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Student self-concept, anxiety, teacher perception, and the referral process in elementary school counselling MacRae, Alister 1992

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STUDENT SELF-CONCEPT, ANXIETY, TEACHER PERCEPTION, ANDTHE REFERRAL PROCESS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL COUNSELLINGbyALISTER MACRAEB.A., The University of Alberta, 1q74A THESIS SUMBITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THEREQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES(Department of Counselling Psychology)We accept this thesis as conformingto the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAAugust, 1992© Alister MacRaeIn presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.Department of Courset h nc Ps c-kt’ 103\/The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate sep+9(gzDE-6 (2/88)11ABSTRACTThe research problem in this study was to discoverwhether or not certain students were being overlooked in thecounselling referral process as it functioned in an urbanelementary school.The correlations between two self—concept measures, twoanxiety measures, and teacher perception of students need forcounselling were examined. A comparison was made betweenstudents perceived as needing counselling and studentsactually receiving counselling. The study also involved anexamination of the male to female ratio with regard toteacher perception of student need for counselling.Two measures of self—concept and two measures of anxietywere administered to 35 intermediate students. The teachersin the five involved classrooms were asked to rate all of theirstudents as to whether or not they needed counselling.Results indicated that there appear to be students who arebeing overlooked in the present counselling referral processwhich is based on teacher perception of student need. Anegative correlation was found to exist between self—conceptand anxiety measures. Male students were disproportionatelyperceived, in each of the five classes, as being in need ofcounselling.iiiTABLE OF CONTENTSPageABSTRACT iiList of Tables vACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vi1. INTRODUCTION 1Statement of the Problem 1Signiricance of the Study 3Hypotheses 3Delimitations, Assumptions 4Definitions 52. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 7The Referral Process 7Seir—concept gAnxiety 13Summary 143. METHOD 16Description of Subjects 16Research Design 1 7Measuring Instruments 18Data Collection Procedures 20Data Analysis 23iv4. RESULTS 25Hypothesis No. 1 25Hypothesis No. 2 35Hypothesis No. 3 27Hypothesis No. 4 29Hypothesis No. 5 29Hypothesis No. 6 33Hypothesis No. 7 345. DISCUSSION 35Interpretation of Results 36Limitations of the Study 41Implications for Future Research 42Conclusion 43REFERENCES 44APPENDICES 49A. Parent! Guardian Contact Letter 50B. Parent/Guardian Consent Form 53C. Teacher Contact Letter 54D. Teacher Consent Form 56VLIST OF TABLESTable Page1. Ratio of Number of Males to Females per Classroom . . . 172. Frequencies and Percentages of Males and Females inTotal and Males and Females Perceived as NeedingCounselling per Classroom 283. Composite Measures Standard Deviation From Mean andNeed Of Counselling in Comparison to TeacherPerceived Need of Counselling 30viACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI would like to thank John Allan for his support, guidance,and enthusiasm throughout the writing of this project. He hasbeen a source of inspiration and served as an invaluableresource in the area of elementary school counselling.I extend great appreciation to Walter Boldt for his patienceand expert assistance in the statistical analysis of theproject.I would like to acknowledge the Vancouver School Boardfor allowing me to conduct the research and the teachers andstudents involved in the study for their consent andcooperation.A special thanks to my family whose constant love, faith,and encouragement have helped me to fuf ill many dreams.1CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTIONThe purpose of this investigation is to explore therelationships between the counselling referral process andstudent self—concept, anxiety, and teacher perception. Thestudy will attempt to show that self—concept, anxietymeasures, and teacher perception ratings can be effectivelyused to identify elementary school students who are in need ofcounselling but not receiving it.Statement of the ProblemAn important issue in elementary schools is the successfulreferral of students to counselling services. Many schoolcounsellors experience increasing work loads with ratiossometimes approaching 700 to 1 (Weinrach, 1 984). Surveyshave indicated that, in a typical classroom, 1 out of every 1 0children suffers from moderate to severe emotional problems(Bower, 1959). The average school counsellor, therefore, hasgreat demands placed on his/her services and may not be ableto meet the counselling needs of all students.Preventative and developmental interventions are efficientmeans of providing counselling service to more students.Administrators view the classroom teacher as best able toprovide this type of counselling as a supplement to individualintervention (Newcomer, 1 980). Although these programs areadequate for the affective development of many students, they2do not address the needs of children with hidden, unique, andpressing concerns (Park & Williams, 1986). Individualcounselling is indicated for these types of children.Students who do not exhibit acting—out or withdrawalbehaviors are less likely to be identified and referred forcounselling. If these individuals are reluctant to discloseinformation about their personal lives, they will probably beobligated to face their anxieties, losses, and conflicts withoutsupport (Park & Williams, 1986).This study seeks to identify these students who tend to beoverlooked in the elementary counselling referral process.The identification will hopefully come about by administeringappropriate standardized measures, examining ratings ofteachers’ perceptions of students’ need for counselling and bycomparing the results of these data to a tabulation of whetheror not these children are actually receiving counselling.The first two instruments measure student self—concept.The individual’s self—perception affects hi s/her attitudetoward school (Padwel, 1984) and the ability to get along withpeers (Zeichner, 1 978). Battle (1 987) found significantcorrelation between depression and self—concept of studentsin fourth through ninth grades.The second two instruments measure student anxiety. Onefactor that negatively affects self—concept is anxiety(Cowles, 1984). In relation to children in fourth through sixthgrades, Sousa (1 981) found significantly negative correlationsabetween measures of self—concept and anxiety. Students inthis study will therefore be viewed as needing counselling ifthey score low in self-concept and high in anxiety measures.Significance of the StudyThis study is relevant in that it attempts to demonstratethat there are students who are overlooked in the counsellingreferral process, as it presently functions. An improvement inthe counselling process is implied by the identification ofthese students through the use of self-concept, anxietymeasures, and teacher perception ratings.HyDotheses1. That there is a negative relationship between thetwomeasures of self-concept and two measures of anxiety.2. That canonical correlation analysis of the results of theadminstration of the measures of self-concept and anxietycan be used to create new weighted linear compositeswhich are statistically significant.3. That the males in each classroom are disproportionatelyperceived as being in need of counselling.4. That there are students who score one—half to twostandard deviations below the mean in the self-concept andanxiety composite scales (indicating a moderate to highneed of counselling) but are not perceived by their teacheras needing counselling.45. That there are students who score less than one-halfstandard deviation below the mean to two standarddeviations above the mean in the self—concept and anxietycomposite scales (indicating a low need of counselling) butare, nonetheless, perceived by their teacher as needingcounselling.6. That most students perceived by their teachers as needingcounselling are receiving or have received counselling overthe past school year.7. That there are students who are receiving counselling butare not perceived by their teacher as being in need ofcounselling.Delimitations. AssumDtionsThe study was conducted with boys and girls, in grades fourto seven only. The students in these grades were selected asthe reading level for both self—concept and anxiety measuresare appropriate for this age range. The majority of studies inthe literature involved subjects within these grades. The fourclassrooms are part of a moderately—sized “inner—city” school.It is assumed that students who score one-half to onestandard deviation below the mean in both the self-conceptand anxiety composite scales are in moderate need ofcounselling. Those who score less than one—half standarddeviation below the mean on one of the two composite scalesand more than one standard deviation below the mean on theother composite scale are also assumed to be in moderate needof counselling.Students who score more than one standard deviationbelow the mean in one of the composite scales and one—half ormore standard deviations below the mean on the othercomposite scale are assumed to be in high need of counselling.Piers and Harris (1 984) indicate that “by convention, adeviation of one standard deviation unit or more below themean should be regarded as a serious indicator of low self-concept” (p.37).Those who score less than one-half standard deviationbelow the mean to two standard deviations above the mean inthe self—concept and anxiety composite scales are consideredto be in low need or counselling. Those who score less thanone—half standard deviation below the mean on one of thecomposite scales and one-half to one standard deviation belowthe mean on the other composite scale are also considered tobe in low need of counselling.DefinitionsSelf-conceptShaffer (1985) defines self concept as “on&s sense ofoneself as a separate individual who possesses a unique set ofcharacteristics” (p. 469).6Trait AnxietyTrait anxiety is considered to be “general anxiety; the inbornpredispositon to be easily upset’ (Matthews & Odin, 1989, p.158).State AnxietyState anxiety is “situational, with the degree of anxiety beingdependent on the perceptions of a person regarding a givenoccurrence” (Matthews & Odin, 1 989, p. 158).7CHAPTER 2REVIEW OF THE LITERATUREThis chapter reviews the literature relevant to the presentstudy. The sections included deal with the referral process,self—concept, and anxiety. The review concludes with asummary of the literature.The Referral ProcessStudies dealing with referral to counselling focusprimarily on how the referral process can be made moreeffective. This implies that there is a need for improvement inthis process. Researchers recommend that referrals be madein a systematic, collaborative manner.Downing (1 85) states that the referral process isnegatively affected by limited counsellor time. Schooldistrict budget cost—saving measures often bring about areduction in counselling services. It is therefore oftennecessary for the school counsellor to refer clients to outsideagencies. Appointments to these agencies are not always keptand there is often a lack of effective communication betweenagencies. Unsuccessful referrals waste school resources.In order to make effective referrals, Downing (1 985)suggests that counsellors need to establish inventories ofreferral sources, both inside and outside the school. Theyshould be aware of their own attitudes about referral and bewilling to work with their clients as teammates in looking forpossible solutions.8Cooney (1 985) states that the referral process needs to besystematic and formalized in order to lessen the likelihood ofchildren being overlooked or referred capriciously. Asystematic referral process involves collaboration among theadults concerned about the child. She states that mostelementary students who partake in counselling are referredby a teacher, parent, or both. The referral procedure needs tobe brief and uncomplicated and involve on-going counsellor-teacher conferencing, counsellor classroom observations ofthe child, and written parental consent.School counsellors’ academic preparation rarely includesthe provision of information or training about the referralprocess (Weinrach, 1984). Bobele and Conran (1988) posit thatthis lack of training contributes to referrals being done in anunsuccessful manner. They view referral as a very importantcomponent in the role of the school counsellor. Weeklycommunication between the counsellor and the referral sourceis suggested as the counsellor is considered to be in theposition to evaluate the on—going effects of therapy.Drabman, Tarnowski, and Kelly (1987) found that youngerchildren and boys in a classroom were disproportionatelyreferred for child psychology clinic services. A replicationand extension of this study was conducted by Tarnowski,Drabman, Anderson, and Kelly (1990). Their sample consistedof 222 children referred to school psychology consultationservices. The mean age of the children was 8.34 and they9ranged from kindergarten to grade 8 placement. Resultsindicated that significantly more of the younger children ineach class (i.e., those born in July, August, and September)were referred for service (x2 (3,tj = 222) = 11 .Q6,.<.O25).Approximately twice as many boys as girls were referred forservices (x2 (1 ,ii = 222) = 1 6.91 ,R<.OO 1). The referral patternremained constant across every grade and could not beexplained by the childrens competencies. The youngestchildren who were referred had the lowest rate ofqualification for special services. The authors suggest thatteacher bias may account for these results.Self—conceptMuch has been written regarding the influences of self—concept and anxiety in counselling but the literature is seldomdirectly related to the referral process. “At risk’ students(those who come from dysfunctional homes, have low socioeconomic status, are underachievers, and/or grade repeaters)tend to have more negative self—concepts; making thisattribute one which interferes with the development of apositive image of primary concern to the school counsellor(Matthews, 1 988).Schappi (1 985) found that students in elementary schoolswho were experiencing stress could change their perceptionsof school and self through counsellor—led guidance. Ziegler,Scott, and Taylor (1 991) based their research on this previous10study and examined 20 fifth—grade girls enrolled in a giftedprogram; of which 10 girls were identified by their teachersas experiencing stress. The subjects were randomly assignedto control or structured counsellor—led intervention groups.The treated students’ mean for personal self—concept wassignificantly higher at post—test CE = 7.79,p.<.0l) incomparison to pre-test CE. = 1.02). Teachers also perceived adecrease in acting out behavior and an increase in complianceto school rules for the treated group. The study is limited bythe very small sample size and the fact that only gifted girlsof one age group were examined. Additional research isindicated in order to discover if these results wouldgeneralize to a more heterogeneous group of both sexes andvarying age ranges.The child’s peer group plays a crucial role in his/her socialadjustment and development of self—concept CSchmuck &Schmuck, 1 971). Sorsdahl and Sanche (1985) investigated theeffects of classroom meetings on children’s self—concepts.The study involved 91 fourth graders in four intact classes. Allsubjects completed the Piers—Harris Children’s Self—ConceptScale and were rated by their teachers on a classroom meetingself—concept scale developed for the study. Two classesserved as experimental groups and participated in generaldiscussion and problem—solving classroom meetings, twice aweek for 20 weeks. There was no significant difference in theexperimental and control groups on post—test Piers—Harrisi:i.self—concept scores. The experimental group did, however,show significant improvement on pretest to posttest for theclassroom meeting self—concept scale developed for the study.These results are limited by the lack of age range of thesubjects involved and by the fact that no information wasprovided regarding the reliability and validity of the createdclassroom meeting self—concept scale.Shulman and Klein (1983) examined 33 families withadolescents, ages 1 2 to 1 8, who were referred topsychotherapy. They sought to explore family dynamics inorder to discover why these particular adolescents werereferred. Families were sorted into two categories: thedistance—sensitive who demonstrate control, lack ofdependence, and unwillingness to accept others’ opinions andthe consensus—sensitive who work cooperatively againstperceived threats, are sensitive to the opinions of others, andmaintain only superficial relationships with others outsidethe family. Both categories are considered to revealpathological systems. The Tennessee Self-Concept Scale wasused to measure the referred adolescents’ self-concept.Results indicate that in distance—sensitive families thereferred adolescent has a lower self-concept than siblingswho are not referred. No such difference exists, however,between referred adolescents and their siblings in consensussensitive families. Although these results are considered tobe significant for distance—sensitive families, specific12statistical representation is lacking in this study. Findingsobtained for consensus—sensitive families are on theborderline or signil’lcance thus necessitating further researchin this area.Boys tend to be referred for mental health servicesmuch more frequently than girls (Tarnowski et al., 1990). Thisphenomenon is attributed to learning and behavioral problemsexhibited in elementary school (Achenbach, 1982). Therelationship between school adjustment and the extent towhich selr—concepts relates to stereotypic gender roles wasstudied by Silvern and Katz (1986). Subjects included 60mainstream boys, 29 special—class boys, and 70 mainstreamgirls. More stereotypic self—concepts for boys wereassociated with high levels of externalizing behaviors.Stereotypy for girls was associated with high levels ofinternalizing. The argument that the masculine role isassociated with poor school adjustment is supported by thefinding that a significant relationships exists betweenteacher ratings of externalized symptomatology and scoresfrom the gender—role scales: Bipolar Adjective Measure, andChildren’s Personal Attitudes Questionnaire, Stereotypicallymasculine boys tend to exhibit conduct disorders and are morelikely to be referred to counselling than stereotypicallyremlnine girls who are high internalizers. There is, therefore,a need to further explore whether children who internalize areoverlooked in the referral process.13AnxietyTeachers most frequently recognize students who display“nervous behavior and personality dynamics” as those studentswith learning or behavioral difficulties (Lambert, 1 Q86).Ysseldyke (1 83) found that teachers tend to refer studentswho engage in behaviors which are disturbing to them. tt istherefore relevant to examine teachers’ perceptions of theirstudents’ emotional status in relationship to the referralprocess. Argulewicz and Miller(1c85) sought to explore therelationship between teachers’ perceptions of their students’anxiety and students’ self reported anxiety. Students in livefirst—grade classes (=7) from a large suburban schooldistrict in the southwestern United States participated in thestudy. Subjects were administered two self-report measures:the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale and theChildren’s Anxiety Scale. The results indicated significantcoefficients for two of the five classrooms studied, withcorrelations approaching significance for a third classroom(t.=.53,p.<.03). The authors conclude that there are studentswho report feelings of anxiety who may not be identified bytheir teachers as having serious problems. They caution thatanxiety left unidentified and untreated could lead to academicdifficulties, physical ailments, substance abuse, and in moreextreme cases, possible suicides or homicides.14Studies involving children in fourth through eighth gradesrevealed significant negative relationships between self—concept and measures of trait anxiety (Cow les, 1 984) andstate anxiety (Lewis & Adank, 1975). Damon (1983) statesthat low self—concept has an association with anxiety,depression, and maladjustment. Matthews and Odin (1989)sought to further investigate the relationship between anxietyand self—esteem by studying a group of 53 sixth and seventhgrade students. The State—Trait Anxiety Inventory for Childrenand the Coopersmlth Self—Esteem Inventory were administeredto all subjects. The results revealed significantrelationships between state anxiety and total self—conceptscores (= -.36,<.O5). All coefficients were negative,indicating that high levels of self-concept were associatedwith low levels of anxiety, both state and trait. The authorssuggest that counsellors use this information when workingwith at risk students and that they inform teachers about thesocic—emotional implications of the relationship betweenanxiety and self-esteem.SummaryImprovements need to be made in the referral process.Referrals should be made in a systematic, formalized mannerand involve consultation with parents, teachers, andcounsellors. Teacher bias may account for the fact that themale students in classrooms tend to be disproportionatelyreferred to counselling.isAt risk students tend to have low self—concepts whichnegatively affect their development in school. Self—conceptcan be improved through counsellor—led intervention groupsand classroom meetings. Referred adolescents from “distancesensitive” families, on the whole, have lower self—conceptsthan their non—referred siblings. The literature appears toindicate that individuals with low self—concepts tend to be inneed of counselling.Students who display behaviors which are disturbing toteachers are usually those who are referred to counselling.There are students who report a high degree of anxiety (asindicated in anxiety measures) but are, nonetheless, notperceived by teachers as needing counselling. This suggeststhat the use of standardized measures may be userul inidentifying those students who are in need of counselling buthave been overlooked through the teacher referral process.There appears to be a negative relationship between measuresof self—concept and state and trait anxiety. Counsellors needto inform teachers about this relationship in order to helpthem better understand the social—emotional needs of at riskstudents,16CHAPTER 3METHODThis chapter describes the research procedures in fivesections: description of subjects, research design, measuringinstruments, data collection procedures, and data analysis.SubjectsThe study involved students attending an “inner city”elementary school in the Vancouver area. A “First Nations”cultural program for Native Indian children was an integralpart of this school. A counsellor and child care worker werepart of the First Nations’ staff. The other children in theschool also had access to an area counsellor and second childcare worker. There was therefore a greater provision ofcounselling services in this school in comparison to mostelementary schools in the district.All intermediate students (grades four through seven) wereused for the tabulation of teachers’ perception for need ofcounselling and whether or not students received counselling.A total of 1 12 students were taken into consideration. Theratio of males to females per classroom is found in Table 1.19 out of the above 112 students were of Native Indian racialorigin.A total of 35 students served as subjects in theadministration of the self—concept and anxiety measures.These students were part of five intact classrooms: gradesfour, four/five (split), five, six, and six/seven (split). 2 out of17the above 35 students were of Native Indian racial origin.AH students came from mainstream classrooms and ranged inacademic ability from below to above average.Table 1Ratio of Number of Males to Females er ClassroomClassroom Males FemalesA 10 138 11 gC 10 12D 5 16E 15 11Total 51 61Research DesignAs the study explored the relationship between more thanthree variables, a multivariate correlational research designwas used. The analytic technique was a canonical correlationin which a combination of several predictor variables wasexamined to predict a combination of several criterionvariables. This method was similar to multivariate analysisof variance but, because two or more variables are includedsimultaneously, differences on one or more canonical variateswere considered rather than differences between means on a18single variable. This analysis was done by using T scores ofthe four measures for the 35 students involved. These scoreswere entered into the University of British Columbia BMDPcanonical analysis computer program. The results of thisanalysis is discussed in the next chapter.The design involved four dependent variables: the twomeasures of self—concept and the two measures of anxiety.The three independent variables included: whether or notstudent is receiving counselling, teachers’ perceptions ofstudent need for counselling, and the sex of those studentsperceived by teachers as needing counselling.Measuring InstrumentsThe first measure of self—concept was the Piers—HarrisChildren’s Self—Concept Scale (Piers & Harris, 1Q84). It is aself—report inventory, consists of 80, first—person declarativestatements, and is intended for use with students in grades 4through 12. The instrument is highly reliable with test—retestreliability averaging .73 and internal consistency ranging from.88 to .93 on the total score. Empirical studies on the content,criterion—related, and construct validity reveal acceptablestandards.The second measure of self-concept was the Coopersmith SelfEsteem Inventory (Coopersmith, 1981). It is a standardizedself—report instrument, appropriate for students aged 8through 1 5. The measure consists of 58 short statementswhich respondents classify as:”llke me” or “unlike me.”19Internal consistency, split—half and test—retest reliability arevery high and the construct validity is impressive (Kokenes,1978). Internal consistency co—efficients, by KR 20, rangedfor .87 to .92 for grades 4 to 8. Split-half reliability was .87for 1 04 students in grades 5 and 6.The first measure of anxiety was the Revised Children’sManifest Anxiety Scale (Reynolds & Richmond, 1 985) which isa 37—item self report instrument. It is intended for use withstudents between the ages of 6 and 19. Reliability estimatesof internal consistency for the total anxiety score range from.79 to .85. Test-retest reliabilities are excellent over a 3—week period (.98) and reasonable over a nine—month period(.68). In terms of construct validity, this measure correlatessignificantly with the Trait scale of the State—Trait AnxietyInventory for Children (.85) but not the State scale (24).The second measure of anxiety was the State—Trait AnxietyInventory for Children (Spielberger, 1973). It is a 40-itemself—administered scale with 20 items measuring stateanxiety and 20 items measuring trait anxiety. This instrumentis a downward extension of the State—Trait Anxiety Inventoryand was designed for use with students in elementary schools.The alpha reliability internal consistency coefficients rangefrom .78 to .87. Test—retest reliability coefficients for traitanxiety are .65 for males and .71 for females, coefficients forstate anxiety are low at .31 for males and .47 for females.There is only moderate evidence for the construct validity of20the state scale. Concurrent validity of the Trait scale isindicated by a high correlation with the Revised Children’sManifest Anxiety Scale (.85). As test—retest reliability is lowand construct validity is moderate for the state anxiety scale,this study limited itself to the use of the trait anxiety scaleonly.Data Collection ProceduresWritten permission to conduct the study was received fromboth the University of British Columbia Behavioural SciencesScreening Committee for Research and the StudentAssessment and Research department of the Vancouver SchoolBoard. Parental consent forms were collected prior to theadministration of any measures.Teachers, in the five involved classes, were informed aboutthe study and teacher consent forms were also collected. Theteachers were asked to rate each of their students as towhether or not they need counselling. They were requested togive a rationale for their selection of the particular studentschosen as needing counselling.Only those students whose parents or guardians providedwritten consent participated in the completion of the self—concept and anxiety measures. The Piers—Harris Children’sSelf-Concept Scale and the Revised Children’s ManifestAnxiety Scale were adminstered in the first session. Theteachers felt that 30 minutes may be a maximum time for thecompletion of such measures by younger intermediate studentsand both scales took approximately 25 minutes to administer.The 35 students from all five classrooms involved completedthe measures together in one common location. Two days laterthe Coopersmlth Self—Esteem Inventory and the State—TraitAnxiety Inventory for Children were administered in the samemanner. Every attempt was made to carefully follow theinstructions for administration as laid out by the manuals ofeach measure.The results of the canonical correlation between two self-concept and two anxiety measures were tabulated. Weightedlinear composite scales of the two constructs: self—conceptand anxiety, created by the canonical analysis, were thenexamined for each subject.Those students who scored one-half to one standarddeviation below the mean in both the self-concept and anxietycomposite scales were considered to be in moderate need ofcounselling. Those who scored less than one-half standarddeviation below the mean on one of the two composite scalesand more than one standard deviation below the mean on theother composite scale were also assumed to be in moderateneed of counselling.Students who scored more than one standard deviationbelow the mean in one of the composite scales and one—half ormore standard deviations below the mean on the othercomposite scale were assumed to be in high need ofcounselling.22Those students who scored less than one—half standarddeviation below the mean to two standard deviations above themean in the self—concept and anxiety composite scales wereconsidered to be in low need of counselling. Those who scoredless than one—half standard deviation below the mean on oneof the composite scales and one-half to one standard deviationbelow the mean on the other composite scale were alsoconsidered to be in low need of counselling.The relationship between teacher’s perception of students’need for counselling and the students’ sex was tabulated next.Comparisons were made between the number of males andfemales needing counselling and the total number or males andfemales in each classroom. This tabulation relates tohypothesis *3The relationship comparing students’ need for counselling[from the canonical variate composite scales] with teachers’perceptions of need for counselling were then be presented.This tabulation relates to hypotheses #4 and 5.Correlations were tabulated between students’ need forcounselling [from the canonical variate composite scales] andthose students actually receiving counselling (relating tohypothesis #6 and #7)• Students were categorized as“receiving counselling” if they were working with a counsellorduring the period of the study or had received counselling,individually or in a group) sometime during the present schoolyear (i.e. since September, 1 991). For those students who23were tabulated as receiving counselling but not perceived bytheir teachers as needing counselling, the particularcounsellors involved were asked to provide the source of andreason for the student referral,Data AnalysisResults of the two self—concept measures and two anxietymeasures were analyzed by a canonical correlationaltechnique. Canonical variates represent constructs and areartificial variables generated from the data, similar tofactors in factor analysis. They are described in terms of thedependent variables through loadings: correlation coefficientsbetween a canonical variate and the dependent variables. Highscores on the dependent variable relate to high scores on thecanonical variate and would indicate that a loading betweenthe two is high and positive.The correlation (R2c) between an x—set and a y—set wasexamined. The x-set consisted of the variables resulting fromthe scores of the two self—concept measures. The y—setconsisted of the variables resulting from the scores of thetwo anxiety measures. High and positive loadings of the x—setand y—set variables would represent the new constructs: x*and y*, respectively.Frequency counts and percentages were used to analyze thecomparison of the numbers of males to females in each classto the numbers of males and females in each class perceived24as needing counselling. Frequency counts and percentageswere also reported to indicate the number of students whowere:1. in moderate to high need of counselling but not perceivedby their teachers as needing counselling in comparison tothe total number of students who completed the measures.2. in low need of counselling but were perceived by theirteachers as needing counselling in comparison to the totalnumber ofstudents who completed the measures.3. perceived by their teachers as needing counselling andwho were receiving or had received counselling over thepast school year in comparison to the total number ofstudents in the intermediate classes.4. receivIng or had received counselling over the past schoolbut were not perceived by their teacher as being in need ofcounselling in comparison to the total number of studentsin the intermediate classes.25CHAPTER 4RESULTSThis chapter provides a description of the researchfindings. These findings are reported in relationship to eachhypothesis.Hypothesis No. 1That there was a negative relationship between the twomeasures of self—concept and two measures of anxiety.The following results confirm the first hypothesis. Fromthe intercorrelation of the canonical analysis, it appears thatthere is a relationship of -.325 between self—concept measure:Al (Piers—Harris Childrens Self—Concept Scale) and anxietymeasure: 51( Revised Childrens Manifest Anxiety Scale). Therelationship between self—concept measure: Al and anxietymeasure: B2 (State—Trait Anxiety )nventory for Children)appears to be —.258. Evidence seems to indicate a relationshipof —.446 between self—concept measure: A2 (Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory) and anxiety measure: Bi. There appears tobe a relationship of —.470 between self—concept measure: A2and anxiety measure: B2.HyDothesis No. 2That canonical correlation analysis of the results of theadminstration of the measures of self—concept and anxietycould be used to create new weighted linear composites whichare statistically significant.26The following results partially confirm the secondhypothesis. The canonical analysis appeared to indicate thatthe two constructs: self—concept and anxiety wereinterrelated. These results support that 27% or the varianceof self—concept is accounted for by anxiety.The possibility of there being two dimensions underlyingthe two sets of variables was tested. The first dimensionappeared to indicate a maximum correlation of .52 which isstatisically significant (x2 = 10.33, 4L, Q<.OS). The seconddimension was not statistically significant at the .05 level.The first dimension created two weighted linear compositeswhich were significant at the .05 level: CNVR El and CNVR Si.The first linear composite: CNVR Fl is made up of the self-concept measures: Al and A2. The second linear composite:CNVR Si is made up of the anxiety measures: 51 and 82.The self-concept measure: Al correlated with the weightedlinear composite: CNVR Fl with a loading of .6 19. The self-concept measure: A2 correlated with the weighted linearcomposite: CNVR Fl with a loading of .994. These resultsappear to indicate that the self—concept measure: A2 is verystrongly a part of the first linear composite: CNVR Fl.The anxiety measure: Bi correlated with the weightedlinear composite: CNVR Si with a loading of .852. The anxietymeasure: B2 correlated with the weighted linear composite:CNVR Si with a loading of .922. It seems that both anxietymeasures: 81 and 52 play almost an equally strong part in the27composition of the second linear composite: CNVR Si.Standard deviation scores from the mean of the newly createdlinear composites were used to decide whether each of thesubjects were in low, moderate, or high need of counselling.Hypothesis No. 3That the males in each classroom weredisproportionately perceived as being in need of counselling.The following results confirm the third hypothesis. Asshown in table 2, each classroom had a higher percentage ofmales perceived as needing counselling: 40, 45, 30, 100, and33 as opposed to females perceived as needing counselling:8, 5, 25, 44, and 1 8%, respectively.28Table 2Frequencies and Percentages of Males and Females in Total andMales and Females Perceived as Needing Counselling PerClassroomTotal % of Frequency of % of TotalFrequency Total Those Perceived Number ofas Needing Males orCounselling FemalesClassroomA Males 10 44 4 40Females 13 56 1 8B Males 11 55 5 45Females 9 45 1 5C Males 10 45 3 30Females 12 55 3 25D Males 5 24 5 100Females 16 76 7 44E Males 15 58 5 33Females 11 42 2 18Total Males 51 45 22 61Females 61 55 14 3929Hypothesis No. 4That there were students who scored one—half to twostandard deviations below the mean in the self—concept andanxiety composite scales (indicating a moderate to high needof counselling) but were not perceived by their teacher asneeding counselling.The following results confirm the fourth hypothesis, Ascan be established from Table 3, 6 subjects out of 35indicated a moderate to high need for counselling (according tothe composite measures of self—concept and anxiety) but thisneed was not recognized by their classroom teachers. Thisrepresents 17 of the total sample. This finding implies thatthese students are in need of counselling but have beenoverlooked by the traditional referral process. These subjectsare indicated by the single asterisk: * in Table 3.Hypothesis No. 5That there were students who scored less than one—halfstandard deviation below the mean to two standard deviationsabove the mean in the self—concept and anxiety compositescales (indicating a low need of counselling) but were,nonetheless, perceived by their teacher as needing counselling.The following results confirm the fifth hypothesis. Asshown in table 3, 3 out of 35 subjects indicated a low need ofcounselling but were perceived by their teachers, nonetheless,as needing counselling. This represents nine percent of thetotal sample. These subjects are indicated by the double30asterisk: ** in Table 3. This finding implies thatadministering self—concept and anxiety measures is not theonly effective means of identifying students’ need forcounselling.Table 3Composite Measures’ Standard Deviation From Mean and Need ofCounselling in Comoarison To Teacher Perceived Need ofCounsellingSD from X SD from X Need of Teacher(Self-Concept (Anxiety Cn.(from PerceivedComposite: Composite: preceding Need ofSubject CNVR Fl) CNVR Si) Composites) Cn.1 —1.39 -1.38 high yes2 +0.29 +1.29 low no3 -0.08 -0.05 low no4 -1.04 -0.75 high no *5 -0.54 +1.14 low no6 -0.27 -0.82 low no7 +0.01 -1.33 moderate no *8 +0.51 +1.64 low no9 -0.08 -0.32 low no10 -0.80 -1.23 high no *11 +0.96 -0.53 low no12 +0.91 -0,74 low no31Table 3 (continued)ComDosite Measures Standard Deviation From Mean and Need ofCounselling in ComDarlson To Teacher Perceived Need of CounsellingSD from X SD from X Need of Teacher(Self-Concept (Anxiety Cn.(from PerceivedComposite: Composite: preceding Need ofSubject CNVR F 1) CNVR Si) Composites) Cn,13 +0.01 +0.15 low no14 +105 +0.78 low no15 +0.43 -0.68 low no16 +043 -0.68 low no17 +1.40 +0.62 low no18 +058 +085 low yes**19 -0.64 -0.95 moderate yes20 -0.63 -2.36 high no *21 -0.90 +0.47 low no22 +1.42 +0,88 low no23 -1.09 -1.69 high no24 -2.19 -0.82 high yes25 +0.27 low no26 -0.90 —0.09 low no27 +0.81 +0.53 low no28 +1.09 +181 low no29 -2.27 +0,09 moderate no *32Table 3 (continued)ComDosite Measures’ Standard Deviation From Mean and Need ofCounselling in Comoarison To Teacher Perceived Need ofCounsellingSD from X SD from X Need or Teacher(Self-Concept (Anxiety Cn.(from PerceivedComposite: Composite: preceding Need ofSubject CNVR F 1) CNVR Si) Composites) Cn,30 -0.13 -0.34 low no31 -0.88 +0.47 low no32 +0.98 +0.95 low no33 -0.31 +0.37 low yes **34 -0,20 -0.42 low yes **35 +1.45 +1.55 low noNote. SD = standard deviation; X = mean; CNVR = canonicalvariate; Cn. = counselling.*= in moderate or high need of counselling, according tocomposite measures, but not perceived by teachers as needingcounselling.**= in low need of counselling, according to compositemeasures, but are, nonetheless, perceived by teachers asneeding counselling.33HyDothesls No. 6That most students perceived by their teachers as needingcounselling were receiving or had received counselling overthe past school year.The rollowing results conIirrn the sixth hypothesis. Ofthe 11 2 students in the intermediate grades, 36 wereconsidered as receiving or having received counselling overthe past school year (i.e. since September, 1QQ1). This makesup 32% of the total Intermediate population. 36 students werealso perceived by their teachers as needing counselling. Thesestudents were not necessarily the same students as those whohad received counselling over the school year. Of these 36students, 30 had received counselling over the school year.This means that 83% or those students deemed as needingcounselling actually received counselling. A total or 6students, therefore, out or a possible 36 were perceived, bytheir teachers, as needing counselling but had received nocounselling. This means that 17% or those students deemedas needing counselling did not receive counselling over theschool year.34HyDothesis No. 7That there were students who were receiving counsellingbut were not perceived by their teacher as being in need ofcounselling.The following results confirm the seventh hypothesis. Ofthe 36 students receiving counselling, 6 students were notperceived by their teachers as needing counselling. Thisrepresents 17% of all intermediate students receivingcounselling.35CHAPTER 5DISCUSSIONThis final chapter involves a discussion of the researchfindings. t includes a summary, interpretation of results,limitations of the study, implications for future research, anda conclusion.The research problem in this study was to discoverwhether or not certain students were being overlooked in thecounselling referral process as it functioned in an urbanelementary school.The correlations between two self—concept measures, twoanxiety measures, and teacher perception of students’ need forcounselling were examined. A comparison was made betweenstudents perceived as needing counselling and studentsactually receiving counselling. The study also involved anexamination of the male to female ratio with regard toteacher perception of student need for counselling.The measures: Piers—Harris Children’s Self—Concept Scale,Coopersmith Self—Esteem Inventory, Revised Children’sManifest Anxiety Scale, and State—Trait Anxiety Inventory forChildren were administered to 35 intermediate studentswhose parents/guardians provided consent. The teachers inthe five involved classrooms were asked to rate all of theirstudents as to whether or not they needed counselling. Fourmembers of the school personnel who offer counselling36services were asked to provide a comprehensive list of all thestudents they had counselled since September, 1991 and? orthe students they were presently counselling.Interoretation of ResultsThe results appear to indicate that:1. There was a negative relationship between the twomeasures of self—concept and two measures of anxiety.The finding of negative correlations between each of thetwo self-concept measures and the two anxiety measuressupports previous research. Cowles (1 984) study involvingchildren in fourth through eighth grades revealed asignificantly negative relationships between self-concept andmeasures of trait anxiety. This finding appears to indicatethat as self—concept decreases, anxiety increases and,conversely, as self—concept increases, anxiety decreases. TheMatthews and Odin (1989) study indicated that high levels ofself-concept were associated with low levels of anxiety, bothstate and trait. As was suggested in the Matthews and Odin(1989) study, counsellors need to inform teachers about thisnegative relationship between self—concept and anxiety.Although the relationship between self—concept and anxietyis primarily negative, there appears to be some commonalitybetween the two constructs. The results of this study supportthat 27% of the variance of self-concept can be accounted for37by anxiety. This appears to indicate that the two constructsare not mutually exclusive and that some degree of anxietymight be healthy.2. Canonical correlation analysis of the results of theadminstration of the measures of self—concept and anxietycould be used to create new weighted linear compositeswhich are statistically significant.Canonical correlational analysis could be used to createtwo linear composites which were statistically significant atthe .05 level, The first linear composite: CNVR Ft was mademostly of of the self-concept measure: the Coopersmith Self—Esteem Inventory. This favoring of one self—concept measuresover another may indicate a need to further examine empiricalstudies on the validity and reliability of the Piers—HarrisChildren’s Self—Concept Scale. The second linear composite:CNVR SI was made up, almost equally, of the two anxietymeasures: the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale andthe State—Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. Bothmeasures, therefore, played an equally important part increating the second linear composite. This may indicate thatthe two anxiety scales measure more closely the construct ofanxiety than the two self—concept scales measure theconstruct of self—concept. The two newly created linearcomposites were useful in determining whether students inthe study were in low, moderate, or high need of counselling.383. The males in each classroom were disproportionatelyperceived as being in need of counselling.A greater percentage of males in each of the fiveclassrooms were perceived by their teachers as needingcounselling. This finding supports the Drabman et al. (1987)and the Tarnowski et al. (1 990) studies which indicate thatboys tend to be referred for mental health services much morefrequently than girls. Teacher bias may account for thisdisproportionate referral pattern. Ysseldykes (1983) findingthat teachers tend to refer students who engage in behaviorswhich are disturbing to them may have some influence on thegreater proportion of male referrals to counselling. It may bethat male students are more disturbing to teachers and are,hence, perceived as needing counselling more frequently thanless disruptive females.4. There were students who scored one—half to twostandard deviations below the mean In the self-concept andanxiety composite scales (indicating a moderate to highneed of counselling) but were not perceived by theirteacher as needing counselling.39There were 6 out of a total of 35 subjects (1 7%) whoscored one-half to two standard deviations below the mean inthe self—concept and anxiety composite scales (indicating amoderate to high need of counselling) but were not perceivedby their teacher as needing counselling. If we accept thehypothesis that scoring at least one-half standard deviationbelow the mean on the self—concept and anxiety compositescales indicates a moderate to high need for counselling, asthis study suggests, then these six students can be viewed asbeing overlooked in the counselling referral process. Thisprocess, as it functioned at the time of the study, wasprimarily a result of the classroom teachers perception forstudents need for counselling.5. There were students who scored less than one—halfstandard deviation below the mean to two standarddeviations above the mean in the self—concept and anxietycomposite scales (indicating a low need of counselling) butwere, nonetheless, perceived by their teacher as needingcounselling.Three subjects out of a total of 35 (nine percent) scoredless than one—half standard deviation below the mean to twostandard deviations above the mean in the self—concept andanxiety composite scales (indicating a low need ofcounselling) but were, nonetheless, perceived by their teacheras needing counselling. This suggests that it is possible for astudent to still need counselling although this need is not40revealed by self-concept and anxiety measures. These datasuggest that the more effective way to identify students’ needfor counselling is to use teacher perception information intandem with results from self—concept and anxiety measures.6. Most students perceived by their teachers as needingcounselling were receiving or had received counselling overthe past school year.Eighty—three percent of the total intermediate ‘populationof students who teachers perceived as needing counsellinghad actually received counselling sometime over the presentschool year (i.e. since September, 1991). This appears toindicate that teacher referral is a highly effective means ofhaving students’ counselling needs met. It must be noted herethat the school involved in this study is exceptional in that atotal of four professionals provide counselling service. Inmany similar elementary schools, only one person would beavailable to provide counselling service. Despite the fact thecounselling services are plentiful in this school, 17% of thetotal intermediate population were deemed as needingcounselling but had not received counselling over the schoolyear. This implies a need for improvement in the counsellingreferral process.7. There were students who were receiving counselling butwere not perceived by their teacher as being in need ofcounselling.Seventeen percent of the intermediate students whoreceived counselling were not perceived by their teachers asneeding counselling. This phenomenon was explored by askingeach of the significant counsellors why each of these clientshad received counselling and who had referred these clientsto counselling. Reasons for counselling referral included: self—disclosure for sexual abuse, peer conflicts, and dysfuntionalhome setting. The counsellors viewed everyone of theseclients as being in need of counselling. Referral sources, forthese cases, included: parent, last year’s teacher, counsellor,and the client, him or herself. This Information indicatesthat the present school year’s teacher is not the only sourcefor counselling referral.Limitations of the StudyThis study is limited by the fact that an elementary schoolwith such a wealth of counselling services was used. A FirstNations cultural and educational program functions as anIntegral part of this school. The focus of this program is tomeet the needs of the Native Canadian students in the school.This program includes a full-time counsellor and a full—timechild care worker. The school also has the full—time servicesof another child care worker and a part—time area counsellor.It is typical for many elementary schools to only have thecounselling services of one part—time counsellor. This schoolwas, therefore, exceptional in that four professionals providedcounselling services.42Another limitation involves the size of the sample ofstudents whose parents/guardians gave consent for them tocomplete the self-concept and anxiety measures. Thisrepresented 35 out of a possible 11 2 students.Parents/guardians who give consent, generally, may possessspecific characteristics which are not possessed byparents/guardians who are reluctant to give consent. Thesample would, therefore, be biased by this factor.Implications for Future ResearchIt would be significant to examine whether or not theseresults could be replicated in a variety of elementary schoolsettings. For example, would a high percentage of studentsdeemed as needing counselling actually receive counselling ifonly one or two school personnel provided counselling servicesin a particular school? Schools with differing socio—economlcand racial strata also need to be be examined and compared.The effectivess of a variety of appraisal techniques forassessing self-concept and anxiety needs to be examined.Standardized measures other than the ones used in this studycould be administered to a larger sample of subjects. Itwould be worthwhile to examine and compare theeffectiveness of alternate appraisal techniques such asteacher perception of student self—concept and anxiety andstudent self—perception of need for counselling.43ConclusionAlthouqh teacher perception of students need forcounselling appears to be highly effective, it is by no meansinfallible. There seem to be certain students who areoverlooked in this counselling referral process which is basedon teacher perception of need. One effective way ofidentifying these overlooked students is the use ofstandarized measures of self-concept and anxiety. It isimportant that a qualified individual administer, interpret,and share the results of these measures withparents/guardians and significant school personnel. Theelementary school counsellor, with a thorough background inassessment, may be the most appropriate individual to fufillsuch a role.44REFERENCESAchenbach, T. M. (1 982). Developmental DsychoDathology. NewYork: John Wiley & Sons.Argulewicz, E. N. &Miller, D.C. (1985). Self—reported andteachers’ rankings of anxiety among first—grade children.School Psychology Review, 14, 75-78.Battle, J. (1 987). Relationship between self—esteem anddepression among children. Psychological ReDorts, , 1187- 1190.Bobele, M., & Conran, T. J. (1988). Referrals for familytherapy: Pitfalls and guidelines. Elementary SchoolGuidance and Counseling. 2Z 192-198.Bower, E. M. (1969). The early identification of emotionallyhandicapped children in school. (2nd ed.). Springfield, L:Thomas.Coopersmith, S. (1 98 1). CooDersmith self—esteem inventories.Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press.Cooney, J. (1985). An ethical approach to teacher referral ofchildren for individual counseling. Elementary SchoolGuidance and Counseling, 12, 198-20 1.Cowles, J. (1984). The relationship among stress, anxiety,self—concept, social support, and illness in children.Dissertation Abstracts International, 44, 3282A-3283A.Damon, W. (1983). Social and oersonality develooment. NewYork: Norton.Ai45Downing, C. J. (1 985). Referrals that work. School Counselor,..2., 242-246.Drabman, R. S., Tarnowski, K. J,, & Kelly, P.A. (1987). Areyounger children in a classroom disproportionately referredfor childhood academic and behavior problems? Journal ofConsulting and Clinical Psychology, 5., 907-909.Kokenes, 8. (1 978). A factor analytic study of theCoopersrnith Self—Esteem Inventory. Adolescence, Ji 149—155.Lambert, N.M. (1986). Children’s problems and classroominterventions from the perspective of classroom teachers.Professional Psychology. 2, 507-317.Lewis, R., & Adank, R. (1975). Intercorrelatlons amongmeasures of intelligence, achievement, self—esteem, andanxiety in two groups of elementary school pupils exposedto two different models of instruction. Educational andPsychological Measurement,...5., 499—50 1.Matthews, D. B. (1988). Preliminary reoort form Phi DeltaKaooa’s students at risk Droject. Orangeburg, SC: SouthCarolina State College.Matthews, D. B., & Odin, B. L. (1 989). Anxiety: A component ofself—esteem. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling,2±4 153-159.Newcomer, P. L. (1980). Understanding and teachingemotionally disturbed children. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.46Padwel, R. S. (1984). The relationshiD of self-conceot tointelligence. anxiety. and academic achievement. Regina,Saskatchewan: Saskatchewan School Trustees Association,Regina Research Center, (ERIC Document ReproductionService No. ED 260 513).Park, W. D., & Williams, G. T. (1986). Encouraging elementarychildren to refer themselves for counselling. ElementarySchool Guidance and Counseling. 2.L 8—14.Piers; E. V. & Harris, D. 8. (1984). The Piers—Harris children’sself conceDt scale (The way I feel about myself). LosAngeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Reynolds, C. R. & Richmond, B. 0. (1985). Revised children’smanifest anxiety scale. Los Angeles, CA: WesternPsychological Services.Schappi, A. S. (1985). Counselors and gradeschoolers.GuideDost, j, 1 7—19.Shaffer, D. R. (1985). DeveloDmental Dsychology: Theory.research, and aDDlications. Monterey. CA: Brooks/Cole.Schmuck, R. A. & Schmuck; P. A. (1971). Group processes Inthe classroom. Dubuque, IA: Brown.Shulman, 0., & Klein, M. M. (1 983). Distance-sensitive andconsensus—sensitive families: The effect on adolescentreferral for psychotherapy. American Journal of FamilyTheraDy, 11(2), 45-58.47Silvern, L. E., & Katz, P. A. (1985). Gender roles andadjustment in elementary school children: Amultidimensional approach. Sex Roles, 14, 1 81 —202Sorsdahl, S. N., & Sanche, R. P. (1 985). The effects ofclassroom meetings on self—concept and behavior.Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 2.2 49-56.Sousa, M. (1 98 1). Self—concept, anxiety, and learning fromreading. Dissertations Abstracts International, 42, 2040A.Spielberger, C. D. (1 973). State—trait anxiety inventory forchildren. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Tarnowski, K. J., Drabman, R. S., Anderson, D. F., & Kelly, P.A.(1990). Disproportionate referrals for childacademic/behavior problems: Replication and Extension.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, , 240—243.Weinrach, S. G. (1 984). Toward improved referral making:Mutuality between the counselor and the psychologist.School Counselor, IL, 89-96.Ysseldyke, J. E. (1 983). Current practices in makingpsychoeducational decisions about learning disabledstudents. Journal of Learning Disabilities, j 226—233.Zeichner, K. M. (1978). Group membership in the elementaryschool classroom. Journal of Educational Psychology, 22,554-564.Ziegler, E. W., Scott, 8. N., & Taylor, R. L. (1 Q9 1). Effects ofguidance intervention on perceived school behavior andpersonal self-concept: A preliminary study. PsychologicalReoorts, ffi, 50.4849APPEND I CES50Appendix AParent/Guardian Contact LetterTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIADepartment of Counselling PsychologyFaculty of Education5780 Toronto RoadVancouver, 8. C. Canada V6T 1 L2Faculty Advisor: Dr. John Allan, Tel . : 822-4625PARENTAL CONSENT INFORMATIONDear Parent or Guardian,I am a candidate for the Masters of Arts degree inCounselling Psychology at U.B.C. doing a study under theprofessional supervision of Dr. John Allan, of the departmentof Counselling Psychology at U.B.C,I have been working with children at__________________Elementary School, under the supervision of Dr. Allan, overthe past school year. My masters thesis involves a study ofthe counselling referral process at_______School.This study has been approved by the principal,and by the teachers involved. It is entitled: Student Self—Concept, Anxiety, Teacher Perception and the Referral Processin Elementary School Counselllng,’51The project involves examining the effectiveness of howchildren are referred to counselling. I am interested in findingout whether children who have low self—concept and highanxiety are recognized by their teachers as needingcounselling.you consent, your child will complete two brief teststhat will assess his/her attitudes about self and two testswhich will assess his/her anxiety towards school. The testingwill be administered to a group of class students duringschool time and will take two sessions of approximately one—half hour duration. The classroom teacher will be asked torate the students as to whether and why they may needcounselling.The study will conclude with a write-up of the analysisof the test results and no identifying details about your childwill be included. Confidentiality and complete anonymity ofyour child will be ensured by destroying the test data afterthe study has been completed. You have the right to refuse toparticipate or withdraw your child from the study without anyjeopardy to your childs class standing.If you have any questions, please do not hesitate tocontact me at_________________School at________________A written summary of the study will be available to you onrequest.52Please have your child return to school the secondconsent form (last page) by this Friday. May 1, 1 92 and keepthis letter and the first consent form for your records.Thank—you very much.Sincerely,Mr. Alister MacRae, B.A.consent form attached53Appendix BParent/Guardian Consent Form______I give consentdo not give consentfor my child to take twotests of self—concept and two tests of anxiety. These testswill require two one—half sessions and will be administeredto a group of classroom students during school time. Theclassroom teacher will rate the students as to whether andwhy they may need counselling. The information in this studywill be used to examine the counselling referral process atElementary School.I understand that my child’s confidentiality and anonymity areensured in the study and that my child will not be identified inthe final write—up of the project.Signature of Parent or GuardianDate54Appendix CTeacher Contact LetterApril 21, 1992To: TeachersFrom: Alister MacRae, Counselling Psychology, U.B.C.Dear Colleagues,As discussed in a starr meeting in January, I would like toconduct my master’s thesis using your classroom students assubjects. The title of the project is’ Student Self—Concept,Anxiety, Teacher Perception and the Referral Process inElementary School Counselling.” The project involvesexamining the effectiveness of how children are referred tocounselling. I have received approval from U.B.C. and theVancouver School Board and, from our discussion in January,understand that you would be willing for me to conduct thisproject with your classroom.Upon your consent, your students will complete two brieftests that will assess their attitudes about self and twotests which will assess their anxiety. The testlngwill be55administered to a group of your students during school timeand will take two sessions of approximately one—half hourduration. I will orient your students to the project andadminister all the tests. You will then be asked to rate yourstudents as to whether and why they may need counselling.This will require about ten minutes of your time.Confidentiality and complete anonymity of you and yourstudents will be ensured by destruction of the test data afterthe study has been completed.I am required by U.8.C. to receive written consent from you andfrom the parents! guardians involved. I will distributeparental consent forms during orientation which I hope toconduct at a time convenient to you, during the week of April27 to May 1. Could you please complete the attached teacherconsent form and place it in the First Nation Counsellor’smailbox by Apr11 27? If you have any questions, please do nothesitate to contact me.Thank—you very much for your cooperation.Sincerely,Alister MacRaeconsent form attached56Appendix DTeacher Consent FormTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIADepartment of Counselling PsychologyFaculty of Education5780 Toronto RoadVancouver, B. C. Canada V6T 1 L2Faculty Advisor: Dr. John Allan, Tel . : 822—4625(Please check ONE line)______I give consentI do not give consentfor Alister MacRae, Masters student in counsellingpsychology, to administer two tests of self—concept and twotests of anxiety to the students in my classroom (uponwritten parental consent) . These tests will require two one—half hour sessions and will be administered to a group ofclassroom students during school time. I will be asked to rankthe participating students as to whether and why they mayneed counselling. This will require about ten minutes of mytime. The data gathered will be used to examine thecounselling referral process at ElementarySchool. I may refuse to participate or withdraw at any timewithout jeopardy.E7I understand that confidentiality and anonymity are ensured inthe study as there will be no identification of teachers orstudents in the final write-up of the project. I acknowledgethat I have received a copy of this consent form.Signature or TeacherDate

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