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Exploring the dream life of First Nations children from recovering alcoholic homes Atleo, Geraldine V. 1996

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EXPLORING THE DREAM LIFE OF FIRST NATIONS CHILDREN FROM RECOVERING ALCOHOLIC HOMES by GERALDINE V. ATLEO B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  1990  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y 1996 © G e r a l d i n e V. A t l e o , 1996  In presenting this  thesis in partial  fulfilment  of the requirements  for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by his or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  CpH^S€ljUr-lfr  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  3~uu-/  |Ca , n ^ t ,  rVyrflctLQ&V  11  ABSTRACT In s t u d y i n g honoured N a t i v e  t h e dreams of F i r s t Nations c h i l d r e n , I c u l t u r e through g a i n i n g knowledge t o p l a n  f o r f u t u r e generations  and by acknowledging dreams, I hoped  t o r e v i v e t h e Native b e l i e f t h a t empowerment and guidance c o u l d be obtained  from dreams. The l i t e r a t u r e on c h i l d r e n ' s  dreams and t h e experiences of c h i l d r e n o f a l c o h o l i c s was minimal. In t h i s q u a l i t a t i v e e x p l o r a t o r y  study, I  analyzed  the dreams o f a Native boy and g i r l s between t h e ages o f 9 and  13. The c h i l d p a r t i c i p a n t s were from home environments  where t h e mother was r e c o v e r i n g the dreamer's p e r c e p t i o n s  from a l c o h o l i s m .  I examined  i n t h e dreams c o l l e c t e d and t h e  r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t dreams d i d not r e v e a l d i r e c t evidence of a l c o h o l , o r F i r s t Nations themes. The dreams however d i d expose other  i s s u e s t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n were d e a l i n g  which were sometimes connected t o a l c o h o l i s m . concerns were: domestic v i o l e n c e , n e g l e c t ,  with,  Some o f these  and abuse. Along  w i t h these grave i s s u e s , t h e c h i l d r e n a l s o d e a l t w i t h l e s s s e r i o u s concerns i n t h e i r dreams, such as q u a r r e l s w i t h f r i e n d s . The c h i l d r e n ' s r e s i l i e n c y v a r i e d , i n d i v i d u a l l y , according  t o t h e i r dream p e r c e p t i o n s  o f themselves, and  o t h e r s . The f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t c o l l e c t i n g a s e r i e s o f dreams c o u l d enable a c o u n s e l l o r t o g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n  about  the c h i l d ' s s i t u a t i o n t h a t t h e c h i l d may not o t h e r w i s e convey. T h i s assessment from dreams can a s s i s t i n p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s f o r t h e c h i l d and f a m i l y .  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract  i i  T a b l e of Contents  i i i  Acknowledgements  vii  Dedication  viii  Chapter One:  Introduction..  1  Background of the Problem E f f e c t s of P a r e n t a l A l c o h o l i s m on c h i l d r e n  1  Statement of the Problem  4  Research Question  6  Delimitations  6  Assumptions and L i m i t a t i o n s  7  S i g n i f i c a n c e of Study  8  Chapter Two:  Review of the L i t e r a t u r e  11  Dreams and F i r s t Nations C u l t u r e  11  Dream L i t e r a t u r e on C h i l d r e n  14  C h i l d r e n of A l c o h o l i c Reviews  17  Family Environment  19  Depression  20  C h i l d Abuse  21  Cognition  22  Behaviour  23  Resiliency  25  Coper's and Non-coper's  27  F a c t o r s t o be Considered i n C h i l d r e n of A l c o h o l i c Reviews  28  iv Chapter Three: Methodology  31  Introduction  31  Definitions Alcoholism  31  Dream Report  32  D e s c r i p t i o n o f Data C o l l e c t i o n R e f e r r a l of Children  33  Obtaining  33  Consent  D e s c r i p t i o n o f Sample  34  Procedures with the C h i l d r e n  36  Interviewing  Process  Experiences  o f t h e Interview  37 Process  37  J o u r n a l Recording  39  My Experience i n C o l l e c t i n g Data  39  C h i l d r e n ' s Experience o f P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n T h i s Study  40  Data A n a l y s i s The  40  Use o f Import A n a l y s i s t o Derive t h e C h i l d ' s  Perceptions  From the Dream  41  Reliability  43  Validity  44  Dream P r e s e n t a t i o n  45  Chapter Four: R e s u l t s 9 Year O l d Boy Dreams, Comments and P e r c e p t i o n s . . . . .  47 47 47-77  V  Dreamer's P e r c e p t i o n s and Prominent F e a t u r e s  77  13 Year O l d G i r l Dreams, Comments and P e r c e p t i o n s  87 87-102  Dreamer's P e r c e p t i o n s and Prominent F e a t u r e s  102  12 Year O l d G i r l Dreams, Comments and P e r c e p t i o n s  109 109-121  Dreamer's P e r c e p t i o n s and Prominent F e a t u r e s  122  13 Year O l d G i r l Dreams, Comments and P e r c e p t i o n s  126 126-131  Dreamer's P e r c e p t i o n s and Prominent Features  131  11 Year O l d G i r l Dreams, Comments and P e r c e p t i o n s  136 136-144  Dreamer's P e r c e p t i o n s and Prominent F e a t u r e s Overall Results  144 148  B r i e f Comment o f Dreams C o l l e c t e d  148  F i r s t Nations Themes  148  A l c o h o l Themes  149  Dream P e r c e p t i o n s  149  P e r c e p t i o n s of A d u l t s  149  A c t i o n s i n Dreams  150  The E f f e c t i v e n e s s of C h i l d r e n ' s A c t i o n s i n T h e i r Dreams  151  Pleasantness and Unpleasantness o f Dreams  151  C h i l d r e n ' s Issues Revealed In Dreams  152  P e s s i m i s t i c Outlook Depicted i n Dreams  153  vi Other Prominent Features D e a l i n g w i t h Real L i f e S i t u a t i o n s and Concerns  153  B i z a r r e Content  154  At a D i f f e r e n t Time Than t h e P r e s e n t  156  Feelings  156  S i m i l a r i t y Between C h i l d r e n  157  Summary Chapter  157  Five: Discussion  160  B r i e f Summary o f R e s u l t s  160  Comparison o f R e s u l t s t o L i t e r a t u r e  160  L i m i t a t i o n s o f Study  167  Strengths o f T h i s Study  167  Recommendations For Future Research  168  I m p l i c a t i o n s For C o u n s e l l i n g  170  Conclusion  173  References  175  Appendices Appendix A: Faraday's f o r Keeping  (1974) Recommendations  a Dream D i a r y  180  Appendix B: Parent and C h i l d Consent Form  181  Appendix C: P o s t i n g t o R e c r u i t V o l u n t e e r s  183  Appendix D: G u i d e l i n e Questions f o r T e r m i n a t i n g with P a r t i c i p a n t  184  Appendix E: Summary of F i n d i n g s t o Parents  185  vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o g i v e my s i n c e r e thanks t o my a d v i s o r , Dr. John A l l a n , f o r h i s guidance, support and encouragement t o complete my t h e s i s . I a l s o express g r a t i t u d e t o my two o t h e r committee members. I thank Dr. Rod McCormick f o r h i s a v a i l a b i l i t y , reassurances and h i s c o n f i d e n c e i n me. I c r e d i t and a p p r e c i a t e Dr. L a r r y Cochran f o r d i r e c t i n g me, w i t h h i s e x p e r t i s e , i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e immense amount of dream data I c o l l e c t e d . I would a l s o l i k e t o recognize t h e long hours o f work my dear f r i e n d and c o l l e a g u e , K a r l a D y e - T o f f o l i , p u t i n t o e d i t i n g my work and ensuring I was being o b j e c t i v e . I a l s o thank h e r f o r her generous suggestions. Furthermore, I thank my good f r i e n d K e l l y Brown f o r t a k i n g time t o support and e d i t f o r me. As w e l l , I thank Stephen Douglas f o r h i s knowledge i n import a n a l y s i s and ensuring I was f o r m u l a t i n g the imports c o r r e c t l y . F i n a l l y , I express my g r a t i t u d e t o T e r r y F a r r e l l , Bernice A l b e r t and Dylan Whitewing f o r t h e i r 'Eagle-eye' e d i t i n g . I am indebted t o t h e brave and honest c h i l d r e n f o r a l l o w i n g me i n t o t h e i r l i v e s , f o r a p e r i o d o f time, t o share t h e i r dreams, which a r e an i n t i m a t e and p r i v a t e p a r t o f themselves. I a l s o recognize t h e c h i l d r e n ' s courageous p a r e n t s f o r being t r u s t w o r t h y t o grant me p e r m i s s i o n t o l e a r n from t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s dreams. L a s t , but not l e a s t , I thank my l o v i n g and c a r i n g f a m i l y f o r t h e i r years of support i n my e d u c a t i o n . I would not be s u c c e s s f u l without them. I have a l s o r e c e i v e d f i n a n c i a l support from t h e P r e v e n t i o n and H e a l t h promotion Branch, M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h and M i n i s t r y R e s p o n s i b l e f o r S e n i o r s . The views expressed i n t h i s a r t i c l e a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y those o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h and M i n i s t r y Responsible f o r S e n i o r s .  V l l l  DEDICATION  T h i s work i s d e d i c a t e d t o t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s c h i l d r e n o f the world. They a r e the s t r e n g t h i n our f u t u r e .  1 CHAPTER 1: I n t r o d u c t i o n My r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n i s , "What do c h i l d r e n ' s dreams r e v e a l when they l i v e w i t h a r e c o v e r i n g a l c o h o l i c p a r e n t ? " I am f u r t h e r i n t e r e s t e d i n whether F i r s t N a t i o n s  cultural  a s p e c t s occur i n these c h i l d r e n ' s dreams. I n my  literature  review, t h e r e a r e no s t u d i e s t h a t combine t h e s e  interests.  My r e s e a r c h d e s i g n i n t e g r a t e s these t o p i c s . I l o o k f o r t h e appearance o f F i r s t Nations themes i n these c h i l d r e n ' s dreams, as w e l l as any themes o f a l c o h o l . I p r e s e n t t h e c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s conveyed  i n t h e i r dreams.  Background o f the Problem E f f e c t s o f P a r e n t a l A l c o h o l i s m On C h i l d r e n In  a c r i t i c a l review on c h i l d r e n o f a l c o h o l i c s  T h a r i n g e r and Koranek (1988) c i t e Black (1981) who e s t i m a t e s t h a t 15 m i l l i o n school-aged c h i l d r e n a r e a f f e c t e d by f a m i l y a l c o h o l i s m ; and Hect  (1975) s t a t e s t h a t a l c o h o l i s m a f f e c t s 1  i n 4 o r 5 f a m i l i e s . I do not know t h e means by which they a t t a i n these f i g u r e s , but a l c o h o l i s m i n f a m i l i e s i s p e r v a s i v e . Amongst the F i r s t Nations p o p u l a t i o n , overconsumption conducted  o f a l c o h o l i s a concern. In a r e c e n t survey  by S t a t i s t i c s Canada (1993), o f t h e number o f  people i n Canada who i d e n t i f y as North American I n d i a n over the age o f 15, 73% l i v i n g on r e s e r v e s and 56% l i v i n g o f f r e s e r v e s f e e l t h a t a l c o h o l abuse i s the second h i g h e s t problem  f a c i n g a b o r i g i n a l people. The f i r s t concern i s  unemployment. In t h i r d and f o u r t h p l a c e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , a r e  2 drug abuse and f a m i l y v i o l e n c e . A l c o h o l i n t h e N a t i v e community needs t o be addressed.  T h i s study l o o k s a t t h i s  i s s u e from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e c h i l d . There a r e few s t u d i e s conducted of  c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s  w i t h a m i n o r i t y sample  (Woodside, 1988). May (1994) pays  a t t e n t i o n t o a l c o h o l abuse among 'American I n d i a n s ' . In h i s article,  he seeks t o debunk t h e s t e r e o t y p e o f F i r s t  people as an a l c o h o l i c s o c i e t y . He determines the complexity  Nations  from f a c t s ,  o f a l c o h o l i s m i n the N a t i v e community. F o r  example, t h e myth t h a t t h e r e i s a h i g h e r p r e v a l e n c e o f d r i n k i n g among N a t i v e s i s f a l s e , because t h e r e i s d i v e r s i t y i n and between t r i b a l groups. Some r e s e r v e s d e c l a r e themselves a l c o h o l f r e e . A l s o , middle aged N a t i v e s have a lower d r i n k i n g r a t e than other groups, o f t h e same age, i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Although May d e a l s w i t h a ' m i n o r i t y ' sample, he does not look a t the e f f e c t s o f p a r e n t a l a l c o h o l i s m on c h i l d r e n . Dick, Manson, and B e a l s  (1993) have  s t u d i e d N a t i v e American a d o l e s c e n t s and t h e i r d r i n k i n g p a t t e r n s . More a t t e n t i o n i s needed i n t h e area o f p a r e n t a l d r i n k i n g and i t s e f f e c t s on c h i l d r e n under t h e age o f 13. Regarding  N a t i v e c h i l d r e n ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h , Yates  (1988) r e p o r t s t h a t they have a h i g h e r r a t e o f emotional d i s o r d e r s than t h e Anglo p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . C h i l d r e n ' s emotional w e l l being needs t o be s t u d i e d , e s p e c i a l l y c h i l d r e n who a r e d e a l i n g w i t h an a l c o h o l i c parent.  3  I t i s not easy f o r a c h i l d t o grow up i n an a l c o h o l i c home. Woodside (1988) s t a t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g :  (a) t h e  a l c o h o l i c i s so primary i n t h e home t h a t t h e c h i l d f e e l s r e j e c t e d and unloved,  (b) t h e c h i l d w i t n e s s e s f i g h t i n g , (c)  the r u l e s change depending on t h e a l c o h o l i c p a r e n t s ' s t a t e , (d) t h e c h i l d f e e l s i s o l a t e d from peers, and b e t r a y e d when a promise i s broken, (e) t h e c h i l d may not know what i s r e a l i f h i s o r h e r parents have d e l u s i o n s  i n their intoxicated  s t a t e , he o r she does not have t h e environment and r o l e model f o r what i s normal,  (f) and because a l c o h o l i s m  i s not  acknowledged t h e c h i l d does not reach out f o r h e l p and keeps h i s o r h e r emotions blocked i n s i d e . C h i l d r e n a l s o s u f f e r from abuse, n e g l e c t , p a r e n t a l d i s c o r d , and d i v o r c e (von Knorring,  1991). F a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o how a c h i l d  copes  a r e : t h e maintenance o f f a m i l y t a s k s , t h e communication o f f a m i l y members, and support from f r i e n d s — t h e s e impact o f p a r e n t a l a l c o h o l i s m Bennett, Wolin, and R e i s s  on  c h i l d r e n (Murray, 1989).  (1988) f i n d t h a t  f a m i l y r i t u a l s such as, e a t i n g together, holidays  may ease t h e  maintaining  and c e l e b r a t i n g  a s s i s t s t h e c h i l d r e n t o manage t h e i r behaviour and  t o cope e m o t i o n a l l y ,  w h i l e l i v i n g i n an a l c o h o l i c home.  In my l i t e r a t u r e search on t h e e f f e c t s o f p a r e n t a l d r i n k i n g on c h i l d r e n , I f i n d few s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f p a r e n t a l a l c o h o l abuse on young c h i l d r e n . Most o f the  l i t e r a t u r e d e a l s with t h e e f f e c t s o f growing up i n a  home w i t h a l c o h o l i c s i n r e t r o s p e c t — t h a t  i s , adult children  4 of  a l c o h o l i c s . Due  t o the l a r g e amount of  literature  c o v e r i n g a d u l t c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s , we know t h a t t h e r e are "Long-Term P s y c h o s o c i a l E f f e c t s on Childhood Exposure P a r e n t a l Problem D r i n k i n g " ( G r e e n f i e l d , Swartz,  Landerman, &  George, 1993). In t h e i r study, they f i n d t h a t a d u l t of  children  a l c o h o l i c s are more l i k e l y t o have p s y c h i a t r i c symptoms  and u n s t a b l e marriages. In f o c u s i n g my of  to  study on the e f f e c t s  p a r e n t a l over consumption of a l c o h o l on  elementary  school-age c h i l d r e n , I aim t o a s s i s t these c h i l d r e n w h i l e they are young and not wait u n t i l they become a d u l t s . Statement of the Problem Researching the e f f e c t s of p a r e n t a l a l c o h o l i s m on c h i l d r e n i s m u l t i f a c e t e d . One way  t o o b t a i n raw  data  d i r e c t l y from the source i s t o examine the dreams of c h i l d r e n who  r e s i d e with a r e c o v e r i n g a l c o h o l i c p a r e n t .  The  purpose o f t h i s i s t o study the i n t e r n a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f c h i l d r e n who  l i v e i n a l c o h o l i c homes. Studying the dreams of  t h e s e c h i l d r e n i s a way  t o maintain a  phenomenological  p e r s p e c t i v e of c h i l d r e n ' s experience l i v i n g i n an  alcoholic  home. C h i l d r e n i n an a l c o h o l i c environment  are found t o cope  d i f f e r e n t l y , and some c h i l d r e n cope more d e l e t e r i o u s l y others for  (Werner, 1986). Beaudet (1990, 1991)  p r o v i d e s grounds  f i n d i n g p o s s i b l e coping s t y l e s i n the dream l i f e  c h i l d r e n . The dream l i f e may  or may  than  not r e v e a l  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c h i l d r e n ' s coping. I f t h e r e are no  of  5 d i f f e r e n c e s , then I w i l l see what t h e data t e l l s me about t h e s e c h i l d r e n i n a l c o h o l i c homes because dreams a r e found t o i n c o r p o r a t e r e c e n t l i f e events (Davidson & K e l s e y ,  1987).  I may be a b l e t o see t h e events o c c u r r i n g i n an a l c o h o l i c home when t h i s i s o f t e n kept i n s e c r e c y . C h i l d r e n ' s dreams a l s o "tend t o be so d i r e c t and u n d i s g u i s e d "  ( S p i e g e l , 1994,  p. 385) and t h e r e f o r e , t r u t h t e l l i n g . Dream data w i l l  give  us a view o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s inner thoughts and p e r c e p t i o n s about how they view the world. H a l l  (1966) advocates t h i s  from h i s r e s e a r c h . S p e c i f i c a l l y , dreams r e v e a l how we see: o u r s e l v e s , o t h e r s , the world, our impulses and our c o n f l i c t s . These c h i l d r e n ' s dreams may g i v e us an i n d i c a t i o n of how they a r e d e a l i n g with t h e i r home l i f e and p a r e n t ( s ) p a s t d r i n k i n g . In a n a l y z i n g the dream r e p o r t s , I w i l l see i f themes o f a l c o h o l appear. A d d i t i o n a l l y , I w i l l pay a t t e n t i o n t o F i r s t Nations c u l t u r e , by studying N a t i v e  children's  dreams t o see i f t h e r e a r e any c u l t u r a l themes appearing i n them. T h i s i s p o s s i b l e because t h e r e has been an i n c r e a s e i n the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n  f o r l e a r n i n g about F i r s t  c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s , such as the sweat lodge,  Nations  pow wow,  smudging ceremony, and t a l k i n g c i r c l e . T h i s i n t e r e s t c r e a t e s an atmosphere i n which c h i l d r e n may n o t i c e and p a r t i c i p a t e . According  t o t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s c i t e d i n D'Andrade  (1961), t h e ' c u l t u r e p a t t e r n dream' d i s i n t e g r a t e d when F i r s t N a t i o n s people were a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o Western p r a c t i c e s . Perhaps, t h e r e may be a r e t u r n o f Native c u l t u r a l themes i n  6  t h e dreams o f N a t i v e c h i l d r e n . I would l i k e t o see i f t h e r e i s a presence  o r absence of Native themes, symbols, and  ceremonies d e p i c t e d i n t h e i r dreams. Research Question I w i l l examine t h e dreams of f i r s t  Nations  l i v i n g w i t h a r e c o v e r i n g a l c o h o l i c parent.  children  Studying  c h i l d r e n ' s dream l i f e i s one way t o a t t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on the i n t e r n a l aspects o f what i s experienced by them. What do dreams r e v e a l about Native c h i l d r e n o f r e c o v e r i n g a l c o h o l i c p a r e n t ( s ) ? A r e t h e r e any d e p i c t i o n o f a l c o h o l themes? A r e t h e r e any N a t i v e themes i n these c h i l d r e n ' s dreams? I f t h e r e a r e any N a t i v e themes does t h i s a s s i s t them t o cope? Delimitations T h i s i s an e x p l o r a t o r y r e s e a r c h study t o understand t h e dreams o f c h i l d r e n o f r e c o v e r i n g a l c o h o l i c s . The q u a l i t a t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e study and s m a l l sample s i z e  limits  g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y . The aim o f q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h i s t o i n c r e a s e understanding  and not t o g e n e r a l i z e , so an  e x p l o r a t o r y study i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s g o a l . P r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s l i m i t my sample t o F i r s t Nations people i n the lower mainland o f Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. The p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l be v o l u n t e e r s where t h e r e i s one p a r e n t i n the home t h a t has a l r e a d y acknowledged a l c o h o l t o be a problem. The p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l be very s e l e c t , because a t l e a s t one parent i n t h e home i s attempting r e c o v e r y from a l c o h o l i s m . Data w i l l a l s o not be c o l l e c t e d on c h i l d r e n  7 younger than 9 years. Therefore, experiences i n a l c o h o l i c  younger c h i l d r e n ' s  homes w i l l not be s t u d i e d . The  c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d w i l l be s h o r t , so as not t o l o s e interest  of c h i l d r e n r e c o r d i n g t h e i r dreams. The  the  collection  of s e r i a l dreams w i l l occur over a f o u r week p e r i o d . w i l l measure, a t one  p o i n t i n time, the dream l i f e  c h i l d r e n i n a home where there has  data  This  of  been p a r e n t a l problem  d r i n k i n g . In s t u d y i n g dreams, the dreamer can a l s o l o s e some of the dream content. Faraday (1974) f i n d s t h a t when s u b j e c t s are woken and g i v e dream r e p o r t s i n the middle of the n i g h t , more i n f o r m a t i o n  i s r e t a i n e d . I f the dreamer  w a i t s u n t i l morning t o r e c o r d the dream, up t o 50% recorded  information  Limitations  (1974) b e l i e v e s t h a t "the e x t e n s i v e  use  dreams [ l i k e a b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e s ] i s an attempt by  of  the  dreamer t o d e a l w i t h h i s problems. I b e l i e v e t h a t the use  the  i s lost.  Assumptions and Garfield  of  o f dreams produces and  increases s e l f - r e l i a n c e "  proper  (p. 72) .  L i t e r a t u r e advocates u s i n g dream l i f e t o a s s i s t i n our personal 1992;  life  (e.g. Beaudet, 1990,  1991;  Edward, 1987). Other r e s e a r c h e r s  Cushway &  Sewell,  b e l i e v e t h a t dreams  are meaningless (e.g., Hobson & McCarlesy c i t e d i n Winson, 1990). I b e l i e v e t h a t dreams are m u l t i f a c e t e d and have many f u n c t i o n s . No  one  theory  on the f u n c t i o n of dreams has  accepted as the answer of why  we  been  dream. I w i l l operate from  the p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t dreams are important t o us f o r  our  8  human f u n c t i o n i n g . In t h i s study, I b e l i e v e we can o n l y understand  another  p e r s o n s ' dreams as much as a dreamer can convey h e r e x p e r i e n c e o f the dream v e r b a l l y , o r i n w r i t t e n o r p i c t u r e form. T h i s can a f f e c t i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y . Yet, as Beaudet (1990) p o i n t s out t h a t c o n f a b u l a t i o n may not be a problem because  "A c h i l d c o n f a b u l a t e s spontaneously, making up and  adding b i t s and p i e c e s , and even episodes t o t h e dream i t s e l f ; and whether the l a b o r a t o r y o r a c l i n i c a l method i s used, t h e c h i l d ' s nature and mind remain what they a r e " (Beaudet,  1990, p. 6 ) .  P o s s i b l e confounds c o u l d be abuse which might  include:  n e g l e c t , p h y s i c a l , sexual, and emotional abuse. Yet, t h e q u a l i t a t i v e nature o f t h i s study i n c l u d e s these f a c t o r s , s i n c e some c h i l d r e n o f a l c o h o l i c s a r e a l s o abused  i n these  ways. S i g n i f i c a n c e of Study C h i l d r e n a r e o f t e n overlooked and undervalued.  There  are n o t many supports f o r c h i l d r e n , but s e v e r a l f o r a d u l t s . In p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o c h i l d r e n , I w i l l be i n c r e a s i n g t h e much needed data base i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on c h i l d r e n , c h i l d r e n o f a l c o h o l i c s , c h i l d r e n ' s dreams, and F i r s t Nations c h i l d r e n . Due t o t h e many c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n a l c o h o l i c homes, r e s e a r c h i n g  c h i l d r e n t o see how they  i n t e r n a l l y cope i n t h e i r dreams i s important. The dream data w i l l r e v e a l the i n n e r l i f e ,  thoughts,  9 and  f e e l i n g s of c h i l d r e n t h a t may  t h e i r behaviour and  not be d e t e c t e d  e x t e r n a l l i f e . The  through  environment of  c h i l d r e n l i v i n g w i t h an a l c o h o l i c parent has  multiple  i n f l u e n c e s t h a t mediate the e f f e c t on c h i l d r e n , f o r example: degree of support, socio-economic s t a t u s , f a m i l y c h i l d ' s age  a t onset of p a r e n t a l d r i n k i n g and  h e a l t h , mental and  parental  s o c i a l concerns (West & P r i n z , 1987).  Through dreams these f a c t o r s amongst o t h e r s studying  size,  are i n c l u d e d i n  the c h i l d ' s world, from w i t h i n , because a c h i l d  c r e a t e s h i s or her own  images and  a l l that i s i n a c h i l d ' s  environment i n f l u e n c e s what a c h i l d sees, how t h i n k s and  f e e l s . Dreams provide  been researched West and  he or  a perspective  she  t h a t has  w i t h c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s .  Prinz  (1987) d i d a comprehensive review  c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s and  suggest a need t o study  i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n these c h i l d r e n and a t t e n t i o n t o the s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s t h a t h e l p  to  y e t data may  a l s o provide  dreams are used i n Native study may  h e l p me  pay  children's are  a group s i m i l a r i t y .  very As  c u l t u r e t o g a i n knowledge, t h i s  t o r e v i v e t h i s concept and  stone t o f i n d a way  on  the  r e s i l i e n c y . Dreams are i n d i v i d u a l t o each c h i l d and personal,  not  t o use dreams t o h e a l  be a  stepping  ourselves.  Furthermore, t h i s r e s e a r c h would f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e  the  l i t e r a t u r e t h a t r e v e a l s dreams d i f f e r between d i f f e r e n t psychological populations  (e.g., Kimmins, 1937)  dreams are a r e f l e c t i o n of our attempt at  and  that  problem-solving  and a d j u s t i n g t o our l i f e s i t u a t i o n , and are framed by our context.  11 CHAPTER 2: L i t e r a t u r e Review Dreams and F i r s t Nations C u l t u r e "All  American Indian t r i b e s a s s i g n e d s p e c i a l  t o dreams i n t h e i r l i v e s " Kilborne's  ( G a r f i e l d , 1974,  importance  p. 59). In  (1990) l i t e r a t u r e review of F i r s t N a t i o n s dreams,  he n o t i c e d t h a t American Indian dreamers took a c t i o n from t h e i r dreams. Taking t h i s a c t i o n from dreams has r e s e a r c h e r s b e l i e v i n g t h a t much of N a t i v e C u l t u r e has been d e r i v e d from dreams because F i r s t Nations people a c t i v e l y  consulted  dreams t o o b t a i n : songs, dances, h e a l i n g knowledge and techniques Devereux is  ( G a r f i e l d , 1974; K r i p p n e r , 1990).  Alternatively,  (1957) p o s t u l a t e s t h a t l e a r n i n g from dream m a t e r i a l  a 'secondary e l a b o r a t i o n ' from knowledge gained i n waking  life.  Radin (1936), an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t c i t e d i n D'Andrade  (1961), r e p o r t s t h a t F i r s t Nations people used t o i n c u b a t e dreams t o o b t a i n knowledge. T h i s l e s s e n e d when they were exposed t o western c u l t u r e and t h e i r dreams d e a l t more w i t h p e r s o n a l problems. King (1943), a l s o c i t e d i n D'Andrade (1961), found t h a t t h e r e was  a combination of N a t i v e and  Western elements i n the dream of an a b o r i g i n a l In the  man.  s t u d y i n g F i r s t Nations dreams, I hope t o r e j u v e n a t e  use of dreams f o r s e l f empowerment. G a r f i e l d  proposes t o l e a r n from 'American I n d i a n dreamers'  (1974) and  o u t l i n e s the f o l l o w i n g : 1.  Regard your dreams as important i n your l i f e  and  12 you w i l l r e c e i v e and remember v a l u a b l e dreams. 2.  You can reward y o u r s e l f f o r dreaming, as t h e I n d i a n s ' s o c i e t y rewarded them.  3.  You can p r o v i d e y o u r s e l f w i t h encouragement  to  dream. 4.  Your dreams w i l l become more r e l e v a n t t o your waking l i f e  5.  as you v a l u e and use them.  You can induce e l a b o r a t e d e t a i l ,  [and] v e r y  s p e c i f i c elements, i n your dreams. 6.  The more dream f r i e n d s you have, the b e t t e r .  7.  The more your dream f r i e n d s serve you, t h e b e t t e r .  8.  Treasure any of your dream songs.  9.  P e a c e f u l , unpressured surroundings w i l l h e l p you r e c a l l your dreams, and you w i l l dream more.  10.  Give your dream symbols waking  11.  Dreaming  can develop s k i l l s of independence.  12.  Dreaming  can develop s k i l l s of problem  13.  S u c c e s s f u l problem s o l v i n g i n dreams c a r r i e s over i n t o waking l i f e .  form.  solving.  (p. 77-78)  G a r f i e l d has d e f i n i t e l y summarized  how we can p r o f i t  from dreams. To b e n e f i t from dreams we need t o r e c a l l them. In  a r e c e n t study, Levine (1991) f i n d s t h a t I s r a e l i  children  r e c a l l e d fewer dreams because they d i d not t h i n k dreams were important and showed a l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n them compared t o two o t h e r c u l t u r e s . Her comparison of c o n f l i c t u a l dream images  i n three d i f f e r e n t cultures reveals  culturally  13 determined coping s t r a t e g i e s . When we pay a t t e n t i o n t o our dreams they can become a v a l u a b l e source f o r a s s i s t i n g us t o d e a l w i t h our concerns. Krippner (1990) notes t h a t among " s e v e r a l N a t i v e American t r i b e s , i n i t i a t o r y dreams  contain  such b i r d s and animals as bears, deer, e a g l e s , and owls" (p. 187).  The dream c r e a t u r e who becomes t h e shaman's power  animal, o r totem, t y p i c a l l y enables t h e dreamer t o incorporate  i t s wisdom and t o begin shamanic t r a i n i n g . To  r e l a t e t h i s t o c h i l d r e n i n homes o f a l c o h o l i c p a r e n t s , i t may  be p o s s i b l e  f o r c h i l d r e n , i n t h e i r dreams, t o use animal  f i g u r e s t o gain personal strength  and empowerment. T h i s may  be t r u e even i f i t i s a f e a r f u l c h a r a c t e r ,  such as t h e case  r e p r e s e n t e d by C a r r o l l (1988). She worked w i t h an a l c o h o l dependent woman who was t r y i n g t o b a t t l e h e r a d d i c t i o n . dream, t h e woman feared  In a  a serpent. C a r r o l l had h e r g e t t o  know t h e experience o f t h e serpent, and b e f r i e n d t h e 'monster' ( a d d i c t i o n ) . A f t e r t h i s , she has been a b l e t o remain sober. A l s o ,  t h e I r o q u o i s have dream f e s t i v a l s t h a t  encourage c h i l d r e n t o a s c e r t a i n t h e i r g u i d i n g  spirits  (Krippner, 1990). The c h i l d r e n t e l l t h e dream t o an a d u l t dream i n t e r p r e t e r , who determines t h e c h i l d ' s g u a r d i a n s p i r i t . We may be a b l e t o adopt t h i s t r a d i t i o n and t r a n s f e r it  into counselling  w i t h c h i l d r e n and empower them w i t h  t h e i r dream images. Eggan (1952), an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , importance o f dreams f o r r e v e a l i n g  also purports the  an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  14 p e r s o n a l i t y and h i s o r her c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t .  She proposes  a n a l y s i n g t h e content of dreams t o f u r t h e r understand t h e person's c o n t e x t / c u l t u r e appear together,  and t o see how dream elements  or not, t o get an idea of t h e e v o l v i n g  i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e i r c u l t u r a l context. studying  In t h i s  light,  F i r s t Nations c h i l d r e n ' s dreams, might r e v e a l  they a r e coping environment  how  ( p e r s o n a l i t y ) i n t h e i r a l c o h o l i c home  ( c o n t e x t / c u l t u r e ) . In K i l b o r n e ' s  (1990) look a t  h i s t o r i c a l use o f dreams, i n c l u d i n g N a t i v e p e o p l e s ' dreams, he concludes t h a t "dreams are e q u a l l y necessary i n t h e formation society"  of concepts and experiences of both s e l f and (p. 202). I f t h i s i s so, then i t i s important t o  understand t h e dreams of c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s . Furthermore, K i l b o r n e b e l i e v e s t h a t "Dreams bear t h e marks of t h e dreamer's p e r s o n a l i t y : h i s or her age, gender, c l a s s , education, Therefore,  p r i o r i t i e s , and l i f e s t y l e "  social  (p. 203) .  dreams would r e v e a l c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r  living  situation. Dream L i t e r a t u r e on C h i l d r e n The l i t e r a t u r e on c h i l d r e n ' s dreams i s not as  extensive  as t h e a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o a d u l t dreamers. As w e l l , most t h e o r i e s a r e d e r i v e d from dreams of a d u l t s . In t h e dream l i t e r a t u r e on c h i l d r e n , dreams r e f l e c t  "meaningful  s i t u a t i o n a l experiences as w e l l as t h e u s u a l tasks f o r the c h i l d "  (Catalano,  developmental  1984, p. 284). C a t a l a n o  (1984) f u r t h e r hypothesizes t h a t the dreams of  emotionally  15 disturbed c h i l d r e n w i l l r e f l e c t differences i n the manifest and l a t e n t themes, as w e l l as t h e i r l e v e l o f ego development. Catalano (1984) r e p o r t s t h a t o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s : Green (1971) and Foulkes (1967) conclude from t h e i r  studies  t h a t environmental s t i m u l i and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e r e f l e c t e d i n dreams. Albon and Mack (1980) s t a t e t h a t developmental  s t r e s s , and s i t u a t i o n a l o r environmental  trauma, r e v e a l s i t s e l f  i n the manifest c o n t e n t o f c h i l d r e n ' s  dreams. T h i s i s r e g a r d l e s s of whether o r not they have an emotional d i s t u r b a n c e . Regarding t h e f u n c t i o n of dreams, Catalano (1984) notes t h a t t h e l i t e r a t u r e on dreams d e s c r i b e s them as a d a p t i v e and problem s o l v i n g . Albon and Mack (1980) a l s o view t h e dream as an attempt t o f i n d p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s , o r new v i e w p o i n t s on s i t u a t i o n s i n one's l i f e .  Furthermore,  C a t a l a n o (1984)  b e l i e v e s t h a t dreams h e l p t o s t r u c t u r e our i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . Based on h i s experience and o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , Catalano (1984) determines t h a t dreams can r e f l e c t how a c h i l d copes w i t h h i s c o n f l i c t s and t o e v a l u a t e the t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s . Beaudet (1990, 1991) c o l l e c t e d 100 dreams from 15 c h i l d r e n , over an 11 week p e r i o d , i n a s c h o o l . The c h i l d r e n were 5 and 6 y e a r s o l d . She d i s c o v e r e d t h a t 45 o f t h e 100 dreams had t h e c h i l d i n an encounter w i t h a monster. In her d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , a p a t t e r n emerged of how, over time, t h e c h i l d r e n d e a l t w i t h t h e monster i n t h e i r dreams. Three ways  16 of  approaching  are:  t h e monster were d i s c o v e r e d . The approaches  combat, taming and engulfment.  T h i s study p r o v i d e s a  b a s i s f o r me t o p o t e n t i a l l y d e t e c t how c h i l d r e n i n a l c o h o l i c homes cope i n t h e i r dreams. T h i s f i n d i n g  (along w i t h t h e  data r e v e a l i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n cope d i f f e r e n t l y i n a l c o h o l i c homes) and t h e b e l i e f i n t h e f u n c t i o n o f dreams as r e f l e c t i n g one's development, experiences, as w e l l as being a d a p t i v e and problem s o l v i n g , g i v e reason f o r a t e n t a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s dreams may r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s i n how they cope i n a home with a l c o h o l i c p a r e n t ( s ) . We can l e a r n t o c o n t r o l our dreams. T h i s i s c a l l e d l u c i d dreaming (LaBerge  & Rheingold,  1990). T h i s may h e l p  t h e c h i l d t o r e c o n s t r u c t h i s o r h e r o u t l o o k on t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . Roberts  (1985) advocates t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e . Her  approach t o r e c o n s t r u c t i n g our view on l i f e events can change through use o f dream i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and mutual s t o r y t e l l i n g . She p r o v i d e s a case study f o r each. Another study by Winget and Kapp (1972) ( c i t e d i n G a r f i e l d ,  1974) conclude  t h a t t h e content o f dreams of pregnant mothers " f u n c t i o n [as]  an attempt  i n waking l i f e "  t o master i n f a n t a s y an a n t i c i p a t e d  stress  (p. 74). In t h i s l i g h t , c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n  homes w i t h an a l c o h o l i c parent may use t h e i r dreams t o a s s i s t them i n coping with t h e i r home l i f e s i t u a t i o n . I f t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e dream l i f e o f c h i l d r e n o f a l c o h o l i c s and i f some dreams have p o s i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s , we can use t h e q u a l i t i e s of these dreams t o t e a c h o t h e r  then  17 c h i l d r e n t o use t h e found coping dream  patterns.  C h i l d r e n of A l c o h o l i c Reviews El-Guebaly and O f f o r d  (1977) d i d a comprehensive review  of t h e l i t e r a t u r e on c h i l d r e n o f a l c o h o l i c s c o v e r i n g  25  y e a r s p r i o r t o 1977. They found few s t u d i e s on grade c h i l d r e n . Some o f t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s c h i l d battery  are: a l c o h o l i s m and  can not be c a u s a l l y l i n k e d , but i t i s p o s s i b l e  t h a t these two a r i s e from common f a c t o r s . They f i n d separating  school  that  out f a c t o r s such as f a m i l y d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , and  emotional d i s t u r b a n c e s i n c h i l d r e n i s needed t o determine the cause o f outcomes. V a r i a b l e s  contributing to a d i f f i c u l t  environment c o u l d be: sensory d e p r i v a t i o n , separation  o r r e j e c t i o n , and low q u a l i t y  parental parent-child  r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In t h e i r review, they conclude t h a t h y p e r a c t i v i t y i n childhood  i s related t o alcoholism,  as w e l l  as s o c i o p a t h y and h y s t e r i a i n adulthood. They a s c e r t a i n  that  f u r t h e r s t u d i e s need t o be conducted t o s e p a r a t e t h e e f f e c t s of h y p e r a c t i v i t y w i t h a n t i s o c i a l p e r s o n a l i t y . They a l s o conclude t h a t c h i l d r e n o f a l c o h o l i c s r i s k d e v e l o p i n g emotional d i s t u r b a n c e s , The  e s p e c i a l l y a n t i s o c i a l behaviour.  f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t s West and P r i n z ' s review  which encompasses 1975 t o 1985. H y p e r a c t i v i t y  (1987)  i n c h i l d r e n of  a l c o h o l i c s i s found, but t h e f i n d i n g s a r e confounded w i t h pre-natal  exposure t o a l c o h o l , and gender o f t h e a l c o h o l i c  parent. Also,  elevated  with hyperactivity  rates of attention d e f i c i t  disorder  (ADHD) have been found i n c h i l d r e n o f  18 a l c o h o l i c s and  c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o h e r e d i t y  or  pre-natal  exposure t o a l c o h o l . School performance of c h i l d r e n  of  a l c o h o l i c s i s found t o be a f f e c t e d moderately. F u r t h e r studies  are r e q u i r e d  t o weed out confounding f a c t o r s  environmental s t r e s s o r s and  pre-natal  which may  A few  e f f e c t schooling.  conducted on  interpersonal  a l c o h o l i c s and  exposure t o  studies  functioning  of young c h i l d r e n  further i n v e s t i g a t i o n with a  improves when they get o l d e r . Some s t u d i e s of c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s and  done t o conclude t h a t h e a l t h  status  health  also reveals  of  longitudinal skills  have looked a t  not  enough has  been  i s a symptom f o r  c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s . As w e l l , o t h e r f a m i l y influence  alcohol,  have been  study i s needed t o c l a r i f y t h a t a c h i l d ' s s o c i a l  the h e a l t h  like  s t a t u s of c h i l d r e n . T h e i r  stressors  may  investigation  t h a t c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s are prone t o  d e v e l o p i n g a n x i e t y - d e p r e s s i v e symptoms, low  self-esteem,  and  p e r c e i v e a l a c k of c o n t r o l on t h e i r environment. E x t e r n a l i z i n g problems, such as conduct problems, i n a t t e n t i o n and  poor academic performance are  associated  w i t h c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s . I n t e r n a l i z i n g problems, such d e p r e s s i o n and  as  a n x i e t y are a l s o found i n common w i t h  c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s . C h i l d abuse has  been found t o occur  t o c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s . However, the  strength  has  not been agreed upon and  stringent West and  controls  future  studies  f o r matching competing  of the  require  more  variables.  P r i n z b e l i e v e a l c o h o l i c f a m i l i e s t o be  highly  link  19 v a r i a b l e i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c h i l d r e n d i f f e r e n t l y . West and overlap  outcomes and  this affects  Prinz also f i n d that there i s  between the c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s and  those who  not have a l c o h o l i c p a r e n t s . They conclude t h a t a f f e c t s family  life,  and  do  alcoholism  c h i l d r e n s u f f e r from a  greater  number of symptoms, but not a l l c h i l d r e n are prone t o impairing  psychological  In T h a r i n g e r and f o l l o w i n g research children:  (a) Not  the same way  effects.  Koranek (1988) they r e p o r t  on the e f f e c t s of p a r e n t a l  chronic and  and  (c) In s c h o o l ,  underachieve and and  behavioral  alcohol  parent, f a m i l y  environment  c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s :  overachieve, have emotional,  problems and  child,  functioning,  acute s t r e s s o r s , i n f l u e n c e of the  culture,  Werner,  influence  adjustment, such as the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the non-alcoholic  on  affected  M i l l e r & Jang, 1977;  1986). (b) There are many v a r i a b l e s t h a t  a l c o h o l i c and  alcoholism  a l l c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s are  (Kammeier, 1971;  the  have an i n c r e a s e d  interpersonal potential for  abuse.  Family Environment R e i c h , E a r l s , and  Powell (1988) compare the home  environments of c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s and a l c o h o l i c s . They use w i t h c h i l d r e n and  a questionnaire  and  c h i l d r e n of  interview  p a r e n t s . T h e i r data r e v e a l t h a t  non-  approach the  c h i l d r e n from a l c o h o l i c homes: view the p a r e n t s as poor r o l e models, t h e r e i s g r e a t e r  p a r e n t - c h i l d c o n f l i c t , and  low  20 parent-child interaction, children report greater marital c o n f l i c t , and r e p o r t more p h y s i c a l and emotional abuse,  and  exposure t o d r i n k i n g . Rubio-Stipec,  B i r d , Canino, Bravo and A l e g r i a (1991)  examine the f a m i l y environment i n s t u d y i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t a l a l c o h o l i s m and c h i l d adjustment i n a Puerto R i c a n community. Standardized  i n t e r v i e w and measurements are  used. T h e i r r e s u l t s r e v e a l t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o  separate  p a r e n t a l a l c o h o l i s m from an unfavourable f a m i l y environment and  i t ' s e f f e c t on c h i l d h o o d psychopathology. A c c o r d i n g  the C h i l d Behaviour C h e c k l i s t (CBCL, Achenbach & 1983), c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c parents environments and  low  f u n c t i o n i n g compared  t o c h i l d r e n of n o n - a l c o h o l i c s . They f i n d a s t r o n g  w e l l as, d e p r e s s i o n ,  Edelbrock,  have poor f a m i l y  l e v e l s of adaptive  between p a r e n t a l a l c o h o l i s m and  to  relation  i n t e r n a l i z e d symptoms, as  somatic complaints,  and  d i s o r d e r s i n c h i l d r e n . When a c h i l d r e p o r t e d  thought symptoms,  the  l i n k of behaviour problems and p a r e n t a l a l c o h o l i s m i s s t r o n g e r than when the parents symptoms of the  or p s y c h i a t r i s t s r e p o r t e d  the  child.  Depression R o l f , Johnson, I s r a e l , Baldwin, and acknowledge the gap  Chandra (1988)  i n s t u d i e s on a f f e c t i v e concerns w i t h  c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s and note the emphasis of s t u d i e s  on  b e h a v i o r a l e f f e c t s of c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s . T h e i r sample c o n s i s t s of n i n e t y - e i g h t c h i l d r e n between the ages of 6  and  21 18 who  are from homes of r e c o v e r i n g a l c o h o l i c s . Mothers  f i l l e d out q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s f u n c t i o n i n g and the c h i l d r e n f i l l e d out t h e i r own  s e l f - r e p o r t of t h e i r  emotions. Mother's r a t i n g s f o r the c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s showed more d e p r e s s i v e a f f e c t . The c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s a l s o r e p o r t e d more d e p r e s s i v e a f f e c t than the c h i l d r e n of non-alcoholics. Welner and R i c e  (1988) use a sample of p a r e n t s w i t h  a f f e c t i v e d i s o r d e r and t h e i r school-aged to  an  c h i l d r e n compared  a group of parents and c h i l d r e n from the same community.  Standardized  t e s t s were g i v e n t o the c h i l d r e n , p a r e n t s  t e a c h e r s . These r e p o r t s were c o l l e c t i v e l y used t o symptoms i n the c h i l d r e n . In t h i s sample, c h i l d  and  identify  depression  i s r e l a t e d t o having an a l c o h o l i c f a t h e r and a mother diagnosed  with d e p r e s s i o n . I t i s a l s o found t h a t c h i l d r e n  w i t h an a l c o h o l i c mother, and parents who  d i v o r c e d , have  conduct d i s o r d e r . C h i l d Abuse Yama, Tovey, Fogas, and Teegarden (1992) a s s e s s whether s e x u a l abuse and a l c o h o l i s m are s i m i l a r i n terms of psychopathology, and p e r c e p t i o n of f a m i l y environment. They f u r t h e r assess whether t h e r e i s an i n t e r a c t i o n between the two.  The  s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e d of v o l u n t e e r u n i v e r s i t y  s t u d e n t s . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on d e p r e s s i o n , a n x i e t y and  family  environment were g i v e n . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e v e a l e d t h a t students who  s u f f e r e d c h i l d h o o d sexual abuse and p a r e n t a l  22 alcoholism  showed h i g h e r l e v e l s of d e p r e s s i o n , and  Regarding the f a m i l y environment, c h i l d r e n who childhood  s e x u a l abuse and had  suffered  a l c o h o l i c p a r e n t s saw  f a m i l y as having l e s s cohesion, g r e a t e r emphasis on moral and  anxiety.  their  c o n f l i c t , and  r e l i g i o u s matters. There was  less  no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s found f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h childhood who  s e x u a l abuse or p a r e n t a l  were s e x u a l l y abused and  a l c o h o l i c home had  alcoholism.  c h i l d r e n who  Both c h i l d r e n  grew up  s i m i l a r l y dysfunctional  i n an  p e r c e p t i o n s of  t h e i r home environment. T h i s i s a r e t r o s p e c t i v e  study and  is  prone t o d i s t o r t e d r e c a l l . Cognition Johnson and functioning  Rolf  (1988) compare the  of c h i l d r e n from r e c o v e r i n g  cognitive a l c o h o l i c s and  non-  a l c o h o l i c f a m i l i e s . They f i n d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , but d i f f e r e n c e s are found between the mothers' p e r c e p t i o n s and  the c h i l d ' s own  perception  of h i s o r her  performance. They s t a t e t h a t p r i o r r e s e a r c h differences  has  found  i n c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y of c h i l d r e n from a l c o h o l i c  homes compared t o c h i l d r e n of n o n - a l c o h o l i c s was  academic  when the  study  conducted w i t h c h i l d r e n whose p a r e n t ( s ) a c t i v e l y abused  a l c o h o l . In the review of Murray (1989) some s u b j e c t s low  on c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s , but t h i s i s not c o n c l u s i v e  l i m i t e d i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , von  Knorring  (1991) a l s o  are  due  to  finds  c h i l d r e n ' s s c h o o l performance t o be a f f e c t e d . In C o n n o l l y , Sasswell,  Stewart, S i l v a and  O'Brien's (1993) review, they  23 c i t e r e s e a r c h t h a t r e v e a l s c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s have: poor s c h o o l performance (Hyphantis, Koutras, L i a k o s & Marselos, 1991); reduced g e n e r a l c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g and v e r b a l performance ( G a b r i e l l i & Mednick, 1983; Teasdale, S c h u l s i n g e r , & Goodwin 1985;  lower  Knop,  Werner, 1986).  Behaviour C o n n o l l y , S a s s w e l l , Stewart, conduct  S i l v a and O'Brien  a l o n g i t u d i n a l study where data was  (1993)  c o l l e c t e d when  the c h i l d r e n were age 9 and 13. Since O f f o r d Boyle & Racine (1989) found t h a t r e p o r t s of behaviour d i f f e r e d depending on who  was  r e p o r t i n g behaviour  (teachers, p a r e n t s o r c h i l d r e n  themselves), C o n n o l l y e t a l . (1993) separated t e a c h e r ' s p a r e n t ' s r e p o r t s i n a n a l y s i n g t h e i r data. They c i t e from p r i o r r e s e a r c h t h a t r e v e a l s c h i l d r e n from  and  findings  alcoholic  homes e x p e r i e n c e : l e s s communication w i t h p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s , and p e e r s ; g r e a t e r detachment from f a m i l y members (Black, Buck & W i l d e r - P a d i l l a 1986); and a n t i s o c i a l and a g g r e s s i v e t e n d e n c i e s a t home and i n s c h o o l (Chafetz, Blane & H i l l , 1971;  F i n e , Yudin, Holmes, Heinemann 1976). The r e s u l t s of the Connolly e t a l . (1993) study r e v e a l  t h a t more problem behaviours a t age 9 are r e p o r t e d by t e a c h e r s , and more problem behaviours are r e p o r t e d by p a r e n t s w i t h c h i l d r e n a t age 3. A d d i t i o n a l l y ,  the  "Poorer f a m i l y  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , lower v e r b a l and r e a d i n g p r o f i c i e n c y  and  b e i n g male were a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h l e v e l s of behaviour problems" (p. 1383). They used the R u t t e r C h i l d  24 S c a l e A and B (Rutter, T i z a r d , Whitmore, and the Revised Behaviour C h e c k l i s t to  1970)  (Quay & P e t e r s o n ,  determine b e h a v i o r a l r e p o r t s , the Family  scale  (Moos & Moos, 1981)  (Weschler,  1974)  environment  t o determine the f a m i l y  atmosphere, the Revised Weschler scales  1983)  v e r b a l and performance  for assessing verbal  IQ  performance,  and the B u r t Word R e c o g n i t i o n S c a l e ( S c o t t i s h C o u n c i l f o r r e s e a r c h i n Education, 1976)  to evaluate reading  p r o f i c i e n c y . In t h e i r data they d e t e c t t h a t 9 year o l d ' s w i t h severe p a r e n t a l a l c o h o l d r i n k i n g are p o l a r i s e d between c o p i n g w e l l or p o o r l y i n terms of t h e i r behaviour a t s c h o o l . Another  study by Dawson (1992) notes the  literature  t h a t i n d i c a t e s c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s have behaviour problems.  In her study, she attempts t o account f o r the  p r i o r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l concerns  (e.g., s m a l l n o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  samples). S p e c i f i c a l l y , she takes i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n o t h e r f a c t o r s t h a t may  e f f e c t c h i l d r e n ' s behaviour from homes  where p a r e n t ( s ) have an a l c o h o l problem. She uses a survey d e s i g n and looks a t separate f a c t o r s of how  the gender of  the a l c o h o l i c parent a f f e c t e d the behaviour of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The measure she uses f o r b e h a v i o r a l problems i s a l i s t o f 32 i n d i c a t o r s from Z i l l  (1985) e.g.,  a d u l t s , demanding a t t e n t i o n , and misbehaving. c o n s i s t e n c y was  .85 f o r the 5-11  c l i n g i n g to Internal  year o l d ' s and  .89 f o r the  12 t o 17 year o l d ' s . R e s u l t s of the study r e v e a l s t h a t  "The  odds of b e i n g i n the top 10th p e r c e n t i l e of the b e h a v i o r a l  25 problem  d i s t r i b u t i o n were i n c r e a s e d by a f a c t o r of 1.66  an a l c o h o l i c f a t h e r and by a f a c t o r of 2.19  with  w i t h an  a l c o h o l i c mother" (p. 333). Some c h i l d r e n w i t h conduct d i s o r d e r and are a l s o found t o have parents who K n o r r i n g , 1991). Furthermore,  hyperactivity  are a l c o h o l i c  (von  the r i s k t o c h i l d r e n of  a l c o h o l i c s i n c l u d e : substance abuse, d e l i n q u e n c y , c r i m i n a l i t y , truancy and dropping out of s c h o o l (von K n o r r i n g , 1991). Somatic complaints occur i n c h i l d r e n of alcoholics  (von K n o r r i n g , 1991). The l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s t h a t  some c h i l d r e n , whose parent's are a l c o h o l i c , have behaviour problems. Resiliency Werner (1985) conducted a l o n g i t u d i n a l study i n Kauai, Hawaii. C h i l d r e n were f o l l o w e d from the age of 1 t o Forty-one p e r c e n t had s e r i o u s coping problems t h a t  18. caused  problems a t home, i n s c h o o l , a t work, or i n the community. The r i s k f o r d e v e l o p i n g s e r i o u s l e a r n i n g and problems was  behaviour  h i g h e r f o r c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c p a r e n t s than  f o r t h e i r peers i n the same b i r t h c o h o r t whose p a r e n t s were not a l c o h o l i c s . F i f t y - n i n e percent of the c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s had not developed any problems by age of These are r e s i l i e n t c h i l d r e n who work, and i n t h e i r s o c i a l l i f e ,  18.  d i d well i n school, at and who  had  realistic  f u t u r e g o a l s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . R e i c h , E a r l s , and Powell  (1988) address r e s i l i e n c y i n  26 c h i l d r e n o f a l c o h o l i c s and f i n d t h a t the f o l l o w i n g  factors  work p r e v e n t a t i v e l y a g a i n s t t h e c h i l d having a p s y c h i a t r i c d i s o r d e r : no p a r e n t - c h i l d c o n f l i c t , no exposure t o p a r e n t a l d r i n k i n g , and p o s i t i v e p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s . Woodside (1988) r e p o r t s many s t u d i e s t h a t show c h i l d r e n a r e a f f e c t e d by p a r e n t a l d r i n k i n g . She a l s o , acknowledges t h a t not a l l c h i l d r e n o f a l c o h o l i c s become a l c o h o l i c s themselves, nor develop emotional, p h y s i c a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l  disorders.  A l s o , t h e c h i l d ' s coping p a t t e r n s may a s s i s t i n how he o r she  i s a f f e c t e d by p a r e n t a l d r i n k i n g  (Woodside, 1988) .  Seilhamer, Jacob, and Dunn (1993) a l s o support t h a t not a l l c h i l d r e n o f a l c o h o l i c s are a f f e c t e d t h e same way. In t h e i r study, they look a t e i g h t f a m i l i e s w i t h an a l c o h o l i c f a t h e r . They measure the f a t h e r ' s a l c o h o l consumption, d a i l y , f o r 85 days with t h e use o f a l o g . The mother and c h i l d r e n a r e given  symptom and s a t i s f a c t i o n  questionnaires.  T h e i r f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t the c h i l d ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the f a t h e r ' s d r i n k i n g l e v e l , and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n f a m i l i e s change when a p a r e n t The  drinks.  e f f e c t o f t h e parent d r i n k i n g i s p o s i t i v e , n e g a t i v e o r  n e u t r a l depending on the f a m i l y dynamics. Regarding t h e p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s o f the f a t h e r d r i n k i n g , t h e r e s e a r c h e r s believe Steinglass's  'adaptive consequences' model i s  supported. That i s , " i f f a t h e r i s p e r c e i v e d  as more  when i n t o x i c a t e d , f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n s may w e l l  pleasant  support  c o n t i n u e d consumption" (p. 194-5). The c h i l d r e n who a r e  27 a f f e c t e d more n e g a t i v e l y , appear t o have a f a t h e r  who  d r i n k s most i n the e a r l y evening. S i n c e t h e r e are c h i l d r e n who c h i l d r e n who  are seen as  develop o v e r t problems  and  ' r e s i l i e n t , ' t h i s i s an i n d i c a t o r  t h a t the e f f e c t of p a r e n t a l o v e r d r i n k i n g on c h i l d r e n ' s behaviour, s c h o o l performance, h e a l t h and emotional s t a t e i s a complex i s s u e . Murray (1989) h i g h l i g h t s an important p o i n t from W i l s o n and Orford's  1978  study t h a t s o c i a l  of c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s v a r i e s as each c h i l d d i f f e r e n t l y t o experiences. age  and  adaptation reacts  T h e i r r e a c t i o n s vary w i t h  their  amount of time they were exposed t o p a r e n t a l  a l c o h o l i s m . Researching c h i l d r e n ' s dreams may f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o how  g i v e us some  c h i l d r e n cope and d e a l  with  p a r e n t a l d r i n k i n g . The data i s d e r i v e d from t h e i r w o r l d — a most important aspect of who Coper's and Zimrin  inner  they a r e .  Non-coper's (1986) p r o f i l e s coping versus  noncoping c h i l d r e n  of v a r i o u s types of abuse as p a r t of a l o n g i t u d i n a l study. She  uses Lazarus'  purports we  model of s t r e s s and coping.  t h a t what we  experience  T h i s model  as s t r e s s , depends on  view the s i t u a t i o n , what i n f o r m a t i o n we  perceive  o t h e r ' s r e a c t i o n s , and our assessment of our own t o d e a l w i t h the s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n . The of abused c h i l d r e n i n Zimrin's  how  from  capability  experimental  study, i s matched w i t h  c o n t r o l group. Data i s c o l l e c t e d through  observation,  i n t e r v i e w s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g . She  finds that  group a  the  28 s u r v i v i n g p e r s o n a l i t y of the abused c h i l d b e l i e v e s t h a t he or she and  c o u l d c o n t r o l h i s or her d e s t i n y  submission),  (b) has  c o g n i t i v e performance,  d e s t r u c t i v e behaviour, and  (c) has  (g) has  (f) shows no  fantasy,  self-  support of an a d u l t ,  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a dependant, such as a pet  s i b l i n g . The  good  presence of hope i n  (e) d i s p l a y s b e l l i g e r e n t behaviour,  has  (versus f a t a l i s m  a high self-image,  (d) has  (a)  n o n - s u r v i v i n g group has  difficulty  or  or younger  in  e x p r e s s i n g emotion, i n e s t a b l i s h i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s and a g g r e s s i o n . These found aspects of abused c h i l d r e n  high  could  a l s o be  found i n c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s .  Factors  t o be Considered i n C h i l d r e n of A l c o h o l i c Research  Factors  needing a t t e n t i o n when s t u d y i n g  children  of  a l c o h o l i c s are: c o n t r o l l e d s t u d i e s paying a t t e n t i o n t o sex,  e d u c a t i o n , socioeconomic c l a s s , and  disorganization;  amount of  c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n s of a l c o h o l i s m  v a r i a b l e s ; d e s c r i p t i o n of sample s e l e c t i o n ; and  family  and  and  other  attention  female c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s (El-Guebaly & O f f o r d , Since poverty, alcoholism  age,  to  1977).  a n t i s o c i a l behaviour occur  t o g e t h e r , t h e r e i s a need t o c o n t r o l f o r these f a c t o r s ( E l Guebaly & O f f o r d ,  1977). S t u d i e s have been done on  without s e p a r a t i n g sex-differences  the younger c h i l d r e n from a d o l e s c e n t s ,  have been ignored, as have gender  d i f f e r e n c e s between the a l c o h o l i c parent and P r i n z , 1987). The parental  children  child  other f a m i l y s t r e s s o r s t h a t may  alcoholism  are: d i v o r c e ,  conflict,  (West & occur w i t h  parental  29 psychopathology, drug abuse, p a r e n t a l c r i m i n a l i t y ,  poverty,  p h y s i c a l abuse and n e g l e c t , and p e r i n a t a l b i r t h complications  (West & P r i n z , 1987). R o l f e t a l . (1988)  suggest t h a t more l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s and more samples o f c h i l d r e n from a l c o h o l i c s need t o be conducted t o  begin  knowing causes, r a t h e r t h a t j u s t c o r r e l a t e d f i n d i n g s . A l s o , a t t e n t i o n needs t o be p a i d t o the c h i l d ' s developmental l e v e l , and the h e t e r o g e n e i t y  of c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s (Rolf  e t a l . , 1988). Woodside (1988) suggests t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h needs t o be done on the f e e l i n g s , and  family  dynamics i n an a l c o h o l i c home. Most r e s e a r c h has conducted u s i n g a l c o h o l i c s who  are i n treatment, when a  m a j o r i t y of a l c o h o l i c s do not r e c e i v e treatment. t h e s e samples are non-representative West and  P r i n z , 1987;  been  Therefore,  (von K n o r r i n g ,  1991;  Woodside, 1988). Woodside (1988) a l s o  suggests t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s , as w e l l as the  similarities  be addressed between a l c o h o l i c and n o n - a l c o h o l i c f a m i l i e s . In these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , b i o l o g y , p h y s i o l o g y ,  chemistry,  p e r s o n a l i t y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s need t o be s t u d i e d . The  l e n g t h of time the c h i l d i s exposed  t o p a r e n t a l a l c o h o l i s m i s another f a c t o r t o be s t u d i e d Knorring,  (von  1991). Murray (1989) advocates f o r the f o l l o w i n g  f a c t o r s t o be i s o l a t e d and  studied: parental  psychopathology, p a r e n t a l c r i m i n a l i t y , m a r i t a l d i s c o r d , d i s r u p t e d f a m i l y r o u t i n e , l a c k of p a r e n t a l guidance, modelling  maladaptive coping behaviour, s e v e r i t y of p a r e n t a l  30 alcoholism,  sex o f parent and i n t e r a c t i o n o f genders between  p a r e n t and c h i l d . The  term c h i l d psychopathology i s used i n t h e  l i t e r a t u r e and i s not c l e a r l y d e f i n e d .  I t seems i t i s a  broad term t o encompass a number o f d i s o r d e r s , e.g., attention d e f i c i t disorder,  and conduct d i s o r d e r .  term needs t o be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d  I f e e l the  t o be a b l e t o make  comparisons between s t u d i e s . Furthermore, comparison groups w i t h an i l l parent have been used, but t h i s may n o t be a matched group. Some s t u d i e s on c h i l d r e n o f a l c o h o l i c s have combined young c h i l d r e n w i t h a d o l e s c e n t s , which does n o t acknowledge t h e age d i f f e r e n c e s , o r t h e i r development and c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s . I f i n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on c h i l d r e n o f a l c o h o l i c s , the research  i s v a r i e d and i t takes y e a r s t o  e s t a b l i s h firm, conclusive  f i n d i n g s . The l i t e r a t u r e i s o f t e n  c i t e s s t u d i e s done i n t h e 60's 70's and 80's. of alcoholism continuing  Also,  effects  on c h i l d r e n i s t h e l e a s t s t u d i e d and  t o research  t h i s area w i l l c o n t r i b u t e  t o the  d a t a . Researching c h i l d r e n o f a l c o h o l i c s i s a complex i s s u e . A q u a l i t a t i v e study can i n c l u d e many v a r i a b l e s and s t u d y i n g dreams i n v o l v e s t h e c h i l d ' s p e r s p e c t i v e life.  from t h e i r i n t e r n a l  31 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY Introduction T h i s q u a l i t a t i v e study's design d e s c r i p t i v e . The sample p o p u l a t i o n  i s e x p l o r a t o r y and  i n c l u d e s c h i l d r e n between  the ages o f 9 and 13, who have a parent  t h a t has  acknowledged d r i n k i n g e x c e s s i v e l y and has d e c i d e d from d r i n k i n g a l c o h o l . The sample i s from an urban Nations population.  t o abstain First  I t i s my g o a l i s t o a s s i s t F i r s t  communities i n t h e i r h e a l i n g process. t o o b t a i n t h e i n t e r n a l experiences  Nations  I have chosen dreams  of c h i l d r e n of recovering  a l c o h o l i c s because, based on t h e l i t e r a t u r e , I b e l i e v e dreams can r e v e a l our p e r c e p t i o n s  and f e e l i n g s about  s i t u a t i o n s . Dreams a r e a l s o an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f N a t i v e c u l t u r e . N a t i v e c u l t u r e has u t i l i z e d dreams t o o b t a i n knowledge and t o problem s o l v e l i f e s i t u a t i o n s ( G a r f i e l d , 1974) . I n a n a l y s i n g t h e data q u a l i t a t i v e l y , I adopt a phenomenological view i n order t o understand c h i l d r e n ' s experience  from t h e i r  perspectives. Definitions Alcoholism  "Alcoholism  has been d e f i n e d f u n c t i o n a l l y as an i l l n e s s  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l o s s of c o n t r o l over d r i n k i n g t h a t r e s u l t s i n s e r i o u s problems i n any one of t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : j o b , s c h o o l , o r f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s ; r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h f a m i l y and friends; or physical health (Tharinger  (WHO, 1951 i n Deutsch, 1982)"  & Koranek, 1988, p. 167).  32 My  o r i g i n a l i n t e n t was  t o examine the dreams of  c h i l d r e n l i v i n g w i t h a parent who  i s d r i n k i n g a l c o h o l t o the  p o i n t where the non-drinking p a r t n e r reaches out f o r h e l p ( i . e . , t o an agency). T h i s i n c l u d e s p a r t n e r s themselves,  who,  drank a l c o h o l h e a v i l y and q u i t . T h e r e f o r e , a  c h i l d would have two  a l c o h o l i c p a r e n t s . I was  o b t a i n a sample of c h i l d r e n w i t h a p r a c t i s i n g  not a b l e t o alcoholic  p a r e n t . T h i s sample of c h i l d r e n comes from homes where p a r e n t i s i d e n t i f i e d as an a l c o h o l i c i n r e c o v e r y and ceased d r i n k i n g . G e n e r a l l y , i t takes p r a c t i s i n g  one  has  alcoholics  many y e a r s i n the recovery process t o reach a stage where they can d e c i d e t o remain a b s t i n e n t . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s  sample  of c h i l d r e n w i l l have l i v e d i n an environment where the p a r e n t was  consuming a l c o h o l f o r a long p e r i o d of time. Dream Report  Dreams are t r a n s l a t e d from v i s u a l images i n t o w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n s . T h i s process i s c a l l e d a dream r e p o r t . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i n a t r a n s l a t i o n of the dream from  visual  (asleep) t o v e r b a l or w r i t t e n (awake) form, because i t i s not p o s s i b l e f o r others t o observe the v i s u a l images seen the dreamer (Winget & Kramer, 1979). Dreams t h a t are r e c a l l e d , are d i f f e r e n t from dreams t h a t are not ( H a l l , 1966). The Navajo's (Krippner, 1990)  recalled  believe that  remembered dreams are s i g n i f i c a n t . I adopt t h i s b e l i e f i n this  study.  by  33 D e s c r i p t i o n of Data C o l l e c t i o n R e f e r r a l of C h i l d r e n I presented  t h i s research  i n q u i r y t o t h e program c o -  o r d i n a t o r of a Native a l c o h o l and drug agency i n order t o obtain permission  t o r e c r u i t c h i l d r e n from a l c o h o l i c homes.  We d i s c u s s e d how t o r e c r u i t a p p r o p r i a t e c h i l d p a r t i c i p a n t s and  agreed on an acceptable  method. I p l a c e d a p o s t e r on a  b u l l e t i n board i n t h e i r o f f i c e  (see Appendix C ) . There were  no i n q u i r i e s from t h i s p o s t i n g . In t h e c h i l d c o u n s e l l i n g department, t h e s u p e r v i s o r allowed  me t o meet w i t h  child  c o u n s e l l o r s and present my r e s e a r c h t o them. I asked f o r t h e i r assistance i n obtaining suitable c h i l d p a r t i c i p a n t s and they r e f e r r e d a l l f i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t h i s study. I knew f o u r of t h e f i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s from working a t t h e agency d u r i n g t h e summer. T h i s i n c r e a s e d t h e c h i l d ' s comfort l e v e l w i t h me d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s . Obtaining The  Consent  c o u n s e l l o r who was e i t h e r a l r e a d y working w i t h t h e  c h i l d , o r was beginning  c o u n s e l l i n g with t h e c h i l d ,  spoke t o  the c h i l d about t h i s study. T h i s c o u n s e l l o r a l s o asked t h e parents  i f I c o u l d c a l l and t a l k t o them about t h e i r  p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study. I was g i v e n t h e p a r e n t s  child numbers  t o c a l l t o s e t up meetings t o review consent forms (see Appendix B), t o d i s c u s s t h i s study, and t o answer any questions  they had. A f t e r these meetings and t h e s i g n i n g of  the consent forms, I arranged t o i n t e r v i e w t h e c h i l d .  34 At t h i s time, I s a t w i t h the c h i l d and e x p l a i n e d  that  we a l l have s e v e r a l dreams a n i g h t . I t o l d them t h a t sometimes we can remember our dreams and t h a t we can a l s o teach ourselves  t o remember them w i t h p r a c t i c e . I s a i d they  c o u l d t e l l themselves t o remember t h e i r dreams. I t o l d them t o wake up s l o w l y t o see i f dream memories came t o mind. I i n s t r u c t e d them t o r e c o r d t h e i r dream memories i n t h e j o u r n a l I provided  f o r them. These i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e from  Faraday's (1974) recommendations f o r dream r e c a l l (see Appendix A ) . D e s c r i p t i o n of Sample C h i l d r e n between the ages of 9 and 13 compose t h e sample, because " a t ages 7-9, the f i r s t r e p o r t frequency i s noted (Foulkes, Bradley & Terry,  increase  i n dream-  Hollifield, Sullivan,  1990, p. 449). Furthermore, F o u l k e s ,  H o l l i f i e l d , Bradley, T e r r y and S u l l i v a n (1991) r e p o r t  that  c h i l d r e n ' s dreams l a c k s e l f - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n b e f o r e age 8. Foulkes (1990), s t a t e s t h a t o l d e r c h i l d r e n ' s dreams have t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : s t o r y p l o t , movement, an a c t i v e s e l f - c h a r a c t e r , more human c h a r a c t e r s , amongst c h a r a c t e r s ,  greater  interactions  emotion, and d e s c r i p t i o n s o f s i t u a t i o n s  t h a t imply a f e e l i n g . A l s o ,  " l a t e n c y aged c h i l d r e n respond  most d e s c r i p t i v e l y and e l a b o r a t e l y w i t h a s t r u c t u r e d format" (Catalano,  1984, p. 282). Therefore,  recall  working w i t h  o l d e r c h i l d r e n between the ages of 9 and 13 p r o v i d e s r i c h e r data t o a n a l y z e .  35 There a r e a t o t a l o f f i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s who a r e a l l F i r s t N a t i o n s . A l l t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e sample were on a w a i t list  for counselling  o r were r e c e i v i n g c o u n s e l l i n g  F i r s t Nations agency f o r a d d i c t i o n s  at a  i n Vancouver. The  c h i l d r e n ' s mothers a r e t h e parent i n s o b r i e t y .  The mothers  of 4 o f t h e 5 p a r t i c i p a n t s have common law spouses t h a t a r e not  t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s b i o l o g i c a l f a t h e r s . I am  uncertain  whether t h e boy's mother's common law i s h i s s t e p f a t h e r o r b i o l o g i c a l f a t h e r . Of t h e common laws, two had been sober 15 t o 23 y e a r s longer than t h e mothers, one had q u i t the  drinking  same time as t h e mother and one "was never a d r i n k e r " .  do n o t know about t h e l a s t spouses d r i n k i n g  I  history.  Four o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a t t e n d an elementary s c h o o l i n Vancouver. Only one p a r t i c i p a n t goes t o s c h o o l i n Burnaby. There a r e f o u r female grade seven students. A t t h e time o f the  interviews,  these g i r l s were 11, 12, and two were 13  y e a r s o l d . The boy i n t h i s study was 9 y e a r s o l d . I was not able t o obtain  any other male p a r t i c i p a n t s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s  were a l l t h e o l d e s t c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n t h e home. The 9 y e a r o l d boy and one 13 year o l d g i r l both have o l d e r  female  s i b l i n g s i n t h e i r e a r l y twenties who do not l i v e a t home. Each o f t h e c h i l d r e n remembered between 4 and 19 dreams. The boy r e c a l l e d t h e most dreams. When I s t a r t e d w i t h him,  he s a i d he d i d not remember many dreams. L a t e r , he  s a i d he was a b l e t o r e c a l l h i s dreams because he f o l l o w e d my i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r remembering dreams (see Appendix A ) . The  36 t o t a l number of dreams I c o l l e c t e d was 49. Procedures w i t h the C h i l d r e n Initially,  I asked the f i r s t two c h i l d r e n , who  started  the study, i f they wanted me t o c a l l them every day, o r i f they wanted t o c a l l me when they had a dream. They both chose t o c a l l me when they had a dream. T h i s d i d not work, as one l o s t my number, and they both f o r g o t t o c a l l  me.  A f t e r not r e c e i v i n g any c a l l s t h e f i r s t two weeks, I c a l l e d them and d e c i d e d t h a t I would c a l l them every day. I i n t e r v i e w e d these two p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r about 6 weeks, due t o my not r e c e i v i n g any c a l l s f o r t h e f i r s t two weeks o f t h e study. I was a b l e t o i n t e r v i e w the g i r l who l o s t my  number  days a f t e r her dream because she wrote h e r dream down on paper. I c a l l e d a l l the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e morning, b e f o r e they went t o s c h o o l , and i f they remembered a dream, I would i n t e r v i e w them a f t e r s c h o o l t h a t same day. The t h i r d p a r t i c i p a n t s t a r t e d a week a f t e r the f i r s t two. I i n t e r v i e w e d t h e f i r s t t h r e e p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n c u r r e n t l y and s t a r t e d i n t e r v i e w i n g t h e l a s t two p a r t i c i p a n t s d u r i n g t h e l a s t week of t h e s e s s i o n s w i t h t h e f i r s t t h r e e c h i l d r e n . I c o l l e c t e d t h e data over approximately 2 months. I i n t e r v i e w e d the c h i l d r e n i n a q u i e t spot a t t h e i r homes. The i n t e r v i e w was conducted p r i v a t e l y out of r e s p e c t for  t h e c h i l d r e n and t o h e l p them f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e s h a r i n g  t h e i r dreams. I n i t i a l l y , the tape r e c o r d e r was a n o v e l t y t o the c h i l d r e n , and some f e l t a l i t t l e uncomfortable. When  37 they s t a r t e d t e l l i n g me t h e i r dream, they soon f o r g o t about t h e r e c o r d e r . I n subsequent i n t e r v i e w s , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s were c o m f o r t a b l e s h a r i n g t h e i r dreams and h a v i n g them r e c o r d e d . A t t h e end of t h e data c o l l e c t i o n , I gave each o f the c h i l d r e n $50 f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n my  study.  I n t e r v i e w i n g Process To o b t a i n t h e dream r e p o r t s , I used  non-leading,  c l a r i f y i n g q u e s t i o n s i n order t o l e s s e n t h e demand c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c h i l d r e n s a y i n g what a r e s e a r c h e r wants to  hear. I a l s o l e t the c h i l d r e n know t h a t i t was okay i f  they d i d not have a dream, because i t i s n a t u r a l f o r people not t o remember every dream. I t o l d them t h a t sometimes people remember more than one dream a n i g h t . I a l s o  asked  t h e c h i l d r e n t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r emotions i n t h e i r dreams, as w e l l as those they f e l t In  the f i r s t  upon awakening.  few i n t e r v i e w s , I asked t h e dreamers t o  d e s c r i b e t h e i r dreams and t o t e l l me as much as they remembered. L a t e r , t h e i n t e r v i e w s became r o u t i n e . I would ask i f they were ready t o s t a r t and I would t u r n on t h e tape r e c o r d e r . They would s t a r t t o t e l l me t h e i r dream immediately. Experiences of the Interview Process. The 12 year o l d g i r l would t e l l me a p a r t o f h e r dream, then become s i l e n t . I would prompt h e r w i t h , "And then what happened?" and she would continue t e l l i n g me t h e r e s t of her dream. I f what she r e l a t e d was u n c l e a r , I asked q u e s t i o n s t o  38 c l a r i f y . I a l s o paraphrased the c h i l d r e n ' s words t o check what they s t a t e d . When the c h i l d r e n d i d not f i n i s h  their  sentences, I asked q u e s t i o n s . For example, the 12 y e a r o l d girl him  s a i d , "and t h e r e was  a boat t h a t goes by and and  pushed  [dreamer's k i t t e n ] a l l the way t o the o t h e r s i d e " . I  responded, "Oh,  so d i d the boat k i n d o f save him?  (child's  head nods) He got t o the other s i d e of the shore?  (child's  head nods) And then what happened a f t e r t h a t ? " . T h i s example also i l l u s t r a t e s that I i n i t i a l l y  responded w i t h my  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the dream event. In subsequent I  l e s s e n e d my  impose my  own  interviews,  i n t e r p r e t a t i v e q u e s t i o n s i n o r d e r not t o  i d e a s on the c h i l d , which c o u l d a f f e c t  their  responses. I t was not easy t o f o l l o w the dream r e p o r t s o f one year o l d g i r l ,  13  so I asked q u e s t i o n s t o c l a r i f y . For example,  I s a i d , "And when you got out [of the box] you had t h e top h a l f o f your body?" Her response was, of  "Yeah, the middle p a r t  my body was gone". For f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n ,  I asked,  "So your arms and your head were t h e r e and your l e g s were t h e r e , but not your stomach area?". In c o n t r a s t t o t h i s year o l d g i r l ,  13  the only boy c l e a r l y r e l a t e d h i s dreams from  b e g i n n i n g t o end. I asked him very few c l a r i f y i n g q u e s t i o n s because i t was easy t o understand what he was t a l k i n g about. At  the b e g i n n i n g of my f i r s t  i n t e r v i e w s , I asked  q u e s t i o n s t o o b t a i n more i n f o r m a t i o n than was v o l u n t e e r e d . For  example, I asked f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n of a box, and "Do  you  39 know why man  you had t o go i n the box?", and "Did you know the  t h a t was  doing the magic t r i c k ? . I stopped a s k i n g t h e s e 1 1  d e s c r i p t i o n q u e s t i o n s t o l e t them t e l l me what they was  important  thought  i n t h e i r dreams.  J o u r n a l Recording. I p r o v i d e d a l l t h e c h i l d r e n w i t h j o u r n a l s , t h a t were h a l f l i n e d and h a l f blank, t o w r i t e down t h e i r dreams. They were g i v e n the o p t i o n of adding a drawing of  t h e i r dream i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s . A l l the c h i l d r e n d e c o r a t e d  t h e i r j o u r n a l s . Some of the c h i l d r e n recorded t h e i r dreams i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s . Sometimes the j o u r n a l would be  misplaced,  and they recorded t h e i r dreams on a p i e c e of paper. Most of the time the c h i l d r e n d i d not use t h e i r j o u r n a l s . They would t e l l me  t h e i r dreams from memory. None of the p a r t i c i p a n t s  f o r g o t t h e i r dreams. T h e i r memory was t h e i r dreams on the same day.  sufficient for telling  I f a c h i l d f o r g o t t o t e l l me  p o r t i o n of t h e i r dream, she or he would t e l l me  a  a t the next  interview. My experience i n C o l l e c t i n g Data I was  c u r i o u s and i n t e r e s t e d i n the c h i l d r e n ' s dreams  and I enjoyed l i s t e n i n g and comprehending t h e i r dream p e r s p e c t i v e s . I f e l t comfortable going i n t o t h e i r homes. I enjoyed speaking w i t h the parents and the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s i b l i n g s . Through the i n t e r v i e w process, I was  able to learn  about t h e c h i l d r e n ' s home environment. As time went on, c h i l d r e n and I became comfortable w i t h each o t h e r and interview process.  the  the  40 C h i l d r e n ' s Experience of P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n T h i s Study To t e r m i n a t e t h i s study w i t h the c h i l d r e n I asked them c l o s i n g q u e s t i o n s (see Appendix D). Three of the f o u r g i r l s thought  i t was  good t o t a l k and t e l l somebody about  dreams. The boy a l s o thought t a l k i n g was g i r l thought  i t was  their  good and the o t h e r  "ok". The boy and two of the g i r l s  said  t h a t , i n f u t u r e , they would draw or w r i t e about t h e i r dreams i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s . One g i r l s a i d t h a t she was  unsure  i f she  would c o n t i n u e t o r e c o r d her dreams, and the o t h e r s a i d  she  had no f u r t h e r p l a n s t o do anything w i t h her dreams. The i n c i d e n t s of dream r e c a l l  i n c r e a s e d f o r two c h i l d r e n .  two o t h e r c h i l d r e n , t h e i r dream r e c a l l am not sure how a f f e c t e d . One  remained  the f i f t h person's dream r e c a l l  For  the same. I was  o f the 13 year o l d g i r l s s a i d t h a t  p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study was  one of the few t h i n g s t h a t  she has completed  She f e l t proud of h e r s e l f f o r  i n her l i f e .  completing the study and she knew her mother would a l s o be proud of her. Data A n a l y s i s I take a phenomenological  approach  t o data a n a l y s i s . I  a l l o w the data t o speak f o r i t s e l f and f o r the dreams t o t e l l of the experiences of these c h i l d r e n of r e c o v e r i n g a l c o h o l i c s . I examined the manifest dream content of the r e p o r t s . The manifest content i s e x a c t l y how  the dream i s  p o r t r a y e d w i t h no i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the u n d e r l y i n g meaning  41 of the dream. In other words, the dream images speak f o r themselves. I was  as n o n - i n t r u s i v e upon the data  as  p o s s i b l e . I attempted not t o impose i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s upon the d a t a . When t h e r e were p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of dreams, I used background i n f o r m a t i o n  their  from the c h i l d ' s l i f e  and  information  from the l i t e r a t u r e t o ensure t h a t I kept  the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o the c h i l d ' s  perspective. The  Use  of Import A n a l y s i s t o Derive Perceptions  the  Child's  From the Dreams  For each dream, I d e r i v e d a s e t of  perception  statements u s i n g A r n o l d ' s (1962) method of d e r i v i n g imports as a g u i d e l i n e . An a story key  import i s the meaning or s i g n i f i c a n c e of  (Arnold, 1962). E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s i s r e - w r i t i n g the  b e l i e f s of a s t o r y i n one  sentence. A s e r i e s of  d e r i v e d from the c o l l e c t e d dreams r e v e a l s the  imports  children's  view of the world, t h e i r b e l i e f s , or t h e i r s c r i p t s of what happens t o them and  others  (Arnold, 1962). The  g u i d e l i n e s o r i g i n a t e from A r n o l d  following  (1962):  1. In forming an import, the g o a l i s not t o i n t e r p r e t , but t o capture what the s t o r y i s a c t u a l l y s a y i n g , can be a c o n v i c t i o n t h a t a p p l i e s t o the  which  storyteller's  life. 2. An  import cannot be such a g e n e r a l  statement t h a t i t  can apply t o anyone. I t i s a l s o not a summary. I t must be s p e c i f i c enough t o p o r t r a y the  storyteller's  42 perceptions. 3. The i n v e s t i g a t o r can use some o f t h e s t o r y t e l l e r ' s a c t u a l words and phrases. 4. No a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n  i s added.  For example, t h i s i s one o f t h e dreams i n my sample: "My b r o t h e r was w i t h me and he p i c k e d t h e skateboard up and then he went down the h i l l and I d i d n ' t know he went a l l t h e way down. When I seen him I was a l r e a d y a t t h e p o r t a b l e and when I got home t h a t day, I got i n t r o u b l e . They t o l d 'always make sure [your brother] perception  me,  s t a y s w i t h yah'." The  I d e r i v e d from t h i s i s : even when i t i s t o o l a t e  t o stop your brother,  you are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r him and g e t i n  trouble f o r h i s actions. I  found t h a t t h e r e was o f t e n more than one  perception  statement i n each dream. Arnold's formula r e s u l t s i n one import f o r one s t o r y and r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e r e be a b e g i n n i n g , middle and an end t o t h e s t o r y , and must i n c l u d e t h e thoughts and f e e l i n g s of the people i n v o l v e d without conversation  i n t h e s t o r y . Dreams are more e l u s i v e .  Sometimes they a r e m i s s i n g p a r t s , such as an outcome, what l e a d s up t o a s i t u a t i o n , and f e e l i n g s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , dreams can s w i t c h  scenes and have more than one s t o r y . S i n c e I am  a p p l y i n g t h i s method t o dreams, not t o s t o r i e s , I c a l l statements p e r c e p t i o n s  my  i n s t e a d o f imports. I use h e r method  of o b t a i n i n g imports as a t o o l t o a s s i s t me i n d e r i v i n g meaning from dreams, and her import g u i d e l i n e s t o f o r m u l a t e  43 t h e p e r c e p t i o n s of the dreamer. I d i s c o v e r e d i n my a n a l y s i s t h a t I c o u l d o b t a i n from 1 t o 8 p e r c e p t i o n s f o r each dream. In s t o r y sequence a n a l y s i s , A r n o l d uses 20 p i c t u r e cards  (Thematic Apperception  Test, TAT)  f o r twenty  imports.  A r n o l d d e v i s e d a m o t i v a t i o n index t o compare i n d i v i d u a l s ' t o t a l s c o r e s from 10 t o 20 imports. To use the index, 20 s t o r i e s are r e q u i r e d . The number of imports important forming  10 t o  i s also  f o r e n s u r i n g r e l i a b i l i t y and c o n s i s t e n c y i n  an a c c u r a t e summary of the i n d i v i d u a l s m o t i v a t i o n  f o r achievement. Therefore, only two  of my  p a r t i c i p a n t s are  e l i g i b l e f o r comparison. I w i l l not be u s i n g t h e s c o r i n g index. Reliability R e l i a b i l i t y r e f e r s t o "the c o n s i s t e n c y of the r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n t e r a c t i v e s t y l e , data r e c o r d i n g , d a t a a n a l y s i s and data"  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t meanings from the  (Schumacher & McMillan,  1993). To i n c r e a s e r e l i a b i l i t y  of t h e r e s e a r c h design, I c o n s i s t e n t l y used q u e s t i o n s i n i n t e r v i e w s . The procedures d e t a i l t o enable another  non-leading  are a l s o o u t l i n e d i n  researcher to r e p l i c a t e  and  r e l i a b l y conduct a s i m i l a r study. I analyzed a l l t h e dream r e p o r t s u s i n g the same method of d e r i v i n g p e r c e p t i o n s  from  the dreams. The phenomenological form of d e r i v i n g p e r c e p t i o n s and t r a n s c r i b i n g dream r e p o r t s a l l o w s the  data  t o r e v e a l r e s u l t s with minimal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h i s reduces b i a s . The  aforementioned  methods address  external  44 reliability,  which p r o v i d e s d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r o t h e r  r e s e a r c h e r s t o understand  and be a b l e t o r e p l i c a t e t h e  study. Internal r e l i a b i l i t y  o f data c o l l e c t i o n i s t o ensure  the degree o f agreement between t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s comprehension o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' view and t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r s p e c t i v e . I tape recorded  i n t e r v i e w s and  t r a n s c r i b e d t h e dream r e p o r t s t o assure d a t a was from t h e c h i l d r e n ' s viewpoint. had  i n understanding  I clarified  presented  any c o n f u s i o n I  the p a r t i c i p a n t s . I noted  features that  were prominent, but not common t o a l l t h e c h i l d r e n ' s dreams. Validity I n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y ensures t h a t c o n c l u s i o n s d e r i v e d from the data r e f l e c t r e a l i t y , or the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s . By approaching preconceived  intended  t h i s study without a  agenda, I minimized r e s e a r c h e r b i a s . I n other  words, t h e r e were no e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t would i n f l u e n c e t h e r e s u l t s . To i n c r e a s e i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y , I c o l l e c t e d a s e r i e s of  dreams f o r each c h i l d , so t h a t the c o n c l u s i o n s f o r each  c h i l d c o u l d be s u b s t a n t i a t e d by t h e i r other dream r e p o r t s . I a l s o s e l f - m o n i t o r e d d u r i n g data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s . T h i s means I attempted t o be aware o f my b i a s e s and t o c o n t i n u e t o ask myself  i f I was being o b j e c t i v e w i t h t h e  d a t a . F o r example, I would ask myself,  "What does t h i s  scene, o r a c t i o n , or c h a r a c t e r mean t o me? What might i t mean t o someone e l s e ? " I gave a sample o f t h e p e r c e p t i o n s I  45 d e r i v e d t o another  i n d i v i d u a l t o have him assess whether  they matched the data from the dreams. As w e l l , I asked o t h e r master's l e v e l r e s e a r c h e r s t o review the  two  perceptions  and c o n c l u s i o n s I d e r i v e d from the c h i l d r e n ' s dream r e p o r t s t o v e r i f y t h a t I a c c u r a t e l y concluded r e v e a l e d . One o t h e r person  what the dream data  person reviewed the boy's r e s u l t s , and  the  reviewed a l l the c h i l d r e n ' s r e s u l t s , as w e l l as  the o v e r a l l c o n c l u s i o n s . I a l s o questioned my ensure t h a t they r e f l e c t e d what the dreams  conclusions to  expressed.  Furthermore, i n a n a l y z i n g the data, I attempted t o r e t a i n the meaning of the p a r t i c i p a n t s language by u s i n g  their  words. E x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y i s the degree t o which t h e knowledge o b t a i n e d from the study can be a p p l i e d and understood f i e l d . The  sample of p a r t i c i p a n t s and procedures  d e s c r i b e d t o inform readers what p o p u l a t i o n the c o u l d be a p p l i c a b l e t o and v a l i d f o r i n other  i n the  is fully results  research  f i n d i n g s . As w e l l , the use of an e s t a b l i s h e d form o f a n a l y s i s i n c r e a s e s understanding r e s e a r c h e r s . The  of the r e s u l t s f o r o t h e r  f i n d i n g s are a l s o d i s c u s s e d and compared t o  p r i o r r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s  study  c o r r o b o r a t e some p r i o r r e s e a r c h on c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s . Dream P r e s e n t a t i o n In the r e s u l t s s e c t i o n , I present each c h i l d ' s dreams i n d i v i d u a l l y , c r e a t i n g a s e r i e s of dreams f o r each of the f i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s . The dreams are t r a n s c r i b e d v e r b a t i m  from  46 taped i n t e r v i e w s . The c h i l d r e n ' s dreams a r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h o u t c l a r i f y i n g questions and d i a l o g u e t h a t o c c u r r e d between myself and the p a r t i c i p a n t s . In some i n s t a n c e s , c h i l d r e n added i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e i r dream a t t h e end of t h e i n t e r v i e w , or a t the f o l l o w i n g i n t e r v i e w . T h e r e f o r e , t h e dream r e p o r t i s w r i t t e n i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r . The o r i g i n a l dreams a r e data i n themselves and allow one t o view where t h e comments, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , and p e r c e p t i o n s have a r i s e n . The comments, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s w i l l f o l l o w a f t e r I p r e s e n t the dream. At the end of the d e s c r i p t i o n of the s e r i e s of dreams, I present the o v e r a l l f i n d i n g s f o r the 5 participants.  47 CHAPTER 4: R e s u l t s The t o t a l number of dreams I c o l l e c t e d was  49.  The  range o f dreams each c h i l d remembered i n a c o n s e c u t i v e f o u r week p e r i o d i s between 4 and 19. Each c h i l d v a r i e d i n d i v i d u a l l y i n the number of dreams they  recalled.  I p r e s e n t each c h i l d ' s s e r i e s of dreams. Then I p r o v i d e comments, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s f o r each dream. I p r o v i d e a summary of the dreamer's p e r c e p t i o n s f o l l o w i n g each c h i l d ' s s e r i e s of dreams. I d e s c r i b e a l l f i v e p a r t i c i p a n t ' s dream p e r c e p t i o n s a t the end of d i s c u s s i n g the s e r i e s of dreams f o r each c h i l d . I begin w i t h the c h i l d t h a t remembered the most dreams. 9 Year Old T h i s p a r t i c i p a n t was  Boy  the only boy i n my  sample. He  was  the o l d e s t c h i l d l i v i n g a t home. He has t h r e e younger b r o t h e r s . H i s younger b r o t h e r s were 5, 4 and There was  3 years o l d .  an 18 year o l d s i s t e r t h a t d i d not l i v e a t home.  A t the time of data c o l l e c t i o n , h i s mother had been f o r 4 months. Her p a r t n e r had been sober f o r 23  sober  years.  Sometimes he r e f e r r e d t o h i s dad by h i s nickname. T h e r e f o r e , I am not sure i f i t i s h i s b i o l o g i c a l f a t h e r or h i s s t e p f a t h e r . T h i s boy thought about and t o t e l l  t h a t dreams were fun t o t h i n k  people.  Dream 1: Tuesday October 19. 1995 Me, my f r i e n d s , my dad and my gym t e a c h e r were a t T r o u t Lake Park. The k i d s were running around, w h i l e my dad and the gym teacher watched the k i d s . I was r u n n i n g away [separate from the other c h i l d r e n ] gonna go and I see a snake and I was gonna go p i c k i t up, but i n s t e a d  48 i t almost b i t me. So, I s t a r t e d running and i t was f o l l o w i n g me and i t almost b i t me. Then I t u r n e d around and i t was gone and then i t was behind me a g a i n . [I f e l t ] s c a r e d . Then I k i c k e d i t . [I f e l t ] happy. Then i t went somewhere e l s e and then I f o l l o w e d i t . [I f e l t ] happy. The snake ran on and on. [ I t was] w e i r d . A f t e r t h a t we were g e t t i n g ready t o l e a v e and so I r a n back and then l e f t . Then we met t h i s g i r l and then they dropped us o f f and then I f o r g o t something i n t h e van. They p i c k e d somebody up. When we came back i t [ h i s c o a t and homework] was gone. I went home and t o l d my mom and dad. They s a i d t h a t tomorrow I would be grounded. When I went back, I found them on the r o c k s and saw them. I brought i t t o s c h o o l and f o r g o t t o b r i n g i t home. I t o l d them [ h i s parents] I f o r g o t and then I r a n back and then I got them [homework and coat] and went t o the s c h o o l program [to] p l a y games w i t h some of my f r i e n d s . We went home. Then the next morning when we walked t o s c h o o l we s t a r t e d p l a y i n g a t the playground. We had the l i t t l e playground i n s t e a d of the b i g one [because they were c o n s t r u c t i n g a door f o r w h e e l c h a i r a c c e s s ] . But u s u a l l y we always p l a y a game l i k e they have t o go back and f o r t h on the monkey bars 10 times and then the next person and the next person. When they a l l d i d i t , we see which team d i d i t the f a s t e s t . Then we went back t o c l a s s and we d i d work and then when i t was 2 o ' c l o c k we went o u t s i d e t o p l a y C a l i f o r n i a K i c k b a l l . One of my f r i e n d s k i c k e d [the b a l l ] over the f e n c e . So when me and my f r i e n d ran and jumped over the fence, but my f r i e n d got i t b e f o r e me (small l a u g h ) . My f r i e n d i s s c a r e d of dogs 'cause he used t o have t o look a f t e r a b u l l dog. Then he thought t h e r e was a guard dog, but t h e r e wasn't. We were y e l l i n g t h e r e ' s no dog t h e r e . So, he was going slower than normally 'cause he thought t h e r e was one, but he ran anyways. And t h a t ' s i t . Comments When I asked him how response was  he f e l t b e f o r e he woke up h i s  c u r i o u s . He responded t h a t i t was  weird  about  him and the snake. T h i s s c e n a r i o occured a t the b e g i n n i n g of the dream he recounted. T h i s makes me wonder i f t h i s i s the end of the dream. The f o l l o w i n g dream events r e p o r t e d sound l i k e a d e s c r i p t i o n of the day's events. A couple of times, i n t h i s i n t e r v i e w , I i n q u i r e d i f the events he  was  49 d e s c r i b i n g were i n t h e dream. He responded y e s each time. I w i l l take Beaudet's  (1990) stance on c o n f a b u l a t i o n i n dream  r e p o r t s . T h i s stance involves accepting t h e a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e a c t u a l dream, because i t i s d e r i v e d i n the  c h i l d ' s mind and t o him i t i s p a r t o f t h e dream.  Perceptions I d e r i v e d t h r e e p e r c e p t i o n s from t h r e e segments o f t h e dream. F i r s t , t h e snake scene, then f o r g e t t i n g h i s homework and c o a t , and f i n a l l y , t h e f e a r o f a dog. An a d d i t i o n a l p e r c e p t i o n was d e r i v e d from a s p e c i f i c p o i n t i n t h e dream. 1. When something a t t a c k s you, you cannot always see it.  However, you can defend y o u r s e l f and g e t t h e upper hand,  and i t may l e a d you somewhere i n t e r e s t i n g . 2. You g e t punished f o r l e a v i n g your t h i n g s behind, and even though you f o r g e t them more than once you can r e t u r n and g e t them. You can r e c o v e r what you l o s t . 3. Sometimes your thoughts a r e not a c c u r a t e and you can be t o o s c a r e d t o hear your f r i e n d s t e l l you what i s t r u e . 4. You do not always g e t t h e r e f i r s t ,  o r win.  Dream 2: Monday October 23. 1995 We were p l a y i n g u n t i l we heard t h e s i r e n s . We [him and h i s f r i e n d s ] r a n down t o watch. I seen t h i s grey mustang. T h i s middle aged guy l i v e d t h e r e and came i n t o the [grey] c a r . Then t h e r e was t h i s p o l i c e c a r , dark b l u e p o l i c e c a r . Then t h e p o l i c e c a r s t a r t e d c h a s i n g a f t e r him. He crashed i n t o some parked c a r s and then he backed up and then t h e p o l i c e woman g o t o u t o f t h e c a r because he stopped. The guy t h a t they were c h a s i n g backed up and h i t t h e p o l i c e woman. Then he took o f f . [The p o l i c e man] was f o l l o w i n g him and he c a l l e d f o r back up. The p o l i c e was r i d i n g around t o see i f [he was] h i d i n g some where. They almost found him, b u t i t was a d i f f e r e n t kinda c a r . I t was a mustang [ t o o ] , b u t  50 a d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r . [He went down 5th t o S s t r e e t because he saw t h e p o l i c e ] . So when he g o t t o S S t r e e t , he turned back and then came up here [the s t r e e t he l i v e d on] and t h e p o l i c e caught him 'cause he was l i k e h i d i n g on t h i s block here. He seen t h e guy come up t o him and p u l l over. He went i n f r o n t o f him and t h e r e was t h i s other c a r t h a t was i n t h e p a r k i n g l o t [ t h a t ] p u l l e d out [and] trapped t h e guy t r y i n g t o g e t away. Then t h e r e was one [ p o l i c e c a r ] down a t t h e end o f t h e b l o c k . They [the p o l i c e ] l e f t . [ I t f e l t ] good 'cause me and my f r i e n d s r a n toward i t [ p o l i c e chace] t o watch i t . So, we r a n back up and p l a y e d on t h e swings and t h e monkey b a r s . Then we were g e t t i n g bored. We p l a y e d t a g . Then we had t o go i n f o r d i n n e r . [I f e l t ] good when I woke up. Comments He mentioned t h a t t h e day before t h i s dream he saw p o l i c e i n h i s neighbourhood. The p o l i c e were g o i n g t o p e o p l e ' s houses. There was no reason g i v e n i n t h e dream as to  why t h e p o l i c e were chasing t h e guy i n t h e Mustang. As i n  life,  he d i d not know why t h e p o l i c e were i n h i s  neighbourhood. There i s a l s o no mention o f what happened t o the p o l i c e woman t h a t was h u r t i n h i s dream. The guy b e i n g chased  i n t h e dream d i d not go very f a r t o g e t away. I f t h e  p o l i c e r e p r e s e n t e d h i s parents o r a d u l t s i n h i s l i f e and t h e guy b e i n g chased represented him, then t h e p o l i c e chase p a r a l l e l s a young c h i l d who cannot go v e r y f a r on h i s own i f he wants t o g e t away. Perceptions 1. When t h i n g s a r e s i m i l a r you can be c l o s e t o c a t c h i n g the r e a l t h i n g ( r e : d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r c a r ) . 2. An e x c i t i n g event can happen w h i l e you a r e p l a y i n g . When i t i s over, you continue what you were d o i n g .  51 3. I f you g e t bored p l a y i n g , you p l a y something e l s e . 4. E v e n t u a l l y t h e p o l i c e c a t c h t h e guy running and h i d i n g , i n t h e meantime someone gets h u r t . Dream 3: Tuesday October 24, 1995 I was walking t o s c h o o l , when I got up t h e s t a i r s [ a t s c h o o l ] I seen t h i s c a r and I thought i t was umm a c t u a l l y I saw t h i s skateboard i n s t e a d and my b r o t h e r was w i t h me and he p i c k e d t h e skateboard up and then he went down t h e h i l l and I d i d n ' t know he went a l l t h e way down [the h i l l ] . When I seen him I was a l r e a d y a t the p o r t a b l e and when I got home t h a t day, I g o t i n t r o u b l e . They t o l d me, "always make sure [your b r o t h e r ] s t a y s with yah." I went t o my room, I s t a y e d t h e r e f o r a l i t t l e w h i l e . Then I went downstairs f o r d i n n e r . Then I had t o go t o bed and my b r o t h e r f e l l a s l e e p downstairs. A f t e r I f e l l a s l e e p my b r o t h e r came back up. He got i n t r o u b l e , my b r o t h e r , 'cause he was n o i s y , I g o t i n t r o u b l e because he was n o i s y . He wasn't supposed t o be t a l k i n g . Then we got i n t r o u b l e , then we f e l l a s l e e p . The next morning my b r o t h e r brought up v i t a m i n s . They brought up v i t a m i n C. That's a l l I remember. [I f e l t ] h a l f and h a l f good and bad [about dream]. A c t u a l l y i t was j u s t bad. [I f e l t ] sad because we g o t i n t r o u b l e . Comments The dreamer was t o l d by h i s parents t h a t he was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s brother and h i s b r o t h e r s ' a c t i o n s . I n the f i r s t  i n s t a n c e , when h i s b r o t h e r got on t h e skateboard,  t h e r e was no mention of h i s brother g e t t i n g i n t o t r o u b l e . He got i n t r o u b l e f o r h i s b r o t h e r s ' behaviour  when he d i d not  stop what he d i d . In t h e second i n c i d e n t , t h e dreamer and his  b r o t h e r both got i n t r o u b l e because h i s b r o t h e r was  n o i s y . On t h e other hand, he c o u l d have blamed h i s b r o t h e r for  them g e t t i n g i n t o t r o u b l e . He might have been t a l k i n g  j u s t as much as h i s brother. The next morning, h i s b r o t h e r s brought up v i t a m i n s . S y m b o l i c a l l y , i t c o u l d r e p r e s e n t  52 nourishing  the dreamer f o r t a k i n g the  slack.  Perceptions 1. Even when i t i s too l a t e t o stop your b r o t h e r , are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r him 2. When you it  you  and get i n t r o u b l e f o r h i s a c t i o n s .  are r e s p o n s i b l e , you get i n t r o u b l e even i f  i s not your f a u l t . T h i s makes you  sad.  Dream 4: Wednesday October 25. 1995 I was o l d e r l i k e when I was about 18. I t h i n k . T h i s was i n my dream, I seen my dad break i n t o c a r s and I thought when I grow up I ' l l do t h a t i n s t e a d . When I broke i n t o a c a r I thought I wouldn't go t o j a i l , but I did. I went t o j a i l , stayed over n i g h t . [I f e l t ] mad t h a t I had t o go t o j a i l . [I f e l t ] sad [ t o o ] . I t was a l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n g i n j a i l . I t ' s l i k e s c h o o l , they get lunch, except they don't get d i n n e r . You have t o s t a y i n t h i s p l a c e . You have t o s i t t h e r e or do something l i k e p l a y around or anything ' t i l lunch or whatever. I t ' s weird t h a t they have the t o i l e t s without no room [no w a l l s ] . [The t o i l e t ] was i n the c o r n e r . I d i d n ' t do i t again, but then I d i d i t the day a f t e r t h a t . I kept on breaking i n t o c a r s [ u n t i l ] I was about 25 I stopped doing i t . I s t a r t e d i t f o r about two more days and I stopped again and I stayed a t the house and watched the k i d s , my c o u s i n s . [I f e l t ] happy t h a t I stayed a t the house i n s t e a d of breaking i n t o c a r s . I was p l a y i n g o u t s i d e watching the k i d s and p l a y i n g games w i t h them. Then I seen a f i r e and we ran up t o i t and one of the k i d s ran and we were p l a y i n g something newspapers and b u r n i n g them and p u t t i n g them by the cans. There were garbage cans and there was garbage i n i t . [ T h i s ] went i n flames and people were going t o t h e i r houses and g e t t i n g buckets of water and pouring i t on [the f i r e ] . [When I woke up, I f e l t ] good cause i t [dream] was over w i t h 'cause i f i t was r e a l then I would be o l d e r r i g h t now and my mom and S [mom's common law] would be o l d e r . Comments The  dreamer wanted t o f o l l o w h i s dad's f o o t s t e p s .  l e a r n e d through experience t h a t j a i l was breaking  i n t o c a r s . However, he has  because he went out,  not  He  a consequence f o r learned h i s  a few days l a t e r , and  lesson  stole cars  again.  53 H i s dream c o u l d have been a message forewarning him. F o r years,  i n t h e dream, he had a c o n t i n u i n g c y c l e o f s t e a l i n g  c a r s and then he q u i t t h i s a c t i o n . T h i s sounds l i k e t h e a d d i c t i v e c y c l e t h a t occurs when a person i s a t t e m p t i n g t o q u i t d r i n k i n g . He o r she stops d r i n k i n g f o r a w h i l e and then s t a r t s d r i n k i n g again. conception dinner  I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t h i s  o f j a i l was l i k e s c h o o l : you g e t lunch,  but not  and you can p l a y . He was g l a d when he woke up t o f i n d  out  i t was a dream and t h a t he d i d not a c t u a l l y s t e a l  and  go t o j a i l .  cars  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y was a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n t h i s dream. For example, he f e l t good about s t a y i n g home t o watch t h e c h i l d r e n i n s t e a d o f s t e a l i n g c a r s . However, when he was home his  cousins  and he were p l a y i n g w i t h f i r e .  I wonder i f they  caused t h e f i r e . He does not y e t have a r e s p o n s i b l e mind. He i s s t i l l a c h i l d w i t h t o o much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Although, i t was a p l u s when t h e community came t o g e t h e r  t o put the f i r e  out. Perhaps h i s dream was a process f o r l e a r n i n g what i s r i g h t and wrong. Sometimes i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s , t h i s young boy t o l d me about h i s l i f e .  For example, i n t h i s i n t e r v i e w he s a i d t h a t  he c o u l d not go t o a Halloween p a r t y because t h e f a m i l y c o u l d n o t a f f o r d a t a x i and t h e t a x i d i d not f i t t h e whole f a m i l y . I f they went, h i s dad would take t h e bus. Perceptions 1. You f o l l o w your f a t h e r ' s f o o t s t e p s and l e a r n through  54 e x p e r i e n c e t h a t i t i s wrong. The consequences  do not s t o p  you from d o i n g what i s wrong. 2. You are happy t o s t a y out of t r o u b l e and t a k e c a r e of k i d s . However, you p l a y w i t h f i r e and o t h e r s put i t out. Dream 5: Thursday October 26.  1995  He says h i s dream was about what happened a t h i s s c h o o l the p r i o r week. Someone attempts t o l u r e a c h i l d w i t h them and the c h i l d does not go w i t h the person. I was walking by the s c h o o l and then t h i s guy came and [he] was going t o g i v e me candy. I walk up t o him. He gave me the candy. Then he takes me i n t o h i s van. Then he takes me somewhere and he dropped me o f f a t the c o r n e r s t o r e . A c t u a l l y , [he dropped me o f f ] a t h i s house. He l e f t and he locked the doors. [I f e l t ] sad. Then I seen him leave t o come back t o the s c h o o l , a c t u a l l y I heard h i s van 'cause I l e f t a magic pen [ i n the v a n ] . I t had a speaker on the back t o r e c o r d . I t r i e d opening i t [the d o o r ] , but I c a n ' t so I went out the window. I d i d n ' t know which way t o go t o t h e s c h o o l . I j u s t s t a r t e d walking one way, i t was the r i g h t way. I d i d n ' t know so [I] kept on w a l k i n g . Then I seen the s k y t r a i n , so I went on the s k y t r a i n . I went t o C [ s t a t i o n ] . I got o f f and caught the bus. By the time I got t o s c h o o l , s c h o o l was over. [I f e l t ] a l i t t l e b i t happy [during the dream]. [When I woke up, I f e l t ] good. Comments In t h i s dream, the dreamer was t r u s t i n g and showed no r e s i s t a n c e t o being taken away. He used a t o o l t o a s s i s t h i s e s c a p e — a magic pen t h a t monitored what the kidnapper d o i n g . He showed, i n t h i s dream, t h a t he t r i e d  was  alternative  s o l u t i o n s t o s o l v e a problem. F i r s t , he t r i e d t o g e t out the door. When t h i s a c t i o n d i d not work, he escaped through a window. When he r e t u r n e d on h i s own, way  he d e c i d e d t o go  one  even though he was unsure. T h i s way took him t o f a m i l i a r  grounds and from t h e r e he knew how  t o get back t o s c h o o l .  55 When he got t h e r e , s c h o o l was over. Perceptions 1. When someone you e n t r u s t e d b e t r a y s you, you r e l y on y o u r s e l f and any other d e v i c e s t o h e l p you escape. 2. Your dream t e l l s you t h a t you cannot t r u s t a s t r a n g e r , even i f he o f f e r s you candy. 3. You can escape when you are a p r i s o n e r . 4. T r u s t your  intuition.  Dream 6: F r i d a y October 27. 1995 I t s t a r t e d on a dark r a i n y n i g h t , Halloween. We were p l a y i n g around f i r e c r a c k e r s . One of my f r i e n d s came and he brought some f i r e c r a c k e r s and some f i r e w o r k s t o o . We went and put them i n the sandbox. There was l o t s . We shot them o f f and they were h i t t i n g some houses. So, we put them behind the g i r l s and then i t went p a s t t h e t r e e and p a s t the b u i l d i n g and out t o t h e road. We r a n away 'cause i t h i t a c a r w i t h an alarm on i t . We r a n t o a c e n t r e [ i n h i s neighbourhood]. We went t o t h e gym and p l a y e d u n t i l we had t o go home. We went home, we had t o have d i n n e r . We had dinner then we went t o bed. We woke up t h e next morning [and] we went t o s c h o o l . A f t e r s c h o o l we [him and h i s f r i e n d s ] met each o t h e r a t t h e same p l a c e . We brought a bunch of games and we s t a r t e d p l a y i n g w i t h one. We were h o l d i n g [the f i r e w o r k s ] . We dropped them. We f o r g o t we dropped them 'cause we kept on running u n t i l we got a c r o s s t h e s t r e e t t o t h a t c e n t r e . We were l o o k i n g i n our pockets and we found out t h a t we were m i s s i n g f i r e w o r k s . So we r a n back and looked f o r them, and we found them a l l . We went back p l a y i n g . Then a f t e r we came back home and had d i n n e r and went t o bed. When we woke up [we] went t o s c h o o l . [ A f t e r school] we met a t a d i f f e r e n t spot, but they a l l d i d n ' t show up. [I thought] t h a t they were s t i l l a t s c h o o l . They weren't, they went back i n t h e o t h e r spot. [I f e l t ] sad. Then I l i t my s t u f f [ f i r e w o r k s ] and i t went through the t r e e and i t [ f i r e w o r k s ] blew up. When I went home, I went t o my f r i e n d s house. I s a i d , "How come you guys weren't t h e r e ? " , "How come YOU weren't t h e r e ? " t h a t ' s what they s a i d . 'Cause they we f o r g o t t o t e l l them I f o r g o t t o t e l l them we were g o i n g t o meet i n a d i f f e r e n t spot. [When I woke up, I f e l t ] happy 'cause t h e r e was no more f i r e w o r k s . I f I d i d my mom would be mad. She doesn't want us p l a y i n g w i t h them. Anyway t h e y ' r e i l l e g a l .  56 Comments In t h i s dream, t h e dreamer was p l a y i n g w i t h f i r e w o r k s , which he knew he should not do. He took a c t i o n t o move when t h e f i r e w o r k s h i t o b j e c t s which were not okay t o h i t . When r e l o c a t i o n d i d not work, he r a n away and q u i t f o r t h e day. The dreamer continued p l a y i n g w i t h f i r e w o r k s t h e next day, even though he knew they were dangerous. He took r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the misunderstanding  between him and h i s  f r i e n d s . He asked h i s f r i e n d s what happened and he r e s o l v e d why they d i d not show up. Even though h i s f r i e n d s d i d n o t show up, he continued t h e i r p l a n s without them. Perceptions 1. When something i s not working out, do something e l s e and take a break u n t i l the next day. 2. You can g e t i n t o t r o u b l e s e t t i n g o f f f i r e w o r k s . 3. You can f i n d what you l o s e by r e t r a c i n g your s t e p s . 4. I f your f r i e n d s do not show up, you c a r r y on. 5. You can do i n your dreams what you cannot do i n life. Dream 7: November 1. 1995 I was r e a l l y l i k e running around i n t h e p o r t a b l e . I went home I thought i t was 10 o ' c l o c k o r 11. There was t h i s guy behind me f o l l o w i n g me and my b r o t h e r . So he kept on f o l l o w i n g us everywhere. We went i n t h e c e n t r e and we went t o the gym. He s t i l l f o l l o w e d us. Then we went back t o s c h o o l . He was gone, but he was s t i l l f o l l o w i n g us. [I f e l t ] worried. I t o l d t h e p r i n c i p a l . The p r i n c i p a l phoned the p o l i c e . They were l o o k i n g f o r him, but they c o u l d n ' t f i n d him 'cause he d r e s s e d up d i f f e r e n t . We went back home [and] p l a y e d . We had some cake 'cause i t was somebody's p a r t y . We had cake, then we went t o a park and played. My b r o t h e r g o t stung by bees 'cause we d i d n ' t h e l p him down. [I f e l t ] sad t h a t  57 my b r o t h e r got stung. Then we l e f t and we went f o r more j u i c e and pop and food. Then we went back and we found out t h e r e was a bee nest t h e r e t h a t ' s why. Two of them, so we f i g u r e d not t o go t h e r e . But other p e o p l e went so we weren't going near t h a t park again. [When I woke up, I f e l t ] happy because i t was a l l over w i t h and i t wasn't t r u e . Comments He a c t i v e l y attempted t o l o s e the man f o l l o w i n g him  who  and h i s b r o t h e r . He asked f o r h e l p  r e c e i v e d i t . T h i s s c e n a r i o remained u n r e s o l v e d l o n g e r hear of t h i s man. the dreamer allowed  The man  was  and  because we  no  not caught. P o s s i b l y ,  i t t o be out of h i s c o n t r o l , f o r he  asked a d u l t s t o h e l p him. the man  was  Initially,  f o l l o w i n g him on h i s own.  he t r i e d t o d e a l  However, t h i s  with  situation  should be an a d u l t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The  dreamer f e l t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s b r o t h e r g e t t i n g  stung by bees because he d i d not h e l p h i s b r o t h e r down. Here, he took r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r an event t h a t was his  c o n t r o l . T h i s was He  out  of  over r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  l e a r n e d t o s t a y away from the t r e e w i t h the bees  n e s t because he knew he c o u l d get h u r t . Perceptions 1. You  cannot always c a t c h the bad  guy.  2. When you are i n danger, i f you cannot d e a l w i t h i t y o u r s e l f , seek h e l p from a d u l t s , then you can r e l a x and enjoy a t a p a r t y . 3. You  are r e s p o n s i b l e t o p r o t e c t your younger b r o t h e r .  Dream 8: Thursday November 2. 1995 I was out p l a y i n g around here [ p o i n t s t o the s t r e e t  58 o u t s i d e ] . We [him and h i s f r i e n d s ] were r u n n i n g around and s t u f f behind t r e e s and e v e r y t h i n g . Then we got bored so we went somewhere and we went t o t h e s t o r e t o get some candy f o r us. Then we came back and a t e gum. We went out f o r Halloween. When we got back we had more candy. Then we went back out again, but i n a d i f f e r e n t a r e a . We got more candy. By the time we got home, a l l the candy was gone. We l e f t i t o u t s i d e and someone took i t . We went back t o the s t o r e and bought some more candy. We went t o t h i s complex and got candy. We went home and put them i n the house. When we l e f t t o g e t more candy we locked i t away t h i s time. We went out f o r more candy u n t i l the bag was f u l l . When two bags were f u l l we always dump them i n t o another bag f o r us t o share i t . Then we played. We had a candy f i g h t . A f t e r we had some candies and watched a v i d e o . We went back o u t s i d e t o p l a y . We d i d n ' t know i f t h e r e was any s c h o o l . So, we were l a t e . We had t o go t o s c h o o l and i t was r e c e s s time [by] the time we got t h e r e . We went back home f o r lunch and we went back t o s c h o o l and we p l a y e d f o r awhile ' t i l the b e l l rang and we went i n and d i d work. When the 3 o'clock b e l l rang we came back down here and we checked the house and the candy was gone again. We f o r g o t t o l o c k the windows, t h e k i t c h e n window. [I f e l t sad t h a t the candy was gone again.] We s t a y e d home and watched more v i d e o s . We woke up again and watched v i d e o s ' t i l s c h o o l s t a r t e d and then we went t o s c h o o l and we seen t h i s guy w i t h a whole bunch of bags o f candy. We thought he took i t . We r a n t o him and asked f o r our candies back. [He s a i d ] they were h i s k i d s c a n d i e s , h i s k i d s got them. [I f e l t ] mad t h a t they kept on t a k i n g the candy. Comments The dreamer's g o a l was t o c o l l e c t and keep as much candy as he c o u l d . When the candy was s t o l e n the f i r s t time, he l e a r n e d t o do something d i f f e r e n t t o secure t h e candy. I t appeared t h a t he took r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the candy b e i n g taken a second time, because he s a i d he f o r g o t t o l o c k the windows. He took f u r t h e r a c t i o n t o prevent t h e candy from b e i n g s t o l e n and approached a suspect. He accepted t h e man's answer t h a t i t was h i s own k i d s ' candy. T h i s s c e n a r i o remained u n r e s o l v e d , because he d i d not know who kept t a k i n g  59 his  c a n d i e s . He remained mad t h a t t h e candy was s t o l e n . In t h i s dream, t h i s boy's use of words r e f l e c t e d t h a t  he was unaware of where t o be. For example, he d i d n o t know t h a t t h e r e was s c h o o l t h a t day. T h i s e x p l a i n s why he was l a t e f o r school. In t h i s dream I wonder i f s c h o o l meant work t o t h e dreamer. Perceptions 1. You take a c t i o n t o prevent  something of yours from  b e i n g s t o l e n and attempt t o get i t back, but you a r e not a b l e t o r e g a i n what you l o s t . T h i s makes you mad. Dream 9: Saturday November 4. 1995 I t s t a r t e d on a day l i k e t h i s , a r a i n y day. We were p l a y i n g o u t s i d e u n t i l i t was s c h o o l time. We had t o go to s c h o o l and do some work. When s c h o o l was over, we went t o t h e other s c h o o l , t h e care program. Then i t was home time. Well we went home, w e l l we d i d n ' t go s t r a i g h t home. We played a t the gym. I t was l i k e a running tournament. There was a l o t o f r u n n i n g . One of the k i d s won a p r i z e and then t h e one t h a t was more uh c h e e r i n g . Uh I um and I uh and I won i t . I t was j u s t a c h o c o l a t e bar, [but i t was] f u n . A f t e r t h a t we went home and i t was 8 o'clock by then and we go, "oh no we were supposed t o be home a t 5:30." So, then we r u n home and we t e l l them why we were [ l a t e ] . We t o l d them t h e t r u t h t h a t we were um a t t h e c e n t r e t h i n g a t t h e gym. Then she send and then they send us t o t h e room, our room. The next morning we went back t o s c h o o l . There's the s c h o o l program f o r b r e a k f a s t and then we l e f t f o r s c h o o l , but I d i d n ' t go i n c l a s s r i g h t when t h e b e l l rang. I went t o the c e n t r e t o see i f t h e r e was a n y t h i n g happening before the s c h o o l . They s a i d yeah i t was f o r the o l d e r k i d s from grade 4 and up. So I went ok. And then we l e f t t o go and I l e f t t o go t o t h e classroom. By t h e time I got there, I was l a t e . I go t o t h e o f f i c e and s i g n i n 'cause t h a t ' s what we u s u a l l y have t o do when we're l a t e . A f t e r t h a t s c h o o l was over and we went back t o t h e s c h o o l program. We were on our way home, but we d i d the same t h i n g again [ a t t h e gym], except we stayed longer, oh yeah t h a t ' s a l l I remember.  60 Comments He had d i f f i c u l t y s a y i n g t h a t he won a p r i z e . When he did  say he won a p r i z e , he s a i d i t was j u s t a c h o c o l a t e bar. In t h i s dream, he was s i d e t r a c k e d e a s i l y . He d i d not  go s t r a i g h t home. Instead, he went t o the gym t o p l a y . He a l s o d i d not go t o c l a s s r i g h t away. He went t o see what was happening i n the gym and a r r i v e d t o c l a s s l a t e . Perhaps, he wanted t o go where he f e l t good d e s p i t e the consequences. He s a i d t h e next day he d i d the same t h i n g , even though he knew he was supposed t o be home by a c e r t a i n time. The consequence of being sent t o h i s room d i d not d e t e r him. He did  not seem t o l e a r n a f t e r the f i r s t  time. In a p r i o r  dream, t h i s was d i s p l a y e d when he s t o l e c a r s , and went t o jail,  but continued t o s t e a l a few days l a t e r .  Perceptions 1. Even when you know you a r e supposed t o be somewhere by a c e r t a i n time, you get s i d e t r a c k e d and would r a t h e r p l a y and be  late.  2. Even though you t e l l the t r u t h and e x p l a i n why  you  are l a t e , you s t i l l have t o f a c e the consequences ( i . e . , to  go  your room).  Dream 10: Sunday November 4. 1995 I t s t a r t e d on a r a i n y day and me and my b r o t h e r s were w a l k i n g around and p l a y i n g . Then we heard thunder and we r a n t o the house and we were i n s i d e and we were watching the l i g h t n i n g . [I f e l t ] a l i t t l e b i t happy [to watch]. When we seen our mom and dad o u t s i d e we c o u l d go o u t s i d e . When our mom got s c a r e d we, she brought us i n and we we s t a r t e d , my b r o t h e r s s t a r t e d c r y i n g 'cause we c o u l d n ' t go o u t s i d e and watch the thunder. They were c r y i n g so my mom and dad went back o u t s i d e a g a i n . We  61 went o u t s i d e and t h i s time we stayed o u t s i d e 'cause we l i s t e n e d . I t s t a r t e d t o thunder and we went back i n s i d e . We watched out the window i n s t e a d . When t h e l a s t one came i t [thunder] was r e a l l y b i g l i k e a b i g one. I t d i d n ' t stop u n t i l l i k e 7 a t n i g h t . We were watching out t h e window and i t stopped. We went o u t s i d e and p l a y e d ' t i l dinner time. When d i n n e r was over, we had t o go t o bed. We had t o go downstairs and g e t d r e s s e d f o r s c h o o l . When we were dressed, we went t o s c h o o l and by the time we got back home, I had homework and my b r o t h e r d i d . We were p l a y i n g ' t i l we had t o do our homework. The next day we came home from s c h o o l , we f o r g o t t o b r i n g our homework home. We t o l d our mom we f o r g o t our homework a t s c h o o l . She s a i d , ok. We j u s t um supposed t o b r i n g i t tomorrow. So we d i d and then we d i d i t a t home. When we were done, we were p l a y i n g around. We go t o bed again and when we woke up we thought t h e r e was s c h o o l but t h e r e wasn't 'cause i t was Saturday. So, we came back home. There was no s c h o o l . We looked on the calender and i t ' s Saturday and we go, "oh." We go o u t s i d e u n t i l the s c h o o l bus comes and g e t s us. By t h e time i t came we were a l r e a d y i n s i d e and i t was l a t e so then i t was lunch time. We g o t home and t h e bus was l a t e again g e t t i n g us home. A f t e r t h a t we r a n home 'cause we were r a c i n g each other. L came i n second, H came i n t h i r d and D came i n f o u r t h . [He i s r e f e r r i n g t o h i s b r o t h e r s . D i s t h e second o l d e s t . Dreamer n e g l e c t e d t o say t h a t he came i n f i r s t . I asked him and he s a i d yes.] We went i n f o r d i n n e r and we went back t o bed. That was a l l . [I f e l t ] good when I woke up 'cause t h e thunder wasn't r e a l l y t r u e . I f i t was I'd be uh sad o r happy. The b o r i n g p a r t was when we c o u l d n ' t go p l a y . Comments In t h i s dream, he had homework and then t h e next day he f o r g o t h i s homework. He was honest with h i s mom  about  f o r g e t t i n g h i s homework and h i s mother accepted  t h i s . He  thought t h e r e was s c h o o l and t h e r e was none. He was l a t e f o r s c h o o l and missed the bus because he was i n s i d e t h e house when t h e bus came. He a l s o s a i d t h a t t h e bus g o t him home l a t e . He n e g l e c t e d t o say t h a t he came f i r s t his  i n a race with  b r o t h e r s . I t appeared d i f f i c u l t f o r him say good t h i n g s  62 about h i m s e l f . Perceptions 1. Whether you can watch thunder o u t s i d e depends on your p a r e n t s , how and whether you  your mom  f e e l s , how  your b r o t h e r s  l i s t e n . T h i s takes time t o s o r t  T h e r e f o r e , you may  go i n and out a number of  feel,  out.  times.  2. You do not always want t o do your r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , but you do them. 3. You p l a y u n t i l you have t o do something l i k e :  eat  d i n n e r , go t o s c h o o l , do homework, go t o bed or watch a thunder storm. 4. Sometimes i t i s not what you t h i n k i t i s (He thought t h e r e was  s c h o o l , but t h e r e was  no s c h o o l because i t was  Saturday). Dream 11: Monday November 6. 1995 We were running o u t s i d e and doing s t u f f l i k e p l a y i n g tag, l i k e h i d e and seek. We had t o go i n s i d e . We had our d i n n e r . We had t o wait f o r our d r i v e r t o p i c k us up f o r Sunday s c h o o l f o r a meeting. When we got home we had t o go t o bed, but before we went t o bed we got something t o d r i n k . We woke up the next morning and we went t o s c h o o l . When we got home, my mom and dad weren't home. So, we went out t o a f r i e n d s house and s t a r t e d p l a y i n g . We went o u t s i d e and p l a y e d and we went back home t o check out i f they were home, but they weren't. We seen the window open so I go through the window and open i t . When I got i t , I unlocked the door f o r my b r o t h e r s t o get i n . We watched t v and we l i s t e n [ e d ] t o music too. Then we had some candy and came u p s t a i r s and p l a y e d w i t h c a r s . We had our windows open 'cause we were so hot. We always have t o have the windows shut, but i n day time we don't. When we opened the windows we were l o o k i n g o u t s i d e and we seen our mom and dad on t h e i r way home. So, we went downstairs and go o u t s i d e . I t wasn't my mom i t was somebody e l s e . So, we went back i n s i d e , locked the door and watched t v . We j u s t s a t t h e r e and waited 'cause u s u a l l y they always c a l l a t t h e i r uh f r i e n d s house. They c a l l a r e l a t i v e of  63  ours 'cause u s u a l l y she takes us i n t o h e r house [ t o b a b y s i t ] . [I f e l t ] happy about t h e dream. [When I woke up, I f e l t ] okay. Comments He d i d not express f e e l i n g s about t h e absence o f h i s p a r e n t s . I t may have been a common s i t u a t i o n f o r him. I t d i d not appear t h a t he saw anything wrong w i t h h i s p a r e n t s n o t b e i n g t h e r e t o care f o r him. As w e l l , when he went t o check whether h i s parents were on t h e i r way home, he s t a t e d t h a t i t was n o t h i s mother. He n e g l e c t e d t o i n c l u d e h i s f a t h e r i n the p i c t u r e . T h i s might have i n d i c a t e d t h a t he had a s t r o n g e r bond w i t h h i s mother than w i t h h i s f a t h e r . Furthermore, he thought  he saw h i s p a r e n t s . T h i s i s l i k e  w i s h i n g f o r them t o be t h e r e . H i s use o f words p r o v i d e d a sense t h a t he f e l t o b l i g a t e d t o do what he was t o l d t o without having a c h o i c e i n t h e matter. Perceptions 1. Your parents a r e not home. You occupy y o u r s e l f , take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r your younger s i b l i n g s , and w a i t . 2. Things a r e not always what you t h i n k they a r e . ( T h i s i s i n r e f e r e n c e t o when he thought  he saw h i s p a r e n t s on  t h e i r way home). Dream 12: Tuesday November 7, 1995 I t s t a r t e d on a snowy n i g h t . The next morning we d i d n ' t know t h e r e was snow. We went o u t s i d e and p l a y e d and we d i d n ' t know t h e r e was s c h o o l . There was s c h o o l , but t h e r e wasn't. So we went t o s c h o o l and we go and we t r y t o go i n s i d e , but t h e doors a r e l o c k e d . We p l a y e d out at t h e s c h o o l l i k e making snowmans and a n g e l s . A f t e r we got bored we s t a r t e d t o go home and then we came down  64 here t o p l a y i n the snow. The sun was s l o w l y s t a r t i n g t o come out and some of the snow was m e l t i n g . There's a snow s h o v e l , t h e y ' r e l i k e pushing them [snow], I went, "oh God." We went o u t s i d e [and] i t was a l l wet [snow m e l t e d ] . We went t o s c h o o l , we went t o p l a y on t h e monkey b a r s . When we got bored, we went home and p l a y e d a t a d i f f e r e n t park. We came back home. I t was d i n n e r time 'cause i t was u s u a l l y a t 6 o ' c l o c k i s our d i n n e r time. I had a watch. I looked a t i t , our watch and we were an hour l a t e . When we got home d i n n e r was a l l gone. Well t h e r e was some f o r the boys, but not me. [ I t was good] 'cause they made me d i n n e r , K r a f t d i n n e r . Mom [ d i d ] . They were having beans. I don't l i k e e a t i n g i t [smashed peas], but I eat h a l f of i t 'cause my mom made me. When I ate h a l f of i t , I got t o p l a y o u t s i d e . That's when our cousins were over. When they went home, we were s t i l l p l a y i n g o u t s i d e . We brought our b i k e s o u t s i d e t o r i d e . We put our b i k e s i n , then we went i n s i d e t o s t a y 'cause they sent us i n s i d e t o p l a y i n s t e a d . When i t was bedtime we went t o bed. A f t e r bed time, we woke up again. We had t o get d r e s s e d f o r s c h o o l . When we were dressed we headed o f f t o s c h o o l . My b r o t h e r s e t o f f a c a r alarm. [A f r i e n d ' s ] mom came up t o t a l k t o us and then a f t e r she t a l k e d t o us, we went t o the p o r t a b l e . We were l a t e . We went t o s c h o o l and d i d some work. I brought homework home and my b r o t h e r had t o b r i n g some c o l o u r i n g home. When we got home we had t o do our, I had t o do my homework. [My b r o t h e r ] had t o do h i s c o l o u r i n g . I f I d i d i t [homework] i t would take me a long time [because] I don't l i k e homework. The second reason why i s because I always have my shows I l i k e , l i k e , 'Home Improvement'. I had t o b r i n g i t [homework] t o s c h o o l and show the t e a c h e r . She gave me more home work. I t was a SUBditute. [When I woke up, I f e l t ] good 'cause I d i d n ' t have NO HOMEwork. [I a l s o f e l t ] good [when] I was a t gym, but I f o r g o t t o say t h a t p a r t . Comments The young boy mentioned, i n the f o l l o w i n g i n t e r v i e w , t h a t the p a r t i n h i s dream about homework was  real.  He used the words 'had t o ' a l o t i n t h i s dream. He was  l a t e g e t t i n g home and l a t e f o r s c h o o l the  morning. H i s l a t e n e s s was T h i s may  next  a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n p r i o r dreams.  occur i n h i s l i f e .  Some people are c h r o n i c a l l y  65 late. In t h i s dream, he t r i e d t o get i n t o the s c h o o l . When he c o u l d not get i n , because the door was T h i s s i t u a t i o n p a r a l l e l s when he was  locked, he  played.  l o c k e d out of  the  house, when h i s parents were not home. He occupied  himself  by p l a y i n g . Perceptions 1. Things happen even when you do not t h i n k they  will.  Such as: snow, s c h o o l , and more homework. 2. When you are l a t e you may food may  miss d i n n e r and  a l l the  be gone. However, you can make more.  3. Do as you are t o l d and then you can do what  you  want, which i s p l a y . 4. K i d s are t o l d t o p l a y . 5. When you do not l i k e doing something i t t a k e s a long time, e s p e c i a l l y when you want t o do something e l s e watch t e l e v i s i o n )  The  r u l e i s : do your work b e f o r e  (like leisure  activities. 6. When you are bored change your p l a c e of  activity.  7. Even when you do a l l your work, you r e c e i v e more work. 8. You  t r y t o f o l l o w the r u l e s , but sometimes you  cannot; sometimes you f o r g e t and sometimes t h e r e i s too much t o do, more t o  so you do not f o l l o w the r u l e s , and then you  have  do.  Dream 13: Wednesday November 8. 1995 I t s t a r t e d on a sunny day. We were p l a y i n g o u t s i d e  and  66 p l a y i n g soccer a t s c h o o l . When t h e b e l l rang f o r us t o go i n we went i n and d i d our work. Then i t was lunch time, so we went t o lunch. We went t o t h e gym t o p l a y v o l l e y b a l l . A f t e r v o l l e y b a l l was over we went t o our c l a s s e s again and d i d our work. A f t e r s c h o o l was over we had t o go home, but I d i d n ' t 'cause I had t o go t o the s c h o o l program. A f t e r t h a t we went home and we watched a v i d e o . We go u p s t a i r s a f t e r t h e v i d e o was over and we went back downstairs f o r d i n n e r . We saw what i t was and t h e r e was r i c e with K r a f t d i n n e r and c h i c k e n noodle soup. A f t e r t h a t we brushed our t e e t h and we watched another v i d e o . A f t e r t h e v i d e o was over we j u s t p l a y e d u p s t a i r s u n t i l i t was bedtime. We went to bed, but we were s t i l l p l a y i n g . When we were f i n i s h e d p l a y i n g we had t o go t o bed two hours e a r l y . I was t h e only one t h a t s t a y s up u s u a l l y and we watched d r a c u l a . Then I went t o bed and I woke up a g a i n i n t h e morning. My b r o t h e r s were s t i l l s l e e p y . I thought i t was a s c h o o l day, but i t wasn't. I t was Saturday. So, I got ready anyways. I got ready t o go t o K i d S t r e e t . When K i d S t r e e t was over we came back home and s t a r t e d p l a y i n g o u t s i d e . We played h i d e and go seek, t a g , t v tag. [When I woke up, I f e l t ] good 'cause t h e r e was n o t h i n g bad happening. Comments T h i s dream sounded l i k e he was d e s c r i b i n g a r o u t i n e day.  However, he s t a r t e d h i s dream by s a y i n g i t was sunny  i n s t e a d o f being r a i n y or snowy. In dream 12, "the sun was s l o w l y s t a r t i n g t o come o u t . " Perceptions 1. When you a r e g e t t i n g ready f o r one t h i n g and i t does not happen, t h e r e i s something e l s e t o g e t ready f o r . 2. L i f e i s p r e d i c t a b l e : my l i f e has a schedule o f regular  events.  T h i s p a r t was added t h e next day. We were p l a y i n g up here on t h e m a t t r e s s e s . We p u t the mattress down t h e r e [ s t a i r s ] t o s l i d e down on, f o r us t o go downstairs f a s t e r . We went downstairs and watched t v . Then i t was d i n n e r . We went o u t s i d e f i r s t l i t t l e w h i l e c o o l o f f and we came back i n s i d e and i t s t a r t e d r a i n i n g a storm. I t was windy and t h e r a i n was  67  r a i n i n g HARD. I had my window open t o g e t c o o l c o o l a i r and g e t wet 'cause I'm always hot. Then we were p l a y i n g u p s t a i r s u n t i l mom and dad s a i d i t was time t o go t o bed. A t 9 o'clock we a l l went t o bed and I s t a y e d up ' t i l 10 cause I f e l l a s l e e p a t 10. The next morning we woke up and my mom and dad were out a l r e a d y . [I f e l t ] s c a r e d . So, we get o u r s e l v e s ready. Then I g e t myself ready and my b r o t h e r s g e t dressed t h e i r s e l f t o o . Then we stayed home. I phoned t h e s c h o o l and t o l d them we're gonna have t o s t a y a t s c h o o l u n t i l my mom and dad g e t s home. [I c l a r i f i e d t h a t he stayed home from s c h o o l ] . When they [parents] got home, s c h o o l was over. A f t e r t h a t we went t o p l a y o u t s i d e . A f t e r t h a t we had t o go back i n s i d e 'cause i t s t a r t e d r a i n i n g a g a i n . A f t e r t h a t we stayed i n s i d e f o r a w h i l e t o watch t v , c a r t o o n s . A f t e r t h e cartoons were over, we watched something e l s e . A f t e r t h a t we went t o s c h o o l 'cause my mom and dad g o t back. We thought i t would be 3 o ' c l o c k by t h e time they got back, but i t wasn't. I t was 2 o ' c l o c k . We had t o go t o s c h o o l u n t i l 3 o ' c l o c k . My b r o t h e r came home w i t h some homework and I d i d too. We d i d our homework, s e t t h e t a b l e , then we f i n i s h e d i t and we went back t o s c h o o l and dropped them [homework] o f f . My b r o t h e r came with us t o o and they were p l a y i n g a t t h e s c h o o l . A f t e r we l e f t , we had t o g e t our p i c t u r e s taken b e f o r e we l e f t 'cause i t ' s our p i c t u r e day. A f t e r t h a t we had our p i c t u r e s , we l e f t t o go back home. When we got home, we seen mom, my mom and dad home. We s a t down and watched t v . We went t o the s c h o o l t h e next morning. We p l a y e d t h e r e u n t i l t h e c l o c k b e l l rang. [I f e l t ] s o r t o f happy and good when I woke up. Comments In t h e game with t h e mattresses  t h i s boy and h i s  b r o t h e r s were i n n o v a t i v e , c r e a t i v e and e f f i c i e n t . In t h i s dream, he expected  t o miss s c h o o l because when  he awoke h i s parents were not home and he and h i s b r o t h e r s were w a i t i n g f o r them t o r e t u r n . These c h i l d r e n appeared t o be a c t i n g as a d u l t s w a i t i n g f o r t h e i r a d u l t c h i l d r e n t o r e t u r n . T h i s phenomenon i s termed r o l e r e v e r s a l and appeared to  be a common occurrence  f o r t h e dreamer. He f e l t  happy about t h e occurrences  'sort o f  i n t h e dream. In t h i s dreamers'  68 view, h i s parents were not t h e r e . He may have f e l t h i s p a r e n t s were not t h e r e p h y s i c a l l y o r e m o t i o n a l l y . H i s dream d i d n o t i n d i c a t e t h a t parents needed t o be t h e r e f o r c h i l d r e n t o look a f t e r them. I t was a l s o p e c u l i a r t h a t he omitted t h i s p a r t o f t h e dream i n t h e f i r s t was  i n t e r v i e w , which  t o l d l i k e a d e s c r i p t i o n of a r o u t i n e day.  p a r e n t s being absent children's  I believe that  from home should not occur r o u t i n e l y i n  lives.  Perceptions 1. When your parents a r e not home, you s t a y and take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r y o u r s e l f and your b r o t h e r s and w a i t f o r them t o r e t u r n . As a r e s u l t , you miss most o f s c h o o l and then you continue on as u s u a l . Dream 14; Thursday November 9, 1995 We were p l a y i n g on a r a i n y day l i k e t h i s . We were p l a y i n g on t h e swings w a i t i n g f o r our d r i v e r [to] come p i c k us up on a Sunday cause we had Sunday s c h o o l . He [bus d r i v e r ] was l a t e and Sunday s c h o o l was over by then. He s a i d t h e r e was no Sunday s c h o o l today, but t h e r e was a gospel meeting. So, we went t o t h a t . When t h a t was over, we came home and a t e d i n n e r and drank j u i c e . Then we went t o bed. Then we had t o go o u t s i d e of course l i k e we always do and we p l a y e d l i k e f r o z e n t a g and r a c e s we had and played b a s e b a l l f o r a w h i l e and c a t c h . Then we s t a r t e d p l a y i n g f o o t b a l l . Then i t was our b r o t h e r s b i r t h d a y . We d i d n ' t know t h a t so we p l a y e d f o o t b a l l . We played with them. When g o i n g home we j u s t cleaned t h e p l a c e up, our house d o w n s t a i r s . [When I woke up, I f e l t ] good. Comments In t h i s dream, t h e theme o f being l a t e occured I t appears t o be expected  again.  t h a t , as a r e s u l t o f o t h e r s , one  w i l l be l a t e and miss out on where one i s supposed t o be. T h i s sense was d e r i v e d from t h e dreamer's statement  that the  69 bus d r i v e r was l a t e p i c k i n g him and h i s b r o t h e r s up f o r Sunday s c h o o l . But then, he was a b l e t o go t o a Gospel meeting i n p l a c e o f Sunday School. T h i s sense o f b e i n g l a t e was a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n t h e p r i o r dream, where he expected t o miss a l l o f s c h o o l , but he ended up b e i n g a b l e t o c a t c h an hour o f s c h o o l . When t h i s boy was l a t e he imagined m i s s i n g the whole event, however he was a b l e t o a t t e n d a p o r t i o n o f t h e event, o r a d i f f e r e n t event. Perceptions 1. When you a r e l a t e f o r something, you can do something e l s e  instead.  2. Sometimes you f o r g e t your b r o t h e r ' s b i r t h d a y . 3. A f t e r a p a r t y you c l e a n up. Dream 15: F r i d a y November 10. i n t e r v i e w November 11. 1995 We were p l a y i n g on a sunny day and we were l i k e p l a y i n g around t h e house. T h i s was i n t h e morning. My b r o t h e r went downstairs t o get candy and then I went down cause I d i d n ' t know they were g e t t i n g candy. So, then I g o t something l i k e a candy. More d i f f e r e n t k i n d , I f o r g o t what i t was, but I had a c h o c o l a t e bar, but i t wasn't r e a l l y a c h o c o l a t e bar. I t was one o f those b a r s w i t h no, low f a t . We were p l a y i n g around u p s t a i r s . We were pushing t h e bed down s t a i r s t o s l i d e down i n s t e a d o f running walk down o r walk up o r run down o r r u n up. A f t e r we put t h e beds back, we moved them around a g a i n . We were l i k e punching them. I was on one bed and l i f t i n g i t up w i t h my l e g s and moving them around. Then we were moving each other t h e beds around, people on them, but they d i d n ' t f a l l o f f . We had l o t s o f f u n 'cause we went up t o t h e PNE. We had some candy w i t h us so we c o u l d e a t them t h e r e i n s t e a d o f buying t h e food. We won l o t s of s t u f f . I won t h i s gun t h i n g cause you're supposed t o get everyone. A f t e r t h a t we went on a r o l l e r c o a s t e r . My mom and dad w i t h t h e boys and I went on t h e corkskrew. [When I woke up, I f e l t ] good.  70 Comments I noted, i n t h i s dream, t h a t he was won  something.  In p r i o r dreams, he was  In t h i s dream, money was  a b l e t o say t h a t he  not a b l e t o do t h i s .  probably a v e r y r e a l f a c t t o  be c o n s c i o u s about. The dreamer and h i s f a m i l y brought own  candy t o the His  PNE.  p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h was p o r t r a y e d when he was  and l i f t i n g the beds. I t was  He s a i d he won  moving  the second time i n h i s  of dreams t h a t he has done t h i s w i t h the  supposed  their  a gun a t the PNE,  series  beds.  "'cause  t o get everyone". I wondered who  you're  everyone was? He  d i d not r e f e r t o p o i n t i n g a gun a t an o b j e c t . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s sounded l i k e a 'Freudian s l i p ' . T h i s may the anger i n s i d e  have  reflected  f o r a l l h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as a young  c h i l d and f o r h i s parents not being t h e r e . Whether t h i s true i n l i f e ,  or e x i s t e d e m o t i o n a l l y f o r him,  i t was  was  a very  r e a l e x p e r i e n c e f o r him. The anger has not reached c o n s c i o u s n e s s because he d i d not know any d i f f e r e n t . was  the environment  This  from which he l e a r n e d .  Perceptions 1. Sometimes you f i n d t h i n g s out a f t e r the f a c t , sometimes you get something d i f f e r e n t  and  than o t h e r people.  Dream 16; Saturday November 11. 1995 The date today i s November 11th, Remembrance day. I t s t a r t e d l i k e we were p l a y i n g a t gym y e s t e r d a y . We were p l a y i n g how horses run and a f i r s t person r a n and then we, then the person who goes over the b l a c k l i n e . Then a l l the horses ran and when we touch you, you have t o be a horse w i t h them. So, I got caught when they c a l l e d my name, but you c o u l d run anywhere i n s t e a d of s t a y i n g  71 l i k e i n one spot. A f t e r t h a t we were p l a y i n g around u n t i l i t was our time t o leave t o our c l a s s . I n t h e gym and t h e c l a s s , we played 'Magic F o r e s t ' . There's supposed t o be two people i n t h e middle and i f they c a t c h you, you're a t r e e and i t keeps on g o i n g . We p l a y e d 'Great Wall o f China' and ' P i c k e t Fence'. We had gymnastics and we went t o our c l a s s and had l u n c h . Then we went home a f t e r lunch 'cause i t was h a l f a day y e s t e r d a y . Every F r i d a y ' s h a l f a day. We went t o t h e p o r t a b l e then we had our snack a t 3 o ' c l o c k . We went t o r e a d and we watched a v i d e o c a l l e d , 'Gordie t h e T a l k i n g Pig'. We came home and watched t v 'cause we had no VCR. We had t o b r i n g i t back t o get money f o r food and m i l k . So, then we r e t u r n e d home and we went out. F i r s t we went t o McDonald's and we a l l got happy meals, but my b r o t h e r s d i d n ' t want t h e i r f r i e s 'cause they were f u l l . So, I a t e them a l l and I got my own pop 'cause I got those l a r g e ones. We were going down t h e h i l l and we were i n s i d e f o r awhile. When we got t h e r e , i n s i d e . We seen a t r a i n [with] two engines going back and f o r t h . [When I woke up, I f e l t ] good. Comments I am unsure i f t h i s was an account  from t h e p r i o r day's  events. I was t o l d o u t s i d e t h e taped i n t e r v i e w t h a t s e l l i n g the VCR t o o b t a i n money f o r food o c c u r r e d i n r e a l l i f e , as w e l l as i n h i s dream. He t o l d me t h i s dream on a Saturday and a couple o f times, i n t h i s i n t e r v i e w , he s a i d " y e s t e r d a y " . I a l s o c l a r i f i e d near t h e end o f t h e i n t e r v i e w i f what he was t a l k i n g about was i n h i s dream. He s a i d , "yuh". I a l s o v e r i f i e d i f he was t a l k i n g about h i s dream by a s k i n g how he f e l t when he woke up. D e s p i t e h i s v e r i f i c a t i o n t h a t t h e events he t o l d me were i n t h e dream, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t he d i d dream about t h e p r i o r day's events. The  s e l l i n g o f p e r s o n a l p o s s e s s i o n s t o o b t a i n money f o r  food demonstrates t h a t t h i s f a m i l y does not always have enough money f o r food. They spent t h e money t o go o u t f o r  72 d i n n e r . One can s t r e t c h money f u r t h e r by buying g r o c e r i e s . Whether o r not t h i s p a r t a c t u a l l y happened i n l i f e  was  u n c e r t a i n . Going t o McDonald's c o u l d a l s o j u s t be a r e f l e c t i o n of t h i s boy's wishes. Perceptions 1. Sometimes your dreams a r e l i k e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a r e g u l a r day. 2. You want t o p l a y and be happy and have enough food to e a t . Dream 17; Sunday November 12. 1995 I thought I was i n l i k e , i n the dream I was a t home by myself and my mom and dad were l i k e a t home and t h a t . They [mom and dad] were out shopping, but I d i d n ' t know where. I stayed home and watched c a r t o o n s , o n l y I was t h e r e 'cause they l e f t the window open, but they d i d n ' t l e a v e no key behind. I took one of those c h a i r s and I went out and the window opened i t more. Went i n t h e window then unlocked the door and then put t h e c h a i r back where i t was. I l o c k shut t h e door. I went i n and watched cartoons. A f t e r , when they got home I went out t o h e l p them b r i n g the g r o c e r i e s i n . I read t h e t h i n g and i t s a i d , I knew i t was Superstore 'cause i t s a i d , 'We Do Our Best'. When I went out t o look, I went, "oh, you guys went t o Superstore" and they go, "yah." So I go, "oh, so I thought you guys went somewhere e l s e i n s t e a d of t h e r e , " but they d i d go t h e r e . Then I went somewhere e l s e . I went o u t s i d e and I was p l a y i n g t a g and b a s e b a l l . A f t e r t h a t we went t o p l a y s o c c e r . A f t e r s o c c e r , we p l a y e d b a s e b a l l . A f t e r t h a t we went t o p l a y C a l i f o r n i a K i c k B a l l . A f t e r we put our s t u f f i n one c o r n e r and p u t t i n g other s t u f f (glass) i n t h e o t h e r c o r n e r , l i k e we were p u t t i n g s t u f f i n c o r n e r s 'cause we'd g e t c u t from them. A f t e r t h a t we s t a r t e d p l a y i n g . We rode our b i k e s 'cause when we got bored, we wanted to r i d e our b i k e s . We put our b i k e s back i n . Then we went i n f o r d i n n e r . Then we went back out and we s t a y e d out ' t i l 7. We got a candy b e f o r e we went t o bed and we had t o go t o bed. The next morning we woke up. Only me and my b r o t h e r s were home. My mom and dad weren't home, but they l e f t a note behind and i t s a i d where they were g o i n g . So, we j u s t stayed home and we l e t them and we p l a y e d o u t s i d e f o r a w h i l e . A f t e r we came back i n s i d e we l e f t t h e t v on, but when we got back i n s i d e t h e t v  73 was o f f . The reason we seen i t o f f i s because our b r o t h e r was i n s i d e . He's the one t h a t l i k e s p l a y i n g w i t h t h e t v . Then we heard our mom and S [mom's p a r t n e r ] c a l l e d . So, we went with them. They g o t us l i k e t o y s and lego. We s t a r t e d p l a y i n g w i t h our new t o y s and lego and then they got home and seen [my youngest b r o t h e r ] p l a y i n g w i t h the c a t . Then we went i n s i d e t o p l a y w i t h them 'cause i t s t a r t e d r a i n i n g . When we went i n s i d e , I s t a r t e d b u i l d i n g something, but I f o r g e t what i t was. I b u i l d i t , then my brothers' broke i t and they broke i t again. [I f e e l ] sad t h a t my b r o t h e r s kept breaking what I made. I put i t somewhere my b r o t h e r s d i d n ' t know where i t was. I b u i l t a c a s t l e , then I b u i l t a spaceship. Then I made a f i r e t r u c k and I made a park and an p o l i c e s t a t i o n and a p o l i c e boat. My b r o t h e r d i d n ' t know where i t was, so they were l o o k i n g f o r t h e lego 'cause I used up a l l t h e l e g o f o r i t . [When my parent's weren't home, I f e l t ] sad. I t h i n k l i k e they went out f o r a w h i l e and they d i d n ' t want t o come back home. [This thought makes me] mad. [When I woke up, I f e l t ] good 'cause i t wasn't t r u e t h a t my mom and dad wasn't home. Comments T h i s dream was one of the few dreams where t h e dreamer was a b s o l u t e l y alone, without h i s b r o t h e r s . A f t e r h i s parents came home and he h e l p e d them w i t h t h e g r o c e r i e s , he asked them where they had been and then he went o u t s i d e . He s a i d , " I went somewhere e l s e , " as i f t o g e t away from h i s p a r e n t s . D i d he harbour u n r e a l i z e d  anger  a g a i n s t h i s p a r e n t s f o r not t e l l i n g him where they were and f o r not b e i n g t h e r e f o r him? A f t e r t h i s i n c i d e n t , he p l a y e d hard. He was keeping r e a l busy, as i f t o a v o i d d e a l i n g w i t h the concept o f not understanding why h i s p a r e n t s were not t h e r e f o r him. As w e l l , i n h i s understanding of why h i s p a r e n t s were not t h e r e , he thought t h a t they d i d not want t o come back home. He i n f e r r e d t h i s from t h e i r a c t i o n s . In t h i s dream, he was f e e l i n g abandoned and unwanted by h i s p a r e n t s .  74 Perceptions 1. When your parents a r e not home, you secure y o u r s e l f and occupy y o u r s e l f , and when they r e t u r n you c o n t i n u e on. 2. You can f i n d out where they were by a s k i n g them q u e s t i o n s from t h e c l u e s on t h e i r bags. 3. You make an area s a f e before p l a y i n g t h e r e . 4. When your parents a r e not home you accept i t , and they sometimes b r i n g you g i f t s . 5. When your b r o t h e r s d e s t r o y something t h a t you make from Lego, you can prevent t h i s from c o n t i n u i n g t o happen by u s i n g up a l l t h e Lego and h i d i n g i t from your b r o t h e r s . Dream 18: Sunday November 12, 1995 I t s t a r t e d o f f l i k e I was i n a we were i n I was i n Vancouver f i r s t and somebody from K i d S t r e e t came t o p i c k us up 'cause we were going camping a t B i b l e camp. We went t o 0 I s l a n d , but t h e f e r r y d i d n ' t be f o r a l o n g time 'cause we had t o s i t t h e r e f o r a long time. So, u n t i l i t l e f t we [were] running around. These o t h e r k i d s were p i c k i n g on t h i s other k i d and people were j u s t running around. Me and my c o u s i n were j u s t w a l k i n g around t o look a t e v e r y t h i n g . Then these k i d s were from our o l d s c h o o l . I used t o go t o b e f o r e I came here and i t was some k i d s they were l i k e going i n t o t h e p l a c e s where i t s a i d , 'Do not go i n , Only s t a f f go i n ' . They were s t i l l going i n and t h e s t a f f t o l d them n o t t o and they were s t i l l going i n . So, me and my f r i e n d s were j u s t walking around s t i l l and we were j u s t c h e c k i n g t h e p l a c e out and t h e r e was people a t t h e door t o make sure we can't g e t out 'cause they don't want us t o go out 'cause t h e r e ' s always people on t h e p l a c e s , o t h e r people i n t h e p l a c e s t h e r e . When we u s u a l l y g e t out, they ( s t a f f ) always have t o chase us. When they g e t us, we have t o do something. I f o r g o t what i t was, but we had t o do something. When they caught us we always had t o do something. A f t e r t h a t we d i d i t and then we have t o do something e l s e again. [ T h i s was] on t h e f e r r y going t o 0 I s l a n d . I t ' s r e a l l y c a l l e d H I s l a n d . I t ' s fun a t 0 I s l a n d . We got lunch, b r e a k f a s t , lunch, d i n n e r and we g o t t o do s t u f f l i k e a r c h e r y . [ T h i s i s ] where I went b e f o r e , i t ' s j u s t I dreamed about i t . We do archery, but sometimes i t goes over t h e p l a c e and we  75 have t o go f i n d i t . I f we can't f i n d i t , then we have t o come back and we have t o do f o u r more. We d i d f i s h i n g , a r t s and c r a f t s and canoeing. We g o t t o s t a y up ' t i l 10 a t n i g h t . I brought a f l a s h l i g h t and one o f those c a r l i g h t t h i n g s . 'Cause i f one runs o u t we g o t another one t o use. I brought 10 packs o f b a t t e r i e s , but i t was f o r r e a l too. We always g e t something b e f o r e we l e a v e t o our c a b i n s . Every time we say ghost o r something, t h i s k i d i n our c a b i n g e t s s c a r e d . A f t e r he's f i n i s h e d g e t t i n g scared he always has t o go t o t h e washroom. We were c a t c h i n g snakes t h e r e t o o . I t ' s hard c a t c h i n g them you have t o throw a r o c k on t h e i r head u n t i l t h e y ' r e l a y i n g r i g h t down on t h e ground. F i v e days l a t e r we got ready t o go home. We had t u c , t h a t ' s a candy. We had t o p i c k our own candy two o f them. So, I always p i c k c h o c o l a t e bars o r j u i c e o r something. Oh yeah, we only [get] one candy and one j u i c e . [I f e e l ] good [about dream]. Comments The dreamer s a i d t h a t , i n l i f e ,  t h e r e was a c h a p e l a t  camp where they sang, y e t , i n h i s dream, t h e r e was no chapel. When he s a i d i n h i s dream, "there was p e o p l e a t t h e door t o make sure we can't g e t out 'cause they don't want us t o go out 'cause t h e r e ' s always people on t h e p l a c e s ,  other  people i n t h e p l a c e s t h e r e " , I had a sense t h a t he f e l t t r a p p e d . A f t e r he saw others doing what they were n o t supposed t o , he d i d t h i s too. He went where t h e s i g n  said  not t o e n t e r , even though the s t a f f made him do something when he was caught. As i n dream 4 and 6, he d i d n o t l e a r n from consequences. T h i s i s i n d i c a t i v e o f F e t a l A l c o h o l Syndrome (FAS) and t o a l e s s e r degree i t i s c a l l e d ,  Fetal  Alcohol Effect  (1980)  (FAE). Shaywitz, Cohen, and Shaywitz  f i n d t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h FAS have a s h o r t a t t e n t i o n span, a r e v e r y d i s t r a c t i b l e , and do not m a i n t a i n what they l e a r n . A  76 c h i l d has FAS when the mother d r i n k s a l c o h o l w h i l e  pregnant.  I d i d not know whether or not h i s mother drank a l c o h o l w h i l e she was  pregnant with  him.  In the dream, t h i s boy was  i n v o l v e d i n a l o t of  a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s dream showed t h a t he knew what i t was  like  f o r someone t o be a f r a i d , and he has a l s o l e a r n e d from experience  how  t o c a t c h snakes.  Perceptions 1. You  check out an environment, and you  doing what they are not supposed t o do. You t h i n g and repeat the behaviour,  see o t h e r  kids  do the same  even i f t h e r e  are  consequences. 2. I t i s good t o have l o t s of b a t t e r i e s and  a back up  f l a s h l i g h t when you go camping. 3. Sometimes people get so scared t h a t they have t o  go  t o the washroom. Dream 19: Monday November 13. 1995 I t s t a r t e d on a sunny day i n s t e a d of the n i g h t time. We were p l a y i n g o u t s i d e and i t was on a r a i n y day. We were dressed up i n our costumes and I was Freddy Kruger. My f r i e n d s were N i n j a ' s . Then I went t o bed and had a dream about Freddy Kruger. I woke up and I had t o go t o s c h o o l . When I went t o s c h o o l , I d i d my work. Then i t was lunch time. A f t e r lunch we got t o go home and we got t o p l a y , but I d i d n ' t go home 'cause we were a t the s c h o o l care program. A f t e r t h a t was over we went home. Then I went t o a c e n t r e on a F r i d a y n i g h t . There's u s u a l l y movie n i g h t . We were p l a y i n g when we got home. We s t a r t e d p l a y i n g u p s t a i r s . Then my b r o t h e r s went t o s l e e p . I got t o go downstairs and watch a v i d e o w i t h my mom and dad. Mom and S [mom's common law] I mean. We were watching 'Ninja T u r t l e s P a r t I ' . A f t e r t h a t was over, I went t o bed. A f t e r I woke up I went t o the s c h o o l c a r e program and I ate some b r e a k f a s t t h e r e . I went t o s c h o o l , I d i d my work. I got homework. Then I went t o the s c h o o l care program a g a i n . I d i d my  77 homework t h e r e . I went back t o s c h o o l , my t e a c h e r was s t i l l t h e r e . I gave him my homework back and I went t o the s c h o o l care program arid I went home. I had d i n n e r and d i d my c o l o u r i n g . Then I went t o bed. I woke up and my b r o t h e r s were a l r e a d y a t s c h o o l . I was l a t e t h a t ' s why. I r a n t o s c h o o l , went t o t h e o f f i c e , then went t o my c l a s s and nobody was t h e r e 'cause they went on a f i e l d t r i p . That's what we're going t o be d o i n g on F r i d a y . I stayed t h e r e i n somebody e l s e ' s c l a s s . When they got back I went back t o t h e other c l a s s and he was a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s about i t . I d i d n ' t answer any o f them 'cause I d i d n ' t see i t . So I j u s t s a t t h e r e and d i d some work. Then I went home. I went t o bed, then I woke up i n t h e dream t o o . [When I woke up, I f e l t ] good. Comments There were f i v e days i n t h i s dream. There was a consequence f o r him when he was l a t e . He s a i d i n r e a l  life  he was going on a s c h o o l f i e l d t r i p . In t h e dream he missed out on t h e f i e l d t r i p and when t h e c l a s s r e t u r n e d he s t i l l c o u l d not p a r t i c i p a t e with h i s classmates.  T h e r e f o r e , he d i d  other work. I t was o f t e n r e f l e c t e d i n h i s dreams t h a t he was l a t e . In l i f e ,  perhaps he was concerned t h a t h i s l a t e n e s s  would cause him t o miss out on t h e scheduled  fieldtrip. It  was i n t e r e s t i n g , t o me, t h a t n e i t h e r h i s p a r e n t s , nor h i s b r o t h e r s woke him up f o r s c h o o l . Perceptions 1. When you a r e l a t e you may miss out on p a r t i c i p a t i n g in  events and do something e l s e . 2. Sometimes you a r e by y o u r s e l f and l e f t behind by  your b r o t h e r s , and classmates. Dreamer's P e r c e p t i o n s and Prominent  Features  We l e a r n e d from t h i s c h i l d ' s dreams about h i s d a i l y life.  In dream 13, i t seemed l i k e a r o u t i n e day. In dream 9,  78 p a r t o f h i s r o u t i n e was t o have b r e a k f a s t a t t h e p r e - s c h o o l program and t o go t o an a f t e r s c h o o l care program. He mentioned t h a t he went t o church and B i b l e camp, and t h e r e was movie n i g h t on F r i d a y s . We a l s o l e a r n e d t h a t when he was l a t e f o r s c h o o l , he needed t o go t o t h e o f f i c e t o g e t a l a t e slip. He a l s o mentioned t h a t some of h i s dreams d e a l t w i t h real l i f e  occurrences.  There were policemen i n h i s  neighbourhood who went t o peoples' homes t h e day b e f o r e dream 2. T h i s dream was about t h e p o l i c e c h a s i n g a guy i n a Mustang. They caught him, but a p o l i c e woman was h u r t i n t h e p r o c e s s . Another example was t h a t 6 days p r i o r t o h i s 5th dream someone t r i e d t o kidnap a c h i l d from h i s s c h o o l . He dreamt t h a t he was kidnapped. He managed t o escape by u s i n g a monitoring  d e v i c e t o elude h i s kidnapper and by u s i n g h i s  i n t u i t i o n t o g e t back t o a f a m i l i a r l o c a t i o n . When I asked t h i s dreamer i f some elements i n h i s dreams o c c u r r e d life,  i n real  he s a i d t h e p a r t about having homework i n h i s 12th  dream was r e a l . On a more s e r i o u s note, dream 16 r e v e a l e d t h a t i t was necessary  t o s e l l one's belongings  t o obtain  money f o r food. He s a i d t h i s a c t u a l l y happened i n h i s l i f e . Furthermore, h i s dreams d i s p l a y e d t h a t he was kept v e r y busy i n programs, b e f o r e and a f t e r s c h o o l , as w e l l as on weekends. He may not have seen h i s parents  as much as he  would have l i k e d o r would have needed. He had a d e f i n i t e p e r c e p t i o n t h a t h i s p a r e n t s were not  79 home. I had no v e r i f i c a t i o n i f t h i s o c c u r r e d i n h i s a c t u a l l i f e . He d i d say i n h i s 17th dream t h a t he was happy i t was not t r u e t h a t h i s parents were not home. H i s p a r e n t s n o t b e i n g home may have been h i s experience w h i l e h i s mom was d r i n k i n g . H i s p a r e n t ( s ) may not have been t h e r e p h y s i c a l l y , or e m o t i o n a l l y . I n dream 11, he thought he saw h i s p a r e n t s a r r i v e home. T h i s may be w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g on h i s p a r t . I t can be i n f e r r e d t h a t he wanted h i s parents t o be a v a i l a b l e f o r him and t o take care of him. He a l s o l e a r n e d t o occupy h i m s e l f when h i s parents were not home. In dream 11, h i s b r o t h e r s and he went t o a f r i e n d ' s house t o p l a y . They a l s o watched t e l e v i s i o n , l i s t e n e d t o music and p l a y e d w h i l e w a i t i n g f o r t h e i r p a r e n t s t o come back. I n dream 17, he seemed t o be d e a l i n g with where they were. I n t h e f i r s t p a r t of t h e dream, he knew where h i s parents were by t h e l a b e l on t h e i r bags. P r i o r t o s e e i n g t h e bags, he thought t h e y were somewhere e l s e . I n t h e second p a r t , h i s p a r e n t s l e f t a note and he s a i d , "so we j u s t stayed home and we l e t them and we p l a y e d o u t s i d e f o r a w h i l e " . I t was as i f he was an a d u l t s a y i n g i t was okay f o r h i s parents t o go out. T h i s i s r o l e r e v e r s a l . F o r t h e parents second absence,  i n t h i s dream, t h e  dreamer d i d not q u e s t i o n h i s parents about where they had been. H i s p a r e n t s brought home Lego f o r him and h i s b r o t h e r s . The t o y s may have d i s t r a c t e d t h e dreamer from c a r i n g about h i s parents absence because when they  arrived  home he c a r r i e d on p l a y i n g . I f t h i s was t h e i n t e n t , i t was  80 not okay f o r h i s parents t o buy t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o y s t o make up f o r t h e i r absence. He a l s o s a i d , a t t h e end o f t h e i n t e r v i e w , t h a t he was mad because he thought  h i s parents  d i d n o t want t o come home. In t h i s boy's dreams, h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t s o f p a r e n t a l absence n o t o n l y r e s u l t e d i n n e g l e c t , but emotional d i s t r e s s as w e l l . In t h e dreams d i s c u s s e d above, t h e dreamer i s shown t o take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s b r o t h e r s and t o take charge when h i s p a r e n t s a r e not home. In dream 3, he g e t s i n t o t r o u b l e f o r n o t e n s u r i n g t h a t h i s b r o t h e r s t a y s w i t h him. I n dream 13, he wakes up t o f i n d h i s parents not home, so he c a l l s s c h o o l t o say he i s w a i t i n g f o r h i s parents t o r e t u r n . He s t a y s home t o look a f t e r h i s younger s i b l i n g s . He i s t o o young t o be c a r i n g f o r t h r e e younger b r o t h e r s . T h i s c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o look a f t e r h i m s e l f was b e n e f i c i a l sometimes. For example, when he went w i t h a kidnapper  who o f f e r e d him candy i n dream 5, he was a b l e t o  escape on h i s own. He used a handy d e v i c e and h i s i n t u i t i o n t o a i d h i s escape. As mentioned above, he has had t o c a r e f o r h i m s e l f and h i s b r o t h e r s when h i s p a r e n t s were n o t p r e s e n t . I n h i s experience of p a r e n t a l absence he has l e a r n e d t o be s e l f - r e l i a n t and r e s o u r c e f u l . T h i s young boy had an a d u l t r o l e o f c a r i n g f o r h i m s e l f and younger s i b l i n g s . When a young c h i l d has t o o many responsibilities,  i t i s obvious t h a t he would f e e l  confused  and be l a t e f o r s c h o o l . The over r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h i s dreamer  81 had kept him from s c h o o l , as i n dream 13 when he s t a y e d home t o w a i t f o r h i s parents and t o look a f t e r h i s b r o t h e r s . I n dream 10, he was unsure i f i t was a s c h o o l day. He was t o o young t o keep t r a c k of t h e days o f t h e week and when he was supposed t o go t o s c h o o l . He l i v e d w i t h t h e u n c e r t a i n t y o f not knowing i f h i s parents would be home, which c r e a t e d a f e e l i n g t h a t he d i d not know what t o expect. He was n o t o l d enough t o make wise d e c i s i o n s . T h i s was d i s p l a y e d  i n dream  4. I n t h i s dream, he was a 25 year o l d a d u l t who c a r e d f o r younger k i d s , y e t he was l i g h t i n g f i r e s w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n he was l o o k i n g a f t e r . In dream 19, he was alone. because he was u s u a l l y w i t h h i s b r o t h e r s  T h i s was r a r e  o r f r i e n d s . He  r e q u i r e d more p a r e n t a l presence and guidance. There was o n l y one  f a m i l y event t h a t occurred  i n dream 14: they went t o t h e  P a c i f i c N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n . I t a l s o d i d not seem important t o remember s p e c i a l f a m i l y occasions. when he f o r g o t about h i s brother's  T h i s was i l l u s t r a t e d  b i r t h d a y . These f a c t o r s  f u r t h e r supported a l a c k of f a m i l y cohesion and p a r e n t a l guidance, and an impoverished p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t was r e f l e c t e d i n h i s dreams. Some o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ' s dreams suggested t h a t he i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y took t h e blame i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s . F o r example, when he and h i s f r i e n d s d i d not understand where they were t o meet, he s a i d , "I f o r g o t t o t e l l them we were g o i n g t o meet i n a d i f f e r e n t spot". The f o l l o w i n g quote from dream 7 a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t he took onus f o r some events,  82 "My b r o t h e r g o t stung by bees 'cause we d i d n ' t h e l p him down". He seemed t o f e e l r e s p o n s i b l e when t h e s i t u a t i o n was not  within his control. In  some o f t h i s p a r t i c i p a n t ' s dreams, he d i d n o t l e a r n  from consequences. In c h i l d r e n w i t h F e t a l A l c o h o l  Effect  (FAE) memory r e t e n t i o n i s impaired. T h i s outcome i s due t o c h i l d r e n being exposed t o a l c o h o l w h i l e they were i n t h e mother's womb (Shaywitz e t a l . ,  1980). When t h e e f f e c t s a r e  severe i t i s c a l l e d F e t a l A l c o h o l Syndrome (FAS). Not l e a r n i n g from consequences i s one r e s u l t o f reduced memory r e t e n t i o n . In dream 4, he saw h i m s e l f as o l d e r and f o l l o w e d in  t h e f o o t s t e p s o f h i s f a t h e r . He s t o l e c a r s and d i d n o t  realize j a i l to  jail,  was a consequence f o r s t e a l i n g . D e s p i t e going  he s t a r t e d t o s t e a l c a r s again a few days  later.  Furthermore, i n dream 18, when he went t o 0. I s l a n d  Bible  Camp, he continued t o go p l a c e s where he was not allowed, even though t h e people who caught him implemented consequences. As w e l l , i n dream 9, he was e a s i l y  sidetracked  and was l a t e coming home, even though he knew what time he was supposed t o be home. The next day he was s i d e t r a c k e d a g a i n and came home l a t e r than the day b e f o r e . One dream r e f l e c t e d t h a t he learned from a consequence. When h i s b r o t h e r was stung by bees i n dream 7, he s a i d , "we found out t h e r e was a bee nest t h e r e . . . s o we f i g u r e d n o t t o go there...we weren't going near t h a t park a g a i n . " I t appeared t h a t t h e dreamer l e a r n e d from consequences when i t was  83 p h y s i c a l and p a i n f u l t o t h e body. The  dreamer's use of language suggested enmeshment w i t h  h i s b r o t h e r s . He was o f t e n with h i s b r o t h e r s  i n h i s dreams.  He r a r e l y used ' I ' . Enmeshment was suggested when he o f t e n used t h e pronoun 'we' and when he s a i d d i s t i n g u i s h i n g h i m s e l f as separate.  'we' b e f o r e  For example, i n dream 10  he s a i d , "we we s t a r t e d , my b r o t h e r s s t a r t e d c r y i n g 'cause we c o u l d n ' t go o u t s i d e and watch the thunder. They were c r y i n g . . . " T h i s makes sense i f he was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s brothers. Many times he a l s o used the words 'have t o ' o r 'had t o ' when he t o l d h i s dreams. From h i s words, I p e r c e i v e d t h a t he had t o do what he was t o l d without  being g i v e n a c h o i c e . The  f e e l i n g t h a t he 'had t o ' i s most prominent i n dream 12. H i s c o g n i t i v e development was r e f l e c t e d when he s a i d , i n dream 2, t h a t t h e p o l i c e were c l o s e t o c a t c h i n g t h e guy running  away because they found the same type o f c a r , but i t  was a d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r . He d i d not comprehend t h a t t h e p o l i c e were not c l o s e t o c a t c h i n g the bad guy when they saw a d i f f e r e n t colour car. When something was not working, t h i s c h i l d  tried  d i f f e r e n t ways t o overcome the problem. In dream 6, he d i d t h i s when t h e f i r e w o r k s kept banging i n t o t h i n g s . He r e l o c a t e d h i m s e l f , y e t the f i r e w o r k s kept h i t t i n g t h i n g s , so he stopped f o r the day. I wonder i f he knew when t o q u i t because he s a i d he was not allowed t o p l a y w i t h  fireworks,  84 y e t he c o n t i n u e d t o p l a y w i t h them i n h i s dream. He took a c t i o n , i n dream 8, t o prevent h i s c a n d i e s from b e i n g  stolen  and t o g e t them back. He was mad t h a t a l l h i s e f f o r t s d i d not p r o v i d e him r e s u l t s . In dream 1, he f o r g o t h i s b e l o n g i n g s a t t h e park. He went back t h e next day and r e t r i e v e d h i s belongings, y e t he f o r g o t them a t s c h o o l . Some of h i s a c t i o n s f a i l e d along the way. However, i n t h i s dream, he s u c c e s s f u l l y took a c t i o n t o defend h i m s e l f a g a i n s t t h e snake by t u r n i n g the s i t u a t i o n around and he f o l l o w e d t h e snake. He was a b l e t o t u r n the s i t u a t i o n around because he l o s t h i s f e a r o f the snake. He thought i t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o f o l l o w t h e snake because he wanted t o see i f t h e snake would l e a d him t o i t ' s home. In dream 17, he took a c t i o n t o prevent h i s b r o t h e r s from breaking what he made from Lego. He a l s o r e c o v e r e d something he had l o s t by r e t r a c i n g h i s s t e p s . T h i s p a r t i c i p a n t r e a l i z e d t h a t one c a r r i e s on when people do not show up, such as when h i s f r i e n d s f a i l e d t o meet him i n dream 6, and when h i s p a r e n t s were n o t home i n dream 13. He a l s o changed a c t i v i t i e s when he was bored i n dream 12. He a l s o knew t h a t i f he was l a t e f o r d i n n e r and i t was a l l gone, more c o u l d be made. When he missed church because t h e bus d r i v e r was l a t e , i n dream 14, t h e r e was another event t h a t he c o u l d a t t e n d . There were s o l u t i o n s t o problems i n t h i s boy's view o f h i s world, even though a l l h i s attempts d i d not succeed. He conveyed t h a t he had t o do some t h i n g s he d i d not  85 like,  such as h i s homework i n dream 12. A f t e r he d i d h i s  homework, he was a b l e t o do what he wanted. Yet, i n dream 12, even though h i s homework was f i n i s h e d , he r e c e i v e d more when he handed i t i n . In dream 10, he f i n i s h e d h i s homework before p l a y i n g . He r e a l i z e d t h a t sometimes the bad guy was caught and sometimes he was not. In dream 7, t h e guy who f o l l o w e d him and h i s b r o t h e r was not caught, even though t h e dreamer asked f o r h e l p . T h i s s i t u a t i o n remained unsolved.  In dream  1, t h e bad guy was caught by the p o l i c e , which brought a resolution. T h i s boy mostly played i n h i s dreams. He p l a y e d i n 17 of h i s 19 dreams. He played before and a f t e r events. He p l a y e d u n t i l he had t o do something and w h i l e he waited.  He  p l a y e d a t t h e beginning and end of dreams. He p l a y e d when he was t o l d t o p l a y . He a l s o played a f t e r f i n i s h i n g h i s homework. In dream 16, i t was obvious t h a t a day f i l l e d  with  games was something t o dream about. T h i s c h i l d ' s dreams proclaimed t h a t he was d e a l i n g w i t h many i s s u e s . He was d e a l i n g with poverty, h i s p a r e n t s not b e i n g home, r o l e r e v e r s a l and a l a c k o f a s t r o n g  parent-  c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p . As a r e s u l t , he became s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , i n some ways. He a l s o took on t o o much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . He was shown t o be v u l n e r a b l e and he d i d not always l e a r n from consequences. He attempted t o s o l v e dilemmas i n h i s l i f e , which conveyed h i s r e s i l i e n c y . Sometimes he was s u c c e s s f u l  86 and  sometimes he was  other  solutions.  not.  I f he was  not  s u c c e s s f u l , he  tried  87 13 Year O l d G i r l When I c o l l e c t e d t h i s g i r l ' s dreams, she had j u s t turned  13 y e a r s o l d . She was the o l d e s t c h i l d and had a 5  year o l d s i s t e r . She l i v e d with her mother and h e r mother's b o y f r i e n d . Her mother and her mother's common law both had been sober f o r one year a t the time o f data c o l l e c t i o n . She s a i d t h a t her mother drank a l c o h o l when she was between t h e ages o f 1 and 6. Then her mother stopped d r i n k i n g f o r a p e r i o d o f time and s t a r t e d again when she met her p r e s e n t common law. The present  common law was n e i t h e r c h i l d ' s  b i o l o g i c a l f a t h e r . During my data c o l l e c t i o n , I was t o l d t h a t mom and her common law were going t o have a baby. The dreamer t o l d me t h a t she was e x c i t e d about h a v i n g a new s i b l i n g . However, when her younger s i s t e r was born, she s a i d she was not sure how t o r e a c t . She a l s o t o l d me t h a t she was abused by h e r younger s i s t e r ' s f a t h e r f o r about 5 o r 6 years.  She d i d not s p e c i f y how she was abused. Although from  her dreams,.I had the sense t h a t she was s e x u a l l y abused, because harm o f t e n occurred respected.  t o her body and i t was n o t  She remembered 12 dreams over a p e r i o d o f one  month. She b e l i e v e d t h a t dreams were another p a r t o f her mind. Dream 1: Monday October 2. 1995 I was i n some s o r t of c i r c u s and I had t o go i n t o t h i s box. I t was c o l o u r f u l and p i c t u r e s o f f l o w e r s everywhere on i t and i t [had] s o r t o f some eyes, i n t h e middle o f t h e box, l o o k i n g a t me. When I g o t i n , i t f e l t slimy and wet. [Inside the box] I was s c a r e d , I f e l t l i k e I was trapped. I was s t a n d i n g t h e r e c u t t i n g the person i n t h r e e s t r i p s . Then when I looked a t t h e  88 t h i n g a couple of times, i t was blank and then the l a s t time I saw, i t was me, my f a c e . Then I looked over b e s i d e me (from i n the box) and t h e r e was a man and he was c u t t i n g . [I c l a r i f i e d , "So, you became the person i n the box, and then a man became who you were o u t s i d e the box"]. The guy [was doing] one of those t r i c k s where you c u t i n h a l f and then you open i t and s t u f f . But, when I got out my l e g s were, the middle of my stomach was gone. So, I got r e a l l y s c a r e d . I f e l t l i k e I was g e t t i n g d i z z y . The box s t a r t e d l a u g h i n g when I looked a t my stomach, then I woke up. Comments Only n e g a t i v e i n c i d e n t s occurred i n t h i s dream. In life,  a magic t r i c k i s harmless.  went i n t o f o r the magic t r i c k was  In her dream, the box  she  n i c e on the o u t s i d e . When  she got i n the box she f e l t scared and trapped. There was sense of hopelessness box".  She  when she s a i d , "I had t o go i n t o  submitted t o the t r i c k even though she was  As a r e s u l t , she was  a  this  scared.  harmed because she d i d not a s s e r t t h a t  she d i d not want t o do the magic t r i c k . She  acquiesced  d e s p i t e her i n n e r warning not t o . Perceptions 1. Some t h i n g s may  be b e a u t i f u l on the o u t s i d e , but  are  deceiving. 2. Some t r i c k s played on you can be mean and  physically  hurtful. 3. You may  have your head on and your f e e t on  ground w i t h nothing i n between. T h i s makes you  the  really  scared. 4. When you do something t h a t you have t o do, you s c a r e d , trapped and are h e l p l e s s .  feel  89 5. You cannot t r u s t y o u r s e l f o r o t h e r s  (specifically  men?) t o keep s a f e . When you get h u r t , o t h e r s laugh a t you when you l o s e a p a r t o f y o u r s e l f . Dream 2; Wednesday October 4, 1995 I was a t a bus stop. I was w a i t i n g f o r a bus. I had some change f o r t h e bus i n my hand. I kept on w a i t i n g f o r t h e bus. I t d i d n ' t come. I looked a c r o s s t h e s t r e e t and t h e r e was a l l my f r i e n d s p l a y i n g r i d i n g t h e b i k e [and] p l a y i n g t a g . I r a n a c r o s s t h e s t r e e t , I t h i n k , then when I looked across t h e s t r e e t I knew them and I looked back and nobody was t h e r e . There was j u s t a busy o l d s t r e e t w i t h a bus stop. I p i c t u r e and then a few minutes I saw, I was r i d i n g t h e b i k e . Something was c h a s i n g a f t e r me, I was not c h a s i n g a f t e r me. I f e l t s c a r e d . I turned around and t h e r e was J . I t h i n k he asked me i f I wanted t o go f o r a l i t t l e r i d e . I f e l t a l i t t l e happy because I have a c r u s h on him. We were p l a y i n g and was r i d i n g b i k e s on a bumpy, some bumpy mud. I don't know which way we turned, but we t u r n e d onto an a l l e y way. That's when I woke up. [When I woke up] I f e l t r e a l l y weird, I f e l t l i k e I wanted t o go on except I c o u l d n ' t . [She added a t t h e end] I n o t i c e a c r o s s t h e s t r e e t t h e r e was two people w a l k i n g by. [They] looked r e a l l y young, looked l i k e my mother. Comments She  f e l t scared i n her f i r s t two dreams. A magic t r i c k  i s supposed t o be harmless,  y e t i n her f i r s t dream, t h e  t r i c k was very harmful t o her body. She expected  something  p l e a s a n t , but i t turned out h u r t f u l . In t h i s dream, she expected  something awful f i r s t , but i t t u r n e d out p l e a s a n t .  What happened i n these s i t u a t i o n s was t h e o p p o s i t e o f what she  expected.  Perceptions 1. When you wait and nothing happens, you go t o where it  seems f u n . 2. When you a r e chased, you f e e l v e r y s c a r e d u n t i l you  90 see t h a t i t i s a person you l i k e a l o t . You misjudged t h e s i t u a t i o n and you f e e l happy when i t i s not as awful as you expected. 3. You see your mother on the other s i d e (across t h e s t r e e t ) l o o k i n g young. 4. When you experience continue  t h i s experience,  a p l e a s a n t event you want t o  but you cannot.  Dream 3: Thursday October 5, 1995 One dream, I don't know how, but I was around 28 and I was pregnant. I was standing, I t h i n k I was l o o k i n g i n t o a m i r r o r . I c o u l d see t h i s and my stomach, I c o u l d see l i k e a b i g h o l e t h a t I was a b l e t o see t h e baby. I was so t e r r i f i e d t h a t I wanted t o dream on. [To] dream i t , go back t o the dream. I f e l l back t o s l e e p , except t h i s time i t was a d i f f e r e n t dream. [ I f e l t ] k i n d o f scared, both happy and scared. Comments T h i s was another dream where she was s c a r e d and where something h o r r i b l e happened. I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t she was t e r r i f i e d , but wanted t o continue t h a t continued  dreaming. Another theme  was m i s s i n g a p a r t o f her body.  In t h i s dream, she saw h e r s e l f i n t h e f u t u r e and o l d e r . To e n v i s i o n h e r s e l f pregnant was s c a r y . Perhaps t h i s was a p a r a l l e l t o s e e i n g her mom have a baby. She c o u l d be s c a r e d about a new s i b l i n g coming along, she was e x c i t e d about  even though she s a i d t h a t  this.  Perceptions 1. When you see y o u r s e l f pregnant i n t h e f u t u r e , you are t e r r i f i e d t h a t you see your baby through a h o l e i n your stomach.  You wake up, but you want t o dream on.  91 Dream 4; Thursday October 5. 1995 I t h i n k we were i n a r e s t a u r a n t and we r a n i n t o N e i l P a t r i c k , [he's] a t v s t a r . He was my mom's o l d b o y f r i e n d . I t was a long time ago. He wanted t o go back t o her except my mom s a i d , "no, no." They were both o l d . He d i d t h i s k i n d of s p e l l on her. I don't know what k i n d of s p e l l he used, k i n d of words. He used words I c o u l d n ' t make out. I t e l l him t o l e a v e my mom a l o n e . He s a i d t h a t he can't. The f i r s t man she sees w i l l be dead. I went, "oh no, [uncle's] i n t h e r e . " My mom she says, " i t ' s ok, i t ' s ok, n o t h i n g w i l l happen." My grandma and my uncle, my b r o t h e r s twin b r o t h e r , they don't look a l i k e , the twins. I t was a chant t h a t whenever she sees a man, s h e ' l l k i l l him, the f i r s t man she sees, [mom k i l l e d her u n c l e ] . Someone b i g , I mean a p o i n t y s t i c k , r e a l p o i n t y l i k e a k n i f e . I saw he's dead. I screamed. I came running i n w i t h [ N e i l ] , He says, "oh no I f o r g o t about him." He thought t h a t my u n c l e was b o y f r i e n d with my mom. We went t o go b a r r y [ s i c ] him. Then we went i n t o t h i s , we chucked t h e remains of him i n t o a b i g heap, the body's a garbage. I don't remember the r e s t , a l l ' s I know i s t h a t my mom she was o l d , she had white h a i r and she had a perm. I f e l t scared, I f e l t t e r r i f i e d . I woke up a t s i x o ' c l o c k and I d i d n ' t want t o go back t o s l e e p . Comments She was  t e r r i f i e d i n t h i s dream and d i d not want t o go  back t o s l e e p . T h i s was  opposite of how  she r e a c t e d i n the  p r i o r dream. The theme of death i n t h i s dream may i t more f r i g h t e n i n g f o r her t o f a l l  have made  asleep.  At one p o i n t i n the dream she s a i d , "my  brothers  twin  b r o t h e r . " In l i f e she d i d not have a b r o t h e r . I t seemed t h a t she was  t a l k i n g i n the v o i c e of her mother. She may  have  i d e n t i f i e d and been enmeshed with her mother t o a degree. When she s a i d , "then we went i n t o t h i s we we hucked the remains of him  i n t o a b i g heap, 'the body's a garbage'," I  got the impression the body was  not r e s p e c t e d , was  soiled  and belonged i n the garbage. T h i s might be a r e s u l t of abuse  92 she r e c e i v e d i n the past from her younger s i s t e r ' s She d i d not say i f i t was sexual or p h y s i c a l  father.  abuse.  Perceptions 1. Mother's cannot guarantee t h a t t h i n g s w i l l be okay even though they r e a s s u r e you of t h i s . 2. C h i l d r e n t r y t o p r o t e c t t h e i r p a r e n t s . 3. Sometimes t h i n g s do not work out the way  you expect  them t o o . 4. When you say no t o someone, sometimes they do not accept i t . 5. When you do not get what you want, you do harm. 6. Others can have c o n t r o l over your a c t i o n s . Dream 5; Sunday October 8. 1995 My dream was about my f o s t e r mother's granddaughter G. Her o n l y granddaughter. We were going t o church and I saw my f o s t e r f a m i l y . There was t h i s g i r l about my age. I s a i d , " h i . " [She] reminded me about G. G was t h e r e . She had dark h a i r and she's i n the same grade. She s a i d " h i , I remember you, but I don't remember when." I s a i d , "when you were l i t t l e , I was always good a t making you stop c r y i n g and making you laugh." I miss t h a t . I t [ a l s o ] f e l t k i n d of weird cause I was o l d e r and I wanted t o see l i k e the younger G. [When I l i v e d w i t h her] she was only a l i t t l e baby. A l l o f a sudden i t changed. I f e l t k i n d of woozy l i k e I was g o i n g t o f a l l . Instead of a church we were i n a c a s t l e . I was t r y i n g t o h e l p the k i n g . He was d y i n g . H i s daughter was G. I f e l t ok [about t h i s ] . I ' l l do i t , he needs h e l p , so I d i d i t . I had t o h e l p f i n d the s e c r e t p o t i o n t h a t ' s i n another kingdom, except he's r e a l l y mean. L i k e i f somebody from g's f a t h e r ' s k i n g s c o u r t [went on the mean k i n g s c o u r t ] he would be k i l l e d . I had t o go a d i f f e r e n t way, except I kept on r u n n i n g i n t o t h i s [mean] guy's c o u r t . He wouldn't l e t anybody from another kingdom come on h i s land. [When I bumped i n t o G] i t ' s the same t h i n g t h a t would happen a t t h e church. She knew me but she d i d n ' t know where she met me. [I f e l t ] h u r t and k i n d of scared. Every time I r a n i n t o her, she would e i t h e r be a p r i n c e s s or a poor person, or a f i e l d e r from the other kingdom. [A f i e l d e r i s one]  93 who chops t h e g r a i n o f f t h e f i e l d . Every s i n g l e time I would run i n t o her, something bad would always happen. The church disappeared, we both got thrown i n a dungeon, and t h e p r i n c e s s t h e kingdom caught f i r e . From t h e f i r e we escaped. From t h e dungeon we found a s e c r e t h i d i n g spot t o g e t out. The f i e l d was t h e l a s t time. [The] l a s t bad t h i n g t h a t happened i n t h e dream was I got shot and G got shot too, except i n t h e h e a r t . We both d i e d and t h a t ' s when I woke up. I c o u l d n ' t g e t t h e p o t i o n . I f e l t l i k e I was r e a l l y shot, but I was never going t o wake up. E v e r y t h i n g went b l a c k and I woke up. [When I woke up I f e l t ] scared and a bad stomach ache and I had t o go t o t h e washroom. I miss G. Comments T h i s p a r t i c i p a n t imagined how t h i n g s c o u l d be by s e e i n g the fostermother's granddaughter,  G, as an o l d e r person. The  dreamer a l s o r e f l e c t e d on t h e past, when she h e l p e d G t o s t o p c r y i n g as a baby. She f e l t good about h e l p i n g someone f e e l b e t t e r . The dreamer a l s o s a i d t h a t she wanted t o see the younger G. She wanted t o go back t o having happy times w i t h G. She a l s o d i s p l a y e d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o h e l p o t h e r s when she accepted f i n d i n g t h e s e c r e t p o t i o n , even though h e r h e l p was a c o s t t o h e r s a f e t y . She continued h e r s e a r c h d e s p i t e e n c o u n t e r i n g o b s t a c l e s . In t h e end, t h e problem o f f i n d i n g the s e c r e t p o t i o n was l e f t In  h e r attempts  unsolved.  t o get t h e p o t i o n , t h e dreamer t r i e d t o  g e t around t h e mean man i n t h e o t h e r kingdom. I n t h i s p r o c e s s she kept running i n t o G and awful t h i n g s happened. She escaped  t h e f i r s t 3 bad encounters which showed t h a t she  c o u l d g e t out o f bad s i t u a t i o n s . However, i n t h e end she d i e d . I n h e r dreams, she p e r c e i v e d t h a t e v e n t u a l l y she w i l l fail,  d e s p i t e having some successes along t h e way.  94 When t h e dream scenes changed suddenly, she f e l t the  change was  that  f o r the worse.  Perceptions 1. You want t o save somebody and h e l p them, because i t i s a matter o f l i f e and death, even though you a r e i n danger g i v i n g your h e l p . In the end you d i e , d e s p i t e t r y i n g a number o f ways t o s o l v e the problem. 2. You keep bumping i n t o o b s t a c l e s : some you overcome, but  i n t h e end you do not p r e v a i l . 3. Although, you are a b l e t o make o t h e r s f e e l good, the  r e c i p i e n t may  not remember t h i s . You c o n t i n u e t o t r y t o h e l p  people. 4. You miss past times when you were a b l e t o make people f e e l b e t t e r  (help them).  Dream 6: Thursday October 12. 1995 I t was about a boy I l i k e . H i s name i s J . I have a c r u s h on him. I t was a dream t h a t we were both d a t i n g , l i k e g o i n g out p l a c e s . We went out t o a movie and d i n n e r . There was t h i s g i r l . She was l i k e k i s s i n g him and s t u f f . I got so mad t h a t we both broke up. When I was w a l k i n g away, he s a i d , "no, no, I don't want t o break up. I don't want t o break up." Then I t r i e d t o go back t o him except I c o u l d n ' t . I t u r n e d around and h i t my head. There was some f o r c e h o l d i n g me back. I t f e l t l i k e a c l e a r p i e c e of g l a s s . When I woke up, I f e l t r e a l l y sad, l i k e I d i d n ' t want t o break up. My dreams are going l i k e r e a l l y slow a few minutes, s h o r t [dreams]. Comments In  her l i f e t h e r e was t h i s boy she l i k e d . In her dream  they were d a t i n g and she e n v i s i o n e d him b e t r a y i n g h e r . Then she broke up w i t h him because she was mad.  When t h e boy  he d i d not want t o break up w i t h her, she l e t her angry  said  feelings  d i s s o l v e and wanted t o go back t o him, d e s p i t e what  she saw him do. In t h e end, she f e l t r e a l l y sad t o break up w i t h him. Perceptions 1. When you a r e betrayed  by a b o y f r i e n d you break up,  even i f you a r e sad about i t and you do not want t o . When you t r y t o go back t o him you a r e p h y s i c a l l y  stopped.  2. You a r e w i l l i n g t o change your d e c i s i o n i f someone you l i k e persuades you. Dream 7: F r i d a y October 13. 1995 I t was a dream about t h i s boy I r e a l l y hate. He always h u r t s me and my l i t t l e s i s t e r [ i n h e r r e a l l i f e ] . I was h u r t i n g him [ i n my dream]. I was s i n g i n g t h i s song w h i l e I was h u r t i n g him. I sang t h i s i s my f i n g e r , t h i s i s my other f i n g e r , t h i s i s how I poke your eyes. J u s t l i k e t h a t . T h i s i s my hand t h i s i s how I push you down. J u s t l i k e t h a t . T h i s i s how I jump on [your stomach]. J u s t l i k e t h a t . When I l e f t , I k i c k e d d i r t on h i s f a c e . I f e l t l i k e I wanted t o stop, except I c o u l d n ' t . [When I woke up] I f e l t kinda happy. Comments She was d e a l i n g with her anger i n t h i s dream. She was a b l e t o be angry and do harm t o a boy she hated f o r h u r t i n g her  i n r e a l l i f e . When she woke up, she s a i d  I presume, i t f e l t good f o r her t o f i g h t  she f e l t  good.  back.  Perceptions 1. I can leave you i n t h e dust: you can n o t h u r t me any more. 2. When you a r e angry a t someone f o r h u r t i n g you, you can g e t s a t i s f a c t i o n by h u r t i n g him back i n your dreams. 3. When you h u r t someone f o r h u r t i n g you, a t a c e r t a i n  96 p o i n t you  f e e l l i k e stopping,  but you  can not stop  yourself.  Dream 8: Saturday October 14. 1995 My dream was about my aunt. She came out of t h i s t r u c k . I t h i n k she was drunk. I f e l t happy t h a t I got t o see her. She had something i n a c l o t h bag. I d i d n ' t know what. I asked her what i t i s . She took i t out and i t ' s almost the same c a t as G [the k i t t e n t h a t she owns i n l i f e ] . Then [the] i c e cream [truck] came by. I wanted t o buy something. My mom l e t me. I got a snow cone except, i t took a long time t o eat a snow cone 'cause he was making i t . He got out of h i s i c e cream man s u i t [and] got i n more normal c l o t h e s . Then he ran away when I t a s t e d i t . I [thought] something's wrong, except I d i d n ' t c a r e . I f e l t scared and f r i g h t e n e d h a v i n g the i c e cream poisoned with white powder. I s t a r t e d t o get t i r e d and s t u f f . I f e l l asleep. That's when I woke up. Comments In t h i s dream, she was missed and was  d i s t r a c t e d from someone  l u r e d toward something sweet and  was  d e c e i v i n g because she was  She  was  poisoned. She  she  good. T h i s  d i d not  h e l p l e s s and p a s s i v e l y accepted what was  care.  done t o  her. T h i s was depicted  the only dream i n my  sample of dreams t h a t  an a l c o h o l i c i n c i d e n t d i r e c t l y . She was  see her aunt and  happy t o  commented t h a t she thought her aunt  drunk. As I read the dream, I c o u l d see a p a r a l l e l a l c o h o l . The  dreamer was  to  poisoned. A l c o h o l i s a l s o a  t o a body's system when one  was  poison  d r i n k s l a r g e amounts. However,  she d i d not care t h a t she was  poisoned. I t appeared she  doomed t o a bleak f u t u r e . Perceptions 1. You  are happy t o see a loved one  c o n d i t i o n they are i n .  no matter what  felt  97 2. Your mom a l l o w s you t o go get something  you want  without c h e c k i n g i t out f i r s t . 3. You a r e e n t i c e d by t a s t y t r e a t s . When you f i n d out they a r e d e a d l y you do not c a r e . 4. You have an i n t u i t i o n about danger,  but you do not  listen to i t . Dream 9: Wednesday October 18. 1995 My dream was about me and my mom. My mom j u s t had h e r baby and i t wasn't human. When I saw i t I g o t s c a r e d . When my mom had t h e baby she screamed and f a i n t e d . A l l ' s I know i s t h a t i t has h a i r a l l over i t ' s body. L i k e f u r a l l over i t and we waited a couple o f months f o r t h e f u r t o go away and i t wouldn't. I t [ f u r ] wasn't c o v e r i n g t h e f a c e because t h e f a c e you c o u l d see what i t looked l i k e . I t looked E g y p t i a n l i k e . I t t u r n e d i n t o y e a r s ' t i l t h e k i d turned nine, something l i k e t h a t . I t . grew up f a s t . I t s t a r t e d e a t i n g people. I saw people's l e f t over body's i n h i s room. I t was g e t t i n g so hungry t h a t i t a t e my mom. The l a s t person t h a t I knew t h a t i t ate i s my mom. I heard a scream i n my mom's room. There she was l y i n g dead. During t h e dream, [and when I woke up], I f e l t scared. Comments I asked her why she thought she had t h i s dream. She said,  "maybe because  I'm a l i t t l e b i t t o o e x c i t e d about my  mom h a v i n g a baby." She a l s o s a i d , " [ t h e ] f i r s t time I found out my mom was pregnant with [her younger s i s t e r ] I d i d not know how t o r e a c t because  I never bothered h e r about h e r  h a v i n g a baby. T h i s time I'm r e a l l y e x c i t e d  [because]  whenever she gave me news, I kept on t a l k i n g , to  'are you g o i n g  have a baby, a r e you gonna have a baby?'." She a l s o  said  t h a t she was t h e most scared by t h e thought o f h e r mother's death. P o s s i b l y , she f e a r e d t h e l o s s o f h e r mom when t h e baby  98 was born. On t h e other hand, she s a i d h e r mom drank when she was between t h e ages of 1 and 5. As a young c h i l d , she may have seen h e r mom passed out and thought h e r mom was dead. She may have developed a f e a r of l o s i n g people from t h i s e x p e r i e n c e . I n a h i s t o r i c a l dream o f h e r s , she was l o o k i n g f o r h e r mom and found her mom b l e e d i n g and dead. Then she saw a man o u t s i d e p o i n t i n g a gun a t her. In another h i s t o r i c a l dream, when she was 12 years o l d , she dreamed t h a t h e r f o s t e r mother d i e d and she d i d not b e l i e v e  this  c o u l d occur t o a happy person. These h i s t o r i c a l dreams i n d i c a t e that the fear of loss started e a r l y i n her l i f e . Perceptions 1. When something it  i s not what you expect i t t o be, and  i s s c a r y , you wait f o r i t t o g e t b e t t e r . I n t h e end i t  g e t s worse. Dream 10: F r i d a y October 20, 1995 A few days ago I j u s t got over l i c e and I had a dream about t h a t . Except the l i c e , t h e n i t s , they were b i g g e r . The eggs they were l i k e t h i s b i g . There were j u s t two. Each day they would e a t a p i e c e o f my s k i n . A l l o f i t . I'd l o s e consciousness. Then I'd wake up a g a i n . When I woke up I would look i n a m i r r o r and b l o o d was t r i c k l i n g down my f a c e . The v e r y l a s t day you c o u l d see my b r a i n from above. A l l my h a i r was gone. I t was s c a r y . I d i e d . I saw a s i l v e r y t u n n e l and I wanted t o s t a y except I c o u l d n ' t . I was l i k e b e i n g f o r c e d t o go up i n t o t h a t t u n n e l . When I was about 20 s t e p s away, I g o t sucked i n r e a l f a s t . [When I woke up I f e l t ] happy and s c a r e d because t h e s i l v e r y t u n n e l t a k e s you up t o heaven and s c a r e d because I d i d n ' t want t o d i e . Comments When I asked h e r why she thought she had t h i s dream, she s a i d , "cause I've been g e t t i n g l i c e a l o t . I t ' s my t h i r d  99 time ever s i n c e I s t a r t e d l i k e k i n d e r g a r t e n . " She has dreamed o f her, her mother dying, and o f h e r body b e i n g harmed. She s a i d she d i d not want t o d i e i n t h i s dream, y e t she dreamed of dying. Since h e r body was abused i n t h e p a s t , she might continue t o f e e l t h a t h e r body w i l l be harmed. I am not sure how t o i n t e r p r e t h e r death. I u s u a l l y view death as a r e b i r t h i n g : a d y i n g o f an o l d s e l f , h a b i t , o r way o f conducting o n e s e l f . I do not t h i n k  this  a p p l i e s here. I n o t i c e d i n her dreams, she p e r c e i v e d t h a t the o n l y way out o f p a i n f u l s i t u a t i o n s was through d y i n g . She d i d n o t want t o d i e , but she f e l t happy i n heaven. Her happiness i n heaven c o u l d have been a r e l i e f from t h e p a i n f u l experience she f e e l s from l i v i n g . Perceptions 1. Sometimes t h i n g s ( l i c e ) seem b i g g e r than t h e y a r e . 2. Something can a t t a c k your body, you have no c o n t r o l and you d i e . You a r e scared and have mixed f e e l i n g s because you do no want t o d i e , but you a r e happy t o go t o heaven. Dream 11: Tuesday October 24. 1995 My dream was about Halloween. I was going t r i c k o r t r e a t i n g [with] my mom [and s i s t e r ] . I don't know what o t h e r a pumpkin. My s i s t e r she was, I don't know what. I don't remember. While we were c r o s s i n g t h e road, a l l of a sudden a c a r went i n f r o n t o f us. J u s t then a c a r r a n over my s i s t e r . Then blood flew everywhere, almost everywhere. I t r a n over her hand. Cause she f e l l and her hand was [ s t r e t c h e d o u t ] . The c a r r a n over h e r hand. She was screaming and screaming and screaming, "my hand, my hand, i t h u r t s , i t h u r t s . " We [ p i c k e d up her arm and i t ] f l o p p e d down. My mom, she was screaming i n t h e background. [Mom's common law] He p i c k e d h e r up. Mom she was screaming and screaming and screaming. Then a l l o f a sudden she s a i d she wasn't f e e l i n g t o o good and she c o u l d n ' t . Then a l l o f a sudden she s t a r t e d  100 p a n t i n g . We asked her what was wrong. She says, "I'm having, i t f e e l s l i k e I'm having my baby." We took her [ s i s t e r ] t o the Doctor. The doctor s a i d , " I t ' s [ s i s t e r ' s hand] dead." They cut her dead hand o f f , then sewed the r e s t , the p a r t s t h a t are s t i l l t h e r e t o g e t h e r . A l l of a sudden, when I looked around, I looked back a t [my s i s t e r ] . I was b i g l i k e your s i z e , o l d e r . There was my s i s t e r around my age r i g h t now. Her hand, i t was a fake hand. She says, "I s t i l l remember t h i s . That day t h a t my hand got r a n over." We were i n t h e h o s p i t a l room. Somebody e l s e was t h e r e . [There] was l i k e t h r e e other people t h e r e . When I woke up, I was sweating a l l over. I was c r y i n g , sad, s c a r e d , a l l the other t e r r i b l e s t u f f . Comments When I asked her why  she had t h i s dream, she s a i d ,  t h i n k because Halloween's coming up and I'm  "I  scared that  something bad might happen. Because one year I c o u l d n ' t  go  t r i c k or t r e a t i n g . My parents were d r i n k i n g . I j u s t went t o one door. They t o l d me  I'm  c h i l d r e n t h a t c o u l d n ' t go H i s boss's two  not going. P l u s t h e r e ' s  two  [from mom's common law's work].  c h i l d r e n . Instead o f t a k i n g them t r i c k or  t r e a t i n g , they buy him candy because they are a f r a i d t h a t people might s t i c k , you know, bad s t u f f i n the candy." had a p e s s i m i s t i c outlook and expected  She  awful t h i n g s t o  happen. Suddenly t h i n g s happened and were out of her (a) her s i s t e r f e l l and suddenly (b) suddenly adult,  her s i s t e r was  control:  a c a r ran over her hand,  her age and the dreamer was  (c) f i n a l l y , her mother was  not f e e l i n g w e l l and  h a v i n g a baby. Perceptions 1. Sometimes you go out f o r an evening w i t h your  an  101 f a m i l y , and a member o f your f a m i l y gets h u r t . Your mom i s not a b l e t o h e l p because she i s having t r o u b l e Other a d u l t s h e l p  herself.  (common law and d o c t o r ) . As you watch a l l  t h i s you f e e l t e r r i b l e , sad and scared. 2. You a n t i c i p a t e t h a t bad t h i n g s w i l l happen a t Halloween and they do. 3. When you a r e h u r t , you can p h y s i c a l l y  f i x i t , but  you w i l l not f o r g e t about i t . Dream 12; Wednesday October 25, 1995 I was i n v i t e d t o t h i s house. I was t h e seventh guest. When I got t h e r e nobody was t h e r e . The person s a i d t h a t I c o u l d l i v e here a t the house. I stayed a t t h e house. He came back. T h i s man he came back. He says, "You can l i v e here" and I went, "ok." I was unpacking and s t u f f . There was t h i s f l o o r board t h a t when you stepped on i t , i t went hollow. Underneath was t h i s book. I t was t h e book o f t h e dead, the t h i n g s t h a t happened t h a t people don't know what i t i s , s t u f f l i k e t h a t . I t says t h a t t h i s house i s cursed: one n i g h t anybody l i v e s t h e r e w i l l be dead i n the morning. When I looked i n t h e book I saw a p i c t u r e of what i t looked l i k e when i t [a h u r r i c a n e ] s t a r t s . I was o u t s i d e . I looked back, t h e r e was t h e same t h i n g . I t was almost l i k e a h u r r i c a n e . I looked back o u t s i d e , I went, "oh no" except I opened the door and I s t a r t e d running out. I was s c a r e d . I saw t h i s t u n n e l i t ' s Metrotown. To t h i s p l a c e , any p l a c e you wanted t o go. You don't have t o pay. I jumped i n t h e r e , i n t h e t u n n e l I s t a r t e d s l i d i n g a l l t h e way down, down, down. I t was p i t c h b l a c k . When I was a t t h e end, I was a t Metrotown m a l l . When I woke up, I was k i n d a r e l i e v e d t h a t I got away from t h e h u r r i c a n e and t h a t nothing bad happened. Comments She thought she had t h i s dream because she read book c a l l e d ,  'Welcome t o the Dead House'. She s a i d  this  that  these people " t r y t o escape and they f i n a l l y do." She a l s o s a i d t h e r e i s t h i s CD Rom game c a l l e d ,  'The Seventh Guest'.  At f i r s t her dream was p l e a s a n t , she was i n v i t e d t o a  102 house as a guest. Then something bad happened: i f she s t a y e d o v e r n i g h t she would d i e . Before she c o u l d escape t h e r e was an o b s t a c l e of a h u r r i c a n e t o evade. She saw a t u n n e l t h a t would take her anywhere. M e t a p h o r i c a l l y , she may to was  have wanted  escape the h o r r i b l e f e e l i n g s and e x p e r i e n c e s she had.  She  r e l i e v e d t h a t she escaped and n o t h i n g bad happened. In  t h i s dream, she was more a c t i v e and escaped death.  T h i s i s an important aspect. She d i d not a c c e p t death  like  i n her p r i o r dreams. Her escape a l s o came w i t h b e i n g a b l e t o go anywhere she wanted without any debts. I t was was  the second time she went through a t u n n e l and  r e l i e f from an awful experience. Although i n t h i s  free. I t found instance,  she d i d not choose death. Perceptions 1. Once you r e a l i z e you have been d e c e i v e d you can f i n d a way  out of the s i t u a t i o n . 2. You want t o go any p l a c e you want. 3. You f i n d out t h a t where you are i n v i t e d t o s t a y ,  your l i f e i s i n danger. However, you f l e e and Dreamer's P e r c e p t i o n s and Prominent  escape.  Features  Three of t h i s p a r t i c i p a n t ' s twelve dreams d e a l t w i t h r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . In dream 7, she vented her anger p h y s i c a l l y a t a boy, who  was h u r t i n g her i n r e a l l i f e .  of d e a l i n g w i t h anger than a c t u a l l y  This  was  a s a f e r way  carrying  out  p h y s i c a l a c t i o n s . In dream 10, her r e a l concern about  h a v i n g head l i c e was magnified, as she d i e d from t h e i r  103 b i t i n g her head and b r a i n . Another r e a l l i f e concern she had was  about going t r i c k or t r e a t i n g on Halloween.  In t h e p a s t ,  she r e c a l l e d o n l y being a b l e t o t r i c k or t r e a t a t one because her mom  was  drunk. Dream 11 had two c r i s e s  door,  that  o c c u r r e d when her and her f a m i l y went t r i c k o r t r e a t i n g . a r e s u l t , they were not a b l e t o go t r i c k or t r e a t i n g .  As  The  dreams she had of r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s d e a l t w i t h her f e e l i n g s and  fears.  The theme of death was prominent f o r t h i s dreamer. d i e d i n two of her dreams. In dream 5, she was w h i l e she was  shot dead  t r y i n g t o get the p o t i o n t o h e l p the k i n g  i n dream 10, she d i e d from head l i c e . Furthermore, mother was  k i l l e d by the baby mom  She  and,  her  gave b i r t h t o i n dream 9.  L a s t , she dreamt of p o s s i b l e death i n the 12th dream c o l l e c t e d . However, she managed t o escape death. T h i s dreamer a l s o t o l d me of two h i s t o r i c a l dreams t h a t d e a l t w i t h death. She had a r e p e a t i n g dream from t h e age of about 1 or 2 t o age 5 and 1/2.  She found her mother dead  when she looked out the window a man her.  and  was p o i n t i n g a gun a t  In t h i s dream, she was alone, abandoned and g o i n g t o be  killed,  j u s t l i k e her mom.  At age 11 or 12 she had a dream  t h a t her f o s t e r mother d i e d . She c o u l d not understand and s a i d , "no, no i t can't happen t o her. She was  this  so happy.  She's the h a p p i e s t , the h a p p i e s t person i n the f a m i l y . " Death was  the l a s t t h i n g t h a t happened i n the aforementioned  dreams. A dream ending on a note of death makes the thought  104 of death more s a l i e n t i n our memory and u n f o r g e t t a b l e . T h i s is  frightening. T h i s p a r t i c i p a n t s t a r t e d t o d e a l w i t h death and l o s s a t  a v e r y e a r l y age. She t o l d me t h a t h e r mother drank when she was between t h e ages o f 1 and 6. A t such a young age, a c h i l d would not understand why mom d i d not move and respond when she was passed out. Therefore, a c h i l d c o u l d  easily  t h i n k t h a t one's mother was dead. Furthermore, w h i l e mother was d r i n k i n g she was not a v a i l a b l e t o meet h e r c h i l d ' s needs. When t h i s occurs, t h e c h i l d l o s e s a p a r e n t . Babies were another t o p i c t h a t was important t o t h i s dreamer. During t h e time o f dream c o l l e c t i o n , she was aware t h a t h e r mother was pregnant. She had 4 dreams about t h i s i s s u e . I n dream 3, she dreamt of h e r s e l f b e i n g pregnant and she was t e r r i f i e d upon seeing t h e baby through a h o l e i n h e r stomach. I n dream 5, she dreamt of h e r f o s t e r mother's baby granddaughter, whom she remembered being a b l e t o make laugh. The granddaughter was t h e dreamer's age and d i d n o t r e c a l l the dreamer. She a l s o s a i d t h a t when she bumped i n t o t h e granddaughter something bad happened. In dream 9, mom gave b i r t h t o a baby t h a t was not human and i t a t e people, i n c l u d i n g t h e dreamer's mom. In dream 11, h e r mother s a i d she d i d not f e e l good and was going t o have a baby. I t appeared from these dreams t h a t t h e dreamer was f r i g h t e n e d of mom h a v i n g a baby and had a f e a r t h a t t h e baby would take away mom's a t t e n t i o n . Furthermore, i f G r e p r e s e n t e d a baby,  105 the  baby c o u l d be seen as an o b s t a c l e f o r t h e dreamer. She  c o u l d have f e l t threatened, even though she s a i d she was e x c i t e d about her mother having a baby. The dreamer's concern was connected with her f e e l i n g s o f abandonment  a t an  e a r l y age. T h i s p a r t i c i p a n t ' s dreams r e v e a l e d t h a t she viewed t h e w o r l d as mean and d e c e i v i n g . Dream 1 p r e s e n t e d t h i s view when she was i n a magic t r i c k . In t h e magic t r i c k h e r body was harmed by having her m i d s e c t i o n c u t out. The b e a u t i f u l o  box she was i n , laughed a t her when she r e a l i z e d  what  happened. I n dream 4, a curse was put on h e r mother because mom would not r e t u r n t o a p r i o r b o y f r i e n d . Mom ended up killing  h e r own b r o t h e r . In dream 9, h e r mother was k i l l e d  by t h e inhuman baby t o whom she gave b i r t h . I n dream 11, h e r s i s t e r ' s hand was run over. These were a l l c r u e l  situations  o c c u r r i n g i n h e r dreams t h a t were d e r i v e d from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h i s c h i l d ' s experience. In many o f her dreams she wanted a s c e n a r i o t o go a c e r t a i n way, but she was unable t o have any a f f e c t on t h e s i t u a t i o n . I n dream 2, she s a i d , "I f e l t  l i k e I wanted t o go  on [dreaming] except I c o u l d n ' t . " She a l s o f e l t t h i s way i n dream 3. I n dream 3, she wanted t o r e t u r n t o an u n p l e a s a n t dream, whereas i n dream 2, she wanted t o r e t u r n t o t h e good f e e l i n g s she had i n her dream. In dream 4, she was t r y i n g t o p r o t e c t h e r mother. However, t h e dreamer's attempt d i d not succeed. She c o u l d not stop her mother's e x - b o y f r i e n d from  106 p u t t i n g a curse on her mother. In dream 5, she wanted t o see her f r i e n d as a baby and go back t o s o o t h i n g h e r , r a t h e r than be w i t h her i n the present. A l s o i n t h i s dream, she wanted t o g e t the p o t i o n , but f a i l e d . In dream 6, she wanted to  go back t o her b o y f r i e n d , but c o u l d not. In dream 7, she  wanted t o stop b e a t i n g up the boy, but she c o u l d not stop h e r s e l f . In dream 9, she waited to  f o r a new born i n t h e f a m i l y  change, but t h e r e was no change and t h e s i t u a t i o n  worsened. In dream 10, she was f o r c e d i n t o a t u n n e l t h a t took her t o heaven, even though she wanted t o s t a y . A l l these dreams suggested t h a t she f e l t powerless over events i n her l i f e and sometimes even over her own a c t i o n s . Harm was a l s o done t o her body i n a number o f h e r dreams. Her stomach was c u t out, which l e f t a h o l e , her head was b i t t e n u n t i l she d i e d , and she was poisoned. accepted  She  harm done t o her body and was w i l l i n g t o endanger  h e r s e l f t o h e l p o t h e r s . The harm done t o her body i n these dreams a l s o r e f l e c t e d her past abuse. She d i d not l e a r n t o v a l u e h e r s e l f because others  ( c a r e g i v e r s ) have not p r o v i d e d  t h i s f o r her i n the p a s t . The dreamer r e v e a l e d the p e r c e p t i o n s she had o f h e r mother and of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s c h i l d was d e a l i n g w i t h f e e l i n g s of c h i l d h o o d abandonment which was r e v e a l e d i n her h i s t o r i c a l dreams. She a l s o f e l t threatened mother's pregnancy. R o l e - r e v e r s a l a l s o o c c u r r e d ,  by h e r i n dream 4,  when she t r i e d t o p r o t e c t her mother by t e l l i n g mother's ex-  107 b o y f r i e n d t o leave her mother alone. Her mother was p o r t r a y e d i n t h e dreams as unable t o p r o t e c t t h e dreamer. For  example, mom c o u l d not help when t h i s c h i l d was  poisoned. The mother was a l s o unable t o p r o t e c t h e r s e l f from b e i n g eaten by her own baby. Mom was seen as e a s i l y  overcome  w i t h p a n i c when she was having a baby and when t h e younger s i s t e r was h u r t . Mom was a l s o e a s i l y swayed and c o n t r o l l e d when t h e s p e l l was c a s t on her. In t h i s dreamer's eyes, h e r mother was c l e a r l y not a b l e t o care f o r t h e dreamer. In  summary, a l l o f her dreams had i n c i d e n t s t h a t were  h o r r i b l e . The dominant f e e l i n g she experienced i n h e r dreams was f e a r . A l o t o f her f e a r r e v o l v e d around death o c c u r r i n g to  h e r , o r h e r mother. Sometimes t h e r e was no reason f o r  m a l i c e , such as when she was poisoned, and when t h e baby a t e her  mother. S o l u t i o n s c o u l d not be found t o problems and  o f t e n death was an end r e s u l t . As w e l l , when she took p o s i t i v e a c t i o n t o h e l p someone (the k i n g ) , she ended up endangering h e r s e l f . She acted p a s s i v e l y i n h e r dreams l e t t i n g t h i n g s happen t o her, such as being c u t up i n a magic t r i c k . She saw l i f e as h o r r i b l e t o h e r and h e r body. Her view o f l i f e was p e s s i m i s t i c . T h e r e f o r e , she sometimes misjudged s i t u a t i o n s . For example, when she was b e i n g chased and  f e l t scared, then she r e a l i z e d t h i s s i t u a t i o n was not  f e a r f u l because i t was a c t u a l l y a boy she l i k e d t h a t who was c h a s i n g h e r . The l a s t dream p r o v i d e d some hope because she took a c t i o n which gave r e s u l t s . T h i s l a s t dream  also  demonstrated t h a t she had a wish t o go anywhere she wanted. She d e s i r e d scared  t o abandon a l l of her h o r r i b l e e x p e r i e n c e s and  feelings.  109 12 Year O l d G i r l T h i s g i r l was t h e o l d e s t i n h e r f a m i l y . She had a b r o t h e r one year younger and a s i s t e r i n K i n d e r g a r t e n . They l i v e d w i t h t h e i r mother and t h e i r mother's common law. Mom was sober f o r 10 months a t t h e time o f data c o l l e c t i o n . I did  n o t know about her p a r t n e r ' s s o b r i e t y . During an  i n t e r v i e w f o r a dream, a concern f o r her mother's s a f e t y came up. The dreamer was concerned about mom  being  p h y s i c a l l y abused by h e r common law. The t o t a l number o f dreams she r e c a l l e d was e i g h t . She b e l i e v e d t h a t dreams a r e good t o experience, but she was unsure o f whether o r not dreams c o u l d h e l p h e r . Dream 1; Saterdav September 16. 1995 I dreamt I went t o t h e r i v e r . [Mom] was a t home c o o k i n g supper. Me, my b r o t h e r and s i s t e r , we went t o p l a y . Then [mom's common law] came w i t h our [hers, h e r b r o t h e r s ' and h e r s i s t e r s ' ] c a t s . I brought my c a t down to t h e water and he jumped out o f my hands. He went i n t o t h e water. I asked my b r o t h e r t o go and g e t him. But he [ c a t ] was g e t t i n g c a r r i e d down t h e r i v e r . Then I went i n t h e water, but i t was t o o c o l d f o r me. Then t h e cat was t r y i n g t o swim t h i s way, but i t kept g o i n g t h a t way, i t was coming t h i s way slowing. There was a boat t h a t goes by and pushed him a l l t h e way t o t h e o t h e r s i d e . We never found him. There was a whole bunch o f c l o u d s behind us. The b u i l d i n g s were a l l b l u r r y and t h e r e was clouds i n f r o n t [of them]. Then I woke up on the f l o o r . I was c r y i n g . Then my s i s t e r came and brought up our c a t . Comments She r e c e n t l y r e c e i v e d a c a t i n r e a l l i f e and she dreamt of  l o s i n g i t . F i r s t , she asked her b r o t h e r t o g e t t h e c a t .  Then she attempted t o g e t t h e c a t h e r s e l f . However, t h e water was t o o c o l d f o r her t o endure. The c a t t r i e d t o swim  110 toward her, y e t t h i s f a i l e d t o o . By chance, a boat saved the cat.  However, the c a t s t i l l ended up l o s t from her.  dreamer seemed t o f e a r l o s i n g something  The  important. Most  l i k e l y t h i s was based upon a p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i n her life. Perceptions 1. When your pet i s separated from you, you t r y v a r i o u s ways o f r e t r i e v i n g him. However, a l l your attempts  fail.  Your p e t can be saved by something e l s e , but you s t i l l  lose  him. 2. Something  of v a l u e t o you can suddenly go away and  never be r e t r i e v e d . Dream 2: Monday September 25. 1995 I t was day. Me and t h i s l i t t l e g i r l were w a l k i n g t o g e t h e r . She had no head. I looked a t her, but I c o u l d not see her f a c e . I seen my s i s t e r ' s body w a l k i n g w i t h me. We saw f o u r l i t t l e r a b b i t s . [One was] white and brown, and one was b l a c k , a t o t a l l y white and one brown. We caught a l l of them. A f t e r p l a y i n g w i t h them we l e t them f r e e . There were f o u r l i t t l e t u n n e l s , l i k e a crack, t h a t the r a b b i t s went i n t o . She grabbed my hand. We were running and we h i t a l i t t l e h o l e , a l i t t l e d i t c h . The l i t t l e g i r l f e l l . [I] h e l p e d her up. A f t e r t h a t we s t a r t e d l a u g h i n g cause i t looked funny. She s a i d , " d i d you see the way I f e l l ? " and kept on going up t h i s h i l l . She kept t a l k i n g , i t was e c h o i n g . We r a n through t h i s t u n n e l . The [ r a b b i t ' s ] t u n n e l s were s m a l l and ours was b i g . We ran a l l the way t o t h i s busy road. We stopped and I s a i d we have t o go back. I d i d n ' t know where she was t a k i n g me, I j u s t thought we had t o go back. I d i d n ' t want t o go any f u r t h e r . We went back t o P l a y l a n d . We climbed t h i s h i l l . There was t h i s white t h i n g going over and then we r a n through c h a i n s . Then I l o s t her and she j u s t v a n i s h e d . I was l o o k i n g f o r her. I went behind a w a l l . I f e l t sad [ t h a t I c o u l d n ' t f i n d h e r ] . Then my mom came over and asked me where I was, but I never answered. When I woke up I f e l t funny. Not so pushy, bossy, the way I am when I wake up. I f e l t good. [ I t f e l t ] good t o see my s i s t e r .  Ill Comments She wrote t h i s dream on a paper the p r i o r week. l o s t my  number and the i n t e r v i e w d i d not occur r i g h t away.  T h i s was was  She  the second dream where she d e a l t w i t h l o s s  not a b l e t o recover the l o s s . Although,  t h a t she was I t was  a c t i v e l y attempting b i z a r r e t h a t she saw  and  she d i s p l a y e d  t o r e c o v e r her l o s s e s . a f a c e l e s s body walk w i t h  her whom looks l i k e her s i s t e r . I am not sure what t h i s meant. A head i s very important  f o r many t h i n g s : b r e a t h i n g ,  t h i n k i n g , f e e l i n g , seeing, h e a r i n g , and e a t i n g . Without a head one person  i s dead. A l s o , a f a c e i s key i n i d e n t i f y i n g who  a  i s . Yet, she i d e n t i f i e d the body as b e l o n g i n g t o her  sister. The  number f o u r i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t i n F i r s t  C u l t u r e . I t r e p r e s e n t s many t h i n g s i n l i f e , directions,  and the f o u r phases of l i f e .  Nations  such as the f o u r  In t h i s dream,  t h e r e were f o u r r a b b i t s t h a t went i n f o u r separate The g i r l s ran through t h e i r own  tunnels.  t u n n e l s , which took  them t o a busy road. The dreamer d i d not know where she b e i n g l e d . T h e r e f o r e , she l i s t e n e d t o her i n s t i n c t  was  and  returned to f a m i l i a r t e r r i t o r y . J u s t b e f o r e she broke through the c h a i n s , she wanted t o go back. She d i d not want t o go f u r t h e r and was  a f r a i d . When  she d e c i d e d t o t u r n back t o f a m i l i a r t e r r i t o r y , she  broke  through the c h a i n s . In her dream, she might have been b r e a k i n g through something t h a t was  h o l d i n g her back, or  112 perhaps she was not be ready t o go f u r t h e r t o d e a l w i t h something. A t t h i s p o i n t , she found h e r s e l f a l o n e . The g i r l who took h e r on an adventure disappeared and t h e adventure was over when she r e t u r n e d t o where she came from. The f a c e l e s s g i r l may have been an i n n e r guide t o take h e r on a journey t o l e a r n t o r e s p e c t nature, t o p i c k h e r s e l f up a f t e r she f a l l s ,  t o t r u s t her i n t u i t i o n and t o know t h a t she can  make i t on her own. Perceptions 1. You a r e walking with someone and when you a r e not sure who t h a t person i s , you compare her t o your  sibling.  2. When you p l a y w i t h animals (nature) you do not keep them, you s e t them f r e e . 3. When someone f a l l s ,  you h e l p them up, and then you  can laugh about i t . 4. When t h i n g s g e t busy and unknown, t u r n back t o what you know and s t a y s a f e . 5. People can v a n i s h . You look f o r them, y e t you cannot f i n d them. You a r e l e f t 6. When mom  f e e l i n g sad.  asks you where you were, you do n o t answer.  7. When you wake up from a dream, sometimes you f e e l d i f f e r e n t from how you u s u a l l y  feel.  Dream 3: Tuesday October 10. 1995 I had a dream I walked t o B. [high s c h o o l ] . I had another one I j u s t remembered. I f o r g o t t h e r e was p r o f e s s i o n a l day. [I went t o a] playground [ a t a] park. Then I met a boy and t h a t l i t t l e g i r l t h a t I met. They were b l u r r e d out. One was l i k e my s i s t e r t h e o t h e r one was l i k e my b r o t h e r . We went swimming. Down a t t h e b i g p o o l . There's a square i n the middle. I t was brown.  113 People were swimming around i t . We went and bought a hot dog. Then played b a s k e t b a l l . I was h a v i n g f u n . A f t e r i t switched. I don't know, i t went b l u r r y , picture. Me and my b r o t h e r went r i d i n g around. (Last n i g h t we went t h e r e and i t was r a i n i n g . We g o t l o s t yesterday.) [In her dream] We were g o i n g up t h e s e h i l l s on our b i k e s . I t seemed l i k e we were on a r o l l e r c o a s t e r . We were i n t h e dark and i t was r a i n i n g . We c o u l d n ' t see t h e t r a c k s . There was a bunch o f l e a v e s on the d i r t . I was s c a r e d . A f t e r t h a t we went home. I f e l t f i n e . I don't want t o t e l l t h i s p a r t . I t ' s about my mom. W e l l , my mom got beat up. My b r o t h e r dropped h i s b i k e . I brought my b i k e i n . My mom she looked, w i t h a l l her make up on, n i c e . That's when I went t o g e t my b r o t h e r ' s b i k e , [mom's common law] came w a l k i n g back and f o r t h . The next t h i n g I saw she had a b l a c k eye and b r u i s e on her cheek. She s a i d , me and [her p a r t n e r ] a r e f i g h t i n g . She r a n r i g h t out 'cause she heard t h e f r o n t door 'cause she thought i t was him. He broke i n and s t a r t e d running a f t e r her. I t was a d i f f e r e n t house n o t t h i s house. I t was a o l d house we used t o l i v e i n , i n R. I t was a white one and then she went t o t h e next door neighbours. She s a t down on a bench. There was a whole bunch o f bushes i n f r o n t o f her, but then he found h e r . He beat her up when me an my b r o t h e r g o t h i s b i k e . He got caught by t h e p o l i c e . The p o l i c e a r r e s t e d him and my mom went home. I f e l t sooo mad. I woke up, I sat r i g h t up f a s t . [I f e l t ] s c a r e d . I went d o w n s t a i r s and go checked on my mom. [She was s l e e p i n g ] . I f e l t nervous. I t was only 3 [am]. [I went back t o s l e e p ] . W e l l , I don't t h i n k i t was [mom's common law], but i t was a man. I don't want t h a t dream t o come back a g a i n . [I f e l t ] b e t t e r when I woke up a t 7:30 am. [ I f e l t ] a l i t t l e b i t mad. I was mad a t [mom's common law] i n my dream. On my way t o s c h o o l , I was g e t t i n ' mad. Once I hear t h a t my mom and [her common law] a r e f i g h t i n g , I j u s t want [him] t o leave. Comments She met o t h e r k i d s who were about t h e same age as h e r b r o t h e r and s i s t e r . I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t she d i d n o t dream about h e r s i b l i n g s d i r e c t l y . They were h a v i n g f u n , then t h e dream switched t o r e l i v i n g a r e a l l i f e e x p e r i e n c e . I t was dark and i t was r a i n i n g . Her and her b r o t h e r c o u l d not  see t h e pathway they were r i d i n g on. The r i d e f e l t as  114 s c a r y as a r o l l e r c o a s t e r r i d e . She f e l t out o f c o n t r o l . T h i s c o u l d be a metaphor f o r a path o f her l i f e which i s rough and s c a r y because she does not have l i g h t t o see c l e a r l y . On t h e other hand, i t c o u l d be a r e f l e c t i o n o f her e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e b i k e r i d e she took w i t h her b r o t h e r when they were l o s t the n i g h t b e f o r e . In her  t h i s dream, t h e p a r t i c i p a n t expressed concern f o r  mother being beat up. The f e a r o f her mother b e i n g beat  up c o n t i n u e d when she awoke, f o r she went downstairs t o see i f h e r mother was a l r i g h t . A t one p o i n t , t h e dreamer s a i d maybe i t was not her mother's common law i n t h e dream who beat her mother up. Perhaps, she d i d not want t o b e l i e v e t h i s c o u l d happen and wished f o r i t not t o be him. I f i t was him, she would have t o f a c e t h a t i t c o u l d happen i n l i f e . She a l s o s a i d t h a t when her mother and [mother's common law] were f i g h t i n g she wanted him t o l e a v e . Here, she acknowledged t h e danger he posed f o r her mom. out  She wanted him  o f t h e p i c t u r e . Since t h i s dream took p l a c e i n a house  i n which they used t o l i v e , she may have w i t n e s s e d abuse t h a t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e time she l i v e d t h e r e . Something may have happened r e c e n t l y t o t r i g g e r t h e thought o f mom  being  beaten by her b o y f r i e n d . Her mother and her mother's b o y f r i e n d might have had a v e r b a l f i g h t t h e n i g h t b e f o r e her dream. She d e f i n i t e l y had a concern f o r mother's s a f e t y i n life.  115 Perceptions 1.  You are having fun with f r i e n d s . Things change  suddenly. I t i s so dark you cannot see where you are g o i n g and i t f e e l s l i k e a r o l l e r c o a s t e r . T h i s i s s c a r y , but you make i t home. 2. Sometimes s i t u a t i o n s and people become b l u r r y , you are not c l e a r about what i s happening,  or who  and  people  are. 3. You cannot prevent your mom  from b e i n g beat up,  and  you want him your mother's common law t o go away. When the p o l i c e take him away you are s t i l l very angry. 4. When you dream of your mother g e t t i n g h u r t , you  feel  s c a r e d and need t o check on her. You see t h a t she i s a l r i g h t , but you s t i l l  feel  nervous.  5. You are having fun, then s c a r e d f e e l i n g s come b e f o r e you f i n d out t h a t your mother was  beaten. You f e e l mad  for a  l o n g w h i l e a f t e r the i n c i d e n t . Dream 4: F r i d a y October 13. 1995 I d i d n ' t know my c a t was out f r e e . He kept on meowing a lot. [He was] b e s i d e me and I c o u l d n ' t go t o s l e e p t h a t w e l l . I was up ' t i l 2 or 3. Then I f e l l a s l e e p . I heard t h a t he [mom's b o y f r i e n d ] went f o r h i s l e a r n e r s permit b e f o r e I went t o bed and I had a dream t h a t he had i t . I had a dream about my mom bought a y e l l o w c a r . [Mom's common law] was d r i v i n g i t . My mom made her s i d e l i k e i t w i l l go a l l f l a t , and a whole bunch of p i l l o w s t h e r e , l i k e a s l a n t where she c o u l d l a y down. I got t o s i t i n the back. I t was so b i g . We were d r i v i n g around. We came back t o the c i t y . We came down t o the boarder. We came down t h i s h i l l . My dad, [mom's b o y f r i e n d ] wasn't watching where he was going. He went down on a g r a v e l road. We went around t h i s sharp c o r n e r where we saw a whole bunch of b i g waves coming i n . When we saw the waves, my mom was r i g h t a t the window watching them. I was on t h i s s i d e , [the o p p o s i t e s i d e ] . I d i d n ' t  116 want t o go look a t the waves 'cause we were on t h e edge. But when I seen them [I] had fun. Then a f t e r t h a t we went f o r a swim. We j u s t l e f t our c l o t h e s on. We never come home and got our b a t h i n g s u i t s . I t was c l e a r water. Me, I jumped o f f the ledge. I wasn't i n t e r e s t e d i n going slow. When we got out, we came back r i g h t , we came up the h i l l . A f t e r we came up the h i l l , we got back i n the c a r and we drove a l l the ways what we saw b e f o r e . We never went through the c i t y , we went around the c i t y . Then we came back down and t h e r e was a whole bunch of houses t h a t looked the same. We passed a b l u e house t h a t we used t o l i v e i n , but we s t i l l do. We came to the back [of the house] i t was white. The f r o n t was b l u e . The back was white. I woke up. I d i d n ' t know where I was. Comments The common law was  not watching  the road, he was  not  b e i n g a r e s p o n s i b l e d r i v e r . They were d r i v i n g on the edge. He was  not showing concern f o r the dreamer and her mother's  w e l l b e i n g and t h e i r s a f e t y . He was Mom  was  She was  r i g h t t h e r e w i t h him, i n the backseat.  because she s a i d , " i t was  t a k i n g them t o the edge.  but the dreamer stood back.  She was  amazed a t how  so b i g . " The  b i g i t was,  l a r g e n e s s of t h e back  s e a t c o u l d have her f e e l i n g s m a l l and p o s s i b l y overwhelmed. It  d i d not f e e l s a f e f o r her t o see the huge waves.  T h e r e f o r e , she was  a f r a i d f o r her s a f e t y . Although  r e a l i z e d a f t e r she saw she expected.  the waves, t h a t i t was  In f a c t i t was  At f i r s t she was  she  not as bad  as  fun.  a f r a i d of being on the edge. However,  when they went f o r a spontaneous swim, she leaped o f f the ledge w i t h excitement.  Perhaps, she was  a f t e r she r e a l i z e d i t was water was  no l o n g e r a f r a i d  fun t o see the waves. S i n c e the  no longer something t o f e a r , i t was  reflected that  117 her v i s i o n was c l e a r when she s a i d t h e water was c l e a r . A f t e r t h e i r adventure,  they r e t u r n e d home t h e way they  came. When they r e t u r n e d home, t h e r e were no changes. The houses looked t h e same. Perhaps she was a f r a i d t h a t n o t h i n g had changed i n t h e f a m i l y . Furthermore, they r e t u r n e d t o a house t h a t they used t o l i v e i n . T h i s was a v i s i t a t i o n t o her p a s t and t o how t h i n g s were a t t h a t time. They a l s o went around t h e c i t y . T h i s c o u l d have been a metaphor f o r s i d e s t e p p i n g t h e a c t u a l problem. That might be why t h e r e were no changes when they r e t u r n e d home. F o r example, t h e common law was  s t i l l unsafe, as she f e a r e d he would h u r t mom  In summary, a f t e r a c l o s e encounter  (dream 3 ) .  w i t h unsafe d r i v i n g  they  made i t home. They r e t u r n e d t o t h e way t h i n g s were b e f o r e they  left.  Perceptions 1. When an a d u l t i s d r i v i n g u n s a f e l y , you a r e i n danger and can go o f f t h e road and be harmed. 2. Sometimes a d u l t s do not know what they a r e doing, o r what i s s a f e f o r themselves and o t h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y  those  t h a t they c a r e f o r . 3. Some t h i n g s might s t a r t out tense o r s c a r y , but t u r n out t o be a l o t o f f u n . 4. You can do t h i n g s spontaneously,  that are not  u s u a l l y done (swim i n your c l o t h e s ) . 5. A f t e r an adventure  you can r e t u r n t h e way you came.  6. When you go through a s c a r y and t h r e a t e n i n g event,  118 which i s then r e s o l v e d , you s t i l l the  f e e l that everything i s  same and t h e r e a r e no changes.  Dream 5: Monday October 16. 1995 I t was about a g i r l a t s c h o o l , C. I was washing my hands i n the bathroom. K was s i t t i n g on t o p o f t h e s i n k . She (C) went by, she opened t h e door. She saw me. Then I was o u t s i d e . She was t a l k i n g t o everybody, and I went over. They a l l walked away from me. I g o t mad a t C because [she] l e f t . I walked over, then I a c c i d e n t a l l y pushed her down. Then we were by t h e playground. I was s t a n d i n g around t h e r e , the r i n g around t h e park a t our s c h o o l . I was p l a y i n g . I got on the swings and then I got o f f t h e swings. Then a l l the g i r l s came and p l a y e d on t h e swings when I l e f t . Comments In  t h i s dream, she was l e f t out and a v o i d e d by h e r  f r i e n d s . She was mad a t her f r i e n d f o r d e s e r t i n g h e r . The dream i n d i c a t e d t h a t she d i d not know why her f r i e n d s were a v o i d i n g her. T h i s s i t u a t i o n c o u l d have c o n c e i v a b l y o c c u r r e d i n a c h i l d ' s l i f e a t t h i s age. When she s a i d she a c c i d e n t a l l y pushed her f r i e n d down, I b e l i e v e she was denying her r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r pushing down h e r f r i e n d on purpose. Perceptions 1. I t seems l i k e a t y p i c a l day, then your f r i e n d s see you and a v o i d you. You f e e l mad and your r e a c t i o n i s t o h u r t back w i t h p h y s i c a l a c t i o n s , although you do not want t o admit  this. 2. When your f r i e n d s a v o i d you, you p l a y a l o n e .  Dream 6: Monday October 16. 1995 I t was about my f r i e n d L. She's my best f r i e n d . Me and her were b i k e r i d i n g . Then we were b i k e r i d i n g down by F r a s e r R i v e r . She rode her b i k e down a puddle and she got me a l l wet. I got mad a t her. I t o l d her n o t t o do  119 t h a t . She came and s a i d s o r r y , but she came a g a i n and d i d i t . She came up t o me and h i t , I h i t her, h i t h e r helmet on my b i k e and i t broke. She took h e r helmet o f f and h i t i t on the b i k e and she broke i t . I went over t o her and pushed her down. On the back. Then I went and came home. Then I woke up. The next day e v e r y t h i n g happened a l l over again. What I had i n t h e dream e v e r y t h i n g happened again i n t h e whole dream. We done the same t h i n g . [This happened i n ] l i f e and dream. [ I n l i f e ] i t happened the day b e f o r e and a l s o w i t h C. I done something e x t r a . In r e a l l i f e I pushed h e r s i s t e r A down. In t h e dream I d i d n ' t . But she, A, had no f e e t [ i n t h e dream]. [In l i f e I f e l t ] r e a l l y mad. [ I n my dream] I d i d n ' t have no f e e l i n g s . [When I woke up] I was wondering i f i t happened i n r e a l l i f e o r i n my dream. Comments She had t h i s dream the same n i g h t as dream 5.  She a l s o  s a i d t h a t dream 5 and dream 6 occurred i n her l i f e t h e day b e f o r e she had the dreams about them. She o b v i o u s l y d i d not have a good day. She was upset and mad w i t h h e r f r i e n d s . In her dreams she r e l i v e d these u p s e t t i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . In dream 6,  she dreamt t h e same s c e n a r i o twice. In l i f e she pushed  her f r i e n d ' s s i s t e r down, y e t i n her dream, t h e s i s t e r had no f e e t t o stand on. There i s no m o b i l i t y without was another  feet. This  dream with m i s s i n g body p a r t s . I termed t h i s  dream as having b i z a r r e content because t h i s c o u l d n o t occur in  life. At f i r s t ,  she s a i d t h a t she broke her f r i e n d s helmet  and then c o r r e c t e d h e r s e l f and s a i d t h a t her f r i e n d broke her own helmet. She may not be t a k i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r b r e a k i n g her f r i e n d s helmet. However, she d i d take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r being p h y s i c a l l y a g g r e s s i v e w i t h h e r f r i e n d . Her p h y s i c a l aggressiveness was not s u r p r i s i n g  120 because she had witnessed v i o l e n c e and l e a r n e d t h a t  violence  i s t h e way t o s o l v e problems. She a l s o used p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e t o s o l v e her problem i n dream 5. Perceptions 1. You can ask your f r i e n d s t o stop doing something t o you,  but they may not l i s t e n t o you and do i t a g a i n .  This  makes you angry. Then a p h y s i c a l a l t e r c a t i o n happens and you r e l i v e t h e experience. Dream 7: Tuesday October 24. 1995 I was s l e e p i n g i n my dream. My dream t h a t I had i n s i d e my other dream, I had a dream about t h a t guy from A b b o t s f o r d . I was f l o a t i n g around. [ I t was] f u n . I saw myself walking. Then a man p u l l e d over i n a y e l l o w c a r . Then I s a i d t o myself, I was t a l k i n g t o myself. I was wondering i f t h a t guy was t h a t guy i n t h e newspaper. Then I screamed and the cops came over and a r r e s t e d him. [I was] scared. Then I got $2000. He was on t h e l o o s e f o r a long time. I d r i f t e d back t o my own body when I was s l e e p i n g l a s t n i g h t . I t seemed l i k e I was w a l k i n g around my own bedroom and then I l a i d down. I d i d n ' t want t o go t o s l e e p . I stayed up f o r an hour [and] l a i d around. Then I had another dream. Comments The  Abbotsford  k i l l e r was i n the news a t t h i s time,  which i n f l u e n c e d t h i s dream. I t was e n t h r a l l i n g t h a t she was f l o a t i n g out o f her body and observed h e r s e l f and t h e s i t u a t i o n from a d i s t a n c e . As soon as she screamed, t h e p o l i c e were t h e r e . She was awarded money f o r h e l p i n g t o c a t c h t h e bad guy, who was on the loose f o r a long time. In t h i s s c e n a r i o she escaped danger. Perceptions 1. When you a r e i n danger, you move out o f your body and watch y o u r s e l f from a d i s t a n c e .  121 2. You c o u l d be i n danger from a k i l l e r on t h e l o o s e . The p o l i c e come when you scream and they a r r e s t him. You a r e rewarded f o r h e l p i n g t o catch the bad guy. Dream 8: Tuesday October 24. 1995 [ I t was] about the same man. My ear was an alarm system. Each time something bad would go wrong, my ear would go r e d and hot. I f there was somebody coming up t o the door t h a t we d i d n ' t know, my ear would go h o t . That would t e l l us [mom and brother] l i k e go somewhere e l s e [ l i k e the park] i n s t e a d of s t a y i n g home. I t would go back t o normal, then we'd a l l f e e l b e t t e r . I had no f e e l i n g s . [When I woke up I f e l t ] f u n . L a s t n i g h t my ear went a l l r e d [before I went t o bed]. I t happens usually. Comments She used a p a r t of her body t o a s s i s t her i n k e e p i n g her and her f a m i l y s a f e . She was t a k i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o ensure the f a m i l y was s a f e . T h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was o f n e c e s s i t y . Her body r e a c t e d t o the oncoming danger. She  was  not c o n s c i o u s l y choosing t o take the r o l e of p r o t e c t o r of the f a m i l y . To escape danger her f a m i l y had t o l e a v e  their  home t o get away from the danger. T h i s would p a r a l l e l what happens w i t h domestic v i o l e n c e . The mother and c h i l d r e n u s u a l l y are the one's t o leave the home t o go t o a s a f e r p l a c e , such as a t r a n s i t i o n home. Perceptions 1. Your body can be used t o t e l l you when danger i s near and prevent harm from happening t o you and your f a m i l y . You and your f a m i l y then avoid danger by l e a v i n g t h e home. 2. When you and your f a m i l y evade danger, your body r e t u r n s t o normal and you f e e l b e t t e r .  122 Dreamer's P e r c e p t i o n s and Prominent  Features  The key i s s u e s t h i s dreamer was d e a l i n g w i t h were domestic v i o l e n c e , f e a r of l o s i n g something  important t o  her, b e i n g alone, having q u a r r e l s w i t h f r i e n d s and keeping h e r s e l f and her f a m i l y s a f e , s p e c i f i c a l l y mom. She predominately expressed anger about these concerns. She a l s o felt  f e a r and sadness about some o f these  incidents.  T h i s c h i l d ' s dreams c e r t a i n l y d e a l t w i t h h e r r e a l  life  concerns. She had a dream about a b i k e r i d e t h a t she and her b r o t h e r went on when they got l o s t t h e evening b e f o r e . She a l s o had a dream about her mother's common law's d r i v i n g , because i n l i f e he had a d r i v e r ' s l e a r n i n g p e r m i t . Some o f her dreams d e a l t with q u a r r e l s she had w i t h h e r f r i e n d s . She a l s o dreamt o f t h e Abbotsford k i l l e r  who was i n t h e news  media a t t h e time. The dreams d e c l a r e d t h a t the dreamer was a f r a i d t o l o s e people o r t h i n g s t h a t were important t o her. In dream 1, she t r i e d v a r i o u s ways t o r e t r i e v e her c a t . She f i r s t h e l p , then she attempted attempts  asked f o r  t o r e t r i e v e t h e c a t h e r s e l f . Her  f a i l e d and her c a t was l o s t . In l i f e she j u s t  r e c e i v e d her c a t , and she was a l r e a d y having a dream  about  l o s i n g i t . T h i s p e r c e p t i o n was not o p t i m i s t i c . She was a l s o sad i n dream 2 when her f r i e n d vanished and she looked f o r her and c o u l d not f i n d her. Despite her attempts,  she was  not a b l e t o r e c o v e r her l o s s e s . She had concern f o r her mother's s a f e t y . She was aware  123 t h a t h e r mother was beat up i n t h e p a s t . T h i s thought made her angry and her anger remained when t h e p o l i c e took t h e common law away. She continued  t o be angry a t mom's common  law when she woke up. She wanted him t o l e a v e , when h e r parents  fought,  so h e r mom would not g e t h u r t . She took t h e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r o t e c t i n g her mother and h e r f a m i l y . F o r example, i n dream 8, she attempted t o prevent oncoming danger by u s i n g a p a r t o f her body t o forewarn h e r and h e r f a m i l y . She assumed t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a l e r t i n g h e r f a m i l y so they c o u l d go t o a s a f e p l a c e . Her body r e a c t e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y , on i n s t i n c t , t o p r o t e c t h e r s e l f and h e r f a m i l y . I t was not a conscious  choice. This r o l e of  c a r e t a k e r and p r o t e c t o r was demonstrated i n h e r dream, but i n l i f e she c o u l d not p r o t e c t her mom from being abused. The dream allowed  h e r t o f e e l e f f e c t i v e , as she had some c o n t r o l  t o prevent harm being done t o her and h e r f a m i l y . In a d d i t i o n t o having  concern f o r h e r f a m i l y ' s s a f e t y ,  she had a concern f o r her own s a f e t y . T h i s was shown i n dreams 7 and 8 r e g a r d i n g t h e Abbotsford  killer.  I n dream 7,  she was out o f her body and c o u l d see h e r s e l f . When she saw a man and r e a l i z e d i t was t h e Abbotsford  k i l l e r , she  screamed and t h e p o l i c e came t o a r r e s t him. They rewarded her w i t h money f o r a s s i s t i n g t o capture  the k i l l e r .  I n dream  4, she f e l t unsafe with mom's common law's d r i v i n g , even though no a c c i d e n t occurred.  In dream 3, she a l s o  felt  unsafe. She was r i d i n g on a dark path t h a t f e l t as s c a r y as  124 a r o l l e r c o a s t e r r i d e . However, she and h e r b r o t h e r made i t through t h e r i d e and a r r i v e d home s a f e l y . When she f e l t unsafe she a l s o l i s t e n e d t o her i n t u i t i o n . For i n s t a n c e , i n dream 2, when she d i d not know where she was b e i n g t o l d the l i t t l e g i r l  l e d , she  t h a t she wanted t o go back. A l s o i n  dream 2, when an a c c i d e n t happened t h a t was not s e r i o u s , she and t h e g i r l who f e l l were able t o laugh about t h e i n c i d e n t . In a l l these s i t u a t i o n s her f e a r of being unsafe d i d not r e s u l t i n harm. However, her p e r c e p t i o n was t h a t she was unsafe. In r e a l l i f e , t h e dreamer a l s o d e a l t w i t h  conflicts  t h a t she had with her f r i e n d s . She r e s o l v e d these s i t u a t i o n s by becoming angry and doing something p h y s i c a l t o h u r t them. These experiences  a r e r e p l a y e d i n her dreams. I n dream 5,  she was mad a t h e r f r i e n d f o r i g n o r i n g her. She s a i d she a c c i d e n t a l l y pushed her down. In dream 6, she asked h e r f r i e n d not t o s p l a s h her, and when her f r i e n d d i d n o t listen,  she pushed her down. She had l e a r n e d t h a t p h y s i c a l  v i o l e n c e was a way t o s o l v e d i s p u t e s . In summary, she dreamt o f her r e a l l i f e concerns.  She  expected t o l o s e t h i n g s i n her l i f e and not r e c o v e r them. She knew h e r mother was unsafe with h e r b o y f r i e n d and f e a r e d t h a t h e r mother would be beaten by him. T h i s l a s t  perception  appeared t o be a v i a b l e t h r e a t i n r e a l i t y . S i n c e she had witnessed  h e r mother being harmed, she a l s o expected harm t o  come t o her. Although i n t h e end she was okay. She a l s o made  125 attempts t o overcome the harm i n her dreams. In h e r dreams, she had taken the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r o t e c t i n g h e r f a m i l y when i t was t h e parents r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . She was a g g r e s s i v e i n l i f e and r e l i v e d the p h y s i c a l had w i t h f r i e n d s .  Overall,  physically  a l t e r c a t i o n s she  i n her dreams, she saw some o f  her a c t i o n s as e f f e c t i v e and some a c t i o n s as i n e f f e c t i v e .  126 13 Year O l d G i r l T h i s c h i l d was t h e o l d e s t s i b l i n g l i v i n g a t home. A t the time o f dream c o l l e c t i o n , she turned  13. She had a 20  y e a r o l d s i s t e r . She a l s o had a younger s i s t e r t h a t l i v e d a t home. Mom l i v e d w i t h her common law, whom she s a i d never was a d r i n k e r . A t t h e time o f data c o l l e c t i o n , mom had been sober f o r almost 4 years. T h i s dreamer r e c a l l e d 6 dreams. She  f e l t l i k e her dreams took her t o another world. She a l s o  thought dreams were f u n because they f e l t r e a l t o h e r . Dream 1; Tuesday October 17. 1995 Me and my f r i e n d s were p l a y i n g t h i s game t a g . I t was l i k e a t camp. They had t o t a g us and they were h i d i n g beside, l i k e behind t h e t r e e s . Then they sneak up t o us and t a g us. I f e l t l i k e i t was fun. A f t e r t h a t t h e r e was t h i s rock and water. My f r i e n d ' s c o u s i n , he was l i k e f a l l i n g i n there and he was l i k e c r y i n g . I was l i k e , "oh no." He s a i d help me and a l l t h a t . I was t r y i n g t o help him. I p u l l e d him. He got up and s a i d thank you. [I f e l t ] b e t t e r . Then I woke up and f e l t l i k e i t happened. Comments T h i s dream r e f l e c t e d t h a t she f e l t b e t t e r when she could help  people.  Perceptions 1. Sometimes when you a r e p l a y i n g and h a v i n g f u n , someone might g e t h u r t and ask f o r h e l p . You can h e l p them and  t h i n g s t u r n out b e t t e r .  Dream 2: Tuesday October 17. 1995 I dreamed t h a t I woke up w i t h a b l e e d i n g nose. I g o t up and I f e l t my nose and dreaming t h e r e was b l o o d on my hand. I got worried 'cause my nose was b l e e d i n g and t h a t i t would g e t on t h e rug. 'Cause sometimes my mom g e t s mad t h a t t h e r u g gets s t a i n e d . Then a f t e r I woke up, I had a runny nose. I f e l t h a p p i e r 'cause i t wasn't bleeding.  127 Comments T h i s dream i n d i c a t e d how much concern she had f o r u p s e t t i n g h e r mother. She was a f r a i d o f h e r mother's anger. Even when she was b l e e d i n g , she was more concerned about her mother's r e a c t i o n than her own w e l l being. Perceptions 1. Even when you cannot c o n t r o l what your body does, you  worry about doing something t h a t w i l l upset your mother.  You f e e l happy when you r e a l i z e t h a t you d i d not do something t o g e t i n t o t r o u b l e . Dream 3: F r i d a y October 20. 1995 My f r i e n d l a s t week, she s a i d t h a t she's g o i n g t o move. Then t h i s morning I dreamed about h e r . She was l i k e i n the hallway t a l k i n g t o t h i s N a t i v e C o u n s e l l o r . Her dad was t a l k i n g t o her and you know how l i k e i f they move they have t o get a t r a n s f e r . I thought t h a t she was doing t h a t . Then I c a l l e d my other f r i e n d 'cause l i k e she missed her t o o . I s a i d , "come here, t h e r e ' s D." Then I t a l k e d t o her [D] and s a i d h i and a l l t h a t . I s a i d , "how come you had t o move and a l l t h a t ? " . Then she had t o go back up t o where she l i v e d t o I t h i n k i t ' s c a l l e d P o r t Hardy. [She s a i d , ] "Because I have t o have s c h o o l up t h e r e . " Then she s a i d , " I have t o go and a l l t h a t . " I f e l t happy cause I seen my f r i e n d . Then I woke up. I f e l t happier cause I was t a l k i n g about her and a l l . [I f e e l ] sad [about her moving away]. Comments I t seemed t h a t , i n t h i s dream, she was t r y i n g t o work through l o s i n g a f r i e n d who was moving. In a sense, she was s a y i n g goodbye. In her dream, she was a b l e t o ask h e r f r i e n d why she was moving and she r e c e i v e d an answer. As w e l l , she f e l t happy t o v i s i t h e r f r i e n d i n h e r dream. T h i s dream i l l u s t r a t e d how c h i l d r e n use dreams t o h e a l t h e i r  losses.  T h i s dream was the only one i n my sample t h a t mentions a  128 F i r s t Nations  person.  Perceptions 1. When you are sad about a f r i e n d moving away, you  are  happy t o see them i n your dream, and are a b l e t o ask them why  they are going. You a l s o r e c e i v e an answer i n your  dream. 2. When someone i s m i s s i n g the same person you a r e , h e l p them have a chance t o see the missed  you  f r i e n d by p o i n t i n g  out t h a t person when you see her. Dream 4: October 29-31. i n t e r v i e w November 1. 1995 I had supper then I got so e x c i t e d and I got d r e s s e d as f a s t as I can. Then I went t o my f r i e n d s . I was going to go w i t h them t r i c k or t r e a t i n g . We were g o i n g t o go w i t h a l l our f r i e n d s . Some of them d i d n ' t show up. We j u s t decided t o go without them. We went t r i c k or t r e a t i n g and we seen t h i s guy w i t h a s c a r y mask. I t looked kinda h a i r y a t the back. I t looked l i k e a g o r i l l a . I ran, then I woke up. [ I t f e l t l i k e a] weird dream. [I was] a l i t t l e b i t scared [when I woke u p ] . Comments She was  g e t t i n g ready f o r an e x c i t i n g evening w i t h her  f r i e n d s . She c o u l d h a r d l y wait f o r t h i s fun. Even though a l l her f r i e n d s d i d not show up, t h i s d i d not s p o i l her f u n . However, i t turned s c a r y . She r a n from t h i s g o r i l l a . wonder whether t h i s g o r i l l a r e p r e s e n t e d something she a f r a i d of i n her l i f e .  I was  Child psychiatrists believe that  e a r l y trauma, as w e l l as the n a t u r a l c o n f l i c t s a l l c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e i r development c o n t r i b u t e t o (Albon & Mack, 1980; n a t u r a l developmental  nightmares  Hunt, 1989). T h i s dream may  be a  c o n f l i c t , or i t c o u l d have been a  r e s u l t of an e a r l i e r trauma.  129 Perceptions 1. You a r e e x c i t e d about going out w i t h your If  friends.  they do not a l l show up, you continue your p l a n s . 2. When you a r e out t h e r e i n t h e world, t h e r e a r e some  people t h a t can s c a r e you. When t h i s happens you r u n away. Dream 5; Wednesday November 8. 1995 I t was l i k e we were going t o a t r i p somewhere. L i k e t o see our grandma up i n Grassy P l a i n s o r something. I seen t h i s baby my mom was h o l d i n g l i k e i t was when me and my dad and my s i s t e r and me were l i k e g o i n g f o r a t r i p somewhere. My mom was h o l d i n g onto t h e baby. She was h o l d i n g i t l i k e on t h e door o r something. Then she dropped her. Then I was g e t t i n g a l i t t l e w o r r i e d . I s a i d , "mom uh you dropped t h e baby." [Mom says,] "oh I did." I go, "yeah" and I s a i d , " I can s t i l l see h e r . " Then we stopped a t a gas s t a t i o n . Then I s a i d , "mom, l e t ' s go back and see i f she's s t i l l a l i v e " and [mom] s a i d , "no." and I go and she goes, "no" and I go, "how come?" Then I was w o r r i e d and a l l t h a t . Then I woke up. I f e l t l i k e i t r e a l l y happened. Comments The dreamer was t e n t a t i v e with h e r words when she s a i d t h a t she was a l i t t l e b i t worried when h e r mother dropped the baby. One would worry much more than t h i s r e g a r d i n g t h i s s i t u a t i o n . A r o l e r e v e r s a l occurred. The dreamer was w o r r y i n g f o r her mom. She was t a k i n g a r e s p o n s i b l e a d u l t r o l e . Her mother was not worried, d e s p i t e t h e dreamer mentioning  h e r concerns and q u e s t i o n i n g h e r mother's  d e c i s i o n not t o go back and g e t t h e dropped baby. Mom d i d not respond  and was not t a k i n g on her r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as a  p a r e n t . Although t h e dreamer s a i d t h a t she was unaware o f why she had t h i s dream, t h e mother's abandonment  o f t h e baby  c o u l d be a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e dreamer's u n c e r t a i n t y o f mom's  130 concern, p r o t e c t i o n and s e c u r i t y f o r her. While mom was d r i n k i n g i t would have been n a t u r a l f o r t h i s c h i l d t o f e e l abandoned by h e r mother. She may have f e l t t h i s way and i s c o n t i n u i n g t o d e a l w i t h t h i s f e e l i n g even though mom has q u i t d r i n k i n g . Mom was s t i l l not be t h e r e f o r t h i s  child,  even i n h e r s o b r i e t y . T h i s dream a l s o r e f l e c t e d her past, when h e r o r i g i n a l f a m i l y was i n t a c t . N a t u r a l l y , she misses f a m i l y events t h a t included her b i o l o g i c a l  father.  Perceptions 1. You cannot c o n t r o l what your mother does, even when you ask. 2. You worry about t h i n g s t h a t your mom does n o t r e a l i z e she needs t o be concerned about, such as c a r i n g f o r her c h i l d r e n . Dream 6: Sunday November 12. 1995 I t was f i r s t day of s c h o o l , o f h i g h s c h o o l . Then l i k e I d i d n ' t know what t o do. [I f e l t ] w o r r i e d . L i k e I was going t o go l i k e , I t h i n k i t took p l a c e a t , what's t h a t s c h o o l c a l l e d ? I f o r g e t which h i g h s c h o o l . I'm l o o k i n g f o r my f r i e n d 'cause she's going t o go t o t h a t s c h o o l t o o . For some reason she's wearing a costume. I go, "How come you're wearing a costume?" Then she goes, " I don't know, t o win j e l l y b e a n s . " I seen everybody w i t h a band a i d on and l i k e I t h i n k f o r some reason you had t o have a c u t t o go t o s c h o o l o r something. To check i t o r something. Then I asked her, "What do I do?" cause I was b e i n g confused. I s a i d , "how come you have a c u t ? " and she goes, " I don't know I j u s t , then she goes I g o t t o take t h e band a i d and then she took i t o f f f o r me and then we went i n s i d e , i n t o t h e nurses room. Then she took i t and then I woke up. [I f e l t ] w e i r d cause I thought t h a t i t was r e a l . " Comments T h i s p a r t i c i p a n t asked q u e s t i o n s , i n h e r dreams, when  131 she needed t o , and t r i e d t o understand  what was happening.  At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s dream, she was w o r r i e d and unsure of what t o do i n a new h i g h s c h o o l . She d i d not f i t i n because everyone was wearing a costume. She then wore a band a i d because everyone e l s e was, but she d i d n o t know why. She reached  out f o r h e l p i n her c o n f u s i o n by s e e k i n g t h e  a s s i s t a n c e o f h e r f r i e n d . Her f r i e n d a l s o d i d not know why they needed band a i d s , but her f r i e n d thought  i t was t o win  j e l l y b e a n s . In other words, t h e two were t r y i n g t o be accepted by t h e crowd. T h i s i s p a r t o f n a t u r a l development a t t h i s age. Perceptions 1. You a r e worried and confused and do n o t know what t o do t o f i t i n t o a new environment ( l i k e a new s c h o o l ) . T h e r e f o r e , you look f o r a f r i e n d and ask f o r h e l p . They may not know t h e answer t o your q u e s t i o n and t h e i r a c t i o n s t o h e l p do n o t make sense. Dreamer's P e r c e p t i o n s and Prominent  Features  T h i s dreamer experienced her dreams as r e a l . When she woke up she was not sure i f t h e experiences  i n h e r dream  r e a l l y happened. She s a i d t h a t 4 o f t h e 5 dreams I c o l l e c t e d f e l t r e a l t o her. Dream 1 and 2 c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y occur i n real l i f e .  Even though dream 5 and 6 were u n l i k e l y i n c i d e n t s  t o happen i n l i f e ,  she was s t i l l unsure i f i t was a dream.  The dreams must have had a s i g n i f i c a n t impact t h i n k t h a t they were o c c u r r i n g i n r e a l  life.  f o r her t o  132 In s c r u t i n i z i n g her dreams I have been a b l e t o l e a r n about a p a r t o f h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h e r mother. I n dream 2, she was f e a r f u l o f doing something t h a t would make h e r mother angry. She dreamt o f having a b l e e d i n g nose and woke up t h i n k i n g her nose was a c t u a l l y b l e e d i n g . She was concerned about s t a i n i n g t h e r u g because h e r mother would g e t mad. When she woke up and r e a l i z e d t h a t h e r nose was not b l e e d i n g she was happy because she would not g e t i n t o t r o u b l e . Another c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h her mother o c c u r r e d i n dream 5. Her mother dropped a baby g i r l o u t t h e window o f a moving c a r . The dreamer was w o r r i e d about t h i s and s a i d t o her mother, "Mom uh you dropped t h e baby" and mom responds, with s u r p r i s e , "oh I d i d . " The dreamer s a i d , "yes, I can s t i l l  see h e r . " The dreamer then  r e q u e s t e d mom t o go back and get t h e baby. T h i s had no i n f l u e n c e on mom. Her mother d i d not respond t o t h e dreamer's concerns and r e f u s e d t o go back t o g e t t h e baby. T h i s demonstrated t h a t t h e dreamer was t a k i n g on a r e s p o n s i b l e a d u l t r o l e o f c a r i n g and being concerned f o r t h e baby. On t h e other hand, her mother was not concerned about the baby. The concern i s supposed t o be mom's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The dreams r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e mother and daughter sometimes r e v e r s e r o l e s , and t h e dreamer was f e a r f u l o f g e t t i n g her mother mad. I have a l s o observed t h a t a l l of h e r dreams  involved  i n c i d e n t s t h a t were not p o s i t i v e . The f o l l o w i n g a r e  133 examples. I n dream 1, a boy f e l l  i n t h e water. I n dream 2,  she had a b l e e d i n g nose and was concerned about s t a i n i n g t h e rug  and having her mother g e t mad a t her. In dream 3, she  l o s t a f r i e n d who was going t o move away. I n dream 4, a man i n a g o r i l l a mask scared her and her f r i e n d s w h i l e they were t r i c k o r t r e a t i n g . They r a n from him. In dropped  dream 5, a b i z a r r e event o c c u r r e d ; h e r mother a baby out the window of a moving c a r and d i d n o t  s t o p . In dream 6, more b i z a r r e content o c c u r r e d . I t was her f i r s t day o f h i g h s c h o o l and she was f e e l i n g confused and w o r r i e d . She asked how t o f i t i n and f o l l o w e d t h e crowd, even though she d i d not know why they d i d c e r t a i n t h i n g s , l i k e wear band a i d s o r costumes. The most frequent f e e l i n g she had i n dreams 1, 2, 5, and 6 was worry. Her world was a p l a c e t o have l o t s t o worry about. D e s p i t e h e r worry i n t h e dreams, t h e r e were some p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s . I a l s o n o t i c e d t h a t she e x p e r i e n c e d p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s a t the beginning o f her dream, but they changed t o unpleasant f e e l i n g s a t t h e end. I n dream 1, she felt  l i k e she was having fun w h i l e p l a y i n g t a g w i t h her  f r i e n d s . A t t h e end of t h i s dream, she was w o r r i e d because a boy f e l l  i n the water. In dream 3, she was happy t o t a l k t o  her f r i e n d who was moving. Yet, when she awoke from  this  dream, she f e l t sad t h a t her f r i e n d was moving. In h e r 5th dream, she was e x c i t e d t o go t r i c k o r t r e a t i n g w i t h h e r f r i e n d s , but i t turned s c a r y when a man i n a g o r i l l a mask  134 chased h e r and her f r i e n d s . In t h e aforementioned dreams, her  f e e l i n g s were i n i t i a l l y  happy, but changed t o worry,  sadness, f r i g h t , o r c o n f u s i o n . In some o f these dreams, she took p o s i t i v e a c t i o n . F o r example, i n dream 1, she helped the boy t h a t f e l l  i n the  water. The a c t i o n she took was s u c c e s s f u l . In Dream 3, she was happy t h a t she was able t o t a l k t o h e r f r i e n d who was moving away. In t h i s dream she was a c t i v e l y d e a l i n g w i t h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g and sadness of a f r i e n d moving away. As w e l l , she p o i n t e d  out t o another f r i e n d t h a t t h e g i r l  moving away was there,  who was  so t h a t she a l s o had a chance t o t a l k  t o t h e g i r l moving away. In dream 4, her and h e r f r i e n d s c o n t i n u e d on w i t h t h e i r p l a n s even though a l l t h e i r f r i e n d s did  not show up. In dream 6, when she was w o r r i e d and  confused about f i t t i n g i n t o a new environment, she found a f r i e n d t o answer some of t h e q u e s t i o n s she had about t h e first  day o f h i g h s c h o o l .  She a c t i v e l y d e a l t w i t h t h e  problems encountered. In her dreams, t h e r e was no pronounced theme o f F i r s t N a t i o n s c u l t u r e . However, she d i d have a N a t i v e  counsellor  appear i n dream 3. He played a p e r i p h e r a l r o l e . O v e r a l l , she f e l t  t h a t some o f her dreams were r e a l .  Dream 3 and 6 d e a l t with her r e a l l i f e concerns. She displayed  a r o l e - r e v e r s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h her mother and  a l s o f e a r e d making her mother angry. She a l s o had a perspective  t o worry about t h i n g s  i n her l i f e . D e s p i t e her  135 worry she took some p o s i t i v e a c t i o n s i n her dreams t h a t were effective.  136 11 Year Old G i r l T h i s c h i l d was the o l d e s t l i v i n g i n her home. Her mother was pregnant. At the time of data c o l l e c t i o n ,  the  mother had stopped d r i n k i n g and doing drugs f o r 7 months. Her common law had been sober f o r 15 y e a r s . There were o n l y f o u r dreams c o l l e c t e d from her over 5 weeks. T h i s p r o v i d e d me w i t h l i t t l e data and not as many c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d be drawn. T h i s dreamer b e l i e v e d  that  dreams were 'neat' because they were messages from the c r e a t o r , which gave a p e r s p e c t i v e of the f u t u r e . Dream 1: September, interviewed October 2. 1995 We were i n a new s c h o o l . There's a swimming p o o l and J ( f r i e n d ) and I were l a t e f o r c l a s s . Then we go out. We went and took our change form. Then we were i n c l a s s . The t e a c h e r has the assignment on our desk and i t was h a l f done. So we c o u l d f i n i s h i t up and t e a c h e r s a i d i f we wanted we c o u l d go o u t s i d e or whatever. So we went t o the park and then I seen my mom and P (common law) as we were walking. So I went r u n n i n g a f t e r the t r u c k . My mom i n s i d e the new t r u c k , no i t was my mom i n s i d e the new t r a i l e r and my dad was d r i v i n g the t r u c k . So we went out running a f t e r the t r a i l e r . I was k i n d of shocked t o see her. I t was a happy s u r p r i s e . L i k e a shocked f e a r i n the dream because she was a t s c h o o l . My mom stopped and she s t a r t e d y e l l i n g a t me s a y i n g s t u f f l i k e um don't run a f t e r the c a r 'cause i f I stopped I would have bumped you or whatever. So, I got i n and i t was l i k e dead g r a s s a l l over i n s i d e the t r a i l e r . I t was l i k e y e l l o w . I t stunk almost l i k e a mouldy s m e l l . When I got i n t h e r e was l i k e no s t e e r i n g wheel and t h e r e was no buttons or anything. She was j u s t s i t t i n g t h e r e by the window. There's a window i n f r o n t and a window i n back and the doors on the s i d e . I was s i t t i n g t h e r e and E and J and A, my f r i e n d s , they were a l l s i t t i n g t h e r e a g a i n s t the window. I seen a l l these k i d s r u n n i n g toward the t r a i l e r . So me and J s a i d , why don't we j u s t open the door and s c a r e them. So we opened i t and went 'Boo' and then they a l l s t a r t e d screaming and r u n n i n g away. They were a l l boys and t h e r e was t h i s one k i d s i t t i n g and e a t i n g a sandwich. J looked and he went uh oh and he s t a r t s running away. I woke up. [I f e l t ] weird. [I was] happy.  137 Comments When she saw her mother, she had mixed emotions. c u r i o u s about where the f e a r came from. In l i f e ,  I was  she c o u l d  f e a r h e r mom going back t o d r i n k i n g and drugging, a l t h o u g h t h e r e was no d i r e c t evidence of t h i s i n t h e dream. I n h e r dream she had an obvious emotional f e a r t o see her mother, but a t t h e same time she was happy t o see h e r mother. The f e a r was connected t o mom showing up a t s c h o o l . Any number of thoughts c o u l d have been running through her mind t o create  a f e e l i n g o f f e a r when she unexpectedly saw h e r  mother a t s c h o o l .  The dreamer a l s o had confused f e e l i n g s a t  the end o f t h e dream. She s a i d she f e l t weird, y e t a l s o happy. The element o f f e a r was p r e s e n t i n her dream. The g i r l had a shocked f e a r t o see her mother. The dreamer and her f r i e n d s s c a r e d t h e boys t h a t r a n towards t h e t r a i l e r .  They  a l s o ensured t o s c a r e away the l a s t boy who was s i t t i n g alone and e a t i n g h i s sandwich. There was b i z a r r e content i n t h i s dream. There was dead g r a s s i n t h e t r a i l e r and no s t e e r i n g wheel. There was a l s o an incompleteness i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s dream, such as h a l f an assignment,  being l a t e f o r c l a s s and t h e r e was no s t e e r i n g  wheel o r c o n t r o l buttons i n the t r a i l e r . There was dead g r a s s and no c o n t r o l s i n s i d e t h e t r a i l e r , y e t i t looked new on the o u t s i d e .  I f t h i s was t o  symbolize her, then she may have looked a l r i g h t on t h e  138 o u t s i d e , but i n s i d e she f e l t dead and out o f c o n t r o l . Her mother and mother's common law d i s a p p e a r e d from t h e dream. Mom i s d e p i c t e d as s i t t i n g i n a mouldy t r a i l e r  with  no c o n t r o l s . I t c o u l d be t h a t mother's d r i n k i n g has deadened her i n s i d e and l e f t her with no c o n t r o l . I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t she d e p i c t e d her mother and mother's common law as s e p a r a t e and i n d i f f e r e n t v e h i c l e s . The dreamer a l s o o n l y r a n a f t e r her mother i n the t r a i l e r . Perhaps she was r u n n i n g a f t e r h e r mother because she was hungry t o r e c e i v e h e r a t t e n t i o n . The dreamer and her f r i e n d s remained c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e dream. T h i s might r e f l e c t t h e importance o f p e e r s a t t h i s age. The other reason peers may have been prominent f o r her i s because she may have turned t o her peers when mother was u n a v a i l a b l e w h i l e d r i n k i n g and doing drugs. In t h i s dream, mom i s shown t o be concerned f o r her daughter's s a f e t y , but d i d t h i s by y e l l i n g . Her mother was f r i g h t e n e d when she y e l l e d and the dreamer m i r r o r e d t h i s behaviour. She y e l l e d t o f r i g h t e n others away and maybe t h e dreamer was frightened herself. Perceptions 1. When you a r e l a t e f o r s c h o o l , you f o l l o w t h e formalities. 2. I f your work i s 1/2 done, you f i n i s h i t ,  then you  can go o u t . 3. You a r e e x c i t e d t o see your mother and you r u n toward h e r . Your mother y e l l s a t you and you a r e taught t o :  139 c o n t r o l your excitement, 'think before you do',  be  careful  b e f o r e you run i n t o the s t r e e t towards a moving v e h i c l e . 4. I n s i d e t h i n g s are o l d and dead w i t h no c o n t r o l s . 5. You  enjoy s c a r i n g boys away with f r i e n d s .  6. I f you f e e l scared i n s i d e , s c a r e o t h e r s  (boys away).  7. You  you  do not encounter r e s t r i c t i o n s u n t i l  encounter your mom.  A f t e r t h i s , you r e l e a s e by s c a r i n g the  boys away. Dream 2: Monday October 2. 1995 We were a t s c h o o l . P and J ( f r i e n d s ) were t a l k i n g about shoes and e v e r y t h i n g . So we went t o a shoe s t o r e and we were l o o k i n g a t a l l these shoes and e v e r y t h i n g . T h i s guy comes up t o us and goes, I'm a d e n t i s t , What are you? I looked at him and then we j u s t r a n out the door. Then they ( s e c u r i t y ) were chasing us f o r s t e a l i n g 'cause we ran out so f a s t . [I f e l t ] k i n d o f unhappy [ i n the dream] when guy was chasing us. So we j u s t went back t o s c h o o l . They took us i n t o some o f f i c e room. Our t e a c h e r gave us d e t e n t i o n . Then A was i n a r u s h t o come home. That's a l l I can remember. I woke up [I f e l t ] normal. Comments In t h i s dream I saw her wondering about her She was  c o n f r o n t e d by a man  asked her what she was.  who  knew what he was  he  and which a l s o r e f l e c t e d  scared of h e r s e l f . T h i s i s based on the  t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i n a dream i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of because we  and  She ran away, which c o u l d i n d i c a t e  t h a t she d i d not know what she was, t h a t she was  identity.  idea  ourselves,  c r e a t e d i t i n our minds.  When they ran away they were thought t o have s t o l e n something from the s t o r e and are misunderstood f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s . Her  running away got her i n t o t r o u b l e and they were  140 f a l s e l y accused. T h i s r a i s e s how  important  i t i s to  communicate. The dreamer d i d not defend h e r s e l f by  saying  what a c t u a l l y happened. She r e c e i v e d a d e t e n t i o n , but  was  t h i s f o r s t e a l i n g o r l e a v i n g the s c h o o l grounds? L o g i c a l l y , it  seemed t h i s would be f o r l e a v i n g the s c h o o l grounds.  Perceptions 1. When you are i n t e r e s t e d i n something, you  2. When you  look f o r  leave the s c h o o l grounds you get i n t o  t r o u b l e . T h i s d e l a y s you,  even i f you need t o go somewhere  else. 3. When you are asked who  you are, and  i f you do  not  know, you f e e l scared and run away. 4. In the world t h e r e are s t r a n g e r s t h a t may 5. You  scare  c o u l d get accused of something you d i d not  you. do.  Dream 3: Wednesday October 11. 1995 Well l a s t n i g h t I had t h i s r e a l l y weird dream about some bank robbery. I had a whole bunch of money. I was b r i n g i n g i t t o the bank t o put i t i n . You know when they take i t from you and put i t i n an account and they w r i t e down how much you put i n or whatever. I was going to g i v e i t t o a lady. She was p r e t t y young about 19. Some lady came walking i n . She was going t o rob the bank r i g h t . She looked l i k e she was i n between her 30's and her 20's. I f e l t l i k e f r i g h t e n e d . So I stood t h e r e f o r awhile and then I looked a t the l a d y and then she asked me i f I put my money i n t o the bank and I s a i d , yes. Then she s a i d ok and then she t o l d the l a d y a t the t i l l whatever she t o l d her t o g i v e her a l l the money t h a t I g i v e her. She s a i d t h a t I d i d n ' t g i v e her anything. So she t o l d me t o get down onto the ground. I l i k e l a y down. She stood on my back and t o l d the lady at the t i l l t h a t she was l y i n g and t o g i v e her the money.  141 Comments She was  r e s p o n s i b l e w i t h her money and wanted t o save  i t . When a robber came i n and asked her about her money, she was  honest. The robber b e l i e v e d her and not the t i l l  Her money was not  s t o l e n and she was  lady.  l a y i n g f l a t on the ground  a b l e t o do a n y t h i n g . She d i d what she was  t o l d t o do out  of f e a r . She assumed a p a s s i v e r o l e and was powerless. There was  no c o n c l u s i o n g i v e n t o us about the outcome o f the  event. Perceptions 1. You can be betrayed by and e n t r u s t e d person  (bank  teller). 2. When you go t o secure your s a v i n g s , someone can come and t a k e what i s yours and people l i e . Dream 4: Monday October 16 1995 L a s t n i g h t I had l i k e a nightmare and I have a f r i e n d named J . She was supposed t o come back t h i s week, but she changed her mind and she's going t o s t a y where she i s f o r another week. They brought her somewhere f o r s i x weeks f o r c o u n s e l l i n g and t h a t t o t r y and h e l p her get through her problems and then when she g e t s home s h e ' l l d e c i d e i f she wants t o l i v e w i t h her mom o r her dad. I've been having dreams t h a t j u s t t h i s one time, t h i s dream about her. That she came back w i t h an a t t i t u d e . She was l i k e , I don't know, l i k e always r e a l l y misbehaving, 'cause u s u a l l y she's always l i s t e n i n g and f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s and s t u f f l i k e t h a t , but then she got i n t r o u b l e w i t h her mom. She was g o i n g t o run away from home and t h a t because her mom f a v o u r s her l i t t l e b r o t h e r . That's why she went t o t h i s p l a c e . When she was s e t t i n g a f i r e l i k e i n t h i s garage p l a c e . There was t h i s l i k e a s u p e r v i s i o n a i d and he f e l l down and h i t h i s head. He put h i s head on a p i e c e of wood which was near the shed. I t was l i k e p r e s s e d r i g h t a g a i n s t the shed. She was l i g h t i n g a f i r e t h e r e . I was going, "don't do t h a t , don't do t h a t , you shouldn't be doing t h a t . " [I f e l t ] mad because she wouldn't l i s t e n . So he [the s u p e r v i s i o n a i d ] was going, f  142 "oh j u s t be c a r e f u l kay, j u s t be c a r e f u l " something l i k e t h a t . So I pushed him over near t h i s o t h e r l i k e l i t t l e , no l i k e a shed, but i t was t h e shape o f l i k e a l i t t l e house. L i k e a l i t t l e d o l l house. W e l l she l i t the f i r e i n s i d e and he was going, " i f you go i n t h e r e you don't l i g h t t h e f i r e okay." She went, "yup whatever." And she went i n s i d e and l i t a f i r e , t h e r e was a whole bunch o f wood i n t h e r e . I t was a l l made out of wood. Then she came out and she was almost l i k e a d e v i l . She looked normal, but h e r eyes were l i k e r e a l l y red and h e r e a r s kinda went l i k e t h a t (she p u l l e d t h e top o f h e r e a r up). There was some o t h e r guy t h e r e , I don't know who he was. He looked l i k e he was i n h i s 50's o r 60's. She was going " t h i s i s my dad" and she goes "he's a d e v i l too, but d i d n ' t you know t h a t . " I go, "Yeah, I d i d " (she d i s p l a y e d a look on h e r f a c e t h a t she i s j u s t p l a y i n g along because she i s a f r a i d ) . [I f e l t ] I don't know scared 'cause l i k e everybody was look l i k e d e v i l s o r something. Then h e r mom ( f r i e n d ' s mom) comes up and goes (she lowers h e r v o i c e t o a whisper) " I don't know what's wrong w i t h them, I r e a l l y don't know what's wrong w i t h them." She's g o i n g l i k e t h a t and then t h i s c a t i t was a b l a c k c a t . I t kept on coming towards me and t r y i n g t o a t t a c k . So I kept on pushing i t away and then i t would come a f t e r me a g a i n and I'd push i t away. I went behind t h i s l i t t l e d o l l house t h i n g , but t h e r e was l i k e a board t h e r e . [The s u p e r v i s i o n a i d ] was l i k e on t h e l e f t hand bottom c o r n e r and t h e r e was s h e l f t h i n g and I was r i g h t behind the s h e l f on t h e r i g h t hand s i d e . I was s t a n d i n g , I was s i t t i n g t h e r e going l i k e t h a t . I was r e a l s c a r e d . I d i d n ' t want t o h u r t t h e c a t , but then l i k e I c o u l d h a r d l y move cause you know how you g e t when you're l i k e r e a l l y r e a l l y scared and you k i n d o f g e t s t i f f . I d i d n ' t want t o h u r t t h e c a t because I knew i f I h u r t i t , then one of them ( f r i e n d o r her f a t h e r ) would p r o b a b l y g e t mad a t me or something. Then I woke up. [I felt] fine. Comments When I asked h e r why she thought  she had t h e dream she  s a i d , " I was s a y i n g t o my f r i e n d J , maybe i t ' s l i k e me t h a t she's going t o come back w i t h a d i f f e r e n t  telling  attitude  and not t o expect other t h i n g s . " She a l s o s a i d h e r f r i e n d listened i n real l i f e , misbehaving.  but i n t h e dream she came back  I wonder i f t h e dreamer i d e n t i f i e d w i t h h e r  143 f r i e n d d e p i c t e d i n the dream. The change i n h e r f r i e n d  also  p r o g r e s s e s from good t o bad. Normally, you would want a change i n t h e o p p o s i t e She  direction.  was aware o f what was okay and not okay t o do. She  attempted t o h e l p guide her f r i e n d . As w e l l ,  she h e l p e d t o  p r o t e c t t h e s u p e r v i s i o n a i d who was h u r t . T h i s was a r o l e reversal  because t h e s u p e r v i s i o n a i d , an a d u l t a t t h e s c h o o l  grounds, who was i n charge of ensuring c h i l d r e n unable t o a s s e r t  h i s a u t h o r i t y . The dreamer was l e f t t o  attempt her a s s e r t i o n her  behave, was  as a peer. No one was t h e r e t o h e l p  w h i l e she was i n t h i s f e a r f u l s i t u a t i o n . However, she  d i d attempt t o a c t i v e l y guide her f r i e n d , b u t i t was i n e f f e c t i v e . She was a l s o not a b l e t o t r u s t h e r f r i e n d who came back as a d e v i l . In t h e dream she a l s o d i s p l a y e d being a f r a i d t o defend herself and  from t h e c a t because she was a f r a i d o f h e r f r i e n d  friend's  f a t h e r who might g e t mad a t her.  In h e r mind  these ' d e v i l s ' had g r e a t e r power and she submitted t o them. She  was so a f r a i d t h a t she c o u l d not move. She f e l t  powerless, p a r a l y s e d and unable t o defend h e r s e l f . Her f r i e n d a l s o d i d not l i s t e n t o her guidance. Perceptions 1. You do not know what t o expect when your  friend  comes back, you a r e scared she might be d i f f e r e n t . 2. When you t e l l a f r i e n d n o t t o do bad t h i n g s , you f e e l mad when she does not l i s t e n .  144 3. Sometimes people a r e f r i g h t e n i n g when you do n o t know what i s wrong w i t h them. 4. When you a r e attacked, you a r e so a f r a i d t h a t you are frozen s t i f f . 5. You do not do something you need t o defend  t o g e t o t h e r s mad, even when  yourself.  6. Help those who a r e h u r t . Dreamer's P e r c e p t i o n s and Prominent  Features  In t h i s p a r t i c i p a n t ' s dreams, a d u l t s y e l l e d and accused without j u s t i f i c a t i o n . One e n t r u s t e d a d u l t a t a bank, b e t r a y e d her by l y i n g . Another a d u l t wanted t o take h e r money. An a d u l t c o u l d not h e l p her i n a f e a r f u l  situation.  In dream 2, an a d u l t s t r a n g e r s c a r e d her and she r a n away. These examples d i s p l a y e d t h a t the dreamer e x p e r i e n c e d a d u l t s as untrustworthy and were not t h e r e t o support and c a r e f o r her. The dreamer may have developed these p e r c e p t i o n s when mom was d r i n k i n g . I f t h i s was t r u e , her mother was e x p e r i e n c e d as untrustworthy and u n a v a i l a b l e t o t h e dreamer. The dreamer c o u l d a l s o have l e a r n e d t h i s from o t h e r a d u l t s i n her l i f e .  Even though mom was i n r e c o v e r y , t h e dreamer  maintained her views o f a d u l t s as being u n r e l i a b l e and untrustworthy. Her dreams p o r t r a y e d how she acted i n s i t u a t i o n s . One of h e r r e a c t i o n s was t o run, such as when t h e s e c u r i t y  guard  from t h e s t o r e chased her and her f r i e n d s . T h i s r u n n i n g g o t her i n t o t r o u b l e , because the s e c u r i t y man thought t h a t they  145 s t o l e something from t h e s t o r e . She a l s o submitted and d i d not stand up f o r h e r s e l f . For i n s t a n c e ,  she l a i d on t h e  ground when t h e bank robber ordered h e r . Furthermore, she d i d not f e e l l i k e she c o u l d p r o t e c t h e r s e l f from t h e c a t a t t a c k i n g her, f o r she feared u p s e t t i n g h e r d e v i l i s h  looking  f r i e n d . She d i s p l a y e d a sense of powerlessness i n t h e s e dreams. I n h e r l a s t dream, she t r i e d t o be e f f e c t i v e by g i v i n g h e r f r i e n d guidance, but i t d i d not work. Her dreams r e v e a l e d t h a t she f e l t she had no c o n t r o l i n t h e s i t u a t i o n s she encountered. One way she may have d e a l t w i t h t h i s i s by venting  a t o t h e r s . For example, i n t h e f i r s t dream  c o l l e c t e d , she scared others a f t e r she was y e l l e d a t by h e r mother. A theme o f d e c e i v i n g appearances o c c u r r e d .  I n dream 1,  the t r a i l e r was new on t h e o u t s i d e , but o l d and mouldy on the i n s i d e , w i t h no c o n t r o l s where h e r mother s a t . I n dream 2, t h e g i r l s appeared t o be g u i l t y t o t h e s e c u r i t y guard, but t h i s was not t r u e . In dream 3, you c o u l d expect t o t r u s t a bank t e l l e r w i t h your money, but she was b e t r a y e d by t h e teller.  In dream 4, her f r i e n d who was good, came back as a  d e v i l . You would expect t h a t a f t e r a f r i e n d came back from r e c e i v i n g support she would be b e t t e r . A p a r t o f t h i s dream a l s o r e f l e c t e d t h a t people were f r i g h t e n i n g when you d i d not know what was wrong w i t h them. T h i s occurred  when t h e  f r i e n d ' s mother came up t o say, " I don't know what's wrong w i t h them". She was r e f e r r i n g t o t h e dreamer's f r i e n d and  146 the f r i e n d ' s f a t h e r resembling d e v i l s . The dreamer's p e r c e p t i o n was t h a t some t h i n g s were not what they  appeared  t o be on t h e o u t s i d e : you f i n d out t h a t t h i n g s , people, and events i n t h e world are mean and d e c e i v i n g . She f e l t f e a r i n every dream. In a d d i t i o n t o h e r own e x p e r i e n c e o f f e a r i n h e r dreams, she r e v e a l e d i n dream one t h a t she had f u n s c a r i n g o t h e r s , s p e c i f i c a l l y boys. S i n c e she d i d not r e c a l l a l l of her dreams, she may have o n l y remembered t h e f e a r f u l ones. G e n e r a l l y , f e a r f u l dreams a r e the most f r e q u e n t l y remembered because t h e emotional  impact  of t h e dream wakes the dreamer up. I t i s when we awake t h a t we can r e c a l l a dream. Therefore, the dreams she remembered may not p r o v i d e t h e whole spectrum  o f h e r dream e x p e r i e n c e .  However, i t i s t h e dreams t h a t are spontaneously  remembered  t h a t can have a conscious a f f e c t on the dreamer. Hunt (1989) b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n of how l a b c o l l e c t i o n o f dreams (which i s done by waking the p a r t i c i p a n t up d u r i n g d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s of sleep) a f f e c t s content i s not q u i t e known. Some l a b o r a t o r y c o l l e c t e d dreams are mundane, y e t nightmare s u f f e r e r s do not always have nightmares  i n the laboratory  ( H a l l & Van de C a s t l e c i t e d i n Hunt, 1989). Some of t h e dreams d e p i c t e d her c h a r a c t e r . For example, when she was asked by the robber i f she d e p o s i t e d h e r money, she answered h o n e s t l y . She a l s o p o r t r a y e d , i n dream 4, t h a t she would h e l p those who a r e h u r t and those who a r e d o i n g something they should not be doing.  147 Other p e r c e p t i o n s you  i n these dreams were: (a) A t s c h o o l  f i n i s h your work, then you have a c h o i c e t o do o t h e r  things,  (b) A t s c h o o l l a t e n e s s i s not a problem, you j u s t  follow the formalities,  (c) Mom says t h a t you a r e t o c o n t r o l  your excitement, o r e l s e you c o u l d g e t h u r t ,  (d) You can go  out and look f o r t h i n g s you a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n , but n o t d u r i n g s c h o o l hours, f o r t h e r e a r e consequences when you return. I conclude from a l l her dreams t h a t n e g a t i v e events a r e p r i m a r y . In her dreams, she p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e world  could  be d e c e i v i n g and what she thought was not n e c e s s a r i l y t r u e . Her dreams a l s o seemed t o r e v e a l t h a t she d i d not f e e l The  safe.  encounters she had were s c a r y . She a c t e d powerless and  submissive  i n her dream encounters.  as untrustworthy  She a l s o viewed a d u l t s  and u n r e l i a b l e . I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o note  t h a t h e r mother's s o b r i e t y was very s h o r t when I c o l l e c t e d her dreams. T h i s c h i l d ' s dreams o f a r e c o v e r i n g r e f l e c t e d t h a t her experience  was not very  alcoholic  positive.  148 Overall Results In t h i s summary, I d i s c u s s e d whether these  Native  c h i l d r e n of r e c o v e r i n g a l c o h o l i c s dreamt about a l c o h o l o r had  F i r s t Nations c u l t u r e d e p i c t e d i n t h e i r dreams. Then I  reviewed these c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s , which were d e r i v e d from t h e i r dreams. I f o l l o w e d with a d e s c r i p t i o n o f o t h e r prominent f e a t u r e s i n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s dreams. F i n a l l y , I summarized t h e f i n d i n g s . B r i e f Comment of Dreams C o l l e c t e d The more dreams t h e c h i l d r e n r e c o l l e c t e d , t h e more i n f o r m a t i o n I gathered c h i l d r e n ' s l i f e without  about them. I l e a r n e d more about t h e d i r e c t l y a s k i n g them. A h i g h e r  number of dreams gathered  from p a r t i c i p a n t s p r o v i d e s  i n v e s t i g a t o r s with a more thorough d e p i c t i o n o f c h i l d r e n who have an a l c o h o l i c parent. T h i s i n c r e a s e d t h e c o n f i d e n c e of the f i n d i n g s . F i r s t Nations F i r s t Nations  Themes  c u l t u r a l themes were not prominent i n t h e  dreams of these c h i l d r e n of r e c o v e r i n g a l c o h o l i c s . Only one child  had a F i r s t Nations person present  dreams. T h i s person, i n r e a l i t y ,  i n one o f h e r  was a c o u n s e l l o r from h e r  s c h o o l . In t h e dreams c o l l e c t e d , t h e r e were n e i t h e r d e p i c t i o n s of F i r s t Nations  ceremonies, such as t h e smudge,  nor r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of F i r s t Nations eagle  feather.  symbols, such as t h e  149 A l c o h o l Themes The theme of a l c o h o l misuse was  d e p i c t e d i n o n l y one  the 49 dreams c o l l e c t e d . However, t h i s element was  not a key  f a c t o r i n the dream. Her aunt got out of a t r u c k drunk. dreamer was  happy t o see her aunt, d e s p i t e her  i n t o x i c a t e d s t a t e . T h i s same g i r l had another she r e c a l l e d t h a t , one year, her mother was  of  The  aunt's dream where  drunk and  only  allowed her t o t r i c k or t r e a t a t one house. I t was  evident,  from t h i s c h i l d ' s dreams, t h a t she was  her  a f f e c t e d by  mother's a l c o h o l i s m . The other p a r t i c i p a n t s who  were from  a l c o h o l i c homes w i t h parents i n recovery, d i d not have dreams w i t h themes of a l c o h o l . Dream P e r c e p t i o n s C h i l d r e n ' s dreams r e f l e c t t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f the world and t h e i r experience because they are the c r e a t o r s of t h e i r dreams. These dreams r e v e a l e d how  these  children  viewed l i f e , themselves i n s i t u a t i o n s and the i s s u e s and concerns w i t h which they  contend.  P e r c e p t i o n s of A d u l t s All  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s had s c e n a r i o ' s i n t h e i r dreams  where they d e p i c t e d a d u l t s as u n r e l i a b l e and T h i s was  pronounced i n the 11 and 9 year o l d ' s dreams. The  year o l d dreamt of h i s parents being absent being l e f t old  untrustworthy.  from home and  t o care f o r h i m s e l f and h i s b r o t h e r s . The  g i r l had a d u l t s d e p i c t e d i n her dreams who  without  j u s t i f i c a t i o n , who  9  11  accused  year her  l i e d and s t o l e her money, and  who  150 were not a b l e t o h e l p her i n a f r i g h t e n i n g s i t u a t i o n . The 13 year o l d (with 6 dream r e p o r t s ) r e p r e s e n t e d her mother as u n c a r i n g and unconcerned f o r the w e l l b e i n g of a baby. F u r t h e r , her mother was unresponsive t o t h e dreamer's concerns f o r the baby. T h i s dreamer a l s o f e a r e d u p s e t t i n g her mother. The other 13 year o l d dreamer p o r t r a y e d h e r mother i n her dreams as unable t o p r o t e c t t h e dreamer, as b e i n g e a s i l y c o n t r o l l e d by o t h e r s , and as u n r e l i a b l e , i n the sense t h a t she f e a r e d l o s i n g her mother. The 12 year o l d dreamer c h a r a c t e r i z e d her mother's common law as untrustworthy and u n r e l i a b l e when he was d r i v i n g  carelessly.  She a l s o d i d not c a l l upon the common law t o r e s c u e her c a t that f e l l  i n t o the r i v e r . T h i s dreamer had a l s o taken i t  upon h e r s e l f t o p r o t e c t and keep her and her f a m i l y s a f e . The c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f a d u l t s as u n r e l i a b l e and untrustworthy c o u l d be based on t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s when t h e i r p a r e n t s were a c t i v e l y d r i n k i n g , or they c o u l d be based on other experiences with adults. A c t i o n s i n Dreams The a c t i o n s these p a r t i c i p a n t s took i n t h e i r dreams have r e f l e c t e d how they were i n t h e i r waking l i f e .  may  However,  I cannot be sure t h a t they d i d what t h e i r dreams r e v e a l e d . In  f a c t , some dreams are thought t o be compensatory, or  o p p o s i t e o f what happens i n l i f e  (Jung, 1933, 1964) . Dreams  can a l s o be a way of p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g l i f e  situations.  Nonetheless, these dreams r e v e a l e d c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  151 about whether or not they c o u l d take e f f e c t i v e  action.  The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i o n s i n t h e i r dreams These c h i l d r e n demonstrated  t h a t some o f t h e a c t i o n s  they took i n t h e i r dreams t o s o l v e problems were e f f e c t i v e , w h i l e o t h e r attempts were h o p e l e s s . The 9 year o l d boy, t h e 12 year o l d g i r l , and the 13 year o l d g i r l  (with 6 dream  r e p o r t s ) a l l had dreams where they were both e f f e c t i v e and i n e f f e c t i v e a t problem s o l v i n g . The 11 year o l d g i r l and 13 year o l d g i r l  (who had 12 dreams) d e p i c t e d themselves, i n  t h e i r dreams, as p a s s i v e and f e e l i n g hopeless a t b e i n g unable t o p r o t e c t themselves and a f f e c t t h e i r  environment.  P l e a s a n t n e s s and Unpleasantness of Dreams All  of t h e g i r l s ' dreams c o n t a i n e d p r i m a r i l y unhappy  events. T h e i r dreams were s c a r y and d e a l t w i t h c o n f l i c t s from both t h e i r p a s t and present l i f e . T h i s suggested  that  t h e i r view of t h e world was p e s s i m i s t i c . In comparison, t h e male p a r t i c i p a n t had a g r e a t e r number of p l e a s a n t dreams, i n a d d i t i o n t o h i s unpleasant ones. T h e r e f o r e , based on t h e c o n t e n t of h i s dreams, h i s p e r c e p t i o n was t h a t not e v e r y t h i n g t h a t happened was h o r r i b l e . A l l of t h e c h i l d r e n ' s dreams had elements of l i v i n g i n a f e a r f u l , unsafe world. The boy, t h e 12 year o l d g i r l and t h e 13 year o l d g i r l  (with  12 dreams) were a l l a b l e t o escape danger i n one of t h e i r dreams. These c h i l d r e n ' s dreams r e v e a l e d t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e of  t h e world as an unhappy, s c a r y and unsafe p l a c e . Some  c h i l d r e n experienced more happy events i n t h e i r dreams than  152 other c h i l d r e n . Children's  Issues Revealed i n Dreams  A l l the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s dreams r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e y i s s u e s and and  had  concerns t o d e a l with i n t h e i r l i v e s . The  e x p e r i e n c e s of these f i v e c h i l d r e n v a r i e d . The  t h a t h i s p a r e n t s were not t h e r e f o r him  and  boy  felt  t h a t he had  much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . As w e l l , i n h i s dreams, he d i d l e a r n from consequences. One  issues  too  not  of the g i r l s dreamt about  mother's pregnancy, f e a r of l o s s , abandonment, and t o her body, which I assumed was  her  harm done  from her p a s t abuse.  She  appeared t o have a p e s s i m i s t i c outlook on l i f e . Another g i r l dreamt about domestic v i o l e n c e , keeping s a f e , l o s s o f a pet, q u a r r e l l i n g w i t h f r i e n d s and being alone. A t h i r d p a r t i c i p a n t was  d e a l i n g , i n her dreams, w i t h how  female her  actions  a f f e c t e d her mother, the l o s s of her f r i e n d i n r e a l i t y , her worrisome outlook on l i f e events. The  fourth g i r l  i n her dreams, t h a t she c o u l d not r e l y on a d u l t s and powerless and w o r l d was a l l had  and  felt, felt  i n e f f e c t i v e i n her a c t i o n s . In her dreams, the  f r i g h t e n i n g . The  one  boy  and t h r e e of the  girls  dreams t h a t i n c l u d e d some r o l e - r e v e r s a l , where the  c h i l d was  o v e r l y r e s p o n s i b l e and had  insufficient  parenting.  As v a r i e d as these c h i l d r e n ' s i s s u e s were, they a l l d e a l t w i t h normal developmental c o n f l i c t s i n t h e i r dreams, such as q u a r r e l l i n g w i t h peers. They a l s o d e a l t w i t h more s e r i o u s i s s u e s , such as abuse and have been r e l a t e d t o  abandonment, which may  alcoholism.  o r may  not  153 P e s s i m i s t i c Outlook Depicted i n Dreams In  the above mentioned d e s c r i p t i o n s , domestic  violence,  abuse, abandonment, u n a v a i l a b l e p a r e n t s , i n a b i l i t y t o r e l y on a d u l t s , r o l e - r e v e r s a l , and too much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y c r e a t e d an unsafe world f o r these c h i l d r e n . These f a c t o r s could contribute to t h e i r constructing a p e s s i m i s t i c outlook on l i f e .  In f a c t , a l l of the dreamers e x p e r i e n c e d n e g a t i v e  events i n t h e i r dreams. The 11 year o l d and 13 year o l d (with 12 dream r e p o r t s ) experienced more extreme and h o r r i b l e events than the other dreamers. As was in how in  demonstrated  t h e s e c h i l d r e n ' s dreams, a l l these e x p e r i e n c e s r e f l e c t e d alcoholism i n a family could a f f e c t c h i l d r e n . Alcoholism the f a m i l y , along w i t h i t ' s accompanying f a c t o r s of abuse  and n e g l e c t , c r e a t e d an environment  w i t h many  disappointments. These i s s u e s d i d not p r o v i d e a s t r o n g b a s i s for  d e v e l o p i n g hope i n the l i v e s of these c h i l d r e n of  recovering alcoholics. Other Prominent  Features  D e a l i n g With Real L i f e S i t u a t i o n s and Concerns Events i n these c h i l d r e n ' s l i v e s e x i s t e d i n a l l 5 of the p a r t i c i p a n t s dreams. The c h i l d r e n t o l d me when t h e i r dreams r e l a t e d t o something  in their real l i f e .  As w e l l , a l l  5 of the p a r t i c i p a n t s had dreams t h a t i n v o l v e d a f e a r i n their l i f e .  The f e a r was  o f t e n r e s o l v e d i n these dreams.  dreamer a s s i s t e d i n the capture of the 'Abbotsford  One  killer'  and the boy dreamer escaped a kidnapper. In some of the  154 dreams, t h e r e was  no r e s o l u t i o n t o the c h i l d ' s f e a r . Some  i l l u s t r a t i o n s of t h i s are: f e a r of huge head l i c e , they were b i t i n g i n t o the g i r l ' s head; f e a r t h a t awful would happen and  because  something  i t d i d , so she c o u l d not go t r i c k  t r e a t i n g ; f e a r t h a t a f r i e n d would come back d i f f e r e n t she was  depicted  or  and  i n the dream as misbehaving and d e v i l i s h  looking. These c h i l d r e n a l s o used dreams t o cope w i t h s i t u a t i o n s . For example, i n r e a l i t y , a boy dreamer and attacking who  was  She  s i s t e r . In her dream, she  the boy.  Another g i r l had  she was  one  sang a song w h i l e  a dream about a f r i e n d  moving. Another g i r l was  with a f r i e n d returning  was  bothering  a c t u a l l y moving away. In her dream, she  f r i e n d why life,  her  was  life  asked  her  coping, i n r e a l  from long-term  counselling.  a f r a i d t h a t t h i s f r i e n d would a c t d i f f e r e n t  and  dreamt t h a t t h i s happened. As w e l l , the twelve year o l d had  some dreams t h a t d e a l t with r e a l l i f e a l t e r c a t i o n s  had  w i t h f r i e n d s , her  f e a r of the Abbotsford k i l l e r ,  concern f o r her mother's s a f e t y and male p a r t i c i p a n t had  the  dreams t o h e l p him  Bizarre The  and why  she  her  l o s s of a p e t .  The  cope w i t h h i s r e a l  l i f e concerns of being kidnapped, m i s s i n g a fieldtrip,  girl  school  the p o l i c e were i n h i s neighbourhood.  Content dreams of e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d  found t o be more b i z a r r e and a g g r e s s i v e and  a d o l e s c e n t s were  disorganized,  t o have  v i o l e n t q u a l i t i e s , t o be h o s t i l e  and  155 c o n f u s i n g , and t o i n c l u d e c o n f l i c t e d and tumultuous themes. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o u l d a l s o p o r t r a y  developmental  d e l a y s (Catalano, 1990). I r e a l i z e d t h a t the more d i s t u r b e d the c h i l d the more b i z a r r e the dream content would  be.  B i z a r r e content i n c l u d e d s i t u a t i o n s i n the dream t h a t were not r e a l i s t i c . Some examples were: a l a u g h i n g box,  a hole i n  the stomach, everyone r e q u i r i n g a c u t t o go t o s c h o o l , an ear as an alarm system, m i s s i n g a head or f e e t , dead g r a s s i n a t r a i l e r w i t h no s t e e r i n g wheel, and a f r i e n d who d e v i l . The g i r l who  was  a  had been abused i n her p a s t e x h i b i t e d  t h e most b i z a r r e content. The amount o f time a p a r e n t  was  sober d i d not appear t o a f f e c t the b i z a r r e content of dreams. The boy, who  d i d not have b i z a r r e images i n h i s  dreams, had a mother who of  had been sober 4 months a t the  data c o l l e c t i o n . Whereas the g i r l who  b i z a r r e content had both parents who  time  had the most  were sober f o r 1 year.  B i z a r r e images were p o r t r a y e d i n the dreams of a l l 4 of my  female p a r t i c i p a n t s . No b i z a r r e n o t i o n s were d e p i c t e d i n  the 9 year o l d boy's dreams. Although, b i z a r r e dream content was  not the l e a d i n g theme f o r these c h i l d r e n of r e c o v e r i n g  alcoholics,  i t was  e v i d e n t . In t h i s sample of c h i l d r e n ' s  dreams, I d i s c o v e r e d t h a t f e a r f u l s i t u a t i o n s c o i n c i d e d w i t h b i z a r r e content. For example, one g i r l was encountered  a f r i e n d and her dad, who  a f r a i d when she  both looked  d e v i l s . Another g i r l had her stomach c u t out.  like  One  p a r t i c i p a n t ' s dream contained a scene of her mother dropping  156 a baby out of a window. F i n a l l y , one dreamer was  floating  o u t s i d e of her body and saw the 'Abbotsford k i l l e r ' .  Bizarre  c o n t e n t was connected w i t h being a f r a i d i n t h e dreams of a l l 4 o f t h e female p a r t i c i p a n t s . M i s s i n g body p a r t s was  another  b i z a r r e element t h a t occurred i n two of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' dreams. Although b i z a r r e content o c c u r r e d i n t h e females' dreams, but not t h e males' dreams, I cannot conclude  that  b i z a r r e content does not occur i n males' dreams. T h i s  i s due  t o t h e s m a l l sample s i z e . At A D i f f e r e n t Time Than the Present Dreaming o f the f u t u r e was not p r e s e n t i n a l l t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s dreams, but i t was c e r t a i n l y f a s c i n a t i n g . quality existed  i n the dreams of two c h i l d r e n who  This  remembered  the most dreams. One boy and one g i r l saw themselves, or o t h e r s , i n the f u t u r e . The boy had one dream o f h i m s e l f i n the  f u t u r e . He was g l a d h i s dream was not t r u e ,  broke i n t o c a r s and went t o j a i l .  because he  T h i s dream seemed t o  forewarn him of what c o u l d happen i f he s t o l e c a r s . The g i r l had that  f o u r dreams t h a t contained f u t u r e a s p e c t s . She dreamed she, her mother, her s i s t e r and her f o s t e r mother's  granddaughter were o l d e r . The boy's f u t u r i s t i c dreams a c t e d as a forewarning not t o s t e a l , whereas t h e g i r l ' s  futuristic  dreams, seemed t o be p r o j e c t i o n s  be  for  of what i t c o u l d  h e r s e l f and others i n the f u t u r e .  Feelings Four of the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' dominant f e e l i n g s were  like  157 n e g a t i v e such as: f e a r , worry and anger. Two dreamers' predominant f e e l i n g was  f e a r . Two  of the o t h e r dreamers  had an equal number of happy and unhappy emotions i n t h e i r dreams. One  o f these two c h i l d r e n had e q u a l l y good, happy  and sad f e e l i n g s i n her dreams. The other c h i l d had e q u a l l y mad  and fun f e e l i n g s . A l l 5 p a r t i c i p a n t s e x p e r i e n c e d  feeling  s c a r e d i n some of t h e i r dreams. S i m i l a r i t y Between C h i l d r e n Two  of the g i r l p a r t i c i p a n t s overlapped i n t h e i r dream  p e r c e p t i o n s . The 11 year o l d and 13 year o l d (with 12 dream r e p o r t s ) both f e l t scared, p a s s i v e , powerless, and d e c e i v e d . They both d e p i c t e d h o r r i b l e events i n t h e i r dreams and dream elements  had  t h a t p o r t r a y e d l i f e as b e i n g mean. L a s t , they  p e r c e i v e d a d u l t s as u n r e l i a b l e and untrustworthy, which  was  i n common w i t h the r e s t of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The o t h e r t h r e e p a r t i c i p a n t s had some dream c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n common. These t h r e e experienced r o l e - r e v e r s a l with t h e i r p a r e n t s t o a g r e a t e r degree than the other two p a r t i c i p a n t s . These t h r e e dreamers a l s o d i s p l a y e d t a k i n g e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n i n t h e i r dreams. Summary In  summary, more i n f o r m a t i o n was p r o v i d e d when t h e r e  were more dreams c o l l e c t e d . I found t h e r e were no  clear  d e p i c t i o n s of F i r s t Nations c u l t u r e , even though t h e s e c h i l d r e n were N a t i v e . There was  only one r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  a l c o h o l i s m i n one c h i l d ' s dream, even though a l l t h e s e  158 c h i l d r e n l i v e d w i t h a r e c o v e r i n g a l c o h o l i c . In t h i s sample, the d i s t u r b i n g content i n these c h i l d r e n ' s dreams c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e amount o f trauma t h e c h i l d r e n have e x p e r i e n c e d i n the p a s t . A l l the c h i l d r e n dreamt of r e a l l i f e concerns, as w e l l as p a s t and present experiences. The concerns t h a t some of  these c h i l d r e n dreamt about a r e commonly l i n k e d t o  a l c o h o l i s m , such as domestic v i o l e n c e and abuse. However, for  domestic v i o l e n c e and abuse t o occur a l c o h o l i s m i s n o t a  r e q u i r e d element. girl,  I have a l s o noted t h a t t h e 13 year o l d  whose mother was sober f o r almost 4 y e a r s , d i d n o t  have as many burdensome i s s u e s t o d e a l w i t h as t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n . D e s p i t e t h e s o b r i e t y o f t h e i r mothers, t h e s e c h i l d r e n were s t i l l d e a l i n g with f a m i l y problems t h a t may have o c c u r r e d w h i l e t h e i r p a r e n t s were d r i n k i n g . Some o f t h e s e problems,  such as r o l e - r e v e r s a l , o r u n a v a i l a b l e  p a r e n t s , c o u l d be c o n t i n u i n g i n the f a m i l y . The e f f e c t s and some o f t h e problems t h a t c o - e x i s t w i t h h a v i n g an a l c o h o l i c p a r e n t were r e v e a l e d i n these c h i l d r e n ' s dreams. As a r e s u l t of  t h e s e c h i l d r e n ' s experiences i n t h e i r a l c o h o l i c  families,  t h e i r dreams r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e i r outlook on l i f e and themselves was not very o p t i m i s t i c . T h e i r view o f t h e world was s c a r y i n t h e i r dreams. These c h i l d r e n d i d n o t always see t h e i r a c t i o n s as being e f f e c t i v e . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t  that  t h e s e c h i l d r e n shared t h e experience o f h a v i n g a r e c o v e r i n g a l c o h o l i c mother, some of the dreamers viewed  t h e i r l i f e as  more o p t i m i s t i c than the other p a r t i c i p a n t s , and f e l t  that  some o f t h e i r a c t i o n s were e f f e c t i v e . Furthermore,  these  c h i l d r e n d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r means o f coping and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f themselves, o t h e r s and t h e world.  160 CHAPTER 5:  Discussion  B r i e f Summary of R e s u l t s T h i s c o l l e c t i o n of dreams r e v e a l s what t h e s e c h i l d r e n a r e d e a l i n g w i t h i n t h e i r l i v e s . Less s e r i o u s concerns,  such  as doing homework, and more s e r i o u s i s s u e s , such as one's p a r e n t s not b e i n g home, occur i n the c h i l d r e n ' s dreams. These F i r s t Nations c h i l d r e n ' s dreams do not r e v e a l c o n t e n t s p e c i f i c t o t h e i r c u l t u r e . Themes of a l c o h o l are a l s o not prominent,  even though the mothers' of the p a r t i c i p a n t s are  i n r e c o v e r y . However, the dreams do suggest i s s u e s  that  c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o a l c o h o l i s m . Some of these i s s u e s are domestic v i o l e n c e , abuse, and abandonment. Comparison of R e s u l t s t o L i t e r a t u r e A c c o r d i n g t o Foulkes' (1982) l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s , c h i l d r e n ' s dreams become more p l e a s a n t from the ages of 11 t o 14. The 13 year o l d g i r l ,  whose dreams c o n t a i n themes of  death, does not c o r r o b o r a t e Foulkes' f i n d i n g s . The  12 year  old  her  girl  who  dreams of being concerned  f o r her and  mother's p h y s i c a l s a f e t y a l s o does not concur w i t h F o u l k e s . The female p a r t i c i p a n t s , who  are a l l i n t h i s age range,  have  unpleasant dreams. The younger boy a l s o e x p e r i e n c e s unpleasant dreams. However, he has more p l e a s a n t dreams i n comparison  t o the g i r l s .  F i r s t Nations themes do not appear i n these N a t i v e c h i l d r e n ' s dreams, p o s s i b l y because these c h i l d r e n do not p r a c t i c e , or s t r o n g l y i d e n t i f y with, F i r s t N a t i o n s  beliefs.  161 F i r s t Nations themes may  a l s o not be p r e s e n t because of the  surroundings these c h i l d r e n l i v e i n . The p a r t i c i p a n t s a l l l i v e i n the c i t y and a t t e n d s c h o o l w i t h c h i l d r e n  from  v a r i o u s c u l t u r e s . However, one p a r t i c i p a n t went t o a s c h o o l t h a t i s h i g h l y populated w i t h F i r s t Nations s t u d e n t s , which o f f e r s an e x t e n s i v e c u r r i c u l u m of F i r s t N a t i o n s Furthermore,  culture.  even though the dreamer from t h i s s c h o o l  b e l i e v e s t h a t dreams b r i n g messages from the c r e a t o r , t h e r e are no d e p i c t i o n s of F i r s t Nations c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s or b e l i e f s i n her dreams. T h i s confirms D'Andrade's (1961) view t h a t t h e ' c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n dream' does not r e f l e c t  Native  a s p e c t s when F i r s t Nations people became a s s i m i l a t e d the western  into  world.  The dream content does not suggest t h a t these dreamer's are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , even thought they are N a t i v e . The i s s u e s and concerns  these  dreamers are d e a l i n g w i t h i n t h e i r dreams are s i m i l a r t o the dreams of o t h e r s who  are d e a l i n g with comparable i s s u e s .  These p a r t i c i p a n t s are from urban c i t y a r e a s . The f a c t t h a t many c u l t u r e s r e s i d e i n urban areas and p a r t i c i p a t e i n the western  c u l t u r e c o u l d be the reason why  t h e r e are no  d i f f e r e n c e s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g these dreamer's as F i r s t  Nations  c h i l d r e n . L e v i n e (1991) f i n d s i n her study of c h i l d r e n  from  d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s t h a t the Bedouin c h i l d r e n , who  are more  dependent on s u r v i v i n g i n nature than the I s r a e l i  or  Irish  c h i l d r e n , have more encounters with dream c h a r a c t e r s t h a t  162 are nonhuman. Levine concludes t h a t t h i s i s because they encounter animals more i n t h e i r l i v e s than the I s r a e l i o r I r i s h c h i l d r e n . Her study confirms t h a t c h i l d r e n dream what is in their cultural Alcohol  environment.  themes may  not have o c c u r r e d i n these  children's  dreams because t h e i r parents are  abstaining  from a l c o h o l . Even though a l c o h o l  depicted  presently i s not d i r e c t l y  i n these c h i l d r e n ' s dreams, other i s s u e s t h a t  found t o occur i n a l c o h o l i c f a m i l i e s are appearing. p a r t i c i p a n t who  are  The  witnesses f i g h t i n g concurs w i t h the  l i t e r a t u r e on experiences of c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s (Woodside, 1988). The c h i l d p a r t i c i p a n t s who abuse, n e g l e c t  and d i v o r c e  on c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s l i t e r a t u r e also reveals  from  concur w i t h l i t e r a t u r e f i n d i n g s (von K n o r r i n g , 1991). The  that parental  separation  r e j e c t i o n , and low q u a l i t y p a r e n t - c h i l d in alcoholic families  suffer  or  relationships  (El-Guebaly & O f f o r d ,  occur  1977). A l l of  t h e c h i l d r e n i n the sample are w i t h t h e i r b i o l o g i c a l mothers, but not t h e i r b i o l o g i c a l f a t h e r s . As p e r c e i v e d r e j e c t i o n and low q u a l i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s are r e v e a l e d R e i c h , E a r l s , and Powell  well,  parent-child  i n some of the dreams c o l l e c t e d . (1988) p u r p o r t t h a t  alcoholic  p a r e n t s are poor role-models, have i n c r e a s e d  parent-child  c o n f l i c t s , and experience reduced p a r e n t - c h i l d Poor r o l e - m o d e l l i n g  i s depicted  dream when he f o l l o w s  interactions.  i n the 9 year o l d boy's  i n h i s dad's f o o t s t e p s  by s t e a l i n g  163 c a r s . Reduced p a r e n t - c h i l d  i n t e r a c t i o n i s evident  in his  dreams when he i s l e f t alone w i t h h i s younger s i b l i n g s . He i s busy doing so many a c t i v i t i e s t h a t he may n o t have as much p a r e n t - c h i l d  i n t e r a c t i o n as he wants o r needs. The  l i t e r a t u r e a l s o s t a t e s t h a t c h i l d r e n o f a l c o h o l i c s a r e prone to developing anxiety esteem, and p e r c e i v e environment  and d e p r e s s i v e symptoms, low s e l f a l a c k o f c o n t r o l over t h e i r  (West & P r i n z , 1987). The 11 year o l d g i r l and  13 year o l d g i r l  (with 12 dream r e p o r t s )  both p e r c e i v e  a  l a c k o f c o n t r o l over t h e i r environments i n t h e i r dreams. West and P r i n z  (1987) f i n d t h a t abuse i s found i n  c h i l d r e n o f a l c o h o l i c s , but the f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e l i n k a r e not y e t known. Reich, E a r l s and Powell (1988) f i n d t h a t c h i l d r e n o f a l c o h o l i c s r e p o r t more p h y s i c a l and emotional abuse. The only c h i l d i n my sample t h a t  reports  p a s t abuse i s the 13 year o l d w i t h 12 dreams. The  dreams of these p a r t i c i p a n t s support some o f t h e  f i n d i n g s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on behaviour o f c h i l d r e n o f a l c o h o l i c s . The dream r e p o r t s c o l l e c t e d support t h e l i t e r a t u r e that finds that c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s experience greater  detachment from f a m i l y members (Black,  Wilder-Padilla,  Buck &  1986). These p a r t i c i p a n t s do not have many  dreams w i t h f a m i l y events i n them. As w e l l , not a l l o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c l u d e a l l t h e i r f a m i l y members i n t h e i r dreams. A g g r e s s i v e tendencies a r e found i n c h i l d r e n o f alcoholics  (Chafetz,  Blane & H i l l ,  1971; F i n e ,  Yudin,  164 Holmes, Heinemann, 1976). The c h i l d r e n of r e c o v e r i n g  dreams of these N a t i v e  alcoholics depict aggressive  such as being a t t a c k e d , a t t a c k i n g t o do  o t h e r s , and  something. Dawson (1992) f i n d s t h a t  problems such as c l i n g i n g t o a d u l t s , and  misbehaving i n c r e a s e  being  demanding  attention,  w i t h an a l c o h o l i c mother. D e s p i t e  dreamer's show t h a t they have the b e h a v i o r a l boy  f i r e c r a c k e r s , s t e a l s c a r s and allowed t o . The l i f e and i n her when he  a l l the  problems  misbehaves when he  lights  goes where he knows he  only p a r t i c i p a n t who  i n her dreams has  family.  forced  behavioral  t h e s e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' mothers being a l c o h o l i c , not  mentioned by Dawson. The  acts,  is  acts aggressively  a l s o witnessed domestic  not in  violence  C r i m i n a l i t y i s r e f l e c t e d i n the boy's dream  s t e a l s c a r s . T h i s supports von  Knorring's  (1991)  study t h a t c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s are a t r i s k f o r d e l i n q u e n c y , c r i m i n a l i t y , and  truancy.  Some of t h i s study's f i n d i n g s of the dreams of of r e c o v e r i n g  a l c o h o l i c s do not r e f l e c t what i s i n  l i t e r a t u r e . These are: d e p r e s s i o n Baldwin & Chandra, 1988; (West & P r i n z ,  1987); and  1991). Some s t u d i e s alcoholism  i n the  Welner & R i c e , 1988; substance abuse (von  inattention Knorring,  i s affected  by  ( i . e . , Connolly, S a s s w e l l , Stewart,  S i l v a & O'Brien's, 1993). The do not  the  (Rolf, Johnson, I s r a e l ,  reveal that learning  family  children  dreams of these  participants  r e f l e c t t h e i r s c h o o l performance. Dreams are not  t o expose a l l the experiences of c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s .  able  165 T h a r i n g e r and Koranek (1988), and Werner (1985) r e p o r t t h a t not a l l c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s are a f f e c t e d  similarly.  Some of these c h i l d r e n are more r e s i l i e n t than o t h e r s . The c h i l d ' s coping s t y l e e f f e c t s how  the c h i l d d e a l s w i t h  p a r e n t a l a l c o h o l i s m . Zimrin (1986) b e l i e v e s t h a t  how  c h i l d r e n view s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s , o t h e r ' s r e a c t i o n s t o t h e i r behaviour, and c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e f s about t h e i r to  ability  deal with situations a l l a f f e c t t h e i r r e s i l i e n c y .  f i n d s t h a t r e s i l i e n t c h i l d r e n who  She  cope w i t h abuse b e l i e v e  t h e y have c o n t r o l i n t h e i r l i v e s . T h e r e f o r e , they have h i g h s e l f - i m a g e s , good c o g n i t i v e performances,  presence of hope  i n t h e i r f a n t a s i e s , b e l l i g e r e n t behaviour, no  self-  d e s t r u c t i v e behaviours, support o f a d u l t s , and have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a younger s i b l i n g . The c h i l d r e n who  are  not r e s i l i e n t i n coping with abuse have d i f f i c u l t y e x p r e s s i n g emotions and e s t a b l i s h i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and  are  h i g h l y a g g r e s s i v e . Both the 11 year o l d g i r l and the 13 year old  girl  (who had 12 dreams) do not b e l i e v e they have  c o n t r o l i n t h e i r l i v e s . Only the 13 year o l d g i r l  displays  hope, i n her l a s t dream, when she escapes death and  an  oncoming h u r r i c a n e . The 13 year o l d g i r l a l s o dreams of harm to  her body, which i s s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e . The  11 year o l d g i r l  does not f e e l she has the support of a d u l t s because they b e t r a y her and are untrustworthy. These two g i r l s may more a t r i s k f o r not being a b l e t o cope as e f f e c t i v e l y the r e s i l i e n t c h i l d r e n who  have the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  be as  166 mentioned by Zimrin.  The 12 year o l d p a r t i c i p a n t has  d i f f i c u l t y w i t h her peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i s p h y s i c a l l y aggressive.  T h i s i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of n o n - r e s i l i e n t  c h i l d r e n . However, she a l s o expresses hope i n h e r dreams when she escapes the Abbotsford k i l l e r . (who  The 13 year o l d g i r l  has 6 dreams) d i s p l a y s a degree o f c o n t r o l i n h e r  dreams, when she h e l p s a boy, a c t i v e l y seeks support from f r i e n d s , and d i s c u s s e s  the i s s u e o f her f r i e n d moving away.  At o t h e r times she has no c o n t r o l i n her dreams, such as when her r e q u e s t s t o her mother have no e f f e c t ( i . e . , her mother does not r e t u r n t o g e t t h e dropped baby). Based on Z i m r i n ' s f i n d i n g s , I would say t h i s p a r t i c i p a n t ' s dreams have r e s i l i e n t q u a l i t i e s t o overcome the e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g the c h i l d o f an a l c o h o l i c . The 9 year o l d boy i s q u i t e a c t i v e i n h i s dreams. He makes s e v e r a l attempts and t r i e s d i f f e r e n t approaches t o s o l v i n g problems. He a l s o has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a younger s i b l i n g , who goes t o s c h o o l w i t h him. However, i t appears from h i s dreams t h a t when h i s p a r e n t s a r e not home he has t o o much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , as he c a r e s f o r 3 younger s i b l i n g s . He a l s o d i s p l a y s  self-  d e s t r u c t i v e behaviour when he s t e a l s c a r s . Nonetheless, he i s n o t h i g h l y a g g r e s s i v e i n h i s dreams. A c c o r d i n g t o Z i m r i n ' s o u t l i n e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f r e s i l i e n c y , h i s dreams suggest t h a t he i s l e a n i n g towards t h e r e s i l i e n t p e r s o n a l i t y . These p a r t i c i p a n t s dreams i n d i c a t e  varying  degrees o f r e s i l i e n c y i n d e a l i n g w i t h a l c o h o l i c p a r e n t s .  167 P a r e n t a l a l c o h o l i s m a f f e c t s each c h i l d d i f f e r e n t l y . are many other f a c t o r s t h a t a s s i s t or h i n d e r  There  children's  r e s i l i e n c y , as o u t l i n e d on page 25-26. L i m i t a t i o n s of Study T h i s study i s conducted with few  c h i l d r e n . The  c o l l e c t e d dreams r e f l e c t a small sample of the  experiences  of c h i l d r e n l i v i n g with a r e c o v e r i n g a l c o h o l i c p a r e n t . sample i n c l u d e s f o u r 11 t o 13 year o l d g i r l s and year o l d boy.  D i f f e r e n c e s between male and  one  gender. Due  13,  9 nine  female dreams  have been noted. Foulkes (1982) f i n d s t h a t boys and between the ages of 11 and  The  girls,  each dream more of t h e i r  own  t o a s m a l l sample s i z e and a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e  gender r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , confidence,  i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o determine w i t h  gender d i f f e r e n c e s . As w e l l , t h i s sample i s a  s e l e c t group, r e p r e s e n t i n g only the F i r s t N a t i o n s c u l t u r e , which l i m i t s The  generalizability.  l e n g t h of time the mother was  abusing a l c o h o l i s  not known. Furthermore, the b i o l o g i c a l f a t h e r ' s h i s t o r y w i t h a l c o h o l i s unknown. These f a c t o r s impact the e f f e c t s of p a r e n t a l a l c o h o l i s m on c h i l d r e n (von K n o r r i n g , Therefore,  1991).  these c h i l d r e n ' s dreams would be a f f e c t e d by  t h e i r parents  d r i n k i n g h i s t o r y because dreams r e f l e c t  our  experiences. The  Strengths  of T h i s Study  In t h i s study, a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o s e p a r a t i n g younger c h i l d r e n from adolescents  due  t o t h e i r developmental  168 d i f f e r e n c e s . In p r i o r r e s e a r c h t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s not made (West & P r i n z , 1987). The q u a l i t a t i v e nature of  this  research h o l i s t i c a l l y incorporates v a r i a b l e s that coincide w i t h a l c o h o l i s m . These v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e : d i v o r c e , domestic v i o l e n c e , drug abuse, poverty, experience  and abuse. The  overall  of c h i l d r e n of r e c o v e r i n g a l c o h o l i c s i s p a r t i a l l y  r e v e a l e d i n t h e i r dreams. Some f a m i l y dynamics and f e e l i n g s are r e v e a l e d i n these p a r t i c i p a n t ' s dreams and  provide  i n f o r m a t i o n on c h i l d r e n of r e c o v e r i n g a l c o h o l i c s . example, the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s experience  For  with t h e i r p a r e n t s  f r i e n d s i s r e v e a l e d i n t h e i r dreams, as w e l l as how  much  c o n t r o l they b e l i e v e they have i n t h e i r l i v e s . T h i s a l s o addresses what the l i t e r a t u r e omits. T h i s  and  study  research  d e a l s w i t h the l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n on c h i l d r e n ' s dreams, young c h i l d r e n ' s experience r e p r e s e n t s a F i r s t Nations  of a l c o h o l i c p a r e n t s , c h i l d population.  and  Furthermore,  t h i s dream data p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o c h i l d r e n ' s experiences  of l i v i n g with an a l c o h o l i c parent.  i n f o r m a t i o n i s important  because c h i l d r e n ' s dreams r e v e a l  what i s o c c u r r i n g i n t h e i r homes, which they may otherwise  This  not  t a l k about. Recommendations For Future  I t would be both i n t e r e s t i n g and  Research i n f o r m a t i v e t o conduct  another study on the dreams of F i r s t Nations  c h i l d r e n from  r e c o v e r i n g a l c o h o l i c homes, u s i n g a l a r g e r sample s i z e , c o l l e c t i n g dreams over a s h o r t e r time p e r i o d . T h i s would  and  169 p r o v i d e a g r e a t e r number of experiences, which would make r e s u l t s more g e n e r a l i z a b l e . I a l s o recommend t h a t a study conducted p a r e n t who  examining  be  the dreams of c h i l d r e n from homes w i t h a  i s a p r a c t i s i n g a l c o h o l i c . The dreams, a c c o r d i n g  t o t h i s study, would r e v e a l what the dreamers a r e d e a l i n g w i t h i n t h e i r l i v e s and a t home. Since the c h i l d r e n ' s dreams i n t h i s study d i d not r e v e a l t h a t they were from t h e  First  N a t i o n s c u l t u r e , a study of c h i l d r e n ' s dreams l i v i n g on a r e s e r v e might r e v e a l some c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . I t would a l s o be b e n e f i c i a l t o r e p l i c a t e t h i s study w i t h younger c h i l d r e n t o see what t h e i r dreams r e v e a l of t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s l i v i n g w i t h an a l c o h o l i c p a r e n t . Once these p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d i e s are done, f u r t h e r s t u d i e s can be conducted t o f a c i l i t a t e r e s i l i e n c y of c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s , by u s i n g F i r s t Nations elements.  cultural  The use of F i r s t Nations symbols or b e l i e f s can  taught t o i n t e g r a t e i n t o c h i l d r e n ' s dream imagery.  be  This  p r o c e s s i s c a l l e d l u c i d dreaming. L u c i d dreaming means l e a r n i n g t o c o n t r o l one's dreams (LaBerge & Rheingold, 1990). For example, c h i l d r e n c o u l d be asked t o i d e n t i f y w i t h an animal, such as a bear. They c o u l d u t i l i z e the bear symbol t o empower them with enough s t r e n g t h t o d e a l w i t h a s i t u a t i o n i n t h e i r l i v e s . A study such as t h i s would t h e r a p i s t s i f t h i s approach  tell  i s beneficial in assisting  c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s t o cope. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n would be v a l u a b l e f o r use i n the c o u n s e l l i n g of F i r s t  Nations  170 c h i l d r e n . Furthermore, u s i n g dreams b r i n g s back the h i s t o r i c a l use  of t a k i n g a c t i o n from dreams  Native  (Kilborne,  1990) . I m p l i c a t i o n s For The  Counselling  f i n d i n g s r e v e a l t h a t dreams are a v a l u a b l e  of i n f o r m a t i o n  source  about the experiences of c h i l d r e n of  a l c o h o l i c s . The  i s s u e s and concerns c h i l d r e n have i n t h e i r  l i v e s are exposed i n t h e i r dreams. Once t h e r a p i s t s know what a c h i l d i s dealing with i n t h e i r l i f e , address the c h i l d ' s needs. I d i d not child's l i f e , a parent who  they can  better  i n q u i r e about  the  except t o a s c e r t a i n t h a t they were l i v i n g w i t h i s a r e c o v e r i n g a l c o h o l i c . The  dreams r e v e a l  some of t h e i r concerns such as, poverty, p a r e n t a l  absence,  and  obtain  domestic v i o l e n c e . T h e i r dreams are a t o o l t o  information  these c h i l d r e n may  not otherwise convey t o a  c o u n s e l l o r . Dreams a l s o d e p i c t more e l u s i v e d e t a i l s about t h e s e c h i l d r e n ' s l i v e s t h a t they might not understand. R o l e r e v e r s a l i s one  example. The  c h i l d takes on the  adult's  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Without the dream, the c h i l d may  not be  t o r e l a t e t h i s t o a c o u n s e l l o r because the c h i l d may  able  not  r e a l i z e what i s happening i n the f a m i l y . For example, a c h i l d s u f f e r i n g from abuse may  not r e a l i z e i t i s wrong u n t i l  he d i s c u s s e s the abuse w i t h someone who it  can  inform him  that  i s not a l r i g h t and he needs h e l p . One  dream may  expose a c h i l d ' s i s s u e , but a s e r i e s of  c o l l e c t e d dreams f u r t h e r confirms the c h i l d ' s  experiences.  171 Gathering  data about the c h i l d ' s l i f e through dreams i s a l s o  b e n e f i c i a l because no one  t a l k s about, or admits, t h a t  i s a problem w i t h a l c o h o l before recovery  happens i n  f a m i l i e s . There i s a l s o no acknowledgement of other t h a t sometimes a r i s e with a l c o h o l i s m , p h y s i c a l , sexual,or  for  emotional abuse. The  use  of dreams t o life  and  use of dreams i s p r o d u c t i v e  o n l y f o r g a i n i n g knowledge about the e f f e c t s of alcoholism,  could  c o u n s e l l i n g w i t h the c h i l d  f a m i l y t o begin e a r l i e r . The  problems  instance,  a s s e s s what the c h i l d i s d e a l i n g with i n her enable i n t e r v e n t i o n s and  there  not  parental  but a l s o f o r other problems t h a t a r i s e i n  families. Dreams p o r t r a y c o n f l i c t s t h a t a r i s e i n a c h i l d ' s for  day,  example, q u a r r e l s w i t h a f r i e n d . Through dreams,  c h i l d r e n a l s o process t h e i r f e a r s t h a t a r i s e from r e a l dangers such as kidnappers and k i l l e r s on the l o o s e .  life  The  dream can be an assessment t o o l t o provoke d i s c u s s i o n about any  concerns t h a t a r i s e i n c h i l d r e n ' s  lives.  A study by M o r r i s o n (1990) c o l l e c t e d dreams from recovering  a l c o h o l i c s . He  alcoholism  can be f o l l o w e d  f i n d s that recovery  from  i n dreams, which he c a l l s  Mapping i n Chemical Dependency.' There are f i v e Pandora's Box, When a b s t i n e n c e  Dragon F i g h t , R e b i r t h , Descent and  stages: Return.  begins, dreams are predominantly a t  stage of pandora's box  and  'Dream  the  i n v o l v e themes of a l i e n a t i o n ,  v i o l e n c e , m u t i l a t i o n , b i z a r r e s e x u a l i t y and p e r s e c u t i o n .  The  172 next stage i n v o l v e s c o n f r o n t i n g and f i g h t i n g f e a r , and  this  i s termed Dragon F i g h t . T h i s stage c o n s i s t s of a c c e p t i n g one's d e n i a l of the problem and acknowledging the a d d i c t i o n . The themes t h a t occur a t t h i s stage a r e : b a t t l e s , s t r u g g l e f o r c o n t r o l of s e l f , and r e l i n q u i s h i n g the v i c t i m r o l e .  In  R e b i r t h stage, an a d d i c t might f e e l cured, but she i s s t i l l i n the r e c o v e r y process. Dreams, a t t h i s stage, might be of new  l i v i n g spaces, p o s i t i v e movement, acceptance,  presence,  rescue, ownership and p o s i t i v e  spiritual  self-  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The next stage e n t a i l s Descent.  The  dreamer  f e e l s t h a t he w i l l r e l a p s e i n t o the a d d i c t i o n , but he i s s t r o n g e r and maintains h i s hope of r e c o v e r y . The dreams i n t h i s stage c o n s i s t of f e e l i n g c o g n i t i v e dissonance  and  g u i l t . F i n a l l y , the Return stage i s where the a d d i c t has more c o n t r o l of h i m s e l f . The dreams i n t h i s phase r e f l e c t forward movement, ownership, d i s c o v e r i e s , new  and  positive  behaviours, a sense of wholeness, f e e l i n g s of w e l l - b e i n g and awareness of growth. I f stages c o u l d be s i m i l a r l y mapped i n c h i l d r e n who used  l i v e w i t h an a l c o h o l i c parent, they c o u l d be  i n the c o u n s e l l i n g process. A study t o see i f t h i s i s  t r u e would be b e n e f i c i a l . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o see i f the c h i l d ' s stages of h e a l i n g , i n t h e i r dreams, c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e i r parents recovery. Morrison  (1990) f i n d s t h a t t o  o b t a i n the stages of the recovery p r o c e s s , the c o l l e c t i o n of dreams needs t o be between 90 and 180 A l l of the c h i l d r e n who  days.  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the  study  173  enjoyed being  able t o t e l l someone t h e i r dreams. I t was  important f o r them t o have someone l i s t e n and be i n t e r e s t e d i n them. T h i s i s s u p p o r t i v e  in itself.  Conclusion T h i s study confirms the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s dreams r e f l e c t t h e i r l i v e s and the s t r e s s e s t h a t they daily  (e.g., Albon  SE  Mack,  1980).  face  The dreams a l s o r e v e a l  s p e c i f i c i s s u e s and concerns t h a t these c h i l d r e n of recovering  a l c o h o l i c s a r e d e a l i n g with,  such as abandonment,  abuse, domestic v i o l e n c e , and r o l e - r e v e r s a l . There a r e no i n d i c a t o r s i n these c h i l d r e n ' s dreams t o suggest t h e y a r e from F i r s t Nations c u l t u r e . As w e l l , t h e r e a r e no themes o f p a r e n t a l a l c o h o l i s m present c h i l d r e n of recovering which a r e r e v e a l e d  i n t h e dreams o f these  a l c o h o l i c s . The c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n s ,  i n t h e i r dreams, r e f l e c t f e e l i n g unsafe,  powerless, p e s s i m i s t i c , p a s s i v e , worried, Despite  strong  these p e r c e p t i o n s ,  and  scared.  some c h i l d r e n a r e a l s o a b l e t o  e x p e r i e n c e some happy f e e l i n g s and events i n t h e i r dreams. Furthermore, some c h i l d r e n a l s o have some successes i n t h e a c t i o n s they take i n t h e i r dreams. T h i s study  provides  i n s i g h t i n t o t h e l i f e experiences of c h i l d r e n of r e c o v e r i n g a l c o h o l i c s without d i r e c t l y asking and p r o b i n g f o r information.  Dreams can provide  a means t o d i s c o v e r and  discuss family issues that require intervention. t h i s study confirms Catalano's  (1984)  Further,  f i n d i n g t h a t dreams  r e f l e c t how a c h i l d copes with t h e i r c o n f l i c t s . 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P s y c h o l o g i s t s and c h i l d r e n o f a l c o h o l i c p a r e n t s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Reports. 64(3). 859-579. R e i c h , W., E a r l s , F., & Powell (1988). A comparison of the home and s o c i a l environments of c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c and n o n - a l c o h o l i c p a r e n t s . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of A d d i c t i o n . 83(7), 831-839. Roberts, M. K. (1985). Worlds and world r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Advances i n D e s c r i p t i v e Psychology. 4. 17-53. R o l f , J . E., Johnson, J . L., I s r a e l , E., Baldwin J . , & Chandra, A. (1988). Depressive a f f e c t i n school-aged c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of A d d i c t i o n . 83(7) , 841-848. R u b i o - S t i p e c , M., B i r d , H., Canino, G., Bravo, M., & A l e g r i a , M. (1991). C h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c p a r e n t s i n the community. J o u r n a l of S t u d i e s on A l c o h o l . 52(1), 78-88. Schumacher, S. J . , & McMillan, J . H. (1993). Research i n e d u c a t i o n : a conceptual i n t r o d u c t i o n (3rd e d . ) . New York: HarperCollins College Publishers. Seilhamer, R. A., Jacob, T., & Dunn, N. J . (1993). The impact of a l c o h o l consumption of p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n f a m i l i e s of a l c o h o l i c s . J o u r n a l of S t u d i e s on A l c o h o l . 54(2), 189-198. Shaywitz, S. E., Cohen, D. J . & Shaywitz, P. A. (1980). Behaviour and l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c h i l d r e n of normal i n t e l l i g e n c e born t o a l c o h o l i c mothers. The J o u r n a l o f P e d i a t r i c s . 196(6). 978-982. S p i e g e l , S. (1994). An a l t e r n a t i v e t o dream i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i t h c h i l d r e n . Contemporary P s y c h o a n a l y s i s . 30(2), 385-395. S t a t i s t i c s Canada (1993). Language, t r a d i t i o n , h e a l t h , l i f e s t y l e and s o c i a l i s s u e s : 1991 a b o r i g i n a l peoples survey (No. 89-533). Ottawa, O n t a r i o : Author. T h a r i n g e r , D. J . , & Koranek, M. E. (1988). C h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s — a t r i s k and unserved; a review o f r e s e a r c h and s e r v i c e r o l e s f o r s c h o o l p s y c h o l o g i s t s . School Psychology Review. 17(1). 166-191.  179 von K n o r r i n g , A. L. (1991). Annotation: c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s . J o u r n a l of C h i l d Psychology and P s y c h i a t r y and A l l i e d D i s c i p l i n e s . 32(3). 411-421. Welner, Z., & R i c e , J . (1988). School-aged c h i l d r e n of depressed p a r e n t s : a b l i n d and c o n t r o l l e d study. J o u r n a l of A f f e c t i v e D i s o r d e r s . 15(3). 291-302. Werner, E.E. (1986). R e s i l i e n t o f f s p r i n g of a l c o h o l i c s : a l o n g i t u d i n a l study from b i r t h t o age 18. J o u r n a l of S t u d i e s on A l c o h o l . 47(1). 34-40. West, M. 0., & P r i n z , R. (1988). P a r e n t a l a l c o h o l i s m and c h i l d h o o d psychopathology. Annual Progress i n c h i l d P s y c h i a t r y and Development. 278-314. Winget, C , & Kramer, M. (1979). Dimensions of dreams. G a i n e s v i l l e , F l o r i d a : U n i v e r s i t y Presses of F l o r i d a . Winson, J . (1990, November). The meaning of dreams. S c i e n t i f i c American. 86-96. Woodside, M. (1988). Research on c h i l d r e n of a l c o h o l i c s : past and f u t u r e . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of A d d i c t i o n . 83 (7), 785-792. Yama, M. F., Tovey, S. L., Fogas, B. S., & Teegarden, L. A., (1992). J o i n t consequences of p a r e n t a l a l c o h o l i s m and c h i l d h o o d sexual abuse, and t h e i r p a r t i a l mediation by f a m i l y environment. V i o l e n c e and V i c t i m s . 7 ( 4 ) . 313-325. Yates, A. (1988). Current s t a t u s and f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s of r e s e a r c h on the american i n d i a n c h i l d . Annual P r o g r e s s i n C h i l d P s y c h i a t r y and Development. 315-331. Young, R. A., F r i e s e n , J . D., & B o r y c k i , B. (1994). N a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e and p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e i n c a r e e r development. J o u r n a l of Adolescence. 17. 173-191. Z i m r i n , H. (1986). A p r o f i l e of s u r v i v a l . C h i l d Abuse and N e g l e c t . 10. 339-349.  180 Appendix A Faraday's (1974) Recommendations f o r Keeping a Dream D i a r y Keep your book and pen b e s i d e your bed. Date your r e c o r d i n g paper i n advance. a)  Before going t o bed r e l a x and t e l l y o u r s e l f you w i l l remember your dreams.  b)  Repeat the f o l l o w i n g more than once: " I w i l l wake up w i t h a dream i n mind i n t h e morning, and I w i l l w r i t e i t down r i g h t away."  c)  F a l l a s l e e p remembering these words you r e p e a t e d to  a)  yourself.  Wake up slowly, l i e t h e r e and a l l o w your dream memory t o come t o you.  b)  As you remember what happened i n your dream you w i l l remember  more.  W r i t e down your dream as soon as you wake up w h i l e you are  i n bed.  a)  W r i t e down the f e e l i n g s you had i n t h e dream.  b)  How d i d you f e e l when you woke up?  181 Appendix B Parent and C h i l d Consent  Form  T h i s l e t t e r of consent was typed on a U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia l e t t e r head* Dear  ,  T h i s i s a l e t t e r t o p r o v i d e you w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n f o r c o n s e n t i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n my r e s e a r c h on c h i l d r e n ' s dreams. The t i t l e o f my p r o j e c t i s c a l l e d , " E x p l o r i n g t h e Dream L i f e o f F i r s t Nations C h i l d r e n From A l c o h o l Dependency Homes." T h i s r e s e a r c h i s conducted by myself, G e r a l d i n e A t l e o under t h e s u p e r v i s i o n of Dr. John A l l a n . He and I can be reached a t t h e Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology (8225259). I am o f F i r s t Nations descent from t h e Tsimshian and Nuu-Chah-Nulth t r i b e s . I am conducting t h i s r e s e a r c h as p a r t of my Master's degree f o r c o u n s e l l i n g psychology a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The purpose o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i s t o examine from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e c h i l d through h i s o r her dreams t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f l i v i n g w i t h a parent who i s a l c o h o l i c . I am a l s o doing t h i s r e s e a r c h as a p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t t o a s s i s t N a t i v e c h i l d r e n and r e v i v e t h e use of dreams because i t i s an important p a r t of N a t i v e c u l t u r e t h a t can be a h e a l i n g t o o l . With your p e r m i s s i o n and your c h i l d ' s consent, your c h i l d w i l l be a p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h e study. Your c h i l d w i l l be g i v e n a book t o j o t down some words about t h e i r dreams when he o r she wakes up i n t h e morning. On t h a t same day I w i l l i n t e r v i e w your c h i l d t o have him or h e r t e l l me t h e s t o r y of t h e i r dream. T h i s i n t e r v i e w w i l l take p l a c e a t your home. T h i s w i l l be audio taped so t h a t I may t r a n s c r i b e t h e dream f o r data c o l l e c t i o n . The tapes w i l l be d e s t r o y e d a f t e r completion o f t h e study. The tapes w i l l a l s o be number coded to keep t h e i d e n t i t y and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t (your c h i l d ) . I w i l l ask your c h i l d t o p a r t i c i p a t e over a f o u r week p e r i o d . Interviews w i l l take p l a c e o n l y when your c h i l d remembers a dream and t h e i n t e r v i e w w i l l l a s t approximately a h a l f hour. When t h e f o u r week p e r i o d i s over f o r c o l l e c t i n g dreams, I w i l l g i v e your c h i l d $50 f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n my p r o j e c t . I w i l l a l s o p r o v i d e you a summary o f my f i n d i n g a f t e r I analyze t h e dream d a t a .  1 of 2  182 your c h i l d has a r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o p a r t i c i p a t e and withdraw from t h e study a t any time. Your c h i l d ' s involvement i s completely v o l u n t a r y . Before s t a r t i n g , and throughout t h e study, I w i l l be happy t o meet with you and your c h i l d t o answer any q u e s t i o n s . P l e a s e c i r c l e below whether you g i v e consent f o r your c h i l d t o p a r t i c i p a t e or not, then s i g n and date your d e c i s i o n . Thank-you. Sincerely,  Geraldine Atleo,  Researcher  I have read and understand the above and I g i v e c o n s e n t / I do not g i v e consent f o r my c h i l d , p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s research.  Date  to  Guardian s i g n a t u r e  ( c h i l d ' s name) have had t h e above e x p l a i n e d t o me and I understand and I agree t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study.  Date  Child's signature  Tear o f f and g i v e t o r e s e a r c h e r when you have r e c e i v e d you copy. Furthermore, we have r e c e i v e d a copy of the consent  Date  form.  Guardian s i g n a t u r e 2 of 2  183 Appendix C Posting to Recruit T h i s P o s t i n g was Head.  Volunteers  on a U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L e t t e r VOLUNTEERS NEEDED  H i , my name i s G e r a l d i n e A t l e o , I am doing a Master of A r t s i n C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. As p a r t of my degree, I am r e s e a r c h i n g c h i l d r e n ' s dreams. The t i t l e of my r e s e a r c h i s c a l l e d , " e x p l o r i n g the Dream L i f e of F i r s t Nations C h i l d r e n From A l c o h o l Dependency Homes. 11  I have an i n t e r e s t i n F i r s t Nations c u l t u r e and the h e a l i n g power of dreams. I am of Nuu-Chah-Nulth and Tsimshian descent. I am l o o k i n g f o r c h i l d r e n who remember t h e i r dreams and c h i l d r e n between the ages of 9 and 12. A l s o , i f you have a p a r t n e r who has an a l c o h o l dependency or you b e l i e v e him or her t o consume a l c o h o l too much, I would be i n t e r e s t e d i n h e a r i n g your c h i l d ' s dreams. Your c h i l d w i l l be asked t o t e l l me about h i s or her dream. T h i s would be audio taped and t r a n s c r i b e d i n order t o observe p a t t e r n s i n these c h i l d r e n ' s dreams. C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y w i l l be kept and the audiotapes w i l l be number coded. I w i l l be c o l l e c t i n g your c h i l d ' s dream r e p o r t s over a f o u r week p e r i o d and I w i l l arrange t o i n t e r v i e w your c h i l d , by phone, on the day he or she had the dream. At the end of the f o u r week p e r i o d , I w i l l g i v e your c h i l d $50 f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n my p r o j e c t . I w i l l a l s o p r o v i d e you with a summary of the r e s u l t s I f i n d when I am f i n i s h e d my data a n a l y s i s of the dreams c o l l e c t e d . I f your c h i l d i s F i r s t nations and you are i n t e r e s t e d i n a s s i s t i n g me t o l e a r n about c h i l d r e n ' s dreams, p l e a s e l e a v e your name and number f o r me with the department of c o u n s e l l i n g psychology a t 822-5259. My a d v i s e r i s Dr. John A l l a n . I w i l l r e t u r n your c a l l . Thank-you f o r your i n t e r e s t . IF YOU HAVE AN ALCOHOLIC PARTNER YOU HAVE A CHILD BETWEEN THE AGES OF 9 AND 12 YOUR CHILD REMEMBERS HIS DREAMS AND YOU ARE OF FIRST NATIONS DESCENT PLEASE CALL 822-5259 AND LEAVE A MESSAGE FOR GERALDINE ATLEO $50 WILL BE GIVEN FOR PARTICIPATING IN MY STUDY  184 Appendix D G u i d e l i n e Questions f o r T e r m i n a t i n g with P a r t i c i p a n t 1. What d i d i t f e e l l i k e t o share your dreams? 2. D i d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study a f f e c t you i n any way? a) Do you remember your dreams more o r l e s s ? 3. D i d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study a f f e c t your  family?  4. What do you t h i n k o f dreams? 5. What w i l l you do with your dreams a f t e r t h i s  study?  185 Appendix E Summary of F i n d i n g s t o Parents T h i s l e t t e r t o parents was typed on a U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h Columbia L e t t e r head. Dear Parents, T h i s l e t t e r i s t o inform you of t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e study your c h i l d p a r t i c i p a t e d i n c a l l e d , " E x p l o r i n g t h e Dream L i f e o f F i r s t Nations C h i l d r e n From R e c o v e r i n g A l c o h o l i c Homes." F i r s t I would l i k e t o thank you f o r a l l o w i n g me t o come i n t o your home t o i n t e r v i e w your c h i l d , and l e a r n from your c h i l d ' s dreams. I am g r a t e f u l t o your c h i l d f o r s h a r i n g her dreams with me over a 4 week p e r i o d . In my study I had a t o t a l o f 5 c h i l d r e n between t h e ages o f 9 and 13. There was 1 boy and 4 g i r l s . The c h i l d r e n remembered between 4 and 19 dreams over a f o u r week p e r i o d . I a n a l y z e d t h e i r dreams i n d i v i d u a l l y , and then d i d a summary of each c h i l d ' s s e r i e s of dreams. F i n a l l y , I d i d an o v e r a l l comparison o f a l l 5 c h i l d r e n ' s dreams. My r e s u l t s a r e d e s c r i p t i v e o f what t h e c h i l d r e n ' s dreams r e v e a l . The dreams of each c h i l d v a r i e d , and t h e r e were o n l y a few s i m i l a r i t i e s between c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n ' s dreams showed t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s and how they viewed themselves and o t h e r s . The dreams o f these c h i l d r e n d i d not r e v e a l predominant themes of a l c o h o l . The dreams a l s o d i d not r e v e a l t h a t t h e s e c h i l d r e n were o f F i r s t Nations descent. There were no N a t i v e c u l t u r a l themes p r e s e n t i n t h e i r dreams. These c h i l d r e n ' s dreams i n d i c a t e d t h e i r d a i l y concerns, such as q u a r r e l l i n g w i t h f r i e n d s . T h e i r dreams showed t h e concerns and f e a r s they had when an event was mentioned i n t h e media, and when they were forewarned t o be c a r e f u l . The c h i l d r e n ' s p e r s o n a l w o r r i e s were a l s o e v i d e n t i n t h e i r dreams, such as l o s i n g a pet, o r a f r i e n d . More s e r i o u s l y , t h e i r dreams conveyed o t h e r i s s u e s t h a t sometimes c o i n c i d e w i t h a l c o h o l i s m , such as abuse, domestic v i o l e n c e , and p a r e n t a l absence. Not a l l of t h e c h i l d r e n had these experiences. Nonetheless, these c h i l d r e n were p r o c e s s i n g t h e i r experiences i n t h e i r dreams. D e s p i t e these grave concerns, some o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s dreams i n d i c a t e d some very p o s i t i v e a c t i o n taken by t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r dreams. They took s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t approaches t o problem s o l v i n g . Some of t h e c h i l d r e n ' s dreams d i s p l a y e d them f e e l i n g empowered and having hope i n t h e i r dreams. A t o t h e r times, t h e c h i l d r e n d i d not see themselves as b e i n g a b l e t o a f f e c t t h e i r environment.  186 T h i s was an e x p l o r a t o r y study. A much l a r g e r study would need t o be conducted t o f i n d s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e dreams o f c h i l d r e n of r e c o v e r i n g a l c o h o l i c s . In summary, I do b e l i e v e t h a t t h e use of dreams can a s s i s t c o u n s e l l o r s t o determine t h e c h i l d ' s needs and t o address t h e c h i l d ' s concerns. I t i s unfortunate t h a t t h e dreams d i d not r e v e a l any F i r s t Nations themes. Perhaps, f u t u r e r e s e a r c h can determine a way t o use Native c u l t u r e t o a s s i s t c h i l d r e n t o use t h e i r dreams as a h e a l i n g t o o l . I f you have any questions, p l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o l e a v e a message f o r me a t the Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology (822-5259), and I w i l l r e t u r n your c a l l t o answer any q u e s t i o n s . I w i l l be on h o l i d a y i n August and September. Thank you again f o r your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n my r e s e a r c h study. Sincerely,  Geraldine  Atleo  

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