenkins-Friedman and Murphy, 1988). Battle's (1990) review of the literature on reading and maladjustment indicated that "Adequate achievement in reading is essential for the child's feelings of well-being and appears to be highly related to healthy personality adjustment" (p. 40). Dechant (1968) stated, "The relationship between reading disability and emotional and social maladjustment frequently is circular in nature" (p. 40). Several other researchers (Berkowitz and Rothman, 1955; Fraiser and Combs, 1958; and Spache, 1957) support this position. Children who are unsuccessful in learning to read develop maladjustment problems both personally, emotionally and socially. Symptoms may include  15  nervousness, withdrawal, aggression, defeatism and chronic worry. Children who are successful readers have a positive self-image and regard themselves as capable. Failure to grasp the fundamentals of reading can lead to negative selfappraisal and emotional maladjustment. Emotional maladjustment often finds its outlet in behavioral problems within the classroom. Based on teacher adjustment evaluations of 130 children kindergarten to grade five, McConnell et. al. (1984) identified several children as failing to make good social adjustment to school. These children were compared with a control group that was rated as making good social adjustment on 15 dependent adjustment variables. The authors found that children who were viewed as having adjustment difficulties varied significantly from those children not experiencing difficulties. They differed in the areas of reading achievement, intellectual self-concept, amount of negative encounters with teachers, compliance with teacher demands, on-task time and overall self-concept as measured by The Primary Self-Concept Inventory.  Grolinick and Ryan (1990) studied self-perception, motivation and behavioural adjustment in children with learning disabilities. They compared learning disabled children with low achieving and non-learning disabled children  16  and found that children who were classified as learning disabled or low achieving were more likely to score low on a behavioural adjustment rating scale. ^Specifically, these students were rated by teachers as having difficulties in the areas of acting-out, shyness and withdrawal. Children with learning disabilities reported lower levels of self-esteem than non-learning disabled children. The academic self-perceptions of learning disabled children was similar to that of low achieving children.^Overall, it was found that learning disabled and low achieving students experienced motivational hardships as well as behavioural difficulties in the classroom. Jenkins-Friedman and Murphy (1988) selected 128 gifted students from grades four through eight to examine the relationship between students' self concept and adjustment to being enrolled in gifted classes. The authors believed that children who had a low self-concept would not adjust well to being labelled as gifted. They discovered that maladjusted gifted students perceived that ". . . others did not see them in a similarly positive way with regard to getting along with others, adjustment to the gifted education program and performance in school" (p. 29). This group was found to be less realistic about themselves, took less risks, had difficulty in setting standards for their work and had difficulty in completing assignments.  17  Using a teacher questionnaire to assess school adjustment in general behaviour, group participation and attitudes towards authority, Hayes (1990) correlated the results of the teacher questionnaire with the results of the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale which was given to individual students. Hayes concluded that a child's self-concept is a powerful indicator of adjustment in the above mentioned areas. Specifically she stated that ". . . if children view themselves negatively - as incorrigible, lacking discipline, and ill mannered - they were likely to behave that way. Children become what they believe themselves to be" (p 205). This supports the previously discussed literature that addresses self-concept as a component to adjustment. According to Battle (1992) a healthy self-concept is one of the essential ingredients of healthy adjustment. Specifically self-concept affects the child's accomplishments, interactions with others, achievement patterns and overall state of well-being. Corkey (1983) examined perceived self-competence and school adjustment and found that a strong relationship existed between the Perceived Competence Scale for Children scores and the scores attained on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills. He also found that a significant relationship existed between school adjustment as measured by the Revised Children's Anxiety Scale and school achievement. It appeared that  18  students who view themselves as competent tended to do better academically. Also students who have a more positive self-concept reflected a lower anxiety rate and were found to be more friendly and socially competent. Achievement and Adjustment Feldhusen et al. (1970) in a five year longitudinal study examining classroom behaviour and school achievement found that students identified as having aggressive and disruptive problems consistently lagged academically behind those students who were noted for socially approved behaviours. They also indicated that the IQ of low achieving and aggressive/disruptive groups tended to be lower than the control groups. They suggest that this is due in part to environmental influences experienced both at home and school and that disruptive behaviour often precedes academic failure. In another study, Larson (1989) found that early secondary school students who were identified as at-risk or high risk by teacher ratings and by the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills were overall rated as less socially adjusted. Larson found that inappropriate social behaviours were significantly negatively correlated with achievement. Similarly, Taylor (1990) studied specific behaviour sub-types of low achieving students and what effect behaviour had on school adjustment. The study sampled 147 elementary  19  school aged students, of which 33 were identified as lowachievers using the California Achievement Test. Students below the 40th percentile constituted the low-achieving group. Children identified as low-achievers were further divided into two clusters based on teacher assessments of behaviour. These groups were compared with 33 students identified as average achieving. Compared to average achieving students one cluster was more withdrawn, shy, and anxious and they were more likely to be unhappy, depressed and sad. The other cluster, in comparison to the average achieving group, were rated as less cooperative, more disruptive and more likely to start fights. This group was also more aggressive with peers, more defiant, obstinate and stubborn. Jenson (1958) observed that low achievers encounter more adjustment problems than do high achievers. Lavin's (1965) findings support those of Jenson. He discovered that students with higher academic performance were found to be better adjusted. They were found to be more responsible, more stable emotionally, more independent and less anxious. Achievement and Peer Relations  According to Coie and Koeppl (1990), the relationship between academic performance and peer relationships has been well documented. They found that correlations between academic achievement and sociometric status ranged from .20  20  to .40. They suggested that aggression is one of the salient characteristics of children who are rejected by their peers. This aggression often finds its outlet as disruptive behavior in the classroom. Thus, these students spend more time off-task and more time negatively interacting with teachers and other school personnel. These students are generally rejected by their peers both on the playground as well as in the classroom. An earlier study conducted by Green et al. (1987), which assessed the relationship among children's social competence and children's academic achievement supported Coie and Koeppl (1990) findings. Green et al. found that children who were high academic achievers were more accepted and less rejected and disliked by peers. Teachers viewed these students as less deviant and had more positive interactions with them. The preceding discussion on adjustment demonstrated that there are several factors affecting a student's adjustment to school and that adjustment is linked with academic achievement. This study will later consider the relationship between adjustment and achievement levels of students. Achievement Motivation There exists an abundance of literature on achievement motivation. However for the purposes of this study only that of McCelland and his colleagues will be addressed as it relates more specifically to Arnold's work. This will be followed by  21  an indepth review of Arnold's (1962) theory of motivation. The purpose of achievement motivation theory is to explain and predict behaviour in achievement situations and to explore an individual's motives in achieving a goal (Stipek, 1988). Achievement motivation attempts to study the variables that determine the level of accomplishment that is obtained (Popplestone, McPherson & White, 1980). Atkinson (1964) conceptualized achievement motivation as a conflict between a tendency to approach tasks and a tendency to avoid tasks. In other words, individuals who believe that they are competent at a task perceive the probability of success as higher and consequently are more likely to approach the task than individuals who believe that they lack competencies needed to complete the task. McClelland (1961, 1971, 1978) supported by Schroth (1979) suggested that an individual's motivation is an unconscious trait resulting primarily from early childhood experiences. These experiences are stored as memories that later affect motivation levels. Motives determine the amount of effort, persistence and energy a student will direct towards a task. It also influences preference and choice of activities. McClelland believed that based on early childhood experience some individuals behave as though they have a high need to achieve, to be successful and reach standards of  22  excellence while others behave as though their fear of failure is greater than their desire to succeed. McClelland and Atkinson (McClelland & Atkinson, 1948; McClelland et al., 1953) believed that if an individual was motivated towards a particular goal, thoughts pertaining to the motive would be in the forefront of their awareness. Accordingly, the use of the TAT with its ambiguous pictures would elicit the thoughts that most readily come to mind. McCelland and colleagues (1953) using the TAT identified numerous achievement themes within the story. Stories were scored based on the absence or presence of reference to achievement. Achievement was then examined in terms of success or failure and the level of each was said to be a person's need for achievement. What the story said or the outcome of the story was not of particular relevance. In reviewing McClelland and Atkinson (1948) and McClelland et al. (1953), Arnold suggested that a story has a meaning beyond individual themes and cannot be fragmented into isolated parts. Arnold believed that an individual's motivating tendencies shape the story's action and are expressed in the story outcome. Scoring is based on what the story says and on the story outcome. The story as a whole is a more accurate reflection of an individual's beliefs and motives.  23  While McClelland and colleagues were more concerned with the attainment of success or failure (achievement level), Arnold was more interested in identifying the beliefs, convictions and attitudes held by high and low achievers. Arnold's Theory of Motivation According to Arnold (1962) a person's motives must be understood before their level of motivation can be assessed. "A motive is a want that leads to action. A motive is active from the moment an individual has decided on the appropriate action until their goal is accomplished, even though that action may not be continuous" (p. 32). Therefore motivation has two central components: (1) emotion, want, or desired goal and (2) action taken in pursuit of the goal. A motive is an appraisal of something as either good or bad, here and now, and includes a tendency towards action. The desired goal becomes a motive only when action is taken in a realistic, planful and constructive manner (Teglasi, 1993). The difference between an emotion and a motive is that an emotion does not always lead to action; a motive does. An emotion is an evaluative part of the process of wanting something, however there must also a deliberate decision to take a course of action to acquire the goal. Once the decision is made the actions become critical steps in securing the goal.  24  Imagination, Memory and Storytelling  Imagination is a map of what an individual thinks could happen before they decide on a course of action. When presented with a TAT picture an individual recalls similar situations or events held in memory; imagination brings possible alternatives and their consequences based on that memory to this new event. Arnold (1962) argues that the freer one is of rigid emotions, attitudes and habitual convictions, the more creative imagination one will possess. Imagination is an important component of action. Once a choice is identified the imagined outcome will be extrapolated from a learned experience stored in memory. Although the choice may cause an emotional response it may or may not lead to action. If the decision is evaluated as desirable it can lead to action and then becomes a motive (Arnold, 1962, 1990). An imagined outcome can only become a motive when we act on it. Memory and imagination allow the storyteller to tell a story with a plot and outcome based on a picture stimulus as it relates to a past personal experience. Accordingly, it is the imagined response that becomes important and not the length of the story or how well the plot and outcome have been constructed (Arnold, 1962). The problem is set and how it is resolved reveals the storyteller's motives, which are blueprints for action.  25  Motives and Attitudes  When motives become habitual they become attitudes. Attitudes are impulses to action that have become habitual. They can happen immediately, by intuitive appraisals or by reflective judgments.^Motivating attitudes predict action. Specifically, ". . . motivating attitudes are habitual tendencies to engage in overt action which is either constructive (positive) or non-constructive (negative)"^(Arnold p. 43). Habitual attitudes can be either constructively motivating or non-constructively motivating. The preceding discussion of Arnold's theory of motivation offered an examination of the salient components of her theory. While it is not the object of this thesis to examine these components in detail, they provide an essential background to the formulation of import and sequence analysis. Story Sequence Analysis Story sequence analysis' are based on stories written about specific pictures. Individuals are presented with a series of ten to twenty pictures and asked to write a story about each one. Each story must contain a plot (which describes actions) and outcome (which shows whether this action is likely to be chosen by the storyteller). Each story must contain a problem and describe the action taken to overcome that problem. The story is a sample of the  26  storyteller's motivating attitudes. A sequence of no less than ten stories uncovers the concerns that pre-occupy the storyteller. The stories reveal the individual's values, their preferred actions and their convictions (Arnold, 1962). The Outcome The story outcome is paramount for inferring motivation (Arnold, 1962). Because the outcome brings together all the elements previously discussed, (the problem, goal and action taken to attain the goal), the outcome is the culmination of efforts directed towards attaining the goal or solving the dilemma. If the goal is attained by daydreaming the outcome is not a result of enterprising behaviour. Motivating outcomes are realistic, instrumental actions taken in accordance with planning and effort. An outcome may be either positive or negative. However, it is not the positive or negative nature of the outcome that is important, rather it is the conviction and motivating attitude that is important. Once these attitudes and convictions are uncovered they can be extracted from the story and formed into an import. Imports The TAT scoring systems of Murray (1943), Atkinson and McCelland (1948) and McCelland et al. (1953) divides stories into needs, drives and themes for the purposes of  27  scoring achievement motivation. Arnold (1962) insisted that a story is not a collection of themes, drives and needs. Rather, a story has a meaning that cannot be interpreted by isolating and analyzing individual themes; the whole story delivers a different message than does the sum of the parts. Arnold (1962) proposed that an import be formed for each story. An import ". . . leaves out incidental details but preserves the kernel - the meat of the story" (p. 32). The import condenses the complete story into its significant message which expresses the writer's conviction. Arnold presented four guidelines for formulating an import: (1) set aside theoretical preconceptions, (2) abstract the essential message from the details of the story as it applies to the writer's life situations, (3) do not assume that everything is rooted in a specific childhood experience and (4) write the import from the point of view of the main character; it is irrelevant whether or not the writer identifies with the main character. It is important that the scorer formulate the import in such a way as not to allow any prejudices to enter. When the imports are read in sequence, a picture of the individual emerges portraying the story teller's attitudes, convictions and intentions for action.  Scoring It is the import of the story that is scored. The import  28  abstracts the plot and outcome into a one or two sentence summary. The story length is irrelevant, making it possible to score both long and short stories, which is advantageous for children's stories. The import is scored numerically as either a positive (constructive) or a negative (non-constructive). Scores range from +2 to -2. The overall final score denotes the consistency of achievement motivating attitudes. Motivational Index  In order to compare raw scores, Arnold (1962) developed the motivational index (M.I.). Using a ten card sequence, the total score an individual may receive ranges from -20 to +20. The M.I. converts import scoring totals and reflects the story teller's motivational consistency from 0 to 200. Arnold originally developed the M.I. to compare scores of individuals who had completed either a ten, fifteen, or twenty card set. The M.I. is based on a mathematical formula that is consistent regardless of the number of pictures used. Scores totalling between 100 and 200 are positive while scores between 0 and 100 are negative. Reliability of the M.I. is high, ranging from r = .76 to r = .89 (see Arnold, 1962 pp. 149151).  29  Research using Story Sequence Analysis Burkard (1958) used story sequence analysis to discriminate between effective and ineffective teachers. She hypothesised that those teachers who were rated as effective by their students would have a higher achievement motivation score than those rated as ineffective. Three hundred teachers, teaching grades four through twelve were selected for the sample. Each teacher was rated by their students using a seven question evaluation form developed by Burkard. Teachers also completed a 12 card TAT and the Otis Intelligence Test. Of those 300 teachers, one hundred were selected for the study. Teachers were divided into pairs; one teacher who was high-rated was matched with one who was low-rated. The sequence analysis revealed that the high-rated group had more constructive attitudes in their story imports. The correlational relationship between the sequence analysis scores and the scores obtained from the pupils' rating was significant for both elementary and secondary teachers ranging from .73 to .96. Correlations between teacher I.Q. and student's rating was minimal. Burkard's study demonstrated that high-rated teachers were consistently liked more by their students. These teachers displayed more constructive, positive attitudes.  30  According to Arnold (1962 ), people with positive motivation may be well liked, but they appear to be well liked because they have constructive attitudes; they do not have such attitudes because they are well liked. In a study to determine personality differences between offenders and non-offenders, Petrauskas (1958) investigated the motivational characteristics of Navy men who at one time or another were disciplined under the Military Code of Justice. Thirty offenders and thirty non-offenders were chosen; age and length of service were consistent. Each participant was given a 13 card TAT test. He concluded that non-offenders obtained higher achievement motivation scores and told stories that had constructive attitudes towards self and others, problems, work and success and duties and obligations. Offenders had lower achievement scores and told stories that were less constructive. To determine the consistency of the scores, inter-rater reliability was conducted. Petrauskas used three raters. Rater A scored all sixty records correctly; he distinguished between all offenders and non-offenders. Raters B and C scored 48 out of 60 records correctly. According to Arnold (1962 ) all raters were successful far beyond chance in determining offenders from non-offenders.  31  Gavin (1960) examined motivation and school achievement. He chose a total of 100 seniors from two colleges; fifty men and fifty women. He obtained participants' grade point average (GPA) and had each participant complete the American Council on Education Intelligence Test, 1952 (ACE) and a twelve card TAT. Gavin correlated the results of the TAT ( motivation ) scores and GPA ( achievement ) scores. The correlation for men was .85; for women the correlation was .83. When ACE scores were included in the preceding correlations little numerical difference was found. For men the correlation was .87, and for women the score was .84. The correlation between ACE and TAT was .58 for men and .47 for women. Gavin reported that students scoring high on the ACE but low on the TAT had correspondingly low GPA's. On the other hand, those students scoring low on the ACE but scoring high on the TAT had higher GPA's. He reported that those students with low ACE scores and high GPA's told stories that showed positive, constructive attitudes while those with high ACE scores and low GPA's told stories that portrayed negative attitudes. Arnold's (1962) investigation of the relationship between school achievement, motivation and intelligence at the grade seven level lends support to Gavin's (1960) study.  32  Fifty-one grade seven students were given a 12 card TAT and the Otis intelligence test. GPA's were also calculated for each child. Correlations obtained between the TAT and GPA was r = .75 while the correlation between TAT and ACE was r = .47. The multiple correlation between GPA, TAT (motivation) and Otis I.Q. (intelligence) was r = .84. Results are consistent; the ability to predict achievement motivation using story sequence analysis is strong. Honor and Vane (1972) examined the relative contribution of IQ scores and motivational factors using Arnold's TAT scoring system on 50 high achieving and 50 low achieving high school students. The correlation between IQ and GPA was .51 while the correlation between TAT and GPA was .88. Overall the authors were able to classify students with 95% accuracy. Using an alternative measure of achievement motivation only 75% of the students were correctly classified. Intelligence and Motivation There appears to be a moderate relationship between intelligence and motivation (college men r = .58, college women r = .47, seventh graders r = .58). The relationship between intelligence and achievement is less significant (college men r = .37, college women r = .22 and for seventh graders r = .55). The correlation between intelligence and academic achievement, according to Battle (1990), is .30.  33  This supports Arnold's view that a student's high intelligence does not ensure that they will do well academically. Summary This chapter reviewed literature on adjustment and achievement motivation addressed through the following subtopics: (a) theory of adjustment, (b) achievement motivation, (c) Arnold's theory of motivation, (d) story sequence analysis. Conclusions that may be drawn include: (a) A strong relationship exists between adjustment, achievement and motivation; (b) High achievers display consistent attitudes that can be distinguished from low achievers; (c) Children who are well adjusted possess the same characteristics as do high achievers (e.g. a good selfconcept); (d) Teacher reports on achievement and adjustment provide a valid measure of a child's personality; (f) The reliability of Arnold's (1962) sequence analysis is consistent and can predict achievement motivation with a high degree of accuracy; (g) Intelligence and motivation are not synonymous, in fact a child who is high in intelligence but low in motivation may not do well in school; (i) Motivation is not static and can change over time. It is interesting to note that Arnold's scoring system contains ethical and social normative aspects that much of the previously discussed research does not include (Vane, 1981).  34  A review of Arnold's scoring categories clearly sets forth a belief about how a highly motivated individual views their world. Vane believes that these same or similar beliefs would be held by a well-adjusted person. This thesis is designed to measure levels of student motivation and adjustment. It conveys this information utilizing data from students and teachers.  35  CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHOD  The chapter is organized into the following sections: (a) research hypotheses and question; (b) instruments used; (c) sample description; (d) sampling procedure; (e) data collection and (f) data analysis. Research Hypotheses and Question Hypotheses a)  There is a positive significant correlation between  motivation and school adjustment. Constructive motivation, as measured by Arnold's Story Sequence Analysis and reported by the Motivational Index (MI), will be positively correlated with the Child and Adolescent Adjustment Profile (CAAP). b)  A positive relationship exists between the motivational  index and each of the five adjustment categories of the CAAP. Question a)^Does the qualitative portrait of the individual as evidenced in Arnold's story sequence analysis parallel the verbal reports as given by the teacher? Instruments Two instruments were required for this study: the Childrens' Apperception Test - Human figures and the Child and Adolescent Adjustment Profile. The Childrens' Apperception Test - Human figure (CAT-H)  36  was developed by Bellak (1965). According to Bellak, the CAT-H was created as a childhood alternative to the TAT. He suggested that the CAT-H presented picture themes more appropriate to situations and problems in a child's life (eating, rivalry, aggression, loneliness, interactions with parental figures etc.). The CAT-H is based on the same principle as the TAT, that is, to enable the examiner to analyze the beliefs, convictions and attitudes of the test taker by means of evaluating the stories told to a set of pictures. Whereas Arnold used the Thematic Apperception Test to measure achievement motivation, this researcher chose to use the OATH because it is child specific. The Child and Adolescent Adjustment Profile (CAAP) was developed by Ellsworth (1981). The CAAP is a twenty item, 4 point Likert-type scale questionnaire designed to be used by teachers, counsellors and clinicians to rate levels of adjustment. This scale permits degrees of agreement and disagreement. The test contains five scales: (1) Peer Relations; (2) Dependency; (3) Hostility; (4) Productivity and (5) Withdrawal. CAAP Reliability  Two tests of reliability were reported in the CAAP manual. The first was an estimate of internal consistency. Alpha Coefficients ranged from .80 to .90. The other test of  37  reliability was an estimate of test-retest stability. Alpha coefficients ranged from .78 to .89. The normative population consisted of 248 children ages 6-18. CAAP Validity The manual reports adjustment scores for various groups of youngsters including those referred to mental health centers, probation offices, those experiencing difficulty with classroom behaviour and children in a control group. The CAAP scales statistically differentiated all other groups from the normal/control group on both parent reports and agency/teacher reports. Researcher/Teacher Dialogue The researcher and teacher discussed the adjustment of each of the six students involved in the study. Discussion was guided by a questionnaire designed by the researcher (see Appendix B). The questionnaire consisted of questions based on the five adjustment categories of the CAAP. Sample Description Surrey school district is the second largest in the province of British Columbia serving over 48,000 students. A wide range of prosperity exists in the Surrey school district including students from both lower socio-economic and affluent backgrounds. The school selected for the survey was an elementary school with a population of 420 students. The  38  school had a mix of students from all socio-cultural backgrounds and is not considered a "needs" school by the district. Sampling Procedure A convenience sampling size of 18 ( n=18 ) students was chosen because of the exploratory nature of this study. Eight males and ten females were selected from a pool of 56 students based on the quality of their stories; the subjects' stories contained both a plot and outcome. The eighteen students were selected from two classrooms, a grade seven and five/six split from an elementary school within the Surrey school district. In order to obtain a neutral sample population, the writer chose an elementary school that had a large mix of students from all socio-cultural backgrounds. A number of studies have indicated that socio-cultural disadvantages are well known correlates of lower academic achievement (Jencks, 1972; and Gray, MacPherson & Raffee, 1983). To secure the population, five teachers were asked to volunteer their classrooms; two teachers agreed. Approval was obtained from the school's administrative officer and from the district officials (see Appendix D). Parents Two letters were sent to the parents of the students  39  involved. The first (see Appendix E) was sent by the administrative officer introducing the researcher and the nature of the research. The second letter (see Appendix F) indicated that student participation in the study was voluntary and anonymous and requested parents to sign and return a permission form that was attached to the letter. All students in the two classrooms received permission from their parents to participate in the study. Data Collection Students  Data collection took place two weeks prior to Spring Break. At this time the grade five/six and grade seven class were surveyed. To facilitate group data collection for the CAT-H, the writer first demonstrated through example how to write a story containing both a plot and an outcome. This was done in the classroom. Following Arnold's (1962, p.49) protocol for administering the TAT, the writer displayed two pictures taken from Life magazine. Students were asked to first verbally tell a story about the picture, then second, asked to write a story. Stories were discussed as to whether they contained both plot and outcome. When the students demonstrated an understanding of the concepts they were asked to write stories relating to the CAT-H pictures.  40  Seven minutes were allotted per story. At the end of seven minutes they were asked to finish the story they were on. If they completed the story before time was called, they were instructed to complete any unfinished stories. At various times throughout the procedure students were verbally reminded of the protocol; each story required a plot and outcome. The grade five/six test administration was done in two parts; before and after lunch. The grade seven test administration was completed in one sitting. Teachers Upon completion of the CAT-H, teachers were given the CAAP to be completed, one for each student. They were advised to return the completed CAAP forms in a sealed brown envelope to the researcher's school mail slot. Case Studies To facilitate data collection this researcher conducted an on-site informal interview with the teacher of the six students who were selected for case study. With the teacher's permission the conversation was recorded. Sequence analysis results were also discussed at this time. Data Analysis Descriptive statistics of the data were derived utilizing SYSTAT: The System for Statistics version Release 5.1  41  (Wilkinson, 1989). The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation was used to analyze the data, and the criterion for judgement of statistical significance was p<.05 using a two-tail test. Two correlational values are reported. The first relates to the Motivational Index and the raw scores obtained from the CAAP. The second relates to the Motivational Index and each of the five adjustment categories found on the CAAP. To examine the correlations further, the previously mentioned six case studies will be presented. The data will be presented in three parts. The first section contains statistical analysis of the data; the second part contains the teacher's report of the student's level of adjustment across the five categories of the CAAP. In the the third section the researcher presents the results of the motivational index and the story sequence analysis to the teacher. Both the researcher's and Arnold's story sequence analysis will be presented along with the teacher's comments as transcribed from the researcher/teacher conversation. To judge the accuracy of the researcher's imports for the six case studies, the work was checked by M. B. Arnold (personal communication , April 27, 1993). A further check on the researcher's accuracy was completed on six other students by the researcher's supervisor. While the  42  researcher's imports tended to be "wordier", Arnold's are concise.  43  CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS This study was designed to examine motivation through the use of thematic apperception and to measure the relationship between motivation and five areas of adjustment as measured by the CAAP. Qualitatively this study set out to report the level of congruence between story sequence analysis and teacher reports on student adjustment. Hypotheses  a)  There was a positive significant correlation between  motivation and school adjustment. The Pearson coefficient result of r = 0.509 was found between the motivational index and CAAP. The critical r value for n =18 was 0.468 at the p< .05 level. A two-tail test was used. b)  A positive relationship existed between the motivational  index and each of the five adjustment categories of the CAAP. This study did not establish a statistically significant correlation between the motivational index and each of the five adjustment categories of the CAAP. Table I reports the correlation between the variables. The critical r value for n = 18 was 0.468 at the p< .05 level using a two-tail test. The correlation between productivity and the M.I., r = .444, was the only correlation close to  44  obtaining statistical significance.  45  Table I Correlation between the Motivational Index and the Five Adjustment Categories of the CAA P Pearson Product-Moment Correlation ( n = 18 students) PR^DEP^HOST^PROD^WITH M.I.^0.218^0.415^0.353^0.444^0.280  PR= Peer relations; DEP= dependency; HOST= hostility PROD= productivity and WITH= withdrawal M.I.= Motivational Index  46  Research Question Does the qualitative portrait of the individual as evidenced in Arnold's story sequence analysis parallel the verbal reports as given by the teacher? The student imports as completed by the researcher and Arnold will be presented. This will be followed by the story sequence analysis (the numbers appearing in the analysis relate to the researcher's imports) and a summary of the salient points of adjustment and level of achievement as reported in the teacher/researcher interview. The summary of each case study will identify the parallels of the sequence analysis and teacher report. Students' stories are presented in Appendix A. Case study one Researcher's Imports 1. Although you fight temptation and wait, eventually you give in to it and when you do you are punished. +1 IB 2d 2. When you try with all your strength you can be successful. +2 IB 1 a 3. When you are ignored by adults you bother them until they notice you. -1 IIA lb 4. Sometimes play can turn into disaster. -2 IIIA 2aii 5. When others are unaware you do things without worrying what they may do when they find out. -1 IIIC 2a  47  6. When you go off on your own your parents will find you. -1 IIA 1 b 7. You awake to find your nightmare is only a dream. -2 IVA 3a 8. When you are punished for no reason you laugh at those who punish you. -2 IIIF 1 a 9. If you are not vigilant others can do you serious harm. -2 IVA 4a 10. Even if you deserve punishment, the ones that punish you will also be punished. -2 HA 3d Arnold's Imports 1. Sometimes temptation is too strong to resist but you get punished afterwards. -1 IIA 1 f 2. If you try with all your strength you will succeed. +2 IB 1 a 3. You may have to annoy adults to make them pay attention to you. -1 IIA 1 b 4.  But sometimes impulsive action can lead to disaster.  -2 III 2aii 5. And other times the fates are kind when you tempt them. -1 IIA 1 b 6. No matter what you do you can always depend on parents to look after you. 1 IIA 1 b -  7. You may have a fright, but find it's only a nightmare. -  1 IVA 3a  48  8. When people punish you without cause, you laugh at them. -2 IIIF 3a 9. But calamity may come if you don't look out. -2 IVA 2c 10. Still, even if you deserve punishment, the people who punish you will rue the day. -2 IIA 3d Story Sequence Analysis With a motivational score of 45, lm is not highly motivated. lm finds it difficult to stay on task and needs a lot of reminders to complete his assignments (1). He is capable of success but success can be elusive ( 2, 9 ). He is easily distracted by others and what others are doing can become his focus ( 1,  5 ).  Although he feels safe with authority figures  ( 6 ) he must push to get their attention (3). He is disdainful of those who punish him ( 8, 10 ). At first he is suspicious of others especially those who have power over him ( 8, 9, 10 ). Overall, he finds that he has little control over what happens to him ( 7, 9 ). Teacher Comments lm was a popular young lad who got along well with his peers. He was part of a larger group of boys both at home and at school; he was very loyal to this group. He was a follower and because of that he tended to get into group initiated fights. He didn't feel academics was his strength and thus was easily drawn off-task by others especially in unstructured situations.  49  His work habits were poor; he spent several years in learning assistance. He liked to daydream and was more interested in recess and lunch time activities. He was slow to do his work. When disciplined he reacted well although it took him awhile to trust me. He liked to please others as he didn't want them to think ill of him. Despite the lack of academic enthusiasm, the teacher felt that he adjusted well and progressed steadily. Summary The story sequence analysis substantiates the teacher's report. Both assessments indicated that 1m was a follower; he was easily distracted by others; he was not highly motivated and had difficulty staying on task. 1 m does not feel in control of what happens to him which would of course adversely affect his level of motivation. Case Study 2 Researcher's Imports 1. When you wait until the circumstances are right you enjoy your reward. +2 IC lb 2. When the odds are against you, you persist and are successful and those who love you celebrate with you. +2 IB 1 a 3. Sharing time with loved ones brings warmth and happiness, +2 IIIA 3a 4. and when you get the courage to try something new your  50  family supports you. +2 IIIA 2a 5. When you are frightened you cry but later the feelings pass. -1 IVA 6c 6. When there is danger you will overcome it. +2 IVA 1a 7. You are no longer afraid because it was only a nightmare. -1 IVA 6c 8. When you are mocked by others they too will be punished. +2 IVB lb 9. When you err you apologize and ensure that it will not happen again. +2 IIA 1d 10. If you are bratty you will be punished. +2 HA la Arnold's Imports 1. You may have to wait before you get an unexpected pleasure. +2 IIA 4b 2. If you work hard you'll win even in an unequal contest and all will be happy. +2 IA 1a 3. You love people who spend time with you, +2 IIIA 3a 4. and when you try something new your family supports you. +2 IIIA 1 b. 5. When you are frightened you cry, but your fear passes. -1 IVA 1 a 6. But the danger may be real though you can overcome it and see that it doesn't recur. +2 IVA 1 a 7. More likely it's only a nightmare. -2 IVA 1 a  51  8. And when you get into trouble and others mock you they get into trouble too. +2 IIIB 1 b 9. You may forget what you are supposed to do but you apologize and don't do it again, +2 HA 1 a 10. but if you are bratty you will be punished. +2 IIA la Story Sequence Analysis 2f's motivational index score was 165 indicating high achievement motivation. Relationships are very important to her making her feet comfortable, warm, loved and cared for (3, 4 ). She has a high regard for discipline ( 8, 10 ). She demonstrates a positive attitude towards work (2) and stays on task until assignments are completed (1). She is considerate of others ( 9). She feels supported by her family (4) yet is fearful of new situations. She may become  emotional about things that she is afraid of (5) however she overcomes her fears ( 6 ). Teacher Comments Teacher 2f was considered a very bright girl. She had problems getting along with her peers. She kept very much to herself and only had one friend who stayed very close to her. She had a tendency to be sullen and sulky around others and felt that adults were always against her, especially her mother. Others found that they could easily bother her and she was a target for their teasing. When disciplined she would  52  blame others and not take ownership. She was a diligent worker who always completed assignments before the allotted time. Her work was done thoroughly and carefully. Once she put her mind to something it was always done with excellence. She shied away from creative tasks preferring activities with right or wrong answers. She adjusted well to grade seven despite her sullenness. Summary The story sequence analysis parallels the teacher report in that both agree 2f was a highly motivated student. Her imports suggested that she had a positive attitude towards work and relationships, however the teacher report suggested she had difficulty in relationships. This difficulty was not revealed in her story sequence analysis. Case Study 3 Researcher's Imports 1. You hope to get something different and eventually you do. -1 IB 2a 2. You try to win but you need other's support to win. -1 IB 1 a 3. It is important to take the opportunity when it comes as it may not do so again. -1 IB 1 f 4. When you were young you worried but in the end you follow the others and are safe. -1 IB 1 a 5. Others are aware of what you are doing but do not interfere.  53  +1 IIIA lc 6. When you reach your goal you rest. +1 IB 5a 7. At first no one believes you, but later they do. -1 IIIA 3a 8. Your innocence is sometimes doubted by those close to you. -1 IIIA 2a 9. When you cannot get others to help you you help yourself and feel better for it. +2 IB 1 a 10. Sometimes you're treated unfairly by others despite feeling your actions are justified. -1 IIA 1 f Arnold's Imports 1. You may not like the daily routine but if you wait it will change. -1 IB 1 a 2. You can't win if you are overmatched but in the end someone will help. -1 IB 1 c 3. But it's better not just to wait but to use the opportunity when it comes. -1 IB 1 f 4. When you are young and exposed someone will take care; all you may have to do is to go on with them and find safety at last. -1 IA 3ai 5. You may keep your head down but parents know what you are up to. +1 IIIA 1a 6. Still you can make up your own game and succeed at it. +1 IA 1 a 7. Even if you didn't do anything people may chase you but in  54  the end they believe you. -1 IIIA 3a 8. Sometimes people tell on you though you didn't do anything; in the end parents believe you. -1 IIIA 2a 9. Your very weakness may make you do something to help yourself. +2 IB 1 a 10. Sometimes you are treated unfairly because others don't tell the whole story. -1 IIA 1 f Story Sequence Analysis 3f's motivational index score was 85 indicating lower achievement motivation. She would like to be successful ( 6 ) however she feels opportunities are fleeting ( 3 ). When faced with circumstances she does not like she waits passively for help or for things to change ( 1, 2 ). She feels like a victim, unfairly treated by others ( 7, 10 ). When she becomes involved in an unfamiliar activity she may become fearful ( 4 ). She feels most comfortable doing things her own way (6). She has a pervasive sense of hopelessness. Teacher Comments Although 3f got along with her peers in the classroom she had few friends. She was very much a loner who did not try to become part of a group. If she was cajoled she would join in. Academically, she experienced many problems. She became easily discouraged and would often daydream. If she was not checked she could spend the whole period on one  55  question. She wanted to be invisible so she never asked for help. She was Miss Avoider. Her work was messy and incomplete; rarely did she complete assignments. When disciplined she would burst into tears and because of that discipline was often avoided. Her adjustment to grade seven was difficult. She began the year with a truancy problem but once it was resolved things improved. Summary Both the teacher report and story sequence analysis agree that 3f was a passive, discouraged child; she did not pursue relationships or expect to succeed. Her discouragement was displayed through a sense of hopelessness, avoidance, lack of initiative and poor academic performance. Case Study 4 Researcher's Imports 1. When you wait to be joined by others you enjoy a great activity. +2 IIIA 3b 2. When you try with all your might you are successful. +2 IB la 3. You prefer to do things together; it is better than doing it alone. +2 IIIA 3a 4. Others can be overjoyed at finding someone but they can forget about you as you cry alone. -2 IIIA 1c 5. When you ignore your responsibilities someone comes and  56  takes over. -1 IVA 1 a 6. When you are alone you think about the great times ahead. -1 IB 2e 7. Even though you protect yourself, others will seek revenge on a grander scale. -2 IVA 4d 8. You persist in getting your own way but in order to avoid an argument you give into the demands of others, - 1 IIA 3c 9. but you do take your responsibilities seriously. +2 IIA 4b 10. Even though you are fearful of punishment, you accept it for it only lasts for a moment. +1 IIC 2 Arnold's Imports 1. You may have to wait but in the end you enjoy what you expect. +2 IIA 4a 2. When you try with all your might you succeed. +2 IB la 3. Doing things alone is no fun so you get others to do them together. +2 IIIA 3a 4. In our joy at finding someone who was lost we may forget another who is afraid and crying. -2 IIIA 1c 5. When you shirk your responsibility someone is sure to come and calm everything down. - 1 IVA 1a 6. While others sleep you think about the great times ahead. -2 IA 2c 7. You may try to fight danger but it will swallow you up. -2 IVA 4d  57  8. You may not do what you should the first time but in the end you give in. -1 HA 3c 9. In fact, when necessary you do what you should without being told. +2 HA 4b 10. When you know you'll be punished you may be scared but you take it because it only lasts for a moment. +1 HC 2 Story Sequence Analysis 4f's motivational score was 105 indicating that she is motivated but not highly so. Relationships are important to her and she likes working with others ( 1, 3 ). She usually takes her responsibilities seriously ( 9 ) but knows others will cover for her if she avoids them ( 5 ). Initially she may not do what is asked and when she is disciplined accepts the consequences ( 8, 10 ). When she tries really hard she is successful ( 2 ). She sometimes feels out of control ( 7, 4 ). Although she thinks about great things there is little effort to achieve them because there is a feeling that things will not work out ( 7, 6 ). Teacher Comments 4f was a very popular student with her classmates. They all wanted to be her friend. She was a good influence on others and a natural leader, avoiding confrontations and helping others solve their problems. She could be very empathic. She wanted to do well in all areas of her life and was a good all  58  around person. Her biggest discouragement was her grades. She would receive C's and high C's but her parents expected and wanted more. She found this very frustrating. Although her assignments were completed they were often below the standard required for an A grade. She had difficulty staying on task with individual assignments however, in a group assignment she became the leader and kept the group on task. When disciplined she accepted her consequences. She adjusted very well and had a great year. Summary The importance of relationships to 4f was revealed through her imports and supported by the teacher's report. Both sources suggested that she performed more effectively as part of a group than on individual assignments. Although she would like to achieve higher grades, there was little effort towards that end as she felt that she wouldn't be successful. Case Study 5 Researcher's Imports 1. Although you don't like something others can talk you into it. +1 IIIC 1 b 2. You struggle to win but after a hard struggle you realize the fruitlessness and accept defeat peacefully. +2 IIIB 1 c 3. It is nice for a son to spend time with his father and eventually they do. -1 IIIA 1 c  59  4. You may be worried and excited at the same time but in the end things turn out well. +1 IB 1 a 5. It is nice to dream about things to come and when they do it is fine. -1 IB 2b 6. Sometimes you wonder about the things you will encounter in the future and you may see it as a frightening adventure. -2 IVA 1 b 7. When the adventure starts going wrong you have the ability to find your way out. +2 IVA la 8. When parents are angry at you they forgive you and everyone is happy. +1 IIA 4a 9. If you shout loud enough your parents will meet your needs. +1 IVA 1 a 10. When others become angry with you you may decide not do it again. +2 IIC 1 b Arnold's Imports 1. You may not like something but when urged you finally do it. +1 HA 2a 2. You may fight to win but when you can't you learn to live in peace. +2 IIIB 1 c 3. People may want to spend time together and eventually they do. -1 IIIA 1 c 4. And when you make plans you may be worried whether they'll work, but they do. +1 IB 1 a  60  5. It's nice to dream about things to come and it's fine when they do. -2 IA 2c 6. In your dreams you may even pretend to be on a frightening adventure. -2 IVA 1 b 7. But when you are in a real frightening adventure you will find your way out. +2 IVA la 8. And when you get into mischief parents will forgive you and everyone will be happy. +1 IIA 4a 9. If you shout loud enough parents may get angry but they will satisfy your needs. +1 IVA 1 a 10. But if you are punished for being naughty you mend your ways and are never naughty again. +2 IIC la Story Sequence Analysis 5m is a moderately motivated student with a M.I. of 125. He often needed to be urged to complete tasks ( 1, 9 ). When provoked he defends himself, however he knows when he will be defeated and withdraws ( 2, 7 ). In his dreams he is a hero and consequently he has a propensity to daydream ( 5, 6 ). In reality he is apprehensive that things will not work out ( 4 ). He responds well to discipline and accepts the consequences for misbehaviour ( 8, 10 ). He would like to have relationships with people but does not actively pursue them ( 3 ). Teacher Comments 5m was a loner although he had one friend. He segregated  61  himself from others and the students indicated that he put a partition between them and himself. He never sought others. He liked to work on his own and became frustrated when required to work in a group. He lacked cooperative skills. He was seldom disciplined as there was rarely a need to other than to get him to school on time in the morning. Other students would bother him. He would come back with a quick retort and a fight would start. He was a diligent worker. His assignments were always completed but he didn't work to his potential. He was a B student but there was a concern that he was not challenged enough. He would daydream and appear lethargic. He adjusted to grade seven well but the biggest concern was his inability to interact socially. Summary 5m's social isolation was indicated in his story sequence analysis and confirmed by the teacher report. He would have liked to have relationships with others but he did not have the confidence to pursue them. Outwardly he displayed his lack of confidence by isolating himself from others. His M.I. revealed a moderate level of motivation which was reflected in his consistently moderate academic performance. Case Study Six Researcher's Imports 1. Having your way is pleasurable but others can interfere and  62  ruin your fun. -1 IB 1a 2. At first when you think you may not succeed you try harder. But if that isn't successful you wait for someone to make a mistake then you succeed. +1 IE la 3.  Sometimes your first reaction to new relationships is  negative but when you think about how they think about you, you treat them better. +1 IIIA 3a 4. If you want a relationship bad enough all you have to do is follow them. -1 IIIA 4c 5. You rush in thinking it is an emergency only to find it is something minor. You fix it and everything is okay. +2 IV A la 6. If you are caught doing something wrong you will only get scolded. -1 HA 1g 7. Sometimes you try to do the right thing but it turns out badly and you become lost forever. -2 IVA 4a 8. Although you are asked to behave you do not. Instead you are punished. Later you are told how to behave and you do. +1 IIA 1ci 9. You sometimes wish others would not bother you so you wouldn't have to hit them all the time but they never will. -2 IIIB 2b 10. When you disobey you are punished. +2 HA la Arnold's Imports 1. If you are lucky others won't interfere in your fun. -1 lB 1a  63  2. And when others seem to be winning you try with all your might and when they make a mistake, you succeed. +1 IE la 3. You may want to get rid of responsibility but when you think of the way your father took on his responsibility, you change your mind. +1 IIIA 3a 4. If you want friendship bad enough all you have to do is stick around and the rest will follow. -1 IIIA 1 b 5. You may rush to help thinking it's an emergency but find it's only a minor upset. You fix it and everything is okay. +2 IVA 1 a 6. But when you make mischief you get scolded though in the end things calm down. -1 IIA 1 g 7. You may try to fight an intruder with insufficient weapons but that is no good. -2 IVA 4a 8. When you misbehave despite a warning you are punished. But when you decide to be good all is forgiven. +1 IIA 1c 9. You may wish others would behave too, so you wouldn't have to hit them all the time, but they never will. -2 IIIB 1 d 10. When you don't do what you are supposed to do you are punished. +2 IIA 1 a Story Sequence Analysis 6m is moderately motivated with an MI of 100. Although he is tempted not to complete tasks, he does ( 3 ). He sees himself as popular and is willing to help out friends in need  64  ( 4, 5 ). He usually accepted punishment when he misbehaved (8, 10 ) however he sometimes thinks he can get away lightly and pushed the limits ( 6, 7, 8 ). He wants people to do things his way and if they don't he is disruptive (1  ,  9 ). He is  interested in being successful but he is content to wait until the circumstances are favorable ( 2 ). Teacher Comments 6m was a highly visible, attention seeking student. He loved to be the center of attention and was popular with his classmates. He could work independently but liked to challenge the rules. In group situations he found it difficult to concentrate; he was too interested in what was going on around him. Once an assignment was given and he knew exactly what was expected of him, he could organize himself and complete the task. He wanted to do well but was not especially self-motivated or self-disciplined yet he could work steadily and neatly at a task; in that way he was a product oriented person. He rarely got into fights but did get into many altercations with girls. He was a disruptive influence on the playground and I received many complaints about him. He was a high C student but could do better. His adjustment to grade seven was good; he was very energetic and if he could redirect his energies he had the potential to do much better.  65  Summary 6m's imports suggest that he saw himself as a popular individual.^Motivationally, the imports indicate that he generally looked for the easy way out. His propensity to challenge the rules was reflected in both the imports and teacher report. He found it difficult to concentrate on his work as he was more interested in what was happening around him. This was reflected in his average to low academic performance. At a deeper level his sequence analysis suggested that he was content to wait for success rather than actively pursue it.  66  CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION The primary interest of this study was to replicate Arnold's work through the study of the relationship between adjustment and motivation in late elementary school-aged children. Results of the 18 students who participated in this study were analyzed and presented in the previous chapters. This final chapter is divided into four sections: (a) Interpretation of results; (b) Limitations of the study; (c) Implications for practice and (d) Implications for future research. Interpretation of Results The qualitative significance of Arnold's story sequence analysis is consistent with teacher reports of adjustment. This insight provides a deeper understanding of a child's success and provides reasons for their good or poor adjustment. While some researchers indicate that school success has more to do with heredity and home environment (Zachry, 1929) and conditions of learning (Gagne, 1974), this study set out to determine the relationship between adjustment (how well a student responds to the demands of school life) and motivation to achieve (achievement motivation). Research on the relationship between achievement motivation and  67  adjustment has suggested that students who positively meet the demands of school life are motivated to achieve. As the literature in chapter two indicated, children who do not adjust well in school do not do well academically. Determining which students are poorly adjusted enables us to identify which students will have academic difficulties. Story sequence analysis reveals the reasons for poor academic performance and maladjustment which once identified can be effectively addressed by both teachers and school counsellors. Before commencing a discussion of significant findings, it is helpful to briefly step back and review the significance of achievement motivation, Arnold's motivational theory and adjustment. The study of achievement motivation is concerned with the level of accomplishment that is actually obtained. Before achievement can occur, motivation must be present. Motivation deals with the appraisal of goals and the choice of action that leads to or away from that goal. Behaviour and attitude are important constructs of motivation. It is the behaviour and attitude that lead to success or failure. As is obvious by the above definitions, achievement motivation and motivation are related, interconnected constructs difficult to define separately. One way to assess an individual's level of motivation is to use a projective test such as the thematic apperception test  68  or the children's apperception test in which the individual writes a story about a picture. Arnold believed that through the process of telling a story a person's personality characteristics, convictions, attitudes, actions and behaviours would be revealed. From the story an import (which is the essence or moral of the story) could be obtained. With a sequence of imports an assessment of an individual's level of motivation could be attained. She classified motives that lead to success as positive or constructive, while motives leading to low success or no success were classified as being negative or non-constructive. Working with thousands of imports Arnold identified four general categories. From these categories she developed a scoring system that allowed individual imports to be scored as either positive or negative. These four categories are: (1) success and failure; (2) right and wrong; (3) social relations and (4) reactions to adversity. Scored imports are added together and converted to a possible score of 0 - 200. Converted scores reveal an individual's level of motivation. Scores above 100 reveal positive or constructive motives while scores below 100 reveal negative or non-constructive motives. The higher the motivational level the more likely the student is oriented towards success.  69  No decisive definition for adjustment exists in the literature; many terms are used including learning, motivation, frustration, anxiety, accommodation, adaptation and habituation. Popplestone, McPherson and White (1980) suggested that adjustment is any operation whereby an organism becomes more favorably related to the environment. For the purpose of this thesis, adjustment was examined in terms of social and internal adaptation. That is, interpersonal interactions with others and how an individual copes with internal, intrapersonal demands of school. To measure adjustment the Child and Adolescent Adjustment Profile was used (Ellsworth, 1980). The CAAP measures adjustment over five areas: (1) peer relations; (2) dependency; (3) hostility; (4) productivity and (5) withdrawal. In general, results of this study indicated that students who adjusted positively to the challenges of school life were positively motivated and had a higher level of achievement as indicated by the researcher/teacher dialogue. These results generally support the recent findings of Taylor (1990) who reported that children who were well adjusted had higher levels of achievement motivation. ^Arnold (1962) correlated the motivational index with grades and found scores ranging between 0.75 and 0.85. The current study with its limited  70  sample size correlated motivational index and adjustment and is reflective of Arnold's work. The overall relationship between motivation and adjustment was found to be significant (with alpha = .05). Having first considered the results collectively, the present discussion will now address specific details of the correlations between the CAAP and the motivational index. This discussion will also include a comparison to Arnold's scoring categories. The correlation between the M.I. and peer relations was 0.218. The correlation was not significant, perhaps due to the small sample size, however it does lend support to Coie and Kopple's (1990) findings which reported correlations of 0.20 to 0.40 between peer relations and achievement. Peer relations, a student's interaction with their classmates is an important component of adjustment. Studies cited earlier (McGhee and Short, 1991; Taylor, 1990) suggested that student's who experience difficulties with peer relations either withdraw or become aggressive. Maladjustment is related to poor academic performance. Comparing peer relations to Arnold's scoring categories, peer relations fall under the heading of category Ill: Human Relationships. Constructively motivated students view relationships as inherently good and desirable; they seek  71  interactions with others. Low achievers view peer relations with caution. They may either avoid relationships or view them with distrust and uncertainty. The relationship between dependency and the M.I was not significant at r = 0.415. Although the sample size was small, the results were close to the critical value r = 0.46. Dependency was defined as a student's inability to be selfmonitoring and to become easily frustrated with assignments. Students who demonstrate dependency have little selfconfidence. They seek reassurance to assure themselves that what they are doing is correct. Teacher ratings of dependency indicate that those students who continuously seek assistance become easily frustrated and suffer other adjustment problems such as being labeled by their peers (Feshbach and Feshbach, 1987). Dependency corresponds to Arnold's category I; Achievement, success, happiness and active effort. Constructively motivated students believe that success is a result of personal effort. They have a positive attitude and use personal initiative and self control to complete assignments. Non-constructively motivated students question their abilities and seek reassurance from either the teacher or fellow students. They view their success as a matter of luck rather than as a result of hard work.  72  The correlation between hostility and the M.I. was not significant and was measured at r = 0.353. Although this study did not produce significance, research by Feldhausen, Thurston and Benning's (1970) reported a positive correlation between hostility and achievement. They noted that children whose behaviour was aggressive and disruptive achieved at significantly lower levels than non-aggressive, non-disruptive children. Arnold suggested that individuals who have hostile tendencies view the world as an unsafe place and believe that it is acceptable to use others to get what is wanted. Moreover, success may attained by using force or threat of force. Hostility is scored under both category I; Achievement, success, happiness and active effort (or lack of it) and category II; Right and wrong. The correlation that came closest to the critical value was between the M.I. and productivity. The correlation was 0.444. Productivity was defined as the ability to work hard at a task until completion and to complete the task carefully and to the best of ability. As previously indicated in the literature review (Wentzel, 1991) students who were task oriented and goal directed possessed a positive attitude about their capabilities to handle and complete assignments. Low achievers struggled with task completion which often lead to  73  lower levels of achievement. Productivity, as scored under category I, is a positive, constructive motive. According to Arnold, motivated persons possess a positive attitude towards work. Work is viewed as valuable as it brings intrinsic rewards, and success is believed to be a result of personal initiative and active effort. The final correlation, between withdrawal and the M.I. was 0.28. The writer ponders whether the correlation may be artificially low as Lepper and Hodell (1989) suggest that children who are withdrawn conform to the social control and classroom management model. Adjustment problems that they may have often go unnoticed by teachers. Students who withdraw, according to the CAAP, daydream, sit and stare, do things slowly and appear indifferent and uninterested. Non-constructive motivational patterns of students whose imports indicate withdrawal may be scored under category I; achievement, success, happiness and active effort (or lack of it) and/or category IV; reaction to adversity. Under category I success comes from wishing, hoping, dreaming and passive attitudes. Under category IV adversity is evaded by withdrawal. The present study clearly demonstrated that motivation and the level of achievement a student attains is directly related to how successfully the student has adjusted.  74  Scheiders (1960) believed that motivation is determined by adjustment and that motivation is the driving force behind adjustive behaviours found in education and learning. Cross case analysis Imports laid down in sequence reveal a student's beliefs and convictions. The more constructive these beliefs and convictions are the more positively motivated the student. This study sought to measure a student's level of motivation and to relate it to their level of adjustment. Case studies of the child with the highest M.I. and the child with the lowest M.I. will be presented for further discussion. Discussion will begin with student 2f who has a motivational index of 165 and will be followed by student 1m who has a motivational index of 45. Student records from kindergarten through grade seven were consulted for this discussion. 2f 2f's imports clearly suggest that she is highly motivated. Her sequence analysis stated that she had a positive attitude towards work and that her work was done with care. She had a high regard for discipline and relationships were important to her. Comments on previous report cards attested to 2f's high level of achievement. She made the honor role twice. Throughout her reports teachers stated that they were  75  impressed by her mature work ethic, study habits, her responsibility in accomplishing tasks and her desire to do well. Socially, teachers state that she was polite and considerate, always willing to work with others. Teacher comments presented in chapter four of this study contradict previous teacher reports, the M.I. and her written grade 7 report. The teacher was concerned about 2f's sullenness and "poor me" attitude. She also remarked on 2f's inability to get along with her peers and her tendency to be impatient and sharp in her dealings with her classmates. Her imports suggested that she may approach tasks or people that she is unsure of with caution until she feels comfortable (imports 4, 5 and 6). These imports may account for her peer interactions. According to Silvern and Katz (1986) behaviours such as social isolation and withdrawal are signals of maladjustment in girls. However, no prior comments could be found in reference to her sullenness or poor me attitude. It could be speculated that these current problems are a result of adolescence, recent personal problems, or the result of teacher bias whereby the teacher may have underestimated the actual adjustment level of the child. The sequence analysis and motivational index score support previous teachers' comments that 2f is well adjusted. Although the M.I. does not correspond with the teacher's report, historically it does.  76  1m 1 m's motivational index score was 45 indicating low motivation. In reviewing 1 m's sequence analysis it was found that he had difficulty staying on task and that he needed to be frequently reminded to complete assignments. He was easily distracted by others and could become more interested in what others were doing rather than in his own work. While he felt that he could be successful he found it difficult to maintain his focus and hence success was fleeting. He felt he had little control over what happened to him. In previous reports, teachers indicated that 1m had difficulty in many academic areas, including math, writing and especially reading. Percentages reported in these three areas ranged in the fifties to low sixties. To secure help with Language Arts, 1m was referred to Learning Assistance. Dechant (1968) and Battle (1990) stated that students with early reading difficulties experience adjustment difficulties. Several comments addressing completion of assignments and poor work habits were made. Other teacher comments indicated that if 1m were to take more time, be more conscientious and put in more effort, he would be more successful in school. Although 1 m's teacher reported that she felt he adjusted well, all supporting evidence suggested otherwise.  77  Review of 1 m's progress from kindergarten to grade seven revealed a clear pattern; his grades deteriorated over the years. Feldhusen, Thurston and Benning (1970) found in their longitudinal study that students experiencing underachievement difficulties were likely to continue on a downward spiral. From the foregoing discussion it may be hypothesized that 1m is of average intelligence but suffers from low motivation and adjustment difficulties. It may also be speculated that 1m suffers from a low self-concept based on 1 m's teacher's comments that he is a follower and is drawn into group fights. Other indicators of adjustment problems are his propensities for daydreaming and his lack of academic enthusiasm. The two cases studies previously discussed reveal constructive and non-constructive motivational patterns. The constructive patterns of 2f indicated that success comes through active effort and decision to accomplish tasks without interference. Doing her best is important. Alternatively, 1 m's pattern revealed non-constructive attitudes. He was easily distracted from tasks and viewed success as elusive and independent of his effort. Summary This study began with the observation that a relationship existed between motivation and adjustment and that the level  78  of motivation affected the level of achievement a student attained. Using Arnold's (1962) story sequence analysis it became clear that it was possible to distinguish students with constructive motivation from those with non-constructive motivation. The sequence analysis also explained where the student was experiencing adjustment difficulties. From the empirical investigation in this present study, it has been demonstrated that: 1.  a relationship exists between a student's level of  adjustment and level of motivation and these factors affect their level of achievement; 2.  specific adjustment difficulties were identified and the  teacher generally supported the research findings; 3.  school records agreed with the research finding;  4.  this study successfully replicated Arnold's findings. Limitations of Study The significance and generality of these conclusions are  limited by the following factors: 1. The sample size of 18 was one of convenience and not random. 2.  The limited number of participants does not allow for  making predictions to the general population. 3.^The reliability of the imports and scores could be improved by utilizing inter-rater reliability.  79  improved by utilizing inter-rater reliability. 4.  There was no control for teacher responses on the CAAP. It  was not possible to verify that the teachers views represented a realistic evaluation of the student. 5.  All six case study students were taught by one teacher.  Teacher bias may have been a factor in reporting adjustment or achievement levels in the interview. 6.  The researcher could not ensure that individual students  understood story protocol. The large group format made it difficult to monitor whether the students were writing the stories correctly. 7.  A seven point Likert-type scale may provide a better  measure of adjustment than the four point scale used in this study. 8. Achievement motivation was not correlated with grade point average. 9.  The CAT-H was used rather than the TAT. Studies indicate  that the TAT lends itself to more global interpretation while the CAT-H is more situation specific. The TAT may have provided a more accurate appraisal of student motivation. Implications for Practice The findings of this study provide practical value for school counsellors. Story sequence analysis provides valuable information to teachers and counsellors. It offers specific  80  insight to individual student adjustment, motivation and achievement levels. Assessment of students using Arnold's (1962) story sequence analysis provided a view of the student's beliefs and attitudes and highlighted the reasons for their difficulty in adjustment. Story sequence analysis is a quick and accurate method of assessment. Student's enjoy either writing stories or having their stories recorded. Once trained in the method of story sequence analysis, a counsellor would be able to provide helpful suggestions to the teacher to assist students to become more successful. In individual or group counselling sessions the counsellor can address the underlying beliefs, convictions and attitudes that affect the child's academic performance and adjustment to school. Arnold's work has also been used successfully with career choice. At the secondary school level this may provide valuable information to a counsellor working with a student who is unsure as to the appropriate career path. In her book Story Sequence Analysis Arnold positively identified competent candidates entering the seminary from those who would not be competent. Implications for Future Research The current research provides a foundation for future work.  81  Future research may consider tracking student motivation and adjustment over time. A longitudinal study of a random sample of more than 30 subjects could be tracked through specific stages of elementary and secondary education. At each interval subjects would be required to complete a 10 card TAT which would be augmented by a teacher completed adjustment profile. To ensure accuracy of imports and scores, inter-rater reliability would be conducted. This study would examine whether motivation is consistent over time and whether story sequence analysis consistently explains adjustment levels? Another option that may be considered for future research is assessment, intervention, post assessment. Can adjustment and motivation be changed through effective intervention? The results of this study could profoundly affect the manner in which adjustment difficulties are handled. If adjustment and motivation can be improved through intervention, counsellors and teachers could work towards identifying effective strategies. 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Paper presented at the 90th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 223 704) Reynolds, C. K. & Kamphaus, K. W. (Eds.) (1984). Handbook of psychological and educational assessment of children. New York: Oxford University Press.  89  Rogers, C. R. (1963). On becoming a person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R. (1980). A way of being. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Schaughency, E. (1987). Self-concept and aggression in elementary school students. Journal of Clinical Child Psycholgy, 16, 116-121. Scheiders, A. A. (1960). Personality adjustment and mental health. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Silvern, L.E. & Katz, P.A. (1986). Gender roles and adjustment in elementary school children: A multidimensional approach. Sex Roles, 14 %, 181-200. Singh, S. N. (1977). Adjustment problems and personality characteristics of pre-adolescents.^Bhelupur, Varanasi: Rupa Psychological Center. Smith, C. P. (Ed) (1992). Motivation & personality: handbook of thematic content analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press. Smith, D. J. (1981). Opinions of school, academic motivation and school adjustment in the first year of secondary school. Educational Studies, Z, 177-183. Steggart, F. X. (1961). An analysis of some personal and executive characteristics of participants in a university program for executive development for federal personnel. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Loyola University, Chicago. Stipek, D. J. (1988). Motivation to learn. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.  90  Taylor, A. R. (1990). Behavioral subtypes of low-achieving children: differences in school social adjustment. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 11, 487-498. Teglasi, H. (1993). Clinical use of story telling: emphasizing the TAT with children and adolescents. Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon. Thomas, A. D. & Dudek, S. Z. (1985). Interpersonal affect in TAT responses: A scoring system. Journal of Personality and Development, 19, 30-37. Vane, J. R. (1981). The TAT: A Review. Clinical Psychology Review. 1 319-336. Wilkinson, L. (1989). SYSTAT: The system for statistics. Evanston, IL: SYSTAT, Inc. Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 92, 548-573. Wentzel, K. R. (1991). Social and academic goals at school: motivation and achievement in context. New York: JAI Press Inc. Zachry, C. B. (1929). Personality adjustments of school children. New York: Charles Scribiner's Sons.  91  Appendix A Student Stories  92  1m 1. There were three kids at a table waiting for dinner and their mom brings out dinner but they can't eat until their mom comes back from next door so they sit there and sit there but their mom wasn't home yet. So one of the kids didn't care what their mom said so he started to eat and so the other two decided to eat too. Then their mom came home and they all got in trouble and they got sent to bed. 2. There were three kids having a tug-a-war on a pile of sand. Then there was two against one so the boy by himself started to pull like crazy and the other two boys started to sink in the sand and the boy by himself pulled once with all of his strength and made the two boys fall on their face. 3. There was a man watching T.V. with his son on the floor by himself so the boy wanted his dad to play with him but the dad wanted to watch T.V. So the boy crawled up on his dad and hit him in the head so his dad's pipe fell and broke on the floor. The boy's dad was mad but then he thought and found out this would not have happened if he was playing with his son so he played with his son happily. 4. There was a boy and a baby and their mom. They were going for a picnic and the mom stopped but the boy didn't and the boy ran into his mom and she dropped the baby and she fell off the cliff. Someone found the baby and boy. They were okay but the mom was dead. 5. There was two boys in a crib and the parents asleep but the boys were awake and the window was open. They walked to the window and climbed onto the roof and fell asleep but the parents found them in the morning. 6. There were two parents and a boy and the boy wasn't asleep so he got up and went fishing and fell asleep on the dock and  93  his parents didn't know that he was gone and in the morning the parents found him. 7. There was a boy and he was having a bad nightmare about that he was getting chased by a huge man that was trying to eat him. The huge man grabbed him and went to put him in his mouth but the boy woke up and didn't go back to sleep. 8. There were three parents and the mom is giving the little boy trouble. She grabs him and put him over her knee and gives him a big spanking for no reason but the little boy went to his room laughing at his mom and pointing at her. 9. There was a baby in a crib and he was all alone. His parent went to the store and they would be right back. A robber came in the window and killed the baby and stole all the parents jewelry and their car. He made a run for the car and drove away. When the parents came home they saw their baby dead. 10. There was a boy and his dad and the boy swore at his dad. When he got out of the bath his dad put him over his knee and spanked him. For about two weeks the boy's bum was red as a cherry but the dad went to jail for child abuse.  94  2f 1. There were three young children sitting at a table with bowls in front of them waiting to eat. They had to wait until their parents sat down with them before they could eat. Finally their parents came and they got to enjoy their meal. 2. The tug of war had begun. Ally was on one side and Suzy and Sam were on the other. Sally was thinking to herself, "I'm never going to win, this just isn't fair. They have two people, they have more strength." As all these thoughts ran through her mind she kept pulling and as each though got worse she pulled with all her might. The next thing she knew, Suzy and Sam had passed the line. She had won. She jumped in excitement. When she got home her family celebrated for this was the first time in her life she had won. 3. Grandpa was sitting in his chair telling his young grandson Jimmy old war stories. Jimmy just loved old war stories. All the guns and bombs and action excited him. His grandfather went on with these stories until 8:30 pm which was Jimmy's bed time. As Jimmy got up to go to bed he went and gave his grandpa a hug to let him know he thought of him as Number One. 4. Mom was taking her two children for a walk. As they walked it got windy. Mom's hat started blowing away so she had to carry a baby and hold her hat down. She thought that this was ridiculous but her daughter had finally gotten the courage to ride her bike so she kept walking. Finally it started to pour down with rain so they headed back. Luckily her husband drove by so they got a ride. They put the bike in the trunk. When they reached home they all got changed into dry clothes. Then they ate dinner and sat around a warm fire. 5. Jim and Carol Walters were sleeping in their bed. Their six month old baby Tanya was sleeping in her crib beside the bed too. All of a sudden a tree branch broke and frightened Tanya and she started to cry. She woke her parents up in alarm. She  95  cried and cried for 10 minutes straight. Finally she got to sleep. Her parents went to sleep too and that was the last time she cried all night. 6. There was a family camping at a lake. They were sleeping and all of a sudden they heard growling and something swooping at the tent. Went he father looked out he saw that it was a bear. So he took out a gun and shot him. The next morning whey they woke up they left for a hotel where there were no bears that could get to them. 7. It was about midnight. Linda was sleeping. She was having a horrible nightmare. It was about a huge man that was chasing her everywhere she went. She ran down main streets, back streets and everywhere, but it didn't matter where she went. He was everywhere. Suddenly she woke up and found she was only having a nightmare and fell asleep once again. 8. Mom was sitting on the footstool yelling at Tom for not putting his toys away. His sister and brother were sitting on the couch passing looks and whispering things about him. Mom heard them and yelled at them for butting into someone else's business so they were all in an equal amount of trouble and were all sent to their rooms. 9. Little Timothy was all alone in his crib. He started crying but nobody came so he cried louder and still nobody came. The phone rant. No one answered that either. No one was home. About 30 minutes later his mother came running into the room. She had forgotten all about him and gone out. She apologized and from then on she stayed in the same room as him as he napped. 10. A woman was undressing her kid so he could have a bath. He kept on squirming and would not stay still. It took the woman 15 minutes to get the kid in the bathtub. When he got in he started squirming everywhere. He got in trouble for being bratty and he couldn't play with his friends for a week.  96  3f 1. The children will start to eat their breakfast and think we already had this yesterday. I don't like it they all say. Then lunch comes and the youngest thinks I hope we get something different but they just get soup. Dinner comes and they all get something different. 2. They are trying to win but one side has two people and the other has one. The person with one is thinking if I want to win I have to get someone else but I can't leave. 10 minutes later some other people walk by and see it's not fair so they join in and help him win. 3. The little boy is thinking when I get older and he is not around I will sit there and be like him and sit there. I wonder how old I am and how long I will have to wait. So the man leaves and he jumps up and sits there. He thinks, why wait, I might not live long. 4. It was a windy day and the air was blowing all over. One of the little kids are being cared for because he is too young and might get blown away. When they get to the mall they all think safe at last. 5. The little boy is sleeping then the parents go in to go to bed but the baby wakes up. Just when the parents go in she doesn't say anything but the parents knew. She finally goes to sleep and then they do. 6. The kid wakes up in the morning and has nothing to do so he makes up his own game. See how far he can get the leaves. He got it to the tree so he had reached his goal. Then he fell asleep. 7. The bad big man is chasing that boy cause he thinks he stole something but he didn't. He chased him quite far then he believed him.  97  8. He got in trouble because the neighbors told on him. He was thinking why am I getting in trouble. I didn't do anything to them. The mother was thinking how did they know if it was him or not? So she stopped yelling at him. 9. The child couldn't talk so he couldn't yell for his mother. So he had to get up for a glass of water. He felt better after his drink and went back to bed. 10. The child was getting in trouble because he was hitting his sister, but his sister didn't tell all of the story. He thought it wasn't fair.  98  4f  1. The kids sat at the dinner table waiting, very hungry to eat. They feasted their eyes upon the supper. Then their parents arrived. They said their prayers and enjoyed a great supper. 2. It's sports day. The kids are having a tug of war fight. Each side is pulling as hard as they can until boom! All of the kids on the left fall into the pit. The kids on the right had put all their might into it and won. 3. A man sits thinking. The little one on the right sits thinking of what the man might be thinking. The the child jumps onto the lap of the man and gives him a big hug. They sit and think together. 4. On a nice sunny day a mother and her tow children go for a walk into the forest. All of a sudden the smallest one takes off. The mother can't find her child anywhere. In the meantime her other child gets scared and cries. All of a sudden the youngest one runs out from behind a rock. The mother hugs him. Forgetting about the child on the bike who cries alone. 5. The baby girl cries. The parents try to sleep pulling the covers over their heads. Big brother who is four comes into the room and sings until they both fall asleep. 6. Mom and Dad curled up together fast asleep in the corner. As little Billy lays there thinking of the great time he'll have fishing in the morning. 7. The mean ugly old giant captured a poor small town's person. The town person in fear, throws a rock, but in revenge the giant eat the town person. 8. It was Friday night and Mother had a guest over. I got in heck for still being up. My mother told me to go to bed three  99  times. I heard her the first time. I'm not stupid. I gave up and went to bed without arguing. 9. I was babysitting when I head a child screaming. I ran upstairs and opened the door. The poor little kid was sitting up stiff as a board. He had a bad dream. 10. Scott was a bad boy. Scott was scared. He knew what was going to happen. He closed his eyes and shouted. It stung for a moment and then it was over.  100  5m 1. One evening a family had sat down to dinner and the child didn't like the peas so the parents tried and tried to get him to eat the peas. They talked and finally talked him into eating the peas. 2. The two boys were struggling against each other pulling and pulling trying to prove that they were stronger and better. They hated each other so they kept on pulling. Finally after a long while the two boys decided that neither would win so they learned not to fight and also not to have to prove something to other people. 3. The little boy was thinking to himself that he would like to spend some time with his father because his father always just sits there with his pipe and cane. While the father thought to himself it would be nice to take his son fishing or to a movie. After awhile, the father talked to his son about doing something together more often so they did. 4. It was a sunny afternoon and everyone was happy. They were meeting some friends for a picnic. Mom was worried if they would find their friends or not while the little boy was exited just for going on a picnic. Everything turned out good and they found their friends. 5. The babies were asleep for their nap having dreams of bottles and the lunch. While mom was preparing lunch the babies woke up and had lunch. The day was fine. 6. While the parents were sleeping during the night on the camping trips, the little boy was awake wondering about bears and tigers in the forest, pretending he was on a big frightening adventure. 7. The little boy was frightened of the big giant eating him. He was sliding and sliding on the sloped muddy wall of the  101  giants house when he found a long wire and found his way out of the big mud house. 8. While the mother was feeling angry at the little boy she forgave him for breaking the vase and let him out of the corner. Everyone went back to dinner and everyone was happy. 9. The baby screamed with hunger which led to the mother getting the baby up with frustration and feeding her breakfast. 10. The mother spanked the child with anger because he had gone to the washroom in his pants again. After the spanking, the child decided not to do that ever again and from then on he went in the toilet.  102  6m 1. They were three best friends, Mark, Brian and Kelly. They were sitting at a table in Brian's house eating dinner. Mark and Kelly were staying overnight like they did every Saturday at one or anothers house and this time it was at Brian's. They all liked to stay at Brian's house because his mom let them stay up as late as they wanted. There was a downfall. Brian's sister was a pest but tonight she could not wreck watching movies or playing with Nintendo and talking about boy things. They all thought they were lucky tonight. 2. Jake was having a tug-of-war with his younger brothers Mike and Jo Jo. He thought "oh no, they're winning". He tugged real hard and almost pulled them in but they held steady. After another four minutes of pulling, Jo Jo let go and Jake pulled so hard he pulled Mike into the pond. 3. There once was a rich man name Alfred Ill. Two months ago, his brother and his brother's wife died in a car accident and left him with their two year old son. He did not like the kid that much and was already thinking about sending the boy to boarding school as he watched the sun set. Then he thought, my dad hopefully never thought that about me and from then on he treated the boy as his own son. 4. A guy one day (we won't mention his name for the sake of embarrassment) was following a beautiful woman on his bike everywhere she went. Of course she did not realize it. He had a deep crush on her but thought he was too ugly to ask her out. So he just followed her and eventually she realized it and fell in love. A year later she married him. 5. The baby was crying and the parent rushed in from dinner with their friend to find it was only a poopy diaper. They changed it and sang a lullaby to make it go to sleep and fall asleep. She did.  103  6. My parents were sleeping. Jo-Jo was in their bed also sleeping when he heard the cat purr. He got out of bed and crept to the kitchen where he got out his favorite pots and a metal spoon. He started banging on the pots and woke the whole house. Mom got up and scolded him and we all went to sleep. 7. Everybody screamed as the giant came near. He ate every living thing in sight. Everybody ran except James. James took out his small bow and hit the giant in the mouth. Then he ran into the forest and the giant gave chase. They ran so deep into the forest that neither ever made it out again. 8. We had company over and like usual when we have company Mark started to act up. Before the company came over mom told him not to because this was one of dad's special clients. Also, like usual, he didn't listen. As soon as the company came over he asked for 4 chocolate cookies and mom shook her head no. Mark started to cry and that embarrassed dad so he sent him to his room. He came back down so mom took him by the shoulder and told him how to behave and he did. 9. Mom sent Billy to bed. A half an hour later she sent me to bed. As I passed Billy's room I saw him all curled up in bed. I thought, I wish he would be this way always, quiet, peaceful and not a pest. That way I wouldn't get in trouble for hitting him all the time. Oh well, in reality it will never happen. 10. Rocky just came in and was all muddy from playing in the swamp near the house. He would not take a bath so his father spanked his butt and threw him in the bath. He was sent to bed without dinner.  104  Appendix B  Teacher Questionnaire  105  Teacher Questionnaire for Imports/Adjustment 1.  How does ^ get along with his/her peers? Does he/she join freely with others and invite others to play? Do they laugh and smile easily?  2.  During work times does ^work independently or do they ask for help when they could have, in your estimate, done the work on their own? Do they become easily discouraged and unable to work on their own?  3.  If you needed to discipline ^did they respond appropriately? Do they get into fights? When they didn't get their own way, would they get angry?  4.  When you assigned a task did^work steadily at the assignment? Did they do their work neatly and carefully? Do you feel they worked to their potential?  5.  Did ^_ have a propensity to daydream or appear indifferent or uninterested? Did they ever seem lethargic?  6.  Overall, how has ____ _________ adjusted to the academic demands of grade seven?  106  Appendix C  Researcher/Teacher Dialogue  107  1m R: How did he get along with his peers? T: Fine. He had a group that he's been here with since kindergarten so he was a pretty well established Sinclair boy. He had his buddies that he was loyal to and they connected quite a bit outside of school. R: Did he invite others to play with him? T: Yes, he had a really kind side. His group may not have been as open as he was but he had a really sweet kind side and a conscience. He had a real conscience. R: During work times did he work independently and do as he was asked? T: Yes, but that's a hard question for me because everyone in my room does, they have to. I could see him being easily distracted in certain classroom situations. R: Did he ever become easily discouraged or unable do his work on his own? T: Very much so. He did not feel that academics were his strength. R: If you needed to discipline how would he respond? T: He wouldn't want to hurt you or let you down. I remember there was a situation at the end of last year before we went on a camping trip and he was very easily led but I do remember him coming back after school and apologizing. R: So he didn't really get into fights?  108  T: No, no lots of fights. His group against other groups. R: And if he didn't get his own way would he get angry? T: Yes. R: When he was assigned a task would he work steadily at it? T: In my room yes, but outside the situation he wouldn't be as self motivated as he should be. R: And the quality of his work? T: Not great. But that doesn't mean that he didn't do his best. I think he went to L.A. for a few years and as I said academics were not his strength. R: Do you think he worked to his potential? T: You know, I do. R: Did he have a propensity to daydream, appear indifferent or uninterested? T: Oh yes, oh yes. When's recess, can't wait for lunch, planning the football game R: And was he lethargic? T: Yes. R: So overall how do you feel he adjusted to Grade 7? T: I think he did it adequately. He progressed steadily and surely. I think he had a good year.  109  2f T: Bright girl. R: Did she get along with her peers? T: No. R: Did she join freely or invite others? T: No. Megan kidnapped her and she was under Megan's wing and shadow all year. Sullen and sulky. She felt that adults were all against her. She had no respect for her parents. It's hard to know when they're 12 years old, is this just a thing, is this cool to do or is this something really deep seated. She was always criticizing her parents, thinking poor me, thinking she had it tough. R: During work times did she work independently? T: Yes. She's introverted so she would like that. R: She did her own work without being asked? T: Yes, she would. She was a bright girl. R: She wouldn't become easily distracted or discouraged? T: No, not easily distracted. She could get easily discouraged because she was into her sullen, sulky mood. I don't know if this was a phase or if it was truly her. She was poor me. R: If you needed to discipline how would she respond? T: Dump on other people. It wouldn't be her fault. R: Did she get into disagreements, arguments, fights?  110  T: Well she and Megan were 12 going on 16 in their looks and in how they wanted to project themselves. People like Casey would be around at their heels all the time bugging them, pressing the right buttons and she had buttons all over her. She could be easily bugged. Everybody was sort of a nerd in her eyes. So yes she could get into fights easily and they were all immature little dorks compared to her in her estimation. These were all very draining kids when I think back. R: If you assigned a task would she work steadily at it? T: Yes, she would and quietly. R: And did she do her work carefully and neatly? T: Yes. R: And do you feel she worked to her potential? T: Yes, I think she did. I remember once we had a myth assignment and we all read them out and presented them and her's was dead like a myth that we'd read and she was put out and outraged that she was accused of plagiarizing. She wasn't the most creative kid. She didn't like tasks that required her to be creative, she liked the more right answer kinds of things. So in that aspect, if you're looking for something like grammar or math where there was one answer she liked that but if it was something where she had to go with it no. She liked to be directed so it depends what area you're talking about there. R: So for the most part she wouldn't take initiative to do her own? T: No, I guess she really didn't have the confidence for it. R: Do you think she worked to her potential?  111  T: In the right answer kind of channel yes, in the take a risk creative area it would be no. R: Did she ever have a propensity to daydream or appear disinterested? T: Constantly, constantly. R: Did she appear lethargic? T: Sloggy. R: So how did you feel she adjusted? T: She was new to Grade 7. She was a bit of a worry because she was so sullen and she got in with Megan and the whole thing was listen to this, you know what my mom did, and woe is me and how bad they had it. It's hard for me to know because I don't know where she came from. She certainly came to school everyday and she did what she was expected to do and she was a bright girl and very good in some areas such as math. I think there were some high expectations on her academically. In certain areas I think she was just as stilted when she left as when she arrived.  112  3f T: A sweetheart. R: How did she get along with her peers? T: Very well, she wouldn't cause any problems. She had a terrible, terrible truancy record when she arrived. There was alot of work done on that to try and get her to school. She didn't want to make waves so she'd rather be a victim than not get along with someone. R: Did she join freely or invite others to join her? T: Well she certainly wouldn't invite others because she was not a leader in any way. No she wouldn't join freely, she would have to be cajoled. R: During work times did she work independently? T: Even if it was erasing the same thing time and time again. Yes, she would look busy. R: And did she do her own work? T: Yes. If you didn't check her she still might be on number one after 20 minutes. Rather than ask for help she'd avoid. R: Did she ever become easily discouraged or not want to work on her own? T: Yes. Math was terrible for her. She hated math and wouldn't even try. She hated getting one to one help on that because she'd had alot of that. R: So she was self-conscious about that? T: Yes.  113  R: If you needed to discipline her would she respond appropriately? T: She'd probably burst into tears. You wouldn't want to have to. You wouldn't have to discipline her. She'd just want to be invisible. R: Did she ever get into fights or arguments at school? T: Only with me about not coming to school. No she'd never get into an argument or disagreement. No. She was Miss Avoider and if I'm not at school I don't have to think about it. R: So getting her own way was not really important to her? T: Not at all. R: If you assigned a task would she work steadily at it? T: Oh yes, she was quiet, hiding behind the hair kind of kid. She might not get off la but she wouldn't bother anyone. R: Did she do her work neatly and carefully? T: No. R: Do you feel she worked to her potential? T: If she was a low average in ability yes. I was happy with some things about her. I was happy that she came to school on a regular basis, that she smiled and showed me her sense of humour by the end of the year and that she sort of lightened up by the end of the year, in those ways yes. Academically she didn't progress tremendously but my philosophy is that if your attitude changes that's more important. If your attitude towards the work changes then your ability will change. She had a tremendous year in that respect.  114  R: Did she ever have a propensity to daydream? T: Yes. R: Was she lethargic? T: Yes. R: So overall your rating of her adjustment to grade 7? T: Well, the fact that she smiled at the end of the year and she had a biting sense of humour. She was dead on with her perceptions of people; she was probably just learning disabled in some way but yeah, I was pleased with her. I think she trusted me more by the end.  115  4f T: We finally came to a bit of a positive leader. R: How did she get along with her peers? T: Tremendously. They all wanted to get along with her. R: And she freely joined with others and invited them to join? T: She did. She was a very positive leader not at all appreciated by her parents but a very positive leader. R: She laughed and smiled a fair bit? T: Oh yes, and brushed her hair and put on make up and made boys swoon as she walked by their desk. R: During work times she would work independently? T: Oh yes, she wanted to do well in all areas of her life. Her looks and her social areas were a tad above her academic, but she wanted to do well. She wanted to be a real all around kid. R: So she never really became easily discouraged or ^ ? T: No. Her big discouragement was that she got C's and C+'s. I remember she was really hurt at one point with her report card because her parents thought that she wasn't working and they wanted her to get A's and B's but she's not an A and B kid. They were always comparing her to her brother and it must have been awful for her. So she didn't get discouraged in school but she sure would outside. R: If you needed to discipline did she respond appropriately? T: Very much so. She could always walk a mile in someone else's shoes and she would always be protective of other  116  people and empathize. I really liked her. R: My sense is that she didn't get into many fights or disagreements? T: She got into alot of solving problems and trying to troubleshoot. R: Could she work steadily at an assignment? T: Oh yes, and she could be a leader. If you gave her some of the integrated kids she would really take care of them. She was really kind. R: She worked neatly and carefully? T: Yes she did. R: Do you feel she worked to her potential? T: Yes I do, I really do. R: And she didn't daydream or appear disinterested? T: Yes she did. She didn't daydream but she looked withdrawn and upset, biting her lip alot of the time. R: Lethargic wouldn't be a word you would use to describe her? T: No, not her. She was more of a worrier. R: Her adjustment overall? T: I think she had a great year. She was like our little student council president.  117  5m R: How did he get along with his peers? T: Not well. He was an outsider . He and Eric were pals. I think he is probably gay too, not that that particular characteristic would interfere with his relationships with any of the other kids but he certainly wasn't as interested in going out. He had different interests and I think the kids felt he was putting up a partition between he and they. Sensitive sweet, really kind, always been picked on and teased but put up a big false front like he didn't care. He and Eric were really good pals. He also had a truancy problem. R: Did he join freely with others or invite others to join him? T: No. R: Did he smile or laugh easily? T: No. R: During work times did he work independently? T: Yes, he could. Bright, very bright boy. R: So in your estimate he could do his own work? T: Not a problem. He could not work well in a group though because he would get frustrated with kids or he certainly did not have alot of cooperative group skills. R: Did he ever become easily discouraged and unable to work on his own? T: No. Work was what he felt good about. R: If you needed to discipline him did he respond  118  appropriately? T: The only discipline I ever had to do with him was getting him to school on time or getting to school period and he'd have lame excuses. R: Did he ever get into fights, disagreements, arguments? T: Yeah, he wouldn't be looking for it but kids didn't like him. Because kids didn't like him he built a shield around himself. If someone said something to him he had a quick retort so he got into fights as far as that goes. R: If he didn't get his own way would he get angry? T: No. R: When you assigned a task would he work steadily at it? T: Oh yes, he could work in any kind of situation. R: Was his work done neatly and carefully? T: Not as neatly and carefully as it could be. It got better as the year went on. R: Do you feel he worked to his potential? T: No. He was a B student but I think he was sort of semigifted. To be honest I don't think he was challenged enough to bring out his potential. His challenge was in the social realm. R: Did he have a propensity to daydream, appear indifferent or disinterested? T: Yes. R: Lethargic?  119  T: Yes. Quite lethargic. R: Overall your rating of his adjustment to Grade 7? T: Well, I think he had a good year. I think he had addressed some issues in his life for instance about not coming to school and I think he felt comfortable with Brent and myself. He really had a pal in Eric. He really got into some projects and was very pleased with himself with them. R: So you feel he adjusted fairly well to Grade 7. T: I think we made progress.  120  6m R: So you're saying 6m was T: How did he get along with his peers? He was very highly visible and attention seeking and a real tease. He could drive some people crazy with his teasing but if you could handle that then you might think he was quite funny. He loved to be the center of attention. His way of relating I would say was to tease kids and that was a turn off for alot. R: Other than the teasing he would laugh fairly easily? T: Too easily, yes he loved too laugh. R: So that was a hamper to his work? T: It could be if he wasn't in a structured situation. R: During work times could he work independently? T: Yes he could. He worked quite well independently once he knew he had no choice about it. He could also work okay in a group as long as the expectations were all laid out. He wasn't the kind of kid that could do well by finding his own partner and going to find a space somewhere. R: So in your estimation he would have a hard time working on his own. If you gave him a task telling him what he had to do T: He could probably organize himself, because he's bright and he did want to do well. He liked to achieve but I didn't find him to be very self motivated or self disciplined. R: Would he become easily discouraged?  121  T: No, I wouldn't say that but he would have to have some input from somebody else to kick start him again. R: So you might have to go over... T: Or he might say "Look I'm stuck, can you help?" and then he could go again but I don't think he could do that just sitting by himself. R: If you needed to discipline him did he respond appropriately? T: Once, he knew yes, once there was a certain tone set in the class. Once he knew the teacher meant business but if he didn't have any respect for you he would carry on. R: Did he ever get in to fights or disagreements? T: Yes, easily. If I remember correctly, alot with the girls. He used to drive the girls crazy because he was such a tease. He wouldn't get into alot of power struggles with other guys, not sort of fist fight on the play ground type of fights but he was a disruptive influence and I would have alot of complaints about him. I do think his heart was in the right place, that was his way of relating. R: If he didn't get his own way would he get angry? T: Yes. R: When assigned a task would he work steadily at it? T: Yes, he was a product oriented kind of guy. He liked that. Once he got rid of the work he would like to play. He needed a structured, quiet classroom. R: Did he do his work fairly neatly?  122  T: Yes. R: And do you think he worked to his potential? T: No, I don't think so. He was a C+, B but he could have done better. R: Did he have a propensity to daydream? T: No, he never sat still long enough. He was more on the hyper, highly visible side. R: He was never lethargic then? T: No. R: So overall Pat, how do you feel that he adjusted to Grade 7? T: I think he was under control but in Grade 8 there would be real concern. He has alot going for him, alot of potential, alot of strengths but it would be to his distinct advantage to channel it into positive endeavors.  123  Appendix D Letter Granting Permission From District  124  S  PREY  SCHOOL DISTRICT 36 SURREY  BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES ^14225 - 56th Avenue, Surrey, B.C. V3W 1H9 • Telephone (604) 596-7733 • Facsimile (604) 597-0191  1992 05 06  Alan Smitton Dept. of Counselling Psychology University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 Dear Alan: This is to advise you that your request to conduct your thesis research project in Dr. F.D. Sinclair school has been endorsed by the Research and Evaluation Department with the understanding that you will seek voluntary teacher involvement and parental consent for the students included. We ask that you complete the enclosed form for your records and that you submit a copy of your thesis after completion of the project. Sincerel  District Principal  Barbara Holmes, Research Associate  Donna Van Sant, Research Associate cc: Graham Cooper, Principal Dr. F.D. Sinclair Elementary  BH/HC:67  125  Appendix E  Letter of Introduction to Parents  SCHOOL DISTRICT 36 SURREY  126  DR. F.D. SINCLAIR ELEMENTARY MR. G. COOPER - PRINCIPAL 596-1537  September 14, 1992  Dear Parents: Enclosed please find a letter introducing Alan Smitton, our school counsellor. As you will note, Mr. Smitton is requesting permission for your son or daughter to participate in a research project. I am writing to inform you that I am aware of his work and support this study. If you have any questions please do not hesitate to contact me. Yours truly,  G. Cooper Principal  127  Appendix F  Letter of Permission for Parents  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  128  Department of Counselling Psychology Faculty of Education 5780 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1L2 Tel: (604) 822-5259 Fax: (604) 822-2328  Dear Parents:  As a counsellor and a graduate student in the department of Counselling Psychology at the University of British Columbia, I am requesting permission for your daughter or son to participate in an activity to collect data for the completion of my thesis titled Thematic Apperception and Achievement Motivation in Children. The activity involves showing the students a picture and having them write a story about that picture. Eight pictures will be shown thus each student will write eight stories. The entire process will take approximately one hour and will be done in class, during the school day. I will collect the stories and they will be scored by myself and my thesis supervisor, Dr. Larry Cochran. It is anticipated that the scoring will allow us to infer the child's level of achievement motivation. The results of the scores will be confidential. Student names will not be used. Students will be assigned a coded number for identification purposes. This writing activity is a part of the school curriculum and is a valuable process for children. If you do not wish your daughter's or son's stories to be used, I will simply discard them after completion. There are no right or wrong ways to write the stories; there are no right or wrong answers. In addition to the childrens' stories, teachers will be asked to complete a short twenty question profile that rates a child's adjustment. I am the only person who will have access to the results of the profile thus ensuring strict confidentiality. References to this data will be coded to ensure anonymity. It is hoped that the results of this pilot project can be packaged and given to teachers to assist them to better understand their students through story writing. If you have any questions or concerns, please feel free to call myself or Mr. Cooper at the school. My faculty supervisor, Dr. Larry Cochran may also be contacted at 882-5259.  129  ^2  Upon completion of my thesis, a copy will be made available to the school for your reference. Thank-you for your support! Yours truly,  Alan Smitton, Counsellor  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  130  Department of Counselling Psychology Faculty of Education 5780 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1L2 Tel: (604) 822-5259 Fax: (604) 822-2328  CONSENT FORM  Please complete this form and have your child return it to their teacher. 1. I give/do not give permission to use my child's stories in the thesis entitled Thematic Apperception and Achievement Motivation in Children. 2. I acknowledge that the teacher will be completing an adjustment rating profile on my child. 3. I have received a copy of this consent form for my own records. Child's Name Parent(s) Name  Parent(s) Signature  


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