UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The motavation of male batterers and battered wives: a multi-case study using story sequence analysis Kelly, Lillian Mary 1993

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata


831-ubc_1994-0088.pdf [ 6.55MB ]
JSON: 831-1.0054053.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0054053-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0054053-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0054053-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0054053-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0054053-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0054053-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

THE MOTIVATION OF MALE BATTERERS AND BATTERED WIVES(A Multi-Case Study Using Story Sequence Analysis)byLILLIAN MARY KELLYB.A. Simon Fraser University, 1987A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTERS OF ARTSINTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES(Department of Counselling Psychology)We accept this thesis as conformingto he r uirec standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIADecember, 1993Lillian Mary Kelly, 1993In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Sig4 Ji ‘Department of 449 .I1’The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate /9DE.6 (2/88)AbstractThis multi-case study explored the motivation patterns of 11battered women and 3 male batterers. The Thematic ApperceptionTest (TAT) and Arnold’s story sequence analysis were utilized toobtain and analyze a series of 13 stories from each subject. Storyimports were extrapolated from the subject’s story sequence toexpose the motivating attitudes and were matched to a scoringcriteria. The motivating attitudes form a pattern delineated inclinical evaluations. Then the imports and clinical evaluations of thebattered women and male batterers were matched in a cross-caseanalysis of their respective groups. Finally, as a comparative validitymeasure, the cross-case analyses for each group were matched to theattitudes, values, and behaviors attributed to each group in theresearch literature.The battered wives, and the male batterers demonstratednegative motivation patterns. Therefore Arnold’s passive,pessimistic, self-centered, and malicious negative motivation patterndescriptions were used in the cross-case analyses. Negative passiveand pessimistic patterns of motivation were common across bothgroups expressing a lack of contingency between actions andoutcome, and pessimistic beliefs that one cannot overcome adversityby one’s own actions. These patterns matched learned helplessnessthat research has associated with battered wives, and depression,low self-esteem, and external locus of control attributed to malebatterers. These results indicated that both battered women and11male batterers have likely developed learned helplessness throughtheir histories of family of origin violence.Additional results included patterns of motivation for thebattered women matching the attributes of post-traumatic stresssyndrome. The male batterers showed two patterns of motivationpositive, passive, and pessimistic pattern and passive, pessimisticwith self-centered and malicious motivation, which match thetypical, and the narcissistic/anti-social types found for batterers inother research.This study, though exploratory in nature, contributes clarity toa vast and unwieldy theory on wife battering by revealing theunderlying motivation of batterers and battered wives, and byexposing the correspondence of differing theoretical views to thesame motivation patterns. Therefore the common motivationpatterns found in this study provided a more clear analysis of theproblems in living for battered women and male batterers. Thesemotivation patterns can provide guidance regarding the dysfunctionof these clients that can be utilized by clinicians in designingeffective treatment for the problems of male batterers and ofbattered wives. Additionally the motivation patterns revealedthrough the TAT and story sequence analysis are effective andefficient means for accessing tacit self-knowledge that calls forfurther research.111Table of Contentsi\bstrac t iiTable of Contentsi\c1criov.’1ec1gerrieii.ts ijiEl11?’FEl. cISfF 1Background. of the Study 1latioriale for tli.e Stuclr 1-‘I’h.e R.esearcIi ()jiestions 7Overview of Design and Method 8Delimitations of the Study 9I)efiniitionis of Teriii.s 10CHAPTER TWO: RFVIE’vV OF THE LITERATURE 15SECTION 1: THE THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST (TAT) 15Background On The TAT 15Research Firicliiigs on the T!.T 17Conclusions on Psychoanalytic Theory and ThemeScoring of the T\’I’ 22Arnold’s Answer: Story Sequence Analysis 23j\rriolcl’s Theoretical Base 24Imagination Functioning in Stories and Behavior 24j.ttituIes aiicl. Corrvictionis 26I\iotivttioii 27Emotions, Values, and Attitudes 28Arnold’s Personality Theory 29Story Sequence Analysis Method (Arnold, 1962) 30Fonuulating Story Imports and Sequences. 32Positive and Negative Imports 35Import Formulation, Scoring, and the ScoringCriteria 36Scoring and the Motiation Index 38Cliniical EiaIuation 39Skill of the Interpreter 41Reliability and Validity of Story Sequence Analysis 42ivDevelopment of the Scoring Criteria .48Reliability of the Motivation Index .49Summary of Validity and Reliability of Arnold’s}.‘Ietlicc1CHAPTER TWO. REVIEW OF THE L1TEPATURE: SECTIONTWO: THE MOTIVATION OF BATTERING HUSBANDS ANDv&vuI\TES 54Motivation Theory and Wife Battering Research 54Overview Of The Etiology Of Wife Battering 58Motivation Patterns of Battered Women: AnIiitrocltictiorr 59Husbands Who Batter Their Wives 61Common Attitudes Values And Behavior Of MenV\7h.o Batter 63Wives Who Are Battered By Their Husbands 75The Motivation Patterns Of Women Who Have BeenBattered 77Surnriiar’ of the Chapter 89CI-I...P’T’ER. 3: I\4E1’HODOLOG-Y 91Sy’nopsis Of The I.esearch Iesigii 91Iatioriile For TIie 1esigri’ 91Iristri..irrients IJsed.o 931escrijtion Of Participants 96Process Of Participant Selectiorr 96Eita Colleciioi:r 99Dta i\rlal3fsis 1C)C)Coding And Arnold’s Scoring Criteria 101Training And Accuracy Of The ResearchersIrnports 101Scoring And The Motivation Index 103Clinical Case Evaluations 103Cross-Case Analysis 104The Cross-case Analyses Results Compared to theKnown Characteristics in the Research Literature 106C I{/\P’I’EI. FOTJR: RFSIJLI’S 108Ili Case Stitdies 108The Case Studies: Battered Wives 108108v.116.123...13075.136A76 • 1’41.147\A18...1 54-‘A79.160X,,\i10.....165\7 1 1 171Case Studies: The Battering Husbands 177177’I’/I2 1 8’1-vI3 189CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION 196‘rlie Research Findings 196Cross-case Findings: Battered Wives 196Cross-case Findings: Male Batterers 200Iiriiita.tioris of the St1Jdre 203hnplications for Theory 205The Motivation of Battered Wives: Comparison tothe Research on Battered Wornerr 205The Motivation Patterns of Battering Husbands:Comparison to the Research on Batterers 210Implications for Practice 2 16Implications for Future Research 218Su1.ili.rrlar3’ of the Study’ 218IEFEI.1J:’JES 223.t\.PPENDI)( i’\ 232APPENDIX B: RESEARCH INFORMATION AND CONSENTFYR]vIS 306VjACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI thank the following people for their assistance, guidance, andsupport to me in the research and writing of this thesis.I am grateful to Dr. Larry Cochran for his insight and hisencouragement to do a study using the projective TAT test, andespecially Arnold’s method of story sequence analysis, and hertheory of motivation. Through doing this study I have learnedexciting and useful skills for counselling, and for living.I thank the other members of my committee John Allan, and Du fayDer for their contributions.I thank the participants of this study who under difficult personalcircumstances chose to volunteer their time and energy. I thank thegroup leaders, and the agency that supported this study.I give special thanks to Alan Smitten for his feedback on the imports,and support, and advice, and to Elizabeth Zafron for help withediting.Finally, I am deeply grateful to my husband, Jim Kelly, who hasgiven me support, encouragement, feedback, and a listening earthroughout this long and challenging process.‘[iiCHAFfER ONE: INTRODUCTIONBackground of the StudyThis multi-case study explored the motivation patterns ofbattering husbands and battered wives. This study considereda question that has continued to plague and perplex peopleconfronted with wife battering: “What would motivate thesecouples to create and maintain these painfully destructiverelationships?”Wife assault and battering were once considered a rareproblem of an abnormal couple, and yet it was sanctioned andtolerated as a private family matter. It has recently beenrecognized as social problem of epidemic proportions. In theU.S.A. nearly two million women were violently beaten by theirhusbands each year according to a nationally representative1977 survey (Straus, Gelles, & Steinmetz, 1977). The 1985follow-up study showed only a 20% drop in wife batteringhypothesized as due to the social action taken during thatperiod to stop battering (Straus & Gelles, 1985). In Canada, onein ten women were repeatedly battered by their husbandsaccording to the findings of the Canadian Status of WomenReport, 1982 (cited in Russell, 1988). Wife battering has beenevident in many countries around the world and across all2social strata (Finkelhor, 1988: Straus, et al, 1977; Straus, Gelles,and Steinrnetz, 1980). Researchers considered these lowestimates of wife battering incidents due to the reluctance toreport it because of the attached social stigma (Finkethor, 1988;Straus et al, 1977;1980;1985; Thaxton, 1985;).Since the proportions of this problem emerged,researchers have explored its etiology and the question of whatmotivates battering husbands and battered wives. Commonsocial beliefs that battering husbands were abnormal orpsychopathological and that battered wives were masochistichave been disproved (Finkeihor, 1988; Gelles, 1990; Herman,1991; Nichols, 1986; Stets, 1988; Rosenbaum, Cohen, &Forsstrom-Cohen,1990,). According to current psychologicalassessment criterion, neither batterers nor battered wivesusually showed any particular clinical mental illness (Gondoif &Fisher, 1991; Herman, 1992; Nichols, 1986; Stets, 1988).Despite these findings, researchers recognized that manypsychological problems exist for both partners, even though thepartners were within the normal psychological profile.The research on the etiology of wife battering revealed alarge number of individual, historic and situation variables thatcorrelated with couple violence. These causes for both spouseswere:3(1) social and environmental: (a) social values, (b)poverty syndrome, (c) stress, (d) crisis;(2) family history: (a) role modeling, (b) parentalviolence, (c) child abuse, (d) learned coping skills;(3) current individual and family functioning: (a)isolation, (b) high dependency needs, (c) enmeshment, (d)dissimilar power, (e) rigid sex-roles/sex-role polarization,(f) high conflict, and (g) narrow coping responses(Berger, 1985; Finkelhor, 1988; Harris & Sinclair, 1981;Madden, 1985; Nichols, 1986; Rosenbaum et al, 1990; Stark &Flitcraft, 1988; Thaxton, 1985).Additional attributes are found for the individualspouses. Batterers, although within nonnal psychologicallimits, commonly reveal borderline personality symptornology,passive-aggressive tendencies, arid pathological jealousy, aswell as, defective self-concepts, and spouse-specific assertiondeficits (Herman, 1992, Stets, 1988; Rosenbaum et al, 1990).Battered wives are commonly found to have symptomsattributed to post-traumatic stress syndrome, such asdepression, learned helplessness, and high stress or anxiety(Herman, 1992; Rosenbaum et al, 1990; Walker, 1983: 1984).4Rationale for the StudyThe multi-determined causes attributed to wife batteringreveal the complexity of the problem (Rosenbaurn et al, 1990).However, the etiology has had such a wide range ofattributional causes that the theory has been unwieldy andconfusing. Therefore the clinician who was designing atreatment plan for battering husbands and/or battered wivesremains unguided. Researchers who recognized this problemrecommend that qualitative research be undertaken withclinical subjects to determine the treatment needed(Ammerman & Hersen, 1990; Everett, 1988; Gelles, 1990;Gondolf & Fisher, 1991; Rosenbaum et al, 1990; Straus, 1990).This study responded to these recommendations by using amulti-case study design which provided the scope to explorethe complexities of the etiology of wife abuse, using a clinicalgroup of participants.The studies of wife battering have been self-reportsurveys of the normal population (Straus, et al, 1977;1980;1985) or self-report studies of women in shelters orprograms for battered women (Gondoif & Fisher, 1991;Rosenbaum et al, 1990; Stets, 1988;). Relatively little researchhas been conducted with the batterers, but these studies were5also self-report studies (Gondolt 1985; Herman, 1992;Rosenbaum et al, 1990). However, research that has relied onself-report, has been limited to the conscious self-knowledge ofthe individual, and to their willingness to honestly report whatmay be shameful, or self-denigrating material. Theselimitations have seriously impaired the discovery of themotivation of battering husbands and battered wives, and haveresulted in contradictory and confounding results (Walker,1984). Therefore, methods of research have been requiredthat tap the tacit motivation of these individuals.Psychological methods of discovering tacit self-knowledgebegan with Freud’s dream analysis and free association. Freudfound that people revealed unconscious self-knowledgethrough the imagination and stream of consciousness. “Theimaginal stream can be considered as one of the morecharacteristic ways in which an individual’s tacit self-knowledge is manifested” (Guidano, & Liotti, 1983, p.77). Theimaginal stream of the unconscious has been tapped throughthe use of projective tests such as the Rorschach. Anotherextensively used form of projective testing has been a storytelling test called the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)developed by Murray & Morgan, 1935.The TAT was developed into a method of tappingindividual motivation by Arnold (1962). Arnold discovered6that stories told in response to TAT cards usually pose aproblem and a resolution. The way in which the problems areresolved reveal a persons convictions about life. Arnold refersto these convictions as imports, which are analogous to themoral of a story. Imports constitute principles of motivationfor action. For example, if one is convinced that hard workleads to success, one would more likely engage in hard work.Conversely, if one is convinced that it is impossible to overcomea difficulty one is unlikely to engage in action to attempt toovercome it. These convictions are revealed in the stories thatpeople Tite in response to TAT picture cues. The sequence ofthe story imports are a series of tests of motivation thataggregate to reveal a motivational pattern. The imports arecoded and scored according to a scoring criteria for positivemotivation and negative motivation. The sequence of importsin each case report are examined for an individual clinicalevaluation.Arnolds method of analyzing the TAT, which she callsstory sequence analysis, was utilized in this study to providethe tacit information that reveals the motivation of individualcases of battered wives, and battering husbands. Arnold’sapproach is distinguished by its capacity for normativequantitative scores for normative comparisons, and forindividual case evaluations.7This study explored the Individual motivation patterns ofbattered wives and battering husbands and the pattern ofmotivation across the cases of the wives and the husbandsrespectively. This pattern of motivation provided anexplanation of battering that expands and contributes totheoretical knowledge for utilization as a guide in the design ofclinical therapy programs.The Research QuestionsThis study was designed to answer the following researchquestions:1. What motivates a man to physically assault or batter hiswife?2. What motivates a woman to stay in a relationship or homein which she is being physically assaulted or battered?3. What are the similarities and differences in motivationalpatterns of battering husbands?4. What are the similarities and differences in motivationalpatterns of battered wives?8Overview of Design and MethodThis investigation utilized the principles of case studymethod (Yin, 1989) in a multi-case study design strategy, usingthe TAT test and Arnold’s method of story sequence analysis toproduce a case evaluation report for each volunteer participantfrom clinical treatment group for battered wives and anotherfor battering husbands. The case study method and the TATtest were used to reveal the motivation and concerns of theindividual subjects. The case study principle of extractingemergent material from the current context of the subjects, asopposed to applying preconceived theoretical elements to thestudy, was consistent with Arnold’s system of importing fromthe stories. Fmergent material was extracted from the storymaterial without applying presupposed theoreticalexpectations. Arnold’s system of analysis is a qualitativeanalysis consistent with case study method, which utilizescoding categories that emerged from cross-case analysis instudies that totaled over 500 cases (Arnold, 1962).Following the multi-case study design strategy this studyused Arnold’s method of importing and story sequenceanalysis, and developed a clinical evaluation for each case.Each case was then compared to the other cases in a cross-caseanalysis of the battered wives, and also of the battering9husbands. Each case is considered a single study, and each caseis a repeated measure of the criterion of the motivation patternof the battered wife, or the battering husband.Delimitations of the StudyAlthough the original intention in the design of this studywas to correlate the results of the TAT clinical evaluations withthe observations and analysis of the counsellors conducting thetreatment groups, it was necessary to change this design.Contrary to other TAT studies which have obtained verificationof test results from the evaluations of teáchers, peers,supervisors, and others, the groups in this study involvedspecial ethical considerations regarding confidentiality, andinformed consent. The abused wife is at risk to furtherviolence. Often information released to others is perceived as athreat to the batterer, who may retaliate against his partner fordoing so. Also, the battered wife is often under considerablepsychological and emotional strain, and in her condition may beconsidered analogous to a mental patient (Miller, 1991). Tnaddition, the batterers are court ordered to participate in thegroup, and are analogous to prisoners (Miller, 1991). Underthese conditions the voluntary dimension of participation andcomprehension of the research in order to give unequivocalinformed consent presents special problems (Miller, 1991).10After considering these concerns of possible exploitation andrisk for the participants, the researchers decided to limit thestudy to the results of the TAT, and to compare these results tothe motivational patterns found in the literature. Therefore nopersonal information would be disclosed about the participantsto the researchers that could put them at risk or could beperceived as a risk to the batterers or the battered wives.However, the clinical evaluations for the individual participantscannot be verified by a correlation with the evaluations of thecounsellors. Verification can only be made by comparison tothe characteristics of these known groups of battered wivesand batterers in the research literature.Definitions of TermsThis section identifies the following terms central to thestudy, and Arnold’s (1962) motivation analysis and theory:attitude, emotion, imagination, import, marital (spouse, wife,husband), motive, personality, value, violence, wife assault,wife battering.Attitude:Attitudes are of two types, evaluative and motivating.Evaluative attitudes are values that have become habits.Motivating attitudes are motives that have become habits11(Arnold, 1962).EmotionEmotions are not motivating but are immediate,unwilling, intuitive and almost automatic, and to becomemotivating they require reflective evaluation and choice(Arnold, 1962).Ima2ination:Imagination is the function used in planning action andanticipating results. It is a felt action tendency stemmingfrom an appraisal, which initiates the imaginativepreparation for action and so directs the imaginativeprocess (Arnold, 1962,).Import:An import is the meaning or significance of the story. Itis what the story is actually saying or the kernel or moralof the story. It is fonnulated to abstract from theconcrete details of the story, and is written from thepoint of view of the main character. It is a series ofstatements addressed to nobody in particular which is aset of musings reflecting the storytellers general outlook(Arnold, 1962, p.52).12Marital (spouse, wife, husband)Marital, spouse, wife, and husband refer to all coupleswhether married or unmarried cohabitingMotiveA motive is a want that is decided on and always leads toaction. It is something which is appraised as good orappropriate for a particular action here and now. It is “aset” that influences action and initiates the imaginativepreparation for action, until the goal is achieved orsatisfied. It continues as a blueprint for action evenwhen one is not presently acting on it. It is what drawsus into action and may be deliberate as well as emotional,and includes interests and values. it is a felt actiontendency (Arnold, 1962).Personality:Personality is the patterned totality of human powers,activities, and habits uniquely organized by the person inthe active pursuit of his self-ideal, and revealed in hisbehavior (Arnold, 1962, p.44).Value13A value is that which is believed to be desirable, orthought of as good (not necessarily for oneself). It doesnot necessarily lead to action but it may become a motiveafter deliberate reflective judgment (Arnold, 1962).ViolenceViolence is considered any of the following:Minor: threw something at the other, pushed, grabbed,shoved, slapped or spankedSevere: kicked, bit, punched, hit or tried to hit with anobject, beat up, choked, burned or scalded, threatenedwith knife or gun. (Straus & Gelles, 1985)Wife AssaultWife assault is violent acts by men against theirwives/partners. The assault may be psychological, sexualand/or physicaL The intent is to control women throughisolation, inflicting pain and inducing fear. The physicalassault ranges from threats to beating to homicide. Theyare accompanied by varying degrees of psychologicalabuse designed to degrade and belittle (Ministry ofNational Health and Welfare, Health and Welfare Canada,1989).14Wife BatteringWife battering is the physical assault of women by theirhusbands or partners. It is accompanied by aconstellation of psychological abuse, and often includesmarital rape, child abuse and even threats of homicide.These behaviors make for an abusive relationship that isa reign of terror (Gondolf & Fisher, 1990).Format of the ThesisThis document is organized according to the followingformat. Chapter 2, which is divided into two sections, reviewsthe literature on the TAT test and on wife batteringrespectively. Chapter 3 describes the methodological steps ofthe research procedure. Chapter 4 contains the individual casereports, which include the iniports and the case evaluations foreach case. Chapter 5 discusses the cross-case findings, andconclusions, plus the implications for theoretical and clinicaltreatment applications.15CHAFFER TWO: REVIEW OF THE LITERATUREThis chapter reviews the literature that is relevant to thetheoretical background of the study and is divided into twosections. Section 1 presents theoretical and historicalbackground on the Thematic Apperception Test (ThT) (Morgan& Murray, 1935) emphasizing Arnold’s (1962) method of storysequence analysis to reveal individual motivation. Section 2provides the theoretical background in the literature on themotivation of battered wives and battering husbands. Sections1 and 2 are respectively supported by a review of empiricaland/or descriptive studies.SECTION 1: THE THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST (TAT)Background On The TATThis section discusses the diagnostic qualities of the TAT.It gives a brief overview of its history and developmentoutlining the theoretic principles and concepts of the TAT. Theprimary focus is on Arnold’s (1962) theory and method ofanalyzing the TAT stories.Historic Theoretical Basis and Development of the TAT16The TAT (Murray, and Morgan, 1935) is a projectivestorytelling test that was developed on the basis ofpsychoanalytic theory and its use of projective techniques todiagnose patients (Arnold, 1962; Murray, 1943; Teglasi, 1993).According to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, projectives provideaccess to a person’s unconscious drives or motivating forces,which are naturally expressed through fantasy, such as dreamsor daydreams. Fantasy allows substitute satisfaction of drivesnormally modified by ego defense mechanisms and blockedfrom conscious awareness and expression in overt behavior.The inhibited drives bypass conscious awareness with the helpof the ego defense mechanisms such as projection andidentification. By projecting the drives into stories and storycharacters with whom one identifies, the individual achievesimaginative wish fulfillment resulting in a release of energy oranxiety called catharsis (Arnold, 1962; Monte, 1980; Schultz,1981). Whereas these motivating forces from present needs,repressed traumatic experiences, and/or from unresolvedconflicts in the unconscious are released in projective stories,analyzing the content of the stories reveals the repressedinformation for diagnosis by clinicians.Based on these theoretical suppositions, Murray proposedthat while interpreting a TAT picture of an ambiguous socialsituation a patient or subject would expose “underlying17inhibited tendencies which the patient is unwilling to admit orcannot admit because he is unconscious of them” (Murray,1943, p.1). He asserted that, if the pictures are presented as atest of the imagination, the subject becomes so involved in thetask that the self and having to defend it are forgotten.Therefore revelations of the motivation (needs, wishes, hopes,and fears) of the inner self are disclosed (Murray, 1943).Murray defined a method of test administration. Herecommended an analysis of needs, emotions, and press(subject’s apperceived environmental forces: past, present, orfuture) in the story content using an in-depth knowledge ofpsychoanalytic theory. Murray (1943) held that theinformation revealed from a set of 20 TAT stories was theequivalent to that gained from 5 months of psychoanalysis. Hepromoted its use for developing a working hypothesis thatcould be verified by other methods in research studies ofpersonality, as well as for clinical diagnosis (Murray, 1943).Research Findings on the TATSince the TAT was first published by Morgan and Murray(1935), the manual has been revised twice by Murray (1938,1943). The TAT has been used extensively by clinicians andhas been researched in many countries around the world(Vane, 1981). Eighteen hundred research articles on the TAT18were published by 1971 (Vane, 1981). Many systems ofanalysis, methodology, and scoring have been developed andtested with varying results (Vane, 1981; Teglasi, 1993).However, the variety of scoring, and methodology has madestudies incomparable and has resulted in a lack ofdemonstrated validity and reliability (Vane, 1981).Most studies have used the TAT to explore individualdrives (hunger, aggression, achievement motivation) byanalyzing and scoring story theme imagery. This method hasproven neither valid nor reliable. The method assumes thatthe picture cues are ambiguous and that the story teller seesevery situation in the same light and therefore will repeatthemes in every story. This is not the case. People change thestories they tell to the different picture stimuli within the test,and change them when retested (Arnold, 1962, Murray, 1943;Vane, 1981). As well, although the stimulus TAT pictures areassumed ambiguous (have an absolute value), certain cards arefound to cue certain themes (Arnold, 1962, Teglasi, 1993; Vane,1981). In addition, the longer the story that the subject writesthe more theme imagery it contains thereby increasing thelikelihood of a high score in studies that count theme imagery(Arnold, 1962). These methodological problems haveevidenced low internal consistency reliability, low inter-item19correlation, and low mean test homogeneity (Arnold, 1962,Teglasi, 1993, Vane, 1981).Further, the method of scoring theme imagery content inTAT stories fails to demonstrate content and criterion validityfor measuring drives. The results of this method have notcorrelated with other test results, nor with assessments ofbehavior for hunger, aggression, or achievement motivation(Arnold, 1962; Teglasi, 1993; Vane, 1981). They have shownno direct linear relationship of drives to story themes, nor ofstory themes to overt behavior, because they fail to adequatelytap the various facets or dimensions of the phenomenon beingtested (Teglasi, 1993). For example, in the Brozek (1951) studyof hunger needs, the relationship of hunger from fooddeprivation, to food, or food related, themes was eithernegatively accelerated or an inverted ‘U’. Subjects who reacheda certain point of hunger stopped expressing the expectedimagery and appeared to repress awareness of this need anduse the stories as a diversion from their hunger needs (cited inArnold, 1962).In studies of aggression no direct relationship of behaviorto theme imagery is demonstrated. Instead, Sanford (1943)found exposure to frustration increased aggressive themes onlyin low-scorers on the Manifest Hostility Scale, whereas highscorers decreased their aggressive themes (cited in Arnold,201962). Mussen and Naylor (1954) showed that aggressive andnon-aggressive boys told many stories with aggression.However, only the non-aggressive boys told stories in whichaggression was punished (cited in Arnold, 1962). These studiesclearly show that aggression and its expression involveinhibitory defense mechanisms.Teglasi (1993) cites many studies in which TATaggression studies that count theme imagery show the abovecompounding influences (Epstein, 1962; Kagan,1956; Kaplan,1967; Matranga, 1976; Murstein, 1968). Teglasi (1993) states:“it has been demonstrated that simple content scores tallyingaggression are of little use unless they consider the inhibitionspresent in the story that moderate their expression” (Ibid.p.323). Her conclusion in reviewing studies of aggression usingTAT story themes is that prediction requires integration ofmany contributing elements, and cannot be predicted on thebasis of the presence of themes alone.In Arnold’s review of studies of achievement motivation,she finds that they failed to demonstrate a linear correlation ofthe drive to story themes. When McCelland and Atkinson(1953) told college students that the test was a measure ofintelligence, high-achievers scored higher, but when they weretold it was a favor to a grad student, low achievers scoredhigher than high-achievers (cited in Arnold, 1962). French21(1955) found that increased performance was aroused by theaffiliative motive (cited in Arnold). Veroff (1961) found thattheme scoring of the TAT failed to obtain valid achievementmotivation measures for women college students (cited inArnold, 1962). In Atkinson and McCelland’s (1948) study menin low-paying jobs compared to men in high status jobs hadsimilar achievement motivation scores at younger ages.However, achievement motivation imagery scores for men inlow paying jobs increased over that of men in high status jobsas age increased (cited in Arnold, 1962). Arnold speculatedthat these results indicated that the studies were tappingpreoccupation with work rather than true achievementmotivation. Altogether, these results indicate that there is nodirect linear relationship of story themes to drives becausethere are intervening or compounding variables. These studiesmeasure the achievement content of the stories, but areinadequate for tapping the facet of personality underconsideration (Teglasi, 1993).In summary, studies using theme scoring of TAT storieshave demonstrated lack of content and criterion validity, lowinternal consistency reliability, low inter-item correlations, andlow mean test homogeneity (Arnold, 1962, Teglasi, 1993, Vane,1981).22Conclusions on Psychoanalytic Theory and Theme Scoring of theTATThe conclusion indicated from the research is that TATpicture cues do not elicit primary process expressions ofinstinctual drives in direct linear fashion from drives to storythemes. Nor do the picture cues lead to a standardizedthematic response predictive of behavior (Arnold, 1962,Teglasi, 1993, Vane, 1981). If there were a direct relationshipof drives to themes, the storyteller’s actions should be the sameas the hero’s actions, and the storyteller’s affects should be thesame as those of all the characters. As this is not the case, onecannot tell if the Story themes represent the storyteller’sbehavior, or alternative to behavior. One cannot tell if thethemes represent needs or lack of the need, or the blocking bythe ego-defenses of the expression of the need, or if a need isfulfilled by the acting out of it in reality (Arnold, 1962).Therefore, “drives and affects that are assumed to be projectedupon story characters are not a sure guide to the kind ofmotivation that leads to action in everyday life”(Arnold, 1962,p. 7).To discover motivation that correlates with and predictsaction, the TAT stories must be analyzed and scored using atheory and method that integrates the primary drives and theadaptive ego defenses and processes (Arnold, 1962, Teglasi,231993). The method of story analysis must consider theseprocesses by factoring in the stimulus or level of cue relevanceto the theme, intensity of the expressed drive, level ofexpression action, wish or thought), object of thedrive, intent behind the drive, the consequences of acting on it,and acceptability of the drive (Teglasi, 1993). To do this withreliability and validity, the method of analysis must bestandardized so that the stories may be easily interpreted andscored. This method would then reveal material regardingattitudes and motivation that the TAT has the capacity toreveal (Vane 1981)Arnold’s Answer: Story Sequence AnalysisArnold (1962) devised a theory and method of storyanalysis, and an empirically derived scoring criteria formulatedfrom several studies that has effectively resolved thereliability and validity concerns outlined above (Arnold, 1960;Brown, 1953; Burkard, 1958; Fagot, 1961; Garvin, 1960;McCandish, 1958; Petraukas, 1958; Quinn, 1961; Steggert, 1961:cited in Arnold, 1962). Her method of story’ sequence analysisand her scoring criteria have produced a standardized systemof analysis of motivation for clinical evaluation and normativescoring.24Her theory and method of story sequence analysisconsider both primary process and secondary adaptive processreflected in the stories. Arnold finds that stories are aconscious creative and public task that employ creativeimagination in utilizing memory, learning, and experience todevise a new product. This creative production has a meaningand significance that cannot be discovered from analyzingindividual themes (Arnold, 1962). Taking the complete storyplot and outcome, and deriving its meaning or import,exemplifies the ‘whole’ of the primary and adaptive processesof the Titer and results in an accurate measure of behavioralmotivation. Repeated measures from each story in the testresult in a motivation pattern that is an accurate measure ofbehavior.Arnold’s Theoretical BaseArnold’s system is based on three kinds of theory: atheory of imagination; a theory relating imagination tobehavior; and a theory of personality. These theoreticalunderpinnings are outlined below.Imagination Functioning in Stories and BehaviorArnold’s theoretical perspective of imagination and itsrole in personality and behavior contradicts the psychoanalytic25view of the function of fantasy as wish fulfillment. She holdsthat imagination is a cognitive creative skill which is realityoriented and that works in conjunction with both drives andadaptive learning processes, or ego defenses. Imagination, thekey ingredient in storytelling, produces a story out of anintegration of past experience, learning, and abilities, andcurrent task demands (Arnold, 1962; Teglasi, 1993). Thestoryteller uses the memory of similar incidents to those in thestory and imagines what the event might do to him/her/us.Then the storyteller decides what to do about the imaginedeffect by imagining alternative possibilities and results(Arnold, 1962). Then the storyteller chooses a preferredalternative for action thereby excluding other alternatives.This process of utilizing the imagination is normally usedin choosing actions in everyday life. It involves the following:(1) cognitive functions: sensation, recognition, recall,imagination, understanding and reasoning,(2) estimative functions: appraisal and evaluationregarding approach/avoidance, worth/worthlessness,desirable/undesirable, availabillty,(3) appetitive functions: emotional or deliberate actionsthat feel good or bad.26Imagination is the function used in planning action, andanticipating results. It is a “felt action tendency stemmingfrom an appraisal, which initiates the imaginative preparationfor action and so directs the imaginative process” (Arnold,1962, p.33).Imagination in the story is not structured as a “plan” butthe story simply occurs. Imagination maps out what is to besaid and done with no conscious deliberate guidance. However,the appetitive tendencies for action, which are the storyteller’shabitual deliberate intentional action and/or emotionalpreoccupation, are most likely to lead to unintentionalexpression in the stories. These action tendencies are based onemotions, attitudes, and habitual convictions, If these are toorigid the storyteller will show poor creativity, which is theability to make new connections with originality and powerArnold, 1962).Attitudes and ConvictionsThe plot and the outcome of the story reveal attitudesand convictions through the choices made in handling the setproblem. These are revealed in the summary import from theplot and outcome. Choices, and judgments about those choicesthat are made repeatedly in the stories reveal habitualimpulses to action. Judgment as expressed in comments about27the story character’s actions, and as the outcome of the hero’sactions reveal the storytellers attitudes and convictions. Forexample, the hero may show that he is unwilling to submit towork discipline. If the storyteller does not show condemnationof this behavior (by making a judgment comment such as “lazy”or “careless worker,” or by showing a negative outcome to thislack of discipline) then this indicates a negative attitude towardwork for the storyteller. Attitudes and convictions reveal thestoryteller’s impulses to action.It must be noted that the hero or other character’sactions, in themselves, are not direct indications of thestoryteller’s actions (unless the story is franklyautobiographical), and do not reveal the storyteller’smotivating attitudes or convictions.MotivationA motive moves a person to ACT in a distinctive way(Arnold, 1962). A motive is a “want that leads to action”(Arnold, 1962, p.32). It is not a need or drive because a motiveleads to action whereas needs or drives may not lead to actionIn order for a want to lead to action, the individual mustappraise that want (which originates from a need) to besomething ‘good for me’ in this present time or situation. Awant will not lead to action if it is appraised as being ‘bad for28me’ in the present situation or time. Once the want isevaluated as good for me in the present, and the choice ismade, it becomes a motive. A motive can be emotional ordeliberate, but normally in adults it is deliberate or thought outand not a spontaneous action driven by emotion alone (Arnold,1962).A motive may be continuous whether one is acting on itor not at the present time. For instance, a person may have amotive to get a college education but may not be activelyinvolved in this pursuit when on vacation or working at a job,yet the motive is still internally operative.Motives may reveal an individual’s creativity,intelligence, aggression, conformity, and so forth. “Knowing aperson’s motives and their hierarchy, we can work with thefleshed skeleton...to determine...a person’s chances forachieving excellence” (Arnold, 1962, p. 30). The elements ofmotivation include the person’s goals or problem formulation,his or her reaction to the goal or problem, his or her goaldirected action, and the outcome he or she anticipates as aresult of these (Teglasi, 1993).Emotions, Values, and AttitudesEmotion, values, and attitudes do not automatically leadto action but they do interplay in the development of motives.29Emotion in itself does not result in a motive for action but is anintuitive, automatic response that must involve reflectiveevaluation, and choice to become an action (Arnold, 1962).Emotions do not usually dictate actions in adults, but actionsare usually deliberate. A value is something that is judged asdesirable or good but not necessarily for oneself. To become amotive it must be appraised as desirable for oneself in the hereand now situation, and the choice to act must be made. Valuescan become habits or evaluative attitudes. Attitudes areimpulses to action that have become habitual. An evaluativeattitude will not lead to action unless it is chosen as good foroneself in the here and now, and becomes a motive. Motivatingattitudes are habitual motives. Only motivating attitudes leadto action and predict behavior. Attitudes (emotional andintellectual) influence action in the stories and the actionreveals motives.Arnold!s Personality TheoryArnold’s personality theory describes the interaction ofimagination, memory, emotion, values, attitudes motives,habits, and all human powers as “uniquely organized by theperson in the active pursuit of his self-ideal, and revealed inhis behavior”(p.44). An individual’s self-ideal is what is30appraised as the most valuable goal or motive in a hierarchy ofmotives.This goal, incorporated in beloved people, importantcauses, deathless aspirations, attracts us but alsodemands our devotion, our willingness to live up tothe ideal to which we aspire. In this way, themaster goal becomes our master motive, the self-ideal that shapes us as we strive toward it.(Arnold, 1962, p.44).This self-ideal and the hierarchy of motives are thosethings that are appraised as good for oneself in the here andnow and become wants that lead to action. The wanting is anemotion, which is arousal of a deliberate action impulse. Thechoice or intention to attain what is desired, guides and directsthe action, which has now become a motive. Motives alwayslead to action. Actions often repeated become habits just asrepeated tendencies to action become attitudes. Each newaction is influenced by these attitudes that stem from habitsand in turn reorganizes them. Thus, the personality structureis formed and reformed in an on-going process of internal andexternal interaction.Story Sequence Analysis Method (Arnold, 1962)Arnold’s theory of motivation and personality is the basisof her method of story sequence analysis of the TAT.Motivation is revealed in the TAT stories through the plot31(which describes actions) and the outcome (which showswhether this action is likely to be chosen by the story teller).Motivating tendencies shape the story ACTION and areexpressed in the story OUTCOME”(Arnold, 1962, p.12). Usingthe story plot or action and the outcome as a cap to the plot,integrates the various themes into a whole in which a problemis set in the plot, and the outcome provides the solution. Thestoryteller may set the same problem in a sequence of stories,and try out different solutions. Each type of problem set andoutcome preferred expresses a motivating principlecharacteristic of the storyteller called the story import, which isthe kernel or moral of the story. Each import is a sample of theindividual’s habitual motivation, and the summary of thesamples gives a solid exposition of the characteristic motivationpattern or principles of living which are the basis of action forthat person.Motivation involves interests, values, attitudes, andemotions. It includes the storyteller’s sensitivities to types ofinfonnation, and environmental influences. It is whatdominates awareness, in the choice of tasks, activities, goals,and risks, in the compelling direction and organization of effortand energy on chosen or imposed tasks (Teglasi, 1993). Theseselective perceptions, self-regulatory mechanisms, and problemsolving capacities form the motivation pattern of personality32(Teglasi, 1993). These patterns as revealed in the storyimports predict the behavioral pattern of the storyteller.Story imports can be scored objectively for positive ornegative motivation and are scored according to the empiricallyderived scoring criteria. The sum of the scores provides anindex of the strength of the positive or negative motivationpattern. The summary analysis of the imports delineates themotivation pattern for clinical evaluation.Formulating Story Imports and SequencesThe story import is the formulated by abstracting fromthe concrete details of the story the kernel or moral thatreveals the meaning or significance of the story. Thus, theimport is taken from the whole of the story and what it isactually saying. In formulating imports one does not view thestory as a sum of story themes.The aim of import formulation is to write a series ofstatements addressed to nobody in particular. It is a set ofmusings, which express the storytellers general outlook, andapplies to the stoiytellers life situation. It is written from thepoint of view of the main character of the story withoutassuming that this character is the storyteller, or that therelationships in the story are the storyteller’s own. “Theimport is objective in the sense that it is abstracted as33accurately as possible without adding any kind ofinterpretation” (Arnold, 1962, P. 63).Arnold recommends that the analysis of the stories be ablind analysis in which the clinical history is unknown andcannot be read into the stories. Only a minimal amount ofinformation about the storyteller is necessary (sex, age,profession, marital status, domicile).The following is a summary of Arnold’s (1962) additionalinstructions for formulating imports:1. The import is not a summary. It is not so specific thatit probably does not apply to the storyteller (e.g. when aboy’ sees a violin he dreams of making one too), nor sogeneral that it does not apply to anybody and loses theindMdual note (equating the violin to beauty).2. The import uses the actual words when a phrase seemssignificant.3. Nothing is introduced into the import from outside thestory.4. The import must contain all the nuances of the story.5. Link the import whenever possible to the import thatcame before and the import that comes next. Oneproblem is often explored in several stories and if theyare not linked important clues may be missed. Paying34attention to the sequence enables one to shorten thesecond import materially without losing accuracy.6. A linkage is not to be forced between imports.7. Let the sequence tell the story as without thesequence the storytellers problems cannot be correctlyevaluated.8. The length of the sequence varies.Following these instructions, the interpreter extrapolatesthe imports from the stories linking them together in thesequence. The sequence of the imports reveals thepreoccupying problems of the storyteller in the correctperspective with the various alternatives of action available tothe storyteller. The storyteller may cope with his problems ina constructive and positive way, or in a way that revealsaggression, passive resignation, anxiety, or despair. Theseways of dealing with problems and the outcomes of themexpose the narrators convictions, attitudes, and motivatingtendencies (Arnold, 1962).The story import will show how the storytellerthinks people usually act and how he feels they shouldact, what actions he thinks right and which wrong, whatwill lead to success, in his opinion, and what to failure,what can be done when danger threatens, and what arethe things to strive for.(Arnold, 1962, p.51)35Positive and Negative ImportsThe narrator’s motivation revealed in the import may bepositive or negative. The decision regarding the positive ornegative import is based on the moral of the whole storyinstead of just on the outcome. Positive or happy endings donot equal positive hnports, and negative outcomes do not equalnegative imports. A happy outcome is positive when it isrealistic, socially acceptable, and resulting from actions andevents that are constructive and appropriate. Unhappyoutcomes are positive when they give a positive message suchas failure resulting from lack of effort, or just punishment formisconduct (Arnold, 1962, Teglasi, 1993).Teglasi (1993) gives a clear outline of positive andnegative imports based on Arnold (1962). Positive andnegative convictions are distinguished by the following:1. The nature of the problem or conflict: positive importsclearly delineate a goal or dilemma rather than beingvague or comprised of mere association to the sthuulus.2. The type of action and intentions: Imports are positivewhen characters actions are deliberate, planned, andproactive rather than reactive, aimless, and haphazard.3. The outcome in relation to the problem set and effortexpended: the outcome is reasonable to the conflictposed and the actions taken.4. Welfare of all relevant characters: import is positivewhen outcome presents meaningful resolution for allconcerned.365. The story structure: imports are positive when thestory is organized and coherent. (* Even non-storiesprovide imports taken from the process, fonn andcontent). (pp. 80-81)Positive and negative imports are designated as such andscored on the basis of the scoring criteria.Import Formulation. Scoring, and the Scoring CriteriaArnold (1962) emphasizes that it is imperative for theinterpreter to formulate the imports based on a knowledge ofthe scoring criteria. Imports must be formulated to includestory aspects that are needed for scoring. Therefore familiaritywith the scoring categories and which situations are importantfor scoring is necessary, (Arnold suggests that the beginninginterpreter start learning to import by scoring at least 20sequence analyses.)Once the interpreter has learned the scoring categories,has formulated the imports, and done the sequence analysis,the scoring of each import is done by consulting the scoringcategories in the scoring criteria. Categories and headings areordered by their importance as follows:Category I: Achievement, success, happiness, activeeffort (or lack of it). One condition for classifying animport in this category is a goal contemplated or reachedin the story. Also include active effort of every kind37without success or failure if no antecedents fit withanother category.Category II: Right and Wrong: Well-intentioned,reasonable, constructive, or responsible action and itsopposite: ill-intentioned, impulsive, harmful, destructiveor irresponsible action. Actions re duty; Intention andconsequences.Category III: Human relationships: People and things ifnot found under previous categories. Influence of otherson the hero and the hero on others.Category IV: Reaction to Adversity: Loss, harm, terror,separation, disappointment, and difficulties, and attemptsto cope with them. Failure is excluded. Are theseadversities: overcome, not overcome, accepted; or anoutcome of an action?The interpreter checks to see if the import fits in category I,then II, and so on. Once the interpreter determines thecategory to which the import belongs, the import is looked upunder the headings and subheadings. Once a comparableimport has been found in the category, headings, andsubheadings, it is scored according to the score indicated.Scores are on a five point scale of (+2) to 0 to (-2). Generallyacross all categories, (+2) designates overt positive action; (+ 1)designates activity that is not overt, or not very positive; (-1) is38a lack of positive action resulting in success or failure; (-2)indicates a negative, impulsive, malicious action or attitude. (0)is only used when no motivation is revealed such as in restafter work, or for an incomplete story, or a description insteadof a story. Using (0) is only done out of strictest necessity as itreduces the reliability of the final score because of the reducednumber of measures. The score is always complemented bygiving the category, heading, and subheading so that the scorescan easily be checked.If an import is not an exact fit, then comparison tosubheadings reveals the score that should be assigned. Arnold(1962) points out that it is not possible to have no gaps in thescoring criteria as there are too many possible imports.However, the scoring criteria provides a detailed guide inwhich most imports are found for a normal population.Scoring and the Motivation IndexThe motivation index was developed by Arnold andcolleagues as a way of comparing the combined scores of theimports for each record, with the scores for other records. Inscoring a record of story imports, each import is given a scoreof (+2) to (-2), and the scores are added together algebraicallyto get a total score. The final score is a measure of theconsistency and direction of motivation, either toward the39positive or the negative. Strong tendencies in a few stories andmild tendencies in many stories result in similar scores.Clinical evaluation distinguishes between these two types.The total raw score can be converted to a score on themotivation index. The motivation index is a lineartransformation of scores which does not change the nature ofthe raw scores but gives an equivalent in units for the twodifferent scales. The motivation index provides a roughcomparison for scores of records with a different number ofstories. On the index all positive scores will give values above100 and all negative scores will be below 100. 100 equals thezero point. The maximum score is 200. The formula forcalculating the score without using the index is N/(p)x 200,where N is the number of units obtained, and (p) is the possiblescore.Clinical EvaluationClinical evaluation of each record is necessary todistinguish the individual’s motivation pattern more accuratelythan a score will indicate. In addition it will delineate thespecial problems of the storyteller so that the clinician orresearcher may develop a treatment plan. The clinicalevaluation diagnoses the problems of the story teller and whatbrought a patient to seek help. The clinical evaluation of the40sequence analysis or story sequence reveals whether a personis positively motivated and in temporary difficulty, or inserious difficulty that makes it impossible for him to functionadequately in daily life. Positive imports do no necessarilymean that a person will be happy in his or her life situation,and they do not guarantee success or contentment in a chosenvocation.The sequence analysis provides valuable informationabout the factors that impair a personTseffectiveness. Forexample, the subject may not be able to find a solution for aproblem because of impairment of a negative attitude, orbecause of beliefs that the control of events is outside ofoneself. The imports reveal the patients ‘preoccupation withconflicts and difficulties that can usually only be uncoveredafter weeks and months of therapy” (Anold, 1962, p. 97). Thepreoccupations are evident in the dominant themes and shouldbe brought out in the imports. In addition the imports shouldbe formulated so that the original phrasing is maintained as itprovides valuable clues for the clinician. A clinician can notonly diagnose problems from the import sequence, but can alsogive the client a prognosis for positive change based on thesequence analysis. The sequence analysis may reveal apositive prognosis when there is an evident positive motivationpattern in spite of difficulties expressed in the imports41The scoring criteria are based on a normal population;therefore, persons with severe emotional problems orpsychiatric disorders may show imports that are more negativethan those in the scoring criteria.Skill of the InterpreterArnold (1962) emphasizes the necessity of theinterpreter of the TAT to have the training and to develop theskill of formulating imports, doing a sequence analysis, andclinical evaluation. Arnold recommends group training, andsupervision by an expert in this method until considerablefacility is achieved. Where group training is not available, onecan use the 20 records contained in Arnold (1962) with theirimports and the scoring to gain the facility required. Oncetrained in this method the interpreter would have highlyreliable interpretive and scoring skills and would score importsvery close to the scoring of other experts.Arnold (1962) specifies that the interpreter must be“perceptive enough to catch the fine nuances contained in thestory” (p.65). One must use listening skills similar to nondirective counselling to understand what the storyteller issaying in the story. The interpreter must focus on the processwithin the story instead of the content. The process componentis the kernel, moral, or import of the story. Only enough42content should be included in the imports to provide thecontext that clarifies the process. A skilled interpreter willthereby be able to detect the links between the stories thatreveal the coherent pattern of the sequence. The scoringcriteria is the sure guide to deciding what should beemphasized in the import if the interpreter is unsure.Reliability and Validity of Story Sequence AnalysisThe method of stoly sequence analysis has proven to beboth valid and reliable for delineating motivation patterns thatpredict behavior. Arnold (1962) provides research evidencefrom eight studies (Brown, 1953; Burkard, 1958; Garvin, 1960;McCandish, 1958; Petrauskas, 1958; Quinn, 1961; Snider, 1954;Steggert, 1961) with a total of 486 subjects that accuratelypredicted high achievement motivation and low achievementmotivation. These studies included elernentaiy, high school,and college students, teachers, navy recruits, religious ordernovitiates, and business executives. Arnold (1962, p. 211)claims that evidence from well over 500 cases including clinicalrecords show a “decisive difference in motivation betweenpeople who have achieved a measure of excellence and thosewho have not.” Her scoring criteria was developed and testedin these studies, and the evidence provided in them highlysupports this method.43Brown (1953), Snider (1954), and McCandish (1958) werethe original studies used in developing the scoring criteria.Brown (1953) was the first study to define a pattern ofmotivation for high achievers distinct from that of lowachievers. Snider (1954) confinned his results, and McCandish(1958) developed the first scoring criteria based on theirsubjects (n =80). Further studies using the sequence analysisof the imports to separate high and low achievers verified theresults and further developed the scoring criteria to accuratelycategorize and score imports for achievement motivation.Burkard (1958) used sequence analysis of TAT stories todiscover the difference between effective and ineffectiveteachers. Burkard used the evaluation of their students (whichprevious studies had shown to be reliable) to correlate with theTAT evaluations. It was the first study to attempt to score thesequence analysis for positive and negative motivation usingMcCandish (1958) scoring criteria as a guide. The middle groupof teachers was eliminated for this study which began with 300teachers from the entire teaching staff of one school, and had100 in the final group. Burkard used randomly selected 10pairs each of high rated and low rated high school teachers, andelementary school teachers. The pairs were matched for ageand intelligence scores (Otis intelligence test). This group wasexamined for classification in the high achievers and low44achievers category for each pair, The patterns for each wereclearly distinguishable and a scoring criteria was developedbased on these first 40 teachers which was then used to scorethe remaining 60 teachers. The categories developed werebasically the same as Mccandish, hut more imports were addedfrom the elementary teachers group to the scoring criteria. Theimports for I 2-story records were scored by the investigatorand two independent trained raters, using a simple (+) forpositive and (-) for negative. Phi coefficients were used toexamine inter-rater reliability resulting in 97.2% correlationbetween the investigator and rater A, 96.6% with rater B, and94.3% between raters A and B. All are significant beyond the(.1) level of confidence. Ninety-eight percent of the teacherswere accurately categoriied in the effective (high achievers),and ineffective (low achievers) groups.Petraulcas (1 958) did a study with 60 white enlistednavy men using the same method as Burkard (1958). Thegroup was divided into 30 oflenders (who had spent time inthe brig), and 30 non-offenders (no discipline while enlisted),who were given the TAT (13 stories). Petraukas randomlyselected ten pairs from this group and used their storysequence analyses to establish a scoring criteria. This scoringcriteria was then used to guide the scoring of positive (+) andnegative imports (-) for the rest of the group. ‘l’wo45independent rater psychologists scored the records afterPetraukas had done the original scoring. Inter-rater reliabilitywas found at 82% for A and B, 80% for A and C, and 80% for Band C. All 3 raters were successful far beyond chance indistinguishing offenders from non-offenders (54/58 cOmpositeprediction), and the TAT was more successful than thecomparison aggression test in discriminating between offendersand non-offenders. The two groups were not as clearlydistinguishable as high and low achievers were in previousgroups, but the scoring criteria was still adequate at predictingthe colTect group from the story records.Garvin (1960) studied 50 male and 50 female collegestudents using the same scoring criteria for positive andnegative imports as the previous studies. Garvin tested arefinement of the scoring using the mid-range as well as thehigh and low end groups of achievers. This study developed ascoring of 1 to 4, from the negative to the positive respectively.The TAT sequence analysis was found to be highly effective inpredicting college achievement correlated with the studentsGPA (grade point average). It was a much more accuratepredictor of success than the standard intelligence test used incolleges. The correlation coefficients for the TAT alone were.85 for men and .83 for women, and combined vith theintelligence test there was little difference (R=.87) for men and46(R=.84) for women. The TPT could predict the GPA for 2/3 ofthe students within .22 or .21 of the GPA. The study showedthat motivation was a critical factor in success at college, and itwas much more relevant than intelligence scores. Lowmotivation was indicated as a possible explanation for highlyintelligent students having low grades. A class of seventhgraders was tested as an addition to this study with almostidentical results (Arnold, 1960, cited in Arnold, 1962).Quinn (1961) used sequence analysis and the scoringcriteria to predict promise for success in a religious life for 45novitiates in a religious order as rated by their peers and theirsuperiors. The complex ranking system of 5 different ranks,correlated with the TAT results produced a lower correlationthan previous studies with a coefficient of .59 (+/- .10) withpeer ratings, .61 (+/- .10) with superior’s ratings, and acorrelation of r .65 between superior and peer ratings.Discrepancies in the ratings of four subjects from the TATversus superiors and peers was investigated throughinterviews of subjects and of superiors and peers. The TATwas found to be more accurate in assessing motivation in 2cases and superiors and peers in two cases.Steggart (1961, cited in Arnold, 1962) investigated theaccuracy of the scoring criteria and Quinn’s 4 point scalescoring using the TAT with 20 executives. He also used another47storytelling test (Nelson’s Survey of Management Perception)with importing method and the same scoring criteria with 30executives. The groups were equally split between participantsand non-participants in a voluntary management developmentprogram. He found that the TAT predicted the differencebetween the executives who were ranked the most outstandingachievers by their superiors, who were also the participants inthe program, and the non-participant less outstandingexecutives. Both groups obtained positive scores but theparticipants ranged from 3.33 to 3.80, and the non-participants from 1.70 to 3.20 out of a possible score of 4.0(any score over 2 being positive). (Only one person had anegative score of 1.70). The TAT showed a more accuratedifferentiation between the two groups than the Nelson test.The Nelson test only used work related picture stimulus whichresulted only in success/achievement imports and scores.Whereas TAT imports ranged over the four categories in thepresent scoring criteria (success/achievement; right and wrong;relations with others; reaction to adversity). These resultssupported the accuracy of the TAT for predicting motivation.The results also showed that highly outstanding workachievement and taking initiative to go the extra distance isrelated to positive motivation in all areas of life (Arnold, 1962).48Development of the Scorin2 CriteriaThe scoring criteria was developed empirically fromresearch studies using the TAT stories and story sequenceanalysis. Subjects were discovered to have similar patterns ofmotivation when they were high achievers. Low achieverswere found to have very different motivations from highachievers. High and low achievers had been designated so bytheir performance in their particular fields of endeavor(students, college students, teachers, religious novitiates, andnavy recruits), as judged by their peers, and/or their superiors.Arnold (1962) reports that Snider (1954) found that therecords of high achievers were distinguished from lowachievers. Brown (1953) repeated the study with similarresults. McCandish (1958) used Snider and Brown’s data from80 high school seniors. The 80 students were matched for IQscore, A.C.F. score, age, and socioeconomic background. Onemember of each pair was in the top third of the class, and theother was in the bottom third. A preliminary inspection of 20pairs resulted in correct placement of 16 to either the low orhigh achiever category. McCandish now scored as (+) importsfound in the records of high achievers but not found in lowachievers, and as (-) the imports found in low achieversrecords, but not found in high achievers. The imports werethen placed into categories and these categories were then used49to score the remaining group of scrambled records. Of theremaining group of 60 records, 30 were given predominantlynegative scores, and 29 were given positive scores. Thesesubjects were found to be correctly matched to their respectivegroups. Low achievers had the predominantly negative scores,and high achievers had the predominantly positive scores. Oneexception was a negative scorer who was a high achiever, butupon investigation was found to be a schizoid, withdrawnpersonality, who told bizarre stories with negative imports butwas of high intelligence. This person’s withdrawal from socialcontacts made it possible to obtain good grades.Further studies (Arnold, 1960, Burkard, 1958; Garvin,1960, Petrauskas, 1958) outlined in Arnold (1962) used asimilar plan, and the scoring criteria was formulated fromthese combined studies (see scoring criteria in Arnold, 1962,appendix A). In all of these studies the sequence analysis wasa blind analysis of normal people and the only informationgiven to the scorers was that one member of a pair was a highachiever and one was a low achiever in the preliminaryscoring. Afterwards all records were scrambled. The middlerange was excluded. The number of subjects from thesecombined studies was 391.Reliability of the Motivation Index50Reliability of the motivation index was tested by Fagot(1961) using a sample of 252 records of 12 stories each (3024items). Fagot found that two positive and two negative scoreswere evenly distributed among all the cards used in thesample. Thus every item in the test was equal to every otheritem. He also found that raw scores could be converted intonormal deviate scores without any gain in precision. Theconverted scores correlated almost perfectly with the rawscores (r=.97). Therefore no advantage was had by using themore complicated normal deviate weights when the simplersystem of integral weights as used in Arnold (1962) shows ahigh correlation. However, the normal deviate scores wereuseful for comparison to other test scores.Scorer reliability with this system was tested in twostudies. Burkard (1958) with 1200 stories had a inter-raterreliability of 97% and 94% with two other raters. Petrauskas(195 8) had inter-rater reliability of 80% and 82% with twoother raters, in 780 stories.Summary of \/aliditv and Reliability of Arnold’s MethodThe studies outlined above showed ample evidence thatArnold (1962) sequence analysis and scoring criteria were bothvalid and reliable in testing individual motivation that predictscorresponding behavior. Problems with TAT results using the51analysis of themes were resolved by using story sequenceanalysis. Internal consistency reliability has been proventhrough the rescoring of 99 records from Burkard (1958) usinga split-half test of reliability. It showed a correlation of (r=.86)between odd and even numbered stories. A spilt-half test withthe seventh grade children (Garvin, 1960) showed a correlationof (r=.79). Fagot (1961) using a sample of 252 records of 12stories each, from previous studies showed that each stimuluscard had an equal chance of eliciting a positive or negativestory.Teglasi (1993) reported that conclusions that are lessdependent on the stimulus than thematic content producehigher indices of internal consistency. Story imports are notdependent on picture stimulus because the plot and outcomeare provided by the storyteller, whereas the picture cues arefound to elicit certain themes. Therefore the method ofimporting is a valid indice for projective technique because thestimulus picture is ambiguous (Arnold, 1962, Teglasi, 1993).The scoring method of story sequence analysis hasdemonstrated inter-rater reliability in all of the studiesoutlined above demonstrating the reliability of the scoringmethod arid criteria. The method of importing, and sequenceanalysis with reference to the scoring criteria does not allowfor elaborate and speculative interpretation, which is52unreliable (Arnold, 1962). Import scoring equalizes storylength and avoids increased scores for long stories as happenswith theme scoring (Arnold, 1962). Import scoring also makespossible the scoring of elaborate, as well as very meager storyrecords (Arnold, 1962). Each of the stories is a test ofmotivational attitudes, so that each record of stories representsrepeated tests, which result in similar attitudes and scoresalthough the imports may be quite different (Arnold, 1962).These repeated test measures demonstrate mean testhomogeneity. The content of the scoring system of storysequence analysis has shown strong validity in tapping thedimensions of the motivational pattern of an individualaccurately, and in predicting and assessing functioning outsidethe test as compared to behavioral assessment reports andexternal measures of the criteria of individual motivation. Thescoring criteria provides a full definition of the motivationalpattern construct of normal people, that can be reliablymeasured. Taken with other tests or outside criteria Arnold’sscoring criteria has proven valid, and has provided incrementsof information to gain a significantly higher correlation withthe criterion being measured. For example, in the studies ofachievement in college, the TAT sequence analysis resultsattained a much higher colTelation score with GPA thanintelligence tests showed (Arnold, 1962, Teglasi, 1993).Altogether, Arnold’s method of story sequence analysis and herscoring criteria have proven reliability and validity In all thestudies conducted.5354CHAPTER TWO. REVIEW OF THE HTERATURE:SECTION TWO: THE MOTIVATION OF BATTERINGHUSBANDS AND BATTERED WW1This section outlines the representative literature onmotivational factors of husbands who batter and wives who arebattered. It begins with a brief introduction to clarify thetheoretical framework of motivation and to show how it linkswith the research on wife battering. This section proceeds todelineate the multi-dimensional causes attributed to wifebattering, that influence the motivational patterns of each ofthe spouses.Motivation Theory and Wife Battering ResearchThe literature on wife battering has not viewed theetiology of wife battering through motivation theory.Researchers in this field have ignored motivational notions, andalmost no mention of motivation has been made (Berkowitz,1983; Sebastian, 1983). Studies have not explicitly exploredwife battering through researching the motivation patterns ofbattering husbands or of battered wives. Therefore aninoductory explanation of the relationship of motivationtheory to the research theory on wife battering has beenprovided as an introduction to this chapter.55Although wife battering research does not use thelanguage of motivation theory, it covers a number of externaland internal factors that create motives and motivationpatterns. Motivation is defined by Ainold as “a want that leadsto action.’ Values, attitudes, emotions, cognition andimagination interact in the individual in relation to theenvironment to become motives (a want perceived as good foroneself here and now) (Arnold, 1962; Triandis, 1980). Themotives that become habits become motivational attitudes.These motivational attitudes lead to behavior, and behaviorpatterns. The patterned totality of these motivationalattitudes, with all of the person’s interacting powers and skillsin pursuit of a self-ideal make up the personality of theindividual (Arnold, 1962). The research on wife batteringdiscusses values, attitudes, beliefs, behavior and characteristicpatterns of batterers, and battered wives and theirdevelopment even though it does not refer to motivationtheory.Triandis (1980) outlines a theoretical framework formotivation that corresponds with Arnold’s motivation theory.Triandis’ theory expands the understanding of the relationshipsof the external and internal factors that influence values, andattitudes that result in interpersonal behavior. This framework56provides a guide for viewing the literature on wife battering sothat it can be related to Arnold’s motivation theory.Triandis (1980) finds that history and ecology influencesocial culture of which there is both an objective and asubjective culture. Culture provides situation-behavior-reinforcement sequences, which combine with individualperceptions of subjective cultural variables (norms, roles,values). An individual’s previous experience with behaviorsresults in affect toward those behaviors. Affect or emotionaccording to Arnold is “a felt action tendency based onappraisal.” The affect then is an impulse toward what isappraised as good or the impulse away from what is appraisedas bad. Perceptions interact with developed affect, perceivedconsequences, habits, and present social factors to createmotives and motivation attitudes (Triandis, 1980). Underfacilitating conditions (e.g. reward/expenditure ratio; easinessof act) and relevant arousal (e.g. needs, values, attitudes) themotivation becomes a behavior or action. This behavior resultsin objective consequences, which are interpreted as positive ornegative reinforcement. The consequences, interpretation andreinforcement then become part of the situation-behaviorreinforcement sequences which make up the personality(cognition, affect, self-concept, values, beliefs, attitudes, andhabits) and the individual’s subjective culture. Reinforcement57affects the perceived consequences of the behavior in twoways: it changes the perceived probabilities that the behaviorwill have particular consequences and it changes the value ofthese consequences. These effects influence behavioralintentions and resulting motivation. Triandis states that;.attributes of the ecology-culture-societydetermine attributes of persons, such as attitudesand values, which detennine the behaviors of thosepersons: and depending on the outcomes of thisbehavior, attitudes and values change.(Triandis, 1980; p.25l)The research literature on the etiology of wife batteringcovers factors that result in values, attitudes, emotions, andhabits from which a motivational attitude is developed. Theliterature explores the attitudes, values, affect, behavior andbehavior patterns of the spouses. The literature researcheshow these motivational attitudes may have been developed,and also explores the circumstances in which these attitudeslead to action. The literature delineates the personalitytypologies of the battering husbands and the battered wives.Therefore, although the terms of motivational theory may notbe used, the theoretical assumptions of human motivationtheory directly correspond with wife battering theory, andresearch.58Qvervie’v Of The Etiology Of Wife BatteigThe research literature on the etiology of wife batteringoutlines complex multi-dimensional causes (Rosenbaum, 1990).The personal history of the individual, including family oforigin, and societal values have been found to be relevantdevelopment determinants of values, attitudes, and motivationpatterns. Current situation factors such as socio-economicstatus, poverty, unemployment, stress, alcohol abuse and drugabuse have been considered contributors to wife battering.Relationship dysfunction with poor communication andnegotiation skills, conflicting sex role expectations, rigid sexroles, and social isolation have positively correlated with wifebattering.Straus and Gelles (1990) emphasized that violence hasbeen prevalently accepted throughout society in thegovernment military, police, and the media, and in familiescorporal punishment has been accepted practice. They foundin their research of 8145 families in two national U.S.A.surveys that societal violence combined with sex rolesocialization, and family dynamics produce wife assault.However, as some research has shown that these factors havealso been prevalent in dysfunctional spousal relationshipswithout violence, they cannot be considered a completely59conclusive explanation of wife battering (Gondolf, and Fisher,1991; Nichols, 1986; Walker, 1984;).Although the research has sho the above mentionedmultidimensional causes of battering, this study focusesspecifically on the motivation patterns of battering husbandsand battered wives. Motivation patterns develop in the contextof the interaction of the individual (subjective culture) with theenvironment (objective culture). Therefore, as the research onbattering explores the etiology, it explores the developmentand determinants of values, attitudes, emotions, skills, andbehaviors that make up the characteristic patterns of husbandswho batter, and wives who are battered. These patterns andtheir relevant determinants are the focus of the remainder ofthis chapter.Motivation Patterns of Battered Women: An Introduction:Efforts to profile battered women, and battering menhave been in vain (Gelles, & Straus, 1988; Gondolf & Fisher,1991; Rosenbaum et al, 1990; Walker, 1984). Neither grouphas been found to have one consistent profile, and only a smallportion of either have major psychiatric disorders (Gelles &Slraus, 1988; Gondolf, & Fisher, 1991; Nichols, 1986;Rosenbaum et al, 1990; Walker, 1984). As there appears to beno one consistent pattern of personality, a single personality60profile is not valid. Instead, researchers have suggested that atypology of batterers, and perhaps of battered women wasmore consistent with research findings (Gondolf & Fisher, 1991,Rosenbaum et al, 1990). Walker (1984) concluded that there isno personality profile for battered women based on thefindings of the study of 403 battered women. However,Walker concluded that there may be a personality profile formale batterers, but points out that other research has foundthat their behavior ranges across a spectrum of diagnosticcategories. Many researchers have emphasized thatdelineating a profile for battered wives suggests that she has avictim prone personality which amounts to blaming the victim(Dobash, & Dobash, 1979; Gondolf & Fisher, 1991; Herman,1992; Walker, 1984;). None of the research has been able toprove that the battered wife had a particular pattern ofpersonality before she was battered (Herman, 1992; Walker,1984). The research suggests the validity of a typology ofbattered wives, although research has not shown whether ornot that typology exists because of the violence or was presentbefore the violent relationship began (Herman, 1992; Walker,1984). Also, the research suggests a typology for batterersshows validity (Gondolf & Fisher, 1991; Rosenbaum et al,1990).61The research is inconclusive regarding the personality ormotivation patterns of battering husbands and battered wives.However, consistent patterns have emerged and have beendelineated in the research over many studies. These are thepatterns that will be outlined below.Husbands Who Batter Their Wives:Research indicates that men who batter their wives donot show one pattern of personality. Instead they are found tohave a range of behaviors and violence that is more consistentwith a typology (Friedman, 1982; Gondoif & Fisher, 1990;Health & Welfare Canada, 1989; Rosenbaum et al, 1990;Walker, 1984). Gondolf & Fisher (1990) found that batterersrange along a continuum from the typical, through theantisocial, to the more rare sociopathic personality. The typicalbatterer is more sporadic in his violence, and tends toappologize and feel regret about the violence perpetrated byhim. He is the most likely to seek treatment that is not courtmandated, and to continue his relationship with his partner.The antisocial batterer is violent outside the home as well as inthe family and is more likely to abuse alcohol and use weapons.The sociopathic batterer perpetrates more serious injuries, hasextensive criminal records, and histories of severe drug andalcohol abuse. Rosenbaum et al (1990) shows a similar62tvpologv: (1) narcissistic/antisocial personality; (2)schizoidai/borderline personality; (3) passive/dependent1’cornpulsive personality. Walker (1984) claims thatthere is a range for male spouse-abuse offenders that rangesacross most diagnostic categories in the DSM-III from (1)inadequate and borderline personality, through (2) antisocialand explosive disorder, to the more dangerous (3)paranoid/schizophrenic. Although there are a range ofpersonality characteristics that are more suitable to a typology,the research to date has not explored and demonstrated validand reliable evidence of a defined typology. Instead thestudies provide a list of common traits for all batterers.There are consistent personality characteristics found inmen who batter their wives, They have values, attitudes, andmotivation patterns in common according to the research. Thecharacteristics found in common for batterers according toreviews of the research are outlined below.Walker, (1984) based on her study of 403 batteredwomen and their reports on male batterers found that violencedoes not come from the interaction of the partners, nor fromprovocation caused by irritating personality traits of thebattered woman, but from the batterer’s learned behaviorresponses.63Common Attitudes Values And Behavior Of Men Who Batter:History Of ViolenceThe best predictor of future violence is a history of violenceincluding witnessing, receiving, and committing violent acts inthe childhood home (Gelles & Straus, 1988; Rosenbaum et al,1990; Walker, 1984).A. Adult history of violence:1) Previous violence toward women in former or presentrelationships (Ferrato, 1991; Walker, 1984).2) Military service: significantly longer than averagetime in the military (3.2 years for batterers versus 1.9years for non-batterers). (Walker, 1984)3) Criminal offenses: Walker (1984) found that 71% ofbatterer’s, versus 34% of nonbatterers have had criminalcharges laid against them. Batterers have differentcharges from non-batterers. Batterers generally havebeen charged with more serious offenses such as rape,assault, and homicide, whereas non-batterers tended tohave had charges like driving under the influence ofalcohol. Forty-four percent of batterers had beenconvicted of charges, versus 19% of non-batterers.64B. Family Of Origin Violence, And Acceptance Of Violence As ALegitimate Resource:Walker (1984) found that 81% of batterers witnessed orexperienced family of origin violence: 63% witnessed father tomother violence; 35% witnessed mother to father violence; 27%experienced sibling violence; 33% experienced physicalviolence from their mother; 50% experienced physical violencefrom their fathers. Similar findings are reported in many otherstudies: Bandura, 1977; Lerman, 1981; Rosenbaum & O’Leary,1981; Roy, 1977; and Wolfe, 1986 (cited in Rosenbaurn, 1990).Straus, Gelles, & Steinmetz, (1980) report that their 1976 U.S.A.nationally representative survey of 2143 adults showed thatmen who observed violence in their families of origin werethree-times as likely to hit their wives, and “sons of the mostviolent parents rate of wife beating was 1000% greater thanthe sons of non-violent parents” (p.101). Ulbrich and Huber(1981) phone survey of 2002 adults found that childhoodobservation of violence correlated significantly with approvalof violence against wives and was a good predictor of men’s(but not women’s) approval of spousal violence. Patterson(1982) reports that the degree of reinforcement (rewardingconsequences) or inappropriate punishment received forviolent behavior and the interpretation of those experiences65(winnjng a sibling fight enhances self-esteem) leads to furtherviolence.Fagot, Loeber, & Reid (1988) findings through theirobservations of several hundred families at the Oregon SocialLearning Centre, also confinu the relationship of family oforigin violence to wife battering for batterers. In addition,their longitudinal field observation study (2 years) of 210 boysin grades 4, 7, and 10, confirmed that violence in the family oforigin leads to future violence against women. They found thatthe following conditions resulted in significantly higher rates ofviolence against female peers by the boys in their school socialgroups:(a) the family was out of control: lacking in disciplineskills, did not monitor the child, failed to problem-solveeffectively, and did not provide positive role models.(b) coercive family tactics were used, and the target childgot his way by emitting higher and higher rates ofaversive behavior directed at the mother.(c) boys practiced violence on females (mother andsiblings);(d) the violence us not punished, and the boy got hisway;66(e) a system of family values that devalues women, andwomen were seen as fair game for violence, and maleswere in a position of dominance over females.Fagot, Loeber, & Reid (1988) claim that these findings providethe model for the developmental determinants of male tofemale aggression for further research.Dibble & Straus (1990) found in their analysis of Straus,Gelles, & Steinmetz (1975) survey that patterns of familyinteraction, attitude toward violence and intended violentbehavior were consistent. They found that attitude had thegreatest consistency with behavior when a pro-violent attitudewas matched by a partner’s pro-violent attitude. Owens &Straus (1979) found that batterers who were child victims ofparental violence correlated with approval of spousal violence(r=.21), and those who were child witnesses had an approval ofspousal violence correlation of significance also (r=.29) (Thiscorrelation was twice as high for men than for women).Although a veiy high proportion of battering husbandshave experienced family of origin violence, including childabuse or witnessing parents being violent with each other, thisdoes not in itself predict spousal violence (Cappell & Heiner,1990; Gelles & Straus, 1988; Rosenbaum et al, 1990; Walker,1984). There are some batterers who report no family oforigin violence. In addition a great many men with violence in67their families of origin are not violent in adult intimaterelationships. Gelles and Straus (1988) report that their 1986U.S.A. survey of 6002 families showed that 89% of adults whowere hit as children did not hit their spouses. Knudson &Mehm (1988) studied 564 boys of whom 110 were patients ofchild psychiatrists, and found that a history of child abuseresulted in a propensity to respond aggressively in theperpetuation of violence or in a pattern of victim behavior,concluding that the emergence of spousal violence isdetermined by multivariants, and not just child abuse.Rigid Sex-Role Definitions:Batterers are found to have these beliefs: husbands arethe total authority in the family; wives should obey and servethe husband; wives should practice self-denial; women areinferior to men; wives and children are a man’s possessions; itis the husband’s right to discipline and control his wife andchildren; husbands’ because of being the male authority havethe right to privileges such as rewards, respect, concession formanaging others (Fagot, Leober, & Reid, 1988; Gondoif & Fisher,1990; MacLeod, 1980: cited in Health and Welfare CanadaReport, 1989; Stets, 1988; Walker, 1984). Gondoif &Hanneken’s (1987) qualitative study of batterers found thatbatterers have distorted “super macho” role models of men68based on the images of their fathers and media heroes, andthey believe that they fall short of what they are supposed tobe as men. They are found to be unable to tolerate disparity instatus between themselves and their wives, and they useviolence to lower perceived status differences (Walker, 1984).Walker (1984) states:His ego is pictured as so fragile that disclosure ofher talents would cause him embarrassment because itimplies that he is not doing his job to protect her. Such amarital relationship based on this stereotyped view ofmen’s and women’s roles force the deception anddependency which can lead to mistrust, low self-esteem,isolation, jealousy, exclusive need for a mate’s emotionalgratification and finally a strong need to control andreassure oneself of partner’s exclusive loyalty. Theseconditions accompany battering relationships.(Walker, 1984; p.16)In addition to the above, the following is a list ofattitudes and behaviors commonly found among batterers:1) Inability to achieve or maintain intimacy2) Demonstrates lack of interpersonal skills3) Inability to deal with their own or others’ emotions4) Inability to see others needs as separate from theirown5) Self-depreciation, low self-esteem6) External locus of control7) Psychological dependency on spouse698) Demonstrates sociophobic behavior (isolation)9) Consequent inability to share personal concerns withfriends or partner10) lacks trust of others including partner11) Pathologically jealous12) Inability to express emotions other than anger13) Inability to control anger14) Impulsive15) Control is a big value : controlling of familymembers, their image and self-image (attitudes,appearance, behavior); compensation for lack ofcontrol in extra-familial life16) Controlling of self: repression of emotions; showingemotion is weakness; poor coping skills, and lowtolerance for stress17) Manipulative: often appear to be nice guys to theoutside world: charming, manipulative and seductiveto get what he wants, and hostile nasty and meanwhen he doesn’t succeed in getting what he wants18) Exhibits contempt for women19) Shows compulsive reference to sexuality20) Cannot empathize with others21) Makes unrealistic demands22) Defies limits7023) Emotionally, psychologically, and verbally abusive24) Aggressive and resolves problems physically25) Uses violence to control others26) Utilizes physical violence as the ultimate resource tomaintain relationship status27) Utilizes emotional, physical, and sexual violence toenforce submission/compliance from his wife28) Externalizes problems,abrogates responsibility forviolence onto wife29) Minimizes, denies, and/or lies about problems andhis own violent acts30) Violent against other targets (children, parents,incest, hurting pets/animals, objects, other people)31) Depression32) Suicidal gestures33) Compulsive use of alcohol and/or drugs(compounding factor/not a cause)34) Contemptuous of those who try to help/understand35) Denial that anything is wrong with him36) Does not seek help unless forced to do soThe above attitudes, values, coping skills, and behaviorscommonly attributed to batterers are based on the studies ofseveral researchers (Browning, 1983; Cappell & Heiner, 1990;71Dibble & Straus, 1990; Ferrato, 1991; Friedman, 1982; Gelles &Straus, 1988; Gondoif & Fisher, 1990; Health & Welfare CanadaReport, 1989; Rosenbaum et al, 1990; Stets, 1988; Walker,1984).Goals And Consequences Of Batterers Violence: VAnother dimension in the research on wife batteringrelevant to the motivation pattern of batterers was the goal(s)of their aggression. The goals of the batterer’s violence havebeen seen as control and power, to get his way, and/or toresolve a problem or dispute quickly and effectively(Berkowitz, 1983; Ferrato, 1991; Finkelhor, 1988; Guberman &Wolfe, 1985; Hampsen, 1991; Walker, 1984). The batterer mayuse violence as the “ultimate resource” when he perceives thathis other resources have fafled (Finkeihor, 1988; Hampsen,1991). Berkowitz (1983) points out that the batterer mayimpulsively use violence when he doesn’t know what else todo.The batterer’s motivation and goals for using violence areconsidered part of a complex system of motivation. Berkowitz(1983) cites Felson (1978) and Carver (1975) studies whichfound that batterers’ used violence to maintain their self-concept or self-ideal as tough dominant men who are heads ofthe household, thereby putting their wives in their places,72commanding respect, and preserving their honor especiallywhen in front of audiences.Berkowitz (1983) found in his interviews with violentmale criminals that 4096 struck to hurt the other and 60% toattain safety. He states that aggression may be instrumentalaggression with the objective of inificting injury on the otherand causing pain. The instigation to aggression (and the desireto escape) may stern from any aversive event that causes thebatterer suffering or feelings of displeasure (Berkowitz, 1983).Kernberg (1990), a psychoanalyst, observed throughyears of clinical practice that “hatred, a derivative of rage, maygive rise to highly pleasurable aggressive behaviors: sadisticenjoyment of causing pain, humiliation, and suffering and theglee derived from devaluing others” (p. 179). Hatred is linkedto cognitive appraisal of the immediate situation in relationshipto the external object or person, and is activated by memory ofsimilar former experiences causing a reaction toward or awayfrom the object relation. Therefore hatred that leads toaggression and violence has a motivational aspect although itmay be covered or obscured (Arnold, 1962; Kernberg, 1990).In extreme cases of regressive evolution, with a dominantrepression of affect, cruelty is rationalized, and morallyjustified, and self-ideal turns to a sadistic self-concept, which atthe most extreme is the psychopath (Kernberg, 1990). Thus73the male batterer may be stimulated and reinforced by thevictim’s pain and suffering because it indicates goalachievement (Sebastian, 1983). These clinical and researchobservations are consistent with the reports of some wives whoare victims of battering, who report that their spouse appearsto derive pleasure or satisfaction from their pain (Ferrato,1990; Herman, 1992; Walker, 1984).The batterer has motivation to use violence. He has agoal, intention, drive, value and attitude that supports the useof violence. He has an instigation to aggress. Researchers havefound that a person in a situation in which the inhibitionagainst aggression is weak, who have a suitable target, and inwhom hate is activated or the instigation to aggress, maytranslate that emotion/attitude into a motive and act inviolence (Berkowitz, 1983; Kernberg, 1990; Sebastian, 1983).The literature on battering abounds with information about thelack of inhibitors for husbands who batter. The claim is thehusband beats his wife because he can. He is physicallystronger and has little risk of retaliation (Berkowitz, 1983;Ferrato, 1991; Walker,1984; Sebastian, 1983; Straus, 1991). Heis in the privacy of the family where he cannot be observed, sohe does not risk the loss of self—esteem from the condemnationof others, There is reduced access from the agencies of socialcontrol (Walker, 1984). He knows what he can get away with,74and that family members will tolerate behavior they would nottolerate from others, because of dependency (physical andpsychological). Society sanctions familial violence in the formof disciplining children, and the right to discipline one’s wifewas legally sanctioned also until the last two decades. Thebatterer believes that instilling fear is an appropriate andeffective way to get the his wife to do as she is told (Guberman,& Wolfe, 1985; Herman, 1992; Walker, 1984). It is much lessprobable to have adverse legal consequences, socialdisapproval, or relationship loss. Further he is likely to get hisown way, and for his wife to submit, as she is ofteninvoluntarily dependent on him psychologically and/orphysically. The batterer is motivated to use violence, and hesees violence as a legitimate personal strategy to get what hewants with his wife with few negative consequences(Berkowitz, 1983; Ferrato, 1991; Guberman & Wolke, 1985;Nichols, 1986; Sebastian, 1983; Straus, 1991; Walker, 1984).75Wives Who Are Battered By Their HusbandsIntroductionIn considering the motivation patterns of wives who havebeen battered, it is vital to note that these patterns are moreaccurately viewed as reactions to the abuse they have suffered.Leading researchers in the field have found that post-traumaticstress disorder (Hennan, 1992;) or a similar pattern known asthe battered woman syndrome (Walker, 1984) describe thesymptomatic dysfunction of battered women.The present findings contradict the historicalmisconceptions about women who have been battered by theirhusbands. Battered women have been considered responsiblefor their victimization. They have been viewed as women withvictim-prone personalities, and as wanting, asking for, ordeserving the violence. Dobash & Dobash (1979) stated:The idea of provocation or victim-precipitation, as itis sometimes called in the social sciences, is bothnaive and insidious; it represents an acceptance ofthe use of physical violence.(Ibid.,p.135)In addition, Frankel-Howard has pointed out in the report forHealth and Welfare Canada (1989) even the term “batteredwives” tends to shift the attention from the instigators of theviolence to its victims. This shift makes it easy to blame the76victim for the problem and also to search for solutions amongthe victims rather than among the violent partners.The prominent researchers emphasize that the symptomsof dysfunction found among battered women are reactivestates, and are not character traits (Ferrato, 1991; Gondolf, &Fisher, 1991; Herman, 1992; Walker, 1984). Herman (1992)describes battered wives to be suffering from post-traumaticstress syndrome (a reaction to traumatic events originallydefined in treatment of war veterans of the Vietnam war).Herman’s description of the symptoms corresponds to Walker(1984) findings. Walker (1984) describes the women in herstudy to have symptoms of learned helplessness, and otherstress described in the research as battered woman syndrome.Despite the commonalties of motivation patterns amongbattered women, Walker (1984) claims, based on her study of403 battered women, that battered women present noconsistent profile. Instead battered women present a diversityof diagnosis (Gondolf & Fisher, 1991; Walker, 1984. Only asmall portion of battered women have major psychiatricdisorders (Gondolf & Fisher, 1991; Herman, 1992; Walker,1984).77The Motivation Patterns Of Women Who Have Been BatteredThe following section delineates the values, attitudes,affect, motivations, behaviors, and their known determinantscommonly found among women who have been battered bytheir husbands.Current Socio-Economic Success:A woman’s socio-economic conditions are consideredsignificant factors in the motivation patterns of batteredwomen. Walker (1984) reports that most of the batteredwomen in her study were educated, successful, and heldresponsible jobs outside the home. Twenty-five percent of thewomen were professionals. Most of these women appearednonnal in their every day lives and covered up the shame ofbeing battered (Walker, 1984). Contrary to Walker’s findings,other studies of women in shelters or transition homes havefound a much higher rate of unemployed women. Patterson(1981) (cited in Health & Welfare Can. report, 1989) found thattwo-thirds of the women were unemployed, and only thirtypercent had a fairly good income. Unemployment and lack ofemployment skills have reported crucial influence on themotives of battered women to stay in the marriage.78Family Of Origin ViolenceFamily of origin violence has significantly influenced themotivation patterns of battered wives. Walker (1984) foundthat 91% of the women in her study had experienced criticalperiods of uncontrollable events in childhood. Sixty-sevenpercent of the women had violence in their families of origin.Father to mother violence occurred with 44% of the wives, andmother to father violence with 29%. Twenty percent of thewomen’s mothers perpetrated violence on the children, and33% of their father’s perpetrated violence on the children.Forty-eight percent of these women had been victims of childsexual abuse. Most of the sexual abuse ‘as perpetrated bymale relatives, and was repeated. Walker reported that theseresults indicated learned helplessness from the family of originwas a crucial factor in the lack of positive motivation to leavethe batterer.Straus et al (1980) reports a high correlation betweenfamily of origin violence (viewed or experienced) and currentbattering relationships based on the 1976 U.S.A. nationalsurvey. These results from a community study suggest thatwomen may be more tolerant of violence when they have comefrom families in which there was violence. As other studies ofwomen in shelters have not shown as high a relationship, the79researchers hypothesize that battered women are less likely toseek outside assistance from an agency if they experiencedfamily of origin violence (Straus et al, 1980; Rosenbaum et al,1990). Further confirmation of this view, and of Walker’sstudy, was found by Lerman (1981), cited in Rosenbaum et al,(1990), that abused wives with abused mothers were lesslikely to seek refuge, and were more avoidant with less activecoping skills.However, family of origin violence has not been proven tocause either an attitude approving violence, or futurerelationship violence. Ulbrich & Huber (1981) conducted atelephone survey of 2002 adults that found that observation ofviolence in the family of origin did not correlate significantlywith women’s approval of spousal violence. Rosenbaum et al(1990) reports that studies that compared battered women to agroup of non-physically abused women found that inter-parental aggression results in severe marital discord ratherthan aggression. These studies and many others show thatfamily of origin violence does not of necessity lead to violencein future relationships in and of itself.Although indications that learned helplessness (definedbelow) was likely to have existed in women who werepreviously victimized in their families of origin, or in a priormarriage relationship, this has not been proven a consistent80prerequisite to being a victim of battering from on&s husband.There has been a percentage of women who were battered bytheir partners who report no history of family of originviolence, or other violence. Walker (1984) found that there isan equal chance of developing learned helplessness inchildhood or in an adult battering relationship.Walker (1984) who conducted structured in-depthinterviews and psychological testing with 403 battered womenreports that women who had experienced family of originphysical sexual violence of greater severity andduration tended to stay in relationships in which they werebattered longer than women who had no history of child abuse,or less severe abuse.Common Symptoms Anong Wives Who Have Been BatteredThe following are the psychological, emotional,behavioral, and motivation patterns found in the researchliterature among women who have been battered by theirhusbands. Because learned helplessness, and post-traumaticstress syndrome as well as the motivational patterns fromother studies contain the same patterns, some of them arecombined together for a more concise description.A) Post traumatic Stress Syndrome:81Stages:(1) submission: relinquishes inner autonomy, worldview, moral principles, and connection with othersfor the sake of survival;(2) robotization: shuts down feelings, thoughts,initiative, and judgment;(3) fatal stage: loss of will to live; absolute passivity;(Herman, 1992)B) Learned helplessness(likened to depression with cognitive, affect,motivational, and behavioral components;);(Walker (1984), using Radloff (1977) Ces-d test,found that battered wives are highly depressedwhether currently in or out of the batteringrelationship).(a) cognitive component of depression:perception/expectation goals cannot be reached byresponses available to the person (unlikely to try todo anything)(b) Motivational dimension of depression:helplessnesspassivity82(c) Affective dimension of depression: unrealistic aboutcurrent situation (disassociation, fantasy, magicalthinking, hopes for change/no action;)(d) Inability to predict the success of one’s actions;(e) Lack of contingency between actions and outcome;negative pessimistic beliefs about the efficacy oftheir actions and the likelthood of obtaining futurerewards;C) Other Discriptions of Battered Wives:1) Pessimistic view of the world2) Destroyed assumption about the safety of world, thevalue of self, and the meaningful order of creation3) Lack of.basic trust4) Alienated;.Abandoned; Alone5) Believes cannot escape6) Believes cannot control events7) Develops coping skills rather than escape skills(staying alive with minimal injury ): i.e. alteringconsciousness / trance/altered sensation: numbness,freeze in fear, disassociation, depersonalization,derealization of meaning of events, change in timesense, indifference, passivity838) Narrow perceptions and focus on survival causingmisperception of other important information:deprive self of opportunites for successful coping,resolution of problems; narrow & deplete quality oflife9) Used passivity as means to stay alive/safe10) Accepts false responsibility for causing ownpredicament11) Frustrated and angry cannot stop the abuse12) Develops feelings of omnipotence when they can stopit13) Reacts vigorously to being hit (hit back, throwsomething, Cry, yell, curse him, ran to another room,ran out of House, call friend, relative, police (Gelles &Straus, 1988)14) Unexpressed rage at those who refused to help15) May become aggressive to handle unleashed rage16) Traumatic bonding to batterer (perpetrator becomesperceived as the rescuer/saved from deservedabuse)16) Pleasing and desire to please overrides ability toaccurately know and label o feelings17) Give in rather than risk rage18) Extra sensitive to cues8419) Fear making a mistake20) Shame, guilt, self-loathing21) Failure; low self-esteem22) Isolation and withdrawal23) Anxiety, phobias, sadness, lack of enjoyment of life24) Suicidal25) illness/physical problems: (backaches, headaches,gas, fatigue, restlessness, sleep disturbances, loss ofappetite, premature aging)26) Physical injuries (more medical attention & time offwork than non-battered; straus & gelles, 1990)27) Traditional ideology: identity and self esteem is tiedto marriage, marriage is for life better or for worse,must have husband, responsible to maintainharmony, peacemaker, nurture, and please,ashamed to admit failure, children need a father28) Fears loss of role status (wife and mother)29) Dependency (emotional and financial)30) Fears loss of economic status;31) Maintains love/pity for him32) Romanticism (you and me against the world,interprets possessiveness as passionate love,minimizes & excuses behavior)8533) Distorting self-image toward more positive self-viewas a coping mechanism to mask depression(Depression symptoms and tests for depressioncontradict self-reports regarding self-image)(Walker, 1984)(The above list is a synthesis of motivational patterns based onthe research of: Alloy & Abramson, 1979; Ferrato, 1991; Gelles& Straus, 1988; Health & Welfare, Canada report, 1989;Herman, 1992; Rosenbaum et al 1990; Stets, 1988; Straus &Gelles, 1990; Walker, 1984).Why Does She Stay?It is evident from the above list of motivation patternsthat the woman who is battered stays in a batteringrelationship for complex reasons. Battered women develop anegative passive motivation pattern. Herman (1992) comparesthe battered woman’s experience with war veterans andprisoners of war and describes the woman’s symptoms as thoseof post-traumatic stress syndrome. Walker (1984) found thatbattered women have symptoms of learned helplessness. Bothof these descriptions describe a similar group of symptoms ormotivation patterns. Learned helplessness and post-traumaticstress syndrome leave the victim passive and helpless, with86constriction of life and cognition, focused on staying alive orsurviving within the battering situation instead of planning toescape. They often believe escape is impossible, and that thebatterer will follow them, find them and harm or kill them.Batterers themselves make these threats. The battered wifemay have traumatically bonded to the batterer and has cometo see him as her savior and rescuer (Herman, 1992). She maybelieve that she is responsible for the punishment she receives,that it is justified, and she deserves it. Her self-esteem haseroded along with her identity, and she has lost or given up hervalues, morals, beliefs, and connections to others. She believesthat nobody will help her, and there is no escape. She fearsloss of safety, stability, status, and the public shame of thefailure of her marriage, and admitting the humiliation of theviolence she tolerated. She is subjectively and/or objectivelydependent on the batterer. Women who “suffer severeviolence find the obstacles insurmountable and believe theymust tolerate the conditions of their marriages” (Walker, 1984,p. 380). They believe they are locked into the marriage. Theyfear loss and reprisals if they leave (e.g. poverty, isolation, lossof home, affection, security; threats against self and/orchildren, custody threats). She may have no access to financialresources because the batterer controls all of the money. Thebatterer often also cohtrols her activities, and time and uses87physical violence if she fails to obey his commands evenminimally (Health & Welfare, 1989; Ferrato, 1991, Walker,1984).Ferrato (1991) quotes one battered wife’s description ofher situation. Charlotte Fedders, wife of John Fedders, chieflaw enforcement officer of the Securities and ExchangeCommission in the U.S.A. during the Reagan administrationexplains why she stayed with her husband for 15 years:1. Marriage vows are sacred2. She found ways to excuse his actions.3. She believed she was wrong when he got angry.4. She believed that if she was good, prayed, went toconfession and to church, obeyed the ten commandments,and devoted herself to loved ones that nothing bad couldhappen to her. Bad things equal punishment and thefault is in her.5. Divorce is a sin. Disgrace is a failed marriage6. She kept the secret of the violence.7. She would have to leave behind her oppressive beliefsabout womanhood.(Ferrato, 1991, p.130)Women who are battered often are afraid to leave therelationship because they fear reprisals from their partner.Often their partners have threatened them by telling themthey will kidnap the children, gain custody of them, find andharm the woman, the children, or other family members.Faced with these feared consequences which she often believesbecause she has experienced her partner being violent88repeatedly and often not just with herself, she will stay in therelationship.Another reason that women stay in the batteringsituation if fear of not being able to cope with poverty,isolation, being a single parent. They often lackfinancial resources, employment, and employment skills, Evenwomen from wealthier families may lack resources because thehusband has complete control of the finances, and she cannotaccess them.Leaving: The Workable SolutionResearchers have found that the only way to stop theviolence is for the battered wife to leave the relationship(Herman, 1992; Straus & Gelles, 1991; Walker, 1984). Straus &Gelles (1991) report that the womans most successful strategyto stop violence in her marriage is to lay charges the first timeany physical violence takes place. Walker (1984) found that ifbattered wives are going to leave the battering relationshipthey must overcome the tendency to learned helplessness.They must become angry rather than self-blaming, activerather than passive, and realistic about the likelihood of therelationship continuing an aversive course rather than itsimproving. They must learn escape skills. Herman (1992) hasalso concluded that, like prisoners of war, battered womenmust realize that if they side with their captors they are89doomed. Instead they must suppress the affection they feel,resist emotional dependency, and develop a new view of thebatterer and the relationship. Walker (1984) found thatwomen who became angry and disgusted with the batterer’sbehavior left the relationship. Women who continued to justifyand minimize, stayed and continued to be battered.Women who stay and tolerate the abuse are indirectlyrewarding the violence (Stets, 1988). In order to survive theybecome passive and submit after the violence, which gives thebatterer what he wants. Therefore he interprets this as successin reaching his goal and is reinforced. Battered wives alsoreward the violence by blaming themselves, or believing theydeserved it. Further, they give the batterer the message thatviolence is an appropriate way to respond to a dispute (whichthe battered wife may or may not believe) by not punishinghim through calling the police, laying charges, and leaving therelationship (Stets, 1988).Summary of the ChapterThis section of chapter two reviewed the literature on thecharacteristic values, attitudes, beliefs, motivations andbehaviors of battering husbands and battered wives. Itoutlined goals and consequences of the violence for thebatterer, and the indirect part that the battered wife plays in90this reinforcement. Some of the determinants of themotivation patterns of the spouses were also outlined both intheir social and family histories, and their currentrelationships. The motivation patterns are complex. As yet, atvpology has not been clearly defined, and suggested typologieshave not been tested to prove their validity and reliability.The research results reveal a collection of characteristicmotivation patterns for both battering husbands and batteredwives. Further study is needed to validate these results andperhaps to delineate the suggested typology of both spouses inthese violent relationships.This study differs from the previous research in that itdirectly explores the motivation patterns in conjunction th atheoretical basis for the development of motivation patterns.This study has attempted to fill a gap in the research on wifebattering by considering motivation theory in relationship tothe views of the literature. In addition, the motivationpatterns have been discovered using a test that reveals thetacit motivation of the participants rather than relying on theirself-reports, which have been found to be limited by theirconscious self-knowledge and by the distortions of their egodefenses (Gondoif & Fisher, 1990; Walker, 1984).91CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGYThis chapter is organized into the following sections:(a) synopsis of the research design; (b) rationale for the design(c) research questions (d) instruments used (e) description ofparticipants (f) procedure for selecting participants (g) datacollection and (h) data analysis.Synopsis Of The Research Design:A multi-case study design was employed in this study inwhich each case was considered a replication of the research(yin 1989). Each of the battering husbands and each batteredwife represented a single case. Each case was describedthrough a clinical evaluation based on the TAT story sequenceanalysis of the participant. Following the completion of all ofthe single case analyses and evaluations, a cross-case analysisof the group of battering husbands and the group of batteredwives was conducted. Finally, the motivation patterns found incommon across the cases for each group was compared to thedescription of each respective group as found in the researchliterature and outlined in chapter two of this study.Rationale For The Design:The multi-case study design was the choice for this study.Case study has been considered more appropriate than anexperimental design in this situation in which events cannot be92controlled or manipulated (Yin, 1989). In addition, case studymethod has been considered suitable in studies in which howor why questions were being asked (Yin, 1984). The originalquestion in this study was why does a husband batter his wife,and why does the wife stay and tolerate it? Consistent withcase study method, this question became modified as furtherinsight was gained through exploring the literature (Yin, 1989).The modification decided on was to explore the motivationpatterns of the respective groups. This was done in order togain insight into the original question while expanding on theculTent research on wife battering which had not exploredmotivation.The repeated testing of the multi-case study designenabled the researcher to generalize to theoretical propositionsand expand the theory, as it provides more validity andreliability in questions asked of the entire study in relation tothe literature than a single case study (Yin, 1989).Finally, the multi-case study method was used for thisstudy because it provides in-depth case analysis and caseexamples for psychological clinical practice. Historically, thecase study has been used since early psychology. Freud andothers employed the case analysis to advantage in illustratingtheir theories. Also, Ammerman & Hersen (1990) pointed outthat the empirical literature on family violence “rarely reveals93the underlying complications in intervening with both victimsand perpetrators” and that case examples would “fill asignificant gap in the field” (Ibid., p.xii). As the clinician treatsthe individual, case presentations serve to make the clinicianaware of particulars and the uniqueness of each person withina known group. This helps the clinician to be more prepared toprovide effective treatment for individual clients than ispossible from knowledge of general theory alone.Instruments Used:The instrument used in this study was the TAT test, withthe story sequence analysis method as delineated by Arnold(1962). The method of importing from stories in storysequence analysis was consistent with the case study principleof extracting emergent material from the current context of thesubjects without applying a preconceived hypothesis (Yin,1989). Yin (1989) also recommended that the descriptiveframework consider the full and complete range of the topic,and that it provide defined data categories that assures thatparallel information was collected from each case. Arnold(1962) method prohibited the researcher from holdingpreconceptions about the subject to ensure that an unbiasedimport was extrapolated from the story. As well, the storysequence analysis and clinical evaluation was based on the94information obtained from these imports. Arnold’s qualitativesystem of categorizing defined in the scoring criteria, whichwas the basis for the clinical evaluation, utilized codingcategories that emerged from the cross-case analysis of themotivation patterns of over 500 cases (Arnold, 1962).Therefore, Arnold’s system was consistent with case studymethod of qualitative analysis, and was proven valid andreliable. In addition, Arnold’s method of case evaluationanswered another criticism of case study method, mentionedby Yin (1989), as it provided a concise way of presenting acase, rather than a lengthy unreadable documentation. Finally,Yin (1989) reported that verbal self-reports of interviews weresubject to the problems of “bias, poor recall, or inaccuratearticulation” (p.91). As the TAT elicited tacit information fromthe participant rather than relying on self report, it avoidedthese problems. Due to the above reasons Arnold’s system ofstory sequence analysis for the TAT was considered a suitableinstrument for this study.Yin (1989) recommended that case studies used multiplesources of data, so that inferences were collaborated. Teglasi(1992) emphasized that criterion validity must be establishedby comparing the TAT results to some external measure thathad a “theoretical relationship to what the scoring system istrying to assess” (Ibid., p.4 1). One of the recommended sources95for a comparative measure was that of a defined group withknown characteristics (Teglasi, 1992), This study utilized thedescription in the research literature of the specific knowncharacteristics of batterers and battered wives as thecomparative measure. This was a design modification from theoriginal intention of the researchers to compare the TAT resultswith the group counsellors’ assessments of the participants, ashas been done in other research (Arnold, 1962). However, dueto ethical considerations expressed by the group leadersregarding confidentiality, the perceived safety of theparticipants, and the sensitivity regarding exploitationregarding these groups, the group leaders decided not toparticipate in the collaborating interviews. The researcherswere also concerned about these ethical considerations oncethey became aware of them and decided not to pursueattempts to obtain these collaborating interviews. Therefore,the decision was made to use the characteristic descriptions ofthese known groups as given in the literature. This decision tochange the planned desi was consistent with case studymethod in that it kept to the theoretical concerns andobjectives of the study (Yin, 1989).96Description Of Participants:The participants in this study were 11 battered women,and 3 male batterers. The participants were volunteers fromclinical counselling groups for male batterers and batteredwomen at a non-profit community social service agency. Thewomen ranged in age from 22 years to 53 years. The menwere 24, 29, and 33 years of age. The men were court orderedto attend the group therapy program. The women wereattending on a volunteer basis.Minimal background data was accessed regarding thesegroups as ias consistent with the recommendations of Arnold(1962) that the researcher obtain minimal information aboutthe subjects to avoid bias in the analysis of the stories and caseevaluations. Their age, sex, marital status, and whom theywere living with was the only data obtained. None of thebatterers were living with their spouse, and one was legallymarried. The women varied in marital status, and vith whomthey were living. This information is provided with each casein chapter four.Process Of Participant Selection:Criteria for case selection was to access typical cases of aclinical group of batterers and battered wives. Yin (1989)97recommended using either typical or atypical cases. In casestudy research the sample is not intended to represent ageneral population of subjects, therefore a typical case samplethat provides data that can be generalized to the literature wasconsidered the most appropriate.The groups were selected from a non-profit communitysocial service agency because counselling services for thesegroups were usually provided by these agencies. These weregovernment funded programs, and men who were chargedrith wife assault were referred or court ordered to attendthese programs. As batterers rarely volunteer to attendcounseling, access to batterers would be difficult to obtain inother settings. As well, battered wives who were not intransition, and therefore not at the height of traumatic stressfrom a battering incident, were found in community programs.The researchers did not wish to approach women presently intransition homes for compassionate and ethical reasons. Inaddition, community groups were more likely to contain awider range of the typical battered women than those found intransition homes (Rosenbaum et al, 1990).Once the desired group of participants was defined, aletter was submitted to the director of the selected agency.The researcher was known to the agency, the director, and thegroup leaders due to having been a contracted counsellor at the98agency for a year, but was not known to the group participants.At the director’s request, verbal consent was obtained from thecounsellors who were leading the groups in the wife batteringprogram. The group leaders communicated their verbalagreement to the director, and consent to approach the groupswas obtained from the director in Titing. According to U.B.C.research ethics regulations, the letters along with a synopsis ofthe research and methods were submitted to the U.B.C.Behavioral Sciences Screening Committee for Research andother Studies Involving Human Subjects.Once approval for the study was obtained, the agencygroup leaders were contacted in person to discuss thepresentation of the study proposal to the groups. An agreeddate and time was set for the two battered women’s groups,and the group for male batterers, The group participants wereinformed about the study by the group leaders the week priorto the presentation and were given a copy of the consent letterwhich also described the research. At the presentation by theresearcher the consent letters were passed out again, and theletter was read aloud by the researcher. The groups memberswere informed by the researcher that they could ask anyquestions and present concerns about the study purposes andmethods. The researcher emphasized that participation wasstrictly voluntary, and reassured the participants that they99could choose not to continue at any time without thisinfluencing their group therapy work, or their participation infuture research. The group members were informed that theycould turn in the consent form at that time, or any time withinthe next to weeks, either to their group leaders, or insert it inthe mail slot of the researcher at the agency should they wantto volunteer. All volunteers turned in their consent forms atthe meeting. Copies of the following letters can be found inAppendix: B: letter to the agency director; agency permissionfor the research; and the informed consent.The number of cases used in this study was elevenbattered women and three battering men. Three is consideredthe number of case replications necessary to provide arigorous, highly reliable, internally valid study (Yin, 1989).The aim of this study was to use a higher number of cases so asto have a diversity of cases and a high number of replicationsfrom which to generalize to theory. The intention of the studywas to have an equal or near equal number of batterers andbattered wives. However, although nearly equal number ofbatterers originally volunteered to participate, they did notshow up for the test. The decision was made not to pursue thevolunteer batterers who failed to come to the test.Data Collection:100Within two weeks of the presentation meeting, the datacollection took place at a preset date during one of the regulargroup sessions at the agency counseling centre. The researchermet at separate times with each of the two battered women’sgroups and the male batterers group. All of the data wascollected within a two week period.Following Arnold’s (1962, P.49-50) protocol foradministering the TAT, the researcher presented thirteenpictures from the TAT to the volunteer participants. Thepicture cues used and their order of presentation were thoserecommended by Arnold (1962, p.50): numbers: 1, 2, 3BM, 4MF, 6BM, 7BM, 8BM, 10, 11, 13MF, 14, 16, and 20. The verbalinstructions from Arnold’s protocol were also written on thewhite board available in the room so that the participants couldrefer to them as they needed to after the verbal instructionshad been given the third time. The test was administered inone sitting for each group.Data Analysis:The data from TAT stories for these groups was analyzedaccording to Arnold’s (1962) method of importing, storysequence analysis, and clinical evaluation. This method wasclearly delineated in this study (chapter tvo, pages 13- 21).101Coding And Arnold’s Scoring Criteria:Consistent with case study method, the stories, their imports,and stoly sequences were coded according to a set criterion.This criterion was Arnold’s scoring criteria (Arnold, 1962;Appendix A, pp. 227-271). The story imports were assigned ascore corresponding to the applicable categoty andsubcategories of the imports in the scoring criteria. Thecategory indicates the type of motivation(success/achievement; right and wrong; human relations; andreaction to adversity). The subcatagories define the matchingimport in the scoring criteria. The score (-2 to 0 to +2)indicated the degree of positive or negative motivation of theimport. Minus scores indicated negative imports, and positivescores indicated positive imports.The scoring criteria categories provided a sure guide tothe importing of the stories. According to Arnold the scoringcriteria provided a broad enough scope that almost all importswill fit into it. An exact match may not be found but an almostidentical match could be found in most cases. If an importcould not be matched to an import in the criteria, then it islikely that the import was not formulated correctly, and Arnoldinstructs that it must be reconsidered and reformulated by theresearcher.Training And Accuracy Of The Researchers Imports:102Whereas no training group was available for instructionin Arnold’s method of analysis of the TAT, the researcherfollowed Arnold’s alternate recommendation for learning toimport stories. Using the twenty sequence analysis available inArnold (1962), the researcher learned to import stories byscoring these sequence analysis. Through a process offollowing the importing instructions, practicing and comparingto the sequence examples in Arnold the researcher acquiredsufficient skill to accurately import the stories in this study.Once sufficient skill and familiarity with the scoring criteriawas mastered the researcher proceeded to import and scorethe story sequences in this study.The imports and sequence analysis of the researcherwere judged and checked by two others trained in the scoringmethod of Arnold’s story sequence analysis. One half of thesequence analysis were checked by the researcher’s thesissupervisor. The other half was checked by another trainedresearcher, and counseling student in the M.A. degree program,who had received some training from Arnold. The otherschecked for reasonable and unreasonable imports and this wasused for discussion, and debate. The story was reread in thisprocess and a more accurate import was formulated whenappropriate. The research supervisor was satisfied with theaccuracy of the imports that were finally formulated, although103they were sometimes not as concise as those found in Arnold(1962).Scoring And The Motivation Index:Each sequence analysis was given a total score by addingthe scores for each import. The final score indicated theconsistency and direction of the individual’s motivation,whether positive or negative. The total raw score was thenconverted to the equivalent score on the motivation index.This was a linear transformation of scores, and was used as adescriptive indicator of the motivation tendencies as part of theclinical evaluation. However, it was the clinical evaluation thatclearly described the motivation pattern, and provided thedifferentiation of the motivation tendencies of each case.Clinical Case EvaluatioitEach individual participant’s story sequence analysis wasevaluated following the format and examples found in Arnold(1962). The evaluations delineated the motivation patterns,the special problems, and the seriousness of the difficulty theparticipant was experiencing in his or her life. As these wereclinical groups of participants it was expected that they wouldexhibit some problems. The motivation factors that impairedthe effectiveness of the participants were outlined in each of104the clinical evaluations. The conflict or problem preoccupationwere outlined based on the those found in the sequenceanalysis. The motivation patterns were described clearly sothat they could be compared to the other cases in therespective groups of male batterers, and battered wives.Cross-Case AnalysisFollowing the individual case analysis and evaluations, a crosscase analysis was conducted. The cross case analysis of patternmatching has been considered relevant as long as the predictedpattern of specific variable was defined prior to data collection(Yin p.109). The definition of the pattern was that of thescoring criteria. The cases were compared by the similarityand differences of the imports in the sequence analysisaccording to their scoring categories.A mental survey of the motivation patterns wassufficiently convincing to postulate negative motivationpatterns across the cases of both groups. Therefore theresearcher decided to compare the participants to the negativemotivation patterns delineated in Arnold (1962). Arnold’sfindings indicated that there were differing negativemotivation patterns. Four clearly outlined negative patternswere described: passive, pessimistic, self-centered, andmalicious. (Three other types were named, but descriptions105were vague: indecisive, heedless/impulsive, chronic pessimist).The researcher then listed the descriptive motivation patternsor motives outlined in Arnold (1962, PP. 216-219) under eachof the four negative patterns on the rows of a chart. Theparticipants’ numbers were then put in columns. The importsin the sequence analysis were then placed in the row thatcontained a matching import under the negative pattern, in thecolumn designated to the participant. The ordinal number ofthe import in the story sequence was used as a marker in thecolumn of the participant. An example portion of the chart isdrawn below:Under the passive pattern, Arnold lists the following negativemotivations, along with a number of others:WINogoalor gives up as soon as it is difficulthopes/dreams of success which comes by fate, chance, 5Case number one of the battered women (Wi) had an importfrom story number 1 in her sequence analysis that matchedthe pattern descriptor “no goal”. It therefore matched thepassive pattern descriptor “no goal”, and it was marked in thecolumn and row as shown above. Import from story 5 in the106sequence of (WI) matches “hopes/dreams of success”, and wasmarked in this row, under the W 1 column, and so on.Each of the participants story imports were compared tothe motives described in each negative pattern, and theirimports were marked in the appropriate column/row boxes.Each participants imports and clinical evaluations wererepeatedly checked and rechecked to the chart to ensureaccuracy. Only those imports and motives for which a clear fitwas found were marked. This chart was then surveyed to findthe matching negative patterns across the participants for thegroup of battered women and the group of battered men. Themost predominant of the four negative patterns across caseswas readily observed from the chart.This chart has not been included herein due to the itslarge size (approximately 2 ft. by 3 1/2 ft), and the difficulty intranscribing it into a format that fits with this written workwithout losing its informative value. The chart has beenretained as part of the case study notes.The Cross-case Analyses Results Compared to the KnownCharacteristics in the Research Literature:The final step in this study was the comparison of thecross-case analyses to the characteristics outlined in theresearch literature for male batterers and battered wives asdefined in chapter two, section two of this study. The results of107this comparison have been delineated in chapter five of thisstudy. This method for obtaining validity was recommendedby Teglasi (1993) as a valid method when the group studiedhas known characteristics. The method of comparison was aprocess of matching the cross-case findings for motivatingattitude patterns for each group to the list of descriptors. Thiswas done through repeated checking of the list for matches incharacteristic descriptions to the cross-case motivationpatterns.Summary:The steps in the methodology of this study wereobtaining the stories using the TAT picture cues, formulatingimports in a sequence analysis, matching them to the scoringcriteria, obtaining scores, and using all of this information forindividual clinical evaluations. The motivation patternsrevealed in the imports and clinical evaluations were then usedin the cross-case analysis to find the motivation patterns incommon among the battered wives and the male batterers.These cross-case analysis results were then compared andmatched to the kno. characteristics in the research literature.108CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTSThe Case Studies:Each of the cases in the group of battered women and thegroup of male batterers are presented in this chapter. The caseevaluations of the battered women are followed by those of themale batterers. The cases are presented by their story imports,and their scoring criteria categories, followed by the caseevaluations based on the summary of the import sequenceanalysis. The TAT motivation index scores are included to helpdescribe the direction and consistency of the motivation in eachcase evaluation. These scores can be used as a generalcomparison of the degree of negative or positive motivationbetween group participants. The imports are referenced by theordinal number in story sequence in these descriptive caseevaluations.The Case Studies: Battered Wives:W 1:Wi— Imports1. When you are forced to do a difficult task, you arefrustrated by your lack of skill. You want to avoid it. At the109insistence of others, you give in and try to do it, but yourheart’s not in it.-1 IDib2. you don’t want to be trapped in a life of hard work, so youwant a good education. If and when, you can complete yourschooling, you hope to get a good job.-1 IB5a3. Reminded of your dead love relationship, and you feel sad,cry, and feel better. You decide you must put it behind you, soyou go for a walk and find hope for love to bloom again.+1 WA 2e4. when your mate is frustrated, he yells, and blames you.Although you feel angry, you appease him with understanding,and affection because, you fear he’ll leave you.-1 lilA la1105. and when you are scared by the shocking loss a loved one,you need affection, and reassurance from others. Although youask, they ignore you.-2 IVa4b&c6. So you are determined to be financially independent, but itsa struggle, and things go wrong. Then, just in time, a manhelped you look at things differently, supported, and advisedyou. Now you both have the relationship you always longedfor and a flourishing business.-i WA la7. when a xiiolent emergency forces you to seek professionalhelp, you find relief, and quick recovery, and feel pride,confident that you have chosen the right path and direction.+1 W A if8. When another takes action in a risky endeavor, loved onesfear for his safety and try to talk him out of it. His skills andresources bring success,. with recognition, relief and gratitudefrom loved ones. (You hope to emulate his skills, when you areolder).111+2 ID id9. when you are scared in the face of a situation that seemsthreatening and alien, you take a closer look at it and realizewhat it really is and no longer are afraid. You apply this lessonto your conflictive relationship with your husband, see it forwhat it is, and soon leave him.+1 WA ic10, when you fight with your husband he becomes violent,threatens to kill you, and rapes you. You are terrified anddon’t know what to do. He cries and says he’s sorry, but hewon’t stop. You need and resolve to get help. You can’t handlethis on your own.+1 WA 2d11. you are afraid of the other’s anger, and violence so you goto the attic to hide, and you escape into fantasy, where nobodycan find you until it blows over because you are too little torun away.112-1 WA 5b12. and you are suspicious of people in authority, so whenthey give you an unexpected task, you rebel and do not followtheir instructions, and blame them.-2 IIIF 3a13. People and things are pleasant, but when you are aloneand have no family, you are sad, and you feel lonely for yourfriend and decide to invite him over. He accepts. No oneshould be alone at Christmas time.-1 lilA 4fClinical Evaluation: W:1It is evident from this sequence analysis that this womanis preoccupied with the problem of her marriage and herabusive husband. He struggle with the problem is evident in11 of the 13 imports in the sequence (3 through 13). Seven outof thirteen of her imports deal with coping with this adversity113(3,5,6,7,9,10,11). She wants to get out of the hard life she hasbeen living (2,3,4,6,8,9), but she shows little of the positive selfmotivation necessary to resolve her difficulties. Most of herconviction, values, and motivational principles are negative,giving her a primarily negative motivation pattern, with somepositive motivation.Iniports 3, 7, 8,9, and 10 show her positive motivation.By closely examining her conflictive relationship, she realizesthat in seeing it for what it is she loses her fear, and this freesher and motivates her to leave her destructive relationship (9).She knows she needs professional help (10). She seeks it, findssuccess, and feels confident in her new direction (7). Sheknows that insisting on the right to determine one’s own courseof action, plus using one’s skills and resources leads to success(8). She has constructive intention to put her grief behind herand for love to bloom again (3).However, she is impeded by her negative convictions andvalues (1,2,4,5,6,11,12,13). Her desire for and recognition ofthe need for independence, in order to overcome the adversityin her abusive marriage, is contradicted by her fear of beingalone, and of having to take independent action (4,5,6). Sheindicates repeatedly that she needs others help in order for herto succeed (1,5,6,7,10). Though part of this is a recognition ofher legitimate need for professional help, she shows no positive114independent action after receiving it (7). She sees achievingindependence as too much of a struggle, and therefore she canonly have the financial and relationship success that shedreams of when she has a man who gives her advice, andsupport (6). She believes that fearful, subservient, emotionsand actions are successful in maintaining good relations withothers (4). If she tries to overcome her fear by asking forreassurance she will just be ignored (5). In addition, shetolerates the disregard of her well-being, and fears and avoidstaking positive action on her own behalf (4,5,6,8,9,10,11,12).She has tolerated emotional and physical violence (4,7,10,1 1).She has the pessimistic conviction that life if full of difficultiesand adversity which one cannot overcome. Instead one avoidshard work (1,2), fails because of others (5,12), or takes nopositive action because she is too little, weak, or incapable ofovercoming her problems (1,6,8,11).In summary, this sequence analysis indicates a womanwho has a primarily passive negative motivation pattern, withsome pessimism, and some positive motivation (scoring 85/200on the motivation index). She recognizes that she needs to getout of the battering relationship, and that she needsprofessional help and guidance, and to be independent, but ishandicapped by her negative convictions regarding her havingto depend on others, her personal inability, her subservienceand powerlessness in relationships, and her distrust of others.She is so preoccupied with coping with adversity that sheshows very low positive motivation to achieve with only oneimport indicating strong positive action resulting in success.115116W 2‘N. 2 - Imports:1. The promise of a new life soon became the samedominance, arguing and threats that you experienced in the oldhome. You wish to fulfill your longings elsewhere, but youhave to obey to keep the peace. Maybe later you will be strongenough to stand up for yourself.-2 IIIC la i2. but you should just be grateful that strong, competentothers provide for your material needs and allow you to pursuesome interests. Instead, you resent their not comforting andhealing the hole inside you, and feel guilty.-2 IIIC3a+b3. as a result you don’t trust others, or yourself so youresentfully settle for being alone and safe, yet frightened, sad,and lonely.-2 IIIB 5a1174. Your partner is often upset and though you try desperatelyto appease him, by being the caring, loving and passionate etc.woman he wants, but it is hopeless. You finally decide to lethim leave.-2 TIlE ic5. and taking courage toward recovery, you disclose yourshameful secrets to others, even though terrified of their angerand rejection. They withdraw in shame and denial as always,but you realize that at least you were there for yourself.+1 lB id6. and with the loss of a loved one you turn to caring othersfor help. They may be unable to provide solutions for yourproblems but they listen without judging, and give you thereassurance and support you need. You realize you must takecontrol of your o life and not depend on others to do it.-1 1VA4b7. In symbiotic relationship to a troublesome other, yourescue, and cover-up for his mischievous ways. You fantasize118of your heroic sacrifices enabling professionals to magicallyremove his defects and make him strong and good like you.-2 lilA lb8. When faced with the devastating loss of a loved one, you areable to survive it by reminding yourself of past hardshipsovercome, and by drawing support and comfort from others.-1 WA 6c9. When your lover leaves you for another you are resolved todo anything to reclaim what is rightfully yours. You disguiseyourself to outwit authority and overcome their protectiveobstacles, as nothing can stop your love for her.-2 lilA la or b10. When you leave your mate their pain may be so great thatthey commit suicide. You may not mean for this to happen butyou cannot stop it. You feel guilt, and shame, and don’t knowwhat to tell others. You plan to seek professional help.-2 WA 5b11911. and you wonder if one’s pain from past family problemscould be so overwhelming that one decides to commit suicide.You let go of this possibility.-2lVA5bord12. and you dream of magically acquiring the power andcontrol to instantly manifest anything you want in your life.You would like to have that power in your eyelashes.-1 J\Tk 5b13. When you are waiting for your new lover you feel anxious,confused, and panic wondering if they will ever come. Youplan secretly to meet them and disguise yourself so you won’tbe recognized, When you meet your passionate kiss dissolvesaLl your emotional turmoil.-2 lilA 1 aClinical Evaluation: W/2120The sequence analysis for this woman shows anextremely negative motivation pattern with a predominatepreoccupation with her struggle to overcome the adversity ofher battering relationship. Though she shows some positiveintentions, her imports reveal almost no positive action. Theone exception is the success for her own recovery indicated indisclosing her secret she feels ashamed of to another, but evenhere, there is some undesirable side effects in the lack ofresponse of the other (5).Her motivating principles regarding relationships arenegative and destructive. It is evident that she believes thatlove overrides legitimate self-interest (1,2,4,7,9). She indicatesthat trying desperately to please, and appease her partner, andbe what he wants (loving, sweet, passionate etc.), is part ofon&s duty (4). This shows a motivating attitude that goodrelations are built on fearful subservient emotions, and not onmutual care. She acknowledges that she has failed to influencehim to change his undesirable attitudes but shows only mildinsight that good relationships serve mutual legitimate selfinterest.(4) She holds that she must follow the dictates ofothers and yield to illegitimate pressure for the sake of peace(1). She has tolerated abuse and neglect (1, 2, 4, 7). She showsno disapproval of rescuing, and covering up for another withwhom she is in a symbiotic, codependent relationship to the121detriment of herself. Instead, she fantasizes that a heroic self-sacrifice will help professionals remove his defects (7).Further, she is dependent on others help to meet heremotional needs, but has the pessimistic conviction that theyeither will not or cannot do so (1, 2,3, 4, 5, 6,). Their lack oflove, understanding, and affection leads to long term lack oftrust in others or herself, and to her having to be alone andunhappy (3). In addition, family problems such as these, andrejection by a mate, lead to impulsive action (9), emotion,despair and destruction, such as suicide (10, 11). In addition,love overrides principles and others or oneself commit acts ofdeceit, danger, secret, and betrayal for love (7, 9, 13).Another part of this woman’s negative motivation is herreliance on magic, fantasy, and unlikely events to overcomeadversity (7, 9, 12, 13,), plus her own lack of positive action.She wishes and fantasizes instead of acknowledging theplanning and effort involved in accomplishing things such asthe rehabilitation of a loved one (7), overcoming marriagedifficulties (9, 13), and positive life change (12).In summary, the sequence analysis of this woman showsa very passive and pessimistic negative motivation pattern,(scoring 23/200 on motivation index). She recognizes the needto get out of her battering relationship, which preoccupies her,but she is extremely handicapped by her negative convictions.122Throughout the sequence she is passive, and sublimates herown needs in relationship to others. Yet, she does not seeherself or others efforts to positively influence others assuccessful. There is an undercurrent of hopelessness, andhelplessness in the sequence analysis. There is very littleindication of the understanding of the constructive planningand action necessary to create the life that she longs for.Instead her life view is predominately unrealistic and reliesheavily on others but with negligible success, and her hope ismostly invested in fantasy and magical solutions.123W3W. 3: Imports:1. When faced with a foreign task, you fear failure, but bytelling yourself “belief in oneself is the way to achieve one’sgoal”, you overcome your fear, begin, and triumph.-1 lB 2e2. and you must learn skills to get out of your presentunrewarding life of uncertainty, and poverty. You must goforward but you have a ‘touch of nostalgia’.-1 IB5a3. and you can’t think of anything-2 IB5b4. except, when you want to talk to him, he doesn’t talk, butgets annoyed and wants to leave. You feel hurt, betrayed andresentful. Yet, you know he loves you. He eventually listens,and you both agree, to listen, accept, and compromise.124-1 III F ibi5. but when you decide to leave a loved one you feel proud ofyour choice, but nervous about what ploys will be used to keepyou. You leave realizing you feel only contempt.+2 ID id6. but you dread telling others that you cannot conform totheir expectations because of your inability. When theyexpress resentment, you follow their dictates with resultingpersonal unhappiness.-2 III C la(i)7. and you do not want to admit the loss of a loved one, andfeel angry that your pleas of fear were not listened to, for nowyou must begin the battle for emotional and social stability.-2 TVA5b8. When you are forced by external circumstances to leaveyour spouse, you feel emotional tunnoil and bitterness. Yet,125years later thinking back, you both know that true loveendures.-1 WA ic9. others who are big and powerful get restless, enjoy trying tocatch you in their discharging violent forces and you waitcautiously and get devoured.-2 WA 6f10. and when he realizes he killed his lover, emotion pours outof his soul, but he believes he was justified, because shethreatened to end the relationship. Thank GOD the jury didn’tthink so.+2 hA la11. but when you experience a spiritual connection withnature’s glory, you long for freedom and contentment, and toleave your old life. Yet, suddenly, you decide to close thewindow on this option.-2lA5b12612. but this doesn’t stimulate you into thinking of a story......-2 IB5b13. When you lose love, and family, you become desolate andempty until by chance, you meet salvation through otherscharity.-1 lVAla,orbClinical Evaluation: W.3The sequence analysis for this woman reveals a low levelof positive self motivation, plus a struggle with the problems ofher abusive marriage. Throughout the sequence she examinesthe options leaving and staying, and their consequences. Sheexpresses the value of getting out of her present unhappysituation (2, 5, 11), yet the sequences reveal that she hasdifficulty facing it (1 - 4; 5 - 8; 9 - 13). When she desires to goforward into a more fulfilling life (2, 5, 11), she gives up andcannot think of it (3, 12), or she believes that she must conformto the dictates of disapproving others, for the sake of peace (6).127She also holds the motivating principle that leaving or losingher present relationship will end in emotional tunuoil, despair,destruction, and poverty (7, 10, 13).Further, she considers staying, as she holds to theconviction that positive change in her marriage relationship canoccur over the passage of time. Yet she does not show anyreasonable means used to achieve it (4, 8). Instead, she showsthat exerting positive influence has success and her husbandchanges his undesirable attitudes and actions, but only after along time and she gives no reason for this change (4). Import 8simply follows the romantic adage that “true love endures”adversity such as separation. Because of the lack of reasonablemeans, or positive action these indicate lack of the positivemotivation necessary to reach the goal.Further lack of positive motivation is indicated in thepassive tolerance of adversity and emotional and physicalabuse, evident throughout the sequence. (2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,11, 12, 13). In opposition to this, she has the conviction thatothers (men, or those who are bigger and stronger) aremalicious and deliberately perform acts of violence (9, 10), andjustify it (10). However, she does not justify it (10). Thisoutcome, and that of import 5 are the only indication that shedoes not accept the violence.128• Though this woman shows positive attitudes (1, 2, 4,8,11), they are not motivating attitudes in most cases, as thereis no positive action in these stories. The only positive actionleading to success is the insistence on the right to determineon&s own course of action (leaving a loved one) and doing so(5), Otherwise, the only evidence of a desired goal shows therelinquishing of that goal because of fear, pain or danger (3, 6,11, 12).In sununary, although this ornan hopes, and dreams ofa more positive new life, she shows little positive motivationfor achieving it (scoring 54/200 on motivation index).. Hermotivating principles throughout the sequence are negativelyscored, with the exception of two (5,10). The sequence analysisshows someone who believes that she cannot face or meet thechallenge of the necessary tasks to overcome adversity (3,12),and that her present adversity cannot be overcome but ends indespair, and destruction (7,10,13). Also, when opposed byothers, she must give in and obey their dictates, for the sake ofpeace (6). She holds unrealistic and romantic ideals aboutmarriage relationships, showing no idea about the meansinvolved in establishing and maintaining good relationships(4,6,8). She shows considerable passivity throughout, but it isespecially evident in import 9, in which one waits to bedevoured. Although she believes that violence is wrong sheshows little action against it. It appears that she is in conflictbetween leaving and staying in her abusive marriage becauseboth options show negative outcomes in the sequence analysis.This conflict preoccupies her and she shows little positivemotivation toward success.129130W4W.4: Imports:1. Others in authority seem to expect you to perform like a‘naturaP, though you would like to be, you feel pressured andfrustrated that you are unable to even grasp the task. Youthink maybe taking it a bit at a time might make it moreenjoyable and easier to learn.+1 IB5c2. When loved ones work hard and make sacrifices for you.You feel obligated to strive harder to achieve the success thatmeets their expectations.-1 IIIC 3b3. When another looses her mate and is alone and grieving, shereaches out to you, and though you can feel tremendous painfor her, and give compassionate support, you cannot comforther pain.-1 TIlE la1314. When you and your mate are forced by externalcircumstances to separate, you feel grief and loss, but reassureyourself with the vague hope of reunion.-1 IVA 6b5. When you work hard defending a man after he hascommitted a serious violent assault, and despite lots ofdamaging evidence, believe in his innocence, you fail. You go toinform loved ones. Though feeling and anticipating grief, youare surprised by their polite distant reaction.-2 IB4c & 1D 3b6. and you canTtthink of anything-2IB4c7. When faced with the loss of a loved one through violence,you feel revulsion, fear, and helplessness. You can do nothing,but wait, and you lose him.-2 WA 4b1328. when fate causes you to lose your loved one, you areinconsolable, but suddenly, magically you are reunited.-1 WA lb9. You will aid yourself to overcome fear inducing incidents bytelling yourself to face your fears with courage and confidence,and thereby heroically save yourself and others-l lB 910. when a couple fights constantly, and there’s drinkinginvolved, verbal abuse may provoke a man to snap, losecontrol, and kill his partner.-2 WA 5a11. when adversity causes you to lose family and possessions,you feel lonely and desperately afraid. You see no future, butwhen you deliberately notice small beautiful things, you knowyou still exist.-1 WA 4a13312. when you fall for a crafty partner, you don’t notice his evilways, till you are caught in his prison. At the point of givingup, you notice your other loved ones, and see them as the keyto leave, and now you support each other.+1 WA lc13. when you lose everything and are left empty, in thedarkness, you can only blame yourself. You try to overcomeyour pain by imagthing that what you need for cleansing andrenewal reigns down on you from supernatural forces above.-1 IF 2eClinical Evaluation: W4The sequence analysis for this woman reveals a personwho is preoccupied with the problem of her abusiverelationship. She is greatly concerned with loss and speaksabout grief and the loss of a loved one in 8 stories(3,4,7,8,10,11,12,13). Six of these stories deal th coping withthis adversity. She shows motivation to leave the abuser (12),134but considerable difficulty coping th the difficulties and theloss involved (4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11,12, 13). Her negative motivationpattern works against her overcoming this adversity, andachieving. Almost no positive motivation is evident in theimports. The one exception is the sudden decision to resist theabuse perpetrated by her partner (12). Otherwise she showspassivity in the face of adversity (violence, and loss of a lovedone) in: holding on to vague hope for good outcome (4);helplessness: action is impossible (6, 7); the adversity ofseparation is overcome by chance or fate (8); or it is notovercome but tolerated by things compensating for it (11); andthat fighting between spouses leads to the arousal of impulsiveor desperate violent action (10) No positive action was takenin any of these imports to overcome adversity. She has theconviction that although she works hard and does her best, shefails to help another she intended to help(S). Other’s reaction isto the failure is merely polite and distant, as if it is dismissed(just happens and does not matter) (5, 6).Further negative motivation is shown in relationshipswith others. She shows blind dependence on others in thatthey serve as a good example (2). She believes that attemptingto inspire or comfort another is at least partially unsuccessful(3). She also sees others as malicious and deceitful (12).135There is no evidence of positive motivation towardsuccess in this sequence analysis. Attempting to succeed leadsto failure (5). Failure just happens, and does not mailer (5,6).Failure cannot be overcome but is tolerated by tiying to behappy in spite of it (13). The possibility of success is present intwo imports (1, 9), but the means used is insufficient (1:thinking about the problem), and facing ones fears withcourage and confidence heroically saves people (9). None ofthis shows positive action toward success.In summary, this woman shows a negative motivationpattern with considerable passivity, and only one positiveimport. She shows dependency on others, or externalcircumstances (2, 4, 7, 8, 12, 13), inability to thfluence others(3,5), helplessness (6, 7, 8, 10, 13) , or depending oninsufficient means, fate, chance, time, or magic solutions (1, 4,7, 8, 9, 11, 13). The only positive action is in leaving herabusive partner (12). She has very low positive motivationscoring 42/200 on the motivation index.136W5- Imports1. When forced to do a difficult task you feel tired anddisinterested. Soon you give it up.-lIB6a&b2. and you want to avoid a life of hard work, feel sorry forothers doing it, so you read, work hard at school, and plan toget an education.-1 lb 6c3. when forced by external circumstances to leave your homeyou feel overwhelmed, depressed and confused. Although youare unsure if you can trust authorities to help you, you believeyou have no choice but to follow them.-2 WA 4b4. when your partner is an alcoholic, you worry and feelresentment, and he feels guilty about his neglect. Youcommunicate poorly so you argue.137-2 IIIB 2c5. but your try to get help for your loved one but it is useless,you are helpless, and feel grief at your loss. You inform family,and you cry together-2 WA4a6. and when loved ones are upset, you invite them to talk-1 WA 4c7. and when you feel depressed, have nightmares, and becomeill, you call a therapist.-1 lVA4b8. but in a good relationship you would be given meaningfulgifts-1 IRk le9. and you share enjoyable activities, and want to repeat them138-1 lilA 4a10. When a female loved one is involved with a possessivepartner you worry about her, but when you finally check onher safety, she’s dead.-2 WA 4e11. When you take positive action to reshape your life, byrenting your own place, you find renewal, and contentment andhope for a successful future.+1 lB 3bi12. when doing an unfamiliar task as part of your recoveryprocess, you feel fearful and angry, but you continue and findbenefit from doing the work, and carry on, expecting furtherreward.+1 IB4c13. when you lose your family, you are lonely, afraid, andcannot take being alone After a time, you must get the139courage, though you are extremely anxious, to reach out toothers for support.—1 WA 4bClinical Evaluation: W.5The sequence analysis for this woman reveals an overallpassive negative motivation, with some positive motivation.Nine of the imports are concerned with her abusiverelationship, and coping with it, and the loss of it(3,4,5,6,7,10,11,12,13). Six of these are dealing with adversity.Five of these imports show a conviction that this adversitycannot be overcome as: action is impossible (3), or useless (5),and that it is tolerated by receiving or appealing for help fromothers (6, 7, 13). She further shows the conviction thatadversity leads to undesirable actions and that it ends inemotion, despair, and destruction (10).However, she does show positive motivation to reshapeones life through active effort with the hope of achievement(11). She also shows a mildly positive attitude toward workingfor her own recovery as she finds it difficult but it bringsreward (12). Still, she also shows a negative attitude towardwork in that it is difficult, boring, exhausting, and it is done140under constraint (1), and that it is distasteful when work ishard and rewards are slight (3)She shows some positive motivation in relationships asshe sees good relationships are established and maintained bygood will and expressed in giving gifts (8). However, she showsnegative motivation regarding relationships also. She has thebelief that people and things bring pleasure, and thatfriendship is pleasant (9), but this conviction does notdemonstrate depth of shared experience, or enterprise, butmerely pleasure in an activity. Further, she passively acceptsthat bad relations are caused by undesirable attitudes, ornegative emotions, and poor communication, indicated by thelack of positive action or outcome (4).In summary, this woman shows some positivemotivation, but primarily negative motivation pattern in hersequence analysis. Her motivating attitudes regardingovercoming adversity are negative, in that they are passive, asshe takes no positive action, or shows no positive outcomes.She shows positive motivation regarding starting an new life onher own (11,12), but shows considerable dependency on othershelp (3, 5,6,7,13). She shows one positive motivating attituderegarding relationships (8), and the others are negative (4,9).Her overall score on the motivation index is 62/200, whichshows very low positive motivation.141W6W6: Imports:1. When forced to do a difficult task you feel sad and hate it,but if you seek to avoid it powerful authorities scream andpunish you. Finally you comply to placate them.-1 IB5a&b2. In order to avoid a life of hard labor and oppression youleave your situation to attain the goal you desire. You fulfillyour dream.-1 IB2b3. When you suffer an incident of physical violence andemotional abuse by your husband, he blames you for all hisproblems and walks out. You are confused and helpless.-2 WA 4b4. When you are devoted to your spouse and you catch yourspouse having an affair with another, you are devastated andleave, never to return.142+2 IIIB 25. When you are the victim of a serious violent incident otherswill finally admit the truth about your abusive relationship.Although they feel shame, they support you in taking thenecessary action (leaving and filing charges) to protectyourself.+1 IVk lc&f6. Because your partner has been taught negative attitudestoward women he slaps you. You leave forever.+2 hA 2c7. When your abusive husband is beating you up again, andyou threaten to leave him, and try to flee to a safe place, hekills you.-2 WA 4d1438. but in a good relationship a couple would still be on theirhoneymoon after twenty-five years and feel blessed, andfantasize fondly about the next twenty-five years.+1 lilA le9. You could not think of anything to write.-1 lB 6e10. When your husband sexually assaults you, he enjoys thepower he has over you. You go limp. You feel disgusted andpowerless. He feels ashamed afterward, but won’t admit hisfault.-2 WA 4b11. After you have been emotionally, physically, and sexuallyassaulted by your husband for years, you finally leave. Alone,you doubt your decision but hearing the happy voices ofothers, reaffirms it. You gather strength and go on to a fulfilledlife by yourself.+2 WA lb14412. and when you finally get the strength to leave an emptydepressing marriage, you regain happiness, finally likeyourself, and feel hopeful for the future.+1 IVA1c13. when alone, you fear others that you encounter inpotentially vulnerable situations, you discover that they arefriendly and harmless, and you realize that not everyone is outto hurt you.+1 WA idClinical Evaluation: W.6The sequence analysis for this woman reveals an almostequal number of positive and negative motivation principles.This woman is preoccupied with the problems of a batteringrelationship, which is the focus for almost every importthroughout the sequence. She shows a mixture of positive andnegative motivating principles in coping with the violence andabuse. She holds the negative and passive conviction that the145adversity of the violence cannot be overcome because action isimpossible (3, 10), or it is followed by greater adversity (7).She tolerates the abuse or believes that she is helpless to doanything about it, possibly because of fear of greater violence(7). In contrast, she also holds the conviction that theadversity of the violence can be overcome by positive action (5,6,11, 12), and attitudes (13). The violence can be overcome byleaving the abusive partner (5, 6, 11, 12), and by filing chargesagainst him (5). She shows the positive conviction that afterleaving you regain the happiness you lost during the marriage,finally like yourself, and feel hope (12). Further, you can beginto overcome your fear of others, and further victimization (13).She shows a strong conviction that the way to overcome theinjustice of violence perpetrated by one’s spouse is to leave thefirst time he does it (6).In addition, this woman has some positive motivation inregard to relationships. She shows strong positive motivationin that undesirable attitudes and actions, such as infidelityseriously mar human relations (4). She has the conviction thathuman relations are desirable, they endure, and are valuable(8).There is little positive motivation in the sequence towardsuccess and work. She shows a negative attitude toward work(1,9). Work is difficult, boring, depressing and it is done under146constraint (1), or it is put off (9). In addition she expressesthat success follows from vague means in which a dream goalbecomes a reality without any action taken that would achievethat success (2).In summary, this woman reveals some positive and somenegative motivating principles, scoring near the median on themotivation index at 11 2./200. The positive motivatingprinciple of taking the action of leaving the abusing spouse isrepeatedly expressed in four imports (5, 6, 11,12), and isreinforced in regard to other negative treatment (infidelity)(4). She also shows positive convictions in rebuilding one’spsychological health after leaving (12, 13). She valuesmarriage relations, and believes that they endure (8).However, she also shows considerable passivity in the negativeimports regarding the impossibility of overcoming the violenceperpetrated on her while in the relationship (3, 7, 10). Furtherpassivity is evident in unwillingness to make positive effort inperforming tasks (1, 9), and by simply having a dream cometrue by very vague means (2). Her passive negativemotivation patterns handicap her efforts to succeed in attainingthe happiness she desires (1, 2, 8, 9, 11, 12,).147W 7W. 7 Imports1. Others in authority dictate your activities, and they aremean and emotionally abuse you. They don’t understand, andyou are overwhelmed isolated, believe you’re a failure, and youwant to run away forever, but you stay, and suffer in silence.—2 IIIC lai2. when your desired loved one betrays you and you lose themto another, you feel empty, and hopeless, certain that no othergoal is worth pursuit. In despair, you resolve to go as far awayas possible.—2 WA 5b3. When you are married to a battering husband, you reachdespair, and hopelessness, after a long time of escalatingemotional and physical abuse. You try everything and evenseparate to get him to go to counseling, but he only uses this asanother weapon. Others help you to cope.148-1 WA 4c4. A desirable man is possessive, and protective of the yourhonor, and though you worry when he wants to fight adangerous rival, you feel safe and happy with him, and can talkhim into more reasonable modified action.2 lilA lb5. you feel angry and hurt at the abusive, manipulative, andtreatment you have received from your loved one, that madeyou feel ashamed, and totally inadequate. You resolve to putthe relationship behind you, and not give in to their charm.+1 WA 2e6, and though you are justified in taking the children andleaving your battering husband, he blames you, accuses you ofbetrayal, and wants to kill you in his rage, and panic.-l hA if1497. when there is ongoing wife battering in a family, one thy afamily member may in their excessive emotion or panicunconsciously kill the abuser-2 WA 2c8. one lucky day you will find a man who has admirablequalities, and who finds you beautiful, and it will be instantlove, and you will marry and live happily ever after.-1 IIL& lb9. when you are helplessly bound and trapped by a potentiallyviolent other, you are suddenly and magically saved by asexually attractive, powerful and courageous man, who ismutually attracted-2 WA 2a10. when your partner rapes you, you feel totally degraded, indespair and emotional turmoil, you plan to leave, and pray toget away in time. However, he has little guilt or remorse,blames you, and considers that maybe he should go forcounseling but only if you do not talk about this.150-2 WA 6f11. and as you stay in this abusive relationship, your stressincreases till you have panic attacks, but you didn’t know untilthe recent physical violence that he is abusive. You hope andpray and cry and claim the counseling doesn’t seem to behelping.-2 WA 4a12. and you fantasize of a passionate love affair andimpending mamage, until you snap yourself back to reality-1 IVA 5b13. but for now you rationalize, and doubt yourself about theabuse, and dutifully be the good wife and mother. You reflectand speculate about his good qualities and worldly assets, butyou are depressed and only barely able to remember anyhappiness.-2 WA 5b151Clinical Evaluation: W.7The sequence analysis reveals that this woman has anegative motivation pattern, with overriding concern with theproblem of her physically violent marriage. She explores themarriage problem throughout the sequence. Nine of theimports in this report are scored in reaction to this adversity.Her motivating principles in reaction to adversity arenegative. She holds that betrayal and abuse in a couplerelationship ends in emotion, despair, and destruction (2, 13).The battering problem is not overcome but tolerated with thehelp of others (3), or avoided through fantasy (12). Thisproblem cannot be overcome, as action is useless (11).Adversity is overcome by harmful action by positive actionthat leads to harm (when a child in the family panics and triesto stop the abuser and seriously harms or kills him) (7).Adversity is also seen to be overcome by altogether unlikelymeans (9). The abusive partner is seen as malicious in hisactions, and he has no remorse (10). Her only indication ofpositive action or attitude in overcoming this adversity is thatone day when one has had enough, emotion is aroused andconstructive intention to leave the relationship is expressed (5).152This woman holds the conviction that the wrongdoing ofthe battering is a matter of personal relations or socialconventions, and it gets the culprit into trouble (he loses hisfamily and must seek counseling etc.). However, he does notrecognize it as just, but blames his wife (6).The sequence analysis also reveals negative motivationpattern in relations with others. She shows passivity inrelationships in these ways: She has the conviction that shemust yield to the illegitimate pressure of others in authority,and obey their dictates (1). Passivity is evident throughout thesequence in the on-going tolerance of the abuse, and thenegative convictions about coping with or overcoming thisadversity (described above). Further she shows negativeconvictions in that love overrides urgent and legitimate selfinterest (others put themselves at risk for ‘love’) (4). She alsohas the conviction that good relations just happen as a result offortunate happenings, instead of being established andmaintained by outgoing affection and good will (8).The sequence analysis reveals a woman who has thenegative motivation pattern of sheer passivity. Her importsshow no positive action, and only one import with a positiveintention. She has no goal. She hopes and dreams of havingthe ideal love relationship, but this happens by fate, or chance(8,9,12). She shows helplessness and dependency on others (1,2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,13). Indecisiveness is evident in import13. Her overall score on the motivation index is 27/200,indicating very low positive motivation..153154W 8W. 8: Imports1. When you take on a difficult task, you work diligently atfirst, but you become aware of the sacrifices involved, andwhen authorities aren’t looking, you dream of having fun.Unexpectedly they permit you to go.-1 lB 6e2. when you undertake an extensive unfamiliar project andyou work hard with discipline, others notice your struggle andoffer to help you when additional difficulties arise.+1 IB4c3. rJj you are a divorced mother with children you struggle,work hard and achieve some financial independence, but youremain civil with and still depend on your ex-husband, until hevanishes and then the children are hurt.-1 TuB la1554. and your mate is unreliable and erratic in his behavior, andit makes you upset and insecure. When you confront him, heignores you and walks out the door.-2 IIIB 2a5. when you lose a loved one, you carry on alone trying tosatisfy everyone’s needs, but your fail, and are met withfurther adversity. You appologize to others, who seemdevastated, but then suddenly offer emergency help.-1 1VA4c6. couldn’t think up a story. took a break-1 lB 6e7. and when others plan what you should become, you dreamabout the reality of the repulsive parts of this enterprise, andrealize you cannot take it. It’s wrong for you, and you tellothers in authority that you quit.+1 ID lfii1568. you imagine a good long lasting marriage with lots ofextended family, that are happy, harmonious, and content+1 ifiA le9. when someone is lost in a desolate situation, you look forthem and follow their cries, and do not allow fear to stop you.You rescue him and run away to safety and comfort him.+1 lB ic10. when you are caught in the cycle of an batteringrelationship, fear stops both yourself and others from acting tostop it, and the batterer continues. When he is faced withgrave adversity, he rages, assaults, and seriously injures you.He cries afterwards.-2 IIIB la11. when you are young and single with your whole futureahead of you, you have lots of options and opportunities. Youcan chose to be with the person you want to be with, and thismakes you happy.157-1 IB2a12. when in an abusive relationship, you decide to calm down,and to leave the relationship. You set a goal, built up your self-esteem, and your hopes and dreams of a new life come true.-1 IB2e&f13. when a man does an immoral and abusive act against awoman, you take action by calling police and they arrest him.You are relieved that he is not on the street any more.+2 HA 2bCilnical Evaluation: W.8The sequence analysis for this woman reveals an almostequal number of positive and negative motivating principles.Although she is concerned with the problems of a batteringrelationship, she also has concern with the problems of being asingle mother after divorce, and with achievement, success, andhappiness.158Her positive motivation toward success shows a mildlypositive attitude toward work, in that it is difficult but bringsreward (recognition, and assistance)(2). In opposition, sheshows a negative attitude toward work, as work is put off inpreference to recreation (1, 6). She shows further positivemotivating principles for success by determining her ownreasonable work or course in life (7), and by taking active risks(9). However, she shows a negative convictions that youachieve your goal by using the vague means of just thinking ofthe goal, and from making a decision for active planning (nopositive action is taken) (11, 12).She finds that it a struggle dealing with the problems ofbeing a single parent, as she must depend on the help of othersto meet family needs (3,4,5). She shows the convictions thatbad relations are caused by undesirable actions or attitudes (4)and they have prolonged ill effects, in that the poorrelationship with her ex-husband continues, and he finallyabandons them (3). Further, the adversity of the losing a lovedone is followed by personal failure which is not overcome buttolerated with the help of others (5). Despite these negativeconvictions she believes that good relations are desirable, andvaluable and they endure (8).In coping with the adversity of the battering relationship,she holds that bad relations have no ill effects in that the159violence is not stopped and goes unpunished (10). However,this is contradicted by the conviction that injustice of violenceagainst ornen is overcome by positive action of demandingand working for justice (13).In summary this woman has a mixed motivation patternin the mid-range, scoring 85/200 on the motivation index. Sheshows some positive motivation toward success and happiness,and a mildly positive attitude toward work (2), with fairlyadequate means used to attain success (7,9). She also showspositive motivation in taking positive action for justice againstviolence against women (13). She also shows some positiveconvictions in valuing good marriage relationships and family(8). However she does have some passive dependentmotivating attitudes evident throughout the sequence (1, 2, 3,5, 10) in that she depends on help from others to succeed, andovercome adversity. She is handicapped by her negativeattitudes of putting off work (1, 6), and by passivity in nottaking positive action or adequate means to achieve the successshe desires (1, 3, 4, 10,11, 12,)160w 9W. 9 Imports1. when you don’t feel like practicing what authorities expectyou to do, you find it a puzzle, you finally refuse to do it aridnever do it again.-2 IB5b2. and when you are feeling sad you notice others who are sad,suffering, and imploring with a loved one who fails to notice.After a time you never see them again.-2 WA 4a3. and sometimes a loved one is hanned by someone who feelsno remorse, and you are left to explain their evil deeds toinnocents.-2 WA 6f4. but then you remember the excitement of a first movie andthe unforgettable scene in which you saw two people in lovekiss.161-1 IIIF 2b5. but some loved ones you can never please. Even if you tryand are giving, and courteous, they only epress resentment.Yet you remain loyal and put up with it until they die.-2 lilA id6. and if a son is not taught by his father that the right way totreat a woman is with love, he doesn’t. Only when his marriageends, does he realize that he was not taught right from wrong.-2 IIIF 4c7. and in the course of ordinary, pleasant activity suddenlyviolent tragedies occur in which intimate others are hurt, orhurt themselves, and die.-2 IIIF 2b8. and in ordinary life, even when planning for a celebration,chaos, horror, destruction, and despair occur and that is theway that life is.162—2 IIIF 2b9. and even when you are carefree, and enthralled by natur&sbeauty, suddenly unavoidable tragedy occurs.-2 IIIF 2d10. and after another violent incident, you feel used,humiliated and hurt. You know this will reoccur despite hispromises to stop. You resolve to leave, and to be strong andheal.+1 1VA2e11. and another behaves like a rotten kid, is paranoid thatothers will steal his car, and is threatening to others. Youbelieve he wouldn’t dare commit suicide but you wish he’djump from the window.-2 IIIF la12. You had a dream that your family abandons you at 6 yearsold.163The dream still hurts you. Your reality isn’t much different.-2 IIIF la13. and when he is left lonely, miserable, arid depressed, withnobody to be with and take care of him, he thinks he deservesit for being bad, and bad-tempered for a long time.+1 hA lbClinical Evaluation: W.9:The sequence evaluation of this woman reveals someonewho is extremely pessimistic and passive. Her negative andpessimistic attitude is evident in eleven out of the thirteenimports. She shows preoccupation with negative and violentrelationships which is evident in almost all of the imports(1,2,3,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13). She shows the conviction that lifeproduces destruction (7,8,), and even when you expectsomething nice, something bad happens (8,9). She findsrelationships ith others adverse (1,3,5,6,10,11, 12, 13),extremely violent and destructive (3, 7,10), and finds others tobe malicious, and troublesome (3, 5, 10, 11, 12, 13). She also164demonstrates a belief that people deserve bad things to happento them when they are bad (6, 13, ) and that others who havesuffered because of their actions wish bad things to happen tothem (11). Although she has this notion of justice, shedemonstrates little notion of personal power and responsibilitybut people just do things unpredictably, or personal tragedyand accidents just happen. Her motivating attitude is passive,and positive action is absent, useless, impossible, or ineffective(1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9. 11, 12, 13) Her only positive importindicates constructive intention or resolve to leave thebattering situation (10).In summary, this woman is so steeped in negativeconvictions about life, that she appears to be ovenvhelmed byadversity and has become almost completely pessimistic, anddepressed. Her overall score on the motivation index is19/200.165w10W. 10 Imports:1. you desire a sexually attractive man, and envy his wife, andtheir helping relationship. You hope for one of your oi.When you have hope you are not afraid.-2 TA2b2. after another fight with your spouse, you are afraid and in aquandaiy about how to solve your problems, but you resignyourself to your plight, focus on care for others, and hopetomorrow is better-1 WA 5a(i)3. when you say something to your partner that he doesn’tlike, he verbally abuses you, and threatens to leave. You try toappease him by taking the blame. He leaves anyway, and youfear trouble.-2 IVA4d1664. When others tell their tales of woe, you notice inaccuracies,and doubt their sincerity. Yet to meet their needs, you decideto believe them and doubt yourself.-1 IIIC lb5. and loved ones deny the reality of your problems, excusethemselves, and do not help, so you deny them also, and fall totake responsibility.-1 IIIC lb6. and when you seriously hurt yourself, you are indifferent,and just curious, and don’t know about the outcome.-2 IIIF 5c(ii)7. You know that other’s attempts to make up are not sincere,but you want to believe him, so you make up and the cyclerepeats. You wonder if you are going insane.-2 IIIC la(i)1678. Cold nature brings destruction and larger creatures killsmaller, and the stronger survives.-2 IIIF 2b9. When you are involved in a relationship, in which yourhusband’s violence is associated with his pleasure, and heblames you for all the problems, you are afraid for your life.You finally leave. You believe he is continuing this withanother now.-2 WA 6d&f10. and when you threaten to leave your partner and heblackmails you with suicide, and social shaming, and ordersyou stay till he says you can leave. You stay.-2 IIIC la(i & ii)11. You want a good relationship but you quickly fall forothers who deceive and cheat you, and take a long time to freeyourself. You are afraid you’ll make the same mistake again.-2 IF 3d16812. Now that you have gotten away from past adversity, andovercome your fear, you tell yourself it was a dream. Life hasno guarantees but you hope it seems to have them tomorrow.-1 IF 2b13. and when you’ve been told you must learn a task thatbuilds character, you hate it and refuse to learn, and sabotageyour efforts so they decide you don’t have to do it.-2 IB6a&dClinical Evaluation: W.10:The sequence analysis for this woman shows someonewith a very negative motivation pattern. She is preoccupiedwith the problems of an abusive violent marriage. She showsconsiderable dependency on others, passivity, and pessimism.She holds a strong motivating principle of dependency onother’s opinions for her own opinions and actions (4,5,7, 10).Her own opinions are put off to please others (4,5) and sheyields to illegitimate pressure for the sake of peace (7,10). Inattempting to overcome the difficulty with a violent abusive169partner, she shows passive motivating principles. Takingaction is passively avoided although responsibility for oneselfand others demands action (2). Plus, she holds that when sheattempts to appease the abuser the problem is not overcomebut it is followed by more adversity (3). Tn addition she showsextreme passive attitude in that a life threatening situation ismet with by just wondering, and waiting, merely curious aboutone’s fate (6).Pessimistic motivating principles are evident throughoutthe sequence. She holds the conviction that her past failure inchoosing a mate is a prelude to more failure, and she fearschoosing the same type of mate again (11). She holds theconviction that time or nature produces destruction as the lawof nature is that the stronger destroys the smaller, and only thestrong survive (8). Further, she has the conviction that thespousal physical violence is coupled with legitimate sexualpleasure and is malicious, and that he continues to do this withanother once she leaves him (9).This woman has shows no positive motivation towardsuccess. She hopes for success, and to do better but shows nopositive action (1, 12), and she holds the conviction that workis distasteful, not necessary and can be evaded (13). Although,one import indicates the positive action of leaving, the focus ison the continuing of the perpetrators violence with someone170else, therefore this import was not positive according to thescoring criteriaIn summary, the sequence analysis reveals that thiswoman has an extreme negative motivation pattern of sheerpassivity and pessimism. Passivity is evident throughout thesequence (1,2,3. 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12), as is pessimism (3, 6, 7, 8, 9,11, 13). She also shows strong dependency on the influenceand opinions of others (4,5,7,10). These motivating attitudesseverely impair her in progressing in counseling andovercoming her problems. Her overall score on the motivationindex is 19/200.171W iiW. 11: Imports1. When you have a hard life, and are controlled by oppressiveothers, you accept your labour responsibilities, but don’t likethem and you plan for an easier life on your own.+1 IB4d2. when a man physically assaults you after making commonmistakes, you are helpless, and despair. You decide andresolve to leave, and hope for a better life.+1 IVA2e3. A man who flies into jealous rages, and beats up others, andwon’t listen to the pleadings of his wife to stop, continues butone day he begins to fight a man who turns out to be the law.-1 IL’\ if4. When your mate who has been sick for many years, isdying, though you hope for a miraculous cure, you know this isfor the better. You say good-bye, and somehow feel relieved.172+2 WA 2b5. some men are angry at the world and kill women for noapparent reason, and have no remorse. They only are sorry forthe price they have to pay when they are charged andconvicted.-1 hA if6. and so a man is fatally injured and cannot be saved anddies, and a family member feels nothing, because they do notlike him.-2 uhF 3a7. and when your spouse is verbally abusive, you cry, and helovingly appologizes, and promises never to do it again, but healways does and you always stay and take it.-2 luG ia(i)8. wrongdoing may be exciting and potentially rewarding butis quickly punished by the law.173+2 IIA 1a9. and sometimes a man is so jealous at catching his wife ininfidelity, that he kills her, but he feels remorse, and comfort inknowing he will get due punishment.+2 hA la10. and when others constantly tell you that you are no good,you despair, and take steps toward ending your life, butsuddenly decide against it.-2 IIIC 2b11. and you and your loved ones hike for a long time up amountain, to be in this beautiful place, where you can exchangestories of your experience You decide to remain forever.+2 lilA 2b12. and you realize that the material success you have valuedis only about greed, self-indulgence, and hate, and led toarguments so you decide to reject it, and leave it behind.174+2 IIIF 2a13. and when asked to do a challenging task, you havemisgivings about being able to perform well enough, andmentally protest against authorities, but you do the work,although mechanically.+1 IB4aClinical Evaluation: W. 11The sequence analysis for this oman reveals a slightlypositive motivation with an almost equal number of positiveand negative motivating principles. Most of the imports areconcerned with the problem of an abusive and violentrelationship. However, this woman shows positive motivatingprinciples in overcoming this problem. The two imports scoredin reaction to adversity have positive scores (2,4). Sheexpresses the principle that the adversity of the physicalviolence perpetrated by a mate is not overcome, but is faced,and arouses emotion with the constructive intention of leavingthe relationship (2). The second principle in overcomingadversity is that the loss of a loved one is not overcome but is175faced, and suffered by the positive attitude of seeing thebenefits of this outcome (4).She shows considerable concern with the immorality ofthe violent behavior (3,5,8,9). She holds the negative principlethat the violence gets the culprit into trouble, although there isno explicit realization of the punishment being deserved (3,5).However, she also expresses the positive principle that violenceand other Tongdoing is positively disapproved and bringspunishment, that is just and deserved (8,9).She shows a mixture of positive and negative importsregarding relationship with others. There is some indication ofpassive dependency on others (7, 10). She shows the negativemotivation of yielding to illegitimate pressure for the sake ofpeace (7). She also has the negative motivation that negativeattitudes of others toward the self has exaggerated effects inthat rejection by others results in personal despair andcontemplated suicide (10). She has the negative conviction thatundesirable hateful and hostile attitudes are justified, such as aboys ambivalence to his father’s death (6). However, sheshows positive motivation in relations with others in theconviction that good relations are a mainstay in work andhardship (11). She also has adopted the optimistic motivationthat material values are subordinate to immaterial values suchas good relations with oneself and others (12).176She shows a mildly positive attitude toward work in thatit is done because it is right, but with reluctance (1), and donebut reluctantly and mechanically (13).In summary, this woman has a mixture of positive andnegative motivation, scoring just above the median on themotivation index (119/200). She shows mild positivemotivation toward success (1,. 13), and positive motivation inrelationships with others (11,12), as well as in moral principlesof right and wrong,(8.9), and in the valuing of the immaterialover the material (12). She also shows positive motivation inovercoming the adversity of the physical violence (2,4).Nevertheless, she shows negative motivation in justifyinghatred toward others (6), and in strong negative dependencyon others influence (7,10). and that wrongdoing is a matter ofpersonal relations or social conventions (3, 5). She appears tobe in conflict over, or lack clarity regarding the immorality ofthe violence at this time. Passivity regarding this moral issue,and in dealing with violence and abuse is evident in all of thenegative imports (3, 5, 6, 7, 10,), just as positive attitudes andactions regarding the violence is evident in many positiveimports (2, 4, 8, 9, 11, 12).177Case Studies: The Battering HusbandslviiMl: Ims:1. When you are forced to do a monotonous task, you arebored and frustrated, and want to do something else. If youare forced to continue you will never want to do anything likethis again.-1 IB6a2. when you jealously compete with a rival for the attention ofsomeone of the opposite sex, you give up and figure it’s notworth the hassle.-2 IB3a3. When you have a rough life, you become depressed, suicidal,get past the point of not return, and take your life.-2 lV5b1784. when your mate tries to reconcile, you don’t want anythingto do with her. You feel hurt and you want her to feel it also.You will probably separate.-2 TuB lc&d5. and at the loss of a loved one, you feel lost, but otherssuffering the same loss will help you through this tough time,and you live happily ever after.—1 1VA4c6. but when you fail, you upset others, and feel shame, but thebest bet is to try something you might better enjoy and maybesucceed in.-1 IF 2d7. when you dream of becoming someone great, you areimpatient about the work involved. A great feeling ofconfidence and you will be the hero you dream of.-2 IBla1798. When you lose your mate you confide in another in a likesituation, find comfort in their arms, and grow to be closerfriends.-1 lVA4a9. when there has been a great change, and you fear attack bypowerful others, you try to escape, but you run into the homeof the enemy, and perish.-2 IVA4d&Sb10. when faced with a crisis in which you could lose yourloved one, you feel helpless, confused and exhausted. You donothing, and lose her. You end up having to get counseling, andget back on the road to a normal productive life.-2 P/A 4b11. and when you hear from others about the qualities andresponsibilities in what it means to be a man, you imagineyourself to magically become ‘a well rounded, good-naturedman’.180-2IBla12. and at a chance to perform in the limelight, you feelnervous, and leery. You go blank when asked to spell“accountabifity”.-2 IB’c13. and in this irresponsible attitude, you take secrethappiness, knowing you have done it your way, the best way,and you have no regrets, and continue on your way.-2 If laClinicai Evaluation: Ml:The sequence analysis for this man reveals an extremelynegative motivation, with no positive imports. He showsconsiderable passivity throughout the sequence, with nopositive action toward success or in overcoming adversity. Heshows preoccupation with the problems of conflict in a couple181relationship, and the failure and loss of that relationship (2, 3,4, 5, 8, 10). He has some desire for success (6, 7), but showsonly negative motivating principles in this regard (1, 2, 6, 7, 11,12, 13).This man shows negative motivating principles in regardto success in relationships and work. He shows an expectationof failure even when putting in active effort, and he gives up(2). Also, he holds a negative attitude toward work, that it isdifficult, boring, and if forced to continue can become repulsive(1). He strongly holds the motivating principle that failure isnot overcome, but it just happens, is tolerated, quicklyforgotten, and you move on (6, 12,13). This attitude is alsoevident in relations with others (2, 4, 5, 8, 10). Bad relations(quarrels and enmity) have no ill effects, and one does notattempt to resolve differences, and the relationship ends inseparation despite obligations (4). This attitude appears to bean overall motivating principle in his life, and is coupled withan anti-success attitude, that belittles success, and shows thatsuccess or happiness is found in a life of irresponsibility (12,13).He shows considerable helplessness, and hopelessness inovercoming adversity (3, 5, 8, 9, 10). Adversity leads toundesirable actions and attitudes of depression, despair andsuicide, and to further destruction (3, 9). Adversity camiot be182overcome because action is impossible, as he is helpless instopping the loss of a loved one (10), and the loss is toleratedwith the help of others, by receiving comfort from them (5, 8).Although this man expresses some desire to achieve (7,11,12), and he wants to be somebody worthwhile, in hismotivating attitudes he substitutes emotions or fantasy foractive effort, and presents the achievement of success byhighly unlikely means or magic (instant transformation) (7,11).In summary, this man shows extremely negativemotivation pattern, scoring 23/200 on the motivation index.He shows evidence of the self-centered negative motivationpattern, and of considerable passivity. His self-centeredpattern shows in desire for name and fame and to be a hero (7,12), and in expectations to achieve success without effort (7,11, 12). There is some evidence that it is the fault of otherswhen relationships end (4). He also shows motivation patternsof passivity in not making positive effort, or giving up in theface of difficulties (1,2,3,4,5,6,7, 10, 11, 12, 13). He dependson the sympathy of others to try to overcome adversity (5,8).The most outstanding motivation pattern of this man is thatfailure just happens, and that one just moves on as quickly aspossible, which is repeated throughout the sequence in variousforms (2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13). This coupled with the disregardof the value of responsibifity and achievement (12, 13) seemsto indicate the accepting of failure and glorifying it as success(13).183184M2 - Tmnorts1. after working at a task for a long time, you feel sad andtired, and then restOIB12. You do the work you clxose to do, even though others donot approve.÷1 TB3b3. a dreadful accident changes your whole life, and you are sosad-2 WA5b4. and when a couple is forced to separate, they are veiyupset, and destruction of their relationship is predictable-2 WA5b1855. you do what you need to do with your life, despite theconcern of loved ones+1 B3b6. you can be given advice that you understand, but are madabout, yet, you and the other remain in relationship.+1 IlIC 3c7. though you have been seriously injured, you are helped bya professional, and you live.+1 WA if8. when people are in love they are affectionate and haveloving feelings, have a rest, and then continue to enjoythemselves.+1 lILA. le9. after a long struggle, you are tired and want to give up,instead you press on, and then rest.186+1 IB4b&5b10. and when you have committed an act of serious violenceagainst your lover, you are helpless, ashamed, and sorry. Youare caught and go to JAIL!+2 hA la11. but a new day will come, and you will feel great and lookforward to good experiences+1 lVA2a12. but present nothingness makes me sad, and there is nofuture.-2 IVA 4b13. and when you have been working at a task for a long time,you are suffering. You get relieved and go to the bar to be withfriends.OIB1187Clinical Evaluation: M2:The sequence analysis for this man reveals someone witha mixture of positive and negative motivating principles. Heshows concern with relationships, their loss, and coping with it(3, 4, 8, 10,11,12). He shows some positive motivation for workand success (2, 5, 9,), in overcoming adversity,(7, 11) inrelationships with others (6,8), and in moral issues (10). Hehas strong negative motivating principles in regard to copingwith the loss of one’s mate (3,4, 12).This man is concerned with the loss of a mate, and heshows a negative conviction that this adversity cannot beovercome, but that it ends in emotion, despair, and destruction(3,4,12). However, he shows the principle that seekingprofessional help, results in overcoming a serious problem (7).In addition, he holds the positive motivating principle ofaccepting reasonable advice, which he understands, eventhough he resents or is angry about it (6). Further, this manholds the positive motivating principle that the perpetrating ofphysical violence on your lover is wrong, is punished, and thepunishment is deserved (10). Finally, he holds the belief thatthe loss is accepted with resignation and hope for future good(11).188He shows the motivating attitude that good relationshipsare desirable, valuable and they endure (8).This man has positive motivation in regard to work. Heshows the principle of independent action by making his ownchoices, despite the negative attitude of others (2, 5). He alsoshows a mildly positive attitude toward work in that it isdifficult but it is done (9), and after resting one continues (9).(Rest is mentioned in four imports, and is the outcome for two,which may indicate that this man was tired or ill the day thathe wrote the test).In summary, this man shows some positive and somenegative motivating principles. He has an overall low positivemotivation score of 112/200 on the motivation index. Heshows positive motivating principles in regard to the physicalviolence against one’s mate being wrong (10), and in seeing thevalue of seeking professional help (7), and in taking reasonableadvice from others (6). Although, he has very negative beliefsabout overcoming the loss (3,4,12), he does hold hope for thefuture (11), and shows willingness to take independent positiveaction (2,5,) and to work to achieve (9). These positiveprinciples will greatly assist him in overcoming his problems.189M3M.3: Imports1. When life circumstances leaves you forced to do a task,when you would have preferred another, you resist, fearfailure, and making a fool of yourself. Then you take the taskin hand and find it interesting.-1 lB 5c2. you quickly get ready to do your work duties which youshare with others. Your work mates like to daydream aboutthe past, and you like to listen to their interesting stories.Others are strong, dedicated, and fond of their work.-2 lB 6c3. after the news of the loss of a loved one, you faint from theshock, but after a time you feel better and continue on.-2 WA 4b4. when faced with adversity and threat, you believe it is yourduty to stop it. Against all odds, with others fearing for your190safety, you heroically press on. The problem is overcome by afluke, or accident.-2 WA 2a5. when a violent tragedy happens to someone you havehonored, though you may be shocked, you are strong to acceptit as part of the changing times and smart to be strong forothers who have difficulty dealing with it.-1 IVA4a6. when faced with the moral question of granting freedomand rights for the oppressed, you feel it is a hard choice, andfear the consequences of allowing change. Though people inauthority support the status quo, others, dedicated to freedomhelp you decide that freedom is most important.+2 IL4b7. When a serious violent injury occurs, experts workdesperately to overcome it, but you remain uninvolved as youcannot face it.191-1 WA 5a(i)8. you fall in love instantly, and are inseparable ever after.-l lilA lb9. Normally you don’t want to be seen by anyone, but whensomething catches your eye, you stop to look and study it. Youfind a treasure that delights you, but you keep it secret, andhave others guess what it is.-2 IBla10. when feeling hot and restless, you take pleasure in sexualplay with a lover, and then feel much better.-1 IB7b11. in a new environment, you go out to look for fun andadventure, and to meet new people.-1 1B819212. and you hope it von’t be a total waste, and that you meetnew people. You meet a woman with similar exciting interests,have a great weekend, and leave with great memories. Youlook forward to next year.-2 lilA 2b13. When someone is lonely and destitute, you are curious, feelsorry for him, and offer a little comfort to him, but you cannotgive him the help he needs. You both feel happy when he ishelped by others.-1 TIlE laClinical Evaluation: M.3The sequence analysis for this man reveals a negativemotivation pattern, with only’ one positive import. His focus ofconcern is on violence and loss (3 to 7), pleasure and recreation(10,11,12), and relationships with others (8, 9, 10, 11,12, 13).His shows little positive motivation toward work success, withno positive imports (1,2,9).193This man expresses the passive negative motivationprinciples that the loss of a loved one cannot be overcomebecause action is impossible (3), that one is strong to tolerate itas part of times we live in and smart to help others cope with it(5). He also holds that he avoids doing anything about itbecause he cannot face it, even though responsibility demandsaction (7). When he does attempt to face it, it is overcome byaccidental or altogether unlikely means (4). Otherwise, theonly positive action taken is by others (7). However, as part ofthis sequence on violence and loss, he shows a positiveprinciple that choosing to support freedom for the oppressed isright and depends on your own choice. (6)This man shows negative motivating principles regardingrelationships with others. He holds that good relations are notestablished or maintained by on going affection and good willthey are the result of fortuitous happenings (8). In thissequence, he states that he does not like to be seen by anyone,and if something delights him he keeps it a secret, and hasothers guess about it (9). He indicates that sex, and looking forfun and adventure is indulged in or enjoyed for it own sake(10.11). When he finds this fun and adventure, and a newwoman friend, he enjoys the weekend, and then says good-byetill next year (12), indicating the motivating principle thatrelations with others are not durable but are engaged in and194broken without reason. Lastly, he shows that when heattempts to give some comfort to others, that what he has or iswilling to offer fails to meet the other’s needs, and they have tobe helped by others who can meet their needs (13).His motivating principles regarding work success andachievement are negative (1,2, 9). He shows that work is forsome people and not for others, as some people are dedicatedto work and do it and others just tell stories while others listen(2). He shows some desire and possibility for success andthinking about a task, but little positive action and no success(1). Success comes by the highly unlikely means of simplydiscovering it (9), or by accident (4).In summary, this man shows a very negative motivationpattern of passivity, and self-centeredness. The selfcenteredness shown is the expectation that success in work andrelationships just comes with little effort or commitment (1, 2,8, 9, 12, 13). Overall this man shows considerable passivity(lack of positive action) regarding overcoming the adversity ofloss of others through violence or accident (3, 5, 7,), and in thenegative expectation that success comes by chance, (4,9,). Also,in that good relations with others just happen (8,12), and endwithout reason (12). He shows passivity in the lack of strongpositive action, and thus failure in helping others (13). He alsoshows passive dependence on others as others take positiveaction to achieve and to help whereas he doesn’t (2, 7, 13). Theonly positive import is the decision to choose to support theright of freedom for the oppressed (6). This man has an overallnegative motivation with the very low score of 42/200 on themotivation index,195196CHAFFER FiVE: DISCUSSIONThis multi-case study explored the questions: “whatmotivates men to physically batter their wives? and “whatmotivates women to stay in marriage relationships in whichthey are being battered?”. This study examined the motivationpatterns of 3 battering husbands, and 11 battered wives asrevealed through the TAT. The motivation patterns and thecase evaluations of the participants were presented in theprevious chapter. This final chapter presents: (a) summary ofthe findings, (b) limitations of the study; (c) implications fortheory; (d) implications for practice; (e) implications for futureresearch; and (f) summary of the research project.The Research FindingsThis study generated two types of cross-case findingsthat are discussed in this section: (a) the similarities anddifferences of the motivation patterns of the battered women,and (b) the similarities and differences of the motivationpatterns of the male batterers.Cross-case Findings: Battered WivesThe cross-case analysis of the 11 battered women in thisstudy show predominantly negative motivation patterns.These negative motivation patterns were compared to the four197negative motivation patterns outlined in Arnold (1962):passive, pessimistic, self-centered, and malicious. The cross-case analysis showed a passive and pessimistic negativemotivation pattern for all of the women. In addition, sixwomen showed negative imports matching one or two importsof the self-centered pattern, and three showed importsmatching from one to three imports in the malicious pattern.There is a counter balance of positive motivation in theimports of the battered women as reflected in their scores onArnold’s motivation index. Their scores indicate a continuumof differing balances of positive and negative motivation acrossthe group on the scoring index of 0 to 200. The scores on theTAT motivation index for the 11 women range from 15 to 119and were as follows: 15, 23, 27, 27, 50, 50, 50, 85, 85, 104, and119. The scores below the median (100) indicate a negativemotivation pattern that contains more negative than positivemotivation. The battered ornen’s scores range from‘extremely negative’ to a pattern of ‘nearly equal ‘negative andpositive’ motivation. None of these women are positivelymotivated according to Arnold’s normative scale.The most prominent negative motivation patterns foundin common for all of the battered wives in this study are asfollows:Passive:1981. No goal, or gives up as soon as difficult;2. Dependency on others for success, achievement,happiness;3. Dependency in human relationships (fearful,subservient, gives in to keep the peace, lack of personalefficacy);4. Hopes or dreams of success which comes by waiting,fate, chance, or magical means;5. One does not stand up for and/or act on onesconvictions; one conforms, and yields to illegitimatepressure;6. Good relations come by chance, fate, time, or externalcircumstances, and one cannot influence others;Pessimistic convictions:7. Paralyzing fear and numbing anxiety in the face ofadversity (which for these women was predominantlyphysical violence);8. Relationship difficulties, failures, rejection, lack of loveand understanding have devastating long-term effects;9. Adversity cannot be overcome.Malicious Convictions:19910. Others are determined to do what they want andthink can get away with it, justify it, become angry,insult, physically assault, and have no scruples aboutdestroying others. (Stories indicate this about violentmen/husbands).NOTE: All of the women in this study wrote stories andhad imports that indicate preoccupying concern withviolent relationships.Although, the above motivating attitudes are found incommon for all of the battered wives in this study, this listcannot be interpreted as a single profile for all the batteredwomen. Some women in this study show motivating attitudesthat are not in common with any’ or many others. Also, thenumber of times the common motivating attitudes appear in awoman’s import sequence varies from one, to several imports.Therefore, although the battered women in this study havethese motivating attitudes in common, they also show manydifferences.In addition, as this study has a small number of subjects,the findings claimed are tentative and conservatively limited tothe most obvious findings. There are other motivatingattitudes in the imports of the women that may emerge as200common patterns with a larger number of subjects as otherstudies have found. These higher number of commonmotivating attitudes may then reveal several types of batteredwomen as also suggested in the research literature.In addition, in considering the motivation pattern onemust be mindful that these battered women show the abovenegative motivating attitudes along with some positivemotivating attitudes. The degree of positive motivation isindicated by their motivation index’ scores. They show positivemotivation imports of positive action overcoming adversity, orpositive attitude in coping with it. All of the women in thisstudy indicated some positive attitude or action toward leavinga relationship with an abusive and violent man. This was theonly positive motivating attitude in common for all of thewomen.Cross-case Findin2s: Male BatterersThe cross-case findings for the three male batterers inthis study showed some similarities across all three cases.However, two of the three showed primarily negativemotivation scores for the TAT (M1:23; and M3:42), while onemale batterer showed a near median positive score (M2: 112).The two low scorers showed a negative motivation pattern thatspread across all four patterns described by Arnold (1962).201Their clinical evaluations showed negative motivation withimports across the passive, pessimistic, self-centered, andmalicious patterns for two of the men. However, the battererwith more positive motivation had a pattern that showedprimarily passMty, with some pessimism.As two of the male batterers show a more similarpattern than the third, more than one pattern of motivationmay exist among male batterers. It appears that there are twotypes of men who batter their wives in this study. One type,evident in Ml, and M3, shows more self-centered andmalicious motivation. The other type, M2, shows a mixedmotivation pattern of positive and negative passive motivationwith one pessimistic conviction. However, these findings aretenuous because of the very small sample.As Yin (1989) claims that a multi-case study must havethree cases to have sufficiently robust findings from which togeneralize to theory, this study limits its claimed findings tothose evident across all three batterers. All the batterers showpassive, and pessimistic negative motivating attitudes asfollows:Passive:1. No goal, or gives up on goal as soon as it becomesdifficult;.2022. Hopes or dreams of success which comes by waiting,fate, or chance;3. Dependency: on the sympathy, and advice of others tosucceed; Ml and M3 showed the i-elated conviction thatwithout help they are resigned to failure, while M2showed that he expects to fail but tries to be happy inspite of it;4. Relationships are externally controlled. Bad relationsare caused by external circumstances (Ml & M2) Goodrelations come by chance or fate and one cannot influenceothers (M3).Pessimistic5. Adversity cannot be overcome.Despite the caution needed in considering the results for thebatterers because of the very small sample size, the similarity ofsome of the motivation patterns between Ml and M3 are worthnoting for consideration in future research. The motivatingattitudes they hold in common are as follows:Passive:1. Accident, fate, or providence explain adversity.Self-centered:2. Failure results from lack of ability, aptitude, and/oropportunity;2033. Expects success without putting oneself out orcommitting oneself to a definite course of action.Malicious pattern:4. Falling in or out of love without much caring andbreaking relations without compunction.These motivating attitude similarities seem to indicate amore self-centered and malicious type of batterer, ascontrasted to the passive type shown in M2. These two typesseem to correspond to two types of batterers found in theresearch literature, which will be discussed in implications fortheory.Limitations of the Study:The significance of this study’s findings is limited by thefollowing:1. The small sample size does not allow generalization to thepopulation of male batterers or battered wives, although it isconsidered sufficient for an exploratory multi-case study thatcan generalize to theory.2. There is no comparative measure other than thedescriptions in the literature of a known group with defined204characteristics. Another measure of the participant’smotivation would contribute to the validity of the results.3. Subjective bias may have influenced the importing andclinical evaluations, even though Arnold’s instructions forforming imports and evaluations attempt to avoid bias.4. The reliability and validity of the imports, and scores couldbe improved by having imports and sequence analysesconducted by more than one researcher.5. Using more than one rater for scoring the imports, and inter-rater reliability testing would also improve reliability andvalidity6. As Arnold (1962) suggested, a scoring criteria based on aclinical population would be more accurate as some of theimports in this study may be more negative than those foundin Arnold’s scoring criteria for a normal population.7. The accuracy of the cross-case analysis could be improvedby a clearly defined system in which the exact imports fromthe scoring criteria are listed for each negative motivationpattern. This would reduce the possibility of error andsubjective bias when matching imports to the generalizeddescriptions of the negative patterns given by Arnold (1962).205Implications for TheoryIn this section the motivation patterns found in the cross-case analysis are compared to the descriptions of batteredwives and of battering husbands in the research literature.This is followed by a discussion of the theoretical implicationsof these comparisons.The Motivation of Battered Wives: Comparison to the Researchon Battered Women:The results of this study show corresponding motivationpatterns to the characteristics of battered wives described inthe research literature. Two predominant theoreticalperspectives about battered wives that parallel the result ofthis study are post-traumatic stress syndrome (Herman, 1992)and learned helplessness in the battered women syndrome(Walker, 1984).Post-traumatic stress syndrome has three stages: (1)submission: relinquishes inner autonomy, world view, moralprinciples, and connection with others for the sake of survival;(2) robotization: shuts down feelings, thoughts, initiative, andjudgment; and (3) fatal stage: loss of the will to live; absolutepassivity (Herman, 1992).206The cross-case analysis for the group of women in thisstudy show negative motivation that matches the first twostages of post-traumatic stress syndrome. Corresponding to thefirst stage, they show “passive dependency in humanrelationships with fearfulness, subservience, giving in to keepthe peace, and lack of personal efficacy”. In addition, thebattered omen show the passive motivating attitude that “onedoes not stand up for and act on one’s convictions, but gives into ifiegitimate pressure, and confonns”. Stage two of post-traumatic stress syndrome matches the battered wivespessimistic motivation pattern of “paralyzing fear and numbinganxiety in the face of adversity “(which for these women waspredominantly physical violence).The third fatal stage of post-traumatic stress syndrome isnot clearly demonstrated in this study. However, thepessimistic conviction that relationship difficulties, failures,rejection, lack of love, and understanding have devastating longterm effects is common among this group. Examination of thisconviction in the clinical evaluations reveals that several of thewomen have imports that included contemplated suicide, orsuicide, or other fatal harm (W2, W4, W7, W9, W10, Wil). Onewoman (W10) shows an import of sheer passivity in Arnold’sscoring criteria: “when you seriously hurt yourself, you areindifferent, and just curious, and don’t know about the207outcome”. These imports or convictions seem to indicate somenegative motivation toward loss of the will to live, and absolutepassivity. However, this was not a conclusive pattern for anyof the women in this study as it was not predominant in theirimports, nor did any of their import sequences end in suicideor fatal loss.A further comparison of the motivation patterns of thebattered women in this study shows a corresponding pattern toWalker’s (1984) learned helplessness in the battered womensyndrome. Learned helplessness means a lack of contingencybetween actions and outcome which leads to negativepessimistic beliefs about the efficacy of ones actions, and aboutthe likelihood of obtaining future rewards through ones ownactions (Walker, 1984). Learned helplessness includescognitive, affective, and motivational components ofdepression: (a) the perception or expectation that goals cannotbe reached by responses available to the person (unlikely totry to do anything), (b) helplessness and passivity and (c)unrealistic about current situation (disassociation, fantasy,magical thinking, hopes for change/no action). These areevident in the passive motivation patterns of battered wives inthis study of (a) no goals, or gives up as soon as its difficult, (b)hopes and dreams of success which comes by waiting, fate,chance, or magical means, (c) good relations come by chance,208fate, time, or external circumstances, and the pessimisticmotivating attitude of (d) adversity cannot be overcome.In addition, the research literature shows that batteredwomen hold traditional ideology. They believe it is their roleto keep peace and harmony and maintain the marriage. Theyfeel shame in admitting failure of the marriage. They fear lossof role and economic status, and are emotional and financiallydependent. These traditional ideologies are evident in themotivation patterns of the women in this study in passivedependency on others in success/achievement and inrelationships in which they show motivation to keep the peaceand be submissive. They show the pessimistic motivation thatrelationship difficulties, failures, rejection, and lack of love andunderstanding have devastating long tenn effects. Thedevastating long term effects evident in their imports andstories are the loss of economic status, poverty, and shame inadmitting failure of marriage. Failure and low self-esteem arealso evident in this study as in the literature regardingbattered women, and are correspondent with lack of confidencein ones own abifity to act and create desirable results in one’slife.Comparing the characteristics attributed to batteredwomen in the research literature to the motivation patternsfound in this study makes apparent that the theories repeat209attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors using differentlanguage. Post-traumatic stress syndrome, and learnedhelplessness in the battered wife syndrome match the samemotivation pattern. The traditional ideology and low self-esteem along with the vast number of attributes listed in theresearch literature (see chapter 2, section 2 this study) alsodescribe virtually the same patterns of motivation. This lack ofcohesive theory and typology creates unwieldy, confusingdescriptions for the clinician. Thereby making it difficult toclarify the problems and needs of battered women and todesign effective treatment programs.The motivation patterns of battered women described inthis study provide a clear theoretical basis with a definitive setof problems that are verified by the research literature. Thepassive and pessimistic motivation which are the principles ofliving for battered women in this study add clarification andcohesion to the research. The discovery of the underlyingmotivation of battered women, a dimension that has beenignored by researchers contributes comprehension to the vastunwieldy theory. Therefore the motivational dimensionmeasured by the TAT and Arnold’s story sequence analysisshows at least tentative validity and value in this exploratorystudy.210The Motivation Patterns of Battering Husbands: Comtarison tothe Research on Batterers:In comparing the list of characteristic attitudes, andbehaviors of male batterers in the research literature to themotivation patterns found in this study, there are evidentsimilarities. Depression, and external locus of control areattributes listed in the literature for batterers. Batterers showthe cognitive, motivational, and affective dimensions ofdepression: (1) perception or expectation that goals cannot bereached by responses available to the person (unlikely to try todo anything); (2) helplessness, passivity; (3) unrealistic aboutcurrent situation (disassociation, fantasy, magical thinking,hopes for change/no action). Corresponding motivatingprinciples are evident for batterers in the TAT results: (1) nogoals, or give up on goals as soon as they face difficulty; (2)hopes or dreams of success which comes by waiting, fate, orchance; (3) dependency on sympathy, and advice of others tosucceed or resigned to failure; and (4) adversity cannot beovercome. All of these negative motivation principles are alsoequivalent to external locus of control.In addition, the research literature states that thebatterer externalizes problems, and abrogates responsibility for211the violence onto his wife and shows denial that anything iswrong with him These are similar to the convictions held bythe batterers in this study that bad relations are caused byexternal circumstances and accident ftte or providence explainadversityc However, the motivation patterns show generalizedexternalization or external locus of control. Therefore thebatterer is likely to blame his wife for the violence just as heblames others, and external circumstances for his problems,and life events.The last similarity found between the findings of thisstudy and that of the research literature is self-depreciation,and/or low self-esteem. The batterers in this study hold tothese principles of living; depend on others to succeed andwithout help expect or are resigned to failure (M1,2,3) andfailure results from lack of ability, aptitude, and/oropportunily (M1&3). These motivating attitudes of all threebatterers show a lack of confidence in oneself and on&sabilities that is descriptive of self-depreciation and low self-esteem.A significant implication from the findings of this studyfor batterers is that the passive motivation patterns describedabove as equivalent to depression, external locus of control,and low self-esteem are the same as the descriptions of learnedhelplessness. Learned helplessness is the antithesis of positive212motivation pattern, and is the holding of negative passive andpessimistic beliefs about the efficacy of ones actions, and aboutthe likelihood of obtaining future rewards through ones ownactions (Walker, 1984). Learned helplessness includescognitive, affective, and motivational components ofdepression. Therefore, batterers have the attitudes andbehaviors of learned helplessness.Researchers have recognized the pattern of learnedhelplessness for battered women, but not for batterers.However, the theory of the development of learnedhelplessness is consistent with the research findings that a highpercentage of male batterers have a history of family of originviolence (Straus & Gelles, 1990; Walker, 1984;). Studies haveshown that family of origin use and tolerance of violence(especially toward women), plus inconsistency in discipline,lack of problem solving and coercive family tactics result in thedevelopment of aggression and violence (Fagot, et al, 1988).These family dysfunction’s also correlate with spousal violence(Dibble & Straus, 1990; Pagot, et al, 1988; Rosenbaum et al,1990; Straus, Geiles, & Steinmetz, 1980; Walker, 1984;), Inaddition, these dysfunction’s are a breeding ground for learnedhelplessness because of the lack of contingency betweenactions and outcome in these chaotic family dysfunction’s. Oneexception in the lack of contingency between actions and213outcome would be getting one’s way by using violence.Learned helplessness plus acceptance of coercion and violenceas acceptable and effective resources correspond to Arnold’s(1962) findings in motivation patterns. Arnold found thatindividuals who have hostile tendencies view the world as anunsafe place and believe that it is acceptable to use others toget what one wants, and believe that success may be attainedby using force or threat of force. The world is an unsafe placewhen one feels helpless, dependent, and pessimistic about theefficacy of on&s actions, Therefore, as some researchers havefound, the batterer may be easily threatened feel fear anddesperation, and resort to violence as the final ultimateresource (Finkethor, 1983; Hampsen, 1991). Altogether thefindings of this study, Arnold!s studies, and other research onspousal violence point to learned helplessness as a keycomponent in the motivation of the behavior of batterers.The implication of this study that male batterers showlearned helplessness by their passive and helpless motivationcontradicts the popular concept of researchers and cliniciansthat batterers are merely controlling and malicious (Ferrato,1991; Hampsen, 1991; Herman, 1992; Rosenbaum et al, 1990;Walker, 1984;). This view is advocated in some treatmentprograms and can be useful in assisting battered wives tochange from the position of coping with the violence to one of214leaving the relationship. This stance has been shown to beeffective and is advocated in the research (Ferrato, 1991;Herman, 1992; Straus & Gelles, 1990; Walker, 1984). Although,it may be true that batterers are controlling and malicious,(and this study shows some tentative indications ofmaliciousness) this is a limited view. Perceiving the batterer ascontrolling and malicious fails to consider the underlyingmotivation that causes his behavior and is therefore ofquestionable usefulness in understanding and treating thebatterer.In addition, this limited perspective of the batterer fallsto consider differences in the motivation patterns of batterersindicated in this study. One batterer shows a pattern of almostequal positive and negative passive motivation with onepessimistic motivating attitude. The two other batterers showsimilar passive and pessimistic motivation but with self-centered and malicious motivation. These findings indicatethat some batterers may be more malicious than others. Thesediffering patterns correspond with findings in the researchliterature of a typology of batterers (Gondoif & Fisher, 1990;Rosenbaum et al, 1990; Walker, 1984). The positive/passivewith some pessimistic seems to be most like the typicalbatterer (Gondoif & Fisher, 1990), who tends to feel regretabout his perpetrated violence. Remorse was evident in one215import in this batterers sequence analysis, and it was not foundin the sequence analysis of the other batterers. The other twobatterers in this study may be similar to the antisocial (Gondoif& Fisher, 1990), or the narcissistic/antisocial (Rosenbaum et al,1990), which seems similar to Arnold’s self-centeredmotivation pattern. However, these findings and comparisonsare only tentative, and must be clarified and verified byfurther research.Although the research literature lists many otherattitudes and behavior characteristics of male batterers, noothers match this studies findings of batterers’ motivationpatterns. The lack of more similarities may be due to severalfactors. The very small sample in this study limits the scope ofpossibilities out of the population of batterers. Also, thisstudy’s focus on motivation is not found in the research. Third,this study explored tacit personal knowledge in contrast to theother research that has examined behavior, and attitudes ofbatterers through self-report methods. Finally many studies inthe research literature used the self-reports of battered wivesto obtain descriptions of the batterers (Walker, 1984;Rosenbaum et al, 1990).In summary, there are only a few motivating attitudes ofbatterers in this study that clearly correspond to the attitudesand behavior descriptions in the research literature. However,216this study’s findings agree with key components of findings inthe research. They also clarify and add to theory by revealinga similarity in patterns for learned helplessness for batterersas well as battered wives. These findings and theirimplications for theory show a more whole perspective aboutbatterers. Perhaps, learned helplessness, combined with anattitude of acceptance or approval of violence as a legitimateresource, plus the lack of appropriate punishment, and thepresence of rewarding consequences for spousal violence(submission from the other/getting ones own way) are theanswer to the question: why does a husband batter his wife.Further research is needed to verify the tentative findings ofthis study and its implications for theoryImplications for PracticeThe use of the TAT and of Arnold?s system of storysequence analysis for clinical evaluation with batterers andbattered wives is an effective and efficient tool for assessment.It provides a method for quickly accessing tacit self-knowledgethereby revealing to the clinician needed information that canbe readily used to design treatment programs. The clientinformation attained by this method is useful in avoidingdistortions that may be made by the client as internal and217external ego defenses. An in-depth understanding of theclient’s motivation pattern gives the clinician infonnation thatmay not be gleaned from the clients self-reports because itmay not be available to the client’s conscious awareness.The information obtained in the clinical assessmentdelineates the motivating attitudes of the client, and revealsthose beliefs, attitudes, values, that are preventing the clientfrom functioning successfully. The battered wife and thebattering husband may show learned helplessness with its lackof recognition, acceptance, or understanding of the contingencybetween actions and outcome, and of the efficacy of theiractions. The clients could be assisted in discovering andlearning these connections, and in acting on this information.Treatment programs can be designed to provide experientiallearning of the truth about motivation and successful operatingprinciples for living. The skills needed to apply theseprinciples in relationships could be taught and practiced withthese clients in individual, couple, family, and group counseling.The revealing of their motivation patterns as indicated by theTAT clinical evaluation may provide insight for the client aswell, and help to relieve anxiety, shame, and low self-esteemcaused by the self-blame of both the batterers and batteredwives. They could begin to understand the problem and findhope for a solution rather than continuing in the unrealistic218passive and/or pessimistic motivation pattern that they cannotdo anything about their behavior, or the success or failure intheir lives and relationships. The client would thereby beempowered to change.Implications for Future ResearchFuture research using the TAT and Arnolds system ofstory sequence analysis to assess the motivation patterns ofbattered wives and of male batterers would further theunderstanding of wife battering. A study using thirty or moresubjects for each group would provide results that could beused to generalize to a population. Repeated studies with thisnumber of subjects, using a measure for correlation to the TATresults, could provide motivation pattern descriptions based onthe imports and sequence analysis. The imports shown by eachgroup could be developed into a clinical scoring criteriaapplicable to these groups. The scoring criteria could beverified by additional studies of this kind. Once proven validand reliable, the scoring criteria would be useful for clinicaldiagnosis and for designing individual and group treatmentprograms.Summary of the Study219This multi-case study explored the motivation patterns of11 battered women and 3 male batterers. The ThematicApperception Test (TAT) and Arnold’s Story Seciuence Analysis(1962) were utilized to obtain and analyze a series of 13 storiesfrom each participant. The participants stories were analyzedto produce story imports, which are analogous to the moral ofthe story. The imports revealed the motivation or principles ofliving of each participant. The sequence of imports from the 13stories revealed the pattern of motivation from which theclinical evaluations were formed for each person. The importsand clinical evaluations of the respective group members ofbattered women and of male batterers were then compared ina cross-case analysis.All of the battered wives, as well as the male batterersshowed predominantly negative motivation patterns.Therefore their import similarities and differences werecharted in the cross-case analysis according to the descriptionsof the four negative motivation patterns outlined by Arnold(1962). The results of this cross-case analysis for therespective groups were then compared to the characteristicattitudes, values, and behaviors outlined in the researchliterature for male batterers and for battered wives. Theseknown characteristics for each group were used as thecomparative validity measure to the story sequence analyses220as recommended by Teglasi (1993). The similarities anddifferences between the cross-case analyses of motivationpatterns of male batterers and battered wives in this study andthe known characteristics for the respective groups in theliterature were delineated in the final research process for thisstudy.This exploratory multi-case study found manysimilarities and some differences in the cross-case analysis foreach group. In addition, the cross-case analysis results for therespective groups and the characteristics found in theliterature showed corresponding patterns, although more werefound for the 11 battered wives, than for the 3 male batterers.This study found common motivation patterns for both thebattered wives and the male batterers that were negative. Thesame passive and pessimistic patterns of negative motivationwere common across both groups. Both groups showedcognitive, motivational, and emotional components ofdepression, and negative passive and pessimistic motivatingattitudes regarding the lack of contingency between actionsand outcome. Their sequence analyses indicated theimpossibility of achieving what one wants and needs throughone’s own actions. Each of these patterns were described aslearned helplessness in the research literature. These resultsmatched patterns described in the research for battered wives221and for male batterers. However, male batterers’ equivalentdescriptions were depression, low self-esteem, and externallocus of control rather than learned helplessness. Nevertheless,this study shows that both the male batterers and the batteredwives show the motivation patterns of learned helplessness.Although these similarities in motivation patterns werefound for both groups there were also differences. The groupof women showed similar motivation patterns to the attributesof post-traumatic stress syndrome (Herman, 1992), which isvery similar to learned helplessness in the battered womensyndrome (Walker, 1984). The male batterers showed twodifferent patterns of motivation that appeared to indicate twotypes similar to the typical (positive/passive/pessimisticmotivation) and narcissistic/anti-social (passive/ pessimisticwith self-centered/malicious motivation) types mentioned forbatterers in the research literature.The motivation patterns revealed in this multi-casestudy, though its results must be considered tentative,contributed clarity to a vast and unwieldy theory by findingcommonalties between differing theoretical views. Many ofthese differing views were actually parallel and correspondedto the same motivational patterns. Therefore the commonmotivation patterns found in this study provided a cleareranalysis and theory of the problems in living for battered222women and male batterers. Although further research usingstory sequence analysis is recommended to confirm theseresults, these motivation patterns may provide direction forthe clinician, and the researcher, regarding the dysfunction ofthese clients. Therefore, further utilization of the motivationpatterns revealed in this study, and of story sequence analysisby clinicians and researchers may provide a clearer guide forsuccessful treatment for the problems of male batterers and ofbattered wives.223REFERENCESAmmerman, R. T., & Hersen, M. (1990). Family violence: Aclinical Overview. In R. T. Ammerman & M. Hersen (Eds.)Case studies in family violence. (pp. 3 -14). New York:Plenum Press.Arnold, M. B. (1962). Story seciuence analysis. New York:Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Babcock, Julia C. (1992). Power and violence: the relationshipbetween communication patterns, power discrepanciesand domestic violence. Unpublished masters thesis,University of Washington, Seattle, WA.Bandura, A., Rossi, D. & Ross, S. (1983). Transmission ofaggression through imitation of aggressive models. InWm. Damon (Ed.) Social and Personality Development.(pp. 139 -152). N.Y.: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc.Bedrosian, R.C. (1982). Treatment of marital violence. In J.C.Hansen & LR Barnhill (Eds.) Clinical approaches tofamily violence. (pp.117 -137). Rockville, Maryland:Aspen Systems Corp.Berger, A. (1985), Characteristics of abusing famifies. In L.L!Abate (Ed.) The handbook of family therapy, Vol II.(pp. 900 - 936). Homewood, ill.: Dorsey Press.Berghorn, G.. & Siracosa, A. (1982) Beyond isolated treatment:a case for community involvement in family violenceinterventions. In J.C. Hansen & LR. Barnhill (Eds.)Clinical approaches to family violence. (pp. 139 - 155).Rockville, Maryland: Aspen Systems Corp.Berkowitz, L. (1983). The goals of aggression: toward a theoryof interfamily violence. In D. Finkethor, R. Gelles, G.Hotaling, & Ni. Straus (Eds.) The dark side of families:224CulTent family violence research. (pp. 166-181).Beverley Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications Inc.Bersani, C.A. & Huey-Tsyh, C. (1988) Sociological perspectivesin family violence. In V.B. Van Hassell, R. Morrison & NI.Hersen (Eds,) Handbook of family violence. (pp. 57 -84).N.Y.: Plenum PressBograd, M. (1988). How battered ornen and abusive menaccount for domestic violence: excuses, justifications, orexplainations. In G.T. Hotaling, D. Finkeihor, J.Kirkpatrick & M. Straus (Eds.) Coping with familyviolence. (pp. 32 - 60). Beverley Hills, CA.: SagePublications Inc.Browning, J. J. (1983) Violence against intimates: toward aprofile of a wife assaulter. Unpublished doctoraldissertation, U.B.C., Vancouver, B.C.Chasson, L (1979). Research design in clinical psychology andpsychiatry. (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley & SonsCochran, L. (1986). Portrait and story. New York: GreenwoodPressDobash, R.E. & Dobash, R. (1979). Violence against wives, acase against the patriarchy. New York: The Free Press.Dobash, R. & Dobash, R.E. (1983). The context-specificapproach. In D. Finkethor, R. Gelles, G. Hotaling, & M.Straus (Eds.) The dark side of families: Current familyviolence research. (pp. 161-276). Beverley Hills, Calif.:Sage Publications Inc.Dweck, C.A. & Goetz, T. (1983). Attributions and learnedhelplessness. In Wm. Damon (Ed.) Social and personalitydevelopment. (pp. 184-203). New York: W.W. Norton &Co. Inc.225England, R. (1989) Personality characteristics of nonviolentand violent juvenile offenders: the ufflity of the MMPIand Jesness Inventory in a forensic setting. Unpublishedmasters thesis, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C.Everett, A. (1988). The role of personality in violentrelationships. In Russell, G. (Ed.,) Violence in Intimaterelationships. (pp.135-148). New York: PMA PublishingCorp.Fagot, B. Loeber, R. & Reid J. (1989). Developmentaldeterminants of male to female aggression. In Russell, G.(Ed.,) Violence in Intimate relationships. (pp.91 -106).New York: PMA Publishing Corp.Ferrato, D. (1991). living with the enemy. New York:Aperature Foundation Inc., 20 F. 23rd St., 10010Finkelhor, D., Hotaling, G. & Yb, K. (1988). Stopping familyviolence: research priorities for the coming decade. NewYork: Sage Publications Inc.Ford, D. (1991). Preventing and provoking wife batterythrough criminal sanctions: A look at the risks. In D.Knudsen & J. Mifier (Eds.) Abused and Battered.(pp.191-2 10). New York: Walter de Gruyter Inc.Freedman, L (1985). Wife assault. In C. Guberman, & NI.Wolfe (Eds.) No safe place: violence against women andchildren. (pp. 43 -69). Toronto: Women’s Press.Friedman, D.H. (1982). Locus of control, self-esteem anddogmatism in male marine spouse abusers. Unpublishedmasters thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.Gelles, R.J. & Straus, M.A. (1988). Intimate violence. New York:Simon & Schuster Inc.226Gelles, R.J. (1983). An exchange social control theory: toward atheory of intrafarnily violence. In D.L Finkeihor, RGelles, g. Hotaling, & M. Straus (eds.) The dark side offamilies: Current family violence research. (pp. 151-165).Beverley Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications Inc.Goldberg, H. (1982). Dynamics of rage between sexes in abonded relationship. In J.C. Hansen & LR. Barnhil (Eds.)Clinical approches to family violence. (pp. 59-67)Rockville, I\4aryland: Aspen Systems Corp.Gondoif, E.W. & Fisher, F.R. (1990). Wife battering. In R.Ammerman & M. Hersen (Eds.) Case studies in familyviolence. (pp. 273-292). New York: Plenum Press.Gondolf, F. & Hanneken, J. (1987). The gender warrior:reformed batterers on abuse, treatment, and change.Journal of Family Violence, 2, 177-191Guberman, C. & Wolfe (Eds.) (1985). No safe place: violenceagainst women and children. Toronto: Women’s Press.Guidano, V.F. & Liotti, G. (1983). Cognitive processes andemotional disorders. New York: The Guilford Press.Hammer, F. (1985). Introduction and perspective. In A. Wohl& B. Kaufman (Eds.) Silent screams and hidden cries: Aninterpretation of artwork by children from violent homes.(pp. xiii - xx). New York: Bruner/Mazel Publishers.Hampson, D.A. (1991). Understanding the experience of theman who assaults his wife. Unpublished MA thesis,U.B.C., Vancouver, B.C.Herman, J. L (1992). Trauma and Recovery The aftermath ofviolence - from domestic abuse to litical terron NewYork: Basic Books, Harper Collins Publishers, Inc.227Hertzberger, S. (1983). Social cognition and the transmissionof abuse. In D. finkelhor, R Gelles, G. Hotallng, & M.Straus (Eds.) The dark side of families: CuiTent familyviolence research. (pp. 305-316). Beverly Hills, Calif.:Sage Publications.Hoffman, M. (1983). Developmental synthesis of affect andcognition and its implications for altruistic motivation. InWin. Damon (Ed.) Social and personality development.(pp. 258-278). New York: W.W. Norton & Co.Hornung, C.A., Mccullough, B.C. & Sugimoto, T. (1981). Statusrelationships in marriage: Risk factors in spouse abuse.Journal of Marriage and the Family, Au2ust, 675-692.Kernberg, O.F. (1990). Hatred as pleasure. In R Glick & S.Bone (Eds.) Pleasure beyond the pleasure principle. (pp.177-188). New Haven: Yale University Press.Krornsky, D. & Cutler, B. (1991). The admissability of experttestimony on battered women syndrome. In D. Knudsen& J. Miller (Eds.) Abused and Battered. (pp.191-210).New York: Walter de Gruyter Inc.Lepper, M. (1983). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation inchildren: detrimental effects of superfious social controls.In W. Daman (Ed.) Social and personality development.(pp. 153-183). New York: W.W. Norton & Co.Margolin, G., Siener. LG. & Gleberman, L. (1988). Wifebattering. In V.B. VanHassell, R. Morrison, A.S. Bellach &M. Hersen (Eds.) Handbook of family violence. (pp. 89-119). New York: Plenum Press.Miller, J. (1991). Ethical concerns for research in wifebattering. In D. Knudsen & J. Miller (Eds.) Abused and228battered. (pp. 211- 223). New York: Walter de GruyterInc.Ministry of National Health and Welfare. (1989). Familyviolence: A review of theoretical and clinical literature.Ottawa, Ont.: Policy Communication Branch, Health andWelfare Canada.Minuchin, S. (1984). Family kaleidoscope: images of violenceand healing. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Monte, C.F. (1980). Beneath the mask. New York: Holt,Rinehart & Winston.Morgan, C. D. & Murray, H.A. (1935). A method forinvestigating fantasy: The thematic apperception test.Arch. Neurological Psychiatry, 34, 289 - 306Murray, H. A. (1943). Thematic apperception test manual.Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Murphy, C.M. & Meyer, S.L (1991). Gender, power andviolence in malTiage. The Behavior Therapist, j4 95-100Nichols, W. (1986) Understanding family violence: Anorientation for family therapists. Contemporary FamilyTherapy, 8(3), 189-207Nugent, W.R. (1985). A methodological review of case studiespublished in the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis.American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 19 1-200.Owens, R.G. & Ashcroft, J.B. (1985). Violence: A guide for thecaring professions. Dover, New Hampshire: Croom HelmLtd.229Owens, D. & Straus, NI. (1975). The social structure of violencein childhood and approval of violence as an adult.Aggressive Behavior, j. 193-211.Patterson, G.R (1982). Coercive family process. Eugene,Oregon: Castalia Publishing Co.Placelc J. (1988). Why men batter their wives? In K. Yllo &M. Bograd (Eds.) Feminist rspectives on wife abuse.(pp.133-157). Newbuiy Park, CA: Sage PublicationsRosenbaum, A., Cohen, P., & Forsstrom-Cohen, B. (1990). Theecology of domestic aggression toward adult victims. InR. Ammerman, & NI. Hersen (Eds.) Case studies in familyviolence. New York, Plenum Press.Russell, G. (1988), Introduction In G. Russell (Ed), Violence inIntimate Relationships. (pp.xiii - xv). New York: PMAPublishing Corp.Schultz, D. (1981). A history of modern psychology (3rd ed.).New York: Academic Press.Sebastian, R.J. (1983). Social and psychological determinants:toward a theory of interfamily violence. In D. Finkelhor,R. Gelles, G. Hotaling, & NI. Straus (Eds.) The dark side offamilies: Current family violence research. (pp. 182-191). Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications,Stark, F. & Flitcraft, A. (1988). Violence among intimates: Anepidernological review. In V.B. Vanllassell, R. Morrison,A. Bellach, & NI. Hersen (Eds.) Handbook of familyviolence. (pp. 199-147) New York: Plenum Press.Straus, NI. (1983). Ordinary violence, child abuse, wife beating:What do they have in common? In D. Finkeihor, R Gelles,G. Hotaling, & NI. Straus (Eds.) The dark side of families:230CuITent family violence research. (pp. 197 - 212).Beverley Hills, CA. Sage Publications Inc.Straus, M. (1991). Physical violence in American families:Incidence, rates, causes, and trends. In D. Knudsen & J,Miller (Eds.) Abused and Battered. (pp. 138- 153).New York: Walter de Gruyter Inc.Straus, M. & Gelles R. (1990). Physical violence in americanfamilies, risk factors: seven adaptations to violence in8145 families. New Brunswick, U.S.A.: TransactionPublishersStraus, M., Steinmetz, S.K. & Gelles, R. (1980). Behind closeddoors: violence in the American family. Garden City, N.Y.:Anchor Books.Stets, J.E. (1988). Domestic violence and control. New York:Springer-Verlag Co.Teglasi, H. (1993). Clinical use of story telling: emphasizing theTA.T. with children and adolescents. Needham Heights,Mass.: Allyn & Bacon.Thaxton, L. (1985). Wife abuse. In L L’Abate (Ed.) Thehandbook of family psychology and therapy., Vol II. (pp.876-899). Homewood, ill.: Dorsey Press.Triandis, H. C. (1980). Values, attitudes, and interpersonalbehavior. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. (pp. 195-251). Lincoln, Neb.: University of Nebraska Press.ljlbrich, P. & Huber, J. (1981). Observing parental violence:Distribution and effects. Journal of Marriage and theFamily, August, 623-63 1.Vane, J.R. (1981). The thematic apperception test: A review.Clinical Psychology Review,.i 319-336231Vassiliou, V. (1962) Motivational patterns of two clinicalgroups as revealed by TAT sequence analysis.Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Loyola University,Chicago.Walker, LE. (1979). The battered woman. New York: HarperColophonWalker, LE. (1984). The battered woman syndrome. NewYork: Springer Publishing Co. Inc.Walker, L. F. (1983) The battered women syndrome study. InD. Finkeihor, K Gelles, G. Hotaling, & M. Siraus (Eds.) Ilidark side of families: Current family violence research.(pp. 31-48). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.Winter, D.G. , McClelland, D.C. & Stewart, A.J. (1977). Husband’smotives and wife’s career level. Journal of Personalityand Social Psychology, 35(3), 159-166.Yin, R. (1989). Case study research: Design and methods.(Applied social research methods series, Vol 5). NewburyPark, CA: Sage Publications.Yb, K. (1983). Using a feminist approach to quantitativeresearch: a case study. In D. Finkelhor, R. Gelles, G.Hotaling, & M. Straus (Eds.) The dark side of families:CulTent family violence research. (pp. 277-2 88).Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.Yllo, K. & Straus, NI. (1980). Interpersonal violence amongmarried and cohabiting couples. Family Relations, 30,339-347232APPENDIX AThe Participant’s Story Records:The stories in this section are the data from which theimports were obtained, and were the basis for the clinicalevaluations.Record W-1Story 1I came home after school and right away I was told to practicemy violin. Pm so frustrated with it; I don’t know if P11 ever getthis right - Morn and Dad are both hounding me to practice.Dad and Gramps both played. I want to go outside to play withmy friends instead. The sun is shining and its very hot. Ilooked at the music sheet and just gave up because I know thatto tell them how I feel won’t get me anywhere. So , I picked upthe violin and tried to play - my hearts not in it though.Story 2Pm in school, its June now, so its just about over. One day onmy way to classes I noticed Dad working in the fields plowing.Morn was standing in the shade of a tree - pregnant again. Ihope I can get a good job if and when I can complete myschooling. I don’t want to be trapped into a life of hard workwith so many mouths to feed. Mom and Dad are trapped. I seeher crying sometimes, especially in the winter when times areso tough. I’m determined to get out of this situation by gettinga good education.Story 3 - W.1233I was cleaning up the living room and accidently bumped avase of flowers that was on the coffee table. I knelt down topick them up. they were all wilted and dead, I felt a wave ofsadness. Too many dead things around me - dead love , deadrelationships, dead flowers. I leaned my head on the couch andcried for all my losses. It felt good. I decided I had to putthese things behind me. flowers can bloom again so can love. Igot up off the floor and finished cleaning. Then I went for awalk in the park. There’s lots of live flowers there and hope.Story4-W.-1Times are tough. My husband is out of work. He’s sofrustrated and very proud. today especially. He’s so depressedhe starts yelling at me, saying its my fault he’s feeling this way.I’m angry but I can understand how frustrated he is. He got upoff the couch and it looks llke he’s going to walk out on meforever. I come up behind him and put my arms around him.I want to ease his pain, my pain. I feel there’s hope. Wetalked afterwards and did some brainstorming - We arestarting our own business so we’ll never be out of work again.Story 5 - W.1f\4r fathers’ been missing for about a month now; but today apoliceman came to the door. Mom was in the kitchen. Thepoliceman had a sad expression on his face. I’m scared. He letsus know that my father has been found but he’s dead. Momlooks out the window as if to somehow try to see Dad. Shedoesn’t cry - she just stares out that window. I need a hug, Ineed her to tell me it will be OK that she’s here for me always.234I go over to her to let her know how I’m feeling; but she turnsand walks away without saying anything.Story 6 - W.1I lost my father when I was a teenager. We lived on a farm. Iwas determined not to live the same life - surviving only. Ibecame creative and opened my own business. Boy, it wastough. Always something going wrong. I was befriended by anelderly man just when things were at their worse. He talked tome - he helped me look at things differently and gave me somesuggestions. He was a great help. He supported me throughthe good and bad times, I feel he’s the father I never had andI’m the son he’s never had. My business is flourishing and so isour friendship.Story 7 - W. 1I’m in medical school, finally This semester we have toperform surgery as our lab classes. We’re at the hospital to dothis, however there was an emergency, a gunshot victim. Wewere instructed to watch. I felt a sense of urgency and nausea.The doctors had very little time to prep the patient. Theylooked worried, however they attended to the problem withlightening speed. I was relieved when it was all over. When Iseen the patient up and around a few days later, I felt a senseof pride and direction I know I’ve chosen the best career path.Story 8 W.1My brother went fishing this morning - its winter - he’ll haveto chop the ice. Morn and dad are concerned that something235bad would happen to him and try to talk him out of it. Well, hecame home mid afternoon with a dozen good size fish. I seemy father hugging and comforting Morn. She was reallyworried. They’re laughing now , happy that my brother is safeand thankful that he’s so skilled and resourceful. It’s a toughwinter, but we’ll make it and maybe when Pin older mybrother will take me along with him.Story 9 - W.1I just had a fight with my husband, I had to get out of thehouse, I can’t stay in there, Pm so angry. I decided to walkalong the dike to try to cool off. I noticed a path jutting off andfelt a little fearful - it was so dark and mysterious. My moodwas the same way. so I took that path. It was spooky butbeautiful at the same time. I came into a clearing - magnoliatrees with vines growing on it. At first it looked like snakehanging from it. It had scared me, but as I took a closer look -I saw it for what it was. I took a closer look at my relationshipwith my husband and saw it for what it was. I left him shortlyafterwards.Story 10 - W.1My husband and I were fighting again - over everything fromthe kids to sex. Suddenly he grabbed me and dragged me tothe bedroom- he ripped my clothes off and threw me on thebed. I’m terrified. I don’t know what to do. He threatened meto stay where I was. He has a gun. He raped me. I layedthere afterwards looking at the ceiling not moving. He got upand got dressed then stood watching me. He began to cry - he236says he’s sorry but I know this won’t stop. I need to dosomething - Pm going to get help, I can’t do this on my own.Story 11 - W. 1Mom and dad are fighting again. It’s really late at night. Iknow they’re fighting over me again, but I don’t know what.their anger scares me so I go to the attic to get away from it.It’s so dark up here. There’s a window so I open it to let thefresh air and moonlight in. I’m too little to run away so I hideup here instead. Maybe they won’t find me. After these fightsdad sometimes hits me, so, this time I’ll hide here where nonone can find me until after this all blows over.Story 12 - w. 1I’m doing a ‘Titing exercise for the abuse centred They’reshowing pictures for us to write stories about. The instructorshows us a picture, but this time there is no picture - paper isblank. The instructor seems rather amused at the shocked lookon our faces. I’m sure she feels the blank is important,however what’s to \\Tite about a blank piece of paper. Iresolved myself tow rite basically about the incident itself.Story 13-W.1It’s Christmas time. A time when everyone is feeling warmand happy. I had to finish up some last minute shopping. It’slate- 6 PM or so. When I came out of the store and headed forhome I passed a park where a huge tree was lit with Xmaslights. That’s when I noticed my friend standing just beyondthe tree. He had a packsack over his shoulder - he looked sosad. I know he didni have any family here. I felt lonely forhim and decided to invite him over to spend Christmas eve andday with us and he accepted. No one should be alone at Xmastime.237238Report - w. 2Story 1 - W.2Little Pedro had just moved to Canada and had been so excitedon ‘all his new adventures that were to unfold in his new life.He had heard stories of how wonderful Canada was, and, likehis mother, just could not wait to start his new life. It hadtaken less than 3 days when he realized, the home setting wasdifferent. the stores and furniture appeared quite differentlywhat he had grown up in. however the rules and regulationswere not left behind. Once again, his father had been arguingwith his mother and the verbal threats had kept him up allnight. How he longed to go out and play with his new friends,learn new games and exchange stories. He couldn’t as he hadto try to keep the peace, study his violin to make his parentsproud. How he wished things could change altogether.Perhaps when he was older he’d be stronger and able to sharewhat he wanted and expected out of this new life.Maggie did not understand what she was doing in this homeshe had been fostered out to. She should have been grateful tohave two adults who gave her food, shelter and clothing. Theyeven allowed her to take up courses, so she could betterherself. Why was Maggie, so unhappy’? she didn’t feel whole.She’d look at the strong muscular man who she called uncleSam with visions of her husband ten years up the road. He’dbe like him. Quiet yet strong. Hercules type and aunt Helgawho seem to be able to handle any crisis that came her way.Yet this woman never once put her arms around Maggie to239comfort the hole inside her. Perhaps going to school wouldhold the answers, she needed for her questions. Hopefully theguilt would leave her for feeling the way she did. One shouldbe greatful, shouldn’t they? Appreciate what good that hadcome your way. Well maybe one day she’d find the answers.Story 3 - W. 2Alone in his room, alone with his thoughts. Alone. Alone.Alone, why can’t I be like all the others? It was safe to bealone, as experience had taught him not to trust anyone. Hewasn’t even sure if he could trust himself at times. He wasfrightened and didn’t have a sole he could confide in, He wassad, yet he was safe. Safe, he decided was the better deal ofall. Perhaps in time the walls of his rooms uid answer back,all the secrets he shared of himself. Perhaps, time wouldtell but for now he’d settle for being safe.Story 4 - W. 2Liii knew she had to try one more time, to try to show Josh, tonot worry what others, thought of him, not to react to whatthey said. With gentle. hands she made the outmost effort, notto appear controlling. She tried desperately to be the loving -sweet - passionate woman he had mamed 5 years agohowever his behavior had put a lot of dents in theirrelationship. She felt desperate, almost helpless, yet she knewby caring in a loving fashion was far better than the habit ofscreaming and crying, she had 2 years ago. this time, shedecided to let him go. This time her focus was turned towardherself. She had finally realized she had played a part in thisdysfunctional relationship but no more. she put herself first.240She now acted instead of reacting and it felt good. He was onhis own and so was she.Story 5 - W.2It took a lot of courage to go and see his mother but he knewhe had to settle these secrets that tortured him once and for all.He was amazed how he felt like a 5 year old little boyconfessing to her it was he who had broken the familyheirloomed vase.Today as he stood firmly in one spot to stop his trembling legsfrom shaking he started to tell her his story. How he didn!tmean to drink, but once he did, it got out of control. He hadexpected his mother to scold him perhaps even disown him fora short period of time. However, to his surprise she did notwant to hear his confession of being an alcoholic. He could seethe shame that accompanied his statement. Poor mama feltsafer in denial. The councellar had told him to admit tohimself and another human being, he had chosen his mother.He realized at that moment, she hadn’t been there in hischildhood, and she wasn’t there for him today. The importantthing was “he” was there for himself.Story 6 - W. 2He had turned to his dad for advise. This fine old man, alwayshad the answers. He had helped him with his math, he hadcoached the baseball team he was in. Gave him driving lessons,helped him pick out his first car. Even slid him money whennobody was looking on the night of his honeymoon. and todayhis wife had announced she was taking his son and wanted adivorce. This time the answers to questions were not spoken.241The tired old man only rubbed his bald head from time to timeand sighed. It was time he took control of his life without thestrength of his dad. He needed reassurance more than evernow. without his wife and only son he really wasn’t sure if hecould do it. This time Pops, did the very best thing a best friendcould. He listened. He did not give advise he did not judge,but listened. They both grew a little that day.Story 7 - W. 2Mark knew he was the stronger twin. All through childhood,Mike had always been getting into throttle and coming to himto help save him from the perils of his mischievous ways. Evenin school he had covered up for his twin. Now they were intheir teens and Mike was still getting himself into alot if notmore trouble than ever. He had heard of the professor whohad specialized in the study of twin behavior. Wouldn’t it begreat if a simple operation could be performed and all thedefects Mike possessed could be removed. Surely he wouldeven offer some of his genetic characters to his brother. Hewould do almost anything to finally be free of this burden hehad lived with for the past 17 years. His mind wondered off towhat he had hoped could one day happen. It was easy tovisualize this event and project the outcome even if only inmincLStory 8 - W.2They had lost their middle son in an accident. Nothing couldhave been more devastating to them. All the hardships theyhad overcome, when they had first wed, the days of hardly anyfood to feed all 5 children the loss of jobs, the eviction notices242and the struggle to reestablish their credit nothing not eventhe forecloser on their home could compare to the loss of theirson Jeff. Amazingly with the comfort of each others arms, andthe silent words, spoken through their eyes which seem toaccompany tears each time they spoke his name. They toowould survive this crisis, till the day when they all would bereunited again in peace and harmony. They would survive tillthat day. They had a support system they never knew theyhad. That with a bonding of love they had for their 5 sons.Story 9 -He would do anything to get her back. Yes, anything, Thistime, she had left him for a man who lived in a far away landfilled with obstacles, he knew he had to overcome, in order toget his true love back. He was wiser, than they figured, as hecame prepared to reclaim what was rightfully his. He dressedhimself in a disguise and scaled the mountain side that led intothe enchanted forest. He was ready. Nothing could stop hislove for Vicki. Not even the wise wizard.Story 10 - W.2He had arrived too late. The phone call from the clerk came asa shock, however seeing his estranged wife nude, laying so stillwas so very painful. He had not believed her letter of suicide.He had not meant for ‘this’ to happen. He had walked away inhopes that she would feel her pain and then do somethingabout it. Get the help that was available. Why had he notthought she would actually go through with it. The guilt hewould feel would be one he’d have to share with a professional.He knew this was more than he could handle, but he would243handle it. He had to! What would he tell the children! My god,the shame of it all was almost too much to bare.Story 11 - W. 2Alone in the attic, Richard managed to get the window opened.He perched himself as his brother must have before he hadjumped. What did his brother have on his mind when he hadbeen on the ledge of their parents home. Was it because hecould see the pattern repeating itself in his own family? Couldthe past have entered his mind filled it with so much pain, hedecided to end it. I guess Richard could only guess at what hadpushed his brother Ron to the edge and over. Rest in Peacebrother, perhaps we will share with each other once I join youwhen my time comes up.Story 12-W.2Cindy laid perfectly still on her back, and watched the clouds solarge so puffy so white yet so soft. It gave her the ability toproject anything she chose to. Images would float in and outwith each blink of her eyelashes. Amazing to have that power,that control, Just like a projecter - click! click! into the next...click. Each and anythne she chose to change the scene, shehad the power in her eyelashes. She could have a Blank or shecould lay’ there and let any kind of image emmerge before her.This was indeed a skifi she enjoyed possessing.Story 13 - W.2Where was she? she was more than an hour late! Had shechanged her mind? Did her husband find out about their plans244to leave the province? Should he call her? He stood silentlyquestioning himself, answering back, panicking projecting. Theanxiety left Don with a sweaty brow, his hat pulled down overhis eyes, not wanting anyone in the neighbourhood to recognizehim just in case. His heart pounded louder as the oncomingheadlights of the approaching car slowed down. It had beenfor the kitten that had stopped in the middle of the road.Would she ever come? Had she changed her mind? Anotherset of lights had come and gone. Where was she? At last thecar drove up with his secret love. She had waited for herhusband to fall asleep, before she was able to load up her bagsinto the car and make her get away. Her passionate kiss haderased all the anxiety he had felt only moments before.245Story 1 - W.3Feelings of apprehension and suffocation overwhelm the child,knowing or at least feeling he can’t accomplish the task oflearning this foreign instrument; the violin. His stomach wasin knotts this morning feeling he could not succeed. but beliefin one’s self is the only way to approach the building block ofachieving one’s goal. with apprehension the boy picks up theviolin., and triumphs! He plays not like an expert, but learnsfears can be conquered.Story 2 - W.3looking forward not only to the next field, but the future sheknows she must learn and gain skills to get out. Her presentlife is always flirting with uncertainty and poverty. She mustget out! She sees her brother working and slaving for years onend with this farm. For what she asks herself. She goesforward with confidence, with a touch of nostalgia, but knowsmust go on to a new life an not look backStory 3 - W.3I can’t think of anything.Story 4-WAshe wants to talk just like she has for years. But he pullsaway, annoyed at her asking him to open up. He wants toleave for awhile, but his love for her is stopping him. After a246day. of work he figures his time is his own, But she is feelinghurt, betrayed and resentful with his emotional absentence. Heloves her, and she knows it. But his lack of availability isannoying her. He eventually listens to her, any they agree tolisten, learn and accept and compromise.Story 5 - W 3The mother feels like her son is leaving her. He has come totell his overbearing mother he is going to be married. Sheknew it would come one day, but why today of all days. Thesons feels proud of his choice, but rather nervous of telling hismother. She has always faked illness when he has tried tobreak away from her before. he wonders with quiet unseenamusement what he will be dealing with today, a bad heart,failing kidneys or the dreaded sprained ankle. He kissesmother on the cheek and leaves. He knows he has brokenaway. He finds the only thing h in his heart for his mother iscontempt.Story 6-W3The father is proud of his son, and is usually eager to meet hisson’s needs, but this is one condition his son must meet, got tocollege. The son wants to make his own way in life. Withdread and humiliation he has come to tell his father he will notbe able to attend college due to his own inabilities. The fatheris compassionate to his son’s needs abut feels with resentmentthat every child must do something in life to make the familyproud. conform and you will do well in life the father dictates.The son follows the past to conformity and personalunhappiness.247Story 7 - W.3The boy doesn’t want to admit to himself that his father haspassed on. He doesn’t want to see the men cutting into hisfather’s body. Cold and still his father lies on the stone table.Feelings of anger and frustration simmer quietly under hisgentle mannerism. If only his father had not gone into battle.Why did his father not listen to his pleads of fear for hisfathers life, but now his father’s battle was over, but for thechild his battle for emotional and social stability had onlybegun.Story 8 -He has just told her he must go off to war. He has a swirl ofemotions churning inside of him. He wants to defend hiscountry and his people, yet silently his heart is breaking. Ifonly the draft notice had not come through he thinks to himselfbitterly.This wife is unconsolable, her heart feels like it isshattering into a million pieces. anger and desperation ifil hersoul. But years later thinking back on the moment together,they know that true love endures.Story 9-W.3The dragon was feeling restless. Out of the corner of his eye hespied a bumble bee. His eyes seemed to twinkle withamusement. The big ones were always fun to try and catch.Near by was a large water spout. The rocks of the mountainseemed to be so violently discharging the water from its248mouth. The bumble bee waited cautiously with a whoosh ofpower the bumble bee disappeared down the dragons throat.Story 10- W.3His emotions just poured out of his very soul when he realizedwhat he had done. “Oh God” , he moaned. He had just killed hislover. He didn’t know why, Earlier on, before the first rays ofdaylight started to appear, he had quietly snuck into his lover’shome. She was so beautiful just laying there, now she waslifeless and cold. she had threatened to end their relationshipso he killed her. In his own mind he was justified, thank GODthe jury didn’t think so.Story 11 - W.3He was restless after the party the preceeding night. Hesighed, got out of bed and walked over to the window. Heseemed to spiritually connect with the glorious colours of thesunrise. The morning chifi felt good in his skin. The birdsflying in between the building of the city contently. How hewanted to soar and fly with those birds. Leave the old way oflife behind. He realized the beauty in his own life, and decidedto get down from the window sill and closed it.Story 12 - W.3doesn’t stimulate me into thinking of a story.Story 13 - W.3The man stood there absorbing the atmosphere of the fallingsnow. Christmas carols played softly in the background. Thehomeless man, was reminising on all the other Christmases hehad experienced. In his childhood Christmas was a time of loveand food and family. Now it was a time of hunger andwandering the streets to find somewhere to sleep. rounding acorner, the man feeling only of an emptiness in his life andsoul, felt a stir of joy. What met him was the sign of theSalvation Army.249250Story 1 - W4I am in violin classes. My parents wanted me to be like mygrandfather and play the violin. I want to be musical, but Ifeel frustrated because I can’t seem to grasp the violin. I feelmom and dad would be disappointed if I quit, I feel so muchpressure.Maybe if I try to take a little bit at a time and try not toachieve so much at one time this might make it moreenjoyable, and easier to learn.Story2-W.4My family and I live on a farm. We’ve lived here for 2 yearssince coming from Europe. My parents work hard so that I cango to a good school, to achieve a good education. I feel veryproud of my parents, and also very special that they care somuch for me. I’ve seen them go without many things, and tostruggle through hard times for me. But this makes me striveharder at my studies to achieve a position in life that will makethem proud of me.Story3-W.4I received a phone call from my neighbor, asking me to comeover. I was worried something had happened. When I arrivedshe was very upset, and alone. She had received a call tellingher her husband was dead. The grief and pain I felt for thiswomen was tremendous. I sat and cradled her their, were nowords, I could say to comfort the loss she felt. As nightapproached I took her to my house and stayed together with251her until her parents could be with. She went and stayed withthem.Story 4 - W.4We lived together for a year, when we received the papers forhim to leave for the army. I was overwhelmed by the thoughtof our happy year coming to a end. My mind was thinking ofthought of never seeing him again, and even worse of himdying. But I knew he was a man with much pride and honor.He reassured me he would be home before I new it. With thisthought I let him go knowing I was in his heart.Story 5 - W. 5Urn an attorney of law, and with this I’ve had to face many sadtimes. I was working for this woman, her son was beingaccused of murdering a young girl. There was lots of evidenceagainst him. but I felt in heart that the man was innocent. Itried very hard to convince the jury of his innocents, but to nojust. The jury found him guilty. I new I had to inform hismother, my heart felt so heavy. She asked me into her home.With all the sadness in the world I informed her of her sonsfate. To my surprise she turned, smiled and thanked me formy services and left the room.Story 6 - W. 4I can’t think of anythingStory 7 - W. 4252I remember a time when I was just a boy. The war was in fulland my dad was sent to fight. I had just come home fromhelping the neighbors when I seen the doctor entering ourhouse. I raced in to find my mother crying, and my fatherlaying very still on the table. Their was blood everywhere. Ifelt scared and helpless, as I watched the Dr. started to cut himopen to remove the deeply inbedded bullet. I took my motherinto the next room, and waited. The waiting was very hard.Then the Dr. caine in and I new by the look in his eyes that mydad was gone forever.Story 8 - W.4Three years ago my beloved husband was sent away, to fightfor his country. When the war was over I searchedeverywhere and waited for signs of him, but their was noanswer. For the last year I griefed for my husband and hisloss.Last night I went with friends out for dinner, they tried tocheer me up. But like always to no avil. My thoughts wouldlike my heart never leave my husband. Then just as we wereto leave this man stood behind me and asked me to dance. Iturned to say no. And froze as I look into my husbands eyes.He had had amnesia and when he seen me his memory cameback. It feels so good to be in his anns.Story 9 - W.4We are on a journey through the blackened forest to reach theaid of our king. We have come across many devilish creatures,that feed on the fear of man. We have had to combat thesefeelings of fear, with the knowledge and confidence that we253face our fears and with confidence in ourselves and courage.We then and only then will no that when we reach the light atthe end of the forest that we are truly great men, to aid ourking.Story 10 - W-4Every week was the same, we never use to fight but now it wasall the time. I came home early one night, we were going to goout for dinner, leaving all our problems at home. She had beendrinking, and so the fighting had begun, I begged her just toget ready, but she just stood their saying that I wasn’t a man.Then something snapped and I turned. Then she was quiet andI new she was dead, this was one fight that was over.Story 11 - W-4Years ago life was full. I had a job a wife and a house with 2beautiful kids. But then I lost my job, the bank took the house,And my wife left me for a younger man. Now I feel so alone, Ifeel no use in waking up and I feel despertly afraid for I see nofuture. I bent down and picked a rose and remembered thesmallest things are the beautifulest things. And that’s when Inew that their is still live in me.Story 12 - W.4There was this lady, she had 3 beautiful children. They livedcontent in their surroundings. Then one day the lady fell for amen, but hitten to her was his evil ways, for over a year shetreat to his evil ways, for he was smart and kept her in hisprison. One day when she felt like giving up, she seen the faces254of 3 beautiful children and relized she know had the key toleave the prison. Her sons and her have found a new lovewithin them to share as one.Story 13 - W.4I stand in darkness around me, I blame no one but myself formy own emptiness. I once had everything but choose to becareless with it, and soon lost it all. I now stand in silence asthe light that shines fills me with energy and knowledge of theways to cleanse myself to begin life again.255Story #1- W.5.I see a young boy sitting at a table with a violin. He appears tome to be tired and not interested. It looks like he is beingforced to play. I don’t think he’ll stay with learning the violin.Story 2 - W. 5Anna could remember the hard work on a farm. It began atdawn and continued until bedtime, She always felt there hadto be a easier life so she read and worked hard at school. Shefelt very sorry for her mother and did not wish that life forherself so she’ll make sure to get an education.Story 3 - w-5Suzanne was told she would have to leave the psychiatrichospital. She was very upset and depressed as this had beenher home most of her adult life. She didn’t understand aboutdownsizing. She didn’t know if she could believe them whenthey said they’d help her get into a group home. It all seemedso overwhelming. She felt she would have to trust the peopleinvolved as it was going to happen anyway.Story 4 - W.5Don was out drinking again and just got home. Sally had beenso worried when he didn’t arrive on time and confronted himwhen he got home. Don was feeling very guilty about spendingthe money and not helping out at home. Because they didn’thave good communication skills they got into a angryargument.256Story 5 -Pete had taken his father to the hospital with chest pains. Nowhe was feeling very sad and empty because his father had diedand he had to tell his mother. She turned away when she sawhim because she feared the worst. Pete told her and theycried.Story 6 - W.5The door slamed shut and startled Ed. He went into the kitchenand seen his son there, looking very upset. Ed asked Al if heranted to talk.Story 7 - W. 5John always woke up in the morning feeling more tired than hewas when he went to bed. He wished he could make sense ofthose nightmares. They had happened so often lately he wasfeeling ill. He went and phoned a therapist.Story 8 - W. 5It was their anniversary and Joe had bought Bev a ring. Hewas so happy and couldn?t wait to give it to her as he hadalways felt bad about not being able to get her a diamondwhen they were first married. She was so quiet and just heldhim when he gave it to her.Story 9- W.5257Ken and John decided to go diving. They were enjoying thedifferent sea life. They were amazed at all the different sealife and thinking when they could do this again as they wereenjoying it so much. They felt that they would like to diveoften.Story 10 - W. 5Pete was trying to phone his daughter all day as he wasconcerned about her. He knew her last boyfriend was veryobsessive. He had just gotten the caretaker to open herapartment. Pete stood in shock and disbelief beside her bedwhen he realized she was obviously dead. He called 911.Story 11 - W.5Jerry had just rented this large space above some stores. Hehad one nice window that he could get a beautiful view for hispainting and star watching. He felt so content and happy hislife was shaping up. He knew he could get serious about his artnow.Story 12 - W.5Phyl was doing a study for an abused women’s group. Sheis feeling anxious, fearful, nausiated, angry at times during this.She did 1/2 last week and it helped her be aware of morefeelings and felt she would get more this week.Story 13 - W. 5258Joe felt he couldn’t go through another Xmas with no familyaround. He was standing under the street light trying to getthe courage to go to the door. He felt his stomach was tied upin knots one minute and the next there was a great big hole init. He finally took a deep breath and went to the door andrange the bell.Story 1 - W. 6There was a little boy forced to take violin lessons. One day hetold his father he wanted to play with the kids instead ofpractising his violin. His father yelled and screamed and toldhim how ungrateful a son he was for not doing what his fatherwanted. He was grounded and not allowed to have any more todo with his friends. The boy is very sad and hates his violin.He will practise the violin today to please his father.Story 2 - W.6There was a yon girl who lived on a farm near the ocean. Shelived with her mother and older brother. Her father had takenill just one year ago and passed away. She went to schoolevery day and upon coming home was told how lucky a childshe was because her mother suffered the hardship of laborwhile she was at school. Her life had been planned by hermother and there was no choices left up to her. She felt likeshe was being smothered by her mother and dreams all thewhile of getting away fro the farm. She wants to go to the cityand become a teacher. The following day she tells her mothershe is leaving and packs her belongings to find the life she was259meant to lead. She has fulfilled her dream of becoming ateacher.Story 3 - W.6A woman was home making dinner for her husband who wasdue home from work any time. She was singing as she wasstirring the pot of spegetti. She hear the front door slam andnot a word was spoken as her husband walked in. She stoppedsinging as she heard the door slam. She knew he was in a badmood. he would normally call to her on a good day. she calledto him in a chipper voice and asked how his day was. He cameinto the kitchen ranting and raving about what miserable lifehe had and how it was all her fault. She started to plead withhim that she had not done anything wrong and he started tocall her fowl names. She began to cry and pleaded with him tostop. You could see him enjoying her hurt. Just then heslapped her and knocked her to the ground, blaming her for hisviolent actions he walked out the door leaving her on the floorwhere she fell. She picked herself up and layed her head onthe sofa and sobbed asking God why she must suffer so.Story 4 - W.6There was a man who was so devoted to his wife the sun roseand fell around her. One day he came home from work earlyand found a strange man in their house. He started asking hiswife who this man was and all she could do was look at himwith hurt eyes. He asked her again and was told by his wifeshe was having an affair. he was so devastated that he couldnot look at her, so he tried to leave. She was crabbing him260begging him not to leave her. He pulled his ann away packedhis clothes and left never to return.Story 5 - W. 6There was a man who was married to the old woman’sdaughter. Everyone thought they were the perfect couple.When they walked down the street everyone envied thein. Onday the man’s wife end up in the hospital with bruises andbroken bones. She was unconscious. When the old womanarrived she asked the man what had happen to her daughterand he told her that he had done this terible thing. She turnedher back on him so he could not see her shame as she knew hehad been battering her for years. The wife filed chargesagainst her husband and with the support of her mothermustered enough strength to leave him forever.Story 6 - W.6There was a man who went to his father for some advice. Hewas having trouble with his wife. She wouldn’t do what he toldher to do. His father confided that he used to have thatproblem with his mother. He said giving her a slap once inawhile just shows her who’s boss and she respects you for it.He went home that night and slapped his wife. When it was allover and they went to bed she got up and grabbed the kids andwalked away never to return.Story 7 - W. 6There was a husband and wife. he was a white collar workerworking in a dead end job as a bankteller. He would not allow261his wife to have a job. She was to stay at home and take careof the house and the two children. He would come home fromwork every night and complain about his work. then he wouldstart on how unkept the house was and why the children hadnot eaten yet. She would tell him that they had been waitingfor him so they could all eat together. He usually drunk whenhe walked in the door and would end up beating her for noreason. This particular day she started fighting backthreatening to leave after he beat her up. She tried to grabthe kids to flee to a safe place, as she reached the front door hepuled out a gun and shot her. The ambulance came and tookher away and she died on the operating table.Story 8 - W. 6There was a man and a woman who have been happily marriedfor twenty-five years. On their anniversary they went out todinner and dancing. When they were on the dance floor theirfavorite song was playing and they both fondly thought backabout all the wonderful years they had together and fantasizedfondly about the next twenty-five. They count their blessingsfor still being on their honeymoon after twenty five years.Story 9 - W. 6Could not think of anything to write.Story 10 - W, 6A man came home late from work. He was drunk. He stoppedoff at a strip joint by himself. He was a loner. His wife was inbed when he got home. He woke her up calling her a bitch and262a slut. Telling her she is not better than a whore. He told herhe wanted to flick and wanted to right now. She told him to gosleep off his drunk in the other room that she didn’t want himtouching her. He ripped the covers off of her and started torape her. There was fear in her eyes and he enjoyed the powerhe had over her. He continued to force himself on her and shelayed there limp, When he finished his sexual assault on herhe looked down at her and saw the disgust in her face. He feltashamed but never for a moment would admit it was his fault.Story 11- \‘V. 6there was a woman who was emotionally abused all her life byher father who also raped her. She went on to marry a meanand spiteful man. Afier two years of marriage and no childrenshe left her husband. She rented a room in a dingy hotelwondering if she had done the right thing. She opened thewindow to let some light in and as the sun fell over her body,she heard the voices of people i’valking on the street belowlaughing and enjoying life, at that very moment she realizedshe had done the right thing and began to gather her strengthfrom the happy voices around her and went on to a fulfifiedlife by herself.Story 12-W.6My life was empty of happiness. There was nothing butheartache in my marriage and my future looked just as grimali I feel is alone utterly alone nothing makes me happyanymore. death is appealing to me. The happiness I dreamptof never came. just sadness and sorrow. Then I got up enoughstrength to leave my husband and the emptyness filled Mth263happy thoughts again. The future looks brighter on most daysand I finally like myself. Shine a light on the picture for thereis now a happiness in me.Story 13- W.6I was walking down a dark deserted street after working lateone night. It was pitch black and in the distance I couldbarely make out the figure of a man in a hat and trench coat. Ihad to go past him to get to the bus stop and I could see no oneelse around. I was very afraid but of what my heart wasracing my hands were sweaty. I was about to loose control andpanic. As I came closer I got scareder and scareder. He took astep towards me and asked me if I had the time. He had afriendly face and a soothing smile. I told him it was 10:45 andhe thanked me and walked in the opposite direction. I stoppedfor a moment and wondered how I could be so afraid. Irealized it was just over active imagination and not everyone isout to hurt me.264Story 1 - W. 7His mother had said he couldn’t go out to play until hepractised the violin. He hated his violin. He didnt want tolearn the violin. He hated mean Mr. Vasserly. He hated theway he limped and walked with a cane. And he especiallyhated the cane when Mr. Vasserly would point it at him andthe mean look on his face and his voice as he said, “You willnever be good enough! You will never play like your brotherMichael. Never. Never. Never. Stupid. Stupid. Stupid.”He sat there feeling all alone, like he had nowhere to turn. Hefelt overwhelmed, discouraged angry and a failure at nineyears of age. He had no one he could turn to, no one he couldtalk to who would understand, or care. Some day, he thought, Iam just going to run away, and never come back.As he picked up the violin in his hands, tears started runningdown his cheeks, and splashed on the violin and out thewindow he could make out the sounds of his pals having funplaying ball, on that hot summer day.Story 2 - W.7Merrilee hated walking by Tom’s house. His wife wasexpecting the baby in a few weeks. She looked so happy andMerrilee felt so very miserable. He had said he loved her, andshe loved Tom with all her heart. She didn’t care that he was apoor farmer, she wanted to be Mrs. Tom Sparks more thananything in the world. He said he would wait for her while herparents insisted she go to college after she graduated from highschool. She choose one close enough so she could come home at265least every month or so. but he didn’t wait. He started seeingTeresa Bennett and she got pregnant, and so they married, andhe was lost to her forever. And now all she had was her boringcollege courses, and none of the men at college interested herbecause they would never be Tom. All she felt was emptyness,and heartbreak. Her mother said she had her whole life beforeher and that this should be the best time in her life. Well, ifthis is the best, she didn’t want to go on to see the rest.Why did they have to live on the only road to her family homeanyway. She was going to go to college as far away as shecould next term. And not come home to visit until her heartbegan to heal.Story 3 - W. 7Sharole was a abused wife. for years she had tried to figureout why she and Jerry couldn’t get along, she had triedeverything she could to have a happy malTiage, but now shewas too tired, too heartbroken, too depressed, too filled i4thanguish, fear, hopelessness, pain, and despair to go on. Shehadn’t realized she was abused, because he never hit orpunched her, even when she tried to slap his face for theterribly rude and cruel things he would say. but now he wasgetting physically abusive and she knew.She had had to separate from him before he would agree tocounselling, but he just used it as another weapon. The churchcouncellors said she was “in the role of victim” They said shewas co-dependent.Fortunately for Sharole one of her friends was going to call herthe next day and ask if she was happy in her marriage, for shehad noticed the abuse on one visit, and she would help her out.266Story 4 - W. 7Bob was determined to go and find Andre and sock him one forcoming on to Phiona that morning. He knew she was engage toBob. He ou1d make sure Andre stayed far away from Phiona.“Oh darling” Phiona said to Bob, “Andre has such a meanvendictive streak in him, please Bob, just let it go.” She wasfeeling afraid for Bob, and she was so in love. Hisprotectiveness just made her love him even more. She felt sosafe and happy when he was with her. “Remember that man inthe next town that was killed, and no one is really sure whathappened? but it is rumoured that it was Andre!!”bob soothed Phiona’s fears, and promised not to make a morefirst. He was calming down, and beginning to think morerationally. But he was going to talk to him. That much wasclear.Story 5 - W. 7I stood there angry and hurt. “no matter what I do or what Iaccomplish it is never good enough for you mother. You don’treally love me! You have never really loved me.” Jack said tohis mother. And the things she said made him feel ashamed athimself for talking with her that way at all. He was angry,angry at her for being so manipulative, domaneering, andemotionally abusive. He had tried to be a good son, all his life,to win her love, but he never really could. It was never goodenough for her. He was angry for letting himself feel ashamedand guilty, when he knew he was right.Well, this time he had learned his lesson, he was going to goout, and make a life for himself, and try and put this miserablerelationship behind him. He wasn’t going to let her in again.267Everytime he let her into his life, or his heart he got hurt. Buthe swore this was the last time. He was putting up a wall sobig that this time when she was sweet and nice, he defenseswouldn’t be lowered and he wouldn’t let her in. If only hecould have figured out years ago what was really going on itwould have saved him years of pain and heartache.Story 6 - W. 7“1 know you are angry now son, but in time, you will know thatwhat Leona has done by leaving you and taking the children isbest, best for all of you.t! Leona’s father Grant was talking toher husband after he came home to an empty house, with onlya letter saying how bad the last nine years had really been andhow she loved Jim, but she knew she couldn’t stay and takeany more abuse, not for herself, and especially not for thechildren. It said how she hoped he’d join a men’s group forabusive men, and how she would not consider a reconsilliationwithout it.Jim felt like kffling her, he was so angry. Fear had welled upinside him, and he felt like his whole life was out of control.How could she, he thought. How could she betray me this wayand tell people private things that should stay private betweena husband and a wife. I will never trust her again. She’suntrustworthy. she’s betrayed me, he thought.Story 7 - W.7Benny was never so scared in all his life, “Don’t die Dad , hethought, “don’t’ die. I love you.” He had come into the roomafter church that Sunday afternoon because his parentsfighting had turned into his mothers screams again. Only this268time she was begging his father not to hurt her, and he wasscared. He had always known where his father kept his gunfor when he went on patrol. He also knew no one else wasallowed to touch it. He didn’t remember getting it or evenpointing it at his father, all he remembered was the shockedlook on his parents faces as they turned to look at him as heshot his father with his trembling finger holding on to the gun.He remembers his father crumpling onto the floor.Story 8 - W.7Justine and Michele were in love. Life seemed bright andwonderful. What an incredible spring they had had. And nowit was summer and what an incredible summer it had been.They seemed perfect for each other. They both loved theoutdoors, and swiming in the lake. Now in his arms Michelewas the Happiest she had ever been in her whole life. Hiskisses made her light on fire, just the thought of him alonemade her tremble, she thought she’d die for his passionatekisses. He was so handsome, and kind, and intelligent. Heseemed hard working, he had just finished his degree infinance at S.FU. And he was all hers finally she found a youngman of honour and promise. He had talked about a futuretogether on their second date. Justine had thought he hadnever seen such a beautiful woman, and now she was his.They married and had 4 great children and lived happily everafter.Story 9 -Princess Alyssa had never felt such terror in all her life, shewas bound on the rocks, her cloths damp and soiled, she could269barely breathe. She had heard it even before she could see it.The sound it made, the grunts, snorts, and growls had filled herwith horror, but now she could see the dragon as it sniffed itsivav along toward her, licking its drowling lips in anticipation.suddenly, Prince George, the dragon killer jumped in betweenher and the creature. The startled creature jumped back,giving him time to turn slightly, and cut the ropes that boundher. He beauty caught him by surprise, almost taking thebreath from him in that moment. Then he swung full force atthe dragon throwing a spear deep into its throat and thenlunging up quickly to dig his sword deep into the creaturesheart. His handsome face showed nothing but dauntlesscourage.Story 10- W. 7Sigmond had never felt such shame, in all his life. He had justraped his wife. He never thought he would stoop so low. Helgajust lay there, she hadn’t the strength to even cover herself up.Slowly the tears came out of her eyes and ran down her ears.She had never felt so much despair in her life. She was soafraid. She hurt, and worse she felt like dirt. She was so angryshe could have killed him, but she was afraid to move. And sovery tired. She wished she ould die. If he left her she wouldpack and leave. She still had that address her neighbour hadpressed into her hand just two days ago. It was still in hersock. She prayed sh&d get away in time.Sigmond light a cigarette and started to smoke as he walkedinto the other room. He kept shaking his head in disbelief, howcould she have made him do this? Maybe they should go forcouncelling she had always asked him to go to, that is, if shepromised never to talk about this.270Story 11 - W. 7Fear. Sharole was so afraid of him, she thought she would diefrom fear one day. Aiixiety attacks were beginning to comeupon her, anytime of day anywhere. It was frightening. Shehad never had them before, she had always been so together,Now she was trembly and couldn’t think.Harold was an abusive husband. It had only been emotionaland verbal until recently so Sharole hadn’t thought of him asbeing abusive, or of her as being an abused wife. If only therewas something she could do, or somewhere she could go.Praying didn’t seem the answer any more. Besides, she was tooexhausted and full of despair and pain to pray. But she hadbeen told her tears and groans counted. So she knew shetalked to God all the time. The church counselling didn’t seemto be helping.Story 12 - W.7It was a bright sunny day. I had just finished milking the cow,and found myself daydreaming into the pail of creamy, whitemilk. Creamy white just like the beautiful wedding dresshanging in my room. My wedding day. Me. Mrs. JackForroster. The luckiest girl on earth. I thought of his deep blueeyes. I sat there daydreaming that I was in is arms, kissing myfavorite spot on his neck. If only I could figure out which spotI like best. It seemed I liked them all. His smell wasintoxicating to me. I never thought I could feel so much lovefor anyone as I did at that moment. “well pull yourselftogether and get the milk to the fridge>” I said to myself as Istood up.271Story 13-W.7There he was pulling his children on their red sleigh givingthem the most wonderful time. The snowman they had builtwas big and lovely. Really abusive men don’t treat theirchildren this way do they?I should have hot chocolate ready soon. Hot chocolate withsmall marshrnellows on top, all melted in beautiful christmasmugs.The perfect family, or were we? These good times seemed justtoo far and few between, but they’d get better, wouldn’t they?Things would get better soon wouldn’t they? I sat therewatching the snowflakes fall gently on my beautiful lawn, onmy beautiful home. Soon Bill would bring the damp laughing,excited children in and build a fire. Why couldn’t snowflakesmake me happy any more like they always have? Whywouldn’t this ache in my heart ever leave? I had beenunhappy for so long I forgot what happiness felt like, but whenI watched the snowflakes, I remembered how I should befeeling.272Story 1 - W-8Michael was seven years old when he began taking his violinlessons. Three evenings per week his mom and dad would takehim to his instructors house for his on hour long session.Michael also practised at home diligently at first but after acouple of months went by he found it took up alot of his timethat he wished he could spend playing soccer or with hisfriends. During a quiet study time when his mom had left theroom he closed his eyes and started to daydream. He driftedoff happily thinking of his friends on the block and how muchfun it would be to be with them playing a hardy game ofsoccer. His mom came in and announced to his surprise that hecould go out to play.Story 2 - W. 8In 1937 the O’Brien family had immigrated to Canada fromIreland. They moved to a small comunity in Manitoba wherethey had met their cousins. Mr. O’Brien was very set in hismannerisms and a very hard worker on their farm. Sarah, hiswife was expecting their first child and they were very happy.Rebecca, a neighbours daughter was on her way to school onemorning and dropped by as Mr. O’Brien was plowing is field.She spoke with Sarah and offered to help her with chores athome because Sarah was having a hard pregnancy.Story 3 - W.8Jean and her two children lived in a two bedroom apartment.Bobby was 10 years old and Nicole was five. Jean had been a273struggling single mom for one year. Her ex-husband Robertsaw the children every second weekend and would help herout when he could. Jean was happy to have completed herbusiness course so she could find employment and get ontohew own tvo feet financially. “Robert and her remained civiltoward each other for the sake of Bobby and Nicole He helpedher financially with the children and that is what she dependedon at the time, Until one day he never showed up to pick upBobby and Nicole. They’ were so disappointed Jean’s heartwent out to her children because they were so hurt.Story 4 - W.8Bill and Barb were married for five years After a couple ofyears went by there were noticeable changes in Bill. He wouldget very angry at times that would surprise Barb unexpectedly.Sometimes he would not come home after work and not call.This made Barb very upset and she felt very insecure abouther marriage. So one night she asked him what was wrong andhe ignored her and walked out of the room. Barb cryed as Bifidrove off in the car. She wished she could have all the rightanswers but didn’t.Story 5 - W.8Richard was 45 years old and an only child. His dad hadpassed away ten years prior leaving him the family business tocany on. They had a general store and Richard did his best tosatisfy everyone’s needs in the business. His mom Bett was avery warm loving person who would do almost anything foranyone. One day Richard came to her to tell her the sad newsthat the store had gone broke and the bank was taking it away.274His mother turned and looked out the window and just staredinto space as if all the dreams had gone out the window.Richard said he was sorry and his morn turned around andsmiled and said she would help him out with her specialemergency savings money.Story 6 - W.8couldn’t think up a story. took a break.Story 7 - W.8Matthew was 15 years old and was a very bright boy with alotof hopes and dreams for his future. He caine from a wealthyfamily who sent him to private schools to ensure he had a goodeducation and was well disciplined and well-mannered. Hisparents had planned out his future to become a doctor. Oneday after school he stood in his room and daydreamed aboutbeing a doctor at an operating table. He was unhappy with thisbecause he realized he could never stand the sight of blood, orbear to hear the cries of pain. Then he realized that he wouldtell his parents that he could never become what they wantedhim to be.Story 8 - W.8Heather & Bill had been married for 50 years. They had 2 sonsand 2 daughters of whom they loved very much. Theirchildren were married and had 15 grandchildren. On the dayof their Golden wedding anniversary, the familys got togetherin this very special celebration. Everyone was happy to seeeach other and visit and share their lives because they all lived275in different parts of the province. Heather and Bill were sohappy they held each other quietly and thought about what allthe years had brought. They enjoyed their history.Story 9 - W.8Once upon a cave—mans era three homo sapiens set out fromtheir camp to find a missing boy. they walked through therocky hills looking everywhere. As they came to an overpassthey heard cries underneath.. .then they looked up and saw ahuge fire breathing dragon. Nevertheless they walked closer tothe cries they heard. They spotted the very dirty, tired boyhiding under the bridge in the rocks. They grabbed him andran away from the dragon. They were all safe at camp andcomforted the little boy.Story 10 - W.8Aune and Bob lived in an old house with neighbors nearby.They had problems with their marriage. He abused herphysically, but he would always reconcile with her after theyhad one of their blow-ups. The neighbors always heard butwere afraid to speak up. One day Bob lost his job, wreckedtheir new car and came home in a rage. Anne did not knowwhat to do - she tried to comfort him and he only got angrier.Then he hit her so hard she fell and hit her head and wasunconscious. He put her to bed and cried beside her notknowing what to do.Story 11- W.8276Aaron wa eighteen years old and had graduated high school.He had his whole future to look at. He had advice coming tohim from all angles. His girlfriend lived far away and wantedhim to move there to go to college. He went to his room andopened his window gazing at the beautifully moonlit sky andwanted to be with her. He thought he would go to collegecloser to her because that would make him happy.Story 12 - w8Lucy had 3 children and was unhappily married. She knew sheneeded strength to go on with her life but everything wascoming at her too fast. Her husband was very abusive to her.She decided to slow down and take one day at a time and getout of her marriage fore the well being of herself and herchildren.Lucy had dreams of moving to Ke1owia, so she set a goal towork towards. She had built up enough self-esteem in herselfher hopes and dreams came true.Story 13 - W. 8It was a foggy evening in New York City. Below my window Icould see a figure of a man standing and leaning against thelightpost. He was wearing a hat and a trenchcoat. I noticedsomeone walking down the sidewalk toward him. Thenshockingly I watched him open and close his coat in front of awoman. I was so stunned I called 911 so the police wouldarrest this sick man. They came and caught him. I wasrelieved to know he was not on the street anymore.277W9-StorylIt was a rainy afternoon in April, I still remember.. .Momcooking dinner in the kitchen and Dad reading the paper in theother room. It was quiet.I was supposed to study my lessons on the violin, but I justwasn’t feeling like it. I just wasn’t feeling like it anymore. Itwas always Dad who wanted me to play the violin but to me tome it was just like a puzzle. I don’t remember when ithappened, but one thy I stood up and told him right in his face.My mother almost fainted. It was like a treasure to them. butsince then, I never played it again.Story 2- W. 9It always called my attention the way the land looked whenthe summer was gone. Somehow that day it looked somethingdifferent from the others. I guess it was because the sun wasbrighter and the land was completely yellow that I felt thissadness inside. I remember seeing this pregnant lady rightbeside the house. She was kind of sad and her face looked socongested that for a minute I thought she was crying. She wasstaring at her husband in a very strange way as if she wastrying to tell him something. But he just kept on workingwithout even noticing her. I was on my way home from schooland always said hi to the lady. But after the fall, I didn’t seeher again. ever.Story 3 - W.9278The police squad got in the house right away. The picture wasjust pathetic. The womans face was indescriptably disfiguredbecause of the shot. He probably was pointing at the nose andinch away when it happened. He was taken at the moment,handcuffed, his face wet of sweating and tears in his eyes,which showed no remorse but looked desparate at the sametime. I was the one who had to take the baby away, still cryingand terrified. How was I going to explain to him later in lifehow our Mom was taken away from us?W.9- Story 4it was my first time at the movies. I was only eleven and myMorn was as exited as I was. I remember feeling happy aboutgoing to the big city for the premiere. I know I toldeverybody, the whole town knew I was going. I don’t evenremember the name of the film, but what I will never forget isthe first time I saw the two people in love kissing each otherright in front of my eyes. I never went back to the city since Ican remember. I know the theater isn’t there anymore but I’llnever forget that kiss.W. 9 - Story 5Tom was always on time when it came to visit his mother atthe nursing home. But no matter how hard he tried to pleaseher, she always felt that resentment against him that made himfeel guilty and sorry for her. “You didn’t bring me any cookiestoday.” she’d say. “ But I brought you a cake instead,” hereplied. He as always courteous, even though she treated him279very bad. With the years, she even forgot who he was, but hekept on coming till the day she died.W. 9 - Story 6Remember to always walk with your chin up, son,11 his fatherwould say. Never put anybody down, and always be nice withthe children, they are our most loved treasure. There is nothing to compare to the joy of having your children around.He always listens to his father, it’s just that he forgot to tell hissoon that those children have a mother too, and that a motheris someone who you should treat with love too. Now that ourmarriage is over he realizes that his Dad never told him rightfrom wrong when it came to a wife.W. 9 - Story 7It was an accident, I never meant to do it. We were sitting inthe livingroom waiting for my dad to pick me up. We werefifteen then and we were best friends. We used to spend thesummer together, going to the beach, listen to tunes, go to townfor a couple of girls. There was not much we could do then,there wasn’t too much freedom for a couple of teenage boyslike us. It was raining outside and we decided to playmonopoly instead, when Greg came in from his father’sbedroom with the rifie in his hands. He was only joking Ithought, when suddenly the tragedy happened. The explosion,the screaming, the blood, my impotense and his desparate look.In seconds he was gone, and my father showed up.W9 - Story 8280It was Father’s day. She went to sleep very late cause shecooked supper for the next day. My husband and I were goingto celebrate at my in-laws, but Uncle Robert came at six o’clockthat morning to pick-up my husband and give him the badnews. I wasn’t allowed to go with them, but I called my sisterto come home and babysit my baby girl. When I arrived at theplace, my father-in-law was bending at the bedside andholding her head and kissing her. He was devastated andcrying like a child. Everybody was there crying and yelling.No one could believe she was gone.W.9 - Story 9Driving from Toronto for a week we finally made it to theRockies. The place just looked beautiful and breathtaking. Themountains were impetuously put in the picture, and the snowmade you feel like nothing matters any more. My husbandwas driving. We turned on a curve, and suddenly the bus wascoming upon us, it slowed up all of a sudden, there was noescaping. George maneouver the car, and we crashed upon theside.W.9 - Story 10I W5 lying there feeling used again, humiliated, hurting anddegraded. He felt sorry, as always, but none of his promises oftreating me belier (never )stopped (him). He felt guilty butreincidented anyways, until I understood that the best for uswas to leave him. Never again I want to feel miseated orashamed. I know I have a lot of healing to do, but I’ll be strongfor my kids, and for me too.281W9 - Story 11He was an only child and as one behave like a rotten kid.Never as a grown up father of two. I was watching hissiouette in the window one afternoon and couldn’t help butfeel sorry for him. He was paranoid that someone would stealhis car one day. And I was hoping that he would jump fromthe window. but nobody dare to touch his car. And hewouldn’t dare to jump either.W.9- Story 12I was six years old when I had this dream. I dreamed that mymother, my father, and my sister were leaving me in themiddle of the sidewalk in a strange neighbourhood, and theyjust got into the car and drove away from me. Today I’m 33and that dream still hurts me. My mother lives in a nursinghome in South Anerica, my father lives in Toronto and neverphoned me in two years, and my sister is a single mother oftwo also living in South America. I never saw them again, likein my dream.W. 9 - Story 13It is a cold winter day and is snowing again. He is lonely anddepressed waiting for the bus, thinking of how miserable hislife is. Go to work every day and coming home to an emptyhouse with no children to play with, no wife to take care ofhim. The house smells damp and empty. No more supper,home made food for him, no more smell of clean laundryanymore. Somehow he thinks he deserves it. He misbehaved,he was bad and bad-tempered for a very long time. Noweverything is quiet.282283W. 10 - Story 1The story is about a young girl. She is on her way home fromthe llbrary. She sees a man plowing his fields. It’s spring. Sheis attracted to his body. His wife is there helping him. Shewants a man of her own. She figures that’s the way it shouldbe. A man, a woman, working together helping each other. Shewalks away hoping that she will meet someone like that soon.She has hope. She isn’t afraid.W. 10 - Story 2This story is about a woman who is afraid to live and afraid todie. She’s had another fight and doesn’t know where to go. Sheis alone now and needs to think of a way to salve her problems.She feels depressed and hurt. She has another headache. Shewill snap out of it in awhile. She has to! She has other peopleto worry about and care for. Maybe tomorrow will be better.W. 10 - Story 3This story is about a man and woman. She’s said something hedoesn’t like. He’s say’s she is a miserable bitch and he’s leaving.She figures that he’s probably right again and tries to get himto understand that it really isn’t all the big of a deal. She tellshim he’s right and hopes he won’t go away again and get angry.The story ends when he leaves anyway and she knows he hastrouble coming.W.10 - Story 4284This story is about a young man telling his tale of woe to hismother. She wants to believe everything he says but there arewrinides in his story. He feels angry and sad at the same time.He wants the respect and admiration of his mother. Finally hismother decided that there may be things about her son thatare best left alone. She decides she has to believe him. Isn’t hethe gentle boy she raised, She must be getting old.W.1O - Story 5The story begins with a father and son discussing the son’sproblems. The father has doubts, but he raised a gentle son.He gave him love and tolerance. He nows he must believe hisson. His son is truly in need of help, but he won’t get it fromhis father. He knows that they just want to believe everythingis super. They don’t want to know! They don’t want to have todeal with their son’s problems. The story closes as the fathergoes inside with his wife and they have tea and say isn’t it sadthings didn’t work out. The son goes home and continues onwith his life. He has no real problems, he tells himself. He justmarried the wrong person again. He just needs to meetanother nice person.W.1O- Story 6The story begins as a team of doctors work on a young manwho has shot himself. He’s watching as they try to save his life.He doesn’t feel happy or sad. It doesn’t seem to matter. He’sjust curious. He wonders if they’ll pull it off and save him. Thestory ends with darkness. I don’t know if he lives or dies.285W. 10 - Story 7The story starts with the man making up to the woman. Hedoesn’t want her to leave. Not yet! He doesn’t have enoughmoney yet. When he does that stupid bitch can go. She wantsto believe him. She wants to believe everything will be airightthis time. They make up. They make love. They stay together.The next day the shit starts all over again. Nothing changes.Just more lies. She wonders if she’s going insane.W.10 - Story 8This story is about a prehistoric animal. There has been a landslide. There is a smaller creature about to be zapped by alarger creature. There is little feeling. The emotions areprimitive. The stronger survives.W.10 - Story 9This story is about a man who doesn’t want his wife. The onlytime he can make love to her is when she fights. He knows he’sgot problems. So does she. She’s afraid he won’t be able tostop some day. He wishes she could understand him better. Hesays he doesn’t have a problem, she does. She finally leaves.He says he’s the happiest he’s ever been in his life. She is leftwondering who’s getting it now.W.10- Story 10It’s the middle of the day. The woman wakes up. There wasanother scene. She said she had had enough she was leaving.It was a rerun of a bad movie. She fell asleep. When she286awoke he said h&d jump. It was all her fault. he was going tojump. How would she explain that?” he said. “How could shelive with that?” he asked. Everyone would know. He’d makesure. She had to stay. He would tell her when she could go.She stayed.W. 10- Story 11Once upon a time there was a girl. She lived alone with heraunt. Her aunt died. She was very lonely, but yet not alone.She wanted a home, a family, someone to love. She metsomeone. She loved him vely much. He moved in with her.They were going to share expenses and a life together. Theyknew each other four weeks. After the first month he said hewould pay 1/2 the extra of any expenses i.e. - rent increase to345 from 325 - He paid 1/2 of the $20.00 - 10.00. She thoughthe must be kidding. She was amused. It was the beginning ofthe end. It lasted a long long time. Finally she was able to freeherself from him. She is afraid she’ll make the same mistakeagain.W. 10 - Story 12The lady is at peace. She is no longer afraid. She’s even takinga walk down a city street, alone at night. It was a dream. Sheknows life has no guarantees. She’s ok with that. Maybetomorrow it will seem like it did.W1O - Story 13This is a story about a young boy who has been told he mustlearn to play the violin. He doesn’t want to play the violin. Heis told it ill build his character. It costs alot of money. Helooks at the violin. He hates it. He refuses to learn. When hedoes play he makes every effort to do so bad1y They decidethat he just isn’t gifted in that way. He doesn’t have to do it.287288W.11 - Story 2They had a hard life. Her dad worked the fields by hand dailyjust to get a few scraps on the table. He mother was with childand was in no condition to work, besides her mom wascommander in the family and what she said went. She waswaiting for Mandy her school mate and as she waited shethought of all the chores that would have to be done afterschool. She wasn’t particularly fond of them, however, sheknew her responsibilities and learned to accept them as a partof life. She knew her life would be better when she lived onher own.Wil- Story 3He struck her hard, as she landed against the bed, her eyesfilled with tears. She didn’t mean to spill her coffee on thefloor. He didn’t like it when she made mistakes. Misty alwaystried to do the best for her man, but somehow that just wasn’tenough. Her head raced with thoughts now as she tried tocomfort the bruise swelling up under her left eye. She felt sodispaired, so lonely, so broken. She thought - I have to get out,but how, where will I go? She didn’t know how to get awayfrom this violent man, but she knew that this was the end ofthe beatings and hopefully the beginning of a new and betterlife.W. 11 - Story 4He suddenly stood up with rage in his eyes, he wanted so badlyto beat the other man. His wife hold on to him pleading for289him not to do it. Ralph had always been jealous of his wife andthat day had decided that the man who had sent his wife adrink, should be taught a lesson. Yet Mandy would not let hertight grip go of her man and persistantly pleaded with him.“The man needs to be taught a lesson” he bellowed andcharged for the other man. He lunged at him from behind,spun him around and as Paiph was rearing to plummel thisother man he realized the man was wearing a shiny star andhis hand fell short at his side and he quietly turned away.W. 11 - Story 5The old woman stood silently staring out the window, her sonat her side and her husband lying in the next room was dyingShe felt so scared, her son also felt at a loss for words. Whatdoes one say to a parent who is about to lose their soul mate.Daddy Cassidy had been strickened with cancer for the past 12years and now, they both knew these next few days would behis last. In a happy sort of way Maggie knew it was for thebest, after all he had suffered enough. Yet still she clung to thehope that maybe he would miraculously get better. As hereyes filled once more with tears, she knew that this was all forthe better. As she left her son, to go and enter her husbandsroom she placed her hand in her sons and said,“Let’s go say good-bye to daddy” and as she left the room, shesomehow knew today would be his last. She somehow feltrelieved.W,11- Story 6The older man Brody leaned over and whispered something inMike’s ear. The old man felt sympathy for Mike even though290he knew Mike felt no remorse for what he did. You see Mikehad just committed a murder, he killed another for no apparentreason, just because he was angry at the world and this pooryoung lass just happened to be Brody was Mike’s lawyerand as they sat in the courtroom, Brody knew inevitably whatthe outcome would be. Still Mike was only sorry for the pricehe had to pay and not for taking the life of another.W. 11 - Story 7As the war hero lay clutching his side in agony, the doctorsrushed to try and save his life. Upton knew the next fewhours would be his last. He was just in the wrong place at thewrong time and now he was paying the price. His younger sonrushed out to see his father take his last breath. The doctor’srushed painstakingly knowing that any effort was not going tobring this man back to life. Upton drew his last breath and hisson felt nothing. He never liked his father. He came to hisdad’s side only because mother had so desperately wanted himto. He just didn’t care for the man.W. 11 - Story 8He was sorry. He always was. She clung to Mm, hoping thatthis time would be the last, It was always the same old songand dance with them. He would get upset for not apparentreason, call her names until she got so upset that she wouldbreak down and cry. Then he would take her arms say heloved her, kiss her gently and say he was sorry and neverwould do it again. He always did though and she alwaysstayed, no matter how hurt or frustrated she was by his awfulwords.291W,11 - Story 9They climbed the large rock wall and headed down along thenarrow rock path. The robbers had scored big and were quitehappy with the loot, they spent a couple of minutes auhing and000ing over their prize and suddenly a flash of light. It was thecops and it was all over.W. 11 - Story 10He didn’t mean to do it, no really. He felt so much grief forwhat he had did. He was coming home for the afternoon to seehis wife, little did he know that she was with another. Hewalked in, seen them together and killed her and as she laylistlessly naked he felt sorry for what he had done. He knewhe would pay for what he had done and somehow that seemedcomforting.W. 11 - Story 11He stared out the window, not knowing what to do. He wantedto end it just jump, get it over with, after all what was there tolive for. He wanted to end all the pain, all the hurt, afier all hisMom told him daily what a no good piece of shit he was. As hetook a step towards ending his life he knew for some reasonthat his life was not worth ending.W. 11 - Story 12They always loved hiking and today was especially grand. Theson beamed down through the open meadow, heather and292alpine growth surrounded them and seemed to embrace therays. They were a family of four, mom dad, and the two boys.They hWed seemingly forever to come to this haven and it wasworth every last aching step. They sat together now over anopen fire, exchanging stories of how the hiking experience feltto them. This is where they wanted to be and they decidedthat the great mountain would be their home forever.W. 11 - Story 13It was quite rainy that evening and as George stood waiting forthe express bus, he somehow felt lost and confused in the bigcity. He on his way home from iork. He was a big hotshot stock broker making top bucks. None of that reallyseemed to matter now, as he stood pondering life. What wasthe dollar really about - greed, material arguments, self-indulgence and hate. As the bus pulled up, George decided hedidn’t want this life anymore, money didn’t really matter andhe quietly stepped onto the bus and took one last long look atthe confused city behind him.- Story 1 (after 13)As he stared down at his violin, nothing came to him, no musicnotes that is. He was at music school and his teacher had justasked him to write some music to go with a school play. A playabout a caterpillar becoming a butterfly. His teacher didn’tunderstand him, he needed time to write such a masterpiece hethought about talking to her in protest but decided he betterget writing instead. He bit his lip, buckled down andmechanically started writing.293Ml- Story 1It seems the boy is being pushed to play the violin totallyagainst his will. Seems he is sick and tired of the montonouslessons and wants to go play with his friends or maybesomething else. The boy seems bored, sad, insecure, and nothappy. I think give it a few years and the boy will not everwant to see another musical instrument ever again.Ml- Story 2It seems to me there is some sort of rivalry. The girls may bejealous, envyous relationship. Right now it seems they aretrying to compete naturly, suttlely for the farmer boy.Thoughts and feels maybe of jealousness between qualities ofeach girl. Until one day they grow up and figure out that noguy is worth the hassle.M1-Story3Seems a girl has led a pretty rough life, and feels depress,maybe suicidal, seems to me. So she is trying on weither tolive or die and she is undecided. thoughts of confusion racethrough her head, “is there a point or reason to life. In myopinion I believe she will take her life. Seems like she is pastthe point of no return.Ml - Story 4294it seems she is trying to explain why she was hugging him. Hedoesn’t want anything to do with her anymore. He’s heard thestories and excuses. Enough is enough. He has feelings of hurt.She is just fining out what it feels like to hurt someone.Outcome will probably be separation.Ml - Story 5Seems there has just been a death of her husband and hisfather both are trying to figure out what’s going to become ofthem? where to go now? Both are feeling depressed, deepsense of loss, hurt, regrets. Both people will stick together andhelp each other through this tough time. Live happily everafter.M 1 - Story 6Seems the boy has upset the father by failing to be successfulin college. Right now there are feelings of disappointment,shame, embarassrnent, failure. Best bet is for the boy to get onwith life, try something he might better enjoy, maybe succeedin.Ml. - Story 7Many of Dad’s medical books have been read. The boy dreamsof one day becoming as great a surgeon as his father. There ishope in his eyes, plus impatientness because he is aware timeand schooling involved. Great feeling of confidence. The boywill be a great doctor who will save many lives.Ml - Story 8295Both people have suffered the loss of their mates, both areconfiding in each other comforting each other. Though thereare feelings of hurt, both feel warm and comfortable in eachother’s arms. both will grow to being good closer friends.Ml - Story 9There has been a great change in the earth’s temperature. it isback to the prehistoric temperatures again, recreation ofdinosaurs, teradactals, a herd of farmers hurrily urge theircattle to run for there lives. Before the great bird attack,feelings of scaredness arise, confusion defeat, both farmers andcattle viul parish under the great waterfall which happens tobe the teradactals nest.Ml - Story 10Seems many attempts at having children have beenunsucessful until now. but something has gone wrong duringlabor. The woman lost her life giving birth to another life thenleading to the death of the newborn. The man feels helpless,no doctors for miles, great sense of confusion, exhaustion. Manwill end having to get counselling and get back on the road to anormal productive life.Ml. - Story 11A boy coming to realization of being a man. The boy is makingdecisions to better his life, building goals and ambitions,dreams. Feelings of confidence, pride and curiousity are beingfelt. The boy will grow up to be well rounded, good naturedman.296Ml - Story 12It is 9:00 a.m.. The boy knows at 9:30 his big moment willcome, his personal spot in the limelight, the time he has beenwaiting for 3 weeks. Sweating palms, nervousness, learyconfidence. 9:29 a.rn. “Billy Henderson please step forwardready? Please spell accountability.” Bill “blank”.Ml - Story 13It’s been a hard life, times are bad. But the happy wandererponders on his quest for a quality of life and not quantity. Thehobo can feel happiness in his own little way because he knowshe has lived his life the best way and he has no regrets, thisfellow. We will never meet again but we know he is out therein the world with a grin knowing he did it his way.M.2— Story 1A young boy has been playing a violin. For a long time itseems. Now he seems a bit very tired. He look like he is nothappy. Now he will be going to bed.M2 - Story 2297There has been a parting of mother and daughter. Father isworking the field with a horse and plow. As the daughter isworking. They are doing the days chores.M2 - Story 3There was a dreadful assent. As this young lady sits on thefloor beside a bench, she looks so sad. Her whole life haschanged.M2. - Story 4Bob and Gail has been talking about going to war. They aresaying goodbyes to each other maybe for the last time. Theyare very upset. It is going to wreck their relationship.M2 - Story 5Mother and son have been talking about the son moving out ofthe house. Mother has said all she can. The mother looks veryconcerned and the son looks determined to do what he needs todo. They say goodbye.M2- Story 6Father and son have been talking to each other for a long time.The son has a understanding of what his father has beensaying. The father looks pleased with himself. Where the sonlooks mad at the conversation. Now the both of them go out forsupper.M2. - Story 7298It is the 1800’s and war has broke out. For days and days theinjured keep coming in. The doctor has a soldier on his tablewith a bullet in his stomach. There is a young boy afraid tolook at the soldier. The soldier lived.M2 - Story 8The to persons in love were dancing for a long time. Nowthey are hugging each other. There is alot of loving feelings.They go back to their table for a rest and have a great night.M2 - Story 9They were on a long trip and the last five hours has beenuphill. The horses are putting up a fight every foot of the way.now they have come to a small bridge. The two men are sotired they could give up right now. So they go a little furtherand set up camp and have a good night sleep.M2 - Story 10A lady has been killed in her home by a lover. The lover is soashamed of what he has done he will not face it. He is so sorryfor her but cannot do a thing about it. He is caught by the copsand goes to JAILM2 - Story 11Morning has hit the small town of Van. The young person issitting in a window looking at the sunrise. He is thlnldng of299what he will be doing all day and feeling great. He got dressedand had a good day.M2 - Story 12The page was so bright that it hurt my eyes. but the blankpage has been rubbed with alot of other pages where it hasmarks all over it. It makes me sad because it has nothing.There is no after.M2 - Story 13It has been snowing all day and most of the night. the copperhas been standing at this corner for seven hours. It is awfulcold standing in one spot for a long time. The cops replacementshows up in an hour and he goes to the bar to see his friends.300M.3- Story 1It was afternoon and the last class of the day was music. Benjaminwas not thrilled with going to music class as he had difficulty withthe instrument his teacher had chosen for him. Benjamin wanted toplay the saxaphone, but that went to Sally and all that was left to behanded out was the violin. Benjamin sat at his desk after he pickedup his violin from the closet room and sat and stared deeply at itwondering how he was ever going to play this huge instrumentwithout making a fool of himself and having everyone laugh at him.He took it in hand and found that the violin felt interesting.M. 3 - Story 2Tamara arrived at her family farm outside of the city. She was onher way home to quickly change from her good clothes into her workclothes as it was her duty to help in the field with her brother whoworked the horse that plowed the fields for planting.Tamar&s great frandmother stood close by near a tree day dreamingof better days. Tamara loved her granma very much and would sitwith her and listen to stories of old. Tamara’s brother was a strongboy who loved vorking the farm and loved his animals just as much.M.3 - Story 3News had arrived their Papa had died at the mine and many otherswere missing. Jane knew that there was little hope for survivors,and she also knew her mother had gone to the mine that day to takePapa some dinner just like she always did.jane was not feeling well after the news and went into the bathroomand as she entered the doorway and stamled into the room she feltfaint and she fell onto the vanity, knocking the toothbrush andPapa’s razor to the ground. After time had past and Jane felt bettershe got up from the floor and went to the ktichen to have some tea.M3- Story 4301The outlaw gang had come into town shooting everything andeveryone in sight that dared to try and stop them. The sheriffwas killed and that left Reb to try and handle them. Reb wasnot the law but a close friend of the sheriff. Reb knewsomething had to be done, but Mary also knew if he tried tostop the gang, he would be killed.but Reb went into toi. anyway and found the gang in thesaloon getting drunk. Reb came through the saloon door andeveryone went quiet. The leader of the gang stood up anddrew his gun and fell over backwards drunk.M3- Story 5302The news had come the President was shot. Aunt Mary and UncleJoe stood silently at the window in disbelief as only an hour earlierUncle Joe shook the president’s hand, what a great honor it was andnow the unthinkable happened. Someone had shot the President.Aunt Mary ‘as quite a strong woman and knew that history waschanging as her and Uncle Joe stood in the living room. Aunt Marywas smart and knew she had to be strong for Joe as he was not goingto be able to deal with this very well.M3_ Story 6Mr. Campbell and Larry arrived at the meeting of goverors to vote inthe assembly whether to allow blacks to vote. Mr. Campbell felt verystrongly about freedom and that the blacks are in their right to vote.For Larry thugh he was still not sure as his daddy had servants, noslaves, but servants. This he felt was a hard choice as he wasconcerned about what would happen to the country.They got together and talked for quite a spell and decided thatfreedom was the most important choice and that Larry’s family andothers would have to go with history and whatever the future held.M.3 - Story 7The guns echoes outside and around the tent where Doctor Merthand one of the assitants was holding a lantern for the doctor to see.Jarnie stood in his best suit and knew his father was busy trying tosave a man’s life. He could not watch the incision as the blood madehim sick. The man on the table lay still slain, moaning from the pain.The explosions and the yelling came closer and louder to the tent, Asmy father desperately worked on the young man who was lying onthe table.M3 - Story 8The fall dance was on at the county hail where Mary and Sir Johnhad said they would meet. It was not a date he said they were only303friends. but I knew there was more and I think Mary hopes sotoo. they knew each other for a long time but never gottogether. So tonight, I felt something was going to happen andgreat scott it did. Mary and Sir John had the very first thncetogether, and danced until the very last song. Sir John was inlove and so was Mary; after that moment they wereinseparable.M3- Story 9In the great forest many surprises can be found and in thegreat forest if you look hard and long, something special maypop up. This day deep in the forest is a tiny creature not seenby many humans was quietly looking and studying somethingon the path close to the stone bridge which led to a great stonewall in the forest. The tiny little man would come this wayoften but today something caught his eye, normally he wouldnot waste his time as he did not want to be seen by anyone,but today was different, something caught his eye. What couldit be, money, possibley gold or diamonds. The tiny man knewfinally after studying it for awhile and suddenly jumped upand squealed for joy and dashed quickly away. What was it hefound?M3 - Story 10The hotel room was hot and unbearable from the heat of theday. Susan lay on her back in the bed trying to get some sleep,but Darrel was not ready for bed and was wiping his brow withhis sleeve removing the sweat. “Too damn hot” Darrel saidwith a edge to his voice. “Try and lay do or have a coldshower” said Susan. “Good idea I’ll have a cold shower”, and at304that same moment Susan jumped up from the bed and raced tothe shower beating Darrel to the cold pleasures of coolingwater. “Sorry”, she said “it sounded like a great idea toogoodto pass up. come to join me”. Well Darrel was undressed andin the shower with Susan in a second. After 20 minutespassedby the both dried each other off and went to bed feelingmuchbetter.M. 3 - Story 11A great new thy was outside his window from his hotel roomas James stood silently with his foot resting up on thewindowsill. Ah what a great day, James said to himself. Whatshould I do today? James stood for a long time at the windowand watched the people stroll by in front of him on the streetbelow. Maybe I will go for a walk and see if I can meetsomenew people since this is a new town and I don’t know anyonehere. So after James changed and threw his wallet into hisfanny pack he went out for a morning stroll, looking forsomefun and adventure.M3 - Story 12The trip was long but comfortable to Portland in my car.Itwas another Pro Race weekend at P.I.R. This time the bigboyswere here, Trans Am and Indy Car. Hopefully it will be busyand the trip won’t be a total waste. Actually I hope thescenery is good and maybe I’ll meet some new people whileI’m here.I arrived at the track to register and all is great so far. Iquickly dress in my drivers suit and head to my track stationon PIR Wall where I help out as a volunteer roadie (?). I’m305excited as this is an important race and my duties are thesame. As I had hoped I met a great girl named Tern she wasinvolved in racing and also in the safety end of things. Greatfin-ally met someone who likes racing.After a great weekend it was time to go home, darn, a long 5hour drive back home but with great memories, look forwardto next year..M.3 - Story 13He was standing out beside the lampost, barely noticeable evenfrom the light. The snow fell heavy and obscured the view ofthe man against the lamp standard. Why I asked myself washe there, I tried to feel what he was thinking and feeling but Icould not. The man looked sad but this was again myimpression. Time passed by and the snow fell harder, the mailnever moved. I got some coffee and went out to him andintroduced myself, poor guy, he was lonly and had nowhere togo. Sadly was not able to offer him shelter but shortly a timelater a man from the Salvation Army took him away for foodand a place to sleep. This made the man and myself happy.//306/I APPDU( B: RECH ATION D/ FORMSj/307IAMILY & COMMUNITY SERVICES_._-February 11, 1992Department of Counselling PsychologyFaculty of EducationU.B.C.Vancouver, B.C.TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERNRE: Research Proposal by Lillian KellyI have reviewed and approved the proposal submitted byLillian Kelly to do research with the women’s and mensgroups in our Family Violence Program.Our Family Violence Intervention Program Staff and myselfwould appreciate having access to the results of thestudy when it is completed.Sincerely,Robert FinlayDirector of Counselling Serviceitre: 1112 Austin Avenue, Coquitlam, B.C. V3K 3P5 . Telephone 931-3110 . Fax 931-3808308THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA‘/ ;Department of Counselling PsychologyFaculty of Education5780 Toronto Road________Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T I L2Tel: (604) 822-5259Fac: (604) 822-2328Jan. 9, 1992Mr. Bob FindlayShare Counselling Centre1112 Austin Ave.Ccxuitlam, B.C.Dear Bob,I am interested in conducting a research study through the counsellingcentre. I would like to conduct this study with the men and men participatingin the groups in the family violence program. This study will be a non-intrusive study and will not be asking the subjects to reveal anything about:their personal lives. The purpose ot the study and the method used isdescribed in the attached research abstract.. The standards of ethics ofU.B.C. regarding human subjects will be followed and confidentiality of thesubjects is ensured.I am hoping that you and the society will agree to allow me to approachyour clients and aske them to participate in the study. Participation isvoluntary and they will be informed of this. Please inform me in writing ofyour decision in this regard.Th nk you for your consideration.L ilian Kelly, /M.A. student U.B.C. Counselling Psychology7/ THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 309Department of Counselling PsychologyFaculty of Education‘5780 Toronto Road_______Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1L2Tel: (604) 822.5259Fax: (604) 822-2328RESEPRcH DESCRIPTIONProject Title: Study of the Way Individuals £ake Sense of Situations Through StoriesI, Lillian Kelly, am conducting nis research under the supervision ofDr. Larry Cochran, Dept. of Counselling Psychology, U.E.C. This study involvesunderstenin how people maxe sense ot situations through the use o stories.As a participant in this research study you will be shown a picture andasked to tell a story about what you see in the picture. ou will be presentedwith 10 pictures altogether in seguence, one at a time. ou ill be asked totell a story with a beginning, middle, and end for eaci picture. You will begiven seven minutes to write seen story, which has been found to cc ample tiipeto complete the stories in research of this kind in tne past. The total tieinvolved will be one nd one-halt hours, which will take place at oneS of yourregular group meetings at the Share Counselling Centre.The stories which you write will be kept conEidential tc the investigators(Lillian Kelly and Larry cochran) as to your identity. Although the storiesare fiction and are not likely to reveal anything that personally identifiesyou, should there he any personal identifying information contained in them itwill be deleted. frci the story before being used in the research at the timewhen the stories are transcribx5. Your name will not he used i.n the studyand will be kept confidential to tiIC reserchrs nned only.art1cioaton in this study is voluntary. You have the right to refuse toparticipate or to withdraw at any time . Your refusal to prticpate or towithdraw will not effect your participation ii th group at Share or youropportunity to paticipate in any research in the future.A Lull explanation o the procedures of this study will be given againat the group in which the study is conducted. If you have any cuestions orconcerns you ay contact ti-is inveati;ti.crs: Lillian ;eily, 3l—3ll0 orDr. Larry cochran, 822-5259.—_____I, hereby acknowlcdje rcct of this research description and consent for.n.I, h-e undersigned, have read, undertoed, and have agreed to participatein tnis research project.igned:Date:


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items