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Assessing the generalizability of the BEM Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) : a replication of the BSRI’s item… De Vita, Elsie Lorna 1995

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ASSESSING THE GENERALIZABILITY OF THE BEM SEX ROLE INVENTORY (BSRI): A REPLICATION OF THE BSRI'S ITEM SELECTION PROCEDURES by ELSIE LORNA DE VITA B.A., UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1989 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Counselling Psychology) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THB^JN^vTiRSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JUNE 1995 © ELSIE LORNA DE VITA, 1995 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date 15-08-^ DE-6 (2/88) A b s t r a c t S i n c e i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n over 20 y e a r s ago, the Bern Sex R o l e I n v e n t o r y (BSRI; Bern, 1974) has been used e x t e n s i v e l y i n v a r i o u s types o f r e s e a r c h . The i n t e n t o f the c u r r e n t s tudy was t o r e p l i c a t e Bern's i t em s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s f o r the BSRI t o a s se s s t h e c u r r e n t g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e measure t o s t u d e n t s a t a u n i v e r s i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n Canada. Two hundred and t e n s t u d e n t s (81 males and 129 females) e n r o l l e d i n i n t r o d u c t o r y a n t h r o p o l o g y and s o c i o l o g y c o u r s e s were asked t o r a t e the o r i g i n a l 400 a d j e c t i v e s used t o c o n s t r u c t the BSRI on the b a s i s o f c u l t u r a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f g e n d e r - t y p e d a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s . The r e s u l t s were as f o l l o w s : f i r s t , 62 o f the 73 s e x - t y p e d i tems t h a t Bern (1974) found s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gen-d e r than the o t h e r r e p l i c a t e d i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y ; second , 88 a d d i t i o n a l i tems were r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender than the o t h e r by b o t h male and female U . B . C . j u d g e s ; t h i r d , t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the mean r a t i n g s on t h e 60 BSRI i tems by Bern's S t a n f o r d judges and the U . B . C . judges ; and f i n a l l y , the A s i a n judges i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y r a t e d fewer o f the 60 BSRI i tems as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender than the o t h e r t h a n d i d the White j u d g e s . I l l TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v i i i CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose 4 I m p l i c a t i o n s 5 CHAPTER I I : LITERATURE REVIEW 7 Overview 7 E v o l u t i o n o f G e n d e r - R o l e Measures 10 C o n s t r u c t i o n o f the Bern S e x - R o l e I n v e n t o r y (BSRI) 17 R e l i a b i l i t y Data 19 V a l i d i t y Data 20 C r i t i q u e s o f the BSRI 21 R e s e a r c h Employ ing the BSRI 26 R e p l i c a t i o n S t u d i e s o f the BSRI 30 P e r s i s t e n c e and Change i n Gender R o l e S t e r e o t y p e s 39 Summary 42 CHAPTER I I I : METHODOLOGY 44 D e s i g n 44 Sample . . . 45 i v Data C o l l e c t i o n 47 I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n 49 The Bern Sex R o l e I n v e n t o r y i t e m p o o l 49 The Background I n f o r m a t i o n sheet 49 R a t i o n a l e f o r S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s 50 Hypotheses 52 CHAPTER I V : RESULTS 55 P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s i s 55 H y p o t h e s i s 1 56 H y p o t h e s i s 2 64 H y p o t h e s i s 3 65 H y p o t h e s i s 4 78 CHAPTER V : DISCUSSION 83 L i m i t a t i o n s 92 Sugges t ions f o r F u t u r e Research 94 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C o u n s e l l i n g 96 C o n c l u s i o n 97 FOOTNOTE 99 REFERENCES 100 APPENDIX A : 106 THE 73 ITEMS RATED AS SIGNIFICANTLY MORE DESIRABLE FOR ONE GENDER THAN THE OTHER IN BEM'S STUDY (HER PROCEDURE FOR SELECTING V M A S C U L I N E AND F E M I N I N E A D J E C T I V E S FOR THE B S R I ) 107 A P P E N D I X B : 112 B E M ' S I N S T R U C T I O N S FOR THE Q U E S T I O N N A I R E . . . 113 A P P E N D I X C : 114 L E T T E R TO PROFESSORS AND I N F O R M A T I O N SHEET . 115 C L A S S I N T R O D U C T I O N 117 E X P L A N A T I O N SHEET 118 CONSENT FORM 119 A P P E N D I X D : 120 S A M P L E OF THE Q U E S T I O N N A I R E USED I N THE CURRENT STUDY 121 A P P E N D I X E : 132 BACKGROUND INFORMATION SHEET 133 A P P E N D I X F : I 134 PSYCHOLOGY C L A S S MEANS AND SD 135 A P P E N D I X G : 143 L O C A T I O N MEANS AND SD 144 A P P E N D I X H : 152 I T E M S R A T E D A S MORE D E S I R A B L E FOR MEN BY MALE R A T E R S 153 A P P E N D I X I : 157 I T E M S RATED A S MORE D E S I R A B L E FOR WOMEN BY M A L E R A T E R S 158 A P P E N D I X J : 164 I T E M S RATED A S MORE D E S I R A B L E FOR MEN BY F E M A L E R A T E R S 165 v i A P P E N D I X K : 171 I T E M S RATED A S MORE D E S I R A B L E FOR WOMEN BY F E M A L E R A T E R S 1 7 2 A P P E N D I X L : 178 R A T I N G S ON THE 60 B S R I I T E M S BY M A L E R A T E R S I N THE O R I G I N A L STANFORD S A M P L E 179 A P P E N D I X M : 182 R A T I N G S ON THE 60 B S R I I T E M S BY F E M A L E R A T E R S I N THE O R I G I N A L STANFORD S A M P L E 183 A P P E N D I X N : 186 R A T I N G S ON THE 60 B S R I I T E M S BY EUROPEAN AND AND I N D O - C A N A D I A N M A L E AND F E M A L E R A T E R S . . . 1 8 7 A P P E N D I X O : 199 R A T I N G S ON THE 60 B S R I I T E M S B Y WHITE AND A S I A N M A L E R A T E R S 200 A P P E N D I X P : 206 R A T I N G S ON THE 60 B S R I I T E M S BY WHITE AND A S I A N F E M A L E R A T E R S 207 V l l LIST OF TABLES T a b l e page 1 E t h n i c i t y o f the U . B . C . R a t e r s 51 2 MANOVA Psycho logy 57 3 MANOVA L o c a t i o n 57 4 66 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Rated as More D e s i r a b l e f o r a Man by Both Male and Female U . B . C . R a t e r s 59 5 84 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Rated as More D e s i r a b l e f o r a Woman by Both Male and Female U . B . C . R a t e r s 61 6 11 Items That Reached S i g n i f i c a n c e i n Bern's O r i g i n a l S t u d y , but not i n the C u r r e n t Study 63 7 R a t i n g s on the 60 BSRI Items by Male R a t e r s i n the U . B . C . Sample 67 8 R a t i n g s on the 60 BSRI Items by Female R a t e r s i n the U . B . C . Sample 70 9 S i g n i f i c a n t Mean D i f f e r e n c e s on the 60 BSRI Items Between Bern's S t a n f o r d Sample and the U . B . C . Sample 73 10 S t a n f o r d and U . B . C . Means f o r the M a s c u l i n e , F e m i n i n e , and N e u t r a l Items o f the BSRI 76 11 D i f f e r e n c e s Between R a t i n g s f o r "a Man" and f o r "a Woman" i n Bern's S t a n f o r d Sample and the U . B . C . Sample 77 12 S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e s Between A s i a n and White Female R a t e r s and A s i a n and White Male R a t e r s on the 60 BSRI Items 79 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e t o express my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o my s u p e r v i s o r , D r . Beth Haverkamp, f o r h e r s u p p o r t , l i m i t l e s s p a t i e n c e , and l a u g h t e r . I a l s o would l i k e t o thank my committee members, D r . J u d i t h D a n i l u k and D r . T a n n i s MacBeth W i l l i a m s , f o r t h e i r gu idance and v a l u a b l e feedback throughout my t h e s i s p r o j e c t . I wish t o expres s my g r a t i t u d e t o the p r o f e s s o r s and s t u d e n t s i n the a n t h r o p o l o g y and s o c i o l o g y c l a s s e s who p a r t i c i -pa ted i n t h i s r e s e a r c h s t u d y . T h e i r g e n e r o s i t y was g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . To my p a r t n e r s i n c r i m e , L e e , Nona, and C o l l e e n , a l l I can say i s thank y o u , I c o u l d not have done i t w i t h o u t your f r i e n d s h i p ( i t a l s o h e l p e d t h a t you were a l l s u f f e r i n g a l o n g the same p r o c e s s ) . F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o thank my husband, Ed R a t n a r a j a h , f o r h i s s u p p o r t and h i s c o u n t l e s s hours o f p r o o f r e a d i n g throughout my M . A . Do you t h i n k you can s u r v i v e the d o c t o r a l program? 1 C h a p t e r I I n t r o d u c t i o n D u r i n g the women's movement i n the e a r l y 1970s, the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e g e n d e r -r o l e s and s t e r e o t y p e s underwent a major p a r a d i g m a t i c s h i f t . P r e v i o u s measures o f a h y p o t h e s i z e d M a s c u l i n i t y - F e m i n i n i t y (M-F) d imens ion i n p e r s o n a l i t y had c o n c e p t u a l i z e d the c o n s t r u c t s as b i p o l a r ends o f a s i n g l e cont inuum ( e . g . , Gough; Terman & M i l e s , c i t e d i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , 1973) . T h u s , an i n d i v i d u a l who s c o r e d h i g h on m a s c u l i n e i tems would s c o r e low on f e m i n i n e i t e m s , and v i c e v e r s a . However, i n a rev i ew o f sex r o l e r e s e a r c h , C o n -s t a n t i n o p l e (1973) c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h i s assumpt ion was i n c o r r e c t . The Bern Sex R o l e I n v e n t o r y (BSRI; Bern, 1974) was d e v e l o p e d i n the y e a r f o l l o w i n g C o n s t a n t i n o p l e ' s (1973) c h a l l e n g e , and a t the h e i g h t o f the second wave o f the women's movement. In p a r t , the BSRI was a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t 40 y e a r s o f m a s c u l i n i t y -f e m i n i n i t y measurement: T h i s s e x - r o l e d ichotomy has s e r v e d t o obscure two v e r y p l a u s i b l e hypotheses : f i r s t , t h a t many i n d i v i d u a l s might be "androgynous;" t h a t i s , they might be b o t h m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e , b o t h a s s e r t i v e and y i e l d i n g , b o t h i n s t r u m e n t a l and e x p r e s s i v e — d e p e n d i n g on the s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f these v a r i o u s b e h a v i o u r s ; and c o n v e r s e l y , t h a t s t r o n g l y s e x -t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s might be s e r i o u s l y l i m i t e d i n the range o f b e h a v i o u r s a v a i l a b l e t o them as they move from s i t u a t i o n t o s i t u a t i o n " (Bern, 1974, p . 155) . 2 However, b e f o r e f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h c o \ i l d be i n i t i a t e d on the c o n s t r u c t o f androgyny, a new s e x - r o l e i n v e n t o r y t h a t d i d not i n c o r p o r a t e b i p o l a r i t y o f the (M-F) d imens ion needed t o be deve loped (Bern, 1974) . The BSRI was the f i r s t such i n v e n t o r y t o be w i d e l y d i s s e m i n a t e d and i s perhaps the most p o p u l a r androgyny measure (Cook, 1985) . I t c o n t a i n s 60 i t ems: 20 i tems make up a m a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e , 20 i tems compose a f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e , and 20 s erve as f i l l e r i t e m s . Because the BSRI c o n t i n u e s t o be w i d e l y u s e d , and because sex r o l e i s a c u l t u r a l phenomenon t h a t may change over t ime ( e . g . , B e r n a r d , 1976; H e l m r e i c h , Spence , & G i b -s o n , 1982; Werner & L a R u s s a , 1985) i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o de termine whether the BSRI i tems are v a l i d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f o t h e r samples ' contemporary s t e r e o t y p i c a l v iews o f men and women. There have been no at tempts t o r e p l i c a t e Bern's o r i g i n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the BSRI , however, s e v e r a l s t u d i e s have asked judges t o r a t e the 60 i tems c o n t a i n e d i n the i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h e i r d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r one gender over the o t h e r . B a l l a r d - R e i s c h and E l t o n (1992) and Edwards and Ashworth (1977) found t h a t the o n l y i t em r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r a man was " m a s c u l i n i t y " and the o n l y i t em r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r a woman was " f e m i n i n i t y . " However, because they f a i l e d t o r e p l i c a t e Bern's methodology, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n whether t h e i r r e s u l t s can be c o n s i d e r e d a f a i l u r e t o r e p l i c a t e h e r f i n d i n g s . Walkup and A b b o t t (1978) r e p l i c a t e d Bern's i t em s e l e c t i o n f o r 37 o f the 40 m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e 3 i tems w i t h 129 undergraduate s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n p s y c h o l o g y c l a s s e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington . More r e c e n t l y , H a r r i s (1994) r e p l i c a t e d Bern's r e s u l t s f o r 35 out o f 38 s e x - t y p e d i tems w i t h 1000 A n g l o - A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a n t s who were shopp ing a t a C h i c a g o m a l l (median age range 30-39) . H a r r i s d i d not i n c l u d e "mascul ine" and "feminine" i n h i s i t em p o o l . T o g e t h e r these f i n d i n g s seemed t o s u p p o r t the r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h o f g e n d e r - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s . However, g i v e n the e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y i n the U . S . A , H a r r i s ' (1994) s t u d y a l s o addres sed the i s s u e o f whether the BSRI was a v a l i d i n d i c a t o r o f c u r r e n t c u l t u r a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y . He found t h a t the B S R I ' s v a l i d i t y w i t h A f r i c a n - A m e r i c a n and H i s p a n i c - A m e r i c a n groups was q u e s t i o n a b l e . Research on g e n d e r - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s has i n d i c a t e d t h a t they a r e p e r s i s t e n t and s t a b l e ( e . g . , Broverman, V o g e l , Broverman, C l a r k s o n , & R o s e n k r a n t z , 1972; Werner & L a R u s s a , 1985) . A l t h o u g h Werner and LaRussa were i n v e s t i g a t i n g a d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u m e n t , t h e i r s t u d y was an at tempt t o r e p l i c a t e p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h and compare the r e s u l t s i n o r d e r t o a s se s s the e x t e n t o f change i n g e n d e r - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s . They found t h a t not o n l y were gender s t e r e o t y p e s r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e , but a l s o when some c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s were e l i m i n a t e d from the m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e s t e r e o t y p e s , o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were a d o p t e d . However, Werner and LaRussa (1985) a l s o noted t h a t t h e r e seemed t o be some change i n the v a l u a t i o n o f the m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e s t e r e o t y p e . T h e i r r e s u l t s sugges ted t h a t , even though 4 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n t i n u e d t o be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by gender , t h e r e was some change i n the c o n t e n t o f the s t e r e o t y p e s . These f i n d -i n g s , a l o n g w i t h H a r r i s ' (1994) e t h n i c f i n d i n g s , s u p p o r t the importance o f r e - e x a m i n i n g the BSRI . Purpose The purpose o f t h i s s tudy was t o a s c e r t a i n the c u r r e n t g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f the BSRI t o U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia ( U . B . C . ) s t u d e n t s , r e g a r d i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r men and women. T h i s q u e s t i o n was i n v e s t i -ga ted by c o n d u c t i n g a r e p l i c a t i o n o f Bern's (1974) i t em s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s f o r the o r i g i n a l BSRI . The g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f the BSRI f o r t h i s p o p u l a t i o n would be s u p p o r t e d i f r e p l i c a t i o n o f Bern's methodology produced s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g the d i f f e r e n t i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y o f the o r i g i n a l i tems f o r a man and f o r a woman. S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s s tudy a d d r e s s e d the f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s : 1. Do U . B . C . s t u d e n t s r a t e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a c c o r d i n g t o s o c i e t a l e v a l u a t i o n s , as more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender than the o t h e r ? 2. W i l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p r e v i o u s l y r a t e d as no more d e s i r a b l e f o r a man o r a woman i n Bern's s t u d y be judged d i f f e r e n t l y i n the c u r r e n t s tudy? 3. Do the mean r a t i n g s f o r the 60 i tems c o n t a i n e d i n the BSRI d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o r the o r i g i n a l S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y sample and the U . B . C . sample? 5 I m p l i c a t i o n s I f the BSRI g e n e r a l i z e s t o a U . B . C . sample , i t would i n c r e a s e c o n f i d e n c e t h a t i t would a l s o g e n e r a l i z e t o o t h e r Canadian u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s ( a l t h o u g h the c u r r e n t s tudy cannot s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s c l a i m ) . The BSRI c o n t i n u e s t o be used e x t e n s i v e l y i n r e s e a r c h , b u t , t o d a t e , t h e r e has been no com-p l e t e r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n . Bern (1979) hoped t h a t the concept o f androgyny would e v e n t u a l l y o u t l i v e i t s u s e f u l n e s s : I f t h e r e i s a m o r a l t o t h e concept o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l androgyny , i t i s t h a t b e h a v i o r s h o u l d have no gender . But t h e r e i s an i r o n y h e r e , f o r the concept o f androgyny c o n -t a i n s an i n n e r c o n t r a d i c t i o n and hence the seeds o f i t s own d e s t r u c t i o n . T h u s , as the etymology o f the word i m p l i e s , the concept o f androgyny n e c e s s a r i l y presupposes t h a t t h e concept s o f f e m i n i n i t y and m a s c u l i n i t y themse lves have d i s -t i n c t and s u b s t a n t i v e c o n t e n t . But t o the e x t e n t t h a t the androgynous message i s absorbed by the c u l t u r e , the c o n -c e p t s o f f e m i n i n i t y and m a s c u l i n i t y w i l l cease t o have such c o n t e n t and the d i s t i n c t i o n s t o which they r e f e r w i l l b l u r i n t o i n v i s i b i l i t y . T h u s , when androgyny becomes a r e a l i t y , the concept o f androgyny w i l l have been t r a n s c e n d e d (p . 1053) . In o r d e r t o de termine whether the androgyny c o n s t r u c t i s an a r t i f a c t o f the p a s t , r e s e a r c h must f i r s t de termine the p r e -v a l e n c e o f g e n d e r - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s . T h i s s t u d y at tempted t o more 6 c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e the c u r r e n t g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f the BSRI t o U . B . C . s t u d e n t s . By d o i n g s o , c o n s i s t e n c i e s and changes i n g e n d e r - r e l a t e d r a t i n g s o f p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i n c e Bern's (1974) s t u d y may become e v i d e n t . A l t h o u g h changes may be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o f a c t o r s such as s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y , t r a n s p a r -ency o f i t e m s , d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r e , o r d i f f e r e n t samples , they may a l s o be due t o s h i f t s i n gender s t e r e o t y p e s . T h u s , i f i t em r a t i n g s have changed, t h i s r e s e a r c h may p r o v i d e the impetus t o d e v e l o p a more c u r r e n t measur ing i n s t r u m e n t o f m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e g e n d e r - r o l e s ( B a l l a r d - R e i s c h & E l t o n , 1992) . Because the terms x a n d r o g y n o u s ' and * s e x - t y p e d ' are used e x t e n s i v e l y throughout t h i s document, c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s a r e r e q u i r e d . Bern employed the term x a n d r o g y n o u s ' t o d e s c r i b e i n d i v i d u a l s who endorse m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e a t t r i b u t e s on the BSRI e q u a l l y , whereas the phrase x s e x - t y p e d ' r e p r e s e n t s i n d i v i d u a l s who endorse s e x - a p p r o p r i a t e a t t r i b u t e s on the BSRI and r e j e c t the o p p o s i t e sex a t t r i b u t e s . N e i t h e r term i s i n t e n d e d t o l a b e l o r i m p l y s e x u a l o r i e n t a t i o n o r appearance . T h i s r e s e a r c h e r chose t o use these t e r m s , but emphasizes t h a t Bern's d e f i n i t i o n s aire r e t a i n e d . 7 C h a p t e r I I L i t e r a t u r e Review The l i t e r a t u r e rev iewed i n t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l b e g i n w i t h g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the e v o l u t i o n o f g e n d e r - r o l e measures . Next , Bern's (1974) o r i g i n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the BSRI w i l l be d e s c r i b e d , a l o n g w i t h c r i t i q u e s o f the i n s t r u m e n t and how i t has been used i n r e s e a r c h . F i n a l l y , s t u d i e s t h a t at tempt t o r e p l i -c a t e the BSRI and a s t u d y t h a t addresses p e r s i s t e n c e and change i n g e n d e r - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s w i l l be d e s c r i b e d . Overview Be fore d i s c u s s i n g the p r e v i o u s r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between sex and gender . "Sex i s d e f i n e d as b i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n g e n e t i c c o m p o s i t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i v e anatomy and f u n c t i o n . . . G e n d e r i s what c u l t u r e makes out o f the 'raw m a t e r i a l ' o f b i o l o g i c a l sex" (Unger & C r a w f o r d , 1992, p . 17 -18 ) . T h i s p r o c e s s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n b e g i n s a t b i r t h and c o n t i n u e s throughout one ' s l i f e . The i n f l u e n c e o f gender and g e n d e r - s t e r e o t y p e s cannot be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . As Scher and Good (1990) n o t e d , "gender i s a r e a l i t y t h a t shapes our b e h a v i o u r and our p e r c e p t i o n o f the w o r l d a n d , i n f a c t , the v e r y manner i n which our w o r l d i s o r g a n i z e d " (p . 370) . The r e a l i t y has been t h a t men and m a s c u l i n e b e h a v i o u r s have been p o s i t i v e l y e v a l u a t e d and c o n s i d e r e d s u p e r i o r t o women and f e m i n i n e b e h a v i o u r s (Broverman, V o g e l , Broverman, C l a r k s o n , & R o s e n k r a n t z , 1972) . Y e t , t h e i r o n y i s t h a t even when men and women behave t h e same, t h e i r b e h a v i o u r i s i n t e r p r e t e d d i f f e r e n t l y (Unger & C r a w f o r d , 8 1992) . T h i s d i f f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t may i n t u r n l e a d t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n b e h a v i o u r . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , p s y c h o l o g i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f women has been a n d r o c e n t r i c , o r m a l e - c e n t e r e d (Rawl ings & C a r t e r , 1977; Unger & C r a w f o r d , 1992) . P r i o r t o the second wave o f the women's movement i n the 1970s, women had been s t u d i e d l e s s than men o r were compared t o models deve loped on men, such as K o h l b e r g ' s c o g n i t i v e development t h e o r y ( c i t e d i n Unger & C r a w f o r d , 1992) . Behav iour t h a t d i d no t f i t w i t h s t e r e o t y p e s o f women o f t e n was c o n s i d e r e d p a t h o l o g i c a l ; b e h a v i o u r t h a t d i d f i t w i t h the s t e r e o -t y p e s , such as dependency o r p a s s i v i t y , was c o n s i d e r e d normal (Unger & C r a w f o r d , 1992; W e i s s t e i n , 1993) . There was no e v a l u a -t i o n o f the s o c i a l c o n t e x t i n which these b e h a v i o u r s o c c u r r e d , o r how s o c i e t y l e f t women w i t h few o p t i o n s f o r independence . The women's movement p r o v i d e d a forum i n which the s t e r e o t y p e s and d e p i c t i o n o f women i n p s y c h o l o g y were denounced by many f e m i n i s t r e s e a r c h e r s ( e . g . , Bern, 1974; C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , 1973) . Androgyny r e s e a r c h has been p a r t o f the f i g h t a g a i n s t t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t i o n s o f gender . The work o f C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , Bern, and many o t h e r s ( e . g . , Spence , H e l m r e i c h , & S t r a p p , 1974) not o n l y q u e s t i o n e d the l o n g a c c e p t e d s t e r e o t y p e s c o n c e r n i n g men and women, but a l s o p r o v i d e d new frameworks f o r menta l h e a l t h . R e c e n t l y , f e m i n i s t r e s e a r c h has q u e s t i o n e d the n o t i o n o f androgyny as i d e a l (Marecek & H a r e - M u s t i n , 1991; Unger & Craw-f o r d , 1992) . Some f i n d f a u l t w i t h a v a i l a b l e androgyny measures f o r c l a s s i f y i n g b e h a v i o u r s as "mascul ine" and "feminine" ( e . g . , 9 L o t t , 1981) , c h a r g i n g t h a t t h i s d i c h o t o m i z a t i o n f u r t h e r e n t r e n -ches b e h a v i o u r s as gender s p e c i f i c , r a t h e r t h a n t r a n s c e n d i n g gender . O t h e r s , such as Marecek and H a r e - M u s t i n (1991) , c o n s i d e r the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t androgyny i s a g o a l o f t h e r a p y t o be p r o b l e m a t i c . They note how a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g i s used f o r s e x - r o l e r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . However, l a c k o f a s s e r t i v e n e s s i s v iewed as a woman's p r o b l e m , as something i n which women a r e " d e f i c i e n t . " No a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o whether the s o c i a l m i l i e u i s a f a c t o r , whether a s s e r t i v e n e s s i s always d e s i r a b l e , o r whether v a l u i n g a s s e r t i v e n e s s r e f l e c t s an acceptance o f a n d r o c e n t r i c norms. In a d d i t i o n , the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e does not show t h a t men a r e overwhe lming ly more a s s e r t i v e t h a n women ( G e r v a s i o & C r a w f o r d , c i t e d i n Marecek & H a r e - M u s t i n , 1991) . The s i t u a t i o n c i t e d above i s j u s t one example o f how the "male supremacy e f f e c t " i s m a i n t a i n e d . The male b i a s o f mental h e a l t h measures i s a n o t h e r (Cook, 1985) . However, t h e r e i s a growing body o f l i t e r a t u r e t h a t q u e s t i o n s the u n c o n d i t i o n a l acceptance o f the male s e x - r o l e as p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y h e a l t h i e r . F o r example, S i l v e r b e r g (1986) l a b e l e d problems i n e s t a b l i s h i n g i n t i m a c y as i n s t r u m e n t a l i n b r i n g i n g men i n t o t h e r a p y . H i g h degrees o f a g g r e s s i o n and c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s , which a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the male s t e r e o t y p e , may e x a c e r b a t e v a r i o u s h e a l t h p r o b -lems, such as h i g h b l o o d p r e s s u r e and h e a r t d i s e a s e (Richmond-A b b o t t , 1992) . 10 B e r n a r d , B e r n a r d , and B e r n a r d , (1985) i n v e s t i g a t e d c o u r t s h i p v i o l e n c e and s e x - t y p i n g . They a d m i n i s t e r e d a q u e s t i o n -n a i r e p r o b i n g e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h abuse between d a t i n g p a r t n e r s and the Bern S e x - R o l e I n v e n t o r y (Bern, 1974; BSRI) t o 171 c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . The c o n t r o l group was composed o f 79 s t u d e n t s (24 males and 55 females) who had never e x p e r i e n c e d any form o f abuse i n a d a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . The r e m a i n i n g 92 s t u d e n t s (24 males and 68 females) a l l r e p o r t e d e i t h e r h a v i n g been a b u s i v e , abused , o r b o t h i n a d a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . B e r n a r d e t a l . found t h a t the BSRI s c o r e s o f the 15 men who r e p o r t e d b e i n g a b u s i v e w i t h a r o m a n t i c p a r t n e r were more s e x - t y p e d , as d e f i n e d by the BSRI, t h a n those o f the 24 c o n t r o l men ( t = 2 .02 , p_ = . 0 2 6 ) . In o t h e r words , men who r e p o r t e d h a v i n g been a b u s i v e s c o r e d more t r a d i t i o n a l l y t h a n d i d men who d i d not r e p o r t h a v i n g been a b u s i v e . I t would appear t h a t some r e s e a r c h i s b e g i n n i n g t o address the n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f b e h a v i o u r and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s c r i b e d t o men. Because our s o c i e t y c o n t i n u e s t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the s exes , men and women have d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s o f gender; they f a c e d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s , o p p o r t u n i t i e s and rewards (Cook, 1990) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s c o n t i n u e t o e x p l o r e gender i s s u e s . I t i s the hope o f t h i s r e s e a r c h e r t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h i s e v e r expanding body o f knowledge. E v o l u t i o n o f G e n d e r - R o l e Measures In a r e v i e w o f m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y measures , Cook (1985) d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between " o l d " and "new" measures . E a r l i e r 11 i n s t r u m e n t s adopted a t r a i t a p p r o a c h , which embodies the b e l i e f t h a t t h e r e i s one unique t r a i t , known as the m a s c u l i n i t y -f e m i n i n i t y (M-F) t r a i t , r e l e v a n t t o s e x - r o l e phenomena. These measures r e f l e c t the b e l i e f t h a t o v e r t b e h a v i o u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes c o u l d be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h i s M-F t r a i t . M-F was c o n s i d e r e d t o be u n i d i m e n s i o n a l , c o n s i s t i n g o f one g e n e r a l t r a i t p r e s e n t i n b o t h sexes t h a t c o u l d be a c c u r a t e l y p o r t r a y e d by one s c o r e on a measure ( C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , 1973) . I t was a l s o thought t o be b i p o l a r . B i p o l a r i t y r e f e r r e d t o how m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y were assumed t o be o p p o s i t e s w i t h i n t h i s s i n g l e d i m e n s i o n . i n a p i v o t a l a r t i c l e , C o n s t a n t i n o p l e (1973) q u e s t i o n e d the p o l a r i t y and u n i d i m e n s i o n a l i t y o f these e a r l y M-F measures . Cook (1985) summarized C o n s t a n t i n o p l e ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s . She noted t h r e e g e n e r a l a s p e c t s o f b i p o l a r i t y i n M-F measurement. F i r s t , M-F was viewed as a cont inuum w i t h extreme m a s c u l i n i t y and extreme f e m i -n i n i t y a t o p p o s i t e ends and a n e u t r a l p o i n t (or zero) i n the c e n t r e . An i n d i v i d u a l ' s s c o r e would be p l o t t e d on t h i s cont inuum from h i s o r h e r re sponses on the M-F measure. I t was c o n s i d e r e d u n d e s i r a b l e t o d e v i a t e from the p o l e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i n d i -v i d u a l ' s gender . Second, m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y c o u l d not o c c u r a t the same t i m e ; they were c o n s i d e r e d o p p o s i t e s . T h u s , h i g h m a s c u l i n i t y meant low f e m i n i n i t y , and v i c e v e r s a . T h i r d , b i o l o g i c a l sex was used as a p r i m a r y c r i t e r i o n f o r i t em s e l e c -t i o n i n c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the measures . Items t h a t c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d sex d i f f e r e n c e s were chosen , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r 12 c o n t e n t and d i v e r s i t y . T h u s , a measure 's succes s was dependent on whether i t s e p a r a t e d men's and women's responses i n t o two d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s . C o n s t a n t i n o p l e (1973) found these assumpt ions and measures p r o b l e m a t i c . F i r s t , C o n s t a n t i n o p l e c o n c l u d e d t h a t M-F i s p r o b a -b l y more heterogeneous t h a n homogeneous, t h u s i t would be composed o f s e v e r a l s u b f a c t o r s r a t h e r t h a n a s i n g l e d i m e n s i o n . In o t h e r words , M-F i s most l i k e l y m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l r a t h e r than u n i d i m e n s i o n a l . T h i s was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h L u n n e b o r g ' s (1972) c l a i m , based on h i s f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , t h a t the number o f p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s tapped by these measures would be cumbersome. Second, a l t h o u g h the i s s u e o f p o l a r i t y was d i f f i c u l t t o t e s t , C o n -s t a n t i n o p l e recommended s e p a r a t i o n o f M-F i n t o s e p a r a t e d imens ions as a v a l u a b l e a r e a f o r f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . F i n a l l y , she sugges ted t h a t u s i n g b i o l o g i c a l sex d i f f e r e n c e s as the c r i t e r i o n f o r i t em s e l e c t i o n i s no t p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l , nor does i t p r o v i d e a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n o f M - F . B a s i c a l l y , a l l t h a t i s b e i n g measured are s e x - d i f f e r e n c e s i n response p a t t e r n s . G i v e n t h i s r e v i e w o f the " o l d " measures , a "new" group emerged. Cook (1985) o u t l i n e d how the new androgyny measures were d i f f e r e n t from t r a d i t i o n a l M-F measures i n s e v e r a l i m p o r -t a n t r e s p e c t s . The new measures i n c o r p o r a t e d two s e p a r a t e m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s . In o t h e r words , m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y were not c o n s i d e r e d m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e ; t h u s , i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d v a r y a l o n g b o t h d i m e n s i o n s . The newer measures a l s o r e c o g n i z e d the c o m p l e x i t y o f the f e m i n i n i t y / m a s c u l i n i t y 13 d i m e n s i o n s . At tempts have been made t o i d e n t i f y the v a r i o u s f a c t o r s t h a t compose the androgyny measures ( e . g . , G r o s s , B a t l i s , S m a l l , & E r d w i n s , 1979; Waters , W a t e r s , & P i n c u s , 1977) , as w e l l as r e s e a r c h i n g the measures ' v a l i d i t y ( e . g . , G i l l , S t o c k a r d , J o h n s o n , & W i l l i a m s , 1987; L o c k s l e y & C o l t e n , 1979) . F i n a l l y , the new measures d i f f e r from the o l d i n t h a t they assumed t h a t p o s s e s s i o n o f b o t h m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e d imen-s i o n s i s u l t i m a t e l y most d e s i r a b l e f o r everyone , r e f l e c t i n g the p o s i t i o n t h a t b e h a v i o u r s h o u l d be dependent on the s i t u a -t i o n , not on s o c i e t a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s f o r a p p r o p r i a t e gender b e h a v i o u r . A l t h o u g h the BSRI has been one o f the most p o p u l a r androgyny measures , v a r i o u s o t h e r s have been d e v e l o p e d . The P e r s o n a l A t t r i b u t e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PAQ; Spence , H e l m r e i c h , & S t r a p p , 1974, 1975) i s perhaps the next most p o p u l a r i n s t r u m e n t . U n l i k e the BSRI, which r e f l e c t s d i f f e r e n t i a l s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each sex , the PAQ i s com-posed o f s c a l e s o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n s i d e r e d s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e f o r b o t h sexes but more t y p i c a l o f one sex t h a n the o t h e r . The i n s t r u m e n t c o n t a i n s a F e m i n i n i t y and a M a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e ; i tems f o r each s c a l e are r a t e d as b e i n g i d e a l f o r b o t h sexes but s i g n i f i c a n t l y more t y p i c a l f o r one sex t h a n the o t h e r . A t h i r d s c a l e ( M a s c u l i n i t y - F e m i n i n i t y ) c o n t a i n s a s e t o f un ique i tems judged t o be b o t h t y p i c a l o f and i d e a l f o r o n l y one o r the o t h e r sex . The f u l l l e n g t h s c a l e has 23 m a s c u l i n e i t e m s , 18 f e m i n i n e i t e m s , and 13 m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y i tems (wi th one i t em 14 u n c l a s s i f i a b l e ) . A p e r s o n i s c l a s s i f i e d as androgynous i f she o r he possesses a h i g h degree o f m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y as d e f i n e d by the PAQ. L i k e the the BSRI, the PAQ c o n s i d e r e d o n l y p o s i t i v e s o c i a l l y v a l u e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , some have q u e s t i o n e d how n e g a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a f f e c t s e x - r o l e c a t e g o r i e s and t h e i r c o r r e l a t e s ( e . g . , K e l l y & W o r e l l , 1977) . The r a t i o n a l e f o r the ANDRO S c a l e ( B e r z i n s , W e l l i n g , & Wet-t e r , 1978) was f a s h i o n e d a f t e r t h a t o f the BSRI . The i n t e n t i o n was t o c o n s t r u c t an i n s t r u m e n t w i t h s e p a r a t e F e m i n i n i t y and M a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e s , composed o f i tems p o s i t i v e i n tone and more d e s i r a b l e f o r one sex t h e n t h e o t h e r . As w i t h t h e BSRI and t h e PAQ, the ANDRO s c a l e n e g l e c t e d t o i n c l u d e n e g a t i v e c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s . Items were s e l e c t e d f o r the m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s i f they were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the c o n t e n t themes o f Bern's s c a l e s ( d o m i n a n t - i n s t r u m e n t a l and n u r t u r a n t - e x p r e s s i v e ) . The 29 m a s c u l i n e i tems and 27 f e m i n i n e i tems were s e l e c t e d from the P e r s o n a l i t y R e s e a r c h Form (PRF; J a c k s o n , c i t e d i n B e r z i n s , W e l l i n g , & W e t t e r , 1978) i t em p o o l i f t h e y s a t i s f i e d the above c r i t e r i a . T h u s , a l i m i t a t i o n on the c o n t e n t range was imposed by the o r i g i n a l i t em p o o l o f the PRF, which was not o r i e n t e d toward s e x - r o l e assessment ( K e l l y & W o r e l l , 1977) . In c o n t r a s t t o the BSRI and the PAQ, which use m a i n l y a d j e c t i v e s , the ANDRO s c a l e i tems are sentences d e s c r i b i n g b e h a v i o u r s t o which respondents answer "True" o r " F a l s e " (Cook, 1985) . A d e s i r a b l e c o n s t r u c t i o n f e a t u r e o f t h e s c a l e i s t h a t i tems are keyed t r u e o r f a l s e t o c o n t r o l f o r a c q u i e s c e n t 15 response d i s t o r t i o n ( K e l l y & W o r e l l , 1977) . The A d j e c t i v e Check L i s t S c a l e s ( H e i l b r u n , 1976) were "formed from a p r e v i o u s l y deve loped b i p o l a r M a s c u l i n i t y -F e m i n i n i t y (M-F) s c a l e . B a s i c a l l y , t h e A d j e c t i v e Check L i s t (ACL; Gough & H e i l b r u n , c i t e d i n H e i l b r u n , 1976) was r e s c o r e d t o d e v e l o p the m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s t h a t compri se the r e v i s e d i n s t r u m e n t . The ACL S c a l e s c o n t a i n 28 m a s c u l i n i t y i tems and 26 f e m i n i n i t y i t e m s . U n l i k e the o t h e r i n v e n t o r i e s , the s c a l e s c o n s i s t o f b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s ; how-e v e r , H e i l b r u n f a i l e d t o d i s c u s s and p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y examine t h i s m i x t u r e o f a d j e c t i v e s . The o r i g i n a l ACL used s e x - b a s e d endorsement as a c r i t e r i o n f o r i t em s e l e c t i o n ; t h u s , i tems were chosen t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between men and women. H e i l b r u n (1976) d i d not change the i t e m s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e i n the r e v i s i o n ; i tems were i n c l u d e d "that d i s c r i m i n a t e d between c o l l e g e males i d e n t i f i e d w i t h m a s c u l i n e f a t h e r s and c o l l e g e females i d e n t i f i e d w i t h f e m i n i n e mothers" (p . 184) . He renamed the o l d M-F i tems r e p r e s e n t i n g the p o l a r extremes as e i t h e r m a s c u l i n e o r f e m i n i n e and new norms f o r each sex were e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the two s u b -s c a l e s . As d i s c u s s e d below, t h i s i t em s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e was p r o b l e m a t i c . Baucom (1980) keyed M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s from the C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l I n v e n t o r y ( C P I ; Gough, c i t e d i n Baucom, 1980) . The f i n a l s c a l e c o n s i s t e d o f 54 m a s c u l i n i t y i tems and 42 f e m i n i n i t y i t e m s . The i tems a r e i n the form o f b e h a v i o u r a l s t a t e m e n t s , which i s s i m i l a r t o the ANDRO S c a l e but 16 d i f f e r s from the o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s . As w i t h the ACL S c a l e s , the c r i t e r i o n f o r i t em s e l e c t i o n was based on s ex -based d i s t i n c -t i o n s . K e l l y and W o r e l l (1977) q u e s t i o n t h i s method o f i t em i n c l u s i o n : T h i s would seem t o r e i n t r o d u c e the q u e s t i o n o f whether t h i s s c a l e i s a s s e s s i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l sex r o l e s i n the same manner as c o n c e i v e d by Bern and Spence e t a l . o r whether i t confounds gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n i t e m e n d o r s e -ment i n the b i p o l a r manner o r i g i n a l l y c r i t i q u e d by C o n s t a n t i n o p l e (1973) (p . 1106) . In her summary o f the "new" androgyny measures , Cook (1985) noted the b r o a d s i m i l a r i t i e s between the measures ( e . g . , the assumpt ion t h a t m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y are s e p a r a t e d imens ions t h a t a r e p r e s e n t i n both s e x e s ) , as w e l l as the s u p e r f i c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s ( such as number o f i t e m s , ranges o f s c o r e s , e t c . ) . However, she warned a g a i n s t u s i n g the i n s t r u m e n t s as i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e measures o f androgyny g i v e n t h a t the i t em s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s and s c o r i n g methods v a r i e d . W i l s o n and Cook (1984) i n v e s t i g a t e d the q u e s t i o n o f convergent v a l i d i t y between the v a r i o u s androgyny measures . They computed the median c o r -r e l a t i o n s f o r a l l p o s s i b l e p a i r s o f 4 major androgyny measures as .65 f o r the M a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e s and .53 f o r the F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s . The s t a t i s t i c s i n d i c a t e d some convergence among d i f -f e r e n t measures o f the androgyny c o n s t r u c t , but no t as h i g h as would be expec ted f o r s c a l e s presumably measur ing the same c o n s t r u c t . A l s o , Cook noted t h a t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s 17 i n t o the s e x - r o l e c a t e g o r i e s may v a r y depending upon which androgyny measure i s u s e d . C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e BSRI The BSRI was d e s i g n e d t o measure the e x t e n t t o which an i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i f i e s w i t h s o c i e t a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s o f " a p p r o p r i a t e " s e x - r o l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n h i s o r her own s e l f -d e s c r i p t i o n (Bern, 1974) . In c o n s t r u c t i n g the i n s t r u m e n t , Bern at tempted t o i d e n t i f y those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t were c o n s i d e r e d more d e s i r a b l e f o r one sex than the o t h e r w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f Amer ican c u l t u r e w i t h i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . A l i s t o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200 p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t were judged t o be p o s i t i v e i n v a l e n c e , and e i t h e r f e m i n i n e o r m a s c u l i n e i n t o n e , was c o m p i l e d by the a u t h o r and s e v e r a l s t u d e n t s . An a d d i t i o n a l l i s t o f 200 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t seemed n e u t r a l i n tone i n terms o f gender was assembled f o r a s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y s c a l e . H a l f the s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y i tems were deemed p o s i t i v e and h a l f were judged n e g a t i v e i n v a l e n c e . Bern and s e v e r a l s t u d e n t s made a l l the judgments i n terms o f i t em v a l e n c e ( p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e ) and gender a s s o c i a t i o n , e i t h e r m a s c u l i n e , f e m i n i n e , o r n e u t r a l . In the w i n t e r o f 1972, 40 undergraduate s t u d e n t s a t S t a n -f o r d U n i v e r s i t y (20 males and 20 females) used a 7 - p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e t o judge the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r e i t h e r a male o r a female i n Amer ican s o c i e t y ; no judge was asked t o r a t e b o t h g e n d e r s . An a d d i t i o n a l 60 s t u d e n t s (30 male and 30 female) r a t e d the t r a i t s the f o l l o w i n g summer. A 18 p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was d e f i n e d as f e m i n i n e o r m a s c u l i n e i f i t was judged by b o t h males and females i n b o t h samples t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one sex t h a n the o t h e r , a t a s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l JJ < .05, t w o - t a i l e d (Bern, 1974). Of the 73 i tems whose c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s a t i s f i e d t h i s c r i t e r i o n , 20 were s e l e c t e d f o r the f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e and 20 were s e l e c t e d f o r the m a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e . Bern has been c r i t i c i z e d f o r not d e s c r i b i n g how t h i s f i n a l s e l e c t i o n was made ( B u r o s , 1 9 8 5 ) . 1 A f t e r w r i t t e n and t e l e p h o n e c o n t a c t w i t h D r . Bern, she sent a copy o f the 73 i tems t h a t reached s i g n i f i c a n c e i n her s t u d y , as w e l l as a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p r o c e d u r e s she used t o s e l e c t the f i n a l 20 m a s c u l i n e and 20 f e m i n i n e s c a l e i t e m s . Appendix A c o n t a i n s t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . P u b l i s h e d i n f o r m a t i o n (Bern, 1974) i n d i c a t e s t h a t an i t e m was c o n s i d e r e d n e u t r a l i f i t passed two c r i t e r i a : f i r s t , i f i t was i n d e p e n d e n t l y judged by b o t h males and females t o be no more d e s i r a b l e f o r one sex t h a n f o r the o t h e r ; s econd , i f male and female judges d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r d e s i r a b i l i t y r a t i n g s o f t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . From t h i s l i s t , t e n p o s i t i v e and t e n n e g a t i v e t r a i t s were s e l e c t e d t o measure a s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y response s e t . The s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y s c o r e was c a l c u l a t e d by r e v e r s i n g the r a t i n g s f o r the t e n n e g a t i v e i tems and t h e n c a l c u l a t i n g the i n d i v i d u a l ' s mean r a t i n g a c r o s s the twenty n e u t r a l i t e m s . The s c o r e s range from one t o s even , w i t h low s c o r e s i n d i c a t i n g a tendency t o d e s c r i b e o n e s e l f i n a s o c i a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e d i r e c t i o n and h i g h s c o r e s i n d i c a t i n g the 19 o p p o s i t e . However, Walkup and A b b o t t (1978) q u e s t i o n e d the n e u t r a l i t y o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f o f these i tems and , i n response t o t h i s c r i t i c i s m , Bern (1981) d e c i d e d t h a t they s h o u l d no l o n g e r be s c o r e d . C u r r e n t l y , t h e y s erve o n l y as f i l l e r i t e m s . R e l i a b i l i t y D a t a . P s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y , the BSRI d i s p l a y s mod-e r a t e t o good i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y and r e l i a b i l i t y . The a n a l y s e s r e p o r t e d were conducted on the two samples o f S t a n f o r d U n i v e r -s i t y undergraduate s t u d e n t s i n I n t r o d u c t o r y P s y c h o l o g y (Bern, 1974; Bern, 1981) . The f i r s t sample i n c l u d e d 279 females and 444 males who f i l l e d out the BSRI i n 1973; the second sample i n c l u d e d 340 females and 476 males who comple ted the BSRI i n 1978. Bern r e p o r t e d the f o l l o w i n g c o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a s ( the f i r s t c o e f f i c i e n t i s f o r the S t a n f o r d 1973 sample and the c o e f f i c i e n t i n b r a c k e t s i s f o r the S t a n f o r d 1978 sample ) : f o r f em al e s , .75 ( .78) f o r the F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e and .87 ( .86) f o r the M a s c u l i n i t y S c a l e ; f o r males , .78 ( .78) f o r F e m i n i n i t y and .86 ( .87) f o r M a s c u l i n i t y . The sample s i z e s were l a r g e enough t o be c o n f i d e n t i n the r e s u l t s . The BSRI was a d m i n i s t e r e d f o r a second t ime f o u r weeks a f t e r the f i r s t t e s t t o 28 males and 28 females from the 1973 S t a n f o r d sample (Bern, 1974) . The product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s showed good t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y : on the F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e the r e l i a b i l i t y was .82 f o r females and .89 f o r males ; on the Mas-c u l i n i t y s c a l e the r e l i a b i l i t y was .94 f o r females and .76 f o r males . However, the sample s i z e was s m a l l and r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i t h a l a r g e r group t o be c o n f i d e n t w i t h the r e s u l t s . 20 E m p i r i c a l l y , the F e m i n i n i t y and M a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e s do prove t o be v i r t u a l l y u n r e l a t e d (Bern, 1974; Bern, 1981) . Bern r e p o r t e d the f o l l o w i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s between the s c a l e s f o r the 1973 and 1978 S t a n f o r d samples ( the f i r s t f i g u r e i s f o r the S t a n f o r d 1973 sample and the f i g u r e i n b r a c k e t s i s f o r the S t a n f o r d 1978 sample ) : f o r f ema le s , - . 1 4 ( .00) and f o r males , .11 ( - . 0 5 ) . Bern f e e l s t h a t t h i s l a c k o f c o r r e l a t i o n s u p p o r t s the need f o r the BSRI, s i n c e i t does not f o r c e an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between f e m i n i n i t y and m a s c u l i n i t y , but r a t h e r , t r e a t s them as i n d e p e n -dent v a r i a b l e s . V a l i d i t y D a t a . There i s l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n r e p o r t i n g d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y o f the BSRI s c a l e s o t h e r than t h a t they seem t o be u n c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y , as measured by the Marlowe-Crowne S c a l e (MCSDS; Crowne and Marlowe, 1960) . The MCSDS was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o the 28 males and 28 females i n the 1973 t e s t - r e t e s t sample d e s c r i b e d above (Bern, 1974) . The c o r -r e l a t i o n s between the m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s and the MCSDS were near z e r o . T h u s , the androgyny s c o r e i s no t measur ing a g e n e r a l tendency t o re spond i n a s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e d i r e c t i o n , but r a t h e r , i t i s measur ing a v e r y s p e c i f i c tendency t o d e s c r i b e o n e s e l f i n accordance w i t h s e x - t y p e d s t a n d a r d s o f d e s i r a b l e b e h a v i o u r f o r men and women. Bern (Bern, 1975; Bern & Lenney, 1976) c i t e s some e m p i r i c a l d a t a t h a t i n d i c a t e s t h a t o v e r t b e h a v i o u r c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h s e l f -d e s c r i p t i o n on the BSRI . As noted p r e v i o u s l y , the convergent v a l i d i t y o f the BSRI and o t h e r s e x - r o l e measures was not as h i g h 21 as would be expec ted f o r i n s t r u m e n t s s u p p o s e d l y measur ing the same c o n s t r u c t ( W i l s o n & Cook, 1984) . The median c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r a l l p o s s i b l e p a i r s o f 4 major androgyny measures was computed as .65 f o r the M a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e s and .53 f o r the F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s . C r i t i q u e s o f the BSRI S i n c e i t s development , the BSRI has undergone much c r i t i c a l s c r u t i n y . C r i t i q u e s i n B u r o s ' (1985) M e n t a l Measurement Yearbook have o u t l i n e d most o f the noteworthy c o n t r o v e r s i e s . Bern has been c r i t i c i z e d f o r not u s i n g t r a d i t i o n a l s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n t e c h n i -ques such as i t e m - t o t a l c o r r e l a t i o n s o r f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , as w e l l as f o r f a i l i n g t o base the measure on any t h e o r y c o n c e r n i n g the n a t u r e o f m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y ( e . g . , Pedhazur & T e t e n -baum, 1979) . She does no t s p e c i f y how the f i n a l twenty i tems f o r each s c a l e were s e l e c t e d , nor does she d e s c r i b e how a p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n was made c o n c e r n i n g the n e u t r a l i t e m s . In an at tempt t o de termine whether the two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f i tems (mascu l ine and f emin ine ) are u n i d i m e n s i o n a l and i n d e -pendent , numerous f a c t o r a n a l y t i c s t u d i e s o f the BSRI d a t a have been conducted ( e . g . , Pedhazur & Tetenbaum, 1979; W a t e r s , Waters , & P i n c u s , 1977) . Waters e t a l . and Pedhazur and T e t e n -baum found f o u r f a c t o r s i n d a t a o b t a i n e d from 252 and 571 u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . In g e n e r a l , the f a c t o r s a r e d e s c r i b e d a s : (a) a f e m i n i n e f a c t o r d e f i n e d by such i tems as "warm," " g e n t l e , " and "eager t o soothe h u r t f e e l i n g s ; " (b) a m a s c u l i n e f a c t o r d e f i n e d by i tems such as "dominant ," 22 " a g g r e s s i v e , " and " a s s e r t i v e ; " (c) a second m a s c u l i n e f a c t o r d e f i n e d by i tems such as " independent ," " s e l f - r e l i a n t , " and " s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t ; " and (d) a f a c t o r l a b e l l e d as r e p r e s e n t i n g sex o f s u b j e c t and d e f i n e d by the t h r e e i t e m s , " m a s c u l i n e , " " f e m i n i n e , " and " a t h l e t i c " (Bern, 1981) . T h u s , Bern (1974) has been c r i t i c i z e d because the o r i g i n a l BSRI i tems do not p r o v i d e two u n i d i m e n s i o n a l r a t i n g s o f f e m i n i n i t y and m a s c u l i n i t y . The s e p a r a t i o n o f the two i tems m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e i n t o a un ique b i p o l a r f a c t o r makes the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the r e m a i n i n g i tems as f e m i n i n e o r m a s c u l i n e q u e s t i o n a b l e ( H a r r i s , 1994) . As d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , Bern (1979) c l a i m e d t h a t i t was not h e r i n t e n t i o n t o d e v e l o p two u n i -d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l e s ; however, she l a t e r d e v e l o p e d the s h o r t v e r -s i o n o f t h e BSRI (1981) w i t h s c a l e s which were f a c t o r a l l y p u r e and which do not c o n t a i n the i tems "mascul ine" o r " f e m i n i n e . " Even though Bern (Bern, 1975; Bern & Lenney , 1976) c i t e s some e m p i r i c a l d a t a t h a t l i n k o v e r t b e h a v i o u r w i t h s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n on the BSRI , the i n v e n t o r y i s c r i t i c i z e d f o r i t s l i m i t e d v a l i d i t y d a t a . A c r i t i q u e by Payne ( c i t e d i n Buros (1985) c l a i m e d t h a t the c o n t e n t o f the s c a l e s does no t c o v e r a f u l l range o f the ways i n which men and women d i f f e r i n Amer ican s o c i e t y and q u e s t i o n s what e x a c t l y the BSRI i s m e a s u r i n g . They argued t h a t t h e domain o f t h e s e s c a l e s i s much more s p e c i f i c than the l a b e l s " m a s c u l i n i t y " and " f e m i n i n i t y " i n d i c a t e . U s i n g an e i g h t - v a r i a b l e c i r c u m p l e x model o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o u r , Wiggins and H o l z m u l l e r (1978) no ted t h a t the i tems 23 making up the B S R I ' s M a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e f e l l w i t h i n the dominant -a m b i t i o u s v e c t o r , w h i l e most o f the i tems c o m p r i s i n g the f e m i -n i n i t y s c a l e f e l l w i t h i n the warm-agreeable v e c t o r o f the same model . T h u s , the BSRI d i d not add any new i n f o r m a t i o n t o as ses s the d imens ions o f m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y t h a t were not a l r e a d y i d e n t i f i e d by the d o m i n a n t - a m b i t i o u s and warm-agreeable v e c t o r s . A l s o , Bern's d e f i n i t i o n o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l androgyny i n c o r p o r a t e d these two o r t h o g o n a l v e c t o r s w h i l e i g n o r i n g the r e m a i n i n g s i x major d imens ions o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o u r ( g r e g a r i o u s - e x t r a v e r t e d , u n a s s u m i n g - i n g e n u i o u s , l a z y - s u b m i s s i v e , a l o o f - i n t r o v e r t e d , c o l d - q u a r r e l s o m e , and a r r o g a n t - c a l c u l a t i n g ) . However, a f t e r c a r r y i n g out t h e i r own s t u d y , Wiggins and H o l z m u l l e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t "Bern's measure o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l androgyny appears t o r e f l e c t a h i g h l y g e n e r a l i z a b l e p e r s o n o l o g i -c a l c o n s t r u c t . Persons c l a s s i f i e d as androgynous o r as s e x - t y p e d by the BSRI w i l l t e n d t o be androgynous o f s e x - t y p e d on f i v e o f the e i g h t d imens ions o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o u r " (p . 50 ) . Another major c o n t r o v e r s y surrounds the s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s o f the BSRI . O r i g i n a l l y , the t - r a t i o was used t o c a l c u l a t e an androgyny s c o r e ; t h i s s c o r e r e f l e c t e d the r e l a t i v e number o f m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e i tems an i n d i v i d u a l endorsed i n h i s o r her s e l f d e s c r i p t i o n . An androgynous s e x - r o l e thus r e p r e s e n t e d e q u a l endorsements o f m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e a t t r i b u t e s , whereas a s e x - t y p e d s e x - r o l e r e p r e s e n t e d endorsement o f s e x - a p p r o p r i a t e a t t r i b u t e s and r e j e c t i o n o f the o p p o s i t e sex a t t r i b u t e s . Spence , H e l m r e i c h , and S t r a p p (1975) c l a i m e d t h a t t h i s s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e 24 i n c o r r e c t l y lumped t o g e t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s i n the androgynous c a t e g o r y who s c o r e d h i g h on both the m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s w i t h those who s c o r e d low on b o t h s c a l e s . T h u s , a median-s p l i t s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e was sugges ted t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e among the f o u r g r o u p s : M a s c u l i n e , F e m i n i n e , Androgynous ( s c o r e s h i g h on b o t h s c a l e s ) , and U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ( s c o r e s low on b o t h s c a l e s ) . In 1977, Bern adopted the m e d i a n - s p l i t method. Bern (1979) has g e n e r a l l y at tempted t o respond t o her c o l -l e a g u e s ' c r i t i c i s m s . In terms o f the s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s and the n e u t r a l i t y o f the i tems i n the s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y s c a l e , she has agreed w i t h t h e i r comments and has made a d j u s t m e n t s . C o n -c e r n i n g h e r i t em s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , Bern has argued t h a t h e r s c a l e development p r o c e d u r e was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the u n d e r l y i n g t h e o r y o f the BSRI, which a s s e r t s t h a t "sex - typed i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l conform t o whatever d e f i n i t i o n s o f f e m i n i n i t y and mas-c u l i n i t y the c u l t u r e happens t o p r o v i d e " (p . 1049) . She argued t h a t these d e f i n i t i o n s a r e w e l l known by v i r t u a l l y a l l members o f the c u l t u r e . T h u s , she b e l i e v e s t h a t the judges s e r v e d as " n a t i v e i n f o r m a n t s " about t h e i r c u l t u r e ' s s t a n d a r d s f o r d e s i r a b l e b e h a v i o u r o f the sexes and t h a t the i tems c o n t a i n e d i n the s c a l e s r i g h t f u l l y r e f l e c t such c u l t u r a l s t a n d a r d s . Bern (1979) d i d not f i n d the f a c t t h a t the m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s were not u n i d i m e n s i o n a l p r o b l e m a t i c , nor d i d she b e l i e v e t h a t one s h o u l d employ a methodology f o r c o n s t r u c t -i n g the s c a l e s t h a t would guarantee t h e i r u n i d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . She argued: 25 Pedhazur and Tetenbaum a r e p u t t i n g the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c a r t b e f o r e the t h e o r e t i c a l h o r s e . The c u l t u r e has a r b i t r a r i l y c l u s t e r e d t o g e t h e r heterogeneous c o l l e c t i o n s o f a t t r i b u t e s i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s p r e s c r i b e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r one sex o r the o t h e r . . . . I f the c u l t u r e groups a hodgepodge o f a t t r i b u t e s i n t o a c a t e g o r y i t c a l l s " f e m i n i n i t y " o r " m a s c u l i n i t y , " t h e n the hodgepodge i s what s e x - t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l t a k e as the s t a n d a r d f o r t h e i r b e h a v i o u r . The purpose o f the BSRI i s t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between those i n d i v i d u a l s f o r whom t h i s hodgepodge does form a u n i t a r y c l u s t e r and those i n d i v i d u a l s f o r whom i t does not (p . 1049) . A l t h o u g h Bern d i d not appear t o be b o t h e r e d by the l a c k o f u n i d i m e n s i o n a l i t y o f the BSRI s c a l e s , she has responded t o the v a r i o u s f a c t o r a n a l y t i c s t u d i e s by p r e s e n t i n g a s h o r t form o f the BSRI based on her own f a c t o r a n a l y t i c f i n d i n g s (Bern, 1981) . The r e v i s e d v e r s i o n c o n t a i n s 30 i t e m s : 10 i tems make up the f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e , 10 i tems make up the m a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e , and 10 i tems s e r v e as n e u t r a l o r f i l l e r i t e m s . Feminine and m a s c u l i n e i tems were s e l e c t e d i n o r d e r t o maximize b o t h the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f the F e m i n i n i t y and M a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e s and the o r t h o g o n a l i t y between them (Bern, 1981) . The end r e s u l t i s an i n s t r u m e n t t h a t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y s u p e r i o r t o the o r i g i n a l BSRI . I t i s composed o f two pure f a c t o r s r e p r e s e n t -i n g " i n s t r u m e n t a l " ( m a s c u l i n i t y ) and "expres s ive" ( f e m i n i n i t y ) t r a i t s ( B u r o s , 1985) . 26 When normat ive d a t a from two l a r g e S t a n f o r d samples ( d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y ) was r e s c o r e d , the m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i -n i n i t y s c o r e s f o r the S h o r t BSRI were, o v e r a l l , more i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t than f o r the o r i g i n a l BSRI (The c o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a was h i g h e r f o r b o t h sexes on the f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e , but s l i g h t l y lower f o r b o t h sexes on the m a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e ) . The f i r s t f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s the 1973 S t a n f o r d sample and the f i g u r e i n parenthese s i s the 1978 S t a n f o r d sample: the c o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a f o r the f e m i n i n i t y s c o r e was .84 ( .84) f o r females and .87 ( .87) f o r males ; the c o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a f o r the m a s c u l i n i t y s c o r e was .84 ( .86) f o r females and .85 ( .85) f o r m a l e s . As w i t h the o r i g i n a l BSRI , the s h o r t v e r s i o n had h i g h t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y : the c o r r e l a t i o n f o r the f e m i n i n i t y s c o r e was .85 f o r females and .91 f o r males ; the c o r r e l a t i o n f o r the m a s c u l i n i t y s c o r e was .91 f o r females and .76 f o r males . R e s e a r c h Employ ing the BSRI A s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f r e s e a r c h u s i n g the BSRI has i n v o l v e d s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s and c r i t i q u e s o f the i n s t r u m e n t i t s e l f . F o r example, many f a c t o r a n a l y s e s have been performed on the BSRI ( e . g . , G r o s s , B a t l i s , S m a l l , & E r d w i n s , 1979; Pedhazur & Tetenbaum, 1979; Waters , Waters , & P i n c u s , 1977); v a r i o u s debates have surrounded the i n s t r u m e n t ( e . g . , Bern, 1979; L o c k -s l e y & C o l t e n , 1979; Pedhazur & Tetenbaum, 1979); and some s t u d i e s have at tempted p a r t i a l r e p l i c a t i o n s ( e . g . , B a l l a r d -R e i s c h & E l t o n , 1992; Edwards & Ashworth , 1977; Walkup & A b b o t t , 1978) . Because some o f t h i s r e s e a r c h has been d i s c u s s e d i n 27 p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s o f t h i s document, i t w i l l no t be d i s c u s s e d here a g a i n . Bern has always m a i n t a i n e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h an androgynous s e x - r o l e a r e b e h a v i o u r a l l y more f l e x i b l e and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y h e a l t h i e r then t h e i r s e x - t y p e d c o u n t e r p a r t s . Her e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h f o c u s e d on comparing the b e h a v i o u r o f androgynous and s e x - t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s , as d e f i n e d by the BSRI , i n a v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g s e x - t y p i c a l and s e x -a t y p i c a l b e h a v i o u r s (Bern, 1975; Bern & Lenney , 1976) . In g e n e r a l , they found t h a t androgynous p a r t i c i p a n t s per formed b o t h m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e b e h a v i o u r s w e l l , whereas s e x - t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s performed w e l l o n l y on gender a p p r o p r i a t e t a s k s . T a y l o r and H a l l (1982) argued t h a t the p o s i t i v e m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e s c a l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the r e s p e c t i v e s e x - t y p e d dependent measure o n l y demonstrated t h a t androgynous i n d i v i d u a l s a r e h i g h on b o t h m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e t r a i t s . W h i l e t h i s e v i d e n c e i s e s s e n t i a l f o r c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y , a t e s t o f the s u p e r i o r f u n c t i o n i n g h y p o t h e s i s would r e q u i r e d i r e c t measures o f a d a p t a b i l i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y . A v a s t a r e a o f r e s e a r c h employ ing the BSRI e x p l o r e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between androgyny and o t h e r menta l h e a l t h measures , such as s e l f - e s t e e m . The r e s u l t s have been e q u i v o c a l ; i n some s t u d i e s androgynous i n d i v i d u a l s were p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y h e a l t h i e r than s e x - t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s ( e . g . , Lamke, 1982; O r l o f s k y & W i n d l e , 1978) , whereas i n o t h e r s , the " m a s c u l i n i t y e f f e c t " p r e d i c t e d w e l l - b e i n g ( e . g . , K e l l y & W o r e l l , 1977; T a y l o r & H a l l , 1982) . 28 S i l v e r n and Ryan (1979) found t h a t s u p e r i o r adjus tment was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h androgynous v e r s u s t r a d i t i o n a l t y p i n g o n l y among women, no t men. U s i n g d a t a o b t a i n e d from 147 undergraduate s t u d e n t s (76 women and 71 men) who had completed the BSRI and v a r i o u s s e l f - r a t e d adjustment s c a l e s , they found t h a t on a l l adjustment i n d i c e s t r a d i t i o n a l men r a t e d themse lves as b e t t e r a d j u s t e d than d i d androgynous men (rj < .05 o r JD < .10 depending upon the adjustment i n d e x ) . Androgynous women r a t e d themse lves as b e t t e r a d j u s t e d t h a n d i d androgynous men. The d i f f e r e n c e reached s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r two o f the adjustment s c a l e s ( E < .05 and j> < .01) and approached s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the t h i r d ( E < . 1 0 ) . T h u s , adjustment d i f f e r e n c e s among s e x - t y p e s were accounted f o r by d i f f e r e n c e s i n m a s c u l i n i t y , not i n f e m i n i n i t y o r androgyny per s e . F l a h e r t y and Dusek (1980) p r e d i c t e d t h a t the r e l a t i o n o f sex r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n t o s e l f - e s t e e m would depend on the a s p e c t o f s e l f t h a t was measured. They found t h a t i f the measure r e f l e c t e d a t r a d i t i o n a l l y m a s c u l i n e o r i e n t a t i o n , the androgynous and m a s c u l i n e s u b j e c t s would s c o r e h i g h , but i f the measure tapped i n t o the t r a d i t i o n a l l y f e m i n i n e e x p r e s s i v e r o l e , the androgynous and f e m i n i n e s u b j e c t s would s c o r e h i g h . In o t h e r words , c o n c l u s i o n s about s u p e r i o r adjustment may be i n f l u e n c e d by gender b i a s e s i n o t h e r mental measures . L i k e Bern (1974, 1975) , F l a h e r t y and Dusek argued t h a t "an androgynous o r i e n t a -t i o n l e a d s t o the p o s s i b i l i t y o f g r e a t e r b e h a v i o u r a l f l e x i b i l i t y and a d a p t a t i o n " (p . 990) . However, as s t a t e d above , the 29 c o n t r o v e r s y l i n k i n g androgyny v e r s u s m a s c u l i n i t y w i t h s u p e r i o r f u n c t i o n i n g i s u n r e s o l v e d . As Bern's r e s e a r c h has s h i f t e d toward gender schemat i c p r o -c e s s i n g , the BSRI has been used t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between gender aschemat ic and gender schemat i c i n d i v i d u a l s ( e . g . , Bern, 1981b; S c h m i t t & M i l l a r d , 1988) . A c c o r d i n g t o gender schema t h e o r y , most c u l t u r e s have deve loped a r i c h source o f d e s c r i p t o r s t h a t a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r concept s o f "man" and "woman." However, i n d i v i d u a l s v a r y i n how they use the c u l t u r e ' s c o n c e p -t u a l i z a t i o n o f m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y t o e v a l u a t e them-s e l v e s , t h e i r w o r l d , and o t h e r s . Bern (1981b) has found s e x - t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s , as de termined by the BSRI, t e n d t o encode and o r g a n i z e incoming i n f o r m a t i o n u s i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l b i p o l a r m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y d i m e n s i o n , whereas n o n - s e x - t y p e d i n d i v i d -u a l s use o t h e r , n o n g e n d e r - r e l a t e d d imens ions t o o r g a n i z e i n f o r m a t i o n . T h u s , n o n - s e x - t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s , compared t o s e x -t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s , a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o engage i n g e n d e r - s c h e m a t i c p r o c e s s i n g . The measure has a l s o been used i n o t h e r areas o f r e s e a r c h . B e r n a r d e t a l . (1985) i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o u r t s h i p v i o l e n c e and s e x - t y p i n g . They a d m i n i s t e r e d the BSRI and a q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r o b i n g e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h abuse between d a t i n g p a r t n e r s t o 171 c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . They found t h a t men who r e p o r t e d h a v i n g been a b u s i v e s c o r e d more t r a d i t i o n a l l y than d i d men who d i d not r e p o r t h a v i n g been a b u s i v e . More r e c e n t l y , r e s e a r c h u s i n g the BSRI l o o k e d a t sex r o l e s and f r i e n d s h i p p a t t e r n s (Jones , B l o y s , & Wood, 1990) . The 30 a u t h o r s gave the BSRI and s e v e r a l f r i e n d s h i p q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o 79 male and 85 female u n i v e r s i t y u n d e r g r a d u a t e s . Androgyny was r e l a t e d t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t enhanced t h e development and maintenance o f c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p s , such as a communal o r i e n t a t i o n and p o s i t i v e c o n c e p t i o n s o f f r i e n d s . S t e v e n s , P f o s t , and P o t t s (1990) i n v e s t i g a t e d s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and the w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o n f r o n t e x i s t e n t i a l i s s u e s . They a d m i n i s t e r e d the BSRI and the Avo idance o f E x i s t e n t i a l C o n f r o n t a t i o n s c a l e (Thauberger , R u z -n i s k y , & C l e l a n d , c i t e d i n Stevens e t a l . , 1990) t o 44 female and 44 male u n i v e r s i t y u n d e r g r a d u a t e s . They found t h a t i n d i v i d u -i a l s who s c o r e d androgynous on the BSRI were t h e most r e c e p t i v e t o f a c i n g e x i s t e n t i a l i s s u e s , whereas i n d i v i d u a l s who s c o r e d s e x - t y p e d r e p o r t e d the l e a s t w i l l i n g n e s s . W h i l e not e x h a u s t i v e , these s t u d i e s g i v e a f l a v o u r o f the k i n d s o f r e s e a r c h t h a t have employed t h e BSRI . Of a l l the s e x -r o l e measures , i t i s the most p o p u l a r and w i d e l y used (Cook, 1985) . G i v e n t h a t many o f the s t u d i e s i n c l u d i n g the BSRI have i n v e s t i g a t e d mental h e a l t h adjus tment , i t seemed wor thwhi l e t o pursue r e s e a r c h on the v a l i d i t y o f the BSRI . R e p l i c a t i o n S t u d i e s o f the BSRI To d a t e , no s t u d y has r e p l i c a t e d Bern's o r i g i n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the BSRI . However, a few s t u d i e s have a t tempted p a r t i a l r e p l i c a t i o n s , f o c u s i n g on the i tems c o n t a i n e d i n the BSRI ( B a l l a r d - R e i s c h & E l t o n , 1992; Edwards & Ashworth , 1977; H a r r i s , 1994; Walkup & A b b o t t , 1978) . G i v e n the i n f l u e n c e o f t h e women's movement on u n i v e r s i t y campuses i n the 1970s, Edwards and Ashworth (1977) sugges ted 31 t h a t i tems t h a t were r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e i n one sex than i n the o t h e r i n 1972 might no l o n g e r be v a l i d by the end o f the decade . They conducted a s t u d y i n which two male and two female s e n i o r undergraduate s t u d e n t s ( exper imenters ) each o b t a i n e d r a t i n g s o f s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r t h e 60 BSRI i tems from 20 male and 20 female judges ( h a l f r a t e d the c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s f o r an Amer ican male and h a l f f o r an Amer ican f e m a l e ) . The t o t a l sample i n c l u d e d 160 p a r t i c i p a n t s . The e x p e r i m e n t e r s went t o l i b r a r i e s and s t u d e n t u n i o n b u i l d i n g s on the U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington campus t o r e c r u i t p a r t i c i p a n t s . The o n l y i t em r a t e d by b o t h males and females as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e i n a male than i n a female was "mascul ine" and the o n l y i t em r a t e d by b o t h males and females as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e i n a female was " f e m i n i n e . " These f i n d i n g s s e r i o u s l y c h a l l e n g e d the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f the BSRI . In the same a r t i c l e , Edwards and Ashworth (1977) r e p o r t e d a second at tempt t o r e p l i c a t e Bern's (1974) f i n d i n g s (n = 80 ) , a l s o w i t h o u t s u c c e s s . D e s p i t e t h e i r second a t t e m p t , the r e s u l t s were the same as i n the f i r s t s t u d y . They c l a i m t h a t a p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the f a i l u r e t o r e p l i c a t e i s t h a t c o l l e g e s t u -d e n t s ' c o n c e p t i o n o f f e m i n i n e and m a s c u l i n e g e n d e r - r o l e s and g e n d e r - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s had changed s i n c e Bern c o l l e c t e d h e r r a t i n g s o f gender d e s i r a b i l i t y . They a l s o sugges ted s e v e r a l o t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n s , such as d i f f e r e n c e s i n methods o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n ( i n d i v i d u a l l y r a t h e r than from a g r o u p ) ; d i f f e r e n c e s i n r a t i n g s c a l e s ( 9 - p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e r a t h e r than a 7 - p o i n t 32 L i k e r t s c a l e ) ; and , d i f f e r e n t i a l s a m p l i n g (convenience s e l e c t i o n of u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s r a t h e r than s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n i n t r o d u c t o r y p s y c h o l o g y c o u r s e s ) . A l t h o u g h t h e s e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s may have been i n f l u e n t i a l , Walkup and A b b o t t (1978) no ted t h a t the i n s t r u c t i o n s t o judges a l s o d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t -l y and p r o b a b l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o Edwards and A s h w o r t h ' s (1977) f a i l u r e t o r e p l i c a t e Bern's f i n d i n g s . Edwards and A s h w o r t h ' s i n s t r u c t i o n s were t o r a t e "how d e s i r a b l e o r u n d e s i r a b l e you judge [ p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t ] t o be i n an American male / f emale" (Walkup & A b b o t t , 1978, p . 6 4 ) . Bern's (1981) i n s t r u c t i o n s asked judges . . . t o i n d i c a t e how d e s i r a b l e i t i s i n Amer ican s o c i e t y f o r a man/woman t o posses s each o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Note: We are not i n t e r e s t e d i n your p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n o f how d e s i r a b l e each o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s . R a t h e r , we want your judgement o f how our s o c i e t y e v a l u a t e s each o f these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a man/woman (p . 1 7 ) . T h u s , the two s e t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n s d i f f e r i n t h e i r emphasis on s o c i e t a l v e r s u s i n d i v i d u a l r a t i n g and i n r e f e r e n c e t o sex (male / female ) o r gender (man/woman) o f the person b e i n g r a t e d (Walkup & A b b o t t , 1978) . Prompted by these c o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s , Walkup and A b b o t t (1978) at tempted t o r e p l i c a t e Bern's (1974) BSRI i t em s e l e c t i o n u s i n g h e r r a t i n g s c a l e and i n s t r u c t i o n s . Undergraduate s t u d e n t s i n f o u r E d u c a t i o n a l Psycho logy c l a s s e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington s e r v e d as judges ; 18 males and 30 females r a t e d the 33 60 BSRI i tems f o r a man ("In American s o c i e t y how d e s i r a b l e i s i t f o r a man t o b e . . . " ) and 23 males and 58 females r a t e d the t r a i t s f o r a woman ("In Amer ican s o c i e t y how d e s i r a b l e i s i t f o r a woman t o b e . . . " ) . Of the 40 f e m i n i n e and m a s c u l i n e i t e m s , 37 were judged by b o t h female and male judges t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e i n American s o c i e t y f o r the " a p p r o p r i a t e " gender (p < . 05 , two-t a i l e d ) . The r e s u l t s r e p l i c a t e d Bern's f i n d i n g s f o r 18 m a s c u l i n e and 19 f e m i n i n e i t e m s ; the t h r e e e x c e p t i o n s ( l o y a l , w i l l i n g t o t a k e r i s k s , and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c ) were s c o r e d i n t h e p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n , but r e a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e o n l y f o r female j u d g e s . These r e s u l t s s p u r r e d Bern (1981) t o c o n c l u d e t h a t "the BSRI appears t o t a p r e l a t i v e l y e n d u r i n g d e f i n i t i o n s o f f e m i n i n i t y and m a s c u l i n i t y , c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d s t a n d a r d s o f s e x - a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o u r t h a t have not g i v e n way even i n the f a c e o f a s t r o n g f e m i n i s t c r i t i q u e i n t h e s o c i e t y a t l a r g e " (p . 12 ) . R e c e n t l y , B a l l a r d - R e i s c h and E l t o n (1992) t e s t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g as sumpt ions : f i r s t , whether the i tems c o n t a i n e d i n the BSRI c o n t i n u e t o r e p r e s e n t p e r c e p t i o n s o f m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y two decades a f t e r the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f the s c a l e ; and s e c o n d , whether o r not the i tems f o r each s c a l e a r e c u r r e n t l y p e r c e i v e d as p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Two hundred s i x t y - f i v e i n d i v i d u a l s (100 males and 156 females) from an urban community i n the wes tern U n i t e d S t a t e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y . T h e i r ages ranged from 12 t o 65 y e a r s w i t h a mean age o f 27.5 (SD=11.5) . F i r s t , the p a r t i c i p a n t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d the 3 4 BSRI t o complete f o r t h e m s e l v e s . Upon c o m p l e t i o n and r e t u r n of t h e BSRI, t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s were g i v e n a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h e BSRI and asked t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r assessments o f the o r i e n t a t i o n ( m a s c u l i n e , f e m i n i n e , o r n e u t r a l ) o f each i t e m , as w e l l as i t s d e s i r a b i l i t y ( p o s i t i v e , n e g a t i v e , o r n e u t r a l ) . A 75% agreement l e v e l w i t h i n the p o p u l a t i o n was n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o c l a s s i f y an i t em as m a s c u l i n e , f e m i n i n e , o r n e u t r a l , and p o s i t i v e , n e g a t i v e , o r n e u t r a l . The assumptions t h a t m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e i tems o f the BSRI are b o t h p o s i t i v e and p e r c e i v e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r one sex over the o t h e r were no t s u p p o r t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . W h i l e many o f the i tems were r a t e d as p o s i t i v e , o n l y "mascul ine" was r a t e d as more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the m a s c u l i n e o r i e n t a t i o n and o n l y "feminine" was r a t e d as more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the f e m i n i n e o r i e n t a t i o n . Because t h e y f a i l e d t o f o l l o w Bern's p r o c e d u r e s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o de termine whether t h e i r r e s u l t s a r e comparable t o Bern's (1974) f i n d i n g s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s f i r s t r a t e d the BSRI i tems f o r the e x t e n t t o which they p e r c e i v e d themse lves as p o s -s e s s i n g each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . T h u s , r e s p o n d i n g t o the s e l f - r e p o r t measure f i r s t may have i n f l u e n c e d how respondent s r a t e d the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f each i t e m . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n whether Bern's i n s t r u c t i o n s and a 7 - p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e were u s e d . B a l l a r d - R e i s c h and E l t o n (1992) sugges ted t h a t a complete r e p l i c a t i o n o f Bern (1974) i s r e q u i r e d t o f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d the e x t e n t o f change i n p e r c e p t i o n s o f s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s f o r men and women. 35 H a r r i s (1994) i n v e s t i g a t e d whether the BSRI was a a v a l i d i n d i c a t o r o f c u r r e n t c u l t u r a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y . He noted t h a t Bern's o r i g i n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the BSRI d i d not "account f o r any p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f d e s i r a b l e male and female b e h a v i o u r between domi -nant whi te s o c i e t y and any o f the v a r i o u s e t h n i c s u b - c u l t u r e s t h a t compr i se a l a r g e segment o f the American p o p u l a t i o n . " (p . 243) . Data were c o l l e c t e d from 3000 (1500 male and 1500 female) p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h r e e c u l t u r a l g r o u p s : A n g l o - A m e r i c a n , A f r i c a n - A m e r i c a n , and H i s p a n i c . W h i l e n o t i n g t h a t e q u a t i n g e t h n i c i t y w i t h c u l t u r e was l e s s than i d e a l , e t h n i c i t y was a s -sumed t o measure c u l t u r e i n t h i s s t u d y . Each c u l t u r a l group was composed o f 500 males and 500 f emale s . P a r t i c i p a n t s were m i d d l e -c l a s s and r e p o r t e d a median age range o f 30-39 y e a r s o f age. Data were c o l l e c t e d i n two Chicago a r e a shopp ing m a l l s by s t o p p i n g p a t r o n s a t random and a s k i n g them t o p a r t i c i p a t e . They were asked t o respond t o 19 o f the 20 m a s c u l i n e i t e m s , 19 o f the 20 f e m i n i n e i t e m s , and the 20 n e u t r a l i tems c o n t a i n e d i n the BSRI . The i tems "mascul ine" and "feminine" were d e l e t e d from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e due t o t h e i r p o t e n t i a l b i a s i n g n a t u r e . A l s o , f a c t o r a n a l y t i c a l s t u d i e s ( e . g . , Pedhazur & Tetenbaum, 1979; W a t e r s , Waters , & P i n c u s , 1977) showed t h a t they s e r v e d p r i m a r i -l y t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the sexes . H a r r i s used Bern's 7 - p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e and i n s t r u c t i o n . However, he changed the wording o f the i n s t r u c t i o n s s l i g h t l y t o accommodate f o r the t h r e e c u l t u r a l g r o u p s : the p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n s t o r a t e the i tems 36 a c c o r d i n g t o e i t h e r "American c u l t u r e , " " A f r i c a n - A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e , " o r " H i s p a n i c c u l t u r e " depending on which group they were a f f i l i a t e d w i t h . As w i t h Bern's s t u d y , each judge was asked t o r a t e the i tems f o r e i t h e r a man o r f o r a woman, but not f o r b o t h g e n d e r s . A c c o r d i n g t o Bern's (1974) c r i t e r i a , b o t h male and female judges had t o r a t e an i t em as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender than the o t h e r f o r i t t o be c o n s i d e r e d f o r i n c l u s i o n . H a r r i s (1994) found t h a t both the female and male judges r a t e d a l l o f the 19 m a s c u l i n e i tems s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r a man than a woman (JJ < .01). F o u r t e e n o f the 19 f e m i n i n e i tems were r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r a woman than a man (p. < .01): f l a t t e r a b l e , l o y a l and u n d e r s t a n d i n g f a i l e d t o r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the male judges and c h i l d l i k e f a i l e d t o r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the female judges . A l t h o u g h none o f t h e n e u t r a l i tems was r a t e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender t h a n the o t h e r by b o t h male and female judges , most o f the i tems were r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r t h e genders by one group o f j u d g e s . F i v e i tems ( a d a p t a b l e , c o n c e i t e d , t a c t f u l , u n p r e d i c t a b l e , and u n s y s t e m a t i c ) were r a t e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r a woman than a man by male r a t e r s ; n i n e i tems ( c o n v e n t i o n a l , f r i e n d l y , happy, h e l p f u l , l i k a b l e , r e l i -a b l e , s i n c e r e , t h e a t r i c a l , and t r u t h f u l ) were r a t e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r a woman than a man by female r a t e r s . Note t h a t the male and female judges d i f f e r e d i n t h e n e u t r a l i tems they r a t e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r a woman. The female judges a l s o r a t e d f i v e 37 i tems ( i n e f f e c t i v e , moody, s e c r e t i v e , so lemn, and t a c t f u l ) s i g -n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r a man t h a n a woman. The i t em " t a c t f u l " was r a t e d more d e s i r a b l e f o r the o p p o s i t e gender by b o t h male and female j u d g e s . When e t h n i c i t y was c o n s i d e r e d , d i f f e r e n c e s were a p p a r e n t . F o r the A n g l o - A m e r i c a n g r o u p , 36 o f the 39 s e x - t y p e d i tems were r a t e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender than the o t h e r by both male and female judges (makes d e c i s i o n s e a s i l y , does not use h a r s h language , and f l a t t e r a b l e f a i l e d t o r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r both male and female j u d g e s ) . The H i s p a n i c group r a t e d 13 m a s c u l i n e i tems as more d e s i r a b l e f o r a man t h a n a woman ( a s s e r t i v e , f o r c e f u l , makes d e c i s i o n s e a s i l y , s e l f - r e l i a n t , s t r o n g - p e r s o n a l i t y , and w i l l i n g t o take r i s k s d i d not r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r b o t h male and female r a t e r s ) . The H i s p a n i c group r a t e d o n l y 8 f e m i n i n e i tems ( a f f e c t i o n a t e , g u l l i b l e , s e n s i t i v e t o the needs o f o t h e r s , shy , s o f t - s p o k e n , t e n d e r , warm, and y i e l d i n g ) as more d e s i r a b l e f o r a woman than a man. E l e v e n i tems ( c h e e r f u l , c h i l d l i k e , compass ionate , does not use h a r s h language , eager t o soothe h u r t f e e l i n g s , f l a t t e r a b l e , g e n t l e , l o v e s c h i l d r e n , l o y a l , s y m p a t h e t i c , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g ) f a i l e d t o r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r b o t h male and female r a t e r s . The male judges a l s o r a t e d f o u r o f the f e m i n i n e i tems ( c h i l d l i k e , does not use h a r s h language , eager t o soothe h u r t f e e l i n g s , and g e n t l e ) as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r a man than f o r a woman. Among the A f r i c a n - A m e r i c a n g r o u p , none o f the m a s c u l i n e i tems was r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r a man than 38 f o r a woman by b o t h male and female r a t e r s . Males r a t e d f o u r i tems ( a m b i t i o u s , a n a l y t i c a l , has l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t i e s , and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c ) as more d e s i r a b l e f o r a man, whereas females r a t e d s i x d i f f e r e n t i tems (ac t s as a l e a d e r , a g g r e s s i v e , compe-t i t i v e , defends own b e l i e f s , makes d e c i s i o n s e a s i l y , and w i l l i n g t o take r i s k s ) as more d e s i r a b l e f o r a man. Moreover , males r a t e d t h r e e m a s c u l i n e i tems (dominant , s t r o n g - p e r s o n a l i t y , and w i l l i n g t o take r i s k s ) and females r a t e d t h r e e m a s c u l i n e i tems ( a n a l y t i c a l , f o r c e f u l , and w i l l i n g t o t a k e a s tand) as more d e s i r a b l e f o r a woman t h a n f o r a man. A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n a r o s e f o r the A f r i c a n - A m e r i c a n group w i t h the f e m i n i n e i t e m s : o n l y two i tems ( s e n s i t i v e t o the needs o f o t h e r s and t e n d e r ) were r a t e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r a woman than f o r a man by both male and female A f r i c a n - A m e r i c a n r a t e r s . Male judges r a t e d f o u r i tems ( c h i l d l i k e , does no t use h a r s h language , l o y a l , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g ) as more d e s i r a b l e f o r a woman, whereas t h e female judges r a t e d s i x s e p a r a t e i tems ( a f f e c t i o n a t e , c h e e r -f u l , l o v e s c h i l d r e n , s o f t - s p o k e n , s y m p a t h e t i c , and warm) as s i g -n i f i c a n t . Four i tems ( c h e e r f u l , s h y , s y m p a t h e t i c , and y i e l d i n g ) were r a t e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r men by male r a t e r s and one i t em ( c h i l d l i k e ) was r a t e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r men by female r a t e r s . Note t h a t c h e e r f u l , s y m p a t h e t i c , c h i l d l i k e were r a t e d more d e s i r a b l e f o r the o p p o s i t e gender by b o t h male and female r a t e r s . H a r r i s ' (1994) s t u d y l e n d s s u p p o r t t o the v a l i d i t y o f the BSRI as an i n d i c a t o r o f "American" c u l t u r a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f 39 m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y t o d a y . However, i t s v a l i d i t y w i t h o t h e r c u l t u r a l groups i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . R e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s tudy c l e a r l y showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between d e s i r a b i l i t y r a t i n g s o f A f r i c a n - A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a n t s when compared t o A n g l o - A m e r i c a n and H i s p a n i c - A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a n t s . Thus , the BSRI may not be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r use by non-Amer ican samples because d e f i n i t i o n s o f m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y may d i f f e r somewhat a c r o s s c u l t u r e s . To summarize, Bern (1981) c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e Edwards and Ashworth s tudy s i g n i f i e s a f a i l u r e t o r e p l i c a t e her methodology, no t h e r r e s u l t s ; the same can be s a i d f o r t h e B a l l a r d - R e i s c h and E l t o n (1992) s t u d y . However, t h e i r f i n d i n g s are s u g g e s t i v e t h a t s e x - r o l e a t t i t u d e s may have changed over t h e l a s t two decades . O n l y t h e Walkup and A b b o t t s t u d y (1978) f o l l o w e d Bern's p r o c e d u r e s c o m p l e t e l y and seemed t o f i n d r e l a t i v e s t a b i l i t y i n g e n d e r - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s . A l t h o u g h H a r r i s ' (1994) methodology and sample demographics ( e . g , d i f f e r e n t age groups) v a r i e d from Bern's (1974) , h i s r e s u l t s a l s o s u p p o r t e d the v a l i d i t y o f the BSRI , but o n l y f o r those from A n g l o - A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e . P e r s i s t e n c e and Change i n G e n d e r - R o l e S t e r e o t y p e s The e x i s t e n c e and p e r s i s t e n c e o f w idespread s t e r e o t y p e s about gender d i f f e r e n c e s have been w e l l documented ( e . g . , Broverman e t a l . , 1972; S h e r r i f f s & McKee, 1957) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s r e s e a r c h , men a r e p o p u l a r l y b e l i e v e d t o be more dominant , independent , c o m p e t i t i v e , i n t e l l e c t u a l , u n e m o t i o n a l , l o g i c a l , and o b j e c t i v e , whereas women are thought t o be more s u b m i s s i v e , 40 dependent , e m o t i o n a l , i r r a t i o n a l , s e n s i t i v e , c o n f o r m i n g , and n u r t u r a n t . The degree t o which t h e r e has been c o n s i s t e n c y o r d i s p a r i t y between c u r r e n t and p a s t g e n d e r - r o l e c o n c e p t i o n s was addressed i n a s t u d y by Werner and LaRussa (1985) , which at tempted t o r e p l i c a t e r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d by S h e r r i f f s and McKee (1957) . B r i e f l y , S h e r r i f f s and McKee (1957) gave 50 male and 50 female undergraduate s t u d e n t s from i n t r o d u c t o r y p s y c h o l o g y c l a s s e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a two c a r d s on which S a r b i n ' s l i s t o f 200 a d j e c t i v e s were p r i n t e d . They were asked t o "Check those a d j e c t i v e s which a r e i n g e n e r a l t r u e o f men (or women)." H a l f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s began w i t h men and h a l f began w i t h women, but a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s checked the a d j e c t i v e s f o r both g e n d e r s . Seventy-one a d j e c t i v e s were a s c r i b e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more o f t e n t o men and 61 a d j e c t i v e s were a s c r i b e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more o f t e n t o women (p < . 0 5 ) . The l i s t i n c l u d e d b o t h f a v o u r a b l e and u n f a v o u r a b l e a d j e c t i v e s . Each a d j e c t i v e had p r e v i o u s l y been r a t e d f o r i t s d e s i r a b i l i t y o r u n d e s i r a b i l i t y when a p p l i e d t o men and t o women (McKee & S h e r r i f f s , 1957) . Each a d j e c t i v e was c l a s s i f i e d as f a v o u r a b l e o r u n f a v o u r a b l e on t h e b a s i s o f i t s median r a t i n g . Werner and LaRussa (1985) c o l l e c t e d t h e i r d a t a i n 1978, 19 y e a r s a f t e r S h e r r i f f s and McKee (1957) had conducted t h e i r s t u d y . F i f t y female and 50 male s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n an i n t r o d u c t o r y p s y c h o l o g y c o u r s e a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t B e r k e l e y were g i v e n two c o p i e s o f S a r b i n ' s 200- i tem a d j e c t i v e 41 c h e c k l i s t ( S a r b i n , c i t e d i n S h e r r i f f s & McKee, 1957) . They were asked t o "check those a d j e c t i v e s which are i n g e n e r a l t r u e o f men" o r " . . . o f women" (Werner & L a R u s s a , 1985, p . 1091) . Both f a v o u r a b l e and u n f a v o u r a b l e a d j e c t i v e s were i n c l u d e d . A s i g -n i f i c a n t r e s u l t i n d i c a t e d t h a t an a d j e c t i v e was a s s i g n e d more o f t e n t o one sex than t o the o t h e r (p < . 0 5 ) . By comparing each a d j e c t i v e ' s s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t i n the S h e r r i f f s and McKee (1957) s tudy w i t h t h e i r d a t a , Werner and LaRussa (1985) proposed t h a t t h e r e p l i c a t i o n would p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g c o n s i s t e n -c i e s and changes i n s t e r e o t y p e s over the i n t e r v e n i n g two decades . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was l i m i t e d change i n g e n d e r - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s between 1957 and 1978. S i x t y - t w o p e r c e n t (44/71) o f the a d j e c t i v e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s c r i b e d t o men i n 1957 c o n t i n u e d t o be p a r t o f the male s t e r e o t y p e f o r re spondents i n 1978. Seventy - seven p e r c e n t (47/61) o f the a d j e c t i v e s a s c r i b e d t o women i n 1957 remained p a r t o f t h e 1978 s t e r e o t y p e o f women. However, 27 o f the a d j e c t i v e s a s s i g n e d t o men i n 1957 and 14 o f the a d j e c t i v e s a s s i g n e d t o women i n 1957 were not r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r one gender than the o t h e r i n 1978. A l s o , many p r e v i o u s l y u n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g a d j e c t i v e s were added t o c u r r e n t s t e r e o t y p e s : 15 new a d j e c t i v e s were r a t e d as more t y p i c a l f o r a man t h a n a woman i n the 1978 d a t a ( e . g . , r e s o u r c e -f u l , b o s s y , demanding, h o s t i l e , s e l f - c e n t e r e d ) and 13 new a d j e c t i v e s were r a t e d as more t y p i c a l f o r a woman t h a n a man i n 1978 ( e . g . , c o n s i d e r a t e , f r i e n d l y , c o o p e r a t i v e , u n s e l f i s h , 42 meek). I n t e r e s t i n g l y , Werner and LaRussa (1985) found t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f the a d j e c t i v e s dropped from the s t e r e o t y p e o f men were f a v o r a b l e ones ( 2 0 / 2 7 ) , w h i l e u n f a v o r a b l e ones tended t o be dropped from the s t e r e o t y p e o f women ( 1 1 / 1 4 ) . S i m i l a r l y , t h e m a j o r i t y o f the a d j e c t i v e s added t o the s t e r e o t y p e o f women i n the c u r r e n t s tudy were f a v o r a b l e ( 1 1 / 1 3 ) , whereas the new a d j e c -t i v e s added t o the male s t e r e o t y p e were a lmost a l l u n f a v o r a b l e ( 1 4 / 1 5 ) . T h u s , d e s p i t e the p e r s i s t e n c e o f s t e r e o t y p e s , t h e r e seemed t o be change i n the v a l u a t i o n o f the two sexes between 1957 and 1978. Summary A r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e y i e l d s c o n f l i c t i n g e v i d e n c e . Two s t u d i e s t h a t g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w e d Bern's p r o c e d u r e s ( H a r r i s , 1994; Walkup & A b b o t t , 1978) found t h a t t h e r e had been l i t t l e change i n r a t i n g s by A n g l o - A m e r i c a n m a l l shoppers and u n i v e r s i t y s t u -dent f o r the 60 BSRI i t e m s . Other s t u d i e s t h a t d i d no t f o l l o w h e r p r o c e d u r e s found t h a t the o n l y i tems t h a t c o n t i n u e d t o be r a t e d more d e s i r a b l e f o r a man and f o r a woman by u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s and urban r e s i d e n t s i n wes tern U n i t e d S t a t e s were "mascul ine" and " femin ine" , r e s p e c t i v e l y ( B a l l a r d & R e i s c h , 1992; Edwards & Ashworth , 1977) . Werner and L a R u s s a ' s (1985) r e s e a r c h found t h a t not o n l y were gender s t e r e o t y p e s r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e , b u t a l s o when c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s were e l i m i n a t e d from the m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e s t e r e o t y p e s , new c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were a d o p t e d . T h u s , "the changes appear not t o s i m p l y r e f l e c t the b l u r r i n g o f c o n c e p t i o n s 43 o f men and women, because new and p r e v i o u s l y n o n s i g n i f i c a n t a d j e c t i v e s have emerged i n the s t e r e o t y p e o f each sex t o t a k e the p l a c e o f those dropped" (Werner & L a R u s s a , 1985, p . 1098) . I t would appear t h a t some mechanism c o n t i n u e s t o o p e r a t e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by gender . The use o f Bern's (1974) o r i g i n a l i t em p o o l (400 i tems) i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y made i t p o s s i b l e t o i n v e s t i g a t e f u r t h e r the i s s u e o f the e x t e n t t o which c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are added a n d / o r dropped from the m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e s t e r e o t y p e s . The purpose o f the c u r r e n t s t u d y i s t o conduct a r e p l i c a -t i o n o f Bern's (1974) i t em s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . Such a r e p l i c a t i o n w i l l de termine the c u r r e n t g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f the BSRI t o U . B . C . s t u d e n t s r e g a r d i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r men and women. As Werner and LaRussa (1985) n o t e d , "Given the l a r g e amount o f d e b a t e , d i s c u s s i o n , a c t i v i s m , and l e g i s l a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o s e x - r o l e change i n the l a s t decade , i t i s r e l e v a n t t o a s se s s t h e e x t e n t t o which s t e r e o t y p i c c o n c e p t i o n s o f the two sexes have changed i n r e c e n t y e a r s " (Werner & L a R u s s a , 1985, p . 1090) . 44 C h a p t e r I I I Methodology Des ign The g o a l o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e the g e n e r a l i z a -b i l i t y o f the Bern Sex R o l e I n v e n t o r y (BSRI; Bern, 1974) t o B r i t i s h Columbian u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . The methodology s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s purpose was a p a r t i a l r e p l i c a t i o n o f the s u r v e y r e s e a r c h d e s i g n used i n the o r i g i n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the BSRI . In t h i s s tudy t h e term " r e p l i c a t i o n " r e f e r s t o the r e s e a r c h methods employed, no t an expectancy t o r e p l i c a t e p a r t i c u l a r r e s u l t s . T h u s , the p r o c e d u r e s , i n s t r u c t i o n s , and i n s t r u m e n t s used by Bern (1974) were adopted i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . Because my g o a l was t o more c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e c o n s i s t e n c i e s and changes i n the BSRI s i n c e Bern's o r i g i n a l s t u d y , use o f the o r i g i n a l meth-odology seemed most a p p r o p r i a t e . Because sampl ing and d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s v a r i e d between the c u r r e n t s t u d y and the i n i t i a l BSRI deve lopment , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Bern's sample and p r o c e d u r e s a r e d e s c r i b e d below. U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e n o t e d , the remainder o f the p r o c e d u r e s i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y match those d e s c r i b e d by Bern (1974; p e r s o n a l communicat ion , 1 9 9 4 1 ) . As noted p r e v i o u s l y , Bern (1974) d e s c r i b e d h e r sample as 100 undergraduates a t S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y i n 1972, h a l f female and h a l f male (Bern c o l l e c t e d her d a t a i n two s e s s i o n s ; 40 judges completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e d u r i n g the w i n t e r o f 1972 and 60 d i d so the f o l l o w i n g summer.) No o t h e r demographic i n f o r m a t i o n was 45 s u p p l i e d ( e . g . , r a c e , age , SES) o t h e r t h a n t h a t the s t u d e n t s were e n r o l l e d i n i n t r o d u c t o r y p s y c h o l o g y c o u r s e s . Bern (1974) asked the judges t o r a t e a l i s t o f 400 p e r -s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , which she and h e r s t u d e n t s c o m p i l e d , a c c o r d i n g t o s o c i e t a l b e l i e f s o f t h e i r s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r one gender over the o t h e r . The 400 i tems were a r r a n g e d i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r . The judges r a t e d t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f t h e i tems e i t h e r f o r a man o r f o r a woman; no judge was asked t o r a t e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r b o t h g e n d e r s . A copy o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s can be found i n Appendix B . Bern used i t e m - b y - i t e m t - t e s t s as the b a s i s f o r i t em s e l e c t i o n . B a s i c a l l y , a p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was d e f i n e d as f e m i n i n e o r m a s c u l i n e i f i t was judged t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one sex than the o t h e r (p < . 05 , t w o - t a i l e d ) by b o t h male and female j u d g e s , i n b o t h the w i n t e r and summer samples . Of the 400 i tems r a t e d , 73 s a t i s f i e d these c r i t e r i a (32 f e m i n i n e i tems and 41 m a s c u l i n e i t e m s ) . These i tems a r e l i s t e d i n Appendix A . Sample The c u r r e n t s t u d y i n c l u d e d 210 undergraduate s t u d e n t s (81 male and 129 female) from the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia who were e n r o l l e d i n i n t r o d u c t o r y s o c i o l o g y and a n t h r o p o l o g y c o u r s e s . The mean age was 22.31 y e a r s (range from 17 t o 45 y e a r s ) , w i t h 79 p e r c e n t o f the sample between the ages o f 18 and 21. F i f t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s were e i t h e r c u r r e n t l y e n r o l l e d i n a p s y c h o l o g y 100 c l a s s , o r had p r e v i o u s l y taken the c o u r s e . 46 The r e g i s t r a r ' s o f f i c e a t U . B . C . p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on s t u d e n t e n r o l l m e n t i n i n t r o d u c t o r y p s y c h o l o g y , a n t h r o p o l o g y , and s o c i o l o g y c o u r s e s . I t appeared t h a t s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n a n t h r o p o l o g y and s o c i o l o g y c o u r s e s were from s i m i l a r e d u c a t i o n a l backgrounds as those i n p s y c h o l o g y c o u r s e s : s t u d e n t s were p r e -d o m i n a t e l y from the A r t s f a c u l t y , w i t h the next l a r g e s t group from the S c i e n c e f a c u l t y . T h i s s i m i l a r i t y i n e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k -grounds i n c r e a s e s the chances t h a t the r e s u l t s from t h i s s tudy would be comparable f o r s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n p s y c h o l o g y c o u r s e s , as were the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Bern's (1974) s t u d y . The e t h n i c breakdown o f the sample was as f o l l o w s : White (Canadian) 43.3 p e r c e n t , White (European) 11.0 p e r c e n t , A s i a n 29.5 p e r c e n t , I n d o - C a n a d i a n 9.5 p e r c e n t , F i r s t N a t i o n s 1.0 p e r -c e n t , and m i s s i n g 5.7 p e r c e n t . The p r i m a r y language spoken a t home by s t u d e n t s was E n g l i s h 81.9 p e r c e n t , Ch inese 11.4 p e r c e n t , o t h e r 4.3 p e r c e n t , and m i s s i n g 2.4 p e r c e n t ; by p a r e n t s the p r i -mary language was E n g l i s h 61.0 p e r c e n t , C h i n e s e 23.3 p e r c e n t , o t h e r 12.9 p e r c e n t , and m i s s i n g 2.9 p e r c e n t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the r e g i s t r a r ' s o f f i c e does not keep r e c o r d s on s t u d e n t s ' e t h n i c background , t h e r e f o r e i t c o u l d not be de termined how representa-r t i v e t h i s sample i s o f the U . B . C . p o p u l a t i o n as a whole . The s t u d e n t s s e l f - r e p o r t e d t h e i r e t h n i c background . The groups were t h e n c o m p i l e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: the Canadian group was composed o f s t u d e n t s who were C a u c a s i a n , b o r n i n Canada, and who spoke E n g l i s h a t home; the European group was composed o f s t u d e n t s who were C a u c a s i a n , e i t h e r born i n Canada 47 o r i n Europe ( p a r e n t s were born i n E u r o p e ) , who spoke a language o t h e r than E n g l i s h a t home (even p a r t o f the t i m e ) , and whose p a r e n t s spoke a language o t h e r than E n g l i s h a t home; t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s group i n c l u d e d a s m a l l number o f s t u d e n t s who spoke both E n g l i s h and a F i r s t N a t i o n s d i a l e c t ; t h e A s i a n and I n d o - C a n a d i a n groups i n c l u d e d s t u d e n t s born i n Canada and those born a b r o a d . The l a s t two groups i n c l u d e d a m i x t u r e o f s t u d e n t s who spoke E n g l i s h as a f i r s t language and those who spoke i t as a second language . A l t h o u g h l e s s t h a n i d e a l , the use o f terms such as ' W h i t e ' and ' A s i a n ' a r e used t o denote a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c g r o u p . Data C o l l e c t i o n Because Bern's (1974) sample c o n s i s t e d o f s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n i n t r o d u c t o r y p s y c h o l o g y c l a s s e s , an at tempt was made t o s o l i c i t the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f p s y c h o l o g y 100 s t u d e n t s by c o n t a c t -i n g the d e p a r t m e n t ' s c o o r d i n a t o r o f r e s e a r c h s u b j e c t s . However, p a r t i c i p a t i o n was d e c l i n e d due t o the l i m i t e d s i z e o f the r e s e a r c h s u b j e c t p o o l . A second at tempt was made t o i n c l u d e p s y c h o l o g y s t u d e n t s by s e n d i n g l e t t e r s o u t l i n i n g the purpose o f the s t u d y t o i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h o l o g y 100 i n s t r u c t o r s (see Appendix C ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , because o f t ime r e s t r i c t i o n s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n was r e f u s e d . The same l e t t e r was s en t t o i n s t r u c t o r s i n the department o f a n t h r o p o l o g y and s o c i o l o g y , and t o the c o o r d i n a t o r o f E n g l i s h 100 c l a s s e s . S e v e r a l a n t h r o p o l o g y and s o c i o l o g y p r o f e s s o r s a l l o w e d the r e s e a r c h t o t a k e p l a c e d u r i n g c l a s s t ime (one i n s t r u c t o r consented t o have the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s handed out 48 i n c l a s s ) . The E n g l i s h department d e c l i n e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n because they had a l r e a d y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e i r quota o f r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s f o r the y e a r . The d a t a were c o l l e c t e d i n December, 1994 and J a n u a r y , 1995. The r e s e a r c h e r went i n t o the f i v e approved c l a s s r o o m s and i n v i t e d the s t u d e n t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s t u d y . In o r d e r t o s t a n d a r d i z e p r o c e d u r e s as much as p o s s i b l e , the r e s e a r c h e r r e a d a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a l l the s t u d e n t s (see Appendix C ) . They were then asked t o r e a d the e x p l a n a t i o n shee t and the consent form c o n t a i n e d i n the package (Appendix C ) . The i n t r o d u c t i o n emphasized the p a r t o f Bern's (1981) i n s t r u c t i o n s t h a t s t a t e d : "We a r e no t i n t e r e s t e d i n your p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n o f how d e s i r a b l e each o f these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s . R a t h e r , we want your judgement o f how our s o c i e t y e v a l u a t e s each o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a man (or woman)" (p . 17 ) . The p a r t i c i p a n t s ' i d e n t i t y was kept c o n f i d e n t i a l by r e q u e s t i n g t h a t t h e i r names not be p l a c e d on any o f the pages o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and by u s i n g code numbers t o i d e n t i f y the d a t a . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e q u i r e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 minutes t o com-p l e t e . The m a j o r i t y o f the s t u d e n t s completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n c l a s s (86.7 p e r c e n t ) and r e t u r n e d i t t o the r e s e a r c h e r . One c l a s s r o o m r e c e i v e d the same i n t r o d u c t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n s , but comple ted the package a t home and r e t u r n e d i t t h e nex t c l a s s . The "take home" group c o m p r i s e d a s m a l l p o r t i o n (13.3 p e r c e n t ) o f the t o t a l sample . No judge r a t e d the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r b o t h genders . P r i o r t o d i s t r i b u t i o n , the q u e s t i o n n a i r e packages were o r g a n i z e d i n t o 49 f o u r g r o u p s : female judges r a t i n g women, male judges r a t i n g women, female judges r a t i n g men, and male judges r a t i n g men. A l s o , f o r male and female judges the gender f o r which t h e y were r a t i n g ( i . e . , " f o r a woman" o r " f o r a man") was a r r a n g e d i n a l t e r n a t i n g sequence . T h u s , when the packages were d i s t r i b u t e d by the r e s e a r c h e r i n each c l a s s , the f o u r groups were as e q u a l as p o s s i b l e . There were more female judges than male judges : 63 females and 39 males r a t e d the i tems f o r a woman, and 66 females and 42 males r a t e d t h e i tems f o r a man. I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n The i n s t r u m e n t t h a t was used i n t h i s r e s e a r c h s t u d y was the o r i g i n a l i t em p o o l used t o c o n s t r u c t the BSRI (Bern, 1974) . In a d d i t i o n , a background i n f o r m a t i o n sheet was i n c l u d e d t o p r o v i d e sample demographics , such as age and e t h n i c h e r i t a g e . The 400 i t em q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The o r i g i n a l 400 i tems t h a t were c o m p i l e d by Bern and s e v e r a l graduate s t u d e n t s were used i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y . The i t em p o o l c o n s i s t e d o f 200 c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s deemed t o be p o s i t i v e and e i t h e r m a s c u l i n e o r f e m i n i n e i n t o n e . An a d d i t i o n a l l i s t o f 200 t r a i t s t h a t were c o n s i d e r e d p o s -i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e and n e u t r a l i n terms o f gender were a l s o com-p i l e d . Appendix D c o n t a i n s a copy o f the a c t u a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Bern's (1974) i n s t r u c t i o n s and r a t i n g s c a l e were u s e d , however, "North Amer ica" was s u b s t i t u t e d f o r "America" i n o r d e r t o make t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s s u i t a b l e f o r Canadian s t u d e n t s . H a l f the judges r e c e i v e d the i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r a woman and h a l f f o r a man. Background I n f o r m a t i o n Shee t . The background i n f o r m a t i o n sheet r e q u e s t e d (Appendix E) i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g gender , 50 s t u d e n t s t a t u s , and e t h n i c i t y . E t h n i c i t y was d e r i v e d i n s e v e r a l ways: f i r s t , e t h n i c i t y was r e q u e s t e d d i r e c t l y ; n e x t , whether the p a r t i c i p a n t and h i s o r h e r p a r e n t s and g r a n d p a r e n t s were b o r n i n Canada was a sked; f i n a l l y , the p r i m a r y language spoken by the p a r t i c i p a n t and h i s o r her p a r e n t s a t home was r e q u e s t e d . T a b l e 1 s e p a r a t e s the judges a c c o r d i n g t o e t h n i c i t y and gender o f the r a t e r , and the gender f o r which they are r a t i n g the i t e m s . A l t h o u g h i t seemed u n l i k e l y t h a t the d a t a would be compromised because the p a r t i c i p a n t s were from a n t h r o p o l o g y and s o c i o l o g y c l a s s e s , and not p s y c h o l q g y c l a s s e s , a q u e s t i o n was added t o the i n f o r m a t i o n sheet t h a t asked whether they had t a k e n a p s y c h o l o g y 100 c l a s s . R a t i o n a l f o r Method o f S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s As w i t h Bern's (1974) s t u d y , the p r e s e n t s t u d y used i t e m -b y - i t e m t - t e s t s as the b a s i s f o r i t em s e l e c t i o n . Some have c r i t -i c i z e d t h i s s t r a t e g y f o r p o t e n t i a l l y c a p i t a l i z i n g on chance f a c -t o r s ( e . g . , Pedhazur & Tetenbaum, 1979) . However, Bern (1979) argued t h a t the i n i t i a l l i s t o f 200 g e n d e r - l i n k e d p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was r a t e d by f o u r independent groups o f judges and t h a t an i t em was d e f i n e d as m a s c u l i n e o r f e m i n i n e o n l y i f i t was r a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one o r the o t h e r o f the two sexes by b o t h men and women i n the two groups o f j u d g e s . The p r o b a b i l i t y o f t h i s o c c u r r i n g by chance f o r any i n d i v i d u a l i t em was 1/160000; the number o f i tems out o f 200 expec ted by chance t o r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a l l f o u r groups was .00125. T h u s , the r a t i o n a l e f o r u s i n g i n d i v i d u a l t - t e s t s seemed 51 Table 1 Ethnicity of the U.B.C. Raters Ethnicity Male Raters (n) Female Raters (n) Row Rating Rating Rating Rating Totals Men Women Men Women (n) White 18 16 31 26 91 European 1 6 7 9 23 Asian 14 7 20 21 62 Indo-Canadian 4 5 5 6 20 Missing 5 5 3 1 14 Column Totals (n) 42 39 66 63 N = 210 52 a p p r o p r i a t e and was adopted i n t h i s s t u d y . I t e m - b y - i t e m t - t e s t s were a l s o used t o de termine whether the mean r a t i n g s a c r o s s the BSRI i tems were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r the S t a n f o r d and U . B . C . sample , as w e l l as f o r the s t u d e n t s from d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c backgrounds . I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t Bern (1974) used t h e two-t a i l e d r a t h e r than the o n e - t a i l e d t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . The two-t a i l e d t e s t c o n s i d e r s b o t h t a i l s o f the e r r o r c u r v e , thus a l l o w -i n g the r e s e a r c h e r t o de termine the s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l o f d i f -f e r e n c e s between two means i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n (Borg & G a l l , 1989) . The o n e - t a i l e d t e s t i s used when a p r e d i c t i o n i s b e i n g made t h a t a d i f f e r e n c e w i l l be i n the h y p o t h e s i z e d d i r e c t i o n . S i n c e the BSRI i tems were expec ted t o be d i r e c t i o n a l ( r a t e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender o v e r t h e o t h e r ) , i t seemed f e a s i -b l e t o use a o n e - t a i l e d t e s t . Bern's use o f the t w o - t a i l e d t e s t d i d r e q u i r e a l a r g e r c r i t i c a l r a t i o ( t o r z v a l u e ) f o r a d i f -f e r e n c e t o r e a c h s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . F o r the purpose o f r e p l i c a t i o n , t h e t w o - t a i l e d t e s t was used i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y , and p r o v i d e s some a d d i t i o n a l p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t e r r o n e o u s l y i d e n t i f y i n g chance d i f f e r e n c e s . Hypotheses The f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were t e s t e d i n t h i s s t u d y : H y p o t h e s i s 1. H I : The 73 i tems t h a t were r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender than the o t h e r i n Bern's s t u d y w i l l be r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y . 53 HO: The 73 i tems t h a t were r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender than the o t h e r i n Bern's s tudy w i l l not be r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y . H y p o t h e s i s 2. H I : A d d i t i o n a l i t e m s , beyond the o r i g i n a l 73, w i l l be r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender t h a n the o t h e r i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y . HO: No a d d i t i o n a l i t e m s , beyond the o r i g i n a l 73, w i l l be r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender t h a n the o t h e r i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y . H y p o t h e s i s 3. H I : There w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean r a t i n g s on the 60 BSRI i tems f o r the S t a n f o r d sample (Bern, 1974) and the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia ( U . B . C . , 1994-95) sample . H O : There w i l l not be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean r a t i n g s on the 60 BSRI i t em f o r the S t a n f o r d sample (Bern, 1974) and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia ( U . B . C , 1994-95) sample . H y p o t h e s i s 4. H I : There w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean r a t i n g s a c r o s s the BSRI i tems f o r t h o s e s t u d e n t s from d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c backgrounds . HO: There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean r a t i n g s a c r o s s the BSRI i tems f o r those s t u d e n t s from d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c backgrounds . 5 4 Support f o r the v a l i d i t y o f the BSRI would r e s u l t by r e j e c t i n g the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s f o r h y p o t h e s i s one and a c c e p t i n g the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s f o r h y p o t h e s i s two and t h r e e . The o p p o s i t e , a c c e p t i n g the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s f o r h y p o t h e s i s one and r e j e c t i n g the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s f o r h y p o t h e s i s two and t h r e e , may q u e s t i o n the c u r r e n t g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f the BSRI t o a U . B . C . sample . H y p o t h e s i s f o u r i s an e x p l o r a t o r y h y p o t h e s i s . I f the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d , one c o u l d h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t peop le from e t h n i c backgrounds w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l v iews o f the sexes might be more extreme i n t h e i r r a t i n g s o f the BSRI i t e m s ; i n o t h e r words , t h e y would c o n s i d e r s t e r e o t y p i c a l t r a i t s as more d e s i r a b l e than those from l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l backgrounds . The acceptance o f the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s f o r h y p o t h e s i s f o u r would i m p l y t h a t t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e between the g r o u p s ' r a t i n g s . 5 5 C h a p t e r IV R e s u l t s The p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e d the sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p r o c e d u r e s f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , f o r b o t h Bern's (1974) s tudy and the c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h . T h i s s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s e s f o r each o f the h y p o t h e s e s . The s t a t i s t i c a l so f tware package SPSS f o r Windows was used i n the c u r r e n t s tudy t o a n a l y z e most o f the d a t a . The t - t e s t s comparing the means on the 60 BSRI i tems f o r the S t a n f o r d sample and the U . B . C . sample were c a l c u l a t e d by hand. P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s i s P r i o r t o t e s t i n g the hypothese s , two a n a l y s e s were performed t o ensure t h a t the f o l l o w i n g groups d i d not d i f f e r : f i r s t , p a r t i c i p a n t s e n r o l l e d i n p s y c h o l o g y 100 c l a s s e s were compared w i t h those who were n o t ; s econd , p a r t i c i p a n t s who completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t home were compared w i t h those who completed i t i n c l a s s . M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (MANOVA) i s a s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g whether groups d i f f e r on more than one dependent v a r i a b l e . A MANOVA (group x i tems) was per formed on the 20 m a s c u l i n e and 20 f e m i n i n e i tems i n the BSRI . A s e p a r a t e a n a l y s i s was per formed f o r each group on b o t h s e t s o f c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s . F o r example, p a r t i c i p a n t s who f i l l e d out the q u e s t i o n -n a i r e a t home, were compared w i t h those who completed i t i n c l a s s f o r b o t h the m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e i t e m s . The MANOVA t e c h n i q u e was used t o p r o v i d e an o v e r a l l a s s e s s -ment o f whether the two groups d i f f e r e d . P i l l a i ' s T r a c e t e s t 56 s t a t i s t i c was chosen because i t i s the most p o w e r f u l and r o b u s t ( N o r u s i s , 1993) . T a b l e s 2 and 3 p r e s e n t the MANOVA r e s u l t s . Appendices F and G c o n t a i n t h e means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r the groups s e p a r a t e d by " e n r o l l m e n t i n p s y c h o l o g y 100" and " l o c a t i o n " , r e s p e c t i v e l y . In b o t h i n s t a n c e s ( " e n r o l l e d i n p s y c h o l o g y 100 v e r s u s not e n r o l l e d i n p s y c h o l o g y 100" and " q u e s t i o n n a i r e completed a t home v e r s u s i n c l a s s " ) , the groups d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y on the 20 m a s c u l i n e and 20 f e m i n i n e i t e m s , t h e r e f o r e , the d a t a were a n a l y z e d t o g e t h e r . H y p o t h e s i s 1. The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e 73 i tems t h a t were r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender than the o t h e r i n Bern's (1974) s t u d y would c o n t i n u e t o be r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y . B e f o r e a d d r e s s i n g t h i s f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s , the d a t a were c o n -s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r the male and female judges i n the c u r r e n t s tudy t o observe gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n r a t i n g s o f i t em d e s i r a b i l i t y . Append ice s H and I c o n t a i n t h e means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r the i tems r a t e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r men and f o r women by male r a t e r s ; Appendices J and K c o n t a i n t h e means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r the i tems r a t e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r men and f o r women by female r a t e r s . Female judges r a t e d more i tems as d e s i r a b l e f o r men than d i d male judges (124 and 77, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) ; however, when r a t i n g the d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r a woman, female and male judges r a t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same number o f i tems as d e s i r a b l e (118 and 110, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . One i t em showed a r e v e r s a l ; male judges r a t e d " s a r c a s t i c " as more Table 2 Multivariate Analysis of Variance Comparing Psychology 100: Students Enrolled in the Course Versus Those Who Were Not, (a) Source: Psychology DF Value Exact F P 20 Feminine Items 143 0.09762 0.77348 0.74 Boxs M = 256.42 210,74296 1.06142 0.26 20 Masculine Items 166 0.09551 0.87649 0.62 Boxs M = 287.00 210,96303 1.21047 0.02 (a) Multivariate Test Statistic is Pillai's Trace. Table 3 Multivariate Analysis of Variance Comparing Location: Questionnaire Completed at Home Versus in Class, (a) Source: Location DF Value Exact F P 20 Feminine Items 145 0.08059 0.63549 0.88 Boxs M = 378.34 210,4738 1.15188 0.07 20 Masculine Items 169 0.09523 0.88941 0.60 Boxs M = 345.38 210,6645 1.15187 0.07 (a) Multivariate Test Statistic is Pillai's Trace. 58 d e s i r a b l e f o r men, whereas female judges r a t e d the same i t em as more d e s i r a b l e f o r women. T h i s i t em was the o n l y one on which male and female judges d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r s e l e c t i o n o f gender a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s ; each group r a t e d " s a r c a s t i c " as more d e s i r a b l e f o r t h e i r own gender . Of over 400 i tems r a t e d , 150 were r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender than the o t h e r by b o t h male and female r a t e r s , p. < . 0 5 , 2 - t a i l e d . T a b l e 4 l i s t s the 66 c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s deemed more d e s i r a b l e f o r a man and T a b l e 5 l i s t s the 84 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s thought t o be more d e s i r a b l e f o r a woman. Appendix A c o n t a i n s the 73 i tems t h a t Bern (1974) found s i g n i f i c a n t (32 f e m i n i n e i tems and 41 m a s c u l i n e i t e m s ) , p < . 05 , 2 - t a i l e d . The U . B . C . sample r a t e d over double the number o f i tems as s i g n i f i c a n t compared t o Bern's (1974) S t a n f o r d sample (150 v e r s u s 73, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . In the p r e s e n t s t u d y , 62 out o f the 73 i tems t h a t Bern (1974) found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t were r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t by both male and female r a t e r s (28 f e m i n i n e i tems and 34 m a s c u l i n e i t e m s ) , p < . 0 5 , 2 - t a i l e d . These i tems a r e a l s o i d e n t i f i e d i n T a b l e s 4 and 5. T a b l e 6 l i s t s the 11 i tems from Bern's l i s t t h a t f a i l e d t o r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y . A l l 11 o f these i tems reached s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r e i t h e r male o r female r a t e r s , but not f o r b o t h groups o f r a t e r s , thus e l u d i n g Bern's c r i t e r i a f o r i n c l u s i o n . E i g h t e e n o f the 20 i tems i n the BSRI m a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e c o n t i n u e d t o be r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a man and 17 o f the 20 59 Table 4 6 6 Characteristics Rated as More Desirable for a Man by Both Male and Female U.B.C. Raters Able to be aggressive without feeling Decisive (b) discomfort* Defends own beliefs * (a)(s) Able to withstand emotional pressures (b) Does not give up easily ** (b) Abrupt (b) Dominant * (a)(s) Acts as a leader * (a) Effective (b) Aggressive * (a)(s) Enterprising* Ambitious * (a) Experienced ** (b) Analytical * (a) Fearless* Arrogant ** (b) Feelings not easily hurt(b) Assertive * (a)(s) Firm* Athletic * (a) Forceful * (a)(s) Boastful (b) Hard-headed (b) Bold* Has leadership abilities * (a)(s) Brave (b) Independent * (a)(s) Bright (b) Individualistic * (a) Businesslike* Industrious (b) Calculating (b) Knows the way of the world* Capable in emergencies (b) Likes a good argument* Certain (b) Logical (b) Competent (b) Makes decisions without regard for the Competitive * (a) feelings of others* Courageous (b) Masculine * (a) Cunning (b) Materialistic (b) Daring* Mathematical * 60 66 Characteristics Rated as More Desirable for a Man by Both Male and Female U.B.C. Raters Never cries (b) Self-confident (b) Objective (b) Self-controlled (b) Opinionated (b) Self-reliant * (a) Opportunist (b) Self-sufficient * (a) Outspoken* Skilled* Persistent (b) Skilled in business* Possessive (b) Sly (b) Precise (b) Strong-minded* Resourceful (b) Willing to take a stand * (a)(s) Scientific * Willing to take risks * (a)(s) * Items reached significance (p<.05) in Bern's original study (1974). ** Items reached significance (p<.05) in Bern's winter sample of 40 Stanford judges, but failed to reach significance for both male and female raters in the summer sample (60 judges). (a) Masculine items on the Bern Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). (b) Additional Items: items that reached significance (p<.05) in the current study, but not in Bern's original study. (s) Items contained in the Short BSRI. 61 Table 5 84 Characteristics Rated as More Desirable for a Woman by Both Male and Female U.B.C. Raters Able to devote oneself to others (c) Easily expresses tender feelings (c) Absent-minded (c) Emotional (c) Accommodating (c) Empathy (c) Affectionate * (a)(s) Excitable** (c) Agreeable (c) Expresses emotions easily (c) Appreciative (c) Expressive (c) Artistic (c) Fashionable (c) Attractive (c) Feminine * (a) Bashful* Flatterable * (a) Cheerful * (a) Flexible (c) Childlike * (a) Forgiving (c) Comfortable when people express emotion (c) Friendly (b) (c) Compassionate * (a)(s) Generous (c) Compliant* Gentle* (a) (s) Congenial (c) Giving* Conscientious (b)(c)(s) Glamourous (c) Considerate (c) Graceful* Cooperative (c) Gracious (c) Cordial (c) Helpful (b) (c) Creative (c) Helpless* Cries without shame (c) Humble (c) Dependent ** (c) Impressionable (c) Does not use harsh language *(a) Innocent* Eager to soothe hurt feelings *(a)(s) Kind (c) 62 84 Characteristics Rated as More Desirable for a Woman by Both Male and Female U.B.C. Raters Kind-hearted (c) Kittenish* Loves children * (a)(s) Loving (c) Neat (c) Nice (c) Passive (c) Patient (c) Pays attention to own physical appearance* Playful (c) Pleasant (c) Polite (c) Quiet (c) Romantic (c) Seductive (c) Sensitive (c) Sensitive to the needs of others * (a)(s) Sensuous (c) Sentimental (c) Sexually attractive (c) Sexy (c) Showy (c) Shy * (a) Simple* Soft-spoken * (a) Submissive* '(c)Supportive (c) Sympathetic * (a)(s) Tender * (a)(s) Tender-hearted* Thoughtful of others (c) Tolerant (c) Warm * (a)(s) Warm-hearted* Worrier (c) Yielding * (a) * Items reached significance (p<.05) in Bern's original study (1974). ** Items reached significance (p<.05) in Bern's winter sample of 40 Stanford judges, but failed to reach significance for both male and female raters in the summer sample (60 judges), (a) Feminine item on the Bern Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). (b) Neutral item on the BSRI. (c) Additional Items: items that reached significance (p<.05) in the current study, but not in Bern's original study, (s) Items contained in the Short BSRI. 63 Table 6 11 Items That Reached Significance in Bern's Original Study, but not in the Current Study Significance in the Current Study Male Raters Female Raters Masculine Items (a) Blunt no yes Little need for security yes no Makes decisions easily * no yes Persuasive no yes Rugged no yes Strong-personality * (s) no yes Worldly no yes Feminine Items (b) Faithful yes no Gullible * no yes Loyal * yes no Understanding * (s) no yes (a) Items rated as more desirable for a man. (b) Items rated as more desirable for a woman. * Items contained in the Bern Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI). (s) Items contained in the Short BSRI. 64 i tems i n the f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e c o n t i n u e d t o be r a t e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r a woman, p <.05, 2 - t a i l e d . The m a s c u l i n e i tems t h a t f a i l e d t o r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e were "makes d e c i s i o n s e a s i l y " and " s t r o n g - p e r s o n a l i t y " ( these i tems r e a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the female judges o n l y ) ; the f e m i n i n e i tems t h a t f a i l e d t o r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e were " g u l l i b l e " , " l o y a l " , and " u n d e r s t a n d i n g " . Of the t h r e e f e m i n i n e i tems t h a t f a i l e d t o r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r both judges , " l o y a l " was r a t e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r women by the male judges , and " g u l l i b l e " and "unders tand ing" were r a t e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r women by the female judges . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were found w i t h the s h o r t v e r s i o n o f the BSRI (SBSRI; Bern, 1981) . Nine o f the 10 i tems i n the SBSRI mas-c u l i n i t y s c a l e and n i n e o f the 10 i tems i n the f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e c o n t i n u e d t o be r a t e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r a man and a woman, r e s p e c t i v e l y , p < . 0 5 , 2 - t a i l e d . T a b l e s 4 and 5 c o n t a i n these i t e m s . T a b l e 6 l i s t s the m a s c u l i n e i t em ( s t r o n g - p e r s o n a l i t y ) and the f e m i n i n e i t em (unders tand ing ) t h a t f a i l e d t o r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e ( these i tems reached s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the female judges o n l y ) . H y p o t h e s i s 2. The second h y p o t h e s i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t a d d i -t i o n a l i t e m s , beyond the o r i g i n a l 73 t h a t Bern (1974) found s i g n i f i c a n t , would be r a t e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender than the o t h e r i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y . Of the 150 i tems r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t by the U . B . C . judges , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 59 p e r c e n t (88/150) were a d d i t i o n a l i tems (meaning t h a t they were not r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t i n Bern's s t u d y ) . T a b l e s 4 and 5 a l s o c o n t a i n t h e 88 a d d i t i o n a l i tems (56 f e m i n i n e i tems and 32 m a s c u l i n e i t e m s ) . 65 Because Bern d i d not i n d i c a t e the gender ass ignment ( m a s c u l i n e , f e m i n i n e , o r n e u t r a l ) o f the o r i g i n a l l i s t o f 400 i t e m s , i t cannot be de termined how many o f the 88 a d d i t i o n a l i tems were p r e v i o u s l y deemed n e u t r a l i n terms o f gender . The o n l y e x c e p t i o n i s f o r the 20 n e u t r a l BSRI i t e m s : t h r e e i tems p r e v i o u s l y r a t e d as n e u t r a l ( f r i e n d l y , h e l p f u l , and c o n s c i e n t i o u s ) , were r a t e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r a woman i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y . > C o n s c i e n t i o u s ' i s a l s o one o f the n e u t r a l i tems o f the SBSRI. H y p o t h e s i s 3 . The t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e would be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean r a t i n g s on t h e 60 BSRI i tems f o r t h e S t a n f o r d sample (Bern, 1974) and the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia ( U . B . C . ) sample . Appendix L l i s t s the means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r the 60 BSRI i tems f o r Bern's S t a n f o r d male judges and Appendix M l i s t s the same i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the female judges . T a b l e 7 l i s t s the means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r the 60 BSRI i tems f o r the U . B . C . male judges and T a b l e 8 l i s t s the same i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the female judges . When the mean r a t i n g s on the 60 BSRI i tems were compared f o r Bern's sample and the U . B . C . sample u s i n g i t e m - b y - i t e m t - t e s t s , many o f the i tems reached s i g n i f i c a n c e . T a b l e 9 r e p o r t s these r e s u l t s . Most n o t i c e a b l e were the male judges r a t i n g s f o r women on the m a s c u l i n e i t e m s . The males i n the U . B . C . sample r a t e d 16 o f the 20 m a s c u l i n e i tems h i g h e r i n d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r a woman t h a n d i d the S t a n f o r d sample . The female judges i n the 66 U . B . C . sample r a t e d s i x o f the 20 m a s c u l i n e i tems h i g h e r f o r a woman than d i d Bern's sample; they a l s o r a t e d seven m a s c u l i n e i tems lower f o r a man than d i d Bern's p a r t i c i p a n t s . Comparing the two samples on the 20 f e m i n i n e i t e m s , the U . B . C . male judges r a t e d s i x i tems lower i n d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r a woman and the female judges r a t e d f o u r i tems lower i n d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r a woman than d i d the S t a n f o r d j u d g e s . Another way t o compare the two samples i s t o c o n s i d e r t h e i r o v e r a l l s c a l e means. T a b l e 10 shows the means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r the m a s c u l i n e , f e m i n i n e , and n e u t r a l s c a l e s o f the BSRI, f o r Bern's s t u d y and the c u r r e n t s t u d y . Once a g a i n , the mean on the m a s c u l i n e i tems f o r the U . B . C . male judges r a t i n g women was s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than the S t a n f o r d male j u d g e s ' mean. There was a t r e n d f o r female r a t e r s t o r a t e men lower on the m a s c u l i n e i tems i n the U . B . C . sample compared w i t h the S t a n -f o r d sample; however, t h i s f i n d i n g o n l y approached s i g n i f i c a n c e (p < . 10 , 2 - t a i l e d ) . Compared t o Bern's (1974) s t u d y , the magnitude o f the d i f -f e r e n c e between the r a t i n g s f o r "a man" and f o r "a woman" on the 20 m a s c u l i n e and 20 f e m i n i n e i tems were l e s s extreme i n t h e c u r -r e n t s t u d y , f o r b o t h male and female j u d g e s . T a b l e 11 c o n t a i n s these f i g u r e s . F o r example, the d i f f e r e n c e between male j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s on the m a s c u l i n e i tems f o r "a man" and f o r "a woman" was 2.69 i n Bern's s tudy and 1.30 i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y . T h i s t r e n d r e p l i c a t e d f o r the f e m i n i n e i t e m s , as w e l l as w i t h the female r a t e r s . A l t h o u g h both S t a n f o r d and U . B . C . judges r a t e d the 67 Table 7 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Male Raters in the University of British Columbia Sample Masculine Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Acts as a leader 5.69 1.14 42 4.00 1.24 39 Aggressive 4.71 1.42 42 3.31 1.42 39 Ambitious 5.88 1.11 42 4.71 1.25 38 Analytical 4.64 1.36 42 3.72 1.50 39 Assertive 5.24 1.07 41 4.03 1.46 38 Athletic' 6.10 1.06 42 5.28 1.45 39 Competitive 5.88 0.92 42 4.08 1.68 39 Defends own beliefs 5.64 1.10 42 4.67 1.42 39 Dominant 4.50 1.55 42 2.51 1.41 39 Forceful 4.17 1.68 42 2.92 1.31 39 Has leadership abilities 6.05 1.00 41 4.51 1.50 " 39 Independent 5.67 1.07 42 4.08 1.72 39 Individualistic 4.88 1.52 42 3.95 1.67 39 Makes decisions 5.07 1.46 42 4.82 1.19 39 easily * Masculine 6.00 1.20 41 1.51 0.85 39 Self-reliant 5.07 1.25 41 4.26 1.33 34 Self-sufficient 5.54 1.10 41 4.76 1.44 38 Strong-personality * 5.15 1.33 41 4.53 1.59 38 Willing to take a stand 5.46 1.05 41 4.55 1.41 38 Willing to take risks 5.24 1.02 41 4.34 1.34 38 68 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Male Raters in the University of British Columbia Sample Feminine Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Affectionate 4.52 1.40 42 6.38 0.78 39 Cheerful 5.10 1.19 42 5.92 0.84 39 Childlike 2.14 1.10 42 3.33 1.56 39 Compassionate 4.52 1.52 42 6.10 0.88 39 Does not use harsh 3.86 1.71 42 5.23 1.83 39 language Eager to soothe hurt 4.24 1.48 42 5.56 1.12 39 feelings Feminine 1.81 1.38 42 6.21 0.89 39 Flatterable 3.40 1.35 42 5.03 1.14 39 Gentle 4.00 1.65 37 5.33 1.29 36 Gullible * 1.81 1.40 42 2.31 1.36 39 Loves children 4.83 1.43 42 5.85 1.14 39 Loyal 5.40 1.25 42 6.41 0.60 39 Sensitive to the needs 4.54 1.31 41 5.82 0.90 38 of others Shy 2.34 1.13 41 3.79 1.55 38 Soft-spoken 3.05 1.43 41 4.49 1.22 37 Sympathetic 4.37 1.11 41 5.34 1.19 38 Tender 4.05 1.36 41 5.61 0.82 38 Understanding * 5.10 1.28 41 5.58 0.92 38 Warm 4.68 1.33 41 6.16 0.55 38 Yielding 2.76 1.48 41 4.18 1.34 34 69 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Male Raters in the University of British Columbia Sample Neutral Items Ratings for Men X SD Number of Cases Ratings for Women SD Number of Cases Adaptable 5.26 1.08 42 5.21 1.08 39 Conceited 1.83 1.32 41 1.56 1.23 39 Conscientious (a) 4.57 1.13 42 5.32 0.90 38 Conventional 3.85 1.44 41 4.00 1.50 39 Friendly (a) 5.48 1.13 42 6.05 0.86 39 Happy 5.36 1.45 42 5.85 0.78 39 Helpful (a) 5.19 1.22 42 5.67 0.70 39 Inefficient 1.55 1.04 42 1.77 1.27 39 Jealous 2.38 1.55 42 2.05 1.43 39 Likable (b) 5.40 1.15 42 6.13 0.80 39 Moody 2.07 1.26 42 1.92 1.55 39 Reliable 5.68 1.06 41 5.55 1.03 38 Secretive 2.73 1.42 41 2.68 1.77 39 Sincere (b) 4.54 1.03 41 5.45 0.89 38 Solemn 3.34 1.31 35 3.37 1.22 30 Tactful 4.34 1.32 38 4.17 1.52 35 Theatrical 3.19 1.27 41 3.54 1.54 37 Truthful (b) 5.39 1.26 41 6.13 0.78 38 Unpredictable 3.73 1.53 41 3.21 1.65 38 Unsystematic 3.00 1.52 39 3.51 1.47 37 * Reached significance for female raters only (p<.05). (a) Rated as significantly more desirable for women (p<.05), by both male and female raters. (b) Rated as significantly more desirable for women (p<.05), by male raters only. 70 Table 8 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Female Raters in the University of British Columbia Sample Masculine Items Ratings for Men X SD Number of Cases Ratings for Women X SD Number of Cases Acts as a leader 6.08 0.98 66 3.70 1.32 63 Aggressive 4.15 1.59 66 2.81 1.46 63 Ambitious 6.12 0.97 66 4.24 1.57 63 Analytical 4.35 1.54 65 3.40 1.17 62 Assertive 5.45 1.18 66 3.95 1.50 63 Athletic 5.85 1.11 66 4.59 1.43 63 Competitive 5.18 1.24 66 3.52 1.54 63 Defends own beliefs 5.53 1.15 66 4.65 1.47 63 Dominant 4.12 1.61 66 2.37 1.45 63 Forceful 3.66 1.78 64 2.76 1.27 63 Has leadership abilities 6.06 1.08 64 4.18 1.27 62 Independent 6.09 1.05 64 4.41 1.56 63 Individualistic 5.47 1.38 64 4.16 1.52 63 Makes decisions easily 4.98 1.32 64 4.37 1.30 63 Masculine 6.37 0.93 64 1.78 1.10 63 Self-reliant 5.06 1.29 62 4.31 1.39 59 Self-sufficient 5.63 1.26 63 4.58 1.22 62 Strong-personality 5.40 1.04 63 4.11 1.44 62 Willing to take a stand 5.57 0.95 63 4.44 1.27 61 Willing to take risks 5.49 0.88 63 4.32 1.10 60 71 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Female Raters in the University of British Columbia Sample Feminine Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Affectionate 5.07 1.53 66 6.22 1.05 63 Cheerful 5.22 1.13 66 6.06 0.98 63 Childlike 2.11 1.25 66 3.44 1.66 63 Compassionate 5.05 1.57 66 6.22 1.07 63 Does not use harsh 4.09 1.74 66 5.37 1.52 63 language Eager to soothe hurt 3.98 1.68 66 5.52 1.50 63 feelings Feminine 1.40 0.90 65 6.14 1.16 63 Flatterable 3.19 1.25 62 4.95 1.55 62 Gentle 3.95 1.63 53 5.33 1.33 55 Gullible 1.41 0.82 63 2.79 1.59 63 Loves children 4.83 1.53 64 6.14 1.03 63 Loyal * 5.72 1.39 64 5.11 1.26 62 Sensitive to the needs 5.00 1.51 63 6.13 0.97 62 of others Shy 2.25 1.22 63 3.29 1.31 62 Soft-spoken 2.71 1.48 63 4.43 1.36 60 Sympathetic 4.62 1.48 63 5.85 0.95 61 Tender 4.27 1.62 62 5.62 1.11 61 Understanding 5.37 1.20 63 5.75 0.93 61 Warm 4.98 1.28 63 5.97 0.91 63 Yielding 2.73 1.38 59 4.24 1.61 59 72 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Female Raters in the University of British Columbia Sample Neutral Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Adaptable 5.25 1.20 65 5.56 0.99 62 Conceited 1.83 1.25 65 1.66 1.01 62 Conscientious (a) 4.82 1.42 66 5.41 1.12 63 Conventional 3.72 1.38 65 4.19 1.37 58 Friendly (a) 5.75 1.14 64 6.21 0.83 63 Happy (b) 5.53 1.18 64 5.97 0.92 63 Helpful (a) 5.17 1.08 64 5.71 0.97 63 Inefficient 1.25 0.74 64 1.45 1.00 60 Jealous 2.33 1.45 64 1.89 1.21 63 Likable 5.75 0.99 64 5.95 0.99 63 Moody 1.92 1.22 63 2.03 1.37 63 Reliable 5.86 1.11 63 5.76 1.04 62 Secretive 2.35 1.31 63 2.61 1.37 62 Sincere 5.19 1.20 63 5.31 1.20 62 Solemn 3.18 1.34 56 2.78 1.23 58 Tactful 4.70 1.42 60 4.85 1.39 60 Theatrical (b) 2.61 1.14 62 3.03 1.23 59 Truthful 5.70 1.28 63 5.77 1.15 61 Unpredictable 3.32 1.52 63 3.20 1.42 60 Unsystematic 2.73 1.44 62 2.70 1.39 56 * Reached significance for male raters only (p<.05). (a) Rated as significantly more desirable for women (p<.05), by both male and female raters. (b) Rated as significantly more desirable for women (p<.05), by female raters only. 73 Table 9 Between Bern's Stanford SamDle and the U.B.C. Sample (a) Masculine Items Male Raters Female Raters Rating Men Rating Women Rating Men Rating Women Dif. (b) t Value Dif. t Value Dif. t Value Dif. t Value Acts as a leader -1.96 6.53**** Aggressive -1.23 3.73**** +0.93 2.51* Ambitious -1.67 ^ g -j **** Analytical -0.92 2.63* +0.73 2.12* Assertive , -1.39 3.86**** -0.78 2.29* Athletic -0.62 2.30* -2.16 6.00**** Competitive -1.60 4.32**** +0.66 2.36* Defends own beliefs Dominant -0.83 2.68** +1.52 4.34**** -0.73 2.28* Forceful +0.95 2.50* +1.66 4.26**** Has leadership abilities -1.23 3.24*** Independent -1.48 3.61**** -0.85 2.30* Individualistic -0.99 2.41* Makes decisions easily -0.82 2.48* Masculine -0.54 2.35* Self-reliant +0.77 2.67** -0.94 2.94** +0.94 3.36*** , Self-sufficient -2.08 5.62**** -0.94 3.13** Strong-personality +0.81 2.79** +0.56 2.33* Willing to take a stand -0.87 2.49* Willing to take risks -0.90 2.73** -0.84 3.00** 74 Significant Mean Differences on the 60 BSRI Items Between Bern's Stanford Sample and the U.B.C. Sample (a) Feminine Items Male Raters Female Raters Rating Men Rating Women Rating Men Rating Women Dif. t Value Dif. t Value Dif. t Value Dif. t Value Childlike -0.73 3.48*** Compassionate Does not use harsh language Feminine Flatterable -0.60 Gentle Gullible -0.61 Loves Children Loyal Tender Understanding Warm Yielding +0.70 2.00* 2.50* +1.03 3.68*** 2.1* +0.97 2.77** +0.55 2.04* +0.51 2.32* +0.54 2.35* -0.61 2.03* +0.95 3.28* +1.41 5.22*** +0.66 2.75** +0.53 2.52* Significant Mean Differences on the 60 BSRI Items Between Bern's Stanford Sample and the U.B.C. SamDle fa} Neutral Items Male Raters Female Raters Rating Men Rating Women Rating Men Rating Women Dif. t Value Dif. t Value Dif. t Value Dif. t Value Conscientious +0.63 2.33* Friendly -0.61 3.05** Helpful -0.57 2.71** Jealous +0.95 2.50* +0.58 2.07* Secretive +0.65 2.17* Sincere +0.66 2.75** Solemn -0.71 2.29* Tactful +0.83 2.37* +0.65 2.03* Theatrical -1.07 2.97** Truthful +0.61 2.18* -0.63 2.74** Unpredictable Unsystematic -0.86 2.53* -1.38 3.83**** (a) Negative differences (- dif.) indicate that the mean in Bern's (1974) study was less than the mean in the current study (rated as more desirable in the current study). Positive differences (+ dif.) indicate that the mean in Bern's study was greater than the mean in the current study (rated as less desirable in the current study). (b) Comparisons were performed only on differences greater than 0.40. Only significant results are reported. * p < .05, 2-tailed ** p < .01, 2-tailed *** p < .002, 2-tailed **** p < .001, 2-tailed 76 Table 10 Stanford and U.B.C. Means for the Masculine, Feminine, and Neutral Items of the BSRI Items Male Raters(a) Female Raters(b) Rating Men Rating Women Rating Men Rating Women X SD X SD X SD X SD Stanford Sample Masculine Items 5.59 1.04 2.90 1.22 5.83 1.10 3.46 1.36 Feminine Items 3.63 1.11 5.61 1.02 3.74 1.39 5.55 0.98 Neutral Items 4.00 1.08 4.08 1.07 3.94 1.10 3.98 1.17 U.B.C. Sample Masculine Items 5.33 1.22 4.03 1.41 5.33 1.22 3.83 1.37 Feminine Items 3.83 1.36 5.23 1.10 3.90 1.38 5.23 1.24 Neutral Items 3.94 1.27 4.16 1.20 3.95 1.24 4.10 1.16 (a) The means for male raters rating women on the masculine items differed significantly for the two samples, t = 3.32, p < .002, 2-tailed. (b) The means for female raters rating men on the masculine items approached differing significantly for the two samples, t = 1.79, p < .10, 2-tailed. 77 Table 11 Magnitude of Mean Difference Between Ratings for "a Man" and for "a Woman" in Bern's Stanford Sample and the U.B.C. Sample (a) Male Raters Female Raters Stanford t U.B.C t Stanford t U.B.C. t Masculine Items 2.69 14.41* 1.30 4.33* 2.37 10.22* 1.50 6.52* Feminine Items 1.98 12.13* 1.40 5.00* 1.81 8.28* 1.33 5.78* * p < .001 (a)Foreach sample the individual means for the 20 feminine items and the 20 masculine items were added then divided by 20 to compute a scale mean. This computation was performed separately on ratings for "a man" and for "a woman", as well as for male and female raters. The scale means for "a man" were then subtracted from the scale means for "a woman" to arrive at a difference score. 78 m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e i tems as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r the " a p p r o p r i a t e " gender (p < . 0 0 1 ) , the d i f f e r e n c e i n r a t i n g s a c r o s s genders was s m a l l e r i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y . H y p o t h e s i s 4. The f o u r t h h y p o t h e s i s was e x p l o r a t o r y i n n a t u r e . I t p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e r e would be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g -n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean r a t i n g s a c r o s s t h e BSRI i tems f o r those s t u d e n t s from d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c backgrounds . Due t o the s m a l l number o f cases i n some o f the c e l l s , s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s was conducted on the White Canadian and A s i a n groups o n l y . The means f o r the White European and I n d o - C a n a d i a n groups (both male and female judges) are r e p o r t e d s o l e l y f o r d e s c r i p -t i v e purposes i n Appendix N . Appendix O l i s t s the means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r the 60 BSRI i tems f o r White Canadian and A s i a n male r a t e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Appendix P l i s t s the means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r White Canadian and A s i a n female r a t e r s . T a b l e 12 r e p o r t s the s i g n i f i c a n t i t e m - b y - i t e m t - t e s t s comparing A s i a n and White female r a t e r s and A s i a n and White male r a t e r s on the 60 BSRI i t e m s . F o r male r a t e r s r a t i n g the i tems f o r men, t h r e e i tems r e a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e ; f o r male r a t e r s r a t i n g women, 5 i tems were s i g n i f i c a n t . F o r female r a t e r s r a t i n g the i tems f o r men, two i tems reached s i g n i f i c a n c e ; f o r female r a t e r s r a t i n g women, f o u r i tems were s i g n i f i c a n t . Wi th 60 t - t e s t s b e i n g performed f o r each group o f r a t e r s , t h r e e i tems p e r group c o u l d r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e s t r i c t l y by chance . G i v e n the i n f l a t e d r i s k o f Type I e r r o r , these r e s u l t s a r e t e n t a t i v e a t b e s t . 79 Table 12 Significant Differences Between Asian and White Female Raters and Asian and White Male Raters on the 60 BSRI Items Items White Raters Asian Raters X SD N X SD N Male Raters Rating Men Affectionate* 4.22 1.26 18 5.14 1.35 14 Loyal* 5.72 1.36 18 4.71 1.07 14 Warm* 4.44 1.34 18 5.36 1.51 14 Male Raters Rating Women Adaptable*** 4.81 0.91 16 6.00 0.82 7 Affectionate** 6.13 0.96 16 6.86 0.38 7 Jealous*** 2.50 1.79 16 1.14 0.38 7 Self-reliant** 3.62 1.04 13 4.86 1.07 7 Understanding* 5.31 1.01 16 6.00 0.58 7 Female Raters Rating Men Unsystematic* 2.36 1.10 28 3.30 1.78 20 Yielding* 2.57 1.23 28 3.37 1.38 19 Female Raters Rating Women Childlike* 3.88 1.75 26 2.90 1.51 21 Gullible* 2.31 1.19 26 3.33 1.96 21 Masculine*** 1.42 0.76 26 2.34 1.26 21 Willing to take a stand* 4.17 1.24 24 4.90 1.22 21 * p < .05, 2-tailed - p < .02, 2-tailed * p < .01, 2-tailed 80 The mean d i f f e r e n c e s on the 60 BSRI i tems f o r judges r a t i n g woman and judges r a t i n g men were a l s o a n a l y z e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r the White and A s i a n g r o u p s . Appendices O and P c o n t a i n the r e s u l t s . When Bern's i t em s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s were a p p l i e d t o the two groups ( i . e . , an i t em had t o be r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender than the o t h e r by b o t h male and female r a t e r s ) , the f i n d i n g s d i f f e r e d from those o f the whole sample ( a l l e t h n i c groups combined) . F o r the whi te sample , b o t h male and female judges r a t e d 16 m a s c u l i n e i tems as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r a man than a woman and 14 f e m i n i n e i tems as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r a woman than a man. E i g h t m a s c u l i n e i tems and e i g h t f e m i n i n e i tems r e a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the SBSRI (SBSRI i tems a r e i d e n -t i f i e d by the symbol (s) a f t e r each i t e m ) . The m a s c u l i n e i tems t h a t f a i l e d t o r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r b o t h male and female r a t e r s were " a t h l e t i c , " "defends own b e l i e f s ( s ) , " " f o r c e f u l ( s ) , " and "makes d e c i s i o n s e a s i l y ; " the f e m i n i n e i tems t h a t f a i l e d t o r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r b o t h male and female judges were " c h i l d l i k e , " "does not use h a r s h l a n g u a g e , " " g u l l i b l e , " " loves c h i l d r e n ( s ) , " " l o y a l , " and " u n d e r s t a n d i n g ( s ) . " Note t h a t , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f one i t em ( l o y a l ) , the female judges r a t e d a l l the m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e i tems as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r the " a p p r o p r i a t e " gender . F o r the n e u t r a l i t e m s , the judges r a t e d 12 i tems as no more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender than the o t h e r . The female judges r a t e d " f r i e n d l y , " "happy," 81 " h e l p f u l , " " l i k a b l e , " and " t h e a t r i c a l " as more d e s i r a b l e f o r a woman and the male judges r a t e d "adaptable ( s )" more d e s i r a b l e f o r a man and " s i n c e r e " more d e s i r a b l e f o r a woman. In the A s i a n group o n l y e i g h t i tems were r a t e d as s i g -n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r a man than a woman by b o t h male and female judges ( a c t s as a l e a d e r , a g g r e s s i v e ( s ) , a t h l e t i c , c o m p e t i t i v e , dominant ( s ) , has l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t i e s ( s ) , m a s c u l i n e , and w i l l i n g t o take r i s k s ( s ) ) . Note t h a t the A s i a n female judges r a t e d a l l but f i v e o f the m a s c u l i n e i tems (defends own b e l i e f s ( s ) , f o r c e f u l ( s ) , makes d e c i s i o n s e a s i l y , s e l f -r e l i a n t , and w i l l i n g t o take a s t a n d ( s ) ) as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r a man than a woman. Of the f e m i n i n e i tems o n l y " c h e e r f u l , " " f e m i n i n e , " "sympathet ic ( s ) , " "tender ( s ) , " and "warm (s )" were r a t e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r a woman than a man. Seventeen o f the n e u t r a l i tems were r a t e d as no more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender than the o t h e r : male judges r a t e d "adaptable" and " l i k a b l e " as more d e s i r a b l e f o r a woman and female judges r a t e d " c o n s c i e n t i o u s " as more d e s i r a b l e f o r a woman. To summarize, the r e s u l t s o f the c u r r e n t s t u d y were as f o l l o w s : f i r s t , 62 o f the 73 i tems t h a t Bern (1974) found s i g -n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender t h a n the o t h e r r e p l i -c a t e d i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y ; second., 88 a d d i t i o n a l i tems were r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender t h a n the o t h e r by b o t h male and female U . B . C . j u d g e s ; t h i r d , t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the mean r a t i n g s on the 60 BSRI i tems 82 by Bern's S t a n f o r d judges and the U . B . C . judges ; and f i n a l l y , the A s i a n judges i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y r a t e d fewer o f the 60 BSRI i tems as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender than the o t h e r t h a n d i d the White judges . 83 C h a p t e r V D i s c u s s i o n T h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d the c u r r e n t g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f the Bern S e x - R o l e I n v e n t o r y (BSRI; Bern, 1974) t o a m u l t i - e t h n i c u n i v e r s i t y sample i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Canada. U n l i k e p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h t h a t has f o c u s e d on the 60 i tems c o n t a i n e d i n the BSRI, the c u r r e n t s tudy i n c l u d e d the o r i g i n a l 400 i tems used by Bern and r e p l i c a t e d h e r methodology . The r e s u l t s a r e d i s c u s s e d f o l l o w i n g each o f the f o u r hypothese s , which a r e s t a t e d i n the n u l l f o r m . H y p o t h e s i s 1 The 73 i tems t h a t were r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender than the o t h e r i n Bern's (1974) s t u d y w i l l not be r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d f o r the m a j o r i t y o f the 73 i t e m s . S i x t y - t w o i tems (28 f e m i n i n e and 34 m a s c u l i n e ) t h a t were r a t e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender than the o t h e r i n Bern's s t u d y were a l s o r a t e d so i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y . Of the 40 s e x - t y p e d BSRI i t e m s , 18 m a s c u l i n e i tems and 17 f e m i n i n e i tems were r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y . S i m i l a r l y , n i n e m a s c u l i n e i tems and n i n e f e m i n i n e i tems o f the SBSRI were r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t . The r e j e c t i o n o f the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s f o r h y p o t h e s i s one s u p p o r t e d t h e v a l i d i t y o f the BSRI w i t h t h i s U . B . C . sample . In o t h e r words , because the U . B . C . sample c o n t i n u e d t o r a t e a lmost a l l o f the same i tems t h a t Bern's (1974) sample r a t e d as 84 s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender than the o t h e r , the BSRI may be viewed as b e i n g g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o t h i s sample . Whi l e t h i s f i n d i n g speaks t o the d u r a b i l i t y o f gender s t e r e o t y p e s which Bern (1979) c l a i m e d , i t does not i m p l y t h a t Bern's i t em s e l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s were v a l i d , nor can i t c l a i m t o s u p p o r t the t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e u n d e r l y i n g the BSRI. A l s o , as B a l l a r d - R e i s c h and E l t o n (1992) n o t e d , the assumpt ion t h a t the BSRI i tems are p o s i t i v e i n tone and t h a t the n e u t r a l i tems are gender n e u t r a l i s p r o b l e m a t i c . The c u r r e n t s t u d y d i d not address these i s s u e s d i r e c t l y ? however, as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d under h y p o t h e s i s two, a few n e u t r a l i tems were r a t e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r a woman t h a n f o r a man by U . B . C . judges . Because t h e r e have been no o t h e r f u l l s c a l e r e p l i c a t i o n s o f Bern's (1974) o r i g i n a l i t em s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , comparisons can o n l y be made w i t h r e s e a r c h t h a t has employed the 60 BSRI i t e m s . B a s i c a l l y , the f i n d i n g s o f the c u r r e n t s t u d y were congruent w i t h H a r r i s ' s (1994) f i n d i n g s f o r A n g l o - A m e r i c a n s and Walkup and A b b o t t ' s (1978) s t u d y . Both s t u d i e s found t h a t a l a r g e number o f the 40 m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e BSRI i tems r e p l i c a t e d w i t h t h e i r samples . The Walkup and A b b o t t (1978) sample was perhaps the most s i m i l a r t o Bern's (1974) S t a n f o r d sample i n t h a t they were Amer ican u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n i n t r o d u c t o r y p s y c h o l -ogy . H a r r i s ' (1994) m a l l sample r e p r e s e n t e d an o l d e r age group (median age range o f 30 t o 39) than the t y p i c a l u n i v e r s i t y sample , thus making compar isons p r o b l e m a t i c . However, g i v e n the d i f f e r e n c e s i n ages o f the samples , as w e l l as the c u l t u r a l 85 confound , the s i m i l a r i t i e s between H a r r i s ' f i n d i n g s and the r e s u l t s o f the c u r r e n t s t u d y are q u i t e c o m p e l l i n g . A l t h o u g h these f i n d i n g s are not c o n c l u s i v e , one c o u l d s p e c u l a t e about the l a c k o f change and the t e n a c i t y o f gender s t e r e o t y p e s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t the r e s u l t s o f the o t h e r s t u d i e s t h a t found t h a t t h e o n l y i t em t h a t was r a t e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r a man was "mascul ine" and the o n l y i t e m t h a t was r a t e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r a woman was "feminine" ( B a l l a r d - R e i s c h & E l t o n , 1992; Edwards and Ashworth , 1977) . A l t h o u g h the meth-o d o l o g i e s were d i f f e r e n t , the d i s c r e p a n c y between r e s u l t s seems l a r g e r than would be e x p e c t e d . H y p o t h e s i s 2 No a d d i t i o n a l i t e m s , beyond the o r i g i n a l 73, w i l l be r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender t h a n the o t h e r i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d f o r h y p o t h e s i s two. One hundred and f i f t y i tems were r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender o v e r the o t h e r (84 f e m i n i n e i tems and 66 m a s c u l i n e i tems) by the U . B . C . judges . Of the 150 i tems a p p r o x i m a t e l y 59 p e r c e n t (88/150) were a d d i t i o n a l i tems (meaning t h a t they were not r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t i n Bern's (1974) s t u d y ) . The 88 a d d i t i o n a l i tems were composed o f 56 f e m i n i n e i tems and 32 m a s c u l i n e i t e m s . Support f o r the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f the BSRI would have r e s u l t e d from a c c e p t i n g the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s f o r h y p o t h e s i s two. By a c c e p t i n g the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s , t h i s would have sugges ted t h a t the c o n t e n t o f the BSRI was an a c c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f 86 c u r r e n t m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e gender s t e r e o t y p e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . However, the number o f i tems r a t e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender than the o t h e r i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y was over double t h a t o f Bern's s t u d y . T h u s , t h e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s whether the c o n t e n t o f the s t e r e o t y p e s have changed, and c o n s e q u e n t l y , whether the BSRI c o n t i n u e s t o d e s c r i b e these s t e r e o t y p e s . However, due t o a t i m e / c o h o r t d i f f e r e n c e , p l u s a confounded c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e i n the two samples , c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g change i n s t e r e o t y p e s a r e s o l e l y s p e c u l a t i v e . Because 88 a d d i t i o n a l i tems were r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender than the o t h e r i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y , i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o see whether these i tems are d i f f e r e n t i n c o n t e n t compared t o the i tems t h a t Bern found s i g -n i f i c a n t . I f a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s were performed on these i tems would they l o a d on the same f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d i n the BSRI ( e . g . , Pedhazur & Tetenbaum, 1979; W a t e r s , W a t e r s , & P i n c u s , 1977) o r would new f a c t o r s emerge? A l t h o u g h a p o r t i o n o f these i tems seem redundant ( e . g . , " k i n d " and " k i n d - h e a r t e d ; " " o p i n i o n a t e d " and "outspoken") , o t h e r s may be t a p p i n g i n t o a d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t o f gender s t e r e o t y p e s not d i s c o v e r e d by Bern. F o r example, s e v e r a l o f the i tems t h a t were r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r a woman seemed t o d e s c r i b e p h y s i c a l appearance and s e x u a l i t y ( f a s h i o n a b l e , a t t r a c t i v e , g lamourous , pays a t t e n t i o n t o own p h y s i c a l appearance , s e d u c -t i v e , sensuous , s e x u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e , s e x y ) . With the e x c e p t i o n o f "pays a t t e n t i o n t o own p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e , " none o f these 87 i tems reached s i g n i f i c a n c e i n Bern's (1974) s t u d y . Perhaps Bern's d a t a r e f l e c t s the i n f l u e n c e o f the second wave o f the women's movement on women's appearance and c l o t h i n g s t y l e . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t these i tems r e p r e s e n t an a s p e c t o f the f e m i n i n e s t e r e o t y p e t h a t has become even more pronounced i n the c u r r e n t g e n e r a t i o n ; these i tems may speak t o the c o n t i n u e d o b j e c t i f i c a -t i o n o f women t h r o u g h the i n f l u e n c e o f the media and , more r e c e n t l y , the h i g h l y s e x u a l i z e d music v i d e o s . In f a c t , many f e m i n i s t w r i t e r s ( e . g . , F a l u d i , 1991; W o l f , 1991) d e s c r i b e t h i s m a n i p u l a t i o n o f women's s e x u a l i t y and appearance as a v i o l e n t b a c k l a s h a g a i n s t f e m i n i s t p r o g r e s s and s o l i d a r i t y . A l s o , as mentioned above, t h r e e i tems p r e v i o u s l y r a t e d as n e u t r a l ( f r i e n d l y , c o n s c i e n t i o u s ( s ) , and h e l p f u l ) , were r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r a woman t h a n a man by b o t h male and female judges . The f i n d i n g s from p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h ( e . g . , Werner & L a R u s s a , 1985) sugges t t h a t changes i n gender r o l e s do not "s imply r e f l e c t the b l u r r i n g o f c o n c e p t i o n s o f men and women, because new and p r e v i o u s l y n o n s i g n i f i c a n t a d j e c t i v e s have emerged i n t h e s t e r e o t y p e o f each sex t o t a k e the p l a c e o f those dropped" (p . 1098) . I t would appear t h a t some mechanism c o n t i n u e s t o o p e r a t e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by gender . From the r e s u l t s o f h y p o t h e s i s one and two we can s p e c u l a t e t h a t gender s t e r e o t y p e s have changed l i t t l e i n r e c e n t decades . D e s p i t e c o n s i d e r a b l e a c t i v i s m , p u b l i c i t y , and l e g i s l a t i o n empha-s i z i n g e l i m i n a t i o n o f s e x - r o l e d i s t i n c t i o n s , men and women are s t i l l p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t on v a r i o u s 88 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Werner & L a R u s s a , 1985) . However, Scher and Good (1990) noted t h a t t h e r e i s a l s o i n s i d i o u s and i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o the changes i n gender r o l e s : "The emphasis on ' f a m i l y v a l u e s ' by r e c e n t governmenta l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s , f o r example, i s a way o f m a i n t a i n i n g t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s and k e e p i n g women oppressed and men r e s t r i c t e d " ( p . 3 8 8 ) . T h u s , f o r e v e r y movement towards change o f gender r o l e s , t h e r e i s a l s o a f o r c e f i g h t i n g t o m a i n t a i n the s t a t u s quo. S a r b i n ( c i t e d i n B e r n a r d , 1976) d i s t i n g u i s h e d between two d i s t i n c t components i n the concept o f r o l e : e x p e c t a t i o n s o r norms and conduct o r a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r . In an a r t i c l e c o n c e r n i n g change and s t a b i l i t y i n s e x - r o l e norms and b e h a v i o u r , B e r n a r d found t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n h e l p f u l because norms and b e h a v i o u r do not always c o i n c i d e . F o r example, the norm may change and b e h a v i o u r then conform; o r the b e h a v i o u r may change and the norm f o l l o w . A l s o , b e h a v i o u r may change but the norms may n o t ; o r the norm may change but b e h a v i o u r n o t . When c o n s i d e r i n g gender r o l e s and s t e r e o t y p e s , the t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y ( b e h a v i o u r may change but the norms may not) may p a r t l y r e p r e s e n t our c u r r e n t s t a t e o f a f f a i r s . As Scher and Good (1990) n o t e d : "Gender r o l e s are not d i v i n e l y o r d a i n e d : They a r e not unchangeable . They a r e s i m p l y c u l t u r a l a r t i f a c t s t h a t have become e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g the l o n g h i s t o r y o f p e o p l e , as w e l l as the s h o r t h i s t o r y o f our s o c i e t y " ( p . 388) . H y p o t h e s i s 3 There w i l l not be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean r a t i n g s on the 60 BSRI i tems f o r the S t a n f o r d sample (Bern, 89 1974) and the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia ( U . B . C . , 1994-95) sample . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d f o r many o f the BSRI i t e m s . In g e n e r a l , the U . B . C . male judges r a t e d the 20 BSRI m a s c u l i n e i tems h i g h e r f o r a woman t h a n d i d the S t a n f o r d male judges . There was a t r e n d f o r the U . B . C . female judges t o r a t e the m a s c u l i n e i tems as lower f o r a man than d i d the S t a n f o r d female j u d g e s . A c c e p t i n g the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s f o r h y p o t h e s i s t h r e e would have a l s o r e s u l t e d i n s u p p o r t f o r the v a l i d i t y o f the BSRI . By a c c e p t i n g the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s the r e s u l t s would have sugges ted t h a t t h e r e was a consensus between the U . B . C . judges and Bern's S t a n f o r d judges c o n c e r n i n g the d e s i r a b i l i t y r a t i n g s o f the 60 BSRI i t e m s . However, the f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t the d i s p a r i t y between the judges r a t i n g s on the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f s e x - t y p e d c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s f o r "a man" and " f o r "a woman" was l e s s i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y . A l s o , f o r the U . B . C . sample , the male judges r a t e d the m a j o r i t y o f the m a s c u l i n e i tems h i g h e r i n d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r a women and s i x o f the f e m i n i n e i tems lower i n d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r a woman t h a n d i d the S t a n f o r d male j u d g e s ; the female judges r a t e d s i x o f the m a s c u l i n e i tems h i g h e r i n d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r a woman, f o u r o f the f e m i n i n e i tems lower i n d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r a woman, and seven o f the m a s c u l i n e i tems lower i n d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r a man than d i d the S t a n f o r d female judges . From t h e s e f i n d i n g s , we may s p e c u l a t e t h a t t h e c o n c e p t i o n s o f d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r a man and f o r a woman have 90 changed s l i g h t l y s i n c e Bern's (1974) o r i g i n a l s t u d y . I t would appear t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s c r i b e d t o the m a s c u l i n e r o l e are becoming more a c c e p t a b l e f o r women. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e r e was not the same t r e n d f o r men w i t h the f e m i n i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; b o t h male and female r a t e r s from the U . B . C . sample d i d not n o t i c e a b l y d i f f e r i n t h e i r r a t i n g s f o r men on the f e m i n i n e i tems compared w i t h the S t a n f o r d sample . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t even though the two samples d i f f e r e d s l i g h t l y i n t h e i r d e s i r a b i l i t y r a t i n g s , b o t h male and female judges i n the two samples c o n t i n u e d t o r a t e the m a j o r i t y o f the m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e BSRI i tems d i f f e r e n t l y f o r the g e n d e r s . As p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has i n d i c a t e d ( e . g . , Broverman e t a l . , 1972; Werner & L a R u s s a , 1985) , gender s t e r e o t y p e s a r e p e r s i s t e n t and s t a b l e . The c u r r e n t f i n d i n g a l s o speaks l o u d l y and c l e a r l y t o the t e n a c i t y o f gender s t e r e o t y p e s . H y p o t h e s i s 4 There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean r a t i n g s a c r o s s the 60 BSRI i tems f o r those s t u d e n t s from d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c backgrounds . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was a c c e p t e d f o r the m a j o r i t y o f the BSRI i t e m s . A l t h o u g h the means f o r the male and female A s i a n and White r a t e r s o n l y d i f -f e r e d f o r a few o f the BSRI i tems (see T a b l e 12 ) , t h e r e was a t r e n d i n the d a t a f o r the male and female judges i n the A s i a n sample t o r a t e fewer i tems as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender than the o t h e r . These f i n d i n g s may suggest t h a t the m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s o f the BSRI may be a l e s s v a l i d measure o f 91 m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y among A s i a n groups - I t appeared t h a t w i t h the A s i a n sample , i t was a c c e p t a b l e f o r men and women t o adopt b o t h t r a d i t i o n a l l y m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o N o r t h American c u l t u r e . However, i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t the A s i a n s t u d e n t s f e e l l e s s knowledgeable about N o r t h Amer ican c u l t u r e , o r are more r e l u c t a n t t o d i f f e r e n -t i a t e between the s e x e s . They may a l s o see N o r t h Amer ican c u l t u r e as l e s s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n terms o f gender compared t o t h e i r own s u b c u l t u r e . In o t h e r words , t h e i r own c u l t u r e may p e r m i t narrower b e h a v i o u r f o r men and women, t h e r e f o r e t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f N o r t h Amer ican gender s t e r e o t y p e s may be more l i b e r a l . H a r r i s ' s t u d y d i f f e r e d from the p r e s e n t s t u d y i n t h a t i t r e q u e s t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s from d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups t o r a t e the BSRI i tems a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own c u l t u r a l s t a n d a r d s . F o r exam-p l e , A f r i c a n - A m e r i c a n s r e c e i v e d the f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s : "How d e s i r a b l e i s i t i n A f r i c a n - A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e f o r a man t o be a s s e r t i v e ? " Perhaps i f the A s i a n group r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n s t o r a t e the i tems f o r t h e i r own c u l t u r e , the r e s u l t s would be d i f -f e r e n t . They may view "North American" c u l t u r e as s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t than " A s i a n C u l t u r e . " A l s o , a p e r s o n ' s l e v e l o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n i n t o mainstream N o r t h Amer ican s o c i e t y may p l a y a r o l e i n how they as ses s gender s t e r e o t y p e s . O b v i o u s l y , t h i s a r e a r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h b e f o r e any s u b s t a n t i a l c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn. Due t o the s m a l l s i z e o f the A s i a n sample , not much weight can be g i v e n t o these f i n d i n g s . However, as H a r r i s (1994) found 92 w i t h A f r i c a n - A m e r i c a n and H i s p a n i c - A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a n t s , the v a l i d i t y o f the BSRI may be q u e s t i o n a b l e w i t h c u l t u r e s o t h e r than A n g l o - A m e r i c a n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the A s i a n sample i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y and the H i s p a n i c group i n H a r r i s ' s t u d y endorsed a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same number o f m a s c u l i n e i tems ( e i g h t and 13, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , and were i n agreement f o r s i x i tems ( a c t s as a l e a d e r , a g g r e s s i v e , a t h l e t i c , c o m p e t i t i v e , dom-i n a n t , and has l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t i e s ) ; the A s i a n and H i s p a n i c groups b o t h endorsed fewer f e m i n i n e i tems ( f i v e and e i g h t , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , and were i n agreement f o r o n l y two i tems ( t ender and warm). These f i n d i n g s sugges t t h a t t h e r e may be some s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two c u l t u r e s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f mas-c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y , and a l s o t h a t b o t h c u l t u r e s may d i f f e r from whi te o r A n g l o - A m e r i c a n g r o u p s . T h u s , as H a r r i s recom-mended, d e v e l o p i n g c u l t u r a l s p e c i f i c s e x - r o l e i n v e n t o r i e s f o r use among non-Ang lo segments o f the p o p u l a t i o n seems v i t a l . D e l i m i t a t i o n s and L i m i t a t i o n s The sample used i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y r e s t r i c t s t o whom the r e s u l t s may be g e n e r a l i z e d . P a r t i c i p a n t s were f i r s t y e a r u n i v e r -s i t y s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n A r t s c o u r s e s . Because a conven ience and not a p r o b a b i l i s t i c sample was drawn, we cannot g e n e r a l i z e t o the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , o r even t o s t u d e n t s from o t h e r f a c u l t i e s . A l s o , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Canadian s t u d e n t s may be d i f f e r e n t from s t u d e n t s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , thus making the r e s u l t s incomparab le t o Bern's (1974) f i n d i n g s . The samples may 93 d i f f e r i n terms o f c u l t u r e , e t h n i c i t y , and soc ioeconomic s t a t u s . U . B . C . i s m u l t i - c u l t u r a l whereas i n 1972 S t a n f o r d ' s s t u d e n t body was p r e d o m i n a n t l y w h i t e ; e n r o l l m e n t t o U . B . C . i s r e l a t i v e l y more a c c e s s i b l e f o r more s t u d e n t s , t h a n i s S t a n f o r d , a v e r y expens ive and e x c l u s i v e u n i v e r s i t y . As noted p r e v i o u s l y , e t h n i c i t y may p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the r a t i n g o f gender s t e r e o t y p e s . I d e a l l y , a S t a n f o r d sample o f s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be employed f o r a r e p l i c a t i o n s tudy t o de termine whether t h e r e have been changes i n gender s t e r e o t y p e s . The r e s e a r c h d e s i g n r e l i e d s o l e l y on s e l f - r e p o r t t e c h n i -ques , thus l i m i t i n g the type o f i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e as w e l l as b e i n g s u b j e c t t o the i n f l u e n c e o f s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y . Because p a r t i c i p a n t s were r a t i n g the i tems a c c o r d i n g t o s o c i e t a l v i e w s , not t h e i r own, the problem o f s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y was p a r t i a l l y c i r c u m v e n t e d . However, o t h e r confounds p e r s i s t e d : f i r s t , p a r t i c i p a n t s may have i n a d v e r t e n t l y r e p o r t e d on t h e i r own views o f d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r men and women r a t h e r than s o c i e t a l p e r c e p t i o n s , even though the i n s t r u c t i o n s asked f o r s o c i e t a l v i e w s ; s e c o n d , as d i s c u s s e d above , p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o r a t e the i tems a c c o r d i n g t o N o r t h Amer ican gender norms, t h u s , s t u d e n t s from d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c background may be l e s s knowledgeable o f these norms; and t h i r d , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s s t u d y may be t a p p i n g d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t cannot be i d e n -t i f i e d . Once a g a i n i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t a l t h o u g h changes i n i t em r a t i n g s may be due t o s h i f t s i n gender s t e r e o t y p e s , they 94 may a l s o be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o v a r i o u s f a c t o r s , such as s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y , t r a n s p a r e n c y o f i t e m s , d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r e , o r d i f f e r e n t samples . Sugges t ions f o r F u t u r e Research T h i s s t u d y sought t o i n v e s t i g a t e the c u r r e n t g e n e r a l i z a -b i l i t y o f the Bern S e x - R o l e I n v e n t o r y (BSRI; Bern, 1974) t o s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n Canada. Whi l e the r e s u l t s s u p p o r t e d the v a l i d i t y o f the i n s t r u -ment f o r the t o t a l sample , d i s c r e p a n c i e s emerged when the p a r t i c i p a n t s were s e p a r a t e d by e t h n i c g r o u p s . When Bern's i t em s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a were a p p l i e d , the A s i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s seemed t o r a t e the i tems c o n t a i n e d i n the BSRI d i f f e r e n t l y than d i d White p a r t i c i p a n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the f e m i n i n e i t e m s . However, due t o the s m a l l sample s i z e and the e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e o f t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h e x p l o r i n g the v a l i d i t y o f the BSRI w i t h d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups i s r e q u i r e d . In p a r t i c u l a r , the A s i a n and I n d o - C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e s c o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d more c l o s e l y . In the c u r r e n t s t u d y , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s were not asked t o r a t e the i tems a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own b e l i e f s , but r a t h e r s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . S e v e r a l s t u d e n t s came up t o the r e s e a r c h e r a f t e r w a r d s and commented on the f a c t t h a t t h e i r p e r s o n a l v iews were d i f f e r e n t . T h u s , ano ther a r e a t h a t c o u l d be r e s e a r c h e d i s the i d e a o f whether norms and b e h a v i o u r change a t d i f f e r e n t r a t e s . F o r example, i t may be p o s -s i b l e t h a t even though s o c i e t y c o n t i n u e s t o promote t r a d i t i o n a l 95 c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f men and women as d e s i r a b l e , i n d i v i d u a l s may be a d o p t i n g more androgynous views f o r t h e m s e l v e s . A n o t h e r q u e s t i o n t h a t may be r e l a t e d t o t h e i s s u e o f norms and b e h a v i o u r chang ing a t d i f f e r e n t r a t e s , i s the q u e s t i o n o f whether t h e r e has been as i n c r e a s e i n the s i z e o f the androgynous group o v e r the l a s t t h r e e decades . One p o s s i b l e methodology t h a t c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o s t u d y t h i s q u e s t i o n would be t o rev i ew s t u d i e s t h a t have a d m i n i s t e r e d the BSRI o v e r the p a s t t h r e e decades t o see whether the p r o p o r t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s s c o r i n g i n t h e androgynous group has changed i n compar i son t o those s c o r i n g i n the s e x - t y p e d g r o u p . An i n c r e a s e i n the s i z e o f the androgynous group may suggest t h a t , w h i l e s o c i e t y s t i l l d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the sexes , men and woman are d e f i n i n g themse lves d i f f e r e n t l y . A t h i r d t h a t a r e a t o be e x p l o r e d i s whether the 88 " a d d i t i o n a l " i t e m s , r a t e d as more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender than the o t h e r i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y , may be t a p p i n g i n t o an a s p e c t o f gender s t e r e o t y p e s t h a t i s q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t t h a n Bern (1974) found i n h e r o r i g i n a l s t u d y . One way t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s q u e s t i o n would be t o conduct a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s t o de termine whether the a d d i t i o n a l i tems l o a d on the same f a c t o r s t h a t have been p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d as composing the BSRI, o r whether d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s emerge. F i n a l l y , the i s s u e o f e t h n i c i t y and a c c u l t u r a t i o n s h o u l d be e x p l o r e d f u r t h e r . As w i t h H a r r i s ' s s t u d y (1994) , r e s e a r c h e r s u s i n g the BSRI c o u l d s u b s t i t u t e another c u l t u r a l group i n the 96 i n s t r u c t i o n s t o t a r g e t d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c g r o u p s . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t o e x p l o r e the e f f e c t s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n on p e r c e p t i o n s o f N o r t h Amer ican gender s t e r e o t y p e s h e l d by members o f n o n -N o r t h American c u l t u r e s . F o r example, a s i m i l a r methodology as t h a t used i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y can be employed; however, the d a t a can be a n a l y z e d s e p a r a t e l y a c c o r d i n g t o f i r s t language spoken and number o f y e a r s i n Canada. An a c c u l t u r a t i o n measure c o u l d a l s o be i n c l u d e d as a more s t r i n g e n t c r i t e r i o n o f a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o N o r t h American c u l t u r e . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C o u n s e l l i n g As the f e m i n i s t movement marches on the n e g a t i v e i m p l i c a -t i o n s o f s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s have been a growing c o n c e r n i n the mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n (Cook, 1985) . The s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e b e h a v i o u r f o r b o t h sexes i s r e c e i v i n g g r e a t e r acceptance (S tevens , P f o s t , & P o t t s , 1990) . However, as ment ioned p r e v i o u s l y , d i c h o t o m i z i n g b e h a v i o u r i n terms o f m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y may r e q u i r e f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n . B e r z i n s (1979) has sugges ted t h a t i f androgyny as a model o f menta l h e a l t h i s a d o p t e d , androgyny measures can be used as c o u n s e l l i n g outcome measures t o determine i f change i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n has taken p l a c e . I t i s f e a s i b l e t h a t the BSRI c o u l d be used i n c o u n s e l l i n g as a way t o f a c i l i t a t e e x p l o r a t i o n o f c l i e n t s ' p e r s o n a l v iews s u r r o u n d i n g gender . As Scher and Good (1990) n o t e d : " I g n o r i n g the impact o f c o n c e p t i o n s o f gender on our work i s an i n v i t a t i o n t o d i s a s t e r " (p . 388) . C o n c e p t i o n s o f 97 gender have a p o w e r f u l e f f e c t on the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s . How-e v e r , u s i n g the BSRI i n t h e r a p y would depend on the c o u n s e l l o r ' s and c l i e n t ' s comfor t l e v e l w i t h u s i n g such i n s t r u m e n t s . The Bern S e x - R o l e I n v e n t o r y (BSRI; Bern, 1974) has been used p r i m a r i l y as a r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t ; i t i s i n t h e r e s e a r c h a r e n a t h a t the BSRI may be u s e f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g what o c c u r s i n c o u n s e l l i n g . I f b e h a v i o u r a l f l e x i b i l i t y i s a c c e p t e d as d e s i r a b l e , then the concept o f androgyny i s d e s i r a b l e . But t h e r a p y w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s o c i o p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s can be f u t i l e and d i s r u p t i v e f o r many c l i e n t s ( i f not a l l c l i e n t s ) . F o r example, as was noted p r e v i o u s l y , a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g geared towards women may be m i s s i n g the whole i s s u e o f women's i n f e r i o r s t a t u s i n our s o c i e t y . D i s r e g a r d i n g such f a c t o r s would be e q u i v a l e n t t o t r e a t i n g the symptom r a t h e r t h a n the u n d e r l y i n g p r o b l e m . To date r e s e a r c h l i n k i n g androgyny w i t h s u p e r i o r adjustment has been e q u i v o c a l ; s o c i e t y c o n t i n u e s t o o v e r - v a l u e the s t e r e o t y p e d m a s c u l i n e sex r o l e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , measures o f menta l h e a l t h a l s o r e f l e c t t h i s male b i a s (Cook, 1985) . T h u s , i n o r d e r t o de termine whether androgyny i s r e l a t e d t o g r e a t e r p s y c h o l o g i -c a l f u n c t i o n i n g , the measures o f menta l h e a l t h must be r e e v a l u a t e d . C o n c l u s i o n I t was the hope o f t h i s r e s e a r c h e r t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the e v e r expanding body o f r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g gender s t e r e o t y p e s . G i v e n t h a t the Bern S e x - R o l e I n v e n t o r y (BSRI; Bern, 1974) i s such 98 a w i d e l y used measure, the purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i -gate the c u r r e n t g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e BSRI t o u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s q u e s t i o n was a d d r e s s e d by c o n d u c t i n g a r e p l i c a t i o n o f Bern's i t em s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e f o r the o r i g i n a l BSRI . In g e n e r a l , the f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t e d the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f the BSRI t o t h i s sample; s t u d e n t s r a t e d 35 o f the 40 s e x - t y p e d i tems c o n t a i n e d i n the BSRI as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender t h a n the o t h e r . When the s h o r t v e r s i o n o f the BSRI was c o n s i d e r e d , 18 o f the 20 s e x - t y p e d i tems r e a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , many i tems t h a t f a i l e d t o r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e i n Bern's (1974) s t u d y , were a l s o r a t e d as s i g -n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender t h a n the o t h e r i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y . Other r e s u l t s sugges ted t h a t the d i s c r e p a n c y between r a t i n g s f o r "a man" and f o r "a woman" had d e c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . F i n a l l y , the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the BSRI t o o t h e r e t h n i c groups was q u e s t i o n e d . Because t h i s h y p o t h e s i s was e x p l o r a t o r y , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d b e f o r e any f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn. 99 Footnote D r . Bern was c o n t a c t e d by m a i l and by t e l e p h o n e . The f o l l o w i n g r e q u e s t s were made: a) A c c e s s t o the mean r a t i n g s o f the o r i g i n a l 400 i t e m s . b) A l t e r n a t e l y , a l i s t o f the i tems which were r a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t t o compare whether t h e y are s t i l l r a t e d s i m i l a r l y ( the BSRI manual s t a t e s t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70 i tems reached s i g n i f i c a n c e , from which the f i n a l 40 i tems were c h o s e n . ) c) The o r d e r i n which the 400 i tems were p r e s e n t e d t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s , e i t h e r a l p h a b e t i c a l l y o r i n a random sequence . I f the sequence was random, a copy o f the o r d e r was r e q u e s t e d . d) Any demographic i n f o r m a t i o n on the s u b j e c t p o o l . G i v e n t h a t the o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h was conducted over 20 y e a r s ago, the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t I r e q u e s t e d was not e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e . In response t o q u e s t i o n s a) and d) , no i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e . In response t o b ) , she was a b l e t o r e t r i e v e the l i s t o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70 i tems t h a t reached s i g n i f i c a n c e (see Appendix C) and f o r c) she r e c a l l e d t h a t the 400 i tems were p r e s e n t e d i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r . 100 References B a l l a r d - R e i s c h , D . , & E l t o n , M. (1992) . Gender o r i e n t a t i o n and the Bern Sex Ro le I n v e n t o r y : A p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t r e v i s i t e d . Sex R o l e s , 2 7 ( 5 - 6 ) , 291-306. Baucom, D. H . (1980) . Independent CPI m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s : P s y c h o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t e s and a s e x - r o l e t y p o l o g y . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y Assessment . 44, 262-271. Bern, S. L . (1974) . The measurement o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l androgyny . 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I n t r o d u c t i o n : S p e c i a l f e a t u r e on gender i s s u e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l l i n g and Development, 68, 370. S c h m i t t , B . H . , & M i l l a r d , R. T . (1988) . C o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f the Bern Sex R o l e I n v e n t o r y (BSRI) : Does the BSRI d i s t i n g u i s h between g e n d e r - s c h e m a t i c and g e n d e r - a s c h e m a t i c i n d i v i d u a l s ? Sex R o l e s . 19 (9 -10 ) , 581-588. S h e r r i f f s , A . C , & McKee, J . P . (1957) . Q u a l i t a t i v e a s p e c t s o f b e l i e f s about men and women. J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y , 25, 451-464. S i l v e r b e r g , R. A . (1986) . P s y c h o t h e r a p y f o r men: T r a n s c e n d i n g the male m y s t i q u e . S p r i n g f i e l d , I L : C h a r l e s C . Thomas. S i l v e r n , L . E . , & Ryan, V . L . (1979) . S e l f - r a t e d adjustment and s e x - t y p i n g on the Bern S e x - R o l e I n v e n t o r y : Is m a s c u l i n i t y the p r i m a r y p r e d i c t o r o f adjus tment? Sex R o l e s , 5 ( 6 ) , 739-763. Spence , J . T . , H e l m r e i c h , R . , & S t r a p p , J . (1974) . The P e r s o n a l A t t r i b u t e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e : A measure o f sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s and m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y . JSAS C a t a l o g o f S e l e c t e d Documents i n P s y c h o l o g y , 4 ( 4 3 ) , (MS No. 617) . Spence , J . T . , H e l m r e i c h , R . , & S t r a p p , J . (1975) . R a t i n g s o f s e l f and peers on sex r o l e r o l e a t t r i b u t e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o s e l f - e s t e e m and c o n c e p t i o n s o f m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 32, 29-39. S t e v e n s , M. J . , P f o s t , K . S . , & P o t t s , M. K . (1990) . S e x - r o l e 105 o r i e n t a t i o n and the w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o n f r o n t e x i s t e n t i a l i s -s u e s . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l l i n g and Development, 6 8 ( 4 ) , 414-416. T a y l o r , M. C , & H a l l , J . A . (1982) . P s y c h o l o g i c a l androgyny: T h e o r i e s , methods, and c o n c l u s i o n s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 92, 347-366. Unger , R . , & C r a w f o r d , M. (1992) . Women and gender: A f e m i n i s t p s y c h o l o g y . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l . Walkup, H . , & A b b o t t , R. D. (1978) . C r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n o f i t em s e l e c t i o n on the Bern Sex R o l e I n v e n t o r y . A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement, 2 ( 1 ) , 63-71 . Waters , C . W . , W a t e r s , L . K . , & P i n c u s , S. (1977) . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e s e x - t y p e d i tems from the Bern S e x - R o l e I n v e n t o r y . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e p o r t s , 40, 567-570. W e i s s t e i n , N . (1993) . P s y c h o l o g y c o n s t r u c t s the f emale ; o r , the f a n t a s y l i f e o f the male p s y c h o l o g i s t (w i th some a t t e n t i o n t o the f a n t a s i e s o f h i s f r i e n d s , the male b i o l o g i s t and the male a n t h r o p o l o g i s t . Feminism & P s y c h o l o g y , 2 ( 2 ) , 195-210. Werner, P . D. , & L a R u s s a , G . W. (1985) . P e r s i s t e n c e and change i n s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s . Sex R o l e s , 12 ( 9 / 1 0 ) , 1089-1100. W i g g i n s , J . S . , & H o l z m u l l e r , A . (1978) . P s y c h o l o g i c a l androgyny and i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o u r . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 4 6 ( 1 ) , 40-52. W i l s o n , F . R . , & Cook, E . P . (1984) . C o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y o f f o u r androgyny i n s t r u m e n t s . Sex R o l e s , 11, 813-837. W o l f , N . (1991) . The beauty myth. T o r o n t o : V i n t a g e Books . APPENDIX A Bern's Procedures f o r S e l e c t i n g M a s c u l i n e and Feminine A d j e c t i v e s f o r the BSRI The 7 3 Items Rated as S i g n i f i c a n t l y More D e s i r a b l e f o r One Gender Than the Other i Bern's Study 107 The f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n was sent by D r . Sandra Bern. I t o u t l i n e s her o r i g i n a l p r o c e d u r e (Bern, 1974) f o r s e l e c t i n g mas-c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e a d j e c t i v e s f o r the BSRI . The i n f o r m a t i o n has been c o p i e d v e r b a t i m , however, comments have been added when c l a r i f i c a t i o n i s needed. These comments are made i n c a p i t a l l e t -t e r s i n o r d e r t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e them from Bern's t e x t . C r i t e r i o n : Each a d j e c t i v e had t o be seen as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one sex than f o r the o t h e r (p_ < . 0 5 , 2 - t a i l e d ) by both male and female judges i n b o t h the w i n t e r and the summer samples . Note: t h i s means t h a t f o u r independent c r i t e r i a were a p p l i e d . W i n t e r : 48 m a s c u l i n e and 38 f e m i n i n e a d j e c t i v e s met the w i n t e r c r i t e r i a . Of t h e s e , 14 m a s c u l i n e and 4 f e m i n i n e a d j e c t i v e s were e l i m i n a t e d . T h i s was done i n o r d e r t o e q u a l i z e the number o f m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e a d j e c t i v e s . A l s o t o e l i m i n a t e c e r t a i n a d -j e c t i v e s I j u s t d i d n ' t l i k e . A t t h i s p o i n t , 34 m a s c u l i n e and 34 f e m i n i n e a d j e c t i v e s r emained . Summer: 4 m a s c u l i n e and 6 f e m i n i n e a d j e c t i v e s f a i l e d t o meet the summer c r i t e r i a . An a d d i t i o n a l 2 m a s c u l i n e a d j e c t i v e s were e l i m i n a t e d i n o r d e r t o e q u a l i z e the number o f m a s c u l i n e and fem-i n i n e a d j e c t i v e s . Remaining were 28 m a s c u l i n e and 28 f e m i n i n e a d j e c t i v e s . They compr i se our f i n a l M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y T e s t s . 108 M a s c u l i n e A d j e c t i v e s * A b l e t o s e p a r a t e i d e a s from f e e l i n g s A c t s as a l e a d e r A g g r e s s i v e A m b i t i o u s A n a l y t i c a l A s s e r t i v e A t h l e t i c B o l d C o m p e t i t i v e D a r i n g Defends own b e l i e f s * Does not g i v e up e a s i l y Dominant F o r c e f u l Has l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t i e s Independent I n d i v i d u a l i s t i c L i k e s a good argument L i t t l e need f o r s e c u r i t y Makes d e c i s i o n s e a s i l y M a s c u l i n e M a t h e m a t i c a l Outspoken * R e a l i s t i c S c i e n t i f i c S e l f - r e l i a n t S e l f - s u f f i c i e n t S k i l l e d S trong-minded S t r o n g p e r s o n a l i t y T a l e n t e d W i l l i n g t o take a s t a n d W i l l i n g t o t a k e r i s k s W o r l d l y A l s o met t h e w i n t e r c r i t e r i a , b u t e l i m i n a t e d A b l e t o be a g g r e s s i v e w i t h -out f e e l i n g d i s c o m f o r t * A r r o g a n t , proud B l u n t B u s i n e s s l i k e E n t e r p r i s i n g * E x p e r i e n c e d F e a r l e s s F i r m * F r e e t h i n k i n g Knows the way o f the w o r l d Makes d e c i s i o n s w i t h o u t r e g a r d f o r the f e e l i n g s o f o t h e r s P e r s u a s i v e Rugged S k i l l e d i n b u s i n e s s 1) 48 i tems passed c r i t e r i o n i n the w i n t e r sample o f 40 S t a n f o r d judges . 2) Of these 48, 7 f a i l e d t o pass c r i t e r i o n i n the summer sample o f 60 S t a n f o r d judges ( i n d i c a t e d by an a s t e r i s k * ) . 3) L e a v i n g 41 i tems s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r men t h a n women i n b o t h samples . AN ITEM HAD TO BE RATED SIGNIFICANT BY BOTH THE WINTER AND SUMMER SAMPLES TO PASS CRITERION. OUTSIDE OF THE INFORMATION PROVIDED ON THE PREVIOUS PAGE, BEM DID NOT DESCRIBE HOW SHE CHOSE ITEMS FOR ELIMINATION. 109 Feminine A d j e c t i v e s A f f e c t i o n a t e C h e e r f u l C h i l d l i k e Compass ionate Compl ian t * Dependent Does not use h a r s h language Eager t o soothe h u r t f e e l i n g s * E x c i t a b l e F a i t h f u l Feminine F l a t t e r a b l e G e n t l e G i v i n g G r a c e f u l G u l l i b l e Innocent A l s o met the w i n t e r c r i t e r i a , but e l i m i n a t e d B a s h f u l H e l p l e s s S i m p l e , n a i v e Warm-hearted K i t t e n i s h Loves c h i l d r e n L o y a l * Pays a t t e n t i o n t o own p h y s i c a l appearance * S e l f l e s s S e n s i t i v e t o the needs o f o t h e r s Shy * S i l l y S o f t - s p o k e n Submiss ive Sympathet i c Tender T e n d e r - h e a r t e d U n d e r s t a n d i n g Warm * W i l l i n g t o make s a c r i f i c e s f o r o t h e r s Y i e l d i n g 1) 38 i tems passed c r i t e r i o n i n the w i n t e r sample o f 40 S t a n f o r d judges . 2) Of these 38, 6 f a i l e d t o pass c r i t e r i o n i n the summer sample o f 60 S t a n f o r d judges ( i n d i c a t e d by an a s t e r i s k * ) . 3) L e a v i n g 32 i tems s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r women than men i n b o t h samples . 41 MASCULINE ITEMS + 3 2 FEMININE ITEMS = 7 3 ITEMS IN TOTAL THAT WERE RATED SIGNIFICANTLY MORE DESIRABLE FOR ONE GENDER OVER THE OTHER. 110 Items t h a t d i d no t s a t i s f y c r i t e r i o n i n the summer sample o f judges Is i t more d e s i r a b l e f o r one sex than f o r the o t h e r , e . g . , " f o r man" v e r s u s " f o r woman." A d j e c t i v e s Male Judges Female Judges A b l e t o s e p a r a t e no i d e a s from f e e l i n g s Does not g i v e up no e a s i l y R e a l i s t i c no T a l e n t e d no yes yes no no *A11 f o u r o f these e l i m i n a t e d as m a s c u l i n e a d j e c t i v e s . Dependent yes E x c i t a b l e yes Pays a t t e n t i o n t o own no p h y s i c a l appearance S e l f l e s s no S i l l y yes W i l l i n g t o make yes s a c r i f i c e s f o r o t h e r s no no yes no no no *A11 s i x o f t h e s e e l i m i n a t e d as f e m i n i n e a d j e c t i v e s . M a t h e m a t i c a l L i t t l e need f o r s e c u r i t y yes yes yes * A l s o e l i m i n a t e d as m a s c u l i n e a d j e c t i v e s yes t o e q u a l i z e the # o f m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e a d j e c t i v e s . They were b o t h q u i t e low i n s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y . I l l F i n a l 28 M a s c u l i n e A d j e c t i v e s A c t s as a l e a d e r A g g r e s s i v e A m b i t i o u s A n a l y t i c a l A s s e r t i v e A t h l e t i c * B o l d C o m p e t i t i v e * D a r i n g Defends own b e l i e f s Dominant F o r c e f u l Has l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t i e s Independent I n d i v i d u a l i s t i c * L i k e s a good argument Makes d e c i s i o n s e a s i l y M a s c u l i n e * Outspoken * S c i e n t i f i c S e l f - r e l i a n t S e l f - s u f f i c i e n t * S k i l l e d * S trong-minded S t r o n g - p e r s o n a l i t y W i l l i n g t o take a s t a n d W i l l i n g t o take r i s k s * W o r l d l y F i n a l 28 Feminine A d j e c t i v e s A f f e c t i o n a t e C h e e r f u l C h i l d l i k e Compassionate * C o m p l i a n t Does not use h a r s h language Eager t o soothe h u r t f e e l i n g s * F a i t h f u l Feminine F l a t t e r a b l e G e n t l e * G i v i n g * G r a c e f u l G u l l i b l e * Innocent * K i t t e n i s h Loves c h i l d r e n L o y a l S e n s i t i v e t o the needs o f o t h e r s Shy S o f t - s p o k e n * Submiss ive Sympathe t i c Tender * T e n d e r - h e a r t e d U n d e r s t a n d i n g Warm Y i e l d i n g E i g h t m a s c u l i n e and e i g h t f e m i n i n e i tems were e l i m i n a t e d t o s h o r t e n the s c a l e s ( i tems i n d i c a t e d by an a s t e r i s k * ) . NO INFORMATION WAS GIVEN CONCERNING HOW THESE ITEMS WERE CHOSEN FOR ELIMINATION. 112 APPENDIX B Bern's Instructions for the Questionnaire 113 The I n s t r u c t i o n s P r o v i d e d by Bern t o S e l e c t F e m i n i n e , M a s c u l i n e , and F i l l e r Items We a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n Amer ican s t e r e o t y p e s o f m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i -n i n i t y . On the f o l l o w i n g pages you w i l l be shown a l a r g e number o f p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . We would l i k e you t o i n d i c a t e how d e s i r a b l e i t i s i n Amer ican s o c i e t y f o r a man t o possess each o f these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Note : We are not i n t e r e s t e d i n your p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n o f how d e s i r a b l e each o f these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s . R a t h e r , we want your judgement o f how our s o c i e t y e v a l u a t e s each o f these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a man. Example: h e a l t h y Mark a 7 i f i t i s c o n s i d e r e d EXTREMELY DESIRABLE i n A m e r i c a f o r a man t o be h e a l t h y . Mark a 6 i f i t i s c o n s i d e r e d VERY DESIRABLE i n Amer ica f o r a man t o be h e a l t h y . Mark a 5 i f i t i s c o n s i d e r e d QUITE DESIRABLE i n Amer ica f o r a man t o be h e a l t h y . Mark a 4 i f i t i s c o n s i d e r e d MODERATELY DESIRABLE i n Amer ica f o r a man t o be h e a l t h y . Mark a 3 i f i t i s c o n s i d e r e d SOMEWHAT DESIRABLE i n A m e r i c a f o r a man t o be h e a l t h y . Mark a 2 i f i t i s c o n s i d e r e d SLIGHTLY DESIRABLE i n A m e r i c a f o r a man t o be h e a l t h y . Mark a 1 i f i t i s c o n s i d e r e d NOT AT A L L DESIRABLE i n Amer ica f o r a man t o be h e a l t h y . Note: I f you come t o an a d j e c t i v e which seems so ambiguous t h a t you cannot b r i n g y o u r s e l f t o r a t e i t , no mat ter how h a r d you t r y , mark t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w i t h an " X " . P l e a s e do not l e a v e any c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c unmarked. Thus , i f you f e e l t h a t i n our s o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y , i t i s e x t r e m e l y d e s i r a b l e f o r a man t o be h e a l t h y , no t a t a l l d e s i r a b l e f o r a man t o be f a t , q u i t e d e s i r a b l e f o r a man t o be c a r e f r e e , and somewhat d e s i r a b l e f o r a man t o be c o m i c a l , t h e n you would r e s p o n d as f o l l o w s : H e a l t h y 7 C a r e f r e e 5 F a t 1 C o m i c a l 3 APPENDIX C L e t t e r t o P r o f e s s o r s and I n f o r m a t i o n Sheet C l a s s I n t r o d u c t i o n E x p l a n a t i o n Sheet Consent Form 116 Research S tudy: P e r c e i v e d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Women and Men The Bern Sex -Ro le I n v e n t o r y (Bern, 1974; BSRI) was d e s i g n e d t o implement e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h on the c o n s t r u c t o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l androgyny. T h i s c o n s t r u c t r e f e r s t o the b l e n d i n g o f p o s i t i v e mas-c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n a g i v e n i n d i v i d u a l ; i t i m p l i e s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s can behave i n a f l e x i b l e manner t o accom-modate the s i t u a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n r e l y i n g on s o c i e t a l s e x - r o l e p r e s c r i p t i o n s t o d i c t a t e a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o u r . T h u s , androgynous i n d i v i d u a l s can be b o t h a s s e r t i v e and e x p r e s s i v e depending on the s i t u a t i o n . The purpose o f the c u r r e n t s tudy i s t o conduct a r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the BSRI. Such a r e p l i c a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t because the BSRI c o n t i n u e s t o be used e x t e n s i v e l y i n the r e s e a r c h community. F o r example , the PsychLIT S i l v e r P l a t t e r a b s t r a c t system (1989) l i s t s 419 e n t r i e s r e f e r e n c i n g the BSRI . G i v e n t h a t o v e r 20 y e a r s have passed s i n c e i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n , some have q u e s t i o n e d whether the i n s t r u m e n t c o n t i n u e s t o r e p r e s e n t s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r men and women. The c u r r e n t s tudy w i l l a t tempt t o address the f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s : 1. Do UBC s t u d e n t s r a t e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a c c o r d i n g t o s o c i e t a l e v a l u a t i o n s , as more d e s i r a b l e f o r one sex over the o t h e r ? 2. I f i tems from the BSRI are not judged by UBC s t u d e n t s as s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r e i t h e r sex , have i tems p r e v i o u s l y r a t e d as i n s i g n i f i c a n t t a k e n t h e i r p l a c e ? In d e v e l o p i n g the BSRI , Bern at tempted t o i d e n t i f y those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t were c o n s i d e r e d more d e s i r a b l e f o r one sex t h a n the o t h e r w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f American c u l t u r e . A l i s t o f a p p r o x i -mate ly 200 p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h a t seemed t o be p o s i t i v e i n v a l u e and e i t h e r f e m i n i n e o r mascul ine , i n t o n e , was c o m p i l e d by the a u t h o r and s e v e r a l s t u d e n t s . An a d d i t i o n a l l i s t o f 200 c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s t h a t seemed n e u t r a l i n tone i n terms o f gender were assembled f o r a S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y s c a l e . H a l f the i tems were p o s i t i v e i n v a l u e and h a l f were n e g a t i v e . In 1973 Bern asked 100 S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n f i r s t y e a r c l a s s e s t o use a seven p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e t o r a t e the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r e i t h e r a man o r a woman i n Amer ican s o c i e t y (no judge was asked t o r a t e b o t h ) . A p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was d e f i n e d as f e m i n i n e o r m a s c u l i n e i f i t was judged t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r one gender t h a n the o t h e r (p < . 05 , t w o - t a i l e d ) by both male and female r a t e r s . Of the 73 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t s a t i s f i e d t h i s c r i t e r i a twenty were s e l e c t e d f o r the f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e and twenty were s e l e c t e d f o r the m a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e . A r e p l i c a t i o n w i l l a l l o w r e s e a r c h e r s t o a s c e r t a i n the c u r r e n t g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f the BSRI t o U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia (UBC) s t u d e n t s . Because the samples a r e d i f f e r e n t , comparisons between the two a r e l i m i t e d ; however, changes i n g e n d e r - r e l a t e d r a t i n g s o f p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may be s u g g e s t i v e o f s h i f t s i n gender s t e r e o t y p e s s i n c e Bern's o r i g i n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the BSRI. A l s o , changes i n r a t i n g s may b r i n g i n t o q u e s t i o n the c o n -t i n u e d use o f the BSRI , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h a m u l t i - e t h n i c p o p u l a t i o n . R e g a r d l e s s o f the r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y , a r e p l i c a t i o n a f t e r more than 20 y e a r s i s w a r r a n t e d . 117 C l a s s I n t r o d u c t i o n H e l l o . My name i s E l s i e De V i t a . I am a M . A . s t u d e n t i n the Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g Psycho logy a t U . B . C . I am c u r r e n t l y working on my t h e s i s which i s t i t l e d " P e r c e i v e d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Women and Men ." I am here today t o ask f o r y o u r h e l p i n c o n -d u c t i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h . The s t u d y i n v o l v e s c o m p l e t i n g a q u e s t i o n n a i r e and a b a c k -ground i n f o r m a t i o n s h e e t ; t h i s t a k e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40-50 m i n u t e s . I i n c l u d e d a background i n f o r m a t i o n sheet because I hoped t o i n c l u d e peop le from many d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s . P r e v i o u s r e -s e a r c h has f a i l e d t o acknowledge c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y and has made i t d i f f i c u l t t o g e n e r a l i z e r e s u l t s t o o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s . A t t h i s p o i n t I would l i k e t o hand out the packages which c o n t a i n an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r m , a consent f o r m , and the q u e s t i o n -n a i r e . There s h o u l d be 13 pages i n t o t a l . A f t e r r e a d i n g t h i s m a t e r i a l , i f you s t i l l have q u e s t i o n s I w i l l be happy t o answer them. Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s c o m p l e t e l y v o l u n t a r y and w i l l i n no way a f f e c t y o u r s t a n d i n g i n t h i s c o u r s e . I f you choose no t t o p a r t i c i p a t e , t h e r e i s a spo t f o r you t o i n d i c a t e on the consent f o r m . P l e a s e r e a d the i n s t r u c t i o n s c a r e f u l l y . You are asked t o r a t e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r e i t h e r a man o r a woman. I would a l s o l i k e t o stifess-- the l a s t two sentences o f the i n s t r u c t i o n s : We are not i n t e r e s t e d i n y o u r p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n o f how d e s i r a b l e each o f these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s . R a t h e r , we want your judgement o f how our s o c i e t y e v a l u a t e s each o f these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a man (woman). When you are f i n i s h e d , p l e a s e put e v e r y t h i n g back i n tne enve lope and reptsoajn i t t o me. I would l i k e t o thank you i n M-T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 118 Department of Counselling Psychology Faculty of Education 5780 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1L2 Tel: (604) 822-5259 Fax: (604) 822-2328 E l s i e De V i t a , M . A . C a n d i d a t e S u p e r v i s o r : Beth Haverkamp, P h . D . Research S tudy: P e r c e i v e d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Women and Men Dear P a r t i c i p a n t : I am w r i t i n g t o r e q u e s t your h e l p w i t h a r e s e a r c h s tudy t h a t I am c o n d u c t i n g . As a graduate s t u d e n t , t h i s s t u d y c o n s t i t u t e s the f i n a l r equ irement f o r a Master o f A r t s i n C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The purpose o f my s tudy i s t o e x p l o r e s o c i e t a l a t t i t u d e s towards gender r o l e s . Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y i s e n t i r e l y v o l u n t a r y and w i l l not a f f e c t your s t a n d i n g i n t h i s c o u r s e . A l l i n f o r m a t i o n i s c o n f i d e n t i a l and code numbers w i l l be used t o ensure anonymity . Should you consent t o p a r t i c i p a t e , you w i l l be r e q u e s t e d t o complete a q u e s t i o n n a i r e and a demographics s h e e t . T h i s s h o u l d take a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40-50 minutes and s h o u l d be com-p l e t e d i n c l a s s t ime then immedia te ly r e t u r n e d t o the r e -s e a r c h e r . A copy o f the t h e s i s w i l l be made a v a i l a b l e i n the Main l i b r a r y a t U . B . C . upon c o m p l e t i o n . Shou ld you have any q u e s t i o n s about the s t u d y , p l e a s e c o n t a c t me a t the above num-b e r . Thank you i n advance f o r your c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Your c o o p e r a t i o n w i l l be i n v a l u a b l e t o t h i s r e s e a r c h which hopes t o add t o the body of knowledge c o n c e r n i n g gender i s s u e s . S i n c e r e l y , E l s i e De V i t a T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 119 Department of Counselling Psychology Faculty of Education 5780 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1L2 Tel: (604) 822-5259 Fax: (604) 822-2328 r Informed Consent Document E l s i e De V i t a , M . A . C a n d i d a t e S u p e r v i s o r : Beth Haverkamp Research Study: P e r c e i v e d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Women and Men T h i s s t u d y on gender r o l e s i s b e i n g conducted by graduate s t u d e n t and r e s e a r c h e r , E l s i e De V i t a , i n the D e p a r t -ment o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . As a p a r t i c i p a n t , I w i l l be asked t o complete a q u e s t i o n n a i r e which takes a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40-50 m i n u t e s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l be completed d u r i n g c l a s s t ime and w i l l be r e t u r n e d t o the r e s e a r c h e r a t the end o f c l a s s . A t t h i s p o i n t my commitment i s o v e r . By c o m p l e t i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , I g i v e my agreement t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s s tudy on gender r o l e s . I u n d e r s t a n d t h a t c o m p l e t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i m p l i e s c o n s e n t . However, I f u r t h e r u n d e r s t a n d t h a t I am f r e e t o withdraw my consent and s t o p my p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t any t i m e . T h i s w i l l no t a f f e c t my s t a n d i n g i n the c o u r s e . I am f r e e t o l e a v e the c l a s s i f I d e -c i d e not t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s t u d y . A l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e responses w i l l be r e c o r d e d by code number, my name i s not r e q u i r e d , and a l l i n d i v i d u a l i n f o r m a -t i o n w i l l be kept c o n f i d e n t i a l . I have had a chance t o ask any q u e s t i o n s I want about t h i s s tudy on gender r o l e s , and they have been answered t o my s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h i s acknowledges r e c e i p t o f a copy o f consent form i n c l u d i n g a l l a t tachments . P l e a s e check one: I agree t o p a r t i c i p a t e I chose not t o p a r t i c i p a t e Code #: Dated: APPENDIX D Sample of the Questionnaire Used i n the Current Study 121 I n s t r u c t i o n s We are i n t e r e s t e d i n N o r t h American s t e r e o t y p e s o f m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y . On the f o l l o w i n g pages you w i l l be shown a l a r g e number of p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . We would l i k e you t o i n d i c a t e how d e s i r a b l e i t i s i n N o r t h Amer ican s o c i e t y f o r a man t o posses s each of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Note : We are not i n t e r e s t e d i n your p e r -s o n a l o p i n i o n o f how d e s i r a b l e each o f these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s . R a t h e r , we want your judgement o f how our s o c i e t y e v a l u a t e s each of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a man. Example: h e a l t h y Mark a 7 i f i t i s c o n s i d e r e d EXTREMELY DESIRABLE i n A m e r i c a f o r a man t o be h e a l t h y . Mark a 6 i f i t i s c o n s i d e r e d VERY DESIRABLE i n A m e r i c a f o r a man t o be h e a l t h y . Mark a 5 i f i t i s c o n s i d e r e d QUITE DESIRABLE i n Amer ica f o r a man t o be h e a l t h y . Mark a 4 i f i t i s c o n s i d e r e d MODERATELY DESIRABLE i n Amer ica f o r a man t o be h e a l t h y . Mark a 3 i f i t i s c o n s i d e r e d SOMEWHAT DESIRABLE i n A m e r i c a f o r a man t o be h e a l t h y . Mark a 2 i f i t i s c o n s i d e r e d SLIGHTLY DESIRABLE i n A m e r i c a f o r a man t o be h e a l t h y . Mark a 1 i f i t i s c o n s i d e r e d NOT AT A L L DESIRABLE i n Amer ica f o r a man t o be h e a l t h y . Note : I f you come t o an a d j e c t i v e which seems so ambiguous t h a t you cannot b r i n g y o u r s e l f t o r a t e i t , no mat ter how h a r d you t r y , mark t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w i t h an " X " . P l e a s e do no t l e a v e any c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c unmarked. T h u s , i f you f e e l t h a t i n o u r s o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y , i t i s ex treme ly d e s i r a b l e f o r a man t o be h e a l t h y , no t a t a l l d e s i r a b l e f o r a man t o be f a t , q u i t e d e s i r a b l e f o r a man t o be c a r e f r e e , and somewhat d e s i r a b l e f o r a man t o be c o m i c a l , then you would re spond as f o l l o w s : H e a l t h y __7 F a t 1 C a r e f r e e C o m i c a l 5 3 122 1 2 3 Not At All Slightly Somewhat Desirable Desirable Desirable Able to be aggressive with-out feeling discomfort Able to criticize others without feeling uneasy Able to devote oneself to others Able to empathize with the feelings of others Able to separate ideas from feelings Able to withstand emotional pressures Abrupt Absent-minded Accommodating Active Acts as a leader Adaptable Adventurous Affectionate Aggressive Agreeable Alert Aloof Ambitious Amusing Analytical Animated 4 5 6 7 Moderately Quite Very Extremely Desirable Desirable Desirable Desirable Anxious Apathetic Appreciative Arbitrary Arrogant, proud Artistic Assertive Astute Athletic Attractive Bashful Biased Blunt Boastful Boisterous Bold Brave Bright Broad-minded Businesslike Cagey Calculating Calm Candid Capable in emergencies 123 1 2 3 Not At All Slightly Somewhat Desirable Desirable Desirable Carefree Careful Careless Casual Cautious Certain Changes mind easily Charming Cheerful Childlike Choosy Clean Clear-thinking Clever Clumsy Comfortable when people express emotion Compassionate Competent Competitive Complex Compliant Compulsive Conceited Concerned about group harmony 4 5 6 7 Moderately Quite Very Extremely Desirable Desirable Desirable Desirable Concerned about the future Congenial Conscientious Conservative Considerate Consistent Conventional Convincing Cool-headed Cooperative Cordial Courageous Courteous Crafty Creative Cries without shame Critical Cultured Cunning Cynical Daring Decisive Dedicated Defends own beliefs 124 1 2 Not At All Slightly Desirable Desirable Defiant Deliberate Democratic Dependable Dependent Dignified Diligent Diplomatic Direct Disciplined Disorganized Dissatisfied Does not give up easily Does not use harsh language Dominant Down-to-earth Dynamic Eager Eager to soothe hurt feelings Earnest Easily expresses tender feelings Easygoing Effective 3 4 5 6 7 Somewhat Moderately Quite Very Extremely Desirable Desirable Desirable Desirable Desirable Efficient Emotional Energetic Enterprising Entertaining Enthusiastic Erratic Ethical Excitable Experienced Expresses emotions easily Expressive Extravagant Extroverted Fair-minded Faithful Fashionable Fearless Feelings not easily hurt Feminine Fickle Finicky Firm Flashy 125 1 2 Not At All Slightly Desirable Desirable Flatterable Flexible Flirtatious Forceful Forgetful Forgiving Forthright Frank Free-thinking Friendly Generous Genial Gentle Giving Glamourous Glib Good Good-natured Gossipy Graceful Gracious Greedy Gullible Happy Hard-headed 3 4 5 6 7 Somewhat Moderately Quite Very Extremely Desirable Desirable Desirable Desirable Desirable Has a good sense of humour Has leadership abilities Hasty Haughty Headstrong Helpful Helpless Hides his/her emotions High-strung Honest Hopeful Humane Humble Humourous Idealistic Imaginative Impartial Impatient Impersonal Impolite Impractical Impressionable Impulsive Incisive 126 1 2 Not At All Slightly Desirable Desirable Inconsistent Independent Individualistic Industrious Inefficient Informal Inhibited Innocent Innovative Insightful Intellectual Intelligent Intense Interesting Introspective Intuitive Inventive Irrational Jealous Just Kind Kindrhearted Kittenish Knows the way of the world 3 4 5 Somewhat Moderately Quite Desirable Desirable Desirable 6 7 Very Extremely Desirable Desirable Law-abiding Lazy Level-headed Light-hearted Likable Likes a good argument Likes security Literary Little need for security Lively Logical Loves children Loving Loyal Lucky Lusty Makes decisions easily Makes decisions without regard for the feelings of others Masculine Materialistic Mathematical Mature Meddlesome 127 1 2 Not At All Slightly Desirable Desirable Melodramatic Messy Methodical Mischievous Moderate Modest Moody Moral Moralistic Neat Nervous Never cries Nice Nonchalant Not conceited about own physical appearance Not easily influenced Not excitable in the time of crisis Objective Obliging Observant Obstinate Open-mouthed Opinionated Opportunist 3 4 5 6 7 Somewhat Moderately Quite Very Extremely Desirable Desirable Desirable Desirable Desirable Optimistic Organized Original Outgoing Outspoken Overconfident Passionate Passive Patient Pays attention to own physical appearance Perceptive Perfectionist Persistent Persuasive Philosophical Playful Pleasant Poised Polite Pompous Possessive Practical Precise Preoccupied 128 1 Not At All Desirable Principled Productive Profound Protective Prudent Punctual Purposeful Quick Quiet Rash Rational Realistic Reasonable Rebellious Reckless Refined Relaxed Reliable Religious Reserved Resourceful Respectful Responsible Restless Rigid 2 3 4 5 6 7 Slightly Somewhat Moderately Quite Very Extremely Desirable Desirable Desirable Desirable Desirable Desirable Romantic Rugged Sarcastic Scientific Secretive Seductive Seeks out new experiences Self-assured Self-centered Self-confident Self-conscious Self-controlled Self-critical Self-denying Selfish Selfless Self-reliant _. Self-righteous Self-sacrificing Self-sufficient Sensible Sensitive Sensitive to the needs of others Sensuous 129 1 2 Not At All Slightly Desirable Desirable Sentimental Serious Sexually attractive Sexy Shortsighted Showy Shrewd Shy Silly Simple, naive Sincere Skeptical Skilled Skilled in business Sly Smug Snobbish Sociable Soft-spoken Solemn Sophisticated Spirited Spontaneous Stingy Straightforward 3 4 5 6 7 Somewhat Moderately Quite Very Extremely Desirable Desirable Desirable Desirable Desirable Strong-minded Strong-personality Stubborn Subjective Submissive Superstitious Supportive Suspicious Sympathetic Systematic Tactful Tactless Talented Talkative Temperamental Tender Tender-hearted Tense Theatrical Thinks before acting Thorough Thoughtful Thoughtful of others Thrifty Tolerant 130 1 2 Not At All Slightly Desirable Desirable Touchy Trusting Trustworthy Truthful Unassuming Uncomplaining Uncompromising Unconcerned about having the approval of others Unconventional Understanding Unemotional Unpredictable Unselfish Unsystematic 3 4 5 6 7 Somewhat Moderately Quite Very Extremely Desirable Desirable Desirable Desirable Desirable Vain Versatile Yigourous Vivacious Warm Warm-hearted Willing to accept change Willing to make sacrifices for others Willing to take a stand Willing to take risks Withdrawn Witty* Worldly Worrier Yielding; 131 The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s r e q u e s t some background i n f o r m a -t i o n . G i v e n t h a t U . B . C . has such a d i v e r s e s t u d e n t body, I hope t o i n c l u d e peop le from many d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s . P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has f a i l e d t o acknowledge c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y and has made i t d i f f i c u l t t o g e n e r a l i z e r e s u l t s t o o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s . P l e a s e take a few moments t o complete the q u e s t i o n s . 1. Age: 2. Sex: M 3. P a r t - t i m e s t u d e n t Undergraduate F u l l - t i m e s t u d e n t Graduate 4. E t h n i c Background 5. Were you b o r n i n Canada? Yes No I f no , how many y e a r s have you been here? 6. Were your p a r e n t s b o r n i n Canada? I f no , how many y e a r s have they been here? F a t h e r : Yes No Y r s Mother : Yes No Y r s 7. Were your g r a n d p a r e n t s b o r n i n Canada? I f no , how many y e a r s have they been here? P a t e r n a l G r a n d p a r e n t s : G r a n d f a t h e r : Yes No Grandmother: Yes No M a t e r n a l G r a n d p a r e n t s : G r a n d f a t h e r : Yes No Grandmother: Yes No Y r s Y r s Y r s Y r s Does not l i v e i n Canada Does no t l i v e i n Canada Does not l i v e i n Canada Does no t l i v e i n Canada What i s the p r i m a r y language spoken by y o u , your p a r e n t s , , a t home? 9. Are you c u r r e n t l y e n r o l l e d i n , o r have you p r e v i o u s l y t a k e n , a p s y c h o l o g y 100 c o u r s e ? Yes No APPENDIX E Background Information Sheet 133 The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s r e q u e s t some background i n f o r m a -t i o n . G i v e n t h a t U . B . C . has such a d i v e r s e s t u d e n t body, I hope t o i n c l u d e peop le from many d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s . P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has f a i l e d t o acknowledge c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y and has made i t d i f f i c u l t t o g e n e r a l i z e r e s u l t s t o o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s . P l e a s e take a few moments t o complete the q u e s t i o n s . 1. Age: 2. Sex: M 3. P a r t - t i m e s t u d e n t Undergraduate F u l l - t i m e s t u d e n t Graduate 4. E t h n i c Background 5. Were you b o r n i n Canada? Yes No I f no , how many y e a r s have you been here? 6. Were your p a r e n t s b o r n i n Canada? I f no , how many y e a r s have they been here? F a t h e r : Yes No Y r s M o t h e r : Yes No Y r s 7. Were your g r a n d p a r e n t s b o r n i n Canada? I f no , how many y e a r s have they been here? P a t e r n a l G r a n d p a r e n t s : G r a n d f a t h e r : Yes No Grandmother: Yes No Y r s Y r s Does not l i v e i n Canada Does not l i v e i n Canada M a t e r n a l G r a n d p a r e n t s : G r a n d f a t h e r : Yes No Grandmother: Yes No Y r s Y r s Does not l i v e i n Canada Does not l i v e i n Canada 8. What i s the p r i m a r y language spoken by y o u , your p a r e n t s , , a t home? 9. Are you c u r r e n t l y e n r o l l e d i n , o r have you p r e v i o u s l y t a k e n , a p s y c h o l o g y 100 c o u r s e ? Yes No 134 APPENDIX F Means f o r U . B . C . R a t e r s E n r o l l e d i n P s y c h o l o g y 100 and R a t e r s not E n r o l l e d i n P s y c h o l o g y 100 135 Ratings on the 40 Sex-Typed BSRI Items by Judges Enrolled in Psychology 100 and Judges not Enrolled in Psychology 100 Male Raters: Enrolled in Pscyhology 100 Masculine Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Acts as a leader 5.83 0.99 18 3.80 1.15 15 Aggressive 4.50 1.42 18 3.40 1.55 15 Ambitious 5.72 1.27 18 4.60 1.06 15 Analytical 4.50 1.38 18 3.00 1.46 15 Assertive 4.94 1.09 17 4.33 1.50 15 Athletic 6.17 0.86 18 5.00 1.69 15 Competitive 5.83 0.79 18 4.33 1.80 15 Defends own beliefs 5.56 1.10 18 4.33 1.68 15 Dominant 4.17 1.62 18 2.33 1.54 15 Forceful 3.89 1.94 18 2.60 1.12 15 Has leadership abilities 6.11 0.76 18 4.60 1.76 15 Independent 5.83 0.92 18 3.67 1.91 15 Individualistic 4.83 1.25 18 3.27 1.83 15 Makes decisions easily 5.22 1.00 18 5.07 1.22 15 Masculine 6.11 1.08 18 1.33 0.49 15 Self-reliant 5.11 1.08 18 3.92 1.19 13 Self-sufficient 5.56 1.10 18 4.73 1.28 15 Strong-personality 5.00 1.19 18 4.13 1.85 15 Willing to take a stand 5.33 1.24 18 4.20 1.66 15 Willing to take risks 5.50 0.79 18 4.27 1.53 15 136 Ratings on the 40 Sex-Typed BSRI Items by Judges Enrolled in Psychology 100 and Judges not Enrolled in Psychology 100 Male Raters: Enrolled in Pscyhology 100 Feminine Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Affectionate 4.72 1.49 18 6.20 0.86 15 Cheerful 5.00 1.03 18 5.87 0.64 15 Childlike 2.22 1.06 18 3.27 1.83 15 Compassionate 4.78 1.77 18 5.87 0.92 15 Does not use harsh 3.61 1.38 18 5.13 2.00 15 language Eager to soothe hurt 4.72 1.02 18 4.73 1.44 15 feelings Feminine 2.11 1.75 18 6.20 0.77 15 Flatterable 3.33 1.41 18 4.93 1.10 15 Gentle 3.88 1.76 17 5.57 1.16 14 Gullible 1.89 1.57 18 2.27 1.44 15 Loves children 4.83 1.38 18 5.67 1.35 15 Loyal 5.11 1.28 18 6.33 0.62 15 Sensitive to the needs 4.17 1.29 18 6.07 0.80 15 of others Shy 2.11 0.90 18 4.13 1.41 15 Soft-spoken 3.11 1.41 18 4.67 1.40 15 Sympathetic 4.50 0.99 18 5.33 1.29 15 Tender 4.11 1.28 18 5.47 0.99 15 Understanding 5.33 0.97 18 5.53 1.06 15 Warm 4.89 1.37 18 6.00 0.65 15 Yielding 3.06 1.76 18 3.75 1.54 12 137 Ratings on the 40 Sex-Typed BSRI Items by Judges Enrolled in Psychology 100 and Judges not Enrolled in Psychology 100 Female Raters: Enrolled in Psychology 100 Masculine Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Acts as a leader 6.19 0.88 43 3.66 1.44 38 Aggressive 4.28 1.62 43 2.63 1.30 38 Ambitious 6.05 1.07 43 4.50 1.52 38 Analytical 4.38 1.59 42 3.43 1.17 37 Assertive 5.49 1.32 43 3.87 1.49 38 Athletic 5.81 1.22 43 4.39 1.39 38 Competitive 5.19 1.33 43 3.61 1.39 38 Defends own beliefs 5.51 1.20 43 4.55 1.59 38 Dominant 4.28 1.65 43 2.34 1.46 38 Forceful 3.64 1.81 42 2.84 1.26 38 Has leadership abilities 5.98 1.20 42 4.14 1.38 37 Independent 6.10 1.12 42 4.37 1.73 A38 Individualistic 5.52 1.33 42 4.08 1.75 38 Makes decisions easily 5.19 1.31 42 4.32 1.42 38 Masculine 6.39 0.73 42 1.76 1.15 38 Self-reliant 5.15 1.41 40 4.37 1.44 35 Self-sufficient 5.68 1.31 41 4.61 1.10 38 Strong-personality 5.46 1.05 41 4.21 1.45 38 Willing to take a stand 5.59 1.00 41 4.58 1.29 38 Willing to take risks 5.49 0.90 41 4.43 1.14 37 138 Ratings on the 40 Sex-Typed BSRI Items by Judges Enrolled in Psychology 100 and Judges not Enrolled in Psychology 100 Female Raters: Enrolled in Psychology 100 Feminine Items Ratings or Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Affectionate 4.98 1.54 43 6.16 1.20 38 Cheerful 5.14 1.23 43 6.00 1.01 38 Childlike 2.12 1.35 43 3.29 1.64 38 Compassionate 5.05 1.66 43 6.05 1.23 38 Does not use harsh 4.16 1.62 43 5.37 1.65 38 language Eager to soothe hurt 4.72 1.47 43 4.53 1.43 38 feelings Feminine 1.47 1.03 43 6.24 1.13 38 Flatterable 3.17 1.22 41 5.14 1.48 37 Gentle 3.78 1.66 36 5.24 1.37 33 Gullible 1.54 0.95 41 2.82 1.63 38 Loves children 4.64 1.53 42 6.26 1.08 38 Loyal 5.62 1.46 42 6.16 1.21 37 Sensitive to the needs 4.59 1.60 41 5.55 1.43 38 of others Shy 2.34 1.41 41 3.26 1.37 38 Soft-spoken 2.66 1.61 41 4.39 1.40 36 Sympathetic 4.51 1.63 41 5.87 0.96 38 Tender 4.28 1.72 40 5.53 1.13 38 Understanding 5.34 1.22 41 5.71 0.96 38 Warm 4.90 1.30 41 5.97 0.94 38 Yielding 2.65 1.42 37 4.17 1.65 36 139 Ratings on the 40 Sex-Typed BSRI Items by Judges Enrolled in Psychology 100 and Judges not Enrolled in Psychology 100 Male Raters: Not Enrolled in Psychology 100 Masculine Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Acts as a leader 5.57 1.33 21 4.13 1.32 23 Aggressive 5.00 1.34 21 3.26 1.39 23 Ambitious 6.00 1.00 21 4.82 1.40 22 Analytical 4.67 1.39 21 4.17 1.40 23 Assertive 5.52 1.03 21 3.82 1.47 22 Athletic 6.05 1.24 21 5.57 1.20 23 Competitive 5.95 1.07 21 3.96 1.64 23 Defends own beliefs 5.81 1.03 21 4.87 1.25 23 Dominant 4.76 1.55 21 2.65 1.37 23 Forceful 4.38 1.50 21 3.17 1.40 23 Has leadership abilities 6.15 0.81 20 4.48 1.38 23 Independent 5.43 1.21 21 4.35 1.61 23 Individualistic 4.86 1.82 21 4.35 1.47 23 Makes decisions easily 5.19 1.54 21 4.61 1.16 23 Masculine 6.00 1.30 20 1.61 1.03 23 Self-reliant 5.10 1.37 21 4.40 1.39 20 Self-sufficient 5.57 1.16 21 4.82 1.59 22 Strong-personality 5.43 1.40 21 4.68 1.32 22 Willing to take a stand 5.52 0.87 21 4.73 1.20 22 Willing to take risks 5.19 1.08 21 4.45 1.22 22 140 Ratings on the 40 Sex-Typed BSRI Items by Judges Enrolled in Psychology 100 and Judges not Enrolled in Psychology 100 Male Raters: Not Enrolled in Psychology 100 Feminine Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Affectionate 4.48 1.40 21 6.52 0.73 23 Cheerful 5.19 1.29 21 6.00 0.95 23 Childlike 1.90 1.04 21 3.35 1.43 23 Compassionate 4.43 1.36 21 6.26 0.86 23 Does not use harsh 4.19 1.94 21 5.26 1.79 23 language Eager to soothe hurt 3.90 1.64 21 4.87 1.25 23 feelings Feminine 1.43 0.87 21 6.17 0.98 23 Flatterable 3.38 1.36 21 5.09 1.20 23 Gentle 4.00 1.50 18 5.14 1.39 21 Gullible 1.62 0.97 21 2.39 1.34 23 Loves children 4.67 1.49 21 5.96 1.02 23 Loyal 5.76 1.14 21 6.43 0.59 23 Sensitive to the needs 4.33 1.35 21 5.95 0.84 22 of others Shy 2.38 1.20 21 3.64 1.62 22 Soft-spoken 2.95 1.47 21 4.33 1.11 21 Sympathetic 4.33 1.24 21 5.32 1.17 22 Tender 3.95 1.43 21 5.68 0.72 22 Understanding 5.00 1.38 21 5.59 0.85 22 Warm 4.43 1.33 21 6.23 0.43 22 Yielding 2.52 1.17 21 4.48 1.17 21 141 Ratings on the 40 Sex-Typed BSRI Items by Judges Enrolled in Psychology 100 and Judges not Enrolled in Psychology 100 Female Raters: Not Enrolled in Psychology 100 Masculine Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Acts as a leader 6.05 0.79 22 3.76 1.13 25 Aggressive 4.00 1.51 22 3.08 1.66 25 Ambitious 6.23 0.75 22 3.88 1.59 25 Analytical 4.41 1.40 22 3.36 1.19 25 Assertive 5.32 0.84 22 4.08 1.53 25 Athletic 5.95 0.90 22 4.88 1.48 25 Competitive 5.18 1.10 22 3.40 1.78 25 Defends own beliefs 5.55 1.10 22 4.80 1.29 25 Dominant 3.82 1.56 22 2.40 1.47 25 Forceful 3.68 1,76 22 2.64 1.29 25 Has leadership abilities 6.23 0.81 22 4.24 1.13 25 Independent 6.09 0.92 22 4.48 1.29 25 Individualistic 5.36 1.50 22 4.28 1.10 25 Makes decisions easily 4.59 1.26 22 4.44 1.12 25 Masculine 6.36 1.26 22 1.80 1.04 25 Self-reliant 4.91 1.06 22 4.21 1.35 24 Self-sufficient 5.55 1.18 22 4.54 1.41 24 Strong-personality 5.27 1.03 22 3.96 1.43 24 Willing to take a stand 5.55 0.86 22 4.22 1.24 23 Willing to take risks 5.50 0.86 22 4.13 1.01 23 142 Ratings on the 40 Sex-Typed BSRI Items by Judges Enrolled in Psychology 100 and Judges not Enrolled in Psychology 100 Female Raters: Not Enrolled in Psychology 100 Feminine Items Ratings or Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Affectionate 5.36 1.50 22 6.32 0.80 25 Cheerful 5.41 0.96 22 6.16 0.94 25 Childlike 2.09 1.11 22 3.68 1.70 25 Compassionate 5.05 1.46 22 6.48 0.71 25 Does not use harsh 4.05 1.99 22 5.36 1.32 25 language Eager to soothe hurt 4.45 1.53 22 4.20 1.29 25 feelings Feminine 1.27 0.55 22 6.00 1.22 25 Flatterable 3.24 1.34 21 4.68 1.65 25 Gentle 4.35 1.54 17 5.45 1.30 22 Gullible 1.18 0.39 22 2.76 1.56 25 Loves children 5.18 1.50 22 5.96 0.93 25 Loyal 5.91 1.23 22 6.04 1.34 25 Sensitive to the needs 5.09 1.48 22 5.83 1.09 24 of others Shy 2.09 0.75 22 3.33 1.24 24 Soft-spoken 2.82 1.22 22 4.50 1.32 24 Sympathetic 4.82 1.14 22 5.83 0.94 23 Tender 4.27 1.45 22 5.78 1.09 23 Understanding 5.41 1.18 22 5.83 0.89 23 Warm 5.14 1.25 22 5.96 0.88 23 Yielding 2.86 1.32 22 4.35 1.58 23 1 4 3 A P P E N D I X G Means f o r U . B . C . R a t e r s who Completed the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t Home and R a t e r s who Completed i t i n C l a s s 144 Ratings on the 40 Sex-Typed BSRI Items by Judges Who Completed the Questionnaire at Home and Judges Who Completed the Questionnaire in Class Male Raters: Take Home Masculine Items Ratings :or Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Acts as a leader 5.50 0.84 6 4.80 1.10 6 Aggressive 4.50 1.05 6 3.40 1.52 6 Ambitious 6.33 0.52 6 5.20 0.45 6 Analytical 4.33 1.75 6 4.20 1.79 6 Assertive 5.83 0.41 6 4.60 0.89 5 Athletic 6.33 0.82 6 5.80 0.45 5 Competitive 6.00 0.89 6 4.20 1.64 5 Defends own beliefs 5.83 0.41 6 4.40 1.34 5 Dominant 4.67 1.86 6 2.40 1.52 5 Forceful 4.17 1.72 6 3.40 0.89 5 Has leadership abilities 6.17 0.41 6 4.60 0.55 5 Independent 6.33 0.82 6 4.60 0.55 5 Individualistic 5.00 1.79 6 4.20 1.30 5 Makes decisions easily 5.50 0.84 6 5.00 0.00 5 Masculine 6.17 0.98 6 1.40 0.55 5 Self-reliant 5.17 1.33 6 4.00 1.00 5 Self-sufficient 5.83 0.75 6 5.40 0.55 5 Strong-personality 5.83 0.75 6 4.80 0.84 5 Willing to take a stand 5.83 0.75 6 4.40 0.55 5 Willing to take risks 5.17 1.17 6 4.80 0.84 5 145 Ratings on the 40 Sex-Typed BSRI Items by Judges Who Completed the Questionnaire at Home and Judges Who Completed the Questionnaire in Class Male Raters: Take Home Feminine Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Affectionate 4.67 1.51 6 6.40 0.89 5 Cheerful 5.00 1.26 6 6.00 0.00 5 Childlike 1.67 0.82 6 2.80 1.10 5 Compassionate 4.83 1.94 6 5.40 0.89 5 Does not use harsh 4.00 2.10 6 5.00 1.22 5 language Eager to soothe hurt 4.67 1.37 6 5.00 0.71 5 feelings Feminine 1.33 0.82 6 6.40 0.55 5 Flatterable 3.00 1.10 6 4.60 1.14 5 Gentle 3.17 1.72 6 5.20 0.84 5 Gullible 1.00 0.00 6 1.60 0.55 5 Loves children 5.00 1.90 6 5.60 1.14 5 Loyal 6.17 0.98 6 5.80 0.84 5 Sensitive to the needs 4.00 1.67 6 5.60 0.55 5 of others Shy 2.33 0.52 6 3.80 0.84 5 Soft-spoken 3.17 1.83 6 4.40 0.89 5 Sympathetic 4.67 1.51 6 4.80 0.45 5 Tender 3.50 1.38 6 5.60 0.55 5 Understanding 4.50 1.38 6 5.40 0.55 5 Warm 4.00 1.79 6 6.20 0.45 5 Yielding 2.33 1.21 6 3.60 1.14 5 146 Ratings on the 40 Sex-Typed BSRI Items by Judges Who Completed the Questionnaire at Home and Judges Who Completed the Questionnaire in Class Female Raters: Take Home Masculine Items Ratings :or Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Acts as a leader 5.78 1.20 9 3.25 1.39 8 Aggressive 3.78 1.79 9 2.75 1.67 8 Ambitious 6.22 0.83 9 3.62 2.26 8 Analytical 3.78 1.48 9 3.38 1.67 8 Assertive 5.78 0.83 9 3.63 1.85 8 Athletic 6.00 0.87 9 3.88 1.81 8 Competitive 4.89 1.27 9 2.63 1.92 8 Defends own beliefs 5.56 1.24 9 4.75 1.67 8 Dominant 4.44 1.42 9 2.25 1.58 8 Forceful 3.78 1.64 9 2.38 1.30 8 Has leadership abilities 5.78 0.67 9 4.25 1.67 8 Independent 5.89 0.60 9 4.00 1.85 8 Individualistic 4.78 1.39 9 3.38 1.60 8 Makes decisions easily 4.78 1.20 9 3.75 1.04 8 Masculine 6.56 0.73 9 2.13 1.36 8 Self-reliant 5.25 1.04 8 4.00 1.60 8 Self-sufficient 5.33 1.32 9 4.75 1.75 8 Strong-personality 5.56 1.24 9 3.38 1.69 8 Willing to take a stand 5.56 1.33 9 4.00 1.41 8 Willing to take risks 5.33 1.00 9 4.25 0.71 8 147 Ratings on the 40 Sex-Typed BSRI Items by Judges Who Completed the Questionnaire at Home and Judges Who Completed the Questionnaire in Class Female Raters: Take Home Feminine Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Affectionate 5.56 1.51 9 6.50 0.76 8 Cheerful 5.44 0.88 9 6.25 0.71 8 Childlike 2.33 1.32 9 4.00 1.51 8 Compassionate 5.44 0.88 9 6.38 0.52 8 Does not use harsh 4.33 1.41 9 4.63 2.13 8 language Eager to soothe hurt 3.44 1.59 9 4.38 1.60 8 feelings Feminine 1.44 0.53 9 6.25 1.04 8 Flatterable 3.13 1.46 8 5.75 0.71 8 Gentle 4.80 1.10 5 5.86 1.07 7 Gullible 1.56 1.33 9 3.13 1.25 8 Loves children 5.11 1.45 9 6.13 0.83 8 Loyal 6.67 0.50 9 6.50 0.76 8 Sensitive to the needs 5.56 1.33 9 5.88 1.46 8 of others Shy 2.11 0.93 9 3.75 1.58 8 Soft-spoken 2.78 1.56 9 4.50 0.76 8 Sympathetic 4.89 1.05 9 6.00 0.93 8 Tender 4.00 1.66 9 5.88 0.83 8 Understanding 5.89 1.45 9 5.88 0.64 8 Warm 5.22 1.56 9 6.13 0.83 8 Yielding 3.00 1.58 9 4.62 1.19 8 148 Ratings on the 40 Sex-Typed BSRI Items by Judges Who Completed the Questionnaire at Home and Judges Who Completed the Questionnaire in Class Male Raters: In Class Masculine Items Ratings or Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Acts as a leader 5.72 1.19 36 3.88 1.23 34 Aggressive 4.75 1.48 36 3.29 1.43 34 Ambitious 5.81 1.17 36 4.64 1.32 33 Analytical 4.69 1.31 36 3.65 1.47 34 Assertive 5.14 1.12 35 3.94 1.52 33 Athletic 6.06 1.09 36 5.21 1.53 34 Competitive 5.86 0.93 36 4.06 1.70 34 Defends own beliefs 5.61 1.18 36 4.71 1.45 34 Dominant 4.47 1.52 36 2.53 1.42 34 Forceful 4.17 1.70 36 2.85 1.35 34 Has leadership abilities 6.03 1.07 35 3.88 1.23 34 Independent 5.56 1.08 36 4.00 1.83 34 Individualistic 4.86 1.50 36 3.91 1.73 34 Makes decisions easily 5.00 1.53 36 4.79 1.27 34 Masculine 5.97 1.25 35 1.53 0.90 34 Self-reliant 5.06 1.26 35 4.31 1.39 29 Self-sufficient 5.49 1.15 35 4.67 1.51 33 Strong-personality 5.03 1.38 35 4.48 1.68 33 Willing to take a stand 5.40 1.09 35 4.58 1.50 33 Willing to take risks 5.26 1.01 35 4.27 1.40 33 149 Ratings on the 40 Sex-Typed BSRI Items by Judges Who Completed the Questionnaire at Home and Judges Who Completed the Questionnaire in Class Male Raters: In Class Feminine Items Ratings or Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Affectionate 4.50 1.40 36 6.38 0.78 34 Cheerful 5.11 1.19 36 5.91 0.90 34 Childlike 2.22 1.12 36 3.41 1.62 34 Compassionate 4.47 1.46 36 6.67 0.84 34 Does not use harsh 3.83 1.66 36 5.26 1.91 34 language Eager to soothe hurt 4.36 1.48 36 4.82 1.38 34 feelings Feminine 1.89 1.45 36 6.18 0.94 34 Flatterable 3.47 1.38 36 5.09 1.14 34 Gentle 4.16 1.61 31 5.35 1.36 31 Gullible 1.94 1.47 36 2.41 1.42 34 Loves children 4.81 1.37 36 5.88 1.15 34 Loyal 5.28 1.26 36 6.50 0.51 34 Sensitive to the needs 4.37 1.26 35 6.06 0.83 33 of others Shy 2.34 1.21 35 3.79 1.63 33 Soft-spoken 3.03 1.38 35 4.50 1.27 32 Sympathetic 4.31 1.05 35 5.42 1.25 33 Tender 4.14 1.35 35 5.61 0.86 33 Understanding 5.20 1.26 35 5.61 0.97 33 Warm 4.80 1.23 35 6.15 0.57 33 Yielding 2.83 1.52 35 4.28 1.36 29 150 Ratings on the 40 Sex-Typed BSRI Items by Judges Who Completed the Questionnaire at Home and Judges Who Completed the Questionnaire in Class Female Raters: In Class Masculine Items Ratings or Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Acts as a leader 6.12 0.95 57 3.76 1.30 55 Aggressive 4.21 1.57 57 2.82 1.44 55 Ambitious 6.11 0.99 57 4.35 1.44 55 Analytical 4.45 1.54 56 3.41 1.09 54 Assertive 5.40 1.22 57 4.00 1.45 55 Athletic 5.82 1.15 57 4.69 1.36 55 Competitive 5.23 1.24 57 3.65 1.46 55 Defends own beliefs 5.53 1.15 57 4.64 1.46 55 Dominant 4.07 1.65 57 2.38 1.45 55 Forceful 3.64 1.81 55 2.82 1.26 55 Has leadership abilities 6.11 1.13 55 4.17 1.22 54 Independent 6.13 1.11 55 4.47 1.53 55 Individualistic 5.58 1.36 55 4.27 1.48 55 Makes decisions easily 5.02 1.34 55 4.45 1.32 55 Masculine 6.35 0.97 55 1.73 1.06 55 Self-reliant 5.04 1.33 54 4.35 1.37 51 Self-sufficient 5.69 1.26 54 4.56 1.14 54 Strong-personality 5.37 1.01 54 4.22 1.38 54 Willing to take a stand 5.57 0.88 54 4.51 1.25 53 Willing to take risks 5.52 0.86 54 4.33 1.15 52 151 Ratings on the 40 Sex-Typed BSRI Items by Judges Who Completed the Questionnaire at Home and Judges Who Completed the Questionnaire in Class Female Raters: In Class Feminine Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Affectionate 5.00 1.54 57 6.18 1.09 55 Cheerful 5.19 1.17 57 6.04 1.02 55 Childlike 2.07 1.25 57 3.36 1.68 55 Compassionate 4.98 1.65 57 6.20 1.13 55 Does not use harsh 4.05 1.80 57 5.47 1.40 55 language Eager to soothe hurt 4.79 1.40 57 4.40 1.36 55 feelings Feminine 1.39 0.95 56 6.13 1.19 55 Flatterable 3.20 1.23 54 4.83 1.61 54 Gentle 3.87 1.66 48 5.25 1.36 48 Gullible 1.39 0.71 54 2.75 1.64 55 Loves children 4.78 1.55 55 6.15 1.06 55 Loyal 5.56 1.42 55 6.06 1.31 54 Sensitive to the needs 4.63 1.57 54 5.63 1.29 54 of others Shy 2.28 1.27 54 3.22 1.27 54 Soft-spoken 2.70 1.47 54 4.42 1.43 52 Sympathetic 4.57 1.54 54 5.83 0.96 53 Tender 4.32 1.63 53 5.58 1.15 53 Understanding 5.28 1.14 54 5.74 0.96 53 Warm 4.94 1.23 54 5.94 0.93 53 Yielding 2.68 1.35 50 4.18 1.67 51 152 APPENDIX H Items Rated as More Desirable for Men by Male Raters 153 Items Rated as More Desirable for Men by Male Raters* Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Able to be aggressive 4.15 1.37 41 3.46 1.25 39 without feeling discomfort Able to withstand 5.69 1.02 42 4.77 1.22 39 emotional pressure Abrupt 3.10 1.39 39 2.30 1.53 37 Acts as a leader 5.69 1.14 42 4.00 1.24 39 Aggressive 4.71 1.42 42 3.31 1.42 39 Ambitious 5.88 1.11 42 4.71 1.25 38 Analytical 4.64 1.36 42 3.72 1.50 39 Arrogant 3.26 1.67 42 2.21 1.23 38 Assertive 5.24 1.07 41 4.03 1.46 38 Athletic 6.10 1.06 42 5.28 1.45 39 Boastful 2.29 1.45 41 1.74 0.99 39 Bold 5.21 1.30 42 3.51 1.50 39 Brave 6.02 0.90 42 4.33 1.44 39 Bright 5.88 0.92 42 5.23 1.29 39 Businesslike 5.05 1.30 41 4.05 1.34 39 Calculating 3.90 1.46 42 3.03 1.13 38 Capable in 6.14 0.75 42 5.08 1.58 38 emergencies Certain 5.12 1.13 42 4.53 1.25 38 Competent 5.83 1.15 42 5.33 1.13 39 154 Items Rated as More Desirable for Men by Male Raters* Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Competitive 5.88 0.92 42 4.08 1.68 39 Courageous 5.71 1.24 42 4.31 1.51 39 Cunning 3.95 1.41 41 3.26 1.72 38 Daring 4.74 1.38 42 4.08 1.72 39 Decisive 5.61 0.97 41 4.46 1.10 39 Defends own beliefs - 5.64 1.10 42 4.67 1.42 39 Defiant 3.69 1.51 42 2.81 1.45 37 Does not give up easily 5.88 1.09 42 4.69 1.34 39 Dominant 4.50 1.55 42 2.51 1.41 39 Effective 5.45 0.88 40 5.00 1.09 35 Efficient 5.67 0.93 42 5.23 0.99 39 Enterprising 5.20 1.15 41 4.59 1.42 37 Experienced 5.57 1.02 42 4.38 1.55 37 Fearless 5.26 1.19 42 3.77 1.60 39 Feelings not easily hurt 5.52 1.23 42 4.08 1.66 39 Firm 5.02 1.08 41 3.90 1.47 39 Forceful 4.17 1.68 42 2.92 1.31 39 Hard-headed 3.37 1.69 41 2.26 1.33 38 Has leadership abilities 6.05 1.00 41 4.51 1.50 39 Hides his/her emotions 3.62 1.91 42 2.46 1.32 39 Independent 5.67 1.07 42 4.08 1.72 39 Individualistic 4.88 1.52 42 3.95 1.67 39 Industrious 5.22 1.24 41 4.03 1.50 38 155 Items Rated as More Desirable for Men by Male Raters* Items Ratings or Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Knows the way of the 5.17 1.27 42 4.51 1.36 39 world Likes a good argument 4.19 1.31 42 3.44 1.64 ' 39 Little need for security 4.20 1.66 41 2.89 1.41 38 Logical 5.14 1.14 42 4.62 1.12 39 Masculine 6.00 1.20 41 1.51 0.85 39 Materialistic 3.98 1.69 42 2.38 1.48 39 Mathematical 4.00 1.56 42 3.34 1.40 38 Makes decisions 2.40 1.48 42 1.49 0.64 39 without regard for the feelings of others Never cries 4.21 2.08 42 2.56 1.47 39 Objective 4.98 1.07 42 4.46 1.17 37 Opinionated 4.29 1.42 41 3.13 1.56 38 Opportunist 5.07 1.31 41 4.11 1.50 38 Outgoing 5.63 0.99 41 5.16 1.13 38 Outspoken 4.28 1.40 40 3.43 1.57 37 Persistent 4.88 1.01 41 4.18 1.43 38 Possessive 3.12 1.36 41 2.50 1.50 38 Precise 4.73 1.00 41 4.22 1.13 37 Resource 5.27 0.90 41 4.82 1.11 38 Rigid 3.15 1.48 40 2.16 1.33 38 Sarcastic (a) 2.93 1.21 41 2.24 1.55 38 156 Items Rated as More Desirable for Men by Male Raters* Items Ratings or Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Scientific 4.02 1.39 41 3.37 1 .40 38 Self-confident 5.66 1.26 41 4.63 1 .26 38 Self-controlled 5.27 1.16 41 4.62 1 .16 37 Self-reliant 5.07 1.25 41 4.26 1 .33 34 Self-sufficient 5.54 1.10 41 4.76 1 .44 38 Shrewd 3.31 1.61 39 2.47 1 .37 38 Skilled 5.61 0.77 41 4.68 1 .12 38 Skilled at business 5.37 1.14 41 4.26 1 31 38 Sly 3.56 1.29 41 2.57 1 35 37 Strong-minded 4.98 1.33 41 4.00 1 .59 38 Suspicious 3.12 1.45 41 2.39 1 29 38 Talented 5.49 0.87 41 5.03 1 05 38 Unemotional 3.54 1.52 41 2.24 1 46 38 Willing to take a stand 5.46 1.05 41 4.55 1 41 38 Willing to take risks 5.24 1.02 41 4.34 1 34 38 * p < .05, 2-tailed. (a) sarcastic was rated as more desirable for men by male raters; the same item was rated as more desirable for women by female raters. APPENDIX I Items Rated as More Desirable for Women by Male Raters 158 Items Rated as More Desirable for Women by Male Raters* Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Able to devote oneself 4.83 1.40 42 5.59 1.09 39 to others Absent-minded 1.38 0.91 42 2.03 1.33 39 Accommodating 4.43 1.29 42 5.33 1.18 39 Affectionate 4.52 1.40 42 6.38 0.78 39 Agreeable 4.50 1.38 42 5.18 1.10 39 Appreciative 4.79 1.32 42 5.85 0.88 39 Artistic 3.69 1.32 42 4.92 1.16 39 Attractive 5.76 1.36 42 6.82 0.45 39 Bashful 2.20 1.24 40 4.10 1.41 39 Cheerful 5.10 1.19 42 5.92 0.84 39 Childlike 2.14 1.10 42 3.33 1.56 39 Comfortable when 4.45 1.66 42 5.42 1.37 38 people express emotions Compassionate 4.52 1.52 42 6.10. 0.88 39 Compliant 3.71 1.39 38 4.77 1.61 35 Congenial 4.24 1.14 37 5.17 1.12 35 Conscientious 4.57 1.13 42 5.32 0.90 38 Considerate 5.12 0.92 42 5.62 1.14 39 Cooperative 4.95 1.23 42 5.72 0.89 39 Cordial 4.54 1.27 39 5.34 1.34 32 159 Items Rated as More Desirable for Women by Male Raters* Items Ratings or Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Courteous 5.02 1.18 42 5.74 0.91 39 Creative 4.74 1.53 42 5.38 1.09 39 Cries without shame 2.79 1.60 42 4.26 1.65 39 Dependent 2.10 1.28 42 4.49 1.76 39 Does not use harsh 3.86 1.17 42 5.23 1.83 39 language • Down-to-earth 5.10 1.03 42 5.62 1.18 39 Eager to soothe hurt 4.24 1.48 42 5.56 1.12 39 feelings Earnest 4.20 1.02 40 4.89 1.47 35 Easily expresses 3.36 1.53 42 5.56 1.05 39 tender feelings Easygoing 5.05 1.27 42 5.72 0.92 39 Emotional 3.00 1.33 42 4.59 1.46 39 Empathy 4.45 1.53 42 5.56 1.17 39 Enthusiastic 5.17 0.96 42 5.69 0.86 39 Ethical 4.52 1.25 42 5.24 1.32 38 Excitable 3.67 1.54 42 4.56 1.52 39 Expresses emotions 3.40 1.47 42 4.59 1.47 39 easily Expressive 3.88 1.35 42 5.18 0.97 39 Faithful 5.52 1.11 42 6.38 1.02 39 Fashionable 4.71 1.61 42 5.62 1.18 39 160 Items Rated as More Desirable for Women by Male Raters* Items Mean Rating and SD for Men Number of Cases Mean Rating and SD for Women Number of Cases Feminine 1.81 1.38 42 6.21 0.89 39 Flatterable 3.40 1.35 42 5.03 1.14 39 Flexible 4.76 1.01 42 5.51 0.94 39 Forgiving 4.33 1.34 42 5.79 0.83 39 Friendly 5.48 1.13 42 6.05 0.86 39 Generous 5.10 1.06 42 5.77 0.90 39 Gentle 4.00 1.65 37 5.33 1.29 36 Giving 4.71 1.20 42 5.67 1.06 39 Glamour 3.33 1.41 42 5.13 1.38 39 Good-natured 5.14 1.30 42 5.87 0.89 39 Graceful 3.40 1.38 42 5.41 1.27 39 Gracious 4.02 1.31 41 5.36 1.06 39 Helpful 5.19 1.22 42 5.67 0.70 39 Helpless 1.40 0.86 42 2.39 1.35 39 Honest 5.38 6.23 0.77 39 Hopeful 4.74 1.11 42 5.42 1.03 38 Humane 4.81 1.25 42 5.92 0.77 39 Humble 4.38 1.43 42 5.05 1.21 39 Imaginative 4.79 1.22 42 5.38 0.99 39 Impressionable 3.31 1.65 42 4.03 1.53 39 Innocent 3.29 1.50 42 5.03 1.44 39 Kind 5.24 1.14 42 6.05 0.86 39 161 Items Rated as More Desirable for Women by Male Raters* Items Mean Rating and SD for Men Number of Cases Mean Rating and SD for Women Number of Cases Kind-hearted 5.05 1.40 42 6.13 0.77 39 Kittenish 1.78 0.95 37 4.00 1.80 37 Law-abiding 4.76 1.48 42 5.56 1.33 39 Likable 5.40 1.15 42 6.13 0.80 39 Lively 4.81 1.02 42 5.39 0.95 38 Loves children 4.83 1.43 42 5.85 1.14 39 Loving 5.36 1.19 42 6.46 0.68 39 Loyal 5.40 1.25 42 6.41 0.60 39 Lusty 4.18 1.87 40 5.31 1.56 39 Moral 4.69 1.18 42 5.33 1.34 39 Neat 4.67 1.20 42 5.38 1.21 39 Nice 5.02 1.28 41 6.00 0.86 39 Observant 4.76 1.19 42 5.24 0.75 38 Passionate 4.66 1.33 41 6.13 0.88 38 Passive 2.63 1.30 40 3.97 1.84 36 Patient 4.66 1.44 41 5.53 0.92 38 Pays attention to own 4.38 1.64 42 5.36 1.44 39 physical appearance Playful 4.32 1.23 41 5.76 0.91 38 Pleasant 5.17 1.07 41 6.03 0.75 38 Polite 5.34 1.13 41 5.82 1.04 38 Quiet 3.02 1.08 41 4.16 1.41 38 Romantic 4.93 1.31 41 5.89 1.06 38 162 Items Rated as More Desirable for Women by Male Raters* Items Mean Rating and SD Number of Mean Rating and SD Number of for Wen Cases for Women Cases Seductive 4.00 1.45 40 5.63 1.28 38 Sensitive 4.32 1.31 41 6.00 0.81 38 Sensitive to the needs 4.54 1.31 41 5.82 0.90 38 of others Sensuous 3.78 1.39 40 5.95 0.91 37 Sentimental 3.80 1.09 40 4.92 1.12 38 Sexually attractive 5.73 1.14 41 6.74 0.50 38 Sexy 5.02 1.60 41 6.79 0.41 38 Showy 2.59 1.41 41 3.60 1.68 35 Shy 2.34 1.13 41 3.79 1.55 38 Silly 2.49 1.31 41 3.21 1.36 38 Simple 2.27 1.42 41 3.11 1.54 38 Sincere 4.54 1.03 41 5.45 0.89 38 Soft-spoken 3.05 1.43 41 4.49 1.22 37 Spirited 4.68 1.01 41 5.45 1.08 38 Submissive 2.53 1.25 38 4.17 1.45 35 Supportive 4.85 1.24 5.68 0.90 38 Sympathetic 4.37 1.11 41 5.34 1.19 38 Tender 4.05 1.36 41 5.61 0.82 38 Tender-hearted 4.15 1.44 41 5.74 0.92 38 Thoughtful of others 4.98 1.24 41 5.76 0.71 38 Tolerant 4.54 1.21 41 5.24 1.00 38 Items Rated as More Desirable 163 for Women by Male Raters* Items Mean Rati for ng and SD Wen Number of Cases Mean Rating and SD for Women Number of Cases Trusting 5.22 1.41 41 5.76 0.85 38 Truthful 5.39 1.26 41 6.13 0.78 38 Vivacious 4.28 1.28 36 5.26 1.24 34 Warm 4.68 1.33 41 6.16 0.55 38 Warm-hearted 4.76 1.53 41 6.18 0.65 38 Worrier 1.80 1.08 41 2.58 1.69 38 Yielding 2.76 1.48 41 4.18 1.34 34 * p < .05, 2-tailed. APPENDIX J Items Rated as More Desirable for Men by Female Raters 165 Items Rated as More Desirable for Men by Female Raters* Items Ratings or Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Able to be aggressive 4.06 1.61 66 3.43 1.51 63 without feeling discomfort Able to criticize others 3.45 1.71 66 2.78 1.51 63 without feeling uneasy Able to separate ideas 5.14 1.46 66 4.41 1.32 59 from feelings Able to withstand 5.67 1.28 66 4.84 1.63 63 emotional pressures Abrupt 2.48 1.34 63 1.75 1.20 59 Active 6.08 0.83 66 5.21 1.23 63 Acts as a leader 6.08 0.98 66 3.70 1.32 63 Adventurous 5.50 1.24 66 4.57 1.29 63 Aggressive 4.15 1.59 66 2.81 1.46 63 Alert 5.35 1.25 66 4.83 1.13 63 Ambitious 6.12 0.97 66 4.25 1.57 63 Amusing 5.27 1.24 66 4.66 1.17 62 Analytical 4.35 1.54 65 3.40 1.17 62 Arrogant 3.00 1.73 66 1.98 1.16 63 Assertive 5.45 1.18 66 3.95 1.50 63 Astute 4.78 1.47 51 3.79 1.32 42 Athletic 5.85 1.11 66 4.59 1.43 63 Blunt 2.97 1.44 65 1.97 1.04 62 166 Items Rated as More Desirable for Men by Female Raters* Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Boastful 2.21 1.30 66 1.62 1.02 63 Bold 4.88 1.46 66 3.37 1.50 63 Brave 5.97 0.96 66 4.14 1.33 63 Bright 5.89 0.88 66 5.17 1.25 63 Businesslike 5.11 1.50 66 4.05 1.30 63 Calculating 2.88 1.55 65 2.05 1.23 61 Candid 4.12 1.30 60 3.60 1.31 57 Capable in 6.29 1.06 66 5.34 1.31 62 emergencies Certain 5.39 1.20 64 4.44 1.36 61 Clear-thinking 5.83 0.90 66 5.15 1.23 62 Clever 5.80 1.08 66 4.83 1.34 63 Competent 5.91 1.06 66 5.18 1.26 62 Competitive 5.18 1.24 66 3.52 1.54 63 Complex 4.06 1.46 65 3.33 1.60 61 Convincing 4.77 1.37 65 4.18 1.31 62 Cool-headed 5.03 1.36 66 4.34 1.37 61 Courageous 5.80 1.01 66 4.27 1.29 63 Cunning 3.02 1.55 62 2.27 1.23 62 Cynical 2.11 1.04 62 1.76 0.97 62 Daring 4.86 1.32 66 3.87 1.54 63 Decisive 5.32 1.14 66 4.41 1.33 63 Defends own beliefs 5.53 1.15 66 4.65 1.47 63 167 Items Rated as More Desirable for Men by Female Raters* Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Deliberate 3.90 1.36 63 3.30 1.26 56 Direct 4.92 1.19 66 4.23 1.31 60 Does not give up easily 5.64 1.02 66 4.33 1.36 63 Dominant 4.12 1.61 66 2.37 1.45 63 Effective 5.39 0.88 64 4.77 1.20 60 Enterprising 5.40 1.03 63 4.04 1.25 55 Experienced 5.52 1.15 65 4.32 1.36 59 Fearless 5.03 1.27 64 3.40 1.36 63 Feelings not easily hurt 4.91 1.48 65 3.74 1.41 62 Firm 4.92 1.20 64 3.70 1.24 63 Forceful 3.66 1.78 64 2.76 1.27 63 Forthright 4.51 1.12 53 4.00 1.33 54 Frank 4.52 1.27 64 3.42 1.22 62 Free-thinking 4.94 1.34 64 4.30 1.36 61 Hard-headed 3.02 1.58 62 2.32 1.29 63 Has leadership abilities 6.06 1.08 64 4.18 1.27 62 Headstrong 3.38 1.59 63 2.76 1.28 63 Impolite 1.63 1.33 64 1.25 0.54 63 Independent 6.09 1.05 64 4.41 1.56 63 Individualistic 5.47 1.38 64 4.16 1.52 63 Industrious 5.38 1.17 63 3.98 1.52 60 Innovative 5.08 1.11 63 4.13 1.27 60 Intellectual 5.63 1.16 64 4.76 1.23 63 168 Items Rated as More Desirable for Men by Female Raters* Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Intelligent 6.00 1.02 64 5.14 1.23 63 Intense 4.30 1.35 64 3.43 1.36 60 Inventive 4.81 0.92 64 3.90 1.22 61 Knows the way of the 5.39 1.34 64 4.06 1.37 62 world Level-headed 5.14 1.30 64 4.45 1.53 62 Likes a good argument 4.22 1.44 64 3.27 1.47 63 Logical 5.22 1.25 64 4.62 1.30 63 Makes decisions easily 4.98 1.32 64 4.37 1.30 63 Makes decisions 2.09 1.49 64 1.52 1.01 63 without regard for the feelings of others Masculine 6.37 0.93 64 1.78 1.10 63 Materialistic 3.39 1.39 64 2.76 1.49 63 Mathematical 4.20 1.51 64 2.90 1.25 63 Mature 6.02 0.93 64 5.14 1.26 63 Messy 1.83 1.03 63 1.41 0.64 63 Methodical 3.68 1.57 62 3.20 1.06 59 Never cries 3.60 1.92 63 2.55 1.46 62 Not easily influenced 4.84 1.33 63 3.68 1.23 63 Not excitable in time of 5.11 1.58 63 4.21 1.39 61 crisis Objective 5.19 1.16 63 4.42 1.22 62 169 Items Rated as More Desirable for Men by Female Raters* Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Opinionated 3.97 1.53 63 3.05 1.41 63 Opportunist 4.75 1.70 63 3.18 1.54 60 Outspoken 4.39 1.27 62 3.59 1.58 63 Overconfident 2.87 1.65 63 2.16 1.19 63 Persistent 4.54 1.46 63 3.60 1.19 62 Persuasive 4.56 1.52 63 4.06 1.26 63 Possessive 2.90 1.50 63 2.25 1.34 63 Practical 5.19 1.13 63 4.65 1.27 63 Precise 4.48 1.15 62 3.97 1.34 61 Productive 5.59 1.01 63 4.81 1.27 62 Protective 5.30 1.33 63 4.25 1.74 61 Purposeful 5.08 1.20 63 4.48 1.23 60 Realistic 5.46 1.03 63 4.95 1.15 62 Rebellious 3.46 1.61 63 2.73 1.46 62 Reserved 2.90 1.56 62 3.43 1.31 61 Resource 5.31 1.07 62 4.47 1.28 60 Responsible 6.05 0.97 63 5.60 0.98 62 Restless 2.52 1.36 62 1.95 1.00 60 Rigid 2.10 1.11 61 1.62 0.84 61 Rugged 5.08 1.52 63 2.60 1.44 62 Scientific 4.05 1.56 63 2.80 1.14 61 Seeks out new 5.29 0.91 63 4.60 1.32 62 experiences 170 Items Rated as More Desirable for Men by Female Raters* Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Self-assured 5.73 0.92 63 4.71 1.42 62 Self-confident 5.76 1.23 63 4.79 1.46 62 Self-controlled 5.13 1.23 63 4.56 1.35 61 Self-reliant 5.06 1.29 62 4.31 1.39 59 Self-sufficient 5.63 1.26 63 4.58 1.22 62 Serious 4.86 1.22 63 4.13 1.03 61 Skeptical 3.19 1.35 63 2.65 1.04 60 Skilled 5.68 1.01 63 4.56 1.31 62 Skilled in business 5.68 1.29 63 4.31 1.22 62 Sly 2.73 1.62 63 2.10 1.11 61 Straightforward 4.60 1.26 63 4.08 1.42 61 Strong-minded 5.17 1.12 63 3.78 1.30 62 Strong-personality 5.40 1.04 63 4.11 1.44 62 Stubborn 2.73 1.49 63 2.11 1.12 62 Thinks before acting 5.00 1.32 62 4.50 1.40 60 Thorough 4.98 1.34 63 4.50 1.23 58 Vigorous 4.73 1.57 59 4.05 1.18 55 Willing to take a stand 5.57 0.95 63 4.44 1.27 61 Willing to take risks 5.49 0.88 63 4.32 1.10 60 Worldly 5.07 1.21 61 4.38 1.24 61 * p < .05, 2-tailed. APPENDIX K Items Rated as More Desirable for Women by Female Raters 172 Items Rated as More Desirable for Women by Female Raters* Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Able to devote oneself 4.92 1.40 66 5.49 1.24 63 to others Absent-minded 1.40 0.80 65 2.04 1.35 63 Accommodating 4.37 1.38 65 5.47 1.18 62 Affectionate 5.07 1.53 66 6.22 1.05 63 Agreeable 4.63 1.31 66 5.51 1.23 61 Appreciative 5.00 1.37 65 5.77 0.97 63 Artistic 3.41 1.31 66 4.57 1.24 63 Attractive 5.86 1.28 66 6.60 0.96 63 Bashful 2.40 1.46 66 3.66 1.58 62 Careful 4.45 1.38 66 5.02 1.24 62 Changes mind easily 1.86 0.93 66 2.51 1.68 63 Cheerful 5.22 1.13 66 6.06 0.98 63 Childlike 2.11 1.25 66 3.44 1.66 63 Clean 5.82 1.42 66 6.24 1.04 63 Comfortable when 4.52 1.63 66 6.06 1.24 63 people express emotions Compassionate 5.05 1.57 66 6.22 1.07 63 Compliant 3.38 1.28 61 4.31 1.86 58 Concerned about group 3.76 1.58 66 5.47 1.29 62 harmony 173 Items Rated as More Desirable for Women by Female Raters* Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Congenial 4.46 1.29 52 5.13 1.57 48 Conscientious 4.82 1.42 66 5.41 1.12 63 Conservative 3.58 1.27 65 4.07 1.35 61 Considerate 5.21 1.27 66 6.14 0.78 63 Cooperative 5.17 1.08 66 6.00 0.90 63 Cordial 4.81 1.27 59 5.29 1.26 58 Creative 4.44 1.19 66 5.00 1.21 63 Cries without shame 2.98 1.83 66 4.17 1.76 63 Cultured 4.79 1.32 66 5.24 1.38 62 Dependent 2.36 1.68 66 3.95 1.95 63 Does not use harsh 4.09 1.74 66 5.37 1.52 63 language Eager to soothe hurt 3.98 1.68 66 5.52 1.50 63 feelings Easily expresses 4.02 1.78 66 5.60 1.37 63 tender feelings Emotional 3.39 1.54 66 4.56 1.74 63 Empathy 4.55 1.59 66 6.03 ..74 63 Excitable 3.82 1.60 65 4.56 1.64 62 Expresses emotions 3.82 1.64 65 5.25 1.37 63 easily Expressive 4.33 1.43 64 5.38 1.25 63 Fashionable 4.68 1.26 65 5.76 1.24 63 174 Items Rated as More Desirable for Women by Female Raters* Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases . X SD Cases Feminine 1.40 0.90 65 6.14 1.16 63 Fickle 1.62 1.17 60 2.18 1.21 57 Flatterable 3.19 1.25 62 4.95 1.55 62 Flexible 4.59 1.28 64 5.40 1.23 63 Flirtatious 3.71 1.42 63 4.48 1.80 63 Forgiving 4.91 1.32 64 5.76 1.19 63 Friendly 5.75 1.14 64 6.21 0.83 63 Generous 5.39 1.20 64 5.93 0.95 63 Genial 4.56 1.13 48 5.39 1.17 47 Gentle 3.95 1.63 53 5.33 1.33 55 Giving 4.95 1.29 64 5.76 1.13 63 Glamour 3.06 1.32 64 5.13 1.57 63 Gossipy 1.55 0.78 64 2.35 1.66 63 Graceful 2.97 1.60 64 5.71 1.08 63 Gracious 3.98 1.56 64 5.57 1.23 61 Gullible 1.41 0.82 63 2.79 1.59 63 Happy 5.53 1.18 64 5.97 0.92 63 Helpful 5.17 1.08 64 5.71 0.97 63 Helpless 1.27 0.60 64 2.67 1.71 63 Humble 3.98 1.60 64 4.78 1.44 63 Impressionable 2.87 1.50 63 3.94 1.41 62 Innocent 2.61 1.49 64 4.78 1.57 63 175 Items Rated as More Desirable for Women by Female Raters* Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Intuitive 4.27 1.36 64 4.90 1.29 62 Kind 5.22 1.32 64 5.94 0.97 63 Kind-hearted 5.17 1.43 63 6.03 0.95 63 Kittenish 1.92 1.45 61 4.13 1.74 56 Light-hearted 4.08 1.54 59 4.83 1.34 59 Loves children 4.83 1.53 64 6.14 1.03 63 Loving 5.39 1.43 64 6.43 0.84 63 Meddlesome 1.68 0.94 62 2.08 1.22 59 Melodramatic 1.95 1.27 60 2.47 1.34 58 Modest 4.02 1.22 62 4.62 1.26 63 Neat 4.52 1.47 63 5.29 1.16 63 Nervous 1.63 0.83 63 2.05 1.14 63 Nice 5.06 1.37 63 5.85 1.08 62 Obliging 4.10 1.34 60 4.93 1.29 60 Passive 2.18 1.35 62 3.30 1.67 61 Patient 4.83 1.43 63 5.63 1.25 63 Pays attention to own 4.74 1.56 62 5.95 1.25 63 physical appearance Playful 4.41 1.46 63 5.02 1.29 63 Pleasant 5.40 1.12 63 5.77 0.98 62 Poised 4.52 1.42 60 5.45 1.21 62 Polite 5.32 1.33 63 6.05 0.94 63 Quiet 2.90 1.07 63 3.90 1.55 63 176 Items Rated as More Desirable for Women by Female Raters* Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Refined 3.90 1.44 61 4.77 1.53 61 Relaxed 4.81 1.15 63 5.41 0.92 61 Religious 3.00 1.40 61 3.76 1.25 58 Romantic 5.40 1.37 63 5.94 0.97 62 Sarcastic (a) 4.90 1.23 63 5.74 1.12 61 Seductive 4.35 1.71 62 5.18 1.37 62 Self-conscious 2.35 1.42 62 3.00 1.65 62 Self-denying 2.43 1.36 56 3.02 1.75 58 Selfless 3.32 1.72 59 4.67 1.90 61 Self-sacrificing 3.87 1.40 61 4.88 1.57 60 Sensitive 4.76 1.56 63 5.66 1.31 62 Sensitive to the needs 5.00 1.51 63 6.13 0.97 62 of others Sensuous 4.64 1.72 59 5.84 1.08 63 Sentimental 3.97 1.72 63 5.14 1.18 63 Sexually attractive 5.83 1.13 63 6.37 0.98 62 Sexy 5.46 1.51 63 6.29 1.06 62 Showy 2.23 1.29 62 2.81 1.47 62 Shy 2.25 1.22 63 3.29 1.31 62 Simple 1.76 1.20 63 3.37 1.65 62 Soft-spoken 2.71 1.48 63 4.43 1.36 60 Subjective 2.88 1.39 56 3.54 1.42 54 177 Items Rated as More Desirable for Women by Female Raters* Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Submissive 1.75 0.87 55 3.59 1.62 59 Supportive 5.30 1.25 63 5.90 0.94 62 Sympathetic 4.62 1.48 63 5.85 0.95 61 Tender 4.27 1.62 62 5.62 1.11 61 Tender-hearted 4.23 1.76 62 5.80 1.01 61 Theatrical 2.61 1.14 62 3.03 1.23 59 Thoughtful 5.32 1.32 63 5.75 1.03 61 Thoughtful of others 5.13 1.52 63 6.05 1.06 61 Tolerant 4.62 1.17 63 5.33 1.24 60 Understanding 5.37 1.20 63 5.75 0.93 61 Unselfish 5.02 1.39 63 5.70 1.16 61 Warm 4.98 1.28 63 5.97 0.91 63 Warm-hearted 4.94 1.60 63 6.10 0.94 62 Worrier 1.71 1.04 63 2.40 1.53 60 Willing to accept 4.92 1.18 62 5.35 0.95 60 change Yielding 2.73 1.38 59 4.24 1.61 59 * p < .05, 2-tailed. (a) sarcastic was rated as more desirable for women by female raters; the same item was rated as more desirable for men by male raters. 178 APPENDIX L Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Male Raters i n the Or i g i n a l Stanford Sample 179 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Male Raters in the Original Stanford Sample* Masculine Items Ratings or Men Number of Ratings fc r Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Acts as a leader 5.92 0.91 25 2.04 1.06 25 Aggressive 4.92 1.15 25 2.08 1.08 25 Ambitious 6.08 1.04 25 3.04 1.43 25 Analytical 4.92 1.28 25 2.80 1.08 25 Assertive 4.92 1.06 25 2.64 1.29 25 Athletic 5.48 1.05 25 3.12 1.36 25 Competitive 5.60 1.29 25 2.48 1.01 25 Defends own beliefs 5.88 1.01 25 4.20 1.41 25 Dominant 4.92 0.97 25 1.68 0.85 25 Forceful 5.12 1.17 25 2.72 0.94 25 Has leadership abilities 6.00 0.76 25 3.28 1.43 25 Independent 5.88 1.17 25 2.60 1.35 25 Individualistic 5.28 1.40 25 2.96 1.51 25 Makes decisions easily 5.52 1.01 25 4.00 1.44 25 Masculine 6.40 0.76 25 1.36 0.76 25 Self-reliant 5.84 0.99 25 3.32 1.03 25 Self-sufficient 5.96 1.06 25 2.68 1.38 25 Strong-personality 5.96 0.79 25 3.83 1.52 25 Willing to take a stand 5.80 0.96 25 3.68 1.31 25 Willing to take risks 5.28 0.94 25 3.44 1.23 25 180 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Male Raters in the Original Stanford Sample* Feminine Items Ratings :or Men Number of Ratings fc >r Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Affectionate 4.60 1.47 25 6.56 0.58 25 Cheerful 4.88 1.26 25 6.20 0.76 25 Childlike 1.72 0.94 25 3.92 1.35 25 Compassionate 4.44 1.16 25 6.28 1.10 25 Does not use harsh 3.76 1.23 25 5.92 0.86 25 language Eager to soothe hurt 4.04 1.37 25 5.88 0.88 25 feelings Feminine 1.08 0.28 25 6.64 0.64 25 Flatterable 2.80 1.53 25 4.80 1.56 25 Gentle 4.00 1.04 25 6.36 0.64 25 Gullible 1.20 0.41 25 3.28 1.37 25 Loves children 4.56 1.16 25 6.40 0.87 25 Loyal 5.40 1.00 25 6.44 0.65 25 Sensitive to the needs 4.56 1.08 25 5.80 1.12 25 of others Shy 2.08 1.15 25 3.52 1.64 25 Soft-spoken 3.36 1.32 25 4.84 1.38 25 Sympathetic 4.32 0.99 25 5.76 1.13 25 Tender 3.56 1.16 25 6.12 0.88 25 Understanding 5.16 1.07 25 6.12 0.88 25 Warm 4.48 1.16 25 6.44 0.71 25 Yielding 2.64 1.32 25 4.88 1.30 25 181 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Male Raters in the Original Stanford Sample* Neutral Items Ratings :or Men Number of Ratings fc >r Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Adaptable 5.30 1.16 25 4.90 0.99 25 Conceited 2.00 1.31 25 1.73 1.03 25 Conscientious 5.20 0.92 25 4.90 0.88 25 Conventional 4.00 1.69 25 4.00 1.07 25 Friendly 5.50 0.85 25 5.90 0.57 . 25 Happy 5.60 1.08 25 6.00 1.05 25 Helpful 5.40 0.84 25 5.10 0.99 25 Inefficient 1.33 0.62 25 1.40 0.83 25 Jealous 2.67 1.29 25 3.00 1.60 25 Likable 5.50 1.08 25 6.00 0.67 25 Moody 2.00 0.93 25 1.93 0.80 25 Reliable 5.70 0.82 25 5.20 0.92 25 Secretive 2.57 1.40 25 3.13 1.73 25 Sincere 5.20 0.79 25 5.30 1.06 25 Solemn 2.80 1.15 25 2.80 1.66 25 Tactful 4.80 1.14 25 5.00 1.05 25 Theatrical 2.87 1.25 25 2.47 1.13 25 Truthful 6.00 0.67 25 5.50 1.08 25 Unsystematic 2.14 0.95 25 2.13 1.30 25 * Bern (1974) described the Stanford sample as 100 first year studentshalf male and half female. The current researcher assumed that the raters were subsequently divided equally into the two groups (either rating the items for "a man" or "a woman"). APPENDIX M R a t i n g s on the 60 BSRI Items by Female R a t e r s i n the O r i g i n a l S t a n f o r d Sample 183 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Female Raters in the Original Stanford Sample* Masculine Items Ratings or Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Acts as a leader 5.96 1.27 25 3.17 1.09 25 Aggressive 5.08 1.47 25 2.27 1.43 25 Ambitious 6.32 0.90 25 4.08 1.55 25 Analytical 5.08 1.22 25 3,09 1.44 25 Assertive 5.60 1.12 25 3.17 1.34 25 Athletic 5.64 1.41 25 3.96 1.27 25 Competitive 5.84 1.14 25 3.44 1.50 25 Defends own beliefs 6.00 0.96 25 4.68 1.52 25 Dominant 5.64 1.04 25 1.64 1.08 25 Forceful 5.32 1.35 25 2.96 1.24 25 Has leadership abilities 6.20 1.23 25 3.92 1.35 25 Independent 6.40 0.96 25 3.56 1.56 25 Individualistic 5.80 1.08 25 4.00 1.50 25 Makes decisions easily 5.56 1.08 25 4.48 1.39 25 Masculine 6.71 0.75 25 1.24 0.60 25 Self-reliant 6.00 0.91 25 4.00 1.58 25 Self-sufficient 5.84 1.43 25 3.64 1.41 25 Strong-personality 5.96 0.89 25 3.60 1.47 25 Willing to take a stand 6.00 0.82 25 4.16 1.57 25 Willing to take risks 5.64 0.95 25 3.48 1.36 25 184 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Female Raters in the Original Stanford Sample* Feminine Items Ratings or Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Affectionate 4.88 1.48 25 6.32 0.75 25 Cheerful 5.36 1.19 25 6.20 0.87 25 Childlike 1.92 1.08 25 3.40 1.50 25 Compassionate 4.60 1.61 25 6.32 0.69 25 Does not use harsh 3.83 1.52 25 5.64 1.15 25 language Eager to soothe hurt 4.28 1.70 25 5.84 0.90 25 feelings Feminine 1.36 0.76 25 6.56 0.71 25 Flatterable 3.24 1.79 25 5.12 1.13 25 Gentle 4.16 1.70 25 6.28 0.79 25 Gullible 1.48 0.96 25 3.12 1.39 25 Loves children 4.64 1.50 25 6.24 1.01 25 Loyal 5.32 1.38 25 6.52 0.71 25 Sensitive to the needs 4.80 1.50 25 6.08 0.81 25 of others Shy 2.12 1.17 25 3.44 1.61 25 Soft-spoken 2.48 1.09 25 4.80 1.12 25 Sympathetic 4.32 1.38 25 5.76 0.97 25 Tender 3.88 1.59 25 6.28 0.79 25 Understanding 4.76 1.45 25 6.28 0.68 25 Warm 4.48 1.39 25 6.28 0.79 25 Yielding 2.88 1.51 25 4.52 1.26 25 185 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Female Raters in the Original Stanford Sample* Neutral Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Adaptable 5.60 0.97 25 5.40 0.84 25 Conceited 1.73 0.80 25 1.53 1.06 25 Conscientious 5.10 1.45 25 5.00 1.05 25 Conventional 3.73 1.39 25 4.00 1.41 25 Friendly 5.40 1.08 25 5.60 0.84 25 Happy 5.80 1.23 25 5.80 1.23 25 Helpful 5.30 1.06 25 5.50 1.08 25 Inefficient 1.13 0.35 25 1.33 0.72 25 Jealous 2.33 1.40 25 2.47 1.19 25 Likable 5.80 1.23 25 5.80 1.14 25 Moody 1.93 1.07 25 1.80 1.01 25 Reliable 5.90 0.99 25 5.70 0.95 25 Secretive 3.00 1.13 25 2.80 1.57 25 Sincere 5.30 1.34 25 5.70 1.57 25 Solemn 2.47 1.13 25 2.53 1.06 25 Tactful 5.00 0.47 25 5.50 1.18 25 Theatrical 2.67 1.29 25 2.47 1.19 25 Truthful 5.90 1.29 25 6.00 1.16 25 Unpredictable 2.80 1.47 25 3.40 1.72 25 Unsystematic 2.13 0.92 25 2.62 1.39 25 * Bern (1974) described the Stanford sample as 100 first year studentshalf male and half female. The current researcher assumed that the raters were subsequently divided equally into the two groups (either rating the items for "a man" or "a woman"). APPENDIX N Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by European and Indo-Canadian Male and Female Raters 187 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by European Male Raters(a) Masculine Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Acts as a leader 4.00 0.63 6 Aggressive 4.33 1.75 6 Ambitious 4.50 1.05 6 Analytical 3.83 1.72 6 Assertive 4.50 1.76 6 Athletic 5.33 1.21 6 Competitive 3.50 1.87 6 Defends own beliefs 4.83 1.94 6 Dominant 2.67 1.51 6 Forceful 3.00 1.67 6 Has leadership abilities 4.67 1.37 6 Independent 4.67 1.75 6 Individualistic 4.33 1.97 6 Makes decisions easily 5.33 1.21 6 Masculine 1.67 0.82 6 Self-reliant 4.75 1.71 4 Self-sufficient 4.60 2.30 5 Strong-personality 5.40 1.14 5 Willing to take a stand 5.60 0.89 5 Willing to take risks 5.20 1.48 5 188 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by European Male Raters(a) Feminine Items Ratings tor Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Affectionate 6.67 0.52 6 Cheerful 6.17 0.98 6 Childlike 4.17 2.23 6 Compassionate 6.67 0.52 6 Does not use harsh 5.83 1.94 6 language Eager to soothe hurt 6.00 1.10 6 feelings Feminine 6.33 1.21 6 Flatterable 4.67 1.51 6 Gentle 5.00 2.10 6 Gullible 1.83 0.98 6 Loves children 6.50 0.55 6 Loyal 6.83 0.41 6 Sensitive to the needs 6.60 0.89 5 of others Shy 3.40 1.52 5 Soft-spoken 4.00 2.00 5 Sympathetic 5.60 1.14 5 Tender 6.00 0.71 5 Understanding 5.80 0.84 5 Warm 6.20 0.45 5 Yielding 4.20 1.48 5 189 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by European Male Raters(a) Neutral Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Adaptable 5.17 1.17 6 Conceited 1.00 0.00 6 Conscientious 6.00 0.89 6 Conventional 4.33 2.16 6 Friendly 6.67 0.52 6 Happy 6.17 0.98 6 Helpful 5.83 0.75 6 Inefficient 2.00 2.45 6 Jealous 1.50 0.84 6 Likable 6.50 0.55 6 Moody 2.33 2.34 6 Reliable 6.40 0.55 5 Secretive 3.00 2.35 5 Sincere 5.80 1.30 5 Solemn 2.25 1.26 4 Tactful 5.50 1.29 4 Theatrical 4.00 1.73 5 Truthful 6.40 0.89 5 Unpredictable 4.20 2.39 5 Unsystematic r 4.00 1.87 5 (a) Note: when ethnicity was considered, the cell sizes decreased (i.e., for European men rating the items for men, only one student fit the category). When n < 3, means were not reported. 190 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by European Female Raters Masculine Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Acts as a leader 6.57 0.53 7 4.00 0.71 9 Aggressive 4.86 1.95 7 3.33 1.50 9 Ambitious 6.71 0.49 7 5.00 1.22 9 Analytical 5.14 1.95 7 4.25 0.89 8 Assertive 5.86 1.07 7 4.44 1.13 9 Athletic 5.86 0.90 7 4.11 0.60 9 Competitive 5.86 1.21 7 3.67 1.41 9 Defends own beliefs 5.86 0.90 7 5.11 1.05 9 Dominant 5.43 1.27 7 2.22 0.97 9 Forceful 5.29 1.98 7 3.11 1.36 9 Has leadership abilities 6.29 0.95 7 4.11 1.17 9 Independent 6.43 0.98 7 3.89 1.76 9 Individualistic 5.86 1.21 7 3.89 2.03 9 Makes decisions easily 4.71 1.38 7 4.22 1.30 9 Masculine 5.71 1.89 7 1.78 0.97 9 Self-reliant 5.14 1.21 7 4.57 1.40 7 Self-sufficient 5.71 1.38 7 4.89 0.78 9 Strong-personality 5.71 0.76 7 4.44 1.13 9 Willing to take a stand 5.71 0.49 7 4.44 0.88 9 Willing to take risks 5.43 0.98 7 4.44 0.73 9 191 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by European Female Raters Feminine Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Affectionate 4.43 1.90 7 6.11 1.17 9 Cheerful 5.14 0.90 7 4.89 1.45 9 Childlike 1.43 0.79 7 3.11 1.45 9 Compassionate 4.29 1.70 7 5.78 1.20 9 Does not use harsh 4.29 2.21 7 4.44 1.67 9 language 7 9 Eager to soothe hurt 2.86 1.77 7 5.22 1.79 9 feelings 7 9 Feminine 1.43 0.79 7 5.89 1.54 9 Flatterable 2.00 1.15 7 4.78 1.79 9 Gentle 5.20 1.92 5 4.14 2.12 7 Gullible , 1.00 0.00 7 2.67 1.32 9 Loves children 4.71 1.80 7 5.44 1.67 9 Loyal 5.14 1.95 7 5.88 1.73 8 Sensitive to the needs 4.14 1.46 7 5.67 1.58 9 of others 7 9 Shy 1.43 0.53 7 2.67 1.22 9 Soft-spoken 2.00 1.15 7. 4.50 1.20 8 Sympathetic 4.14 1.21 7 5.44 1.51 9 Tender 3.14 1.07 7 5.11 1.45 9 Understanding 4.86 1.35 7 5.56 1.13 9 Warm 3.86 1.46 7 5.44 1.51 9 Yielding 1.83 1.17 6 4.50 1.41 8 192 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by European Female Raters Neutral Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Adaptable 5.14 1.68 7 5.44 1.13 9 Conceited 1.71 0.95 7 1.78 0.97 9 Conscientious 4.71 1.98 7 5.22 1.48 9 Conventional 3.71 1.70 7 4.43 1.13 7 Friendly 5.43 1.81 7 5.56 1.24 9 Happy 5.71 1.11 7 5.78 0.97 9 Helpful 4.43 1.62 7 5.11 0.93 9 Inefficient 1.14 0.38 7 1.22 0.44 9 Jealous 1.71 1.50 7 1.78 1.09 9 Likable 5.86 0.90 7 5.11 1.45 9 Moody 1.29 0.76 7 1.22 0.67 9 Reliable 5.71 1.38 7 5.67 0.87 9 Secretive 2.00 1.53 7 3.00 1.80 9 Sincere 5.00 1.00 7 5.00 0.87 9 Solemn 3.14 1.35 7 2.00 0.82 7 Tactful 4.00 1.15 7 4.89 1.36 9 Theatrical 2.00 1.55 6 2.13 0.83 8 Truthful 4.71 0.49 7 5.33 1.22 9 Unpredictable 3.29 2.14 7 3.22 1.30 9 Unsystematic 2.43 1.62 7 2.43 1.40 7 193 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Indo-Canadian Male Raters Masculine Items Ratings For Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Acts as a leader 4.00 1.63 4 4.40 1.14 5 Aggressive 4.25 2.06 4 3.40 0.55 5 Ambitious 5.75 1.26 4 4.60 0.55 5 Analytical 4.00 1.83 4 4.20 1.30 5 Assertive 5.50 0.58 4 4.60 1.14 5 Athletic 4.75 0.96 4 5.80 1.30 5 Competitive 5.75 0.96 4 4.00 1.22 5 Defends own beliefs 6.00 0.82 4 4.20 1.92 5 Dominant 5.25 1.50 4 2.00 1.22 5 Forceful 4.75 1.71 4 2.80 1.10 5 Has leadership abilities 5.50 1.29 4 4.40 1.14 5 Independent 4.50 2.08 4 3.80 1.10 5 Individualistic 3.00 1.83 4 3.20 0.84 5 Makes decisions easily 4.50 2.38 4 4.60 0.55 5 Masculine 4.75 1.71 4 1.20 0.45 5 Self-reliant 5.50 1.73 4 5.00 1.00 5 Self-sufficient 5.50 1.00 4 5.20 0.45 5 Strong-personality 3.50 2.08 4 4.60 1.14 5 Willing to take a stand 5.50 0.58 4 4.20 1.10 5 Willing to take risks 4.75 0.96 4 4.20 1.30 5 194 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Indo-Canadian Male Raters Feminine Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Affectionate 4.25 2.50 4 6.20 0.84 5 Cheerful 4.25 1.71 4 6.20 0.84 5 Childlike 1.75 0.96 4 3.60 1.52 5 Compassionate 3.75 1.71 4 5.80 1.10 5 Does not use harsh 2.75 1.50 4 5.80 1.10 5 language Eager to soothe hurt 3.00 2.16 4 5.60 0.89 5 feelings Feminine 2.25 1.89 4 6.00 0.71 5 Flatterable 2.75 1.26 4 4.80 0.84 5 Gentle 4.00 2.00 3 5.80 0.84 5 Gullible 2.75 2.36 4 2.60 0.89 5 Loves children 4.50 1.73 4 5.80 1.30 5 Loyal 6.25 0.50 4 6.00 0.71 5 Sensitive to the needs 4.00 1.41 4 5.60 1.14 5 of others Shy 1.75 0.96 4 4.00 0.71 5 Soft-spoken 1.75 0.96 4 5.00 1.00 5 Sympathetic 4.50 1.29 4 4.40 1.52 5 Tender 4.25 1.71 4 5.20 1.30 5 Understanding 5.00 2.16 4 5.40 1.14 5 Warm 3.75 1.71 4 6.20 0.45 5 Yielding 3.75 2.22 4 4.40 1.52 5 195 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Indo-Canadian Male Raters Neutral Items Ratings For Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Adaptable 4.25 1.50 4 5.80 1.10 5 Conceited 2.00 1.41 4 1.41 0.89 5 Conscientious 4.75 1.26 4 5.00 0.71 5 Conventional 4.50 1.73 4 3.60 1.52 5 Friendly 5.25 1.71 4 5.60 0.55 5 Happy 5.50 1.91 4 6.00 0.71 5 Helpful 5.50 1.29 4 5.60 0.89 5 Inefficient 2.25 2.50 4 1.60 0.55 5 Jealous 2.50 3.00 4 2.40 1.52 5 Likable 5.75 1.26 4 5.80 0.84 5 Moody 2.50 2.38 4 1.40 0.55 5 Reliable 5.75 1.26 4 5.00 1.00 5 Secretive 2.75 0.96 4 2.20 1.64 5 Sincere 4.25 0.96 4 5.20 1.30 5 Solemn 3.33 0.58 3 3.50 1.00 5 Tactful 5.25 0.96 4 3.80 1.79 5 Theatrical 3.50 1.73 4 2.60 0.89 5 Truthful 4.00 1.41 4 5.80 0.84 5 Unpredictable 3.75 1.71 4 2.80 1.10 5 Unsystematic 4.00 2.00 3 3.40 1.52 5 196 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Indo-Canadian Female Raters Masculine Items Ratings or Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Acts as a leader 6.20 0.84 5 3.33 1.21 6 Aggressive 5.40 0.89 5 2.33 1.37 6 Ambitious 6.00 0.71 5 2.83 2.32 6 Analytical 4.20 1.92 5 3.00 1.26 6 Assertive 5.80 0.45 5 3.17 1.83 6 Athletic 6.80 0.45 5 3.33 1.51 6 Competitive 6.20 0.84 5 2.67 1.97 6 Defends own beliefs 5.20 0.45 5 3.83 1.83 6 Dominant 4.00 2.00 5 1.83 1.60 6 Forceful 3.60 2.07 5 2.00 0.89 6 Has leadership abilities 6.40 0.89 5 3.50 1.87 6 Independent 6.40 0.55 5 3.67 1.86 6 Individualistic 5.80 1.64 5 2.83 1.17 6 Makes decisions easily 4.80 1.64 5 3.83 1.47 6 Masculine 6.60 0.89 5 1.67 1.63 6 Self-reliant 5.00 1.41 5 4.00 1.79 6 Self-sufficient 4.80 1.79 5 4.33 1.63 6 Strong-personality 5.80 1.10 5 3.83 1.72 6 Willing to take a stand 5.80 0.45 5 3.67 1.63 6 Willing to take risks 5.80 0.45 5 3.67 1.21 6 197 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Indo-Canadian Female Raters Feminine Items Ratings or Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Affectionate 5.20 1.30 5 6.67 0.52 6 Cheerful 5.40 0.55 5 6.33 0.52 6 Childlike 1.80 0.84 5 4.33 1.37 6 Compassionate 5.40 0.89 5 5.67 2.34 6 Does not use harsh 3.80 2.05 5 5.67 2.34 6 language Eager to soothe hurt 4.60 1.52 5 6.17 1.33 6 feelings Feminine 1.20 0.45 5 6.67 0.52 6 Flatterable 4.80 0.84 5 5.83 1.17 6 Gentle 3.40 2.07 5 6.17 0.98 6 Gullible 1.60 0.89 5 3.50 1.52 6 Loves children 4.80 1.79 5 6.83 0.41 6 Loyal 5.60 1.52 5 6.67 0.82 6 Sensitive to the needs 5.20 1.48 5 6.67 0.82 6 of others Shy 2.40 1.14 5 4.83 0.98 6 Soft-spoken 2.40 1.14 5 4.33 0.82 6 Sympathetic 5.00 1.22 5 6.17 0.75 6 Tender 6.00 1.41 4 6.50 0.55 6 Understanding 5.60 1.52 5 5.83 1.17 6 Warm 5.00 1.58 5 6.50 0.84 6 Yielding 2.50 1.91 4 5.33 1.86 6 198 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Indo-Canadian Female Raters Neutral Items Ratings or Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Adaptable 5.40 1.52 5 5.67 0.82 6 Conceited 3.40 2.30 5 2.33 1.51 6 Conscientious 5.40 1.14 5 5.83 1.17 6 Conventional 3.40 1.82 5 4.80 1.79 5 Friendly 6.20 1.30 5 6.00 1.10 6 Happy 4.80 1.10 5 6.17 0.75 6 Helpful 5.20 1.30 5 6.00 0.89 6 Inefficient 1.80 0.84 5 2.17 2.40 6 Jealous 4.40 2.41 5 1.50 0.84 6 Likable ' 6.00 0.71 5 6.33 0.82 6 Moody 3.00 1.22 5 2.67 2.25 6 Reliable 6.00 1.22 5 6.33 0.82 6 Secretive 2.80 1.10 5 2.33 1.86 6 Sincere 5.00 1.41 5 5.33 1.37 6 Solemn 3.00 0.82 4 3.17 1.47 6 Tactful 5.33 1.53 3 3.83 1.72 6 Theatrical 3.20 0.45 5 3.50 0.84 6 Truthful 5.60 1.52 5 6.50 0.84 6 Unpredictable 4.60 1.52 5 2.33 1.51 6 Unsystematic 3.20 1.10 5 2.50 1.76 6 APPENDIX O R a t i n g s on the 60 BSRI Items White and A s i a n Male R a t e r s 200 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by White Male Raters Masculine Items Ratings or Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Acts as a leader***(a) 5.72 1.07 18 3.38 1.36 16 Aggressive ***(a) 4.72 1.45 18 3.06 1.29 16 Ambitious ***(a) 6.17 0.86 18 4.60 1.30 15 Analytical ***(a) 4.89 0.96 18 3.19 1.22 16 Assertive **(a) 5.28 1.32 18 3.73 1.53 15 Athletic 6.28 0.89 18 5.56 1.31 16 Competitivc**(a) 5.94 0.87 18 4.25 1.69 16 Defends own beliefs 5.39 1.24 18 4.75 1.24 16 Dominant ***(a) 4.56 1.58 18 2.56 1.41 16 Forceful 3.89 1.41 18 3.06 1.24 16 Has leadership 6.06 1.21 18 4.50 1.75 16 abilities ***(a) Independent ***(a) 5.83 0.86 18 3.44 1.90 16 Individualistic ***(a) 5.39 1.38 18 3.31 1.45 16 Makes decisions easily 5.17 1.42 18 4.63 0.96 16 Masculine ***(a) 6.39 0.92 18 1.56 1.03 16 Self-reliant **(a) 5.11 1.41 18 3.62 1.04 13 Self-sufficient ***(a) 5.83 0.92 18 4.25 1.53 16 Strong-personality *(a) 5.44 1.20 18 4.25 1.57 16 Willing to take a stand* 5.50 1.38 18 4.38 1.26 16 Willing to take 5.22 1.06 18 4.25 1.06 16 risks **(a) 201 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Hems by White Male Raters Feminine Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Affectionate ***(b) 4.22 1.26 18 6.13 0.96 16 Cheerful *(b) 5.00 1.08 18 5.69 0.79 16 Childlike 2.22 1.11 18 2.88 1.41 16 Compasionate **(b) 4.67 1.64 18 5.88 0.89 16 Does not use harsh 4.06 1.86 18 4.88 2.09 16 language Eager to soothe hurt 4.11 1.45 18 5.63 0.81 16 feelings ***(b) Feminine ***(b) 1.56 1.50 18 6.06 0.93 16 Flatterable ***(b) 3.39 1.42 18 4.88 0.89 16 Gentle *(b) 3.81 2.10 16 5.08 1.12 13 Gullible 1.94 1.59 18 2.38 1.31 16 Loves children 5.00 1.50 18 5.56 1.26 16 Loyal 5.72 1.36 18 6.31 0.60 16 Sensitive to the needs 4.44 1.54 18 5.63 0.81 16 of others **(b) Shy **(b) 2.50 1.29 18 3.69 1.35 16 Soft-spoken **(b) 3.00 1.50 18 4.44 1.09 16 Sympathetic *(b) 4.06 1.26 18 5.06 1.12 16 Tender **(b) 4.00 1.71 18 5.50 0.63 16 Understanding 4.78 1.31 18 5.31 1.01 16 Warm ***(b) 4.44 1.34 18 5.94 0.57 16 Yielding ***(b) 2.11 1.28 18 4.15 1.46 13 202 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by White Male Raters Neutral Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Adaptable * 5.61 0.92 18 4.81 0.91 16 Conceited 1.83 1.65 18 1.81 1.38 16 Conscientious 4.50 1.29 18 5.00 0.93 15 Conventional 3.83 1.72 18 3.81 1.56 16 Friendly 5.61 1.14 18 5.94 0.85 16 Happy 5.22 1.52 18 5.69 0.60 16 Helpful 4.78 1.40 18 5.50 0.63 16 Inefficient 1.39 0.70 18 1.62 0.72 16 Jealous 2.72 1.56 18 2.50 1.79 16 Likable 5.28 1.32 18 6.00 0.89 16 Moody 2.11 1.41 18 1.94 1.53 16 Reliable 5.50 1.10 18 5.13 1.02 16 Secretive 2.94 1.66 18 2.94 1.91 16 Sincere ** 4.33 1.19 18 5.19 0.66 16 Solemn 3.00 1.50 17 3.36 1.12 11 Tactful 4.39 1.20 18 3.86 1.03 14 Theatrical 2.83 1.04 18 3.53 1.51 15 Truthful 5.50 1.25 18 5.88 0.62 16 Unpredictable 3.83 1.54 18 3.37 1.45 16 Unsystematic 2.83 1.34 18 3.56 1.26 16 * p < .05, 2-tailed; ** p < .01, 2-tailed; *** p < .001, 2-tailed. (a) Items that were rated as significantly more desirable for a man than a woman by both male and female white judges, (b) Items that were rated as significantly more desirable for a woman than a man by both male and female white judges. 203 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Asian Male Raters Items Ratings For Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Acts as a leader **(a) 6.00 0.88 14 4.43 1.40 7 Aggressive **(a) 4.86 1.17 14 3.00 1.53 7 Ambitious 5.50 1.34 14 5.43 0.98 7 Analytical 4.50 1.61 14 4.43 1.90 7 Assertive 4.85 0.90 13 4.43 1.27 7 Athletic *(a) 6.21 0.97 14 4.71 1.80 7 Competitiv6*(a) 5.86 1.17 14 4.29 1.80 7 Defends own beliefs * 5.64 1.15 14 4.43 1.51 7 Dominant *(a) 4.50 1.56 14 2.86 1.57 7 Forceful ** 4.21 2.04 14 2.43 0.98 7 Has leadership 6.14 0.77 14 4.57 1.62 7 abilities ** (a) Independent 5.57 0.94 14 4.57 1.72 7 Individualistic 4.57 1.40 14 4.29 1.70 7 Makes decisions easily 5.36 1.08 14 5.29 0.95 7 Masculine ***(a) 6.00 1.04 14 1.57 0.98 7 Self-reliant 4.86 1.03 14 4.86 1.07 7 Self-sufficient 5.21 1.37 14 5.29 1.11 7 Strong-personality 5.14 1.17 14 4.43 1.72 7 Willing to take a stand* 5.43 0.85 14 4.29 1.60 7 Willing to take risks*(a) 5.36 1.08 14 4.00 1.63 7 204 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Asian Male Raters Feminine Items Ratings For Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Affectionate *** 5.14 1.35 14 6.86 0.38 7 Cheerful *(b) 5.50 1.16 14 6.29 0.49 7 Childlike 2.14 1.03 14 3.00 1.15 7 Compassionate* 5.00 1.30 14 6.29 0.95 7 Does not use harsh 4.07 1.59 14 5.14 1.68 7 language Eager to soothe hurt 4.79 1.25 14 5.86 1.07 7 feelings * Feminine ***(b) 1.93 1.07 14 6.57 0.79 7 Flatterable 3.71 1.38 14 5.00 1.41 7 Gentle 4.46 0.88 13 5.43 1.51 7 Gullible 1.64 1.01 14 2.14 1.07 7 Loves children 5.07 1.33 14 5.71 1.38 7 Loyal ** 4.71 1.07 14 6.29 0.49 7 Sensitive to the needs 4.64 1.01 14 5.43 0.79 7 of others Shy* 2.00 0.88 14 3.29 1.89 7 Soft-spoken 3.36 1.34 14 4.67 1.37 6 Sympathetic *(b) 4.71 0.91 14 5.57 0.79 7 Tender ***(b) 4.07 0.83 14 6.00 0.58 7 Understanding 5.43 1.09 14 6.00 0.58 7 Warm **b) 5.36 1.15 14 6.14 0.38 7 Yielding * 3.00 1.36 14 4.33 1.21 6 205 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Asian Male Raters Neutral Items Ratings For Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Adaptable* 4.93 1.07 14 6.00 0.82 7 Conceited 1.77 0.93 13 1.14 0.38 7 Conscientious 4.50 1.02 14 5.43 0.98 7 Conventional 3.69 1.03 13 4:43 1.40 7 Friendly 5.64 1.08 14 5.86 1.07 7 Happy 5.64 1.15 14 5.71 1.11 7 Helpful 5.64 1.01 14 5.86 0.69 7 Inefficient 1.64 0.93 14 1.43 0.79 7 Jealous 1.93 1.07 14 1.14 0.38 7 Likable* 5.21 1.05 14 6.14 0.69 7 Moody 2.00 0.88 14 2.57 1.72 7 Reliable 5.86 1.03 14 5.86 0.38 7 Secretive 2.36 0.93 14 2.43 1.13 7 Sincere 4.79 0.97 14 5.57 0.53 7 Solemn 3.60 1.26 10 4.17 0.75 6 Tactful 3.82 1.60 11 4.29 1.60 7 Theatrical 3.36 1.45 14 3.14 1.35 7 Truthful 5.36 1.15 14 6.14 0.90 7 Unpredictable 3.57 1.79 14 3.00 1.41 7 Unsystematic 3.23 1.83 13 2.83 0.75 6 * p < .05, 2-tailed; ** p < .01, 2-tailed: ***p < .001, 2-tailed. (a) Items that were rated as significantly more desirable for a man than a woman by both male and female Asian judges; (b) Items that were rated as significantly more desirable for a woman than a man by both male and female Asian judges. APPENDIX P Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items White and Asian Female Raters 207 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by White Female Raters Masculine Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Acts as a leader ***(a) 6.06 0.93 31 3.77 1.37 26 Aggressive **(a) 3.81 1.40 31 2.62 1.39 26 Ambitious ***(a) 6.03 0.91 31 4.46 1.27 26 Analytical *(a) 4.23 1.41 30 3.46 0.81 26 Assertive ***(a) 5.39 0.88 31 4.04 1.37 26 Athletic ** 5.81 0.98 31 5.04 1.22 26 Competitiv€***(a) 5.13 1.15 31 3.31 1.46 26 Defends own beliefs*** 5.55 1.23 31 4.38 1.36 26 Dominant ***(a) 3.87 1.59 31 2.23 1.21 26 Forceful * 3.47 1.66 30 2.69 1.16 26 Has leadership 6.13 1.01 30 4.04 1.02 25 abilities ***(a) Independent ***(a) 6.07 1.14 30 4.35 1.52 26 Individualistic *(a) 5.13 1.50 30 4.27 1.37 26 Make decisions 4.93 1.11 30 4.23 1.07 26 easily * Masculine ***(a) 6.37 0.67 30 1.42 0.76 26 Self-reliant **(a) 5.18 1.09 28 4.12 1.27 25 Self-sufficient ***(a) 1.40 5.62 29 4.32 1.03 25 Strong-personality***(a) 5.34 0.94 29 3.76 1.45 25 Willing to take a 5.59 0.82 29 4.17 1.24 24 stand***(a) Willing to take 5.41 0.82 29 4.09 1.04 23 risks ***(a) 208 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by White Female Raters Feminine Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Affectionate***(b) 5.13 1.38 31 6.42 0.76 26 Cheerful ***(b) 5.32 1.08 31 6.35 0.63 26 Childlike *** 2.03 1.11 31 3.88 1.75 26 Compassionate***(b) 4.84 1.55 31 6.42 0.64 26 Does not use harsh 3.90 1.66 31 5.73 1.15 26 language *** Eager to soothe hurt 3.77 1.71 31 5.92 0.98 26 feelings ***(b) Feminine ***(b) 1.42 0.81 31 6.42 0.81 26 Flatterable ***(b) 3.00 1.15 28 4.92 1.58 25 Gentle ***(b) 3.63 1.44 24 5.55 1.10 20 Gullible ** 1.40 0.72 30 2.31 1.19 26 Loves children *** 4.73 1.57 30 6.31 0.97 26 Loyal 5.70 1.29 30 6.15 1.32 26 Sensitive to the needs 4.90 1.50 29 6.20 0.76 25 of others *** (b) Shy ***(b) 2.21 1.15 29 3.44 1.23 25 Soft-spoken ***(b) 2.72 1.22 29 4.40 1.29 25 Sympathetic ***(b) 4.55 1.53 29 5.92 0.65 24 Tender ***(b) 3.90 1.52 29 5.54 1.02 24 Understanding * 5.17 1.14 29 5.79 0.78 24 Warm ***(b) 4.86 1.06 29 5.88 0.74 24 Yielding ***(b) 2.57 1.23 28 4.42 1.53 24 209 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by White Female Raters Neutral Items Ratings :or Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Adaptable 5.23 1.15 31 5.56 1.04 25 Conceited 1.65 1.14 31 1.50 0.81 26 Conscientious 4.94 1.48 31 5.54 0.81 26 Conventional 3.68 1.30 31 4.28 1.49 25 Friendly ** 5.63 1.03 30 6.35 0.56 26 Happy * 5.53 1.11 30 6.12 0.86 26 Helpful ** 5.20 1.10 30 5.92 0.80 26 Inefficient 1.07 0.25 30 1.38 0.77 24 Jealous 2.40 1.22 30 1.96 1.18 26 Likable * 5.50 1.01 30 6.15 0.73 26 Moody 1.62 0.78 29 2.12 1.40 26 Reliable 5.79 1.01 29 5.64 1.15 25 Secretive 2.38 1.15 29 2.40 1.19 25 Sincere 5.03 0.98 29 5.24 1.27 25 Solemn 2.84 1.25 25 2.58 1.21 24 Tactful 4.66 1.54 29 5.13 1.29 23 Theatrical * 2.45 1.09 29 3.17 1.15 23 Truthful 5.69 1.20 29 5.67 1.17 24 Unpredictable 3.00 1.41 29 2.96 1.33 23 Unsystematic 2.36 1.10 28 2.83 1.23 23 * p < .05, 2-tailed; ** p < .01, 2-tailed; *** p < .001, 2-tailed. (a) Items that were rated as significantly more desirable for a man than a woman by both male and female white judges, (b) Items that were rated as significantly more desirable for a woman than a man by both male and female white judges. 210 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Asian Female Raters Masculine Items Ratings For Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Acts as a leader***(a) 6.05 0.83 20 3.62 1.53 21 Aggressive *(a) 4.20 1.77 20 3.00 1.58 21 Ambitious *** 6.05 1.23 20 4.00 1.58 21 Analytical ** 4.45 1.54 20 3.24 1.41 21 Assertive ** 5.20 1.67 20 3.76 1.64 21 Athletic *(a) 5.75 1.45 20 4.62 1.72 21 Competitiv€*(a) 4.80 1.36 20 3.86 1.49 21 Defends own beliefs 5.50 1.28 20 4.95 1.60 21 Dominant **(a) 4.15 1.60 20 2.76 1.84 21 Forceful 3.55 1.64 20 2.95 1.43 21 Has leadership 5.85 1.31 20 4.48 1.36 21 abilities **(a) Independent ** 5.95 1.10 20 4.86 1.39 21 Individualistic ** 5.80 1.15 20 4.62 1.32 21 Makes decisions easily 5.15 1.60 20 4.76 1.51 21 Masculine ***(a) 6.55 0.83 20 2.24 1.26 21 Self-reliant 5.15 1.35 20 4.50 1.50 20 Self-sufficient ** 5.85 0.88 20 4.81 1.47 21 Strong-personality * 5.40 1.23 20 4.43 1.47 21 Willing to take a stand 5.50 1.28 20 4.90 1.22 21 Willing to take 5.60 0.99 20.00 4.62 1.16 21.00 risks**(a) 211 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Asian Female Raters Feminine Items Ratings for Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Affectionate 5.30 1.72 20 5.86 1.35 21 Cheerful **(b) 5.05 1.47 20 6.14 0.91 21 Childlike 2.30 1.49 20 2.90 1.51 21 Compassionate 5.45 1.70 20 6.29 0.90 21 Does not use harsh 4.25 1.62 20 5.38 1.36 21 language * 21 Eager to soothe hurt 4.50 1.54 20 5.05 1.83 feelings Feminine ***(b) 1.40 1.19 20 5.90 1.26 21 Flatterable *** 3.50 1.10 20 4.95 1.43 21 Gentle ** 4.18 1.59 17 5.38 1.02 21 Gullible *** 1.53 1.07 19 3.33 1.96 21 Loves children ** 4.95 1.39 20 6.05 0.74 21 Loyal 5.85 1.35 20 6.00 1.14 21 Sensitive to the needs 5.40 1.57 20 6.10 0.89 21 of others Shy 2.60 1.47 20 3.00 1.22 21 Soft-spoken ** 3.00 1.97 20 4.65 1.50 20 Sympathetic **(b) 4.75 1.62 20 5.90 1.00 21 Tender *(b) 4.75 1.62 20 5.76 1.04 21 Understanding 5.70 1.17 20 5.81 0.98 21 Warm *(b) 5.45 1.28 20 6.14 0.73 21 Yielding 3.37 1.38 19 3.65 1.60 20 212 Ratings on the 60 BSRI Items by Asian Female Raters Neutral Items Ratings or Men Number of Ratings for Women Number of X SD Cases X SD Cases Adaptable 5.21 1.18 19 5.62 0.97 21 Conceited 1.79 1.03 19 1.65 1.09 20 Conscientious * 4.45 1.19 20 5.24 1.30 21 Conventional 3.63 1.21 19 3.95 1.15 20 Friendly 5.85 1.04 20 6.33 0.73 21 Happy 5.55 1.36 20 5.90 0.94 21 Helpful 5.35 0.75 20 5.76 1.00 21 Inefficient 1.40 1.14 20 1.45 0.76 20 Jealous 2.00 1.12 20 2.00 1.41 21 Likable 5.95 1.05 20 5.95 0.97 21 Moody 2.35 1.63 20 2.14 1.20 21 Reliable 5.95 1.23 20 5.76 1.04 21 Secretive 2.40 1.57 20 2.81 1.29 21 Sincere 5.45 1.32 20 5.52 1.25 21 Solemn 3.61 1.54 18 3.05 1.15 20 Tactful 5.05 1.18 19 4.81 1.40 21 Theatrical 2.80 1.06 20 3.10 1.45 21 Truthful 5.95 1.43 20 5.90 1.14 21 Unpredictable 3.55 1.39 20 3.71 1.49 21 Unsystematic 3.30 1.78 20 2.79 1.51 19 * p < .05, 2-tailed; ** p < .01, 2-tailed: ***p < .001, 2-tailed. (a) Items that were rated as significantly more desirable for a man than a woman by both male and female Asian judges; (b) Items that were rated as significantly more desirable for a woman than a man by both male and female Asian judges. 

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