UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The motavation of male batterers and battered wives: a multi-case study using story sequence analysis Kelly, Lillian Mary 1993

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata


831-ubc_1994-0088.pdf [ 6.55MB ]
JSON: 831-1.0054053.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0054053-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0054053-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0054053-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0054053-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0054053-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0054053-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

THE MOTIVATION OF MALE BATTERERS AND BATTERED WIVES (A Multi-Case Study Using Story Sequence Analysis)  by  LILLIAN MARY KELLY  B.A. Simon Fraser University, 1987  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Counselling Psychology)  We accept this thesis as conforming to he r  uirec standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1993 Lillian Mary Kelly, 1993  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the department  or  by  his  or  her  representatives.  an advanced shall make it for extensive head of my  It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  (Sig  Department of  4 Ji 449 ‘  .I1’  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE.6 (2/88)  /9  Abstract  This multi-case study explored the motivation patterns of 11 battered women and 3 male batterers. The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and Arnold’s story sequence analysis were utilized to obtain and analyze a series of 13 stories from each subject. Story imports were extrapolated from the subject’s story sequence to expose the motivating attitudes and were matched to a scoring criteria. The motivating attitudes form a pattern delineated in clinical evaluations. Then the imports and clinical evaluations of the battered women and male batterers were matched in a cross-case analysis of their respective groups. Finally, as a comparative validity measure, the cross-case analyses for each group were matched to the attitudes, values, and behaviors attributed to each group in the research literature. The battered wives, and the male batterers demonstrated negative motivation patterns. Therefore Arnold’s passive, pessimistic, self-centered, and malicious negative motivation pattern descriptions were used in the cross-case analyses. Negative passive and pessimistic patterns of motivation were common across both groups expressing a lack of contingency between actions and outcome, and pessimistic beliefs that one cannot overcome adversity by one’s own actions. These patterns matched learned helplessness that research has associated with battered wives, and depression, low self-esteem, and external locus of control attributed to male batterers. These results indicated that both battered women and  11  male batterers have likely developed learned helplessness through their histories of family of origin violence. Additional results included patterns of motivation for the battered women matching the attributes of post-traumatic stress syndrome. The male batterers showed two patterns of motivation positive, passive, and pessimistic pattern and passive, pessimistic with self-centered and malicious motivation,  which  match the  typical, and the narcissistic/anti-social types found for batterers in other research. This study, though exploratory in nature, contributes clarity to a vast and unwieldy theory on wife battering by revealing the underlying motivation of batterers and battered wives, and by exposing the correspondence of differing theoretical views to the same motivation patterns. Therefore the common motivation patterns found in this study provided a more clear analysis of the problems in living for battered women and male batterers. These motivation patterns can provide guidance regarding the dysfunction of these clients that can be utilized by clinicians in designing effective treatment for the problems of male batterers and of battered wives. Additionally the motivation patterns revealed through the TAT and story sequence analysis are effective and efficient means for accessing tacit self-knowledge that calls for further research.  111  Table of Contents i\b strac t  ii  Table of Contents i\c1criov.’1ec1gerrieii.ts  iji  El11?’FEl. cISfF Background. of the Study latioriale for tli.e Stuclr ‘I’h.e R.esearcIi ()jiestions Overview of Design and Method Delimitations of the Study I)efiniitionis of Teriii.s CHAPTER TWO: RFVIE’vV OF THE LITERATURE SECTION 1: THE THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST (TAT) Background On The TAT Research Firicliiigs on the T!.T Conclusions on Psychoanalytic Theory and Theme Scoring of the T\’I’ Arnold’s Answer: Story Sequence Analysis j\rriolcl’s Theoretical Base Imagination Functioning in Stories and Behavior j.ttituIes aiicl. Corrvictionis I\iotivttioii Emotions, Values, and Attitudes Arnold’s Personality Theory Story Sequence Analysis Method (Arnold, 1962) Fonuulating Story Imports and Sequences. Positive and Negative Imports Import Formulation, Scoring, and the Scoring Criteria Scoring and the Motiation Index C liniical EiaIuation Skill of the Interpreter Reliability and Validity of Story Sequence Analysis  1 1 17 8 9 10 15 15 15 17  iv  22 23 24 24 26 27 28 29 30 32 35 36 38 39 41 42  Development of the Scoring Criteria Reliability of the Motivation Index Summary of Validity and Reliability of Arnold’s }.‘Ietlicc1 CHAPTER TWO. REVIEW OF THE L1TEPATURE: SECTION TWO: THE MOTIVATION OF BATTERING HUSBANDS AND v&vuI\TES Motivation Theory and Wife Battering Research Overview Of The Etiology Of Wife Battering Motivation Patterns of Battered Women: An Iiitrocltictiorr Husbands Who Batter Their Wives Common Attitudes Values And Behavior Of Men V\7h.o Batter Wives Who Are Battered By Their Husbands The Motivation Patterns Of Women Who Have Been Battered Surnriiar’ of the Chapter CI-I...P’T’ER. 3: I\4E1’HODOLOG-Y Sy’nopsis Of The I.esearch Iesigii Iatioriile For TIie 1esigri’ Iristri..irrients IJsed.o 1escrijtion Of Participants Process Of Participant Selectiorr  Eita Colleciioi:r Dta i\rlal3fsis Coding And Arnold’s Scoring Criteria Training And Accuracy Of The Researchers Irnports Scoring And The Motivation Index Clinical Case Evaluations Cross-Case Analysis The Cross-case Analyses Results Compared to the Known Characteristics in the Research Literature C I{/\P’I’EI. FOTJR: RFSIJLI’S Ili Case Stitdies The Case Studies: Battered Wives  v  .48 .49  54 54 58 59 61 63 75  77 89 91 91 91 93 96 96  99 1C)C) 101 101 103 103 104 106 108 108 108 108  .116 .123 130 75.136 A76 1’41 .147 ...  •  \A 7 1 8... 1 54‘A79. 160  X,,\i 10..... 165 \7 1 1 171  Case Studies: The Battering Husbands  177 177’  I’/I2 vI3 CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION ‘rlie Research Findings Cross-case Findings: Battered Wives Cross-case Findings: Male Batterers Iiriiita.tioris of the St1Jdre hnplications for Theory The Motivation of Battered Wives: Comparison to the Research on Battered Wornerr The Motivation Patterns of Battering Husbands: Comparison to the Research on Batterers Implications for Practice Implications for Future Research Su1.ili.rrlar3’ of the Study’ IEFEI.1J:’JES .t\.PPENDI)( APPENDIX B: RESEARCH INFORMATION AND CONSENT FYR]vIS i’\  Vj  1 8’1189 196 196 196 200 203 205 205 210 2 16 218 218 223 232 306  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I thank the following people for their assistance, guidance, and support to me in the research and writing of this thesis.  I am grateful to Dr. Larry Cochran for his insight and his encouragement to do a study using the projective TAT test, and especially Arnold’s method of story sequence analysis, and her theory of motivation. Through doing this study I have learned exciting and useful skills for counselling, and for living. I thank the other members of my committee John Allan, and Du fay Der for their contributions. I thank the participants of this study who under difficult personal circumstances chose to volunteer their time and energy. I thank the group leaders, and the agency that supported this study. I give special thanks to Alan Smitten for his feedback on the imports, and support, and advice, and to Elizabeth Zafron for help with editing. Finally, I am deeply grateful to my husband, Jim Kelly, who has given me support, encouragement, feedback, and a listening ear throughout this long and challenging process.  ‘[ii  CHAFfER ONE:  INTRODUCTION  Background of the Study  This multi-case study explored the motivation patterns of battering husbands and battered wives. This study considered a question that has continued to plague and perplex people confronted with wife battering: “What would motivate these couples to create and maintain these painfully destructive relationships?” Wife assault and battering were once considered a rare problem of an abnormal couple, and yet it was sanctioned and tolerated as a private family matter. It has recently been recognized as social problem of epidemic proportions. In the U.S.A. nearly  two  million  women  were violently beaten by their  husbands each year according to a nationally representative 1977 survey (Straus, Gelles, & Steinmetz, 1977). The 1985 follow-up study showed only a 20% drop in wife battering hypothesized as due to the social action taken during that period to stop battering (Straus & Gelles, 1985). In Canada, one in ten  women  were repeatedly battered by their husbands  according to the findings of the Canadian Status of Women Report, 1982 (cited in Russell, 1988). Wife battering has been evident in many countries around the world and across all  2  social strata (Finkelhor, 1988: Straus, et al, 1977; Straus, Gelles, and Steinrnetz, 1980). Researchers considered these low estimates of wife battering incidents due to the reluctance to report it because of the attached social stigma (Finkethor, 1988; Straus et al, 1977;1980;1985; Thaxton, 1985;). Since the proportions of this problem emerged, researchers have explored its etiology and the question of what motivates battering husbands and battered wives. Common social beliefs that battering husbands were abnormal or psychopathological and that battered wives were masochistic have been disproved (Finkeihor, 1988; Gelles, 1990; Herman, 1991; Nichols, 1986; Stets, 1988; Rosenbaum, Cohen, & Forsstrom-Cohen,1990,). According to current psychological assessment criterion, neither batterers nor battered wives usually showed any particular clinical mental illness (Gondoif & Fisher, 1991; Herman, 1992; Nichols, 1986; Stets, 1988). Despite these findings, researchers recognized that many psychological problems exist for both partners, even though the partners were within the normal psychological profile. The research on the etiology of wife battering revealed a large number of individual, historic and situation variables that correlated with couple violence. These causes for both spouses were:  3  (1) social and environmental: (a) social values, (b) poverty syndrome, (c) stress, (d) crisis; (2) family history: (a) role modeling, (b) parental violence, (c) child abuse, (d) learned coping skills;  (3) current individual and family functioning: (a) isolation, (b) high dependency needs, (c) enmeshment, (d) dissimilar power, (e) rigid sex-roles/sex-role polarization, (f) high conflict, and (g) narrow coping responses (Berger, 1985; Finkelhor, 1988; Harris & Sinclair, 1981; Madden, 1985; Nichols, 1986; Rosenbaum et al, 1990; Stark & Flitcraft, 1988; Thaxton, 1985). Additional attributes are found for the individual spouses. Batterers, although within nonnal psychological limits, commonly reveal borderline personality symptornology, passive-aggressive tendencies, arid pathological jealousy, as well as, defective self-concepts, and spouse-specific assertion deficits (Herman, 1992, Stets, 1988; Rosenbaum et al, 1990). Battered wives are commonly found to have symptoms attributed to post-traumatic stress syndrome, such as depression, learned helplessness, and high stress or anxiety (Herman, 1992; Rosenbaum et al, 1990; Walker, 1983: 1984).  4  Rationale for the Study  The multi-determined causes attributed to wife battering reveal the complexity of the problem (Rosenbaurn et al, 1990). However, the etiology has had such a wide range of attributional causes that the theory has been unwieldy and confusing. Therefore the clinician who was designing a treatment plan for battering husbands and/or battered wives remains unguided. Researchers who recognized this problem  recommend that qualitative research be undertaken with clinical subjects to determine the treatment needed (Ammerman & Hersen, 1990; Everett, 1988; Gelles, 1990; Gondolf & Fisher, 1991; Rosenbaum et al, 1990; Straus, 1990). This study responded to these recommendations by using a multi-case study design which provided the scope to explore the complexities of the etiology of wife abuse, using a clinical group of participants. The studies of wife battering have been self-report surveys of the normal population (Straus, et al, 1977; 1980;1985) or self-report studies of women in shelters or programs for battered women (Gondoif & Fisher, 1991; Rosenbaum et al, 1990; Stets, 1988;). Relatively little research has been conducted with the batterers, but these studies were  5  also self-report studies (Gondolt 1985; Herman, 1992; Rosenbaum et al, 1990). However, research that has relied on self-report, has been limited to the conscious self-knowledge of the individual, and to their willingness to honestly report what may be shameful, or self-denigrating material. These limitations have seriously impaired the discovery of the motivation of battering husbands and battered wives, and have resulted in contradictory and confounding results (Walker, 1984). Therefore, methods of research have been required that tap the tacit motivation of these individuals. Psychological methods of discovering tacit self-knowledge began with Freud’s dream analysis and free association. Freud found that people revealed unconscious self-knowledge through the imagination and stream of consciousness. “The imaginal stream can be considered as one of the more characteristic ways in which an individual’s tacit selfknowledge is manifested” (Guidano, & Liotti, 1983, p.77). The imaginal stream of the unconscious has been tapped through the use of projective tests such as the Rorschach. Another extensively used form of projective testing has been a story telling test called the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) developed by Murray & Morgan, 1935. The TAT was developed into a method of tapping individual motivation by Arnold (1962). Arnold discovered  6  that stories told in response to TAT cards usually pose a problem and a resolution. The way in which the problems are resolved reveal a persons convictions about life. Arnold refers to these convictions as imports, which are analogous to the moral of a story. Imports constitute principles of motivation for action. For example, if one is convinced that hard work leads to success, one would more likely engage in hard work. Conversely, if one is convinced that it is impossible to overcome a difficulty one is unlikely to engage in action to attempt to overcome it. These convictions are revealed in the stories that people Tite in response to TAT picture cues. The sequence of the story imports are a series of tests of motivation that aggregate to reveal a motivational pattern. The imports are coded and scored according to a scoring criteria for positive motivation and negative motivation. The sequence of imports in each case report are examined for an individual clinical evaluation. Arnolds method of analyzing the TAT, which she calls story sequence analysis, was utilized in this study to provide the tacit information that reveals the motivation of individual cases of battered wives, and battering husbands. Arnold’s approach is distinguished by its capacity for normative quantitative scores for normative comparisons, and for individual case evaluations.  7  This study explored the Individual motivation patterns of battered wives and battering husbands and the pattern of motivation across the cases of the  wives  and the husbands  respectively. This pattern of motivation provided an explanation of battering that expands and contributes to theoretical knowledge for utilization as a guide in the design of clinical therapy programs. The Research Questions This study was designed to answer the following research questions: 1. What motivates a man to physically assault or batter his wife?  2. What  motivates a  woman to stay in a relationship or home  in which she is being physically assaulted or battered?  3. What are the similarities and differences in motivational patterns of battering husbands?  4. What are the similarities and differences in motivational patterns of battered wives?  8  Overview of Design and Method This investigation utilized the principles of case study method (Yin, 1989) in a multi-case study design strategy, using the TAT test and Arnold’s method of story sequence analysis to produce a case evaluation report for each volunteer participant from clinical treatment group for battered wives and another for battering husbands. The case study method and the TAT test were used to reveal the motivation and concerns of the individual subjects. The case study principle of extracting emergent material from the current context of the subjects, as opposed to applying preconceived theoretical elements to the study, was consistent with Arnold’s system of importing from the stories. Fmergent material was extracted from the  story  material without applying presupposed theoretical expectations. Arnold’s system of analysis is a qualitative analysis consistent with case study method, which utilizes coding categories that emerged from cross-case analysis in studies that totaled over 500 cases (Arnold, 1962). Following the multi-case study design strategy this study used Arnold’s method of importing and story sequence analysis, and developed a clinical evaluation for each case. Each case was then compared to the other cases in a cross-case analysis of the battered wives, and also of the battering  9  husbands. Each case is considered a single study, and each case is a repeated measure of the criterion of the motivation pattern of the battered wife, or the battering husband. Delimitations of the Study Although the original intention in the design of this study was to correlate the results of the TAT clinical evaluations with the observations and analysis of the counsellors conducting the  treatment groups, it was necessary to change this design. Contrary to other TAT studies which have obtained verification of test results from the evaluations of teác hers, peers, supervisors, and others, the groups in this study involved special ethical considerations regarding confidentiality, and informed consent. The abused wife is at risk to further violence. Often information released to others is perceived as a threat to the batterer, who may retaliate against his partner for doing so. Also, the battered wife is often under considerable psychological and emotional strain, and in her condition may be considered analogous to a mental patient (Miller, 1991). Tn addition, the batterers are court ordered to participate in the group, and are analogous to prisoners (Miller, 1991). Under these conditions the voluntary dimension of participation and comprehension of the research in order to give unequivocal informed consent presents special problems (Miller, 1991).  10  After considering these concerns of possible exploitation and risk for the participants, the researchers decided to limit the study to the results of the TAT, and to compare these results to the motivational patterns found in the literature. Therefore no personal information would be disclosed about the participants to the researchers that could put them at risk or could be perceived as a risk to the batterers or the battered wives. However, the clinical evaluations for the individual participants cannot be verified by a correlation with the evaluations of the counsellors. Verification can only be made by comparison to the characteristics of these known groups of battered wives and batterers in the research literature. Definitions of Terms This section identifies the following terms central to the study, and Arnold’s (1962) motivation analysis and theory: attitude, emotion, imagination, import, marital (spouse, wife, husband), motive, personality, value, violence, wife assault, wife battering.  Attitude: Attitudes are of two types, evaluative and  motivating.  Evaluative attitudes are values that have become habits. Motivating attitudes are motives that have become habits  11  (Arnold, 1962). Emotion Emotions are not motivating but are immediate,  unwilling, intuitive and almost automatic, and to become motivating they require reflective evaluation and choice (Arnold, 1962).  Ima2ination: Imagination is the function used in planning action and anticipating results. It is a felt action tendency stemming from an appraisal, which initiates the imaginative preparation for action and so directs the imaginative process (Arnold, 1962,).  Import: An import is the meaning or significance of the story. It is what the story is actually saying or the kernel or moral of the story. It is fonnulated to abstract from the concrete details of the story, and is written from the point of view of the main character. It is a series of statements addressed to nobody in particular which is a set of musings reflecting the storytellers general outlook (Arnold, 1962, p.52).  12  Marital (spouse, wife, husband) Marital, spouse, wife, and husband refer to all couples whether married or unmarried cohabiting  Motive A motive is a want that is decided on and always leads to action. It is something which is appraised as good or appropriate for a particular action here and now. It is “a set” that influences action and initiates the imaginative preparation for action, until the goal is achieved or satisfied. It continues as a blueprint for action even when one is not presently acting on it. It is what draws us into action and may be deliberate as well as emotional, and includes interests and values. it is a felt action tendency (Arnold, 1962).  Personality: Personality is the patterned totality of human powers, activities, and habits uniquely organized by the person in the active pursuit of his self-ideal, and revealed in his behavior (Arnold, 1962, p.44).  Value  13  A value is that which is believed to be desirable, or thought of as good (not necessarily for oneself). It does not necessarily lead to action but it may become a motive after deliberate reflective judgment (Arnold, 1962).  Violence Violence is considered any of the following: Minor: threw something at the other, pushed, grabbed, shoved, slapped or spanked Severe: kicked, bit, punched, hit or tried to hit with an object, beat up, choked, burned or scalded, threatened with knife or gun.  (Straus & Gelles, 1985)  Wife Assault Wife assault is violent acts by men against their wives/partners. The assault may be psychological, sexual and/or physicaL The intent is to control women through isolation, inflicting pain and inducing fear. The physical assault ranges from threats to beating to homicide. They  are accompanied by varying degrees of psychological abuse designed to degrade and belittle (Ministry of National Health and Welfare, Health and Welfare Canada, 1989).  14  Wife Battering Wife battering is the physical assault of women by their husbands or partners. It is accompanied by a constellation of psychological abuse, and often includes  marital rape, child abuse and even threats of homicide. These behaviors make for an abusive relationship that is a reign of terror (Gondolf & Fisher, 1990).  Format of the Thesis This document is organized according to the following format. Chapter 2, which is divided into two sections, reviews the literature on the TAT test and on wife battering respectively. Chapter 3 describes the methodological steps of the research procedure. Chapter 4 contains the individual case reports, which include the iniports and the case evaluations for each case. Chapter 5 discusses the cross-case findings, and conclusions, plus the implications for theoretical and clinical treatment applications.  15  CHAFFER TWO:  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  This chapter reviews the literature that is relevant to the theoretical background of the study and is divided into two sections. Section 1 presents theoretical and historical background on the Thematic Apperception Test (ThT) (Morgan & Murray, 1935) emphasizing Arnold’s (1962) method of story sequence analysis to reveal individual motivation. Section 2 provides the theoretical background in the literature on the motivation of battered wives and battering husbands. Sections 1 and 2 are respectively supported by a review of empirical and/or descriptive studies. SECTION 1:  THE THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST (TAT)  Background On The TAT This section discusses the diagnostic qualities of the TAT.  It gives a brief overview of its history and development outlining the theoretic principles and concepts of the TAT. The primary focus is on Arnold’s (1962) theory and method of analyzing the TAT stories. Historic Theoretical Basis and Development of the TAT  16  The TAT (Murray, and Morgan, 1935) is a projective storytelling test that was developed on the basis of psychoanalytic theory and its use of projective techniques to diagnose patients (Arnold, 1962; Murray, 1943; Teglasi, 1993). According to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, projectives provide access to a person’s unconscious drives or motivating forces, which are naturally expressed through fantasy, such as dreams or daydreams. Fantasy allows substitute satisfaction of drives normally modified by ego defense mechanisms and blocked from conscious awareness and expression in overt behavior. The inhibited drives bypass conscious awareness with the help of the ego defense mechanisms such as projection and identification. By projecting the drives into stories and story characters with whom one identifies, the individual achieves imaginative wish fulfillment resulting in a release of energy or  anxiety called catharsis (Arnold, 1962; Monte, 1980; Schultz, 1981). Whereas these motivating forces from present needs, repressed traumatic experiences, and/or from unresolved conflicts in the unconscious are released in projective stories, analyzing the content of the stories reveals the repressed information for diagnosis by clinicians. Based on these theoretical suppositions, Murray proposed that while interpreting a TAT picture of an ambiguous social situation a patient or subject would expose “underlying  17  inhibited tendencies which the patient is unwilling to admit or cannot admit because he is unconscious of them” (Murray, 1943, p.1). He asserted that, if the pictures are presented as a test of the imagination, the subject becomes so involved in the task that the self and having to defend it are forgotten. Therefore revelations of the motivation (needs, wishes, hopes, and fears) of the inner self are disclosed (Murray, 1943). Murray defined a method of test administration. He recommended an analysis of needs, emotions, and press (subject’s apperceived environmental forces: past, present, or future) in the story content using an in-depth knowledge of psychoanalytic theory. Murray (1943) held that the information revealed from a set of 20 TAT stories was the equivalent to that gained from 5 months of psychoanalysis. He promoted its use for developing a working hypothesis that could be verified by other methods in research studies of  personality, as well as for clinical diagnosis (Murray, 1943). Research Findings on the TAT Since the TAT was first published by Morgan and Murray (1935), the manual has been revised twice by Murray (1938, 1943). The TAT has been used extensively by clinicians and has been researched in many countries around the world (Vane, 1981). Eighteen hundred research articles on the TAT  18  were published by 1971 (Vane, 1981). Many systems of analysis, methodology, and scoring have been developed and tested with varying results (Vane, 1981; Teglasi, 1993). However, the variety of scoring, and methodology has made studies incomparable and has resulted in a lack of demonstrated validity and reliability (Vane, 1981). Most studies have used the TAT to explore individual drives (hunger, aggression, achievement motivation) by analyzing and scoring story theme imagery. This method has proven neither valid nor reliable. The method assumes that the picture cues are ambiguous and that the story teller sees every situation in the same light and therefore will repeat themes in every story. This is not the case. People change the stories they tell to the different picture stimuli within the test, and change them when retested (Arnold, 1962, Murray, 1943; Vane, 1981). As  well,  although the stimulus TAT pictures are  assumed ambiguous (have an absolute value), certain cards are found to cue certain themes (Arnold, 1962, Teglasi, 1993; Vane, 1981). In addition, the longer the story that the subject writes the more theme imagery it contains thereby increasing the likelihood of a high score in studies that count theme imagery (Arnold, 1962). These methodological problems have evidenced low internal consistency reliability, low inter-item  19  correlation, and low mean test homogeneity (Arnold, 1962, Teglasi, 1993, Vane, 1981). Further, the method of scoring theme imagery content in TAT stories fails to demonstrate content and criterion validity for measuring drives. The results of this method have not  correlated with other test results, nor with assessments of behavior for hunger, aggression, or achievement motivation (Arnold, 1962; Teglasi, 1993; Vane, 1981). They have shown no direct linear relationship of drives to story themes, nor of story  themes to overt behavior, because they fail to adequately  tap the various facets or dimensions of the phenomenon being tested (Teglasi, 1993). For example, in the Brozek (1951) study of hunger needs, the relationship of hunger from food deprivation, to food, or food related, themes was either negatively accelerated or an inverted ‘U’. Subjects who reached a certain point of hunger stopped expressing the expected  imagery and appeared to repress awareness of this need and use the stories as a diversion from their hunger needs (cited in Arnold, 1962). In studies of aggression no direct relationship of behavior to theme imagery is demonstrated. Instead, Sanford (1943) found exposure to frustration increased aggressive themes only in low-scorers on the Manifest Hostility Scale, whereas high scorers decreased their aggressive themes (cited in Arnold,  20  1962). Mussen and Naylor (1954) showed that aggressive and non-aggressive boys told many stories with aggression. However, only the non-aggressive boys told stories in which aggression was punished (cited in Arnold, 1962). These studies clearly show that aggression and its expression involve inhibitory defense mechanisms. Teglasi (1993) cites many studies in which TAT aggression studies that count theme imagery show the above compounding influences (Epstein, 1962; Kagan,1956; Kaplan, 1967; Matranga, 1976; Murstein, 1968). Teglasi (1993) states: “it has been demonstrated that simple content scores tallying aggression are of little use unless they consider the inhibitions present in the story that moderate their expression” (Ibid. p.323). Her conclusion in reviewing studies of aggression using TAT story themes is that prediction requires integration of  many contributing elements, and cannot be predicted on the basis of the presence of themes alone. In Arnold’s review of studies of achievement motivation, she finds that they failed to demonstrate a linear correlation of the drive to story themes. When McCelland and Atkinson (1953) told college students that the test was a measure of intelligence, high-achievers scored higher, but when they were told it was a favor to a grad student, low achievers scored higher than high-achievers (cited in Arnold, 1962). French  21  (1955) found that increased performance  was  aroused by the  affiliative motive (cited in Arnold). Veroff (1961) found that theme scoring of the TAT failed to obtain valid achievement motivation measures for women college students (cited in Arnold, 1962). In Atkinson and McCelland’s (1948) study men in low-paying jobs compared to men in high status jobs had similar achievement motivation scores at younger ages. However, achievement motivation imagery scores for men in low paying jobs increased over that of men in high status jobs as age increased (cited in Arnold, 1962). Arnold speculated that these results indicated that the studies were tapping preoccupation with work rather than true achievement motivation. Altogether, these results indicate that there is no direct linear relationship of story themes to drives because there are intervening or compounding variables. These studies measure the achievement content of the stories, but are inadequate for tapping the facet of personality under consideration (Teglasi, 1993). In summary, studies using theme scoring of TAT stories have demonstrated lack of content and criterion validity, low internal consistency reliability, low inter-item correlations, and low  mean test homogeneity (Arnold, 1962, Teglasi, 1993, Vane,  1981).  22  Conclusions on Psychoanalytic Theory and Theme Scoring of the TAT The conclusion indicated from the research is that TAT picture cues do not elicit primary process expressions of instinctual drives in direct linear fashion from drives to story themes. Nor do the picture cues lead to a standardized thematic response predictive of behavior (Arnold, 1962, Teglasi, 1993, Vane, 1981). If there were a direct relationship of drives to themes, the storyteller’s actions should be the same as the hero’s actions, and the storyteller’s affects should be the  same as those of all the characters. As this is not the case, one cannot tell if the  Story  themes represent the storyteller’s  behavior, or alternative to behavior. One cannot tell if the themes represent needs or lack of the need, or the blocking by the ego-defenses of the expression of the need, or if a need is fulfilled by the acting out of it in reality (Arnold, 1962). Therefore, “drives and affects that are assumed to be projected upon story characters are not a sure guide to the kind of motivation that leads to action in everyday life”(Arnold, 1962, p. 7).  To discover motivation that correlates with and predicts action, the TAT stories must be analyzed and scored using a theory and method that integrates the primary drives and the adaptive ego defenses and processes (Arnold, 1962, Teglasi,  23  1993). The method of story analysis must consider these processes by factoring in the stimulus or level of cue relevance to the theme,  intensity of  expression  the expressed drive, level of  action, wish or thought), object of the  drive, intent behind the drive, the consequences of acting on it, and acceptability of the drive (Teglasi, 1993). To do this with reliability and validity, the method of analysis must be standardized so that the stories may be easily interpreted and scored. This method would then reveal material regarding attitudes and motivation that the TAT has the capacity to reveal (Vane 1981) Arnold’s Answer: Story Sequence Analysis Arnold (1962) devised a theory and method of story analysis, and an empirically derived scoring criteria formulated from several studies that has effectively resolved the reliability and validity concerns outlined above (Arnold, 1960; Brown, 1953; Burkard, 1958; Fagot, 1961; Garvin, 1960; McCandish, 1958; Petraukas, 1958; Quinn, 1961; Steggert, 1961: cited in Arnold, 1962). Her method of story’ sequence analysis and her scoring criteria have produced a standardized system of analysis of motivation for clinical evaluation and normative scoring.  24  Her theory and method of story sequence analysis consider both primary process and secondary adaptive process reflected in the stories. Arnold finds that stories are a conscious creative and public task that employ creative imagination in utilizing memory, learning, and experience to devise a new product. This creative production has a meaning and significance that cannot be discovered from analyzing individual themes (Arnold, 1962). Taking the complete story plot and outcome, and deriving its meaning or import, exemplifies the ‘whole’ of the primary and adaptive processes of the Titer and results in an accurate measure of behavioral motivation. Repeated measures from each story in the test result in a motivation pattern that is an accurate measure of behavior. Arnold’s Theoretical Base Arnold’s system is based on three kinds of theory: a theory of imagination; a theory relating imagination to behavior; and a theory of personality. These theoretical underpinnings are outlined below. Imagination Functioning in Stories and Behavior Arnold’s theoretical perspective of imagination and its role in personality and behavior contradicts the psychoanalytic  25  view of the function of fantasy as wish fulfillment. She holds that imagination is a cognitive creative skill which is reality oriented and that works in conjunction with both drives and adaptive learning processes, or ego defenses. Imagination, the key ingredient in storytelling, produces a story out of an integration of past experience, learning, and abilities, and current task demands (Arnold, 1962; Teglasi, 1993). The storyteller uses the memory of similar incidents to those in the story and imagines what the event might do to him/her/us. Then the storyteller decides what to do about the imagined effect by imagining alternative possibilities and results (Arnold, 1962). Then the storyteller chooses a preferred alternative for action thereby excluding other alternatives. This process of utilizing the imagination is normally used in choosing actions in everyday life. It involves the following: (1) cognitive functions: sensation, recognition, recall, imagination, understanding and reasoning, (2) estimative functions: appraisal and evaluation regarding approach/avoidance, worth/worthlessness, desirable/undesirable, availabillty, (3) appetitive functions: emotional or deliberate actions that feel good or bad.  26  Imagination is the function used in planning action, and anticipating results. It is a “felt action tendency stemming from an appraisal, which initiates the imaginative preparation for action and so directs the imaginative process” (Arnold, 1962, p.33). Imagination in the story is not structured as a “plan” but the story simply occurs. Imagination maps out what is to be said and done with no conscious deliberate guidance. However, the appetitive tendencies for action, which are the storyteller’s habitual deliberate intentional action and/or emotional preoccupation, are most likely to lead to unintentional expression in the stories. These action tendencies are based on emotions, attitudes, and habitual convictions, If these are too rigid the storyteller will show poor creativity, which is the ability to make new connections with originality and power Arnold, 1962). Attitudes and Convictions The plot and the outcome of the story reveal attitudes and convictions through the choices made in handling the set problem. These are revealed in the summary import from the plot and outcome. Choices, and judgments about those choices that are made repeatedly in the stories reveal habitual impulses to action. Judgment as expressed in comments about  27  the story character’s actions, and as the outcome of the hero’s actions reveal the storytellers attitudes and convictions. For example, the hero may show that he is unwilling to submit to work discipline. If the storyteller does not show condemnation of this behavior (by making a judgment comment such as “lazy” or “careless worker,” or by showing a negative outcome to this lack of discipline) then this indicates a negative attitude toward work for the storyteller. Attitudes and convictions reveal the storyteller’s impulses to action. It must be noted that the hero or other character’s actions, in themselves, are not direct indications of the storyteller’s actions (unless the story is frankly autobiographical), and do not reveal the storyteller’s motivating attitudes or convictions. Motivation A motive moves a person to ACT in a distinctive way (Arnold, 1962). A motive is a “want that leads to action” (Arnold, 1962, p.32). It is not a need or drive because a motive leads to action whereas needs or drives may not lead to action In order for a want to lead to action, the individual must appraise that want (which originates from a need) to be something ‘good for me’ in this present time or situation. A  want will not lead to action if it is appraised as being ‘bad for  28  me’ in the present situation or time. Once the want is evaluated as good for me in the present, and the choice is made, it becomes a motive. A motive can be emotional or deliberate, but normally in adults it is deliberate or thought out and not a spontaneous action driven by emotion alone (Arnold, 1962). A motive may be continuous whether one is acting on it or not at the present time. For instance, a person may have a motive to get a college education but may not be actively involved in this pursuit when on vacation or working at a job, yet the motive is still internally operative. Motives may reveal an individual’s creativity, intelligence, aggression, conformity, and so forth. “Knowing a person’s motives and their hierarchy, we can work with the fleshed skeleton...to determine...a person’s chances for achieving excellence” (Arnold, 1962, p. 30). The elements of motivation include the person’s goals or problem formulation, his or her reaction to the goal or problem, his or her goal directed action, and the outcome he or she anticipates as a result of these (Teglasi, 1993). Emotions, Values, and Attitudes Emotion, values, and attitudes do not automatically lead to action but they do interplay in the development of motives.  29  Emotion in itself does not result in a motive for action but is an intuitive, automatic response that must involve reflective evaluation, and choice to become an action (Arnold, 1962). Emotions do not usually dictate actions in adults, but actions are usually deliberate. A value is something that is judged as desirable or good but not necessarily for oneself. To become a motive it must be appraised as desirable for oneself in the here and now situation, and the choice to act must be made. Values can become habits or evaluative attitudes. Attitudes are impulses to action that have become habitual. An evaluative attitude will not lead to action unless it is chosen as good for oneself in the here and now, and becomes a motive. Motivating attitudes are habitual motives. Only motivating attitudes lead to action and predict behavior. Attitudes (emotional and intellectual) influence action in the stories and the action reveals motives. Arnold!s Personality Theory Arnold’s personality theory describes the interaction of imagination, memory, emotion, values, attitudes motives, habits, and all human powers as “uniquely organized by the person in the active pursuit of his self-ideal, and revealed in his behavior”(p.44). An individual’s self-ideal is what is  30  appraised as the most valuable goal or motive in a hierarchy of motives. This goal, incorporated in beloved people, important causes, deathless aspirations, attracts us but also demands our devotion, our willingness to live up to the ideal to which we aspire. In this way, the master goal becomes our master motive, the selfideal that shapes us as we strive toward it. (Arnold, 1962, p.44). This self-ideal and the hierarchy of motives are those things that are appraised as good for oneself in the here and now and become wants that lead to action. The wanting is an emotion, which is arousal of a deliberate action impulse. The choice or intention to attain what is desired, guides and directs the action, which has now become a motive. Motives always lead to action. Actions often repeated become habits just as repeated tendencies to action become attitudes. Each new action is influenced by these attitudes that stem from habits and in turn reorganizes them. Thus, the personality structure is formed and reformed in an on-going process of internal and external interaction. Story Sequence Analysis Method (Arnold, 1962) Arnold’s theory of motivation and personality is the basis of her method of story sequence analysis of the TAT. Motivation is revealed in the TAT stories through the plot  31  (which describes actions) and the outcome (which shows whether this action is likely to be chosen by the story teller). Motivating tendencies shape the story ACTION and are expressed in the story OUTCOME”(Arnold, 1962, p.12). Using the story plot or action and the outcome as a cap to the plot, integrates the various themes into a whole in which a problem is set in the plot, and the outcome provides the solution. The storyteller may set the same problem in a sequence of stories, and try out different solutions. Each type of problem set and outcome preferred expresses a motivating principle characteristic of the storyteller called the story import, which is the kernel or moral of the story. Each import is a sample of the  individual’s habitual motivation, and the summary of the samples gives a solid exposition of the characteristic motivation pattern or principles of living which are the basis of action for that person. Motivation involves interests, values, attitudes, and emotions. It includes the storyteller’s sensitivities to types of infonnation, and environmental influences. It is what dominates awareness, in the choice of tasks, activities, goals, and risks, in the compelling direction and organization of effort and energy on chosen or imposed tasks (Teglasi, 1993). These selective perceptions, self-regulatory mechanisms, and problem solving capacities form the motivation pattern of personality  32  (Teglasi, 1993). These patterns as revealed in the story imports predict the behavioral pattern of the storyteller. Story imports can be scored objectively for positive or negative motivation and are scored according to the empirically derived scoring criteria. The sum of the scores provides an index of the strength of the positive or negative motivation pattern. The summary analysis of the imports delineates the motivation pattern for clinical evaluation. Formulating  Story  Imports and Sequences  The story import is the formulated by abstracting from the concrete details of the story the kernel or moral that reveals the meaning or significance of the story. Thus, the import is taken from the whole of the  story  and what it is  actually saying. In formulating imports one does not view the story as a  sum of story themes.  The aim of import formulation is to write a series of statements addressed to nobody in particular. It is a set of musings, which express the storytellers general outlook, and applies to the stoiytellers life situation. It is  written  from the  point of view of the main character of the story without assuming that this character is the storyteller, or that the relationships in the story are the storyteller’s own. “The import is objective in the sense that it is abstracted as  33  accurately as possible without adding any kind of interpretation” (Arnold, 1962, P. 63). Arnold recommends that the analysis of the stories be a blind analysis in which the clinical history is unknown and cannot be read into the stories. Only a minimal amount of information about the storyteller is necessary (sex, age, profession, marital status, domicile). The following is a summary of Arnold’s (1962) additional instructions for formulating imports: 1. The import is not a summary. It is not so specific that it probably does not apply to the storyteller (e.g. when a boy’ sees a violin he dreams of making one too), nor so general that it does not apply to anybody and loses the indMdual note (equating the violin to beauty). 2. The import uses the actual words when a phrase seems significant. 3. Nothing is introduced into the import from outside the story. 4. The import must contain all the nuances of the story. 5. Link the import whenever possible to the import that came before and the import that comes next. One problem is often explored in several stories and if they are not linked important clues may be missed. Paying  34  attention to the sequence enables one to shorten the second import materially without losing accuracy. 6. A linkage is not to be forced between imports. 7. Let the sequence tell the story as without the sequence the storytellers problems cannot be correctly evaluated. 8. The length of the sequence varies.  Following these instructions, the interpreter extrapolates the imports from the stories linking them together in the sequence. The sequence of the imports reveals the preoccupying problems of the storyteller in the correct perspective with the various alternatives of action available to the storyteller. The storyteller may cope with his problems in a constructive and positive way, or in a way that reveals aggression, passive resignation, anxiety, or despair. These ways of dealing with problems and the outcomes of them expose the narrators convictions, attitudes, and motivating tendencies (Arnold, 1962). The story import will show how the storyteller thinks people usually act and how he feels they should act, what actions he thinks right and which wrong, what will lead to success, in his opinion, and what to failure, what can be done when danger threatens, and what are the things to strive for. (Arnold, 1962, p.51)  35  Positive and Negative Imports The narrator’s motivation revealed in the import may be positive or negative. The decision regarding the positive or negative import is based on the moral of the whole story instead of just on the outcome. Positive or happy endings do not equal positive hnports, and negative outcomes do not equal negative imports. A happy outcome is positive when it is realistic, socially acceptable, and resulting from actions and events that are constructive and appropriate. Unhappy outcomes are positive when they give a positive message such as failure resulting from lack of effort, or just punishment for misconduct (Arnold, 1962, Teglasi, 1993). Teglasi (1993) gives a clear outline of positive and negative imports based on Arnold (1962). Positive and negative convictions are distinguished by the following: 1. The nature of the problem or conflict: positive imports clearly delineate a goal or dilemma rather than being vague or comprised of mere association to the sthuulus. 2. The type of action and intentions: Imports are positive when characters actions are deliberate, planned, and proactive rather than reactive, aimless, and haphazard. 3. The outcome in relation to the problem set and effort expended: the outcome is reasonable to the conflict posed and the actions taken. 4. Welfare of all relevant characters: import is positive when outcome presents meaningful resolution for all concerned.  36  5. The story structure: imports are positive when the story is organized and coherent. (* Even non-stories provide imports taken from the process, fonn and content). (pp. 80-81) Positive and negative  imports  are designated as such and  scored on the basis of the scoring criteria. Import Formulation. Scoring, and the Scoring Criteria Arnold (1962) emphasizes that it is imperative for the interpreter to formulate the imports based on a knowledge of the scoring criteria. Imports must be formulated to include story aspects that are needed for scoring. Therefore familiarity with the scoring categories and which situations are important for scoring is necessary, (Arnold suggests that the beginning interpreter start learning to import by scoring at least 20 sequence analyses.) Once the interpreter has learned the scoring categories, has formulated the imports, and done the sequence analysis, the scoring of each import is done by consulting the scoring categories in the scoring criteria. Categories and headings are ordered by their importance as follows: Category I: Achievement, success, happiness, active effort (or lack of it). One condition for classifying an import in this category is a goal contemplated or reached in the story. Also include active effort of every kind  37  without success or failure if no antecedents fit with another category. Category II: Right and Wrong: Well-intentioned, reasonable, constructive, or responsible action and its opposite: ill-intentioned, impulsive, harmful, destructive or irresponsible action. Actions re duty; Intention and consequences. Category III: Human relationships: People and things if not found under previous categories. Influence of others on the hero and the hero on others. Category IV: Reaction to Adversity: Loss, harm, terror, separation, disappointment, and difficulties, and attempts to cope with them. Failure is excluded. Are these adversities: overcome, not overcome, accepted; or an outcome of an action? The interpreter checks to see if the import fits in category I, then II, and so on. Once the interpreter determines the category to which the import belongs, the import is looked up under the headings and subheadings. Once a comparable  import has been found in the category, headings, and subheadings, it is scored according to the score indicated. Scores are on a five point scale of (+2) to 0 to (-2). Generally across all categories, (+2) designates overt positive action; (+ 1) designates activity that is not overt, or not very positive; (-1) is  38  a lack of positive action resulting in success or failure; (-2) indicates a negative, impulsive, malicious action or attitude. (0) is only used when no motivation is revealed such as in rest after work, or for an incomplete story, or a description instead of a story. Using (0) is only done out of strictest necessity as it reduces the reliability of the final score because of the reduced number of measures. The score is always complemented by giving the category, heading, and subheading so that the scores can easily be checked. If an import is not an exact fit, then comparison to subheadings reveals the score that should be assigned. Arnold (1962) points out that it is not possible to have no gaps in the scoring criteria as there are too many possible imports. However, the scoring criteria provides a detailed guide in which most imports are found for a normal population. Scoring and the Motivation Index The motivation index was developed by Arnold and colleagues as a way of comparing the combined scores of the imports for each record, with the scores for other records. In scoring a record of story imports, each import is given a score of (+2) to (-2), and the scores are added together algebraically to get a total score. The final score is a measure of the consistency and direction of motivation, either toward the  39  positive or the negative. Strong tendencies in a few stories and mild tendencies in many stories result in similar scores. Clinical evaluation distinguishes between these two types. The total raw score can be converted to a score on the motivation index. The motivation index is a linear transformation of scores which does not change the nature of the raw scores but gives an equivalent in units for the two different scales. The motivation index provides a rough comparison for scores of records with a different number of stories. On the index all positive scores will give values above 100 and all negative scores will be below 100. 100 equals the zero point. The maximum score is 200. The formula for calculating the score without using the index is N/(p)x 200, where N is the number of units obtained, and (p) is the possible score. Clinical Evaluation Clinical evaluation of each record is necessary to distinguish the individual’s motivation pattern more accurately than a score will indicate. In addition it will delineate the special problems of the storyteller so that the clinician or researcher may develop a treatment plan. The clinical evaluation diagnoses the problems of the story teller and what brought a patient to seek help. The clinical evaluation of the  40  sequence analysis or story sequence reveals whether a person is positively motivated and in temporary difficulty, or in serious difficulty that makes it impossible for him to function adequately in daily life. Positive imports do no necessarily mean that a person will be happy in his or her life situation, and they do not guarantee success or contentment in a chosen vocation. The sequence analysis provides valuable information about the factors that impair a person s effectiveness. For T example, the subject may not be able to find a solution for a problem because of impairment of a negative attitude, or because of beliefs that the control of events is outside of oneself. The imports reveal the patients ‘preoccupation with conflicts and difficulties that can usually only be uncovered after weeks and months of therapy” (Anold, 1962, p. 97). The preoccupations are evident in the dominant themes and should be brought out in the imports. In addition the imports should be formulated so that the original phrasing is maintained as it provides valuable clues for the clinician. A clinician can not only diagnose problems from the import sequence, but can also give the client a prognosis for positive change based on the sequence analysis. The sequence analysis may reveal a positive prognosis when there is an evident positive motivation pattern in spite of difficulties expressed in the imports  41  The scoring criteria are based on a normal population; therefore, persons with severe emotional problems or psychiatric disorders may show imports that are more negative than those in the scoring criteria. Skill of the Interpreter Arnold (1962) emphasizes the necessity of the interpreter of the TAT to have the training and to develop the skill of formulating imports, doing a sequence analysis, and clinical evaluation. Arnold recommends group training, and supervision by an expert in this method until considerable facility is achieved. Where group training is not available, one can use the 20 records contained in Arnold (1962) with their imports and the scoring to gain the  facility  required. Once  trained in this method the interpreter would have highly reliable interpretive and scoring skills and would score imports very close to the scoring of other experts. Arnold (1962) specifies that the interpreter must be “perceptive enough to catch the fine nuances contained in the story” (p.65). One must use listening skills similar to non directive counselling to understand what the storyteller is saying in the story. The interpreter must focus on the process within the story instead of the content. The process component is the kernel, moral, or import of the story. Only enough  42  content should be included in the imports to provide the context that clarifies the process. A skilled interpreter will thereby be able to detect the links between the stories that reveal the coherent pattern of the sequence. The scoring criteria is the sure guide to deciding what should be emphasized in the import if the interpreter is unsure. Reliability and Validity of Story Sequence Analysis The method of stoly sequence analysis has proven to be both valid and reliable for delineating motivation patterns that predict behavior. Arnold (1962) provides research evidence from eight studies (Brown, 1953; Burkard, 1958; Garvin, 1960; McCandish, 1958; Petrauskas, 1958; Quinn, 1961; Snider, 1954; Steggert, 1961) with a total of 486 subjects that accurately predicted high achievement motivation and low achievement motivation. These studies included elernentaiy, high school, and college students, teachers, navy recruits, religious order novitiates, and business executives. Arnold (1962, p. 211) claims that evidence from well over 500 cases including clinical records show a “decisive difference in motivation between people who have achieved a measure of excellence and those who have not.” Her scoring criteria was developed and tested in these studies, and the evidence provided in them highly supports this method.  43  Brown (1953), Snider (1954), and McCandish (1958) were the original studies used in developing the scoring criteria. Brown (1953) was the first study to define a pattern of motivation for high achievers distinct from that of low achievers. Snider (1954) confinned his results, and McCandish (1958) developed the first scoring criteria based on their subjects (n =80). Further studies using the sequence analysis of the imports to separate high and low achievers verified the results and further developed the scoring criteria to accurately categorize and score imports for achievement motivation. Burkard (1958) used sequence analysis of TAT stories to discover the difference between effective and ineffective teachers. Burkard used the evaluation of their students (which previous studies had shown to be reliable) to correlate with the TAT evaluations. It was the first study to attempt to score the sequence analysis for positive and negative motivation using McCandish (1958) scoring criteria as a guide. The middle group of teachers was eliminated for this study which began with 300 teachers from the entire teaching staff of one school, and had 100 in the final group. Burkard used randomly selected 10 pairs each of high rated and low rated high school teachers, and elementary school teachers. The pairs were matched for age and intelligence scores (Otis intelligence test). This group was examined for classification in the high achievers and low  44  achievers category for each pair, The patterns for each were clearly distinguishable and a scoring criteria was developed based on these first 40 teachers which was then used to score the remaining 60 teachers. The categories developed were basically the same as Mccandish, hut more imports were added from the elementary teachers group to the scoring criteria. The imports for I 2-story records were scored by the investigator  and two independent trained raters, using a simple (+) for positive and (-) for negative. Phi coefficients were used to examine inter-rater reliability resulting in 97.2% correlation between the investigator and rater A, 96.6% with rater B, and 94.3% between raters A and B. All are significant beyond the (.1) level of confidence. Ninety-eight percent of the teachers were accurately categoriied in the effective (high achievers), and ineffective (low achievers) groups. Petraulcas (1 958) did a study with 60 white enlisted navy men using the same method as Burkard (1958). The group was divided into 30 oflenders (who had spent time in the brig), and 30 non-offenders (no discipline while enlisted), who were given the TAT (13 stories). Petraukas randomly selected ten pairs  from  this group and used their story  sequence analyses to establish a scoring criteria. This scoring criteria  was then used to guide the scoring of positive (+) and  negative imports (-) for the rest of the group. ‘l’wo  45  independent rater psychologists scored the records after Petraukas had done the original scoring. Inter-rater reliability was found at 82% for A and B, 80%  for  A and C, and 80% for B  and C. All 3 raters were successful far beyond chance in distinguishing offenders from non-offenders (54/58 cOmposite prediction), and the TAT was more successful than the comparison aggression test in discriminating between offenders and non-offenders. The two groups were not as clearly distinguishable as high and low achievers were in previous groups, but the scoring criteria was still adequate at predicting the colTect group from the story records. Garvin (1960) studied 50 male and 50 female college students using the same scoring criteria for positive and negative imports as the previous studies. Garvin tested a refinement of the scoring using the mid-range as well as the high and low end groups of achievers. This study developed a scoring of 1 to 4, from the negative to the positive respectively. The TAT sequence analysis was found to be highly effective in predicting college achievement correlated with the students GPA (grade point average). It was a much more accurate predictor of success than the standard intelligence test used in colleges. The correlation coefficients for the TAT alone were .85 for men and .83 for women, and combined vith the intelligence test there was little difference (R=.87) for men and  46  (R=.84) for women. The TPT could predict the GPA for 2/3 of  the students within .22 or .21 of the GPA. The study showed that motivation was a critical factor in success at college, and it was much more relevant than intelligence scores. Low motivation was indicated as a possible explanation for highly intelligent students having low grades. A class of seventh graders was tested as an addition to this study with almost identical results (Arnold, 1960, cited in Arnold, 1962). Quinn (1961) used sequence analysis and the scoring criteria to predict promise for success in a religious life for 45 novitiates in a religious order as rated by their peers and their superiors. The complex ranking system of 5 different ranks, correlated with the TAT results produced a lower correlation than previous studies with a coefficient of .59 (+/- .10) with peer ratings, .61 (+/- .10) with superior’s ratings, and a correlation of r .65 between superior and peer ratings. Discrepancies in the ratings of four subjects from the TAT versus superiors and peers was investigated through interviews of subjects and of superiors and peers. The TAT was found to be more accurate in assessing motivation in 2 cases and superiors and peers in two cases. Steggart (1961, cited in Arnold, 1962) investigated the accuracy of the scoring criteria and Quinn’s 4 point scale scoring using the TAT with 20 executives. He also used another  47  storytelling test (Nelson’s Survey of Management Perception) with importing method and the same scoring criteria with 30 executives. The groups were equally split between participants and non-participants in a voluntary management development program. He found that the TAT predicted the difference between the executives who were ranked the most outstanding achievers by their superiors, who were also the participants in the program, and the non-participant less outstanding executives. Both groups obtained positive scores but the participants ranged from 3.33 to 3.80, and the nonparticipants from 1.70 to 3.20 out of a possible score of 4.0 (any score over 2 being positive). (Only one person had a negative score of 1.70). The TAT showed a more accurate differentiation between the two groups than the Nelson test. The Nelson test only used work related picture stimulus which resulted only in success/achievement imports and scores. Whereas TAT imports ranged over the four categories in the present scoring criteria (success/achievement; right and wrong; relations with others; reaction to adversity). These results supported the accuracy of the TAT for predicting motivation. The results also showed that highly outstanding work achievement and taking initiative to go the extra distance is related to positive motivation in all areas of life (Arnold, 1962).  48  Development of the Scorin2 Criteria The scoring criteria was developed empirically from research studies using the TAT stories and story sequence analysis. Subjects were discovered to have similar patterns of motivation when they were high achievers. Low achievers were found to have very different motivations from high  achievers. High and low achievers had been designated so by their performance in their particular fields of endeavor (students, college students, teachers, religious novitiates, and navy recruits), as judged by their peers, and/or their superiors. Arnold (1962) reports that Snider (1954) found that the records of high achievers were distinguished from low achievers. Brown (1953) repeated the study with similar results. McCandish (1958) used Snider and Brown’s data from 80 high school seniors. The 80 students were matched for IQ score, A.C.F. score, age, and socioeconomic background. One  member of each pair was in the top third of the class, and the other was in the bottom third. A preliminary inspection of 20 pairs resulted in correct placement of 16 to either the low or high achiever category. McCandish now scored as (+) imports found in the records of high achievers but not found in low achievers, and as (-) the imports found in low achievers records, but not found in high achievers. The imports were then placed into categories and these categories were then used  49  to score the remaining group of scrambled records. Of the remaining group of 60 records, 30 were given predominantly negative scores, and 29 were given positive scores. These subjects were found to be correctly matched to their respective groups. Low achievers had the predominantly negative scores, and high achievers had the predominantly positive scores. One exception was a negative scorer who was a high achiever, but upon investigation was found to be a schizoid, withdrawn personality, who told bizarre stories with negative imports but was of high intelligence. This person’s withdrawal from social contacts made it possible to obtain good grades. Further studies (Arnold, 1960, Burkard, 1958; Garvin, 1960, Petrauskas, 1958) outlined in Arnold (1962) used a similar plan, and the scoring criteria was formulated from these combined studies (see scoring criteria in Arnold, 1962, appendix A). In all of these studies the sequence analysis was a blind analysis of normal people and the only information given to the scorers was that one member of a pair was a high achiever and one was a low achiever in the preliminary scoring. Afterwards all records were scrambled. The middle range was excluded. The number of subjects from these combined studies was 391. Reliability of the Motivation Index  50  Reliability of the motivation index was tested by Fagot (1961) using a sample of 252 records of 12 stories each (3024 items). Fagot found that two positive and two negative scores were evenly distributed among all the cards used in the sample. Thus every item in the test was equal to every other item. He also found that raw scores could be converted into normal deviate scores without any gain in precision. The converted scores correlated almost perfectly with the raw scores (r=.97). Therefore no advantage was had by using the more complicated normal deviate weights when the simpler system of integral weights as used in Arnold (1962) shows a high correlation. However, the normal deviate scores were useful for comparison to other test scores. Scorer reliability with this system was tested in two studies. Burkard (1958) with 1200 stories had a inter-rater reliability of 97% and 94% with two other raters. Petrauskas (195 8) had inter-rater reliability of 80% and 82% with two other raters, in 780 stories. Summary of \/aliditv and Reliability of Arnold’s Method The studies outlined above showed ample evidence that Arnold (1962) sequence analysis and scoring criteria were both valid and reliable in testing individual motivation that predicts corresponding behavior. Problems with TAT results using the  51  analysis of themes were resolved by using story sequence analysis. Internal consistency reliability has been proven through the rescoring of 99 records from Burkard (1958) using a split-half test of reliability. It showed a correlation of (r=.86) between odd and even numbered stories. A spilt-half test with the seventh grade children (Garvin, 1960) showed a correlation of (r=.79). Fagot (1961) using a sample of 252 records of 12 stories each, from previous studies showed that each stimulus card had an equal chance of eliciting a positive or negative story. Teglasi (1993) reported that conclusions that are less dependent on the stimulus than thematic content produce higher indices of internal consistency. Story imports are not dependent on picture stimulus because the plot and outcome are provided by the storyteller, whereas the picture cues are found to elicit certain themes. Therefore the method of importing is a valid indice for projective technique because the stimulus picture is ambiguous (Arnold, 1962, Teglasi, 1993). The scoring method of story sequence analysis has demonstrated inter-rater reliability in all of the studies outlined above demonstrating the reliability of the scoring method arid criteria. The method of importing, and sequence analysis with reference to the scoring criteria does not allow for elaborate and speculative interpretation, which is  52  unreliable (Arnold, 1962). Import scoring equalizes story length and avoids increased scores for long stories as happens with theme scoring (Arnold, 1962). Import scoring also makes possible the scoring of elaborate, as well as very meager  story  records (Arnold, 1962). Each of the stories is a test of motivational attitudes, so that each record of stories represents repeated tests, which result in similar attitudes and scores although the imports may be quite different (Arnold, 1962). These repeated test measures demonstrate mean test homogeneity. The content of the scoring system of story sequence analysis has shown strong validity in tapping the dimensions of the motivational pattern of an individual accurately, and in predicting and assessing functioning outside the test as compared to behavioral assessment reports and external measures of the criteria of individual motivation. The scoring criteria provides a full definition of the motivational pattern construct of normal people, that can be reliably measured. Taken with other tests or outside criteria Arnold’s scoring criteria has proven valid, and has provided increments of information to gain a significantly higher correlation with the criterion being measured. For example, in the studies of achievement in college, the TAT sequence analysis results attained a much higher colTelation score with GPA than intelligence tests showed (Arnold, 1962, Teglasi, 1993).  53  Altogether, Arnold’s method of story sequence analysis and her scoring criteria have proven reliability and validity In all the studies conducted.  54  CHAPTER TWO. REVIEW OF THE HTERATURE: SECTION TWO: THE MOTIVATION OF BATTERING HUSBANDS AND BATTERED WW1  This section outlines the representative literature on motivational factors of husbands who batter and wives who are battered. It begins with a brief introduction to clarify the theoretical framework of motivation and to show how it links with the research on wife battering. This section proceeds to delineate the multi-dimensional causes attributed to wife battering, that influence the motivational patterns of each of the spouses. Motivation Theory and Wife Battering Research The literature on wife battering has not viewed the etiology of wife battering through motivation theory. Researchers in this field have ignored motivational notions, and almost no mention of motivation has been made (Berkowitz, 1983; Sebastian, 1983). Studies have not explicitly explored  wife battering through researching the motivation patterns of battering husbands or of battered wives. Therefore an inoductory explanation of the relationship of motivation theory to the research theory on wife battering has been provided as an introduction to this chapter.  55  Although wife battering research does not use the language of motivation theory, it covers a number of external and internal factors that create motives and motivation patterns. Motivation is defined by Ainold as “a want that leads to action. ’ Values, attitudes, emotions, cognition and t imagination interact in the individual in relation to the environment to become motives (a want perceived as good for oneself here and now) (Arnold, 1962; Triandis, 1980). The motives that become habits become motivational attitudes. These motivational attitudes lead to behavior, and behavior patterns. The patterned totality of these motivational attitudes, with all of the person’s interacting powers and skills in pursuit of a self-ideal make up the personality of the individual (Arnold, 1962). The research on wife battering discusses values, attitudes, beliefs, behavior and characteristic patterns of batterers, and battered wives and their development even though it does not refer to motivation theory. Triandis (1980) outlines a theoretical framework for motivation that corresponds with Arnold’s motivation theory. Triandis’ theory expands the understanding of the relationships of the external and internal factors that influence values, and attitudes that result in interpersonal behavior. This framework  56  provides a guide for viewing the literature on wife battering so that it can be related to Arnold’s motivation theory. Triandis (1980) finds that history and ecology influence social culture of which there is both an objective and a subjective culture. Culture provides situation- behaviorreinforcement sequences, which combine with individual perceptions of subjective cultural variables (norms, roles, values). An individual’s previous experience with behaviors results in affect toward those behaviors. Affect or emotion according to Arnold is “a felt action tendency based on appraisal.” The affect then is an impulse toward what is appraised as good or the impulse away from what is appraised as bad. Perceptions interact with developed affect, perceived consequences, habits, and present social factors to create motives and motivation attitudes (Triandis, 1980). Under facilitating conditions (e.g. reward/expenditure ratio; easiness of act) and relevant arousal (e.g. needs, values, attitudes) the motivation becomes a behavior or action. This behavior results in objective consequences, which are interpreted as positive or negative reinforcement. The consequences, interpretation and reinforcement then become part of the situation-behavior reinforcement sequences which make up the personality (cognition, affect, self-concept, values, beliefs, attitudes, and habits) and the individual’s subjective culture. Reinforcement  57  affects the perceived consequences of the behavior in two ways: it changes the perceived probabilities that the behavior will have particular consequences and it changes the value of these consequences. These effects influence behavioral intentions and resulting motivation. Triandis states that; .attributes of the ecology-culture-society determine attributes of persons, such as attitudes and values, which detennine the behaviors of those persons: and depending on the outcomes of this behavior, attitudes and values change. (Triandis, 1980; p. l) 25 The research literature on the etiology of wife battering covers factors that result in values, attitudes, emotions, and habits from which a motivational attitude is developed. The literature explores the attitudes, values, affect, behavior and behavior patterns of the spouses. The literature researches  how these motivational attitudes may have been developed, and also explores the circumstances in which these attitudes lead to action. The literature delineates the personality typologies of the battering husbands and the battered wives. Therefore, although the terms of motivational theory  may not  be used, the theoretical assumptions of human motivation theory directly correspond with wife battering theory, and  research.  58  Qvervie’v Of The Etiology Of Wife Batteig The research literature on the etiology of wife battering outlines complex multi-dimensional causes (Rosenbaum, 1990). The personal history of the individual, including family of origin, and societal values have been found to be relevant development determinants of values, attitudes, and motivation patterns. Current situation factors such as socio-economic status, poverty, unemployment, stress, alcohol abuse and drug abuse have been considered contributors to wife battering. Relationship dysfunction with poor communication and negotiation skills, conflicting sex role expectations, rigid sex roles, and social isolation have positively correlated with wife battering. Straus and Gelles (1990) emphasized that violence has been prevalently accepted throughout society in the government military, police, and the media, and in families corporal punishment has been accepted practice. They found in their research of 8145 families in two national U.S.A. surveys that societal violence combined with sex role socialization, and family dynamics produce wife assault. However, as some research has shown that these factors have also been prevalent in dysfunctional spousal relationships without violence, they cannot be considered a completely  59  conclusive explanation of wife battering (Gondolf, and Fisher, 1991; Nichols, 1986; Walker, 1984;). Although the research has sho the above mentioned multidimensional causes of battering, this study focuses specifically on the motivation patterns of battering husbands and battered wives. Motivation patterns develop in the context of the interaction of the individual (subjective culture) with the environment (objective culture). Therefore, as the research on battering explores the etiology, it explores the development and determinants of values, attitudes, emotions, skills, and behaviors that make up the characteristic patterns of husbands who batter, and wives who are battered. These patterns and their relevant determinants are the focus of the remainder of this chapter. Motivation Patterns of Battered Women: An Introduction: Efforts to profile battered women, and battering men have been in vain (Gelles, & Straus, 1988; Gondolf & Fisher, 1991; Rosenbaum et al, 1990; Walker, 1984). Neither group has been found to have one consistent profile, and only a small portion of either have major psychiatric disorders (Gelles & Slraus, 1988; Gondolf, & Fisher, 1991; Nichols, 1986; Rosenbaum et al, 1990; Walker, 1984). As there appears to be no one consistent pattern of personality, a single personality  60  profile is not valid. Instead, researchers have suggested that a typology of batterers, and perhaps of battered women was more consistent with research findings (Gondolf & Fisher, 1991, Rosenbaum et al, 1990). Walker (1984) concluded that there is no personality profile for battered women based on the findings of the study of 403 battered women. However, Walker concluded that there may be a personality profile for male batterers, but points out that other research has found that their behavior ranges across a spectrum of diagnostic categories. Many researchers have emphasized that delineating a profile for battered wives suggests that she has a victim prone personality which amounts to blaming the victim (Dobash, & Dobash, 1979; Gondolf & Fisher, 1991; Herman, 1992; Walker, 1984;). None of the research has been able to prove that the battered wife had a particular pattern of personality before she was battered (Herman, 1992; Walker, 1984). The research suggests the validity of a typology of battered wives, although research has not shown whether or not that typology exists because of the violence or was present before the violent relationship began (Herman, 1992; Walker, 1984). Also, the research suggests a typology for batterers shows validity (Gondolf & Fisher, 1991; Rosenbaum et al, 1990).  61  The research is inconclusive regarding the personality or motivation patterns of battering husbands and battered wives. However, consistent patterns have emerged and have been delineated in the research over many studies. These are the patterns that will be outlined below. Husbands Who Batter Their Wives: Research indicates that men who batter their wives do not show one pattern of personality. Instead they are found to have a range of behaviors and violence that is more consistent with a typology (Friedman, 1982; Gondoif & Fisher, 1990; Health & Welfare Canada, 1989; Rosenbaum et al, 1990; Walker, 1984). Gondolf & Fisher (1990) found that batterers range along a continuum from the typical, through the antisocial, to the more rare sociopathic personality. The typical batterer is more sporadic in his violence, and tends to appologize and feel regret about the violence perpetrated by him. He is the most likely to seek treatment that is not court mandated, and to continue his relationship with his partner. The antisocial batterer is violent outside the home as well as in the family and is more likely to abuse alcohol and use weapons. The sociopathic batterer perpetrates more serious injuries, has extensive criminal records, and histories of severe drug and alcohol abuse. Rosenbaum et al (1990) shows a similar  62  tvpologv: (1) narcissistic/antisocial personality; (2) schizoidai/borderline personality; (3) passive/ dependent 1 ’cornpulsive personality. Walker (1984) claims that there is a range for male spouse-abuse offenders that ranges across most diagnostic categories in the DSM-III from (1) inadequate and borderline personality, through (2) antisocial and explosive disorder, to the more dangerous (3) paranoid/schizophrenic. Although there are a range of personality characteristics that are more suitable to a typology, the research to date has not explored and demonstrated valid and reliable evidence of a defined typology. Instead the studies provide a list of common traits for all batterers. There are consistent personality characteristics found in men who batter their wives, They have values, attitudes, and motivation patterns in common according to the research. The characteristics found in common for batterers according to reviews of the research are outlined below. Walker, (1984) based on her study of 403 battered women and their reports on male batterers found that violence does not come from the interaction of the partners, nor from provocation caused by irritating personality traits of the battered woman, but from the batterer’s learned behavior responses.  63  Common Attitudes Values And Behavior Of Men Who Batter: History Of Violence The best predictor of future violence is a history of violence including witnessing, receiving, and committing violent acts in the childhood home (Gelles & Straus, 1988; Rosenbaum et al, 1990; Walker, 1984). A. Adult history of violence: 1) Previous violence toward women in former or present relationships (Ferrato, 1991; Walker, 1984). 2) Military service: significantly longer than average time in the military (3.2 years for batterers versus 1.9 years for non-batterers). (Walker, 1984) 3) Criminal offenses: Walker (1984) found that 71% of batterer’s, versus 34% of nonbatterers have had criminal charges laid against them. Batterers have different charges from non-batterers. Batterers generally have been charged with more serious offenses such as rape, assault, and homicide, whereas non-batterers tended to have had charges like driving under the influence of alcohol. Forty-four percent of batterers had been convicted of charges, versus 19% of non-batterers.  64  B. Family Of Origin Violence, And Acceptance Of Violence As A Legitimate Resource: Walker (1984) found that 81% of batterers witnessed or experienced family of origin violence: 63% witnessed father to mother violence; 35% witnessed mother to father violence; 27% experienced sibling violence; 33% experienced physical violence from their mother; 50% experienced physical violence from their fathers. Similar findings are reported in many other studies: Bandura, 1977; Lerman, 1981; Rosenbaum & O’Leary, 1981; Roy, 1977; and Wolfe, 1986 (cited in Rosenbaurn, 1990). Straus, Gelles, & Steinmetz, (1980) report that their 1976 U.S.A. nationally representative survey of 2143 adults showed that men who observed violence in their families of origin were three-times as likely to hit their wives, and “sons of the most violent parents rate of wife beating was 1000% greater than the sons of non-violent parents” (p.101). Ulbrich and Huber (1981) phone survey of 2002 adults found that childhood observation of violence correlated significantly with approval of violence against wives and was a good predictor of men’s (but not women’s) approval of spousal violence. Patterson (1982) reports that the degree of reinforcement (rewarding consequences) or inappropriate punishment received for violent behavior and the interpretation of those experiences  65  (winnjng a sibling fight enhances self-esteem) leads to further  violence. Fagot, Loeber, & Reid (1988) findings through their observations of several hundred families at the Oregon Social Learning Centre, also confinu the relationship of family of origin violence to wife battering for batterers. In addition, their longitudinal field observation study (2 years) of 210 boys in grades 4, 7, and 10, confirmed that violence in the family of origin leads to future violence against women. They found that the following conditions resulted in significantly higher rates of violence against female peers by the boys in their school social groups: (a) the family was out of control: lacking in discipline skills, did not monitor the child, failed to problem-solve effectively, and did not provide positive role models. (b) coercive family tactics were used, and the target child got his way by emitting higher and higher rates of aversive behavior directed at the mother. (c) boys practiced violence on females (mother and siblings); (d) the violence us not punished, and the boy got his  way;  66  (e) a system of family values that devalues women, and women were seen as fair game for violence, and males were in a position of dominance over females. Fagot, Loeber, & Reid (1988) claim that these findings provide the model for the developmental determinants of male to female aggression for further research. Dibble & Straus (1990) found in their analysis of Straus, Gelles, & Steinmetz (1975) survey that patterns of family interaction, attitude toward violence and intended violent behavior were consistent. They found that attitude had the greatest consistency with behavior when a pro-violent attitude was matched by a partner’s pro-violent attitude. Owens & Straus (1979) found that batterers who were child victims of parental violence correlated with approval of spousal violence (r=.21), and those who were child witnesses had an approval of spousal violence correlation of significance also (r=.29) (This correlation was twice as high for men than for women). Although a veiy high proportion of battering husbands have experienced family of origin violence, including child abuse or witnessing parents being violent with each other, this does not in itself predict spousal violence (Cappell & Heiner, 1990; Gelles & Straus, 1988; Rosenbaum et al, 1990; Walker, 1984). There are some batterers who report no family of origin violence. In addition a great many men with violence in  67  their families of origin are not violent in adult intimate relationships. Gelles and Straus (1988) report that their 1986 U.S.A. survey of 6002 families showed that 89% of adults who  were hit as children did not hit their spouses. Knudson & Mehm (1988) studied 564 boys of whom 110 were patients of child psychiatrists, and found that a history of child abuse resulted in a propensity to respond aggressively in the perpetuation of violence or in a pattern of victim behavior, concluding that the emergence of spousal violence is determined by multivariants, and not just child abuse.  Rigid Sex-Role Definitions: Batterers are found to have these beliefs: husbands are the total authority in the family; wives should obey and serve the husband; wives should practice self-denial; women are inferior to men; wives and children are a man’s possessions; it is the husband’s right to discipline and control his wife and children; husbands’ because of being the male authority have the right to privileges such as rewards, respect, concession for managing others (Fagot, Leober, & Reid, 1988; Gondoif & Fisher, 1990; MacLeod, 1980: cited in Health and Welfare Canada Report, 1989; Stets, 1988; Walker, 1984). Gondoif & Hanneken’s (1987) qualitative study of batterers found that batterers have distorted “super macho” role models of men  68  based on the images of their fathers and media heroes, and they believe that they fall short of what they are supposed to be as men. They are found to be unable to tolerate disparity in status between themselves and their wives, and they use violence to lower perceived status differences (Walker, 1984). Walker (1984) states: His ego is pictured as so fragile that disclosure of her talents would cause him embarrassment because it implies that he is not doing his job to protect her. Such a marital relationship based on this stereotyped view of men’s and women’s roles force the deception and dependency which can lead to mistrust, low self-esteem, isolation, jealousy, exclusive need for a mate’s emotional gratification and finally a strong need to control and reassure oneself of partner’s exclusive loyalty. These conditions accompany battering relationships. (Walker, 1984; p.16) In addition to the above, the following is a list of attitudes and behaviors commonly found among batterers: 1)  Inability to achieve or maintain intimacy  2) Demonstrates lack of interpersonal skills 3)  Inability to deal with their own or others’ emotions  4)  Inability to see others needs as separate from their own  5)  Self-depreciation, low self-esteem  6) External locus of control 7)  Psychological dependency on spouse  69  8) Demonstrates sociophobic behavior (isolation) 9) Consequent inability to share personal concerns with friends or partner 10) lacks trust of others including partner 11) Pathologically jealous 12) Inability to express emotions other than anger 13) Inability to control anger 14) Impulsive 15) Control is a big value : controlling of family members, their image and self-image (attitudes, appearance, behavior); compensation for lack of control in extra-familial life 16) Controlling of self: repression of emotions; showing emotion is weakness; poor coping skills, and low tolerance for stress 17) Manipulative: often appear to be nice guys to the outside world: charming, manipulative and seductive to get what he wants, and hostile nasty and mean when he doesn’t succeed in getting what he wants 18) Exhibits contempt for women 19) Shows compulsive reference to sexuality 20) Cannot empathize with others 21) Makes unrealistic demands 22) Defies limits  70  23) Emotionally, psychologically, and verbally abusive 24) Aggressive and resolves problems physically 25) Uses violence to control others 26) Utilizes physical violence as the ultimate resource to maintain relationship status 27) Utilizes emotional, physical, and sexual violence to  enforce submission/compliance from his wife 28) Externalizes problems,abrogates responsibility for violence onto wife 29) Minimizes, denies, and/or lies about problems and his own violent acts 30) Violent against other targets (children, parents, incest, hurting pets/animals, objects, other people) 31) Depression 32) Suicidal gestures 33) Compulsive use of alcohol and/or drugs (compounding factor/not a cause) 34) Contemptuous of those who try to help/understand  35) Denial that anything is wrong with him 36) Does not seek help unless forced to do so  The above attitudes, values, coping skills, and behaviors commonly attributed to batterers are based on the studies of several researchers (Browning, 1983; Cappell & Heiner, 1990;  71  Dibble & Straus, 1990; Ferrato, 1991; Friedman, 1982; Gelles & Straus, 1988; Gondoif & Fisher, 1990; Health & Welfare Canada Report, 1989; Rosenbaum et al, 1990; Stets, 1988; Walker, 1984).  Goals And Consequences Of Batterers Violence:  V  Another dimension in the research on wife battering relevant to the motivation pattern of batterers was the goal(s) of their aggression. The goals of the batterer’s violence have been seen as control and power, to get his way,  and/or to  resolve a problem or dispute quickly and effectively (Berkowitz, 1983; Ferrato, 1991; Finkelhor, 1988; Guberman & Wolfe, 1985; Hampsen, 1991; Walker, 1984). The batterer may use violence as the “ultimate resource” when he perceives that his other resources have fafled (Finkeihor, 1988; Hampsen, 1991). Berkowitz (1983) points out that the batterer may impulsively use violence when he doesn’t know what else to do. The batterer’s motivation and goals for using violence are considered part of a complex system of motivation. Berkowitz (1983) cites Felson (1978) and Carver (1975) studies which found that batterers’ used violence to maintain their selfconcept or self-ideal as tough dominant men who  are  heads of  the household, thereby putting their wives in their places,  72  commanding respect, and preserving their honor especially when in front of audiences. Berkowitz (1983) found in his interviews with violent male criminals that 4096 struck to hurt the other and 60% to attain  safety.  He states that aggression may be instrumental  aggression with the objective of inificting injury on the other and causing pain. The instigation to aggression (and the desire to escape) may stern from any aversive event that causes the batterer suffering or feelings of displeasure (Berkowitz, 1983). Kernberg (1990), a psychoanalyst, observed through years of clinical practice that “hatred, a derivative of rage, may give rise to highly pleasurable aggressive behaviors: sadistic enjoyment of causing pain, humiliation, and suffering and the glee derived from devaluing others” (p. 179). Hatred is linked to cognitive appraisal of the immediate situation in relationship to the external object or person, and is activated by memory of similar former experiences causing a reaction toward or away from the object relation. Therefore hatred that leads to aggression and violence has a motivational aspect although it may be covered or obscured (Arnold, 1962; Kernberg, 1990). In extreme cases of regressive evolution, with a dominant repression of affect, cruelty is rationalized, and morally justified, and self-ideal turns to a sadistic self-concept, which at the most extreme is the psychopath (Kernberg, 1990). Thus  73  the male batterer may be stimulated and reinforced by the victim’s pain and suffering because it indicates goal achievement (Sebastian, 1983). These clinical and research observations are consistent with the reports of some wives who are victims of battering, who report that their spouse appears to derive pleasure or satisfaction from their pain (Ferrato, 1990; Herman, 1992; Walker, 1984). The batterer has motivation to use violence. He has a goal, intention, drive, value and attitude that supports the use of violence. He has an instigation to aggress. Researchers have found that a person in a situation in which the inhibition against aggression is weak, who have a suitable target, and in whom hate is activated or the instigation to aggress, may translate that emotion/attitude into a motive and act in violence (Berkowitz, 1983; Kernberg, 1990; Sebastian, 1983). The literature on battering abounds with information about the lack of inhibitors for husbands who batter. The claim is the husband beats his wife because he can. He is physically stronger and has little risk of retaliation (Berkowitz, 1983; Ferrato, 1991; Walker,1984; Sebastian, 1983; Straus, 1991). He is in the privacy of the family where he cannot be observed, so he does not risk the loss of self—esteem from the condemnation of others, There is reduced access from the agencies of social control (Walker, 1984). He knows what he can get away with,  74  and that family members will tolerate behavior they would not tolerate from others, because of dependency (physical and psychological). Society sanctions familial violence in the form of disciplining children, and the right to discipline one’s wife was legally sanctioned also until the last two decades. The batterer believes that instilling fear is an appropriate and effective way to get the his wife to do as she is told (Guberman, & Wolfe, 1985; Herman, 1992; Walker, 1984). It is much less probable to have adverse legal consequences, social disapproval, or relationship loss. Further he is likely to get his own way, and for his wife to submit, as she is often involuntarily dependent on him psychologically and/or physically. The batterer is motivated to use violence, and he sees violence as a legitimate personal strategy to get what he wants with his wife with few negative consequences (Berkowitz, 1983; Ferrato, 1991; Guberman & Wolke, 1985; Nichols, 1986; Sebastian, 1983; Straus, 1991; Walker, 1984).  75  Wives Who Are Battered By Their Husbands  Introduction In considering the motivation patterns of wives who have been battered, it is vital to note that these patterns are more accurately viewed as reactions to the abuse they have suffered. Leading researchers in the field have found that post-traumatic stress disorder (Hennan, 1992;) or a similar pattern known as the battered woman syndrome (Walker, 1984) describe the symptomatic dysfunction of battered women. The present findings contradict the historical misconceptions about women who have been battered by their husbands. Battered women have been considered responsible for their victimization. They have been viewed as women with victim-prone personalities, and as wanting, asking for, or deserving the violence. Dobash & Dobash (1979) stated: The idea of provocation or victim-precipitation, as it is sometimes called in the social sciences, is both naive and insidious; it represents an acceptance of the use of physical violence. (Ibid.,p.135) In addition, Frankel-Howard has pointed out in the report for Health and Welfare Canada (1989) even the term “battered wives” tends to shift the attention from the instigators of the violence to its  victims.  This shift makes it easy to blame the  76  victim for the problem and also to search for solutions among the victims rather than among the violent partners. The prominent researchers emphasize that the symptoms of dysfunction found among battered women are reactive states, and are not character traits (Ferrato, 1991; Gondolf, & Fisher, 1991; Herman, 1992; Walker, 1984). Herman (1992) describes battered wives to be suffering from post-traumatic stress syndrome (a reaction to traumatic events originally defined in treatment of war veterans of the Vietnam war). Herman’s description of the symptoms corresponds to Walker (1984) findings. Walker (1984) describes the women in her  study to have symptoms of learned helplessness, and other stress described in the research as battered woman syndrome. Despite the commonalties of motivation patterns among battered women, Walker (1984) claims, based on her study of 403 battered women, that battered women present no consistent profile. Instead battered women present a diversity of diagnosis (Gondolf & Fisher, 1991; Walker, 1984. Only a small portion of battered women have major psychiatric disorders (Gondolf & Fisher, 1991; Herman, 1992; Walker, 1984).  77  The Motivation Patterns Of Women Who Have Been Battered The following section delineates the values, attitudes, affect, motivations, behaviors, and their known determinants commonly found among women who have been battered by their husbands.  Current Socio-Economic Success: A woman’s socio-economic conditions are considered significant factors in the motivation patterns of battered women. Walker (1984) reports that most of the battered women in her study were educated, successful, and held responsible jobs outside the home. Twenty-five percent of the women were professionals. Most of these women appeared nonnal in their every day lives and covered up the shame of being battered (Walker, 1984). Contrary to Walker’s findings, other studies of women in shelters or transition homes have found a much higher rate of unemployed women. Patterson (1981) (cited in Health & Welfare Can. report, 1989) found that two-thirds of the women were unemployed, and only thirty percent had a fairly good income. Unemployment and lack of employment skills have reported crucial influence on the motives of battered women to stay in the marriage.  78  Family Of Origin Violence Family of origin violence has significantly influenced the motivation patterns of battered wives. Walker (1984) found that 91% of the women in her study had experienced critical periods of uncontrollable events in childhood. Sixty-seven percent of the women had violence in their families of origin. Father to mother violence occurred with 44% of the wives, and mother to father violence with 29%. Twenty percent of the women’s  33%  of  mothers perpetrated violence on the children, and  their father’s perpetrated violence on the children.  Forty-eight percent of these  women  had been victims of child  sexual abuse. Most of the sexual abuse ‘as perpetrated by male relatives, and was repeated. Walker reported that these results indicated learned helplessness from the family of origin was a crucial factor in the lack of positive motivation to leave the batterer. Straus et al (1980) reports a high correlation between family of origin violence (viewed or experienced) and current battering relationships based on the 1976 U.S.A. national survey. These results from a community study suggest that women may be more tolerant of violence when they have come from families in which there was violence. As other studies of women in shelters have not shown as high a relationship, the  79  researchers hypothesize that battered women are less likely to seek outside assistance from an agency if they experienced  family of origin violence (Straus et al, 1980; Rosenbaum et al, 1990). Further confirmation of this view, and of Walker’s study, was found by Lerman (1981), cited in Rosenbaum et al, (1990), that abused wives with abused mothers were less likely to seek refuge, and were more avoidant with less active coping skills. However, family of origin violence has not been proven to cause either an attitude approving violence, or future relationship violence. Ulbrich & Huber (1981) conducted a telephone survey of 2002 adults that found that observation of violence in the family of origin did not correlate significantly with women’s approval of spousal violence. Rosenbaum et al (1990) reports that studies that compared battered women to a group of non-physically abused women found that interparental aggression results in severe marital discord rather than aggression. These studies and many others show that family of origin violence does not of necessity lead to violence in future relationships in and of itself. Although indications that learned helplessness (defined below) was likely to have existed in women who were previously victimized in their families of origin, or in a prior marriage relationship, this has not been proven a consistent  80  prerequisite to being a victim of battering from on&s husband. There has been a percentage of women who were battered by their partners who report no history of family of origin violence, or other violence. Walker (1984) found that there is an equal chance of developing learned helplessness in childhood or in an adult battering relationship.  Walker (1984) who conducted structured in-depth interviews and psychological testing with 403 battered women reports that women who had experienced family of origin physical  sexual violence of greater severity and  duration tended to stay in relationships in which they were battered longer than women who had no history of child abuse, or less severe abuse.  Common Symptoms Anong Wives Who Have Been Battered The following are the psychological, emotional, behavioral, and motivation patterns found in the research literature among women who have been battered by their husbands. Because learned helplessness, and post-traumatic stress syndrome as well as the motivational patterns from other studies contain the same patterns, some of them are combined together for a more concise description.  A) Post traumatic Stress Syndrome:  81  Stages: (1) submission: relinquishes inner autonomy, world  view, moral principles, and connection with others for the sake of survival; (2) robotization: shuts down feelings, thoughts, initiative, and judgment; (3) fatal stage: loss of will to live; absolute passivity; (Herman, 1992)  B) Learned helplessness (likened to depression with cognitive, affect, motivational, and behavioral components;); (Walker (1984), using Radloff (1977) Ces-d test, found that battered wives are highly depressed whether currently in or out of the battering relationship). (a) cognitive component of depression: perception/expectation goals cannot be reached by responses available to the person (unlikely to try to do anything) (b) Motivational dimension of depression: helplessness passivity  82  (c) Affective dimension of depression: unrealistic about current situation (disassociation, fantasy, magical thinking, hopes for change/no action;) (d) Inability to predict the success of one’s actions; (e) Lack of contingency between actions and outcome; negative pessimistic beliefs about the efficacy of their actions and the likelthood of obtaining future rewards; C) Other Discriptions of Battered Wives: 1)  Pessimistic view of the world  2)  Destroyed assumption about the safety of world, the value of self, and the meaningful order of creation  3)  Lack of.basic trust  4) Alienated;.Abandoned; Alone 5)  Believes cannot escape  6)  Believes cannot control events  7)  Develops coping skills rather than escape skills (staying alive with minimal injury ): i.e. altering consciousness / trance/altered sensation: numbness, freeze in fear, disassociation, depersonalization, derealization of meaning of events, change in time sense, indifference, passivity  83  8) Narrow perceptions and focus on survival causing misperception of other important information: deprive self of opportunites for successful coping, resolution of problems; narrow & deplete quality of life 9)  Used passivity as means to stay alive/safe  10) Accepts false responsibility for causing own predicament 11) Frustrated and angry cannot stop the abuse 12) Develops feelings of omnipotence when they can stop it 13) Reacts vigorously to being hit (hit back, throw something, Cry, yell, curse him, ran to another room, ran out of House, call friend, relative, police (Gelles & Straus, 1988) 14) Unexpressed rage at those who refused to help 15) May become aggressive to handle unleashed rage 16) Traumatic bonding to batterer (perpetrator becomes perceived as the rescuer/saved from deserved abuse) 16) Pleasing and desire to please overrides ability to accurately know and label o feelings 17) Give in rather than risk rage 18) Extra sensitive to cues  84  19) Fear making a mistake 20) Shame, guilt, self-loathing 21) Failure; low self-esteem 22) Isolation and withdrawal 23) Anxiety, phobias, sadness, lack of enjoyment of life 24) Suicidal 25) illness/physical problems: (backaches, headaches, gas, fatigue, restlessness, sleep disturbances, loss of appetite, premature aging)  26) Physical injuries (more medical attention & time off  work than non-battered; straus & gelles, 1990) 27) Traditional ideology: identity and self esteem is tied to marriage, marriage is for life better or for worse, must have husband, responsible to maintain harmony, peacemaker, nurture, and please, ashamed to admit failure, children need a father 28) Fears loss of role status (wife and mother) 29) Dependency (emotional and financial) 30) Fears loss of economic status; 31) Maintains love/pity for him 32) Romanticism (you and me against the world, interprets possessiveness as passionate love, minimizes & excuses behavior)  85  33) Distorting self-image toward more positive self-view as a coping mechanism to mask depression (Depression symptoms and tests for depression contradict self-reports regarding self-image) (Walker, 1984)  (The above list is a synthesis of motivational patterns based on the research of: Alloy & Abramson, 1979; Ferrato, 1991; Gelles & Straus, 1988; Health & Welfare, Canada report, 1989; Herman, 1992; Rosenbaum et al 1990; Stets, 1988; Straus & Gelles, 1990; Walker, 1984).  Why Does She Stay? It is evident from the above list of motivation patterns that the woman who is battered stays in a battering relationship for complex reasons. Battered women develop a negative passive motivation pattern. Herman (1992) compares the battered woman’s experience with war veterans and prisoners of war and describes the woman’s symptoms as those of post-traumatic stress syndrome. Walker (1984) found that battered women have symptoms of learned helplessness. Both of these descriptions describe a similar group of symptoms or motivation patterns. Learned helplessness and post-traumatic stress syndrome leave the victim passive and helpless, with  86  constriction of life and cognition, focused on staying alive or  surviving within the battering situation instead of planning to escape. They often believe escape is impossible, and that the batterer will follow them, find them and harm or kill them. Batterers themselves make these threats. The battered  wife  may have traumatically bonded to the batterer and has come to see him as her savior and rescuer (Herman, 1992). She may believe that she is responsible for the punishment she receives, that it is justified, and she deserves it. Her self-esteem has eroded along with her identity, and she has lost or given up her values, morals, beliefs, and connections to others. She believes that nobody will help her, and there is no escape. She fears loss of safety, stability, status, and the public shame of the failure of her marriage, and admitting the humiliation of the violence she tolerated. She is subjectively and/or objectively dependent on the batterer. Women who “suffer severe violence find the obstacles insurmountable and believe  they  must tolerate the conditions of their marriages” (Walker, 1984, p. 380). They believe they are locked into the marriage. They fear loss and reprisals if they leave (e.g. poverty, isolation, loss of home, affection, security; threats against self and/or children, custody threats). She may have no access to financial resources because the batterer controls all of the money. The batterer often also cohtrols her activities, and time and uses  87  physical violence if she fails to obey his commands even minimally (Health & Welfare, 1989; Ferrato, 1991, Walker, 1984). Ferrato (1991) quotes one battered wife’s description of her situation. Charlotte Fedders, wife of John Fedders, chief law enforcement officer of the Securities and Exchange Commission in the U.S.A. during the Reagan administration explains why she stayed with her husband for 15 years: 1. Marriage vows are sacred 2. She found ways to excuse his actions. 3. She believed she was wrong when he got angry. 4. She believed that if she was good, prayed, went to confession and to church, obeyed the ten commandments, and devoted herself to loved ones that nothing bad could happen to her. Bad things equal punishment and the fault is in her. 5. Divorce is a sin. Disgrace is a failed marriage 6. She kept the secret of the violence. 7. She would have to leave behind her oppressive beliefs about womanhood. (Ferrato, 1991, p.130) Women who are battered often are afraid to leave the relationship because they fear reprisals from their partner. Often their partners have threatened them by telling them they will kidnap the children, gain custody of them, find and harm the woman, the children, or other family members. Faced with these feared consequences which she often believes because she has experienced her partner being violent  88  repeatedly and often not just with herself, she will stay in the relationship. Another reason that women stay in the battering situation if fear of not being able to cope with poverty, isolation,  being a single parent. They often lack  financial resources, employment, and employment skills, Even women from wealthier families may lack resources because the husband has complete control of the finances, and she cannot access them. Leaving: The Workable Solution Researchers have found that the only way to stop the violence is for the battered wife to leave the relationship (Herman, 1992; Straus & Gelles, 1991; Walker, 1984). Straus & Gelles (1991) report that the womans most successful strategy to stop violence in her marriage is to lay charges the first time any physical violence takes place. Walker (1984) found that if battered wives are going to leave the battering relationship they must overcome the tendency to learned helplessness. They must become angry rather than self-blaming, active rather than passive, and realistic about the likelihood of the relationship continuing an aversive course rather than its improving. They must learn escape skills. Herman (1992) has also concluded that, like prisoners of war, battered women must realize that if they side with their captors they are  89  doomed. Instead they must suppress the affection they feel, resist emotional dependency, and develop a new view of the batterer and the relationship. Walker (1984) found that women who became angry and disgusted with the batterer’s behavior left the relationship. Women who continued to justify  and minimize, stayed and continued to be battered. Women who stay and tolerate the abuse are indirectly  rewarding the violence (Stets, 1988). In order to survive they become passive and submit after the violence, which gives the batterer what he wants. Therefore he interprets this as success in reaching his goal and is reinforced. Battered wives also  reward the violence by blaming themselves, or believing they deserved it. Further, they give the batterer the message that violence is an appropriate way to respond to a dispute (which the battered wife may or may not believe) by not punishing him through calling the police, laying charges, and leaving the relationship (Stets, 1988). Summary of the Chapter This section of chapter  two reviewed the literature on the  characteristic values, attitudes, beliefs, motivations and behaviors of battering husbands and battered wives. It outlined goals and consequences of the violence for the batterer, and the indirect part that the battered wife plays in  90  this reinforcement. Some of the determinants of the motivation patterns of the spouses were also outlined both in their social and family histories, and their current relationships. The motivation patterns are complex. As yet, a tvpology has not been clearly defined, and suggested typologies have not been tested to prove their validity and reliability. The research results reveal a collection of characteristic motivation patterns for both battering husbands and battered wives. Further study is needed to validate these results and perhaps to delineate the suggested typology of both spouses in these violent relationships. This study differs from the previous research in that it directly explores the motivation patterns in conjunction th a theoretical basis for the development of motivation patterns. This study has attempted to fill a gap in the research on wife battering by considering motivation theory in relationship to the views of the literature. In addition, the motivation patterns have been discovered using a test that reveals the tacit motivation of the participants rather than relying on their self-reports, which have been found to be limited by their conscious self-knowledge and by the distortions of their ego defenses (Gondoif & Fisher, 1990; Walker, 1984).  91  CHAPTER 3:  METHODOLOGY  This chapter is organized into the following sections: (a) synopsis of the research design; (b) rationale for the design (c) research questions (d) instruments used (e) description of participants (f) procedure for selecting participants (g) data  collection and (h) data analysis. Synopsis Of The Research Design: A multi-case study design was employed in this study in which each case was considered a replication of the research (yin 1989). Each of the battering husbands and each battered wife represented a single case. Each case was described through a clinical evaluation based on the TAT story sequence analysis of the participant. Following the completion of all of the single case analyses and evaluations, a cross-case analysis of the group of battering husbands and the group of battered wives was conducted. Finally, the motivation patterns found in common across the cases for each group was compared to the description of each respective group as found in the research literature and outlined in chapter two of this study. Rationale For The Design: The multi-case study design was the choice for this study. Case study has been considered more appropriate than an experimental design in this situation in which events cannot be  92  controlled or manipulated (Yin, 1989). In addition, case study method has been considered suitable in studies in which how or why questions were being asked (Yin, 1984). The original question in this study was why does a husband batter his wife, and why does the wife stay and tolerate it? Consistent with case study method, this question became modified as further insight was gained through exploring the literature (Yin, 1989). The modification decided on was to explore the motivation patterns of the respective groups. This was done in order to gain insight into the original question while expanding on the culTent research on wife battering which had not explored motivation. The repeated testing of the multi-case study design enabled the researcher to generalize to theoretical propositions and expand the theory, as it provides more validity and reliability in questions asked of the entire study in relation to the literature than a single case study (Yin, 1989). Finally, the multi-case study method was used for this study because it provides in-depth case analysis and case examples for psychological clinical practice. Historically, the case study has been used since early psychology. Freud and others employed the case analysis to advantage in illustrating their theories. Also, Ammerman & Hersen (1990) pointed out that the empirical literature on family violence “rarely reveals  93  the underlying complications in intervening with both victims and perpetrators” and that case examples would “fill a significant gap in the field” (Ibid., p.xii). As the clinician treats the individual, case presentations serve to make the clinician aware of particulars and the uniqueness of each person within a known group. This helps the clinician to be more prepared to provide effective treatment for individual clients than is possible from knowledge of general theory alone. Instruments Used: The instrument used in this study was the TAT test, with the story sequence analysis method as delineated by Arnold (1962). The method of importing from stories in  story  sequence analysis was consistent with the case study principle of extracting emergent material from the current context of the subjects without applying a preconceived hypothesis (Yin, 1989). Yin (1989) also recommended that the descriptive framework consider the full and complete range of the topic, and that it provide defined data categories that assures that parallel information was collected from each case. Arnold (1962) method prohibited the researcher from holding preconceptions about the subject to ensure that an unbiased import was extrapolated from the story. As well, the story sequence analysis and clinical evaluation was based on the  94  information obtained from these imports. Arnold’s qualitative system of categorizing defined in the scoring criteria, which was the basis for the clinical evaluation, utilized coding categories that emerged from the cross-case analysis of the motivation patterns of over 500 cases (Arnold, 1962). Therefore, Arnold’s system was consistent with case study method of qualitative analysis, and was proven valid and reliable. In addition, Arnold’s method of case evaluation answered another criticism of case study method, mentioned by Yin (1989), as it provided a concise way of presenting a  case, rather than a lengthy unreadable documentation. Finally, Yin (1989) reported that verbal self-reports of interviews were subject to the problems of “bias, poor recall, or inaccurate articulation” (p.91). As the TAT elicited tacit information from the participant rather than relying on self report, it avoided these problems. Due to the above reasons Arnold’s system of story sequence analysis for the TAT was considered a suitable  instrument for this study. Yin (1989) recommended that case studies used multiple sources of data, so that inferences were collaborated. Teglasi (1992) emphasized that criterion validity must be established by comparing the TAT results to some external measure that  had a “theoretical relationship to what the scoring system is trying to assess” (Ibid., p.4 1). One of the recommended sources  95  for a comparative measure was that of a defined group with known characteristics (Teglasi, 1992), This study utilized the description in the research literature of the specific known characteristics of batterers and battered wives as the comparative measure. This was a design modification from the original intention of the researchers to compare the TAT results with the group counsellors’ assessments of the participants, as has been done in other research (Arnold, 1962). However, due to ethical considerations expressed by the group leaders regarding confidentiality, the perceived safety of the  participants, and the sensitivity regarding exploitation regarding these groups, the group leaders decided not to participate in the collaborating interviews. The researchers were also concerned about these ethical considerations once they became aware of them and decided not to pursue attempts to obtain these collaborating interviews. Therefore, the decision was made to use the characteristic descriptions of these known groups as given in the literature. This decision to change the planned desi was consistent with case study method in that it kept to the theoretical concerns and objectives of the study (Yin, 1989).  96  Description Of Participants: The participants in this study were 11 battered women, and 3 male batterers. The participants were volunteers from clinical counselling groups for male batterers and battered women at a non-profit community social service agency. The women ranged in age from 22 years to 53 years. The men were 24, 29, and 33 years of age. The men were court ordered to attend the group therapy program. The women were attending on a volunteer basis. Minimal background data was accessed regarding these  groups as ias consistent with the recommendations of Arnold (1962) that the researcher obtain minimal information about the subjects to avoid bias in the analysis of the stories and case evaluations. Their age, sex, marital status, and whom they were living with was the only data obtained. None of the batterers were living with their spouse, and one was legally married. The women varied in marital status, and vith whom they were living. This information is provided with each case in chapter four. Process Of Participant Selection: Criteria for case selection was to access typical cases of a clinical group of batterers and battered wives. Yin (1989)  97  recommended using either typical or atypical cases. In case study research the sample is not intended to represent a general population of subjects, therefore a typical case sample that provides data that can be generalized to the literature was considered the most appropriate. The groups were selected from a non-profit community social service agency because counselling services for these groups were usually provided by these agencies. These were government funded programs, and men who were charged  rith  wife  assault were referred or court ordered to attend  these programs. As batterers rarely volunteer to attend counseling, access to batterers would be difficult to obtain in other settings. As well, battered wives who were not in transition, and therefore not at the height of traumatic stress from a battering incident, were found in community programs. The researchers did not wish to approach women presently in transition homes for compassionate and ethical reasons. In addition, community groups were more likely to contain a wider range of the typical battered women than those found in transition homes (Rosenbaum et al, 1990). Once the desired group of participants was defined, a letter was submitted to the director of the selected agency. The researcher was known to the agency, the director, and the group leaders due to having been a contracted counsellor at the  98  agency for a year, but was not known to the group participants. At the director’s request, verbal consent was obtained from the  counsellors who were leading the groups in the wife battering program. The group leaders communicated their verbal agreement to the director, and consent to approach the groups was obtained from the director in Titing. According to U.B.C. research ethics regulations, the letters along with a synopsis of the research and methods were submitted to the U.B.C. Behavioral Sciences Screening Committee for Research and other Studies Involving Human Subjects. Once approval for the study was obtained, the agency group leaders were contacted in person to discuss the presentation of the study proposal to the groups. An agreed date and time was set for the two battered women’s groups, and the group for male batterers, The group participants were informed about the study by the group leaders the week prior to the presentation and were given a copy of the consent letter which also described the research. At the presentation by the researcher the consent letters were passed out again, and the letter was read aloud by the researcher. The groups members were informed by the researcher that they could ask any questions and present concerns about the study purposes and methods. The researcher emphasized that participation was strictly voluntary, and reassured the participants that they  99  could choose not to continue at any time without this influencing their group therapy work, or their participation in future research. The group members were informed that they could turn in the consent form at that time, or any time within the next to weeks, either to their group leaders, or insert it in the mail slot of the researcher at the agency should they want to volunteer. All volunteers turned in their consent forms at the meeting. Copies of the following letters can be found in Appendix: B: letter to the agency director; agency permission for the research; and the informed consent. The number of cases used in this study was eleven battered women and three battering men. Three is considered the number of case replications necessary to provide a rigorous, highly reliable, internally valid  study  (Yin, 1989).  The aim of this study was to use a higher number of cases so as to have a diversity of cases and a high number of replications from which to generalize to theory. The intention of the study was to have an equal or near equal number of batterers and battered wives. However, although nearly equal number of batterers originally volunteered to participate, they did not show up for the test. The decision was made not to pursue the volunteer batterers who failed to come to the test. Data Collection:  100  Within two weeks of the presentation meeting, the data collection took place at a preset date during one of the regular group sessions at the agency counseling centre. The researcher met at separate times with each of the two battered women’s groups and the male batterers group. All of the data was collected within a two week period. Following Arnold’s (1962, P.49-50) protocol for administering the TAT, the researcher presented thirteen pictures from the TAT to the volunteer participants. The picture cues used and their order of presentation were those recommended by Arnold (1962, p.50): numbers: 1, 2, 3BM, 4 MF, 6BM, 7BM, 8BM, 10, 11, 13MF, 14, 16, and 20. The verbal instructions from Arnold’s protocol were also written on the white board available in the room so that the participants could refer to them as they needed to after the verbal instructions had been given the third time. The test was administered in one sitting for each group. Data Analysis: The data from TAT stories for these groups was analyzed according to Arnold’s (1962) method of importing, story sequence analysis, and clinical evaluation. This method was clearly delineated in this study (chapter tvo, pages 13  -  21).  101  Coding And Arnold’s Scoring Criteria: Consistent with case study method, the stories, their imports, and stoly sequences were coded according to a set criterion. This criterion was Arnold’s scoring criteria (Arnold, 1962; Appendix A, pp. 227-271). The story imports were assigned a score corresponding to the applicable categoty and subcategories of the imports in the scoring criteria. The category indicates the type of motivation (success/achievement; right and wrong; human relations; and reaction to adversity). The subcatagories define the matching import in the scoring criteria. The score (-2 to 0 to +2) indicated the degree of positive or negative motivation of the import. Minus scores indicated negative imports, and positive scores indicated positive imports.  The scoring criteria categories provided a sure guide to the importing of the stories. According to Arnold the scoring criteria provided a broad enough scope that almost all will fit into it. An exact match may  not  imports  be found but an almost  identical match could be found in most cases. If an import could not be matched to an import in the criteria, then it is likely that the import was not formulated correctly, and Arnold instructs that it must be reconsidered and reformulated by the researcher. Training And Accuracy Of The Researchers Imports:  102  Whereas no training group was available for instruction in Arnold’s method of analysis of the TAT, the researcher followed Arnold’s alternate recommendation for learning to import stories. Using the twenty sequence analysis available in Arnold (1962), the researcher learned to import stories by scoring these sequence analysis. Through a process of following the importing instructions, practicing and comparing to the sequence examples in Arnold the researcher acquired sufficient skill to accurately import the stories in this study. Once sufficient skill and familiarity with the scoring criteria was mastered the researcher proceeded to import and score the story sequences in this study. The imports and sequence analysis of the researcher were judged and checked by two others trained in the scoring method of Arnold’s story sequence analysis. One half of the sequence analysis were checked by the researcher’s thesis supervisor. The other half was checked by another trained researcher, and counseling student in the M.A. degree program, who had received some training from Arnold. The others checked for reasonable and unreasonable imports and this was used for discussion, and debate. The story was reread in this process and a more accurate import was formulated when appropriate. The research supervisor was satisfied with the accuracy of the imports that were finally formulated, although  103  they were sometimes not as concise as those found in Arnold (1962). Scoring And The Motivation Index: Each sequence analysis was given a total score by adding the scores for each import. The final score indicated the consistency and direction of the individual’s motivation, whether positive or negative. The total raw score was then converted to the equivalent score on the motivation index. This was a linear transformation of scores, and was used as a descriptive indicator of the motivation tendencies as part of the clinical evaluation. However, it was the clinical evaluation that clearly described the motivation pattern, and provided the differentiation of the motivation tendencies of each case. Clinical Case Evaluatioit Each individual participant’s story sequence analysis was evaluated following the format and examples found in Arnold (1962). The evaluations delineated the motivation patterns, the special problems, and the seriousness of the difficulty the participant was experiencing in his or her life. As these were clinical groups of participants it was expected that they would exhibit some problems. The motivation factors that impaired the effectiveness of the participants were outlined in each of  104  the clinical evaluations. The conflict or problem preoccupation were outlined based on the those found in the sequence analysis. The motivation patterns were described clearly so that they could be compared to the other cases in the respective groups of male batterers, and battered wives. Cross-Case Analysis Following the individual case analysis and evaluations, a cross case analysis was conducted. The cross case analysis of pattern matching has been considered relevant as long as the predicted pattern of specific variable was defined prior to data collection (Yin p.109). The definition of the pattern was that of the scoring criteria. The cases were compared by the similarity and differences of the imports in the sequence analysis according to their scoring categories. A mental survey of the motivation patterns was sufficiently convincing to postulate negative motivation patterns across the cases of both groups. Therefore the researcher decided to compare the participants to the negative motivation patterns delineated in Arnold (1962). Arnold’s findings indicated that there were differing negative motivation patterns. Four clearly outlined negative patterns were described: passive, pessimistic, self-centered, and malicious. (Three other types were named, but descriptions  105  were vague: indecisive, heedless/impulsive, chronic pessimist). The researcher then listed the descriptive motivation patterns or motives outlined in Arnold (1962, PP. 216-219) under each of the four negative patterns on the rows of a chart. The participants’ numbers were then put in columns. The imports in the sequence analysis were then placed in the row that contained a matching import under the negative pattern, in the column designated to the participant. The ordinal number of the import in the story sequence was used as a marker in the column of the participant. An example portion of the chart is drawn below: Under the passive pattern, Arnold lists the following negative motivations, along with a number of others: WI Nogoal or gives up as soon as it is difficult hopes/dreams of success which comes by fate, chance, 5 Case number one of the battered women (Wi) had an import from story number 1 in her sequence analysis that matched the pattern descriptor “no goal”. It therefore matched the passive pattern descriptor “no goal”, and it was marked in the column and row as shown above. Import from story 5 in the  106  sequence of (WI) matches “hopes/dreams of success”, and was marked in this row, under the W 1 column, and so on. Each of the participants story imports were compared to the motives described in each negative pattern, and their imports were marked in the appropriate column/row boxes. Each participants imports and clinical evaluations were repeatedly checked and rechecked to the chart to ensure accuracy. Only those imports and motives for which a clear fit was found were marked. This chart was then surveyed to find the matching negative patterns across the participants for the group of battered women and the group of battered men. The most predominant of the four negative patterns across cases was readily observed from the chart. This chart has not been included herein due to the its large size (approximately 2 ft. by 3 1/2 ft), and the difficulty in transcribing it into a format that fits with this written work without losing its informative value. The chart has been retained as part of the case study notes. The Cross-case Analyses Results Compared to the Known Characteristics in the Research Literature: The final step in this study was the comparison of the cross-case analyses to the characteristics outlined in the research literature for male batterers and battered wives as defined in chapter two, section two of this study. The results of  107  this comparison have been delineated in chapter five of this study. This method for obtaining validity was recommended  by Teglasi (1993) as a valid method when the group studied has known characteristics. The method of comparison was a process of matching the cross-case findings for motivating attitude patterns for each group to the list of descriptors. This was done through repeated checking of the list for matches in characteristic descriptions to the cross-case motivation patterns.  Summary: The steps in the methodology of this study were obtaining the stories using the TAT picture cues, formulating imports in a sequence analysis, matching them to the scoring criteria, obtaining scores, and using all of this information for individual clinical evaluations. The motivation patterns revealed in the imports and clinical evaluations were then used in the cross-case analysis to find the motivation patterns in common among the battered wives and the male batterers. These cross-case analysis results were then compared and matched to the kno. characteristics in the research literature.  108  CHAPTER FOUR:  RESULTS  The Case Studies: Each of the cases in the group of battered women and the  group of male batterers are presented in this chapter. The case evaluations of the battered women are followed by those of the male batterers. The cases are presented by their story imports, and their scoring criteria categories, followed by the case evaluations based on the summary of the import sequence analysis. The TAT motivation index scores are included to help describe the direction and consistency of the motivation in each case evaluation. These scores can be used as a general comparison of the degree of negative or positive motivation between group participants. The imports are referenced by the ordinal number in story sequence in these descriptive case evaluations.  The Case Studies: Battered Wives: W 1: Wi— Imports  1. When you are forced to do a difficult task, you are frustrated by your lack of skill. You want to avoid it. At the  109  insistence of others, you give in and try to do it, but your heart’s not in it.  -1 IDib  2. you don’t want to be trapped in a life of hard work, so you want a good education. If and when, you can complete your schooling, you hope to get a good job.  -1 IB5a  3. Reminded of your dead love relationship, and you feel sad, cry, and feel better. You decide you must put it behind you, so you go for a walk and find hope for love to bloom again.  +1 WA 2e  4. when your mate is frustrated, he yells, and blames you. Although you feel angry, you appease him with understanding, and affection because, you fear he’ll leave you.  -1  lilA la  110  5. and when you are scared by the shocking loss a loved one, you need affection, and reassurance from others. Although you ask, they ignore you.  -2 IVa4b&c  6. So you are determined to be financially independent, but its a struggle, and things go wrong. Then, just in time, a man helped you look at things differently, supported, and advised you. Now you both have the relationship you always longed for and a flourishing business. -i WA la 7. when a xiiolent emergency forces you to seek professional  help, you find relief, and quick recovery, and feel pride, confident that you have chosen the right path and direction.  +1 W A if  8. When another takes action in a risky endeavor, loved ones fear for his safety and try to talk him out of it. His skills and resources bring success,. with recognition, relief and gratitude from loved ones. (You hope to emulate his skills, when you are older).  111  +2 ID id  9. when you are scared in the face of a situation that seems threatening and alien, you take a closer look at it and realize what it really is and no longer are afraid. You apply this lesson to your conflictive relationship with your husband, see it for what it is, and soon leave him.  +1 WA ic  10, when you fight with your husband he becomes violent, threatens to kill you, and rapes you. You are terrified and don’t know what to do. He cries and says he’s sorry, but he won’t stop. You need and resolve to get help. You can’t handle this on your own.  +1 WA 2d  11. you are afraid of the other’s anger, and violence so you go to the attic to hide, and you escape into fantasy, where nobody can find you until it blows over because you are too little to run away.  112  -1 WA 5b  12. and you are suspicious of people in authority, so when they give you an unexpected task, you rebel and do not follow their instructions, and blame them.  -2 IIIF 3a  13. People and things are pleasant, but when you are alone and have no family, you are sad, and you feel lonely for your friend and decide to invite him over. He accepts. No one should be alone at Christmas time.  -1  lilA 4f  Clinical Evaluation: W:1  It is evident from this sequence analysis that this woman is preoccupied with the problem of her marriage and her abusive husband. He struggle with the problem is evident in 11 of the 13 imports in the sequence (3 through 13). Seven out of thirteen of her imports deal with coping with this adversity  113  (3,5,6,7,9,10,11). She wants to get out of the hard life she has been living (2,3,4,6,8,9), but she shows little of the positive self motivation necessary to resolve her difficulties. Most of her conviction, values, and motivational principles are negative, giving her a primarily negative motivation pattern, with some positive motivation. Iniports 3, 7, 8,9, and 10 show her positive motivation. By closely examining her conflictive relationship, she realizes that in seeing it for what it is she loses her fear, and this frees her and motivates her to leave her destructive relationship (9). She knows she needs professional help (10). She seeks it, finds success, and feels confident in her new direction (7). She knows that insisting on the right to determine one’s own course of action, plus using one’s skills and resources leads to success (8). She has constructive intention to put her grief behind her and for love to bloom again (3). However, she is impeded by her negative convictions and values (1,2,4,5,6,11,12,13). Her desire for and recognition of the need for independence, in order to overcome the adversity in her abusive marriage, is contradicted by her fear of being alone, and of having to take independent action (4,5,6). She indicates repeatedly that she needs others help in order for her to succeed (1,5,6,7,10). Though part of this is a recognition of her legitimate need for professional help, she shows no positive  114  independent action after receiving it (7). She sees achieving independence as too much of a struggle, and therefore she can only have the financial and relationship success that she dreams of when she has a man who gives her advice, and support (6). She believes that fearful, subservient, emotions and actions are successful in maintaining good relations with others (4). If she tries to overcome her fear by asking for reassurance she will just be ignored (5). In addition, she tolerates the disregard of her well-being, and fears and avoids taking positive action on her own behalf (4,5,6,8,9,10,11,12). She has tolerated emotional and physical violence (4,7,10,1 1). She has the pessimistic conviction that life if full of difficulties and adversity which one cannot overcome. Instead one avoids hard work (1,2), fails because of others (5,12), or takes no positive action because she is too little, weak, or incapable of overcoming her problems (1,6,8,11). In summary, this sequence analysis indicates a woman who has a primarily passive negative motivation pattern, with some pessimism, and some positive motivation (scoring 85/200 on the motivation index). She recognizes that she needs to get out of the battering relationship, and that she needs professional help and guidance, and to be independent, but is handicapped by her negative convictions regarding her having to depend on others, her personal inability, her subservience  115  and powerlessness in relationships, and her distrust of others. She is so preoccupied with coping with adversity that she shows very low positive motivation to achieve with only one  import indicating strong positive action resulting in success.  116  W2 ‘N. 2  -  Imports:  1. The promise of a new life soon became the same dominance, arguing and threats that you experienced in the old home. You wish to fulfill your longings elsewhere, but you have to obey to keep the peace. Maybe later you will be strong enough to stand up for yourself.  -2 IIIC la i  2. but you should just be grateful that strong, competent others provide for your material needs and allow you to pursue some interests. Instead, you resent their not comforting and healing the hole inside you, and feel guilty.  -2 IIIC3a+b  3. as a result you don’t trust others, or yourself so you resentfully settle for being alone and safe, yet frightened, sad, and lonely.  -2 IIIB 5a  117  4. Your partner is often upset and though you try desperately to appease him, by being the caring, loving and passionate etc. woman he wants, but it is hopeless. You finally decide to let him leave.  -2  TIlE ic  5. and taking courage toward recovery, you disclose your shameful secrets to others, even though terrified of their anger and rejection. They withdraw in shame and denial as always, but you realize that at least you were there for yourself.  +1 lB id  6. and with the loss of a loved one you turn to caring others for help. They may be unable to provide solutions for your problems but they listen without judging, and give you the reassurance and support you need. You realize you must take control of your o life and not depend on others to do it.  -1 1VA4b  7. In symbiotic relationship to a troublesome other, you  rescue, and cover-up for his mischievous ways. You fantasize  118  of your heroic sacrifices enabling professionals to magically remove his defects and make him strong and good like you.  -2 lilA lb  8. When faced with the devastating loss of a loved one, you are able to survive it by reminding yourself of past hardships overcome, and by drawing support and comfort from others.  -1 WA 6c  9. When your lover leaves you for another you are resolved to do anything to reclaim what is rightfully yours. You disguise yourself to outwit authority and overcome their protective obstacles, as nothing can stop your love for her.  -2 lilA la or b  10. When you leave your mate their pain may be so great that they commit suicide. You may not mean for this to happen but you cannot stop it. You feel guilt, and shame, and don’t know what to tell others. You plan to seek professional help.  -2 WA 5b  119  11. and you wonder if one’s pain from past family problems could be so overwhelming that one decides to commit suicide. You let go of this possibility.  -2lVA5bord  12. and you dream of magically acquiring the power and control to instantly manifest anything you want in your life. You would like to have that power in your eyelashes.  -1 J\ k 5b T  13. When you are waiting for your new lover you feel anxious, confused, and panic wondering if they will ever come. You  plan secretly to meet them and disguise yourself so you won’t be recognized, When you meet your passionate kiss dissolves  aLl your emotional turmoil. -2 lilA 1 a  Clinical Evaluation: W/2  120  The sequence analysis for this woman shows an extremely negative motivation pattern with a predominate preoccupation with her struggle to overcome the adversity of her battering relationship. Though she shows some positive intentions, her imports reveal almost no positive action. The one exception is the success for her own recovery indicated in disclosing her secret she feels ashamed of to another, but even here, there is some undesirable side effects in the lack of response of the other (5). Her motivating principles regarding relationships are negative and destructive. It is evident that she believes that love overrides legitimate self-interest (1,2,4,7,9). She indicates that trying desperately to please, and appease her partner, and be what he wants (loving, sweet, passionate etc.), is part of on&s duty (4). This shows a motivating attitude that good relations are built on fearful subservient emotions, and not on mutual care. She acknowledges that she has failed to influence him to change his undesirable attitudes but shows only mild insight that good relationships serve mutual legitimate self interest.(4) She holds that she must follow the dictates of others and yield to illegitimate pressure for the sake of peace (1). She has tolerated abuse and neglect (1, 2, 4, 7). She shows no disapproval of rescuing, and covering up for another with whom she is in a symbiotic, codependent relationship to the  121  detriment of herself. Instead, she fantasizes that a heroic selfsacrifice will help professionals remove his defects (7). Further, she is dependent on others help to meet her emotional needs, but has the pessimistic conviction that they either will not or cannot do so (1, 2,3, 4, 5, 6,). Their lack of love, understanding, and affection leads to long term lack of trust in others or herself, and to her having to be alone and unhappy (3). In addition, family problems such as these, and rejection by a mate, lead to impulsive action (9), emotion, despair and destruction, such as suicide (10, 11).  In addition,  love overrides principles and others or oneself commit acts of deceit, danger, secret, and betrayal for love (7, 9, 13). Another part of this woman’s negative motivation is her reliance on magic, fantasy, and unlikely events to overcome adversity (7, 9, 12, 13,), plus her own lack of positive action. She wishes and fantasizes instead of acknowledging the planning and effort involved in accomplishing things such as the rehabilitation of a loved one (7), overcoming marriage difficulties (9, 13), and positive life change (12). In summary, the sequence analysis of this woman shows a  very  passive and pessimistic negative motivation pattern,  (scoring 23/200 on motivation index). She recognizes the need to get out of her battering relationship, which  preoccupies her,  but she is extremely handicapped by her negative convictions.  122  Throughout the sequence she is passive, and sublimates her  own needs in relationship to others. Yet, she does not see herself or others efforts to positively influence others as successful. There is an undercurrent of hopelessness, and helplessness in the sequence analysis. There is very little indication of the understanding of the constructive planning and action necessary to create the life that she longs for. Instead her life view is predominately unrealistic and relies heavily on others but with negligible success, and her hope is mostly invested in fantasy and magical solutions.  123  W3 W. 3: Imports:  1. When faced with a foreign task, you fear failure, but by telling yourself “belief in oneself is the way to achieve one’s goal”, you overcome your fear, begin, and triumph.  -1 lB 2e  2. and you must learn skills to get out of your present unrewarding life of uncertainty, and poverty. You must go forward but you have a ‘touch of nostalgia’.  -1 IB5a 3. and you can’t think of anything  -2 IB5b  4. except, when you want to talk to him, he doesn’t talk, but gets annoyed and wants to leave. You feel hurt, betrayed and resentful. Yet, you know he loves you. He eventually listens, and you both agree, to listen, accept, and compromise.  124  -1 III F ibi  5. but when you decide to leave a loved one you feel proud of your choice, but nervous about what ploys will be used to keep you. You leave realizing you feel only contempt.  +2 ID id  6. but you dread telling others that you cannot conform to their expectations because of your inability. When they express resentment, you follow their dictates with resulting personal unhappiness. -2 III C la(i)  7. and you do not want to admit the loss of a loved one, and feel angry that your pleas of fear were not listened to, for now  you must begin the battle for emotional and social stability. -2 TVA5b  8. When you are forced by external circumstances to leave your spouse, you feel emotional tunnoil and bitterness. Yet,  125  years later thinking back, you both know that true love endures.  -1 WA ic  9. others who are big and powerful get restless, enjoy trying to catch you in their discharging violent forces and you wait cautiously and get devoured.  -2 WA 6f  10. and when he realizes he killed his lover, emotion pours out of his soul, but he believes he was justified, because she threatened to end the relationship. Thank GOD the jury didn’t think so.  +2 hA la  11. but when you experience a spiritual connection with nature’s glory, you long for freedom and contentment, and to leave your old life. Yet, suddenly, you decide to close the window on this option.  -2lA5b  126  12. but this doesn’t stimulate you into thinking of a story......  -2 IB5b  13. When you lose love, and family, you become desolate and empty until by chance, you meet salvation through others charity.  -1 lVAla,orb  Clinical Evaluation: W.3  The sequence analysis for this woman reveals a low level of positive self motivation, plus a struggle with the problems of her abusive marriage. Throughout the sequence she examines the options leaving and staying, and their consequences. She expresses the value of getting out of her present unhappy situation (2, 5, 11), yet the sequences reveal that she has difficulty facing it (1  -  4; 5  -  8; 9  -  13). When she desires to go  forward into a more fulfilling life (2, 5, 11), she gives up and cannot think of it (3, 12), or she believes that she must conform to the dictates of disapproving others, for the sake of peace (6).  127  She also holds the motivating principle that leaving or losing her present relationship will end in emotional tunuoil, despair, destruction, and poverty (7, 10, 13). Further, she considers staying, as she holds to the conviction that positive change in her marriage relationship can occur over the passage of time. Yet she does not show any reasonable means used to achieve it (4, 8). Instead, she shows that exerting positive influence has success and her husband changes his undesirable attitudes and actions, but only after a long time and she gives no reason for this change (4). Import 8 simply follows the romantic adage that “true love endures” adversity such as separation. Because of the lack of reasonable means, or positive action these indicate lack of the positive motivation necessary to reach the goal. Further lack of positive motivation is indicated in the passive tolerance of adversity and emotional and physical abuse, evident throughout the sequence. (2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13). In opposition to this, she has the conviction that others (men, or those who are bigger and stronger) are malicious and deliberately perform acts of violence (9, 10), and justify  it (10). However, she does not justify it (10). This  outcome, and that of import 5 does not accept the violence.  are  the only indication that she  128  •  Though this woman shows positive attitudes (1, 2, 4,  8,11), they are not motivating attitudes in most cases, as there is no positive action in these stories. The only positive action leading to success is the insistence on the right to determine on&s own course of action (leaving a loved one) and doing so (5), Otherwise, the only evidence of a desired goal shows the relinquishing of that goal because of fear, pain or danger (3, 6, 11, 12). In sununary, although this ornan hopes, and dreams of a more positive new life, she shows little positive motivation for achieving it (scoring 54/200 on motivation index).. Her motivating principles throughout the sequence are negatively scored, with the exception of two (5,10). The sequence analysis shows someone who believes that she cannot face or meet the challenge of the necessary tasks to overcome adversity (3,12), and that her present adversity cannot be overcome but ends in despair, and destruction (7,10,13). Also, when opposed by others, she must give in and obey their dictates, for the sake of peace (6). She holds unrealistic and romantic ideals about marriage relationships, showing no idea about the means involved in establishing and maintaining good relationships (4,6,8). She shows considerable passivity throughout, but it is especially evident in import 9, in which one waits to be devoured. Although she believes that violence is wrong she  129  shows little action against it. It appears that she is in conflict between leaving and staying in her abusive marriage because both options show negative outcomes in the sequence analysis. This conflict preoccupies her and she shows little positive motivation toward success.  130  W4 W.4: Imports:  1. Others in authority seem to expect you to perform like a ‘naturaP, though you would like to be, you feel pressured and frustrated that you are unable to even grasp the task. You think maybe taking it a bit at a time might make it more enjoyable and easier to learn.  +1 IB5c  2. When loved ones work hard and make sacrifices for you. You feel obligated to strive harder to achieve the success that meets their expectations.  -1 IIIC 3b  3. When another looses her mate and is alone and grieving, she reaches out to you, and though you can feel tremendous pain for her, and give compassionate support, you cannot comfort her pain.  -1 TIlE la  131  4. When you and your mate are forced by external circumstances to separate, you feel grief and loss, but reassure yourself with the vague hope of reunion.  -1 IVA 6b  5. When you work hard defending a man after he has committed a serious violent assault, and despite lots of damaging evidence, believe in his innocence, you fail. You go to inform loved ones. Though feeling and anticipating grief, you  are surprised by their polite distant reaction.  -2 IB4c & 1D 3b  6. and you can t think of anything T  -2IB4c  7. When faced with the loss of a loved one through violence, you feel revulsion, fear, and helplessness. You can do nothing, but wait, and you lose him.  -2 WA 4b  132  8. when fate causes you to lose your loved one, you are inconsolable, but suddenly, magically you are reunited.  -1 WA lb  9. You will aid yourself to overcome fear inducing incidents by telling yourself to face your fears with courage and confidence, and thereby heroically save yourself and others  -l lB 9  10. when a couple fights constantly, and there’s drinking involved, verbal abuse may provoke a man to snap, lose control, and kill his partner.  -2 WA 5a  11. when adversity causes you to lose family and possessions, you feel lonely and desperately afraid. You see no future, but when you deliberately notice small beautiful things, you know  you still exist. -1 WA 4a  133  12. when you fall for a crafty partner, you don’t notice his evil ways, till you are caught in his prison. At the point of giving up, you notice your other loved ones, and see them as the key to leave, and now you support each other.  +1 WA lc  13. when you lose everything and are left empty, in the darkness, you can only blame yourself. You try to overcome your pain by imagthing that what you need for cleansing and  renewal reigns down on you from supernatural forces above.  -1 IF 2e  Clinical Evaluation: W4  The sequence analysis for this woman reveals a person who is preoccupied with the problem of her abusive relationship. She is greatly concerned with loss and speaks about grief and the loss of a loved one in 8 stories (3,4,7,8,10,11,12,13). Six of these stories deal th coping with this adversity. She shows motivation to leave the abuser (12),  134  but considerable difficulty coping th the difficulties and the loss  involved  (4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11,12, 13). Her negative motivation  pattern works against her overcoming this adversity, and achieving. Almost no positive motivation is evident in the imports. The one exception is the sudden decision to resist the abuse perpetrated by her partner (12). Otherwise she shows  passivity in the face of adversity (violence, and loss of a loved one) in: holding on to vague hope for good outcome (4); helplessness: action is impossible (6, 7); the adversity of separation is overcome by chance or fate (8); or it is not overcome but tolerated by things compensating for it (11); and that fighting between spouses leads to the arousal of impulsive or desperate violent action (10) No positive action was taken in any of these imports to overcome adversity. She has the conviction that although she works hard and does her best, she fails to help another she intended to help(S). Other’s reaction is to the failure is merely polite and distant, as if it is dismissed (just happens and does not matter) (5, 6). Further negative motivation is shown in relationships with others. She shows blind dependence on others in that they serve as a good example (2). She believes that attempting to inspire or comfort another is at least partially unsuccessful (3). She also sees others as malicious and deceitful (12).  135  There is no evidence of positive motivation toward success in this sequence analysis. Attempting to succeed leads to failure (5). Failure just happens, and does not mailer (5,6). Failure cannot be overcome but is tolerated by tiying to be happy in spite of it (13). The possibility of success is present in two imports (1, 9), but the means used is insufficient (1: thinking about the problem), and facing ones fears with courage and confidence heroically saves people (9). None of this shows positive action toward success. In summary, this woman shows a negative motivation pattern with considerable passivity, and only one positive import. She shows dependency on others, or external circumstances (2, 4, 7, 8, 12, 13), inability to thfluence others (3,5), helplessness (6, 7, 8, 10, 13) , or depending on insufficient means, fate, chance, time, or magic solutions (1, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13). The only positive action is in leaving her abusive partner (12). She has very low positive motivation scoring 42/200 on the motivation index.  136  W5 -  Imports  1. When forced to do a difficult task you feel tired and disinterested. Soon you give it up.  -lIB6a&b  2. and you want to avoid a life of hard work, feel sorry for others doing it, so you read, work hard at school, and plan to get an education.  -1 lb 6c  3. when forced by external circumstances to leave your home  you feel overwhelmed, depressed and confused. Although you are unsure if you can trust authorities to help you, you believe you have no choice but to follow them.  -2 WA 4b  4. when your partner is an alcoholic, you worry and feel resentment, and he feels guilty about his neglect. You communicate poorly so you argue.  137  -2 IIIB 2c  5. but your try to get help for your loved one but it is useless, you are helpless, and feel grief at your loss. You inform family,  and you cry together  -2 WA4a  6. and when loved ones are upset, you invite them to talk  -1 WA 4c  7. and when you feel depressed, have nightmares, and become ill, you call a therapist.  -1 lVA4b  8. but in a good relationship you would be given meaningful gifts  -1 IRk  le  9. and you share enjoyable activities, and want to repeat them  138  -1 lilA 4a  10. When a female loved one is involved with a possessive partner you worry about her, but when you finally check on her safety, she’s dead. -2 WA 4e  11. When you take positive action to reshape your life, by renting your own place, you find renewal, and contentment and hope for a successful future.  +1 lB 3bi  12. when doing an unfamiliar task as part of your recovery process, you feel fearful and angry, but you continue and find benefit from doing the work, and carry on, expecting further reward.  +1 IB4c  13. when you lose your family, you are lonely, afraid, and cannot take being alone After a time, you must get the  139  courage, though you are extremely anxious, to reach out to others for support.  —1 WA 4b  Clinical Evaluation: W.5  The sequence analysis for this woman reveals an overall passive negative motivation, with some positive motivation. Nine of the imports are concerned with her abusive relationship, and coping with it, and the loss of it (3,4,5,6,7,10,11,12,13). Six of these are dealing with adversity. Five of these imports show a conviction that this adversity cannot be overcome as: action is impossible (3), or useless (5), and that it is tolerated by receiving or appealing for help from others (6, 7, 13). She further shows the conviction that adversity leads to undesirable actions and that it ends in emotion, despair, and destruction (10). However, she does show positive motivation to reshape ones life through active effort with the hope of achievement (11). She also shows a mildly positive attitude toward working for her own recovery as she finds it difficult but it brings reward (12). Still, she also shows a negative attitude toward work in that it is difficult, boring, exhausting, and it is done  140  under constraint (1), and that it is distasteful when work is hard and rewards are slight (3) She shows some positive motivation in relationships as she sees good relationships are established and maintained by good will and expressed in giving gifts (8). However, she shows negative motivation regarding relationships also. She has the belief that people and things bring pleasure, and that friendship is pleasant (9), but this conviction does not demonstrate depth of shared experience, or enterprise, but merely pleasure in an activity. Further, she passively accepts that bad relations are caused by undesirable attitudes, or negative emotions, and poor communication, indicated by the lack of positive action or outcome (4). In summary, this woman shows some positive motivation, but primarily negative motivation pattern in her sequence analysis. Her motivating attitudes regarding overcoming adversity are negative, in that they are passive, as she takes no positive action, or shows no positive outcomes. She shows positive motivation regarding starting an new life on her own (11,12), but shows considerable dependency on others help (3, 5,6,7,13). She shows one positive motivating attitude regarding relationships (8), and the others are negative (4,9). Her overall score on the motivation index is 62/200, which shows very low positive motivation.  141  W6 W6: Imports:  1. When forced to do a difficult task you feel sad and hate it, but if you seek to avoid it powerful authorities scream and punish you. Finally you comply to placate them.  -1 IB5a&b  2. In order to avoid a life of hard labor and oppression you leave your situation to attain the goal you desire. You fulfill your dream.  -1 IB2b  3. When you suffer an incident of physical violence and emotional abuse by your husband, he blames you for all his problems and walks out. You are confused and helpless.  -2 WA 4b  4. When you are devoted to your spouse and you catch your spouse having an affair with another, you are devastated and leave, never to return.  142  +2 IIIB 2  5. When you are the victim of a serious violent incident others will finally admit the truth about your abusive relationship.  Although they feel shame, they support you in taking the  necessary action (leaving and filing charges) to protect yourself.  +1 IVk lc&f  6. Because your partner has been taught negative attitudes toward women he slaps you. You leave forever.  +2 hA 2c  7. When your abusive husband is beating you up again, and  you threaten to leave him, and try to flee to a safe place, he kills you.  -2 WA 4d  143  8. but in a good relationship a couple would still be on their honeymoon after twenty-five years and feel blessed, and fantasize fondly about the next twenty-five years.  +1 lilA le  9. You could not think of anything to write.  -1 lB 6e  10. When your husband sexually assaults you, he enjoys the power he has over you. You go limp. You feel disgusted and powerless. He feels ashamed afterward, but won’t admit his fault.  -2 WA 4b  11. After you have been emotionally, physically, and sexually assaulted by your husband for years, you finally leave. Alone, you doubt your decision but hearing the happy voices of others, reaffirms it. You gather strength and go on to a fulfilled life by yourself.  +2 WA lb  144  12. and when  you  finally get the strength to leave an empty  depressing marriage, you regain happiness, finally like yourself, and feel hopeful for the future.  +1 IVA1c  13. when alone, you fear others that you encounter in potentially vulnerable situations, you discover that they are friendly and harmless, and you realize that not everyone is out to hurt you.  +1 WA id  Clinical Evaluation: W.6  The sequence analysis for this woman reveals an almost equal number of positive and negative motivation principles. This woman is preoccupied with the problems of a battering relationship, which is the focus for almost every import throughout the sequence. She shows a mixture of positive and negative motivating principles in coping with the violence and abuse. She holds the negative and passive conviction that the  145  adversity of the violence cannot be overcome because action is impossible (3, 10), or it is followed by greater adversity (7). She tolerates the abuse or believes that she is helpless to do anything about it, possibly because of fear of greater violence (7). In contrast, she also holds the conviction that the adversity of the violence can be overcome by positive action (5, 6,11, 12), and attitudes (13). The violence can be overcome by leaving the abusive partner (5, 6, 11, 12), and by filing charges against him (5). She shows the positive conviction that after leaving you regain the happiness you lost during the marriage, finally like yourself, and feel hope (12). Further, you can begin to overcome your fear of others, and further victimization (13). She shows a strong conviction that the way to overcome the injustice of violence perpetrated by one’s spouse is to leave the first time he does it (6). In addition, this woman has some positive motivation in regard to relationships. She shows strong positive motivation in that undesirable attitudes and actions, such as infidelity seriously mar human relations (4). She has the conviction that human relations are desirable, they endure, and are valuable (8). There is little positive motivation in the sequence toward success and work. She shows a negative attitude toward work (1,9). Work is difficult, boring, depressing and it is done under  146  constraint (1), or it is put off (9). In addition she expresses that success follows from vague means in which a dream goal becomes a reality without any action taken that would achieve that success (2). In summary, this woman reveals some positive and some negative motivating principles, scoring near the median on the motivation index at 11 2./200. The positive motivating principle of taking the action of leaving the abusing spouse is repeatedly expressed in four imports (5, 6, 11,12), and is reinforced in regard to other negative treatment (infidelity) (4). She also shows positive convictions in rebuilding one’s psychological health after leaving (12, 13). She values marriage relations, and believes that they endure (8). However, she also shows considerable passivity in the negative imports regarding the impossibility of overcoming the violence perpetrated on her while in the relationship (3, 7, 10). Further passivity is evident in unwillingness to make positive effort in performing tasks (1, 9), and by simply having a dream come true by very vague means (2). Her passive negative motivation patterns handicap her efforts to succeed in attaining the happiness she desires (1, 2, 8, 9, 11, 12,).  147  W7 W. 7 Imports  1. Others in authority dictate your activities, and they are mean and emotionally abuse you. They don’t understand, and you are overwhelmed isolated, believe you’re a failure, and you want to run away forever, but you stay, and suffer in silence.  —2 IIIC lai  2. when your desired loved one betrays you and you lose them to another, you feel empty, and hopeless, certain that no other goal is worth pursuit. In despair, you resolve to go as far away as possible.  —2 WA 5b  3. When you are married to a battering husband, you reach despair, and hopelessness, after a long time of escalating emotional and physical abuse. You try everything and even separate to get him to go to counseling, but he only uses this as another weapon. Others help you to cope.  148  -1 WA 4c  4. A desirable man is possessive, and protective of the your honor, and though you worry when he wants to fight a dangerous rival, you feel safe and happy with him, and can talk him into more reasonable modified action.  2 lilA lb  5. you feel angry and hurt at the abusive, manipulative, and treatment you have received from your loved one, that made you feel ashamed, and totally inadequate. You resolve to put the relationship behind you, and not give in to their charm.  +1 WA 2e  6, and though you are justified in taking the children and leaving your battering husband, he blames you, accuses you of betrayal, and wants to kill you in his rage, and panic.  -l hA if  149  7. when there is ongoing wife battering in a family, one thy a  family member may in their excessive emotion or panic unconsciously kill the abuser  -2 WA 2c  8. one lucky day you will find a man who has admirable qualities, and who finds you beautiful, and it will be instant love, and you will marry and live happily ever after.  -1 IIL& lb 9. when you are helplessly bound and trapped by a potentially violent other, you are suddenly and magically saved by a sexually attractive, powerful and courageous man, who is mutually attracted  -2 WA 2a  10. when your partner rapes you, you feel totally degraded, in despair and emotional turmoil, you plan to leave, and pray to get away in time. However, he has little guilt or remorse, blames you, and considers that maybe he should go for counseling but only if you do not talk about this.  150  -2 WA 6f  11. and as you stay in this abusive relationship, your stress increases till you have panic attacks, but you didn’t know until the recent physical violence that he is abusive. You hope and pray and cry and claim the counseling doesn’t seem to be helping.  -2 WA 4a  12. and you fantasize of a passionate love affair and impending mamage, until you snap yourself back to reality  -1 IVA 5b  13. but for now you rationalize, and doubt yourself about the abuse, and dutifully be the good wife and mother. You reflect and speculate about his good qualities and worldly assets, but you are depressed and only barely able to remember any happiness.  -2 WA 5b  151  Clinical Evaluation: W.7  The sequence analysis reveals that this woman has a negative motivation pattern, with overriding concern with the problem of her physically violent marriage. She explores the marriage problem throughout the sequence. Nine of the imports in this report are scored in reaction to this adversity. Her motivating principles in reaction to adversity are negative. She holds that betrayal and abuse in a couple relationship ends in emotion, despair, and destruction (2, 13). The battering problem is not overcome but tolerated with the help of others (3), or avoided through  fantasy  (12). This  problem cannot be overcome, as action is useless (11). Adversity is overcome by harmful action by positive action that leads to harm (when a child in the family panics and tries to stop the abuser and seriously harms or kills him) (7). Adversity is also seen to be overcome by altogether unlikely means (9). The abusive partner is seen as malicious in his actions, and he has no remorse (10). Her only indication of positive action or attitude in overcoming this adversity is that one day when one has had enough, emotion is aroused and constructive intention to leave the relationship is expressed (5).  152  This woman holds the conviction that the wrongdoing of the battering is a matter of personal relations or social conventions, and it gets the culprit into trouble (he loses his family and must seek counseling etc.). However, he does not recognize it as just, but blames his wife (6). The sequence analysis also reveals negative motivation pattern in relations with others. She shows passivity in relationships in these ways: She has the conviction that she must yield to the illegitimate pressure of others in authority, and obey their dictates (1). Passivity is evident throughout the sequence in the on-going tolerance of the abuse, and the negative convictions about coping with or overcoming this adversity (described above). Further she shows negative convictions in that love overrides urgent and legitimate self interest (others put themselves at risk for ‘love’) (4). She also has the conviction that good relations just happen as a result of fortunate happenings, instead of being established and maintained by outgoing affection and good will (8). The sequence analysis reveals a woman who has the negative motivation pattern of sheer passivity. Her imports show no positive action, and only one import with a positive intention. She has no goal. She hopes and dreams of having the ideal love relationship, but this happens by fate, or chance (8,9,12). She shows helplessness and dependency on others (1,  153  2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,13). Indecisiveness is evident in import 13. Her overall score on the motivation index is 27/200, indicating very low positive motivation..  154  W8 W. 8: Imports  1. When you take on a difficult task, you work diligently at first, but you become aware of the sacrifices involved, and when authorities aren’t looking, you dream of having fun. Unexpectedly they permit you to go.  -1 lB 6e  2. when you undertake an extensive unfamiliar project and you work hard with discipline, others notice your struggle and offer to help you when additional difficulties arise.  +1 IB4c 3. rJj you are a divorced mother with children you struggle, work hard and achieve some financial independence, but you remain civil with and still depend on your ex-husband, until he vanishes and then the children are hurt.  -1  TuB la  155  4. and your mate is unreliable and erratic in his behavior, and it makes you upset and insecure. When you confront him, he ignores you and walks out the door.  -2  IIIB 2a  5. when you lose a loved one, you carry on alone trying to satisfy everyone’s needs, but your fail, and are met with further adversity. You appologize to others, who seem devastated, but then suddenly offer emergency help.  -1 1VA4c  6. couldn’t think up a story. took a break  -1 lB 6e  7. and when others plan what you should become, you dream about the reality of the repulsive parts of this enterprise, and realize you cannot take it. It’s wrong for you, and you tell others in authority that you quit.  +1 ID lfii  156  8. you imagine a good long lasting marriage with lots of extended family, that are happy, harmonious, and content  +1 ifiA le  9. when someone is lost in a desolate situation, you look for them and follow their cries, and do not allow fear to stop you. You rescue him and run away to safety and comfort him.  +1 lB ic  10. when you are caught in the cycle of an battering relationship, fear stops both yourself and others from acting to stop it, and the batterer continues. When he is faced with grave adversity, he rages, assaults, and seriously injures you. He cries afterwards.  -2  IIIB la  11. when you are young and single with your whole future ahead of you, you have lots of options and opportunities. You  can chose to be with the person you want to be with, and this makes you happy.  157  -1 IB2a  12. when in an abusive relationship, you decide to calm down, and to leave the relationship. You set a goal, built up your selfesteem, and your hopes and dreams of a new life come true.  -1 IB2e&f  13. when a man does an immoral and abusive act against a woman, you take action by calling police and they  arrest  him.  You are relieved that he is not on the street any more.  +2 HA 2b  Cilnical Evaluation: W.8  The sequence analysis for this woman reveals an almost equal number of positive and negative motivating principles. Although she is concerned with the problems of a battering relationship, she also has concern with the problems of being a single mother after divorce, and with achievement, success, and happiness.  158  Her positive motivation toward success shows a mildly positive attitude toward work, in that it is difficult but brings reward (recognition, and assistance)(2). In opposition, she shows a negative attitude toward work, as work is put off in preference to recreation (1, 6). She shows further positive motivating principles for success by determining her own reasonable work or course in life (7), and by taking active risks (9). However, she shows a negative convictions that you achieve your goal by using the vague means of just thinking of the goal, and from making a decision for active planning (no positive action is taken) (11, 12). She finds that it a struggle dealing with the problems of being a single parent, as she must depend on the help of others to meet family needs (3,4,5). She shows the convictions that bad relations are caused by undesirable actions or attitudes (4) and they have prolonged ill effects, in that the poor relationship with her ex-husband continues, and he finally abandons them (3). Further, the adversity of the losing a loved one is followed by personal failure which is not overcome but tolerated with the help of others (5). Despite these negative convictions she believes that good relations are desirable, and valuable and they endure (8). In coping with the adversity of the battering relationship, she holds that bad relations have no ill effects in that the  159  violence is not stopped and goes unpunished (10). However, this is contradicted by the conviction that injustice of violence against ornen is overcome by positive action of demanding and working for justice (13). In summary this woman has a mixed motivation pattern in the mid-range, scoring 85/200 on the motivation index. She shows some positive motivation toward success and happiness, and a mildly positive attitude toward work (2), with fairly adequate means used to attain success (7,9). She also shows positive motivation in taking positive action for justice against violence against women (13). She also shows some positive convictions in valuing good marriage relationships and family (8). However she does have some passive dependent motivating attitudes evident throughout the sequence (1, 2, 3, 5, 10) in that she depends on help from others to succeed, and overcome adversity. She is handicapped by her negative attitudes of putting off work (1, 6), and by passivity in not taking positive action or adequate means to achieve the success she desires (1, 3, 4, 10,11, 12,)  160  w9 W. 9 Imports  1. when you don’t feel like practicing what authorities expect you to do, you find it a puzzle, you finally refuse to do it arid never do it again.  -2 IB5b  2. and when you are feeling sad you notice others who are sad, suffering, and imploring with a loved one who fails to notice. After a time you never see them again.  -2 WA 4a  3. and sometimes a loved one is hanned by someone who feels no remorse, and you are left to explain their evil deeds to innocents.  -2 WA 6f  4. but then you remember the excitement of a first movie and the unforgettable scene in which you saw two people in love kiss.  161  -1  IIIF 2b  5. but some loved ones you can never please. Even if you try and are giving, and courteous, they only epress resentment. Yet you remain loyal and put up with it until they die.  -2  lilA id  6. and if a son is not taught by his father that the right way to treat a woman is with love, he doesn’t. Only when his marriage ends, does he realize that he was not taught right from wrong.  -2  IIIF 4c  7. and in the course of ordinary, pleasant activity suddenly violent tragedies occur in which intimate others are hurt, or hurt themselves, and die.  -2  IIIF 2b  8. and in ordinary life, even when planning for a celebration, chaos, horror, destruction, and despair occur and that is the  way that life is.  162  —2 IIIF 2b  9. and even when you are carefree, and enthralled by natur&s beauty, suddenly unavoidable tragedy occurs.  -2 IIIF 2d  10. and after another violent incident, you feel used, humiliated and hurt. You know this will reoccur despite his promises to stop. You resolve to leave, and to be strong and heal.  +1 1VA2e  11. and another behaves like a rotten kid, is paranoid that others will steal his car, and is threatening to others. You believe he wouldn’t dare commit suicide but you wish he’d jump from the window.  -2 IIIF la  12. You had a dream that your family abandons you at 6 years old.  163  The dream still hurts you. Your reality isn’t much different.  -2 IIIF la  13. and when he is left lonely, miserable, arid depressed, with nobody to be with and take care of him, he thinks he deserves it for being bad, and bad-tempered for a long time.  +1 hA lb  Clinical Evaluation: W.9:  The sequence evaluation of this woman reveals someone who is extremely pessimistic and passive. Her negative and pessimistic attitude is evident in eleven out of the thirteen imports. She shows preoccupation with negative and violent relationships which is evident in almost all of the imports (1,2,3,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13). She shows the conviction that life produces destruction (7,8,), and  even  when you expect  something nice, something bad happens (8,9). She finds relationships ith others adverse (1,3,5,6,10,11, 12, 13), extremely violent and destructive (3, 7,10), and finds others to be malicious, and troublesome (3, 5, 10, 11, 12, 13). She also  164  demonstrates a belief that people deserve bad things to happen to them when they are bad (6, 13, ) and that others who have suffered because of their actions wish bad things to happen to them (11). Although she has this notion of justice, she demonstrates little notion of personal power and responsibility but people just do things unpredictably, or personal tragedy and accidents just happen. Her motivating attitude is passive, and positive action is absent, useless, impossible, or ineffective (1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9. 11, 12, 13) Her only positive import indicates constructive intention or resolve to leave the battering situation (10). In summary, this woman is so steeped in negative convictions about life, that she appears to be ovenvhelmed by adversity and has become almost completely pessimistic, and depressed. Her overall score on the motivation index is 19/200.  165  w10  W. 10 Imports: 1. you desire a sexually attractive man, and envy his wife, and their helping relationship. You hope for one of your oi. When you have hope you are not afraid.  -2 TA2b  2. after another fight with your spouse, you are afraid and in a quandaiy about how to solve your problems, but you resign yourself to your plight, focus on care for others, and hope  tomorrow is better -1 WA 5a(i)  3. when you say something to your partner that he doesn’t like, he verbally abuses you, and threatens to leave. You try to appease him by taking the blame. He leaves anyway, and you fear trouble.  -2 IVA4d  166  4. When others tell their tales of woe, you notice inaccuracies, and doubt their sincerity. Yet to meet their needs, you decide to believe them and doubt yourself.  -1 IIIC lb  5. and loved ones deny the reality of your problems, excuse themselves, and do not help, so you deny them also, and fall to take responsibility.  -1 IIIC lb  6. and when you seriously hurt yourself, you are indifferent, and just curious, and don’t know about the outcome.  -2 IIIF 5c(ii)  7. You know that other’s attempts to make up are not sincere, but you want to believe him, so you make up and the cycle repeats. You wonder if you are going insane.  -2 IIIC la(i)  167  8. Cold nature brings destruction and larger creatures kill smaller, and the stronger survives.  -2  IIIF 2b  9. When you are involved in a relationship, in which your husband’s violence is associated with his pleasure, and he blames you for all the problems, you are afraid for your life. You finally leave. You believe he is continuing this with another now.  -2 WA 6d&f  10. and when you threaten to leave your partner and he blackmails you with suicide, and social shaming, and orders you stay till he says you can leave. You stay.  -2 IIIC la(i & ii)  11. You want a good relationship but you quickly fall for others who deceive and cheat you, and take a long time to free yourself. You are afraid you’ll make the same mistake again.  -2 IF 3d  168  12. Now that you have gotten away from past adversity, and overcome your fear, you tell yourself it was a dream. Life has  no guarantees but you hope it seems to have them tomorrow.  -1 IF 2b 13. and when you’ve been told you must learn a task that builds character, you hate it and refuse to learn, and sabotage your efforts so they decide you don’t have to do it.  -2 IB6a&d  Clinical Evaluation: W.10:  The sequence analysis for this woman shows someone with a very negative motivation pattern. She is preoccupied with the problems of an abusive violent marriage. She shows considerable dependency on others, passivity, and pessimism. She holds a strong motivating principle of dependency on other’s opinions for her own opinions and actions (4,5,7, 10). Her own opinions are put off to please others (4,5) and she yields to illegitimate pressure for the sake of peace (7,10). In attempting to overcome the difficulty with a violent abusive  169  partner, she shows passive motivating principles. Taking action is passively avoided although responsibility for oneself and others demands action (2). Plus, she holds that when she attempts to appease the abuser the problem is not overcome but it is followed by more adversity (3). Tn addition she shows extreme passive attitude in that a life threatening situation is met with by just wondering, and waiting, merely curious about one’s fate (6). Pessimistic motivating principles are evident throughout the sequence. She holds the conviction that her past failure in choosing a mate is a prelude to more failure, and she fears choosing the same type of mate again (11). She holds the conviction that time or nature produces destruction as the law of nature is that the stronger destroys the smaller, and only the strong survive (8). Further, she has the conviction that the spousal physical violence is coupled with legitimate sexual pleasure and is malicious, and that he continues to do this with another once she leaves him (9). This woman has shows no positive motivation toward success. She hopes for success, and to do better but shows no positive action (1, 12), and she holds the conviction that work is distasteful, not necessary and can be evaded (13). Although, one import indicates the positive action of leaving, the focus is on the continuing of the perpetrators violence with someone  170  else, therefore this import was not positive according to the scoring criteria In summary, the sequence analysis reveals that this woman has an extreme negative motivation pattern of sheer passivity and pessimism. Passivity is evident throughout the sequence (1,2,3. 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12), as is pessimism (3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13). She also shows strong dependency on the influence and opinions of others (4,5,7,10). These motivating attitudes severely impair her in progressing in counseling and overcoming her problems. Her overall score on the motivation index is 19/200.  171  W ii  W. 11: Imports  1. When you have a hard life, and are controlled by oppressive others, you accept your labour responsibilities, but don’t like them and you plan for an easier life on your own.  +1 IB4d  2. when a man physically assaults you after making common mistakes, you are helpless, and despair. You decide and resolve to leave, and hope for a better life.  +1 IVA2e  3. A man who flies into jealous rages, and beats up others, and won’t listen to the pleadings of his wife to stop, continues but one day he begins to fight a man who turns out to be the law.  -1  IL’\ if  4. When your mate who has been sick for many years, is dying, though you hope for a miraculous cure, you know this is for the better. You say good-bye, and somehow feel relieved.  172  +2 WA 2b  5. some men are angry at the world and kill women for no apparent reason, and have no remorse. They only are sorry for the price they have to pay when they are charged and convicted.  hA if  -1  6. and so a man is fatally injured and cannot be saved and dies, and a family member feels nothing, because they do not like him.  -2  uhF 3a  7. and when your spouse is verbally abusive, you cry, and he lovingly appologizes, and promises never to do it again, but he always does and you always  stay  and take it.  -2 luG ia(i)  8. wrongdoing may be exciting and potentially rewarding but is quickly punished by the law.  173  +2 IIA 1a  9. and sometimes a man is so jealous at catching his wife in infidelity, that he kills her, but he feels remorse, and comfort in knowing he will get due punishment.  +2 hA la 10. and when others constantly tell you that you are no good, you despair, and take steps toward ending your life, but suddenly decide against it. -2 IIIC 2b  11. and you and your loved ones hike for a long time up a mountain, to be in this beautiful place, where you can exchange stories of your experience You decide to remain forever.  +2 lilA 2b  12. and you realize that the material success you have valued is only about greed, self-indulgence, and hate, and led to arguments so you decide to reject it, and leave it behind.  174  +2 IIIF 2a  13. and when asked to do a challenging task, you have misgivings about being able to perform well enough, and mentally protest against authorities, but you do the work, although mechanically.  +1 IB4a  Clinical Evaluation: W. 11  The sequence analysis for this oman reveals a slightly positive motivation with an almost equal number of positive and negative motivating principles. Most of the imports are concerned with the problem of an abusive and violent relationship. However, this woman shows positive motivating principles in overcoming this problem. The two imports scored in reaction to adversity have positive scores (2,4). She expresses the principle that the adversity of the physical violence perpetrated by a mate is not overcome, but is faced, and arouses emotion with the constructive intention of leaving the relationship (2). The second principle in overcoming adversity is that the loss of a loved one is not overcome but is  175  faced, and suffered by the positive attitude of seeing the benefits of this outcome (4). She shows considerable concern with the immorality of the violent behavior (3,5,8,9). She holds the negative principle that the violence gets the culprit into trouble, although there is no explicit realization of the punishment being deserved (3,5). However, she also expresses the positive principle that violence and other Tongdoing is positively disapproved and brings punishment, that is just and deserved (8,9). She shows a mixture of positive and negative imports regarding relationship with others. There is some indication of passive dependency on others (7, 10). She shows the negative motivation of yielding to illegitimate pressure for the sake of  peace (7). She also has the negative motivation that negative attitudes of others toward the self has exaggerated effects in that rejection by others results in personal despair and contemplated suicide (10). She has the negative conviction that undesirable hateful and hostile attitudes are justified, such as a boys ambivalence to his father’s death (6). However, she shows positive motivation in relations with others in the conviction that good relations are a mainstay in work and  hardship (11). She also has adopted the optimistic motivation that material values are subordinate to immaterial values such as good relations with oneself and others (12).  176  She shows a mildly positive attitude toward work in that it is done because it is right, but with reluctance (1), and done but reluctantly and mechanically (13). In summary, this woman has a mixture of positive and negative motivation, scoring just above the median on the motivation index (119/200). She shows mild positive motivation toward success (1,. 13), and positive motivation in relationships with others (11,12), as well as in moral principles of right and wrong,(8.9), and in the valuing of the immaterial over the material (12). She also shows positive motivation in overcoming the adversity of the physical violence (2,4). Nevertheless, she shows negative motivation in justifying hatred toward others (6), and in strong negative dependency on others influence (7,10). and that wrongdoing is a matter of personal relations or social conventions (3, 5). She appears to be in conflict over, or lack clarity regarding the immorality of the violence at this time. Passivity regarding this moral issue, and in dealing with violence and abuse is evident in all of the negative imports (3, 5, 6, 7, 10,), just as positive attitudes and actions regarding the violence is evident in many positive imports (2, 4, 8, 9, 11, 12).  177  Case Studies: The Battering Husbands lvii  Ml: Ims:  1. When you are forced to do a monotonous task, you are bored and frustrated, and want to do something else. If you are forced to continue you will never want to do anything like this again.  -1 IB6a  2. when you jealously compete with a rival for the attention of someone of the opposite sex, you give up and figure it’s not worth the hassle.  -2 IB3a  3. When you have a rough life, you become depressed, suicidal, get past the point of not return, and take your life.  -2 lV5b  178  4. when your mate tries to reconcile, you don’t want anything to do with her. You feel hurt and you want her to feel it also. You will probably separate.  -2 TuB lc&d  5. and at the loss of a loved one, you feel lost, but others suffering the same loss will help you through this tough time, and you live happily ever after.  —1 1VA4c  6. but when you fail, you upset others, and feel shame, but the best bet is to try something you might better enjoy and maybe succeed in.  -1 IF 2d  7. when you dream of becoming someone great, you are impatient about the work involved. A great feeling of confidence and you will be the hero you dream of.  -2 IBla  179  8. When you lose your mate you confide in another in a like situation, find comfort in their arms, and grow to be closer friends.  -1 lVA4a  9. when there has been a great change, and you fear attack by powerful others, you try to escape, but you run into the home of the enemy, and perish.  -2 IVA4d&Sb  10. when faced with a crisis in which you could lose your  loved one, you feel helpless, confused and exhausted. You do nothing, and lose her. You end up having to get counseling, and get back on the road to a normal productive life.  -2 P/A 4b  11. and when you hear from others about the qualities and responsibilities in what it means to be a man, you imagine yourself to magically become ‘a well rounded, good-natured man’.  180  -2IBla  12. and at a chance to perform in the limelight, you feel nervous, and leery. You go blank when asked to spell “accountabifity”.  -2 IB’c  13. and in this irresponsible attitude, you take secret happiness, knowing you have done it your way, the best way, and you have no regrets, and continue on your way.  -2 If la  Clinicai Evaluation: Ml:  The sequence analysis for this man reveals an extremely negative motivation, with no positive imports. He shows considerable passivity throughout the sequence, with no positive action toward success or in overcoming adversity. He shows preoccupation with the problems of conflict in a couple  181  relationship, and the failure and loss of that relationship (2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10). He has some desire for success (6, 7), but shows only negative motivating principles in this regard (1, 2, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13). This man shows negative motivating principles in regard to success in relationships and work. He shows an expectation of failure even when putting in active effort, and he gives up (2). Also, he holds a negative attitude toward work, that it is difficult, boring, and if forced to continue can become repulsive (1). He strongly holds the motivating principle that failure is not overcome, but it just happens, is tolerated, quickly  forgotten, and you move on (6, 12,13). This attitude is also evident in relations with others (2, 4, 5, 8, 10). Bad relations (quarrels and enmity) have no ill effects, and one does not attempt to resolve differences, and the relationship ends in separation despite obligations (4). This attitude appears to be an overall motivating principle in his life, and is coupled with an anti-success attitude, that belittles success, and shows that success or happiness is found in a life of irresponsibility (12, 13). He shows considerable helplessness, and hopelessness in overcoming adversity (3, 5, 8, 9, 10). Adversity leads to undesirable actions and attitudes of depression, despair and suicide, and to further destruction (3, 9). Adversity camiot be  182  overcome because action is impossible, as he is helpless in stopping the loss of a loved one (10), and the loss is tolerated  with the help of others, by receiving comfort from them (5, 8). Although this man expresses some desire to achieve (7, 11,12), and he wants to be somebody worthwhile, in his motivating attitudes he substitutes emotions or fantasy for active effort, and presents the achievement of success by highly unlikely means or magic (instant transformation) (7, 11). In summary, this man shows extremely negative motivation pattern, scoring 23/200 on the motivation index. He shows evidence of the self-centered negative motivation pattern, and of considerable passivity. His self-centered pattern shows in desire for name and fame and to be a hero (7, 12), and in expectations to achieve success without effort (7, 11, 12). There is some evidence that it is the fault of others when relationships end (4). He also shows motivation patterns of passivity in not making positive effort, or giving up in the face of difficulties (1,2,3,4,5,6,7, 10, 11, 12, 13). He depends on the sympathy of others to try to overcome adversity (5,8). The most outstanding motivation pattern of this man is that failure just happens, and that one just moves on as quickly as possible, which is repeated throughout the sequence in various forms (2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13). This coupled with the disregard  183  of the value of responsibifity and achievement (12, 13) seems to indicate the accepting of failure and glorifying it as success (13).  184  M2  -  Tmnorts  1. after working at a task for a long time, you feel sad and tired, and then rest OIB1 2. You do the work you clxose to do, even though others do not approve. ÷1 TB3b 3. a dreadful accident changes your whole life, and you are so sad  -2 WA5b 4. and when a couple is forced to separate, they are veiy  upset, and destruction of their relationship is predictable -2 WA5b  185  5. you do what you need to do with your life, despite the concern of loved ones  +1 B3b  6. you can be given advice that you understand, but are mad about, yet, you and the other remain in relationship.  +1 IlIC 3c  7. though you have been seriously injured, you are helped by a professional, and you live.  +1 WA if  8. when people are in love they are affectionate and have loving feelings, have a rest, and then continue to enjoy themselves.  +1 lILA. le  9. after a long struggle, you are tired and want to give up, instead you press on, and then rest.  186  +1 IB4b&5b  10. and when you have committed an act of serious violence against your lover, you are helpless, ashamed, and sorry. You are caught and go to JAIL!  +2 hA la  11. but a new day will come, and you will feel great and look forward to good experiences  +1 lVA2a  12. but present nothingness makes me sad, and there is no future.  -2 IVA 4b  13. and when you have been working at a task for a long time, you are suffering. You get relieved and go to the bar to be with friends.  OIB1  187  Clinical Evaluation: M2:  The sequence analysis for this man reveals someone with a mixture of positive and negative motivating principles. He shows concern with relationships, their loss, and coping with it (3, 4, 8, 10,11,12). He shows some positive motivation for work  and success (2, 5, 9,), in overcoming adversity,(7, 11) in relationships with others (6,8), and in moral issues (10). He has strong negative motivating principles in regard to coping with the loss of one’s mate (3,4, 12). This man is concerned with the loss of a mate, and he shows a negative conviction that this adversity cannot be overcome, but that it ends in emotion, despair, and destruction (3,4,12). However, he shows the principle that seeking professional help, results in overcoming a serious problem (7). In addition, he holds the positive motivating principle of accepting reasonable advice, which he understands, even though he resents or is angry about it (6). Further, this man holds the positive motivating principle that the perpetrating of physical violence on your lover is wrong, is punished, and the punishment is deserved (10). Finally, he holds the belief that the loss is accepted with resignation and hope for future good (11).  188  He shows the motivating attitude that good relationships are desirable, valuable and they endure (8). This man has positive motivation in regard to work. He shows the principle of independent action by making his own choices, despite the negative attitude of others (2, 5). He also shows a mildly positive attitude toward work in that it is difficult but it is done (9), and after resting one continues (9). (Rest is mentioned in four imports, and is the outcome for two, which may indicate that this man was tired or ill the day that he wrote the test). In summary, this man shows some positive and some negative motivating principles. He has an overall low positive motivation score of 112/200 on the motivation index. He shows positive motivating principles in regard to the physical violence against one’s mate being wrong (10), and in seeing the value of seeking professional help (7), and in taking reasonable advice from others (6). Although, he has very negative beliefs about overcoming the loss (3,4,12), he does hold hope for the future (11), and shows willingness to take independent positive action (2,5,) and to work to achieve (9). These positive principles will greatly assist him in overcoming his problems.  189  M3  M.3: Imports  1. When life circumstances leaves you forced to do a task, when you would have preferred another, you resist, fear failure, and making a fool of yourself. Then you take the task in hand and find it interesting.  -1 lB 5c 2. you quickly get ready to do your work duties which you share with others. Your work mates like to daydream about the past, and you like to listen to their interesting stories. Others are strong, dedicated, and fond of their work.  -2 lB 6c 3. after the news of the loss of a loved one, you faint from the shock, but after a time you feel better and continue on.  -2 WA 4b  4. when faced with adversity and threat, you believe it is duty  to stop  your  it. Against all odds, with others fearing for your  190  safety, you heroically press on. The problem is overcome by a fluke, or accident.  -2 WA 2a  5. when a violent tragedy happens to someone you have honored, though you may be shocked, you are strong to accept it as part of the changing times and smart to be strong for others who have difficulty dealing with it.  -1 IVA4a 6. when faced with the moral question of granting freedom and rights for the oppressed, you feel it is a hard choice, and fear the consequences of allowing change. Though people in authority support the status quo, others, dedicated to freedom help you decide that freedom is most important.  +2 IL4b  7. When a serious violent injury occurs, experts work  desperately to overcome it, but you remain uninvolved as you cannot face it.  191  -1 WA 5a(i)  8. you fall in love instantly, and are inseparable ever after.  -l  lilA lb  9. Normally you don’t want to be seen by anyone, but when something catches your eye, you stop to look and study it. You find a treasure that delights you, but you keep it secret, and have others guess what it is.  -2 IBla  10. when feeling hot and restless, you take pleasure in sexual play with a lover, and then feel much better.  -1 IB7b  11. in a new environment, you go out to look for fun and adventure, and to meet new people.  -1 1B8  192  12. and you hope it von’t be a total waste, and that you meet  new people. You meet a woman with similar exciting interests, have a great weekend, and leave with great memories. You look forward to next year.  -2  lilA 2b  13. When someone is lonely and destitute, you are curious, feel sorry for him, and offer a little comfort to him, but you cannot give him the help he needs. You both feel happy when he is helped by others.  -1  TIlE la  Clinical Evaluation: M.3  The sequence analysis for this man reveals a negative motivation pattern, with only’ one positive import. His focus of concern is on violence and loss (3 to 7), pleasure and recreation (10,11,12), and relationships with others (8, 9, 10, 11,12, 13). His shows little positive motivation toward work success, with no positive imports (1,2,9).  193  This man expresses the passive negative motivation principles that the loss of a loved one cannot be overcome because action is impossible (3), that one is strong to tolerate it as part of times we live in and smart to help others cope with it (5). He also holds that he avoids doing anything about it because he cannot face it, even though responsibility demands action (7). When he does attempt to face it, it is overcome by accidental or altogether unlikely means (4). Otherwise, the only positive action taken is by others (7). However, as part of this sequence on violence and loss, he shows a positive principle that choosing to support freedom for the oppressed is right and depends on your own choice. (6) This man shows negative motivating principles regarding relationships with others. He holds that good relations are not established or maintained by on going affection and good will they are the result of fortuitous happenings (8). In this sequence, he states that he does not like to be seen by anyone, and if something delights him he keeps it a secret, and has others guess about it (9). He indicates that sex, and looking for fun and adventure is indulged in or enjoyed for it own sake (10.11). When he finds this fun and adventure, and a new  woman friend, he enjoys the weekend, and then says good-bye till next year (12), indicating the motivating principle that relations with others are not durable but are engaged in and  194  broken without reason. Lastly, he shows that when he attempts to give some comfort to others, that what he has or is willing to offer fails to meet the other’s needs, and they have to be helped by others who can meet their needs (13). His motivating principles regarding work success and achievement are negative (1,2, 9). He shows that work is for some people and not for others, as some people are dedicated to work and do it and others just tell stories while others listen (2). He shows some desire and possibility for success and thinking about a task, but little positive action and no success (1). Success comes by the highly unlikely means of simply discovering it (9), or by accident (4). In summary, this man shows a very negative motivation pattern of passivity, and self-centeredness. The self centeredness shown is the expectation that success in work and relationships just comes with little effort or commitment (1, 2, 8, 9, 12, 13). Overall this man shows considerable passivity (lack of positive action) regarding overcoming the adversity of loss of others through violence or accident (3, 5, 7,), and in the negative expectation that success comes by chance, (4,9,). Also,  in that good relations with others just happen (8,12), and end without reason (12). He shows passivity in the lack of strong positive action, and thus failure in helping others (13). He also  shows passive dependence on others as others take positive  195  action to achieve and to help whereas he doesn’t (2, 7, 13). The  only positive import is the decision to choose to support the right of freedom for the oppressed (6). This man has an overall negative motivation with the very low score of 42/200 on the motivation index,  196  CHAFFER FiVE:  DISCUSSION  This multi-case study explored the questions: “what motivates men to physically batter their wives? and “what motivates women to stay in marriage relationships in which they are being battered?”. This study examined the motivation patterns of 3 battering husbands, and 11 battered wives as revealed through the TAT. The motivation patterns and the case evaluations of the participants were presented in the previous chapter. This final chapter presents: (a) summary of the findings, (b) limitations of the study; (c) implications for theory; (d) implications for practice; (e) implications for future research; and (f) summary of the research project. The Research Findings This study generated two types of cross-case findings that are discussed in this section: (a) the similarities and differences of the motivation patterns of the battered women, and (b) the similarities and differences of the motivation patterns of the male batterers. Cross-case Findings: Battered Wives The cross-case analysis of the 11 battered women in this study show predominantly negative motivation patterns. These negative motivation patterns were compared to the four  197  negative motivation patterns outlined in Arnold (1962): passive, pessimistic, self-centered, and malicious. The crosscase analysis showed a passive and pessimistic negative motivation pattern for all of the women. In addition, six women showed negative imports matching one or two imports of the self-centered pattern, and three showed imports matching from one to three imports in the malicious pattern. There is a counter balance of positive motivation in the imports of the battered women as reflected in their scores on Arnold’s motivation index. Their scores indicate a continuum of differing balances of positive and negative motivation across the group on the scoring index of 0 to 200. The scores on the TAT motivation index for the 11 women range from 15 to 119 and were as follows: 15, 23, 27, 27, 50, 50, 50, 85, 85, 104, and 119. The scores below the median (100) indicate a negative motivation pattern that contains more negative than positive motivation. The battered ornen’s scores range from ‘extremely negative’ to a pattern of ‘nearly equal ‘negative and positive’ motivation. None of these women are positively motivated according to Arnold’s  normative  scale.  The most prominent negative motivation patterns found in common for all of the battered wives in this study are follows: Passive:  as  198  1. No goal, or gives up as soon as difficult; 2. Dependency on others for success, achievement, happiness; 3. Dependency in human relationships (fearful, subservient, gives in to keep the peace, lack of personal efficacy); 4. Hopes or dreams of success which comes by waiting, fate, chance, or magical means; 5. One does not stand up for and/or act on ones convictions; one conforms, and yields to illegitimate pressure; 6. Good relations come by chance, fate, time, or external circumstances, and one cannot influence others; Pessimistic convictions: 7. Paralyzing fear and numbing anxiety in the face of adversity (which for these women was predominantly physical violence); 8. Relationship difficulties, failures, rejection, lack of love and understanding have devastating long-term effects; 9. Adversity cannot be overcome.  Malicious Convictions:  199  10. Others are determined to do what they want and think can get away with it, justify it, become angry, insult, physically assault, and have no scruples about destroying others. (Stories indicate this about violent men/husbands).  NOTE: All of the women in this study wrote stories and had imports that indicate preoccupying concern with violent relationships.  Although, the above motivating attitudes are found in common for all of the battered wives in this study, this list cannot be interpreted as a single profile for all the battered women. Some women in this study show motivating attitudes that are not in common with any’ or many others. Also, the number of times the common motivating attitudes appear in a  woman’s import sequence varies from one, to several imports. Therefore, although the battered women in this study have these motivating attitudes in common, they also show many differences. In addition, as this study has a small number of subjects, the findings claimed are tentative and conservatively limited to the most obvious findings. There are other motivating attitudes in the imports of the women that may emerge as  200  common patterns with a larger number of subjects as other studies have found. These higher number of common motivating attitudes may then reveal several types of battered women as also suggested in the research literature. In addition, in considering the motivation pattern one must be mindful that these battered women show the above negative motivating attitudes along with some positive motivating attitudes. The degree of positive motivation is indicated by their motivation index’ scores. They show positive motivation imports of positive action overcoming adversity, or positive attitude in coping with it. All of the women in this study indicated some positive attitude or action toward leaving a relationship with an abusive and violent man. This was the only positive motivating attitude in common for all of the  women. Cross-case Findin2s: Male Batterers The cross-case findings for the three male batterers in this study showed some similarities across all three cases. However, two of the three showed primarily negative motivation scores for the TAT (M1:23; and M3:42), while one male batterer showed a near median positive score (M2: 112). The two low scorers showed a negative motivation pattern that spread across all four patterns described by Arnold (1962).  201  Their clinical evaluations showed negative motivation with imports across the passive, pessimistic, self-centered, and malicious patterns for two of the men. However, the batterer with more positive motivation had a pattern that showed primarily passMty, with some pessimism. As two of the male batterers show a more similar pattern than the third, more than one pattern of motivation may exist among male batterers. It appears that there are two types of men who batter their wives in this study. One type, evident in Ml, and M3, shows more self-centered and malicious motivation. The other type, M2, shows a mixed motivation pattern of positive and negative passive motivation with one pessimistic conviction. However, these findings are tenuous because of the very small sample. As Yin (1989) claims that a multi-case study must have three cases to have sufficiently robust findings from which to generalize to theory, this study limits its claimed findings to those evident across all three batterers. All the batterers show passive, and pessimistic negative motivating attitudes as follows: Passive: 1. No goal, or gives up on goal as soon as it becomes difficult;.  202  2. Hopes or dreams of success which comes by waiting, fate, or chance; 3. Dependency: on the sympathy, and advice of others to succeed; Ml and M3 showed the i-elated conviction that without help they are resigned to failure, while M2 showed that he expects to fail but tries to be happy in spite of it; 4. Relationships are externally controlled. Bad relations  are caused by external circumstances (Ml & M2) Good relations come by chance or fate and one cannot influence others (M3). Pessimistic 5. Adversity cannot be overcome.  Despite the caution needed in considering the results for the batterers because of the very small sample size, the similarity of some of the motivation patterns between Ml and M3 are worth noting for consideration in future research. The motivating attitudes they hold in common are as follows: Passive: 1. Accident, fate, or providence explain adversity. Self-centered: 2. Failure results from lack of ability, aptitude, and/or opportunity;  203  3. Expects success without putting oneself out or committing oneself to a definite course of action.  Malicious pattern: 4. Falling in or out of love without much caring and breaking relations without compunction.  These motivating attitude similarities seem to indicate a more self-centered and malicious type of batterer, as contrasted to the passive type shown in M2. These  two types  seem to correspond to two types of batterers found in the research literature, which will be discussed in implications for theory. Limitations of the Study:  The significance of this study’s findings is limited by the following: 1. The small sample size does not allow generalization to the population of male batterers or battered wives, although it is considered sufficient for an exploratory multi-case study that  can generalize to theory. 2. There is no comparative measure other than the descriptions in the literature of a known group with defined  204  characteristics. Another measure of the participant’s motivation would contribute to the validity of the results. 3. Subjective bias may have influenced the importing and clinical evaluations, even though Arnold’s instructions for forming imports and evaluations attempt to avoid bias. 4. The reliability and validity of the imports, and scores could  be improved by having imports and sequence analyses conducted by more than one researcher. 5. Using more than one rater for scoring the imports, and interrater reliability testing would also improve reliability and validity 6. As Arnold (1962) suggested, a scoring criteria based on a clinical population would be more accurate as some of the imports in this study may be more negative than those found  in Arnold’s scoring criteria for a normal population. 7. The accuracy of the cross-case analysis could be improved by a clearly defined system in which the exact imports from the scoring criteria are listed for each negative motivation pattern. This would reduce the possibility of error and subjective bias when matching imports to the generalized descriptions of the negative patterns given by Arnold (1962).  205  Implications for Theory In this section the motivation patterns found in the crosscase analysis are compared to the descriptions of battered wives and of battering husbands in the research literature. This is followed by a discussion of the theoretical implications of these comparisons. The Motivation of Battered Wives: Comparison to the Research on Battered Women:  The results of this study show corresponding motivation patterns to the characteristics of battered wives described in the research literature. Two predominant theoretical perspectives about battered wives that parallel the result of this study are post-traumatic stress syndrome (Herman, 1992) and learned helplessness in the battered women syndrome (Walker, 1984). Post-traumatic stress syndrome has three stages: (1) submission: relinquishes inner autonomy, world view, moral principles, and connection with others for the sake of survival; (2) robotization: shuts down feelings, thoughts, initiative, and judgment; and (3) fatal stage: loss of the will to live; absolute passivity (Herman, 1992).  206  The cross-case analysis for the group of women in this study show negative motivation that matches the first two stages of post-traumatic stress syndrome. Corresponding to the first stage, they show “passive dependency in human relationships with fearfulness, subservience, giving in to keep the peace, and lack of personal efficacy”. In addition, the battered omen show the passive motivating attitude that “one does not stand up for and act on one’s convictions, but gives in to ifiegitimate pressure, and confonns”. Stage two of posttraumatic stress syndrome matches the battered wives pessimistic motivation pattern of “paralyzing fear and numbing  anxiety in the face of adversity “(which for these women was predominantly physical violence). The third fatal stage of post-traumatic stress syndrome is not clearly demonstrated in this study. However, the pessimistic conviction that relationship difficulties, failures, rejection, lack of love, and understanding have devastating long term effects is common among this group. Examination of this conviction in the clinical evaluations reveals that several of the women have imports that included contemplated suicide, or suicide, or other fatal harm (W2, W4, W7, W9, W10, Wil). One  woman (W10) shows an import of sheer passivity in Arnold’s scoring criteria: “when you seriously hurt yourself, you are indifferent, and just curious, and don’t know about the  207  outcome”. These imports or convictions seem to indicate some negative motivation toward loss of the will to live, and absolute passivity. However, this was not a conclusive pattern for any of the women in this study as it was not predominant in their imports, nor did any of their import sequences end in suicide or fatal loss. A further comparison of the motivation patterns of the battered women in this study shows a corresponding pattern to Walker’s (1984) learned helplessness in the battered women syndrome. Learned helplessness means a lack of contingency between actions and outcome which leads to negative pessimistic beliefs about the efficacy of ones actions, and about the likelihood of obtaining future rewards through ones own actions (Walker, 1984). Learned helplessness includes cognitive, affective, and motivational components of depression: (a) the perception or expectation that goals cannot be reached by responses available to the person (unlikely to try to do anything), (b) helplessness and passivity and (c) unrealistic about current situation (disassociation, fantasy, magical thinking, hopes for change/no action). These are evident in the passive motivation patterns of battered wives in this study of (a) no goals, or gives up as soon as its difficult, (b) hopes and dreams of success which comes by waiting, fate, chance, or magical means, (c) good relations come by chance,  208  fate, time, or external circumstances, and the pessimistic motivating attitude of (d) adversity cannot be overcome. In addition, the research literature shows that battered women hold traditional ideology. They believe it is their role to keep peace and harmony and maintain the marriage. They feel shame in admitting failure of the marriage. They fear loss of role and economic status, and are emotional and financially dependent. These traditional ideologies are evident in the motivation patterns of the women in this study in passive dependency on others in success/achievement and in relationships in which they show motivation to keep the peace and be submissive. They show the pessimistic motivation that relationship difficulties, failures, rejection, and lack of love and understanding have devastating long tenn effects. The devastating long term effects evident in their imports and stories are the loss of economic status, poverty, and shame in admitting failure of marriage. Failure and low self-esteem are also evident in this study as in the literature regarding battered women, and are correspondent with lack of confidence in ones own abifity to act and create desirable results in one’s life. Comparing the characteristics attributed to battered women in the research literature to the motivation patterns found in this study makes apparent that the theories repeat  209  attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors using different language. Post-traumatic stress syndrome, and learned helplessness in the battered wife syndrome match the same motivation pattern. The traditional ideology and low selfesteem along with the vast number of attributes listed in the research literature (see chapter 2, section 2 this study) also describe virtually the same patterns of motivation. This lack of cohesive theory and typology creates unwieldy, confusing descriptions for the clinician. Thereby making it difficult to clarify the problems and needs of battered women and to design effective treatment programs. The motivation patterns of battered women described in this study provide a clear theoretical basis with a definitive set of problems that are verified by the research literature. The passive and pessimistic motivation which are the principles of living for battered women in this study add clarification and cohesion to the research. The discovery of the underlying motivation of battered women, a dimension that has been ignored by researchers contributes comprehension to the vast unwieldy theory. Therefore the motivational dimension measured by the TAT and Arnold’s story sequence analysis shows at least tentative validity and value in this exploratory study.  210  The Motivation Patterns of Battering Husbands: Comtarison to the Research on Batterers:  In comparing the list of characteristic attitudes, and behaviors of male batterers in the research literature to the motivation patterns found in this study, there are evident similarities. Depression, and external locus of control are attributes listed in the literature for batterers. Batterers show the cognitive, motivational, and affective dimensions of depression: (1) perception or expectation that goals cannot be reached by responses available to the person (unlikely to try to do anything); (2) helplessness, passivity; (3) unrealistic about current situation (disassociation, fantasy, magical thinking, hopes for change/no action). Corresponding motivating principles are evident for batterers in the TAT results: (1) no goals, or give up on goals as soon as they face difficulty; (2) hopes or dreams of success which comes by waiting, fate, or chance; (3) dependency on sympathy, and advice of others to succeed or resigned to failure; and (4) adversity cannot be overcome. All of these negative motivation principles are also equivalent to external locus of control. In addition, the research literature states that the batterer externalizes problems, and abrogates responsibility for  211  the violence onto his wife and shows denial that anything is wrong with him These are similar to the convictions held by the batterers in this study that bad relations are caused by external circumstances and accident ftte or providence explain adversityc However, the motivation patterns show generalized externalization or external locus of control. Therefore the batterer is likely to blame his wife for the violence just as he blames others, and external circumstances for his problems, and life events. The last similarity found between the findings of this study and that of the research literature is self-depreciation, and/or low self-esteem. The batterers in this study hold to these principles of living; depend on others to succeed and without help expect or are resigned to failure (M1,2,3) and  failure results from lack of ability, aptitude, and/or opportunily  (M1&3). These motivating attitudes of all three  batterers show a lack of confidence in oneself and on&s abilities that is descriptive of self-depreciation and low selfesteem. A significant implication from the findings of this study for batterers is that the passive motivation patterns described above as equivalent to depression, external locus of control, and low self-esteem are the same as the descriptions of learned helplessness. Learned helplessness is the antithesis of positive  212  motivation pattern, and is the holding of negative passive and pessimistic beliefs about the efficacy of ones actions, and about the likelihood of obtaining future rewards through ones own actions (Walker, 1984). Learned helplessness includes cognitive, affective, and motivational components of depression. Therefore, batterers have the attitudes and behaviors of learned helplessness. Researchers have recognized the pattern of learned helplessness for battered women, but not for batterers. However, the theory of the development of learned helplessness is consistent with the research findings that a high percentage of male batterers have a history of family of origin violence (Straus & Gelles, 1990; Walker, 1984;). Studies have shown that family of origin use and tolerance of violence (especially toward women), plus inconsistency in discipline, lack of problem solving and coercive family tactics result in the development of aggression and violence (Fagot, et al, 1988). These family dysfunction’s also correlate with spousal violence (Dibble & Straus, 1990; Pagot, et al, 1988; Rosenbaum et al, 1990; Straus, Geiles, & Steinmetz, 1980; Walker, 1984;), In addition, these dysfunction’s are a breeding ground for learned helplessness because of the lack of contingency between actions and outcome in these chaotic family dysfunction’s. One exception in the lack of contingency between actions and  213  outcome would be getting one’s way by using violence. Learned helplessness plus acceptance of coercion and violence as acceptable and effective resources correspond to Arnold’s (1962) findings in motivation patterns. Arnold found that individuals who have hostile tendencies view the world as an unsafe place and believe that it is acceptable to use others to get what one wants, and believe that success may be attained by using force or threat of force. The world is an unsafe place when one feels helpless, dependent, and pessimistic about the efficacy of on&s actions, Therefore, as some researchers have found, the batterer may be easily threatened feel fear and desperation, and resort to violence as the final ultimate resource (Finkethor, 1983; Hampsen, 1991). Altogether the findings of this study, Arnold!s studies, and other research on spousal violence point to learned helplessness as a key component in the motivation of the behavior of batterers. The implication of this study that male batterers show learned helplessness by their passive and helpless motivation contradicts the popular concept of researchers and clinicians that batterers are merely controlling and malicious (Ferrato, 1991; Hampsen, 1991; Herman, 1992; Rosenbaum et al, 1990; Walker, 1984;). This view is advocated in some treatment programs and can be useful in assisting battered wives to change from the position of coping with the violence to one of  214  leaving the relationship. This stance has been shown to be effective and is advocated in the research (Ferrato, 1991; Herman, 1992; Straus & Gelles, 1990; Walker, 1984). Although, it may be true that batterers are controlling and malicious, (and this study shows some tentative indications of maliciousness) this is a limited view. Perceiving the batterer as controlling and malicious fails to consider the underlying motivation that causes his behavior and is therefore of questionable usefulness in understanding and treating the batterer. In addition, this limited perspective of the batterer falls to consider differences in the motivation patterns of batterers indicated in this study. One batterer shows a pattern of almost equal positive and negative passive motivation with one pessimistic motivating attitude. The two other batterers show similar passive and pessimistic motivation but with selfcentered and malicious motivation. These findings indicate that some batterers may be more malicious than others. These differing patterns correspond with findings in the research literature of a typology of batterers (Gondoif & Fisher, 1990; Rosenbaum et al, 1990; Walker, 1984). The positive/passive with some pessimistic seems to be most like the typical batterer (Gondoif & Fisher, 1990), who tends to feel regret about his perpetrated violence. Remorse was evident in one  215  import in this batterers sequence analysis, and it was not found in the sequence analysis of the other batterers. The other two batterers in this study may be similar to the antisocial (Gondoif & Fisher, 1990), or the narcissistic/antisocial (Rosenbaum et al, 1990), which seems similar to Arnold’s self-centered motivation pattern. However, these findings and comparisons are only tentative, and must be clarified and verified by further research. Although the research literature lists many other attitudes and behavior characteristics of male batterers, no others match this studies findings of batterers’ motivation patterns. The lack of more similarities may be due to several factors. The very small sample in this study limits the scope of possibilities out of the population of batterers. Also, this study’s focus on motivation is not found in the research. Third, this study explored tacit personal knowledge in contrast to the other research that has examined behavior, and attitudes of batterers through self-report methods. Finally many studies in the research literature used the self-reports of battered wives to obtain descriptions of the batterers (Walker, 1984; Rosenbaum et al, 1990). In summary, there are only a few motivating attitudes of batterers in this study that clearly correspond to the attitudes and behavior descriptions in the research literature. However,  216  this study’s findings agree with key components of findings in the research. They also clarify and add to theory by revealing a similarity in patterns for learned helplessness for batterers as well as battered wives. These findings and their implications for theory show a more whole perspective about batterers. Perhaps, learned helplessness, combined with an attitude of acceptance or approval of violence as a legitimate resource, plus the lack of appropriate punishment, and the presence of rewarding consequences for spousal violence (submission from the other/getting ones own way) are the answer to the question: why does a husband batter his wife. Further research is needed to verify the tentative findings of this study and its implications for theory Implications for Practice The use of the TAT and of Arnold?s system of story sequence analysis for clinical evaluation with batterers and battered wives is an effective and efficient tool for assessment. It provides a method for quickly accessing tacit self-knowledge thereby revealing to the clinician needed information that can be readily used to design treatment programs. The client information attained by this method is useful in avoiding distortions that may be made by the client as internal and  217  external ego defenses. An in-depth understanding of the client’s motivation pattern gives the clinician infonnation that may not be gleaned from the clients self-reports because it may not be available to the client’s conscious awareness. The information obtained in the clinical assessment delineates the motivating attitudes of the client, and reveals those beliefs, attitudes, values, that are preventing the client from functioning successfully. The battered wife and the battering husband may show learned helplessness with its lack of recognition, acceptance, or understanding of the contingency between actions and outcome, and of the efficacy of their actions. The clients could be assisted in discovering and learning these connections, and in acting on this information. Treatment programs can be designed to provide experiential learning of the truth about motivation and successful operating principles for living. The skills needed to apply these principles in relationships could be taught and practiced with these clients in individual, couple, family, and group counseling. The revealing of their motivation patterns as indicated by the TAT clinical evaluation may provide insight for the client as well, and help to relieve anxiety, shame, and low self-esteem caused by the self-blame of both the batterers and battered wives. They could begin to understand the problem and find hope for a solution rather than continuing in the unrealistic  218  passive and/or pessimistic motivation pattern that they cannot do anything about their behavior, or the success or failure in their lives and relationships. The client would thereby be empowered to change. Implications for Future Research  Future research using the TAT and Arnolds system of story sequence analysis to assess the motivation patterns of battered wives and of male batterers would further the understanding of wife battering. A study using thirty or more subjects for each group would provide results that could be used to generalize to a population. Repeated studies with this number of subjects, using a measure for correlation to the TAT results, could provide motivation pattern descriptions based on the imports and sequence analysis. The imports shown by each group could be developed into a clinical scoring criteria applicable to these groups. The scoring criteria could be verified by additional studies of this kind. Once proven valid and reliable, the scoring criteria would be useful for clinical diagnosis and for designing individual and group treatment programs. Summary of the Study  219  This multi-case study explored the motivation patterns of 11 battered women and 3 male batterers. The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and Arnold’s Story Seciuence Analysis (1962) were utilized to obtain and analyze a series of 13 stories from each participant. The participants stories were analyzed to produce story imports, which are analogous to the moral of the story. The imports revealed the motivation or principles of living of each participant. The sequence of imports from the 13 stories revealed the pattern of motivation from which the clinical evaluations were formed for each person. The imports and clinical evaluations of the respective group members of battered women and of male batterers were then compared in a cross-case analysis. All of the battered wives, as well as the male batterers showed predominantly negative motivation patterns. Therefore their import similarities and differences were charted in the cross-case analysis according to the descriptions of the four negative motivation patterns outlined by Arnold (1962). The results of this cross-case analysis for the respective groups were then compared to the characteristic attitudes, values, and behaviors outlined in the research literature for male batterers and for battered wives. These known characteristics for each group were used as the comparative validity measure to the story sequence analyses  220  as recommended by Teglasi (1993). The similarities and differences between the cross-case analyses of motivation patterns of male batterers and battered wives in this study and the known characteristics for the respective groups in the literature were delineated in the final research process for this study. This exploratory multi-case study found many similarities and some differences in the cross-case analysis for each group. In addition, the cross-case analysis results for the respective groups and the characteristics found in the literature showed corresponding patterns, although more were found for the 11 battered wives, than for the 3 male batterers. This study found common motivation patterns for both the battered wives and the male batterers that were negative. The  same passive and pessimistic patterns of negative motivation were common across both groups. Both groups showed cognitive, motivational, and emotional components of depression, and negative passive and pessimistic motivating attitudes regarding the lack of contingency between actions and outcome. Their sequence analyses indicated the impossibility of achieving what one wants and needs through one’s own actions. Each of these patterns were described as learned helplessness in the research literature. These results matched patterns described in the research for battered  wives  221  and for male batterers. However, male batterers’ equivalent descriptions were depression, low self-esteem, and external locus of control rather than learned helplessness. Nevertheless, this study shows that both the male batterers and the battered wives show the motivation patterns of learned helplessness. Although these similarities in motivation patterns were found for both groups there were also differences. The group of women showed similar motivation patterns to the attributes of post-traumatic stress syndrome (Herman, 1992), which is very similar to learned helplessness in the battered women syndrome (Walker, 1984). The male batterers showed two different patterns of motivation that appeared to indicate two types similar to the typical (positive/passive/pessimistic motivation) and narcissistic/anti-social (passive/ pessimistic with self-centered/malicious motivation) types mentioned for batterers in the research literature. The motivation patterns revealed in this multi-case study, though its results must be considered tentative, contributed clarity to a vast and unwieldy theory by finding commonalties between differing theoretical views. Many of these differing views were actually parallel and corresponded to the same motivational patterns. Therefore the common motivation patterns found in this study provided a clearer analysis and theory of the problems in living for battered  222  women and male batterers. Although further research using story sequence analysis is recommended to confirm these results, these motivation patterns may provide direction for the clinician, and the researcher, regarding the dysfunction of these clients. Therefore, further utilization of the motivation patterns revealed in this study, and of story sequence analysis by clinicians and researchers may provide a clearer guide for successful treatment for the problems of male batterers and of battered wives.  223  REFERENC ES  Ammerman, R. T., & Hersen, M. (1990). Family violence: A clinical Overview. In R. T. Ammerman & M. Hersen (Eds.) Case studies in family violence. (pp. 3 -14). New York: Plenum Press. Arnold, M. B. (1962). Story seciuence analysis. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Babcock, Julia C. (1992). Power and violence: the relationship between communication patterns, power discrepancies and domestic violence. Unpublished masters thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Bandura, A., Rossi, D. & Ross, S. (1983). Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models. In Wm. Damon (Ed.) Social and Personality Development. (pp. 139 -152). N.Y.: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc.  Bedrosian, R.C. (1982). Treatment of marital violence. In J.C. Hansen & LR Barnhill (Eds.) Clinical approaches to family violence. (pp.117 -137). Rockville, Maryland: Aspen Systems Corp. Berger, A. (1985), Characteristics of abusing famifies. In L. L!Abate (Ed.) The handbook of family therapy, Vol II. (pp. 900 936). Homewood, ill.: Dorsey Press. -  Berghorn, G.. & Siracosa, A. (1982) Beyond isolated treatment: a case for community involvement in family violence interventions. In J.C. Hansen & LR. Barnhill (Eds.) Clinical approaches to family violence. (pp. 139 155). Rockville, Maryland: Aspen Systems Corp. -  Berkowitz, L. (1983). The goals of aggression: toward a theory of interfamily violence. In D. Finkethor, R. Gelles, G. Hotaling, & Ni. Straus (Eds.) The dark side of families:  224  CulTent family violence research. (pp. 166-181). Beverley Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications Inc. Bersani, C.A. & Huey-Tsyh, C. (1988) Sociological perspectives in family violence. In V.B. Van Hassell, R. Morrison & NI. Hersen (Eds,) Handbook of family violence. (pp. 57 -84). N.Y.: Plenum Press Bograd, M. (1988). How battered ornen and abusive men account for domestic violence: excuses, justifications, or explainations. In G.T. Hotaling, D. Finkeihor, J. Kirkpatrick & M. Straus (Eds.) Coping with family violence. (pp. 32 60). Beverley Hills, CA.: Sage Publications Inc. -  Browning, J. J. (1983) Violence against intimates: toward a profile of a wife assaulter. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, U.B.C., Vancouver, B.C. Chasson, L (1979). Research design in clinical psychology and psychiatry. (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons Cochran, L. (1986). Portrait and story. New York: Greenwood Press Dobash, R.E. & Dobash, R. (1979). Violence against wives, a case against the patriarchy. New York: The Free Press. Dobash, R. & Dobash, R.E. (1983). The context-specific approach. In D. Finkethor, R. Gelles, G. Hotaling, & M. Straus (Eds.) The dark side of families: Current family violence research. (pp. 161-276). Beverley Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications Inc. Dweck, C.A. & Goetz, T. (1983). Attributions and learned helplessness. In Wm. Damon (Ed.) Social and personality development. (pp. 184-203). New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc.  225  England, R. (1989) Personality characteristics of nonviolent and violent juvenile offenders: the ufflity of the MMPI and Jesness Inventory in a forensic setting. Unpublished masters thesis, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C. Everett, A. (1988). The role of personality in violent relationships. In Russell, G. (Ed.,) Violence in Intimate relationships. (pp.135-148). New York: PMA Publishing Corp. Fagot, B. Loeber, R. & Reid J. (1989). Developmental determinants of male to female aggression. In Russell, G. (Ed.,) Violence in Intimate relationships. (pp.91 -106). New York: PMA Publishing Corp. Ferrato, D. (1991). living with the enemy. New York: Aperature Foundation Inc., 20 F. 23rd St., 10010 Finkelhor, D., Hotaling, G. & Yb, K. (1988). Stopping family violence: research priorities for the coming decade. New York: Sage Publications Inc. Ford, D. (1991). Preventing and provoking wife battery through criminal sanctions: A look at the risks. In D. Knudsen & J. Mifier (Eds.) Abused and Battered. (pp.191-2 10). New York: Walter de Gruyter Inc.  Freedman, L (1985). Wife assault. In C. Guberman, & NI. Wolfe (Eds.) No safe place: violence against women and children. (pp. 43 -69). Toronto: Women’s Press. Friedman, D.H. (1982). Locus of control, self-esteem and dogmatism in male marine spouse abusers. Unpublished masters thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.  Gelles, R.J. & Straus, M.A. (1988). Intimate violence. New York: Simon & Schuster Inc.  226  Gelles, R.J. (1983). An exchange social control theory: toward a theory of intrafarnily violence. In D.L Finkeihor, R Gelles, g. Hotaling, & M. Straus (eds.) The dark side of families: Current family violence research. (pp. 151-165). Beverley Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications Inc. Goldberg, H. (1982). Dynamics of rage between sexes in a bonded relationship. In J.C. Hansen & LR. Barnhil (Eds.) Clinical approches to family violence. (pp. 59-67) Rockville, I\4aryland: Aspen Systems Corp. Gondoif, E.W. & Fisher, F.R. (1990). Wife battering. In R. Ammerman & M. Hersen (Eds.) Case studies in family violence. (pp. 273-292). New York: Plenum Press. Gondolf, F. & Hanneken, J. (1987). The gender warrior: reformed batterers on abuse, treatment, and change. Journal of Family Violence, 2, 177-191 Guberman, C. & Wolfe (Eds.) (1985). No safe place: violence against women and children. Toronto: Women’s Press. Guidano, V.F. & Liotti, G. (1983). Cognitive processes and emotional disorders. New York: The Guilford Press. Hammer, F. (1985). Introduction and perspective. In A. Wohl & B. Kaufman (Eds.) Silent screams and hidden cries: An interpretation of artwork by children from violent homes. (pp. xiii xx). New York: Bruner/Mazel Publishers. -  Hampson, D.A. (1991). Understanding the experience of the man who assaults his wife. Unpublished MA thesis, U.B.C., Vancouver, B.C. Herman, J. L (1992). Trauma and Recovery The aftermath of violence from domestic abuse to litical terron New York: Basic Books, Harper Collins Publishers, Inc. -  227  Hertzberger, S. (1983). Social cognition and the transmission of abuse. In D. finkelhor, R Gelles, G. Hotallng, & M. Straus (Eds.) The dark side of families: CuiTent family violence research. (pp. 305-316). Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications. Hoffman, M. (1983). Developmental synthesis of affect and cognition and its implications for altruistic motivation. In Win. Damon (Ed.) Social and personality development. (pp. 258-278). New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Hornung, C.A., Mccullough, B.C. & Sugimoto, T. (1981). Status relationships in marriage: Risk factors in spouse abuse. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Au2ust, 675-692. Kernberg, O.F. (1990). Hatred as pleasure. In R Glick & S. Bone (Eds.) Pleasure beyond the pleasure principle. (pp. 177-188). New Haven: Yale University Press. Krornsky, D. & Cutler, B. (1991). The admissability of expert testimony on battered women syndrome. In D. Knudsen & J. Miller (Eds.) Abused and Battered. (pp.191-210). New York: Walter de Gruyter Inc. Lepper, M. (1983). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in children: detrimental effects of superfious social controls. In W. Daman (Ed.) Social and personality development. (pp. 153-183). New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Margolin, G., Siener. LG. & Gleberman, L. (1988). Wife battering. In V.B. VanHassell, R. Morrison, A.S. Bellach & M. Hersen (Eds.) Handbook of family violence. (pp. 89119). New York: Plenum Press. Miller, J. (1991). Ethical concerns for research in wife battering. In D. Knudsen & J. Miller (Eds.) Abused and  228  battered. (pp. 211- 223). New York: Walter de Gruyter Inc. Ministry of National Health and Welfare. (1989). Family violence: A review of theoretical and clinical literature. Ottawa, Ont.: Policy Communication Branch, Health and Welfare Canada. Minuchin, S. (1984). Family kaleidoscope: images of violence and healing. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Monte, C.F. (1980). Beneath the mask. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Morgan, C. D. & Murray, H.A. (1935). A method for investigating fantasy: The thematic apperception test. Arch. Neurological Psychiatry, 34, 289 306 -  Murray, H. A. (1943). Thematic apperception test manual. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.  Murphy, C.M. & Meyer, S.L (1991). Gender, power and violence in malTiage. The Behavior Therapist, j4 95-100 Nichols, W. (1986) Understanding family violence: An orientation for family therapists. Contemporary Family Therapy, 8(3), 189-207 Nugent, W.R. (1985). A methodological review of case studies published in the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 19 1-200. Owens, R.G. & Ashcroft, J.B. (1985). Violence: A guide for the caring professions. Dover, New Hampshire: Croom Helm Ltd.  229  Owens, D. & Straus, NI. (1975). The social structure of violence in childhood and approval of violence as an adult. Aggressive Behavior, j. 193-211. Patterson, G.R (1982). Coercive family process. Eugene, Oregon: Castalia Publishing Co. Placelc J. (1988). Why men batter their wives? In K. Yllo & M. Bograd (Eds.) Feminist rspectives on wife abuse. (pp.133-157). Newbuiy Park, CA: Sage Publications Rosenbaum, A., Cohen, P., & Forsstrom-Cohen, B. (1990). The ecology of domestic aggression toward adult victims. In R. Ammerman, & NI. Hersen (Eds.) Case studies in family violence. New York, Plenum Press. Russell, G. (1988), Introduction In G. Russell (Ed), Violence in Intimate Relationships. (pp.xiii xv). New York: PMA Publishing Corp. -  Schultz, D. (1981). A history of modern psychology (3rd ed.). New York: Academic Press. Sebastian, R.J. (1983). Social and psychological determinants: toward a theory of interfamily violence. In D. Finkelhor, R. Gelles, G. Hotaling, & NI. Straus (Eds.) The dark side of families: Current family violence research. (pp. 182191). Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications,  Stark, F. & Flitcraft, A. (1988). Violence among intimates: An epidernological review. In V.B. Vanllassell, R. Morrison, A. Bellach, & NI. Hersen (Eds.) Handbook of family violence. (pp. 199-147) New York: Plenum Press. Straus, NI. (1983). Ordinary violence, child abuse, wife beating: What do they have in common? In D. Finkeihor, R Gelles, G. Hotaling, & NI. Straus (Eds.) The dark side of families:  230  CuITent family violence research. (pp. 197 Beverley Hills, CA. Sage Publications Inc.  -  212).  Straus, M. (1991). Physical violence in American families: Incidence, rates, causes, and trends. In D. Knudsen & J, Miller (Eds.) Abused and Battered. (pp. 138- 153). New York: Walter de Gruyter Inc. Straus, M. & Gelles R. (1990). Physical violence in american families, risk factors: seven adaptations to violence in 8145 families. New Brunswick, U.S.A.: Transaction Publishers Straus, M., Steinmetz, S.K. & Gelles, R. (1980). Behind closed doors: violence in the American family. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books. Stets, J.E. (1988). Domestic violence and control. New York: Springer-Verlag Co. Teglasi, H. (1993). Clinical use of story telling: emphasizing the TA.T. with children and adolescents. Needham Heights, Mass.: Allyn & Bacon. Thaxton, L. (1985). Wife abuse. In L L’Abate (Ed.) The handbook of family psychology and therapy., Vol II. (pp. 876-899). Homewood, ill.: Dorsey Press. Triandis, H. C. (1980). Values, attitudes, and interpersonal behavior. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. (pp. 195251). Lincoln, Neb.: University of Nebraska Press. ljlbrich, P. & Huber, J. (1981). Observing parental violence: Distribution and effects. Journal of Marriage and the Family, August, 623-63 1. Vane, J.R. (1981). The thematic apperception test: A review. Clinical Psychology Review, .i 319-336  231  Vassiliou, V. (1962) Motivational patterns of two clinical groups as revealed by TAT sequence analysis. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Loyola University, Chicago. Walker, LE. (1979). The battered woman. New York: Harper Colophon Walker, LE. (1984). The battered woman syndrome. New York: Springer Publishing Co. Inc. Walker, L. F. (1983) The battered women syndrome study. In D. Finkeihor, K Gelles, G. Hotaling, & M. Siraus (Eds.) Ili dark side of families: Current family violence research. (pp. 31-48). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.  Winter, D.G. , McClelland, D.C. & Stewart, A.J. (1977). Husband’s motives and wife’s career level. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35(3), 159-166. Yin, R. (1989). Case study research: Design and methods. (Applied social research methods series, Vol 5). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Yb, K. (1983). Using a feminist approach to quantitative research: a case study. In D. Finkelhor, R. Gelles, G. Hotaling, & M. Straus (Eds.) The dark side of families: CulTent family violence research. (pp. 277-2 88). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.  Yllo, K. & Straus, NI. (1980). Interpersonal violence among married and cohabiting couples. Family Relations, 30, 339-347  232  APPENDIX A  The Participant’s Story Records: The stories in this section are the data from which the imports were obtained, and were the basis for the clinical evaluations. Record W-1 Story 1 I came home after school and right away I was told to practice my violin. Pm so frustrated with it; I don’t know if P11 ever get this right Morn and Dad are both hounding me to practice. Dad and Gramps both played. I want to go outside to play with my friends instead. The sun is shining and its very hot. I looked at the music sheet and just gave up because I know that to tell them how I feel won’t get me anywhere. So , I picked up the violin and tried to play my hearts not in it though. -  -  Story 2 Pm in school, its June now, so its just about over. One day on my way to classes I noticed Dad working in the fields plowing. Morn was standing in the shade of a tree pregnant again. I hope I can get a good job if and when I can complete my schooling. I don’t want to be trapped into a life of hard work with so many mouths to feed. Mom and Dad are trapped. I see her crying sometimes, especially in the winter when times are so tough. I’m determined to get out of this situation by getting a good education. -  Story 3  -  W.1  233  I was cleaning up the living room and accidently bumped a vase of flowers that was on the coffee table. I knelt down to pick them up. they were all wilted and dead, I felt a wave of sadness. Too many dead things around me dead love , dead relationships, dead flowers. I leaned my head on the couch and cried for all my losses. It felt good. I decided I had to put these things behind me. flowers can bloom again so can love. I got up off the floor and finished cleaning. Then I went for a walk in the park. There’s lots of live flowers there and hope. -  Story4-W.-1 Times are tough. My husband is out of work. He’s so frustrated and very proud. today especially. He’s so depressed he starts yelling at me, saying its my fault he’s feeling this way. I’m angry but I can understand how frustrated he is. He got up off the couch and it looks llke he’s going to walk out on me forever. I come up behind him and put my arms around him. I want to ease his pain, my pain. I feel there’s hope. We talked afterwards and did some brainstorming We are starting our own business so we’ll never be out of work again. -  Story 5  -  W.1  f\4r fathers’ been missing for about a month now; but today a policeman came to the door. Mom was in the kitchen. The policeman had a sad expression on his face. I’m scared. He lets us know that my father has been found but he’s dead. Mom looks out the window as if to somehow try to see Dad. She doesn’t cry she just stares out that window. I need a hug, I need her to tell me it will be OK that she’s here for me always. -  234  I go over to her to let her know how I’m feeling; but she turns and walks away without saying anything. Story 6  -  W.1  I lost my father when I was a teenager. We lived on a farm. I was determined not to live the same life surviving only. I became creative and opened my own business. Boy, it was tough. Always something going wrong. I was befriended by an elderly man just when things were at their worse. He talked to me he helped me look at things differently and gave me some suggestions. He was a great help. He supported me through the good and bad times, I feel he’s the father I never had and I’m the son he’s never had. My business is flourishing and so is our friendship. -  -  Story 7  -  W. 1  I’m in medical school, finally This semester we have to perform surgery as our lab classes. We’re at the hospital to do this, however there was an emergency, a gunshot victim. We were instructed to watch. I felt a sense of urgency and nausea. The doctors had very little time to prep the patient. They looked worried, however they attended to the problem with lightening speed. I was relieved when it was all over. When I seen the patient up and around a few days later, I felt a sense of pride and direction I know I’ve chosen the best career path. Story 8 W.1  My brother went fishing this morning its winter he’ll have to chop the ice. Morn and dad are concerned that something -  -  235  bad would happen to him and try to talk him out of it. Well, he  came home mid afternoon with a dozen good size fish. I see my father hugging and comforting Morn. She was really worried. They’re laughing now happy that my brother is safe ,  and thankful that he’s so skilled and resourceful. It’s a tough winter, but we’ll make it and maybe when Pin older my brother will take me along with him.  Story 9  -  W.1  I just had a fight with my husband, I had to get out of the house, I can’t stay in there, Pm so angry. I decided to walk along the dike to try to cool off. I noticed a path jutting off and felt a little fearful it was so dark and mysterious. My mood was the same way. so I took that path. It was spooky but beautiful at the same time. I came into a clearing magnolia trees with vines growing on it. At first it looked like snake hanging from it. It had scared me, but as I took a closer look I saw it for what it was. I took a closer look at my relationship with my husband and saw it for what it was. I left him shortly afterwards. -  -  -  Story 10  -  W.1  My husband and I were fighting again over everything from the kids to sex. Suddenly he grabbed me and dragged me to the bedroom he ripped my clothes off and threw me on the bed. I’m terrified. I don’t know what to do. He threatened me to stay where I was. He has a gun. He raped me. I layed there afterwards looking at the ceiling not moving. He got up and got dressed then stood watching me. He began to cry he -  -  -  236  says he’s sorry but I know this won’t stop. I need to do something Pm going to get help, I can’t do this on my own. -  Story 11  -  W. 1  Mom and dad are fighting again. It’s really late at night. I know they’re fighting over me again, but I don’t know what. their anger scares me so I go to the attic to get away from it. It’s so dark up here. There’s a window so I open it to let the fresh air and moonlight in. I’m too little to run away so I hide up here instead. Maybe they won’t find me. After these fights dad sometimes hits me, so, this time I’ll hide here where non one can find me until after this all blows over. Story 12  -  w. 1  I’m doing a ‘Titing exercise for the abuse centred They’re showing pictures for us to write stories about. The instructor shows us a picture, but this time there is no picture paper is blank. The instructor seems rather amused at the shocked look on our faces. I’m sure she feels the blank is important, however what’s to \\Tite about a blank piece of paper. I resolved myself tow rite basically about the incident itself. -  Story 13  -  W.1  It’s Christmas time. A time when everyone is feeling warm and happy. I had to finish up some last minute shopping. It’s late 6 PM or so. When I came out of the store and headed for home I passed a park where a huge tree was lit with Xmas lights. That’s when I noticed my friend standing just beyond the tree. He had a packsack over his shoulder he looked so -  -  237  sad. I know he didni have any family here. I felt lonely for him and decided to invite him over to spend Christmas eve and day with us and he accepted. No one should be alone at Xmas time.  238  Report w. 2 -  Story 1 W.2 -  Little Pedro had just moved to Canada and had been so excited on ‘all his new adventures that were to unfold in his new life. He had heard stories of how wonderful Canada was, and, like his mother, just could not wait to start his new life. It had taken less than 3 days when he realized, the home setting was different. the stores and furniture appeared quite differently what he had grown up in. however the rules and regulations were not left behind. Once again, his father had been arguing with his mother and the verbal threats had kept him up all night. How he longed to go out and play with his new friends, learn new games and exchange stories. He couldn’t as he had to try to keep the peace, study his violin to make his parents proud. How he wished things could change altogether. Perhaps when he was older he’d be stronger and able to share what he wanted and expected out of this new life. Maggie did not understand what she was doing in this home she had been fostered out to. She should have been grateful to have two adults who gave her food, shelter and clothing. They even allowed her to take up courses, so she could better herself. Why was Maggie, so unhappy’? she didn’t feel whole. She’d look at the strong muscular man who she called uncle Sam with visions of her husband ten years up the road. He’d be like him. Quiet yet strong. Hercules type and aunt Helga who seem to be able to handle any crisis that came her way. Yet this woman never once put her arms around Maggie to  239  comfort the hole inside her. Perhaps going to school would hold the answers, she needed for her questions. Hopefully the guilt would leave her for feeling the way she did. One should be greatful, shouldn’t they? Appreciate what good that had come your way. Well maybe one day she’d find the answers. Story 3  -  W. 2  Alone in his room, alone with his thoughts. Alone. Alone. Alone, why can’t I be like all the others? It was safe to be alone, as experience had taught him not to trust anyone. He wasn’t even sure if he could trust himself at times. He was frightened and didn’t have a sole he could confide in, He was sad, yet he was safe. Safe, he decided was the better deal of all. Perhaps in time the walls of his rooms uid answer back, all the secrets he shared of himself. Perhaps, time would tell but for now he’d settle for being safe. Story 4  -  W. 2  Liii knew she had to try one more time, to try to show Josh, to not worry what others, thought of him, not to react to what they said. With gentle. hands she made the outmost effort, not to appear controlling. She tried desperately to be the loving sweet passionate woman he had mamed 5 years ago however his behavior had put a lot of dents in their relationship. She felt desperate, almost helpless, yet she knew by caring in a loving fashion was far better than the habit of screaming and crying, she had 2 years ago. this time, she decided to let him go. This time her focus was turned toward herself. She had finally realized she had played a part in this dysfunctional relationship but no more. she put herself first. -  -  240  She now acted instead of reacting and it felt good. He was on his own and so was she. Story 5  -  W.2  It took a lot of courage to go and see his mother but he knew he had to settle these secrets that tortured him once and for all. He was amazed how he felt like a 5 year old little boy confessing to her it was he who had broken the family heirloomed vase. Today as he stood firmly in one spot to stop his trembling legs from shaking he started to tell her his story. How he didn!t mean to drink, but once he did, it got out of control. He had expected his mother to scold him perhaps even disown him for a short period of time. However, to his surprise she did not want to hear his confession of being an alcoholic. He could see the shame that accompanied his statement. Poor mama felt safer in denial. The councellar had told him to admit to himself and another human being, he had chosen his mother. He realized at that moment, she hadn’t been there in his childhood, and she wasn’t there for him today. The important thing was “he” was there for himself. Story 6  -  W. 2  He had turned to his dad for advise. This fine old man, always had the answers. He had helped him with his math, he had coached the baseball team he was in. Gave him driving lessons, helped him pick out his first car. Even slid him money when nobody was looking on the night of his honeymoon. and today his wife had announced she was taking his son and wanted a divorce. This time the answers to questions were not spoken.  241  The tired old man only rubbed his bald head from time to time and sighed. It was time he took control of his life without the strength of his dad. He needed reassurance more than ever now. without his wife and only son he really wasn’t sure if he could do it. This time Pops, did the very best thing a best friend could. He listened. He did not give advise he did not judge, but listened. They both grew a little that day. Story 7  -  W. 2  Mark knew he was the stronger twin. All through childhood, Mike had always been getting into throttle and coming to him to help save him from the perils of his mischievous ways. Even in school he had covered up for his twin. Now they were in their teens and Mike was still getting himself into alot if not more trouble than ever. He had heard of the professor who had specialized in the study of twin behavior. Wouldn’t it be great if a simple operation could be performed and all the defects Mike possessed could be removed. Surely he would even offer some of his genetic characters to his brother. He would do almost anything to finally be free of this burden he had lived with for the past 17 years. His mind wondered off to what he had hoped could one day happen. It was easy to visualize this event and project the outcome even if only in mincL Story 8  -  W.2  They had lost their middle son in an accident. Nothing could  have been more devastating to them. All the hardships they had overcome, when they had first wed, the days of hardly any food to feed all 5 children the loss of jobs, the eviction notices  242  and the struggle to reestablish their credit nothing not even the forecloser on their home could compare to the loss of their son Jeff. Amazingly with the comfort of each others arms, and the silent words, spoken through their eyes which seem to accompany tears each time they spoke his name. They too would survive this crisis, till the day when they all would be reunited again in peace and harmony. They would survive till that day. They had a support system they never knew they had. That with a bonding of love they had for their 5 sons. Story 9  -  He would do anything to get her back. Yes, anything, This time, she had left him for a man who lived in a far away land filled with obstacles, he knew he had to overcome, in order to get his true love back. He was wiser, than they figured, as he came prepared to reclaim what was rightfully his. He dressed himself in a disguise and scaled the mountain side that led into the enchanted forest. He was ready. Nothing could stop his love for Vicki. Not even the wise wizard. Story 10  -  W.2  He had arrived too late. The phone call from the clerk came as a shock, however seeing his estranged wife nude, laying so still was so very painful. He had not believed her letter of suicide. He had not meant for ‘this’ to happen. He had walked away in hopes that she would feel her pain and then do something about it. Get the help that was available. Why had he not thought she would actually go through with it. The guilt he would feel would be one he’d have to share with a professional. He knew this was more than he could handle, but he would  243  handle it. He had to! What would he tell the children! My god, the shame of it all was almost too much to bare. Story 11  -  W. 2  Alone in the attic, Richard managed to get the window opened. He perched himself as his brother must have before he had jumped. What did his brother have on his mind when he had been on the ledge of their parents home. Was it because he could see the pattern repeating itself in his own family? Could the past have entered his mind filled it with so much pain, he decided to end it. I guess Richard could only guess at what had pushed his brother Ron to the edge and over. Rest in Peace brother, perhaps we will share with each other once I join you when my time comes up. Story 12-W.2  Cindy laid perfectly still on her back, and watched the clouds so large so puffy so white yet so soft. It gave her the ability to project anything she chose to. Images would float in and out with each blink of her eyelashes. Amazing to have that power, that control, Just like a projecter click! click! into the next ...click. Each and anythne she chose to change the scene, she had the power in her eyelashes. She could have a Blank or she could lay’ there and let any kind of image emmerge before her. This was indeed a skifi she enjoyed possessing. -  Story 13  -  W.2  Where was she? she was more than an hour late! Had she changed her mind? Did her husband find out about their plans  244  to leave the province? Should he call her? He stood silently questioning himself, answering back, panicking projecting. The anxiety left Don with a sweaty brow, his hat pulled down over his eyes, not wanting anyone in the neighbourhood to recognize him just in case. His heart pounded louder as the oncoming headlights of the approaching car slowed down. It had been for the kitten that had stopped in the middle of the road. Would she ever come? Had she changed her mind? Another set of lights had come and gone. Where was she? At last the car drove up with his secret love. She had waited for her husband to fall asleep, before she was able to load up her bags into the car and make her get away. Her passionate kiss had erased all the anxiety he had felt only moments before.  245  Story 1  -  W.3  Feelings of apprehension and suffocation overwhelm the child, knowing or at least feeling he can’t accomplish the task of learning this foreign instrument; the violin. His stomach was in knotts this morning feeling he could not succeed. but belief in one’s self is the only way to approach the building block of achieving one’s goal. with apprehension the boy picks up the violin., and triumphs! He plays not like an expert, but learns fears can be conquered. Story 2  -  W.3  looking forward not only to the next field, but the future she knows she must learn and gain skills to get out. Her present life is always flirting with uncertainty and poverty. She must get out! She sees her brother working and slaving for years on end with this farm. For what she asks herself. She goes forward with confidence, with a touch of nostalgia, but knows must go on to a new life an not look back Story 3  -  W.3  I can’t think of anything. Story 4  -  WA  she wants to talk just like she has for years. But he pulls away, annoyed at her asking him to open up. He wants to leave for awhile, but his love for her is stopping him. After a  246  day. of work he figures his time is his own, But she is feeling hurt, betrayed and resentful with his emotional absentence. He loves her, and she knows it. But his lack of availability is annoying her. He eventually listens to her, any they agree to listen, learn and accept and compromise. Story 5  -  W 3  The mother feels like her son is leaving her. He has come to tell his overbearing mother he is going to be married. She knew it would come one day, but why today of all days. The sons feels proud of his choice, but rather nervous of telling his mother. She has always faked illness when he has tried to break away from her before. he wonders with quiet unseen amusement what he will be dealing with today, a bad heart, failing kidneys or the dreaded sprained ankle. He kisses mother on the cheek and leaves. He knows he has broken away. He finds the only thing h in his heart for his mother is contempt. Story 6-W3 The father is proud of his son, and is usually eager to meet his son’s needs, but this is one condition his son must meet, got to college. The son wants to make his own way in life. With dread and humiliation he has come to tell his father he will not be able to attend college due to his own inabilities. The father is compassionate to his son’s needs abut feels with resentment that every child must do something in life to make the family proud. conform and you will do well in life the father dictates. The son follows the past to conformity and personal unhappiness.  247  Story 7  -  W.3  The boy doesn’t want to admit to himself that his father has passed on. He doesn’t want to see the men cutting into his father’s body. Cold and still his father lies on the stone table. Feelings of anger and frustration simmer quietly under his gentle mannerism. If only his father had not gone into battle. Why did his father not listen to his pleads of fear for his fathers life, but now his father’s battle was over, but for the child his battle for emotional and social stability had only begun. Story 8  -  He has just told her he must go off to war. He has a swirl of emotions churning inside of him. He wants to defend his country and his people, yet silently his heart is breaking. If only the draft notice had not come through he thinks to himself bitterly. This wife is unconsolable, her heart feels like it is shattering into a million pieces. anger and desperation ifil her soul. But years later thinking back on the moment together, they know that true love endures. Story 9  -  W.3  The dragon was feeling restless. Out of the corner of his eye he spied a bumble bee. His eyes seemed to twinkle with amusement. The big ones were always fun to try and catch. Near by was a large water spout. The rocks of the mountain seemed to be so violently discharging the water from its  248  mouth. The bumble bee waited cautiously with a whoosh of power the bumble bee disappeared down the dragons throat. Story 10- W.3 His emotions just poured out of his very soul when he realized what he had done. “Oh God” he moaned. He had just killed his lover. He didn’t know why, Earlier on, before the first rays of daylight started to appear, he had quietly snuck into his lover’s home. She was so beautiful just laying there, now she was lifeless and cold. she had threatened to end their relationship so he killed her. In his own mind he was justified, thank GOD the jury didn’t think so. ,  Story 11  -  W.3  He was restless after the party the preceeding night. He sighed, got out of bed and walked over to the window. He seemed to spiritually connect with the glorious colours of the sunrise. The morning chifi felt good in his skin. The birds flying in between the building of the city contently. How he wanted to soar and fly with those birds. Leave the old way of life behind. He realized the beauty in his own life, and decided to get down from the window sill and closed it. Story 12  -  W.3  doesn’t stimulate me into thinking of a story. Story 13  -  W.3  249  The man stood there absorbing the atmosphere of the falling snow. Christmas carols played softly in the background. The homeless man, was reminising on all the other Christmases he had experienced. In his childhood Christmas was a time of love and food and family. Now it was a time of hunger and wandering the streets to find somewhere to sleep. rounding a corner, the man feeling only of an emptiness in his life and soul, felt a stir of joy. What met him was the sign of the Salvation Army.  250  Story 1  -  W4  I am in violin classes. My parents wanted me to be like my grandfather and play the violin. I want to be musical, but I feel frustrated because I can’t seem to grasp the violin. I feel mom and dad would be disappointed if I quit, I feel so much pressure. Maybe if I try to take a little bit at a time and try not to achieve so much at one time this might make it more enjoyable, and easier to learn. Story2-W.4  My family and I live on a farm. We’ve lived here for 2 years since coming from Europe. My parents work hard so that I can go to a good school, to achieve a good education. I feel very proud of my parents, and also very special that they care so much for me. I’ve seen them go without many things, and to struggle through hard times for me. But this makes me strive harder at my studies to achieve a position in life that will make them proud of me. Story3-W.4 I received a phone call from my neighbor, asking me to come over. I was worried something had happened. When I arrived she was very upset, and alone. She had received a call telling her her husband was dead. The grief and pain I felt for this women was tremendous. I sat and cradled her their, were no words, I could say to comfort the loss she felt. As night approached I took her to my house and stayed together with  251  her until her parents could be with. She went and stayed with them. Story 4 W.4 We lived together for a year, when we received the papers for him to leave for the army. I was overwhelmed by the thought of our happy year coming to a end. My mind was thinking of thought of never seeing him again, and even worse of him dying. But I knew he was a man with much pride and honor. He reassured me he would be home before I new it. With this thought I let him go knowing I was in his heart. -  Story 5  -  W. 5  Urn an attorney of law, and with this I’ve had to face many sad times. I was working for this woman, her son was being accused of murdering a young girl. There was lots of evidence against him. but I felt in heart that the man was innocent. I tried very hard to convince the jury of his innocents, but to no just. The jury found him guilty. I new I had to inform his mother, my heart felt so heavy. She asked me into her home. With all the sadness in the world I informed her of her sons fate. To my surprise she turned, smiled and thanked me for my services and left the room. Story 6  -  W. 4  I can’t think of anything Story 7  -  W. 4  252  I remember a time when I was just a boy. The war was in full and my dad was sent to fight. I had just come home from helping the neighbors when I seen the doctor entering our house. I raced in to find my mother crying, and my father laying very still on the table. Their was blood everywhere. I felt scared and helpless, as I watched the Dr. started to cut him open to remove the deeply inbedded bullet. I took my mother into the next room, and waited. The waiting was very hard. Then the Dr. caine in and I new by the look in his eyes that my dad was gone forever. Story 8  -  W.4  Three years ago my beloved husband was sent away, to fight for his country. When the war was over I searched everywhere and waited for signs of him, but their was no answer. For the last year I griefed for my husband and his loss. Last night I went with friends out for dinner, they tried to cheer me up. But like always to no avil. My thoughts would like my heart never leave my husband. Then just as we were to leave this man stood behind me and asked me to dance. I turned to say no. And froze as I look into my husbands eyes. He had had amnesia and when he seen me his memory came back. It feels so good to be in his anns. Story 9  -  W.4  We are on a journey through the blackened forest to reach the aid of our king. We have come across many devilish creatures, that feed on the fear of man. We have had to combat these feelings of fear, with the knowledge and confidence that we  253  face our fears and with confidence in ourselves and courage. We then and only then will no that when we reach the light at the end of the forest that we are truly great men, to aid our king. Story 10  -  W-4  Every week was the same, we never use to fight but now it was all the time. I came home early one night, we were going to go out for dinner, leaving all our problems at home. She had been drinking, and so the fighting had begun, I begged her just to get ready, but she just stood their saying that I wasn’t a man. Then something snapped and I turned. Then she was quiet and I new she was dead, this was one fight that was over. Story 11  -  W-4  Years ago life was full. I had a job a wife and a house with 2 beautiful kids. But then I lost my job, the bank took the house, And my wife left me for a younger man. Now I feel so alone, I feel no use in waking up and I feel despertly afraid for I see no future. I bent down and picked a rose and remembered the smallest things are the beautifulest things. And that’s when I new that their is still live in me. Story 12  -  W.4  There was this lady, she had 3 beautiful children. They lived content in their surroundings. Then one day the lady fell for a men, but hitten to her was his evil ways, for over a year she treat to his evil ways, for he was smart and kept her in his prison. One day when she felt like giving up, she seen the faces  254  of 3 beautiful children and relized she know had the key to leave the prison. Her sons and her have found a new love within them to share as one. Story 13  -  W.4  I stand in darkness around me, I blame no one but myself for my own emptiness. I once had everything but choose to be careless with it, and soon lost it all. I now stand in silence as the light that shines fills me with energy and knowledge of the ways to cleanse myself to begin life again.  255  Story #1- W. 5.  I see a young boy sitting at a table with a violin. He appears to me to be tired and not interested. It looks like he is being forced to play. I don’t think he’ll stay with learning the violin. Story 2  -  W. 5  Anna could remember the hard work on a farm. It began at dawn and continued until bedtime, She always felt there had to be a easier life so she read and worked hard at school. She felt very sorry for her mother and did not wish that life for herself so she’ll make sure to get an education. Story 3  -  w-5  Suzanne was told she would have to leave the psychiatric hospital. She was very upset and depressed as this had been her home most of her adult life. She didn’t understand about downsizing. She didn’t know if she could believe them when they said they’d help her get into a group home. It all seemed so overwhelming. She felt she would have to trust the people involved as it was going to happen anyway. Story 4  -  W.5  Don was out drinking again and just got home. Sally had been so worried when he didn’t arrive on time and confronted him when he got home. Don was feeling very guilty about spending the money and not helping out at home. Because they didn’t have good communication skills they got into a angry argument.  256  Story 5  -  Pete had taken his father to the hospital with chest pains. Now he was feeling very sad and empty because his father had died and he had to tell his mother. She turned away when she saw him because she feared the worst. Pete told her and they cried. Story 6  -  W.5  The door slamed shut and startled Ed. He went into the kitchen and seen his son there, looking very upset. Ed asked Al if he ranted to talk. Story 7  -  W. 5  John always woke up in the morning feeling more tired than he was when he went to bed. He wished he could make sense of those nightmares. They had happened so often lately he was feeling ill. He went and phoned a therapist. Story 8  -  W. 5  It was their anniversary and Joe had bought Bev a ring. He was so happy and couldn?t wait to give it to her as he had always felt bad about not being able to get her a diamond when they were first married. She was so quiet and just held him when he gave it to her. Story 9- W.5  257  Ken and John decided to go diving. They were enjoying the different sea life. They were amazed at all the different sea life and thinking when they could do this again as they were enjoying it so much. They felt that they would like to dive often. Story 10  -  W. 5  Pete was trying to phone his daughter all day as he was concerned about her. He knew her last boyfriend was very obsessive. He had just gotten the caretaker to open her apartment. Pete stood in shock and disbelief beside her bed when he realized she was obviously dead. He called 911. Story 11  -  W.5  Jerry had just rented this large space above some stores. He had one nice window that he could get a beautiful view for his painting and star watching. He felt so content and happy his life was shaping up. He knew he could get serious about his art now. Story 12  -  W.5  Phyl was doing a study for an abused women’s group. She is feeling anxious, fearful, nausiated, angry at times during this. She did 1/2 last week and it helped her be aware of more feelings and felt she would get more this week. Story 13  -  W. 5  258  Joe felt he couldn’t go through another Xmas with no family around. He was standing under the street light trying to get the courage to go to the door. He felt his stomach was tied up in knots one minute and the next there was a great big hole in it. He finally took a deep breath and went to the door and range the bell.  Story 1  -  W. 6  There was a little boy forced to take violin lessons. One day he told his father he wanted to play with the kids instead of practising his violin. His father yelled and screamed and told him how ungrateful a son he was for not doing what his father wanted. He was grounded and not allowed to have any more to do with his friends. The boy is very sad and hates his violin. He will practise the violin today to please his father. Story 2  -  W.6  There was a yon girl who lived on a farm near the ocean. She lived with her mother and older brother. Her father had taken ill just one year ago and passed away. She went to school every day and upon coming home was told how lucky a child she was because her mother suffered the hardship of labor while she was at school. Her life had been planned by her mother and there was no choices left up to her. She felt like she was being smothered by her mother and dreams all the while of getting away fro the farm. She wants to go to the city and become a teacher. The following day she tells her mother she is leaving and packs her belongings to find the life she was  259  meant to lead. She has fulfilled her dream of becoming a teacher. Story 3  -  W.6  A woman was home making dinner for her husband who was due home from work any time. She was singing as she was stirring the pot of spegetti. She hear the front door slam and not a word was spoken as her husband walked in. She stopped singing as she heard the door slam. She knew he was in a bad mood. he would normally call to her on a good day. she called to him in a chipper voice and asked how his day was. He came into the kitchen ranting and raving about what miserable life he had and how it was all her fault. She started to plead with him that she had not done anything wrong and he started to call her fowl names. She began to cry and pleaded with him to stop. You could see him enjoying her hurt. Just then he slapped her and knocked her to the ground, blaming her for his violent actions he walked out the door leaving her on the floor where she fell. She picked herself up and layed her head on the sofa and sobbed asking God why she must suffer so. Story 4  -  W.6  There was a man who was so devoted to his wife the sun rose and fell around her. One day he came home from work early and found a strange man in their house. He started asking his wife who this man was and all she could do was look at him with hurt eyes. He asked her again and was told by his wife she was having an affair. he was so devastated that he could not look at her, so he tried to leave. She was crabbing him  260  begging him not to leave her. He pulled his ann away packed his clothes and left never to return. Story 5  -  W. 6  There was a man who was married to the old woman’s daughter. Everyone thought they were the perfect couple. When they walked down the street everyone envied the in. On day the man’s wife end up in the hospital with bruises and broken bones. She was unconscious. When the old woman arrived she asked the man what had happen to her daughter and he told her that he had done this terible thing. She turned her back on him so he could not see her shame as she knew he had been battering her for years. The wife filed charges against her husband and with the support of her mother mustered enough strength to leave him forever. Story 6  -  W.6  There was a man who went to his father for some advice. He was having trouble with his wife. She wouldn’t do what he told her to do. His father confided that he used to have that problem with his mother. He said giving her a slap once in awhile just shows her who’s boss and she respects you for it. He went home that night and slapped his wife. When it was all over and they went to bed she got up and grabbed the kids and walked away never to return. Story 7  -  W. 6  There was a husband and wife. he was a white collar worker working in a dead end job as a bankteller. He would not allow  261  his wife to have a job. She was to stay at home and take care of the house and the two children. He would come home from work every night and complain about his work. then he would start on how unkept the house was and why the children had not eaten yet. She would tell him that they had been waiting for him so they could all eat together. He usually drunk when he walked in the door and would end up beating her for no reason. This particular day she started fighting back threatening to leave after he beat her up. She tried to grab the kids to flee to a safe place, as she reached the front door he puled out a gun and shot her. The ambulance came and took her away and she died on the operating table. Story 8  -  W. 6  There was a man and a woman who have been happily married for twenty-five years. On their anniversary they went out to dinner and dancing. When they were on the dance floor their favorite song was playing and they both fondly thought back about all the wonderful years they had together and fantasized fondly about the next twenty-five. They count their blessings for still being on their honeymoon after twenty five years. Story 9  -  W. 6  Could not think of anything to write. Story 10  -  W, 6  A man came home late from work. He was drunk. He stopped off at a strip joint by himself. He was a loner. His wife was in bed when he got home. He woke her up calling her a bitch and  262  a slut. Telling her she is not better than a whore. He told her he wanted to flick and wanted to right now. She told him to go sleep off his drunk in the other room that she didn’t want him touching her. He ripped the covers off of her and started to rape her. There was fear in her eyes and he enjoyed the power he had over her. He continued to force himself on her and she layed there limp, When he finished his sexual assault on her he looked down at her and saw the disgust in her face. He felt ashamed but never for a moment would admit it was his fault. Story 11- \‘V. 6 there was a woman who was emotionally abused all her life by her father who also raped her. She went on to marry a mean and spiteful man. Afier two years of marriage and no children she left her husband. She rented a room in a dingy hotel wondering if she had done the right thing. She opened the window to let some light in and as the sun fell over her body, she heard the voices of people i’valking on the street below laughing and enjoying life, at that very moment she realized she had done the right thing and began to gather her strength from the happy voices around her and went on to a fulfified life by herself. Story 12  -  W.6  My life was empty of happiness. There was nothing but heartache in my marriage and my future looked just as grim ali I feel is alone utterly alone nothing makes me happy anymore. death is appealing to me. The happiness I dreampt of never came. just sadness and sorrow. Then I got up enough strength to leave my husband and the emptyness filled Mth  263  happy thoughts again. The future looks brighter on most days and I finally like myself. Shine a light on the picture for there is now a happiness in me. Story 13- W.6 I was walking down a dark deserted street after working late one night. It was pitch black and in the distance I could barely make out the figure of a man in a hat and trench coat. I had to go past him to get to the bus stop and I could see no one else around. I was very afraid but of what my heart was racing my hands were sweaty. I was about to loose control and panic. As I came closer I got scareder and scareder. He took a step towards me and asked me if I had the time. He had a friendly face and a soothing smile. I told him it was 10:45 and he thanked me and walked in the opposite direction. I stopped for a moment and wondered how I could be so afraid. I realized it was just over active imagination and not everyone is out to hurt me.  264  Story 1  -  W. 7  His mother had said he couldn’t go out to play until he practised the violin. He hated his violin. He didnt want to learn the violin. He hated mean Mr. Vasserly. He hated the way he limped and walked with a cane. And he especially hated the cane when Mr. Vasserly would point it at him and the mean look on his face and his voice as he said, “You will never be good enough! You will never play like your brother Michael. Never. Never. Never. Stupid. Stupid. Stupid.” He sat there feeling all alone, like he had nowhere to turn. He felt overwhelmed, discouraged angry and a failure at nine years of age. He had no one he could turn to, no one he could talk to who would understand, or care. Some day, he thought, I am just going to run away, and never come back. As he picked up the violin in his hands, tears started running down his cheeks, and splashed on the violin and out the window he could make out the sounds of his pals having fun playing ball, on that hot summer day. Story 2  -  W.7  Merrilee hated walking by Tom’s house. His wife was expecting the baby in a few weeks. She looked so happy and Merrilee felt so very miserable. He had said he loved her, and she loved Tom with all her heart. She didn’t care that he was a poor farmer, she wanted to be Mrs. Tom Sparks more than anything  in  the  world.  parents insisted she  school.  She  choose  go  He  to  said  he  college  would wait  after  she  one close enough so  she  for  her while  graduated from  could come  her  high  home  at  265  least every month or so. but he didn’t wait. He started seeing Teresa Bennett and she got pregnant, and so they married, and he was lost to her forever. And now all she had was her boring college courses, and none of the men at college interested her because they would never be Tom. All she felt was emptyness, and heartbreak. Her mother said she had her whole life before her and that this should be the best time in her life. Well, if this is the best, she didn’t want to go on to see the rest. Why did they have to live on the only road to her family home anyway. She was going to go to college as far away as she could next term. And not come home to visit until her heart began to heal. Story 3  -  W. 7  Sharole was a abused wife. for years she had tried to figure out why she and Jerry couldn’t get along, she had tried everything she could to have a happy malTiage, but now she was too tired, too heartbroken, too depressed, too filled i4th anguish, fear, hopelessness, pain, and despair to go on. She hadn’t realized she was abused, because he never hit or punched her, even when she tried to slap his face for the terribly rude and cruel things he would say. but now he was getting physically abusive and she knew. She had had to separate from him before he would agree to counselling, but he just used it as another weapon. The church councellors said she was “in the role of victim” They said she was co-dependent. Fortunately for Sharole one of her friends was going to call her the next day and ask if she was happy in her marriage, for she had noticed the abuse on one visit, and she would help her out.  266  Story 4  -  W. 7  Bob was determined to go and find Andre and sock him one for coming on to Phiona that morning. He knew she was engage to Bob. He ou1d make sure Andre stayed far away from Phiona. “Oh darling” Phiona said to Bob, “Andre has such a mean vendictive streak in him, please Bob, just let it go.” She was feeling afraid for Bob, and she was so in love. His protectiveness just made her love him even more. She felt so safe and happy when he was with her. “Remember that man in the next town that was killed, and no one is really sure what happened? but it is rumoured that it was Andre!!” bob soothed Phiona’s fears, and promised not to make a more first. He was calming down, and beginning to think more rationally. But he was going to talk to him. That much was clear. Story 5  -  W. 7  I stood there angry and hurt. “no matter what I do or what I accomplish it is never good enough for you mother. You don’t really love me! You have never really loved me.” Jack said to his mother. And the things she said made him feel ashamed at himself for talking with her that way at all. He was angry, angry at her for being so manipulative, domaneering, and emotionally abusive. He had tried to be a good son, all his life, to win her love, but he never really could. It was never good enough for her. He was angry for letting himself feel ashamed and guilty, when he knew he was right. Well, this time he had learned his lesson, he was going to go out, and make a life for himself, and try and put this miserable relationship behind him. He wasn’t going to let her in again.  267  Everytime he let her into his life, or his heart he got hurt. But he swore this was the last time. He was putting up a wall so big that this time when she was sweet and nice, he defenses wouldn’t be lowered and he wouldn’t let her in. If only he could have figured out years ago what was really going on it would have saved him years of pain and heartache. Story 6  -  W. 7  “1 know you are angry now son, but in time, you will know that what Leona has done by leaving you and taking the children is ! Leona’s father Grant was talking to t best, best for all of you. her husband after he came home to an empty house, with only a letter saying how bad the last nine years had really been and how she loved Jim, but she knew she couldn’t stay and take any more abuse, not for herself, and especially not for the children. It said how she hoped he’d join a men’s group for abusive men, and how she would not consider a reconsilliation without it. Jim felt like kffling her, he was so angry. Fear had welled up inside him, and he felt like his whole life was out of control. How could she, he thought. How could she betray me this way and tell people private things that should stay private between a husband and a wife. I will never trust her again. She’s untrustworthy. she’s betrayed me, he thought. Story 7  -  W.7  Benny was never so scared in all his life, “Don’t die Dad he ,  thought, “don’t’ die. I love you.” He had come into the room after church that Sunday afternoon because his parents fighting had turned into his mothers screams again. Only this  268  time she was begging his father not to hurt her, and he was scared. He had always known where his father kept his gun for when he went on patrol. He also knew no one else was allowed to touch it. He didn’t remember getting it or even pointing it at his father, all he remembered was the shocked look on his parents faces as they turned to look at him as he shot his father with his trembling finger holding on to the gun. He remembers his father crumpling onto the floor. Story 8  -  W.7  Justine and Michele were in love. Life seemed bright and wonderful. What an incredible spring they had had. And now it was summer and what an incredible summer it had been. They seemed perfect for each other. They both loved the outdoors, and swiming in the lake. Now in his arms Michele was the Happiest she had ever been in her whole life. His kisses made her light on fire, just the thought of him alone made her tremble, she thought she’d die for his passionate kisses. He was so handsome, and kind, and intelligent. He seemed hard working, he had just finished his degree in finance at S.FU. And he was all hers finally she found a young man of honour and promise. He had talked about a future together on their second date. Justine had thought he had never seen such a beautiful woman, and now she was his. They married and had 4 great children and lived happily ever after. Story 9  -  Princess Alyssa had never felt such terror in all her life, she was bound on the rocks, her cloths damp and soiled, she could  269  barely breathe. She had heard it even before she could see it. The sound it made, the grunts, snorts, and growls had filled her with horror, but now she could see the dragon as it sniffed its ivav along toward her, licking its drowling lips in anticipation. suddenly, Prince George, the dragon killer jumped in between her and the creature. The startled creature jumped back, giving him time to turn slightly, and cut the ropes that bound her. He beauty caught him by surprise, almost taking the breath from him in that moment. Then he swung full force at the dragon throwing a spear deep into its throat and then lunging up quickly to dig his sword deep into the creatures heart. His handsome face showed nothing but dauntless courage. Story 10 W. 7 -  Sigmond had never felt such shame, in all his life. He had just raped his wife. He never thought he would stoop so low. Helga just lay there, she hadn’t the strength to even cover herself up. Slowly the tears came out of her eyes and ran down her ears. She had never felt so much despair in her life. She was so afraid. She hurt, and worse she felt like dirt. She was so angry she could have killed him, but she was afraid to move. And so very tired. She wished she ould die. If he left her she would pack and leave. She still had that address her neighbour had pressed into her hand just two days ago. It was still in her sock. She prayed sh&d get away in time. Sigmond light a cigarette and started to smoke as he walked into the other room. He kept shaking his head in disbelief, how could she have made him do this? Maybe they should go for councelling she had always asked him to go to, that is, if she promised never to talk about this.  270  Story 11  -  W. 7  Fear. Sharole was so afraid of him, she thought she would die from fear one day. Aiixiety attacks were beginning to come upon her, anytime of day anywhere. It was frightening. She had never had them before, she had always been so together, Now she was trembly and couldn’t think. Harold was an abusive husband. It had only been emotional and verbal until recently so Sharole hadn’t thought of him as being abusive, or of her as being an abused wife. If only there was something she could do, or somewhere she could go. Praying didn’t seem the answer any more. Besides, she was too exhausted and full of despair and pain to pray. But she had been told her tears and groans counted. So she knew she talked to God all the time. The church counselling didn’t seem to be helping. Story 12  -  W.7  It was a bright sunny day. I had just finished milking the cow, and found myself daydreaming into the pail of creamy, white milk. Creamy white just like the beautiful wedding dress hanging in my room. My wedding day. Me. Mrs. Jack Forroster. The luckiest girl on earth. I thought of his deep blue eyes. I sat there daydreaming that I was in is arms, kissing my favorite spot on his neck. If only I could figure out which spot I like best. It seemed I liked them all. His smell was intoxicating to me. I never thought I could feel so much love for anyone as I did at that moment. “well pull yourself together and get the milk to the fridge>” I said to myself as I stood up.  271  Story 13-W.7 There he was pulling his children on their red sleigh giving them the most wonderful time. The snowman they had built was big and lovely. Really abusive men don’t treat their children this way do they? I should have hot chocolate ready soon. Hot chocolate with small marshrnellows on top, all melted in beautiful christmas mugs. The perfect family, or were we? These good times seemed just too far and few between, but they’d get better, wouldn’t they? Things would get better soon wouldn’t they? I sat there watching the snowflakes fall gently on my beautiful lawn, on my beautiful home. Soon Bill would bring the damp laughing, excited children in and build a fire. Why couldn’t snowflakes make me happy any more like they always have? Why wouldn’t this ache in my heart ever leave? I had been unhappy for so long I forgot what happiness felt like, but when I watched the snowflakes, I remembered how I should be feeling.  272  Story 1  -  W-8  Michael was seven years old when he began taking his violin lessons. Three evenings per week his mom and dad would take him to his instructors house for his on hour long session. Michael also practised at home diligently at first but after a couple of months went by he found it took up alot of his time that he wished he could spend playing soccer or with his friends. During a quiet study time when his mom had left the room he closed his eyes and started to daydream. He drifted off happily thinking of his friends on the block and how much fun it would be to be with them playing a hardy game of soccer. His mom came in and announced to his surprise that he could go out to play. Story 2  -  W. 8  In 1937 the O’Brien family had immigrated to Canada from Ireland. They moved to a small comunity in Manitoba where they had met their cousins. Mr. O’Brien was very set in his mannerisms and a very hard worker on their farm. Sarah, his wife was expecting their first child and they were very happy. Rebecca, a neighbours daughter was on her way to school one morning and dropped by as Mr. O’Brien was plowing is field. She spoke with Sarah and offered to help her with chores at home because Sarah was having a hard pregnancy. Story 3  -  W.8  Jean and her two children lived in a two bedroom apartment. Bobby was 10 years old and Nicole was five. Jean had been a  273  struggling single mom for one year. Her ex-husband Robert saw the children every second weekend and would help her out when he could. Jean was happy to have completed her business course so she could find employment and get onto hew own tvo feet financially. “Robert and her remained civil toward each other for the sake of Bobby and Nicole He helped her financially with the children and that is what she depended on at the time, Until one day he never showed up to pick up Bobby and Nicole. They’ were so disappointed Jean’s heart went out to her children because they were so hurt. Story 4  -  W.8  Bill and Barb were married for five years After a couple of years went by there were noticeable changes in Bill. He would get very angry at times that would surprise Barb unexpectedly. Sometimes he would not come home after work and not call. This made Barb very upset and she felt very insecure about her marriage. So one night she asked him what was wrong and he ignored her and walked out of the room. Barb cryed as Bifi drove off in the car. She wished she could have all the right answers but didn’t. Story 5  -  W.8  Richard was 45 years old and an only child. His dad had passed away ten years prior leaving him the family business to cany on. They had a general store and Richard did his best to satisfy everyone’s needs in the business. His mom Bett was a very warm loving person who would do almost anything for anyone. One day Richard came to her to tell her the sad news that the store had gone broke and the bank was taking it away.  274  His mother turned and looked out the window and just stared into space as if all the dreams had gone out the window. Richard said he was sorry and his morn turned around and smiled and said she would help him out with her special emergency savings money. Story 6  -  W.8  couldn’t think up a story. took a break. Story 7  -  W.8  Matthew was 15 years old and was a very bright boy with alot of hopes and dreams for his future. He caine from a wealthy family who sent him to private schools to ensure he had a good education and was well disciplined and well-mannered. His parents had planned out his future to become a doctor. One day after school he stood in his room and daydreamed about being a doctor at an operating table. He was unhappy with this because he realized he could never stand the sight of blood, or bear to hear the cries of pain. Then he realized that he would tell his parents that he could never become what they wanted him to be. Story 8  -  W.8  Heather & Bill had been married for 50 years. They had 2 sons and 2 daughters of whom they loved very much. Their children were married and had 15 grandchildren. On the day of their Golden wedding anniversary, the familys got together in this very special celebration. Everyone was happy to see each other and visit and share their lives because they all lived  275  in different parts of the province. Heather and Bill were so happy they held each other quietly and thought about what all the years had brought. They enjoyed their history. Story 9  -  W.8  Once upon a cave—mans era three homo sapiens set out from their camp to find a missing boy. they walked through the rocky hills looking everywhere. As they came to an overpass they heard cries underneath.. .then they looked up and saw a huge fire breathing dragon. Nevertheless they walked closer to the cries they heard. They spotted the very dirty, tired boy hiding under the bridge in the rocks. They grabbed him and ran away from the dragon. They were all safe at camp and comforted the little boy. Story 10  -  W.8  Aune and Bob lived in an old house with neighbors nearby. They had problems with their marriage. He abused her physically, but he would always reconcile with her after they had one of their blow-ups. The neighbors always heard but were afraid to speak up. One day Bob lost his job, wrecked their new car and came home in a rage. Anne did not know what to do she tried to comfort him and he only got angrier. Then he hit her so hard she fell and hit her head and was unconscious. He put her to bed and cried beside her not knowing what to do. -  Story 11- W.8  276  Aaron wa eighteen years old and had graduated high school. He had his whole future to look at. He had advice coming to him from all angles. His girlfriend lived far away and wanted him to move there to go to college. He went to his room and opened his window gazing at the beautifully moonlit sky and wanted to be with her. He thought he would go to college closer to her because that would make him happy. Story 12  -  w8  Lucy had 3 children and was unhappily married. She knew she needed strength to go on with her life but everything was coming at her too fast. Her husband was very abusive to her. She decided to slow down and take one day at a time and get out of her marriage fore the well being of herself and her children. Lucy had dreams of moving to Ke1owia, so she set a goal to work towards. She had built up enough self-esteem in herself her hopes and dreams came true. Story 13  -  W. 8  It was a foggy evening in New York City. Below my window I could see a figure of a man standing and leaning against the lightpost. He was wearing a hat and a trenchcoat. I noticed someone walking down the sidewalk toward him. Then shockingly I watched him open and close his coat in front of a woman. I was so stunned I called 911 so the police would arrest this sick man. They came and caught him. I was relieved to know he was not on the street anymore.  277  W9-Storyl  It was a rainy afternoon in April, I still remember.. .Mom cooking dinner in the kitchen and Dad reading the paper in the other room. It was quiet. I was supposed to study my lessons on the violin, but I just wasn’t feeling like it. I just wasn’t feeling like it anymore. It was always Dad who wanted me to play the violin but to me to me it was just like a puzzle. I don’t remember when it happened, but one thy I stood up and told him right in his face. My mother almost fainted. It was like a treasure to them. but since then, I never played it again. Story 2- W. 9 It always called my attention the way the land looked when the summer was gone. Somehow that day it looked something different from the others. I guess it was because the sun was brighter and the land was completely yellow that I felt this sadness inside. I remember seeing this pregnant lady right beside the house. She was kind of sad and her face looked so congested that for a minute I thought she was crying. She was staring at her husband in a very strange way as if she was trying to tell him something. But he just kept on working without even noticing her. I was on my way home from school and always said hi to the lady. But after the fall, I didn’t see her again. ever. Story 3  -  W.9  278  The police squad got in the house right away. The picture was just pathetic. The womans face was indescriptably disfigured because of the shot. He probably was pointing at the nose and inch away when it happened. He was taken at the moment, handcuffed, his face wet of sweating and tears in his eyes, which showed no remorse but looked desparate at the same time. I was the one who had to take the baby away, still crying and terrified. How was I going to explain to him later in life how our Mom was taken away from us?  W.9- Story 4 it was my first time at the movies. I was only eleven and my Morn was as exited as I was. I remember feeling happy about going to the big city for the premiere. I know I told everybody, the whole town knew I was going. I don’t even remember the name of the film, but what I will never forget is the first time I saw the two people in love kissing each other right in front of my eyes. I never went back to the city since I can remember. I know the theater isn’t there anymore but I’ll never forget that kiss. W. 9  -  Story 5  Tom was always on time when it came to visit his mother at the nursing home. But no matter how hard he tried to please her, she always felt that resentment against him that made him feel guilty and sorry for her. “You didn’t bring me any cookies today.” she’d say. “ But I brought you a cake instead,” he replied. He as always courteous, even though she treated him  279  very bad. With the years, she even forgot who he was, but he kept on coming till the day she died. W. 9  -  Story 6  Remember to always walk with your chin up, son, 11 his father would say. Never put anybody down, and always be nice with the children, they are our most loved treasure. There is nothin g to compare to the joy of having your children around. He always listens to his father, it’s just that he forgot to tell his soon that those children have a mother too, and that a mother is someone who you should treat with love too. Now that our marriage is over he realizes that his Dad never told him right from wrong when it came to a wife. W. 9  -  Story 7  It was an accident, I never meant to do it. We were sitting in the livingroom waiting for my dad to pick me up. We were fifteen then and we were best friends. We used to spend the summer together, going to the beach, listen to tunes, go to town for a couple of girls. There was not much we could do then, there wasn’t too much freedom for a couple of teenage boys like us. It was raining outside and we decided to play monopoly instead, when Greg came in from his father’s bedroom with the rifie in his hands. He was only joking I thought, when suddenly the tragedy happened. The explosion, the screaming, the blood, my impotense and his desparate look. In seconds he was gone, and my father showed up. W9  -  Story 8  280  It was Father’s day. She went to sleep very late cause she cooked supper for the next day. My husband and I were going to celebrate at my in-laws, but Uncle Robert came at six o’clock that morning to pick-up my husband and give him the bad news. I wasn’t allowed to go with them, but I called my sister to come home and babysit my baby girl. When I arrived at the place, my father-in-law was bending at the bedside and holding her head and kissing her. He was devastated and crying like a child. Everybody was there crying and yelling. No one could believe she was gone. W.9  -  Story 9  Driving from Toronto for a week we finally made it to the Rockies. The place just looked beautiful and breathtaking. The mountains were impetuously put in the picture, and the snow made you feel like nothing matters any more. My husband was driving. We turned on a curve, and suddenly the bus was coming upon us, it slowed up all of a sudden, there was no escaping. George maneouver the car, and we crashed upon the side. W.9  -  Story 10  I W5 lying there feeling used again, humiliated, hurting and degraded. He felt sorry, as always, but none of his promises of treating me belier (never )stopped (him). He felt guilty but reincidented anyways, until I understood that the best for us was to leave him. Never again I want to feel miseated or ashamed. I know I have a lot of healing to do, but I’ll be strong for my kids, and for me too.  281  W9  -  Story 11  He was an only child and as one behave like a rotten kid. Never as a grown up father of two. I was watching his siouette in the window one afternoon and couldn’t help but feel sorry for him. He was paranoid that someone would steal his car one day. And I was hoping that he would jump from the window. but nobody dare to touch his car. And he wouldn’t dare to jump either. W.9- Story 12 I was six years old when I had this dream. I dreamed that my mother, my father, and my sister were leaving me in the middle of the sidewalk in a strange neighbourhood, and they just got into the car and drove away from me. Today I’m 33 and that dream still hurts me. My mother lives in a nursing home in South Anerica, my father lives in Toronto and never phoned me in two years, and my sister is a single mother of two also living in South America. I never saw them again, like in my dream. W. 9  -  Story 13  It is a cold winter day and is snowing again. He is lonely and depressed waiting for the bus, thinking of how miserable his life is. Go to work every day and coming home to an empty house with no children to play with, no wife to take care of him. The house smells damp and empty. No more supper, home made food for him, no more smell of clean laundry anymore. Somehow he thinks he deserves it. He misbehaved,  282  he was bad and bad-tempered for a very long time. Now everything is quiet.  283  W. 10  -  Story 1  The story is about a young girl. She is on her way home from the llbrary. She sees a man plowing his fields. It’s spring. She is attracted to his body. His wife is there helping him. She wants a man of her own. She figures that’s the way it should be. A man, a woman, working together helping each other. She walks away hoping that she will meet someone like that soon. She has hope. She isn’t afraid. W. 10  -  Story 2  This story is about a woman who is afraid to live and afraid to die. She’s had another fight and doesn’t know where to go. She is alone now and needs to think of a way to salve her problems. She feels depressed and hurt. She has another headache. She will snap out of it in awhile. She has to! She has other people to worry about and care for. Maybe tomorrow will be better. W. 10  -  Story  3  This story is about a man and woman. She’s said something he doesn’t like. He’s say’s she is a miserable bitch and he’s leaving. She figures that he’s probably right again and tries to get him to understand that it really isn’t all the big of a deal. She tells him he’s right and hopes he won’t go away again and get angry. The story ends when he leaves anyway and she knows he has trouble coming. W.10  -  Story 4  284  This story is about a young man telling his tale of woe to his mother. She wants to believe everything he says but there are wrinides in his story. He feels angry and sad at the same time. He wants the respect and admiration of his mother. Finally his mother decided that there may be things about her son that are best left alone. She decides she has to believe him. Isn’t he the gentle boy she raised, She must be getting old. W.1O  -  Story 5  The story begins with a father and son discussing the son’s problems. The father has doubts, but he raised a gentle son. He gave him love and tolerance. He nows he must believe his son. His son is truly in need of help, but he won’t get it from his father. He knows that they just want to believe everything is super. They don’t want to know! They don’t want to have to deal with their son’s problems. The story closes as the father goes inside with his wife and they have tea and say isn’t it sad things didn’t work out. The son goes home and continues on with his life. He has no real problems, he tells himself. He just married the wrong person again. He just needs to meet another nice person. W.1O- Story 6  The story begins as a team of doctors work on a young man who has shot himself. He’s watching as they try to save his life. He doesn’t feel happy or sad. It doesn’t seem to matter. He’s just curious. He wonders if they’ll pull it off and save him. The story ends with darkness. I don’t know if he lives or dies.  285  W. 10  -  Story 7  The story starts with the man making up to the woman. He doesn’t want her to leave. Not yet! He doesn’t have enough money yet. When he does that stupid bitch can go. She wants to believe him. She wants to believe everything will be airight this time. They make up. They make love. They stay together. The next day the shit starts all over again. Nothing changes. Just more lies. She wonders if she’s going insane. W.10  -  Story 8  This story is about a prehistoric animal. There has been a land slide. There is a smaller creature about to be zapped by a larger creature. There is little feeling. The emotions are primitive. The stronger survives. W.10  -  Story  9  This story is about a man who doesn’t want his wife. The only time he can make love to her is when she fights. He knows he’s got problems. So does she. She’s afraid he won’t be able to stop some day. He wishes she could understand him better. He says he doesn’t have a problem, she does. She finally leaves. He says he’s the happiest he’s ever been in his life. She is left wondering who’s getting it now. W.10- Story 10  It’s the middle of the day. The woman wakes up. There was another scene. She said she had had enough she was leaving. It was a rerun of a bad movie. She fell asleep. When she  286  awoke he said h&d jump. It was all her fault. he was going to jump. How would she explain that?” he said. “How could she live with that?” he asked. Everyone would know. He’d make sure. She had to stay. He would tell her when she could go. She stayed. W. 10- Story 11 Once upon a time there was a girl. She lived alone with her aunt. Her aunt died. She was very lonely, but yet not alone. She wanted a home, a family, someone to love. She met someone. She loved him vely much. He moved in with her. They were going to share expenses and a life together. They knew each other four weeks. After the first month he said he would pay 1/2 the extra of any expenses i.e. rent increase to 345 from 325 He paid 1/2 of the $20.00 10.00. She thought he must be kidding. She was amused. It was the beginning of the end. It lasted a long long time. Finally she was able to free herself from him. She is afraid she’ll make the same mistake again. -  -  W. 10  -  -  Story 12  The lady is at peace. She is no longer afraid. She’s even taking a walk down a city street, alone at night. It was a dream. She knows life has no guarantees. She’s ok with that. Maybe tomorrow it will seem like it did. W1O  -  Story 13  This is a story about a young boy who has been told he must learn to play the violin. He doesn’t want to play the violin. He  287  is told it ill build his character. It costs alot of money. He looks at the violin. He hates it. He refuses to learn. When he does play he makes every effort to do so bad1y They decide that he just isn’t gifted in that way. He doesn’t have to do it.  288  W.11  Story 2  -  They had a hard life. Her dad worked the fields by hand daily just to get a few scraps on the table. He mother was with child and was in no condition to work, besides her mom was commander in the family and what she said went. She was waiting for Mandy her school mate and as she waited she thought of all the chores that would have to be done after school. She wasn’t particularly fond of them, however, she knew her responsibilities and learned to accept them as a part of life. She knew her life would be better when she lived on her own. Wil- Story 3 He struck her hard, as she landed against the bed, her eyes filled with tears. She didn’t mean to spill her coffee on the floor. He didn’t like it when she made mistakes. Misty always tried to do the best for her man, but somehow that just wasn’t enough. Her head raced with thoughts now as she tried to comfort the bruise swelling up under her left eye. She felt so dispaired, so lonely, so broken. She thought I have to get out, but how, where will I go? She didn’t know how to get away from this violent man, but she knew that this was the end of the beatings and hopefully the beginning of a new and better life. -  W. 11  -  Story 4  He suddenly stood up with rage in his eyes, he wanted so badly to beat the other man. His wife hold on to him pleading for  289  him not to do it. Ralph had always been jealous of his wife and that day had decided that the man who had sent his wife a drink, should be taught a lesson. Yet Mandy would not let her tight grip go of her man and persistantly pleaded with him. “The man needs to be taught a lesson” he bellowed and charged for the other man. He lunged at him from behind, spun him around and as Paiph was rearing to plummel this other man he realized the man was wearing a shiny star and his hand fell short at his side and he quietly turned away. W. 11  -  Story 5  The old woman stood silently staring out the window, her son at her side and her husband lying in the next room was dying She felt so scared, her son also felt at a loss for words. What does one say to a parent who is about to lose their soul mate. Daddy Cassidy had been strickened with cancer for the past 12 years and now, they both knew these next few days would be his last. In a happy sort of way Maggie knew it was for the best, after all he had suffered enough. Yet still she clung to the hope that maybe he would miraculously get better. As her eyes filled once more with tears, she knew that this was all for the better. As she left her son, to go and enter her husbands room she placed her hand in her sons and said, “Let’s go say good-bye to daddy” and as she left the room, she somehow knew today would be his last. She somehow felt relieved. W,11- Story 6  The older man Brody leaned over and whispered something in Mike’s ear. The old man felt sympathy for Mike even though  290  he knew Mike felt no remorse for what he did. You see Mike had just committed a murder, he killed another for no apparent reason, just because he was angry at the world and this poor young lass just happened to be Brody was Mike’s lawyer and as they sat in the courtroom, Brody knew inevitably what the outcome would be. Still Mike was only sorry for the price he had to pay and not for taking the life of another. W. 11  -  Story 7  As the war hero lay clutching his side in agony, the doctors rushed to try and save his life. Upton knew the next few hours would be his last. He was just in the wrong place at the wrong time and now he was paying the price. His younger son rushed out to see his father take his last breath. The doctor’s rushed painstakingly knowing that any effort was not going to bring this man back to life. Upton drew his last breath and his son felt nothing. He never liked his father. He came to his dad’s side only because mother had so desperately wanted him to. He just didn’t care for the man. W. 11  -  Story 8  He was sorry. He always was. She clung to Mm, hoping that this time would be the last, It was always the same old song and dance with them. He would get upset for not apparent reason, call her names until she got so upset that she would break down and cry. Then he would take her arms say he loved her, kiss her gently and say he was sorry and never would do it again. He always did though and she always stayed, no matter how hurt or frustrated she was by his awful words.  291  W,11  Story 9  -  They climbed the large rock wall and headed down along the narrow rock path. The robbers had scored big and were quite happy with the loot, they spent a couple of minutes auhing and 000ing over their prize and suddenly a flash of light. It was the cops and it was all over. W. 11  -  Story 10  He didn’t mean to do it, no really. He felt so much grief for what he had did. He was coming home for the afternoon to see his wife, little did he know that she was with another. He walked in, seen them together and killed her and as she lay listlessly naked he felt sorry for what he had done. He knew he would pay for what he had done and somehow that seemed comforting. W. 11  -  Story 11  He stared out the window, not knowing what to do. He wanted to end it just jump, get it over with, after all what was there to live for. He wanted to end all the pain, all the hurt, afier all his Mom told him daily what a no good piece of shit he was. As he took a step towards ending his life he knew for some reason that his life was not worth ending. W. 11  -  Story 12  They always loved hiking and today was especially grand. The son beamed down through the open meadow, heather and  292  alpine growth surrounded them and seemed to embrace the rays. They were a family of four, mom dad, and the two boys. They hWed seemingly forever to come to this haven and it was worth every last aching step. They sat together now over an open fire, exchanging stories of how the hiking experience felt to them. This is where they wanted to be and they decided that the great mountain would be their home forever. W. 11  -  Story 13  It was quite rainy that evening and as George stood waiting for the express bus, he somehow felt lost and confused in the big on his way home from iork. He was a big hot city. He shot stock broker making top bucks. None of that really seemed to matter now, as he stood pondering life. What was the dollar really about greed, material arguments, selfindulgence and hate. As the bus pulled up, George decided he didn’t want this life anymore, money didn’t really matter and he quietly stepped onto the bus and took one last long look at the confused city behind him. -  -  Story 1 (after 13)  As he stared down at his violin, nothing came to him, no music notes that is. He was at music school and his teacher had just asked him to write some music to go with a school play. A play about a caterpillar becoming a butterfly. His teacher didn’t understand him, he needed time to write such a masterpiece he thought about talking to her in protest but decided he better get writing instead. He bit his lip, buckled down and mechanically started writing.  293  Ml- Story 1 It seems the boy is being pushed to play the violin totally against his will. Seems he is sick and tired of the montonous lessons and wants to go play with his friends or maybe something else. The boy seems bored, sad, insecure, and not happy. I think give it a few years and the boy will not ever want to see another musical instrument ever again.  Ml  -  Story 2  It seems to me there is some sort of rivalry. The girls may be jealous, envyous relationship. Right now it seems they are trying to compete naturly, suttlely for the farmer boy. Thoughts and feels maybe of jealousness between qualities of each girl. Until one day they grow up and figure out that no guy is worth the hassle. M1-Story3 Seems a girl has led a pretty rough life, and feels depress, maybe suicidal, seems to me. So she is trying on weither to live or die and she is undecided. thoughts of confusion race through her head, “is there a point or reason to life. In my opinion I believe she will take her life. Seems like she is past the point of no return. Ml  -  Story 4  294  it seems she is trying to explain why she was hugging him. He doesn’t want anything to do with her anymore. He’s heard the stories and excuses. Enough is enough. He has feelings of hurt. She is just fining out what it feels like to hurt someone. Outcome will probably be separation. Ml  Story 5  -  Seems there has just been a death of her husband and his father both are trying to figure out what’s going to become of them? where to go now? Both are feeling depressed, deep sense of loss, hurt, regrets. Both people will stick together and help each other through this tough time. Live happily ever after. M 1  -  Story 6  Seems the boy has upset the father by failing to be successful in college. Right now there are feelings of disappointment, shame, embarassrnent, failure. Best bet is for the boy to get on with life, try something he might better enjoy, maybe succeed in. Ml. Story 7 Many of Dad’s medical books have been read. The boy dreams of one day becoming as great a surgeon as his father. There is hope in his eyes, plus impatientness because he is aware time and schooling involved. Great feeling of confidence. The boy will be a great doctor who will save many lives. -  Ml  -  Story  8  295  Both people have suffered the loss of their mates, both are confiding in each other comforting each other. Though there are feelings of hurt, both feel warm and comfortable in each other’s arms. both will grow to being good closer friends. Ml  -  Story 9  There has been a great change in the earth’s temperature. it is back to the prehistoric temperatures again, recreation of dinosaurs, teradactals, a herd of farmers hurrily urge their cattle to run for there lives. Before the great bird attack, feelings of scaredness arise, confusion defeat, both farmers and cattle viul parish under the great waterfall which happens to be the teradactals nest. Ml  -  Story 10  Seems many attempts at having children have been unsucessful until now. but something has gone wrong during labor. The woman lost her life giving birth to another life then leading to the death of the newborn. The man feels helpless, no doctors for miles, great sense of confusion, exhaustion. Man will end having to get counselling and get back on the road to a normal productive life. Ml.  -  Story 11  A boy coming to realization of being a man. The boy is making decisions to better his life, building goals and ambitions, dreams. Feelings of confidence, pride and curiousity are being felt. The boy will grow up to be well rounded, good natured man.  296  Ml  -  Story 12  It is 9:00 a.m.. The boy knows at 9:30 his big moment will come, his personal spot in the limelight, the time he has been waiting for 3 weeks. Sweating palms, nervousness, leary confidence. 9:29 a.rn. “Billy Henderson please step forward ready? Please spell accountability.” Bill “blank”. Ml  -  Story 13  It’s been a hard life, times are bad. But the happy wanderer ponders on his quest for a quality of life and not quantity. The hobo can feel happiness in his own little way because he knows he has lived his life the best way and he has no regrets, this fellow. We will never meet again but we know he is out there in the world with a grin knowing he did it his way.  M.2— Story 1 A young  boy has been playing a violin. For a long time it  very tired. He look like he is not happy. Now he will be going to bed. seems.  M2  -  Now he seems a bit  Story 2  297  There has been a parting of mother and daughter. Father is working the field with a horse and plow. As the daughter is working. They are doing the days chores. M2  -  Story 3  There was a dreadful assent. As this young lady sits on the floor beside a bench, she looks so sad. Her whole life has changed. M2.  -  Story 4  Bob and Gail has been talking about going to war. They are saying goodbyes to each other maybe for the last time. They are very upset. It is going to wreck their relationship. M2  -  Story 5  Mother and son have been talking about the son moving out of the house. Mother has said all she can. The mother looks very concerned and the son looks determined to do what he needs to do. They say goodbye. M2- Story 6  Father and son have been talking to each other for a long time. The son has a understanding of what his father has been saying. The father looks pleased with himself. Where the son looks mad at the conversation. Now the both of them go out for supper. M2.  -  Story 7  298  It is the 1800’s and war has broke out. For days and days the injured keep coming in. The doctor has a soldier on his table with a bullet in his stomach. There is a young boy afraid to look at the soldier. The soldier lived. M2  -  Story 8  The to persons in love were dancing for a long time. Now they are hugging each other. There is alot of loving feelings. They go back to their table for a rest and have a great night. M2  -  Story 9  They were on a long trip and the last five hours has been uphill. The horses are putting up a fight every foot of the way. now they have come to a small bridge. The two men are so tired they could give up right now. So they go a little further and set up camp and have a good night sleep. M2  -  Story 10  A lady has been killed in her home by a lover. The lover is so ashamed of what he has done he will not face it. He is so sorry for her but cannot do a thing about it. He is caught by the cops and goes to JAIL M2  -  Story 11  Morning has hit the small town of Van. The young person is sitting in a window looking at the sunrise. He is thlnldng of  299  what he will be doing all day and feeling great. He got dressed and had a good day.  M2  -  Story 12  The page was so bright that it hurt my eyes. but the blank page has been rubbed with alot of other pages where it has marks all over it. It makes me sad because it has nothing. There is no after. M2  -  Story 13  It has been snowing all day and most of the night. the copper has been standing at this corner for seven hours. It is awful cold standing in one spot for a long time. The cops replacement shows up in an hour and he goes to the bar to see his friends.  300  M.3- Story 1  It was afternoon and the last class of the day was music. Benjamin was not thrilled with going to music class as he had difficulty with the instrument his teacher had chosen for him. Benjamin wanted to play the saxaphone, but that went to Sally and all that was left to be handed out was the violin. Benjamin sat at his desk after he picked up his violin from the closet room and sat and stared deeply at it wondering how he was ever going to play this huge instrument without making a fool of himself and having everyone laugh at him. He took it in hand and found that the violin felt interesting. M. 3  -  Story 2  Tamara arrived at her family farm outside of the city. She was on her way home to quickly change from her good clothes into her work clothes as it was her duty to help in the field with her brother who worked the horse that plowed the fields for planting. Tamar&s great frandmother stood close by near a tree day dreaming of better days. Tamara loved her granma very much and would sit with her and listen to stories of old. Tamara’s brother was a strong boy who loved vorking the farm and loved his animals just as much. M.3  -  Story 3  News had arrived their Papa had died at the mine and many others were missing. Jane knew that there was little hope for survivors, and she also knew her mother had gone to the mine that day to take Papa some dinner just like she always did. jane was not feeling well after the news and went into the bathroom and as she entered the doorway and stamled into the room she felt faint and she fell onto the vanity, knocking the toothbrush and Papa’s razor to the ground. After time had past and Jane felt better she got up from the floor and went to the ktichen to have some tea. M3- Story 4  301  The outlaw gang had come into town shooting everything and everyone in sight that dared to try and stop them. The sheriff was killed and that left Reb to try and handle them. Reb was not the law but a close friend of the sheriff. Reb knew something had to be done, but Mary also knew if he tried to stop the gang, he would be killed. but Reb went into toi. anyway and found the gang in the saloon getting drunk. Reb came through the saloon door and everyone went quiet. The leader of the gang stood up and drew his gun and fell over backwards drunk. M3- Story 5  302  The news had come the President was shot. Aunt Mary and Uncle Joe stood silently at the window in disbelief as only an hour earlier Uncle Joe shook the president’s hand, what a great honor it was and now the unthinkable happened. Someone had shot the President. Aunt Mary ‘as quite a strong woman and knew that history was changing as her and Uncle Joe stood in the living room. Aunt Mary was smart and knew she had to be strong for Joe as he was not going to be able to deal with this very well. M3_ Story 6  Mr. Campbell and Larry arrived at the meeting of goverors to vote in the assembly whether to allow blacks to vote. Mr. Campbell felt very strongly about freedom and that the blacks are in their right to vote. For Larry thugh he was still not sure as his daddy had servants, no slaves, but servants. This he felt was a hard choice as he was concerned about what would happen to the country. They got together and talked for quite a spell and decided that freedom was the most important choice and that Larry’s family and others would have to go with history and whatever the future held. M.3  -  Story 7  The guns echoes outside and around the tent where Doctor Merth and one of the assitants was holding a lantern for the doctor to see. Jarnie stood in his best suit and knew his father was busy trying to save a man’s life. He could not watch the incision as the blood made him sick. The man on the table lay still slain, moaning from the pain. The explosions and the yelling came closer and louder to the tent, As my father desperately worked on the young man who was lying on the table. M3  -  Story 8  The fall dance was on at the county hail where Mary and Sir John had said they would meet. It was not a date he said they were only  303  friends. but I knew there was more and I think Mary hopes so too. they knew each other for a long time but never got together. So tonight, I felt something was going to happen and great scott it did. Mary and Sir John had the very first thnce together, and danced until the very last song. Sir John was in love and so was Mary; after that moment they were inseparable. M3- Story 9 In the great forest many surprises can be found and in the great forest if you look hard and long, something special may pop up. This day deep in the forest is a tiny creature not seen by many humans was quietly looking and studying something on the path close to the stone bridge which led to a great stone wall in the forest. The tiny little man would come this way often but today something caught his eye, normally he would not waste his time as he did not want to be seen by anyone, but today was different, something caught his eye. What could it be, money, possibley gold or diamonds. The tiny man knew finally after studying it for awhile and suddenly jumped up and squealed for joy and dashed quickly away. What was it he found? M3  -  Story 10  The hotel room was hot and unbearable from the heat of the day. Susan lay on her back in the bed trying to get some sleep, but Darrel was not ready for bed and was wiping his brow with his sleeve removing the sweat. “Too damn hot” Darrel said with a edge to his voice. “Try and lay do or have a cold shower” said Susan. “Good idea I’ll have a cold shower”, and at  304  the bed and raced to that same moment Susan jumped up from sures of cooling the shower beating Darrel to the cold plea great idea too good water. “Sorry”, she said “it sounded like a was undressed and to pass up. come to join me”. Well Darrel er 20 minutes passed in the shower with Susan in a second. Aft t to bed feeling much by the both dried each other off and wen better. M. 3  -  Story 11  from his hotel room A great new thy was outside his window ing up on the as James stood silently with his foot rest to himself. What windowsill. Ah what a great day, James said g time at the window should I do today? James stood for a lon him on the street and watched the people stroll by in front of if I can meet some below. Maybe I will go for a walk and see don’t know anyone new people since this is a new town and I wallet into his here. So after James changed and threw his ll, looking for some fanny pack he went out for a morning stro fun and adventure. M3  -  Story 12  d in my car. It The trip was long but comfortable to Portlan s time the big boys was another Pro Race weekend at P.I.R. Thi lly it will be busy were here, Trans Am and Indy Car. Hopefu y I hope the and the trip won’t be a total waste. Actuall new people while scenery is good and maybe I’ll meet some I’m here. great so far. I I arrived at the track to register and all is to my track station quickly dress in my drivers suit and head roadie (?). I’m on PIR Wall where I help out as a volunteer  305  excited as this is an impo rtant race and my duties are the same. As I had hoped I met a great girl named Tern she was involved in racing and also in the safety end of thin gs. Great fin-ally met someone who likes racing. After a great weekend it wa s time to go home, darn , a long 5 hour drive back home bu t with great memories, look forward to next year.. M.3  -  Story 13  He was standing out besid e the lampost, barely no ticeable even from the light. The snow fell heavy and obscured the view of the man against the lamp standard. Why I asked myself was he there, I tried to feel w hat he was thinking and feeling but I could not. The man look ed sad but this was again my impression. Time passed by and the snow fell hard er, the mail never moved. I got some coffee and went out to him and introduced myself, poor gu y, he was lonly and had no where to go. Sadly was not able to offer him shelter but shor tly a time later a man from the Salv ation Army took him away for food and a place to sleep. Th is made the man and mysel f happy.  //  /  /  I  306  APPDU( B:  RECH ATION D FORMS  j/ 307 IAMILY & COMMUNITY SERVICES_._ -  February 11,  1992  Department of Counselling Psychology Faculty of Education U.B.C. Vancouver, B.C. TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN RE:  Research Proposal by Lillian Kelly  I have reviewed and approved the pro posal submitted by Lillian Kelly to do research with the women’s and mens groups in our Family Violence Prog ram. Our Family Violence Intervention Prog ram Staff and myself would appreciate having access to the results of the study when it is completed.  Sincerely,  Robert Finlay Director of Counselling Service  itre: 1112 Austin Avenue, Coquitlam, B.C. V3K 3P5 . Telephone 931-31 10 . Fax 931-3808  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMB IA ‘/  ;  Department of Counselling Psychology Faculty of Education 5780 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T I L2 Tel: (604) 822-5259 Fac: (604) 822-2328  Jan. 9, 1992  Mr. Bob Findlay  Share Counselling Centre 1112 Austin Ave. Ccxuitlam, B.C. Dear Bob,  I am interested in conducting a research stud y through the counselling centre. I would like to conduct this stud y with the men and men participating in the groups in the family violence program. This study will be a nonintrusive study and will not be asking the subjects to reveal anything about: their personal lives. The purpose ot the study and the method used is described in the attached research abstract.. The standards of ethics of U.B.C. regarding human subjects will be followed and confidentiality of the subjects is ensured. I am hoping that you and the society will agree to allow me to approach your clients and aske them to participate in the study. Participation is voluntary and they will be informed of this. Please inform me in writing of your decision in this regard. Th nk you for your consideration. L ilian Kelly, / M.A. student U.B.C. Counselling Psycholo gy  308  7/  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMB IA  309  Department of Counselling Psychology Faculty of Education 5780 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1L2 Tel: (604) 822.5259 Fax: (604) 822-2328  ‘  RESEPRcH DESCRIPTION  Project Title:  Study of the Way Individuals £ake Sense of Situations Through Sto ries  I, Lillian Kelly, am conducting nis research under the superv ision of Dr. Larry Cochran, Dept. of Cou nselling Psychology, U.E.C. This study involves understenin how people maxe sen se ot situations through the use o stories. As a participant in this research study you will be shown a picture and asked to tell a story about what you see in the picture. ou wil l be presented with 10 pictures altogether in seg uence, one at a time. ou ill be asked to tell a story with a beginning, mid dle, and end for eaci picture. You will be given seven minutes to write seen story, which has been found to cc ample tiipe to complete the stories in research of this kind in tne past. The tota l tie involved will be one nd one-ha lt hours, which will take place at oneS of your regular group meetings at the Sha re Counselling Centre. The stories which you write will be kept conEidential tc the inv estigators (Lillian Kelly and Larry cochra n) as to your identity. Although the stories are fiction and are not likely to reveal anything that personally identifies you, should there he any personal identifying information contain ed in them it will be deleted. frci the story before being used in the research at the time when the stories are transcribx5 . Your name will not he used i.n the study and will be kept confidential to tiIC reserchrs nned onl y. art1cioaton in this study is voluntary. You have the righ t to refuse to participate or to withdraw at any time Your refusal to prticpate or withdraw will not effect your par to ticipation ii th group at Sha re or your opportunity to paticipate in any research in the future. A Lull explanation o the pro cedures of this study will be giv en again at the group in which the stud y is conducted. If you have any cuestions or concerns you ay contact ti-is inv eati;ti.crs: Lillian ;eily, 3l— 3ll0 or Dr. Larry cochran, 822-5259. .  —_____  I, hereby acknowlcdje rcct of this research description and consent for.n. I, h-e undersigned, have read, undertoed, in tnis research project.  igned:  Date:  and have agreed to participate  


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items