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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Ways of mattering and meeting student needs in alternative high school programs Norton, David William 1995

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WAYS OF MATTERING AND MEETING STUDENT NEEDS IN ALTERNATIVE HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAMS by DAVID WILLIAM NORTON B.A., Saint Mary's University, 1990 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Counselling Psychology) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA © David W. Norton, 1995 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) i i A B S T R A C T T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e d how s t u d e n t s r e p o r t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n f e e l i n g s o f m a t t e r i n g a t s c h o o l a n d how t h e i r n e e d s a r e b e i n g me t w h i l e a t s c h o o l . T h e s t u d y i n c l u d e d 134 s t u d e n t s , i n g r a d e s n i n e t h r o u g h t w e l v e , i n f i v e a l t e r n a t i v e p r o g r a m s i n V a n c o u v e r , B . C . T h e m e e t i n g o f s t u d e n t s n e e d s a n d t h e m e a s u r e m e n t o f p e r c e p t i o n s o f m a t t e r i n g w e r e d e t e r m i n e d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f t w o q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . T h e i n s t r u m e n t m e a s u r i n g n e e d s f u l f i l m e n t e m p l o y e d s c a l e s r e l a t i n g t o s e c u r i t y , s o c i a l , e s t e e m a n d s e l f a c t u a l i z a t i o n n e e d s . T h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e m e a s u r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f m a t t e r i n g u t i l i z e d s c a l e s m e a s u r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f i m p o r t a n c e , a t t e n t i o n , d e p e n d e n c e a n d e g o - e x t e n s i o n . T h e r e s u l t s s h o w e d s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e m e e t i n g o f s t u d e n t n e e d s a n d p e r c e p t i o n s o f m a t t e r i n g w h i l e i n a t t e n d a n c e a t s c h o o l . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v CHAPTER I - INTRODUCTION 1 The Local Context i n Alternative Education 1 D e f i n i t i o n of the Terms 3 Scope of the Study 4 Assumptions of the Study 5 Limitations and Delimitations 6 Overview of the Study 8 CHAPTER II - LITERATURE REVIEW 9 Introduction 9 Characteristics of the Programs 9 Mattering 16 Statements About Schools Inventory 19 CHAPTER III - METHODOLOGY 22 I ntroduct ion 22 Population and Participants 22 Data Collection 23 The Questionnaires 24 The Ways of Mattering Questionnaire 25 Data Analysis 26 CHAPTER IV - THE RESULTS 28 Bio - Demographic Information 28 Statements About Schools Inventory Results 28 Ways of Mattering Questionnaire Results 29 i v R e l i a b i l i t y Analysis of the Ways of Mattering Scales 30 Correlations of the Instruments 31 Relationships between the S.A.S. Scales and the Ways of Mattering Scales 36 Summary of S i g n i f i c a n t Results and Hypotheses 43 CHAPTER V - CONCLUSIONS 45 Other Results of Significance 47 Suggestions for Further Research 48 REFERENCES 50 APPENDIX A - CONSENT FORM , 52 APPENDIX B - PARTICIPANT LETTER 55 APPENDIX C - WAYS OF MATTERING QUESTIONNAIRE - ADULT FORM 58 APPENDIX D - WAYS OF MATTERING QUESTIONNAIRE - OTHER STUDENTS FORM 62 APPENDIX E - STATEMENTS ABOUT SCHOOL INVENTORY - ACTUAL SCHOOL FORM 66 APPENDIX F - STATEMENTS ABOUT SCHOOLS INVENTORY - IDEAL SCHOOL FORM 70 Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. Table 5. Table 6. Table 7. Table 8. v LIST OF TABLES Mean Scores of S.A.S. Inventory Scales 29 Mean scores of the Ways of Mattering Questionnaire... 30 Alpha R e l i a b i l i t i e s of the Ways of Mattering Scales..31 Pearson Product-Moment Correlations - Statement About Schools Scales 32 Pearson Product-Moment Correlations - Ways of Mattering Scales 34 Correlations Between the S.A.S. Scales and the Ways of Mattering Questionnaire - Adult Form 37 Correlations Between the S.A.S. Scales and the Ways of Mattering Questionnaire - Other Students Form 39 Summary Pearson - Product Moment Correlations of the Scales of the Statements About Schools Inventory and the Ways of Mattering Questionnaire 41 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k t h e members o f my c o m m i t t e e : D r . N o r m A m u n d s o n , D r . M a r v W e s t w o o d a n d D r . R o b e r t C h e s t e r f o r t h e i r g u i d a n c e , i n p u t a n d s u p p o r t i n c o m p l e t i n g t h i s p r o j e c t . I a l s o w i s h t o e x t e n d my g r e a t e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n t o b o t h D r . W e s t w o o d a n d D r . A m u n d s o n f o r t h e i r i n s p i r a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p t h r o u g h t h e l a s t t w o y e a r s o f my t r a i n i n g , a s w e l l a s o t h e r d e p a r t m e n t a l f a c u l t y f o r t h e i r w o r k a n d a s s i s t a n c e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h i s p r o j e c t became m o r e m a n a g e a b l e t h r o u g h t h e i n p u t o f M r . B r i a n R e i d a t t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d who o r g a n i z e d a n d s c a n n e d t h e d a t a , a n d D r . A r l e i g h R e i c h l a t U . B . C . who h e l p e d b r i n g t h e d a t a t o l i f e a n d who p r o v i d e d me w i t h s u p p o r t a n d a d v i c e i n a l l t h i n g s s t a t i s t i c a l . My a p p r e c i a t i o n i s a l s o e x t e n d e d t o D r . G e r a l d R . S m i t h , I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y , f o r h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n a n d u s e o f t h e S . A . S . T o t h e s t a f f a n d s t u d e n t s o f t h e p r o g r a m s w h i c h I v i s i t e d I e x t e n d my d e e p e s t t h a n k s f o r y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h e s e s c h o o l s a r e T o t a l E d u c a t i o n P r o g r a m , T h e W e s t P r o g r a m , S u n r i s e E a s t P r o g r a m , O u t r e a c h P r o g r a m a n d t h e B y n g S a t e l l i t e P r o g r a m . F i n a l l y , a n d m o s t i m p o r t a n t l y , I w i s h t o t h a n k my w i f e a n d l i f e p a r t n e r , B a r b a r a N o r t o n , f o r h e r s u p p o r t , h e r p a t i e n c e a n d h e r l o v e d u r i n g t h e s e p a s t s e v e n y e a r s o f s t u d y . 1 INTRODUCTION Our society has increasingly come to recognize the necessity of seeking alternative solutions to meet the needs of society i n a world of ever shrinking natural resources. During the past twenty f i v e years, we have also found alternative solutions for the development of our most precious resource: our youth. This study w i l l examine an increasingly growing phenomenon i n our educational system, the alternative school. From humble beginnings at drop - i n centres i n the late 1960's to development i n the board rooms of the 1990's, the alternative school movement has shown steady growth throughout t h i s period. Presently, alternative schools ex i s t i n almost every community i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In the Vancouver school d i s t r i c t alone, there are over twenty alternative programs i n existence, serving over f i v e hundred students. During the past decade, associations and annual conferences have been developed to address the s p e c i f i c needs i n alternative education i n B r i t i s h Columbia. It i s the examination of the types of needs that these schools meet that l i e s at the foundation of t h i s study. THE LOCAL CONTEXT IN ALTERNATIVE EDUCATION This study took place within alternative school programs located i n the Vancouver school d i s t r i c t . Within t h i s d i s t r i c t there are a number of d i f f e r e n t forms of al t e r n a t i v e programs which target d i f f e r e n t types of students. These include "Bridge" programs which help students i n t r a n s i t i o n from elementary to secondary school, treatment programs for students who exhibit severe behavioral problems or are emotionally f r a g i l e , and s p e c i f i c programs for delivery of service to target groups such as 2 a b o r i g i n a l s t u d e n t s , s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l b y o r d e r o f t h e c o u r t , a n d s t u d e n t s who h a v e e n t e r e d c u s t o d i a l c a r e o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t a n d r e q u i r e t e m p o r a r y s c h o o l p l a c e m e n t s . T h e r e m a i n i n g t w o f o r m s o f a l t e r n a t i v e s c h o o l s s e r v e t h e l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n a l t e r n a t i v e s c h o o l s i n V a n c o u v e r a n d a r e t h e f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y . T h e y a r e t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e a n d s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y a l t e r n a t i v e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o g r a m s . I n t e r m e d i a t e p r o g r a m s v a r y f r o m t w e n t y t o f o r t y s t u d e n t s i n s i z e . T h e y g e n e r a l l y s e r v e s t u d e n t s i n t h e g r a d e n i n e a n d t e n y e a r s . T h o u g h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y t i e d t o t h e l a r g e r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , t h e s e p r o g r a m s a r e m o s t l y l o c a t e d s e p a r a t e l y f r o m t h e i r " p a r e n t " s c h o o l s i n p o r t a b l e s o r r e n t e d f a c i l i t i e s l o c a t e d o f f s i t e . T h e t w o s e n i o r p r o g r a m s s e r v e f r o m e i g h t y t o o n e h u n d r e d s t u d e n t s i n t h e g r a d e e l e v e n a n d t w e l v e y e a r s . S t u d e n t s who a t t e n d a l t e r n a t i v e s c h o o l s s h a r e much i n common w i t h e a c h o t h e r a s w e l l a s w i t h s t u d e n t s l o c a t e d i n t h e l a r g e r s y s t e m . S t u d e n t s i n a l t e r n a t i v e s c h o o l s m u s t s a t i s f y t h e same c o r e c u r r i c u l u m a n d g r a d u a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s a s t h o s e who a t t e n d a r e g u l a r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l . T h e y m u s t a l s o w r i t e t h e same p r o v i n c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n s i n a p p r o p r i a t e s u b j e c t a r e a s . R u t t e r ( 1 9 8 8 ) d i s c u s s e d t h e u n d e r l y i n g c o m m o n a l i t i e s a l l s t u d e n t s s h a r e : t h e n e e d f o r g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p , t h e n e e d f o r p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a d u l t s , t h e n e e d t o a c q u i r e s k i l l s a n d k n o w l e d g e , a n d t h e n e e d t o d e v e l o p a s e n s e o f c o m p e t e n c e . W h i l e s t u d e n t s i n a l t e r n a t i v e s c h o o l s s h a r e t h e s e same n e e d s , t h e y a l s o s h a r e i n common t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e n e e d s w e r e n o t b e i n g me t f o r t h e m i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e l a r g e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y how t h e s e n e e d s a r e me t f o r s t u d e n t s i n t h e 3 alternative school environment. It has been suggested that al t e r n a t i v e schools are superior i n meeting student needs than the conventional high schools (Rutter, 1988; Smith, Gregory & Pugh, 1981). This study w i l l examine the role of mattering (Amundson, 1993; Rosenberg & McCullough, 1981; Schlossberg, 1989) i n alternative school environments. The primary question for t h i s research i s as follows: Is there a r e l a t i o n s h i p between mattering and how students report t h e i r needs being met i n al t e r n a t i v e schools? DEFINITION OF TERMS The terms alt e r n a t i v e school and alternate school are interchangeable for the purposes of t h i s study. Drake's (1985) d e f i n i t i o n translates well to t h i s study. He defined alternate schools as, "programs to provide a non - t r a d i t i o n a l school atmosphere for secondary students who wish to complete t h e i r education but are unable to function productively i n t h e i r home school because of behavioral and a t t i t u d i n a l c o n f l i c t s . " Mattering i s a construct proposed by Rosenberg and McCullough (1981). It has been defined by Schlossberg, Lynch and Chickering (1989) as the " b e l i e f s people have, whether right or wrong, that they matter to someone else, that they are the object of someone else's attention, and that others care about them and appreciate them." This i s the d e f i n i t i o n adopted for the purposes of t h i s study. In order to c l e a r l y define the terms used when discussing student needs i n t h i s study, I w i l l borrow d i r e c t l y from Smith, Gregory and Pugh ( 1981) who operationalized Maslow's (1954) 4 hierarchy of needs for use i n the development of the Statements About Schools Inventory ( Smith, 1975; Smith, Gregory & Pugh, 1981). Security needs describe students' need for, " a stable, orderly and controlled environment that minimizes physical and psychological threat and fosters a sense of well - being." S o c i a l needs describe " opportunities for students to est a b l i s h friendships with peers and adults and how schools foster feelings of belonging to a group." Esteem needs describe whether students f e e l capable of being successful and reaching important lev e l s of achievement. F i n a l l y , s e l f a c t u a l i z a t i o n describes how students grow i n personally meaningful and s a t i s f y i n g ways toward the goal of becoming more complete and integrated human beings. SCOPE OF THE STUDY This study examines how the needs of students are met i n alt e r n a t i v e education programs i n Vancouver. Of equal importance i s whether students who attend these programs perceive that they matter to those who provide these programs. Central to the study i s an assumption / hypothesis that there may ex i s t a r e l a t i o n s h i p between mattering and how students report t h e i r needs as being met. Do students who f e e l that they matter also f e e l that t h e i r needs are being met? Conversely, do students who f a i l to graduate from an alternate program f e e l that t h e i r needs were not met or that they f e l t that they did not matter? This thesis w i l l attempt to describe t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i f i t exists by means of survey research. It i s hoped that r e s u l t s from t h i s study w i l l further enhance the l i t e r a t u r e regarding alt e r n a t i v e schools, t h e i r planning, and t h e i r implementation. It 5 i s a l s o h o p e d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s w i l l b e n e f i t a l l s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s a n d c o u n s e l l o r s i n m a i n t a i n i n g s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t s a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t a r e b e n e f i c i a l t o a l l t h o s e who e n t e r s c h o o l s e a c h a n d e v e r y d a y . ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY I t i s a s s u m e d t h a t , i n a l l s c h o o l s , s t u d e n t n e e d s a r e me t i n many d i f f e r e n t w a y s . I t i s a l s o a s s u m e d t h a t many h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s f e e l t h a t t h e y m a t t e r i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e r e g u l a r h i g h s c h o o l . H a v i n g s t a t e d t h i s , i t i s a l s o a s s u m e d t h a t f o r t h o s e s t u d e n t s who d r o p o u t o f s c h o o l o r move i n t o a n a l t e r n a t i v e s y s t e m , t h a t t h e s e n e e d s a r e n o t me t a t a s u f f i c i e n t l e v e l i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r a t t e n d a n c e i n a r e g u l a r s c h o o l , f o r w h a t e v e r r e a s o n . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s n o t t o c o n d e m n t h e v a l u a b l e w o r k p e r f o r m e d b y t e a c h e r s , c o u n s e l l o r s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l s . T h e y a r e c o n s t r a i n e d o n a d a i l y b a s i s b y i n s u f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e s n e e d e d t o c o p e w i t h g r o w t h i n c l a s s s i z e s a n d c a s e l o a d s w h i c h d o n o t a l l o w c o u n s e l l o r s t h e t i m e o r o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c h i e v e a c l o s e n e s s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s t u d e n t s who r e q u i r e t h e i r e x p e r t i s e a n d s u p p o r t . T h i s s t u d y s e e k s o n l y t o d e s c r i b e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t s , s p e c i f i c a l l y a l t e r n a t i v e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t s , w h i c h a r e a b l e t o m e e t s t u d e n t s n e e d s a t h i g h e r l e v e l s . T h i s s t u d y a l s o a s s u m e s t h a t s t u d e n t s who f e e l t h a t t h e y m a t t e r i n t h e i r s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t w i l l r e p o r t t h e i r n e e d s b e i n g met a t a h i g h e r l e v e l t h a n t h o s e s t u d e n t s who e x p e r i e n c e t h e f e e l i n g o f n o t m a t t e r i n g . 6 L I M I T A T I O N S AND D E L I M I T A T I O N S T h i s s t u d y r e l i e s o n s e l f r e p o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o r c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a . W h i l e s u r v e y d a t a c o l l e c t i o n r i s k s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s t r y i n g t o r e s p o n d t o q u e s t i o n s i n a way w h i c h w i l l a p p e a r s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e o r t o p l e a s e t h o s e who a r e c o n d u c t i n g t h e r e s e a r c h , t h e s e r i s k s o f d i s t o r t i o n a r e m a n a g e a b l e . F a r o u t w e i g h i n g t h e s e r i s k s a r e t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h i s same f o r m o f r e s e a r c h . W h a t i s a t t e m p t e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s t o h a v e s t u d e n t s r e p o r t o n t h e i r p r i v a t e t h o u g h t s a n d f e e l i n g s a b o u t t h e s c h o o l s t h a t t h e y a t t e n d . T h e y w i l l b e a b l e t o r e s p o n d t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w h i c h a r e u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t o t h e m a n d w h i c h w i l l p r o v i d e a s a f e o u t l e t f o r t h e r e p o r t i n g o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e a s s t u d e n t s . T h i s m e t h o d h o l d s r e s p e c t f o r t h e c l i e n t a n d t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s s t u d y i s somewha t l i m i t e d b y t h e s a m p l i n g o f s t u d e n t s t o b e s u r v e y e d . The l a c k o f a r a n d o m s a m p l e i s o f f s e t b y t h e s i z e o f s a m p l e t o b e s t u d i e d . One s e n i o r p r o g r a m w i l l b e s u r v e y e d a s w e l l a s a c o r e g r o u p o f f o u r i n t e r m e d i a t e p r o g r a m s l o c a t e d i n d i f f e r i n g p a r t s o f V a n c o u v e r . T h i s w i l l e n c o m p a s s o v e r t h i r t y p e r c e n t o f a l l s t u d e n t s e n r o l e d i n V a n c o u v e r ' s a l t e r n a t e s y s t e m . My b i a s i n s e l e c t i o n o f t h i s t o p i c f o r s t u d y comes f r o m f i f t e e n y e a r s o f w o r k i n g i n V a n c o u v e r ' s a l t e r n a t i v e s c h o o l s . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e I h a v e w o r k e d o n s i t e i n b o t h i n t e r m e d i a t e a n d s e n i o r p r o g r a m s a s a Y o u t h a n d F a m i l y C o u n s e l l o r . H a v i n g e x t e n s i v e k n o w l e d g e o f a l l p r o g r a m s e x i s t i n g w i t h i n t h e d i s t r i c t g i v e s me c o n f i d e n c e t h a t t h e same o p e r a t i v e c o n s t r u c t s a r e a l i v e i n a l l a l t e r n a t e p r o g r a m s a n d t h a t t h i s l i m i t e d s a m p l e c a n b e g e n e r a l i z e d t o a l l p r o g r a m s . T h e Ways o f M a t t e r i n g Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( A m u n d s o n , 1 9 9 3 ) , o n e o f 7 t h e t w o i n s t r u m e n t s t o b e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y , i s s t i l l b e i n g v a l i d a t e d . T h i s s t u d y w i l l b e o n e o f many p r o j e c t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e v a l i d a t i o n o f t h e f o r m . OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY T h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s t o p i c , i n c l u d i n g b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e p r o b l e m , d e f i n i t i o n o f t e r m s , s c o p e o f t h e s t u d y , a s s u m p t i o n s a n d l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y h a s b e e n p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r 1. C h a p t e r 2 w i l l p r o v i d e t h e r e a d e r w i t h a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e w r i t t e n o n a l t e r n a t i v e e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s , a n d t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s t u d e n t s who a t t e n d t h e m . A s w e l l , a n o v e r v i e w o f t h e t w o i n s t r u m e n t s t o b e u s e d i n t h e s t u d y w i l l b e p r o v i d e d a l o n g w i t h a b r i e f r e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h o n m a t t e r i n g . C h a p t e r 3 w i l l f o c u s o n m e t h o d o l o g y o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , t h e s p e c i f i c s r e g a r d i n g t h e s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n t o be s u r v e y e d , r e l i a b i l i t y a n d v a l i d i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s t o b e u s e d , a n d t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h w i l l b e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n my a n a l y s i s . C h a p t e r 4 o f t h e s t u d y o u t l i n e s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d . T h i s i n c l u d e s m e a n s , r e l i a b i l i t y s c o r e s a n d c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e s c a l e s o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s b o t h w i t h i n e a c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s w e l l a s b e t w e e n t h e s c a l e s o f b o t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . C h a p t e r 5 c o n t a i n s t h e c o n c l u s i o n s d r a w n f r o m t h e d a t a a n d s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . T h e a p p e n d i x w i l l i n c l u d e r e f e r e n c e s , l e t t e r s u s e d f o r p a r e n t a l c o n s e n t a n d p a r t i c i p a n t i n t r o d u c t i o n a s w e l l a s c o p i e s o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t w e r e u s e d i n t h e s t u d y . 8 CHAPTER 2. L I T E R A T U R E REVIEW INTRODUCTION T h i s s t u d y s e e k s t o p r o v i d e t h e r e a d e r w i t h i n s i g h t i n t o f o u r m a i n a r e a s : 1) t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a l t e r n a t i v e s c h o o l s i n V a n c o u v e r . 2) how s t u d e n t s r e p o r t t h e i r n e e d s b e i n g m e t w h i l e a t t e n d i n g t h e s e p r o g r a m s . 3) w h e t h e r s t u d e n t s r e p o r t t h a t t h e y f e e l t h a t t h e y m a t t e r t o t h o s e w i t h whom t h e y s p e n d t h e i r s c h o o l d a y s . 4) w h e t h e r t h e r e e x i s t s a n i d e n t i f i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n m a t t e r i n g a n d s t u d e n t p e r c e p t i o n s o f n e e d f u l f i l m e n t . T h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w w i l l c o v e r e a c h o f t h e s e a r e a s e x t e n s i v e l y . O t h e r r e l a t e d t o p i c s w i l l a l s o b e o u t l i n e d a n d b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d . C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S OF THE PROGRAMS T h e p r i m a r y m o t i v e f o r t h i s s t u d y i s t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e d a t a w h i c h d e s c r i b e t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e many a l t e r n a t e p r o g r a m s w h i c h s e r v e s t u d e n t s i n V a n c o u v e r . T h e r e p r e s e n t l y e x i s t s a v o i d i n t h i s a r e a o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e . I h a v e , a s was p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , w o r k e d i n t h e s e p r o g r a m s f o r f i f t e e n y e a r s . W h i l e p e r f o r m i n g my d u t i e s o v e r t h e y e a r s , I h a v e h a d c o u n t l e s s d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h r e g u l a r s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s , t e a c h e r s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a b o u t how a l t e r n a t i v e s c h o o l s w o r k , w h i c h s t u d e n t s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e c a n d i d a t e s f o r a l t e r n a t e s c h o o l s , a n d a b o u t w h a t m a k e s a l t e r n a t i v e s c h o o l s u n i q u e i n how we a d d r e s s s t u d e n t n e e d s . Many o f t h e p r o g r a m s h a v e g e n e r a t e d h a n d o u t s f o r d i s s e m i n a t i o n t o s t u d e n t s who may b e n e f i t f r o m a t t e n d a n c e i n a n a l t e r n a t i v e s c h o o l . 9 The school d i s t r i c t has compiled manuals of program descriptions for d i s t r i b u t i o n .to school counsellors to provide assistance to counsellors i n r e f e r r a l of students who are at r i s k of dropping out or being asked to leave a regular school for exhibition of problematic behaviours. The p r o v i n c i a l Ministry of Education mandates that a l l programs i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia undergo rigorous program evaluation as part of the accreditation process. However, alternative education programs are commonly included i n these program evaluations as mere s a t e l l i t e programs of the large school, and as such only b r i e f program descriptions, statements of goals and outcomes are included i n these reports. During the period that I have worked i n these programs, which began i n 1980, there has been no substantial research done on alt e r n a t i v e schools i n Vancouver. The core questions of t h i s research study have been i n development for about f i v e years at the time of t h i s w r i t i n g . In 1989, I began gathering information about students who attend Total Education school, a senior secondary alternative program i n Vancouver. This was i n response to a request for creation of a new counselling position at the school to enable counselling s t a f f to more adequately meet the needs of the students who were attending at the time. Not su r p r i s i n g l y , the questions began to a r i s e : What are the needs of t h i s population which we are t r y i n g to meet? How are we meeting them and how can we better meet these needs? During t h i s developmental period, I gathered basic demographic data which described the student population who attended the school. In 1990, I came upon the Statements About Schools Inventory 10 (Smith, Gregory & Pugh, 1981 ). I began preliminary investigations with t h i s instrument i n order to f a m i l i a r i z e myself with i t and to begin t r y i n g to determine whether t h i s instrument held hope for id e n t i f y i n g how Total Education met student needs, and to t r y and ascertain ways of further enhancing our program. Early data c o l l e c t e d , while not subjected to rigorous s t a t i s t i c a l analysis, was put forth i n t e r n a l l y and subsequent changes were implemented to s p e c i f i c a l l y enhance the s o c i a l atmosphere of the school. Details of t h i s instrument w i l l be l a i d out i n f u l l l a t e r i n t h i s chapter. As I entered graduate school, determined to study and report on the phenomenon of alternative education, I was aware that there was s t i l l a piece of the puzzle missing. There exists something i n alter n a t i v e schools that a s s i s t s students i n f e e l i n g that t h e i r needs are being met. Over the years, alternative educators have talked of the smaller class sizes, about a 'humanistic' approach to working with students. We pride ourselves on r e l a t i n g to students on a f i r s t name basis. What I suspect that we have been t r y i n g to describe i s that students who attend alternative schools matter. It matters whether they ar r i v e on time i n the morning. It matters that they acquire the basic s k i l l s necessary to move forward as i n d i v i d u a l s . It matters i f they are upset or f e e l j o y f u l . Having students f e e l that they are succeeding matters. It i s t h i s elusive construct of mattering that I hypothesize exists i n r e l a t i o n to how students f e e l that t h e i r needs are being met i n alternative schools. Characteristics of Students Entering Alternate Schools Describing the students who enter al t e r n a t i v e education programs can be a complex and elusive task. There are often a 11 number of factors involved i n a student's decision to leave the regular system. These may operate independently of each other or i n tandem with other s i t u a t i o n a l variables i n operation at the time. What these students share i n common i s that they consider alternate schools when t h e i r present school placement i s i n jeopardy for whatever reason, they have been asked to withdraw from school, or that they have decided that attendance i n a regular school program has become untenable for them. Often one of the f i r s t signals that a student i s experiencing d i f f i c u l t y i n a regular program i s a drop i n school attendance or a change of school behaviours. (Barr, 1981; Drake, 1985; Rutter, 1988) Sudden changes i n attendance or behaviour are often, l i k e a weather vane, the f i r s t indicators that other l i f e stresses may be coming into play for the student. Rutter (1988) noted that often students are affected by, " the sense of i s o l a t i o n that some students f e e l i n large impersonal i n s t i t u t i o n s . Students cannot s h i e l d t h e i r academic performance from the pressures of outside influences or l i f e circumstances." Students surveyed at Total Education i n the past have reported that between 75 - 85% of them had attendance problems i n the regular schools. These figures are derived from surveys conducted by myself on the worksite i n three d i f f e r e n t years commencing i n 1989. Other information which w i l l be described i n t h i s section related to Total Education students was also derived from t h i s early survey research. In her study of high school dropouts and t h e i r experience of i n v a l i d a t i o n i n high schools, Thomson (1992) outlined a number of personality and s o c i a l aspects of students experiencing d i f f i c u l t y i n a regular high school and at r i s k of dropping out. She included, 12 " low s e l f esteem and s e l f confidence, low l e v e l s of s o c i a l competence / involvement, an external locus of control, a lack of a b i l i t y to defer g r a t i f i c a t i o n , more l i k e l y to have been l a b e l l e d a behaviour problem, more l i k e l y to have friends who have dropped out, and more l i k e l y to work more than f i f t e e n hours per week." (pg. 15) This most thorough l i s t also f i t t i n g l y describes students whose feelings of i s o l a t i o n and i n v a l i d a t i o n lead them into eventual enrolment i n alternative schools. Information gathered at Total Education indicate that 55 - 65% of students report having f e l t i s o l a t e d i n the regular schools. Barr (1981) reported that smaller class sizes and a more caring and competent teaching s t a f f which exist i n most alt e r n a t i v e schools helps to reduce student feelings of i s o l a t i o n and aggressive behaviour. The s p i r a l downward of performance was aptly described by Thomson (1992). Afte r f i f t e e n years of working with students who have s p i r a l l e d out of the regular school system, I could not put forward a more accurate and descriptive picture than she painted of the students who drop out of school and who a r r i v e i n a l t e r n a t i v e programs seeking placement on a d a i l y basis. The influence of outside factors and l i f e circumstances that Rutter (1988) described are instrumental i n the development of t h i s s p i r a l . A t y p i c a l case may develop as follows: A student i s beginning to show declines i n attendance and academic performance. While noted by i n d i v i d u a l teachers, information i s shared only on reports which are sent home. A declining report card erodes the students' s e l f confidence. However, factors that contribute to t h i s decline are often not i d e n t i f i e d and the student i s l e f t to his / her own devices to r e c t i f y t h i s s i t u a t i o n . F a l l i n g behind i n work 13 often r e s u l t s i n a student having d i f f i c u l t y with concepts presented i n the classroom i n ensuing lectures, thereby eroding the student's s e l f esteem and s e l f confidence further. This often res u l t s i n a student beginning to f e e l hopeless and these feelings are often acted out through skipping classes and giving up on attempting to complete the work assigned to them. Thomson ( 1992) notes that t y p i c a l l y a sense of al i e n a t i o n sets i n and that students no longer recognize the school as a place where," they f e e l valued and that teachers and peers are not a source of v a l i d a t i o n , support and encouragement." (Pg. 16) This c l a s s i c case i s t y p i c a l l y dealt with at the termination of a student's time i n a regular school. By the time that the regular school counsellor becomes a c t i v e l y involved the student has t y p i c a l l y suffered massive blows to t h e i r s e l f esteem and perception of themselves as students. At t h i s stage the student and / or the school are r a r e l y able or w i l l i n g to undertake remediation of the problems which have arisen. This i s often the point where r e f e r r a l to an al t e r n a t i v e school i s put forward. Thomson ( 1992) accurately placed the blame for the lack of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of these students on society and the educational systems, and not on the i n d i v i d u a l students. Society must value the provision of resources to educators and t h i s must be translated into action by l e g i s l a t o r s who are w i l l i n g to ensure that schools can more adequately meet the needs of t h e i r students. Students who transfer into the alternative schools often experience a general r i s e i n t h e i r feelings of s e l f - esteem. It has been suggested that smaller class size ( Barr, 1981; Drake, 1985) contributes to t h i s r i s e i n s e l f esteem. Group membership and 14 feelings of i n c l u s i o n were discussed by Rutter (1988). Drake (1985) cautions about the t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y of gains i n s e l f esteem, work habits and attendance from the alternate school to society at large. In contrast to the picture of a lack of structure painted by Drake (1985), Woudzia (1989) examined the relationships between student perceptions and teacher organization i n seven alternate schools i n the Fraser Valley of B.C. He reported student desire for task structure and structured c u r r i c u l a as desirable i n developing cohesiveness and students s a t i s f a c t i o n i n these alternate schools. I r o n i c a l l y , he reports that while i n f l e x i b i l i t y of the large school was often c i t e d as an i n i t i a l source of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , students surveyed reported structure i n t h e i r school experience as being important for them. This i s r e f l e c t i v e of the Vancouver experience as well. While the approach i s d i f f e r e n t i n alternative schools, uni v e r s a l l y they provide students with structured c u r r i c u l a and course content which meet the guidelines as outlined by the p r o v i n c i a l government. A unique but c r u c i a l factor often comes int o play for students entering alternate schools: free choice. Many students experiencing d i f f i c u l t y i n the regular schools a r r i v e on the doorstop of alt e r n a t i v e schools by word of mouth r e f e r r a l through friends or family. These students, often aware of t h e i r growing d i f f i c u l t i e s , choose to opt out of the regular schools by choice. This has been noted by Barr (1981) and has been c i t e d as a profound change i n perspective by Smith and his colleagues (Smith, Gregory & Pugh, 1981). The Vancouver alternative system o f f e r s p o t e n t i a l students many programs which they can consider while providing a l t e r n a t i v e program s t a f f the opportunity to place students i n 15 t h e i r programs on the basis of mutual s u i t a b i l i t y wherever possible. Other areas which w i l l be explored i n more d e t a i l but have only been eluded to i n t h i s preliminary l i t e r a t u r e review which outline the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of students who attend a l t e r n a t i v e schools are: - school related factors such as a history of academic f a i l u r e and academic f r u s t r a t i o n . - the lack of meaning and relevancy of curriculum to the world outside. - personal and family issues reported by the students who attend alternative schools. These include marital d i s i n t e g r a t i o n and surv i v a l i n a single parent home, personal or f a m i l i a l alcohol or drug dependency, physical, verbal and/or sexual abuse, family dysfunction as a r e s u l t of psychological/ p s y c h i a t r i c disorders, and a factor which increasingly a f f e c t s students at the basic l e v e l of survival - poverty. Mattering The development of the construct of mattering began at the University of Maryland with the work of Morris Rosenberg and B. C l a i r e McCullough (1979). Their f i r s t published study on the subject was t i t l e d Mattering: Inferred Significance and Mental Health among Adolescents ( Rosenberg & McCullough, 1981). Using Sullivan's (1947, 1953) term " s i g n i f i c a n t others" they postulated we at t r i b u t e more meaning to the views of c e r t a i n others who are viewed as s i g n i f i c a n t to us. They examined the obverse: the degree that we f e e l that we matter to others. 16 Mattering involves the conviction and the f e e l i n g that we: a) are the object of someone's attention. We f e e l that we are noticed or acknowledged. b) that we are important to that person. They care about our desires, wishes and actions. c) that someone i s dependent on us. People r e l y on our contributions, actions or ideas. d) we are an ego - extension of another. How well we do i s seen as an extension of the other, such as parental pride. Rosenberg and McCullough's (1981) early work with the Baltimore Parental Mattering Index was a t h e o r e t i c a l r e p l i c a t i o n study examining the same propositions across diverse samples using diverse indicators of the same concepts. The r e s u l t s showed c l e a r p o s i t i v e relationships between parental mattering and global measures of s e l f esteem. Adolescents that f e l t that they mattered l i t t l e to t h e i r parents were more l i k e l y to be depressed , anxious or otherwise emotionally disturbed. Small differences were reported r e l a t i n g mattering to s o c i a l c l a s s : there was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p to s i b l i n g structure or r e l i g i o n . A strong empirical rel a t i o n s h i p was established between parental significance and parental mattering. Mattering was also established as a two - way obl i g a t i o n . Whiting (1982) examined mattering and the adolescents' s o c i a l world. She sought to r e p l i c a t e the work of Rosenberg and McCullough (1979) r e l a t i n g mattering to parents as well as to compare these res u l t s with other sources of mattering such as teachers, friends, s i b l i n g s and global feelings of mattering. She examined outcome variables such as s e l f esteem, s e l f concept of school a b i l i t y , 17 depression and rebe l l i o u s behaviour at school. She found that perceptions of mattering to a l l sources except s i b l i n g s do a f f e c t at least one of the outcome variables as l i s t e d above at a commonly accepted significance l e v e l , (p < .05). She stated that these re s u l t s " not only i l l u s t r a t e the compelling nature of the mattering motive, but they also lend support to the basic t h e o r e t i c a l premise of t h i s study: the close l i n k between Self and Other.) (p. 178) She also found that mattering variables generally a f f e c t the outcome variable i n the predicted d i r e c t i o n , corresponding most frequently with high s e l f esteem and s e l f concept of school a b i l i t y , low depression and low re b e l l i o u s behaviour i n school. However, her predicted e f f e c t s of s p e c i f i c mattering variables such as to teachers, friends and s i b l i n g s were weak and only sporadically present. Other findings pertinent to my project were that parental mattering exhibited the strongest and most consistent impact on outcome variables and that mattering to teachers exerted i t s ' major impact on the s e l f concept of school a b i l i t y and not on other variables. Whiting's (1982) sample was primarily composed of tenth grade boys i n 'regular' schools i n the U.S. Drake (1985) reported that schools r e f l e c t the goals of society and parents i n t h e i r attitudes toward success, competition and achievement. Many students become marginalized should they have d i f f i c u l t y achieving these goals. He suggests that these students may perceive themselves, or be perceived by others, as lo s e r s . The significance of peer and teacher relationships to students cannot be understated. Schlossberg (1989) examined marginality and mattering at the college l e v e l . She discussed the fact that people 18 i n t r a n s i t i o n often f e e l marginalized. Studying learners i n a non - t r a d i t i o n a l college program, she found that many adult learners f e l t that they mattered to an advisor or to the i n s t i t u t i o n they attended and were engaged i n t h e i r learning as a r e s u l t . As a re s u l t , Schlossberg (1989) suggested that i n s t i t u t i o n s focus on creating environments where a l l students f e e l that they matter and w i l l desire to become involved. Students who attend alternative education programs have c e r t a i n l y been marginalized i n the educational system. They matter to t h e i r parents, to t h e i r peers, and to those who work with them i n the schools. Which leads to the question: Does mattering have a relati o n s h i p with a school's meeting of t h e i r needs? Mattering w i l l be measured using the Ways Of Mattering Questionnaire: Group and Individual Forms ( Amundson, 1993) Details on t h i s form w i l l be provided i n the methods chapter. The Statements About Schools Inventory The Statements About Schools Inventory (S.A.S, Smith, Gregory & Pugh, 1981) was developed to measure the extent to which high schools meet the needs of t h e i r students for a safe stable environment, for interpersonal relationships, for success and achievement, and for personal growth. The instrument was designed over a six year period to measure the operative values at work i n both conventional and alt e r n a t i v e schools. Grounded i n theory to Maslow's (1954) needs hierarchy, the instrument was tested , re-written and re-tested during t h i s period to es t a b l i s h r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y estimates. The f i n a l document 19 was presented i n 1981. Details regarding the technical information on the S.A.S. w i l l be outlined i n the chapter on methodology. Four scales have been developed for the S.A.S.: 1) Security scale - measures the needs of students for a safe, stable environment. 2) Social scale - measures whether schools meet student's needs for interpersonal rela t i o n s h i p s . 3) Esteem scale - measures whether schools meet students needs for success and achievement. 4) Self A c t u a l i z a t i o n scale - measures whether schools meets the needs for students' personal growth. Smith et a l . (1981) studied student needs by administering the S.A.S. i n six conventional high schools and seven alt e r n a t i v e schools i n four d i f f e r e n t states. The res u l t s of the study were dramatic. Both conventional high schools scored equally on meeting student security needs. However, alternative schools were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more successful than the conventional schools i n meeting the s o c i a l , esteem and s e l f a c t u a l i z a t i o n needs. School sizes, strength or weakness of any of the schools studied, and other possible variables were ruled out as influences to the r e s u l t s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study, the l i t e r a t u r e on al t e r n a t i v e schools, combined with the data that I had c o l l e c t e d on s i t e at Total Education regarding the student population provided the impetus for t h i s study. I have therefore developed the following hypotheses. They are: 20 HI: That there w i l l e x i s t no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between mattering and security and s o c i a l needs on the S.A.S. - actual school form. H2: That there w i l l e x i s t a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between mattering scores and student needs measured by the scores on the esteem and s e l f a c t u a l i z a t i o n scales of the S.A.S.- actual school form. H3: That the same relationships l i s t e d i n HI and H2 w i l l e x i s t i n the comparisons regarding the i d e a l school form of the 2 • .A • 2 • HO: That there w i l l no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between mattering scores and scores on the S.A.S. 21 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Introduction This study was designed as an explorative study to t r y and establ i s h a relat i o n s h i p between mattering and the meeting of students needs i n alte r n a t i v e schools. Data was gathered using two instruments: The Statements About Schools Inventory ( Smith, Gregory & Pugh, 1981) and The Ways Of Mattering Questionnaire ( Amundson, 1993). This chapter w i l l outline the d e t a i l s about the population, participants, the instruments, data gathering procedures and methods of analysis. Population and Participants The population from which the sample was drawn i s limi t e d to students presently enroled i n alt e r n a t i v e schools i n Vancouver. Students who attend one senior alternative program, Total Education, were surveyed (n=71). This comprises approximately 40% of students enroled i n senior programs i n the d i s t r i c t . A si m i l a r number of students were surveyed i n various programs described as intermediate programs. Senior programs serve students i n grades 11 and 12. The student applicants for admission are screened through an intake process. They share i n common appropriate reading l e v e l s to the entry grade, completion of grade 10, age to grade l e v e l appropriateness and an expressed desire to achieve high school graduation. Total Education i s a d i s t r i c t - wide resource, and as such, enters students from a l l geographic areas of the c i t y , a l l groups i n the socioeconomic stra t a , with attention given to inc l u s i o n of 22 s t u d e n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g m i n o r i t y g r o u p s i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n . R e f e r r a l s a r e r e c e i v e d f r o m a l l r e g u l a r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i n t h e c i t y a s w e l l a s f r o m t h e s y s t e m o f i n t e r m e d i a t e a l t e r n a t i v e p r o g r a m s i n e x i s t e n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e d i s t r i c t . A l l s t u d e n t s m u s t m e e t t h e same r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r g r a d u a t i o n a s w o u l d a n y s t u d e n t a t t e n d i n g a n y s c h o o l i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e i n t e r m e d i a t e p r o g r a m s t h a t w e r e s u r v e y e d s e r v e s t u d e n t s i n t h e g r a d e 9 a n d 10 y e a r s ( n = 6 3 ) . S t u d e n t s e n t e r i n g t h e s e p r o g r a m s a r e s c r e e n e d b y t h e s t a f f w o r k i n g i n t h e p r o g r a m . A t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o p l a c e m e n t o f s t u d e n t s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l . W h i l e s t u d e n t s i n t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e p r o g r a m s s h a r e many common t r a i t s r e g a r d i n g s k i l l l e v e l s , a g e t o g r a d e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s , r e a s o n s f o r e n t r y i n t o a l t e r n a t i v e e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s a n d m e e t i n g g r a d e t e n r e q u i r e m e n t s , t h e r e a r e l o c a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f some c u r r i c u l a w h i c h r e f l e c t t h e u n i q u e n e s s o f t h e p r o g r a m p h i l o s o p h y o r s t a f f p r e f e r e n c e i n a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s c u r r i c u l a . E x a m p l e s w o u l d b e i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e i n c l u s i o n i n t o t o p r o g r a m w o r k p l a c e m e n t s , o u t d o o r e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s , o r a c o m m i t m e n t t o v o l u n t a r y s e r v i c e . T h e s e l o c a l d i f f e r e n c e s c a n a t t i m e s a c t a s a g e n t s o f a t t r a c t i o n f o r c e r t a i n s t u d e n t s i n s e e k i n g a l t e r n a t i v e p l a c e m e n t . A s i d e f r o m t h e s e l o c a l d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s i n i n t e r m e d i a t e p r o g r a m s i s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y h o m o g e n o u s . D a t a C o l l e c t i o n T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o e x a m i n e t h e r e p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c e o f s t u d e n t s who a r e a t t e n d i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s c h o o l p r o g r a m s . T h e f o c u s i s o n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s o f b o t h m a t t e r i n g a n d how t h e i r n e e d s a r e b e i n g m e t i n t h e s e p r o g r a m s . 23 Therefore, they were surveyed using two instruments t a i l o r e d to the measurements of these constructs: The Statements About Schools Inventory (Smith, Gregory & Pugh, 1981) and The Ways Of Mattering Questionnaire ( Amundson, 1993). Data was c o l l e c t e d i n a group setting, with no group numbering more than twenty. Due to the on - s i t e nature of t h i s research, proper p r i o r consent was secured f o r each pa r t i c i p a n t . Students who chose not to p a r t i c i p a t e were offered alternative a c t i v i t i e s . The Questionnaires The S.A.S. comprises two parts. Both sections of the S.A.S. ask respondents to respond to value statements which are translated into the four scales of needs being measured on both parts of the questionnaire: security, s o c i a l , esteem, and s e l f a c t u a l i z a t i o n . Part 1 asks students to respond to 44 value statements r e l a t i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y to the actual school that they attend. Four statements are included i n t h i s section are repeat statements as a check on how conscientiously the respondent i s responding. Respondents are eliminated should they not meet pre - set guidelines on these items. Each statement i s responded to on a f i v e point L i k e r t scale. Part 2 asks the respondent to provide a picture of how they view t h e i r concept of an ' i d e a l ' school, responding to fo r t y s i m i l a r value statements. Two scores are derived from data c o l l e c t e d . They are a Needs Sa t i s f a c t i o n (Actual) score, a Needs S a t i s f a c t i o n (Ideal) score. R e l i a b i l i t y estimates were obtained for the S.A.S. using the 24 school as a unit of analysis. Estimates of r e l i a b i l i t y of the S.A.S. scales ( Cronbach alphas) ranged from .88 to .98 for the students' actual school c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and from .92 to .98 for t h e i r i d e a l school c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . For teachers, estimates were from .87 to .97 (actual) and .80 to .96 ( i d e a l ) . The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n matrix showed that, with the exception of the security scale which bears a near zero rel a t i o n s h i p to the other scales , a l l other scales were highly correlated ( r's = .92 to .96). Concurrent v a l i d i t y was established with The Quality of School L i f e questionnaire ( Epstein & McPartland, 1976) Three of the four scales of the S.A.S. ( S o c i a l , Esteem and Self Actualization) showed high p o s i t i v e correlations with the three subscales of the Q.S.L. the correlations ranged from .63 (between esteem and satis f a c t i o n ) to .95 (between esteem and both s o c i a l , and reactions to teachers). Six of the nine correlations were i n the .90 range. The security scale r e f l e c t e d low correlations with the Q.S.L. measures. With the exception of security, a l l correlations were s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l or greater. The Ways Of Mattering Questionnaire The Ways of Mattering Questionnaire ( Amundson, 1993) i s also composed as a two form questionnaire. The group and i n d i v i d u a l forms ask respondents to rate t h e i r reactions to twenty statements worded i d e n t i c a l l y . The responses are rated on a f i v e point L i k e r t scale as to whether the i n d i v i d u a l or group that they are considering make them f e e l important or that they matter. The questionnaire has four sub - scales: attention, importance, dependence, and ego - extension. Each sub - scale i s 25 t o t a l l e d and a sum of these scales becomes the o v e r a l l score. The group form was employed for t h i s study. Respondents considered two groups: the adults i n t h e i r school and the other students i n t h e i r school. At proposal time, v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y ratings on t h i s questionnaire were not available. This study i s part of the v a l i d a t i o n process. As well, another study i s presently underway to address these concerns ( Berg, University of Saskatchewan, i n progress). However, mattering has been previously operationalized i n the past i n the Baltimore Parental Mattering Index ( Rosenberg & McCullough, 1981) and i n the Mattering Scale for Adults i n Higher Education ( Schlossberg, Lasalle & Golec, 1988). It i s hoped that t h i s project w i l l further the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g to mattering i n d i f f e r i n g contexts. DATA ANALYSIS The goal of t h i s study i s to examine whether a r e l a t i o n s h i p between mattering and the meeting of student needs e x i s t s . Analysis of the rel a t i o n s h i p of scores between the two instruments as well as the sub - scales of both questionnaires w i l l be done. This w i l l permit an examination of r e l a t i o n s h i p between meeting student needs and perceived mattering. Concerns regarding g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y from a non random sample should be overcome by the fact that between twenty and t h i r t y percent of the t o t a l population available w i l l be surveyed. The complete analysis of the data was completed i n six stages. Once a l l questionnaires were completed, a l l were examined i n a check for consistency of responses as established for the S.A.S. by 26 Smith, Gregory and Pugh (1981). Those questionnaires which showed inconsistency or incompletion were discarded. The Ways of Mattering ( Amundson, 1993) responses were then transferred from the o r i g i n a l forms to a computerized bubble sheet containing the S.A.S. ( Smith, Gregory & Pugh, 1981) data for ease of scoring through the use of scanning technology. Upon completion of the scanning and creation of data f i l e s , means were measured for a l l scales of both instruments, r e l i a b i l i t y estimates were run for the Ways of Mattering questionnaire ( Amundson, 1993), and correlations were run on a l l sub - scales of both instruments used i n the study. 27 CHAPTER IV THE RESULTS Bio - demographic Information At the completion of the data gathering phase of the study, I had c o l l e c t e d data at f i v e a lternative programs i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. Geographically, students from a l l areas of the c i t y were represented, either by attendance i n t h e i r program located i n t h e i r general neighbourhood of residence, or by attending a program regarded as a d i s t r i c t - wide program which accepts students who reside within any geographical area of the school d i s t r i c t . I f e l t that the sample for t h i s study should be representative of the d i s t r i c t as a whole, and thus be represented by students from a l l parts of the d i s t r i c t who attend a l t e r n a t i v e schools. This accounted for differences r e f l e c t e d i n the population and makeup of the school d i s t r i c t as a whole. Questionnaires were completed by 136 students i n f i v e school programs. Two questionnaires had to be discarded a f t e r checking for inconsistency of response. Of those which remained active for study, 73 of 134 (54%) were completed by male students and 61 of 134 (46%) were completed by female students. The students who completed the questionnaires varied i n grade l e v e l from the ninth to the twelfth grade. Those i n the eleventh or twelfth grade numbered 71 of 134 (53%), while those i n grades nine and ten numbered 63 of 134 (47%). Statements About Schools Inventory Results The S.A.S. ( Smith, Gregory & Pugh, 1981) i s comprised of two forms. The f i r s t measures how students report t h e i r needs being met 28 i n the actual school that they attend. The second form asks students to envision an " i d e a l " school and to report how that school would meet t h e i r needs. Each of the forms i s comprised of four scales measuring security, s o c i a l , esteem and s e l f a c t u a l i z a t i o n needs. Table 1 presents the mean S.A.S. scores as reported by students i n a l l programs studied. The mean scores exhibit the r e l a t i v e s a t i s f a c t i o n of student needs i n al t e r n a t i v e schools i n Vancouver compared to the v i s i o n of an " i d e a l " school as reported by students surveyed i n these programs. Table 1. Mean Scores of S.A.S. Inventory Seal Actual School Results es S.A.S. Scale Mean Security 35.5746 Social 37.7939 Esteem 38.1053 S e l f - A ctualization 38.6642 Ideal School Results S.A.S. Scale Mean Security 37.2205 Soc i a l 42.6587 Esteem 44.8750 Se l f - A c t u a l i z a t i o n 44.3701 * S.D.= Standard Deviation S.D. 5.9563 6.1102 6.1067 6.1375 S.D. 5.6651 5.9628 5.7274 6.0734 Cases 134 131 133 134 Cases 127 126 128 127 Ways of Mattering Questionnaire Results The Ways of Mattering Questionnaire ( Amundson, 1993) i s comprised of twenty questions which ask respondents to consider an in d i v i d u a l or group and to report whether they f e e l that they matter to that i n d i v i d u a l or group of people. The instrument has four scales: attention, dependence, ego-extension, and importance. The students surveyed for t h i s study completed two group forms of 29 t h i s instrument. The f i r s t form completed asked students to report t h e i r perceptions of mattering i n r e l a t i o n to the adults i n t h e i r school. The second form asked the students to report on mattering within the school i n r e l a t i o n to whether they f e e l that they matter to the other students i n t h e i r school. Table 2 summarizes the means as reported by students from a l l programs surveyed. Table 2; Mean Scores of the Ways of Mattering Questionnaire Mattering to Adults W.O.M. Scale Mean S.D. Cases Attention 18.2015 3.6228 Dependence 16.6716 3.3036 Ego- Extension 18.0602 3.6820 Importance 18.2463 3.6179 Mattering to Other Students W.O.M. Scale Mean S.D. Attention 16.8346 4.7855 Dependence 15.6693 4.7544 Ego-Extension 14.8740 4.9087 Importance 15.6850 4.4378 *S.D.= Standard Deviation 134 134 133 134 Cases 127 127 127 127 R e l i a b i l i t y Analysis of the Ways of Mattering Scales One purpose of t h i s study i s to as s i s t i n the v a l i d a t i o n process of the Ways of Mattering Questionnaire ( Amundson, 1993). My motivation l i e s i n my hypotheses that the mattering motive exists i n alternative schools and i s related to how students report t h e i r needs as being met at school. Smith and his colleagues (1981) spent a number of years i n establishment of the S.A.S. as a v a l i d and r e l i a b l e instrument to be used i n schools to measure how schools meet student needs. In order to further examine the W.O.M. as an instrument, i t was decided to examine the scales of the 30 instrument to ensure that students were responding to the questions i n consistent and meaningful ways. Table 3 outlines the r e l i a b i l i t y estimates for the Ways of Mattering Scales. Table 3. Alpha R e l i a b i l i t i e s of Ways of Mattering Scales Cronbach's Alpha R e l i a b i l i t y Estimates Mattering to the group of adults at school. Ways of Mattering Scale Cronbach's Alpha Attention .8021 Importance .8123 Dependence .7201 Ego-Extension .8192 Mattering to the group of other students at school Ways of Mattering Scale Cronbach's Alpha Attention .9042 Importance .8952 Dependence .8909 Ego-Extension .9011 A l l of the scales demonstrated adequate l e v e l s of i n t e r n a l consistency and r e l i a b i l i t y . I t can be assumed that students are responding i n a consistent manner to the questions posed i n the instrument. Correlations of the Instruments The f i n a l phase of the data analysis was to calculate the Pearson Product - Moment correlations between the scales of the two instruments. These calculations l i e at the core of t h i s study i n seeking to determine whether there exists a re l a t i o n s h i p between how students who attend school i n alternative programs i n Vancouver report t h e i r needs being met while at school and whether they experience feelings of mattering at school. Tables 4 and 5 present the c o r r e l a t i o n calculations of the scales of the two instruments. 31 Table 4. Pearson Product - Moment Correlations - S.A.S. Scales Sec Seci Soc Soci Est E s t i Act A c t i Sec 1.000 .4528 .6378 .3851 .6645 .3144 .5768 .2287 (134) (125) (130) (124) (132) (126) (133) (126) P= . P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 P=.010 Soc .6378 .2949 1.000 .5154 .7930 .4404 .7621 .3908 (130) (123) (131) (123) (130) (124) (131) (123) P=.000 P=.001 P= . P=.000 P=.000 P=000 P=.000 P=.000 Est .6645 .3455 .7930 .4969 1.000 .4846 .7902 .4308 (132) (124) (130) (124) (133) (127) (132) (124) P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 P= . P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 Act .2899 .5768 .7621 .4094 .7902 .4391 1.000 .3861 (126) (133) (131) (125) (132) (126) (134) (126) P=.001 P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 P= . P=.000 Seci .4528 1.000 .2949 .4573 (125) (127) (123) (124) P=.000 P= . P=.001 P=.000 Soci .3851 .4573 .5154 1.000 (124) (124) (123) (126) P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 P= . E s t i .3144 .3774 .4404 .8196 (126) (125) (124) (125) P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 A c t i .2287 .2268 .3908 .7850 (126) (125) (123) (124) Key: Sec= Actual School Security Needs Soc= Actual School S o c i a l Needs Est= Actual School Esteem Needs Act= Actual School S e l f - A c t u a l i z a t i o n Needs Seci= Ideal School Security Needs Soci= Ideal School S o c i a l Needs Esti= Ideal School Esteem Needs Acti= Ideal School S e l f - A c t u a l i z a t i o n Needs .3455 .3774 .2899 .2268 (124) (125) (126) (125) P=.000 P=.000 P=.001 P=.011 .4969 .8196 .4094 .7850 (124) (125) (125) (124) P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 .4846 1.000 .4391 .8547 (127) (128) (126) (125) P=.000 P= . P=.000 P=.000 .4308 .8547 .3861 1.000 (124) (125) (126) (127) P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 P= . (c o e f f i c i e n t / (cases) 1 2 - t a i l e d significance) 32 A b r i e f analysis shows strong and s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the scales of both the actual school and i d e a l school scores. When comparing the same scale between the two d i f f e r e n t school scores, the relati o n s h i p , while remaining s i g n i f i c a n t , shows correlations low enough to suggest that the scales are indeed measuring d i f f e r e n t aspects of need fu l f i l m e n t at school. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the S.A.S. scores and gender or grade. This supports the o r i g i n a l findings of Smith and his colleagues (1981) regarding concomitant factors i n the r e s u l t s . However, the o r i g i n a l study found a near zero r e l a t i o n s h i p between the security scale and the other scales of the instrument. In t h i s application of the S.A.S., the security scale interacts s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the other scales of the instrument, and with r e l a t i v e strength within the actual and i d e a l school r e s u l t s . In working with a new instrument such as the Ways of Mattering Questionnaire, i t i s important to esta b l i s h c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s for the scales of the new instrument. Table 5 w i l l be broken into three sub - tables for demonstration of the rela t i o n s h i p between the scales of the Ways of Mattering Questionnaire as developed by N.E. Amundson (1993). Table 5A w i l l exhibit the Pearson c o e f f i c i e n t s for the W.O.M. - Adult group r e s u l t s . Table 5b w i l l show the Pearsons f o r the group questionnaire r e l a t i n g perceptions of mattering to the other students. Table 5C w i l l l i s t a l l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of both forms including a l l of the scales of the two forms employed i n t h i s study. 33 Table 5. Pearson Product - Moment Correlations - W.O.M. S c a 1 S R Table 5A. Student Mattering and the Adult Groups Mattering Scale Attention Dependence Ego-Extension Importance Attention 1.0000 (134) P= . .6683 (134) P=.000 Dependence .6683 (134) P=.000 1.0000 (134) P= . Ego-Extension .7941 (133) P=.000 .6352 (133) P=.000 Importance .8222 (134) P=000 .6780 (134) P=.000 .7941 (134) P=.000 .6352 (133) P=.000 1.0000 (133) P= . .7610 (133) P=.000 .8222 (134) P=.000 .6780 (134) P=.000 .7610 (133) P=.000 1.0000 (134) P= . ( c o e f f i c i e n t / (cases) / 2 - t a i l e d s i gnificance ) Table 5B. Student Mattering and the Other Students Group Mattering Scale Attention Dependence Ego-extension Importance Attention Dependence Ego-Extension Importance 1.0000 (127) P= . .8759 (127) P=.000 .8488 (127) P=.000 .8750 (127) P=.000 .8759 (127) P=.000 1.0000 (127) P= . .8504 (127) P=.000 .8798 (127) P=.000 .8488 (127) P=.000 .8504 (127) P=.000 1.0000 (127) P= . .9072 (127) P=.000 .8750 (127) P=.000 .8798 (127) P=.000 .9072 (127) P=.000 1.0000 (127) P= . ( Co e f f i c i e n t / (cases) / 2 - t a i l e d s i gnificance ) 34 Table 5C. Correlations of a l l Scales - W.O.M. Questionnaire W.O.M. Scale Att Atto Dep Depo Ego Egoo Imp Impo Att 1.0000 .2153 .6683 .2408 .7941 .1538 .8222 .2407 (134) (126) (134) (126) (133) (126) (134) (126) P= . P=.015 P=.000 P=.007 P=.000 P=.085 P=.000 P=.007 Atto .2153 1.0000 .2401 .8759 .2119 .8488 .2762 .8750 (126) (127) (126) (127) (125) (127) (126) (127) P=.015 P= . P=.007 P=.000 P=.018 P=.000 P=.002 P=.000 Dep .6683 .2401 1.0000 .2785 .6352 .1575 .6780 .2383 (134) (126) (134) (126) (133) (126) (134) (126) P=.015 P=.007 P= . P=.002 P=.000 P=.078 P=.000 P=.007 Depo .2408 .8759 .2785 1.0000 .2379 .8504 .2745 .8798 (126) (127) (126) (127) (125) (127) (126) (127) P=.007 P=.000 P=.002 P= . P=.008 P=.000 P=.002 P=.000 Ego .7941 .2119 .6352 .2379 1.0000 .0966 .7610 .2345 (133) (125) (133) (125) (133) (125) (133) (125) P=.000 P=.018 P=.000 P=.008 P= . P=.284 P=.000 P=.008 Egoo .1538 .8488 .1575 .8504 .0966 1.0000 .2348 .9072 (126) (127) (126) (127) (125) (127) (126) (127) P=.085 P=.000 P=.078 P=.000 P=.284 P= . P=.008 P=.000 Imp .8222 .2762 .6780 .2745 .7610 .2348 1.0000 .3276 (134) (126) (134) (126) (133) (126) (134) (126) P=.000 P=.002 P=000 P=.002 P=.000 P=.008 P= . P=.000 Impo .2407 .8750 .2383 .8798 .2345 .9072 .3276 1.0000 (126) (127) (126) (127) (125) (127) (126) (127) P=.007 P=.000 P=.007 P=.000 P=.008 P=.000 P=.000 P= . ( c o e f f i c i e n t / (cases) / 2- t a i l e d s i gnificance ) Key: Att= Attention - Adults Dep= Dependence - Adults Ego= Ego-Extension - Adults Imp= Importance - Adults Atto= Attention - Other Students Depo= Dependence - Other Students Egoo= Ego-Extension - Other Students Impo= Importance - Other Students A b r i e f overview of the res u l t s of Table 5A shows strong correlations between the scales of the Ways of Mattering group form r e l a t i n g perceptions of mattering to adults within the school 35 programs studied ( r's .6352 to .8222). The group form r e l a t i n g perceived mattering amongst the student group (Table 5B) produced r's varying from .8488 to .9092. These figures show consistent strong correlations between the scales within each form of the questionnaire. The correlations between both forms are shown i n Table 5C. This table shows weaker but s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t correlations between most of the scales of both forms. This provides evidence that while both forms are measuring a s i m i l a r construct, they are i n fact measuring d i f f e r e n t aspects of the same construct. Further examination of the s t a t i s t i c s shows no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the scales representing the ego - extension scale r e l a t i n g to other students and the attention and dependence scales of the adult form and a weak c o r r e l a t i o n to the ego - extension scale r e l a t i n g to adults i n the schools. F i n a l l y , as was reported regarding the S.A.S., there were no s i g n i f i c a n t relationships between the Ways of Mattering Questionnaire and either gender or grade l e v e l of the students who completed the forms. Relationships between the S.A.S. Scales and the Ways of Mattering Scales The previous pages have presented data r e l a t i n g to both instruments. Presently, an examination of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the scales of both instruments w i l l be undertaken. Table 6 w i l l summarize the relationships between the scales of the S.A.S. and the mattering re s u l t s r e l a t i n g to student reports regarding feelings of mattering to the adults i n the schools that they attend. The data presented i n Table 7 refers to the S.A.S. scales 36 a n d c o r r e l a t i o n s t o t h e m a t t e r i n g r e s u l t s r e l a t i n g t o o t h e r s t u d e n t s . T ^ b j - e 6 - C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e S . A . S . S c a l e s a n d t h e W . O . M - S . A . S . S c a l e A c t u a l S c h o o l Ways o f M a t t e r i n g S c a l e s A t t e n t i o n D e p e n d e n c e I m p o r t a n c e S e c u r i t y S o c i a l E s t e e m S e l f - A c t u a l I d e a l S c h o o l S e c u r i t y S o c i a l E s t e e m S e l f - A c t u a l .4351 (132) P=.000 .5736 (129) P=.000 .6098 (131) P=000 .5735 (132) P=.000 .3140 (126) P=.000 .3125 (125) P=.000 .2602 (127) P=.003 .1919 (126) P=.031 .2537 (132) P=.003 .3923 (129) P=.000 .3910 (131) P=.000 .4255 (132) P=.000 .2524 (126) P=.004 .1865 (125) P=.037 .1107 (127) P=.215 .0690 (126) P=.443 .3883 (132) P=.000 .5599 (129) P=.000 .6275 (131) P=.000 .5571 (132) P=.000 .3174 (126) P=.000 .3287 (125) P=.000 .3120 (127) P=.000 .2459 (126) P=.006 E g o - E x t e n s i o n .4222 (131) P=.000 .5203 (128) P=.000 .5709 (130) P=.000 .5551 (131) P=.000 .2318 (125) P=.009 .2346 (124) P=.009 .1915 (126) P=.032 .1327 (125) P=.140 K e y = S e l f - A c t u a l = S e l f A c t u a l i z a t i o n s c o r e s ( C o e f f i c i e n t / ( C a s e s ) 12- t a i l e d S i g n i f i c a n c e ) 37 A b r i e f examination of the relationships between the S.A.S. actual school r e s u l t s and the W.O.M. - Adult scores reveal moderately strong p o s i t i v e correlations between the scales of the two instruments. Therefore, i t appears c l e a r that students i n these alternative programs i n Vancouver report that t h e i r security, s o c i a l , esteem and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n needs are met i n conjunction with t h e i r responses regarding being the object of the adults attention, feelings of mutual dependence and importance and that they f e e l that they are an mutual extensions of each others egos at school. In a si m i l a r vein, the mattering motive appears to be operant i n the v i s i o n of relationships reported for the i d e a l school s i t u a t i o n . Though the relationships envisioned are somewhat weaker, they are s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t with some exceptions. In t h i s s i t u a t i o n , students report that they w i l l achieve s a t i s f a c t i o n of esteem needs without depending on the adults ( P=.215). The meeting of s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n needs i n the i d e a l school configuration does not correlate to dependence on adults ( P=.443) or requiring mutual extension of each other's egos ( P=.140). When examining Table 7 below, respondents report that other students help meet t h e i r needs at a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l i n t h e i r actual school with the exception of requiring the attention or dependence on other students r e l a t i n g to security needs ( P's=.085 & .061 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . In the i d e a l school configuration, relationships with other students begin to show fewer co r r e l a t i o n s . The respondents report no strong c o r r e l a t i o n to meeting security needs, weak or non - existent r e l a t i o n s h i p i n meeting s o c i a l needs. A stronger, more s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p 38 between meeting esteem and s e l f - ac t u a l i z a t i o n needs was reported. The ego - extension rel a t i o n s h i p on these two scales was non - s i g n i f i c a n t , however. Table 7. Correlations between S.A.S. Scales and W.O.M. Scales - Other Students Scales Ways of Mattering Scale Attention Dependence Importance Ego-Extension S.A.S. Scale Actual School Security .1547 (125) P=.085 .1678 (125) P=.061 . 1367 (125) P=.128 .1369 (125) P=.128 Social .2842 (124) P=.001 .2905 (124) P=.001 .2481 (124) P=.005 .2957 (124) P=.022 Esteem .2849 (125) P=.001 .2685 (125) P=.002 .2883 (125) P=.001 .2257 (125) P=.011 Se l f - Actual .3141 (126) P=.000 .3120 (126) P=.000 .2890 (126) P=.001 .2171 (126) P=.015 39 Table 7. ( continued) Attention Ideal School Security . 1 2 1 4 ( 1 2 0 ) P = . 1 8 6 Dependence Importance Ego-Extension . 1 3 9 3 ( 1 2 0 ) P = . 1 2 9 .1080 (120) P=.240 .1070 (120) P=.245 Social .1806 (120) P=.048 .1642 (120) P=.073 .1523 (120) P=.097 .0806 (120) P=.382 Esteem .2349 (121) P=.010 .2157 (121) P=.017 .2227 (121) P=.014 .1189 (121) P=.194 Self-Actual .2201 (120) P=.016 .1972 (120) P=.031 .2148 (120) P=.018 .1231 (120) P=.180 Key= Self-Actual= Self - Act u a l i z a t i o n scores ( C o e f f i c i e n t / (Cases) 1 2 - t a i l e d Signif icance ) The f i n a l set of c o r r e l a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s which were run were produced to summarize the relationships e x i s t i n g between the Statements About Schools Inventory and the Ways of Mattering 40 Questionnaire. These figures l i e at the core of t h i s study. In order to complete t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n , the res u l t s of the Ways of Mattering Questionnaire were summarized into two sets of scores t i t l e d "Adults" and "Others". Adults once again represents how students reported feelings of mattering to the adults i n t h e i r school. S i m i l a r l y , the Others represent whether students report that they f e e l that they matter to the other students that attend t h e i r school. The res u l t s of these calculations are found i n Table 6 below. Table 8. Summary Pearson Product - Moment Correlations of the scales of the Statements About Schools Inventory and the Ways of Mattering Questionnaire. Ways of Mattering Scales Adult Scales Other Students Scales S.A.S. Scales Actual School Scales Security Social Esteem S e l f - A c t u a l i z a t i o n Ideal School Scales Security S o c i a l .4201 (131) P=.000 .5737 (128) P=.000 .6161 (130) P=.000 .5893 (131) P=.000 .3118 (125) P=.000 .2957 (124) P=.001 .1568 (125) P=.081 .2705 (124) P=.002 .2797 (125) P=.002 .2971 (126) P=.001 .1255 (120) P=.172 .1515 (120) P=.099 41 Table 8. ( continued) Adult Scales Other Student Scales Esteem .2437 .2073 (126) (121) P=.006 P=.023 Sel f - A c t u a l i z a t i o n .1755 .1974 (125) (120) P=.050 P=.031 ( C o e f f i c i e n t / (Cases) 1 2 - t a i l e d s i g n i f i c a n c e ) An examination of the re s u l t s represented i n Table 6 shows a moderately strong p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between scores of the S.A.S. actual school scores and the Ways of Mattering - Adult scales( r's .4201 to .6161). This would indicate that students report a re l a t i o n s h i p between mattering to adults and the meeting of t h e i r needs i n the actual schools which they attend. Mattering to other students shows a weaker c o r r e l a t i o n (r's .2705 to .2971) to meeting student needs i n actual schools and no si g n i f i c a n c e of r e l a t i o n s h i p to meeting of security needs at school( P=.081). Examination of the correlations between the i d e a l school scores and the mattering scores shows a weak to moderate p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between mattering to adults and meeting of student needs i n an i d e a l school configuration( r's .1755 to .3118). In t h i s i d e a l school configuration, students report that mattering to other students and meeting of student needs i s not r e l a t e d regarding security needs ( P=.172) as well as the meeting of s o c i a l needs (P=.099). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between mattering to other students and the meeting of esteem and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n needs, while p o s i t i v e , i s a weak to moderate re l a t i o n s h i p (r's .2437 and .1755) compared to other c o r r e l a t i o n s . 42 Summary of S i g n i f i c a n t Results and Hypotheses Hi: There w i l l e x i s t no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between mattering and security needs on the S.A.S. - actual school form. Result: S i g n i f i c a n t correlations exist r e l a t i n g to adult mattering and security needs( r=.4201). Reject. Relating to mattering to other students, accept( P=.81). H2: That there w i l l e x i s t no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between mattering and security needs - i d e a l school form. Result: S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between adult mattering and security needs i n i d e a l school (r= .3118) Reject. Relating to other student i n i d e a l school, P=.172. Accept. H3: There w i l l exist no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between mattering and the meeting of s o c i a l needs i n either the actual school or i d e a l school scores. Result: Strong p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between s o c i a l needs and mattering to adults (r= .5737) as well as mattering to other students (r= .2705)in actual school. Reject. P o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between mattering to adults and s o c i a l needs i n i d e a l school format( r=,2957). Reject. No s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between s o c i a l needs and mattering to other students i n i d e a l school (P= .099). Accept. H4: That there w i l l e x i s t a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between mattering scores and student esteem need scores i n both actual school and i d e a l school configurations. Result: Strong p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between adult mattering and esteem scores - actual school (r=.6161-adults, r=.2797 - other students). Accept. S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between 43 m a t t e r i n g t o b o t h a d u l t s ( r = . 2 4 3 7 ) a s w e l l a s t o o t h e r s t u d e n t s i n a n i d e a l s c h o o l s e t t i n g (r=.2073). A c c e p t . H5: T h a t t h e r e w i l l e x i s t a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n m a t t e r i n g a n d t h e m e e t i n g o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n n e e d s i n b o t h s c h o o l f o r m a t s . R e s u l t : S i g n i f i c a n t s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n t o a d u l t s (r=.5893) a s w e l l a s o t h e r s t u d e n t s ( r = . 2 9 7 1 ) i n a c t u a l s c h o o l s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n n e e d s . A c c e p t . A c c e p t a b l e c o r r e l a t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h l i n k a g e a t P= .050 l e v e l i n r e l a t i o n t o a d u l t s i n i d e a l s c h o o l s e t t i n g . M o r e s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p r e g a r d i n g m a t t e r i n g t o o t h e r s t u d e n t s ( P = . 0 3 1 ) i n t h i s i d e a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n . A c c e p t . HO: T h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e w i l l n o t e x i s t s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n s t u d e n t s f e e l i n g t h a t t h e y m a t t e r a t s c h o o l a n d w h e t h e r t h e i r n e e d s f o r s e c u r i t y , s o c i a l i t y , e s t e e m o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n a r e b e i n g m e t . R e s u l t : R e j e c t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . S t r o n g p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s e x i s t b e t w e e n m a t t e r i n g a n d t h e m e e t i n g o f s t u d e n t n e e d s i n t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s c h o o l s w h i c h w e r e s t u d i e d d u r i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h . 44 CHAPTER V . CONCLUSIONS Discussion of the r e s u l t s . This study was founded upon the broad goal of attempting to describe and measure the school environments i n existence i n alternative schools i n Vancouver. It i s hoped that i t w i l l make a contribution to the study of al t e r n a t i v e schools, and to the r e l a t i v e l y small core of works r e l a t i n g to the concept of mattering. F i r s t among the conclusions i s that the r e s u l t s establish a firm r e l a t i o n s h i p between student needs as outlined by Maslow (1954) and represented by Smith, Gregory and Pugh (1981) i n the Statements About Schools Inventory and student perceptions of "mattering" to those with whom they spend t h e i r time with each day at school. Smith and his partners (1981), reported on the superiority of alternative schools which they studied i n r e l a t i o n to regular high schools as measured by the S.A.S. They c i t e d "free choice" as the only possible causal l i n k to explain t h i s superiority, f e e l i n g that possible "ownership" accompanied by free choice may account for the differences. This study sought to add to the work done by the developers of the S.A.S. by including another possible variable to explain the differences: the r e c i p r o c a l nature of the mattering motive. This study has firmly established the re l a t i o n s h i p between mattering and how students report t h e i r needs as being met while at school. Second, the r e s u l t s of t h i s study w i l l , hopefully, add to the e x i s t i n g body of knowledge r e l a t i n g to mattering. Some of the hypotheses put forward i n t h i s study were based upon previous work done i n the area of mattering. These w i l l be outlined i n d e t a i l i n 45 t h i s section. F i n a l l y , t h i s study sought to aid i n the development of the Ways of Mattering Questionnaire ( Amundson, 1993) as a v a l i d instrument for examination of mattering as an operating motive i n studying our relationships with other human beings who are s i g n i f i c a n t i n our l i v e s . As outlined above, t h i s study firmly established a strong p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between the majority of scales of the S.A.S. and the Ways of Mattering Questionnaire. During the past f i v e years t h i s author has been seeking an elusive descriptor which a s s i s t s us i n not just describing at what l e v e l we meet student needs i n alternative programs, but what may be an operating factor i n the relationships between students and between students, t h e i r teachers and t h e i r counsellors that aids us i n describing how we meet these needs. When introduced to the concept of mattering , t h i s study came to l i f e and has established a l i n k between meeting student needs i n t h i s specialized school environment and the significance of the other i n school rela t i o n s h i p s . Further to the s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s , i t was hypothesized that there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the security scales of the S.A.S. and mattering scores. Mattering r e l a t i n g to security and the adults i n both the actual school and i d e a l school reports was s i g n i f i c a n t . Security needs were not s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i n g to other students i n either school format. It was predicted that there would not ex i s t any strong linkage between mattering and s o c i a l needs. Whiting (1982), studying a sample of regular high school students i n the U.S.A., found l i t t l e r e l a t i o n between s i b l i n g s , friends and teachers and mattering 46 scores i n her sample. In contrast,this study found p o s i t i v e correlations between s o c i a l needs and mattering to adults i n both actual and i d e a l school formats and between students i n the actual school. In r e l a t i o n to the i d e a l school, t h i s study found that s o c i a l needs and mattering to other students were not related i n the i d e a l school setting. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study r e l a t e to a sample of students who attend alternative schools. Whiting's sample was drawn from a normal school population. Therefore, the d i s p a r i t y between Whiting's (1982) r e s u l t s and those of t h i s study may o f f e r more evidence of the unique relationships which a r i s e and contribute to the success of students i n these al t e r n a t i v e settings who have been previously unsuccessful i n the regular school se t t i n g . This research, coupled with Thomson (1992), further supports the work of Schlossberg (1989) i n r e l a t i o n to student marginalization and the role of community i n the f i e l d of education. It i s cl e a r that administrators should strongly consider t r a i n i n g i n the s e n s i t i z a t i o n of teaching personnel to enhance school communities and to reduce student a l i e n a t i o n i n t h e i r home schools. The strongest correlations found i n t h i s study existed between the esteem scales of the S.A.S. and mattering scores. This r e s u l t supports those found by Rosenberg and McCullough (1981) as well as by Whiting (1982) r e l a t i n g mattering and s e l f - esteem. Feeling that one matters i n s t i l l s adolescents with feelings of si g n i f i c a n c e and importance. These are the fuels which power students to overcome the marginalization which occurred i n t h e i r previous schools and aid them i n the process of s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n and 47 s e l f discovery i n t h e i r present schools of attendance. Other Results of Significance. When o r i g i n a l v a l i d a t i o n work was performed by Smith, Gregory and Pugh during the l a t e 1970's and early 1980's and reported i n 1981, they reported a near zero r e l a t i o n s h i p between the security scale and the other scales of the S.A.S., while other scales correlated very highly with each other. The re s u l t s of t h i s study d i f f e r somewhat from those reported by Smith and his colleagues (1981). The security scale correlates s i g n i f i c a n t l y with a l l scales of the S.A.S. as indicated by the responses from the students i n t h i s sample. The essence of the differences seem d i f f i c u l t to determine. While both samples studied were i n attendance i n alternative schools, the programs studied by Smith, Gregory and Pugh were located i n the midwestern U.S.A. i n the l a t e seventies and early eighties while the sample for t h i s study was drawn from a Canadian group i n the mid - nin e t i e s . As well, t h i s study found corre l a t i o n s , between the scales of the S.A.S. s l i g h t l y lower than those of the o r i g i n a l studies. Suggestions for Further Research. This research project supported the o r i g i n a l hypothesis that there would exi s t a c o r r e l a t i o n between "mattering" i n the alte r n a t i v e school environment and how students i n these settings report t h e i r needs as being met. Need fu l f i l m e n t would therefore be a consequence of the perception of mattering to other people i n school environments. What t h i s study has not established i s a causal l i n k between mattering and how students perform at school. A study which could r e l a t e need fu l f i l m e n t , mattering and academic achievement would 48 further enhance the enquiry into the nature and consequences of mattering. Whiting (1982) suggested that further research i n t h i s area should focus on the determinants of mattering. She suggested t h i s i n r e l a t i o n to the development of a guide to parenting r o l e s . Likewise, further research which i s focused on behavioral patterns i n the classroom and the counselling o f f i c e may aid i n the t r a i n i n g of teachers and counsellors. Having established the r e l a t i o n s h i p between mattering and need f u l f i l l m e n t , a l o g i c a l step i n the development of t h i s l i n e of research would seek to examine the linkage between mattering and school attendance, grades, involvement i n school a c t i v i t i e s and student dropout rates. The development of mattering research that i s i n c l u s i v e of these variables would c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h the determinants of mattering as i t operates i n school environments and further e s t a b l i s h the v a l i d i t y of research involving the concept of mattering. It would provide school teams with the opportunity to examine e x i s t i n g school programming i n r e l a t i o n to creation and maintenance of an atmosphere that promotes feelings of mattering for both s t a f f and students a l i k e . School d i s t r i c t s would benefit from a thorough examination of the mattering concept. Feelings of mattering and the need for i n c l u s i o n are universal and not just unique to students. Training which promotes a s e n s i t i v i t y to others should be put fort h and modelled from administration downward. Recognition of the mutuality involved i n r e l a t i o n to mattering should be included i n teacher t r a i n i n g as well as graduate t r a i n i n g for administrators. The impact educators have on t h e i r students i s simply far greater than the provision of information as mandated by government. The impact of marginalization i s f a i l u r e , while the impact of mattering 49 i s i n c l u s i o n . Replication of t h i s study with a large sample of students who attend regular high school i n Vancouver would be informative i n examining differences between regular school populations and the alter n a t i v e population which has been the focus of t h i s research. Gaining further insights into the in t e r a c t i o n of the mattering motive within schools would a s s i s t i n program development and program evaluation within the school system. The rel a t i o n s h i p between marginality and mattering was explored by Schlossberg (1989). Amundson (1993) has explored the rela t i o n s h i p of mattering i n the area of employment counselling and t r a i n i n g . It has been suggested that further studies r e l a t i n g to mattering and retirement from the workforce (Whiting, 1982) would follow l o g i c a l l y i n to add to the research i n the area of marginalization. As well, i t would be informative to research the relati o n s h i p between aging and the changing roles both i n the family as well as i n society. F i n a l l y , the study of the ro l e of mattering r e l a t i n g to inc l u s i o n within d i f f e r i n g groups outside of the school system has been suggested by Whiting (1982). While the focus for her i s so c i o l o g i c a l i n nature and r e l a t i n g to s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s movements, studies r e l a t i n g mattering to other forms of groups also seems to be indicated. In the counselling f i e l d , studies r e l a t i n g mattering to group formation, group cohesion and group closure would have potential therapeutic e f f e c t s for counsellors working with c l i e n t s i n therapeutic groups. 50 REFERENCES Amundson, N.E. (1993). Mattering: a foundation for employment counselling and t r a i n i n g . Journal of Employment Counselling, 30, 146-152, Dec. 1993. Amundson, Norman E. ( 1993). Ways of Mattering Questionnaire. University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada, 1993 Barr,R.D. (1981). Alternative for the eighties: a second decade of development. Phi Kappa Deltan,62, v o l . 62, no. 8, A p r i l , 1981, pp. 570-573 Drake, J.M. (1985). Alternative Student Programs. E r i c doc. ED 259436, Presented to National Association of Secondary Schools In s t i t u t e , San Antonio, Texas, A p r i l 25, 1985. Epstein, Joyce L. and McPartland, James M. (1976). The concept and measure of the qual i t y of school l i f e . American Educational Research Journal.. Winter, 1976, Vol. 13, p. 15 - 30 Gregory,T.B. & Smith, G.R. (1982) The impact of s o c i a l climates: differences between conventional and alternative schools. Educational Horizons, 60, n2, p. 83-89, Win 1982 Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and Personality, New York: Harper and Row. 1954 Rosenberg, M. & McCullough, B.C. (1979). " Mattering." Inferred Significance and Mental Health Among Adolescents. Paper for presentation at the annual meeting of the American S o c i o l o g i c a l Association, (August): Boston, Mass. Rosenberg, M. & McCullough, B.C. ( 1981). Mattering: i n f e r r e d significance and mental health among adolescents. Research i n Community and Mental Health, 2, pp. 163-182 Rutter, Robert A. ( 1988). Ef f e c t s of school as a community. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, La., 1988 Schlossberg, Nancy K. (1989). Marginality and mattering: Key issues i n building community. New directions i n Student Services, no. 48, Winter, 1989 Schlossberg, Nancy K., La s a l l e , A. and Golec, R. Mattering scale. College Park: University of Maryland, i n press 51 Smith, G.R., Gregory. T.B. & Pugh, R.C. (1981). The S.A.S. inventory: A measure of the extent to which alternative and conventional hiqh schools meet student needs. Paper presented at the 1981 meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Los Angeles, C a l i f o r n i a Smith, G.R., Gregory, T.B. & Pugh, R.C. (1981). Meeting student needs: evidence of the superiority of al t e r n a t i v e schools. Phi Kappa Deltan. 62. no. 8, pp. 561-564, A p r i l , 1981 Strathe, M. & Hash, V. (1979). The e f f e c t of an al t e r n a t i v e school on adolescent s e l f esteem. Adolescence, v. 14, n53, 185- 189, Spring, 1979 Thomson, Vicky R. (1992). Dropouts and the experience of i n v a l i d a t i o n i n the high school. Masters thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. Whiting, Brooke Elizabeth. (1982) Determinants and consequences of mattering i n the adolescents' s o c i a l world. Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Maryland, College Park, MD, U.S.A. Woudzia, J.B. (1987). Program effectiveness i n alternate schools: implications f o r counsellors. B.C. Counsellor, v.9, n l , 1987, p.29-34. Woudzia,J.B. (1989). Perception and teacher organization i n secondary l e v e l alternate school programs. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 35, n l , p.96-106, March, 1989. A P P E N D I X A . - P A R E N T A L CONSENT FORM 53 T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A ^ .-n Department of Counselling Psychology ~~ * Faculty of Educaiion 2125 Main Mall Vancouver. B.C. Canada V6T 124 Tel: (604 ) 822-5259 Fax: (604) 822-2328 C o n s e n t F o r m D e a r P a r e n t / G u a r d i a n , T h i s l e t t e r i s t o i n t r o d u c e m y s e l f a n d my r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t t o y o u . My name i s D a v i d N o r t o n . I am a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y a t U . B . C . I am s t u d y i n g u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f D r . Norman A m u n d s o n , P r o f e s s o r , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I w i l l be c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r ' s s c h o o l i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e i n o r d e r t o c o m p l e t e my t h e s i s f o r a M a s t e r o f A r t s d e g r e e i n t h i s d e p a r t m e n t . The t i t l e o f my p r o j e c t i s : Ways o f m a t t e r i n g a n d m e e t i n g s t u d e n t s n e e d s i n a l t e r n a t i v e h i g h s c h o o l p r o g r a m s . D u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s t w o w e e k s , a c o n s e n t f o r m was s e n t home w i t h y o u r s t u d e n t f o r y o u r e x a m i n a t i o n a n d s i g n a t u r e . A t t h i s t i m e , we h a v e n o t r e c e i v e d y o u r a p p r o v a l f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y . We a s k t h a t t h i s f o r m be r e t u r n e d t o t h e s c h o o l b y A p r i l 1 9 , 1 9 9 5 . I f n o t r e t u r n e d b y t h a t d a t e , i t w i l l be a s s u m e d t h a t y o u h a v e g r a n t e d p e r m i s s i o n f o r y o u r s t u d e n t t o p a r t i c i p a t e . S h o u l d y o u w i s h y o u r s t u d e n t n o t t o p a r t i c i p a t e , p l e a s e phone t h e s c h o o l o r r e t u r n t h i s f o r m w i t h s i g n a t u r e . T h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s l e t t e r i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h e o r i g i n a l f o r m . T h a n k y o u o n c e a g a i n . The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y i s t o s e e k i n f o r m a t i o n w h e t h e r t h e s c h o o l w h i c h y o u r s t u d e n t a t t e n d s i s m e e t i n g h i s / h e r n e e d s . I t a l s o w i l l e x a m i n e how s t u d e n t s f e e l w h i l e t h e y a r e i n a t t e n d a n c e a t s c h o o l . I t i s h o p e d t h a t t h i s p r o j e c t w i l l b e o f a s s i s t a n c e i n h e l p i n g t o c r e a t e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s w h e r e s t u d e n t s f e e l t h a t t h e y m a t t e r , a n d w h e r e t h e i r n e e d s a r e r e c o g n i z e d a n d m e t . E a c h s t u d e n t w i l l be a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e t w o q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . One q u e s t i o n n a i r e m e a s u r e s how s t u d e n t s n e e d s a r e f u l f i l l e d . T h e s e c o n d one a s k s s t u d e n t s t o r e p o r t on w h e t h e r t h e y r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n w h i l e a t s c h o o l a n d w h e t h e r t h e y f e e l i m p o r t a n t a t s c h o o l . C o m p l e t i n g b o t h f o r m s s h o u l d r e q u i r e l e s s t h a n n i n e t y m i n u t e s w h i l e t h e y a r e a t s c h o o l . T h e r e i s no e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n r e p o r t t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s a t s c h o o l . A l l f o r m s a r e a n o n y m o u s . S t u d e n t s w i l l n o t w r i t e t h e i r names on a n y d o c u m e n t w h i c h c o u l d i d e n t i f y t h e m i n d i v i d u a l l y . A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l h a v e t h e f o r m s e x p l a i n e d t o t h e m p r i o r t o c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e f o r m s . A n y q u e s t i o n s w h i c h may a r i s e w i l l be a n s w e r e d p r i o r t o c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e f o r m s . S t u d e n t s h a v e t h e r i g h t t o l e a v e t h e r o o m a t a n y t i m e a n d f o r a n y r e a s o n s h o u l d t h e y d e c i d e t o w i t h d r a w f r o m t h e g r o u p . A l t e r n a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e a t t h e s c h o o l t o t h o s e who c h o o s e n o t t o p a r t i c i p a t e . W i t h d r a w a l f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r c h o o s i n g n o t t o p a r t i c i p a t e , e i t h e r b y t h e p a r e n t / g u a r d i a n , s t u d e n t , o r b o t h w i l l i n no way j e o p a r d i z e t h e s t u d e n t ' s s t a n d i n g a t s c h o o l . S h o u l d a n y q u e s t i o n a r i s e i n r e l a t i o n t o a n y p a r t o f t h i s s t u d y , p l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o c o n t a c t me. I may be r e a c h e d a t T o t a l E d u c a t i o n S c h o o l a t 879 - 0421 Monday t h r o u g h F r i d a y . M e s s a g e s c a n b e l e f t a t t h i s p h o n e o r a t t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y a t 822 - 5 2 5 9 . D o c t o r Amundson c a n be r e a c h e d a t t h e d e p a r t m e n t ' s number a s w e l l . T h a n k y o u f o r y o u r t i m e a n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . D a v i d W. N o r t o n . I c o n s e n t t o my c h i l d ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y . I do n o t c o n s e n t t o my c h i l d ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y . P a r e n t / G u a r d i a n S i g n a t u r e D a t e o f s i g n a t u r e . A P P E N D I X B - INTRODUCTION L E T T E R TO P A R T I C I P A N T S 56 T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A Department of Counselling Tsycholofy Facully of Education 2125 Main Mall Vancouver. B.C. Canada V6T 1Z4 Tel: (604) 822-5259 Fax: (604) 822-2328 D e a r P a r t i c i p a n t , T h a n k y o u f o r y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n my r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . T h e t i t l e o f my p r o j e c t i s : Ways o f m a t t e r i n g a n d m e e t i n g s t u d e n t s n e e d s i n a l t e r n a t i v e h i g h s c h o o l p r o g r a m s . The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y i s t o s e e k i n f o r m a t i o n w h e t h e r t h e s c h o o l w h i c h y o u a t t e n d i s m e e t i n g y o u r n e e d s . I t a l s o w i l l e x a m i n e how y o u f e e l w h i l e y o u a r e i n a t t e n d a n c e a t s c h o o l . I t i s h o p e d t h a t t h i s p r o j e c t w i l l be o f a s s i s t a n c e i n h e l p i n g t o c r e a t e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s w h e r e s t u d e n t s f e e l t h a t t h e y m a t t e r , a n d w h e r e t h e i r n e e d s a r e r e c o g n i z e d a n d m e t . E a c h s t u d e n t w i l l be a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e t w o q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . One q u e s t i o n n a i r e m e a s u r e s how s t u d e n t s n e e d s a r e f u l f i l l e d . T h e s e c o n d one a s k s s t u d e n t s t o r e p o r t on w h e t h e r t h e y r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n w h i l e a t s c h o o l a n d w h e t h e r t h e y f e e l i m p o r t a n t a t s c h o o l . C o m p l e t i n g b o t h f o r m s s h o u l d r e q u i r e l e s s t h a n n i n e t y m i n u t e s . A l l f o r m s a r e a n o n y m o u s . P l e a s e do n o t w r i t e y o u r name o n a n y d o c u m e n t w h i c h y o u c o m p l e t e t o d a y . I w i l l e x p l a i n how t o c o m p l e t e t h e f o r m s b e f o r e y o u b e g i n . I f y o u h a v e a n y q u e s t i o n s , p l e a s e a s k t h e m b e f o r e we b e g i n . Once we h a v e b e g u n , p l e a s e r a i s e y o u r h a n d i f y o u h a v e f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s . S t u d e n t s h a v e t h e r i g h t t o l e a v e t h e r o o m a t a n y t i m e a n d f o r a n y r e a s o n s h o u l d t h e y d e c i d e t o w i t h d r a w f r o m t h e g r o u p . A l t e r n a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e a t t h e s c h o o l t o t h o s e who c h o o s e n o t t o p a r t i c i p a t e . W i t h d r a w a l f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r c h o o s i n g n o t t o p a r t i c i p a t e w i l l n o t h u r t y o u r s t a n d i n g a t s c h o o l . Y o u may l e a v e a n d j o i n i n o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s . Y o u r p a r e n t o r g u a r d i a n h a s p r o v i d e d t h e i r c o n s e n t f o r y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y . C o m p l e t i o n o f t h e s e f o r m s i s y o u r c o n s e n t o n c e c o m p l e t e d . S h o u l d any q u e s t i o n s a r i s e i n r e l a t i o n t o a n y p a r t o f t h i s s t u d y , p l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o c a l l me o r h a v e y o u r p a r e n t s c o n t a c t me. I may be r e a c h e d a t T o t a l E d u c a t i o n S c h o o l a t 57 2 o f 2 879 - 0421 Monday t h r o u g h F r i d a y . M e s s a g e s c a n be l e f t a t t h i s p h o n e . T h a n k y o u f o r y o u r t i m e a n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . S i n c e r e l y , D a v i d W. N o r t o n . A P P E N D I X C : WAYS OF M A T T E R I N G - ADULT F O R M . 59 WAYS OF MATTERING QUESTIONNAIRE GROUP FORM Norm Amundson, Ph.D. University of B r i t i s h Columbia c 1993 T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o c u s e s o n some o f t h e w a y s y o u p e r c e i v e y o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s . Y o u w i l l b e a s k e d t o t h i n k a b o u t a p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p o f p e o p l e a n d t h e n r e s p o n d t o a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s t h a t d e s c r i b e a s p e c t s o f t h o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . O f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h y o u f e e l t h a t y o u a r e i m p o r t a n t o r m a t t e r t o t h e g r o u p . T h i n k c a r e f u l l y a b o u t e a c h q u e s t i o n a n d c h o o s e t h e n u m b e r t h a t B E S T d e s c r i b e s how o f t e n e a c h o n e o c c u r s u s i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g F I V E P O I N T S C A L E : 1= V e r y S e l d o m ; 2= S e l d o m ; 3= S o m e t i m e s ; 4= O f t e n ; 5= V e r y O f t e n . S i t u a t i o n : Indicate below the group that you are r e f e r r i n g to when making t h i s assessment: T h e A d u l t s C i r c l e t h e number t h a t B E S T d e s c r i b e s how o f t e n t h e g r o u p r e s p o n d s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w a y s : 1= Very Seldom; 2= Seldom; 3= Sometimes; 4= Often; 5= Very Often E x a m p l e : T h e y . . . t a k e my f e e l i n g s i n t o a c c o u n t . 1 2 3 4 5 I f y o u t h i n k t h i s d e s c r i b e s y o u r e x p e r i e n c e , a n d t h e p e o p l e u s u a l l y DO t a k e y o u r F E E L I N G S i n t o a c c o u n t , t h e n y o u w o u l d c i r c l e a 4 o r a 5. I F , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , y o u t h i n k t h a t t h e y D O N ' T u s u a l l y t a k e y o u r F E E L I N G S i n t o a c c o u n t , y o u w o u l d c i r c l e a 1 o r a 2. 60 Very Seldom Seldom Sometimes Often Very Often They... (A) take my feelings 1 2 3 4 5 into account. (B) respond to me i n a way that make me 1 2 3 4 5 f e e l s i g n i f i c a n t . (C) depend on me to 1 2 3 4 5 give ideas. (D) are interested i n 1 2 3 4 5 following my progress. (E) value my contributions. 1 2 3 4 5 (F) support me i n 1 2 3 4 5 reaching my goals. (G) believe i n me. 1 2 3 4 5 (H) help me to f e e l 1 2 3 4 5 at ease. (I) count on my p a r t i - 1 2 3 4 5 cip a t i o n . (J) take into account 1 2 3 4 5 what I want to do. (K) notice how I am 1 2 3 4 5 f e e l i n g . (L) r e l y on my support. 1 2 3 4 5 (M) care about my well 1 2 3 4 5 being. (N) l i s t e n to what I I 2 3 4 5 have to say. (0) w i l l c o n t i n u e t o b e i n t e r e s t e d i n me when we go o u r s e p a r a t e way (P) make a n e f f o r t t o make me f e e l w e l c o m e . (Q) a p p r e c i a t e w h a t I h a v e a c c o m p l i s h e d . (R) f o l l o w u p t o s e e how I am d o i n g . (S ) a c k n o w l e d g e my p r e s e n c e when e n t e r i n g t h e r o o m . (T) a r e c a r e f u l t o g e t my i n p u t b e f o r e m a k i n g a n y d e c i s i o n s t h a t a f f e c t me . 6 2 A P P E N D I X D - THE WAYS OF M A T T E R I N G Q U E S T I O N N A I R E - OTHER STUDENTS F O R M . 63 WAYS OF MATTERING QUESTIONNAIRE GROUP FORM Norm Amundson, Ph.D. University of B r i t i s h Columbia c 1993 This questionnaire focuses on some of the ways you perceive your relationships with others. You w i l l be asked to think about a pa r t i c u l a r group of people and then respond to a series of questions that describe aspects of those re l a t i o n s h i p s . Of pa r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s the extent to which you f e e l that you are important or matter to the group. Think c a r e f u l l y about each question and choose the number that BEST describes how often each one occurs using the following FIVE POINT SCALE: 1= Very Seldom; 2= Seldom; 3= Sometimes; 4= Often; 5= Very Often. Situ a t i o n : Indicate below the group that you are r e f e r r i n g to when making t h i s assessment; The Other Students C i r c l e the number that BEST describes how often the group responds i n the following ways: 1= Very Seldom; 2= Seldom; 3= Sometimes; 4 = Often; 5= Very Often Example: They... take my feelings into account. 1 2 3 4 5 If you think t h i s describes your experience, and the people usually DO take your FEELINGS into account, then you would c i r c l e a 4 or a 5. IF, on the other hand, you think that they DON'T usually take your FEELINGS into account, you would c i r c l e a 1 or a 2. 64 Very Seldom Seldom Sometimes Often Very Often They... (A) take my feelings 1 2 3 4 5 into account. (B) respond to me i n a way that make me 1 2 3 4 5 f e e l s i g n i f i c a n t . (C) depend on me to 1 2 3 4 5 give ideas. (D) are interested i n 1 2 3 4 5 following my progress. (E) value my contributions. 1 2 3 4 5 (F) support me i n 1 2 3 4 5 reaching my goals. (G) believe i n me. 1 2 3 4 5 (H) help me to f e e l 1 2 3 4 5 at ease. (I) count on my p a r t i - 1 2 3 4 5 cip a t i o n . (J) take into account 1 2 3 4 5 what I want to do. (K) notice how I am 1 2 3 4 5 f e e l i n g . (L) r e l y on my support. 1 2 3 4 5 (M) care about my well 1 2 3 4 5 being. (N) l i s t e n to what I I 2 3 4 5 have to say. (0) w i l l c o n t i n u e t o b e 1 i n t e r e s t e d i n me when we go o u r s e p a r a t e w a y s (P) make a n e f f o r t t o make me f e e l w e l c o m e . (Q) a p p r e c i a t e w h a t I 1 h a v e a c c o m p l i s h e d . (R) f o l l o w u p t o s e e how 1 I am d o i n g . (S) a c k n o w l e d g e my 1 p r e s e n c e when e n t e r i n g t h e r o o m . (T ) a r e c a r e f u l t o g e t 1 my i n p u t b e f o r e m a k i n g a n y d e c i s i o n s t h a t a f f e c t me . 66 A P P E N D I X E - S T A T E M E N T S A B O U T S C H O O L S I N V E N T O R Y - A C T U A L S C H O O L F O R M . 67 Statements About Schools Inventory Part I We would l i k e to know your opinion of your school.Please read each statement and then decide how well i t f i t s your school. If you f e e l that the statement almost always f i t s your school, blacken the c i r c l e under A on the accompanying answer sheet. I f you f e e l i t often f i t s , blacken the c i r c l e under B; i f the statement occasionally f i t s , blacken the c i r c l e C and so on. A= 1= Almost Always F i t s B= 2= Often F i t s C= 3= Occasionally F i t s D= 4= Seldom F i t s E= 5= Almost Never F i t s For example, you might read a statement l i k e t h i s : 1. Teachers here are h e l p f u l . If you f e e l that t h i s statement often f i t s your school, you would blacken c i r c l e B. When you have completed Part I (44 items) r a i s e your hand and we w i l l c o l l e c t i t and give you part I I . Do your best to respond to every statement. Please ask for help i f you have any questions. 1. Teachers want students to succeed. 2. Students play an important role i n what and how they learn. 3. The teachers here are enthusiastic. 4. Self - expression i s encouraged here. 5. Teachers relax with students. 6. This school i s well organized. 68 Part I (continued) 7. Teacher and students are close. 8. Teachers enforce the rules here. 9. There are many ways for students to be recognized for t h e i r e f f o r t s . 10. People support each other. 11. Students are encouraged to use t h e i r imagination. 12. Teachers show concern for students. 13. Students are encouraged to experiment with new ways of doing things. 14. Students f e e l successful. 15. Helping each other i s encouraged here. 16. This school provides many opportunities for personal development. 17. Students have rights i n t h i s school. 18. This school i s an orderly place. 19. Each student feels worthwhile here. 20. There i s an openness to new ideas here. 21. Students have l o t s of opportunities to display t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l t a l e n t s . 22. Students usually conduct themselves properly. 23. Students are trusted to do the ri g h t thing. 24. This school has a very stable environment. 25. Controlling students i s emphasized here. 26. Self - expression i s encouraged here. 27. Teachers help students to f e e l good about themselves. 28. Students are treated as mature persons. 29. Students know what to expect here. Part I (continued) 30. Students are encouraged to be creative. 31. Permission i s necessary to leave the c l a s s . 32. Each student feels worthwhile here. 33. Each person feels important i n t h i s school. 34. Students have opportunities to produce o r i g i n a l ideas and materials. 35. Students are involved i n the l i f e of the school. 36. Students and teachers do things together here. 37. This school believes that students can become better people 38. This school runs smoothly. 39. Students and teachers f e e l a sense of community here. 40. This school helps students f e e l important. 41. Teachers enforce the rules here. 42. Teachers show concern for students. 43. This i s a f r i e n d l y place. 44. This school provides a steady and predictable climate. End of Part I Please check the accuracy of your responses. Raise your hand receive Part I I . 70 A P P E N D I X F - STATEMENTS ABOUT SCHOOLS INVENTORY - I D E A L SCHOOL F O R M . 71 Statements About Schools Inventory Part II On Part I I , we have put the same statements i n a d i f f e r e n t order. This time, however, we would l i k e you to describe your i d e a l school one you would most l i k e to attend. Please read each statement and decide how well i t f i t s your i d e a l school. If you f e e l that the statement almost always f i t s your i d e a l school, blacken i n the c i r c l e under A on the accompanying answer sheet. If you f e e l that i t often f i t s , blacken i n the c i r c l e B; i f the statement occasionally f i t s your i d e a l school, blacken i n the c i r c l e under C and so on. Begin with item 51 on the answer sheet. Again, your opinion i s what matters to us. Do your best to respond to every statement. 51. Students have opportunities to produce o r i g i n a l ideas and materials. 52. This school has a very stable environment. 53. Students are treated as mature persons. 54. Students are encouraged to use t h e i r imagination. N 55. Controlling students i s emphasized here. 56. Each student feels worthwhile here. 57. This school provides many opportunities for personal development. 58. This school provides a steady and predictable environment. 59. Students f e e l successful. 60. Teachers and students are close. 61. Teachers relax with students. 62. Teachers want students to succeed. 72 Part II (continued) 63. Students have l o t s of opportunities to display t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l t a l e n t s . 64. Self - expression i s encouraged here. 65. There are many ways for students to be recognized for t h e i r e f f o r t s . 66. The teachers here are enthusiastic. 67. This school helps students f e e l important. 68. Students play an important role i n what and how they learn. 69. Students know what to expect here. 70. This i s a f r i e n d l y place. 71. Students usually conduct themselves properly. 72. Students are trusted to do the r i g h t thing. 73. Teachers and students f e e l a sense of community here. 74. This school runs smoothly. 75. Permission i s necessary to leave the c l a s s . 76. Students are encouraged to experiment with new ways of doing things. 77. Students and teachers do things together here. 78. Each person f e e l s important i n t h i s school. 79. Students have rights i n t h i s school. 80. This school i s an orderly place. 81. Teachers enforce the rules here. 82. This school i s well organized. 83. This school believes students can become better people. 84. There i s an openness to new ideas here. 85. Helping each other i s encouraged here. 86. People support each other. 73 Part II (continued) 87. Teachers help students to f e e l good about themselves. 88. Teachers show concern for students. 89. Students are encouraged to be creative. 90. Students are involved i n the l i f e of the school. End of Part II Please check the accuracy of your responses. Raise your hand to have your materials c o l l e c t e d . Thank you for your help. PSGK - U17249418 1 items selected as RESULT 22 Norton/ David William. U17249418 +ADDDATE 960502 +MODDATE 960502 +CN:1 2my96psg + STA C +CAL AW 5 B71 1995-0521 +HOL:l$L sp +HOL:2$L e l $C 2 +LE$T a $B m $E 6 $D a $S - +008$DT r $DATE1 1995 $DATE2 100 1- 245 10 / Ways of mattering and mee (1995) U17249418 260 300 410 502 504 533 1995 $CO bcc $R b $CONT bm~ $LAN eng aNorton, David William. $N H110268000 aWays of mattering and meeting student needs i n al t e r n a t i v e school programs|h[microform] /|cby David William Norton. — a [Vancouver] :|bUniversity of B r i t i s h Columbia,|cl995. av i , 73 leaves ;|c28 cm. aUniversity of B r i t i s h Columbia.|bDept. of Counselling Psychology.|tThesis.|pM.A.,|nl995. $N H110094372 aThesis (M.A.)—University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1995. alncludes b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l references (leaves 50-51). aMicrofiche.|bVancouver :|cPrecision Micrographics,|dl995.|e2 microfiches ; 10.5 x 15 cm. high 2- U17249418 Product requests i Heading status i n f o : 100 l-|aNorton, David William. Added: 960502 Checked by: 2my96psg Number: H110268000 410 2-|aUniversity of B r i t i s h Columbia.|bDept. of Counselling Psychology.|tThesis.|pM.A.,|nl995. Added: 951219 Checked by: 19dc95ek Number: H110094372 +SER: $N:1 mono for a l l locations. 7 - c

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