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Experience of significant change for psychodrama audience members Buell, Shelley Gail 1995

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EXPERIENCE OF SIGNIFICANT CHANGE FOR PSYCHODRAMA AUDIENCE MEMBERS by SHELLEY GAIL (AZIMA) BUELL B.A., Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1991 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t^he ^ e ^ j u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1995 ©Shelley G a i l (Azima) B u e l l , ] 995 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date L pfcjL. 1 M . [<? 0. <T DE-6 (2/88) 1 1 ABSTRACT Psychodrama i s an a c t i o n f o c u s e d group t h e r a p y t h a t works w i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t t h r o u g h e n a c t i n g t h e problem. Based on t h e t h e o r y o f J.L. Moreno, t h i s t h e r a p y i s co m p r i s e d o f an e x t e n s i v e r e p e r t o i r e o f t h e r a p e u t i c t e c h n i q u e s . Audience members p l a y a c r u c i a l r o l e i n t h e i n t e g r a t i o n phase f o l l o w i n g an enactment and Moreno b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r a p e u t i c b e n e f i t s o c c u r r e d f o r b o t h p r o t a g o n i s t s and au d i e n c e members. A l t h o u g h t h e a u d i e n c e i s one o f Moreno's f i v e i n s t r u m e n t s , a l m o s t no r e s e a r c h has f o c u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e e x p e r i e n c e of a u d i e n c e members. T h i s s t u d y e x p l o r e d t h e e x p e r i e n c e of s i g n i f i c a n t change f o r s i x psychodrama au d i e n c e members. T r a n s c r i p t s of i n t e r v i e w s were a n a l y z e d employing G i o r g i ' s (1985) e x i s t e n t i a l - p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l method r e s u l t i n g i n t h e emergence o f f i v e themes r e g a r d i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e of change, t h r e e themes r e g a r d i n g t h e way i n which a u d i e n c e members made meaning of t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , and one theme each r e g a r d i n g e v i d e n c e o f change i n d a i l y l i f e , p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e way i n which t h e e x p e r i e n c e e v o l v e s a c r o s s s e v e r a l workshops, and t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g change. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e was i n t e n s e , c a t h a r t i c , and a s o u r c e o f s i g n i f i c a n t change and p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g . I m p l i c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g a u d i e n c e s i n g e n e r a l and psychodrama a u d i e n c e s s p e c i f i c a l l y a r e d i s c u s s e d , and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e p r o v i d e d . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s i i i Acknowledgements v Chaper 1: INTRODUCTION Con t e x t 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Psychodrama 4 Overview 4 Psychodrama R o l e s 7 Phases o f Psychodrama . 9 T h e r a p e u t i c Techniques 10 Background t o t h e Research Problem 13 Resea r c h Q u e s t i o n 15 Approach t o t h e Q u e s t i o n 16 Summary 16 Chapter 2: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE I n t r o d u c t i o n 17 Audience Members 17 Greenberg's Study 17 H o f r i c h t e r ' s Study 19 W i d l o c h e r and T e l l i e r ' s Study . 21 Baum's Study 21 Summary o f Audience Member Res e a r c h 23 T h e r a p e u t i c B e n e f i t s 24 C a t h a r s i s 31 Outcome Res e a r c h 42 Chapter 3: METHODOLOGY I n t r o d u c t i o n 48 Research Q u e s t i o n and Methodology 48 C o - r e s e a r c h e r s 53 S e l e c t i o n o f P a r t i c i p a n t s 54 R e c r u i t m e n t o f P a r t i c i p a n t s 54 Demographic I n f o r m a t i o n 55 Pro c e d u r e 57 Data A n a l y s i s 59 P e r s o n a l B i a s e s 60 L i m i t a t i o n s Of The Study 64 R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y 67 Chapter 4: RESULTS I n t r o d u c t i o n 70 Themes 72 E x h a u s t i v e D e s c r i p t i o n s 73 Sense of B e i n g F u l l y P r e s e n t 73 S h i f t from T h i n k i n g t o F e e l i n g 73 E x p e r i e n c e o f H i g h l y I n t e n s e , A l l - E n c o m p a s s i n g F e e l i n g s 77 Sense o f V u l n e r a b i l i t y and Embarrassment . . 80 S h i f t out o f I n t e n s e P e r s o n a l E x p e r i e n c e . . 83 i v Making Meaning of t h e E x p e r i e n c e 84 P e r c e i v e d Need t o I n t e g r a t e E x p e r i e n c e . . . 84 Sense o f Emerging P e r s o n a l Themes f o r F u t u r e Work 85 E x p e r i e n c e of Fundamental Change 87 E v i d e n c e of Change i n D a i l y L i f e 91 Awareness o f Changed S t y l e o f I n t e r a c t i o n . . 91 Psychodrama P r o g r e s s i o n 94 Sense o f E v o l u t i o n of Psychodrama E x p e r i e n c e s 94 A d d i t i o n a l C o n t r i b u t i n g F a c t o r s 98 Assessment o f Other F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g Change 98 E s s e n t i a l S t r u c t u r e 101 Chapter 5: DISCUSSION D i s c u s s i o n o f Major F i n d i n g s 107 Nature o f Audience Member C a t h a r t i c E x p e r i e n c e s 1 0 7 Other T h e r a p e u t i c B e n e f i t s 112 P e r c e i v e d Need t o I n t e g r a t e t h e E x p e r i e n c e . 112 Gender R e l a t e d I s s u e s 114 P r e v i o u s R e s e a r c h 115 I m p l i c a t i o n s 115 F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 119 Summary 121 R e f e r e n c e s 123 Appendix A 129 Appendix B 130 Appendix C 131 Appendix D 133 V Acknowledgements I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my h e a r t f e l t t h a n k s t o t h o s e who have h e l p e d make t h e c o m p l e t i o n of t h i s p r o j e c t p o s s i b l e . I f t h e r e i s a God, she would be t h e f i r s t one t o thank because i n many ways i t f e e l s l i k e a m i r a c l e t h a t t h i s has a l l come t o g e t h e r . A c t u a l l y , t h e E t e r n a l F o u n t a i n was always a s o u r c e o f r e p l e n i s h m e n t - when I remembered t o b r i n g my cup. I would a l s o l i k e t o thank my committee members f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t and g u i d a n c e . Frank E c h o l s p r o v i d e d much needed h a n d - h o l d i n g a t a few c r i t i c a l moments and was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s t h a t h e l p e d me b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d q u a l i t a t i v e methodology. P a t V e r r i o u r p r o v i d e d e n t h u s i a s m , s u p p o r t and g r e a t r e f e r e n c e s . Marv Westwood p r o v i d i n g o n - g o i n g s u p p o r t , f l e x i b i l i t y and encouragement. Thank you f o r your g u i d a n c e , your s k i l l f u l m i d w i f e r r y and y o u r psychodrama e x p e r t i s e . You i n i t i a t e d my p a s s i o n f o r t h i s dynamic form o f t h e r a p y . My f r i e n d s and f a m i l y have been i n c r e d i b l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g , p a r t i c u l a r y a t t i m e s when I went down my p a t h k i c k i n g and s c r e a m i n g . My o f f i c e mates p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e s u p p o r t , l a u g h space, c r y i n g t o w e l s , an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s i d e a s and an o c c a s i o n a l s o j o u r n t o t h e t r o p i c s . Thank you M a j i d f o r your l i b r a r y and f o r m a t t i n g h e l p and t h e t i m e s I came home t o a c l e a n house and a hot meal. And thank you Naomi f o r l e t t i n g me do "mommy s t u f f " i n between v i t h e " u n i v e r s i t y s t u f f " . Your s m i l i n g p i c t u r e was a c o n s t a n t i n s p i r a t i o n . I a l s o a p p r e c i a t e t h e l i t t l e havens p r o v i d e d by my f r i e n d s - good f o o d , good wine and good company d u r i n g t h e e n d i n g ; t h e l o n g d a r k j o u r n e y o f t h e s o u l p a r t o f t h i s endeavour. I would a l s o l i k e t o thank Adam B l a t n e r f o r h i s m e n t o r i n g . A l o t o f v a l u a b l e p r o c e s s i n g came out o f t h e many e - m a i l p o s t i n g s you t o o k t h e t i m e t o send. I would be honored t o p l a y t e n n i s w i t h you any t i m e . I a p p r e c i a t e t h e i n p u t from you and o t h e r p s y c h o d r a m a t i s t s who have encouraged me t o c a r r y on w i t h f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g and g i v e n me a sense o f psychodrama community. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o thank t h e a u d i e n c e members who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y f o r t h e i r deep s h a r i n g i n such a p e r s o n a l way. I have been e n r i c h e d by my c o n t a c t w i t h each one. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o p r o v i d e background t o t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n b e i n g a d d r e s s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T h i s w i l l c o n s i s t o f an o v e r v i e w of psychodrama, i n c l u d i n g : c o n t e x t , t h e o r e t i c a l framework, phases of psychodrama, p s y c h o d r a m a t i c t e c h n i q u e s and r o l e s , and a d e f i n i t i o n o f terms. The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s s t u d y w i l l be g i v e n , t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d and t h e approach t o t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n w i l l be o u t l i n e d . C o n t e x t The immense i n f l u e n c e a group e x e r t s i n s h a p i n g i t s members i s b o t h c u l t u r a l l y and h i s t o r i c a l l y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . Many a n c i e n t r e l i g i o u s r i t u a l s , i n c l u d i n g e f f o r t s t o b r i n g f o r t h r a i n , good h a r v e s t s , good c r o p s , and f e r t i l i t y , o c c u r r e d i n a group c o n t e x t ( S i r o k a , 1978). L a t e r , r e l i g i o u s r i t u a l s such as t h e naming o f c h i l d r e n , r i g h t s o f passage, b u r i a l s and h o l i d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s were a l s o community e v e n t s . R a b b i s , p r i e s t s , imams, and s p i r i t u a l t e a c h e r s a r e r e s p e c t e d l e a d e r s o f c o n g r e g a t i o n s , and v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e c o n g r e g a t i o n shapes t h e t h i n k i n g o f i t s i n d i v i d u a l members. On a more s e c u l a r l e v e l , t h e i n t i m a t e i n t e r a c t i o n between s e l f i d e n t i t y and t h e group has been a s u b j e c t o f c o n t e m p l a t i o n f o r p h i l o s o p h e r s such as W i l l i a m James (1964), and C h a r l e s C o o l e y (1902). S o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s such as 2 B u r n s t e i n , F i e d l e r , P r u i t t , Z a j o n c , Zimbardo and S h e r i f (Baron & Byrne, 1987) have examined how a group i n f l u e n c e s t h e b e h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e s of an i n d i v i d u a l o r o t h e r groups. P e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r i s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y E r i c s o n and A d l e r , have examined t h e many f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s , i n v o l v e d i n t h e s h a p i n g o f p e r s o n a l i t y (Monte, 1987; R y c h l a k , 1981). The i n f l u e n c e o f a c t o r s upon t h e i r a u d i e n c e i s y e t a n o t h e r example of t h e way t h a t one group can sway o r i n s p i r e a n o t h e r . A r i s t o t l e r e c o g n i z e d t h e p o w e r f u l c a t h a r t i c e f f e c t o f drama and saw t h e r o l e o f t h e t h e a t r e as one o f h e a l i n g ( S i r o k a , 1978). S.H. B u t c h e r t r a n s l a t e s A r i s t o t l e as f o l l o w s : Tragedy, t h e n , i s an i m i t a t i o n of an a c t i o n t h a t i s s e r i o u s , complete, and of a c e r t a i n magnitude; i n language e m b e l l i s h e d w i t h each k i n d o f a r t i s t i c ornament, t h e s e v e r a l k i n d s b e i n g found i n s e p a r a t e p a r t s o f t h e p l a y ; i n t h e form o f a c t i o n , not o f n a r r a t i v e ; t h r o u g h p i t y and f e a r e f f e c t i n g t h e p r o p e r p u r g a t i o n of t h e s e emotions ( c i t e d i n Greenberg, 1968). The a u d i e n c e ' s p a r t i n drama c o n t i n u e s t o be an i m p o r t a n t t o p i c t o d a y . "The s t u d y o f t h e drama i s t h e s t u d y of how t h e s t a g e compels i t s a u d i e n c e t o be i n v o l v e d i n i t s a c t u a l p r o c e s s e s . The s p e c t a t o r i n t e r p r e t s and so c o n t r i b u t e s t o and f i n a l l y becomes t h e p l a y " ( S t y a n , 1975, p. 4 ) . Group p s y c h o t h e r a p y i s y e t a n o t h e r a r e n a where t h e b e n e f i c i a l i n f l u e n c e o f a group upon t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s i m p o r t a n t . B e g i n n i n g i n t h e e a r l y 1900's, p s y c h o t h e r a p y 3 began t o be p r a c t i s e d i n a group s e t t i n g . Some c o n t r o v e r s y about t h e f o u n d e r o f group p s y c h o t h e r a p y e x i s t s ; many a t t r i b u t e t h e b e g i n n i n g t o Joseph Hersey P r a t t , a B o s t o n i n t e r n i s t who worked w i t h groups of t u b e r c u l o s i s p a t i e n t s ( B l o c h & Crouch, 1985; M u l l a n & Rosenbaum, 1978). O t h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y p e o p l e w o r k i n g w i t h psychodrama, a t t r i b u t e t h e o r i g i n t o J.L. Moreno (Greenberg, 1968; Moreno, 1966). Gazda (1975) r e c o n c i l e s t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s by s t a t i n g t h a t "much of t h e d i s a g r e e m e n t over t h e h i s t o r i c a l development o f group p s y c h o t h e r a p y a p p a r e n t l y stems from v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n g i v e n t o group p s y c h o t h e r a p y " (p. 7 ) . R e g a r d l e s s of who t h e a c t u a l f o u n d e r was, t h e names a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t s e a r l y development i n c l u d e J.H. P r a t t , E.W. L a z e l l , L.C. Marsh, T. Burrow, A l f r e d A d l e r , and J.L. Moreno (Gazda, 1975; Moreno, 1966). I n 1932 Joseph L. Moreno c o i n e d t h e term group p s y c h o t h e r a p y and psychodrama was h i s p a r t i c u l a r method of p r a c t i c e . The l a t t e r two i s s u e s , i . e . "audience" and "group p s y c h o t h e r a p y " a r e two c r u c i a l components i n t h i s s t u d y . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e aim o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e x p e r i e n c e of s i g n i f i c a n t change f o r psychodrama a u d i e n c e members. " S i g n i f i c a n t change" denotes an i n t e r n a l s h i f t c o n s i d e r e d t o be i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e p e r s o n e x p e r i e n c i n g i t . The p e r s o n p e r c e i v i n g t h i s change was l e a v i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e i n some way d i f f e r e n t t h a n when t h e y came. T h i s c o u l d i n c l u d e a c o m b i n a t i o n of c o g n i t i v e s h i f t s o r d i f f e r e n t 4 p e r s p e c t i v e ; a f f e c t i v e s h i f t s o r r e - i n t e g r a t i o n o f f e e l i n g s w hich had been s u p p r e s s e d o r r e p r e s s e d ; o r a fundamental s h i f t i n s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n . How i s t h a t change e x p e r i e n c e d ? What l e a d s up t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e , i s t h e r e a t r i g g e r i n g e v e n t , and what happens a f t e r w a r d s ? I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Psychodrama Overview Psychodrama i s an a c t i o n m o d a l i t y i n group t h e r a p y t h a t i n v o l v e s t h e enactment of a p e r s o n ' s c o n f l i c t f o r t h e purpose of e m o t i o n a l problem s o l v i n g ( B l a t n e r & B l a t n e r , 1988b) Problem s o l v i n g i s f a c i l i t a t e d t h r o u g h i n c r e a s i n g awareness, s p o n t a n e i t y and c r e a t i v i t y . Moreno d e f i n e s s p o n t a n e i t y as t h e r e s p o n s e a p e r s o n makes t h a t c o n t a i n s "some degree of adequacy t o a new s i t u a t i o n o r a degree of n o v e l t y t o an o l d s i t u a t i o n " ( c i t e d i n Greenberg, 1974). B l a t n e r (1985) d e s c r i b e s t h e q u a l i t y o f r e sponse as "an openness of mind, a f r e s h n e s s of approach, a w i l l i n g n e s s t o t a k e i n i t i a t i v e , and an i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e e x t e r n a l r e a l i t i e s and t h e i n t e r n a l i n t u i t i o n s , emotions, and r a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s " . A l t h o u g h not an " a l l o r n o t h i n g " phenomenon, s p o n t a n e i t y can be f u r t h e r u n d e r s t o o d by e x p l o r i n g t h e d i a l e c t i c between s p o n t a n e i t y and r o b o p a t h y , i t s ' o p p o s i t e . "Behaviour t h a t i s a u t o m a t i c , h a b i t u a l , f i x a t e d , c o m p u l s i v e , r i g i d , s t e r e o t y p e d , o r p r a c t i c e d t o t h e p o i n t o f s t e r i l i t y i s t h e o p p o s i t e of s p o n t a n e i t y " ( B l a t n e r .& B l a t n e r , 1988a, p. 6 6 ) . 5 A t t i t u d e s of c u r i o s i t y , p l a y f u l n e s s , e x c i t e m e n t , and w i l l i n g n e s s t o t a k e a c t i o n h e l p s p o n t a n e i t y d e v e l o p and grow. B l a t n e r & B l a t n e r (1988a) propose t h a t Moreno would have reworked Freud's t h e r a p e u t i c g o a l of "where t h e r e i s i d , l e t t h e r e be ego" (where t h e r e a r e p o c k e t s o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , l e t t h e r e be c o n s c i o u s n e s s ) t o "where t h e r e i s a c o n s t r i c t i o n of s p o n t a n e i t y , l e t t h e r e be s p o n t a n e i t y " . F i n e (1978) conc u r s and s t a t e s t h a t "the p r i m a r y g o a l o f t h e r a p y i s t o r e c l a i m one's i n n a t e a b i l i t y t o meet each moment i n a f r e s h , o p t i m a l l y a d a p t i v e way - i n s h o r t , t o be spontaneous" (p. 429). I n c r e a s e d s p o n t a n e i t y and c r e a t i v i t y a r e n u r t u r e d i n an atmosphere of s h a r e d "encounter", an i n d i v i d u a l ' s e n c o u n t e r w i t h h i s o r her r e a l s e l f and t h e r e a l s e l v e s o f o t h e r s ( M a r t i n s , 1990). Encounter denotes an a u t h e n t i c q u a l i t y o f m e e t i n g , d e v o i d of our d a i l y mask o r p e r s o n a . T h i s i d e a i s s i m i l a r t o t h e "I-Thou" r e l a t i o n s h i p d e s c r i b e d by M a r t i n Buber, a contemporary o f Moreno's. Buber d e s c r i b e s t h e I -Thou r e l a t i o n s h i p as one i n which t h e " I " t r e a t s t h e "thou" as a s u b j e c t r a t h e r t h a n an o b j e c t . In o t h e r words, t h e I sees t h e o t h e r from t h e o t h e r ' s frame o r r e f e r e n c e : A m e e t i n g of two: eye t o eye, f a c e t o f a c e . And when you a r e near I w i l l t e a r y o u r eyes out and p l a c e them i n s t e a d o f mine, and you w i l l t e a r my eyes out and w i l l p l a c e them i n s t e a d of y o u r s , t h e n I w i l l l o o k a t you w i t h y o ur eyes and you w i l l l o o k a t me w i t h mine. (Moreno, 1964) 6 Moreno founded psychodrama i n 1921, a p e r i o d when Freud's psychodynamic approach was s t r o n g l y e n t r e n c h e d i n p s y c h i a t r y . Moreno b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e u n c o n s c i o u s can be b e t t e r a c c e s s e d t h r o u g h a c t i o n as opposed t o "the t a l k i n g c u r e " and t h a t t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l f i e l d , where d i f f i c u l t i e s most o f t e n a r i s e , can be b e t t e r e x p l o r e d i n a group c o n t e x t . By e n a c t i n g scenes from t h e p a s t , p r e s e n t o r f u t u r e which have been, a r e o r may be p r o b l e m a t i c , t h e p r o t a g o n i s t , ( p e r s o n p l a y i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e r o l e i n an enactment) has an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e d e f i n e , r e n e g o t i a t e , r e v i s e and a c t i v e l y m a n i p u l a t e t h e i r r o l e ( s ) ( B l a t n e r , 1991). R o l e d i s t a n c e , o r th e a b i l i t y t o s e p a r a t e from one's r o l e , f a c i l i t a t e s t h i s p r o c e s s and i s d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h p s y c h o d r a m a t i c t e c h n i q u e s such as r o l e r e v e r s a l , where t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s t e p s out o f t h e i r o r d i n a r y r o l e i n t o t h e p a r t o f t h e o t h e r p e r s o n . R o l e r e v e r s a l e n a b l e s t h e p r o t a g o n i s t t o e x p e r i e n c e a new p e r s p e c t i v e and i t i s from t h e vantage o f t h i s new p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t r e d e f i n i t i o n , r e n e g o t i a t i o n and r e v i s i o n o c c u r . The n o t i o n o f r o l e i s an i m p o r t a n t p s y c h o d r a m a t i c c o n c e p t . Moreno saw t h e s e l f as emerging from r o l e s . "Role p l a y i n g i s p r i o r t o t h e emergence o f t h e s e l f . R o l e s do not emerge from t h e s e l f , b ut t h e s e l f may emerge from r o l e s " (Moreno, 1964, p. 157). G i v e n t h i s v i e w o f t h e " s e l f " , i t would make sense t h a t t h e r a p e u t i c change can b e s t be 7 f a c i l i t a t e d t h r o u g h e n a c t i n g r o l e s and i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h o t h e r s , a f f o r d i n g new p e r s p e c t i v e s and new s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n s . In t h e psychodrama p r o c e s s , e n a c t e d scenes a r e made as r e a l as p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h t h e use o f props and b r i e f i n g t h e " a c t o r s " about t h e r o l e s t h e y a r e p l a y i n g , i n c l u d i n g p h y s i c a l and v e r b a l mannerisms. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e l a r g e l y c o g n i t i v e changes t h a t can o c c u r t h r o u g h r o l e d i s t a n c e , an e m o t i o n a l r e l e a s e o r c a t h a r s i s may a l s o o c c u r ( B l a t n e r 1991, K e l l e r m a n n , 1984). I n as much as t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a p a r t i c u l a r enactment a r e p e r s o n a l l y r e l e v a n t t o o t h e r group members, c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e s and t h e r e w o r k i n g o f r o l e o f t e n e x t e n d t o them as w e l l ( B l a t n e r , 1985; Greenberg, 1968, Moreno, 1964). Audience members i n Baum's s t u d y (1994) s a i d "There a r e i n s i g h t s g a t h e r e d from t h e e x p e r i e n c e and t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y o f themes w i t n e s s e d i n t h e psychodrama" (p. 4 4 ) . Psychodrama R o l e s To b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r o c e s s o f psychodrama, a r e v i e w o f key r o l e s i s r e q u i r e d . The v a r i o u s r o l e s i n psychodrama i n c l u d e : d i r e c t o r , protagonist, a u x i l i a r y , double, and audience member. B r i e f l y , t h e d i r e c t o r , a t r a i n e d t h e r a p i s t , o r c h e s t r a t e s t h e enactment. The d i r e c t o r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n of t h e psychodrama i n c l u d i n g t h e f a c i l i t a t i o n o f t h e p r o t a g n i s t ' s e x p r e s s i o n o f c o n f u s e d o r i n h i b i t e d i m p u l s e s and f e e l i n g s ( D a v i e s , 1987). The protagonist o r " p a t i e n t " i n more c l i n i c a l s e t t i n g s , i s 8 th e p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r around whom an enactment r e v o l v e s . The protaganist i s o f t e n chosen t h r o u g h group s o c i o m e t r i c t e c h n i q u e s so t h a t t h e i s s u e t o be worked on i s one which i s i m p o r t a n t t o au d i e n c e members as w e l l (Casey, p e r s o n a l communication; T r e a d w e l l , p e r s o n a l communication) A u x i l i a r i e s a r e members o f t h e group who a r e asked t o t a k e on r o l e s r e l e v a n t t o t h e enactment, f o r example t h e mother, s i s t e r and u n c l e o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t . A u x i l i a r i e s a r e c a r e f u l l y p ut i n t o r o l e by t h e d i r e c t o r g u i d i n g t h e p r o t a g o n i s t t o show t h e a u x i l i a r y how t h e p e r s o n t h e y a r e e n a c t i n g would move, speak and behave. The d i r e c t o r i s m i n d f u l about not i m p o s i n g t h e i r own o r t h e a u x i l i a r y ' s p r o j e c t i o n s onto t h e s c e n a r i o , e n s u r i n g as much as p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e a u x i l i a r y r o l e i s t r u e t o l i f e f o r t h e p r o t a g a n i s t . A u x i l i a r y egos i n c l a s s i c a l psychodrama a r e o f t e n t r a i n e d t h e r a p e u t i c a i d e s ( D a v i e s , 1987). Doubles a r e members o f t h e group who t a k e t h e i r p l a c e a l o n g s i d e t h e p r o t a g a n i s t e x p r e s s i n g t h o u g h t s o r f e e l i n g s w hich t h e y p e r c e i v e as b e i n g p r e s e n t b u t une x p r e s s e d by t h e p r o t a g a n i s t . These a u x i l i a r i e s " e s t a b l i s h i d e n t i t y w i t h t h e p a t i e n t " and move, a c t and behave l i k e them. The p r o t a g a n i s t and t h e i r d o u b l e ( s ) a r e g e n e r a l l y t o g e t h e r d u r i n g t h e a c t i o n p a r t o f t h e enactment. F i n a l l y , audience members a r e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t h e group who a r e not p l a y i n g an a c t i v e r o l e d u r i n g t h e enactment phase. A l t h o u g h t h e y a r e o f t e n i n w a r d l y v e r y 9 a c t i v e , t h e i r e x t e r n a l i n v o l v e m e n t o c c u r s m a i n l y d u r i n g t h e i n t e g r a t i o n , o r l a t t e r phase when t h e y share t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s which a r e r e l e v a n t t o t h e p r o t a g o n i s t . Greenberg (1974) d e s c r i b e s t h e r o l e t h a t a u d i e n c e members p l a y : When t h e s t a g e a c t i o n i s c o n c l u d e d , t h e a u d i e n c e members a r e i n a p o s i t i o n t o h e l p t h e p r o t a g o n i s t g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o h i s problem, not by a n a l y z i n g t h e p r o t a g o n i s t i n th e manner o f t h e s t e r e o t y p e d p s y c h o l o g i s t d i a g n o s i n g a case but by s h a r i n g i n c i d e n t s from t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t may i n p a r t resemble t h o s e o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t . By d o i n g t h i s t h e y a r e a i d i n g t h e p r o t a g o n i s t i n a n o t h e r way, t h r o u g h p r o v i d i n g him w i t h t h e s u p p o r t o f knowing t h a t he i s not a l o n e w i t h h i s problems, t h a t o t h e r s have l i k e p roblems, and because of t h i s m u t u a l i t y a r e a b l e t o empathize w i t h him and u n d e r s t a n d h i s s i t u a t i o n . Phases o f Psychodrama The p r o c e s s of psychodrama b e g i n s w i t h a warm up, proceeds w i t h an enactment and ends w i t h a sharing, or integration p e r i o d . The purpose o f t h e warm up phase i s t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y p r e p a r e psychodrama p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r t h e t h e r a p e u t i c work which w i l l t a k e p l a c e . V a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s a r e used t o "develop a sense of s a f e t y , a w o r k i n g a l l i a n c e , and some i n c r e a s i n g i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e i s s u e s a t hand" ( B l a t n e r , A. & B l a t n e r , A., 1988a). The group warm-up c u l m i n a t e s i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r s c e n a r i o w hich w i l l be en a c t e d and t h e s e t t i n g o f t h e scene f o r t h e enactment. S e t t i n g t h e scene means b r i n g i n g t h e p r o t a g o n i s t ' s i s s u e i n t o t h e p r e s e n t moment and i d e n t i f y i n g t h e t i m e , p l a c e and p e o p l e . P a r t o f i d e n t i f y i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n v o l v e s p u t t i n g them i n t o r o l e by showing them 10 how t o behave. Greenberg d e s c r i b e s t h e p s y c h o d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n as one where t h e " n a t u r a l b a r r i e r s o f t i m e , space, and s t a t e s o f e x i s t e n c e a r e o b l i t e r a t e d so t h a t e v e r y t h i n g on t h e p s y c h o d r a m a t i c s t a g e o c c u r s i n t h e p r e s e n t , o r i n s i t u , i n t h e here and now" (Greenberg, 1974, p. 17) The middle phase, o r enactment i n v o l v e s a s e r i e s of t e c h n i q u e s ( r e f e r t o t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n ) and g e n e r a l l y c u l m i n a t e s i n v a r i o u s forms of c a t h a r s i s , o r " e m o t i o n a l , c o g n i t i v e and a c t i o n a l r e l e a s e s " ( K e l l e r m a n n , 1984). The f i n a l sharing phase, i s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e group as a whole t o i n t e g r a t e t h e e x p e r i e n c e i n a m e a n i n g f u l way t h r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n . A l l t h r e e phases a r e c r u c i a l t o t h e p s y c h o d r a m a t i c p r o c e s s . The depth o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e i s enhanced t h r o u g h a p p r o p r i a t e warm-up o r p r e p a r a t i o n and t h e t h e r a p e u t i c v a l u e of t h e e x p e r i e n c e i s enhanced t h r o u g h i t s s y n t h e s i s and i n t e g r a t i o n . " D i r e c t o r s who s t r i v e f o r b o t h r e l e a s e and i n t e g r a t i o n w i l l be more e f f e c t i v e t h a n t h o s e who emphasize r e l e a s e a l o n e " ( K e l l e r m a n n 1984, p. 9) T h e r a p e u t i c Techniques Moreno and Moreno (1969, p. 239) enumerate psychodrama t e c h n i q u e s which may be i n t r o d u c e d by t h e d i r e c t o r t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e p r o c e s s as f o l l o w s : 1. Soliloquy - monologue of t h e p r o t a g o n i s t o f t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s r e l a t e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r e v e nt. 11 2. Therapeutic Soliloquy - s o l i l o q u y t h a t t a k e s p l a c e i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h an enactment i n whi c h t h e p r i v a t e t h o u g h t s of t h e p r o t a g o n i s t a r e e x p r e s s e d t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e o v e r t a c t i o n o f t h e enactment 3. Self-Presentation - p r o t a g o n i s t a c t s out t h e r o l e of o t h e r s as he/she p e r c e i v e d them. T h i s c o u l d i n c l u d e t h e p r o t a g o n i s t p l a y i n g t h e p a r t o f t h e i r mother, f a t h e r , s i s t e r , o r b r o t h e r . 4. S e l f - R e a l i z a t i o n - w i t h t h e a i d o f a u x i l i a r i e s , t h e p r o t a g o n i s t e n a c t s h i s / h e r l i f e p l a n s . These l i f e p l a n s may be q u i t e u n r e a l i s t i c , as i s t h e case w i t h p s y c h o t i c s . T h i s t e c h n i q u e can "make i t p o s s i b l e f o r ( t h e p r o t a g o n i s t ) t o b r i n g h i s / h e r p s y c h o d r a m a t i c pregnancy t o f u l f i l m e n t and, once t h e p s y c h o t i c baby has been completed, t o be d e l i v e r e d o f i t " ( p . 8 8 ) . 4. Hallucinatory psychodrama - p r o t a g o n i s t s ( u s u a l l y p s y c h o t i c ) a c t out t h e i r d e l u s i o n s and h a l l u c i n a t i o n s . I n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , n o n - p s y c h o t i c p r o t a g o n i s t s sometime a c t out t h e i r dreams. ( M a r t i n s , 1991). 5. Double - an a u x i l i a r y ego p o r t r a y s an a s p e c t / i d e a / f e e l i n g o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t t h a t t h e y p e r c e i v e t o be u n e x p r e s s e d . 6. Multiple Double - s e v e r a l a u x i l i a r y egos p o r t r a y a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s . T h i s can i n c l u d e a u x i l i a r i e s p o r t r a y i n g d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t i n t h e c u r r e n t enactment o r p o r t r a y a l o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t i n 12 d i f f e r e n t t i m e p e r i o d s , eg. p r o t a g o n i s t as a c h i l d , t e e n a g e r , a d u l t , and e l d e r . I n work w i t h p s y c h o t i c p a t i e n t s , m u l t i p l e d o u b l e a u x i l i a r i e s have a c t e d as v a r i o u s body p a r t s o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t . 7. Mirror - when t h e p r o t a g o n i s t i s un a b l e t o r e p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s , o r wis h e s t o see thems e l v e s t h r o u g h t h e eyes o f a n o t h e r s , an a u x i l i a r y ego s t e p s i n and t a k e s t h e i r p l a c e . T h i s can o c c u r because t h e p r o t a g o n i s t i s overcome w i t h emotion, o r w i t h more c l i n i c a l c a s es when t h e p a t i e n t i s c a t a t o n i c o r has j u s t f i n i s h e d a p s y c h o t i c e p i s o d e o r shock t h e r a p y . I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n t h e m i r r o r i s " s i t t i n g i n f o r " r a t h e r t h a n " s i t t i n g a l o n g s i d e " t h e p r o t a g a n i s t . 8. Role Reversal - t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s w i t c h e s r o l e s w i t h one of t h e p e o p l e w i t h whom t h e y a r e i n t e r a c t i n g . 9. Future Projection - p r o t a g o n i s t p o r t r a y s i n a c t i o n how s/he t h i n k s h i s / h e r f u t u r e w i l l shape i t s e l f . 10. Dream Presentation and Re-training of the Dream -p r o t a g o n i s t s e n a c t s a dream and/or makes any changes so t h a t t h e dream t u r n s out as he/she would have l i k e d . A d j u n c t i v e methods a r e a l s o n o t ed (Moreno & Moreno, 1969): 11. Hypnodrama - t h e merging o f hypnotherapy w i t h psychodrama where t h e p r o t a g o n i s t does an enactment w h i l e h y p n o t i z e d . 13 12. Didactic Psychodrama and Role Playing - as a l e a r n i n g t o o l d u r i n g s u p e r v i s i o n , s t u d e n t s p o r t r a y t h e i r c l i e n t s / p a t i e n t s so t h e cases may be d i s c u s s e d . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e r a p e u t i c b e n e f i t s , a more complete l i s t of d e f i n i t i o n s may be found i n Appendix D. Background t o t h e Res e a r c h Problem P s y c h o d r a m a t i c t h e o r y i s c l e a r i n i t s a s s e r t i o n t h a t a u d i e n c e members: a) a r e an i m p o r t a n t component o f psychodrama; and b) r e c e i v e t h e r a p e u t i c b e n e f i t s from t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e form o f c a t h a r s i s and i n s i g h t (Greenberg, 1974). A l t h o u g h b o t h p e r s o n a l and/or p r o f e s s i o n a l i n s i g h t may o c c u r from w a t c h i n g a l l enactments, c a t h a r s i s i s engendered t h r o u g h enactments where g r e a t e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o c c u r s . Through i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , u n r e s o l v e d f e e l i n g s which may engender a c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e can be t r i g g e r e d and p r o v i d e t h e r a p e u t i c b e n e f i t s t o a u d i e n c e members. In t h i s way, a u d i e n c e members can a t v a r i o u s t i m e s be seen as " p a t i e n t s " r e c e i v i n g t h e r a p e u t i c b e n e f i t s , o r "audience members" p r o v i d i n g s u p p o r t and i n s i g h t t o p r o t a g a n i s t s d u r i n g t h e s h a r i n g phase o f t h e enactment. There appears t o be an i m p l i e d o r i m p l i c i t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n t h e emphasis p l a c e d upon a u d i e n c e c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e i n comparison w i t h t h a t o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t . Moreno (1964) i s i n c o n s i s t e n t i n h i s r e f e r e n c e t o c a t h a r s i s f o r a u d i e n c e members. F o r example, he notes 14 t h a t t h e a u d i e n c e can be h e l p e d i n psychodrama: "The F i f t h i n s t r u m e n t i s t h e a u d i e n c e . The au d i e n c e i t s e l f has a doubl e purpose. I t may s e r v e t o h e l p t h e p a t i e n t , o r , b e i n g i t s e l f h e l p e d by t h e s u b j e c t on t h e s t a g e , t h e a u d i e n c e becomes t h e p a t i e n t " ( c i t e d i n P i t z e l e , 1980) and y e t he a l s o notes t h a t " C a t h a r s i s moved from t h e s p e c t a t o r t o t h e a c t o r . " (Moreno, 1964 p. 15). Moreno has perhaps been i n c o n s i s t e n t i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f c a t h a r s i s as i t r e l a t e s t o a u d i e n c e members because t h e permeable b o u n d a r i e s between a u d i e n c e members and t h e a c t i o n i s one o f t h e d e f i n i n g f e a t u r e s of psychodrama. Yet a l a c k o f c l a r i t y w i t h r e g a r d t o a u d i e n c e member e x p e r i e n c e o f c a t h a r s i s can be seen t h r o u g h o u t t h e l i t e r a t u r e . D e s c r i p t i o n s o f c a t h a r s i s f a l l a l o n g a continuum from b e i n g d e s c r i b e d o n l y i n terms o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t ( B l o m k v i s t and R u t z e l , 1994; K e l l e r m a n n , 1984) t o b e i n g c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as l e s s i n t e n s e o r secondary f o r au d i e n c e s i n comparison w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t ( H o f r i c h t e r , 1973; S h a f f e r and G a l i n s k y , 1984) t o b e i n g d e s c r i b e d i n p r o c e s s terms w i t h o u t d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between t h e v a r i o u s psychodrama r o l e s ( B l a t n e r & B l a t n e r , 1988a, B l a t n e r , 1985). I t i s t h i s l a c k o f c l a r i t y , o r am b i v a l e n c e about a u d i e n c e member e x p e r i e n c e o f c a t h a r s i s and change t h a t seems worthy o f c l a r i f i c a t i o n . F u r t h e r , c l a r i f i c a t i o n i s b e s t o b t a i n e d by l o o k i n g a t a u d i e n c e members a c t u a l 15 e x p e r i e n c e ; i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o g l e a n t h e depth and b r e a d t h of t h e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h o u t s h a r i n g i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h o s e who a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g i t . H e a r i n g t h a t a u d i e n c e members may have c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e s i s d i f f e r e n t from h e a r i n g words l i k e " I was overcome by my sadness; I f e l t my g r i e f t o t h e depths o f my b e i n g , I t r u l y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p c o u l d n ' t c o n t i n u e t h e way i t was". A l t h o u g h I r a Greenberg has examined a u d i e n c e a t t i t u d e change, H o f f r i c h t e r has e x p l o r e d a u d i e n c e e x p e r i e n c e o f community, and W i d l o c h e r and T e l l i e r have d e s c r i b e d t h e mutual e f f e c t s o f a u d i e n c e upon group and d i r e c t o r s ; no s t u d i e s have been done wh i c h f o c u s on t h e t o t a l i t y o f t h e l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e of au d i e n c e members; s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f s i g n i f i c a n t change. I t i s t h i s p a r t i c u l a r gap i n psychodrama r e s e a r c h t h a t t h i s s t u d y a d d r e s s e s . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n Audience members who p e r c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n t p e r s o n a l change which t h e y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n as an aud i e n c e member i n a psychodrama workshop were asked t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , "What i s the experience of s i g n i f i c a n t change for psychodrama audience members?" S i g n i f i c a n t change was d e f i n e d as a c l e a r l y f e l t i n t e r n a l s h i f t w hich was c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t t o t h e p e r s o n e x p e r i e n c i n g i t . I n o t h e r words, t h e y were l e a v i n g t h e workshop i n some way a d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n t h a n when t h e y came. 16 Approach t o t h e Q u e s t i o n Because t h i s s t u d y e x p l o r e d t h e l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e o f s i g n i f i c a n t change f o r psychodrama a u d i e n c e members, a q u a l i t a t i v e method o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n was chosen. S p e c i f i c a l l y , an e x i s t e n t i a l - p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l method ( C o l a i z z i , 1978; G i o r g i , 1985) was chosen because o f i t s emphasis on d r a w i n g out a r i c h d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e , i n c l u d i n g t h e p e r s o n a l meaning made by a u d i e n c e members. C o l a i z z i (1978) d e s c r i b e s t h i s method as one whi c h "seeks t o e x p l i c a t e t h e essence, s t r u c t u r e , o r form o f b o t h human e x p e r i e n c e and human b e h a v i o u r as r e v e a l e d t h r o u g h e s s e n t i a l l y d e s c r i p t i v e t e c h n i q u e s i n c l u d i n g d i s c i p l i n e d r e f l e c t i o n " Summary Psychodrama i s b o t h a t h e o r e t i c a l framework and t h e p r a c t i c e o f a dynamic form o f group t h e r a p y . O r i g i n a t e d i n 1921 by Jacob L. Moreno, M.D., t h i s t h e r a p e u t i c m o d a l i t y engenders c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e s f o r b o t h p r o t a g o n i s t s and aud i e n c e members. The e x p e r i e n c e of s i g n i f i c a n t change f o r au d i e n c e members i s a t o p i c w h i c h has not been p r e v i o u s l y i n v e s t i g a t e d and t h i s s t u d y , e m p l o y i n g an e x i s t e n t i a l -p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l methodology, has t a k e n a s t e p towards f i l l i n g t h i s gap. 17 CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE I n t r o d u c t i o n The c e n t r a l t a s k o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o r e v i e w t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t t o t h i s s t u d y . "Audience" and "change" a r e t h e two p r i m a r y r e l e v a n t c o n c e p t s . A l t h o u g h l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has f o c u s s e d upon t h e a u d i e n c e s p e c i f i c a l l y , an o v e r v i e w of r e l e v a n t s t u d i e s i s p r e s e n t e d . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by an o v e r v i e w of t h e t h e r a p e u t i c b e n e f i t s o f psychodrama w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c oncept of c a t h a r s i s . P r e v i o u s psychodrama outcome r e s e a r c h not s p e c i f i c t o a u d i e n c e members i s a l s o r e v i e w e d . P r e v i o u s Psychodrama Audience Member R e s e a r c h Greenberg's Study I r a Greenberg conducted a s t u d y i n 19 66 e x a m i n i n g a u d i e n c e member a t t i t u d e change f o l l o w i n g a psychodrama enactment. Greenberg employed a p r e - t e s t / p o s t - t e s t d e s i g n comparing a t t i t u d e change of a c o n t r o l group w i t h t h a t o f an e x p e r i m e n t a l group w i t n e s s i n g a psychodrama enactment. R e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y were i n c o n c l u s i v e i n s u p p o r t i n g t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t f o l l o w i n g an enactment f a v o u r a b l y p o r t r a y i n g t h e U.S. D r a f t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e V ietnam war, a u d i e n c e members would assume a more f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e t h a n t h e g e n e r a l l y o p p o s i t i o n a l s t a n c e t a k e n b e f o r e t h e enactment. 18 Greenberg (1966) p o s t u l a t e d t h a t a u d i e n c e members would e x p e r i e n c e h i g h l e v e l s o f a n x i e t y from w a t c h i n g an enactment c o n c e r n i n g a young g i r l c o n t e m p l a t i n g s u i c i d e a f t e r d i s c o v e r i n g t h a t she was p r e gnant and t h a t her l o v e r had l i e d t o her about h i s m a r i t a l s t a t u s and had no i n t e n t i o n o f c a r r y i n g t h r o u g h on a former promise of m a r r i a g e . He f u r t h e r p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h e a u d i e n c e would w i s h t o reduce t h e i r l e v e l o f a n x i e t y and t h a t t h i s would o c c u r t h r o u g h " c o g n i t i v e c o n s i s t e n c y " , o r a g r e e i n g w i t h a c r e d i b l e p r o t a g a n i s t s u p p o r t i n g a t t i t u d e s which r a n c o u n t e r t o t h o s e h e l d by t h e a u d i e n c e . A l t h o u g h t h i s s t u d y i s r e l a t e d t o a u d i e n c e members, i t i s o f l i t t l e v a l u e t o t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y f o r a number of r e a s o n s . F i r s t l y , t h e way i n which "audience" and " p r o t a g a n i s t " a r e chosen and i n v o l v e d i n a drama be a r s l i t t l e resemblance t o c l a s s i c a l psychodrama. The p r o t a g a n i s t and a u x i l i a r i e s had a p r e - s e t , p r a c t i c e d , p l o t t o e n a c t and t h e a u d i e n c e were a s s i g n e d t h e i r r o l e as a u d i e n c e members. T h i s , i n e f f e c t , was not a s t u d y about psychodrama. S e c o n d l y , t h e way t h a t c o n c e p t s such as a n x i e t y and c a t h a r s i s were o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . Greenberg assumed t h a t a n x i e t y and c a t h a r s i s would ensue g i v e n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e e n a c t e d drama and d i d not d e v i s e a means t o measure whether o r not t h i s had i n f a c t o c c u r r e d . F i n a l l y , t h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e s l i t t l e r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e 19 e x p e r i e n c e of change f o r a u d i e n c e members. In o t h e r words, a l t h o u g h t h i s i s one o f t h e few s t u d i e s which has s p e c i f i c a l l y f o c u s s e d upon psychodrama a u d i e n c e s , i t b e a r s l i t t l e r e l e v a n c e t o t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y . H o f r i c h t e r ' s Study I n 1973 D a v i d H o f r i c h t e r conducted a s t u d y e x p l o r i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f community d u r i n g t h e s h a r i n g phase of a psychodrama enactment w i t h h o s p i t a l i z e d p a t i e n t s a t Somerset S t a t e H o s p i t a l . F i v e a u d i e n c e members as w e l l as t h e p r o t a g o n i s t were i n t e r v i e w e d i n t h i s p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l s t u d y e x p l o r i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f community d u r i n g t h e s h a r i n g phase of psychodrama. The r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e t o t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y i n as much as t h e y a r e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e o f a u d i e n c e members. A b r i e f o u t l i n e o f t h e themes wh i c h emerged i n t h i s s t u d y f o l l o w s : Expanded Horizon and Phenomenal Population r e f e r s t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f h a v i n g one's p r i v a t e w o r l d opened up and e n t e r e d i n t o by a n o t h e r . H o f r i c h t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e sense of l i b e r a t i o n t h a t i s e x p e r i e n c e d as p e o p l e f i n d " c o - i n h a b i t o r s i n what had been i s o l a t i o n " (p. 9 6 ) . Unconditional Acceptance r e f e r s t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e by t h e p r o t a g o n i s t o f b e i n g "welcomed back home a f t e r b e i n g away" (p. 9 3 ) , and t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e a u d i e n c e member of " g o i n g out t o w a r d t h e w a n d e r i n g o t h e r " . The q u a l i t y o f t h i s w e l c o m i n g / r e t u r n i n g i s one o f non-judgemental and n o n - c r i t i c a l u n c o n d i t i o n a l 20 a c c e p t a n c e , where b o t h t h e shadow and l i g h t s i d e s o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t a r e embraced. T h i s p r o c e s s was d e s c r i b e d by H o f r i c h t e r as "a p e r i o d of t r a n s i t i o n o r m o d u l a t i o n back i n t o t h e group" (p. 9 3 ) . The t h i r d theme Oneness within I n d i v i d u a l i t y was e x p e r i e n c e d by 4/6 o f t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s and i n v o l v e d t h e "communal f e e l i n g of somehow a l l s h a r i n g t h e same t h i n g s even though we e x p e r i e n c e them i n d i f f e r e n t ways" (p. 9 4 ) . H o f r i c h t e r s u s p e c t s t h a t t h i s theme i s c o n t i n g e n t upon t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f u n c o n d i t i o n a l a c c e p t a n c e and e l a b o r a t e s upon t h e e x p e r i e n c e as a group e x p e r i e n c e o f s h a r e d humanity. The f i n a l theme E x i s t e n t i a l Giving was e x p e r i e n c e d by f o u r c o - r e s e a r c h e r s and r e f e r s t o a p e r c e p t i o n o f " g r e a t e r knowing and f e e l i n g f o r a n o t h e r i n a deeper way because t h e y have g i v e n o f t h e m s e l v e s " (p. 9 4 ) . F o l l o w i n g a l o n g w i t h t h e theme of r e d u c i n g shame t h r o u g h s h a r i n g , d e c r e a s i n g i s o l a t i o n t h r o u g h s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e , t h i s theme a l l u d e s t o a sense t h a t t h r o u g h r e c e i v i n g t h e p a i n o f a n o t h e r , one's own p a i n i s s h a r e d and l e s s e n e d . I n many ways, t h i s s t u d y appears t o be a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c a t h a r s i s of i n c l u s i o n and t h e s p i r i t u a l c a t h a r s i s w h i c h B l a t n e r (1985) d e s c r i b e d . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o comment upon t h e s t u d y ; as o u t l i n e d by Osborne (1994), g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t o o t h e r s o c c u r s t h r o u g h a p e r c e p t i o n o f whether t h e e x p e r i e n c e " f i t s " f o r t h e r e a d e r . 21 W i d l o c h e r e t a l T h i s 1966 s t u d y was w r i t t e n i n F r e n c h and c o n c e r n about t h e a c c u r a c y o f my u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e a r t i c l e p r e c l u d e s an i n - d e p t h d e s c r i p t i o n . T h i s s t u d y i s o n l y p a r t i a l l y r e l e v a n t i n as much as t h e au d i e n c e was more s e p a r a t e d from t h e group t h a n i s n o r m a l l y t h e case i n psychodrama and some o f t h e b e n e f i t s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n would t h e r e f o r e not a p p l y t o t h i s group. The "audience" was composed o f a number o f d o c t o r s and p s y c h o l o g i s t s who were l e a r n i n g about psychodrama and g e n e r a l l y d i d not t a k e an a c t i v e p a r t . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e s t u d y does r e p o r t t h e f a c t t h a t a group o f 10 p r o f e s s i o n a l s o b s e r v i n g t h e enactments o f t h e m o d e r a t e l y d i s t u r b e d group o f 10 - 18 y e a r o l d boys o v e r a t h r e e y e a r p e r i o d e x p e r i e n c e d s t r o n g f e e l i n g s a t t i m e s ; s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r o n g t o r e q u i r e p e r s o n a l p r o c e s s i n g by t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n v o l v e d . Baum's Study Susan Baum (1994) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e psychodrama e x p e r i e n c e f o r f o u r p r o t a g o n i s t s and two a u d i e n c e members o f a psychodrama workshop conducted a t U.B.C by t h e same d i r e c t o r s as t h o s e i n t h i s s t u d y . A l t h o u g h t h e a u d i e n c e e x p e r i e n c e d e s c r i b e d i n her s t u d y o n l y r e l a t e d t o two. p e o p l e , w i t h themes sometimes o n l y f i t t i n g one per s o n s e x p e r i e n c e , h er s t u d y i s n o n e t h e l e s s r e l e v a n t t o t h i s one. The f o c u s o f t h e s e two s t u d i e s i s s i m i l a r ; c o n s e q u e n t l y 22 convergence o r d i v e r g e n c e of themes w i l l be an i m p o r t a n t means of a s c r i b i n g v a l i d i t y t o b o t h s t u d i e s . A l t h o u g h t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y i s s i m i l a r t o Baum's, t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two a r e noteworthy. Baum d e s c r i b e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n t e x p e r i e n c e of a u d i e n c e members; however au d i e n c e e x p e r i e n c e i s p a r t i a l l y d e s c r i b e d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n not t o become a p r o t a g a n i s t . I n o t h e r words, a l t h o u g h Baum's s t u d y e x p l o r e s a u d i e n c e e x p e r i e n c e , t h e e x p e r i e n c e i s p a r t i a l l y viewed d i a l e c t i c a l l y w i t h "audience" as one p o l e and " p r o t a g a n i s t " as a n o t h e r . T h i s s t u d y w i l l e x t e n d Baum's s t u d y by l o o k i n g i n - d e p t h a t t h e a u d i e n c e change p r o c e s s i t s e l f . In o r d e r t o d i s c u s s t h e convergence and d i v e r g e n c e o f t h e s e two s t u d i e s , an enumeration o f t h e themes which emerged i n her s t u d y i s r e q u i r e d . These themes a r e as f o l l o w s : 1. There i s an i n t e l l e c t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what psychodrama i s . 2. P a r t i c i p a n t s have a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e d i r e c t o r b e f o r e t h e psychodrama. 3. There i s a need f o r t r u s t and s a f e t y i n t h e d i r e c t o r . 4. There i s a need t o f e e l t r u s t w i t h t h e group w h i c h i s not y e t e x p e r i e n c e d . 5. There i s a f o c u s on o b s e r v i n g t h e psychodramas t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d one's own i s s u e and d e v e l o p i t i n t o a psychodrama. 23 6. There i s a f o c u s on p l a n n i n g what one would do as a p r o t a g o n i s t . 7. There i s a b u i l d i n g o f e m o t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y and an a n x i e t y about t h a t . 8. There i s a f e e l i n g o f not b e i n g r e a d y t o be a p r o t a g a n i s t i f s a f e t y f a c t o r s a r e ensured. 9. There i s an i n t e r m i t t e n t awareness o f t h e group and o f th e psychodrama. 10. There i s a f e e l i n g o f e m o t i o n a l e x h a u s t i o n a t t h e end o f t h e psychodrama due t o t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e . 11. There a r e i n s i g h t s g a t h e r e d from t h e e x p e r i e n c e and t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y o f themes w i t n e s s e d i n t h e psychodrama. Summary o f Audience Member Research A l t h o u g h some r e s e a r c h has been conducted i n t o a u d i e n c e member e x p e r i e n c e , two of t h e f o u r s t u d i e s , Greenberg and T e l l i e r e t a l , a r e l e s s r e l e v a n t t o t h i s s t u d y i n as much as t h e p s y c h o d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n was q u i t e a r t i f i c i a l i n Greenberg's (1966) s t u d y , and somewhat a r t i f i c i a l i n T e l l i e r e t a l (1966). The a u d i e n c e s i n t h e s e s t u d i e s were p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y s e p a r a t e from t h e p s y c h o d r a m a t i c a c t i o n . I n o t h e r words, t h e u s u a l n a t u r a l i n t e r c h a n g e between a u d i e n c e and p r o t a g o n i s t w h i c h i s a h a l l m a r k o f psychodrama d i d not o c c u r i n t h e s e s t u d i e s . The r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s t h e r e f o r e a r e not e n t i r e l y r e l e v a n t t o psychodrama. What i s o f i n t e r e s t , i s t h e e m o t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y r e p o r t e d d e s p i t e t h e s e p a r a t i o n of a u d i e n c e and a c t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e g o a l f o r t h o s e 24 a u d i e n c e s was not t h e r a p e u t i c as i t i s f o r psychodrama a u d i e n c e s . Of t h e two q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d , one p r o v i d e d r i c h i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e t h e r a p e u t i c v a l u e f o r a u d i e n c e members i n t h e s h a r i n g phase o f t h e enactment and t h e o t h e r p r o v i d e d an i n t e r e s t i n g s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r ex a m i n i n g t h e change p r o c e s s f o r psychodrama a u d i e n c e s . T h i s s t u d y w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o psychodrama outcome r e s e a r c h by e x p l o r i n g t h e change p r o c e s s f o r a u d i e n c e members who e x p e r i e n c e a s i g n i f i c a n t p e r s o n a l change a t a psychodrama workshop. What a r e t h e t h e r a p e u t i c b e n e f i t s f o r psychodrama a u d i e n c e members? T h e r a p e u t i c B e n e f i t s T h e r a p e u t i c b e n e f i t s from psychodrama can be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n a number of d i f f e r e n t ways. From a psychodynamic p e r s p e c t i v e , B l a t n e r and B l a t n e r (1988a) enumerate ways i n w h i c h t h e ego i s s t r e n g t h e n e d : 1. R e a l i t y T e s t i n g - d u r i n g t h e i n t e g r a t i o n phase of an enactment, feedback w h i c h r e q u i r e s p r o t a g o n i s t s t o check out t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s i s p r o v i d e d . A l s o , "by a l l o w i n g f o r a f u l l e x p r e s s i o n o f f a n t a s y and dreams, t h e y a r e t h e r e b y h e l p e d t o become c o n s c i o u s l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d " (p. 95). 2. Judgement - i s e x e r c i s e d t h r o u g h p r a c t i s i n g p o t e n t i a l l y d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n s i n a s a f e environment. 25 3. Sense of R e a l i t y - enactments o c c u r i n t h e here and now and can c o u n t e r d e f e n s i v e mechanisms such as d e n i a l , d e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n and d e r e a l i z a t i o n . 4. R e g u l a t i o n and c o n t r o l o f d r i v e s , a f f e c t s and i m p u l s e -can be m o d i f i e d t o more mature forms p a r t i c u l a r l y f o l l o w i n g a c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e . 5. O b j e c t r e l a t i o n s - can be e x p l o r e d t h r o u g h enactments. I d e a l i z a t i o n o r d e v a l u a t i o n can a l s o be r e d u c e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h r o u g h t h e use of r o l e r e v e r s a l where a more complete p i c t u r e o f t h e " o t h e r " can emerge. 6. Thought p r o c e s s e s a r e e x e r c i s e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e i n t e g r a t i o n phase of an enactment. 7. A d a p t i v e r e g r e s s i o n i n t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e ego. 8. D e f e n s i v e f u n c t i o n i n g u s u a l l y i s a r e s u l t o f u n c o n s c i o u s c o n f l i c t . Through making t h e c o n f l i c t c o n s c i o u s a more mature r e p e r t o i r e o f b e h a v i o u r i s p o s s i b l e and d e f e n s i v e f u n c t i o n i n g can be reduced. 9. S t i m u l u s b a r r i e r s can be s t r e n g t h e n e d "through e x p l o r a t i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f d i s t a n c i n g , b u f f e r i n g and s o o t h i n g t e c h n i q u e s " (p. 98) P a r t i c i p a n t s can a l l o w m i l d l a p s e s o f a t t e n t i o n , i g n o r e c e r t a i n s t i m u l i and r e f rame m i s t a k e s t h a t were f o r m a l l y seen as c a t a s t r o p h i c . In o t h e r words, an element of c h o i c e and o b j e c t i v i t y can moderate e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i v i t y . 10. Autonomous f u n c t i o n s a r e i n c r e a s e d t h r o u g h w o r k i n g w i t h c r e a t i v i t y and s p o n t a n e i t y . 26 11. S y n t h e t i c - i n t e g r a t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g - a " c h o o s i n g s e l f " d e v e l o p s t h r o u g h r o l e d i s t a n c e . T h i s , i n t u r n , i n c r e a s e s t h e i n t e g r a t i v e c a p a c i t i e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . 12. Mastery-competence can be enhanced t h r o u g h r o l e p l a y and b e h a v i o r a l p r a c t i c e . The above noted b e n e f i t s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e f o r p r o t a g o n i s t s . However, i n as much as psychodrama i s a form of group t h e r a p y , t h e s e b e n e f i t s may be r e l e v a n t t o a l l members of t h e group; p r o t a g o n i s t s , a u x i l i a r i e s and a u d i e n c e members. The b e n e f i t s t o p r o t a g o n i s t s a r e much more v i s i b l e and c l e a r l y d e f i n a b l e ; p r o t a g o n i s t s a r e a c t i v e l y r e s t r u c t u r i n g t h e i r r e a l i t y and a r e t h e o v e r t f o c u s o f t h e s e s s i o n . Does t h e a u d i e n c e b e n e f i t t h e r a p e u t i c a l l y , and i f so, how? There a r e a number of ways a u d i e n c e members can b e n e f i t from psychodrama. Empathy o r t h e a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a n o t h e r i s an i m p o r t a n t concept i n C a r l Roger's c l i e n t - c e n t r e d approach t o t h e r a p y (Rogers, 1961). Perhaps b e n e f i t t o a u d i e n c e members o c c u r s because o f t h e i r a b i l i t y t o empathize; t h r o u g h f e e l i n g t h e f e e l i n g s o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t , a u d i e n c e members a r e a b l e t o rework t h e i r own f e e l i n g s . L i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o drama a u d i e n c e s c i t e empathy as a c r u c i a l p a r t of t h e r e c i p r o c i t y between au d i e n c e and a c t o r ( B e n n e t t , 1990; S t y a n , 1975). Empathy i s a l s o seen as an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n S t a n i s l a v s k i ' s work i n as much as a c t o r s a r e encouraged t o d e v e l o p empathy f o r t h e 27 c h a r a c t e r t h e y a r e p o r t r a y i n g by i n w a r d l y e x p e r i e n c i n g f e e l i n g s from t h e i r own p a s t which a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e t h e y a r e p o r t r a y i n g ( B e n n e t t , 1990; G i n n , 1974; J e n n i n g s , 1987) The i d e a o f empathy i s t a k e n a s t e p f u r t h e r by t r a n s p e r s o n a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s who v i e w t h e b o u n d a r i e s between p e o p l e as p a r t i a l l y a r t i f i c i a l ; human b e i n g s cannot h e l p b u t be d e e p l y a f f e c t e d by o t h e r s because on one l e v e l , we a r e a l l c o n n e c t e d . Rumi, a 13th c e n t u r y P e r s i a n S u f i m y s t i c w r o t e : "Happy t h e moment when we a r e s e a t e d i n t h e p a l a c e , thou and I , W i t h two forms and w i t h two f i g u r e s b u t w i t h one s o u l , t hou and I " (Rumi, N i c h o l s o n 1973 t r a n s l a t i o n ) . Perhaps t h e f i l t e r s between t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t and t h e e x p e r i e n c e of a u d i e n c e members becomes q u i t e permeable so t h a t t h r o u g h e n c o u n t e r , t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t becomes r e a l f o r a u d i e n c e members. In a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , G r o t o w s k i has a t t e m p t e d t h r o u g h e n c o u n t e r t o remove t h e s e p a r a t i o n between a c t o r s and a u d i e n c e ( J e n n i n g s , 1987). One s c h o o l o f t h o u g h t which i n t e g r a t e s b o t h p e r s o n a l and t r a n s p e r s o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s i s J u n g i a n p s y c h o l o g y . A c c o r d i n g t o Jung, i n t e r n a l a r c h e t y p a l p a t t e r n s would be t r i g g e r e d as a r e s u l t o f b e i n g an a u d i e n c e member and t h i s t r i g g e r i n g would r e s u l t i n t h e r e l e a s e o f a f f e c t . The connectedness o f human l i f e i s d e s c r i b e d by Jung t h r o u g h h i s n o t i o n o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e u n c o n s c i o u s which he c o n s i d e r s t o 28 work i n tandem w i t h t h e p e r s o n a l u n c o n s c i o u s ( R y c h l a k , 1981; Monte, 1987). In a d d i t i o n t o c o n s i d e r i n g p h i l o s o p h i c a l and m e t a t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s w i t h r e g a r d t o how a u d i e n c e members a r e a f f e c t e d by t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a n o t h e r ; i n t r a - p s y c h i c mechanisms o f change a r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t . What i s i t t h a t changes? I s t h e r e a s h i f t i n c o g n i t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g ? I s t h e s h i f t more a f f e c t i v e ? Does one's s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n change? Do t h e s e s h i f t s r e s u l t i n d i f f e r e n t b e h a v i o u r ? I s i t a c o m b i n a t i o n o f f a c t o r s ? C l e a r l y some form o f l e a r n i n g o c c u r s , t h e n a t u r e of t h a t l e a r n i n g i s worthy o f e x a m i n a t i o n . S o c i a l L e a r n i n g Theory p r o v i d e s one e x p l a n a t i o n of how l e a r n i n g o c c u r s . A c c o r d i n g t o Bandura ( c i t e d i n R y c h l a k , 1981) new responses a r e l e a r n e d v i c a r i o u s l y t h r o u g h o b s e r v i n g r o l e models. Bandura w r i t e s : p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g i s e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f a c o n t i n u o u s r e c i p r o c a l i n t e r a c t i o n o f p e r s o n a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r m i n a n t s . . . In a c t u a l i t y , v i r t u a l l y a l l l e a r n i n g phenomena r e s u l t i n g from d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e o c c u r on a v i c a r i o u s b a s i s by o b s e r v i n g o t h e r p e o p l e ' s b e h a v i o u r and i t s consequences f o r them ( c i t e d i n R y c h l a k , p. 483). Weiner (1982) d e s c r i b e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between Bandura's n o t i o n o f l e a r n i n g w i t h Freud's i d e a o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i b e s how i d e n t i f i c a t i o n f a c i l i t a t e s l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h m o d e l l i n g . In o t h e r words, more l e a r n i n g o c c u r s when t h e model i s someone who i s s t r o n g l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h , r e s p e c t e d and seen as an i m p o r t a n t f i g u r e . I m p l i c i t i n Bandura's t h e o r y i s t h e i d e a t h a t l e a r n i n g i s p r i m a r i l y a c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s . W h i l e i t may be t h e case t h a t t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y c o g n i t i v e , a more a f f e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e - c a t h a r s i s ( t h e e m o t i o n a l r e l e a s e o f pent up f e e l i n g s ) - o f t e n p recedes t h i s p r o c e s s . In a d d i t i o n t o c a t h a r s i s , B l a t n e r (1985) has o u t l i n e d some o t h e r t h e r a p e u t i c b e n e f i t s t h a t may o c c u r as a r e s u l t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a psychodrama. These i n c l u d e : a) a k i n d of t r a n s c e n d e n c e t h a t comes from i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h t h e o b s e r v i n g s e l f as opposed t o t h e m y r i a d r e a c t i v e s e l v e s b) s y m b o l i c r e s o l u t i o n o f c o n f l i c t so t h a t i n j u r y t o s e l f -esteem from t h e o r i g i n a l d e f e a t may be reduced. c) reduced c o g n i t i v e d i s s o n a n c e t h r o u g h f i n d i n g i m a g i n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s . The b e n e f i t s o f group p s y c h o t h e r a p y i n g e n e r a l would a l s o a p p l y t o psychodrama. I n i t i a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f group t h e r a p e u t i c b e n e f i t was i n t h e form o f t h e r a p i s t i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c a c c o u n t s ( K e l l e r m a n n , 1985). C o r s i n i and Rosenberg ( c i t e d i n K e l l e r m a n n , 1985) r e v i e w e d 300 o f t h e s e a c c o u n t s and found t h r e e b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s which subsumed t h n i n e c l a s s e s of t h e r a p e u t i c b e n e f i t s r e p o r t e d by t h e r a p i s t s These i n c l u d e : 1) e m o t i o n a l : a c c e p t a n c e , a l t r u i s m and t r a n s f e r e n c e ; 2) c o g n i t i v e : s p e c t a t o r t h e r a p y , u n i v e r s a l i z q a t i o n , and i n t e l l e c t u a l i z a t i o n ; and 3) a c t i o n a l r e a l i t y t e s t i n g , v e n t i l a t i o n , and i n t e r a c t i o n . 30 More s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h began i n t h e s i x t i e s where t h e assessment of group p s y c h o t h e r a p y members r a t h e r t h a n t h e r a p i s t s formed t h e b a s i s f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e r a p e u t i c b e n e f i t s . From t h i s l i t e r a t u r e , Yalom ( c i t e d i n K e l l e r m a n n , 1985) f o r m u l a t e d a l i s t o f 12 f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g : s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g ( i n s i g h t ) , i n t e r p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g (both i n p u t and o u t p u t ) , u n i v e r s a l i t y , i n s t i l l a t i o n o f hope, a l t r u i s m , r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of p r i m a r y f a m i l y group ( f a m i l y r e e n a c t m e n t ) , c a t h a r s i s , c o h e s i v e n e s s , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , g u i d a n c e , and e x i s t e n t i a l i s s u e s . These f a c t o r s formed t h e b a s i s f o r a 60-item Q - s o r t measure c o n s t r u c t e d by Yalom, T i n k l e n b e r g and G i l u l a i n 1970 ( c i t e d i n K e l l e r m a n n ) and subsequent use of t h e measure i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e f a c t o r s most h i g h l y v a l u e d by group p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n t e r p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g , c a t h a r s i s and s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g . Wanting t o examine t h e b e n e f i t s o f psychodrama as a s p e c i f i c form of group t h e r a p y , K e l l e r m a n n (1985) f o r m u l a t e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e based upon Yalom's Q - s o r t and a d m i n i s t e r e d h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o a group of t h i r t y , r e l a t i v e l y w e l l -f u n c t i o n i n g , I s r a e l i psychodrama p a r t i c i p a n t s who were p a r t o f l o n g - t e r m group t h e r a p y l e d by e x p e r i e n c e d psychdorama p r a c t i t i o n e r s . The r e s u l t s o f h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g , c a t h a r s i s and i n t e r p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g were t h e t h r e e most h i g h l y r a nked i t e m s . 31 C a t h a r s i s The concept o f c a t h a r s i s , one p a r t i c u l a r form o f change, i s p i v o t a l t o t h i s s t u d y and a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e w i t h r e g a r d t o c a t h a r s i s f o l l o w s . A r i s t o t l e c o i n e d t h e term " c a t h a r s i s " i n h i s o b j e c t i o n t o P l a t o ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t drama was s u b v e r s i v e and s h o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d . A r i s t o t l e t h o u g h t t h a t drama engendered c a t h a r s i s , o r t h e r e l e a s e o f emotion, h e l p i n g a u d i e n c e members v i c a r i o u s l y purge f e e l i n g s o f p i t y and t e r r o r ( S c h e f f & B u s h n e l l , 1984). A l t h o u g h a n c i e n t i n i t s o r i g i n s , t h e i d e a o f c a t h a r s i s re-emerged i n t h e work of s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s a f t e r A r i s t o t l e . I n t h e 1700's F a t h e r Johann Gassner performed a t y p e o f e x o r c i s m i n v o l v i n g t h e c a s t i n g out o f demons t h r o u g h c o n v u l s i o n s and e m o t i o n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f an i n d u c e d " c r i s i s " . Mesmer performed s i m i l a r c u r e s ; however i n h i s vi e w i t was t h r o u g h t h e s h i f t i n g o f body f l u i d s and "magnetism" r a t h e r t h a n e x o r c i s m , t h a t t h e c r i s i s and subsequent c u r e was a c h i e v e d ( S t r a t o n , 1990). Mesmer m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e c a t h a r t i c e f f e c t o f e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e c r i s i s was h e a l i n g . A s h i f t i n t h e way i n wh i c h c a t h a r s i s was c o n c e p t u a l i z e d had o c c u r r e d . The o r i g i n a l i d e a of a v i c a r i o u s e x p e r i e n c e r e s u l t i n g i n t h e p u r g i n g o f f e e l i n g s had changed. C a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e s were now c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as t h e p u r g i n g o f f e e l i n g s r e s u l t i n g from d i r e c t p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . 32 One o f Mesmer's s t u d e n t s , Puysegur, found what he c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e " p e r f e c t c r i s i s " . Foreshadowing t h e body/mind s p l i t o f some forms of contemporary p s y c h o t h e r a p y , Puysegur d i d not produce c o n v u l s i o n s i n h i s p a t i e n t s . R a t h e r , he found t h a t somnambulism "the a b i l i t y t o t a l k , l u c i d l y about d e l i c a t e m a t t e r s , and subsequent amnesia", ( S t r a t o n , 1990, p. 544) produced a h e a l i n g a f f e c t . Mesmer b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e magnetic s l e e p which produced t h i s e f f e c t was a r e s u l t o f t h e " p s y c h o l o g i c a l f o r c e between m a g n e t i z e r and p a t i e n t " (p.544). Two s t r a n d s - c a t h a r s i s and h y p n o s i s -were weaving the m s e l v e s t o g e t h e r . Near t h e end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y C h a r c o t , an i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e f o r b o t h B r e u e r and F r e u d , a g a i n b r o u g h t h y p n o s i s f o r w a r d as an i m p o r t a n t a r e a o f s t u d y . Joseph B r e u e r found t h a t h i s p a t i e n t s g e n e r a l l y d i s p l a y e d a g r e a t d e a l o f emotion when t h e y spoke f r e e l y under h y p n o s i s . Because of r e g u l a r d i s c h a r g e o f emotions, t h e method was c a l l e d t h e c a t h a r t i c method (Moreno, 1964). Freud's work f o c u s e d i n i t i a l l y upon h y p n o s i s ; however, e v e n t u a l l y he s h i f t e d away from c a t h a r t i c t h e r a p y t o f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n and a n a l y s i s . The mind/body s p l i t was becoming more f i r m l y e n t r e n c h e d i n p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e r a p y . Other t h e o r i s t s , however, c o n t i n u e d t o see t h e t h e r a p e u t i c i m p o r t a n c e o f m a i n t a i n i n g mind/body i n t e g r i t y . R e i c h and Moreno, t h e f a t h e r s o f e x p e r i e n t i a l p s y c h o t h e r a p i e s , a r e two such t h e o r i s t s ( S t r a t o n , 1990). 33 R e i c h p r i m a r i l y worked i n d i v i d u a l l y and Moreno saw t h e v a l u e o f e x p e r i e n t i a l group work. S h a f e r and G a l i n s k y , 1984) n o t e : "In i t s p u r e s t form, psychodrama c o n s i s t s of t h e t h e r a p y group o r workshop t h a t f o c u s e s on a c t i n g out e m o t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t scenes from t h e p a s t , p r e s e n t , o r a n t i c i p a t e d f u t u r e f o r t h e purposes o f c a t h a r s i s and a c q u i r i n g new b e h a v i o u r s " (p. 9 8 ) . Moreno r e c o g n i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f memories of b o t h t h e mind and t h e body and b e l i e v e d t h a t t h r o u g h a c t i o n , t h e two t y p e s o f memory - c o n t e n t (mind) and a c t i o n (body) c o u l d be most c o m p l e t e l y a c c e s s e d ( F i n e , 1979). F o l l o w i n g from h i s n o t i o n o f two t y p e s o f memories, Moreno d e s c r i b e d two t y p e s of c a t h a r s i s : s o m a t i c and m e n t a l . Moreno d e f i n e s s o m a t i c c a t h a r s i s as " p u r g i n g o r c l e a n s i n g o f any l o c u s of t h e body" (Moreno, 1964, p. 16). W i t h r e g a r d t o mental c a t h a r s i s , he w r o t e : M e n t a l c a t h a r s i s i s here d e f i n e d as a p r o c e s s w h i c h accompanies e v e r y t y p e o f l e a r n i n g , not o n l y f i n d i n g o f r e s o l u t i o n from c o n f l i c t , but a l s o o f r e a l i z a t i o n o f s e l f , not o n l y a r e l e a s e and r e l i e f b u t a l s o e q u i l i b r i u m and peace. I t i s not a c a t h a r s i s o f a b r e a c t i o n but a c a t h a r s i s o f i n t e g r a t i o n . (Moreno, 1953, p. 546). Moreno's v i e w o f c a t h a r s i s i n c l u d e s an element of i n t e g r a t i o n which s i t u a t e s c a t h a r s i s i n a d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t t h a n i s u s u a l l y t h e c a s e . Moreno c o n c e i v e d of c a t h a r s i s as i n c l u d i n g b o t h an e m o t i o n a l r e l e a s e as w e l l as a c o g n i t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n . The n o t i o n t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n i s a v i t a l component of t h e c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e has been f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e d by subsequent p s y c h o d r a m a t i s t s . F o r example, K e l l e r m a n n (1984) 34 i s c l e a r about t h e im p o r t a n c e o f i n t e g r a t i o n . " . . . c a t h a r s i s i n i t s e l f i s not c u r a t i v e " (p. 1) " D i r e c t o r s who s t r i v e f o r b o t h r e l e a s e ( i d ) and i n t e g r a t i o n ( e g o ) , w i l l be more e f f e c t i v e t h a n t h o s e who emphasize r e l e a s e a l o n e " (p. 9 ) . B l a t n e r (1985) extends Moreno's i d e a o f i n t e g r a t i o n even f u r t h e r by c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g c a t h a r s i s as b o t h t h e i n t e g r a t i o n as w e l l as t h e " e m o t i o n a l p u r g i n g " u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e term. "The concept o f c a t h a r s i s may be u n d e r s t o o d as a s h i f t o f t h e psyche i n t o a new l e v e l of i n t e g r a t i o n " (p. 160), "an e x p a n s i o n o f t h e s e l f " (p. 163). The i d e a o f p s y c h i c r e o r d e r i n g i s a l s o d e s c r i b e d by D a v i e s (1987): " C a t h a r s i s i s t h e moment i n which t h e e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e of r o l e s f i n a l l y y i e l d s t o r e f o r m i t s e l f " ( D a v i e s , 1987). B l a t n e r (1985) expands t h e vi e w o f c a t h a r s i s t o i n c l u d e f o u r i n t e r p e n e t r a t i n g c a t e g o r i e s : a b r e a c t i o n , i n t e g r a t i o n , i n c l u s i o n and s p i r i t u a l . The c a t h a r s i s of a b r e a c t i o n i s t h e s o r t o f e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n which i s most r e a d i l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i d e a o f c a t h a r s i s . However B l a t n e r (1985) notes t h a t i t i s not t h e p u r g i n g o f emotions i t s e l f t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s t h e c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e , r a t h e r i t i s t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f emotions t h a t accompany r e c o g n i z i n g p r e v i o u s l y disowned f e e l i n g s . I n o t h e r words, e x p a n s i o n o f t h e psyche o c c u r s from welcoming home f e e l i n g s which have been a d r i f t . I t would appear t h a t t h e r e a r e two l e v e l s o f e m o t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s o c c u r r i n g i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n : a) t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f c u t o f f f e e l i n g s , f o r example e x p e r i e n c i n g unacknowledged 35 g r i e f ; as w e l l a s : b) t h e f e e l i n g s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h a t e x p e r i e n c e , f o r example f e e l i n g a sense of r e l i e f from e x p e r i e n c i n g unacknowledged g r i e f . I n h e r e n t i n t h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e c a t h a r s i s o f a b r e a c t i o n i s t h e n o t i o n o f b r i n g i n g i n t o awareness something which was p r e v i o u s l y h i d d e n from awareness. The n e x t c a t e g o r y of c a t h a r s i s o u t l i n e d by B l a t n e r i s t h e c a t h a r s i s o f i n t e g r a t i o n . The i n t e g r a t i o n , o r p s y c h i c e x p a n s i o n r e l a t e s t o t h e f e e l i n g s , b e l i e f s , o r memories r e l e a s e d i n t h e c a t h a r s i s of a b r e a c t i o n . In o t h e r words, t h e i n d i v i d u a l b o t h r e d i s c o v e r s and f i n d s a m e a n i n g f u l way t o i n c o r p o r a t e p r e v i o u s l y disowned m a t e r i a l . O t h e r w i s e , "one i s aware of t h e p r e v i o u s l y disowned element, but i t s t i l l s t i c k s l i k e an arrow i n t h e s o u l r a t h e r t h a n f u n c t i o n s as a d i r e c t i o n a l s i g n " ( B l a t n e r , p e r s o n a l communication). In t h i s way one's i d e n t i t y i s expanded t o i n c l u d e something which p r e v i o u s l y seemed i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h one's i d e n t i t y , o r a l t e r n a t i v e l y t h e i n t e g r a t i o n of two f a c e t s o f one's p e r s o n a l i t y w hich were not p r e v i o u s l y e x p e r i e n c e d as o p e r a t i n g t o g e t h e r . M a s t e r y of a new s k i l l , o r an expanded sense of competence i s a l s o a way i n w hich t h e c a t h a r s i s o f i n t e g r a t i o n may o c c u r ( B l a t n e r , 1985). As w e l l as a d d i n g t o one's sense of s e l f , l e t t i n g go o f c o p i n g s k i l l s w h ich have become m a l a d a p t i v e , o r n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s w hich have become burdensome i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f t h i s c a t e g o r y . In s h o r t "the p r o c e s s of r e -36 e v a l u a t i n g and d e c i d i n g i n t h e p r e s e n t moment wh i c h p a r t s o f t h e s e l f t o keep and which t o r e l i n q u i s h i s p a r t o f t h i s c a t h a r s i s o f i n t e g r a t i o n " . ( B l a t n e r , 1985, p. 162). The c a t h a r s i s o f i n c l u s i o n r e l a t e s t o a f e e l i n g o f b e l o n g i n g , something which A l f r e d A d l e r , one o f t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r i s t who extended Freud's t h e o r y i n t o t h e s o c i a l r e a l m , i d e n t i f i e s as a c o r e human need ( R y c h l a k , 1981). F i n a l l y , s p i r i t u a l c a t h a r s i s , t h e f o u r t h c a t e g o r y o c c u r s when one e x p e r i e n c e s a f e e l i n g o f i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h t h e u n i v e r s e , o r God. These f o u r c a t e g o r i e s d e s c r i b e t h e ways i n wh i c h t h e psyche may s h i f t i n t o a new l e v e l o f i n t e g r a t i o n . A l t h o u g h B l a t n e r (1985) e l o q u e n t l y d e l i n e a t e s f o u r c a t e g o r i e s o f c a t h a r s i s , and d e s c r i b e s t h e psychodynamic p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d i n i n t e g r a t i o n , h i s d e f i n i t i o n " s h i f t o f t h e psyche i n t o a new l e v e l of i n t e g r a t i o n , " (p. 160), "an e x p a n s i o n of t h e s e l f " (p. 163) appears t o be more a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t h e r a p e u t i c outcome o f t h e c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e t h a n o f t h e p r o c e s s i t s e l f . Lewis and Bucher (1992) p r o v i d e a more p r o c e s s o r i e n t e d d e f i n i t i o n when t h e y d e s c r i b e c a t h a r s i s as "the r e l e a s e o f u s u a l r e s t r a i n t s on t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f emotion, o f t e n w i t h t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f a g r e a t d e a l o f anger" (p. 385) R e s t r a i n t i m p l i e s t h e c o n s c i o u s s u p p r e s s i o n , as opposed t o u n c o n s c i o u s r e p r e s s i o n , o f emotion. Lewis and Bucher's d e f i n i t i o n o f c a t h a r s i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i d e a o f " l e t t i n g i t o u t " , t h e " i t " b e i n g 37 something which i s known but not u s u a l l y e x p r e s s e d . A good d e a l of r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f c a t h a r s i s i s based upon t h i s i d e a o f " l e t t i n g i t o u t " , o r t h e h y d r a u l i c model of c a t h a r s i s ( K e l l e r m a n n , 1984; S t r a t o n , 1990). Lewis & Bucher (1992) r e v i e w s t u d i e s based upon t h i s model of c a t h a r s i s w h i c h a s s e r t s t h a t emotions o r energy may become b l o c k e d o r o b s t r u c t e d and t h a t t h e g o a l o f t h e r a p y i s t o u n b l o c k t h e o b s t r u c t i o n . An a ssumption of t h i s model i s t h a t a g g r e s s i o n o r anger w i l l be l e s s e n e d by e x p r e s s i n g i t . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s , t h e f r u s t r a t i o n - a g g r e s s i o n h y p o t h e s i s , has m a i n l y been u n s u p p o r t e d i n r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s . S t u d i e s by B o h a r t ; Ebbeson, Duncan & K o n e c n i ; Geen, St o n n e r , & Shope; and Lieberman e t a l ( c i t e d i n Lewis & Bucher, 1992) t e s t i n g t h i s h y p o t h e s i s have g e n e r a l l y found i t t o be e r r o n e o u s . K e l l e r m a n n (1984) c i t e s f u r t h e r s t u d i e s which b e l i e t h e f r u s t r a t i o n - a g g r e s s i o n h y p o t h e s i s i n c l u d i n g t h o s e of B e r k o w i t z e t a l ; Feshbach, Hokanson; Kahn; and M a l l i c k and McCandles; T a v r i s ; and Warren and K u r l y c h e k . Perhaps t h i s model of c a t h a r s i s has not proven i t s e l f t o be t h e r a p e u t i c because i t i s l a c k i n g t h e element of i n t e g r a t i o n w hich i s c o n s i d e r e d c r u c i a l by p s y c h o d r a m a t i s t s ( B l a t n e r , 1985, K e l l e r m a n n , 1984, Moreno, 1953). The unmodulated e x p r e s s i o n o f p r i m a r i l y r e g r e s s i v e f e e l i n g s , w i t h o u t i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e " a d u l t " i n t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e i s s i m p l y r e g r e s s i o n , as opposed t o r e g r e s s i o n i n t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e ego ( B l a t n e r , p e r s o n a l communication). I n o t h e r 38 words, t h e h y d r a u l i c model of c a t h a r s i s i s t o o s m a l l a p i e c e o f t h e p i c t u r e t o a d e q u a t e l y make sense of t h e c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e . Other t h e o r i s t s have been more a l l -encompassing i n t h e i r d e l i n e a t i o n o f c a t h a r s i s . F o r example, as p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d , B l a t n e r (1985) o u t l i n e s f o u r c a t e g o r i e s o f c a t h a r s i s . K e l l e r m a n n (1984) sees c a t h a r s i s as h a v i n g t h r e e component p a r t s . He d e f i n e s c a t h a r s i s as "an e x p e r i e n c e o f r e l e a s e t h a t o c c u r s when a l o n g s t a n d i n g s t a t e of i n n e r i m m o b i l i z a t i o n f i n d s i t s o u t l e t i n a c t i o n " (p. 1) and d e s c r i b e s t h e component p a r t s a s : an a f f e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n w h i c h he c h a r a c t e r i z e s as i n t e n s e and p r i m i t i v e ; a c o g n i t i v e r e l e a s e o f an i d e a from t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , and an a c t i o n a l r e l e a s e where " i n n e r t e n s i o n s a r e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o o v e r t b e h a v i o u r " (p. 4 ) . S c h e f f and B u s h n e l l (1984) p r o v i d e y e t a n o t h e r model of c a t h a r s i s . They note t h a t i n o r d e r f o r e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n t o be c a t h a r t i c , t h r e e i n t e r a c t i n g systems come i n t o p l a y : b i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l . B r i e f l y , t h e b i o l o g i c a l system i s t h e p h y s i c a l r e s ponse w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e "course" emotions such as anger, g r i e f , f e a r and shame. The p s y c h o l o g i c a l system, based upon George Mead's p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e " s e l f " , i n v o l v e s movement between " I " , t h e e x p e r i e n c i n g s e l f , and "me" t h e w i t n e s s i n g s e l f . The s o c i a l system i s t h e g e n e r a l l y r e p r e s s i v e i n t e r n a l i z e d a t t i t u d e s towards e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n . 39 S c h e f f and B u s h n e l l (1984) p o s t u l a t e t h a t i n o r d e r f o r c a t h a r s i s t o o c c u r : a) i n t e r n a l p e r m i s s i o n t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e emotion must be g i v e n ; b) t h e emotions must r e a c h a b i o l o g i c a l c l i m a x , such as c r y i n g f o r g r i e f ; and c) an o p t i m a l a e s t h e t i c d i s t a n c e must be i n o p e r a t i o n . S c h e f f and B u s h n e l l d e s c r i b e a e s t h e t i c d i s t a n c e as a b a l a n c e between t h e e x p e r i e n c i n g and w i t n e s s i n g s e l f ; one i s n e i t h e r h y s t e r i c a l l y e x p e r i e n c i n g nor d i s p a s s i o n a t e l y o b s e r v i n g t h e i r f e e l i n g s . A l l o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l v i e w p o i n t s and models o f c a t h a r s i s which have been o u t l i n e d can be seen as i m p o r t a n t p i e c e s of a p u z z l e ; t o g e t h e r t h e y c r e a t e a b i g g e r p i c t u r e . S c h e f f and B u s h n e l l (1984) d e s c r i b e t h e systems i n v o l v e d i n and t h e p r e - r e q u i s i t e c o n d i t i o n s f o r a c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e ; K e l l e r m a n n (1984) and Lewis & Bucher (1992) d e s c r i b e t h e p r o c e s s , and Moreno (1953, 1964) and B l a t n e r (1985) d e s c r i b e t h e r e s u l t s . Perhaps an a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g d e f i n i t i o n needs t o i n c l u d e components of b o t h p r o c e s s and outcome. D a v i e s (1987) p r o v i d e s t h i s s o r t o f encompassing d e f i n i t i o n : The u n d e r g o i n g of e m o t i o n a l l y e v o c a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y a v o i d e d because t h e f e e l i n g s a r o u s e d might be i n t o l e r a b l e w i t h i n t h e e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n o f r o l e -e x p e c t a t i o n s o r p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s . When met and s u r v i v e d , t h e emotions e x c i t e d by such s i t u a t i o n s even i f u n p l e a s a n t a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a sense o f r e l e a s e , and an a l t e r e d e x p e c t a t i o n o f f u t u r e e v e n t s . C a t h a r s i s i s t h e moment i n whi c h t h e e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e o f r o l e s f i n a l l y y i e l d s t o r e f o r m i t s e l f . I n t e r n a l l y , t h i s means a change of c o n s t r u c t s and an a l t e r e d p e r c e p t u a l g e s t a l t o f one's own and o t h e r s ' a c t i v i t y . B e f o r e i t o c c u r s , t h e r e i s i n e v i t a b l y a b u i l d up o f t e n s i o n as t h e system s t r i v e s t o m a i n t a i n t h e e x i s t i n g e q u i l i b r i u m and i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o w e r f u l but c o n t r a d i c t o r y 40 emotions - anger, g r i e f and e l a t i o n - a l l t h e a f f e c t s o f t h e a v o i d e d i n t e r a c t i o n and t h e r e l i e f of t h e e f f o r t r e q u i r e d t o a v o i d i t (p. 116). A summary o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s d e l i n e a t e d as o p t i m a l f o r a c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e i n c l u d e : (1) i n t e r n a l p e r m i s s i o n t o e x p e r i e n c e f e e l i n g s ( S c h e f f and B u s h n e l l , 1984); (2) a t h e r a p e u t i c a l l i a n c e w i t h t h e t h e r a p i s t ( B l a t n e r , 1985); (3) r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t a t e w h i c h o c c u r r e d a t t h e t i m e o f a r e s t r i c t i v e l i f e d e c i s i o n ( S t r a t o n , 1990); (4) t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a s a f e and s e c u r e environment ( B l a t n e r , 1985; S c h e f f and B u s h n e l l , 1984); (5) an i n t e g r a t i o n and r e - o r d e r i n g p e r i o d ( B l a t n e r , 1985, K e l l e r m a n n , 1984); and (6) a group s e t t i n g (Moreno, 1953, 1964; S t r a t o n , 1990). The f i n a l a s p e c t o f c a t h a r s i s w h i c h i s p e r t i n e n t t o t h i s s t u d y r e l a t e s t o t h e way i n which c a t h a r s i s i s e x p e r i e n c e d by a u d i e n c e members. Moreno notes t h a t " p sychodramatic t h e o r y has d e v e l o p e d t h e i d e a of c a t h a r s i s a l o n g f o u r l i n e s : t h e s o m a t i c , t h e m e n t a l , t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t h e group (Moreno, 1964). In as much as t h e p r o t a g o n i s t i s t h e c r e a t o r , a c t o r and a u d i e n c e o f h i s own enactment, h i s c a t h a r s i s may be seen as more complete t h a n t h a t o f t h e au d i e n c e member. B l a t n e r e l a b o r a t e s upon t h i s p o i n t when he notes t h a t t h e p r o t a g o n i s t d i s c o v e r s t h e i r own complexes, complexes w h i c h a r e a t t u n e d t o t h e i r i n n e r symbol system, t h e i r 41 schema, t h e i r i n n e r sense of s e l f , and t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e s y m b o l i z a t i o n p o r t r a y e d may r e s o n a t e w i t h t h e a u d i e n c e member, i t i s not a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . What i s t r u e f o r a u d i e n c e s i s t h e r e c o n n e c t i o n t h e y may e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e "re-owning o f something which c o n n e c t s w i t h t h e i r c o g n i t i v e , c o n s c i o u s system", o r t h e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s t h a t o c c u r s i n s e n s i n g t h e s h a r i n g o f a p e r s o n a l and i n t i m a t e i s s u e ( B l a t n e r , p e r s o n a l communication). B l a t n e r a l s o d e s c r i b e s t h e cosmic o r e x i s t e n t i a l i n t e g r a t i o n w hich can o c c u r f o r a u d i e n c e members when t h e y a r e reminded of t h e i r m o r t a l i t y , o r a l o n e n e s s , o r s p i r i t u a l q u e s t o r o t h e r e x i s t e n t i a l i s s u e s . Some a u t h o r s r e f e r t o t h e c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e o f aud i e n c e members as secondary. F o r example, S h a f f e r and G a l i n s k y (1984) d i s t i n g u i s h between soc i o d r a m a , where t h e f o c u s i s t h e c o l l e c t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e w i t h psychodrama, where t h e f o c u s i s t h e i n d i v i d u a l as f o l l o w s : A n o t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e two (psychodrama and sociodrama) i s t h e f a c t t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e whole a u d i e n c e i s much g r e a t e r i n sociodrama t h a n i n psychodrama. I n t h e l a t t e r , members of t h e a u d i e n c e may share p e r s o n a l concerns w i t h t h e p r o t a g o n i s t and a c h i e v e a secondary c a t h a r s i s t h r o u g h i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e p r o t a g o n i s t ' s r o l e e x p e r i e n c e (p. 115). H o f r i c h t e r (1973) d e s c r i b e s t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e secondary c a t h a r s i s e x p e r i e n c e d by au d i e n c e members as l e s s i n t e n s e and o c c u r r i n g as a r e s u l t o f l i v i n g "the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e y share w i t h o t h e r s common problems of l i v i n g and t h r o u g h 42 t h e i r r e p r o d u c t i o n a r e l i b e r a t i n g t h e m s e l v e s from them t o g e t h e r as a community" (p. 9 8 ) . Whether c a t h a r s i s i s p r i m a r y o r secondary f o r a u d i e n c e members perhaps depends upon t h e way i n wh i c h i t i s d e f i n e d . I f c a t h a r s i s i s seen as an e m o t i o n a l purge, a u d i e n c e members who a r e e m o t i o n a l l y overcome d u r i n g an enactment would be h a v i n g a c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e . I f c a t h a r s i s i s seen, as K e l l e r m a n n (1984) notes as "an e x p e r i e n c e o f r e l e a s e t h a t o c c u r s when a l o n g s t a n d i n g s t a t e o f i n n e r m o b i l i z a t i o n f i n d s i t s o u t l e t i n a c t i o n " (p. 1 ) , t h e n t h e i r c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e would be v i c a r i o u s s i n c e t h e a c t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e enactment. F i n a l l y , i f c a t h a r s i s i s seen as an i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e psyche as B l a t n e r (1985), and t o some e x t e n t Moreno (1964) n o t e , t h e n whether t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e i s p r i m a r y o r secondary i s a n o n - i s s u e . P r o t a g o n i s t s and aud i e n c e members a l i k e would be e x p e r i e n c i n g c a t h a r s i s , a l t h o u g h perhaps d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f i t . Outcome Res e a r c h Outcome r e s e a r c h i n psychodrama has grown s t e a d i l y i n t h e l a s t two decades. K e l l e r m a n n (1987b) notes t h a t o n l y 14 s t u d i e s were i n c l u d e d i n an o v e r v i e w o f psychodrama r e s e a r c h u n t i l 1971. T h i s i s compared w i t h t h e 39 s t u d i e s S c h r a m s k i and Feldman i n c l u d e i n t h e i r u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t o f psychodrama outcome r e s e a r c h u n t i l 1983 ( c i t e d i n K e l l e r m a n n , 1987b). 43 A l t h o u g h t h e q u a n t i t y o f outcome r e s e a r c h i s i n c r e a s i n g , q u a n t i t y does not g u a r a n t e e q u a l i t y ( K i p p e r , 1978). The m a j o r i t y o f s t u d i e s a r e p u b l i s h e d i n t h e J o u r n a l o f Group P s y c h o t h e r a p y , Psychodrama and S o c i o m e t r y , a j o u r n a l t h a t i s not s u b j e c t t o peer r e v i e w . W h i l e p e e r r e v i e w does not n e c e s s a r i l y ensure q u a l i t y , t h e advantage o f i n c r e a s e d c o l l a b o r a t i o n , c o n s u l t a t i o n and p e e r , q u e s t i o n i n g l e n d s i t s e l f t o h i g h e r s t a n d a r d s i n b o t h r e s e a r c h and p u b l i c a t i o n . A n o t h e r s h o r t c o m i n g w i t h psychodrama outcome r e s e a r c h i s t h e l a c k o f c o n s i s t e n t d e f i n i t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s who a r e not c l a s s i c a l l y t r a i n e d ( K i p p e r , 1978). Psychodrama outcome r e s e a r c h may i n f a c t be comparing "apples w i t h oranges." The ambiguous way i n which t h e term psychodrama i s used i s c l e a r i n an o v e r v i e w o f d i s s e r t a t i o n a b s t r a c t s from t h e l a s t decade. Some r e s e a r c h e r s (Brown, 1987; Nevens, 1984; S h e e t s , 1989) have i n c o r p o r a t e d psychodrama t e c h n i q u e s i n t o t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r group t h e r a p y r e s u l t i n g i n outcome r e s e a r c h t h a t , however u s e f u l , i s not p u r e l y about psychodrama (D'Amato & Dean, 1988; K i p p e r , 1978). Many m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems have been noted w i t h r e g a r d s t o e x p e r i m e n t a l outcome r e s e a r c h (D'Amato & Dean, 1988; K e l l e r m a n n , 1987b; K i p p e r , 1978). These i n c l u d e : t h e l a c k o f a c o n t r o l group i n some s t u d i e s , t h e need f o r more complex f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n s , and t h e need t o use measures t h a t a r e more d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o psychodrama t h e o r y . K e l l e r m a n n 44 (1987b) notes t h a t r e s e a r c h u s i n g t e s t s d e s i g n e d by Moreno t o measure v a r i a b l e s such as s p o n t a n e i t y and c r e a t i v i t y i s al m o s t n o n e x i s t e n t . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e l i m i t a t i o n s , i t would not be p r u d e n t o r w i s e t o "throw t h e baby out w i t h t h e b a t h w a ter." What can be l e a r n e d from p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h ? K i p p e r (1987) d i v i d e s psychodrama e f f e c t i v e n e s s s t u d i e s i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : 1) t h e r a p e u t i c s t r a t e g i e s , 2) case i l l u s t r a t i o n r e p o r t s and 3) r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s . K i p p e r does not i n c l u d e q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d i e s i n h i s c a t e g o r y c a l l e d " r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s " and s i n c e q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d i e s have a l s o been u n d e r t a k e n (Baum, 1994; D e l Nuovo e t a l , 1978; H o f r i c h t e r , 197 3; M a r t e n s , 1991; Neuman, 1990), t h e a d d i t i o n o f q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d i e s as a 4 t h c a t e g o r y would be a p p r o p r i a t e . T h e r a p e u t i c s t r a t e g i e s i n c l u d e p r a c t i t i o n e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e and o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r psychodrama method. Case i l l u s t r a t i o n r e p o r t s i n c l u d e t h e r a p i s t a c c o u n t s of e f f e c t i v e t r e a t m e n t w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l . R e s e a r c h s t u d i e s i n c l u d e e x p e r i m e n t a l and q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s and attempt t o work w i t h i n an e m p i r i c a l framework ( K i p p e r , 1987). Q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d i e s examine t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . A wide range o f s u b j e c t s , i s s u e s and independent v a r i a b l e s have been examined. S u b j e c t s have ranged i n age from 4 t h g r a d e r s (Shearon, c i t e d i n K e l l e r m a n n , 1987b) t o s e n i o r s (Boone, 1986; G o r a l , 1992); from j u v e n i l e h o m i c i d a l 45 o f f e n d e r s (Reyes, 1991) t o u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s ( R o s e n t h a l , Schmidt, c i t e d i n K e l l e r m a n n , 1987b). Independent v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d : c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g , l o c u s o f c o n t r o l , a n x i e t y , h o s t i l i t y , m o t h e r - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s , empathy, s e l f - e s t e e m , and i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g ( K e l l e r m a n n , 1987b). E m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e e f f i c a c y o f psychodrama i s i n c o n s i s t e n t . E i g h t e e n o f t h e twenty t h r e e s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d by K e l l e r m a n n (1987b) found psychodrama t o be e f f e c t i v e i n terms o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r measures used. These measures i n c l u d e d b e h a v i o u r r a t i n g s c a l e s , f e e l i n g and a t t i t u d e s c a l e s , a n x i e t y measures, l o c u s o f c o n t r o l s c a l e s , d e f e n s e mechanism i n v e n t o r y , p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s , group environment s c a l e , and a s c a l e m e a s u r i n g a t t i t u d e s towards s u p e r v i s i o n . The s t u d i e s t h a t d i d not s u p p o r t t h e e f f i c a c y o f psychodrama measured v a r i a b l e s such as p e r s o n a l i t y change as measured by t h e MMPI and 16 p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e , s e l f - e s t e e m i n v e n t o r y , l o c u s o f c o n t r o l s c a l e , and t e s t o f c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g . W i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , s t u d i e s t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e a q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n have found psychodrama t o be e f f e c t i v e . Baum (1994) and Martens (1990) e x p l o r e d t h e change p r o c e s s i n t h e i r c o - r e s e a r c h e r s . D e l Nuovo e t a l (1974) e x p l o r e d t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f s p o n t a n e i t y , H o f r i c h t e r (1973) e x p l o r e d t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f community, and Neuman (1990) e x p l o r e d changes i n s e l f p e r c e p t i o n . 46 How can t h e d i s c r e p a n t f i n d i n g s w i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e e f f i c a c y of psychodrama be r e c o n c i l e d ? As p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d , i n a p p r o p r i a t e measures may have been used. Problems w i t h i n a p p r o p r i a t e measures may a r i s e from t h e t h e o r e t i c a l assumptions upon which measures a r e based - t h e o r e t i c a l assumptions which c o n f l i c t w i t h t h o s e h e l d by Moreno. The MMPI and o t h e r p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s a r e based upon t h e assumption t h a t a r e l a t i v e l y e n d u r i n g i n n a t e p e r s o n a l i t y e x i s t s . Moreno, on t h e o t h e r hand m a i n t a i n e d t h a t " r o l e p l a y i n g i s p r i o r t o t h e emergence o f t h e s e l f . R o l e s do not emerge from t h e s e l f , b u t t h e s e l f may emerge from r o l e s " (Moreno, 1964, p. 157). Measures which examine t h e e x t e n t t o w hich c r e a t i v i t y , s p o n t a n e i t y and r o l e r e p e r t o i r e have changed would be more a p p r o p r i a t e . On t h e o t h e r hand, q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h has been t y p i c a l l y based upon t h e assumption t h a t psychodrama i s e f f e c t i v e , o r t h a t t h e r e i s an e x p e r i e n c e o f community i n t h e s h a r i n g phase o f an enactment. F o r example, M a r t i n s (1990), and Baum (1994) b o t h i n t e r v i e w e d p e o p l e who c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r psychodrama e x p e r i e n c e t o be s i g n i f i c a n t , and H o f r i c h t e r asked p e o p l e t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f s h a r i n g . The way i n w h i c h t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s were s t r u c t u r e d d i d not examine whether o r not psychodrama was e f f e c t i v e b u t r a t h e r when i t i s e f f e c t i v e , how was t h a t e x p e r i e n c e d . A more n e u t r a l q u a l i t a t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y r e s u l t i n l e s s u n e q u i v o c a l r e s u l t s . A l t h o u g h m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems e x i s t i n e f f i c a c y r e s e a r c h , s u b s t a n t i a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e u t i l i t y o f psychodrama can be found. W i t h an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d i e s , a g r e a t e r sense o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e of p a r t i c i p a n t s i s a v a i l a b l e . By co m b i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e from t h e s e two d i f f e r e n t m e t h o d o l o g i e s , a more w h o l i s t i c p i c t u r e o f psychodrama e f f i c a c y can be o b t a i n e d . 48 CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY I n t r o d u c t i o n The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d e s c r i b e t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n o f t h i s s t u d y and p r o v i d e t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r i t s use. I n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o t h e s e l e c t i o n , r e c r u i t m e n t and demographics o f c o - r e s e a r c h e r i s p r o v i d e d and t h e p e r s o n a l b i a s e s o f t h e p r i n c i p l e i n v e s t i g a t o r i s a l s o i n c l u d e d . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n and Methodology The p r i m a r y f o c u s of t h i s s t u d y was t o e x p l o r e t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f s i g n i f i c a n t change f o r psychodrama a u d i e n c e members and u n d e r s t a n d t h e meaning t h e y made o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . S e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s need t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n c h o o s i n g t h e methodology w h i c h i s most a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h i s s t u d y . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n concerns t h e n a t u r e o f t h e q u e s t i o n b e i n g asked: i s t h e q u e s t i o n concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h n a t u r a l laws and how t h e y r e l a t e t o t h e human e x p e r i e n c e , o r i s i t c oncerned w i t h t h e human e x p e r i e n c e e x p l o r e d from w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e human e x p e r i e n c e ? In o t h e r words, i s a n a t u r a l s c i e n c e o r a human s c i e n c e approach t o t h e q u e s t i o n most a p p r o p r i a t e ? N a t u r a l s c i e n c e has t y p i c a l l y f o c u s s e d upon " i n c r e m e n t a l a d d i t i o n s t o e s t a b l i s h e d r e s e a r c h " (Osborne, 1994). The p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n o f n a t u r a l s c i e n c e i s t o p r e d i c t , c o n t r o l and measure under c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h e l i m i n a t e as many c o n f o u n d i n g v a r i a b l e s as p o s s i b l e ( V a l l e and K i n g , 1978). 49 Q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h i s h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d and most o f t e n v e r i f i c a t i o n o r i e n t e d ( S t a i n b a c k , 1988). Based on B r i t i s h e m p i r i c i s m , q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h f o c u s e s on what i s c l e a r l y o b s e r v a b l e and s c i e n t i f i c a l l y p r o v a b l e . U n d e r l y i n g t h i s i d e o l o g y i s a Lockean e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l model. R y c h l a k (1981) i d e n t i f i e s t h e assumptions u n d e r l y i n g t h e Lockean model as f o l l o w s : a) Reductionism - i d e a s a r e b u i l t up from s i m p l e t o complex i n a u n i d i r e c t i o n a l way. In o t h e r words e v e r y t h i n g i s r e d u c i b l e t o i t s s i m p l e s t c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s . b) Realism - t h e c o n t e n t s of our minds e x i s t i n d e p e n d e n t l y of our mind. Combined w i t h t h e n o t i o n o f " t a b u l a r a s a " , t h e b l a n k s l a t e c o n d i t i o n of t h e human mind a t b i r t h , we can say t h a t what i s i n our mind i s an a c c u r a t e r e f l e c t i o n of e x t e r n a l r e a l i t y . c) Linear - meaning r e l a t i o n s between i d e a s a r e u n i p o l a r and can be demonstrated. Cause and e f f e c t a r e seen i n a l i n e a r f a s h i o n . Human s c i e n c e , on t h e o t h e r hand, a t t e m p t s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e dynamic and h i g h l y p e r s o n a l s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e of i n d i v i d u a l s (Osborne, 1994). The f o c u s i s upon u n d e r s t a n d i n g as opposed t o p r e d i c t i o n and c o n t r o l . Assumptions i n f o r m i n g t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l framework a r e based upon a Kantean e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l model, w h i c h R y c h l a k (1981) i d e n t i f i e s as f o l l o w s : 50 a) Nonreductionistic - i d e a s a r e based upon d i a l e c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . C o m p l e x i t y and a b s t r a c t i o n do not n e c e s s a r i l y p r o c e e d t o g e t h e r ; c o m p l e x i t y i s r e l a t e d t o t h e number o f r e l a t i o n a l t i e s between i d e a s . b) Rationalism - o n l y t h r o u g h t h e use o f our u n d e r s t a n d i n g can we a r r i v e a t knowledge. F u r t h e r , nuomenal ( a b s o l u t e ) r e a l i t y i s unknowable. What i s knowable i s phenomenal ( i n t e r p r e t e d ) r e a l i t y . These two views o f how knowledge i s g a i n e d form an i m p o r t a n t b a s i s f o r d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s o f p s y c h o l o g y , eg. e x i s t e n t i a l i s m v s . b e h a v i o u r i s m ( R y c h l a k , 1981). F u r t h e r m o r e , r e s e a r c h methodology i s i n f o r m e d by t h e s e two t h e o r i e s o f e p i s t e m o l o g y ; n a t u r a l s c i e n c e more by a Lockean p e r s p e c t i v e , and human s c i e n c e more by a Kantean p e r s p e c t i v e . G i v e n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e t o p i c f o r t h i s s t u d y i s t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f change, and g i v e n t h e f a c t t h a t e x p e r i e n c e i s b e s t d e s c r i b e d from a Kantean p e r s p e c t i v e , i . e . a n o n - l i n e a r d i a l e c t i c approach, a human s c i e n c e s o r q u a l i t a t i v e approach would be most a p p r o p r i a t e . Osborne (1990) notes t h a t s c i e n t i f i c o b j e c t i v i t y "has been a c h i e v e d by r e s t r i c t i n g t h e f o c u s o f i n q u i r y t o t h a t which has been amenable t o n a t u r a l s c i e n c e " (p. 79) I n s h i f t i n g t h e f o c u s o f i n q u i r y o u t s i d e o f t h i s r e a l m , a c o n c u r r e n t s h i f t i n methodology t o a more human s c i e n c e approach i s r e q u i r e d . 51 F u r t h e r s u p p o r t f o r t h e use of a q u a l i t a t i v e approach a r i s e s from t h e f a c t t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e a u d i e n c e i s a c r u c i a l component i n psychodrama (Moreno, 1966; P i t z e l e , 1983), a l m o s t no r e s e a r c h has been done t h a t e x c l u s i v e l y examines t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a u d i e n c e members ( e x c e p t i o n s have been noted i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r ) . The c u r r e n t s t u d y e x p l o r e d a more complete p i c t u r e o f t h e change e x p e r i e n c e f o r psychodrama a u d i e n c e members. S i n c e t h i s work was l a r g e l y e x p l o r a t o r y , a q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d y was deemed t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e methodoloqy. S t a i n b a c k and S t a i n b a c k (1988) note t h a t " q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h p r o c e d u r e s a r e f l e x i b l e , e x p l o r a t o r y and d i s c o v e r y o r i e n t e d " (p. 6 ) . C l e a r l y a human s c i e n c e o r q u a l i t a t i v e approach i s t h e most s u i t e d t o t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n b e i n g a d d r e s s e d . The q u e s t i o n t h e n becomes: what p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t a t i v e approach i s most a p p r o p r i a t e ? The p h i l o s o p h i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g s of a l l q u a l i t a t i v e approaches i s s i m i l a r , f a l l i n g under t h e Kantean e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l u m b r e l l a j u s t o u t l i n e d . However t h e r e a r e s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s t o be found between ethnography, e x i s t e n t i a l phenomenology, and grounded t h e o r y - t o name a few o f t h e major streams w i t h i n q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h . B r i e f l y , t h e f o c u s o f ethnography i s upon e n c o u n t e r i n g a l i e n w o r l d s and making sense of them, and t h e f o c u s o f e x i s t e n t i a l phenomenology i s upon t h e i n d i v i d u a l and i l l u m i n a t i o n o f a s p e c i f i c phenomenon (Osborne, 1994). A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e more s i m i l a r i t i e s t h a n d i f f e r e n c e s 52 between t h e s e two approaches (Osborne, 1994), r a t h e r t h a n r e l y i n g on i n t e r v i e w s a l o n e , ethnography tends t o i n c l u d e o v e r t b e h a v i o u r , document a n a l y s i s and i n t e r v i e w i n g as r e l e v a n t d a t a ( M c M i l l a n & Schumacher, 1993). Grounded t h e o r y s h a r e s a f o c u s upon d e s c r i p t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g ; however t h e p r i m a r y g o a l i s t h e i n d u c t i v e development o f t h e o r y t o e x p l a i n t h e phenomenon o f i n t e r e s t . B o th methods a r e e x p l o r a t o r y ; however t h e i n t e n t i o n o f r e s e a r c h e r s u t i l i z i n g t h e s e two methods would d i f f e r (Osborne, 1994). E x i s t e n t i a l - p h e n o m e n o l o g y combines e x i s t e n t i a l p h i l o s o p h y w i t h t h e method o f phenomenology ( V a l l e & K i n g , 1978). H u s s e r l , f a t h e r of phenomenology, reas o n e d t h a t s i n c e c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s our p r i m o r d i a l window on t h e w o r l d , an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f human knowledge s h o u l d be based upon u n d e r s t a n d i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s (Osborne, 1990). A r i s i n g from t h i s p r e m i s e , e x i s t e n t i a l i s m may be d e f i n e d as "a f o r m a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l s c h o o l which seeks t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e human c o n d i t i o n as i t m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n our c o n c r e t e , l i v e d s i t u a t i o n s " ( V a l l e & K i n g , 1978, p. 8 ) . V a l l e & K i n g (1978) d e s c r i b e phenomenology as "a method which a l l o w s us t o c o n t a c t phenomena as we a c t u a l l y l i v e them out and e x p e r i e n c e them" (p. 9 ) . Osborne (1990) sees phenomenology more as an o r i e n t a t i o n t h a n a method, where t h e r e s e a r c h e r endeavours not t o " l e a d t h e w i t n e s s " but r a t h e r e x p l o r e s t h e meaning made o f an e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h 53 open-ended d i a l o g u e , m i n i m a l l y s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s , and th e use o f a c t i v e l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s (Osborne, 1990). A th o r o u g h e l a b o r a t i o n of t h e s p e c i f i c s o f t h i s s t y l e o f i n t e r v i e w i n g may be found i n Weiss (1994). Because t h e g o a l o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e e x p e r i e n c e of s i g n i f i c a n t change, an e x i s t e n t i a l i s s u e w h i c h i s b e s t e x p l o r e d t h r o u g h a p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l approach, t h e e x i s t e n t i a l - p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l approach o f G i o r g i (1985), w i t h i t s r i g o r o u s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e d a t a , was chosen. C o - r e s e a r c h e r s I n t r o d u c t i o n Osborne (1990) notes t h a t t h e term " c o - r e s e a r c h e r " o r " p a r t i c i p a n t " i s t h e p r i m a r y way i n which " s u b j e c t s " a r e r e f e r r e d i n q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d i e s , d e n o t i n g t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e n a t u r e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h approach ( c i t e d i n B a r t l e t t , 1991). The way i n which t h i s s t u d y was c a r r i e d out was h i g h l y co-o p e r a t i v e w i t h no power d i f f e r e n t i a l between m y s e l f and t h e au d i e n c e members who p a r t i c i p a t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e we were p e e r s i n a c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y g r a d u a t e program. W h i l e i t i s c r u c i a l t o u p h o l d t h e s p i r i t o f e q u a l i t y and co-o p e r a t i o n , I found t h e c o n t i n u a l use o f " c o - r e s e a r c h e r " and " p a r t i c i p a n t " t o be language which d i s t a n c e s p e o p l e from t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e and have t h e r e f o r e r e f e r r e d t o t h e a u d i e n c e members who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y p r i m a r i l y as "audience members" and sometimes as " p a r t i c i p a n t s " . 54 S e l e c t i o n o f P a r t i c i p a n t s The d i r e c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s t u d y h o l d psychodrama workshops two o r t h r e e t i m e s a y e a r , and t h e 20 p a r t i c i p a n t s from a workshop w h i c h c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h i s s t u d y formed t h e p o o l from w h i c h v o l u n t e e r s would be r e c r u i t e d . T h i s group was s e l e c t e d because t h e i r workshop e x p e r i e n c e was c l o s e enough t o t h e t i m e t h e r e s e a r c h i n t e r v i e w s were conducted t o be c l e a r l y remembered and f a r enough away t o have some p e r s p e c t i v e upon and i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s group c l e a r l y met t h e c r i t e r i a r e q u i r e m e n t s o u t l i n e d by C o l a i z z i (1978): " e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e i n v e s t i g a t e d t o p i c and a r t i c u l a t e n e s s " (p. 5 8 ) . R e c r u i t m e n t of P a r t i c i p a n t s A t t h e end o f a t h r e e day psychodrama workshop h e l d i n December, 1994, workshop p a r t i c i p a n t s were t o l d about t h e n a t u r e of t h i s s t u d y and f u r t h e r t o l d t h a t a l e t t e r i n v i t i n g t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n would f o l l o w . The l e t t e r was s e n t out i n t i m e t o s l i g h t l y p recede t h e f o l l o w - u p workshop h e l d s i x weeks a f t e r t h e workshop so t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s would have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o v o l u n t e e r a t t h e f o l l o w - u p e v e n i n g i f t h e y choose t o do so. C o - r e s e a r c h e r s c o n t a c t e d e i t h e r t h e p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r o r her s u p e r v i s o r by t e l e p h o n e o r i n p e r s o n a t t h e f o l l o w - u p e v e n i n g . A t o t a l o f seven p e o p l e v o l u n t e e r e d ; however a f t e r an i n i t i a l d i s c u s s i o n i t became c l e a r t h a t one p e r s o n d i d not meet t h e c r i t e r i a . A l t h o u g h 55 he f e l t t h a t he l e a r n e d a l o t from h i s e x p e r i e n c e , he d i d not see i t as p i v o t a l i n i n s t i g a t i n g p e r s o n a l change. Demographic I n f o r m a t i o n Audience members who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y were a l l e i t h e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s o r r e c e n t g r a d u a t e s i n C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y . The n o t i c e a d v e r t i s i n g t h e workshop i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n : ADVANCED GROUP AND PSYCHODRAMA T h i s workshop i s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r s who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and use o f advanced group & psychodrama t e c h n i q u e s and group s k i l l s i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l work. P a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n t h e psychodrama p r o c e s s , as w e l l as p r a c t i c e a d a p t i n g a s p e c t s o f t h i s approach t o t h e i r own c o u n s e l l i n g work c o n t e x t s . R e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l s f o r t r a i n i n g and t h e o r e t i c a l background w i l l be p r o v i d e d t o th e p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s workshop i s d e s i g n e d f o r b o t h t h o s e new t o psychodrama and t h o s e s e e k i n g advanced t r a i n i n g . P r e f e r e n c e g i v e n t o a p p l i c a n t s w i t h an a p p r o p r i a t e academic and p r o f e s s i o n a l background i n c o u n s e l l i n g . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s s u b j e c t t o i n t e r v i e w w i t h one o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r s . I n t o t a l , f i v e men and 13 women p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e workshop. E l e v e n o f t h e s e p a r t i c i p a n t s were c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s and w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f one woman who was p r o f e s s i o n a l l y employed i n a f i e l d o t h e r t h a n c o u n s e l l i n g , t h e r e m a i n i n g s i x p e o p l e a r e p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r s . F i v e o f t h e s e s i x p e o p l e had g r a d u a t e d w i t h i n t h e l a s t 3 y e a r s from t h e C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y program a t U.B.C. and one was a p h y s i c i a n w o r k i n g i n an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a p a c i t y i n t h e h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n . The average age o f workshop p a r t i c i p a n t s i s app r o x i m a t e d a t 38. 15 p a r t i c i p a n t s were C a u c a s i a n , and two were A s i a n . 56 E i g h t o f t h e 17 were p a r t i c i p a t i n g f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . C o - r e s e a r c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s s t u d y were g e n e r a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e l a r g e r group. Because co-r e s e a r c h e r s w i s h e s t o m a i n t a i n anonymity, an i n - d e p t h b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h i s not p r o v i d e d . I n l i g h t o f t h e f a c t t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s were m a i n l y c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y g r a d u a t e s and would be e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e by o t h e r s i n t h e department, i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s r a t h e r t h a n p e r s o n a l d e t a i l s i s p r o v i d e d . Co-researcher #1: a 39 y e a r o l d woman w i t h two p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s as a p r o t a g o n i s t i n t h e f o u r psychodrama groups i n w h i c h she had p a r t i c i p a t e d . C o - r e s e a r c h e r #1 was c l o s e t o g r a d u a t i n g w i t h h er M.A. i n C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y a t t h e ti m e of t h i s s t u d y and was not employed. Co-researcher #2: a 43 y e a r o l d g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t i n t h e C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y program w i t h one e x p e r i e n c e as a p r o t a g o n i s t and s e v e r a l e x p e r i e n c e s as an a u x i l i a r y i n t h e f o u r psychodramas i n which she had p a r t i c i p a t e d . Co-r e s e a r c h e r #2 was not employed a t t h e t i m e o f t h i s s t u d y . Co-researcher #3: a 55 y e a r o l d women engaged i n gra d u a t e work i n C o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y . T h i s p a r t i c i p a n t had no p r o t a g o n i s t e x p e r i e n c e a l t h o u g h she had p a r t i c i p a t e d as an a u x i l i a r y s e v e r a l t i m e s d u r i n g t h e t h r e e workshops which she had a t t e n d e d . T h i s a u d i e n c e member has been a h e a l t h c a r e p r o f e s s i o n a l f o r many y e a r s . 57 Co-researcher #4: a 30 y e a r o l d male w i t h seven y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e as a c h i l d c a r e c o u n s e l l o r f o r deaf c h i l d r e n . T h i s p a r t i c i p a n t was a new g r a d u a t e i n C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y a t t h e t i m e o f t h e s t u d y . T h i s p a r t i c i p a n t was a p r o t a g o n i s t i n t h e workshop, h i s f i r s t psychodrama e x p e r i e n c e . Co-researcher #5: a 40 y e a r o l d male who had r e c e n t l y g r a d u a t e d w i t h h i s M.A. i n C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y . T h i s p a r t i c i p a n t has been i n v o l v e d w i t h employment c o u n s e l l i n g f o r t h e p a s t 10 y e a r s . He has been a p r o t a g o n i s t once and has p a r t i c i p a t e d i n f o u r workshops. Co-researcher #6: a 49 y e a r o l d woman who was c l o s e t o g r a d u a t i n g i n C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y a t t h e t i m e o f t h e workshop. T h i s p a r t i c i p a n t has been a h e a l t h c a r e p r o f e s s i o n a l f o r many y e a r s and more r e c e n t l y i s i n v o l v e d i n c o u n s e l l i n g i n t h e h e a l t h c a r e p r o f e s s i o n . T h i s was t h e f i r s t workshop f o r c o - r e s e a r c h e r #6. P r o c e d u r e In o r d e r t o share t h e c o n t e x t which would form t h e b a s i s of t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t e x p e r i e n c e o f change, I a t t e n d e d a t h r e e day psychodrama workshop. The workshop was co-d i r e c t e d by two t h e r a p i s t s w i t h Ph.D's i n C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y and e x t e n s i v e group e x p e r i e n c e , a l t h o u g h not s p e c i f i c a l l y c e r t i f i e d as p s y c h o d r a m a t i c i a n s . A t t h e end o f t h e workshop, p e o p l e were t o l d t h a t t h i s s t u d y would t a k e p l a c e . Three weeks l a t e r , t h e p r i n c i p l e psychodrama 58 d i r e c t o r a r r a n g e d f o r a l e t t e r t o be m a i l e d t o workshop p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v i t i n g them t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s s t u d y , ( r e f e r t o Appendix A) and p a r t i c i p a n t s v o l u n t e e r e d e i t h e r by t e l e p h o n e o r a t a f o l l o w - u p e v e n i n g which o c c u r r e d t h r e e weeks a f t e r t h e r e c r u i t m e n t l e t t e r s were m a i l e d . A p i l o t i n t e r v i e w was h e l d b e f o r e t h e s t u d y p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d . The p e r s o n i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h e p i l o t was f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e methodology employed i n t h i s s t u d y as w e l l as h a v i n g e x p e r i e n c e as an au d i e n c e member i n psychodrama. The i n t e r v i e w was t r a n s c r i b e d and ways o f i m p r o v i n g t h e q u a l i t y of i n t e r v i e w i n g so i t would be more open-ended was c o n s i d e r e d and p r a c t i c e d . Arrangements t o meet a t a m u t u a l l y c o n v e n i e n t t i m e and p l a c e were t h e n made by t e l e p h o n e w i t h t h e a u d i e n c e members who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . S i x i n t e r v i e w s were s u b s e q u e n t l y conducted, t a p e - r e c o r d e d and t r a n s c r i b e d . I n t e r v i e w s were h e l d i n my home, o r t h e home o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t , o r i n my o f f i c e , depending upon t h e p r e f e r e n c e o f t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s . I n t e r v i e w s began by welcoming t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r and a s k i n g them t o s i g n t h e Consent Form ( r e f e r t o Appendix B ) . A f t e r a few minutes o f c a s u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n t o h e l p t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s f e e l more c o m f o r t a b l e , t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s were asked: 1. T e l l me about your e x p e r i e n c e o f change as i f you were t e l l i n g me a s t o r y t h a t had a b e g i n n i n g , m i d d l e , and 59 end. What l e d up t o t h i s s h i f t , what happened d u r i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e and what happened a f t e r w a r d s ? 2. What d i d you l e a r n about y o u r s e l f ? 3. The l e a r n i n g t h a t you spoke about, do you see e v i d e n c e of t h a t i n your l i f e now? I f so, what i s t h e e v i d e n c e ? How i s your l i f e d i f f e r e n t ? 4. A r e t h e r e o t h e r f a c t o r s i n your l i f e t h a t you t h i n k may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e change o r s h i f t t h a t you d e s c r i b e d ? 5. I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g you would l i k e t o add t h a t would h e l p me more f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d your e x p e r i e n c e ? ( R e f e r t o Appendix C f o r t h e complete i n t e r v i e w p r o t o c o l ) Data A n a l y s i s G i o r g i (1985) o u t l i n e s a r i g o r o u s method o f e x p l o r i n g t h e phenomenal w o r l d o f c o - r e s e a r c h e r s . H i s method was f o l l o w e d and i s o u t l i n e d below: 1. Read t h e v e r b a t i m t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f i n t e r v i e w s t o g e t a sense o f t h e whole d e s c r i p t i o n . 2. Read t h e s e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s more t h o r o u g h l y i n o r d e r t o d e l i n e a t e each t i m e a t r a n s i t i o n i n meaning i s p e r c e i v e d . A s e r i e s of meaning u n i t s i s t h u s o b t a i n e d . 3. E l i m i n a t e r e d u n d a n c i e s i n meaning u n i t s ; c l a r i f y and e l a b o r a t e t h e meaning o f t h e s e c o n s t i t u e n t s by r e l a t i n g them t o t h e whole and t o each o t h e r . 4. R e f l e c t on t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l meaning of t h e s e c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s and t r a n s f o r m each one from t h e 60 language of t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r i n t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l language. 5. S y n t h e s i z e t h e t r a n s f o r m e d meaning u n i t s i n t o a c o n s i s t e n t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e . The i d e n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e of t h e s h a r e d e x p e r i e n c e was t h e n r e v i e w e d w i t h each c o - r e s e a r c h e r t o ensure t h a t t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e was a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t e d and any changes were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e r e s u l t s . P e r s o n a l B i a s e s A fundamental p r i n c i p l e o f phenomenology i s t h e mutual r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e r e s e a r c h e r and p a r t i c i p a n t . I n some ways i t i s t h e r e s e a r c h e r h i m / h e r s e l f which i s t h e "measure" upon which r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y depend. In o r d e r t o be t r u e t o t h i s form of r e s e a r c h , H u s s e r l d e s c r i b e s t h e need t o assume a " t r a n s c e n d e n t a l a t t i t u d e " ( c i t e d i n V a l l e & K i n g , 1978) o r t o r e t u r n "unto t h e t h i n g s t h e m s e l v e s " (Osborne, 1990). E x i s t e n t i a l - p h e n o m e n o l o g y r e c o g n i z e s t h e u n a v o i d a b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n f o r m u l a t i n g t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n and c o l l e c t i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e d a t a . R a t h e r t h a n a t t e m p t i n g t o remove t h e "human element" t h r o u g h e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n , t h e phenomenologist a r t i c u l a t e s t h e i r p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s and b i a s e s so t h a t t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e may be t a k e n i n t o account (Osborne, 1990). H u s s e r l i a n phenomenology contends t h a t b r a c k e t i n g and r e d u c t i o n a l l o w s 61 t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o "see t h i n g s as t h e y a r e " . T h i s v i e w i s i n c o n t r a s t t o hermeneutic phenomenology w h i c h a s s e r t s t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s u n a v o i d a b l e (Osborne, 1994). Whether t h e m e t a t h e o r e t i c a l frame o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r i s H u s s e r l i a n o r he r m e n e u t i c , b r a c k e t i n g remains an i m p o r t a n t p r e - r e q u i s i t e t o p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l d a t a a n a l y s i s . T h i s r e s e a r c h e r was d e e p l y a f f e c t e d by p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h psychodrama and t r u e t o form, a r e n d e r i n g o f my p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e f o l l o w s . T h i s r e n d e r i n g s e r v e s two purposes --i n i t i a l l y i t was done t o h e l p me be aware o f p o t e n t i a l p e r s o n a l b i a s e s so t h a t I might more f u l l y "see t h i n g s as t h e y a r e " as opposed t o "see t h i n g s as t h e y c o n f i r m my b e l i e f s and e x p e r i e n c e " . I t i s a l s o i n c l u d e d so t h a t t h e r e a d e r may t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n my b i a s e s and c o n s i d e r f o r t h e m s e l v e s t h e degree t o which t h e r e s u l t s a r e c o l o r e d by my p e r s o n a l l e n s e s . In a p r e v i o u s psychodrama workshop I was b o t h a p r o t a g o n i s t and an a u d i e n c e member and had a more p r o f o u n d e x p e r i e n c e as an au d i e n c e member. Based on my u n d e r s t a n d i n g of psychodrama and my e x p e r i e n c e , I have f o r m u l a t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g b e l i e f s : 1. S i g n i f i c a n t change can o c c u r f o r psychodrama a u d i e n c e members. 2. A c o g n i t i v e s h i f t , o r change i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g may be preceded by a c a t h a r t i c e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . 62 3. Through i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e scene t h e y a r e w a t c h i n g , a u d i e n c e members a r e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e drama b e f o r e t h e i r eyes as w e l l as t h e i r own i n t e r n a l drama. 4. The d i r e c t o r s p a r t i n t h e p r o c e s s i s c r u c i a l . Through . b u i l d i n g t r u s t and group c o h e s i o n , psychodrama p a r t i c i p a n t s become more open t o b e i n g t o u c h e d by t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f o t h e r s . I t i s t h r o u g h t h i s openness t h a t g r e a t e r a c c e s s t o t h e i r own i n t e r n a l drama i s p o s s i b l e . My p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i s as f o l l o w s : a) I f e e l open t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f o t h e r s and am w a t c h i n g an enactment; b) I began t o be aware of ways i n which what I was w a t c h i n g made me t h i n k about my own s i t u a t i o n . I am now w a t c h i n g someone e l s e ' s drama w h i l e b e i n g aware of my own f e e l i n g s and c i r c u m s t a n c e s ; c) I became overwhelmed w i t h t h e f e e l i n g s w h i c h were t r i g g e r e d f o r me and had t o l e a v e as I f e l t l i k e I c o u l d no l o n g e r c o n t a i n t h e depth o f what I was e x p e r i e n c i n g and remain c a l m l y i n t h e room. I f e l t c o m p l e t e l y consumed by my own e x p e r i e n c e , and I d i d not want t o d i s t u r b t h e group. The k i t c h e n a d j o i n i n g t h e room where t h e a c t i o n was o c c u r r i n g p r o v i d e d a s a f e haven t o a l l o w t h e o u t p o u r i n g o f g r i e f w h i c h was o c c u r r i n g ; d) I n t h e q u i e t o f t h e a d j o i n i n g room, I began t o sob ( I never sob!) and u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e c u t - o f f r e l a t i o n s h i p I 63 had been m a i n t a i n i n g w i t h a f a m i l y member was not what I r e a l l y wanted. I was f e e l i n g i n t e n s e g u i l t , f r u s t r a t i o n , p o w e r l e s s n e s s and l o n g i n g f o r c o n n e c t i o n ; e) I became aware t h a t t h e end o f t h e group was happening and wanted t o j o i n t h e group w i t h o u t b r i n g i n g t h e d e pth of my f e e l i n g s i n t o l i g h t - t h e t i m e f o r t h a t was p a s t . I a t t e m p t e d t o be p r e s e n t w i t h t h e group but s t i l l f e l t q u i t e overwhelmed w i t h f e e l i n g s . T h i s s l o w l y s u b s i d e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y as t h e d i r e c t o r c o n n e c t e d w i t h me p e r s o n a l l y and b r o u g h t my a t t e n t i o n e l s e w h e r e . f ) The f o l l o w i n g day I f e l t q u i t e s h a t t e r e d and needed some ti m e t o put t h e p i e c e s back t o g e t h e r a g a i n . I d i d t h i s w i t h t h e h e l p of a f r i e n d and l a t e r f e l t l i k e an i m p o r t a n t s h i f t had o c c u r r e d i n how I p o s i t i o n m y s e l f w i t h one p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l y member. g) In c o n t e m p l a t i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e I wonder whether my e x p e r i e n c e i s not more c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h a t o f a p r o t a g o n i s t t h a n of o t h e r a u d i e n c e members and c o n s i d e r t h i s t o be an i n t e r e s t i n g t o p i c t o p u r s u e . As Osborne (1990) d e s c r i b e d , v a l i d i t y , t h e t r u t h v a l u e of a q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d y , can be improved t h r o u g h e x p l i c i t l y s t a t i n g t h e r e s e a r c h e r s b i a s e s . Other i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o b o t h v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y and l i m i t a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l c omprise t h e r e m a i n i n g s e c t i o n s of t h i s c h a p t e r . 64 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study Because o f t h e h i g h l y s u b j e c t i v e and i n t e r a c t i v e n a t u r e o f t h i s t y p e o f methodology, some problems w i t h b o t h v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y e x i s t . I s t h e p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r b e i n g t r u e t o t h e methodology and f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e emergence o f meaning w i t h o u t d i r e c t i n g t h e co-r e s e a r c h e r s ? I n o t h e r words, a r e t h e r e s u l t s v a l i d ? I n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e v a l i d i t y , a p i l o t i n t e r v i e w was h e l d w i t h a c o - r e s e a r c h e r who was b o t h f a m i l i a r w i t h psychodrama and f a m i l i a r w i t h t h i s t y p e o f methodology. Feedback from t h i s i n t e r v i e w was g i v e n and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e i n t e r v i e w i n g s t y l e o f t h e p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r . A n o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n terms of v a l i d i t y c o n cerns t h e degree t o which t h i s workshop f o l l o w s p s y c h o d r a m a t i c t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e . A l t h o u g h t h e d i r e c t o r s i n v o l v e d have not gone t h r o u g h t h e t r a i n i n g p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d i n f o r m a l a c c r e d i t a t i o n as psychodrama t r a i n e r s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s , t h e y do f o l l o w t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l p r o c e s s o f c l a s s i c psychodrama and have e x t e n s i v e e x p e r i e n c e . The depth of e x p e r i e n c e noted by a u d i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y and p r o t a g o n i s t s i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s speaks f o r i t s e l f . S i n c e no attempt i s b e i n g made t o g e n e r a l i z e beyond t h e co-r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h i s s t u d y , t h i s l i m i t a t i o n i s m i n i m a l . R e l i a b i l i t y can be p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o b l e m a t i c when d e s i g n , d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s a r e c a r r i e d out i n i s o l a t i o n , w i t h o n l y one r e s e a r c h e r . T h i s p r e c l u d e s b o t h t h e 65 p o s s i b i l i t y of i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y , and feedback about t h e way t h e r e s e a r c h e r may be i n f l u e n c i n g i n t e r v i e w outcome. ( A c h i l l e s , 1994). In o r d e r t o maximize r e l i a b i l i t y , f o l l o w - u p i n t e r v i e w s were h e l d w i t h each c o - r e s e a r c h e r . The purpose o f t h e v a l i d a t i o n i n t e r v i e w s was t o ensure t h a t t h e way i n whi c h t h e p r i n c i p a l r e s e a r c h e r had made meaning o f a u d i e n c e member e x p e r i e n c e s matched t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s e x p e r i e n c e . The v a l i d a t i o n i n t e r v i e w s were c a r r i e d out i n a h i g h l y c o l l a b o r a t i v e and i n t e r a c t i o n a l way. The p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r r i g o r o u s l y examined s t u d y r e s u l t s w i t h co-r e s e a r c h e r s — b o t h major themes and a l l o f t h e sub-themes i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e s u l t s . C o - r e s e a r c h e r feedback was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e r e s u l t s . Heppner e t a l (1992) note t h a t a l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s methodology i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e sample s i z e i s s m a l l and t h e r e a r e few comparison groups. Would t h e s e s i x a u d i e n c e p a r t i c i p a n t s have a s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e o f change as s i x male inmates p a r t i c i p a t i n g as a u d i e n c e members i n a psychodrama under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t o r s ? A l s o , i s t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e psychodrama under s t u d y s i m i l a r t o o t h e r psychodrama groups? A l t h o u g h t h i s l i m i t a t i o n i s worthy o f no t e , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o a l s o note t h a t g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y i s not an aim o f p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . Not w a n t i n g t o p r e d i c t , c o n t r o l o r measure, t h e depth and b r e a d t h o f i n f o r m a t i o n emerging from t h i s methodology f o c u s e s more upon 66 d i s c o v e r y , d e s c r i p t i o n and meaning (Osborne, 1994), and not upon g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y . Concerns about g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y a r e more a p p r o p r i a t e t o d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y o f q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h . T h i s i s s u e w i l l be more f u l l y a d d r e s s e d under t h e n e x t h e a d i n g i n t h i s c h a p t e r . A n o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e s t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n . Audience members who e x p e r i e n c e d a s i g n i f i c a n t p e r s o n a l change were asked t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s p r o v i d e d no i n f o r m a t i o n about whether o r not a l l a u d i e n c e members e x p e r i e n c e s i g n i f i c a n t change, nor does i t p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a u d i e n c e members who d i d not e x p e r i e n c e s i g n i f i c a n t p e r s o n a l change. A more comprehensive d e s i g n would be t o examine t h e e x p e r i e n c e of a u d i e n c e members i n g e n e r a l . F i n a l l y , t h e number of c o - r e s e a r c h e r s who v o l u n t e e r e d f o r t h i s s t u d y may not have been adequate. I d e a l l y s a m p l i n g i s t e r m i n a t e d when a s a t u r a t i o n p o i n t i s r e a c h e d , o r when i n t e r v i e w s s t o p p r o v i d i n g new i n f o r m a t i o n . Osborne (1990) c i t e s Wertz (1984): "the r e s e a r c h e r needs as many p a r t i c i p a n t s as i t t a k e s t o i l l u m i n a t e t h e phenomenon". S i x c o - r e s e a r c h e r s were i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s s t u d y , and a l t h o u g h t h i s i s o f t e n t h e number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s t y p e o f s t u d y , i d e a l l y t h e number of p a r t i c i p a n t s would have been d i c t a t e d by s a t u r a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n by t h e number of p e o p l e who v o l u n t e e r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 67 R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y The i s s u e of r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y i n q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h i s d e s e r v i n g o f s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n i n as much as t h e s e c o n c e p t s a r e g e n e r a l l y more a p p l i c a b l e t o q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h ( K e f t i n g , 1991). A l t h o u g h i t may be i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o i m p o r t q u a n t i t a t i v e c o n c e p t s t o e v a l u a t e q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d i e s , t h e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s i t s e l f i s c r u c i a l . K r e f t i n g (1990) s u g g e s t s t h a t Guba's Model be adopted f o r e v a l u a t i n g q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h . Guba ( c i t e d i n K r e f t i n g , 1990) d e l i n e a t e s f o u r a s p e c t s of t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s t h a t a r e r e l e v a n t t o b o t h q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h : a) t r u t h v a l u e ; b) a p p l i c a b i l i t y ; c) c o n s i s t e n c y ; and d) n e u t r a l i t y . T r u t h v a l u e r e l a t e s t o t h e c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e t r u t h o f t h e f i n d i n g s . In q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h t h i s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h how w e l l t h r e a t s t o i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y have been c o n t r o l l e d and how a p p r o p r i a t e t h e measures a r e . In q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h t h i s r e f e r s t o t h e a c c u r a c y w i t h which p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e x p e r i e n c e s have been d e s c r i b e d and/or i n t e r p r e t e d ( K r e f t i n g , 1990). C a r e f u l v a l i d a t i o n i n t e r v i e w s , which were c a r r i e d out i n t h i s s t u d y , would i n c r e a s e t h e t r u t h v a l u e . Osborne (1990) notes o t h e r ways i n which t h e t r u t h v a l u e (which he r e f e r s t o as v a l i d i t y ) can be a s s e s s e d . These i n c l u d e : e x p l i c i t b r a c k e t i n g and t h o r o u g h d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e p r o c e d u r e and d a t a a n a l y s i s ; c h e c k i n g r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t s d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s and 68 a f t e r a n a l y s i s has been done; p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c o h e r e n t and c o n v i n c i n g arguments t o a r e s e a r c h committee; and t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h o t h e r p e o p l e who have e x p e r i e n c e d t h e same phenomenon f e e l a resonance w i t h t h e r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s . Guba's second assessment c r i t e r i a i s a p p l i c a b i l i t y w h i c h r e f e r s t o e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y o r g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y i n q u a n t i t a t i v e s t u d i e s and t h e degree t o which t h e f i n d i n g s f i t i n t o c o n t e x t s w h i c h a r e o u t s i d e t h e s t u d y s i t u a t i o n i n q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d i e s ( c i t e d i n K r e f t i n g , 1991). T h i s c r i t e r i a appears t o c o n t r a d i c t t h e i d e a t h a t q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h i s not concerned w i t h g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y . Guba ( c i t e d i n K r e f t i n g , 1991) m a i n t a i n s t h a t as l o n g as s u f f i c i e n t d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a t o a l l o w comparisons i s p r o v i d e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r , he o r she has a d d r e s s e d t h e i s s u e o f a p p l i c a b i l i t y . The t h i r d c r i t e r i o n r e l a t e s t o t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e d a t a - r e l i a b i l i t y i n q u a n t i t a t i v e terms and d e p e n d a b i l i t y i n q u a l i t a t i v e terms. D e p e n d a b i l i t y denotes " t r a c k a b l e v a r i a b i l i t y " o r t h e degree t o which v a r i a b i l i t y can be a s c r i b e d t o i d e n t i f i e d s o u r c e s ( K r e f t i n g , 1991). T h i s would r e q u i r e a t h o r o u g h d e s c r i p t i o n o f r e s e a r c h methods. S i n c e v a r i a b i l i t y i s t o be e x p e c t e d i n q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o be a b l e t o i n t e g r a t e i t r a t h e r t h a n t r y t o " c o n t r o l f o r i t " . N e u t r a l i t y i s Guba's f i n a l c r i t e r i a and can be d e s c r i b e d as o b j e c t i v i t y i n q u a n t i t a t i v e terms and c o n f i r m a b i l i t y i n 69 q u a l i t a t i v e terras. I n o t h e r words, t h e " s c i e n t i f i c d i s t a n c e " which i s aimed f o r by q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h e r s i s s h i f t e d from t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o t h e d a t a i n q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d i e s . I n t h i s way t h e n e u t r a l i t y o f t h e d a t a , i n terms of b e i n g a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i p t i v e , i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n n e u t r a l i t y o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r . Guba notes t h a t n e u t r a l i t y i s a c h i e v e d when a p p l i c a b i l i t y and t r u t h v a l u e have been e s t a b l i s h e d ( c i t e d i n K r e f t i n g , 1991). In summary, some of t h e c r i t e r i a f o r i n c r e a s i n g r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y as o u t l i n e d by Osborne (1990) and Guba ( c i t e d i n K r e f t i n g , 1991) have been met i n t h i s s t u d y . S p e c i f i c a l l y , b r a c k e t i n g o f r e s e a r c h e r b i a s e s , c h e c k i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n d u r i n g i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w s , r i g o r o u s d a t a a n a l y s i s and c a r e f u l v a l i d a t i o n i n t e r v i e w s were u n d e r t a k e n . In o t h e r words, e f f o r t s t o enhance t h e t r u t h v a l u e o f t h i s s t u d y were u n d e r t a k e n . A p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h i s s t u d y i s p a r t i a l l y s u p p o r t e d and w i l l be f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d i n t h e l a s t c h a p t e r o f t h i s t h e s i s . However, f u r t h e r q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d i e s r e g a r d i n g a u d i e n c e member e x p e r i e n c e w i l l need t o be u n d e r t a k e n t o t r u l y a s s e s s t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h i s s t u d y . N e u t r a l i t y , w h ich can o n l y be d e t e r m i n e d a f t e r t r u t h v a l u e and a p p l i c a b i l i t y a r e c l e a r l y i n e v i d e n c e , has y e t t o be d e t e r m i n e d . 70 CHAPTER IV RESULTS The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o p r e s e n t t h e r e s u l t s found i n t h i s s t u d y . A l i s t o f emergent themes i s p r o v i d e d f o l l o w e d by an e x h a u s t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f s i g n i f i c a n t change f o r psychodrama a u d i e n c e members. The sh a r e d e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e of t h e e x p e r i e n c e completes t h i s c h a p t e r . I n t r o d u c t i o n The 11 themes which emerged i n t h i s s t u d y have been o r g a n i z e d i n t o f i v e c a t e g o r i e s t h a t p r o v i d e an o v e r r i d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e f o r au d i e n c e members e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s s t r u c t u r e emerged t h r o u g h c a r e f u l r e v i e w i n g o f t h e d a t a r a t h e r t h a n a d e s i r e t o superimpose a s t r u c t u r e upon t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d . I n c l u d e d i n each c a t e g o r y a r e t h e themes which emerged from t h e c l u s t e r i n g of r e l a t e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l meaning u n i t s . The e x h a u s t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n i n c l u d e s t h e v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n themes, o r sub-themes d e s c r i b e d by t h e a u d i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y . Sub-themes were not n e c e s s a r i l y a l l t r u e f o r each a u d i e n c e member; however t o g e t h e r t h e y form t h e themes which were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of c o - r e s e a r c h e r s e x p e r i e n c e . Two themes were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f most, b u t not a l l a u d i e n c e members. Theme #4, "A sense o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y and embarrassment" was not acknowledged by one au d i e n c e member, 71 a l t h o u g h i t i s my o p i n i o n t h a t underneath a sense o f o b l i g a t i o n , w hich was w i t h i n t h e awareness o f t h i s i n d i v i d u a l , l a y a sense o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y and embarrassment. Theme #10, "Sense o f e v o l u t i o n o f psychodrama e x p e r i e n c e " was a l s o not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l l a u d i e n c e members e x p e r i e n c e s i n c e two p e o p l e were p a r t i c i p a t i n g f o r t h e i r f i r s t t i m e . These themes have n o n e t h e l e s s been i n c l u d e d because o f t h e r i c h n e s s o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d . In o r d e r t h a t t h e r e a d e r may have some c o n t e x t i n which t o s i t u a t e a u d i e n c e members d e s c r i p t i o n s , a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e r e l e v a n t enactments i s p r o v i d e d . 1. An enactment which was done i n t h e August '95 psychodrama workshop which was r e l e v a n t f o r one au d i e n c e member i n v o l v e d a p r o t a g o n i s t c r e a t i n g a scene from t h e f u t u r e i n wh i c h she c o n f r o n t s h er b r o t h e r about h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o a n o t h e r b r o t h e r . Of s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e au d i e n c e member i s t h e l o v i n g n a t u r e o f t h e s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . 2. An enactment done i n t h e December '95 workshop w h i c h was of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e t o t h r e e of t h e a u d i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y i n v o l v e d a p r o t a g o n i s t e x p r e s s i n g her rage t o a d o c t o r f o r h i s l a c k o f due c a r e and c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h i s scene was f o l l o w e d by a f u n e r a l scene i n v o l v i n g t h e b u r i a l o f b a b i e s l o s t t h r o u g h m i s c a r r i a g e . The enactment ended w i t h t h e p r o t a g a n i s t b r i n g i n g t h e au d i e n c e t o g e t h e r and 72 r e c o g n i z i n g t h e unique and i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f each p e r s o n p r e s e n t . 3. An enactment done i n December '94 was o f r e l e v a n c e t o one o f t h e au d i e n c e members i n t e r v i e w e d and i n v o l v e d a p r o t a g a n i s t a d d r e s s i n g h i s f e e l i n g s about t h e p s y c h i a t r i c l a b e l w hich he had been g i v e n which c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e men and women i n t h e group and t h e men j o i n i n g t o g e t h e r on one s i d e o f t h e room. 4. An enactment done i n t h e December '95 workshop w h i c h was r e l e v a n t t o one au d i e n c e member i n v o l v e d a man s o r t i n g out and assuming h i s p o s i t i o n i n h i s b l e n d e d f a m i l y . Of p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n was a segment i n which t h e p r o t a g a n i s t t o o k from each f a m i l y member a q u a l i t y w h i c h he wanted f o r h i m s e l f . Themes A. Psychodrama Experience for Audience Members 1. Sense o f b e i n g f u l l y p r e s e n t 2. S h i f t from t h i n k i n g t o f e e l i n g 3. E x p e r i e n c e o f h i g h l y i n t e n s e , a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g f e e l i n g s 4. Sense o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y and embarrassment 5. S h i f t out o f i n t e n s e p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e back t o r o l e as au d i e n c e member B. Making Meaning of the Experience 6. P e r c e i v e d need t o i n t e g r a t e e x p e r i e n c e 7. Emergence o f p e r s o n a l themes f o r f u t u r e work 73 8. E x p e r i e n c e o f fundamental change C. Evidence of Change i n Daily L i f e 9. Awareness of changed s t y l e o f i n t e r a c t i o n D. Psychodrama Progression 10. Sense of e v o l u t i o n o f psychodrama e x p e r i e n c e s E. Additional Contributing Factors 11. Assessment of o t h e r f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g e x p e r i e n c e of change. E x h a u s t i v e D e s c r i p t i o n s E x p e r i e n c e o f S i g n i f i c a n t Change f o r Psychodrama Audience Members Sense of Being F u l l y Present F o r a l l of t h e a u d i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y , a sense of b e i n g f u l l y p r e s e n t was found t o be t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e of b e i n g e m o t i o n a l l y drawn i n t o an enactment. B e i n g f u l l y p r e s e n t meant t h a t t h e y were not d i s t r a c t e d by o t h e r t h o u g h t s o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and f e l t f u l l y engaged as an a u d i e n c e member. E x p r e s s i o n s used by a u d i e n c e members i n c l u d e d : " I f e l t v e r y c o n n e c t e d " , " I was f u l l y p r e s e n t w i t h o u t any b u r n i n g i s s u e s t h a t were i n t e r f e r i n g " , " I f e l t q u i t e n e u t r a l and y e t not d i s p a s s i o n a t e , not u n i n v o l v e d , j u s t open and r e a d y t o see what would happen." S h i f t from Thinking to Feeling B e i n g f u l l y p r e s e n t a l l o w e d a u d i e n c e members t o s h i f t t h e i r f o c u s t o t h e p r o t a g o n i s t and t h e enactment t h e y were w i t n e s s i n g . W i t h t h e f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n on t h e 74 p r o t a g o n i s t ' s e x p e r i e n c e , a f u r t h e r s h i f t from o b s e r v i n g f a i r l y d i s p a s s i o n a t e l y , t o o b s e r v i n g and f e e l i n g s t r o n g p e r s o n a l emotions a l s o took, p l a c e , a t l e a s t f o r enactments which were p e r c e i v e d as p i v o t a l i n i n s t i g a t i n g p e r s o n a l change. T h i s sense o f movement from t h i n k i n g t o f e e l i n g was t r i g g e r e d p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s o f f o u r p r o c e s s e s . These p r o c e s s e s i n c l u d e d : empathy f o r t h e p r o t a g o n i s t , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e p r o t a g o n i s t , becoming aware o f a l a c k o r l o s s i n t h e i r own l i f e and a d e s i r e f o r something t h e y were w a t c h i n g . The empathic p r o c e s s i n a c o u n s e l l i n g sense i n c l u d e s b o t h t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f a n o t h e r ' s f e e l i n g s as w e l l as an element o f detachment which a l l o w s t h e c l i n i c i a n t o "move back from t h e merged i n n e r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a p o s i t i o n o f s e p a r a t e i d e n t i t y t h a t p e r m i t s a response t o be made t h a t r e f l e c t s b o t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e o t h e r as w e l l . a s s e p a r a t e n e s s from them" ( M a r c i a , p. 8 3 ) . F o r most a u d i e n c e members, empathy, i n t h e c o n t e x t i n which i t was used h e r e , d i d not i n c l u d e an element of detachment. R a t h e r , i t was a deep p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e f e e l i n g s o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t . " I f e l t what he was g o i n g t h r o u g h and I t h i n k a t t h e same t i m e i t brough t up what I was g o i n g t h r o u g h . " T h i s p r o f o u n d e x p e r i e n c e of a n o t h e r ' s f e e l i n g s was d e s c r i b e d d i f f e r e n t l y by v a r i o u s a u d i e n c e members. One p e r s o n d e s c r i b e d her empathic e x p e r i e n c e as o c c u r r i n g "on a c e l l u l a r l e v e l . " A n o t h e r c o n s i d e r e d t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e 75 p r o t a g o n i s t ' s f e e l i n g s t o be a group t r a n s c e n d e n t e x p e r i e n c e " I t was a group c r i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . I f e l t t h a t we were a l l j u s t c onnected i n t h a t s i n g l e e x p e r i e n c e i n t h a t t i m e . " A l l o f t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s e x p e r i e n c e d a sense o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e p r o t a g o n i s t . Something w i t n e s s e d i n t h e enactment t r i g g e r e d f e e l i n g s t h a t l i n k e d t h e e x p e r i e n c e of t h e p r o t a g o n i s t t o something t h e a u d i e n c e member had p e r s o n a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e i r own p a s t . I n o t h e r words, i n a s y m b o l i c way t h e y were w a t c h i n g a p i e c e o f t h e i r own p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y t o wh i c h t h e r e were s t r o n g f e e l i n g s a t t a c h e d . "the g r i e f around a f u n e r a l tapped i n t o my own g r i e f around l o s i n g my own man who d i e d . " . . . i t wasn't l i k e t h e y were a c t i n g out my l i f e . But what t h e y were d o i n g was l i k e b i t s were so, o c c a s i o n a l l y t h e r e would be a r e a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t and I would t h i n k "Oh, how t h a t r e l a t e s t o me i s t h i s " . Not t h i n k i n g t h a t c o n s c i o u s l y , but f e e l i n g i t . The one au d i e n c e member who s h i f t e d from t h i n k i n g t o f e e l i n g t h r o u g h empathy w i t h o u t h a v i n g an i n i t i a l sense o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was aware l a t e r , a f t e r she was f u l l y immersed i n her f e e l i n g s , o f a p i e c e i n her l i f e w h ich was s i m i l a r t o what she was w i t n e s s i n g . " I t h o u g h t , oh, t h a t c o u l d be me, one o f t h o s e c h i l d r e n c o u l d be me p r a c t i c a l l y . . . " Some audie n c e member d e s c r i b e d t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h t h e p r o t a g o n i s t i n terms o f e n j o y i n g s e e i n g them have o r do something t h e y would l i k e t o have o r do t h e m s e l v e s : . . . t h e whole i d e a of h a v i n g a b r o t h e r l i k e Andrea's b r o t h e r t h a t you c o u l d s i t her down and say "Now l o o k , 76 t h i s i s what I need. I r e a l l y l o v e you and you know you've been a g r e a t b r o t h e r , but you have t o s t a r t t r e a t i n g me t h i s way." I mean I l o v e d i t . I l o v e d w a t c h i n g t h a t and o f c o u r s e a t t h e same ti m e I a l s o f e l t t h e sadness because I would never have t h a t . F e e l i n g s of l o s s were t r i g g e r e d f o r f i v e a u d i e n c e members as t h e y w i t n e s s e d p r o t a g o n i s t s e n a c t i n g s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g l o s s and g r i e f , o r as t h e y w i t n e s s e d something w h i c h was l a c k i n g i n t h e i r own l i f e . F o r most p e o p l e f e e l i n g s o f l o s s were accompanied by y e a r n i n g f o r something which was m i s s i n g . I f e l t choked up because t h o s e words a r e r e a l l y ones t h a t I have r e a l l y been w a n t i n g t o hear f o r a l o n g t i m e and t h e n t o a c t u a l l y hear them and have them p l a y e d out i n f r o n t o f me was p r o v o k i n g o f f e e l i n g s o f l o s s e s from t h e p a s t , t h a t perhaps I hadn't i d e n t i f i e d because t h e y were a c t s of o m i s s i o n as opposed t o commission so t h e y a r e h a r d e r t o i d e n t i f y . One au d i e n c e member d i s c o v e r e d a sense o f j o y from h a v i n g acknowledged and e x p e r i e n c e d her l o s s : "When I had a chance t o be by m y s e l f i n my c a r , t h a t ' s when i t a l l came back t o g e t h e r w i t h o u t t e a r s . I t was alm o s t a j o y . " The e n t r a n c e i n t o an e m o t i o n a l r e a l m was a p r o c e s s which o c c u r r e d a t an u n c o n s c i o u s l e v e l and was e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f e r e n t l y i n terms o f i n i t i a l i n t e n s i t y . One p e r s o n e x p e r i e n c e d t h i s s h i f t as g r a d u a l and g e n t l e : " I don't t h i n k i t was a sudden s h i f t , I t h i n k i t was l i k e a g r a d u a l s h i f t . I t h i n k my empathy f o r Rose and what she was g o i n g t h r o u g h put me i n t o a c e r t a i n e m o t i o n a l s t a t e . " The r e s t f e l t t h a t i t was more i n s t a n t a n e o u s : I was i n my head as Jenny was t a l k i n g about her b r o t h e r and I'm g o i n g "yes, y e s , I'm i n my head, I'm i n my head" 77 and t h e n when she t a l k e d about l o v e i t was a l m o s t as i f a l l t h a t f e l l away. I t was as i f t h i s c o n c r e t e w a l l t h a t I had b u i l t up i n my r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h my b r o t h e r j u s t s o r t o f c o l l a p s e d . Experience of Highly Intense/ All-Encompassing Feelings A l t h o u g h t h e i n i t i a l s h i f t from t h i n k i n g t o f e e l i n g v a r i e d i n i t s o r i g i n a l i n t e n s i t y , t h e f e e l i n g r e a l m became h i g h l y e x p e r i e n t i a l , i n t e n s e , and t o some degree a l l encompassing. H i g h l y e x p e r i e n t i a l denotes a "here and now" q u a l i t y t o t h e f e e l i n g s . A u dience members were no l o n g e r w a t c h i n g t h e enactment b u t were r a t h e r e x p e r i e n c i n g i t p e r s o n a l l y . I t was as i f Jenny was s p e a k i n g t o me d i r e c t l y . . . I mean I found t h a t I was l i s t e n i n g i n t e n t l y t o what she had t o say t o each i n d i v i d u a l and I was t a k i n g i t i n l i k e she was s a y i n g i t t o me. "With D a n i e l ' s I was e x p e r i e n c i n g i t from t h e i n s i d e . I wasn't l o o k i n g a t i t , I was r i g h t i n t h e r e and I was g o i n g t h r o u g h i t , you know, as an au d i e n c e member." F e e l i n g s were e x p e r i e n c e d as i n t e n s e ( p r o f o u n d and p o w e r f u l ) , and f o r most, t h e r e was a l s o a t u r b u l e n t , o r stormy q u a l i t y " k i n d o f l i k e a r o l l e r c o a s t e r o f i s o l a t i o n and anger", "Well i n t e n s e , I t h i n k i t was, t h e r e was so much emotion." One a u d i e n c e member who was p r i m a r i l y e x p e r i e n c i n g p o s i t i v e emotions d i d not f e e l t h a t h i s emotions were t u r b u l e n t . The t one o f emotions ranged from p o s i t i v e : " I j u s t f e l t r e a l l y overwhelmed by t h e e x p e r i e n c e i n a r e a l l y p o s i t i v e way"; t o a c o m b i n a t i o n of emotions i n c l u d i n g "nervous . . ., 78 choked up . . ., and happy t o hear t h o s e t h i n g s " t o v e r y d i s t r e s s i n g : " i t was s t r o n g , and p a i n f u l . " F o r a l l a u d i e n c e members t h e e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e became a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g . In o t h e r words, t h e e x p e r i e n c e o c c u r r e d w i t h a l i m i t e d sense of o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y . Some e n t e r e d i n t o what t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d as a t r a n s c e n d a n t r e a l i t y "time s t o o d s t i l l . . . when i t came ti m e t o t a l k about i t , i t was a l m o s t i n d e s c r i b a b l e . " F o r o t h e r s t h e e x p e r i e n c e was l e s s s p i r i t u a l ; however f o r everyone t h e i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e had become t h e f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n w i t h a t l e a s t a p a r t i a l l o s s o f t h e outward g e s t a l t o f t h e scene t h e y were w i t n e s s i n g . When I t h i n k o f t h a t e x p e r i e n c e I was aware of L i z and P e t e r and Penny and t h e b a b i e s , and I've no i d e a where anybody e l s e was. So t h e room became v e r y s m a l l , and i t was d a r k i f I remember r i g h t l y . And I don't remember t h i n k i n g , I don't remember anybody e l s e . So no, I became v e r y f o c u s s e d I t h i n k , l i k e you a r e when you watch a movie a t some l e v e l , and you don't f e e l a l l t h e p e o p l e around you. I was t o t a l l y o b l i v i o u s t o a n y t h i n g e l s e . Some au d i e n c e members wanted t o move out of t h e e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and f o r them t h i s a l t e r e d s t a t e l a s t e d v e r y b r i e f l y : " I l i v e d i n t h a t m e n t a l , e m o t i o n a l , p h y s i c a l k i n d of response f o r a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t t i m e . " The r e s t remained i n t h e i r i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e f o r much l o n g e r : I was d o i n g (what t h e p r o t a g o n i s t was d o i n g ) w i t h my f a m i l y members. I was s t a n d i n g b e h i n d them and I was p u t t i n g my hand on t h e i r s h o u l d e r s and I was s a y i n g " t h i s i s what I wanted" (as I moved from one f a m i l y member t o t h e n e x t r e p e a t i n g t h e p r o c e s s ) . (Note: p a r e n t h e s i s added t o c l a r i f y d e t a i l s not c o n t a i n e d i n one s p e c i f i c q u o t e ) . F o r many t h e e x p e r i e n c e i n c l u d e d a p h y s i c a l component: " I slumped a l i t t l e b i t i n my s e a t and my s i g h , i t wasn't j u s t my b r e a t h , i t was a l l o f my body. I had t o l i f t m y s e l f up and s l i d e i n t o my s e a t " ; " I r e c a l l a k i n d o f h e a r t pounding, l i k e a f e e l i n g o f h e i g h t e n e d t e n s i o n I suppose"; " l i k e p h y s i c a l l y I . . . ached . . . k i n d o f h o l d i n g my b r e a t h . " F o r o t h e r s t h e e x p e r i e n c e was more v i s u a l : " I t e n d not t o be so aware o f my body . . . I t ' s t h e v i s i o n t h a t I have i n my mind . . . I have a p i c t u r e , . . . t h a t was such an e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e f o r me . . . t h o s e images a r e burned i n my memory." T h i s theme has g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d a u d i e n c e members e x p e r i e n c e o f i n t e n s e f e e l i n g s which were o r i g i n a t i n g from w i t h i n . S e v e r a l a u d i e n c e members a l s o e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n about i n t e n s e f e e l i n g s w h i c h were b e i n g d i r e c t e d a t an a u x i l i a r y : " I s o r t o f had some c o n c e r n f o r him because he was t a k i n g a l l women's rage t o a l l men a t t h a t p o i n t . " " I was, am w o r r i e d about p e o p l e t a k i n g i t p e r s o n a l l y t o o , even though t h e y a r e i n t h e r o l e , because I would p r o b a b l y t a k e i t a b i t p e r s o n a l l y . " One au d i e n c e member c o n s i d e r e d an enactment t o be a s a f e p l a c e t o e x p r e s s raw r a g e : I t h i n k t h a t when one f e e l s t h a t k i n d of r a g e , one i s a l s o concerned about t h e consequences o f u n l o a d i n g t h a t r a g e , and t h e consequences b e i n g t h a t you a l i e n a t e men around you because what you a r e d o i n g i s p r o j e c t i n g y o u r anger towards men t h a t may have t r e a t e d you ( b a d l y ) i n th e p a s t on t o men t h a t a r e i n t h e group t h a t were no p a r t o f t h a t . So because o f t h e s e t t i n g , t h e s e t t i n g had been a l r e a d y s e t , i t was o.k. . . . f o r M i r a n d a t o e x p e r i e n c e her rage and i t wasn't meant t o a l i e n a t e any p a r t i c u l a r group . . . I c o u l d n ' t have done i t i f t h e 80 s t a g e hadn't been s e t . Respect f o r everybody t h a t was t h e r e ; an u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h i s wasn't d i r e c t e d towards any man t h e r e . One a u d i e n c e member t a l k e d about r e c e i v i n g i n t e n s e rage d u r i n g h i s e x p e r i e n c e as an a u x i l i a r y . Because of h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e " p r o j e c t i v e s c r e e n " q u a l i t y o f t h e a u x i l i a r y r o l e , he was q u i t e c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e rage of t h e p r o t a g o n i s t : " I was aware o f how i n t e n s e and e x p l o s i v e her f e e l i n g s were and.I knew t h a t I needed t o r e c e i v e h er anger". Sense of V u l n e r a b i l i t y and Embarrassment Most a u d i e n c e members were caught o f f guard by t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e i r f e e l i n g s and e x p e r i e n c e d a sense o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y and embarrassment co n n e c t e d w i t h t h e s e s t r o n g f e e l i n g s . V u l n e r a b i l i t y was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a sense o f exposure " I don't have my s h e l l on . . . I f e e l l i k e a c r a b w i t h no s k i n . " Embarrassment was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e i t h e r r e c e i v i n g unaccustomed t o v a l i d a t i o n "Sometimes i t i s h a r d t o s t a n d up and hear someone say t h i n g s t o you i n a d i r e c t manner t h e way M a r i n a d i d " ( t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a u d i e n c e member was t a k i n g i n t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n b e i n g e x p r e s s e d i n d i v i d u a l l y t o each p e r s o n p r e s e n t as i f i t were b e i n g e x p r e s s e d t o her d i r e c t l y ) o r t h e p u b l i c e x p r e s s i o n of p r i v a t e f e e l i n g s , e s p e c i a l l y c r y i n g : " I d i d n ' t f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e about t h a t . I don't c r y . " One a u d i e n c e member's e x p e r i e n c e o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y and embarrassment was l e s s i n t e n s e . He d e s c r i b e d t h e f e e l i n g as 81 s e l f - c o n s c i o u s a l t h o u g h f o r him, h i s t e a r s were a l s o p e r c e i v e d as a symbol o f j o i n i n g w i t h t h e p r o t a g o n i s t . S e v e r a l a u d i e n c e members p e r c e i v e d a d e s i r e t o tone down t h e i n t e n s i t y o f , o r c o n t r o l t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e i n some way. Some wondered i f t h e y c o u l d weather t h e storm: " I had a l s o a b i t o f con c e r n — how s t r o n g were t h e s e f e e l i n g s ? As t h e y s t a r t e d I d i d n ' t know where i t was g o i n g t o t a k e me . . ." "The one t h i n g was my t r y i n g t o t h i n k o f ways t o r e s i s t t h i s s l i d i n g down, t o g e t h o l d o f i t and back i t up a l i t t l e . " The p r i m a r y ways i n whi c h a u d i e n c e members at t e m p t e d t o c o n t r o l t h e i r f e e l i n g s was t h r o u g h s e l f t a l k : "calm down, put t h i s i n p e r s p e c t i v e . . . don't l e t t h i s t h i n g s l i d e away on you", p h y s i c a l changes: " I t o o k some deep b r e a t h s " , "sometimes I b i t e my l i p " , " I k i n d o f st e p p e d away" and t h r o u g h a d e c i s i o n t o d e a l w i t h t h e i r f e e l i n g s l a t e r : ". . . i t was not my t i m e t o g e t i n t o t h a t g r i e f . I c o u l d do t h a t l a t e r . " One p e r s o n a l s o n o t e d an alm o s t m e d i t a t i v e approach of a l l o w i n g r e c u r r i n g t h o u g h t s t o e n t e r and e x i t : . . . i t was more l e t t i n g a c o u p l e o f t h o u g h t s go by, and t h e n l e t t i n g them go t h r o u g h and o u t . I had a c o u p l e of f l a s h b a c k s as I was w a t c h i n g , b u t I j u s t k e p t l e a v i n g t h e door open so t h e y would e x i t and I s p e n t , worked t o g e t back i n f o c u s . . . Some au d i e n c e members wanted t o p u t t h e i r f e e l i n g s on h o l d because o f a f e l t sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards t h e p r o t a g o n i s t : " r i g h t now I have a n o t h e r r o l e . . . I have a n o t h e r r o l e and t h a t i s I want t o be here f o r Genevieve, I don't want t o be p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h m y s e l f . " Others f e l t 82 unencumbered by r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and welcomed t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t a y w i t h t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e : " I d i d n ' t f e e l t h a t I had t o t a k e a c e r t a i n r o l e . I f e l t f r e e t o , f r e e t o do whatever The a u d i e n c e members who s u c c e s s f u l l y p u t t h e i r f e e l i n g s a s i d e e x p e r i e n c e d an u n c o n t r o l l a b l e re-emergence of i n t e n s e f e e l i n g s e i t h e r d u r i n g t h e i n t e g r a t i o n phase of t h e enactment o r d u r i n g t h e workshop c l o s u r e . " I d i d n ' t want t o ge t i n t o i t . . . a l t h o u g h t h e n e x t day I c o u l d n ' t s t o p c r y i n g . I r e a l i z e d t h a t because I hadn't l e t i t o u t , i t j u s t poured out o f me." One a u d i e n c e members who e x p e r i e n c e d a re-emergence of f e e l i n g s p r e f e r r e d not t o work t h r o u g h her f e e l i n g s w i t h t h e group: Once I got t h e sense t h a t t h e y were g o i n g t o l e a v e me a l o n e , i t made i t c o m f o r t a b l e f o r me t o s t a y t h e r e . But i f t h e y had s t a r t e d t o say "do you want t o t a l k about t h a t " , I t h i n k maybe t h e y made some r e f e r e n c e t o i t and I j u s t s a i d " I was f i n e " and t h e n t h e y l e f t me e n t i r e l y a l o n e . Once I knew t h a t , I c o u l d s t a y t h e r e and t h a t was r e a l l y h e l p f u l t o me. The o t h e r f e l t more a m b i v a l e n t : I r e a l l y d i d n ' t b e l i e v e t h a t . . . i t was n e c e s s a r y t h a t I s h are t h a t e x p e r i e n c e , h a v i n g t a l k e d a l r e a d y , because somehow f o r me i t would t a k e something away from ( t h e p r o t a g o n i s t ) . . . so I d e c i d e d t o l e a v e i t t o ( t h e d i r e c t o r ) . I f he t h o u g h t i t would be i m p o r t a n t t o ask me f i n e , b u t I a c t u a l l y had eye c o n t a c t w i t h him. I d e l i b e r a t e l y sought eye c o n t a c t w i t h him, w i t h t h e t e a r s coming down t o check i n , i n a sense, and he never d i d a n y t h i n g about i t and I t r u s t e d him. 83 S h i f t out of Intense Personal Experience Back to Role as Audience Member Audience members e v e n t u a l l y emerged out of a d e e p l y p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e back t o t h e i r r o l e as an a u d i e n c e member. In o t h e r words, t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g t u r b u l e n t i n t e n s e f e e l i n g s e i t h e r s u b s i d e d n a t u r a l l y o r were pushed out o f awareness and t h e y were once a g a i n i n a more "normal" s t a t e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . D u r i n g t h e v a l i d a t i o n i n t e r v i e w , one a u d i e n c e member noted t h a t r e t u r n i n g t o a "normal" s t a t e meant t h a t he s t a y e d i n a h e i g h t e n e d s t a t e o f awareness, however t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e f e e l i n g s s u b s i d e d . The t r a n s i t i o n out o f an i n t e n s e , t u r b u l e n t , a l l -encompassing e x p e r i e n c e was i n i t i a t e d f o r one p e r s o n by t h e d i r e c t o r s i g n a l l i n g t h e imminent c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e enactment: That always happens when Mel comes and makes an i n t e r v e n t i o n o f some k i n d . . . " W e l l , w e ' l l be l e a v i n g i n a few m i n u t e s . " . . . C l o s u r e , c l o s u r e f o r D a v i d , c l o s u r e f o r me. I t always i s when he comes i n and does t h a t " I s t h e r e one f i n a l t h i n k you have t o s a y ? " And I say i t i n my mind . . . and t h e n we moved on, and I moved on and we were onto how i t was f o r D a v i d . F o r o t h e r s t h e t r a n s i t i o n was s e l f - i n i t i a t e d t h r o u g h a d e c i s i o n : And I b e l i e v e t h a t was my d u t y a l m o s t , my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as a p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t r a i n i n g . And t h e more I l e a r n e d about t h e p r o c e s s , t h e more I thought I had t o be f u l l y p r e s e n t so t h a t ' s I t h i n k what h e l p e d me s h i f t from "me, m y s e l f and I " t o Brenda's enactment. I t was an awareness of what I saw as my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as an o b s e r v e r . 84 F o r s t i l l o t h e r s f e e l i n g s from t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e remained v e r y s t r o n g t h e next day "W e l l I s t a y e d t i l l t h e end and was j u s t aware of f e e l i n g i l l , headachy, nauseous, f l o o d e d w i t h emotion, o v e r l o a d e d . " The p e r s o n who d e s c r i b e d t h e f e e l i n g s j u s t n o t e d r e a l i z e d t h a t she "would have t o do i t d i f f e r e n t l y t h e n e x t t i m e because i t had been t o o h a r d t o do i t t h a t way." T h i s meant f o r her t h a t she would need t o be more o f a p a r t i c i p a n t and l e s s o f an o b s e r v e r , a l l o w i n g h e r s e l f t o e x p e r i e n c e her own p r o c e s s as w e l l as w i t n e s s i n g t h e enactments: " I ' l l c e r t a i n l y go i n t o i t w i t h a more p a r t i c i p a t o r y t h i n g and I ' l l do i t f o r me." One au d i e n c e member f e l t t h a t t h e s h i f t out of h i s i n t e n s e e x p e r i e n c e was marked by c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p r o t a g o n i s t a t t h e end of t h e enactment: " I moved t h r o u g h t h e crowd t o l e t B i l l know how much I had been impacted. Once t h a t acknowledgement was made, I s h i f t e d back i n t o my own p l a c e . " Making Meaning o f t h e E x p e r i e n c e Perceived Need to Integrate Experience Audience members needed t o make meaning o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , t h i n k about i t and i n t e g r a t e t h e s h i f t t h a t had o c c u r r e d f o r them. "And t h e n t h e r e i s a r e s i d u a l e f f e c t and I b e g i n t o go back and t h i n k about t h e e x p e r i e n c e and r e t h i n k about how I f e l t and more i n t e g r a t i n g . " " L i k e you can o n l y t a k e so much o f t h a t k i n d of i n t e n s i t y and t h e n you need, I need t o p u l l back and r e f l e c t and be more 85 i n t r o v e r t e d . " S e v e r a l a u d i e n c e members f e l t t h a t t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n p e r i o d was q u i t e p r o t r a c t e d : I t h i n k i t was a l o n g e r p r o c e s s t h a n t h a t Azima. L i k e I t h i n k i t went on t h r o u g h t h e C h r i s t m a s h o l i d a y s , even though s u p e r f i c i a l l y I went back i n t o my o t h e r r o l e l i k e w i t h t h e f a m i l y , and C h r i s t m a s , I t h i n k t h a t I was s t i l l p r o c e s s i n g a l o t o f t h a t . I always do a b i g r e p l a y o f a l l t h e psychodrama scenes . . . Most a u d i e n c e members saw t h e i n t e g r a t i o n phase as an on- g o i n g p r o c e s s "So I c a n ' t say t h a t I've t o t a l l y changed and t h i s i s who I am. I'm i n t h e p r o c e s s o f change. L i k e I haven't t o t a l l y seen t h e f r u i t s ; t h e t r e e i s s t i l l w e a t h e r i n g some storms." S e v e r a l a u d i e n c e members noted t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e f o l l o w - u p s e s s i o n (an e v e n i n g m e e t i n g seven weeks a f t e r t h e workshop) i n terms o f t h e i n t e g r a t i o n p r o c e s s : " I t t o o k t h e f o l l o w - u p where I c o u l d f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e about t h a t , where we a l l got back t o g e t h e r and d i s c u s s e d i t as a group w i t h a l i t t l e b i t o f d i s t a n c e and a b i t more p r o c e s s i n g . " Sense of Emerging Personal Themes for Future Work One of t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h e i n t e g r a t i o n p r o c e s s was t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f p e r s o n a l themes f o r f u t u r e work. Most au d i e n c e members became aware o f p e r s o n a l i s s u e s which r e q u i r e f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n . I n o t h e r words, t h e y became aware o f , o r remembered something t h e y w i s h e d t o work towards: " i n terms o f t h e on- g o i n g s t r u g g l e f o r b a l a n c e , I s t i l l need t o do a l o t more work i n t h a t " , " W e l l , l i k e a theme o r a t r a i t t h a t I have i s t o get i n t o my head because l i v i n g i n t h e w o r l d o f emotions i s t o o overwhelming. That's 86 an a r e a o f growth t h a t I would i d e n t i f y f o r m y s e l f f o r t h e f u t u r e . " Some au d i e n c e member d e s c r i b e d t h e emergence o f themes as a p r o c e s s which happened when t h e y were i n t e g r a t i n g t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e a f t e r an enactment: "and t h e n I had t h i s sense o f t h i s theme t h a t was s o r t o f d e v e l o p i n g i n me . . . i t j u s t began t o k i n d o f l i k e b u b b l e i n me and be l i k e a p r e s s u r e on me k i n d o f t o do an enactment."; " I n t e g r a t i o n and themes, i t was d u r i n g t h e c a r r i d e home and i n p r e p a r i n g f o r my i n t e r v i e w w i t h you." Emerging themes a r o s e f o r some a u d i e n c e members w h i l e t h e y were o b s e r v i n g t h e p r o t a g o n i s t . I n some cases t h i s was t h r o u g h i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e p r o t a g o n i s t and r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t t h e y have s h a r e d a common problem: . . . he was g o i n g t h r o u g h t h i s b i g t h i n g about what i t meant l i k e t o be a man, w i t h a p s y c h i a t r i c l a b e l and r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a l l t h e s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s around him. And i t was a thun d e r s t r u c k f o r me, "Oh my God, t h i s i s e x a c t l y i t . " I have been l a b e l l e d t h i s t h i n g and I'm not any o f t h a t . F o r o t h e r s , themes f o r f u t u r e work a r o s e t h r o u g h o b s e r v i n g t h e p r o t a g o n i s t do something t h a t t h e y saw thems e l v e s as n e e d i n g t o do t h e m s e l v e s . In o t h e r words t h e y were l e a r n i n g by s e e i n g a model, " t h e r e was a l s o an awareness t h a t she was t e a c h i n g me how t o g r i e v e . . . i t was awareness of t h e f a c t t h a t I need t o do t h i s b u t I am not q u i t e ready." One au d i e n c e member n o t e d h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n i n s e e i n g male models; not so much i n terms o f l e a r n i n g what he needs 87 t o do h i m s e l f , b u t more j u s t as an o p p o r t u n i t y t o see how o t h e r men d e a l w i t h i s s u e s : . . . w a t c h i n g o t h e r men . . . gave me t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o see how i t works f o r them . . . o t h e r men who were i n t h e a u d i e n c e o r d o i n g enactments. That was i n t e r e s t i n g f o r me. That k i n d o f changed me a l i t t l e as w e l l . That I d i d n ' t f e e l q u i t e as i s o l a t e d o r so on my own. One audie n c e member noted t h a t a l t h o u g h a u d i e n c e member e x p e r i e n c e i n o t h e r psychodrama workshops had r e s u l t e d i n a sense o f themes r e q u i r i n g f u t u r e work, t h e theme which emerged d u r i n g t h i s workshop was s i g n i f i c a n t i n i t s e l f and not c o n n e c t e d t o t h e n o t i o n o f f u t u r e work: " I t h i n k t h a t was t h e o v e r r i d i n g theme t h a t I came away w i t h from t h a t psychodrama, i s how c l o s e l y we a r e con n e c t e d . I f e l t v e r y c o n n e c t e d . . . and i m p r e s s e d I t h i n k w i t h t h e im p o r t a n c e o f c o l l a b o r a t i v e l e a r n i n g as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g . " S e v e r a l a u d i e n c e members noted t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e st u d y had deepened t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and f o r some, c o n s o l i d a t e d t h e sense o f an emerging theme: " i t was k i n d o f neat t o t a l k t o you about i t and g e t t h i s , l i k e I t h i n k I've t a k e n i t a b i t deeper i n terms o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p r o c e s s . " " t h a t ' s a theme . . . an awareness t h a t I would a t t r i b u t e t o psychodramas and maybe your i d e n t i f y i n g t h a t , h e l p i n g me i d e n t i f y what t h a t i s . " Experience of Fundamental Change A l l a u d i e n c e members e x p e r i e n c e d a fundamental change i n t h e m s e l v e s . In o t h e r words, t h e y l e f t t h e workshop i n some way a d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n t h a n when t h e y came. They had 88 e x p e r i e n c e d a s h i f t i n s i d e t h e m s e l v e s . Because of t h e h i g h l y e x p e r i e n t i a l q u a l i t y o f psychodrama, change was e x p e r i e n c e d i n a m u l t i - l a y e r e d , m u l t i - l e v e l l e d way. To bre a k t h i s p r o c e s s down i n t o i t s component p a r t s somewhat l o s e s a sense o f t h e g e s t a l t o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s i n c e i t i s c e r t a i n l y t h e case i n t h i s i n s t a n c e t h a t t h e whole i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e sum o f i t s p a r t s . N o n e t h e l e s s , f o r t h e purposes of d e s c r i p t i o n , i t seems a p p r o p r i a t e t o name t h e c a t e g o r i e s i n which change was p e r c e i v e d . A l t h o u g h t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s a r e b e i n g d e s c r i b e d i n d i v i d u a l l y , t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f change o f t e n c o n t a i n e d elements o f a l l t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s . Audience members p e r c e i v e d change i n a c o m b i n a t i o n o f ways i n c l u d i n g c o g n i t i v e (new awarenesses o r a p p r e c i a t i o n ) , a f f e c t i v e (new o r more p r o f o u n d e x p e r i e n c e o f f e e l i n g s ) , and " b e i n g l e v e l " o r a changed sense of who t h e y a r e as a p e r s o n . H a v i n g a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e was a s h i f t p e r c e i v e d by s e v e r a l a u d i e n c e members. D i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e denotes t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f p e r c e i v i n g something d i f f e r e n t l y t h a n was p r e v i o u s l y t h e cas e . Sometimes t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n v o l v e d a deeper u n d e r s t a n d i n g : " a l t h o u g h she's e x p l a i n e d i t t o me many t i m e s , I've never seen i t as c l e a r l y , o r f e l t i t as c l e a r l y " ; " i t b r o u g h t me c l o s e r t o t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f women." Sometimes i t was more l i k e s e e i n g something, o r someone i n a d i f f e r e n t way: " I saw my f a t h e r d i f f e r e n t l y . . . I don't know i f I can p u t i t i n t o t a n g i b l e words, i t ' s a l m o s t 89 l i k e an e m o t i o n a l q u a l i t y . " A n o t h e r way t h a t p e r s p e c t i v e s changed r e l a t e d t o a sense o f c l o s u r e i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t had ended: " I haven't had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s e n g a g e , t o say good-bye, t o do a l l t h o s e k i n d s of t h i n g s . I t was an o p p o r t u n i t y a t t h a t t i m e t o do t h a t . " F o r one a u d i e n c e member a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e meant a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g about what i s c e n t r a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o h e r : " I d i d l e a r n how i m p o r t a n t i t was t o be c o n n e c t e d t o o t h e r p e o p l e " . Changes i n p e r s p e c t i v e o c c u r r e d i n a c o m b i n a t i o n o f realms i n c l u d i n g t h e i r v i e w o f t h e m s e l v e s , t h e i r v i e w o f o t h e r s and i n t h e i r u n i v e r s a l v i e w : " I have a renewed a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r who women a r e and what t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i s , and what my p o t e n t i a l as a woman i s as w e l l . " W e l l t h e meaning t h a t I made of i t was, i n my a n a l y s i s o f i t , was, I t h i n k q u i t e p r o f o u n d . That we a r e a l l , a t once t h e abusers and t h e abused, and t h a t we have a l o t of work t o do as a group t o h e a l t h i s . That we a r e a l l c o n n e c t e d , t h e r e i s n ' t any one group t h a t i s o r i s n ' t t o blame. That i s what meaning i t had f o r me. One a u d i e n c e member e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n about t h e endurance of t h e s h i f t w hich had o c c u r r e d f o r h e r : I t h i n k perhaps t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e s e k i n d s o f s h i f t s can l e s s e n as t i m e goes on because i t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y r e i n f o r c e d . You know, when a n y t h i n g happens on any k i n d o f an i n t e n s i v e weekend and t h e r e i s a s h i f t , b u t t h e n as t i m e goes on you a r e s t i l l back i n your o l d environment and so you a r e g o i n g t o have your own r e i n f o r c e m e n t s . . . p r o b a b l y I ' l l j u s t seek t h o s e r e i n f o r c e r s i n t h e environment t h a t w i l l r e i n f o r c e t h o s e k i n d s of s h i f t s j u s t t o b a l a n c e o f f t h e o t h e r s t u f f . Because t h e e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e f o r a l l a u d i e n c e members had been so i n t e n s e , t u r b u l e n t and a l l encompassing, 90 a major f o c u s i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e n a t u r e of t h e i r change was a f f e c t i v e , o r f e e l i n g based: " W e l l t h a t ' s how i t d i d t o u c h me p e r s o n a l l y , i s b e i n g c o n n e c t e d as a p e r s o n w i t h t h a t l i t t l e group of p e o p l e , . . . i n t h a t group e x p e r i e n c e o f g r i e f . " Many a u d i e n c e members e x p e r i e n c e d an embracing o f f e e l i n g s which had been d e n i e d " I a l s o s m i l e d because I owned t h o s e t e a r s and I had a r i g h t t o them and I was so g l a d t o r e d i s c o v e r them." Others f e l t f e e l i n g s which t h e y hadn't r e a l i z e d were t h e r e : " I f e l t my own g r i e f o f never h a v i n g had b a b i e s . . . I hadn't e v e r acknowledged t h a t and I am s t i l l p r o c e s s i n g t h a t . " S i n c e f o r most au d i e n c e members, i n t e n s e l y e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e had been accompanied by f e e l i n g s of embarrassment and v u l n e r a b i l i t y , an i m p o r t a n t s h i f t f o r many had been t o s t a y open t o t h e i r f e e l i n g s i n s p i t e o f t h e i r embarrassment: "That was a v e r y d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e . To be p u b l i c l y sad and not shut down, not c u t i t o f f . " " I j u s t knew t h a t i t was h e a l t h y t o s i t t h e r e and not r u n away, but j u s t t o l e t i t happen." Some d e s c r i b e d t h e s h i f t t h e y had e x p e r i e n c e d as an encompassing " b e i n g l e v e l " s h i f t : " l i k e s i g n i f i c a n t l y c h a n g i n g my sense of who I am. K i n d o f e x c i t i n g . I t r e a l l y i s . " O t hers f e l t t h e m s e l v e s t o be f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t ; however t h e e x p e r i e n c e was l e s s i n t e n s e . F o r example, some aud i e n c e members f e l t t h e m s e l v e s become more c e n t r e d i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l power, more s e l f - c o n f i d e n t , o p e r a t i n g more 91 from a p l a c e o f s t r e n g t h : " C o n f i d e n c e , not as much f e a r , f e e l i n g a l o t more c e n t r e d . " A n o t h e r saw h e r s e l f as b e i n g l e s s a l o o f : "a b i t more open . . . p r o b a b l y i n t e r a c t more w i t h p e o p l e . . . not as q u i e t as I used t o be . . . s p e a k i n g up r e a l l y . " E v i d e n c e of Change i n D a i l y L i f e Awareness of Changed Style of Interaction A l l a u d i e n c e members were aware o f changes i n t h e way t h e y i n t e r a c t e d w i t h v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s o f : t h e m s e l v e s , s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s , f r i e n d s and f a m i l y , co-workers and p e o p l e i n t h e community. The major s h i f t i n i n t e r a c t i o n was d e s c r i b e d i n a t l e a s t one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : b e i n g more open, more a u t h e n t i c , and/or more s e l f - a c c e p t i n g . More open denotes g r e a t e r w i l l i n g n e s s t o engage w i t h o t h e r s : "more open . . . p r o b a b l y i n t e r a c t more w i t h p e o p l e , not as q u i e t as I used t o be . . . s p e a k i n g up r e a l l y " , and more a u t h e n t i c denotes i n t e r a c t i n g i n a way wh i c h i s honest and congruent w i t h i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e s . F o r some t h i s sense o f a u t h e n t i c i t y was d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g more r e a l and l e s s c oncerned w i t h p u b l i c p e r s o n a , o r who t h e y were "supposed t o be"; "more a c c e s s i n g t h e r o l e o f D a v i d G o l b r a i t h r a t h e r t h a n t h e p r e s c r i b e d r o l e s , o r t h e a s s i g n e d r o l e s , you know." "Wel l I t h i n k I can a l l o w m y s e l f t o be a b i t more r e a l w i t h men . . . so I've found m y s e l f b e i n g more honest w i t h j u s t t h e way I am." 92 B e i n g more s e l f - a c c e p t i n g denotes f e e l i n g more c o m f o r t a b l e and l e s s c r i t i c a l o f o n e s e l f : "To sum i t a l l up, . . . i t i s o.k. who I am . . ."; "The o n l y t h i n g I would add i s I am f e e l i n g more c o m f o r t a b l e about . . . my o p i n i o n . . . who I am . . . what I r e p r e s e n t . " Audience members saw t h e m s e l v e s as more a u t h e n t i c , b e t t e r a b l e t o a c t i n accordance w i t h t h e i r f e e l i n g s . F o r some t h i s was because of a g r e a t e r c o m f o r t w i t h f e e l i n g s i n g e n e r a l : "How i m p o r t a n t i t i s f o r me t o be t r u e t o m y s e l f , t o g i v e m y s e l f p e r m i s s i o n t o be i n t o u c h w i t h my f e e l i n g s " . O thers e x p r e s s e d a g r e a t e r c o m f o r t w i t h a b r o a d e r range o f f e e l i n g s : I'm no l o n g e r a f r a i d of anger as much as I used t o be . . . I r e a l i z e d d u r i n g t h e workshop t h a t my f e a r of t h e anger o f my f a t h e r no l o n g e r has t o be t h e r e , t h a t d i d n ' t happen on a c o g n i t i v e l e v e l , i t happened on an e m o t i o n a l l e v e l , and on a l e v e l o f unawareness. One a u d i e n c e member who had been c u t o f f from some of her f e e l i n g s g a i n e d i n s i g h t i n t o t h e h a r m f u l e f f e c t s of b e i n g c u t - o f f : " w a l l s h u r t me even more t h a n t h e y do t h e p e o p l e who a r e on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e w a l l because I shut m y s e l f down . . . " A n o t h e r a u d i e n c e member who had f e l t c u t o f f from women was f e e l i n g a g r e a t e r f l o w i n h i s female r e l a t i o n s h i p s : I t h i n k i t ' s j u s t t h a t I f e e l a c c e p t e d i n t o women's l i v e s now, you know. I can v e n t u r e i n t o y o u r e m o t i o n a l psyche w i t h o u t f e a r o f h a v i n g a door slammed i n my f a c e . . . I have no r i g h t t o t r y and u n d e r s t a n d women was t h e message I was g e t t i n g b e f o r e . I t ' s l i k e t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g I c o u l d e v e r do t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y o f f e r s u p p o r t o r empathy t o a woman, so why b o t h e r t r y i n g . "Why b o t h e r t r y i n g " i s p r o b a b l y my own d e f e n s e , you know. So 93 I t h i n k t h a t message was e r a s e d e m o t i o n a l l y and c o g n i t i v e l y w i t h t h a t . A g r e a t e r c o m f o r t w i t h f e e l i n g s i n g e n e r a l and/or a b r o a d e r range of f e e l i n g s t r a n s l a t e d i t s e l f i n t o g r e a t e r i n t e r p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n . I n o t h e r words, most a u d i e n c e members f e l t t h e m s e l v e s t o be more w i l l i n g t o p e r s o n a l l y e x p e r i e n c e and e x p r e s s i n t e r p e r s o n a l l y a b r o a d e r range o f f e e l i n g s : I know t h a t s i n c e I went back t o work t h e r e have been some d i f f i c u l t moments a t work and I haven't put a mask on i n groups. I've c r i e d a t work, I've t o l d p e o p l e when I'm f e e l i n g l e f t out o r when I'm f e e l i n g s l i g h t l y p a r a n o i d about something t h a t ' s g o i n g on. I've been a b l e t o t a l k about i t and ask about i t and f e e l t h a t I've got t h e r i g h t t o f e e l t h o s e f e e l i n g s and ask f o r what I need around t h o s e f e e l i n g s . One o f t h e ways i n whi c h a u d i e n c e members e x p e r i e n c e d a b r o a d e r range o f e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n was i n t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o e n t e r i n t o i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t o r c o n f r o n t a t i o n when needed. I n o t h e r words s e v e r a l p e o p l e d e s c r i b e d a g r e a t e r w i l l i n g n e s s t o address p r o b l e m a t i c i s s u e s w i t h o t h e r s ; i s s u e s which p r e v i o u s l y would n ot have been a d d r e s s e d . A t a l a t e r d a t e we went f o r a walk and I s a i d "you s a i d something t o me, and t h i s i s what i t was, and t h i s i s how I f e e l about what you s a i d . " She was q u i t e stunned and shocked t h a t I would be so c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l , so d i r e c t . A g r e a t e r sense o f agency o r t a k i n g charge and b e i n g e f f e c t i v e was p e r c e i v e d by some: " J u s t h a v i n g more e f f i c a c y i n my l i f e " , "Agency. Yeah, yeah, urn, i n a l l a s p e c t s o f my l i f e . 9 4 Psychodrama P r o g r e s s i o n Sense of Evolution of Psychodrama Experiences A l t h o u g h t h i s theme i s not as w e l l d e v e l o p e d i n terms of common aud i e n c e member e x p e r i e n c e , i t has n o n e t h e l e s s been i n c l u d e d because i t i s an a r e a where no r e s e a r c h appears t o have been done and as such might p r o v i d e an i n t e r e s t i n g s t a r t i n g p o i n t . I t may w e l l be t h a t t h e l a c k o f a common sense of psychodrama p r o g r e s s i o n i s more a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f t h e group i n terms of psychodrama e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s was t h e f i r s t e x p e r i e n c e f o r two p e o p l e , and a t l e a s t t h e t h i r d workshop f o r t h e r e s t . D u r i n g t h e v a l i d a t i o n i n t e r v i e w one a u d i e n c e member not e d t h a t t h e word " p r o g r e s s i o n " was p r o b l e m a t i c f o r her i n as much as f o r her p r o g r e s s i o n i s i n a d i a l e c t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h r e g r e s s i o n , something she sees as i n t e g r a l t o t h e psychodrama p r o c e s s . F o r her " e v o l u t i o n " f i t b e t t e r . However, t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e theme d i d f i t f o r her and i n as much as t h e word " p r o g r e s s i o n " c a p t u r e d t h e f l a v o u r f o r a u d i e n c e members who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n more t h a n one workshop, and f o r t h e p r i n c i p a l r e s e a r c h e r , i t has been used he r e . Psychodrama p r o g r e s s i o n i s meant t o denote t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g an a u d i e n c e member changed o v e r t i m e , becoming r i c h e r and deeper w i t h e x p e r i e n c e . In o t h e r words, p e o p l e e x p e r i e n c e d a d eepening i n t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t h e r a p e u t i c b e n e f i t s o f psychodrama i n g e n e r a l , and b e i n g an 95 a u d i e n c e member i n p a r t i c u l a r . Together w i t h a deeper u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a t i c p r o c e s s , a u d i e n c e members a l s o n o t i c e d an i n c r e a s e i n t h e i r own a c c e s s i b i l i t y and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p r o c e s s , s t a r t i n g i n i t i a l l y as an o b s e r v e r , t h e n l i m i t e d a u x i l i a r y r o l e s , more a u x i l i a r y r o l e s , and p r o t a g o n i s t e x p e r i e n c e . I n c r e a s i n g a c c e s s i b i l i t y was b o t h t o o t h e r s ( i . e . b e i n g asked t o be an a u x i l i a r y more o f t e n ) and t o o n e s e l f i n terms of a c c e s s i n g and s t a y i n g w i t h s t r o n g f e e l i n g s w h i c h a r e t r i g g e r e d by w a t c h i n g enactments. A l l a u d i e n c e members who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n o t h e r workshops c o u l d u n e q u i v o c a l l y say t h a t each e x p e r i e n c e was d i f f e r e n t . A sense of p r o g r e s s i o n was c l e a r f o r most: " I t ' s been r e a l l y a p r o g r e s s i o n t h r o u g h t h e f o u r o r f i v e t h a t I've been a t " , "and I've been g e t t i n g more d e e p l y i n v o l v e d . " . . . my e x p e r i e n c e i s t h a t I can be more spontaneous. I can be more i n v o l v e d i n what i s happening. Whereas I t e n d t o be r e s e r v e d , r e f l e c t i v e , a n a l y t i c a l , r i g h t , so I can l e t go of some of t h a t and be, use a d i f f e r e n t s t y l e i f you l i k e i n psychodrama. The one a u d i e n c e member who had been a t s e v e r a l workshops who d i d not have a sense of p r o g r e s s i o n f e l t t h e most i n v o l v e d i n her f i r s t workshop where s e v e r a l f r i e n d s and f e l l o w - s t u d e n t s were i n a t t e n d a n c e : " I p r o b a b l y was more p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e f i r s t one and i t was because I was asked t o t a k e p a r t i n more of t h e a c t i o n s . . . t h a n I was i n e i t h e r o f t h e o t h e r two." A n o t h e r a u d i e n c e member who was p a r t i c i p a t i n g f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e s t a r t e d t h e workshop by e n a c t i n g h i s own psychodrama. " I j u s t jumped 96 i n t o i t . . . I ' m v e r y much l i k e t h a t . . . To me i t was a l m o s t l i k e a n o t h e r c l a s s . . . These a r e a l l c o u n s e l l i n g s t u d e n t s t y p e t h i n g and j u s t go." I t i s not p o s s i b l e t o say what, i f any, p r o g r e s s i o n , w i t h r e g a r d t o a u d i e n c e member p a r t i c i p a t i o n would o c c u r f o r him. S e v e r a l a u d i e n c e members f e l t a change w i t h o n - g o i n g e x p e r i e n c e from b e i n g p r i m a r i l y an o b s e r v e r t o more f u l l y a p a r t i c i p a n t : "More spontaneous, more i n v o l v e d i n what's g o i n g on, more a t t a c h e d t o t h e dramas as opposed t o b e i n g k i n d o f on t h e p e r i p h e r y . " One f i r s t t i m e a u d i e n c e member r e a l i z e d t h a t she would b e n e f i t more from b e i n g more of a p a r t i c i p a n t and l e s s o f an o b s e r v e r and would engage i n t h e p r o c e s s more f u l l y t h e next t i m e : " I won't go i n t o t h e next one t h i n k i n g I'm g o i n g t o be an o b s e r v e r . " The sense of p r o g r e s s i o n f o r one a u d i e n c e member who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s e v e r a l psychodrama workshops a n o t h e r element b e s i d e s t h e s h i f t from o b s e r v e r t o p a r t i c i p a n t . He d e s c r i b e d an uncanny s y n c h r o n i c i t y t o t h e way i n w h i c h e v e n t s u n f o l d e d f o l l o w i n g a psychodrama workshop: I am no l o n g e r s u r p r i s e d by any o f t h e s y n c h r o n i c t y t h a t goes on. I t ' s j u s t been, t o o many t h i n g s have o c c u r r e d . L i k e I j u s t knew . . . t h e r e w i l l be something t h a t happens t o d a y , o r i n t h e n e x t l i t t l e w h i l e , o r v e r y soon, and i t d i d n ' t t a k e l o n g - 2 hours l a t e r . F o r him, p r o g r e s s i o n a l s o i n c l u d e d a sense of m a t u r a t i o n of themes. I n o t h e r words, o v e r a s e r i e s o f workshops ( g e n e r a l l y w i t h 4 - 6 months between them) themes would emerge w h i l e b e i n g i n t h e a u d i e n c e , a theme would be e n a c t e d 97 i n a subsequent workshop, a c t i o n would be t a k e n i n l i f e b ased upon t h e psychodrama, r e p e r c u s s i o n s t o t h e a c t i o n t a k e n would o c c u r , f u r t h e r themes would emerge and be worked t h r o u g h i n subsequent workshops as an au d i e n c e member, e t c . . . . when I s t a r t e d i n t h e f i r s t I was a non-p a r t i c i p a n t . . . ( a t t h e second, I was) becoming i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s (and became c l e a r about emerging p e r s o n a l themes. T h i s theme) j u s t began t o k i n d of l i k e b u b b l e i n me and be l i k e a p r e s s u r e on me k i n d o f t o do an enactment . . ., h a v i n g t h a t e m o t i o n a l need t o do something, a c t on i t , l e t t h a t e m o t i o n a l r e l e a s e go, which was t h e psychodrama, and t h e n a f t e r coming back and u s i n g t h e psychodramas as a way o f r e f l e c t i n g and embracing p a r t s o f i t . A n o t h e r p r o g r e s s i o n w h i c h may o c c u r i s a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how t o be an a u x i l i a r y and t h e b e n e f i t a v a i l a b l e i n t h a t r o l e . A u dience members w i t h l i t t l e psychodrama e x p e r i e n c e e x p e r i e n c e d a sense o f c o n f u s i o n when d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g an a u x i l i a r y . " I d i d n ' t q u i t e know how t o be. I found i t r e a l l y h a r d t o be her mother. And I am s t i l l t r y i n g t o work out about how t o be a p e r s o n i n psychodrama" The b e n e f i t from t h i s r o l e was u n c l e a r t o t h e two au d i e n c e members who were p a r t i c i p a t i n g f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e : " I was busy b e i n g an a u x i l i a r y and I d i d n ' t g e t much out o f t h a t e x c e p t my own w o r r i e s about whether I was d o i n g i t r i g h t o r no t . " Audience members w i t h g r e a t e r e x p e r i e n c e f e l t more c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e r o l e and c o n s i d e r e d t h a t l e a r n i n g does o c c u r i n ex a m i n i n g t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between them and t h e r o l e t h e y have been asked t o p l a y . 98 A d d i t i o n a l C o n t r i b u t i n g F a c t o r s Assessment of Other Factors Influencing the Experience of Change Psychodrama was something w h i c h a u d i e n c e members e x p e r i e n c e d i n a l a r g e r c o n t e x t - t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . W h i l e i t seems f a i r t o a t t r i b u t e some major s h i f t s t o a p e r s o n a l psychodrama e x p e r i e n c e , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o acknowledge t h a t a u d i e n c e members were aware o f o t h e r c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s t o t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f s i g n i f i c a n t change. V a r i a b l e s mentioned i n c l u d e d s p e c i f i c a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e psychodrama environment as w e l l as f a c t o r s beyond t h e psychodrama. One v a r i a b l e mentioned by s e v e r a l a u d i e n c e members was t h e atmosphere e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e psychodrama d i r e c t o r s . F o r some t h i s r e l a t e d t o s e t t i n g t h e scene i n terms of' c o n t e n t : " t h a t norm was s e t by Penny because she t a l k e d about F r e u d i a n k i n d s o f a n a l y s i s and she made i t o.k. t o t a l k about d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women." F o r o t h e r s i t was more a p e r v a s i v e sense o f s a f e t y : "when you have t h e k i n d o f l e a d e r s h i p w i t h Penny and M e l , t h e y make i t s a f e , everybody i s p r o t e c t e d . " A n other f e l t s a f e i n knowing t h a t she would not be c a l l e d upon t o s e l f - d i s c l o s e i f she d i d not w i s h t o : " I was r e a l l y g l a d t h a t Mel and Penny d i d n ' t e x p l o r e t h a t , t h e y j u s t l e t me c r y . " "Once I got t h e sense t h a t t h e y were g o i n g t o l e a v e me a l o n e , i t made i t c o m f o r t a b l e f o r me t o s t a y t h e r e . " 99 One a u d i e n c e member no t e d t h e sense of community w h i c h was an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of t h e atmosphere f o r h e r : s p i r i t u a l q u a l i t y t o t h e group: " s p i r i t u a l i t y . . . t h a t ' s community f o r me, so t h a t was p a r t o f , i t was p r e t t y a l l encompassing." Therapy was a n o t h e r c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r mentioned by some au d i e n c e members. F o r some t h i s meant t h a t t h e y were a l r e a d y p r o c e s s i n g t h e s e i s s u e s w i t h a t h e r a p i s t and t h i s was a n o t h e r p i e c e o f t h e i r work: "because my i n d i v i d u a l t h e r a p y . . . was p r e t t y i n t e n s e , I a t t r i b u t e a l o t o f t h a t t o t h e work I d i d i n t h e r a p y " One a u d i e n c e member c o n s i d e r e d t h e f a c t t h a t not d o i n g p e r s o n a l t h e r a p y was perhaps a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r i n as much as t h i s may have enhanced t h e t h e r a p e u t i c v a l u e o f psychodrama: "I ' v e never done any p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g , and I don't know i f t h a t ' s why I've had such a p o s i t i v e r e a c t i o n t o t h e psychodrama o r n o t . " Some au d i e n c e members f e l t t h a t t h e y were a l r e a d y , t o some degree " i n p r o c e s s " on t h e i r own w i t h t h e i s s u e t h a t became p i v o t a l i n t h e psychodrama. The psychodrama e x p e r i e n c e was a c a t a l y s t which moved them a l o t f u r t h e r a l o n g . One p e r s o n was " i n p r o c e s s " w i t h a n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g c y c l e : . . . i t may v e r y w e l l have been (underway), but t h e p r o c e s s may have t a k e n a l o t l o n g e r i f I hadn't done t h e workshop. I would have gone t h r o u g h t h e g r i e f c y c l e , but t o be honest w i t h you, I don't know i f I would have re a c h e d t h a t same f l o w . . . 100 A n o t h e r was " i n p r o c e s s " w i t h c h a n g i n g a p r o b l e m a t i c family-r e l a t i o n s h i p - a d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a n t h e one r e l e v a n t t o t h e psychodrama, but w i t h some s i m i l a r dynamics: I a t t r i b u t e a l o t o f t h a t t o t h e work I d i d i n t h e r a p y and I a l s o a t t r i b u t e t h e f a c t t h a t p r e t t y c l o s e t o t h a t s p e c i f i c psychodrama s i t u a t i o n had been a major s h i f t w i t h my mother . . . I had a p r a c t i c e r u n w i t h my mom. A l l a u d i e n c e members n o t e d t h a t t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n a gr a d u a t e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e i n c o u n s e l l i n g c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f change: " I t h i n k t h e o n l y o t h e r f a c t o r i s g e t t i n g my degree", "That was an o n - g o i n g t h i n g . Through t h e c l i n i c , t h e f i r s t psychodrama, t h e second psychodrama, t h e group c o u n s e l l i n g c o u r s e and t h e n t h i s l a s t psychodrama, and so i t was a continuum." Some au d i e n c e members f e l t t h a t t h e i r p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e as a p r o t a g o n i s t c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e change t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d as an au d i e n c e member, "so I would say i t d e f i n i t e l y d i d a f f e c t me . . . because t h e t h i n g s t h a t came up t h r o u g h my psychodrama . . . kept g e t t i n g b u i l t upon." S e v e r a l a u d i e n c e members c o n s i d e r e d t h e r e s p e c t f u l and a c c e p t i n g a t t i t u d e towards men and women t o be i m p o r t a n t i n s e t t i n g a tone c o n d u c i v e t o change. One a u d i e n c e member noted t h a t t h e change she e x p e r i e n c e d r e q u i r e d t h a t b o t h men and women be p r e s e n t a t t h e workshop: I guess t h e p o i n t i s t h a t ( i t ) would not have happened f o r me i n a fe m a l e , a women o n l y group. I t had t o be a mixed group and i t had t o be one where t h e men were a b l e t o w i t n e s s i n t h a t r e s p e c t f u l way what was o c c u r r i n g f o r some o f t h e women i n t h e group (Note: b r a c k e t s added t o c l a r i f y meaning o f t h e q u o t e ) . 101 One au d i e n c e member noted i n v o l v e m e n t i n her s p i r i t u a l l i f e as a c o n t r i b u t o r t o her e x p e r i e n c e o f change: " W e l l I t h i n k c e r t a i n l y one o f t h e t h i n g s has been my i n v o l v e m e n t i n my s p i r i t u a l l i f e a t t h e c h u r c h . " E s s e n t i a l S t r u c t u r e G i o r g i o (1985) d e s c r i b e s t h e f i n a l s t e p i n ph e n o m e n o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h as " S y n t h e s i s o f t r a n s f o r m e d meaning u n i t s i n t o a c o n s i s t e n t statement o f t h e s t r u c t u r e of ( t h e e x p e r i e n c e b e i n g e x p l o r e d ) " (p. 19). T h i s s t e p i s t h e s y n t h e s i s and i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e i n s i g h t s imbedded i n t h e t r a n s f o r m e d meaning u n i t s and i n c l u d e s a l l o f t h e t r a n s f o r m e d meaning u n i t s . I n o t h e r words, c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e , i s t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f s i g n i f i c a n t change f o r a l l a u d i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y . The s t a r t i n g p l a c e f o r a l l a u d i e n c e members i n t o t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t e x p e r i e n c e was a sense of b e i n g f u l l y p r e s e n t and engaged i n t h e enactment. A t some p o i n t t h e y became aware o f s h i f t i n g from t h i n k i n g t o f e e l i n g w h i c h was i n i t i a t e d t h r o u g h v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s o f : empathy towards t h e e x p e r i e n c e of t h e p r o t a g o n i s t , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h some element of what t h e y were s e e i n g , an awareness o f a l a c k o r l o s s i n t h e i r own l i f e w h i c h was t r i g g e r e d by what t h e y were w a t c h i n g ; and/or t h e d e s i r e f o r something t h e y were w i t n e s s i n g . The s h i f t i n t o a f e e l i n g r e a l m was u n c o n s c i o u s and f o r most, an i n s t a n t a n e o u s o r sudden o c c u r r e n c e . 102 The f e e l i n g r e a l m became v e r y i n t e n s e , t u r b u l e n t f o r most, and t o some degree a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g and e x p e r i e n t i a l , o r o c c u r r i n g w i t h a here and now q u a l i t y w i t h a l o s s of t h e outward g e s t a l t o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . The tone o f emotions ranged from p r i m a r i l y p o s i t i v e t o p r i m a r i l y d i s t r e s s i n g and p a i n f u l . The e x p e r i e n c e which accompanied t h e s e f e e l i n g s was o f t e n more co n n e c t e d w i t h t h e i n w a r d r e a l i t y o f t h e au d i e n c e member t h a n w i t h t h e enactment which was o c c u r r i n g . In o t h e r words, a l t h o u g h empathy and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n had been t h e e n t r a n c e i n t o a u d i e n c e members f e e l i n g s , t h e i r i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e t o o k on a l i f e o f i t s own, w i t h s t r o n g f e e l i n g s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r own p e r s o n a l r e a l i t i e s . The e x p e r i e n c e o f t h i s " a l t e r e d s t a t e " was b r i e f f o r t h o s e who were s u c c e s s f u l i n s u p p r e s s i n g t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e and more p r o l o n g e d f o r t h o s e who s t a y e d w i t h i t u n t i l i t s n a t u r a l c o n c l u s i o n . The e x p e r i e n c e o f t e n i n c l u d e d a p h y s i c a l component, such as c r y i n g o r s i g h i n g , a c o g n i t i v e element and an e m o t i o n a l element a l t h o u g h t h e e m o t i o n a l tone of t h e e x p e r i e n c e was t h e s t r o n g e s t component. Audience members were caught o f f guard by t h e s t r e n g t h of t h e i r f e e l i n g s and most e x p e r i e n c e d a sense o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y and embarrassment, o r a t l e a s t s e l f -c o n s c i o u s n e s s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . V u l n e r a b i l i t y was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f e e l i n g exposed and embarrassment was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e i t h e r t h e i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e o f r e c e i v i n g unaccustomed t o v a l i d a t i o n , o r t h e 103 p u b l i c show o f p r i v a t e f e e l i n g s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when c r y i n g accompanied t h e s e f e e l i n g s . Some f e l t a d e s i r e t o tone down t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e , a l t h o u g h t h i s was e a s i e r s a i d t h a n done. Audience members gave v a r i o u s r e a s o n s f o r w a n t i n g t o c o n t r o l t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e i n c l u d i n g : c o n c e r n about r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards t h e p r o t a g o n i s t ; c o n c e r n about t h e depth o f f e e l i n g s which might be e x p e r i e n c e d i f t h e y open t h e door. The p r i m a r y ways i n whi c h a u d i e n c e members at t e m p t e d t o , o r s u c c e s s f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d t h e i r f e e l i n g s was t h r o u g h v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s o f : s e l f t a l k ; p h y s i c a l movement; d e c i d i n g t o p u t f e e l i n g s on h o l d u n t i l l a t e r , o r a k i n d of m e d i t a t i v e , l e t t i n g go. The au d i e n c e members who s u c c e s s f u l l y s u p p r e s s e d t h e i r f e e l i n g s e x p e r i e n c e d an unexpected re-emergence o f p o w e r f u l f e e l i n g s e i t h e r d u r i n g t h e s h a r i n g phase o f t h e enactment, o r d u r i n g t h e c l o s u r e p a r t o f t h e whole workshop. T h e i r f e e l i n g s were not s h a r e d w i t h t h e group. Audience members e v e n t u a l l y s h i f t e d o u t o f t h e h i g h l y i n t e n s e e x p e r i e n c e back t o a more "normal" s t a t e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s where t h e i r i n w a r d f o c u s l e s s e n e d and t h e y r e j o i n e d t h e group. T h i s s h i f t happened i n v a r i o u s ways; f o r some i t was s e l f - i n i t i a t e d w i t h an a c t i v e s u p p r e s s i o n o f f e e l i n g s , f o r o t h e r s i t was i n i t i a t e d by t h e d i r e c t o r ' s b r i n g i n g c l o s u r e t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t and f o r s t i l l o t h e r s i t was a p r o c e s s which happened on i t s own 104 as t h e i r i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e came t o i t s own n a t u r a l c l o s u r e . A l t h o u g h a u d i e n c e members had s h i f t e d out o f a h i g h l y i n t e n s e i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e back t o a more "normal" s t a t e , f o r some, a h e i g h t e n e d e m o t i o n a l s t a t e c o n t i n u e d f o r s e v e r a l days. Audience members a l l f e l t a need t o i n t e g r a t e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , and d i d so m a i n l y t h r o u g h r e f l e c t i o n on t h e i r own. S e v e r a l f e l t t h i s t o be a p r o t r a c t e d , o n - g o i n g p r o c e s s . One o f t h e outcomes o f t h e i n t e g r a t i o n p a r t of t h e e x p e r i e n c e was a sense o f p e r s o n a l themes r e q u i r i n g f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n . T h i s sense o f emerging themes happened f o r some w h i l e t h e y w i t n e s s i n g an enactment. F o r some, themes emerged w h i l e t h e y watched t h e p r o t a g o n i s t do something w h i c h t h e y r e c o g n i z e d as something t h e y needed t o do. F o r o t h e r s themes emerged as t h e y g a i n e d an i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i r i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e , e i t h e r d u r i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e , l a t e r d u r i n g r e f l e c t i o n , o r even w h i l e p r e p a r i n g o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e i n t e r v i e w f o r t h i s s t u d y . A l l a u d i e n c e members e x p e r i e n c e d what t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t o be an i m p o r t a n t s h i f t i n s i d e t h e m s e l v e s . The n a t u r e o f t h i s s h i f t i n c l u d e d c o g n i t i v e e l e m e n t s , a f f e c t i v e e l ements, and f o r some, a sense o f fundamental change on an e x i s t e n t i a l l e v e l . C o g n i t i v e s h i f t s i n c l u d e d changed p e r s p e c t i v e s about t h e m s e l v e s , o t h e r s and t h e u n i v e r s e . Sometimes t h i s was a deeper a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r something o r someone, i n c l u d i n g 105 t h e m s e l v e s and sometimes i t seemed more l i k e a new u n d e r s t a n d i n g . In t h e a f f e c t i v e r e a l m , s h i f t s i n c l u d e d t h e r e - e m b r a c i n g of f e e l i n g s which had been d e n i e d as w e l l as t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f f e e l i n g s t h a t a u d i e n c e members had not known were t h e r e . F o r some a s h i f t i n f e e l i n g s r e l a t e d t o b r i n g i n g c l o s u r e t o a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h someone who had d i e d . F i n a l l y , a s h i f t f o r many i n t h e r e a l m o f t h e emotions i n v o l v e d s t a y i n g open t o f e e l i n g s d e s p i t e a sense o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y and embarrassment. S h i f t s on a more e x i s t e n t i a l p l a n e i n v o l v e d a sense o f coming i n t o t h e i r own, more f u l l y becoming t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s was e x p e r i e n c e d p r o f o u n d l y f o r some, and more s u b t l y f o r o t h e r s . E v i d e n c e f o r t h e changes which had been i n i t i a t e d o r advanced d u r i n g t h e workshop c o u l d be seen i n t h e d a i l y l i v e s o f audi e n c e members. Changes were e v i d e n t i n t h e way au d i e n c e members r e l a t e d t o t h e m s e l v e s ; p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms o f g r e a t e r s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e . I n t e r - p e r s o n a l l y changes were n o t i c e d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s , f r i e n d s , f a m i l y , co-workers and/or p e o p l e i n t h e community. Audience members p e r c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s t o be r e l a t i n g w i t h o t h e r s more o p e n l y , more a u t h e n t i c a l l y , and w i t h a g r e a t e r c o m f o r t i n e x p e r i e n c i n g and e x p r e s s i n g e i t h e r f e e l i n g s i n g e n e r a l , o r a b r o a d e r range o f f e e l i n g s . S e v e r a l a u d i e n c e members a l s o f e l t more w i l l i n g t o e n t e r i n t o i n t e r - p e r s o n a l 106 c o n f r o n t a t i o n when needed and a g r e a t e r sense of p e r s o n a l agency i n g e n e r a l . A sense o f p r o g r e s s i o n o r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h psychodrama was noted by some o f t h e a u d i e n c e members who had been i n v o l v e d i n more t h a n one workshop; a l t h o u g h one p e r s o n who was p a r t i c i p a t i n g f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e "jumped r i g h t i n w i t h b o t h f e e t " r i g h t from t h e b e g i n n i n g . The p r o g r e s s i o n d e s c r i b e d by some i n c l u d e d a s h i f t from b e i n g an o b s e r v e r t o b e i n g more f u l l y a p a r t i c i p a n t . P a r t i c i p a t i n g more f u l l y meant b e i n g more spontaneous, o r b e i n g more a c c e s s i b l e , b o t h i n t r a and i n t e r - p e r s o n a l l y . I n o t h e r words p e o p l e were i n c r e a s i n g l y a b l e t o s t a y w i t h t h e i r own f e e l i n g s and were i n v i t e d more o f t e n t o p a r t i c i p a t e as a u x i l i a r i e s . A g r o w i n g a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r psychodrama i n g e n e r a l was a l s o p a r t o f t h i s p r o g r e s s i o n . A u d ience members mentioned s e v e r a l f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e of change. These i n c l u d e d : t h e atmosphere e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e d i r e c t o r s ; o n - g o i n g p e r s o n a l work, e i t h e r w i t h a t h e r a p i s t o r on t h e i r own; p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n and/or c o m p l e t i o n o f a g r a d u a t e degree i n c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y ; i n v o l v e m e n t i n s p i r i t u a l work and p r e v i o u s work as a p r o t a g o n i s t . 107 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d i s c u s s t h e r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y , h i g h l i g h t i n g f i n d i n g s w h i c h a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y n o teworthy and i n t e g r a t i n g t h e f i n d i n g s w i t h t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d i n Chapter Two. I m p l i c a t i o n f o r p r a c t i c e and p o s s i b l e r e s e a r c h d i r e c t i o n s w i l l a l s o be i d e n t i f i e d . Summary of Major F i n d i n g s The p r i n c i p l e f i n d i n g i n t h i s s t u d y r e l a t e s t o t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e a u d i e n c e members who were i n t e r v i e w e d . A l t h o u g h not a l l enactments were p i v o t a l i n i n s t i g a t i n g a c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e f o r aud i e n c e members, t h e e x p e r i e n c e , i n s t i g a t e d t h r o u g h i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and empathy, was p r o f o u n d . A l t h o u g h t h e n o t i o n o f audie n c e c a t h a r s i s i s not new, psychodrama t h e o r y has t r a d i t i o n a l l y p l a c e d a g r e a t e r emphasis upon t h e c a t h a r s i s o f p r o t a g o n i s t s . The r e s u l t s i n t h i s s t u d y suggest t h a t c a t h a r s i s f o r au d i e n c e members may r e q u i r e more a t t e n t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e i n t e g r a t i o n of a d e e p l y moving e x p e r i e n c e i s seen as c r u c i a l f o r p r o t a g o n i s t s ; perhaps a f u l l e r i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e d e e p l y moving e x p e r i e n c e f o r a u d i e n c e members i s a l s o r e q u i r e d . D i s c u s s i o n o f Major F i n d i n g s 1. N a t u r e o f Audience Members C a t h a r t i c E x p e r i e n c e s T h i s s t u d y examined t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f s i g n i f i c a n t change s p e c i f i c t o psychodrama a u d i e n c e members and adds t o 108 t h e body o f knowledge by ex a m i n i n g t h e p r o c e s s from t h e i n s i d e out — from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e of au d i e n c e members. A l t h o u g h change can o c c u r w i t h o u t a c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e , and a c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e doesn't n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t i n change, t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s d e s c r i b e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y were c a t h a r t i c and as such, t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n r e v o l v e s around t h e n o t i o n o f c a t h a r s i s . Three i s s u e s a r i s e i n d i s c u s s i n g a u d i e n c e members e x p e r i e n c e o f c a t h a r s i s : a) what i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e ? b) which model o f c a t h a r s i s i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s p r o v i d e d by t h e au d i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y ? and c) how does t h e c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e o f a u d i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y s u p p o r t o r f a i l t o s u p p o r t p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h ? Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n e x p l o r i n g t h e n a t u r e o f au d i e n c e member c a t h a r s i s i s t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e . F e e l i n g s were h i g h l y i n t e n s e and t o some degree a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g . Audience members who a l l o w e d themselves t o s t a y w i t h t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e remained i n t h i s h e i g h t e n e d s t a t e f o r q u i t e some t i m e ; g e n e r a l l y from when t h e f e e l i n g s were t r i g g e r e d u n t i l a t l e a s t t h e end o f t h e enactment. The e x p e r i e n c e o f a u d i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y cannot r i g h t f u l l y be c a l l e d v i c a r i o u s . The e x p e r i e n c e was not a. p a s s i v e one, b u t something which was h i g h l y a c t i v e , a l t h o u g h perhaps not v i s i b l y so. I t was not j u s t t h r o u g h i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e of t h e p r o t a g o n i s t and 109 f e e l i n g emotions s i m i l a r t o t h e ones t h e y a r e w i t n e s s i n g t h a t c a t h a r s i s o c c u r r e d . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n was o f t e n an e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n t i a l r e a l m of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y ; however t h e i n w a r d e x p e r i e n c e soon t o o k on a l i f e o f i t s own. Some a u d i e n c e members were i n w a r d l y e n a c t i n g t h e i r own psychodrama. I t was as i f t h e y were w a l k i n g i n a p a r a l l e l u n i v e r s e where t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e was a l i v e and i n p r o c e s s and a t t h e same t i m e , t h e y were s i t t i n g i n a room w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . B l a t n e r ' s (1985) d e s c r i p t i o n o f c a t h a r s i s comes c l o s e s t t o c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e s d e s c r i b e d by t h e au d i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y . He does not e n v i s i o n t h e k i n d o f b o u n d a r i e s between p r o t a g o n i s t and au d i e n c e member t h a t K e l l e r m a n n (1984) i n f e r s . I n as much as K e l l e r m a n n (1984) d e s c r i b e s c a t h a r s i s as an " a c t i o n a l r e l e a s e " , we can i n f e r t h a t t h e a u d i e n c e , who a r e b a s i c a l l y p a s s i v e , a r e not e x p e r i e n c i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t c a t h a r s i s . Nor does B l a t n e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s e m a n t i c a l l y m i n i m i z e t h e c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e of a u d i e n c e member by d e s c r i b i n g i t as secondary o r v i c a r i o u s . A l t h o u g h h i s a r t i c l e does not e x p l i c i t l y i n c l u d e a u d i e n c e members, i t i s d e s c r i p t i v e of t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . B l a t n e r ' s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n d i f f e r s from t h e o t h e r s r e v i e w e d i n t h e b r e a d t h o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e and i n t h e n e u t r a l way i n which t h e e m o t i o n a l tone i s d e s c r i b e d . F e e l i n g s which a r e welcomed home a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y p a i n f u l ; t h e y can be p o s i t i v e as w e l l . F o r example, a l l o w i n g o n e s e l f t o 110 e x p e r i e n c e s t r e n g t h w h i c h has been unacknowledged as w e l l as more p a i n f u l emotions come under t h e u m b r e l l a o f t h e c a t h a r s i s of a b r e a c t i o n . B l a t n e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n i n v o l v e s t h e dynamics i n v o l v e d r a t h e r t h a n t h e tone o f f e e l i n g s e x p e r i e n c e d . Elements o f a l l f o u r o f B l a t n e r ' s (1985) c a t e g o r i e s o f c a t h a r s i s were e x p e r i e n c e d by a u d i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y : c a t h a r s i s o f a b r e a c t i o n , i n t e g r a t i o n , i n c l u s i o n , and e x i s t e n t i a l . The c a t h a r s i s of a b r e a c t i o n was e x p e r i e n c e d by everyone -- t h e a u d i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y e x p e r i e n c e d h i g h l y i n t e n s e emotions which had been p r e v i o u s l y r e p r e s s e d o r s u p p r e s s e d . T h i s f i n d i n g i s a l s o c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Baum's (1990) s t u d y , and f o r some o f t h e aud i e n c e members i n T e l l i e r e t a l ' s (1963) s t u d y . The s t r e n g t h o f emotions e x p e r i e n c e d i s perhaps t h e o n l y way i n which D a v i e s (1987) v i e w of c a t h a r s i s i s more d e s c r i p t i v e of b o t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a u d i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y as w e l l as t h o s e d e s c r i b e d by Baum (1994). D a v i e s d e s c r i b e s t h e f e e l i n g s as p o w e r f u l , and o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y . B l a t n e r , on t h e o t h e r hand, contends t h a t c a t h a r s i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y i n t e n s e . A l t h o u g h B l a t n e r may be r i g h t , t h e au d i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y a l l e x p e r i e n c e d what t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t o be h i g h l y i n t e n s e f e e l i n g s . I n f a c t , one au d i e n c e member c o n s i d e r e d h i s e x p e r i e n c e as an aud i e n c e member t o be more p r o f o u n d l y c a t h a r t i c t h a n h i s e x p e r i e n c e as a p r o t a g o n i s t . T h i s has been my e x p e r i e n c e as w e l l . I l l B l a t n e r ' s c a t h a r s i s o f i n t e g r a t i o n a l s o was e x p e r i e n c e d by a l l a u d i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y . In o t h e r words, au d i e n c e members made meaning of t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s and i n t e g r a t e d t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n t o t h e i r p s y c h i c o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e s e l f . Baum a l s o a l l u d e d t o i n s i g h t s g a t h e r e d from t h e e x p e r i e n c e by t h e a u d i e n c e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n her s t u d y , a l t h o u g h t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i n s i g h t i s not e x p l i c i t . Some of t h e au d i e n c e members i n T e l l i e r e t a l ' s s t u d y a l s o d e s c r i b e d t h e i r need t o p r o c e s s and i n t e g r a t e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e i n p e r s o n a l t h e r a p y . B l a t n e r ' s c a t h a r s i s of i n c l u s i o n w i l l be f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d i n t h e s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d " P e r c e i v e d Need t o I n t e g r a t e t h e E x p e r i e n c e " . B l a t n e r ' s s p i r i t u a l c a t h a r s i s was s t r o n g l y e x p e r i e n c e d by one o f t h e a u d i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y . A d e f i n i t i o n o f c a t h a r s i s which would i n t e g r a t e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y w i t h t h e i d e a s o f p r e v i o u s p s y c h o d r a m a t i c i a n s c o u l d be: C a t h a r s i s i s t h e r e l e a s e o f u n c o n s c i o u s l y r e s t r a i n e d t h o u g h t s o r f e e l i n g s w h i c h comes about when a b r e a k t h r o u g h o c c u r s t o t h e b a r r i e r s m a i n t a i n i n g p s y c h i c r e p r e s s i o n o r s u p p r e s s i o n of some a s p e c t o f e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s b r e a k t h r o u g h i s e x p e r i e n c e d as h i g h l y i n t e n s e and a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g and i n c l u d e s p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l , c o g n i t i v e and sometimes s p i r i t u a l a s p e c t s . A p s y c h i c r e o r d e r i n g o c c u r s which may be enhanced t h r o u g h t h e c o n s c i o u s i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e . 112 2. Other T h e r a p e u t i c B e n e f i t s Many elements of ego s t r e n g t h e n i n g mentioned by B l a t n e r and B l a t n e r (1988a) were i m p l i c i t l y d e s c r i b e d by a u d i e n c e members o f t h i s s t u d y . Most o f t h e fundamental c o n c e p t s noted a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o a u d i e n c e members as w e l l as p r o t a g o n i s t s , a l t h o u g h t h e way i n which t h e b e n e f i t s o c c u r would d i f f e r t o some e x t e n t . F o r example, r e a l i t y t e s t i n g r e l a t e s b o t h t o feedback r e c e i v e d by t h e p r o t a g o n i s t d u r i n g t h e s h a r i n g phase and t o s e e i n g how o t h e r s handle s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r a u d i e n c e members. In f a c t t h e n o t i o n of l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h s e e i n g o t h e r s was mentioned by s e v e r a l a u d i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y . A l t h o u g h an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e g l o b a l t h e r a p e u t i c b e n e f i t s o f psychodrama was beyond t h e scope of t h i s s t u d y , s u p p o r t was found f o r many o f t h e t h e r a p e u t i c b e n e f i t s summarized by B l o c h and Crouch (1985), K e l l e r m a n n (1987a) and Yalom (1985). S p e c i f i c a l l y l e a r n i n g from i n t e r p e r s o n a l a c t i o n , i n s i g h t and c a t h a r s i s as w e l l as c o r r e c t i v e e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e were found by t h e a u d i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y . 3. P e r c e i v e d Need t o I n t e g r a t e t h e E x p e r i e n c e A n o t h e r major f i n d i n g r e l a t e d t o t h e need o f a u d i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y t o i n t e g r a t e and make meaning o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s , combined w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t most a u d i e n c e members f e l t a sense o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y and embarrassment, o r a t l e a s t s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , r e s u l t e d i n t h e i n t e g r a t i o n 113 p r o c e s s o c c u r r i n g p r i m a r i l y i n p r i v a t e . A g e n e r a l sense by some t h a t t h e f o c u s s h o u l d remain upon t h e p r o t a g o n i s t a l s o k e p t a u d i e n c e members from s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e d u r i n g t h e s h a r i n g phase. I t was as i f t h e s h a r i n g phase was viewed as a t i m e t o d i s c l o s e how one had been a f f e c t e d by t h e enactment r a t h e r t h a n s e l f - d i s c l o s e t h e p e r s o n a l i s s u e s w h i c h were t r i g g e r e d . I n o t h e r words, t h e f o c u s remained upon t h e p r o t a g o n i s t , even though a u d i e n c e members were s h a r i n g t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s . A l t h o u g h a u d i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y made meaning o f and i n t e g r a t e d t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e c a t h a r s i s of i n c l u s i o n which B l a t n e r (1985) i d e n t i f i e d , cannot be f u l l y r e a l i z e d i n p r i v a t e . W h i l e a sense o f b e l o n g i n g may be engendered from s e e i n g t h a t o t h e r s s h a r e t h e same p e r s o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , i t i s t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l l y d i s c l o s i n g something which has v u l n e r a b l e f e e l i n g s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t and b e i n g a c c e p t e d by t h e group d e s p i t e t h i s p e r c e i v e d v u l n e r a b i l i t y , t h a t a f u l l e r c a t h a r s i s of i n c l u s i o n can o c c u r . T h i s i n e f f e c t o c c u r s f o r t h e p r o t a g o n i s t . Through a c t i o n , t h e p r o t a g o n i s t p o r t r a y s some p r o b l e m a t i c a r e a o f t h e i r l i f e , has an o p p o r t u n i t y t o rework t h e problem and i s acknowledged and s u p p o r t e d by t h e a u d i e n c e , a d d i n g t h e c a t h a r s i s o f i n c l u s i o n t o t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . A l t h o u g h t h e " a c t i o n " o c c u r s i n t e r n a l l y , and t h e r e w o r k i n g may not be as complete, t h e c a t h a r s i s o f i n c l u s i o n c o u l d o c c u r f o r 114 a u d i e n c e members who s e l f - d i s c l o s e an a r e a o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y and f i n d t h a t same s u p p o r t and a c c e p t a n c e from t h e i r " a u d i e n c e " . 4. Gender R e l a t e d I s s u e s A n o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g sub-theme w h i c h was a d d r e s s e d by t h r e e a u d i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y r e l a t e d t o gender i s s u e s and t h e need f o r an atmosphere which i s a c c e p t i n g o f bo t h men and women. A l t h o u g h t h i s was not no t e d by a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h o s e who d i s c u s s e d t h e i r f e e l i n g s d e s c r i b e d a h e a l i n g o f t h e a l i e n a t i o n w hich can o c c u r when b o t h men and women a r e r e s p e c t e d and v a l i d a t e d . T h i s was not a major f i n d i n g , however i t does seem noteworthy, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l i g h t o f t h e vehemence w i t h which i t was d i s c u s s e d by t h o s e a d d r e s s i n g t h e i s s u e . A l s o o f i n t e r e s t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a s o c i a l c l i m a t e w hich i s f i g h t i n g towards g r e a t e r e q u a l i t y f o r women, was t h e f a c t t h a t t h e men i n t h i s s t u d y were more c o m f o r t a b l e i n r e m a i n i n g i n t h e i r i n t e r n a l e x p e r i e n c e and t h e women g e n e r a l l y f e l t a g r e a t e r o b l i g a t i o n t o t h e group. M i r r o r i n g our l a r g e r s o c i a l c o n t e x t , men were g e n e r a l l y more c o m f o r t a b l e t h a n women i n " t a k i n g up space i n t h e u n i v e r s e . " W i t h i n an a c c e p t i n g atmosphere which e d i f i e s b o t h men and women, and w i t h d i r e c t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f v a r i o u s r o l e s , perhaps men and women w i l l be a b l e t o e q u a l l y r e c e i v e t h e t h e r a p e u t i c b e n e f i t o f psychodrama. 115 I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h P r e v i o u s Research S e v e r a l a r e a s o f convergence appear when comparing t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y w i t h t h a t o f Susan Baum. Audience members i n b o t h s t u d i e s e x p e r i e n c e d h i g h l y i n t e n s e , a l l -encompassing f e e l i n g s w h i c h c u l m i n a t e d i n i n s i g h t . I n o t h e r words, c a t h a r s i s and i n s i g h t r e s u l t e d f o r t h e au d i e n c e members i n t h e s e s t u d i e s . The i d e a o f c a t h a r s i s and i n s i g h t i s n o t e d by B l o c h and Crouch (1985), K e l l e r m a n n , (1987a), and Yalom (1985). Baum's s t u d y d e s c r i b e s t h e p r o c e s s o f d e c i s i o n i n v o l v e d i n becoming a p r o t a g o n i s t and t h i s s t u d y n e i t h e r s u p p o r t e d nor f a i l e d t o s u p p o r t her f i n d i n g i n t h i s r e g a r d . T h i s was not an a r e a o f f o c u s i n t h i s s t u d y . The i s s u e o f t r u s t and s a f e t y was something w h i c h was d e s c r i b e d as i m p o r t a n t by t h e au d i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y as w e l l as i n Baum's s t u d y . In b o t h s t u d i e s , a l a c k o f t r u s t and s a f e t y was d e s c r i b e d by some of t h e a u d i e n c e members. The n o t i o n o f group t r u s t and s a f e t y speaks t o t h e need f o r e n g e n d e r i n g a sense of i n c l u s i o n as p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d . I m p l i c a t i o n s I m p l i c a t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o b o t h psychodrama d i r e c t i o n and a u d i e n c e e x p e r i e n c e i n g e n e r a l a r e worthy o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I m p l i c a t i o n s which may be r e l e v a n t t o psychodrama d i r e c t o r s i n c l u d e : a) t h e need f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s t o u n d e r s t a n d psychodrama p r o c e s s i n c l u d i n g t h e n a t u r e o f c a t h a r s i s , and t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f 116 v a r i o u s psychodrama r o l e s ; b) t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f an i n t e g r a t i o n p e r i o d f o r a l l group members so t h a t b o t h p r o t a g o n i s t s and a u d i e n c e members l e a v e t h e e x p e r i e n c e " i n t a c t " ; and c) an awareness t h a t psychodrama d i r e c t i o n i n c l u d e s t o some e x t e n t t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a u d i e n c e member e x p e r i e n c e . An i n i t i a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p s y c h o d r a m a t i c p r o c e s s i n c l u d i n g t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f v a r i o u s r o l e s and t h e n a t u r e o f c a t h a r s i s would p r e p a r e psychodrama p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r t h e i n t e n s e e x p e r i e n c e which might o c c u r f o r them. Audience members i n t h i s s t u d y were caught o f f guard by t h e h i g h l y e x p e r i e n t i a l and t u r b u l e n t f e e l i n g s which t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e m s e l v e s t o be s t u d e n t s l e a r n i n g "about" psychodrama d i d not p r e p a r e t h e au d i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y t o f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e i n t e n s e l y p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e which was t o ensue. A sense o f shame and i s o l a t i o n may be m i n i m i z e d i f p a r t i c i p a n t s know from t h e o u t s e t t h a t t h e y may be e m o t i o n a l l y t r i g g e r e d i n a p o w e r f u l way and t h a t f u r t h e r , p a r t o f t h e t h e r a p e u t i c b e n e f i t f o r aud i e n c e members i s i n e x p e r i e n c i n g and i n t e g r a t i n g p o w e r f u l f e e l i n g s . C l e a r g u i d e l i n e s about t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e v a r i o u s psychodrama r o l e s ( a u d i e n c e member, p r o t a g o n i s t , a u x i l i a r y and d i r e c t o r ) would be h e l p f u l , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r p e o p l e who a r e new t o t h e p r o c e s s . The t h e r a p e u t i c v a l u e o f a u d i e n c e member p a r t i c i p a t i o n can be enhanced t h r o u g h knowing t h a t 117 a u d i e n c e members have l i m i t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and a r e f r e e t o f u l l y e x p e r i e n c e t h e enactment, i n c l u d i n g whatever p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i s t r i g g e r e d . A c l e a r d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e v a r i o u s r o l e s would perhaps have a l l o w e d t h e au d i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y who were o v e r l y concerned about t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t h e p r o t a g o n i s t t o more f u l l y e n t e r i n t o t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e s . The i m p o r t a n c e o f b o t h t h e warm up and t h e i n t e g r a t i o n p e r i o d was h i g h l i g h t e d i n r e v i e w i n g themes which emerged f o r aud i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y . The s t a r t i n g p l a c e f o r aud i e n c e members i n t o t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t e x p e r i e n c e was a sense o f b e i n g f u l l y p r e s e n t o r engaged w i t h t h e enactment. Engagement i s f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e warm-up p r o c e s s , and i n t e g r a t i o n o r meaning making, i s f a c i l i t a t e d i n t h e s h a r i n g phase. L i t e r a t u r e about psychodrama notes t h e imp o r t a n c e o f t h e i n t e g r a t i o n phase f o r a l l psychodrama p a r t i c i p a n t s . A udience members i n t h i s s t u d y needed t o make meaning o f a d e e p l y i n t e n s e e x p e r i e n c e and may have been a b l e t o t a k e advantage o f t h e s h a r i n g phase had t h e y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h i s phase i s f o r everyone's b e n e f i t and i s not p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e p r o t a g o n i s t . One c o u l d s p e c u l a t e about how t o b e t t e r f a c i l i t a t e a u d i e n c e member i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . S e v e r a l o p t i o n s might be: a) h a v i n g a doub l e s t e p i n f o r an au d i e n c e member who was so overcome w i t h emotion t h a t t h e y c o u l d not speak. 118 b) move i n t o an enactment w i t h t h e au d i e n c e member becoming t h e p r o t a g o n i s t . c) do some p r o c e s s work w i t h t h e au d i e n c e member i n a l e s s a c t i o n o r i e n t e d f a s h i o n w i t h t h e aim o f h a v i n g them l e a v e w i t h a sense of what t h e y need t o complete t h e e x p e r i e n c e w hich had been i n i t i a t e d . The p r a c t i c e o f h a v i n g a f o l l o w - u p group 6 weeks a f t e r t h e workshop, something which t h e d i r e c t o r s of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group r o u t i n e l y do, i s an e x c e l l e n t way t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e i n t e g r a t i o n p r o c e s s . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e i t g i v e s p a r t i c i p a n t s t h e i d e a t h a t t h e r e i s an i n t e g r a t i o n p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d and s e c o n d l y i t g i v e s p e o p l e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h e y w i l l not be a l o n e i n t h e i r p r o c e s s o f i n t e g r a t i o n and t h a t s u p p o r t w i l l be a v a i l a b l e . I t may be u s e f u l f o r d i r e c t o r s t o know t h a t t h e y may be d i r e c t i n g t h e i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e o f a u d i e n c e members as w e l l as t h e o u t e r e x p e r i e n c e o f p r o t a g o n i s t s and a u x i l i a r i e s . F o r example two o f t h e a u d i e n c e members i n t h i s s t u d y d e s c r i b e d t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f t a k i n g cues as an a u d i e n c e member i n terms o f t h e i r i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e from what t h e d i r e c t o r was s a y i n g t o t h e p r o t a g o n i s t . T h i s u n d e r s c o r e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t a k i n g t i m e i n b r i n g i n g c l o s u r e t o t h e enactment s i n c e a u d i e n c e members may s i m u l t a n e o u s l y be i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r own i n n e r c l o s u r e . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n v a r i o u s forms o f t h e a t r e may a l s o be q u i t e f a r - r e a c h i n g . A u dience e x p e r i e n c e 119 can be b o t h p r o f o u n d and i n v i s i b l e . Those i n v o l v e d w i t h a u d i e n c e s would be w e l l a d v i s e d t o be s e n s i t i v e t o t h e impact which may be o c c u r r i n g f o r a u d i e n c e s . Through i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , a u d i e n c e members may e x p e r i e n c e t h e t r i g g e r i n g o f v e r y s t r o n g f e e l i n g s . A r i s t o t l e saw t h e v a l u e of t h e v i c a r i o u s p u r g i n g o f emotions f o r a u d i e n c e s . A d d i n g an i n t e g r a t i o n p e r i o d t o t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e c o u l d enhance t h e v a l u e o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e f u r t h e r . Some t h e a t r e s a r e t a k i n g account o f t h i s : f o r example a r e c e n t p r o d u c t i o n a t G r a n v i l l e I s l a n d i n Vancouver i n v o l v i n g a c o n t r o v e r s i a l s e x u a l harassment i s s u e ended w i t h an aud i e n c e d i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w i n g t h e performance. A l t h o u g h t h e i n t e g r a t i o n p r o c e s s f o l l o w i n g a t h e a t r e p r o d u c t i o n would l i k e l y be l e s s t h e r a p e u t i c t h a n t h e i n t e g r a t i o n i n psychodrama, n o n e t h e l e s s i t c o u l d p r o v i d e a v a l u a b l e o p p o r t u n i t y t o make sense o f impact of a performance. S c h o o l s would a l s o be w e l l a d v i s e d t o t a k e advantage o f t h e g r e a t e r l e a r n i n g w h i c h i s p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h i n c r e a s i n g t h e number o f s e n s o r y m o d a l i t i e s . i n v o l v e d i n a l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y . F o r example l e a r n i n g about h i s t o r y t h r o u g h a c t i n g i t out c o u l d p r o v i d e a much l a r g e r impact t h a n l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h l i s t e n i n g , o r even l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h l i s t e n i n g and w a t c h i n g . F u t u r e R e s e a r c h T h i s s t u d y t o o k a s t e p towards u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e of s i g n i f i c a n t change f o r a u d i e n c e members. The 120 p r i n c i p l e f i n d i n g t h a t t h i s e x p e r i e n c e i s highly-e x p e r i e n t i a l and not v i c a r i o u s needs t o be f u r t h e r examined w i t h o t h e r groups. The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r workshop were h i g h l y a r t i c u l a t e , s e l f - r e f l e c t i v e and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y minded c o u n s e l l i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s . I n as much as t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n psychodrama groups may be v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t , t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f change may a l s o v a r y . A n o t h e r a r e a of f u t u r e r e s e a r c h would be t o more f u l l y . e x p l o r e t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e f o r v a r i o u s psychodrama r o l e s . What i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e o f an a u d i e n c e member and t h a t o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t ? One c o u l d s p e c u l a t e t h a t one d i f f e r e n c e i s t h e p e r c e i v e d need t o c o n t a i n t h e e x p e r i e n c e . What t h i s meant i n t h i s s t u d y , was t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e t o o k p l a c e i n a p o w e r f u l way, b u t on an i n n e r r a t h e r t h a n an o u t e r l e v e l . A n o t h e r a r e a o f r e s e a r c h w hich would add t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t h e r a p e u t i c v a l u e o f psychodrama would be an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a u x i l i a r i e s and d o u b l e s . F i n e (1979) notes t h a t " t h e a u x i l i a r i e s i n t h e psychodrama a r e r e c e i v i n g t h e r a p y as w e l l as t h e p r o t a g o n i s t when t h e y use t h e i r eyes and e a r s , v o i c e s and b o d i e s , t o a t t e n d t o and r e c r e a t e t h e f a n t a s i e s and p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e moment of t h e p r o t a g o n i s t " (p. 433). A l t h o u g h c a t h a r s i s may o c c u r l e s s r e a d i l y f o r a u x i l i a r i e s , o t h e r t h e r a p e u t i c b e n e f i t s a r e u n d o u b t e d l y o c c u r r i n g . 121 Summary Empathy and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a r e fundamental human q u a l i t i e s w h i c h a c t as t h e entrance.way i n t o t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l r e a l m o f o t h e r s . In psychodrama, a s i t u a t i o n i s s e t up whereby t h e u s u a l d i v i s i o n between a c t o r and a u d i e n c e i s d i m i n i s h e d r e s u l t i n g i n a deepening o f empathy and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Group members a r e a f f o r d e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e r e a l i t y of o t h e r s more p r o f o u n d l y which can i n t u r n l e a d t o a deeper e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e i r own r e a l i t y . Through t h e s k i l f u l a p p l i c a t i o n o f p s y c h o d r a m a t i c t e c h n i q u e s , i n f o r m e d by b o t h t h e o r y and e x p e r i e n c e , p r o f o u n d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n can o c c u r o v e r t h e p e r i o d o f a few days. One o f t h e p r i m a r y ways t h r o u g h which t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o c c u r s i s c a t h a r s i s ; an e x p e r i e n c e which i s o b v i o u s f o r p r o t a g o n i s t s and l e s s o b v i o u s , b u t no l e s s p r o f o u n d f o r a u d i e n c e members. T h i s s t u d y has e x p l o r e d t h i s p r o f o u n d y e t p a r t i a l l y i n v i s i b l e p r o c e s s , a d d i n g t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t h e r a p e u t i c b e n e f i t s o f psychodrama. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e i s recommended. F a c t o r s worthy o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n a f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n o f c a t h a r s i s i n c l u d e : t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between c a t h a r s i s and t h e p e r s o n a l framework of an i n d i v i d u a l ; t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e s o f v a r i o u s p s y c h o d r a m a t i c r o l e s ; t h e i n t e n s i t y o f f e e l i n g s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c a t h a r s i s ; t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between e m o t i o n a l c o n t e n t 122 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e and i t s i n t e n s i t y ; and how t h e b e n e f i t s of c a t h a r s i s change w i t h i n t e g r a t i o n . The p r o f o u n d e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h may o c c u r f o r a u d i e n c e s has f a r - r e a c h i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s b o t h i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l system and i n t r a d i t i o n a l t h e a t r e . 123 REFERENCES Baron, A. & Byrne, D. (1987). S o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y : U n d e r s t a n d i n g human i n t e r a c t i o n . B o s t o n : A l l y n and Bacon, I n c . B a r t l e t t , K.G. (1991). Management of b r e a s t c a n c e r p a i n i n t h e home s e t t i n g : A p a t i e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . U n p u b l i s h e d master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. B e n n e t t , S. (19 9 0 ) . T h e a t r e a u d i e n c e s : A t h e o r y o f p r o d u c t i o n and r e c e p t i o n . London/N.Y.: R o u t l e d g e . Baum, S. (1994). Change p r o c e s s e s i n psychodrama. U n p u b l i s h e d master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, Vancouver. 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Les e f f e t s d 'audience du psychodrame. In J . J o r e n o , A. Friedemann, R. B a t t e g a y & Z. Moreno (Eds.) The i n t e r n a t i o n a l handbook of group p s y c h o t h e r a p y (pp. 366-372). New York: P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y . Yalom, I . (1985). The t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f group p s y c h o t h e r a p y ( 3 r d e d . ) . New York: B a s i c Books. 131 APPENDIX C I n t e r v i e w P r o t o c o l S c r i p t : As you know, I am i n t e r e s t e d i n e x p l o r i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f s i g n i f i c a n t change f o r psychodrama a u d i e n c e members. By s i g n i f i c a n t change, I mean t h a t you e x p e r i e n c e d some s o r t o f a s h i f t i n s i d e y o u r s e l f t h a t you c o n s i d e r t o be i m p o r t a n t . You might say t h a t i n some way you a r e l e a v i n g t h e workshop a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t t h a n how you came i n . I want t o e x p l o r e w i t h you what happened. I have here a t i m e l i n e o f events t h a t o c c u r e d over t h e c o u r s e of t h e workshop t o h e l p j o g your memory i f you need t o l o o k a t i t . I ' d l i k e you t o t a k e a few minutes t o r e f l e c t back on y o u r e x p e r i e n c e . 1. T e l l me about your e x p e r i e n c e o f change as i f you were t e l l i n g me a s t o r y t h a t had a b e g i n n i n g m i d d l e and end. What l e d up t o t h i s s h i f t , what happened d u r i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e and what happened a f t e r w a r d s . ( A f t e r each d e s c r i p t i o n i f needed) - What were you f e e l i n g ? - What were you t h i n k i n g ? - What d i d t h a t mean t o you? - How d i d t h a t a f f e c t you? - What was t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e ? 2. What d i d you l e a r n about y o u r s e l f ? 3. The l e a r n i n g t h a t you spoke about, do you see e v i d e n c e of t h a t i n your l i f e now? I f so, what i s t h e e v i d e n c e , how i s your l i f e d i f f e r e n t ? 4. A r e t h e r e o t h e r f a c t o r s i n your l i f e t h a t you t h i n k may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e change o r s h i f t t h a t you d e s c r i b e d ? 5. I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g you would l i k e t o add t h a t would h e l p me more f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d your e x p e r i e n c e ? A d d i t i o n a l Q u e s t i o n s I f not a l r e a d y known, t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s were a l s o asked: 1. Which enactment(s) were t r i g g e r i n g e v e n t s f o r change? 2. Were you a p r o t a g a n i s t i n t h i s psychodrama as w e l l ? 3. Were you an a u x i l l i a r y ego? How many t i m e s ? 132 4. How many psychodrama's have you been i n ? 5. How many t i m e s have you been a p r o t a g a n i s t ? 6. Have you n o t i c e d any s o r t o f p r o g r e s s i o n i n your e x p e r i e n c e w i t h psychodrama? 133 APPENDIX D D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Audience Member: a member of t h e psychodrama group who does not p l a y an a c t i v e r o l e i n an enactment, e.g. a u x i l i a r y , d o u b l e , e t c . A u x i l i a r y Egos - i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e chosen by t h e p r o t a g o n i s t t o r e p r e s e n t absentee persons from t h e i r p r i v a t e w o r l d . These i n d i v i d u a l s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s , o r t r a i n e d t h e r a p i s t s . (Greenberg, 1974). Catharsis: The r e l e a s e o f u n c o n s c i o u s l y r e s t r a i n e d m a t e r i a l w hich o c c u r s when a b r e a k t h r o u g h o c c u r s t o t h e b a r r i e r s m a i n t a i n i n g p s y c h i c r e p r e s s i o n o r s u p p r e s s i o n o f some a s p e c t o f e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s b r e a k t h r o u g h i s e x p e r i e n c e d as h i g h l y i n t e n s e and a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g and i n c l u d e s p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l , c o g n i t i v e and sometimes s p i r i t u a l components. A p s y c h i c r e o r d e r i n g o c c u r s which may be enhanced t h r o u g h t h e c o n s c i o u s i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e . Director: c h i e f t h e r a p i s t , t h e p r o d u c e r o f t h e ps y c h o d r a m a t i c e v e n t . The d i r e c t o r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e way i n which an enactment i s c a r r i e d o u t , as w e l l as t h e f a c i l i t a t i o n o f t h e subsequent whole group d i s c u s s i o n . (Greenberg, 1974) Doubles - i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e chosen by t h e d i r e c t o r , p r o t a g o n i s t o r th e m s e l v e s t o come f o r w a r d and p o r t r a y t h e p r o t a g o n i s t , o r an a s p e c t o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t . S e v e r a l d o u b l e s may show a v a r i e t y o f a s p e c t s of t h e p r o t a g o n i s t . Enactment: t h e scene o r scenes which a r e e n a c t e d as p a r t o f t h e t h e r a p e u t i c work f o r each i n d i v i d u a l p r o t a g o n i s t . G e n e r a l l y i s p r e c e ded by a warm-up and f o l l o w e d by an i n t e g r a t i o n o r s h a r i n g p e r i o d . Encounter: An exchange between two p e o p l e where t h e whole b e i n g i n c l u d i n g t h e s o u l , o f one p e r s o n communicates w i t h t h e whole b e i n g o f t h e o t h e r . "Not by t u r n i n g away from human per s o n s do we meet God, b u t God meets us i n a l l o f our i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n each Thou we address t h e e t e r n a l Thou" (Johnson, 1974). Follow-up: An e v e n i n g f o l l o w - u p s e s s i o n f o r psychodrama p a r t i c i p a n t s w h i c h i s h e l d by t h e d i r e c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s t u d y 6-8 weeks a f t e r weekend workshops i n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r i n t e g r a t e t h e psychodrama e x p e r i e n c e s . Integration: The phase o f an enactment f o l l o w i n g t h e e n d i n g of t h e a c t i o n where everyone has a chance t o make meaning of t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e s s h a r i n g by t h e p r o t a g o n i s t and a u x i l i a r i e s / d o u b l e s o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e as w e l l as t h e s h a r i n g by a u d i e n c e members o f s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s from t h e i r own l i v e s . Protagonist: main c h a r a c t e r i n an enactment, t h e p e r s o n around whom t h e enactment r e v o l v e s . (Greenberg, 1974). 134 Psychodrama: a method o f p s y c h o t h e r a p y i n which c l i e n t s a r e encouraged t o c o n t i n u e and complete t h e i r a c t i o n s t h r o u g h d r a m a t i z a t i o n , r o l e p l a y i n g , and d r a m a t i c s e l f -p r e s e n t a t i o n . Both v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l communication a r e u t i l i z e d . A number o f scenes a r e e n a c t e d , d e p i c t i n g one o r more c o m b i n a t i o n s o f : s p e c i f i c p a s t memories which a r e i n some way " u n f i n i s h e d " ; i n n e r dramas; f a n t a s i e s ; dreams; p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r i s k - t a k i n g s i t u a t i o n s ; o r s i m p l y u n r e h e a r s e d e x p r e s s i o n s o f mental s t a t e s i n t h e here and now. These scenes approximate r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n s o r a r e e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n s of mental p r o c e s s e s from w i t h i n . " R o l e s " may be p l a y e d by o t h e r group members o r r e p r e s e n t e d by i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s . Many t e c h n i q u e s a r e employed, such as r o l e r e v e r s a l , d o u b l i n g , m i r r o r i n g , c o n c r e t i z i n g , m a x i m i z i n g , and s o l i l o q u y . U s u a l l y , t h e phases o f warm up, a c t i o n , w o r k i n g - t h r o u g h , c l o s u r e , and s h a r i n g can be i d e n t i f i e d . ( K e l l e r m a n n , 1987c). Psychodramatic Situation: B r i n g i n g a s c e n a r i o from t h e p a s t o r f u t u r e i n t o t h e p r e s e n t moment so t h a t i t i s e x p e r i e n c e d as a c u r r e n t r e a l i t y . Psychodrama Workshop - A 3 day workshop f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r s i n t e r e s t e d i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and use o f advanced group and psychodrama t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l work. Those who a t t e n d e d t h e workshop were p r o f e s s i o n a l s o r s t u d e n t s who l e a r n e d about psychodrama by becoming a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e warm-up, enactment, and i n t e g r a t i o n phases o f t h e v a r i o u s enactments. . S i g n i f i c a n t Experience of Change: an e x p e r i e n c e p e r c e i v e d by t h e a u d i e n c e member as p i v o t a l i n c r e a t i n g an i n n e r s h i f t . F o r t h e purposes o f t h i s s t u d y , t h i s e x p e r i e n c e would have o c c u r r e d w h i l e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t was an aud i e n c e member i n a psychodrama enactment. Spontaneity: A s t a t e o f b e i n g open and f l e x i b l e t o t h e needs o f t h e moment and w i l l i n g and a b l e t o t a k e a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n . Warm-up: The phase o f psychodrama p r i o r t o an enactment when t h e group and t h e p r o t a g o n i s t a r e made read y t o engage i n an enactment. T h i s can i n c l u d e d e v e l o p i n g group t r u s t ( c o h e s i o n and i n c l u s i o n ) , c h o o s i n g t h e t o p i c f o r an enactment and s e t t i n g t h e scene. 

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