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The impact of informational interviewing on an individual’s career development Post, Angela Solveiga 1995

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The Impact of Informational Interviewing on an Individual's Career Development by ANGELA SOLVEIGA POST B.A., Roberts Wesleyan, 1991 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Depar tment of Counselling Psychology) We a c c e p t this thesis as conforming to the required s tandard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1996 © Ange la Solveiga Post, 1996 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada f t , , i f c m c -6 (2/88) ABSTRACT Informational interviewing is a technique that individuals can use to access current labour market information from those employed in the occupational field of interest. This research explores the experience of individuals who conduct informational interviews. Ten participants who are within 40 credit hours of completing an Arts Degree were selected from a university college. Participants attended a participatory workshop on informational interviewing and were expected to conduct their own informational interviews between workshop sessions. A total of 23 informational interviews were conducted within a four week time period for an average of 2.3 interviews per participant. The critical incident technique was utilized in a post-workshop interview to assess participants' experience of interviewing. 198 incidents were elicited including 145 positive critical incidents, or facilitating factors, and 53 negative critical incidents, or hindering factors. Twelve categories emerged from the incidents. These included the following eight facilitating factor categories: 1. Information- interviewee's personal experience, 2. Information- occupation, 3. Information- providing options, 4. Encouragement and confirmation, 5. Interviewee's personality, 6. Interview process, 7. Assessing the 'fit', and 8. Providing contacts or post-interview assistance. The four hindering factor categories included: 1. Negative affect, 2. Interview structure, 3. Perceived destructive factors, and 4. Unanswered questions or discouraging information. Additional pre-post test data was gathered to assess knowledge gained in the workshop as well as perception of control regarding career aspirations. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT ii TABLE OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF TABLES vii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS viii FOREWORD ix CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1 Rationale of the Study 3 Research Questions 4 Research Assumptions 5 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 6 Career Deve lopment 6 Transition 11 Informational Interviewing 14 C o m p e t e n c e , Control , a n d A g e n c y 16 The Critical Incident Technique 17 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY 20 Participant Demographics 22 Description of Assessment Scale 23 Purpose a n d Description of Workshops 24 Participant Interviews 25 iv Information Obtained for Analysis 26 Analysis of the Incidents 27 Reliability 28 CHAPTER IV: RESULTS 30 Pre-Workshop Interviews 30 Post-Workshop Interviews 31 Description of the Categories 33 Validation of the Categories 50 Survey Data 50 Anecdotal Findings 54 Participants' Advice 57 CHAPTER V: DISCUSSION 60 Summary of Results 60 Significance of the Study 60 Implications for Counselling 64 Limitations 68 Recommendations for Further Research 70 REFERENCES 71 APPENDIX A: Letter of Invitation 79 APPENDIX B: Pre-Workshop Questions 80 APPENDIX C: Demographics '. 81 APPENDIX D: Interview Questions 82 v APPENDIX E: Informed Consent LIST OF TABLES P a g e TABLE 1: POSITIVE CRITICAL INCIDENTS 34 TABLE 2: NEGATIVE CRITICAL INCIDENTS 44 TABLE 3: RELIABILITY OF CATEGORIES 50 TABLE 4: PERCEPTION OF PERSONAL C O NTROL IN CAREER G O A L S 53 vii A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S I would like to express appreciation to my thesis supervisor, Dr. Norman Amundson, as well as to my committee members, Dr. Marvin Westwood and Dr. Cheryl Washburn. Thank you for your insight, encouragement, and support. I also express appreciation to my instructors and colleagues for their guidance and wisdom. Thanks to my husband, Carl, for his encouragement, patience, and constructive feedback. Thanks to each of the participants for their commitment and willingness to take on the challenge of this research. viii FOREWORD O n e of t h e primary purposes of c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h in this a r e a of i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g is t h a t I h a v e f o u n d t h e use of this t o o l b e n e f i c i a l in my o w n e x p e r i e n c e . I w a s i n t r o d u c e d to t h e i d e a of i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n years a g o . In a t t e m p t i n g to m a k e a c a r e e r d e c i s i o n , I w a s a d v i s e d to m e e t with t e n individuals w o r k i n g in a fi e l d of p e r s o n a l interest. O v e r time, a n d with g r e a t effort, I fulfilled this q u o t a . At s o m e point I l e a r n e d that this s t r a t e g y w a s c a l l e d " i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviewing". The interviews b e c a m e easi e r as my skill i n c r e a s e d a n d as I d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e benefits g r e a t l y o u t w e i g h e d t h e c h a l l e n g e s . To d a t e , I h a v e c o n d u c t e d d o z e n s of i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews. I g r a d u a t e d with a B a c h e l o r of Arts d e g r e e with a major in p s y c h o l o g y a n d u n d e r s t a n d t h e difficulties of a 'general' e d u c a t i o n . However, I a m d i s c o u r a g e d to h e a r students say things like, "I c o u l d n ' t d o a n y t h i n g with my B.A. so I w e n t b a c k to school." or " P e o p l e with B.A.'s e n d u p wo r k i n g in c a r d shops or fast f o o d restaurants." P e r h a p s libe r a l arts students n e e d to t a k e a m o r e p r o - a c t i v e a p p r o a c h in refining c a r e e r g o a l s b e f o r e t h e y g r a d u a t e . A n e x c e l l e n t w a y to b e c o m e more pro-a c t i v e a n d t h e r e f o r e establish g r e a t e r c o n t r o l in c a r e e r aspirations is t h r o u g h t h e use of i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviewing. ix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In a r e c e n t study of C a n a d i a n g r a d u a t e s w h o h a d h e l d b a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e s in arts for t w o years, 69.4% w e r e in jobs that d i d not require their l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n ( R e d p a t h , 1994). In a n o t h e r study, 8 4 % of students i n d i c a t e d that t h e y w e r e primarily in higher e d u c a t i o n to f a c i l i t a t e t h e like l i h o o d of o b t a i n i n g c h a l l e n g i n g , high p a y i n g , or interesting work a f t e r g r a d u a t i o n ( Gomme, Hall, & Murphy, 1993). There a p p e a r s to b e a v o i d b e t w e e n t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s of students a n d e c o n o m i c reality. Students m a y a t t e m p t a n u m b e r of strategies in o r d e r to b r i d g e t h e g a p b e t w e e n higher e d u c a t i o n a n d t h e w o r l d of e m p l o y m e n t . O n e of these is to work while a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l . P a r t i c i p a t i o n in the life roles of student a n d worker has b e e n shown to e n h a n c e student d e v e l o p m e n t (Niles, Sowa, & L a d e n , 1994). A l t h o u g h the n u m b e r of students w h o also work has b e e n growing, their work is t y p i c a l l y for the p u r p o s e of f i n a n c i a l provision a n d is o f t e n u n r e l a t e d to t h e a c a d e m i c fi e l d of study (Ford, Bosworth, & Wilson, 1995). G o m m e , Hall & M u r p h y (1993) f o u n d that 6 7 % of students w h o h a d jobs felt t hat this i n c o m e was essential to m e e t i n g f i n a n c i a l c o m m i tments. 6 2 % of the students with jobs felt t hat work int e r f e r e d with their a c a d e m i c pursuits. 2 A n o t h e r o p t i o n is for students to t a k e part in a c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o g r a m (co-op) w h e r e t h e y g a i n work e x p e r i e n c e within their f i e l d of study. A student reflects o n t h e c o - o p e x p e r i e n c e (Ford & D e G r o o t e , 1995), M y work term at Sony M u s i c C a n a d a w a s a u n i q u e a n d i n v a l u a b l e e x p e r i e n c e . I originally a c c e p t e d t h e position b e c a u s e I s a w it as a n o p p o r t u n i t y to g a i n p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e at a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y r e c o g n i z e d a n d r e s p e c t e d c o m p a n y . I also t h o u g h t that t h e music industry w o u l d b e d y n a m i c a n d e x c i t i n g to work in. M y e x p e c t a t i o n s w e r e e x c e e d e d - 1 g a i n e d m ore from this work term t h a n I h a d e v e r a n t i c i p a t e d , (p. 25) However, c o - o p is not o f f e r e d in all institutions or in all programs. G r a d e point a v e r a g e requirements, t i m e restraints, family c o m m i t m e n t s , a n d o t h e r barriers m a y p r e v e n t m a n y students from t a k i n g part in co-op. V o l u n t e e r work is y e t a n o t h e r o p t i o n that students m a y a c c e s s . It c a n offer e x p e r i e n c e r e l a t e d to t h e f i e l d of study. Bolles (1995) e n c o u r a g e s ind i v i d u a l s t o seek v o l u n t e e r work at o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t t h e y w o u l d like t o learn a b o u t . However, v o l u n t e e r work requires a c o m m i t m e n t of time t h a t s o m e students a r e not a b l e to p r o v i d e . 3 In a time of f i n a n c i a l restraint in higher e d u c a t i o n , a n y measures t a k e n to assist students in their d i l e m m a of r e c o n c i l i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s with e m p l o y m e n t reality must b e c o s t - e f f e c t i v e . Informational i n t e r v i e w i n g is o n e o p t i o n t h a t students m a y utilize in a d d i t i o n to t h e others s t a t e d previously. P r a c t i c a l instruction o n t h e use of this skill c o u l d b e p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h a higher e d u c a t i o n institution in a c o s t - e f f e c t i v e manner. The r e c o m m e n d e d tim e to request for a n i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w is a p p r o x i m a t e l y fi f t e e n minutes (Figler, 1988, p. 135). C o m p a r e d to t h e options of work, co-op, or v o l u n t e e r work, i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g is m u c h less time intensive for t h e student. R a t i o n a l e of t h e Study There seems to b e a n a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g is a w e l l k n own st r a t e g y a n d w i d e l y p r a c t i c e d . M u n s c h a u e r (1986, p. 118) c o m m e n t s o n i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviewing, "It's t i m e to p i c k up s o m e ot h e r ideas." R i c h a r d s o n (1994, p. 11) c a u t i o n s the use of t h e p h r a s e 'informational interviewing', "A f e w years a g o , this w a s a n o t h e r n a m e for a n e t w o r k i n g m e e t i n g , but t h e term e n c o u r a g e s c o n f u s e d a g e n d a s . If t h e p h r a s e is s u p p o s e d to suggest a n interview w h e r e th e r e is n o t h i n g at stake, it is a n oxymoron." Yet, B e a t t y (1994) d e s c r i b e s i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g as o n e of m a n y net w o r k i n g strategies. He c a l l s it t h e " i n f o r m a t i o n a l m e e t i n g " str a t e g y (p. 182). A l t h o u g h i n f o r m a t i o n a l 4 i n t e r v i e w i n g is n o t e d in m a n y c a r e e r p u b l i c a t i o n s , t h e r e has not b e e n a n y f o r m a l r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d on t h e use of i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviewing. There seems to b e a n a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g is a h e l p f u l t o o l or c o n v e r s e l y , that t h e r e a r e m o r e e f f e c t i v e m e t h o d s a v a i l a b l e . However, e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e is l a c k i n g to support either o n e of t h e s e positions. Bolles (1995) d e s c r i b e s i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g as purely i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g while t a l k i n g f a c e to f a c e with a n i n d i v i d u a l w h o is k n o w l e d g e a b l e r e g a r d i n g your o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l . He e m p h a s i z e s t h a t it is not d o n e for t h e primary p u r p o s e of s e c u r i n g a job. It a p p e a r s that t h e r e a r e differing v i e w p o i n t s r e g a r d i n g the d e f i n i t i o n of 'informational interviewing'. For this r e s e a r c h , Bolles' d e f i n i t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g is e m p l o y e d . R e s e a r c h Questions The intent of this study is t o a n s w e r t h e f o l l o w i n g questions: 1. W h a t is t h e individual's e x p e r i e n c e of c o n d u c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews? 2. How d o e s t h e use of i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g i n f l u e n c e a n individual's c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t ? 5 R e s e a r c h Assumptions I h o p e d t h a t in s p e n d i n g c o n c e n t r a t e d time l e a r n i n g t h e skill of i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g in a small g r o u p format, students w o u l d b e e m p o w e r e d t o utilize it successfully. I also e x p e c t e d t h a t it w o u l d b e a helpful t o o l to a i d in their c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t in terms of f o c u s i n g a n d cl a r i f y i n g c a r e e r goals. I a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g w o u l d assist students in f o r m u l a t i n g a c a r e e r d e c i s i o n in part by e l i c i t i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l goals, interests a n d talents as w e l l as by p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e w o r l d of work. I p r e s u p p o s e d t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g c a n serve as a c h a n g e s t r a t e g y w h i c h e n h a n c e s a n individuals' sense of c o m p e t e n c e , e f f e c t i v e n e s s , a n d a g e n c y . 6 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE C a r e e r D e v e l o p m e n t A b r o a d de f i n i t i o n of c a r e e r is utilized in this r e s e a r c h a n d is s u m m a r i z e d by J e p s e n ( 1990): The work c a r e e r is a n individual's life-long, s e q u e n c e of work positions o b s e r v e d from b o t h p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l a n d b e h a v i o r a l p e r s p e c t i v e s a n d s u b j e c t to multiple meanings. The d e v e l o p m e n t a l c a r e e r c o u n s e l o r uses c a r e e r in a very b r o a d sense a n d resists m o re res t r i c t e d m e a n i n g s s u c h as synonyms for o c c u p a t i o n or job. (p. 121) There a r e numerous theories of c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . Krumboltz & Nichols (1990, p. 159) posit, " A l t h o u g h differing in e m p h a s i s a n d v o c a b u l a r y , t h e major c a r e e r theories a r e not in f u n d a m e n t a l disagreement." This r e s e a r c h seeks to i n c o r p o r a t e t h e richness of a var i e t y of p e r s p e c t i v e s in o r d e r to bu i l d a holistic f o u n d a t i o n of c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . Following, a r e differing y e t c o m p l i m e n t a r y 'lenses' with w h i c h to v i e w t h e not i o n of a students' c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . 7 M c W h i r t e r (1991) explains t h e na t u r e of d e v e l o p m e n t a l c h a n g e , D e v e l o p m e n t a l c h a n g e s , s u c h as those m a n y student d e v e l o p m e n t theories a t t e m p t to d e s c r i b e , a r e t y p i c a l c h a n g e s that a r e a s s u m e d to serve a n a d a p t i v e f u n c t i o n : t h e y e n a b l e t h e i n d i v i d u a l to d e m o n s t r a t e not just different skills, but more a d e q u a t e skills; t h e y r e f l e c t not just a different p e r s p e c t i v e , but a more m a t u r e p e r s p e c t i v e . D e v e l o p m e n t a l c h a n g e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by g r e a t e r c o m p l e x i t y , s e e n t h r o u g h d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n (e.g., b e i n g a b l e to r e c o g n i z e s e v e r a l c o m p o n e n t s within a p r o b l e m or p e r s p e c t i v e ) a n d i n t e g r a t i o n (seeing h o w tho s e p i e c e s fit b a c k t o g e t h e r a g a i n in a w a y th a t results in g r e a t e r m e a n i n g or a more c o m p l e t e p i c t u r e ) , (p. 415) King (1994) p r o v i d e s a n i m a g e of a k a l e i d o s c o p e to d e p i c t t h e c o m p l e x i t y of student d e v e l o p m e n t , It m a y b e helpful t o think of a student's g r o w t h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t as a k a l e i d o s c o p e or m o s a i c of c h a n g i n g skills, a t titudes, beliefs, or understandings, a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h a t e a c h stud e n t represents a slightly different set of s h a p e s colours, a n d textures that c o n s t i t u t e 8 his or her o w n p e r s o n a l k a l e i d o s c o p e , e a c h with its o w n s p e c i f i c set of d e v e l o p m e n t a l attributes, (p. 413) S c h e i n (1992) d e s c r i b e s t h e f o r e s e e n d e v e l o p m e n t of 'career anchors', A person's c a r e e r a n c h o r is t h e e v o l v i n g s e l f - c o n c e p t of w h a t o n e is g o o d at, w h a t one's n e e d s a n d motives are, a n d w h a t v a l u e s g o v e r n one's work r e l a t e d c h o i c e . O n e d o e s not h a v e a c a r e e r a n c h o r until o n e has w o r k e d for a n u m b e r of years a n d has h a d r e l e v a n t f e e d b a c k from those e x p e r i e n c e s . But o n c e a c a r e e r a n c h o r evolves, roughly five to t e n years a f t e r o n e has s t a r t e d work, it b e c o m e s a stabilizing f o r c e in t h e t o t a l p e r s onality that g u i d e s a n d constrains future c a r e e r c h o i c e s , (p. 207-208) S c h e i n c o n t i n u e s by d e p i c t i n g t h e e i g h t c a r e e r a n c h o r s : 1. Security/ Stability, 2. A u t o n o m y / I n d e p e n d e n c e , 3. T e c h n i c a l or F u n c t i o n a l C o m p e t e n c e , 4. G e n e r a l M a n a g e m e n t C o m p e t e n c e , 5. Entrepreneurial Cr e a t i v i t y , 6. S e r v i c e / D e d i c a t i o n to C a u s e , 7. Pure C h a l l e n g e , a n d 8. L i f e s t y l e . Erikson's (1963, 1968) e i g h t stages n o t e the struggles of a n individual's d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h o u t the life s pan. Watkins & Savikas 9 (1990) f o c u s o n the fifth s t a g e of 'identity versus ide n t i t y c o n f u s i o n ' in relation to c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , Those w h o h a v e a highly crystallized identity b e n e f i t o v e r those w h o h a v e poorly cry s t a l l i z e d identities in t h e f o l l o w i n g ways: 1. They will b e more a p t to h a v e successfully n e g o t i a t e d previous d e v e l o p m e n t a l stages, 2. They t e n d to h a v e more useful info r m a t i o n a t their d i s p o s a l with w h i c h to m a k e c a r e e r decisions, 3. They a r e b e t t e r a b l e to c h o s e a c a r e e r t h a t is most s u i t a b l e to them, 4. They a r e more d e c i s i v e in c h o o s i n g a c a r e e r , 5. They a r e more c a r e e r mature, 6. W h e n b e i n g s e e n by a c o u n s e l o r for c a r e e r issues, t h e y m a y b e n e f i t most from s e l f - d i r e c t e d activities, c a r e e r information, a n d r e l a t e d interventions that c a p i t a l i z e u p o n their identity d e v e l o p m e n t , 7. They t e n d to b e more satisfied with a n d a d j u s t e d to their c a r e e r s , a n d 8. They t e n d to manifest m ore eff i c i e n t work b e h a v i o u r , to b e more p r o d u c t i v e , a n d to manifest less p r o b l e m a t i c work b e h a v i o u r , (pp. 84- 86) Super (1970, p. 136) reviews t he phases of c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t a n d notes that from a g e 15 to 24 o n e n e g o t i a t e s t he e x p l o r a t i o n s t a g e , "Self-e x a m i n a t i o n , role tryouts, a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n t a k e p l a c e in s c h o o l , leisure activities, a n d part-time work." From a g e 25 to 44, o n e 10 wrestles with t h e es t a b l i s h m e n t s t a g e ( p . 136), "Having f o u n d a n a p p r o p r i a t e f i e l d , effort is put forth to m a k e a p e r m a n e n t p l a c e in i t . " In terms of c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making, Z a g o r a & C r a m e r (1994, p. 244) report that " i n v o l v e m e n t in a c a r e e r w o r k s h o p with others of similar v o c a t i o n a l id e n t i t y status, w h e t h e r high or low, results in g r e a t e r gains in d e c i d e d n e s s . " Krumboltz & Nichols (1990, p. 162) f o c u s o n t h e s o c i a l l e a r n i n g t h e o r y of c a r e e r d e c i s i o n m a king, " P e o p l e a c q u i r e their p r e f e r e n c e s for various ac t i v i t i e s t h r o u g h a variet y of l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . " C o c h r a n (1991) d e s c r i b e s t h e individuals' quest for m e a n i n g , C a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t is t h e c o n t i n u a l refinement, e x p a n s i o n , revision, a n d sometimes t r a n s c e n d e n c e of a life story. C a r e e r g u i d a n c e or c o u n s e l l i n g is c o n c e r n e d with h e l p i n g p e o p l e to s h a p e e n d u r i n g structures of life or a life story in a n effort to m a k e that life m o r e m e a n i n g f u l , p r o d u c t i v e , a n d fulfilling. Or in brief, g u i d a n c e helps p e o p l e to a c t u a l i z e a vision of t h e g o o d life, in part by c u l t i v a t i n g t h e p e r s o n a l c a p a b i l i t y for wiser a n d more e f f e c t i v e self-g u i d a n c e , (p. 6-7) 11 r In summary, all of t h e p r e c e d i n g views of c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t w o v e n t o g e t h e r c r e a t e a rich t a p e s t r y highlighting t he c o m p l e x i t y of a students' e x p e r i e n c e . Transition B a c h e l o r of Arts students within 40 c r e d i t s of g r a d u a t i o n w e r e n o t e d t o b e r a p i d l y a p p r o a c h i n g t h e transition of 'student' to 'worker'. Bridges (1980) d e s c r i b e s t h e transition process: The transition p r o c e s s is really a l o o p in t h e life-journey, a g o i n g out a n d a w a y from t h e m a i n fl o w for a t i m e a n d t h e n a c o m i n g a r o u n d a n d b a c k . The n e u t r a l z o n e is m e a n t to b e only a t e m p o r a r y state. It is, as t h e y say, a g r e a t p l a c e to visit, but y o u wouldn't w a n t to live there, (p. 149) S a l o m o n e & M a n g i c a r o (1991) c o n s i d e r y o u n g adults w h o a r e in t h e midst of c a r e e r transition a n d t h e role of this n e u t r a l z o n e w h i c h t h e y c a l l 'moratorium', "The moratorium-type a c t i v i t y c a n b e a h e a l t h f u l c h o i c e , a p s y c h o l o g i c a l restorative, e s p e c i a l l y for t h e a d o l e s c e n t or y o u n g a d u l t w h o is s e a r c h i n g , but is not c e r t a i n for what." (p. 330) ^ 12 In a l o n g i t u d i n a l study f o c u s i n g o n university g r a d u a t e s ' a d j u s t m e n t to work a n d s u b s e q u e n t c h a n g e in self-construction, Fournier & P a y n e (1994) f o u n d differing o u t c o m e s , For s o m e g r a d u a t e s , the e x p e r i e n c e of work h a d b e e n d i s a p p o i n t i n g , s o m e felt a t a loss to d e f i n e n e w orientations, others e x p l o r e d n e w a s p e c t s of themselves, work a n d c a r e e r b e c a m e less i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s of self-identity, w h i l e b e i n g flexible b e c a m e more important. For others, the first six months h a d b e e n the d i s c o v e r y that work c o u l d b e e n j o y a b l e a n d work a c h i e v e m e n t a n d c o m p e t e n c e b e c a m e more salient dimensions of self c o n s t r u c t i o n , (p. 311) W a r d (1992) reviews transitions in terms of g r a d u a t i n g c o l l e g e students a n d confirms that higher e d u c a t i o n institutions h a v e de-e m p h a s i z e d their role in e a s i n g t h e students' transition to the w o r l d of work. However, higher e d u c a t i o n institutions m a y b e limited in terms of the readiness of students to a c t i v e l y pursue c a r e e r p l a n n i n g . Crozier & Grassick (1996, p. 25) c a u t i o n the n e e d "to b e a w a r e that B.A. students m a y not b e m o t i v a t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e in c a r e e r p l a n n i n g ac t i v i t i e s until c l o s e r to g r a d u a t i o n or e v e n f o l l o w i n g g r a d u a t i o n . " S c h l o s s b e r g (1989, 13 p. 154) confirms that, " g r a d u a t i o n f o r c e s a r e f o r m u l a t i o n of g o a l s " as students struggle to r e c o n s t r u c t a n e w sense of p u r p o s e a f t e r a t t a i n i n g t h e g o a l of a d e g r e e . It a p p e a r s t h a t students n e e d to p r e p a r e t h e m s e l ves for t h e transition to work w h e t h e r or not t h e y f e e l m o t i v a t e d . R e d p a t h (1994, p. 99) stresses t h e d i l e m m a of a c h a n g i n g l a b o u r market, "Ultimately, o n e has to assess e d u c a t i o n - j o b m i s m a t c h a n d t h e skills s h o r t a g e s c e n a r i o in t h e b r o a d e r c o n t e x t of c h a n g i n g j o b skill requirements, i n c r e a s i n g levels of e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t , a n d v a r y i n g hiring s t a n d a r d s for o c c u p a t i o n a l entry." I n d e e d , J o b Futures (1994, p. 6-7), a p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t p u b l i c a t i o n , confirms o n e of t h e shifts in l a b o u r market trends as less full-t i m e e m p l o y m e n t a n d t h e g r o w t h of " n o n - s t a n d a r d " jobs w h i c h i n c l u d e part-time, short-term, or c o n t r a c t work. Wells ( M a r c h 11, 1996, p. 12-13), in a r e c e n t e d i t i o n of M a c l e a n ' s m a g a z i n e e n f o r c e s t h e grim reminder, " G o v e r n m e n t cuts a n d c o r p o r a t e layoffs c r e a t e a n a t i o n a l m o o d of insecurity" a n d notes t h a t C a n a d a is in g o o d c o m p a n y of o t h e r G-7 countries w h o a r e also e x p e r i e n c i n g j o b difficulties. In light of t h e c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g l a n d s c a p e of t h e l a b o u r f o r c e , G e l a t t (1989) highlights t h e i m p o r t a n c e of e x e r c i s i n g "positive u n c e r t a i n t y " in r e g a r d s to m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s in t h e 1990's. G e l a t t d e f i n e s positive u n c e r t a i n t y as " f e e l i n g u n c e r t a i n a b o u t t h e future a n d f e e l i n g positive a b o u t t h e uncertainty." (p. 255) 14 Transition a n d c h a n g e will likely b e a c o n s t a n t for those w h o a r e currently a n t i c i p a t i n g entry to t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . Informational Interviewing Informational i n t e r v i e w i n g is essentially i n t e r v i e w i n g s o m e o n e w h o is currently w o r k i n g or has w o r k e d in a n o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d t h a t y o u a r e c o n s i d e r i n g . Bolles (1995, p. 283) c a n d i d l y d e s c r i b e s i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g as "trying o n jobs to s e e if t h e y will fit you". The primary p u r p o s e of i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g is to a c c e s s a n d o b t a i n current l a b o u r market i n f o r m a t i o n from those e m p l o y e d in the o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d of interest. Walsh (1990) summarizes t h e use of o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n in c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g : The use of o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n in c a r e e r c o u n s e l i n g is m e n t i o n e d by most of t h e a p p r o a c h e s , but rarely e m p h a s i z e d . G e n e r a l l y , the intent in t h e use of o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n is t o i n c r e a s e t h e client's k n o w l e d g e of t h e w o r l d of work, more s p e c i f i c a l l y in t h e c a r e e r c h o i c e a r e a s that t h e c l i e n t is c o n s i d e r i n g . Thus, a l t h o u g h most a p p r o a c h e s to c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g v i e w o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n as a n i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of t h e c a r e e r 15 c o u n s e l i n g process, very f e w a p p r o a c h e s a t t e m p t to fol l o w t h r o u g h o n this a s p e c t of t h e c o u n s e l i n g process. (P. 280) Informational i n t e r v i e w i n g is m e n t i o n e d in m a n y j o b s e a r c h a n d c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s . For i n s t a n c e , Bolles (1995), H e c k l i n g e r & Black (1991), a n d N a d l e r (1994) r e v i e w p r a c t i c a l steps o n i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviewing. Figler (1988, p. 135-139) ventures a ste p further by d e p i c t i n g five levels or t y p e s of i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews: 1. B a c k g r o u n d r e s e a r c h o n a f i e l d of work, 2. R e s e a r c h i n g a t y p e of o r g a n i z a t i o n , 3. Finding out w h e r e th e jobs might be, 4. Exploring a p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n , a n d 5. Talking with d e c i s i o n makers. Individuals w h o enjoy 'surfing t h e internet' c a n l o c a t e sites f o c u s i n g o n c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h o f t e n c o n t a i n s o m e r e f e r e n c e to i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviewing. For e x a m p l e , E n e l o w (1996) e m p h a s i z e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e of a p r o - a c t i v e a p p r o a c h in t h e j o b s e a r c h t h r o u g h networking a n d i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviewing. It is b e n e f i c i a l to b e a w a r e of t h e differing t e r m i n o l o g y a l l u d i n g to the i d e a of i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviewing. For i n s t a n c e , S p o k a n e (1991, p. 190) refers to t h e i n d i v i d u a l as a "p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n scientist". G e l a t t (1989, p. 254) advises, "Clients n e e d t o learn to b e u n c e r t a i n a b o u t w h a t t h e y k n o w a n d to seek other, e v e n different i n f o r m a t i o n or opinions." Lain-Kennedy (1988) notes t h e i m p o r t a n c e of a c c e s s i n g ori g i n a l sources of d a t a w h i c h she d e s c r i b e s as individuals w h o a r e currently w o r k i n g in t h e 16 fi e l d of interest. M u n s c h a u e r (1986, p. 146) relates i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g to a " f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n " . B e atty (1994, p. 182) refers to i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g as a n " i n f o r m a t i o n a l m e e t i n g strategy". He views this s t r a t e g y as a form of "networking". Most higher e d u c a t i o n c o u n s e l l i n g c e n t r e s offer s o m e form of c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n workshops or seminars. Informational i n t e r v i e w i n g m a y or m a y not b e i n c l u d e d a m o n g the m a n y items o n t h e a g e n d a . C o m p e t e n c e , C o n t r o l , a n d A g e n c y Bergeron & R o m a n o (1994, p. 24) e n c o u r a g e counsellors to b e a w a r e of t h e " p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s of a client's p e r c e i v e d c o m p e t e n c e to c a r e e r behaviours." A l t h o u g h c o n t e n t o n i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g is o f t e n p r o v i d e d to students in c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n workshops, t h e p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n requires a high l e v e l of p e r c e i v e d c o m p e t e n c e . Therefore, students m a y h a v e difficulty t ranslating c o n t e n t into p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . There seems to b e a link b e t w e e n o b t a i n i n g work i n f o r m a t i o n a n d t h e crystallization of goals. Long, Sowa, & Niles (1995) h a v e f o u n d that c o l l e g e seniors w h o h a d not m a d e a c a r e e r d e c i s i o n w e r e less i n f o r m e d a b o u t t h e w o r l d of work as w e l l as u n c e r t a i n a b o u t their o w n goals, interests, a n d talents. Luzzo (1995, p. 65) e m p h a s i z e s the relationship of s e l f - e f f i c a c y a n d locus of c o n t r o l o n c a r e e r maturity, " C a r e e r s e l f - e f f i c a c y a n d locus of 17 c o n t r o l a p p e a r to b e substantially m o re p o w e r f u l p r e d i c t o r s of c o l l e g e students' c a r e e r maturity t h a n is age." He suggests t h a t s e l f - e f f i c a c y c h a n g e strategies will a i d students in c a r e e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . Bergeron & R o m a n o (1994, p. 23) r e i t e r a t e t h e relationship b e t w e e n s e l f - e f f i c a c y a n d v o c a t i o n a l i n d e c i s i o n , "Students w h o a r e less c o n f i d e n t in their ability to c o m p l e t e t h e tasks a n d b e h a v i o u r s r e q u i r e d for e f f e c t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a r e m o re likely to report b e i n g v o c a t i o n a l l y u n d e c i d e d . " M c W h i r t e r (1991, p. 226) reviews t h e g o a l of e m p o w e r m e n t in c o u n s e l i n g a n d states t h e o b v i o u s v a l u e of " d e c i s i o n making, assertiveness, a n d s o c i a l skills t r a i n i n g " as i n c r e a s i n g t h e client's p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t r o l . She a d d s , "Less o b v i o u s but e q u a l l y v a l u a b l e skills i n c l u d e t h e ability to m a k e realistic self-appraisals, to network within t h e com m u n i t y , to brainstorm for alternatives, a n d to r e f r a m e p r o b l e m situations." Informational i n t e r v i e w i n g p r o v i d e s a v e h i c l e for e m p o w e r i n g students. A l t h o u g h t h e c h a l l e n g e of i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g requires s o m e l e v e l of p e r c e i v e d c o n f i d e n c e , as w e l l as a g e n c y , t a k i n g o n t h e ve n t u r e within one's l e v e l of c o m f o r t m a y e n h a n c e a sense of c o m p e t e n c e a n d c o n t r o l o v e r future c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n . The C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t T e c h n i q u e The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e ( F l a n a g a n , 1954) w a s utilized in this r e s e a r c h . This m e t h o d o l o g y w a s c h o s e n for its ability to p r o v i d e 18 d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a r e g a r d i n g the e x p e r i e n c e of i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviewing. W o o l s e y (1986, p. 252) states, " C r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t studies a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y useful in the e a r l y s t a g e s of r e s e a r c h b e c a u s e t h e y g e n e r a t e b o t h e x p l o r a t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n a n d theo r y or model-building." F l a n a g a n (1954) f o r m u l a t e d t h e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e while in t h e A v i a t i o n P s y c h o l o g y P r o g r a m d u r i n g World War II. F l a n a g a n (1954, p. 327) d e s c r i b e s a n i n c i d e n t as, "Any o b s e r v a b l e h u m a n a c t i v i t y t h a t is sufficiently c o m p l e t e in itself to permit i n f e r e n c e s a n d p r e d i c t i o n s to b e m a d e a b o u t t h e person p e r f o r m i n g t h e a c t . " F l a n a g a n a d d s , "To b e c r i t i c a l , a n i n c i d e n t must o c c u r in a situation w h e r e t h e p u r p o s e or intent of t h e a c t seems fairly c l e a r to t h e o b s e r v e r a n d w h e r e its c o n s e q u e n c e s a r e sufficiently d e f i n i t e t o l e a v e little d o u b t c o n c e r n i n g its effects." The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e has b e e n utilized in h u n d r e d s of studies within a diversity of d o m a i n s s u c h as industry, e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h , a n d c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e (Fivars, 1973). S o m e e x a m p l e s of studies w h e r e the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e has b e e n e m p l o y e d are: e x p l o r i n g h e a l i n g a m o n g first nations p e o p l e ( M c C o r m i c k , 1994), supervision of student r e s e a r c h ( G o o d y e a r , C r e g o , & Johnston, 1992), d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g within d i v o r c e (Proulx, 1991), j o b analysis of p s y c h o l o g y internships (Ross & Altmaier, 1990), high s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g trends (Neely & Iburg, 1989), s u c c e s s a n d failure in university students (Schmelzer, Schmelzer, Figler, & Brozo, 1987), e v a l u a t i o n of nursing 19 p r a c t i c u m settings ( D a c h e l e t , Wemett, G a r l i n g , Craig-Kuhn, Kent, & Kitzman, 1981), t r e a t m e n t of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p a t i e n t s (Rimon, 1979), i m p r o v i n g q u a l i t y of life ( F l a n a g a n , 1978), a n d stu d y i n g p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y ( F l a n a g a n & S c h m i d , 1959). In her r e v i e w of t h e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e , W o o l s e y (1986, p. 242) states, "The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e s h o u l d c o n t r i b u t e signi f i c a n t l y t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a u n i q u e m e t h o d o l o g y for t he d i s c i p l i n e of co u n s e l l i n g . " 20 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY P a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e students s e l e c t e d from a University C o l l e g e in a t o w n with a p o p u l a t i o n of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100,000. The c r i t e r i a for s e l e c t i o n i n c l u d e d enrollment in a B a c h e l o r of Arts d e g r e e p r o g r a m with at least 80 c r e d i t s c o m p l e t e d t o w a r d s t h e d e g r e e . The arts d e g r e e at this p a r t i c u l a r institution is in its i n f a n c y a n d t h e 1996 spring g r a d u a t i o n will witness the third g r o u p of arts d e g r e e g r a d u a t e s . This p o p u l a t i o n w a s s e l e c t e d for s e v e r a l reasons. First of a l l , as s t a t e d in t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n , 69.4% of arts students a r e not using their d e g r e e t w o years a f t e r g r a d u a t i o n ( R e d p a t h , 1994). In Redpath's study, t h e n u m b e r of arts students w h o w e r e m i s m a t c h e d w a s c o n s i d e r a b l y higher t h a n t h o s e in t h e f a c u l t i e s of business, s c i e n c e , e d u c a t i o n , a n d e n g i n e e r i n g . Crozier & Grassick (1996, p. 20) reiterate, " E f f e c t i v e j o b s e e k i n g b e h a v i o u r is of p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e to B a c h e l o r of Arts g r a d u a t e s , w h o unlike their c o u n t e r p a r t s in the m o r e c a r e e r o r i e n t e d p r ograms s u c h as e n g i n e e r i n g , business or s c i e n c e , d o not e n t e r a 'waiting a n d d e f i n e d ' m a r k e t p l a c e . " A n arts d e g r e e p r e p a r e s a n i n d i v i d u a l for a v a r i e t y of o c c u p a t i o n a l fields. However, fi n d i n g a j o b m a y not b e as c o n c r e t e a n d s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d c o m p a r e d with b e c o m i n g a 'teacher' a n d s e a r c h i n g for a t e a c h i n g j o b or b e c o m i n g a n 'engineer' 21 a n d o b t a i n i n g e m p l o y m e n t in e n g i n e e r i n g . Students must t a k e o n g r e a t e r responsibility in d e c i d i n g t h e o c c u p a t i o n a n d work setting in w h i c h t h e y will use their d e g r e e . It w a s e x p e c t e d t h a t students w h o h a v e o b t a i n e d at least 80 credits a n d a r e t h e r e f o r e c l o s e r to g r a d u a t i o n w o u l d b e c o n s i d e r i n g c a r e e r possibilities m o re t h a n students b e g i n n i n g the d e g r e e p r o g r a m . It was also a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t students in this p h a s e of their e d u c a t i o n w o u l d m a i n t a i n g r e a t e r clar i t y r e g a r d i n g a d e s i r e d c a r e e r p a t h as w e l l as t h e m o t i v a t i o n l e v e l n e e d e d in o r d e r to pursue i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews. I n d e e d , Crazier & Grassick (1996, p. 25) c a u t i o n , "The c o u n s e l l o r n e e d s to b e a w a r e th a t B.A. students m a y not b e m o t i v a t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e in c a r e e r p l a n n i n g activities until c l o s e r to g r a d u a t i o n or e v e n f o l l o w i n g g r a d u a t i o n . " A letter w a s sent to e a c h of t h e 116 students w h o met the p r e c e d i n g c r i t e r i a . They w e r e i n v i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e in a three session w o r k s h o p o n the t o p i c of 'informational interviewing'. A letter of c o n s e n t was also i n c l u d e d in the mailing. The students w e r e a s k e d to return s i g n e d i n f o r m e d c o n s e n t forms if t h e y w e r e i n t e r e s t e d in p a r t i c i p a t i n g . Two sets of workshops w e r e o f f e r e d . Initially, 13 students m a d e th e c o m m i t m e n t to a t t e n d workshops a n d c o n d u c t i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews. A d d i t i o n a l students e x p r e s s e d interest in p a r t i c i p a t i n g but w e r e either not 22 a b l e to c o m m i t to t h e time r e q u i r e d or t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d s c h e d u l i n g c o n f l i c t s with w o r k s h o p d a t e s . E a c h of the 13 p a r t i c i p a n t s w a s c o n t a c t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r for a pre-seminar interview. The interview was c o n d u c t e d by t e l e p h o n e a n d r a n g e d from fifteen to thirty minutes in length. The m e a n l e n g t h of pre-w o r k s h o p interviews w a s t w e n t y minutes. Interview questions w e r e p o s e d in a semi-structured format. The interview f o c u s e d o n e x p l o r i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' c a r e e r g o a l s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s for t h e future. All of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i v i d u a l l y b e f o r e t h e workshop. Three of t h e 13 p a r t i c i p a n t s w h o w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d w e r e u n a b l e to a t t e n d workshops d u e to illness or e x t e n u a t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s . There w e r e five students in e a c h of the t w o workshops. The workshops w e r e d e s i g n e d t o b e highly p a r t i c i p a t o r y a n d t h e r e f o r e kept small in size. P a r t i c i p a n t D e m o g r a p h i c s A brief d e m o g r a p h i c s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d at the first session of t h e workshop. P a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e a s k e d to n o t e their d a t e of birth, m a j o r / m i n o r / e x t e n d e d minor, a n t i c i p a t e d d a t e of g r a d u a t i o n , a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l goals. Ten students t o o k part in t h e r e s e a r c h i n c l u d i n g s e v e n f e m a l e s a n d t h r e e males. The a v e r a g e a g e of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s w a s 25 years. 23 The p a r t i c i p a n t s ' c o u r s e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n c l u d e d 1. fine arts, 2. p s y c h o l o g y m a j o r / s o c i o l o g y minor, 3. p s y c h o l o g y major, 4. history major, 5. g e o g r a p h y major/ history minor, a n d e x t e n d e d minors in the f o l l o w i n g : 6. english/history, 7 & 8. e n g l i s h / p s y c h o l o g y , 9 & 10. p s y c h o l o g y / s o c i o l o g y . Five of t h e t e n p a r t i c i p a n t s a n t i c i p a t e a spring 1996 g r a d u a t i o n , t h r e e a r e p l a n n i n g a D e c e m b e r 1996 g r a d u a t i o n d a t e , o n e p a r t i c i p a n t will g r a d u a t e in spring 1997 d u e to t h e extension of his d e g r e e to i n c o r p o r a t e a o n e y e a r c o - o p work term, a n d o n e p a r t i c i p a n t is c o n s i d e r i n g g r a d u a t i o n in 1998 or 1999 d u e to a r e c e n t c h a n g e in p r o g r a m from B a c h e l o r of Arts to Fine Arts. The p a r t i c i p a n t s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l s i n c l u d e d Fine Arts Instructor, S e m i n ar Presenter- w o r k i n g within t h e s c h o o l system, E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r , S c h o o l T e a c h e r , Lawyer, Urban Planner, E l e c t r o n i c M e d i a , C a r e e r Counsellor, C o u n s e l l o r or Lawyer, a n d U n d e c i d e d - l e a n i n g t o w a r d s T e a c h i n g . D e s c r i p t i o n of Assessment S c a l e A brief assessment s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d at t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e first w o r k s h o p session. The assessment s c a l e is c o m p o s e d of 22 items a n d was utilized to assess k n o w l e d g e g a i n e d in t h e w o r k s h o p as w e l l as levels of c o n t r o l a n d c o n f i d e n c e . A likert s c a l e was u s e d for all of t h e 22 items. 24 Sixteen of t h e questions w e r e a d a p t e d from t h e C a r e e r D e v e l o p m e n t Inventory (Thompson, L i n d e m a n , Super, J o r d a n , & Myers, 1984). The items w e r e d r a w n from t h e two s c a l e s of c a r e e r p l a n n i n g a n d c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n . The C a r e e r D e v e l o p m e n t Inventory c o n t a i n s t h r e e a d d i t i o n a l s c a l e s : d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , world-of-work information, a n d k n o w l e d g e of p r e f e r r e d o c c u p a t i o n a l group. The items a d a p t e d from t h e CDI a r e i n t e n d e d to assess the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r c e i v e d k n o w l e d g e r e g a r d i n g his or her c h o s e n o c c u p a t i o n a n d p e r c e i v e d sources of c a r e e r information. The a d d i t i o n a l six items w e r e d e s i g n e d t o m e a s u r e the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n of p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l a n d l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e . P u r p o s e a n d D e s c r i p t i o n of Workshops The p u r p o s e of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g workshops w a s t w o f o l d . The primary p u r p o s e w a s to assure t h a t e a c h of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s e m p l o y e d t h e s a m e def i n i t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviewing. S e c o n d l y , p r a c t i c a l exercises a n d role-plays w e r e utilized to b u i l d i n t e r v i e w i n g skills a n d c o n f i d e n c e in p r e p a r a t i o n for c o n d u c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews. A b e h a v i o u r a l a p p r o a c h was utilized in w o r k s h o p d e s i g n as o u t l i n e d by Azrin & Besalel (1980). A m o d e l of g r o u p e m p l o y m e n t c o u n s e l l i n g was also e m p l o y e d as d e l i n e a t e d by A m u n d s o n , Borgen, W e s t w o o d , & P o l l a r d (1989). 25 The i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g workshops w e r e c o n d u c t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r a n d h e l d w e e k l y for three c o n s e c u t i v e weeks. E a c h session w a s t w o hours in l e n g t h . The form a t w a s highly p a r t i c i p a t o r y with a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n b u i l d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g skills. Students w e r e e x p e c t e d to c o n d u c t i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews o n their o w n b e t w e e n sessions. O n e of t h e g o a l s of t h e w o r k s h o p w a s to e n a b l e p a r t i c i p a n t s to translate k n o w l e d g e of i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g to t h e a c t i v i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviewing. In t h e first session, p a r t i c i p a n t s l e a r n e d t h e t e c h n i q u e of i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g t h r o u g h s o c i a l m o d e l i n g , role-plays, a n d small g r o u p activities. The next t w o sessions c o n c e n t r a t e d o n sharing e x p e r i e n c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g with g r o u p m e m b e r s a n d a d d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e with i n t e r v i e w i n g skills. P a r t i c i p a n t Interviews A post-workshop in t e r v i e w w a s c o n d u c t e d with p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i v i d u a l l y t o r e v i e w their e x p e r i e n c e of i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviewing. The assessment s c a l e w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d a s e c o n d t i m e p r e c e d i n g t h e interview. The t e n interviews w e r e all c o n d u c t e d within a thirty d a y time p e r i o d to w e a k e n t h e e f f e c t s of m e m o r y distortion d u e to time lapse. In th e workshop, p a r t i c i p a n t s h a d b e e n e n c o u r a g e d to r e c o r d i n f o r m a t i o n 26 o b t a i n e d from interviews for their o w n future r e v i e w a n d also to f a c i l i t a t e m e m o r y ret e n t i o n a n d r e c a l l . The interviews r a n g e d from 45 minutes to 75 minutes with a n a v e r a g e l e n g t h of 60 minutes e a c h . Pa r t i c i p a n t s w e r e e n c o u r a g e d to r e f l e c t o n e a c h o n e of their i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews s e p a r a t e l y . They w e r e a s k e d to d e s c r i b e t h e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s t h a t t o o k p l a c e a n d to report b o t h positive c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s , or f a c i l i t a t i n g f actors, a n d n e g a t i v e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s , or h i n d e r i n g factors. P a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e also a s k e d a b o u t a n y c h a n g e s in their c a r e e r g o a l s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s w h i c h h a d previously b e e n s t a t e d in t h e pre-workshop interview. P a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e p r o v i d e d with i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g c o u n s e l l i n g services a t t h e university c o l l e g e . These services c o u l d b e a c c e s s e d in t h e e v e n t of p e r s o n a l issues arising d u r ing t h e c o u r s e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n in this r e s e a r c h . Information O b t a i n e d for Analysis The interviews w e r e a n a l y z e d using t h e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e in o r d e r t o g a i n a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e x p e r i e n c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g . Information w a s also p r o v i d e d r e g a r d i n g c h a n g e s in p a r t i c i p a n t s ' c a r e e r e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d c a r e e r goals. The assessment s c a l e p r o v i d e d d a t a r e g a r d i n g k n o w l e d g e g a i n e d during the w o r k s h o p a n d during interviews. It also p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n 27 a b o u t p o t e n t i a l c h a n g e s in p a r t i c i p a n t s ' sense of c o n t r o l r e g a r d i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . Analysis of t h e Incidents E a c h of t h e t e n interviews w a s a u d i o - r e c o r d e d . The a u d i o t a p e s w e r e r e v i e w e d for t h e p u r p o s e of e x t r a c t i n g c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s . C a r e w a s t a k e n to r e c o r d t h e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s in t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' o w n words. These i n c i d e n t s w e r e c o d e d in o r d e r of o c c u r r e n c e a n d also a c c o r d i n g to p a r t i c i p a n t . There w e r e 145 positive c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s , or f a c i l i t a t i n g f a ctors, a n d 53 n e g a t i v e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s , or h i n d e r i n g f a c t o r s for a t o t a l of 198 c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s . This translates to a n a v e r a g e of 19.8 i n c i d e n t s p e r p a r t i c i p a n t . The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d from o n e to six i n d i v i d u a l s for a t o t a l of 23 i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews. E a c h p a r t i c i p a n t c o n d u c t e d a n a v e r a g e of 2.3 interviews. The l e n g t h of interviews v a r i e d . P a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e not r e q u i r e d t o r e c o r d t h e l e n g t h of time spent in t e r v i e w i n g but most of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews w e r e assessed to b e in t h e r a n g e of 15 minutes to 45 minutes. The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s w e r e so r t e d a n d p l a c e d in c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h e m e r g e d from a pr o c e s s of sorting a n d re-sorting i n c i d e n t s as t h e m e s b e c a m e c l e a r . There w e r e eigh t c a t e g o r i e s for t h e f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r s , or 28 positive c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s , a n d four c a t e g o r i e s for t he h i n d e r i n g factors, or n e g a t i v e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s . Reliability A n d e r s s o n & Nilsson (1964), express t he issue of subjectivity inherent in t h e fo r m u l a t i o n of c a t e g o r i e s , It is c l e a r t h a t different p e o p l e m a y systematize i n c i d e n t s in different ways. But o n e c a n a l w a y s refer to t h e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l . The essential thing seems t h e r e f o r e to b e that t h e c a t e g o r y system c h o s e n is a n o b v i o u s one, a n d with as small a d e g r e e of arbitrariness a n d c h a n c e as possible." (p. 400) A n d e r s s o n & Nilsson suggest t h e use of i n d e p e n d e n t raters in assessing reliability. In this r e s e a r c h , t w o i n d e p e n d e n t raters, w h o a r e not i n v o l v e d with this study, w e r e a s k e d to sort a sub-group of c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s . They w e r e p r o v i d e d with c a t e g o r i e s a l o n g with definitions of the c a t e g o r i e s . The raters w e r e a s k e d i n d i v i d u a l l y to sort t h e sub-group of 52 c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s into their r e s p e c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s . These i n c i d e n t s w e r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of all t h e c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d i n g f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r s a n d h i n d e r i n g factors. 29 F l a n a g a n (1954) a n d A n d e r s s o n & Nilsson (1964) suggest t h a t a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n r e s e a r c h e r a n d i n d e p e n d e n t rater s h o u l d b e at least 75%. E a c h of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s w a s c o n t a c t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y a f t e r c a t e g o r i e s h a d b e e n f o r m e d , d e f i n e d , a n d reliability c o n f i r m e d . The p u r p o s e of this c o n t a c t w a s to c o n f i r m a g r e e m e n t of t h e researcher's c a t e g o r i e s a n d t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' v i e w of his or her o w n e x p e r i e n c e . The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i v i d u a l l y c o n f i r m e d that t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of their i n c i d e n t s w a s a c c u r a t e . 30 CHAPTER IV RESULTS There w e r e a t o t a l of 198 c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s d e s c r i b e d i n c l u d i n g 145 positive i n c i d e n t s or f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r s a n d 53 n e g a t i v e i n c i d e n t s or hin d e r i n g factors. Eight c a t e g o r i e s w e r e f o r m u l a t e d from t he positive i n c i d e n t s a n d four c a t e g o r i e s from t h e n e g a t i v e i n c i d e n t s . Pre- W orkshop Interviews Most of t h e summer a n d part-time work e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d w a s not p e r c e i v e d as re l a t i n g to p a r t i c i p a n t s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l goals. However, all t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s h a d work e x p e r i e n c e a n d o f t e n a c o m b i n a t i o n of work e x p e r i e n c e a n d v o l u n t e e r e x p e r i e n c e . These jobs i n c l u d e d working a t a n i c e c r e a m store, restaurant, m a n u a l labour, sales, t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n d a n c e a n d d r a m a , c o a c h i n g , tutoring, parks d e p a r t m e n t , s e a r c h a n d rescue, administration, marketing, p u b l i c relations, t h e a t r e , crisis line, business, s e c r e t a r i a l , a n d horticulture. The reasons for pursuing a d e g r e e at this p a r t i c u l a r university c o l l e g e i n c l u d e d c l o s e proximity to home, c o s t - e f f e c t i v e c o m p a r e d to university, e n j o y a b l e a t m o s p h e r e , small class size, p o t e n t i a l for g r e a t e r i n t e r a c t i o n with instructors c o m p a r e d to university, a n d informal a t m o s p h e r e . 31 In r e g a r d to p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s for t h e workshop, t he fol l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s w e r e v o c a l i z e d : n e e d for d i r e c t i o n in a n t i c i p a t i o n of g r a d u a t i o n , g a i n i n g abi l i t y to a p p r o a c h individuals assessed as h a v i n g authority, o b t a i n i n g f o c u s a n d cl a r i f y i n g c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n , r e c e i v i n g instruction o n h o w to c o n d u c t i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews, o b t a i n i n g k n o w l e d g e r e g a r d i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s requiring a B.A. o t h e r t h a n t e a c h i n g , a n d i m p r o v i n g i n t e r v i e w i n g skills. O n e of t h e w o r k s h o p p a r t i c i p a n t s d e s c r i b e d her r e a c t i o n to t h e letter of invitation, "It hit a spot b e c a u s e of the situation I'm in (lac k of c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n ) . I thought, oh, it's a student d o i n g t h e workshop. It sounds interesting a n d m a y b e I'll l e a rn something." A n o t h e r student c o m m e n t e d , "It c a m e at a g o o d time b e c a u s e I've b e e n thinking a b o u t w h a t I w a n t t o d o a lot." P a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e a s k e d a b o u t their c o m f o r t l e v e l in a p p r o a c h i n g individuals to interview t h e m a b o u t their o c c u p a t i o n . The students w e r e a s k e d to r a t e their c o m f o r t l e v e l o n a s c a l e of 1-10 with 1 d e n o t i n g 'very u n c o m f o r t a b l e ' a n d 10 d e n o t i n g 'very c o m f o r t a b l e ' . The c o m f o r t l e v e l r a n g e d from 3 to 10 with a m e a n of 7.1. Post- Workshop Interviews P a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i v i d u a l l y a f t e r t h e y h a d c o n d u c t e d their i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews. S e v e n of t h e t e n p a r t i c i p a n t s 32 h a d not h e a r d of i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g previous to t h e letter of invi t a t i o n to a t t e n d t h e workshop. Of t h e three, o n e of t h e students h a d b e e n i n f o r m e d a b o u t t h e t e c h n i q u e t h r o u g h W hat C o l o r is Your P a r a c h u t e s e v e r a l years previous a n d h a d a c t i v e l y p u r s u e d i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews. The s e c o n d stu d e n t h a d h e a r d a b o u t it r e c e n t l y a n d h a d not c o n d u c t e d a n y i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews. The third s t u d e n t w a s familiar with t h e t erm t h r o u g h a friend w h o a l l e g e d l y o b t a i n e d a j o b t h r o u g h a n i n f o r m a t i o n a l interview. A fourth student h a d n e v e r h e a r d the t erm but s t a t e d t h a t he h a d d o n e i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g informally in the past. A fifth p a r t i c i p a n t , w h e n a s k e d if she h a d e v e r h e a r d t h e t erm s t a t e d , "No, I h a d b e e n s t e w i n g a b o u t it for a f e w months but I t h o u g h t it w a s my o w n i d e a . I thought, sure o t h e r p e o p l e d o it, but I didn't k n o w that it h a d a n o f f i c i a l title a n d that o t h e r p e o p l e a c t u a l l y c a r e a b o u t it. K n o w i n g that t h e r e is s u c h a thing as i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g h e l p e d m e to g e t out t h e r e more." Aft e r c o n d u c t i n g their o w n i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews, all of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s felt t h a t it h a d b e e n b e n e f i c i a l a n d t h a t t h e y w o u l d c o n t i n u e to use t h e t e c h n i q u e . S o m e of t h e students s a i d t h a t t h e y "should" b e using it but e x p r e s s e d difficulty in g a i n i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y m o t i v a t i o n . O n e student a d m i t t e d t h a t it w a s helpful t o h a v e a "push" to a c t u a l l y g o out a n d try it. 33 A stude n t w h o h a d c o n d u c t e d six i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews r e f l e c t e d o n his e x p e r i e n c e , "It has f o c u s e d m e t o w a r d s my c a r e e r g o a l . If I e v e r d e c i d e o n a n o t h e r c a r e e r g o a l I h a v e a m e a n s by w h i c h I c a n g o a n d e x p l o r e it. I h a v e more d e f i n e d questions t h a t I c a n ask. I h a v e more c o n t a c t s now." DESCRIPTION OF THE CATEGORIES Following is a d e s c r i p t i o n of the c a t e g o r i e s a l o n g with e x a m p l e s for e a c h c a t e g o r y . N o t e t h a t 'interviewer' d e s c r i b e s t h e p a r t i c i p a n t c o n d u c t i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a l interview a n d 'interviewee' d e s c r i b e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d . 34 POSITIVE CRITICAL INCIDENTS TABLE 1 C a t e q o r y # of C r i t i c a l Incidents R e p r e s e n t a t i o n Information- Interviewee's Personal E x p e r i e n c e 15 8 0 % Information- O c c u p a t i o n 27 8 0 % Information- Providing O p t i o n s 9 4 0 % E n c o u r a g e m e n t & C o n f i r m a t i o n 23 7 0 % Interviewee's Personality 15 6 0 % Interview Process 23 8 0 % Assessing t h e 'Fit' 22 9 0 % Providing C o n t a c t s or Post-interview A s s i s t a n c e 11 6 0 % Total: 145 Note: # of C r i t i c a l Incidents d e s c r i b e s t h e t o t a l n u m b e r of i n c i d e n t s p r o v i d e d within t h e s p e c i f i e d c a t e g o r y . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n d e s c r i b e s t h e p e r c e n t a g e of p a r t i c i p a n t s w h o v o c a l i z e d o n e or more c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s in t h e s p e c i f i e d c a t e g o r y . 35 Information- Interviewee's P e r s o n a l E x p e r i e n c e Includes interviewee's e d u c a t i o n a l a n d c a r e e r p a t h , c a r e e r c h o i c e s a n d p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n b a s e d o n his/ her e x p e r i e n c e . E xamples "She s a i d t h a t while she w a s t e a c h i n g , she also g o t s o m e extra ESL training a n d t h a t h e l p e d her a lot b e c a u s e she has ESL students. She s a i d t h a t w o u l d b e a really g o o d th i n g to take." "She s a i d that g r a d . s c h o o l wasn't t h a t b a d . She felt very y o u n g . There w e r e a lot of p e o p l e t h a t w e r e o l d e r t h a n her. "He also g a v e m e a g o o d i d e a of w h a t he d i d a f t e r university a n d t h e p a t h that t o o k him to w h e r e he is t o d a y . "B a s i c a l l y h e s a i d , 'I can't b e l i e v e t h e y p a y m e to d o this.' It w a s really fun t o listen t o b e c a u s e y o u c o u l d tell t hat h e just l o v e d w h a t he w a s doing." 36 Information- O c c u p a t i o n N e w inf o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to t h e interviewer's c a r e e r goals. Information a n d a d v i c e o n e m p l o y m e n t a n d g r a d u a t e or professional s c h o o l . Examples "I a s k e d a b o u t t h e stress l e v e l a n d he s a i d that it w a s a b o u t a six o n a s c a l e of o n e to ten. That gives m e kind of a n i d e a . " "She s a i d that t h e r e a r e a f e w b i g c o m p a n i e s in V a n c o u v e r , a n d a lot of t h e m will hire p e o p l e right from g r a d s c h o o l . Y o u might not b e wo r k i n g full-time but m a y b e o n a part-time basis." "She w a s telling m e a b o u t s o m e of the work th a t she h a d d o n e at g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . Y o u r e a d t h e c u r r i c u l u m but y o u don't k n o w e x a c t l y w h a t it's like. H e a r i n g it from her, y o u sort of g e t a n i d e a of w h a t is i n v o l v e d . " "He d e f i n e d s o m e terms of t h e l e g a l profession." 37 "He told me about the kinds of things that they look for when they are hiring teachers. He has hired about 35 teachers so that was really kind of good to hear." "She told me about the various paths into the profession." Information- Providing Options Reflection on additional career paths available. Re-considering past options and assessing new possibilities. Examples "Doing what he does is a definite option." "It made me feel better about the chance of getting work. I had never thought of working up north. I had always envisioned myself working around here." "In December, when I was set up with the work study, I didn't want to do public work. I had these pre-determined ideas of what it would be like, and to some extent, it was right. But there is a lot of other work that goes on. Now I see more options I guess for the future. Before I just focused on the negative side." 38 "She e x p o s e d m e to a n ot h e r c a r e e r , a n o t h e r position that's a n option." "It w a s helpful in t h a t it m a d e m e think a b o u t other possibilities." E n c o u r a g e m e n t & C o n f i r m a t i o n G a i n i n g e n c o u r a g e m e n t , inspiration, h o p e , r e a s s u r a n c e , or co n f i r m a t i o n . E xamples "I t o l d her that I w a s totall y f r e a k e d out a b o u t t h e parents a n d she sa i d , 'Don't worry a b o u t it t o o much. It's just a small part of w h a t y o u a r e doing.' That m a d e m e f e e l a little better." "It w a s o n e of those reassuring kinds of things. Y o u know, k e e p d o i n g w h a t you're d o i n g . K e e p g o i n g with your interests a n d s o m e t h i n g will c o m e up." "I a s k e d her w h i c h sc h o o l s she w o u l d suggest. Two of t h e s c h o o l s I h a d a l r e a d y a p p l i e d to w h i c h is a g o o d sign." 39 "She w a s very s u p p o r t i v e of t h e e d u c a t i o n a l route that I c h o s e e v e n t h o u g h it wasn't in m e d i a c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . It w a s in arts. She thinks t h a t I h a v e t h e skills t h a t it t akes to work well." "It w a s e n c o u r a g i n g b e c a u s e I've sort of b e e n thinking, 'Oh, a d e g r e e , what's t h a t ? That's nothing.' A n d here's a n e x a m p l e of s o m e o n e w h o loves their j o b a n d can't g o on." "It m akes it m o re a p p e a l i n g t h a t a c t u a l l y b o t h p e o p l e s a i d t h a t t h e y e n j o y e d w h a t t h e y w e r e d o i n g . If t h e y h a d s a i d t h a t it w a s stressful a n d not very r e w a r d i n g , t h e n I w o u l d h a v e put t h e brakes on. M a y b e I w o u l d h a v e e n d e d u p d o i n g s o m e t h i n g else." Interviewee's Personality The i n t e r v i e w e e is a s sessed as b e i n g o p e n , friendly, o u t g o i n g , helpful, kind, li k a b l e , c a n d i d , or e n g a g i n g . E xamples "I think m a y b e I'll g o a n d ask him a g a i n . He's a pretty friendly guy. He's helpful." "I liked her personality. She is very o u t g o i n g a n d upbeat." 40 "He was very c a n d i d . " "She has lots of i n f o r m a t i o n a n d she's t h e kind of person w h o w o u l d share a n y t h i n g she's got." "I w o u l d f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e g o i n g to s e e him a g a i n . He's a lik a b l e guy. He's pretty c a s u a l . " Interview Process Thoughts a n d feelings b e f o r e , during, or a f t e r t h e interview. R e f l e c t i o n o n t h e pro c e s s of t h e interview. E xamples "She almost s e e m e d to t a k e o v e r a n d w a s p r o v i d i n g w h a t she felt w a s most i m p o r t a n t for m e to k n o w rather t h a n w h a t I h a d c o m e in t h e r e to ask. That's p e r h a p s w h y t h e interview e x c e e d e d my e x p e c t a t i o n s . " "I f e e l pretty c o n f i d e n t a b o u t t h e w h o l e thing w h i c h I think is g o o d . I'm kind of shy to g o a n d talk to p e o p l e w h o I outrightly don't know. I just f e e l c o n f i d e n t a n d for m e that's important." "This last i n t e r v i e w w a s more helpful to m e t h a n anything." 41 "I guess I w e n t from b e i n g a little a p p r e h e n s i v e as to w h e t h e r t h e y w o u l d b e responsive or not t o a c o n f i d e n c e in thinking that p e o p l e l o v e to talk a b o u t w h a t t h e y a r e doing." Assessing t h e 'Fit' C o n s i d e r i n g n e w in f o r m a t i o n as c o m p a r e d to interviewer's o w n personality, p r e f e r e n c e s , interests, or values. Examples "I a s k e d him if t h e p r i n c i p a l w a s w a t c h i n g o v e r him a n d he sa i d , 'No, not at all . ' I w a s surprised. I w a s g l a d . I f e e l u n c o m f o r t a b l e b e i n g w a t c h e d over." "He s a i d t h a t most p e o p l e h a v e part-time jobs rather t h a n full-time. I s e e myself d o i n g that b e c a u s e I'm d o i n g t h a t a l r e a d y . Just t a l k i n g to him a b o u t it m a d e m e f e e l better. I'm not t h e only o n e who's d o i n g this c r a z y stuff, h a v i n g s e v e r a l part-time jobs." "She w a s sa y i n g t h a t p e o p l e in p r i v a t e p r a c t i c e s e e nine or t e n p e o p l e a d a y a n d that's just not s o m e t h i n g t h a t I w o u l d w a n t to do." 42 "I w a s a l w a y s trying to fit myself in. All t h e time y o u a r e listening to w h a t t h e y a r e saying, to t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y a r e g i v i n g you, a n d h o w y o u fit into that- C o u l d I d o t h a t ? a n d W h a t w o u l d I b e like if I w a s d o i n g t h a t ? " "One thing t h a t c o n c e r n s m e a b o u t b e i n g a l a w y e r is m a i n t a i n i n g one's integrity a n d honesty a n d kindness. W h e t h e r o n e has to lose that, or w h e t h e r o n e c a n m a i n t a i n that. Those a r e i m p o r t a n t parts of my personality. It c o n c e r n e d m e t h a t I wouldn't b e a b l e to m a i n t a i n t h e m but she has m a n a g e d to, a n d her v a l u e s s e e m very similar to mine." "Being in a c o n t r a c t position gives her a c e r t a i n a m o u n t of flexibility a n d I like that. Working for a c o n t r a c t is a different kind of m i n d set, but t h a t doesn't b o t h e r me." P r o v i d i n g C o n t a c t s or Post-interview A s s i s t a n c e G a i n i n g a d d i t i o n a l c o n t a c t s a n d offers of post-interview a s s i s t a n c e . Examples "He t o l d me, 'You c a n s e n d your resume with a c o v e r letter a n d I will s e n d it out t o all t h e ministries a n d we'll try to find y o u a j o b u p here.' He's so willing t o h a n d out my resume to all t h e s e p e o p l e a n d he has no c l u e w h o I am." 43 "I felt g o o d w h e n she s a i d , 'If y o u e v e r n e e d to talk, just g i v e m e a c a l l . ' It's h a r d to find out this stuff w h e n y o u don't know p e o p l e . She left t h e d o o r o p e n for m e so I felt g o o d a b o u t that." "He is m a k i n g all t h e s e p h o n e ca l l s for me. It's really n i c e t h a t someone's willing t o g o out of their w a y for me." "She s a i d t h a t I c o u l d use her as a c o n t a c t , as a n 'in' t o a p o t e n t i a l job. She has w o r k e d t h e r e previously a n d she has a c q u a i n t a n c e s a n d friends there. She w e n t so far as t o g e t m e t h e s w i t c h b o a r d number." "He g a v e m e t h r e e o t h e r n a m e s of really inspirational t e a c h e r t y p e p e o p l e t h a t I c o u l d talk to. He s a i d that he k n e w a zillion others a n d t h a t t h e y w o u l d b e h a p p y to talk to me." 44 NEGATIVE CRITICAL INCIDENTS TABLE 2 C a t e q o r y # of C r i t i c a l Incidents R e p r e s e n t a t i o n N e g a t i v e A f f e c t 8 6 0 % Interview Structure 14 7 0 % P e r c e i v e d Destructive Factors 16 8 0 % U n a n s w e r e d Questions or D i s c o u r a g i n g Information 15 6 0 % Total: 53 Note: # of C r i t i c a l Incidents d e s c r i b e s t h e t o t a l n u m b e r of i n c i d e n t s p r o v i d e d within t h e s p e c i f i e d c a t e g o r y . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n d e s c r i b e s t h e p e r c e n t a g e of p a r t i c i p a n t s w h o v o c a l i z e d o n e or more c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s in t h e s p e c i f i e d c a t e g o r y . N e g a t i v e A f f e c t Including discomfort, anxiety, a n d worry b e f o r e , during, or af t e r t h e interview. 45 Examples "If it's s o m e o n e I don't know, I worry a b o u t w h a t t h e y a r e thinking. I don't w a n t to ask t h e m questions t h a t I p r o b a b l y should. I f e e l t h a t I s h o u l d k n o w more, but I don't." "She really d i v u l g e d a lot.of p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n so it w a s a little bit u n c o m f o r t a b l e . She doesn't e v e n k n o w me." "The s e c o n d interview was kind of a question- answer, que s t i o n - a n s w e r interview. It w a s kind of u n c o m f o r t a b l e b e c a u s e I e x p e c t e d it to b e m ore of a c o n v e r s a t i o n . I wish it h a d b e e n more of a c o n v e r s a t i o n . " "I w a s nervous." "I w a s h o p i n g that I wouldn't b e w a s t i n g her t i m e a n d that she wouldn't b e t o o busy for m e e v e n t h o u g h w e h a d a l r e a d y set u p t h e interview. I thought, w h a t if she's a busy person t h a t has a million things to d o in a d a y a n d I just w a n t to t a k e up her t i m e a n d talk." Interview Structure R e l a t e d to t h e interviewer's sense of c o n t r o l during t h e interview. The interviewer e x p e r i e n c e d difficulty in g a i n i n g a b a l a n c e b e t w e e n t o o 46 m u c h c o n t r o l (i.e. asking t o o m a n y questions) or a l a c k of c o n t r o l (i.e. r a m b l i n g , losing focus). Examples "I stuck to t h e questions t o o m u c h rather t h a n just letting him talk." "I h a d felt I h a d lost c o n t r o l in t h e int e r v i e w e v e n t h o u g h it w a s g o i n g very, very we l l . It wasn't of my d o i n g . Basically, I w a s o n t h e r e c e i v i n g e n d . Af t e r sort of w i n d i n g d o w n I h a d a list of n a m e s a n d a d v i c e o n different things t h a t I h a d j o t t e d d o w n o n my p a p e r . I l o o k e d b a c k at my questions a n d I thought, w e l l , I'd b e t t e r g e t s o m e of the g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n I c a m e for. Then I a s k e d sort of a n a w k w a r d q u e s t i o n that sort of s e e m e d disjoint e d to t h e rest of t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n . It s e e m e d to fight t h e flow, it s e e m e d th a t I w a s t o o obviously trying to interview now. I sort of felt t hat it w a s unnecessary. It w a s t o o sharp a c o n t r a s t with t h e previous discussion. It almost s e e m e d like I w a s t a k i n g a ste p back." "I f o u n d t h a t in my first i n t erview I h a d t o o m a n y questions d o w n o n my p a p e r . I w a s thinking in my h e a d , okay, I've g o t t o g e t all this i n f o r m a t i o n out of her." " M a y b e it w a s t o o c a s u a l , s o m etimes y o u w a n t to g e t more to t h e point." 47 "It t o o k so long, she spent so m u c h time w h e n I h a d a s k e d her for only 15 minutes. There w a s n o t h i n g that I c o u l d really d o a b o u t it b e c a u s e t h e last 15 or 20 minutes she really g o t into a story a n d it w o u l d h a v e b e e n i n a p p r o p r i a t e for m e t o h a v e s t o p p e d it. The nitty gritty d e t a i l s of t h e sexua l harassment c a s e just weren't that relevant." P e r c e i v e d D e s t r u c t i v e Factors Factors that w e r e p e r c e i v e d as n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e s o n t h e pro c e s s of t h e interview. These i n c l u d e d a l a c k of p r e p a r a t i o n , t i m e restraints, d i f f e r e n c e s in interviewer's a n d interviewee's e x p e c t a t i o n s , a n d t h e interviewee's personality. E xamples "She w a s kind of nasty." "I c a u g h t her a little off g u a r d so I w o u l d h a v e p r e f e r r e d m a k i n g a n a p p o i n t m e n t so she w o u l d k n o w w h a t to expe c t . " "I w o u l d h a v e like d him to o p e n up a bit m ore a n d tell m e a f e w more stories of w h a t it w a s like g o i n g t h r o u g h l a w scho o l . " 48 "I s h o u l d h a v e b e e n more p r e p a r e d w h e n I w a s g e t t i n g into s o m e t h i n g like this. If I h a d b e e n r e a d y to g o w h e n I g o t this infusion of inspiration, I c o u l d h a v e f o l l o w e d t h r o u g h with it. I still i n t e n d to a n d I a m m o v i n g slowly t o w a r d s t h a t but I f e e l as t h o u g h my jets h a v e c o o l e d . I w o u l d h a v e b e e n m u c h more p r e p a r e d . " "I think t h a t he w o u l d h a v e b e e n q u i t e h a p p y to g o o n l o n g e r if h e h a d not h a d a n o t h e r a p p o i n t m e n t . " U n a n s w e r e d Questions or D i s c o u r a g i n g Information E x p e r i e n c i n g a desire for m ore d e t a i l e d , s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n d u r i n g or a f t e r t h e interview. Learning of d i s c o u r a g i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d to c a r e e r goals. Examples "The ministry of e d u c a t i o n s a i d , 'Yes, w e only h a v e 450 s c h o o l t e a c h e r s but e v e n if w e roll o v e r 1 0 % that m e a n s only 45 jobs.' They m a d e it s o u n d like its mot really t h e g r e a t e s t pursuit to b e running a n d j u m p i n g into. That w a s a little bit d e p r e s s i n g in a sense." 49 "I w a s surprised t h a t h e s a i d t h a t o n e of his major sources of c o n f l i c t w a s c o l l e a g u e s . I w a s really surprised a b o u t that. I wish I c o u l d h a v e a s k e d him m ore a b o u t it but I didn't really f e e l that I should." "I think I w o u l d h a v e liked to ask him e v e n m o r e s p e c i f i c questions like h o w h e g o t his stuff into galleries a n d if he h a d a n y suggestions of w h o I c o u l d talk to." "It w a s d i s c o u r a g i n g in m a n y ways: in that I c o u l d n ' t g e t into it a n d d o it all t h e time, not th a t w a y anyways, a n d also b e c a u s e I'm surprised that t h e r e aren't m o r e p e o p l e d o i n g m ore of this a n d also t h a t there isn't m o re of it out there." (information o n c o n d u c t i n g seminars in schools) "I w a s thinking a b o u t g o i n g into her o f f i c e a n d tal k i n g t o her a g a i n b e c a u s e I w o u l d like to k n o w t h e d e t a i l of w h a t she a c t u a l l y , p h y s i c a l l y does. How m u c h time she s p e n d s o n p a p e r w o r k , h o w m u c h time she sp e n d s ta l k i n g to p e o p l e , a n d t h e l e v e l of e a c h there is." 50 VALIDATION OF THE CATEGORIES TABLE 3: RELIABILITY OF CATEGORIES J u d g e s A g r e e m e n t Rater #1 8 7 % Rater #2 9 2 % A v e r a g e Inter-rater reliability 89.5% P a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e also c o n t a c t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y a f t e r t h e f o r m a t i o n of c a t e g o r i e s . Nine of t h e t e n students w e r e c o n t a c t e d . O n e of the individuals c o u l d not b e r e a c h e d . E a c h p a r t i c i p a n t w a s g i v e n a d e s c r i p t i o n of c a t e g o r i e s a n d i n f o r m e d of his or her p a r t i c i p a t i o n in e a c h one. They w e r e a s k e d to verify this r e p r e s e n t a t i o n in their o w n e x p e r i e n c e . All p a r t i c i p a n t s a t t e s t e d t h a t t he results p r o v i d e d a n a c c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . SURVEY DATA A survey w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d b e f o r e t h e w o r k s h o p a n d af t e r all p a r t i c i p a n t s h a d c o n d u c t e d their i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews. Eight of t h e items w e r e a d a p t e d from t he C a r e e r D e v e l o p m e n t Inventory to assess 51 p a r t i c i p a n t s ' k n o w l e d g e of his or her c h o s e n o c c u p a t i o n . Examples of t h e s e items i n c l u d e the abilities a n d e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e d , w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , j o b o u t l o o k a n d p o t e n t i a l for a d v a n c e m e n t . A five point likert s c a l e w a s p r o v i d e d with t h e f o l l o w i n g d e s i g n a t i o n s : 1. Hardly a n y k n o w l e d g e . 2. A little k n o w l e d g e . 3. A n a v e r a g e a m o u n t of k n o w l e d g e . 4. A g o o d d e a l of k n o w l e d g e . > 5. A g r e a t d e a l of k n o w l e d g e . The m e a n t o t a l of all t h e items for t h e first a n d s e c o n d administrations w a s 3.14 a n d 3.76 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The f o l l o w i n g six items in t h e survey w e r e also a d a p t e d from the C a r e e r D e v e l o p m e n t Inventory to assess w h e t h e r or not t h e f o l l o w i n g individuals w o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d in assisting with c a r e e r plans: friends, instructors, counsellors, e d u c a t i o n a l advisors, p e o p l e currently w o r k i n g in t h e o c c u p a t i o n a n d family members. A four point likert s c a l e w a s p r o v i d e d with t h e f o l l o w i n g d e s i g n a t i o n s : 1. Definitely not. 2. P r o b a b l y not. 3. P r o b a b l y . 4. Definitely. 52 The m e a n t o t a l of all t h e items for t h e first a n d s e c o n d administrations w a s 3.20 a n d 3.47 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The r e m a i n i n g six items m e a s u r e d t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t r o l o v e r c a r e e r plans. A likert s c a l e was utilized with t h e f o l l o w i n g d e s i g n a t i o n s : 1. False 2. Mostly false 3. Mostly true 4. True T a b l e 4 notes t h e s p e c i f i c items a l o n g with p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate. 53 TABLE 4 PERCEPTION OF PERSONAL CONTROL IN CAREER GOALS #1 #2 F r e q u e n c v 1. 1 f e e l in c o n t r o l of my j o b s e a r c h . 2.2 3.0 5 0 % 2. 1 f e e l c o n f i d e n t a b o u t my skills in i n t e r v i e w i n g s o m e o n e a b o u t their o c c u p a t i o n . 2.3 3.4 7 0 % 3. The kind of j o b t h a t 1 g e t a f t e r g r a d u a t i o n d e p e n d s o n m e a n d my efforts. 3.6 3.7 3 0 % * 4. The kind of j o b t h a t 1 g e t a f t e r g r a d u a t i o n d e p e n d s o n o u t s i d e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 2.1 2.2 3 0 % * 5. 1 f e e l optimistic a b o u t my future j o b p r o s p e c t s . 2.9 3.3 4 0 % 6. M y e d u c a t i o n will b e a g r e a t asset in my j o b prospects. 3.5 3.6 1 0 % Note: #1 d e s i g n a t e s first a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , ( m e a n for responses is p r o v i d e d ) #2 d e s i g n a t e s s e c o n d ad m i n i s t r a t i o n , ( m e a n for responses is p r o v i d e d ) F r e q u e n c y notes p e r c e n t a g e of p a r t i c i p a n t s w h o c h a n g e d responses from first a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to s e c o n d admini s t r a t i o n . * notes s o m e c h a n g e s in o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n t h a n e x p e c t e d . 54 A n e c d o t a l Findings The p a r t i c i p a n t s p r o v i d e d s e v e r a l u n e x p e c t e d benefits that t h e y h a d d e r i v e d from c o n d u c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews. O n e of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s w h o h a d p l a n n e d to pursue further study in e l e c t r o n i c journalism l e a r n e d that it w a s possible for him to byp a s s further e d u c a t i o n a n d e n t e r d i r e c t l y into t h e f i e l d . He f o u n d this surprising a n d c a l l e d it "an infusion of ins p i r a t i o n " but p a r a d o x i c a l l y he f o u n d it almost t r o u b l e s o m e : "I guess there's a part of m e that's almost s c a r e d it c o u l d h a p p e n . W h a t w o u l d I d o ? Then I've g o t this j o b a n d t h a t c h a n g e s my p a t h . I'd rather w a n d e r a l o n g this s a f e p a t h t h a n t a k e p o t e n t i a l l y e x c i t i n g diversions (pause) w h i c h c o u l d b e g o o d for m e but I don't know." A n o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t r e f l e c t e d o n w h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e of t h e i n t e r v i e w e e m a y h a v e b e e n : "Perhaps I a m e v e n h e l p i n g t h e m (interviewee) in a w a y to b e c a u s e it gives t h e m s o m e rea l i z a t i o n . Later t h e y might g o h o m e a n d think, 'Someone is i n t e r e s t e d in w h a t I do. How d o I f e e l a b o u t w h a t I t o l d t h e m a n d h o w I r e a c t e d ? ' They might g e t s o m e t h i n g 55 positive from it to. I a m sure t h e y w o u l d g o h o m e a n d think a b o u t w h a t t h e y t a l k e d about." During t h e post-workshop interview, o n e s t u d e n t s t a t e d t h a t she s u s p e c t e d i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g h a d b e e n b e n e f i c i a l to a n o t h e r w o r k s h o p p a r t i c i p a n t by g e n e r a l i z i n g t o e n h a n c e d skills for j o b interviewing, "For s o m e o n e like him w h o w a s q u i t e nervous, I think it w a s q u i t e g o o d a n d I think he'll d o b e t t e r t h e next time he walks into a n interview." J o b interviews w e r e not d i s c u s s e d in t h e workshop. O d d l y , w h e n this i n d i v i d u a l w a s a s k e d a b o u t his e x p e r i e n c e of i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g he s t a t e d , "I think t h a t b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d myself in a j o b interview s o m e w h e r e I w o u l d h a v e more c o n f i d e n c e just b e c a u s e I h a v e b e e n in t h a t situation, a n d I've b e e n o n t h e o t h e r side. I think I w o u l d f e e l m o r e c o m f o r t a b l e b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d . " This t h e m e of ' c o n f i d e n c e b u i l d i n g ' was a f a c t o r r e i t e r a t e d by a n o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t : 56 "I f e e l pretty c o n f i d e n t a b o u t t h e w h o l e thing w h i c h I think is g o o d . I'm kind of shy to g o a n d talk t o p e o p l e w h o I don't outrightly know. I just f e e l c o n f i d e n t a n d for m e that's important." C o n d u c t i n g interviews w a s p e r c e i v e d as e n h a n c i n g a sense of a g e n c y : "It w a s a r e a l e y e o p e n e r . I didn't k n o w that p e o p l e a c t u a l l y w e n t out t h e r e for t h e p u r p o s e of g e t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n like that. I didn't k n o w w h e r e p e o p l e d i d g e t information. I a s s u m e d th a t t h e y either k n e w s o m e b o d y th a t d i d it, or y o u r e a d a b o o k a b o u t it, or y o u r e a d s o m e inf o r m a t i o n o n it. But t h e n a g a i n I think it's so obvious. If y o u w a n t to k n o w s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e f i e l d y o u just ask s o m e b o d y . It's a really g o o d w a y of g e t t i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n y o u n e e d so I w o u l d d o it a g a i n . " O n e student r e f l e c t e d o n t h e process, "It w a s really n e a t a n d I'm g l a d I d i d it. I'm g l a d y o u m a d e us g o out t h e r e a n d d o it. A f t e r t h a t o n e interview I almost s t a r t e d d o i n g it just to p e o p l e I k n e w a n d just s t a r t e d asking t h e m questions t h a t I 57 h a d written d o w n for t h a t interview, i a s k e d my friends a n d my mom's friends." She o b t a i n e d t w o f o r m a l i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews but also c o n d u c t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y six informal interviews w h i c h a r e not i n c l u d e d in this r e s e a r c h . P a r t i c i p a n t s ' A d v i c e E a c h of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s w a s a s k e d a b o u t a d v i c e that t h e y w o u l d g i v e to s o m e o n e w h o is c o n t e m p l a t i n g c o n d u c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews. A d v i c e d e r i v e d from p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e x p e r i e n c e follows: * It's a really useful t o o l so g o into it with a positive a t t i t u d e . * Don't h a v e t o o m a n y questions a n d don't b e t o o f o c u s e d o n g e t t i n g t h r o u g h all t h e questions. * Afterwards, write d o w n all t h e y s a i d . It helps y o u to r e m e m b e r . * I w o u l d tell t h e m th a t this is really useful. * Stick t o t h e tim e p e r i o d . * Do w h a t y o u say. Don't ask for a job. Do w h a t y o u promised. * M a k e t h e a p p o i n t m e n t a h e a d of time. Don't just hit s o m e b o d y up at th e last minute unless its a really p e r f e c t situation. Don't e x p e c t s o m e o n e to d o it o n t h e p h o n e right t h e n a n d there. That's as b a d as a t e l e m a r k e t i n g c a l l . 58 * Do a lot of it b e c a u s e it's really g o o d p r a c t i c e . It is really g o o d c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r a c t i c e . * S e n d t h a n k y o u c a r d s t h a n k i n g t h e person for their time. * M a k e sure t h a t y o u h a v e a n i d e a of w h a t t h e y d o in their job. * H a v e s p e c i f i c things t h a t y o u w a n t to g e t t h r o u g h but don't h a v e t o o m a n y things. Just let t h e m talk a n d don't b e w o r r i e d that t h e y won't talk. * Don't narrow t h e p e o p l e that y o u a r e interviewing. For i n s t a n c e , I f o u n d out t h a t w h a t I t h o u g h t initially a b o u t m u n i c i p a l i t y work wasn't true or wasn't entirely true. * Y o u might think, "I don't w a n t to interview a n y b o d y there b e c a u s e I don't w a n t to d o w h a t t h e y do." Y o u might b e surprised a b o u t w h a t t h e y do. Unless y o u talk to them, y o u don't really g e t a true p i c t u r e of the j o b d e s c r i p t i o n . It c a n o p e n u p a lot of options for your future. * In t h e s e c o n d one, I didn't f e e l as nervous, b e c a u s e e v e n if y o u h a v e d o n e one, y o u know w h a t t o e x p e c t a n d I think n o w it w o u l d b e e a s i e r to d o a n o t h e r one. * Be c o n f i d e n t . * Take a d v a n t a g e of opp o r t u n i t i e s t h a t c o m e your way. * Let t h e w a t e r roll off y o u a bit. * Enjoy w h a t y o u g e t out of it. Even if y o u g e t a nasty response t h a t is i n f o r m a t i o n in itself. * R e m e m b e r th a t a lot of p e o p l e d o it. It's not just w e i rd. 59 * P e o p l e a r e willing to talk a b o u t their life e x p e r i e n c e . They like it. * Think a b o u t s o m e questions. Things t h a t y o u really w a n t to k n o w a n d write t h e m d o w n . * K e e p in m i n d questions that y o u don't a l r e a d y k n o w a n d g e t s o m e t h i n g n e w out of e a c h interview. * Ask o p e n e n d e d questions. * Be f o c u s e d . 60 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION S u m m a r y of Results A t o t a l of 198 c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s w e r e e l i c i t e d i n c l u d i n g 145 positive c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s , or f a c i l i t a t i n g f actors, a n d 53 n e g a t i v e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s , or h i n d e r i n g factors. Twelve c a t e g o r i e s e m e r g e d from t h e i n c i d e n t s . These i n c l u d e e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s of f a c i l i t a t i n g factors: 1. Information-interviewee's p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , 2. Information- o c c u p a t i o n , 3. Information- p r o v i d i n g options, 4. E n c o u r a g e m e n t a n d c o n f i r m a t i o n , 5. Interviewee's personality, 6. Interview process, 7. Assessing t h e 'fit', a n d 8. Providing c o n t a c t s or post-interview assistance. There w e r e four c a t e g o r i e s for t h e h i n d e r i n g f a c t o r s a n d thes e i n c l u d e : 1. N e g a t i v e a f f e c t , 2. Interview structure, 3. P e r c e i v e d d e s t r u c t i v e factors, a n d 4. U n a n s w e r e d questions or d i s c o u r a g i n g information. S i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e study This r e s e a r c h has p r o v i d e d a fr a m e w o r k of the benefits of i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g as w e l l as s o m e of t h e difficulties o n e might f a c e in c o n d u c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews. Bolles (1995) reiterates t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e c a t e g o r y 'Information-P r o v i d i n g Options' t h r o u g h his s t a t e m e n t , "Never put all y our e g g s in o n e 61 basket. The s e c r e t of surviving out t h e r e in t h e j u n g l e is h a v i n g alternatives." (p. 285) 6 0 % of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e f o r t u n a t e to b e g r a n t e d a d d i t i o n a l c o n t a c t s or offers of post-interview a s s i s t a n c e . Beatty (1994, p. 182) p r o v i d e s a n e x p l a n a t i o n for this a p p a r e n t altruism, "The chemistry a n d p e r s o n a l r a p p o r t d e v e l o p e d b e t w e e n t h e networker a n d the n e t w o r k i n g c o n t a c t d u r i n g s u c h m e e t i n g s a p p e a r s to c r e a t e a stronger b o n d b e t w e e n t h e t w o a n d i n c r e a s e d c o m m i t m e n t , o n t h e part of t h e c o n t a c t , t o w a r d h e l p i n g t h e networker." Perhaps most i m p o r t a n t w a s t h e c a t e g o r y of assessing t h e 'fit'. Bolles (1995) d e s c r i b e s i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g as, "trying o n jobs t o s e e if t h e y will fit y o u " (p. 283). Bolles likens t h e e x p e r i e n c e to b u y i n g n e w c l o t h e s , "What you're l o o k i n g for, of course, is a c a r e e r t h a t looks terrific in t h e w i n d o w a n d o n you." (p.284) R i c h a r d s o n (1994) also e m p h a s i z e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of 'fit', "In one's work life, f i n d i n g a fit is m o re i m p o r t a n t t h a n merely l a n d i n g a job, a n d t h e informal a s p e c t s of i n t e r p e r s o n a l relationships f r e q u e n t l y d e c i d e w h e t h e r t h e r e is a fit." (p. 4) The students' task of 'assessing t h e fit' requires t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l c h a n g e s of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a n d i n t e g r a t i o n as d e s c r i b e d by M c W h i r t e r (1991). 'Assessing t h e fit' is also b e n e f i c i a l in n e g o t i a t i n g b o t h Super's (1970) s t a g e of 'exploration' as w e l l as Erikson's (1963, 1968) s t a g e of 'identity versus i d e n t i t y confusion'. Schein's (1992) d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of 62 c a r e e r a n c h o r s requires a c o n t i n u a l assessment of 'fit'. C o n s i d e r i n g King's (1994) c o l o u r f u l i m a g e of a k a l e i d o s c o p e , t h e s t u d e n t is a b l e to i n t e g r a t e n e w inf o r m a t i o n g a i n e d with his or her o w n p e r s o n a l m o s a i c of pr e f e r e n c e s , values, interests, abilities, a n d aspirations. Informational i n t e r v i e w i n g m a y b e pa r t i c u l a r l y b e n e f i c i a l to B a c h e l o r of Arts students. These students e n j o y t h e b e n e f i t of b r e a d t h a t th e e x p e n s e of 'market r e a d y ' training. Therefore, it is essential for B a c h e l o r of Arts students to t a k e a p r o - a c t i v e s t a n c e in f o c u s i n g c a r e e r goals. In a f o c u s g r o u p study b y Crozier & Grassick (1996) p a r t i c i p a n t s p r o v i d e d reasons for d e r i v i n g v a l u e from their B a c h e l o r of Arts d e g r e e , Various t r a n s f e r a b l e skills w e r e h i g h l i g h t e d , s u c h as t h e ability to learn, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l skills, a n a l y t i c a l or c r i t i c a l thinking skills, p r o b l e m solving, o r a l a n d written c o m m u n i c a t i o n skills, r e s e a r c h skills, i n t e r p e r s o n a l / h u m a n relations skills, t h e ability to 'grasp t h e b i g picture', a n d t h e ability to i n t e g r a t e n e w information. Self-m a n a g e m e n t skills w e r e also m e n t i o n e d , skills s u c h as flexibility, self-d i s c i p l i n e , o b j e c t i v i t y a n d t o l e r a n c e , (p. 24) Figler (1988) e x p a n d s o n t h e v a l u e of a libe r a l arts e d u c a t i o n but he also c a u t i o n s of t h e perils o n e m a y a v o i d . A m o n g thes e a r e v a g u e goals, 63 unrealistic e x p e c t a t i o n s , a n d s n o b b e r y or a m b i v a l e n c e . Through t h e use of i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviewing, c a r e e r g o a l s a r e c l a r i f i e d , i d e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d realistic e x p e c t a t i o n s c a n b e r e c o n c i l e d , a n d p e r h a p s o n e c a n a v o i d s n o b b e r y or a m b i v a l e n c e r e g a r d i n g s u i t a b l e jobs by b e c o m i n g familiar with w h a t is f e a s i b l e to e x p e c t of a first j o b a f t e r g r a d u a t i o n . Crozier & Grassick (1996) discuss B.A. students' i n c r e a s e d m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d s c a r e e r p l a n n i n g as t h e y a p p r o a c h g r a d u a t i o n . Timing w a s c o n f i r m e d to b e a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r by s e v e r a l w o r k s h o p p a r t i c i p a n t s . For e x a m p l e , o n e of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s s t a t e d , "I've b e e n thinking a lot a b o u t w h o I k n o w a n d w h o I c a n m a k e c o n n e c t i o n s with. This has b e e n g o o d timing for m e b e c a u s e I a m c o m p l e t i n g my d e g r e e a n d I've b e e n thinking a b o u t ca r e e r . " A n o t h e r student e c h o e d , "It w a s helpful b e c a u s e b a s i c a l l y it w a s t h e right timing." O v e r a l l , p a r t i c i p a n t s f o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g to b e b e n e f i c i a l in terms of p r o v i d i n g current, l o c a l l a b o u r market information. This r e s u l t e d in either c o n f i r m a t i o n of c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n or p r o v i d e d g r e a t e r u n c e r t a i n t y r e g a r d i n g current c a r e e r goals. Both of t h e s e a r e instrumental in b r i d g i n g t h e g a p b e t w e e n a students' e x p e c t a t i o n s of a p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n a n d t h e reality of t h a t o c c u p a t i o n . A g r o u p w o r k s h o p s u c h as this is c o s t - e f f e c t i v e . It is f e a s i b l e for a higher e d u c a t i o n c o u n s e l l i n g c e n t r e to offer s e v e r a l workshops e a c h y e a r 64 to a i d students in b r i d g i n g t h e g a p b e t w e e n e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d reality. The i n d i v i d u a l interviews a r e i n c l u d e d for t h e p u r p o s e of this r e s e a r c h a n d w o u l d not b e n e c e s s a r y in s u b s e q u e n t workshops. The t e c h n i q u e of i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g c o u l d likely b e utilized b y all students in all h igher e d u c a t i o n programs. Informational i n t e r v i e w i n g c o u l d also b e u s e d across m a n y p o p u l a t i o n groups i n c l u d i n g s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l students, e m p l o y e d individuals desiring to m a k e a c a r e e r transition, i n c o m e a s s i s t a n c e recipients, a n d u n e m p l o y e d individuals. Others, s u c h as senior citizens, m a y find i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g h elpful in o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g m e a n i n g f u l v o l u n t e e r opportunities. Implications for C o u n s e l l i n g R e d p a t h (1994, p. 106) c a u t i o n s , "Unless students c h o s e a professional d e g r e e s u c h as E d u c a t i o n or Engineering, t h e c h a n c e s of m a k i n g a m a t c h a r e not m u c h b e t t e r t h a n 5 0 % (at least in t h e first f e w years of g r a d u a t i o n ) . " However, 7 9 % of students felt t h a t " h a v i n g a d e g r e e is essential in g e t t i n g a g o o d j o b in today's w o r l d " a n d only 4 1 % of students w e r e i n t e r e s t e d in " l e a r n i n g purely for its o w n s a k e " ( G o m m e , Hall, & Murphy, 1993, p. 24). If students w a n t to i n c r e a s e their c h a n c e s of g a i n i n g m e a n i n g f u l e m p l o y m e n t a f t e r g r a d u a t i o n , it seems th a t t h e y will n e e d to t a k e m ore 65 initiative. 8 0 % of t h e w o r k s h o p p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e in t h e a g e c a t e g o r y of 'generation X'. There is s o m e e v i d e n c e t h a t individuals w h o h a v e b e e n b r a n d e d 'generation X' a r e t a k i n g a p r o - a c t i v e a p p r o a c h , "In reality, lots of Xers a r e f i n d i n g w a y s to successfully b r e a k into the e c o n o m y . Today's t w e n t y s o m e t h i n g s m a y turn out to b e t h e most e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l g e n e r a t i o n yet." (Barlow, 1996, p. 70) C o u n s e l o r s c a n assist in e m p o w e r i n g th o s e w h o f e e l i n e f f e c t i v e a n d l a c k i n g in a g e n c y . M c W h i r t e r (1991, p. 222) highlights e m p o w e r m e n t as o n e of t h e u n d e r l y i n g g o a l s in c o u n s e l i n g . She states, " C l e a r l y counsellors a t t e m p t to assist clients in m a k i n g c h a n g e s that will l e a d to g r e a t e r life s a t i s f a c t i o n a n d adjustment, a n d to establish a n i n c r e a s e d sense of c o n t r o l o v e r their lives." Survey in f o r m a t i o n n o t e d in T a b l e 4 s h o w e d a significant c h a n g e in i t e m #2 'I f e e l c o n f i d e n t a b o u t my skills in i n t e r v i e w i n g s o m e o n e a b o u t their o c c u p a t i o n . ' 7 0 % of t h e w o r k s h o p p a r t i c i p a n t s felt t h a t their c o n f i d e n c e h a d i n c r e a s e d . All of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n d u c t e d i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews a f t e r p r a c t i c i n g role-plays in w o r k s h o p sessions. It is difficult to a s c e r t a i n w h e t h e r t h e i n c r e a s e d c o n f i d e n c e is d u e to p a r t i c i p a t i o n in role-play, e x p e r i e n c e in c o n d u c t i n g t h e interviews, or a c o m b i n a t i o n of both. A l t h o u g h m a n y of t h e students w e r e a p p r e h e n s i v e a b o u t c o n t a c t i n g s o m e o n e for a n i n f o r m a t i o n a l interview, t h e y p r o c e e d e d within their o w n l e v e l of c o m f o r t . S o m e p a r t i c i p a n t s c h o s e a past instructor or a c q u a i n t a n c e w h o w a s assessed 66 to b e less t h r e a t e n i n g t h a n a p p r o a c h i n g s o m e o n e unknown. The students' sense of a g e n c y w a s e n h a n c e d as t h e y s u c c e e d e d in c o n q u e r i n g t h e c h a l l e n g e s . M a n u e l e - A d k i n s (1992, p. 319) emphasizes, "Essential to a p r o c e s s t h a t i n t e g r a t e s c a r e e r a n d p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g is the ability to assess client's differing p s y c h o l o g i c a l n e e d s a n d to u n d e r s t a n d h o w s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n s a n d roles fulfill or frustrate various needs." C o c h r a n (1991) highlights t h e individuals' quest for m e a n i n g a n d t h e counsellor's role of c u l t i v a t i n g a sense of a g e n c y . In a r e c e n t discussion o n the internet, a request for i n f o r m a t i o n was p o s t e d by a Ph.D. c a n d i d a t e . It r e a d s as follows: I p l a n to g r a d u a t e soon a n d just like e v e r y o n e else I k n o w I p l a n n e d to s e n d out b l i n d resumes to e v e r y c o m p a n y I c o u l d find in my f i e l d . I k n o w s o m e friends w h o h a v e a l r e a d y d o n e this a n d a f t e r s e n d i n g out 100 or m ore resumes, t h e y w e r e lu c k y to g e t o n e interview I r e c e n t l y w a s t a l k i n g with a Ph.D. in my f i e l d (Biotech) w h o f o l l o w e d a similar p a t h with little s u c cess. She s u g g e s t e d t h a t I b e g i n to d e v e l o p a network of c o n t a c t s . I've h e a r d of this c a t c h y p h r a s e " N e t w o r k i n g " b e f o r e but I h a d no i d e a w h a t it meant...Any suggestions o n h o w to start n e t w o r k i n g ? (personal c o m m u n i c a t i o n , M a r c h 25, 1996, at http:/www.careermag.com) 67 This is a n i n d i v i d u a l w h o has spent numerous years in higher e d u c a t i o n a n d has a p p a r e n t l y not r e c e i v e d p r a c t i c a l instruction o n h o w to e f f e c t i v e l y pursue c a r e e r opportunities. He is not a l o n e but explains t h a t e v e r y o n e h e knows is utilizing t h e same, i n e f f e c t i v e j o b s e a r c h m e t h o d . If he h a d known t o b e c o n d u c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews for i n s t a n c e , h e w o u l d likely f e e l a g r e a t e r sense of c o n t r o l o v e r c a r e e r aspirations a n d o v e r his p e r s o n a l future. O n e of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , a f t e r c o n d u c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews, m a d e t h e c o m m e n t , "I've g a i n e d m ore c o n f i d e n c e in myself to d o this sort of thing." A n o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t reflects, "Looking b a c k , I n o w k n o w w h a t to e x p e c t a n d h o w to d o one. I think it helps y o u for your future. It h a d n e v e r really o c c u r r e d to me. Looking b a c k , I don't k n o w w h y it n e v e r o c c u r r e d to m e to talk to p e o p l e s p e c i f i c a l l y , but I guess sometimes t h e o b v i o u s things a r e t h e hardest to see." S o m e of t h e students c o m m e n t e d r e g a r d i n g their e n j o y m e n t of p a r t i c i p a t i n g in t h e w o r k s h o p as part of a group. During t h e post-w o r k s h o p interview, t h e y w e r e e a c h a s k e d a b o u t their p e r c e p t i o n of h o w in f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g a f f e c t e d others in the group. P a r t i c i p a n t s d i s p l a y e d a strong r e c o l l e c t i o n of individuals in the g r o u p a n d their 68 r e s p e c t i v e interviews. O n e s t u d e n t e x p r e s s e d her v i e w of t h e group, "Well, I think that's really e x c i t i n g . Just b e i n g in a g r o u p w h e r e others a r e d o i n g this to a n d w h e r e they're in your s a m e position w h e r e t h e y a r e also s e a r c h i n g for i n f o r m a t i o n o n o t h e r things. That's e x c i t i n g . " I n d e e d , Z a g o r a & C r a m e r (1994) f o u n d that b e i n g part of a g r o u p with v o c a t i o n a l c o m m o n a l i t i e s assisted individuals with c a r e e r decisions. A n o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t from t h e s e c o n d g r o u p e c h o e d a similar sentiment, "It w a s helpful for m e to h a v e t h e g r o u p b e c a u s e I thought, look at all t h e n e a t stuff t h e y f o u n d out, e v e n t h o u g h a lot of it doesn't a p p l y t o me. I sort of felt like I h a d similar e x p e r i e n c e s . It w a s helpful to talk a b o u t all t h e different e x p e r i e n c e s y o u c o u l d h a v e a n d it helps y o u t o g e t p r e p a r e d for a n y r e a c t i o n y o u might have." A third p a r t i c i p a n t r e i t e r a t e d t h a t she p r e f e r r e d to learn in a g r o u p rather t h a n i n d i v i d u a l l y " b e c a u s e of all t h e i d e a s " . These s t a t e m e n t s c o n f i r m Krumboltz & Nichols (1990) c l a i m of t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e s o c i a l l e a r n i n g a s p e c t of c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making. Limitations This study measures o n e s e g m e n t of t h e student p o p u l a t i o n a n d therefore, it is l i m i t e d in terms of g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y . The p a r t i c i p a n t s h a d a high l e v e l of m o t i v a t i o n d u e to t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n of g r a d u a t i n g a n d h a v i n g t o m a k e a c a r e e r d e c i s i o n . S e c o n d l y , t h e s e p a r t i c i p a n t s also s h o w e d a high c o m f o r t l e v e l , a n a v e r a g e of 7.1 o n a s c a l e of 1-10, in pursuing i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews. Thirdly, all of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s h a d a l r e a d y g a i n e d s o m e l e v e l of work e x p e r i e n c e . It is e x p e c t e d that all t h r e e of thes e f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d to the suc c e s s f u l o u t c o m e of i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews w h e t h e r th r o u g h willingness t o t a k e a risk, a n t i c i p a t i o n of imminent g r a d u a t i o n a n d c o n s e q u e n t transition, or m o d e r a t e t o high l e v e l of p e r c e i v e d c o m p e t e n c e . Luzzo (1995) confirms t h e b e n e f i t of s e l f - e f f i c a c y a n d locus of c o n t r o l o n c a r e e r maturity. M a n y of t h e students a p p e a r e d to r e f l e c t s e l f - e f f i c a c y a n d inter n a l locus of c o n t r o l as n o t e d in t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t , "I've a l w a y s c o u n t e d myself responsible for a n y t h i n g I do. Things don't just h a p p e n to you. Y o u h a v e to m a k e things h a p p e n in life. I think t h a t this sort of r e i n f o r c e d t h e f a c t t h a t t h a t is true." In t h e c a s e of individuals d i s p l a y i n g l ow mo t i v a t i o n , l ow c o m f o r t le v e l , a n d no work e x p e r i e n c e , t h e c o n c e p t of i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g m a y a p p e a r i n t i m i d a t i n g a n d e v e n p a r a l y z i n g . M a n y of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s of t h e study w e r e a p p r e h e n s i v e to c o n t a c t individuals for i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews e v e n t h o u g h t h e y p e r c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s as c o m p e t e n t a n d c a p a b l e . Counsellors c a n assist students in g a i n i n g c o n f i d e n c e a n d e n h a n c i n g a g e n c y t h r o u g h s o c i a l m o d e l i n g a n d role-plays. O n e of t h e 70 p a r t i c i p a n t s p r a i s e d t h e g r o u p for s t r e n g t h e n i n g her initiative, " H e a r i n g t h a t o t h e r p e o p l e in our g r o u p c a l l e d p e o p l e u p w h o t h e y didn't k n o w m a d e me think t h a t I c o u l d d o i t . " R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s for further r e s e a r c h R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s for further r e s e a r c h i n c l u d e a n e v a l u a t i o n study of a n i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g workshop, s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l students' use of i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviewing, l o n g i t u d i n a l studies of t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of this t e c h n i q u e , a n d t h e e f f e c t of i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g o n self-e f f i c a c y or locus of c o n t r o l . Further r e s e a r c h m a y also i n c l u d e assessing t h e interviewee's e x p e r i e n c e of t h e interview. It m a y also b e w o r t h w h i l e t o e x p l o r e w h e t h e r or not t h e skill of i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g g e n e r a l i z e s to g r e a t e r c o m p e t e n c e in j o b interviews. 71 REFERENCES A m u n d s o n , N., Borgen, B., W e s t w o o d , M., & Pollard, D. (1989). 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J o u r n a l of C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 37 (4), 459- 464. S a l o m o n e , P. R. & M o n g i c g r o , L. L. (1991). Difficult c a s e s in c a r e e r c o u n s e l i n g : iv- f l o u n d e r i n g a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l moratorium. The C a r e e r D e v e l o p m e n t Quarterly, 39, 325-336. 77 Sc h e i n , E. H. (1992). C a r e e r a n c h o r s a n d j o b / r o l e p l a n n i n g : t h e links b e t w e e n c a r e e r p l a n n i n g a n d c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . In D. H. Montross & C. J. Shinkman (Eds.) , C a r e e r D e v e l o p m e n t : Theory a n d P r a c t i c e (pp. 207-218). Springfield, Illinois: C.C.Thomas. Schlossberg, N. K., Lynch, A. Q., & C h i c k e r i n g , A. W. (1989). Improving Higher E d u c a t i o n Environments for Adults. S a n Fr a n c i s c o , C a l i f o r n i a : Jossey-Bass. Schmelzer, R., Schmelzer, C , Figler, R., & Brozo, W. (1987). Using t h e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e to d e t e r m i n e reasons for s u c c e s s a n d failure of university students. J o u r n a l of C o l l e g e Student Personnel, 261-266. S p o k a n e , A. R. (1991). C a r e e r Intervention. E n g l e w o o d Cliffs, N e w Jersey: P r e n t i c e Hall. S t i d h a m , H. H. & Remley, T. P. (1992). J o b C l u b m e t h o d o l o g y a p p l i e d in a w o r k f a r e setting. J o u r n a l of E m p l o y m e n t C o u n s e l l i n g , 29, 69-76. Super, D. E., & Bohn, M. J. (1970). O c c u p a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y . Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : W a d s w o r t h Publishing C o m p a n y . Thompson, A.S., L i n d e m a n , R.H., Super, D.E., J o r d a n , J.P., & Myers, R.A. (1984). C a r e e r D e v e l o p m e n t Inventory. V o l u m e 2: T e c h n i c a l M a n u a l . P a l o A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a : C o n s u l t i n g Psychologists Press. Walsh, W. B. (1990). A summary a n d i n t e g r a t i o n of c a r e e r c o u n s e l i n g a p p r o a c h e s . In W. B. Walsh & S. H. O s i p o w (Eds.) , C a r e e r 78 C o u n s e l i n g : C o n t e m p o r a r y Topics in V o c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y (pp. 263-281). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Ward, E. M. (1992). Transition a n d t h e G r a d u a t i n g C o l l e g e Student. M g jor Pgper, University of British C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , British C o l u m b i a . Wotkins, C. E. & S a v i c k a s , M. L. (1990). P s y c h o d y n a m i c c a r e e r c o u n s e l i n g . In W. B. Walsh & S. H. O s i p o w (Eds.) , C a r e e r C o u n s e l i n g : C o n t e m p o r o r y Topics in V o c o t i o n o l P s y c h o l o g y (pp. 79-116). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbgum. Wells, J. (1996, M a r c h 11). Jobs. M a c l e a n ' s , 12-21. Woolsey, L. K. (1986). The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e : a n i n n o v a t i v e q u a l i t a t i v e m e t h o d of r e s e a r c h . C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l of C o u n s e l l i n g , 20 (4), 242-254. Zggoro, M. A. & C r a m e r , S. H. (1994). The e f f e c t s of v o c o t i o n o l iden t i t y status o n o u t c o m e s of a c a r e e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n for c o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e students. J o u r n a l of C o l l e g e Student D e v e l o p m e n t , 35, 239- 247. 80 Pre-Workshop Questions: 1. W hat a r e your c a r e e r g o a l s ? 2. Why d i d y o u d e c i d e to o b t a i n a d e g r e e in Arts a t University C o l l e g e of th e Fraser V a l l e y ? 3. W h a t is your major/ minor? 4. Has your work e x p e r i e n c e up to this point r e l a t e d to your f i e l d of study? 5. W h a t a r e y o u h o p i n g to g a i n from this w o r k s h o p ? 6. How c o m f o r t a b l e a r e y o u with the i d e a of a p p r o a c h i n g p e o p l e to ask t h e m a b o u t their j o b / c a r e e r ? (on a s c a l e of o n e to ten, one= very u n c o m f o r t a b l e , ten= very c o m f o r t a b l e ) L e n g t h of pre- w o r k s h o p t e l e p h o n e interviews: 15 minutes 15 minutes 25 minutes 20 minutes 30 minutes 20 minutes 15 minutes 15 minutes 30 minutes 15 minutes m e a n l e n g t h of pre- w o r k s h o p interviews: 20 minutes a n s w e r to Q u e s t i o n #6 ( a b o v e ) : 5 5 7 8.5 9 9 7 3 10 7.5 m e a n c o m f o r t l e v e l : 7.1 o n a s c a l e of 1-10 1 = very u n c o m f o r t a b l e , 10= very c o m f o r t a b l e Demographics date of birth (m/d/y): 12/01172 05/18/71 07/25/71 02/12/71 08/08/70 07/27/72 11/06/70 06/21/44 10/20/61 10/17/71 major/minor/extended minor: fine arts- ceramics psychology major/ sociology minor psychology major history major extended minor- english/history geography major/ history minor extended minor- english/ psychology extended minor- psychology/ sociology extended minor- sociology/ psychology extended minor- english/ psychology anticipated date of graduation: 1998-1999 April 1996 December 1996 June 1997 (reason- one year of co-op) April 1996 April 1996 April 1996 December 1996 December 1996 May 1996 occupational goal(s): Fine Arts Instructor Seminar Presenter- working in school system Elementary School Teacher School Teacher Law Urban Planner Electronic Media Career Counsellor Counselling Psychology/ Law Undecided/ perhaps Teaching 82 Interview Questions: Introduction: W e will b e p l a c i n g your i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviews "under a m i c r o s c o p e " . There a r e no right or w r o n g answers. W e will f o c u s o n your e x p e r i e n c e of i n f o r m a t i o n a l interviewing. For e a c h i n f o r m a t i o n a l interview: * D e s c r i b e t h e interview. - How l o n g w a s it? - How d i d y o u c o n t a c t t h e i n t e r v i e w e e ? * W h a t w e r e t h e high points of t h e interview? (positive c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s / f a c i l i t a t i n g factors/things that w e n t w e l l / t h a t y o u d i d well) * W hat w e r e t h e l ow points of t h e int e r v i e w ? ( n e g a t i v e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s / h i n d e r i n g f a c t o r s / things t h a t y o u w o u l d d o differently if y o u w e r e to d o it a g a i n ) * How has t h e e x p e r i e n c e of i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g a f f e c t e d y o u ? - H a v e there b e e n c h a n g e s in your c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n ? * H a d y o u h e a r d a b o u t i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g b e f o r e t h e w o r k s h o p ? - H a v e y o u u s e d i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g previous to t h e w o r k s h o p ? * Do y o u s e e yourself using i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g from this point o n ? - In w h a t c o n t e x t ? * W h a t is your p e r c e p t i o n of h o w t h e use of i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n g has a f f e c t e d others in t h e g r o u p ? * W h a t a d v i c e d o y o u h a v e for those thinking a b o u t g o i n g out o n a n i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w ? * Do y o u h a v e a n y t h i n g else to a d d ? * Do y o u h a v e a n y questions for m e ? 

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