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Social anxiety and attitudes toward counselling in University students Bushnell, Judith Elizabeth 1995

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SOCIAL ANXIETY AND ATTITUDES TOWARD COUNSELLING IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS by JUDITH ELIZABETH BUSHNELL B.A., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1990 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Counselling Psychology) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1995 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C^^^^^^^^ /*f^<5>£*^<7^/ The University of B r i t i s h ^ Vancouver, Canada Date / J ^ ^ ^ ^ - c ^ ? DE-6 (2/88) 11 Abstract Previous research suggests that the self-presentational concerns often voiced by s o c i a l l y anxious individuals may i n h i b i t psychological help-seeking. The present study examined whether s o c i a l anxiety i s associated with unfavourable attitudes toward seeking counselling, as well as with s p e c i f i c helper-directed concerns and helper preferences. University students who scored low or high on a sel f - r e p o r t measure of s o c i a l anxiety were compared on several s e l f - r e p o r t measures of help-seeking developed s p e c i f i c a l l y for t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The res u l t s showed that s o c i a l l y anxious students had more negative attitudes toward seeking counselling than students who were not s o c i a l l y anxious. S o c i a l l y anxious students were also less comfortable with the prospect of d i s c l o s i n g personal information to a counsellor, and were more apprehensive about the p o s s i b i l i t y of being viewed unfavourably by a counsellor, than t h e i r less anxious peers. Implications for counselling and directions for future research are discussed. i i i Table of Contents Abstract • i i Table of Contents i i i L i s t of Tables v i Acknowledgment i x I. INTRODUCTION 1 Social Anxiety and Shyness 2 Social Anxiety and Self-Presentation 4 Situa t i o n a l Versus Dispositional Social Anxiety 6 The Prospect of Interpersonal Evaluation 6 Social Anxiety and Help-Seeking 16 Hypotheses 19 II. METHOD 22 Participants 22 Measures 23 Social Anxiety 24 Help-Seeking Attitudes 26 Helper-Directed Concerns 29 Helper Preferences 32 Procedure 33 II I . RESULTS 35 Descriptive Data 36 i v Help-Seeking Attitudes 37 Pos i t i v e Help-Seeking Attitudes 39 Negative Help-Seeking Attitudes 40 Helper-Directed Concerns 40 Anxiety 43 Disclosure 43 Impression. . 43 Evaluation 43 Helper Preferences 45 Family Physician 46 Ps y c h i a t r i s t 46 Individual Counselling 46 Group Counselling 47 C r i s i s Line 49 Public Workshop 54 Tr a d i t i o n a l Guide 55 Self-Help Materials 56 Anonymous Help-Seeking Versus Public Help-Seeking 56 IV. DISCUSSION 60 Review of Major Findings 60 Limitations of This Research 66 G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y 66 Voluntary P a r t i c i p a t i o n 67 V Use of Self-Report Measures 67 Psychometric Properties of the Dependent Measures 68 Directions for Future Research 68 Implications for Counselling 71 Conclusion 72 References 73 Appendix A 81 Appendix B 84 Appendix C 98 Appendix D 100 Appendix E 101 Appendix F 103 Appendix G 105 Appendix H 107 v i L i s t of Tables Table 1 Intercorrelations Between Help-Seeking Attitudes and Helper-Directed Concerns .... 38 Table 2 PHAS Scores as a Function of Social Anxiety and Gender 41 Table 3 Group Counselling Scores as a Function of Social Anxiety and E t h n i c i t y 48 Table 4 C r i s i s Line Scores as a Function of Social Anxiety and Gender 50 Table 5 C r i s i s Line Scores as a Function of Social Anxiety and E t h n i c i t y 52 Table 6 C r i s i s Line Scores as a Function of Gender and Et h n i c i t y 53 Table 7 Tr a d i t i o n a l Guide Scores as a Function of Gender and E t h n i c i t y 57 Table 8 Mean Scores for Self-Help Materials, C r i s i s Line, and Public Sources of Help as a Function of Social Anxiety 59 Table A - l National Heritage, Place of B i r t h , and Number of Years i n North America 81 Table A-2 Departmental A f f i l i a t i o n and Programme of Study 82 V l l Table A-3 Scales Administered to P a r t i c i p a t i n g Classes i n Questionnaire Package 1 and Questionnaire Package 2 83 Table B-l Multivariate Analysis of Variance of PHAS and NHAS Scores 84 Table B-2 Multivariate Analysis of Variance of Anxiety, Disclosure, and Impression Scores 85 Table B-3 Univariate Analysis of Variance of Scores for Item 1 on the Evaluation Scale 86 Table B-4 Univariate Analysis of Variance of Scores for Item 2 on the Evaluation Scale 87 Table B-5 Univariate Analysis of Variance of Scores for Item 3 on the Evaluation Scale 88 Table B-6 Univariate Analysis of Variance of Scores for Item 4 on the Evaluation Scale 89 Table B-7 Univariate Analysis of Variance of Family Physician Scores 90 Table B-8 Univariate Analysis of Variance of P s y c h i a t r i s t Scores 91 Table B-9 Univariate Analysis of Variance of Individual Counselling Scores Table B-10 Univariate Analysis of Variance of Group Counselling Scores Table B - l l Univariate Analysis of Variance of C r i s i s Line Scores Table B-12 Univariate Analysis of Variance of Public Workshop Scores Table B-13 Univariate Analysis of Variance of T r a d i t i o n a l Guide Scores Table B-14 Univariate Analysis of Variance of Self-Help Scores i x Acknowledgment I would l i k e to thank my committee members, Dr. Ishu Ishiyama, Dr. Marv Westwood, and Dr. Paul Wong, for t h e i r helpful feedback. I would also l i k e to express special thanks to Dr. Arleigh Reichl for providing invaluable s t a t i s t i c a l consultation and much needed support. I am also grateful to the f a c u l t y and students at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia who volunteered t h e i r valuable class time. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to thank my family, my friends, and my partner, Doug, for believing i n me and helping me overcome many obstacles. 1 Chapter I A substantial amount of research suggests that people often choose not to seek help for t h e i r problems (see DePaulo, Nadler, & Fisher, 1983). Some have argued that people are reluctant to seek help from others because doing so may threaten t h e i r self-esteem by highl i g h t i n g perceived f a i l u r e s and feelings of i n f e r i o r i t y (Fisher, DePaulo, & Nadler, 1981; Fisher, Nadler, & Whitcher-Alagna, 1982). Furthermore, i f seeking help involves presenting an image that i s quite d i f f e r e n t from the image an in d i v i d u a l wishes to present, then he or she may fear the negative evaluations of others, as well as the embarrassing consequences of a public ( i . e . , to the helper) admission of f a i l u r e or inadequacy (Edelmann, 1987; Shapiro, 1983, 1984). It appears that people are less l i k e l y to seek help for problems that are very intimate (Greenley & Mechanic, 1976a), carry a stigma (Perlman, 1975), or imply personal inadequacy (Gross, Fisher, Nadler, S t i g l i t z , & Craig, 1979). S i m i l a r l y , some partici p a n t s i n a longitudinal study of the adaptive consequences of seeking help from professionals and s o c i a l networks (Lieberman & Mullan, 1978) reported that they did not seek help for t h e i r l i f e t r a n s i t i o n 2 or c r i s i s because i t was "too personal" (p. 512). Social psychologists have speculated that the self-presentational concerns often voiced by s o c i a l l y anxious individuals may i n h i b i t help-seeking (Edelmann, 1987; Zimbardo, 1977), yet t h i s idea has received scant s c i e n t i f i c attention and l i t t l e i s known about the help-seeking attitudes of such in d i v i d u a l s . Presently, there i s no information i n the l i t e r a t u r e regarding s o c i a l anxiety and attitudes toward seeking counselling. Social Anxiety and Shyness Feelings of apprehension, self-consciousness, and d i s t r e s s i n s o c i a l situations are commonly known as shyness. Although there has been considerable debate about the precise d e f i n i t i o n of shyness as a psychological construct (Buss, 1985; Cheek & Watson, 1989; Harris, 1984; Leary, 1986a; P i l k o n i s , 1977; Zimbardo, 1977), most d e f i n i t i o n s of shyness include both an a f f e c t i v e component and a behavioural component. For example, Briggs and Smith (1986) define shyness as "discomfort and i n h i b i t i o n i n the presence of others" (p. 629). Like shyness, the construct of s o c i a l anxiety has been the subject of much debate, and there i s currently 3 l i t t l e agreement regarding how s o c i a l anxiety should be defined (Buss, 1980; Clark & Arkowitz, 1975; Schlenker & Leary 1982). Some d e f i n i t i o n s of s o c i a l anxiety are v i r t u a l l y indistinguishable from d e f i n i t i o n s of shyness. For example, Clark and Arkowitz (1975) define s o c i a l anxiety as "discomfort i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s , along with a heightened avoidance of s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s " (p. 211) . Others characterize s o c i a l anxiety s o l e l y as a negative cognitive and a f f e c t i v e response which occurs when an ind i v i d u a l anticipates an unfavourable s o c i a l outcome (Schlenker & Leary, 1982). C l e a r l y , shyness and s o c i a l anxiety are very s i m i l a r constructs. Leary and Schlenker (1981) suggest that shyness i s a "state of s o c i a l anxiety" (p. 339) , and they have used the terms shyness and s o c i a l anxiety interchangeably i n t h e i r self-presentation model (Leary & Schlenker, 1981; Schlenker & Leary, 1982), which w i l l be discussed l a t e r i n t h i s chapter. Further, there i s empirical evidence that some shyness and s o c i a l anxiety scales (Cheek & Buss, 1981; Fenigstein, Scheier, & Buss, 1975; Zimbardo, 1977) measure the same construct (Anderson St Harvey, 1988) . 4 Social Anxiety and Self-Presentation Schlenker and Leary (1982) define s o c i a l anxiety as a subjective experience of nervousness and dread "r e s u l t i n g from the prospect or presence of interpersonal evaluation i n r e a l or imagined s o c i a l settings" (p. 642). In other words, s o c i a l anxiety may occur independently of actual instances of evaluation by others, and may simply involve an individual's apprehension about taking part i n a c t i v i t i e s i n which he or she might be evaluated by others. Because s o c i a l anxiety cannot occur i n the absence of evaluative concern, t h i s d e f i n i t i o n implies that the fear of unsatisfactory interpersonal evaluation plays a key r o l e . The self-presentation model of s o c i a l anxiety outlined by Schlenker and Leary (1982) states that feelings of distress arise whenever two necessary and s u f f i c i e n t conditions are met. F i r s t , the i n d i v i d u a l must be motivated to make a p a r t i c u l a r impression on others. "People who do not have such a goal i n the s e t t i n g , and hence are unconcerned about prospective evaluations, w i l l not f e e l s o c i a l l y anxious" (Schlenker & Leary, 1982, p. 646). Second, the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l f e e l s o c i a l l y anxious only to the degree that he or she 5 doubts his or her a b i l i t y to make a desired impression, thereby creating the expectation of unsatisfactory reactions from others. Thus, the more important the self-presentational goal, and the lower the self-presentational outcome expectancy, the greater the s o c i a l anxiety. According to thi s theory, s p e c i f i c antecedents of s o c i a l anxiety include those s i t u a t i o n a l and dispostional factors that either increase an individual's motivation to make a p a r t i c u l a r impression on others or lead him or her to lack confidence i n his or her a b i l i t y to do so. A review of the common antecedents of s o c i a l anxiety supports t h i s proposition (see Schlenker & Leary, 1982; Zimbardo, 1977). For example, people often report f e e l i n g s o c i a l l y anxious when int e r a c t i n g with high status, expert, or evaluative others (Leary 1983a, 1983b, Zimbardo, 1977). Personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s associated with s o c i a l anxiety include fear of negative evaluation, chronic public self-consciousness, need for approval, accurately or inaccurately perceived s o c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , low self-esteem, and excessively high standards for self-evaluation (Leary 1983b). The self-presentation model i s useful because i t 6 (a) subsumes the c r i t i c a l elements of the personality, c l a s s i c a l conditioning, s k i l l s d e f i c i t , and e a r l i e r cognitive approaches to understanding s o c i a l anxiety; (b) acknowledges the interaction of s i t u a t i o n a l and d i s p o s i t i o n a l factors; and (c) posits the necessary and s u f f i c i e n t conditions for a l l instances of s o c i a l anxiety (Leary 1983a). Situ a t i o n a l Versus Dispositional Social Anxiety As defined by Schlenker and Leary (1982), s o c i a l anxiety refers to a state of anxiety that arises when an i n d i v i d u a l anticipates an unfavourable s o c i a l outcome. The term s o c i a l anxiety i s also commonly used to r e f e r to an i n d i v i d u a l difference or t r a i t variable ( i . e . , the frequency, or i n t e n s i t y , with which an i n d i v i d u a l experiences such feelings over situations and time). Throughout th i s discussion, I w i l l use the term s o c i a l l y anxious to describe individuals who are high i n d i s p o s i t i o n a l s o c i a l anxiety. The Prospect of Interpersonal Evaluation Seeking help anonymously should reduce the relevance of self-presentational concerns. In a study of the effects of anonymity and locus of need a t t r i b u t i o n on help-seeking behaviour (Nadler & Porat, 1978), 32 I s r a e l i high school students were required 7 to take a general knowledge test which included 10 d i f f i c u l t items ( i . e . , unanswerable by 95% of students i n a p i l o t study) and were informed that they could ask the experimenter for help by f i l l i n g out a form. Eight students were randomly assigned to each of four experimental conditions: (a) anonymous, external need a t t r i b u t i o n ; (b) anonymous, in t e r n a l need a t t r i b u t i o n ; (c) i d e n t i f i a b l e , external need a t t r i b u t i o n ; and (d) i d e n t i f i a b l e , i n t e r n a l need a t t r i b u t i o n . The difference between the external need a t t r i b u t i o n group (who believed that only 10% of past participants had answered a l l of the questions c o r r e c t l y without assistance) and the int e r n a l need a t t r i b u t i o n group (who believed that 90% of past participants had answered a l l of the questions c o r r e c t l y without assistance) was s i g n i f i c a n t only i n the anonymous condition. In other words, when i d e n t i f i a b l e , the students refrained from help-seeking regardless of locus of need a t t r i b u t i o n . Students who were not asked to reveal any personal information ( i . e . , name, age, and address) on the test form and the help request form were more l i k e l y to seek help than those who were asked to i d e n t i f y themselves. Although the modest sample siz e and the a r t i f i c i a l 8 nature of t h i s study l i m i t i t s g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y , the authors' conclusion that "anonymity of the request for help may be viewed as an important determinant of help-seeking behavior" (Nadler & Porat, 1978, p. 626) i s quite sound given the consistency of t h e i r findings with those of other researchers (Karabenick & Knapp, 1988; Modigliani, 1971; Shapiro, 1978). Schlenker and Leary (1982) suggest that "when people's behaviors are private and w i l l not come to the attention of others, less s o c i a l anxiety w i l l be experienced than when the behaviors are public" (p. 647). In a s i m i l a r study (Nadler, 1980), 40 female students at Tel-Aviv University were asked to complete an experimental task which tested t h e i r knowledge of rare Hebrew words. Ten students were randomly assigned to each of four conditions: (a) a t t r a c t i v e female partner, expectation of face-to-face meeting; (b) unattractive female partner, expectation of face-to-face meeting; (c) at t r a c t i v e female partner, no expectation of face-to-face meeting; and (d) unattractive female partner, no expectation of face-to-face meeting. A l l of the participants were given a photo of a f i c t i t i o u s female partner, who they believed would be working on the assigned task i n a 9 separate room, and were provided with a consultation form which could be used to ask t h e i r alleged partner for help defining any of the words that they were not fa m i l i a r with. Students who expected to meet t h e i r partner face-to-face declined to seek help on s i g n i f i c a n t l y more items that they were unable to define than those who did not expect such a meeting. As anticipated, the students sought less help from a ph y s i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e partner than from a p h y s i c a l l y unattractive partner only when they expected a face-to-face meeting. No d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e cts of attractiveness were observed when a face-to-face meeting was not expected. Nadler (1980) proposes that "when the subject was to decide whether to seek help, the expectation of a meeting with the other made self-presentation concerns relevant, and the fact that the other was ph y s i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e increased the ensuing evaluation apprehension" (p. 382). Again, the small, a l l female sample and the highly structured conditions under which the data were obtained l i m i t the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of t h i s study; however, i t i s reasonable to conclude that self-presentational concerns and fear of the embarrassing consequences of an admission of f a i l u r e 10 and dependency play an important role i n i n h i b i t i n g help-seeking. Leary (1983b) maintains that the motivation to manage impressions should be higher, and self-presentational e f f i c a c y should be lower, i n the presence of a t t r a c t i v e , s o c i a l l y desirable others than i n front of those with less desirable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . He suggests that most people regard high-status others as being more d i f f i c u l t to please and, consequently, they expect to make less favourable impressions upon them. "People appear to avoid, i f possible, a f f i l i a t i n g with s p e c i f i c others when they are concerned about impressing them and doubt they w i l l receive s a t i s f a c t o r y impression-relevant reactions" (Schlenker & Leary, 1982, p. 657). DePaulo, Epstein, and LeMay (1990) demonstrated that the prospect of interpersonal evaluation can have s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the behaviour of s o c i a l l y anxious women. Of the 96 female undergraduates who took part i n t h i s study, 46 were c l a s s i f i e d as low i n s o c i a l anxiety and 50 were c l a s s i f i e d as high i n s o c i a l anxiety. The students were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: (a) high expectation f o r success, anticipated evaluation; (b) low expectation for success, anticipated evaluation; (c) high i i expectation for success, no anticipated evaluation; and (d) low expectation for success, no anticipated evaluation. A l l of the participants were required to meet i n d i v i d u a l l y with a female interviewer (a confederate posing as an aspiring c l i n i c a l psychologist), and were instructed to recount two true st o r i e s about themselves and to fabricate two sto r i e s about themselves. The students were t o l d that the interviewer would not be aware that some of t h e i r s t o r i e s would be fa l s e , and they were urged to t r y to appear as sincere as possible while r e l a t i n g a l l four s t o r i e s . As predicted, s o c i a l l y anxious students who expected to receive feedback about t h e i r performance ( i . e . , the interviewer's o v e r a l l impressions of them, focusing on her impressions of t h e i r truthfulness) t o l d shorter s t o r i e s that were less revealing and less v i v i d than those t o l d by other students. When no e x p l i c i t interpersonal evaluation was anticipated, s o c i a l l y anxious students t o l d stories that were just as lengthy, as revealing, and as v i v i d as those t o l d by students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety. Contrary to the authors' second prediction, s o c i a l l y anxious students who expected to be evaluated did not behave i n a less i n h i b i t e d manner when the interviewer was 12 described as very t r u s t i n g (high expectation for success) than when she was described as very wary (low expectation for success). Although i t appears that they were motivated to create an impression of s i n c e r i t y , the s o c i a l l y anxious students may have been less confident i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to do so--regardless of whether they expected the interviewer to be g u l l i b l e or skeptical--and thus "adopted a defensive and conservative strategy i n which they t r i e d to avoid making a p a r t i c u l a r l y bad impression" (DePaulo et a l . , 1990, p. 636). Although the results of t h i s study are s t r i k i n g , the fact that the participants were exclusively female makes i t d i f f i c u l t to know whether s o c i a l l y anxious males would employ a si m i l a r interpersonal strategy under these circumstances, or whether t h i s pattern would extend to mixed gender encounters. Gender differences i n the behaviour of s o c i a l l y anxious individuals have been i d e n t i f i e d i n a number of studies (e.g., P i l k o n i s , 1977; S n e l l , 1989; Synder, Smith, A u g e l l i , & Ingram, 1985; DePaulo et a l . , 1989). Moreover, the authors did not d i r e c t l y assess the motivation the s o c i a l l y anxious students (e.g., through the use of s e l f - r e p o r t questionnaires). 13 Despite the lack of information regarding males, the l i n k between s o c i a l anxiety and protective self-presentational strategies i n women i s well documented. In a study of the effects of self-consciousness and s o c i a l anxiety on se l f - d i s c l o s u r e among 102 unacquainted college women (Reno & Kenny, 1992), s o c i a l l y anxious students were perceived by others as having been less open and less w i l l i n g to disclose personal information than other students. Meleshko and Alden (1993) observed a s i m i l a r pattern when they paired 84 female undergraduates with female confederates who se l f - d i s c l o s e d at either a high or low l e v e l of intimacy. As anticipated, s o c i a l l y anxious students s e l f - d i s c l o s e d at a moderate l e v e l of intimacy regardless of t h e i r partner's l e v e l of intimacy, whereas students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety tended to match t h e i r partner's l e v e l of intimacy ( i . e . , these students s e l f - d i s c l o s e d at an appropriately high or low l e v e l of intimacy). Furthermore, s o c i a l l y anxious students were more l i k e l y to report that they were motivated by the desire to avoid negative s o c i a l outcomes, such as disapproval, and to describe themselves as having adopted a conservative 14 self-presentational s t y l e during the conversation. Among s o c i a l l y anxious individuals, the desire to seek approval i s superseded by the desire to avoid disapproval (Arkin, Lake, & Baumgardner, 1986). Arkin (1981) proposes that s o c i a l l y anxious individuals adopt protective self-presentational strategies to avoid drawing attention to themselves, unless they are c e r t a i n that a negative s o c i a l outcome i s u n l i k e l y , whereas individuals who are low i n s o c i a l anxiety are primarily motivated by the desire to gain p o s i t i v e s o c i a l outcomes and employ a c q u i s i t i v e self-presentational strategies to gain attention and recognition. S i m i l a r l y , Schlenker and Leary (1985) suggest that the conditions that give r i s e to s o c i a l anxiety ( i . e . , high motivation to create a favourable impression on others and low expectations of being able to do so) usually preclude a c q u i s i t i v e self-presentations and lead people to s e t t l e for an innocuous, yet agreeable, s o c i a l image which prevents others from evaluating them i n an extremely negative way. Leary, Kowalski, and Campbell (1988) found that the interpersonal concerns of s o c i a l l y anxious individuals may r e f l e c t a general b e l i e f that people 15 tend to evaluate others unfavourably, rather than doubts about t h e i r personal self-presentational e f f i c a c y . Ninety male and 90 female undergraduates were randomly assigned to one of three conditions i n which they read three versions of one of the following scenarios: (a) a very b r i e f s o c i a l encounter with a professor, a fellow passenger on an airplane, and a friend's acquaintance i n which no r e a l i n t e r a c t i o n took place; (b) a 5 minute s o c i a l encounter with each of these indi v i d u a l s ; or (c) a series of s o c i a l encounters with each of these individuals. Half of the students were asked to indicate how they thought each of the perceivers would evaluate them i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , and the remaining students were asked to indicate how each of the perceivers would evaluate other people i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n . Relative to students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety, s o c i a l l y anxious students assumed that they would be evaluated more negatively regardless of the length of the interaction. S o c i a l l y anxious students also assumed that other people would be evaluated just as negatively as themselves, whereas students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety assumed that they personally would be evaluated more p o s i t i v e l y than most other people. 16 Leary et a l . (1988) propose that "holding the biased b e l i e f that one makes better impressions than most other people may be quite adaptive, reducing unnecessary anxiety and f a c i l i t a t i n g one's s o c i a l responses" (p. 319). However, as the results of t h i s study are based on written responses to hypothetical s o c i a l encounters rather than the student's actual responses i n face-to-face s o c i a l encounters, further empirical evidence i s needed to determine whether people who hold t h i s self-other bias are t r u l y less anxious than those who do not share t h i s bias. Social Anxiety and Help-Seeking Because requesting help from others may c a l l attention to the help recipient's personal problems, needs, or shortcomings, help-seeking should be p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t for s o c i a l l y anxious in d i v i d u a l s , who wish to present themselves i n a favourable way, but who expect to be evaluated unfavourably by others. DePaulo, D u l l , Greenberg, and Swaim (1989) investigated the help-seeking behaviours of 36 "shy" and 40 "not-shy" students at the University of V i r g i n i a . A l l of the participants were required to complete an impossible task (to stand f i v e numbered st i c k s of d i f f e r e n t lengths on end--the t h i r d s t i c k 17 was s l i g h t l y rounded at the bottom so that i t would not stand up--photograph each s t i c k , and then draw a l i n e the same length as the stick) i n the presence of a male or female confederate, who was described as a fellow p a r t i c i p a n t who had just completed the task and was f i l l i n g out a follow-up questionnaire. The students were t o l d that they could ask t h i s person for help i f they had any questions, or i f they required assistance with the task. Overall, shy students requested help as often as those who were not shy; however, shy students requested help from opposite-sex confederates less often than from same-sex confederates (shy females were es p e c i a l l y reluctant to request help from a male confederate), whereas students who were not shy requested help from opposite-sex confederates more often than from same-sex confederates. DePaulo et a l . (1989) propose that shy individuals may f e e l p a r t i c u l a r l y insecure about t h e i r a b i l i t y to make a p o s i t i v e impression on members of the opposite sex. As Leary (1983b) maintains, "the emphasis that much of Western culture places on female-male re l a t i o n s leads people to be highly motivated to make a p a r t i c u l a r impression upon those of the opposite sex" (p. 85); therefore, the self-presentational concerns of shy, 18 heterosexual participants may have been more s a l i e n t i n the opposite-sex condition than i n the same-sex condition. When faced with the prospect of approaching a member of the opposite sex for help, shy students adopted a protective self-presentational strategy ( i . e . , they chose not to seek help), whereas students who were not shy a c t i v e l y sought help i n order to complete the task successfully (and, perhaps, to i n i t i a t e a conversation with t h i s person). Although i t appears that shyness, per se, did not i n h i b i t help-seeking i n thi s study, other researchers have argued that shy individuals are reluctant to request help from others. Zimbardo (1977) maintains that "the i n a b i l i t y to ask for help i s one of the most serious by-products of shyness" (p. 70). In a comprehensive shyness survey conducted by Zimbardo, P i l k o n i s , and Norwood (cited i n Zimbardo, 1977), shy individuals with a serious personal problem, such as alcoholism, t y p i c a l l y reported that they would not seek help from others. Unfortunately, Zimbardo et a l . chose not to provide a s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n of shyness, thus these r e s u l t s are tainted by conceptual confusion and by the respondents' willingness to adopt the lab e l "shy". Edelmann (1987) also proposes that i n d i v i d u a l 19 differences related to embarrassibility, such as s o c i a l anxiety, w i l l be related to a general reluctance to seek help, and he notes that "there are few studies investigating personality variables and help-seeking which are of relevance" (p. 150). It i s possible that DePaulo et a l . (1989) f a i l e d to demonstrate a negative relationship between shyness and help-seeking due to the a r t i f i c i a l nature of t h e i r experimental design ( i . e . , participants met with a confederate i n a contrived, laboratory s e t t i n g and they were not required to disclose any personal information). Furthermore, the l e v e l of se l f - d i s c l o s u r e and interpersonal r i s k required i n a counselling setting should be much greater than when asking a stranger for assistance with an impersonal, experimental task. Hypotheses Although previous research suggests that s o c i a l l y anxious individuals may be reluctant to seek counselling due to self-presentational concerns, t h i s idea has not been investigated d i r e c t l y . In the present study, the help-seeking attitudes, the helper-directed concerns, and the helper preferences of u n i v e r s i t y students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety 20 were compared with those of students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety. It was anticipated that: 1. S o c i a l l y anxious students would express both less p o s i t i v e attitudes and more negative attitudes toward seeking counselling than students who were not s o c i a l l y anxious. 2. S o c i a l l y anxious students would be less comfortable with the prospect of d i s c l o s i n g personal information to a counsellor than students who were not s o c i a l l y anxious. 3. S o c i a l l y anxious students would place greater importance on making a favourable impression i n a counsellor setting than students who were not s o c i a l l y anxious. In other words, students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety would be more motivated to make a good impression on a counsellor than students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety. 4. S o c i a l l y anxious students would be more apprehensive about the p o s s i b i l i t y of being viewed unfavourably by a counsellor than students who were not s o c i a l l y anxious. 5 . S o c i a l l y anxious students would be more l i k e l y to believe that they would be viewed unfavourably by a counsellor than students who were not s o c i a l l y anxious. 6. S o c i a l l y anxious students would express a preference for r e l a t i v e l y anonymous help-seeking (e.g., c a l l i n g a c r i s i s l i n e or using s e l f - h e l p materials) over public help-seeking (e.g., a face-to-face meeting with a helping professional). 22 Chapter II Method Participants Participants were recruited from undergraduate classes i n Biochemistry, Chemistry, Psychology, Fine Arts, History, Spanish, and Education at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia i n conjunction with a larger study conducted by Ishiyama (1995a, unpublished raw data). Two hundred and f o r t y - s i x students (77 males and 169 females) were selected from t h i s pool of respondents (N = 573; 206 males, 362 females, and 5 unspecified) on the basis of low or high scores on a s e l f - r e p o r t measure of s o c i a l anxiety (the Interaction Anxiousness Scale, or IAS; Leary 1983c). Students with IAS scores of 33 or lower (the lower q u a r t i l e , 25.1%) were c l a s s i f i e d as low i n s o c i a l anxiety, and students with IAS scores of 50 or higher (the upper q u a r t i l e , 25%) were c l a s s i f i e d as high i n s o c i a l anxiety. To eliminate extraneous v a r i a b i l i t y , only Caucasian students and Asian students (the two largest ethnic groups represented i n the pool of 57 3 respondents: 228 Caucasians and 225 Asians) were included i n the f i n a l sample (respondents who did not indicate t h e i r gender or t h e i r e t h n i c i t y were also 23 discarded). A breakdown of Asian students' national heritage, place of b i r t h , and number of years i n North America can be found i n Appendix A (Table A - l ) . The 111 students (46 males and 65 females) i n the low s o c i a l anxiety group were between 18 and 37 years of age (M = 22.02, SD = 3.89) and had a mean IAS score of 27.62 (SD = 4.55). The 135 students (31 males and 104 females) i n the high s o c i a l anxiety group were between 18 and 56 years of age (M = 20.93, SD = 4.03) and had a mean IAS score of 56.12 (SD = 5.41). The low s o c i a l anxiety was comprised of 72 Caucasians and 39 Asians, and the high s o c i a l anxiety group was comprised of 50 Caucasians and 85 Asians. Further demographic information (departmental a f f i l i a t i o n and programme of study) can be found i n Appendix A (Table A-2). Measures Participants were asked to complete the Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS; Leary, 1983c), the Positive Help-Seeking Attitudes Scale (PHAS; Ishiyama, 1995b, unpublished manuscript), the Negative Help-Seeking Attitudes Scale (NHAS; Ishiyama, 1995b, unpublished manuscript), the Helper-Directed Concerns Scales (HDCS; Ishiyama & Bushnell, 1995, unpublished 24 raw data), and the Formal Psychological Help-Seeking Scale (FPHS; Ishiyama, 1995c, unpublished raw data). Due to the absence of appropriate help-seeking inventories published i n the l i t e r a t u r e , the dependent measures were developed s p e c i f i c a l l y for t h i s study. Social anxiety. The Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS) was designed by Leary (1983c) to measure the tendency to experience subjective s o c i a l anxiety ( i n contingent s o c i a l interactions) apart from behaviours which may accompany such feelings. In other words, the IAS does not confound measures of a f f e c t with measures of behaviour. Most other widely used measures of s o c i a l anxiety and related constructs assess both a f f e c t and behavioural avoidance and i n h i b i t i o n (e.g, Cheek & Buss, 1981; Fenigstein, Scheier, & Buss, 1975; Watson & Friend, 1969). Leary (1983c, 1983d) argues that using behavioural items to measure s o c i a l anxiety leads to conceptual confusion and creates d i f f i c u l t y for those who wish to study the r e l a t i o n s h i p between subjective anxiety and overt behaviour. Interindividual differences i n the expression of shyness complicate the inference of shyness from behaviour (Crozier, 1990; P i l k o n i s , 1977). Further, an i n d i v i d u a l who behaves i n an awkward or r e t i c e n t 25 manner w i l l not necessarily experience s o c i a l anxiety ( i . e . , such behaviour may r e f l e c t a lack of s o c i a l s k i l l s or the wish to remain s i l e n t ) . The IAS i s comprised of 15 se l f - r e p o r t items which include statements such as "I usually f e e l uncomfortable when I'm i n a group of people I don't know" and "I get nervous when I speak to someone i n a po s i t i o n of authority". Students were asked to rate each statement on a 5-point scale from not at a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of me to (1) extremely c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of me (5). Responses to the 15 items were summed to y i e l d scores ranging from 15 to 75, with higher scores i n d i c a t i n g greater s o c i a l anxiety. The IAS possesses strong psychometric properties as a measure of d i s p o s i t i o n a l s o c i a l anxiety (Leary, 1983c, 1991), and i t s u t i l i t y as a research instrument has been demonstrated i n a variety of settings (Leary, 1991; Leary & Kowalski, 1987, 1993). Means and standard deviations on the IAS are stable across heterogeneous samples of university students from d i f f e r e n t regions of the United States (Leary & Kowalski, 1987). Leary and Kowalski (1987) report r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of .89 (n = 786) and .90 (n = 598) for internal consistency, and Leary 26 (1983c) reports a c o e f f i c i e n t of .80 for 8-week te s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y . IAS scores also correlate highly (r > .60) with other measures of s o c i a l anxiety and related constructs (Jones, Briggs, & Smith, 1986; Leary, 1983c; Leary St Kowalski, 1987, 1993). Further, high scores on the IAS are p o s i t i v e l y correlated with self-reported anxiety i n face-to-face s o c i a l interactions (Leary, 1983c, 1986b), with s o c i a l avoidance and i n h i b i t i o n (Leary, Atherton, H i l l , fit Hurr, 1986), and with increases i n heart rate during s o c i a l interactions (Leary, 1986b). The c o r r e l a t i o n between the IAS and the Marlowe-Crowne Social D e s i r a b i l i t y Scale (Crowne & Marlowe, 1964) i s .22, £ > .05, which may r e f l e c t the r o l e of self-presentational concerns i n s o c i a l anxiety (Leary, 1983c). Because there i s a stigma associated with being shy or s o c i a l l y insecure, s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y i s a potential source of response bias i n a l l measures of s o c i a l anxiety and related constructs (Jones, Briggs, St Smith, 1986; Leary St Kowalski, 1987). Help-seeking attitudes. Students' attitudes toward seeking psychological help were assessed by two scales: (a) the 9-item Positive Help-Seeking Attitudes Scale (PHAS; Ishiyama, 1995b, unpublished manuscript) 27 and (b) the 17-item Negative Help-Seeking Attitudes Scale (NHAS; Ishiyama, 1995b, unpublished manuscript). A l l 26 items (adjectives or adjective phrases that describe p o s i t i v e or negative help-seeking attitudes) were presented together, i n mixed order, and students were asked to rate each item on a 7-point scale ranging from not at a l l (1) to extremely (7). Responses for each group of items ( p o s i t i v e l y cued and negative cued) were summed to y i e l d the score for each scale. Scores on the PHAS range from 9 to 63, with higher scores in d i c a t i n g more posit i v e attitudes toward seeking counselling. Scores on the NHAS range from 17 to 119, with higher scores in d i c a t i n g more negative attitudes toward seeking counselling. Although the PHAS and the NHAS were o r i g i n a l l y developed as a single instrument, the r e l a t i v e l y low co r r e l a t i o n between the sum of the p o s i t i v e l y cued items and the sum of the negatively cued items (r = -.26, n = 356) did not support the author's assumption that the two types of help-seeking attitudes would r e f l e c t an i d e n t i c a l construct and thus should be e n t i r e l y reversible i n scoring (Ishiyama, 1995b, unpublished manuscript). Factor analysis confirmed the presence of two factors corresponding to the two 28 separate scales (see Ishiyama, 1995b, unpublished manuscript). The author i n i t i a l l y generated 40 items, which were l a t e r refined and reduced with the assistance of three master 1s-level counselling psychology students. T h i r t y items (9 p o s i t i v e l y cued and 21 negatively cued) were retained. Four items (4, angry; 22, r e b e l l i o u s ; 23, ambivalent; and 30, indi f f e r e n t ) were subsequently eliminated due to extremely low means or low item-total correlations (Ishiyama, 1995b, unpublished manuscript). Although the 30-item version appeared on the questionnaire, students' responses to these four items were not included i n the f i n a l data analysis. Ishiyama (1995b, unpublished manuscript) reports i n t e r n a l consistency r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of .91 (n = 355) for the PHAS and .93 (n = 355) for the NHAS. Six-week t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y i s .87 (n = 90) for the PHAS and .77 (n = 90) for the NHAS (Ishiyama, 1995b, unpublished manuscript). Item-total correlations range from .64 to .71 (n = 355) for the PHAS and from .49 to .77 (n = 355) for the NHAS (Ishiyama, 1995b, unpublished manuscript). PHAS scores are p o s i t i v e l y correlated (r = .24, n = 328) with previous help-seeking frequency (Ishiyama, 1995b, 29 unpublished manuscript). Further, PHAS scores are p o s i t i v e l y correlated (r = .48, n = 149) with a favourable evaluation of previous help-receiving experiences, and NHAS scores are negatively correlated (r = -.37, n = 149) with a favourable evaluation of previous help-receiving experiences (Ishiyama, 1995b, unpublished manuscript). Ishiyama (1995b, unpublished manuscript) also reports that PHAS scores are p o s i t i v e l y correlated with a preference for seeking help from a professional for problems or concerns related to study (r = .16, n = 238), relationships (r = .26, n = 238), career (r = .26, n = 237), and personality or l i f e issues (r = .32, n = 239). There are no s i g n i f i c a n t gender differences (n = 352, 105 males and 247 females) on either scale (Ishiyama, 1995b, unpublished manuscript). Helper-directed concerns. The Helper-Directed Concerns Scales (HDCS; Ishiyama & Bushnell, 1995, unpublished raw data) are comprised of four scales: (a) the 6-item Anxiety Scale, (b) the 4-item Disclosure Scale, (c) the 4-item Impression Scale, and (d) the 4-item Evaluation Scale. Students were asked to rate a l l 18 items on a 7-point scale ranging from not at a l l (1) to extremely (7). Responses to each group of items 30 were summed to y i e l d the score for each scale. The Anxiety Scale was designed to measure how concerned students would be about the p o s s i b i l i t y of being viewed unfavourably by a counsellor. Items include statements such as, "I would be concerned about the helper forming negative opinions of me" and "I would be concerned about the helper not l i k i n g me as a person". Scores range from 6 to 42, with higher scores in d i c a t i n g greater apprehension about being evaluated unfavourably. The Anxiety Scale has r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of .87 (n = 101) for i n t e r n a l consistency and .79 (n = 50) for six-week t e s t - r e t e s t (Ishiyama & Bushnell, 1995, unpublished raw data). Item-total correlations range from .57 to .78, based on a sample of 101 respondents (Ishiyama & Bushnell, 1995, unpublished raw data). There are no s i g n i f i c a n t gender differences (n = 101, 43 males and 58 females) on t h i s scale (Ishiyama & Bushnell, 1995, unpublished raw data) . The Disclosure Scale was designed to measure how comfortable students would be with the prospect of d i s c l o s i n g personal information to a counsellor. Scores range from 4 to 28, with higher scores i n d i c a t i n g greater discomfort. The Disclosure Scale 31 has a r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of .81 (n = 138) for inte r n a l consistency (Ishiyama & Bushnell, 1995, unpublished raw data). Item-total correlations range from .54 to .71, based on a sample of 138 respondents (Ishiyama & Bushnell, 1995, unpublished raw data). There are no s i g n i f i c a n t gender differences (n = 138, 63 males and 75 females) on t h i s scale (Ishiyama & Bushnell, 1995, unpublished raw data). The Impression Scale was designed to measure how motivated students would be to make a good impression on a counsellor ( i . e . , how important t h i s would be to students). Scores range from 4 to 28, with higher scores in d i c a t i n g greater motivation to make a favourable impression i n a counselling se t t i n g . The Impression Scale has a r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of .71 (n = 137) for internal consistency (Ishiyama & Bushnell, 1995, unpublished raw data). Item-total correlations range from .43 to .62, based on a sample . of 137 respondents (Ishiyama & Bushnell, 1995, unpublished raw data). There are no s i g n i f i c a n t gender differences (n = 126, 53 males and 73 females) on t h i s scale (Ishiyama & Bushnell, 1995, unpublished raw data). 32 The Evaluation Scale was designed to assess students' b e l i e f s about how they would be viewed by a counsellor ( i . e . , favourably or unfavourably). The Evaluation Scale has a r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of .43 (n = 128) for in t e r n a l consistency (Ishiyama & Bushnell, 1995, unpublished raw data). Item-total correlations range from .12 to .30, based on a sample of 128 respondents (Ishiyama & Bushnell, 1995, unpublished raw data). Due to the unsatisfactory r e l i a b i l i t y of t h i s scale, a l l four items were analysed separately, for exploratory purposes. Helper preferences. The Formal Psychological Help-Seeking Scale (FPHS; Ishiyama, 1995c, unpublished raw data) was designed to assess students' willingness to seek help from the following sources: (a) family physician, (b) p s y c h i a t r i s t , (c) i n d i v i d u a l counselling (nonmedical), (d) group counselling (nonmedical), (e) c r i s i s l i n e , (f) public workshop, (g) t r a d i t i o n a l guide, and (h) self-help materials. Students were asked to rate how w i l l i n g they would be to seek help from these helpers, or helping services, on a 5-point scale ranging from not l i k e l y (0) to very l i k e l y (4). A l l eight items were analysed separately, for exploratory purposes. 33 Procedure Dr. Ishu Ishiyama, accompanied by one or more research assistants, entered each class at a prearranged meeting time (professors were asked to specify either the beginning or the end of class) and i n v i t e d students to take part i n an "interpersonal experience survey". Dr. Ishiyama stressed the voluntary nature of the study and asked students not to place t h e i r name on the questionnaire. The instructions on the front page of the questionnaire stated that a l l information would remain " c o n f i d e n t i a l " and would be "number-coded for computer-assisted analysis". Students were not paid, nor did they receive extra course c r e d i t , for t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Most respondents took approximately 15 minutes to complete the questionnaire. To determine the t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y of the PHAS/NHAS, some classes received a second questionnaire package containing these measures an average of six weeks l a t e r (students i n Biochemistry, Chemistry, and Psychology were not retested on these measures). This questionnaire was administered to students during class time, following the same procedure as the o r i g i n a l questionnaire. Students 34 were instructed to enter a retest i d e n t i f i c a t i o n code (e.g., t h e i r mother's f i r s t name i n i t i a l , her b i r t h month, and her day of birth) on the top right-hand corner of each questionnaire to ensure that t h e i r data would remain anonymous. A l i s t of the measures that were included i n the two questionnaire packages can be found i n Appendix A (Table A-3). 35 Chapter III Results In Chapter One, six hypotheses were outlined. It was anticipated that (a) s o c i a l l y anxious students would express both less p o s i t i v e attitudes and more negative attitudes toward seeking counselling than students who were not s o c i a l l y anxious; (b) s o c i a l l y anxious students would be less comfortable with the prospect of d i s c l o s i n g personal information to a counsellor than students who were not s o c i a l l y anxious; (c) s o c i a l l y anxious students would be more motivated to make a good impression on a counsellor than students who were not s o c i a l l y anxious; (d) s o c i a l l y anxious students would be more apprehensive about being viewed unfavourably by a counsellor than students who were not s o c i a l l y anxious; (e) s o c i a l l y anxious students would be more l i k e l y to believe that they would be viewed unfavourably by a counsellor than students who were not s o c i a l l y anxious; and (f) s o c i a l l y anxious students would express a preference for anonymous help-seeking over public help-seeking. These hypotheses were tested s t a t i s t i c a l l y (using SPSS for Windows, release 6.0) and the results of these analyses are presented i n t h i s chapter. 36 Descriptive Data Five hundred and seventy-three students (206 males, 362 females, and 5 unspecified; 228 Caucasians and 225 Asians) completed the IAS. The mean age for t h i s group of respondents was 21.86 years (SD = 5.09) and the mean IAS score was 42.26 (SD = 11.71). Females scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the IAS (M = 43.21, SD = 12.08) than males (M = 40.54, SD = 10.95), t (566) = 2.61, £ < .01, and Asians scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the IAS (M = 45.36, SD = 11.04) than Caucasians (M = 39.89, SD = 11.41), t (451) = 5.19, £ < .001. Two hundred and f o r t y - s i x students were selected from t h i s pool of respondents on the basis of t h e i r IAS scores (low or high). The low s o c i a l anxiety group (n = 111) was comprised of students with scores less than or equal to 33, and the high s o c i a l anxiety group (n = 135) was comprised of students with scores greater than or equal to 50. One hundred and seventeen students (low SA = 50, high SA = 67) completed the PHAS/NHAS; 117 students (low SA = 50, high SA = 67) completed the Anxiety Scale; 131 students (low SA = 55, high SA = 76) completed the Disclosure Scale; 128 students 37 (low SA = 54, high SA = 74) completed the Impression Scale; 127 students (low SA = 53, high SA = 74) completed the Evaluation Scale; and 129 students (low SA = 54, high SA = 75) completed the Formal Psychological Help-Seeking Scale. Although missing data presented a concern, students who completed a l l of the dependent measures did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y (on key variables such as age and IAS scores) from students who did not complete a l l of these measures. Intercorrelations between the PHAS, the NHAS, the Anxiety Scale, the Disclosure Scale, and the Impression Scale are presented i n Table 1. The Evaluation Scale i s not included i n Table 1 due to i t s unsatisfactory r e l i a b i l i t y . Help-Seeking Attitudes A 2 X 2 X 2 between-subjects multivariate analysis of variance was performed on two dependent variables: p o s i t i v e help-seeking attitudes and negative help-seeking attitudes. The independent variables were s o c i a l anxiety (low and high), gender (male and female), and e t h n i c i t y (Caucasian and Asian). Gender and e t h n i c i t y were included to account for possible systematic interactions between s o c i a l anxiety, gender, and e t h n i c i t y . 38 Table 1 Intercorrelations Between Help-Seeking Attitudes and Helper-Directed Concerns Scale 1. PHAS -.33** (118) 2. NHAS 3. Anxiety 4. Disclosure 5. Impression -.17 - .41** . 18 (116) (87) (87) .67** .61** .27* (116) (87) (87) — .65** ,47** (87) (87) — .34** (128) Note. The number of respondents i s indicated i n parentheses. *E < .05, two-tailed. **£ < .001, two-tailed. 39 There were no univariate or multivariate w i t h i n - c e l l o u t l i e r s at a = .001. An evaluation of the assumptions of normality, homogeneity of variance-covariance matrices, l i n e a r i t y , and m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y yielded s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s . Using P i l l a i ' s c r i t e r i o n , the combined dependent variables were s i g n i f i c a n t l y affected by s o c i a l anxiety, F (2, 109) = 6.97, £ = .001, and by the in t e r a c t i o n of s o c i a l anxiety and gender, F (2, 109) = 3.98, £ < .05. The results r e f l e c t e d a moderate association between s o c i a l anxiety scores (low versus high) and the combined dependent variables (the e f f e c t s i z e was .11). The e f f e c t was less substantial for the in t e r a c t i o n of s o c i a l anxiety and gender (the e f f e c t s i z e was .07). No other effects were s i g n i f i c a n t . A MANOVA summary i s presented i n Appendix B (Table B - l ) . Univariate analyses were used to investigate the impact of the main e f f e c t for s o c i a l anxiety and the in t e r a c t i o n of s o c i a l anxiety and gender on the in d i v i d u a l dependent variables. To adjust for i n f l a t e d Type I error rate due to multiple te s t i n g , each dependent variable was assigned a = .025. Posi t i v e help-seeking attitudes. Although the hypothesized main e f f e c t for s o c i a l anxiety was not 40 s i g n i f i c a n t , there was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between s o c i a l anxiety and gender, F (1, 110) = 6.88, p_ = .01. Means and standard deviations of PHAS scores, broken down by s o c i a l anxiety and gender, are presented i n Table 2. A Bonferroni t test for unequal ns was used as a follow-up procedure (see Games, 1977, two-sided t table for control of Familywise Type I error r a t e ) . These post hoc comparisons revealed that females who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety had less p o s i t i v e attitudes toward seeking counselling than females who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety, t (110) = 3.56, p_ < .01. In addition, males who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety had less p o s i t i v e attitudes toward seeking counselling than females who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety, but t h i s difference was only marginally s i g n i f i c a n t , t (110) = 2.38, £ < .10. Negative help-seeking attitudes. A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t for s o c i a l anxiety, F (1, 110) = 13.92, £ < .001, was found. As anticipated, students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety had more negative attitudes toward seeking counselling (M = 7 3.75) than students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety (M = 55.54). Helper-Directed Concerns A 2 X 2 X 2 between subjects multivariate analysis 41 Table 2 PHAS Scores as a Function of Social Anxiety and Gender Social Anxiety Gender Low High Male M 32.83 36 .90 SD 10.07 9.48 n 18 10 Female M 39.79 a 32.04a SD 10.16 9.72 n 33 57 Note. The higher the score, the more p o s i t i v e the help-seeking attitudes. Means a d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y at p < .01, two-tailed. 42 of variance was performed on three dependent variables: anxiety, disclosure, and impression. The independent variables were s o c i a l anxiety (low and high), gender (male and female), and e t h n i c i t y (Caucasian and Asian). Gender and e t h n i c i t y were included to account for possible systematic interactions between s o c i a l anxiety, gender, and e t h n i c i t y . There were no univariate or multivariate w i t h i n - c e l l o u t l i e r s at a = .001. An evaluation of the assumptions of normality, l i n e a r i t y , and m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y yielded s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s . Due to a v i o l a t i o n of the homogeneity assumption, the s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l was lowered from a = .05 to a = .025 (as recommended by Keppel, 1991). Using P i l l a i ' s c r i t e r i o n , the combined dependent variables were s i g n i f i c a n t l y affected by s o c i a l anxiety, F (3, 77) = 3.47, p_ < .025. The results r e f l e c t e d a moderate association between s o c i a l anxiety (low versus high) and the combined dependent variables (the e f f e c t size was .12). No other effects were s i g n i f i c a n t . A MANOVA summary i s presented i n Appendix B (Table B-2). Univariate analyses were used to investigate the impact of the main e f f e c t for s o c i a l anxiety on the 43 in d i v i d u a l dependent variables. To adjust for i n f l a t e d Type I error rate due to multiple testing, each dependent variable was assigned a - .02. Anxiety. A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t for s o c i a l anxiety, F (1, 79) = 9.73, p < ' 0 1 / w a s found. As predicted, students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety were more apprehensive about the p o s s i b i l i t y of being viewed unfavourably by a counsellor (M = 21.66) than students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety (M = 14.26). Disclosure. A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t for s o c i a l anxiety, F (1, 79) = 6.16, p < .02, was found. As anticipated, students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety were less comfortable with the prospect of d i s c l o s i n g personal information to a counsellor (M = 18.00) than students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety (M = 14.90). Impression. The hypothesized e f f e c t for s o c i a l anxiety was not s i g n i f i c a n t , F (1, 79) = 1.22. Evaluation. Due to the unsatisfactory r e l i a b i l i t y of the Evaluation Scale, a l l four items were analysed separately, for exploratory purposes. A 2 X 2 X 2 analysis of variance was performed for each item. The independent variables were s o c i a l anxiety (low and high), gender (male and female), and e t h n i c i t y (Caucasian and Asian). Gender and e t h n i c i t y were 44 included to account for possible systematic interactions between s o c i a l anxiety, gender, and et h n i c i t y . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t effects for item 1: " I t i s more l i k e l y that [a counsellor] would think of me favourably". An ANOVA summary i s presented i n Appendix B (Table B-3). A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t for s o c i a l anxiety, F (1, 119) = 7.66, £ < .01, was found for item 2: " I t i s more l i k e l y that [a counsellor] would think of me c r i t i c a l l y " . The e f f e c t size was .06. Students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety thought that i t was more l i k e l y that they would be viewed c r i t i c a l l y by a counsellor (M = 3.67) than students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety (M = 2.76). No other effects were s i g n i f i c a n t . An ANOVA summary i s presented i n Appendix B (Table B-4). There were no s i g n i f i c a n t effects for item 3: " I t i s more l i k e l y that [a counsellor] would think of me disapprovingly". An ANOVA summary i s presented i n Appendix B (Table B-5). F i n a l l y , there was a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t for s o c i a l anxiety, F (1, 119) = 7.13, £ < .01, for item 4 "I t i s more l i k e l y that [a counsellor] would think of 45 me admiringly". The e f f e c t size was .06. Students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety thought that i t was less l i k e l y that they would be viewed admiringly by a counsellor (M = 3.15) than students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety (M = 3.95). No other effects were s i g n i f i c a n t . An ANOVA summary i s presented i n Appendix B (Table B-6). Helper Preferences A 2 X 2 X 2 analysis of variance was performed for each of the following dependent variables: family physician, p s y c h i a t r i s t , individual counselling (nonmedical), group counselling (nonmedical), c r i s i s l i n e , public workshop, t r a d i t i o n a l guide, and s e l f - h e l p materials. The independent variables were s o c i a l anxiety (low and high), gender (male and female), and e t h n i c i t y (Caucasian and Asian). Gender and e t h n i c i t y were included to account for possible systematic interactions between s o c i a l anxiety, gender, and e t h n i c i t y . Multivariate analysis of variance was discarded as an analytic strategy because there were fewer cases than dependent variables i n two of the eight c e l l s (there were s i x Asian males i n the low s o c i a l anxiety group and seven Asian males i n the high s o c i a l anxiety 46 group). This results not only i n a loss of s t a t i s t i c a l power, but i n c e l l s that are singular, making the homogeneity assumption untestable (Tabachnick & F i d e l l , 1989). Family physician. A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r s o c i a l anxiety, F (1, 121) = 15.33, p < .001, was found. The e f f e c t size was .11. Students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety were less w i l l i n g to seek help from a family physician (M = 1.43) than students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety (M = 2.46). No other ef f e c t s were s i g n i f i c a n t . An ANOVA summary i s presented i n Appendix B (Table B-7). Ps y c h i a t r i s t . Due to a v i o l a t i o n of the homogeneity assumption, the l e v e l of sign i f i c a n c e was lowered from a = .05 to a = .025. No eff e c t s were s i g n i f i c a n t at t h i s l e v e l . An ANOVA summary i s presented i n Appendix B (Table B-8). Individual counselling. Due to a v i o l a t i o n of the homogeneity assumption, the l e v e l of sign i f i c a n c e was lowered from a = .05 to a = .025. A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t for gender, F (1, 121) = 6.04, p_ < .025, was found. The ef f e c t size was .05. Males were less w i l l i n g to seek individual counselling (M = 1.82) than females (M = 2.42). No other e f f e c t s 47 were s i g n i f i c a n t . An ANOVA summary i s presented i n Appendix B (Table B-9). Group counselling. A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t for s o c i a l anxiety, F (1, 121) = 4.63, £ < .05, was found. The e f f e c t size was .04. Students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety were less w i l l i n g to seek group counselling (M = 1.00) than students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety (M = 1.53). There was also a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between s o c i a l anxiety and eth n i c i t y , F (1, 121) = 4.64, p_ < .05. The e f f e c t size was .04. Means and standard deviations of group counselling scores, broken down by s o c i a l anxiety and et h n i c i t y , are presented i n Table 3. A Bonferroni t test for unequal ns was used as a follow-up procedure. These post hoc comparisons revealed that Asian students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety were less w i l l i n g to seek group counselling than Asian students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety, t (121) = 2.96, p_ < .05. In addition, Caucasian students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety were less w i l l i n g to seek group counselling than Asian students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety, but t h i s difference was only marginally s i g n i f i c a n t , t (121) = 2.47, p_ < .10. No other effects were s i g n i f i c a n t . An ANOVA summary i s 48 Table 3 Group Counselling Scores as a Function of Social Anxiety and E t h n i c i t y Social Anxiety E t h n i c i t y Low High Caucasian M 1.06 1.18 SD 1.26 1.39 n 35 28 Asian M 1.89a • 94 a SD 1.41 .84 n 19 47 Note. The higher the score, the greater the willingness to seek group counselling. Means a d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y at p_ < .05, two-tailed. 49 presented i n Appendix B (Table B-10). C r i s i s l i n e . A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t for s o c i a l anxiety, F (1, 121) = 10.32, £ < .01, was found. The e f f e c t s i z e was .08. Students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety were less w i l l i n g to seek help from a c r i s i s l i n e (M = .82) than students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety (M = 1.54). A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t for e t h n i c i t y , F (1, 121) = 7.35, £ < .01, was also found. The e f f e c t s i z e was .06. Caucasian students were less w i l l i n g to seek help from a c r i s i s l i n e (M = .88) than Asian students (M = 1.48). There was also a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between s o c i a l anxiety and gender, F (1, 121) = 10.94, £ = .001. The e f f e c t size was .08. Means and standard deviations of c r i s i s l i n e scores, broken down by s o c i a l anxiety and gender, are presented i n Table 4. A Bonferroni t test for unequal ns was used as a follow-up procedure. These post hoc comparisons revealed that male students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety were less w i l l i n g to seek help from a c r i s i s l i n e than male students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety, t (121) = 2.77, £ < .05. In addition, males who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety were less w i l l i n g to seek help 50 Table 4 C r i s i s Line Scores as a Function of Social Anxiety and Gender Social Anxiety Gender Low High Male M 1.36a • 40 a f a SD 1.47 .83 n 25 15 Female M 1.21 1.23b SD 1.01 1.05 n 29 60 Note. The higher the score, the greater the willingness to seek help from a c r i s i s l i n e . Means with the same subscript d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y at 2 < .05, two-tailed. 51 from a c r i s i s l i n e than females who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety, t (121) = 2.70, 2 < .05. A s i g n i f i c a n t interaction between s o c i a l anxiety and e t h n i c i t y , F (1, 121) = 4.19, 2 < ' ° 5 / w a s also found. The e f f e c t size was .03. Means and standard deviations of c r i s i s l i n e scores, broken down by s o c i a l anxiety and et h n i c i t y , are presented i n Table 5. A Bonferroni t test for unequal ns was used as a follow-up procedure. These post hoc comparisons revealed that Caucasian students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety were less w i l l i n g to seek help from a c r i s i s l i n e than Asian students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety, t (121) = 2.61, ^ < .05. In addition, Asian students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety were less w i l l i n g to seek help from a c r i s i s l i n e than Asian students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety, but t h i s difference was only marginally s i g n i f i c a n t , t (121) = 2.28, 2 < • 1 0 • F i n a l l y , there was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between gender and et h n i c i t y , F (1, 121) = 5.56, 2 < .05. The e f f e c t size was .04. Means and standard deviations of c r i s i s l i n e scores, broken down by gender and e t h n i c i t y , are presented i n Table 6. A Bonferroni t t e s t for unequal ns was used as a follow-up 52 Table 5 C r i s i s Line Scores as a Function of Social Anxiety and E t h n i c i t y Social Anxiety E t h n i c i t y Low High Caucasian M 1.00a .96 SD 1.11 1.07 n 35 28 Asian M 1.79a 1.13 SD 1.32 1.06 n 19 47 Note. The higher the score, the greater the willingness to seek help from a c r i s i s l i n e . Means a d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y at p < .05, two-tailed. 53 Table 6 C r i s i s Line Scores as a Function of Gender and E t h n i c i t y Gender E t h n i c i t y Male Female Caucasian M • 70 a 1.19 SD 1.03 1.09 n 27 36 Asian M 1.62a 1.25 SD 1.71 1.00 n 13 53 Note. The higher the score, the greater the willingness to seek help from a c r i s i s l i n e . Means a d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y at p < .05, two-tailed. 54 procedure. These post hoc comparisons revealed that Caucasian males were less w i l l i n g to seek help from a c r i s i s l i n e than Asian males, t (121) = 2.56, p < .05. No other effects were s i g n i f i c a n t . An ANOVA summary i s presented i n Appendix B (Table B - l l ) . Public workshop. A s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between s o c i a l anxiety, gender, and et h n i c i t y , F (1, 121) = 6.32, p < .05, was found. The e f f e c t s i z e was .05. To investigate t h i s three-way in t e r a c t i o n , a 2 (gender) X 2 (ethnicity) analysis of variance was performed for both the low s o c i a l anxiety group and the high s o c i a l anxiety group. In the low s o c i a l anxiety group, there was a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t for gender, F (1, 50) = 4.13, p_ < .05. Males who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety were less w i l l i n g to seek help by attending a public workshop (M = 1.12) than females who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety (M = 1.66). In the high s o c i a l anxiety group, there was a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t for et h n i c i t y , F (1, 71) = 4.78, p < .05. Caucasian students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety were less w i l l i n g to seek help by attending a public workshop (M = 1.18) than Asian students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety (M = 1.55). No other effects were s i g n i f i c a n t . An ANOVA summary i s presented i n 55 Appendix B (Table B-12). Tr a d i t i o n a l guide. Due to a v i o l a t i o n of the homogeneity assumption, the l e v e l of si g n i f i c a n c e was lowered from a = .05 to a = .025. The following r e s u l t s should be interpreted with caution because one of the eight c e l l s had zero variance ( a l l Asian males who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety indicated that they would not be w i l l i n g to seek help from a t r a d i t i o n a l guide). A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t for gender, F (1, 120) = 5.28, p_ < .025, was found. The e f f e c t size was .04. Females were more w i l l i n g to seek help from a t r a d i t i o n a l guide (M = .77) than males (M = .30). A s i g n i f i c a n t interaction between s o c i a l anxiety, gender, and e t h n i c i t y , F (1, 120) = 8.17, p < .01, was also found. The e f f e c t size was .06. To investigate t h i s three-way interaction, a 2 (gender) X 2 (ethnicity) analysis of variance was performed for both the low s o c i a l anxiety group and the high s o c i a l anxiety group. In the low s o c i a l anxiety group, there was a marginally s i g n i f i c a n t (a = .025) i n t e r a c t i o n between gender and et h n i c i t y , F (1, 50) = 5.09, p_ = .028. Means and standard deviations for t r a d i t i o n a l guide scores i n the low s o c i a l anxiety 56 group, broken down by gender and eth n i c i t y , are presented i n Table 7. A Bonferroni t test for unequal ns was used as a follow-up procedure. These post hoc comparisons revealed that Caucasian males who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety were less w i l l i n g to seek help from a t r a d i t i o n a l guide than Caucasian females who were low in s o c i a l anxiety, t (50) = 3.35, p < .01. No other eff e c t s were s i g n i f i c a n t . An ANOVA summary i s presented i n Appendix B (Table B-13). Self-help materials. A l l effects were nonsignificant. An ANOVA summary i s presented i n Appendix B (Table B-14). Anonymous help-seeking versus public help-seeking. As predicted, students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety were more w i l l i n g to use self-help materials than they were to seek help from more public sources, t (74) = 5.29, p < .001. However, students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety were less w i l l i n g to seek help from a c r i s i s l i n e than they were to seek help from more public sources, t (74) = 2.02, p < .05. Students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety were also less w i l l i n g to seek help from a c r i s i s l i n e than they were to seek help from more public sources, t (53) = 2.09, p < .05. Means and standard deviations for sel f - h e l p materials, 57 Table 7 T r a d i t i o n a l Guide Scores as a Function of Gender and E t h n i c i t y Gender Et h n i c i t y Male Female Caucasian M .16^ 1.25a SD .50 1.18 n 19 16 Asian M .67 .46 SD 1.63 .78 n 6 13 Note. The higher the score, the greater the willingness to seek help from a t r a d i t i o n a l guide. Means a d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y at p < .01, two-tailed. 58 c r i s i s l i n e , and public sources of help are presented i n Table 8. 59 Table 8 Mean Scores for Self-Help Materials, C r i s i s Line, and Public Sources of Help as a Function of Social Anxiety Social Anxiety Source Lowa High b Self-Help M 1.70 2.01 SD 1.37 1.40 Public M 1.63 1.30 SD .70 .65 C r i s i s Line M 1.28 1.07 SD 1.24 1.06 Public M 1.62 1.30 SD .70 .65 Note. The higher the score, the greater the willingness to seek help. Public sources of help include family physician, p s y c h i a t r i s t , individual counselling, group counselling, public workshop, and t r a d i t i o n a l guide. a n = 53 for self-help; 54 for c r i s i s l i n e . ton = 75. 60 Chapter IV Discussion This study compared the help-seeking attitudes, the helper-directed concerns, and the helper preferences of university students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety with those of students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety. It was anticipated that s o c i a l l y anxious students would have both less p o s i t i v e attitudes and more negative attitudes toward seeking counselling than students who were not s o c i a l l y anxious. It was also predicted that s o c i a l l y anxious students would express s p e c i f i c helper-directed concerns that would not be shared by t h e i r less anxious peers. F i n a l l y , i t was anticipated that s o c i a l l y anxious students would express a preference for anonymous help-seeking over public help-seeking. In other words, students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety were expected to be more w i l l i n g to seek help under anonymous conditions than they would be to arrange a face-to-face meeting with a helping professional. Review of Major Findings Although s o c i a l l y anxious students did not have less p o s i t i v e attitudes toward seeking counselling than 61 students who were not s o c i a l l y anxious, there was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between s o c i a l anxiety and gender. Females who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety had less p o s i t i v e attitudes toward seeking counselling than females who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety. Further, s o c i a l l y anxious students had more negative attitudes toward seeking counselling than students who were not s o c i a l l y anxious. Since a favourable attitude, or psychological readiness to seek help, has been found to f a c i l i t a t e actual help-seeking behaviour (Greenley & Mechanic, 1976b; Tessler, Mechanic, & Dimond, 1976; Robbins, 1981) these results suggest that s o c i a l l y anxious students may be more reluctant to seek counselling than students who are not s o c i a l l y anxious. An exploration of students' helper-directed concerns provided some insight into the help-seeking attitudes of s o c i a l l y anxious students. Students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety were less comfortable with the prospect of d i s c l o s i n g personal information to a counsellor than students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety. S o c i a l l y anxious students were also more apprehensive about the p o s s i b i l i t y of being viewed unfavourably by a counsellor than students who were not s o c i a l l y anxious. However, students who were high i n 62 s o c i a l anxiety did not place greater importance on making a good impression on a counsellor than students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety did. Although there was p a r t i a l support for the idea that s o c i a l l y anxious students would be more l i k e l y to believe that they would be viewed negatively by a counsellor, the r e s u l t s were not conclusive. Students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety thought that i t was more l i k e l y that they would be viewed c r i t i c a l l y by a counsellor than students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety did. S o c i a l l y anxious students were also less l i k e l y to believe that they would be viewed admiringly by a counsellor. However, s o c i a l l y anxious students were not less l i k e l y to believe that they would be viewed favourably or more l i k e l y to believe that they would be viewed disapprovingly. The results for anonymous help-seeking versus public help-seeking were also somewhat ambiguous. Although s o c i a l l y anxious students were more w i l l i n g to use se l f - h e l p materials than they were to seek help p u b l i c l y , these students were also less w i l l i n g to seek help from a c r i s i s l i n e than they were to seek help from more public sources. Interestingly, students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety were also less w i l l i n g to 63 seek help from a c r i s i s l i n e than they were to seek public sources of help. It i s possible that students believed that i t would be less appropriate to seek help from a c r i s i s l i n e than to seek help from the more public alternatives because they may associate the former with emergency intervention (e.g., i n the case of sexual assault, battering, or attempted s u i c i d e ) . Furthermore, the word c r i s i s i t s e l f may bring to mind thoughts of someone who i s i n extreme emotional di s t r e s s and, perhaps, even i n physical danger. An exploratory analysis of students' helper preferences revealed that s o c i a l l y anxious students were less w i l l i n g to seek help from a family physician, from group counselling, and from a c r i s i s l i n e than students who were not s o c i a l l y anxious. It i s possible that s o c i a l l y anxious students were reluctant to seek help from a family physician because he or she may be perceived as an expert, or an authority figure, who would be more l i k e l y to evaluate them unfavourably (Leary, 1983b, Zimbardo, 1977). S o c i a l l y anxious students may also be p a r t i c u l a r l y f e a r f u l of d i s c l o s i n g personal information about themselves i n front of a group. Schlenker and Leary (1982) suggest that the motivation to make a favourable impression tends to 64 increase with the size of the audience, at least to a cer t a i n point. Research has shown that people often report f e e l i n g more tense and nervous as the siz e of t h e i r audience increases (Jackson & Latane, 1981; Latane & Harkins, 1976; Zimbardo, 1977). F i n a l l y , although a c r i s i s l i n e i s one of the most anonymous sources of help, s o c i a l l y anxious students may f e e l apprehensive about i n i t i a t i n g a telephone c a l l to a stranger (Leary, 1983b). Numerous studies have shown that males tend to be less w i l l i n g to seek psychological help than females (Fischer & Turner, 1970; Selby, Calhoun, & Parrott, 1978; K l i g f e l d & Hoffman, 1979; Rule & Gandy, 1994). The present study found that (a) male students were less w i l l i n g to seek individual counselling than female students, (b) male students were less w i l l i n g to seek help from a t r a d i t i o n a l guide than female students, (c) male students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety were less w i l l i n g to seek help from a c r i s i s l i n e than female students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety, and (d) male students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety were less w i l l i n g to seek help by attending a public workshop than female students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety. A possible explanation for these findings can 65 be drawn from t r a d i t i o n a l gender rol e s . In a study of 401 male undergraduates, Good and D e l l (1989) found that t r a d i t i o n a l attitudes about the masculine r o l e were s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to negative attitudes toward seeking psychological help. Because the t r a d i t i o n a l masculine role highlights independence and s e l f - r e l i a n c e , whereas the t r a d i t i o n a l feminine r o l e emphasizes cooperation and a f f i l i a t i o n , females are given greater permission to admit t h e i r shortcomings and to seek help for an exi s t i n g problem. Cross-cultural differences may also influence attitudes toward psychological help-seeking (Fischer, Winer, & Abramowitz, 1983). Although the present study found r e l a t i v e l y few differences between Caucasians and Asians, Caucasian students were less w i l l i n g to seek help from a c r i s i s l i n e than Asian students, and Caucasian students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety were less w i l l i n g to seek help by attending a public workshop than Asian students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety. These differences may r e f l e c t the emphasis that Western urban culture places on independence and s e l f - r e l i a n c e versus the c o l l e c t i v e - e g a l i t a r i a n values of the East. It i s important to note that the Caucasians and 66 Asians who took part i n thi s study did not represent two d i s t i n c t , homogeneous groups. Because the majority of Caucasian and Asian respondents had l i v e d i n North America for more than 10 years, one would expect considerable overlap between these groups. Not only had most Asian respondents had extensive exposure to Western culture at the time of thi s study, but many of these students may have had more i n common with t h e i r Caucasian peers than with other Asian students (32% of Asian respondents were born i n North America). Further, the group of Asian respondents was comprised of Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Ph i l i p p i n e , and Malaysian students. Limitations of This Research G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y . A longitudinal study of the rel a t i o n s h i p between the help-seeking attitudes and the help-seeking behaviour of s o c i a l l y anxious u n i v e r s i t y students was beyond the scope of t h i s investigation. It i s not appropriate to assume that students' attitudes toward seeking psychological help w i l l correspond d i r e c t l y with t h e i r help-seeking behaviour. Not only may imagined encounters with a counsellor be less powerful than r e a l ones, but the help-seeking scenarios outlined i n the questionnaire may involve 67 factors that are either more or less, s a l i e n t i n an actual counselling setting. The reader should also be mindful that the results of t h i s study are generalizable only to individuals who share the same ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s as the respondents (e.g., age, gender, e t h n i c i t y , education, socioeconomic status, and geographical lo c a t i o n ) . Voluntary p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The fact that the respondents were volunteers may have influenced the res u l t s of t h i s study. For example, i t i s possible that the students who chose to complete the questionnaire had more favourable attitudes toward counselling than those who chose not to p a r t i c i p a t e . Use of s e l f - r e p o r t measures. Although care was taken to reduce respondents' evaluation apprehension and tendency to respond i n a s o c i a l l y desirable way, the s e l f - r e p o r t measures used i n th i s study remain subject to the response sets of these students. For example, students may have expressed more favourable attitudes toward counselling than they ac t u a l l y held i n order to please the researchers (students were aware that t h i s research was being conducted by and for counsellors). Because high IAS scores are s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to the need for approval (Crowne 68 & Marlowe, 1964), th i s may explain why s o c i a l l y anxious students, as a whole, did not score s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower on the PHAS than students who were not s o c i a l l y anxious. Psychometric properties of the dependent measures. Most of the dependent measures used i n t h i s study appear to be quite r e l i a b l e ; however, the Evaluation Scale did not meet acceptable standards of r e l i a b i l i t y . Due to i t s unsatisfactory r e l i a b i l i t y , the Evaluation Scale was used for exploratory purposes only, and the res u l t s associated with t h i s measure should be interpreted with caution. In addition, further study i s needed to est a b l i s h the v a l i d i t y of the Anxiety Scale, the Disclosure Scale, and the Impression Scale. Directions for Future Research In t h i s study, students who were high i n s o c i a l anxiety had more negative attitudes toward seeking counselling than students who were low i n s o c i a l anxiety. Further, s o c i a l l y anxious students were less comfortable with the prospect of d i s c l o s i n g personal information to a counsellor, and were more apprehensive about the p o s s i b i l i t y of being viewed unfavourably by a counsellor, than students who were not s o c i a l l y anxious. It would be useful to extend 69 these findings to actual help-seeking behaviour by-assessing whether students who are high i n s o c i a l anxiety seek counselling less often than students who are low i n s o c i a l anxiety (c o n t r o l l i n g for students' presenting problems and t h e i r s e v e r i t y ) . Researchers could also examine whether s o c i a l anxiety i s associated with greater premature termination rates i n counselling. Another potential area for exploration i s the rel a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l anxiety and the counselling process. Do s o c i a l l y anxious c l i e n t s s e l f - d i s c l o s e less than c l i e n t s who are not s o c i a l l y anxious? Do s o c i a l l y anxious c l i e n t s worry about counsellor approval (or disapproval) more than c l i e n t s who are not s o c i a l l y anxious? What impact would such c l i e n t behaviours have on the counsellor? These questions could be addressed i n a n a t u r a l i s t i c s e t t i n g involving c l i e n t s who are screened for s o c i a l anxiety (using the IAS) and assigned to counsellors who are b l i n d to the experimental condition. It remains unclear whether s o c i a l l y anxious students are more l i k e l y to believe that they would be viewed unfavourably by a counsellor than students who are not s o c i a l l y anxious. The development of a 70 r e l i a b l e and v a l i d measure to replace the Evaluation Scale i s needed to adequately address t h i s research question. It i s also unclear whether s o c i a l anxiety i s associated with a preference for anonymous help-seeking over public help-seeking. A detailed exploration of the helper preferences of s o c i a l l y anxious students may answer t h i s question and provide valuable clues concerning the types of helpers, or helping services, that can best meet the unique needs of these students. F i n a l l y , t h i s study focused exclusively on Caucasian and Asian university students. It would be worthwhile to attempt to r e p l i c a t e the present findings with samples of individuals from a va r i e t y of educational, socioeconomic, r e l i g i o u s , r a c i a l , and c u l t u r a l backgrounds. Previous research has shown that age, family income, and l e v e l of education are related to willingness to seek help i n general ( T i j h u i s , Peters, & Foets, 1990), and that l e v e l of education i s related to willingness to seek help from a mental health professional (Fischer & Cohen, 1972; K l i g f e l d & Hoffman, 1979; T i j h u i s , Peters, & Foets, 1990). Religious, r a c i a l , c u l t u r a l , and regional differences have also been found to influence attitudes toward 71 psychological help-seeking (Fischer, Winer, & Abramowitz, 1983). Implications for Counselling It i s hoped that t h i s study w i l l help counsellors and other mental health professionals become more sens i t i v e to the unique needs of s o c i a l l y anxious c l i e n t s . Not only may such c l i e n t s f i n d i t p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t to disclose personal information to a counsellor, but they may also worry about being d i s l i k e d or disapproved of by him or her. Because s o c i a l l y anxious c l i e n t s are l i k e l y to f e e l most vulnerable i n the f i r s t few sessions, i t i s e s s e n t i a l that counsellors demonstrate patience and understanding at the outset of the c l i e n t - c o u n s e l l o r r e l a t i o n s h i p by working to b u i l d trust and establish rapport using person-centered techniques (e.g., accurate empathy, counsellor genuineness, and unconditional p o s i t i v e regard; Rogers, 1957; Holdstock & Rogers, 1977; Meador & Rogers, 1984), and by r e f r a i n i n g from pushing t h e i r c l i e n t s to reveal a great deal about themselves early on. For example, i f a s o c i a l l y anxious c l i e n t i s pressured to disclose personal information of an embarrassing nature during the f i r s t session, he or she may f e e l too ashamed to return_for another session. 72 Counsellors should also normalize t h e i r c l i e n t s ' fears regarding counselling and affirm the courage that they have shown by choosing to seek help i n spite of t h e i r misgivings. Conclusion This study found that s o c i a l l y anxious u n i v e r s i t y students had more negative attitudes toward seeking counselling than students who were not s o c i a l l y anxious. S o c i a l l y anxious students were also less comfortable with the prospect of d i s c l o s i n g personal information to a counsellor, and were more apprehensive about the p o s s i b i l i t y of being viewed unfavourably by a counsellor, than t h e i r less anxious peers. 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Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. 81 Appendix A Table A - l National Heritage, Place of B i r t h , and Number of Years i n North America Category Description Asian** Caucasian** Total n 1 %) n (%) N (%) National Chinese 65 (52) N/A N/A Heritage Japanese 6 (5) Korean 6 (5) Vietnamese 5 (4) Philippine 4 (3) Malaysian 1 (1) Other 6 (5) Not Specified 31 (25) Place of Canada 38 (31) 83 (68) 121 (49) B i r t h North America 2 (2) 2 (2) 4 (2) Other 57 (46) 7 (6) 64 (26) Not Specified 27 (22) 30 (25) 57 (23) Years i n < 5 11 (9) 3 (2.5) 14 (6) North 5-10 18 (15) 1 (1) 19 (8) America 11-15 10 (8) 2 (2) 12 (5) 16-20 46 (37) 36 (30) 82 (33) > 20 12 (10) 50 (41) 62 (25) Not Specified 27 (22) 30 (25) 57 (23) a n = 124. b n = 122. 82 Table A-2 Departmental A f f i l i a t i o n and Programme of Study Category Description Low SA a High SA b Total n (%) n (%) N (%) Department Biochemistry 40 (36) 55 (41) 95 (39) Chemistry 22 (20) 27 (20) 49 (20) Psychology 20 (18) 24 (18) 44 (18) Fine Arts 11 (10) 10 (7) 21 (9) History 8 (V) 6 (4) 14 (6) Spanish 3 (3) 3 (2) 6 (2) Education 2 (2) 3 (2) 5 (2) Not Specified 5 (5) 7 (5) 12 (5) Programme Diploma 4 (4) 4 (3) 8 (3) of Study Bachelors 91 (82) 122 (90) 213 (87) Masters 3 (3) 2 (2) 5 (2) Doctoral 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) Un c l a s s i f i e d 12 (11) 6 (4) 18 (7) Not Specified 1 (1) 1 (1) 2 (1) Note. SA = s o c i a l anxiety. ~n = 111. b n = 135. 83 Table A-3 Scales Administered to P a r t i c i p a t i n g Classes i n Questionnaire Package 1 and Questionnaire Package 2 Scale Class IAS NHAS/PHAS HDCS FPHS Biochemistry 1 2 b 2 Chemistry A 1 1 1 1 Chemistry B a 2 1 1= — Psychology 1 1 1 1 Fine Arts 1 1 & 2 l c & 2 2 History 1 1 & 2 1~ & 2 2 Spanish 1 & 2 1 & 2 l c & 2 2 Education A 1 1 & 2 2 2 Education B 1 1 l c --a A s i a n students only. bStudents did not receive the Anxiety Scale. ^Students did not receive the Disclosure Scale, the Impression Scale, or the Evaluation Scale. 84 Appendix B Table B-l Multivariate Analysis of Variance of PHAS and NHAS Scores Source P i l l a i Hypoth df Error df F SA . 11341 2.00 109.00 6.97163** G .00435 2.00 109.00 .23795 E .00536 2.00 109.00 .29394 SA by G .06811 2 .00 109.00 3.98336* SA by E .02758 2.00 109.00 1.54570 G by E .00707 2.00 109.00 .38789 SA by G by E .00843 2.00 109.00 .46321 Note. SA = s o c i a l anxiety; G = gender; E = e t h n i c i t y . *p < .05. **p_ < .001. 85 Table B-2 Multivariate Analysis of Variance of Anxiety, Disclosure, and Impression Scores Source P i l l a i Hypoth df Error df F SA .11916 3.00 77 .00 3 .47207* G .06602 3.00 77.00 1 .81433 E .04628 3.00 77.00 1 .24562 SA by G .01706 3.00 77 .00 .44536 SA by E .01901 3.00 77 .00 .49739 G by E .04901 3.00 77 .00 1 .32268 SA by G by E .01020 3.00 77 .00 .26462 Note. SA = s o c i a l anxiety; G = gender; E = e t h n i c i t y . *p < .025. 86 Table B-3 Univariate Analysis of Variance of Scores for Item 1 on the Evaluation Scale Source SS df MS F W&R 309.58 119.00 2.60 SA 1.15 1.00 1.15 .44 G 3.65 1.00 3.65 1.40 E .69 1.00 .69 .27 SA by G 3.08 1.00 3.08 1.18 SA by E .31 1.00 .31 .12 G by E 7.00 1.00 7.00 2.69 SA by G by E .21 1.00 .21 .08 Note. SA = s o c i a l anxiety; G = gender; E = e t h n i c i t y . Table B-4 Univariate Analysis of Variance of Scores for Item 2 on the Evaluation Scale Source SS df MS F W&R 292.47 119.00 2.46 SA 18.82 1.00 18.82 7 .66* G .02 1.00 .02 .01 E .09 1.00 .09 .04 SA by G 2.28 1.00 2.28 .93 SA by E 10.22 1.00 10.22 4 . 16 G by E .63 1.00 .63 .26 SA by G by E . 10 1.00 . 10 .04 Note. SA = s o c i a l anxiety; G = gender; E = e t h n i c i t y . *£ < .01. 88 Table B-5 Univariate Analysis of Variance of Scores for Item 3 on the Evaluation Scale Source SS df MS W&R 188.16 119.00 1.58 SA .48 G 3.37 E . 18 SA by G .72 SA by E .51 G by E .07 SA by G by E 4.61 1.00 .48 .30 1.00 3.37 2.13 1.00 .18 .11 1.00 .72 .46 1.00 .51 .33 1.00 .07 .05 1.00 4.61 2.91 Note. SA = s o c i a l anxiety; G = gender; E = e t h n i c i t y . 89 Table B-6 Univariate Analysis of Variance of Scores for Item 4 on the Evaluation Scale Source SS df MS F W&R 240.16 119.00 2.02 SA 14.38 1.00 14.38 7 . 13* G 4.53 1.00 4.53 2.24 E . 19 1.00 . 19 .09 SA by G .20 1.00 .20 . 10 SA by E 1.57 1.00 1.57 .78 G by E .01 1.00 .01 .01 SA by G by E .26 1.00 .26 . 13 Note. SA = s o c i a l anxiety; G = gender; E = e t h n i c i t y . *£ < .01. 90 Table B-7 Univariate Analysis of Variance of Family Physician Scores Source SS df MS F W&R 191.14 121.00 1.58 SA 24.22 1.00 24.22 15.33* G 5.47 1.00 5.47 3.46 E 2.05 1.00 2.05 1.30 SA by G 1.18 1.00 1. 18 .74 SA by E 1.89 1.00 1.89 1. 19 G by E 5.34 1.00 5.34 3.38 SA by G by E .88 1.00 .88 .56 Note. SA = s o c i a l anxiety; G = gender; E = e t h n i c i t y . *P_ < .001. 91 Table B-8 Univariate Analysis of Variance of P s y c h i a t r i s t Scores Source SS df MS F W&R 157.28 121.00 1.30 SA 4.47 1.00 4 .47 3.44 G .83 1.00 .83 .64 E 3.11 1.00 3.11 2.39 SA by G . 16 1.00 . 16 . 13 SA by E .09 1.00 .09 .07 G by E .72 1.00 .72 .56 SA by G by E 6.49 1.00 6.49 4.99 Note. SA = s o c i a l anxiety; G = gender; E = e t h n i c i t y . 92 Table B-9 Univariate Analysis of Variance of Individual Counselling Scores Source SS df MS F W&R 162.23 121.00 1.34 SA 3.65 1.00 3.65 2.72 G 8.10 1.00 8.10 6 .04* E .00 1.00 .00 .00 SA by G 1.06 1.00 1.06 .79 SA by E .04 1.00 .04 .03 G by E .24 1.00 .24 . 18 SA by G by E .01 1.00 .01 .01 Note. SA = s o c i a l anxiety; G = gender; E = e t h n i c i t y . *p_ < .025. 93 Table B-10 Univariate Analysis of Variance of Group Counselling Scores Source SS df MS F W&R 168.59 121.00 1.39 SA 6.46 1.00 6.46 4.63* G .96 1.00 .96 .69 E 2.77 1.00 2.77 1.99 SA by G .07 1.00 .07 .05 SA by E 6.46 1.00 6 .46 4.64* G by E 2.92 1.00 2.92 2.09 SA by G by E .84 1.00 .84 .60 Note. SA = s o c i a l anxiety; G = gender; E = e t h n i c i t y . *p < .05. 94 Table B - l l Univariate Analysis of Variance of C r i s i s Line Scores Source SS df MS F W&R 137.08 121.00 1.13 SA 11.69 1.00 11.69 10.32** G . 18 1.00 . 18 .16 E 8.33 1.00 8.33 7.35** SA by G 12.40 1.00 12.40 10.94** SA by E 4.75 1.00 4 .75 4.19* G by E 6.30 1.00 6.30 5.56* SA by G by E 2.83 1.00 2.83 2.50 Note. SA = s o c i a l anxiety; G = gender; E = e t h n i c i t y . *£ < .05. **£ < .01. 95 Table B-12 Univariate Analysis of Variance of Public Workshop Scores Source SS df MS F W&R 182.74 121.00 1.51 SA .72 1.00 .72 .47 G 1.75 1.00 1.75 1.16 E 2.07 1.00 2.07 1.37 SA by G 5.59 1.00 5.59 3.70 SA by E 4 .96 1.00 4.96 3.29 G by E .00 1.00 .00 .00 SA by G by E 9.54 1.00 9 .54 6.32* Note. SA = s o c i a l anxiety; G = gender; E = e t h n i c i t y . *p < .05. 96 Table B-13 Univariate Analysis of Variance of Tr a d i t i o n a l Guide Scores Source SS df MS F W&R 111.49 120.00 .93 SA .85 1.00 .85 .92 G 4.91 1.00 4.91 5.28* E .00 1.00 .00 .00 SA by G .02 1.00 .02 .02 SA by E .46 1.00 .46 .50 G by E .08 1.00 .08 .09 SA by G by E 7.60 1.00 7.60 8.17** Note. SA = s o c i a l anxiety; G = gender; E = e t h n i c i t y . *p_ < .025. **p_ < .01. 97 Table B-14 Univariate Analysis of Variance of Self-Help Scores Source SS df MS F W&R 231.90 120.00 1.93 --SA 1.98 1.00 1.98 1.02 G .02 1.00 .02 .01 E 3.18 1.00 3.18 1.65 SA by G .73 1.00 .73 .38 SA by E 4.29 1.00 4 .29 2.22 G by E .45 1.00 .45 .24 SA by G by E .00 1.00 .00 .00 Note. SA = s o c i a l anxiety; G = gender; E = e t h n i c i t y . 98 Appendix C T i t l e Page and Instructions to Participants Course #: Today's Date: Retest ID Code: a b c To make secret ID code for retest matching, please enter: (a) mother's f i r s t name i n i t i a l ; (b) her b i r t h month ; and (c) her b i r t h date . (Example: M-ll-28 for Mary born on November 28.) Br i e f Research T i t l e : Interpersonal Experience Survey Thank you for volunteering to par t i c i p a t e i n t h i s survey. This i s an investigation of how people experience themselves i n an interpersonal context. It w i l l take you approximately 10-15 minutes to complete t h i s survey package. Your data w i l l contribute to our understanding of students' interpersonal concerns and w i l l help us improve our methods of counselling and tr a i n i n g counsellors. You have entered a "retest ID" at the top of t h i s page. This i s necessary because some classes w i l l receive a si m i l a r survey i n 4-6 weeks, as a "retest", and we w i l l need to match the f i r s t survey package with the second, while keeping your data anonymous. Anonymity and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . A l l data w i l l be number-coded for computer-assisted analysis, and you w i l l remain e n t i r e l y anonymous. The data w i l l be kept s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l , i n a safe place, and only the researcher and his research assistants w i l l have access to t h i s data. Raw data w i l l be destroyed 7 years from the completion of the study. Voluntary p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s voluntary and you are free to withdraw at any time. Your withdrawal or refusal to par t i c i p a t e w i l l NOT a f f e c t your student p r i v i l e g e s or your academic status. Your consent w i l l be assumed i f you return a completed questionnaire. 99 The p r i n c i p a l investigator i s Dr. Ishiyama from the Department of Counselling Psychology. If you have any in q u i r i e s , you may contact him at: 822-5329. Again, thank you very much for taking time to complete t h i s survey. Your sincere response w i l l be most appreciated! T H A N K Y O U ! 100 Appendix D Demographic Questionnaire 1. Sex: ( ) 1 = male; ( ) 2 = female 2. Age: years old 3. Departmental A f f i l i a t i o n : Dept. of 4. Programme of Study: ( ) 1 = Bachelors ( ) BA ( ) BSc ( ) BEd or ( ) 2 = Diploma ( ) 3 = Master ( ) 4 = Doctorate ( ) 0 = U n c l a s s i f i e d 5. S i b l i n g Order: ( ) 1 = oldest ( ) 2 = youngest ( ) 3 = only c h i l d ( ) 4 = middle child/one of the middle children ( ) 5 = other 6. Ethnic/Racial Background: (Which ethnic group constitutes more than 50% of your background? If i t i s 50-50, please check both categories.) 01 = Caucasian/Western European 02 = Eastern European 03 = Hispanic 04 = Asian | 05 = East Indian ) 06 = F i r s t Nations ) 07 = Middle Eastern ) 08 = African American ) 09 = African ) 10 = other ) 00 — I prefer not to answer th i s question 7. I have l i v e d i n North America for a t o t a l of years 8. I was born i n ( ) Canada ( ) North America ( ) other loi Appendix E Interaction Anxiousness Scale Read each item c a r e f u l l y and determine the degree to which the statement i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c or true of you. Then c i r c l e one of the fi v e numbers according to the following scale. 1 = The statement i s not at a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of me, 2 = The statement i s s l i g h t l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of me. 3 = The statement i s moderately c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of me, 4 = The statement i s very c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of me. 5 = The statement i s extremely c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of me. > true 1-2-3-4-5 1. I often f e e l nervous even i n casual get-togethers. 1-2-3-4-5 2. I usually f e e l uncomfortable when I am in a group of people I don't know. 1-2-3-4-5 3. I am usually at ease when speaking to a member of the opposite sex. 1-2-3-4-5 4. I get nervous when I must t a l k to a teacher or boss. 1-2-3-4-5 5. Parties often make me f e e l anxious and uncomfortable. 1-2-3-4-5 6. I am probably less shy i n s o c i a l interactions than most people. 1-2-3-4-5 7. I sometimes f e e l tense when t a l k i n g to people of my own sex i f I don't know them very well. 1-2-3-4-5 8. I would be nervous i f I was being interviewed for a job. 1-2-3-4-5 9. I wish I had more confidence i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . 1-2-3-4-5 10. I seldom f e e l anxious i n s o c i a l situations. 102 1-2-3-4-5 11. In general, I am a shy person. 1-2-3-4-5 12. I often f e e l nervous when t a l k i n g to an at t r a c t i v e member of the opposite sex. 1-2-3-4-5 13. I often f e e l nervous when c a l l i n g someone I don't know very well on the telephone. 1-2-3-4-5 14. I get nervous when I speak to someone i n a position of authority. 1-2-3-4-5 15. I usually f e e l relaxed around other people, even people who are quite d i f f e r e n t from myself. Source: Leary, M. R. (1983). Social anxiousness: The construct and i t ' s measurement. Journal of Personality-Assessment, 47, 66-75. 103 Appendix F Help-Seeking Attitudes Scales (PHAS/NHAS) We face various problems and personal issues i n l i f e . They may be related to relationships, career, emotional well-being, education, personality, family, i d e n t i t y , health, and l i f e i n general. Seeking help from others i s one way of dealing with such problems and c r i t i c a l issues. If you were to seek help from a trained counsellor or therapist to discuss rather personal issues, what kind of feelings and concerns might you have about i t ? Please assume (a) that the helping services w i l l be free of charge, c o n f i d e n t i a l , and professional; (b) that the counsellor w i l l be a stranger to you, but speaks the same language. Please c i r c l e one of the numbers for each item, using the scale below. 1 = not at a l l 2 = a l i t t l e 3 = somewhat 4 = moderately 5 = quite 6 = very 7 = extremely NAA<—MOD—>EXT 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1. w i l l i n g 2. worried 3. hopeful 4. relieved 5. self-conscious 6. inh i b i t e d 7. good about myself 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 8. uncertain 104 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 9. stressed out 10. skeptical 11. comfortable 12. shameful 13. lonesome 14. enthusiastic 15. s e l f - c r i t i c a l 16. exposed 17. cautious 18. proud of myself 19. disturbed 20. resentful 21. a c t i v e l y involved 22. g u i l t y 23. hesitant 24. embarrassed 25. open 26. defensive Source: Ishiyama, F. I. (1995). Development and va l i d a t i o n of the Positive Help-Seeking Attitudes Scale and the Negative Help-Seeking Attitudes Scale. Unpublished manuscript. 105 Appendix G Helper-Directed Concerns Scales Please c i r c l e one of the numbers for each item, using the scale below. 1 = not at a l l 2 = a l i t t l e 3 = somewhat 4 = moderately 5 = quite 6 = very 7 = extremely 1 . If you were to see a professional helper, how concerned would you be about the following issues? "I would be concerned about ." NAA<—MOD—>EXT 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1. the helper forming negative opinions of me 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 2. the helper seeing the negative side of me 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 3. myself being the continuous focus of attention i n counselling 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 4. the helper thinking that I have a "big problem" 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 5. the helper not appreciating my positiv e q u a l i t i e s 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 6. the helper not l i k i n g me as a person 106 If you were to see a professional helper, how would you feel? Please use the same 7-point scale. 2. I would f e e l to disclose personal information to him/her. NAA<—MOD—>EXT 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1. vulnerable 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 2. comfortable 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 3. embarrassed 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 4. relaxed 3. I t would be to me to make a good impression on him/her. 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1. unimportant 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 2. desirable 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 3. meaningless 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 4. of concern 4. I t i s more l i k e l y that he/she would think of me 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1. favourably 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 2. c r i t i c a l l y 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 3. disapprovingly 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 4. admiringly Source: Ishiyama, F. I., & Bushnell, J. E. (1995). [Helper-Directed Concerns Scales]. Unpublished raw data. 107 Appendix H Formal Psychological Help-Seeking Scale Suppose you had a personal problem that was causing you emotional di s t r e s s and i n t e r f e r i n g with your normal functioning. How w i l l i n g would you be to seek help from the following sources? Please assume that these services are free of charge, c o n f i d e n t i a l , and professional. 0 1 2 3 4 = not at a l l s l i g h t l y somewhat quite very 0--1--2-3-4 1. family physician o--1 -2-3-4 2. p s y c h i a t r i s t 0 -1 -2-3-4 3. one-to-one counselling (nonmedical) 0 -1 -2-3-4 4. group counselling (nonmedical) 0 -1 -2-3-4 5. c r i s i s / d i s t r e s s l i n e service 0 -1 -2-3-4 6 . public workshop/seminar 0 -1 -2-3-4 7 . t r a d i t i o n a l guide (e.g., psychic, astrologer, medicine man/woman, herbalist) 0 -1 -2-3-4 8. self-help materials (e.g., books, audio/video tapes) Source: Ishiyama, F. I. (1995). [Formal Psychological Help-Seeking Scale]. Unpublished raw data. 

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