Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Rosebush Q-Sort: the use of drawings in the assessment of child abuse Robertson, Sarah 1994

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-ubc_1994-0233.pdf [ 18.15MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0054046.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0054046-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0054046-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0054046-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0054046-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0054046-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0054046-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0054046-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0054046.ris

Full Text

ROSEBUSH Q-SORT THE USE OF DRAWINGS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF CHILD ABUSE by Sarah Robertson B.Sc.N, The University of Alberta,1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Counselling Psychology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard The University of British Columbia April 1994 ® Sarah Robertson,1994 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of &4,<yuUll / / / • ^ fcjff C^* / o The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) ii Abstract The use of the Rosebush Visualization Technique (RVT) (Allan & Crandell, 1986) as a tool in the early-detection of child abuse is tested using the Q-Sort Methodology. Twenty children between the ages of 8 and 13 inclusively are selected based on their membership in either an abused group or non-abused group. The mean age of the children in the abused group was 10.1 years and the mean age of the children in the non-abused group was 11.0 years. The abused group included 9 boys and 1 girl all of whom had been assessed by a mental health agency as having confirmed histories of abuse. The non-abused group consisted of 5 boys and 5 girls. Each child was seen individually and instructed to take a minute or so to imagine themselves as a rosebush. Each child was then asked to look at 24 pictures of rosebushes previously drawn by both abused and non-abused children and asked to choose the drawing which most resembled his/her imagined rosebush and the drawing which least resembled his/her imagined rosebush. The selection of the drawings continued until all 24 drawings were ordered into a Q-Sort. The Sort was analyzed using the Q-Sort methodology and Analysis of Variance techniques. The results supported Ill the hypothesis that the children will show no preference for the drawings which represent the group to which they belong and that the drawings will not be differentially selected by both groups of children. The results are discussed followed by implications for clinical practice and recommendations for further research. IV TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract ii Table of Contents iv List of Tables . vi List of Figures vii Acknowledgements viii Chapter One INTRODUCTION The Effects of Abuse on Children 1 The Identification of Child Abuse....3 Chapter Two LITERATURE REVIEW History and Use of Projective Drawings 6 Current Research 10 The Rosebush Visualization Technique. 16 Summary 20 Hypothesis 21 Chapter Three RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Subj ects 22 Definitions 23 Delimitations 25 Procedure 26 Data Analysis 29 V Page Chapter Four RESULTS OF ANALYSIS Q-Sort Analysis. 30 Analysis of Variance 35 Results of Analysis of Variance......35 Summary 41 Chapter Five DISCUSSION Q-Sort Analysis .42 Analysis of Variance 44 Summary of Results 44 Discussion of Results. 45 Subj ective Analysis 47 Response of Children to the Task 48 Implications for Using the RVT in Clinical Practice. 49 Summary and Implications for Further Research. 50 References 52 Appendix A.......... 56 Appendix B 59 Appendix C 60 Appendix D 61 Appendix E 63 Appendix F 64 Appendix G 66 vi LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Selection Matrix and Factor Loading of Abused and Non-Abused Children 31 3 Q-Sort of Each Group. 36 4 Analysis of Variance. 38 VI1 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Rosebush Q-Sort Used With Abused and Non-Abused Children .28 viii Acknowledgement s I would like to express my thanks to my supervisor Dr. John Allan and to the members of my committee, Dr. Du Fay-Der and Dr. Walter Boldt. I would especially like to thank Dr. Allan whose insight into the inner world of the child has been an ongoing source of inspiration and joy for me. My thanks also to Dr. Boldt whose patience and support guided me through the statistical section of this thesis. Thanks also to my parents who have been unfailing in their support of my educational endeavours. Finally my deepest thanks is expressed to my friends. I would especially like to thank Begum, Linda, Grace-Evelyn, Jeannie and Susan whose love and support has meant so much during the past four years. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Until recently the abuse of children has largely been a hidden tragedy silently woven throughout the fabric of our society. Prior to 1970 concerns regarding the abuse of children were being voiced but it was not until the early 19 70s that the figures began to emerge supporting those concerns and acknowledging that significant numbers of our children were being abused physically, sexually and emotionally. Perhaps because of an increase in public awareness as well as improved preventive education there has been, since those early years, a dramatic increase in the rate of disclosures and the number of reported cases of child abuse. In British Columbia, for example, in 1972, there were 105 reported cases of child abuse (Inter-Ministry Child Abuse Handbook, 1985). In 1982, 1,536 cases of child abuse were reported and in 19 88-89, 20,3 74 cases of which 6,101 were attributed to sexual abuse, 5,338 to physical abuse and 8,935 to emotional abuse and neglect (Ministry of Social Services and Housing Annual Report, 19 88-89). The report of the Committee on Sexual Offenses Against Children and Youth (1984) also uncovered some 2 startling statistics. They found that at some time in their lives 1 in 2 females and 1 in 3 males has been a victim of one or more unwanted sexual acts ranging from exposure to sexual assault. Furthermore 4 out of 5 of these unwanted sexual acts were first committed against these persons during childhood. The report further stated that, although the group figuring most prominently in the sexual abuse data falls within the 7 to 11 year age range, the number of children under the age of 7 suffering the same horror is vastly under reported. The Effects of Abuse on Children The concerns surrounding the abuse of children can in no way be underestimated when one considers the irreparable damage to the physical, emotional and intellectual development of children. There have been numerous studies conducted documenting both the short and long term effects of child abuse. In the short term, the effects may include a sense of fear, guilt, shame, betrayal and helplessness. The long term effects of abuse are equally as devastating and include poor self-image, suicide, learning disabilities, drug and alcohol abuse, prostitution, run-away children, multiple personality and crime (Report of the Special 3 Advisor to the Minister of National Health and welfare on Child Sexual Abuse in Canada, 1989) . Compounding the agony of the child is the fact that so often, those found to be victimizing children have held or are holding trusted positions in society by way of being parents, teachers and clergy. The Identification of Child Abuse The identification of child abuse is a delicate process and, as well, is plagued with many legal and ethical issues. The sexual abuse of a child, for example, is often not physically obvious and signs of physical abuse may be easily hidden by clothing or explained away under the guise of a childhood accident. Through the perpetrator's ongoing coercion, manipulation and threats the child is rendered powerless to defend him or herself and thus the exploitation is able to continue. Certain behaviors observed in children have been suggested as signaling that some form of abuse may be occurring. Examples of such behavioral indicators include: overly compliant behavior or acting out aggressive behavior, persistent and inappropriate sexual play with peers, toys or self, fear of males, poor peer and adult relationships, a drop in school 4 performance, regressive behavior, withdrawal and depression (Sgroi, 19 82). Although helpful these indicators are not on their own conclusive and lacking a clear disclosure, it is, so often, impossible to intervene in many cases of suspected child abuse. Another factor hampering the intervention process is the very issue of disclosure. Adult survivors of abuse regularly report that as children they did not disclose what was happening to them for fear that they would not be believed or that they were, in some way, to blame and if they did report something bad would happen to them and their family (Courtois, 1988). As well, the age during which most child abuse occurs creates another obstacle in the early detection, disclosure and intervention process. By virtue of their age children's expressive language development is immature and, thus, limited. This combined with the trauma of the experience and their attempts to cope through varying degrees of suppression and denial, it is unrealistic to expect children to have the words and phrases available to adequately and consistently describe their experiences (Johnson, 19 87). Another factor hampering the disclosure process concerns incestuous abuse where, because of family loyalties, 5 children find themselves caught in a powerful emotional and psychological bind. Torn between their own survival and that of their family they realize that in disclosing the abuse they risk the break-up and loss of their family and, for some, this consequence may be as devastating and debilitating as the abuse itself. For this reason they choose to remain silent. Given what we presently know regarding the incidence of child abuse and the difficulties encountered in the early detection and intervention process it is incumbent on those of us who work with young children to strive to overcome some of these obstacles and to find a means of detecting the child's abuse before he or she is able to disclose it. One approach which may prove valuable is utilizing children's projective drawings. One such projective tool is the Rosebush Visualization Technique (Allan & Crandall, 1986) using the Rosebush Visualization Q Sort. To this end the purpose of this study is to test the reliability and validity of the Rose Bush Q Sort in the early detection of child abuse. 6 CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter will review the history and use of projective drawing techniques and present the current research into their use. History and Use of Projective Drawings Historically drawings have been used to record feelings and actions long before symbols were designed to record specific speech. From the time of the cave dweller on, throughout our history and across all cultures we have graphically expressed emotions, feelings and needs through drawings. Similarly children have also used art as a means of self-expression and the act of drawing at a very young age seems for children, to be a natural phenomenon (Kellogg, 1970). Considered by many as the language of children, drawing serves as the child's means of communicating with both his or her environment and the people who make up that environment and thus is able to fulfill for the child, the role conversation fulfills for the adult (Hammer, 1980). The term projective drawing has its origin in the Freudian term projection best known as one of Freud's defense mechanisms (Rabin, 1986). It consists of 7 attributing characteristics in oneself to others or things in the outer world. According to Rabin, children's drawings were initially used as a form of intelligence scale based mainly on the number of details included in the drawing. Goodenough (1926) was the first to design and standardize a scoring procedure for the human figure drawing which was, later on, further developed and refined by Harris (1963). Harris went on to compare the scores obtained from the figure drawing with those obtained from the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (Terman & Merrill, 1960) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Wechsler, 1949) and strong positive correlations between the two were found to exist. The figure drawing assessment is still used today by many clinicians and its continued widespread use confirms the original contention of Goodenough and Harris that the method is a valid and reliable measure of the cognitive abilities of young and preadolescent children (Hammer, 19 80). In the study of children's drawings it soon became apparent that as well as tapping cognitive factors the act of drawing was giving freedom to much emotional expression as well. Because the few attempts at comparisons with standardized tests have yielded poor 8 correlations (DiLeo, 1983), a skeptical scientific community has given little credence to drawings and other projective activities done by children which are viewed as expressions of the unconscious or the emotional aspect of the personality. To illustrate this skepticism Klein (1986) writes that: "unfortunately, projective tests do not provide us with sufficient valid information to use them as aids in the diagnostic process of behavior and emotional disorders" (p.381). Although some have suggested that the use of projective drawings in the assessment of children has steadily declined over the years, Piotrowski and Keller (1984) found in their investigation that the use of projective drawing techniques is still very much alive and well in clinics and hospitals and, in fact, the House-Tree-Person Drawing Technique (Buck, 1948) is among the top 10 most frequently used tests in these settings. Rabin (1986) and Dumont and Karen-Fine (1989), on the other hand, examined the use of psychometric instruments in assessing children and both studies reported a declining enthusiasm for their use in the assessment of the socioemotional concerns of children. Reischly and Shapiro (1989) found several 9 reasons for this decline among which was a growing concern regarding the poor validity and reliability of many of the standardized assessment instruments as well as some legal and ethical concerns regarding their use. As the debate continues between the two "cultures" involved in the assessment of children, the number of publications of case examples attesting to the value and interpretation of projective drawings has, over the years, increased significantly. This fact suggests that those who have become familiar with their use will not do without them as they search for the clues to a child's distress that standardized tests are unable to provide. Some examples of these case study publications are as follows. Burgess, McCausland and Wolbert (19 81) in their article feel that for abused children, being able to draw serves two purposes. First, the use of art taps into childrens' unexpressed thoughts, feelings and actions and second it relieves children of the pressure of having to verbalize their traumatization. In their paper the authors provide several case study examples supporting their belief. Again citing several case study examples, Miller, Veltkamp and Janson (1987) addressed the use and value 10 of human figure drawings as a strategy for assessing clinically relevant experiences of sexually abused children. Riordan and Verdel (1991) write of their experience with the art work of a four year old child who had been sodomized by an adolescent male. The authors found that the shapes drawn, their colour and placement not only confirmed the abuse but enabled the child to verbalize his experience. Although the volume of literature has increased, research in the area of projective drawings has not maintained the same pace. There is, therefore, an urgent need for further research examining the use of children's drawings in the assessment of child abuse to both enhance and support what presently does exist. Current Research Following is a review of the current research in the use of projective drawings in the assessment of abused and non-abused children. Allan and Crandall (1986) developed and administered the Rosebush Visualization Technique individually to 2 0 ten year old children, 10 of whom were considered to be "coping" and 10 "noncoping". The children were then asked to draw a picture of their 1 visualized rosebush. Three independent raters trained in projective assessment, sorted the drawings into two piles "coping" and "noncoping" and a significant difference was found to exist between the two groups (p<.05). When the children's words or stories were added to their respective drawings, the rater's discrimination increased to .01 level of significance. Carter, Allan and Boldt (1992) in their study examined two questions: (a) to what extent do sexually abused children select pictures completed by similarly diagnosed children as being most like themselves and reject pictures done by children they perceive as least like themselves? (b) Which specific pictures within each set of pictures are chosen as being more significant to one type of children than another? Eleven children between the ages of seven and twelve were used as subjects in this study. Their results found that one half of the sexually abused children in treatment chose non-abuse rosebush pictures as being most similar to themselves and chose physical and sexual abuse rosebush pictures as being least similar to themselves. Another group of sexually abused children chose sexual abuse pictures, physical abuse pictures and non-abuse pictures as being most like 12 themselves. They chose only one emotional neglect and physical abuse picture as being least like themselves. Eleven pictures were selected by the sexually abused sample. One emotional neglect, one physical abuse, two non-abuse and two sexual abuse pictures were chosen as being more significant to one type than the other. One sexual abuse, two non-abuse and two physical abuse pictures were chosen as being similar to both types. Cohen and Phelps (19 85) examined drawings done by 166 children aged 4 to 18 years. Of these children, 89 were known to be victims of sexual abuse and the remaining 77 were children with emotional problems but no known history of sexual abuse. Three projective drawing techniques were used for each subject, House-Tree- Person, Kinetic Family Drawing and free drawing. Their results differentiated statistically with the incest and control groups being significantly different with respect to the total number of markers on the House-Tree-Person drawings and again for the family drawings. The free drawing showed only marginal significance between the two groups. Hackbarth, Murphy and McQuary (1991) designed a study to examine any possible differences in Kinetic Family Drawing scores between sexually abused children 13 and children who have not been identified as sexually abused. Their sample included 3 0 sexually abused children and 3 0 children identified as not sexually abused. They also included in their study the kinetic family drawings done by the mothers of the children from both groups. Significant results were obtained (p .01) and (p .05) demonstrating that the KFD could significantly discriminate between children who had been identified as having been sexually abused and children who had not. The results also showed that the mothers of sexually abused children drew significantly less desirable family situations in their KFDs than did the mothers of unidentified children. A study done by Hibbard, Roghmann and Hoekelman (1987) tested the hypothesis that sexually abused children draw genitalia on human figures more often than do nonabused children. They studied the human figure drawings of 57 children ages three to seven years who were the alleged victims of sexual abuse and the human figure drawings of 55 nonabused children of a similar age, sex, race and socioeconomic background. The results of their study showed that children known to have been sexually abused were 6.8 times more likely to include genitalia on their human figure drawings than were comparison children. Howe, Burgess and McCormack (1987) used the Draw-A-Person projective technique in their study of 149 runaway adolescents and found differences between the drawings of physically abused and sexually abused adolescents and adolescents reporting no abuse. The results of cross tabular analysis indicated that runaways reporting no abuse (42%) were more likely to produce ambiguous gender drawings than youths reporting physical abuse (8%), sexual abuse (17%), or physical and sexual abuse (15%) (x2 = 9.43, p<.01). Females who were sexually abused were more likely to draw a figure of the opposite sex than were females who were not sexually abused (x2 = 4.44, p<.05). Manning (1987) observed that "physically abused children typically portray the weather as disproportionate and/or excessive in size, and as falling on contents of the drawing" (p. 15). Using the A Favorite Kind of Day projective drawing she examined the drawings done by children with a known history of abuse and children with no known history of abuse and found that abused children could be distinguished from 15 nonabused children by the presence, size and movement of inclement weather in their drawings. The Draw-A-Person projective technique was also used by Sidun and Rosenthal (1987) in their study of sexually abused adolescents hospitalized on an adolescent psychiatric unit over a 10 year period. They observed that the abused group excluded hands and fingers more often in their drawings and were more likely to draw figures with only a head and no body. Their drawings also seemed to include more circles as well as wedge like objects. Using the human figure drawing (HFD) , Stumer, Rothbaum, Visintainer and Wolfer (1980) investigated the effects of stress and preparation for stress as emotional indicators in 68 childrens' drawings. The children, aged 4 to 12 years, were asked to draw a human figure just after admission to hospital and again 90 minutes later. Within the 90 minute period one group of children was subjected to a stressful event (venipuncture) and for the second group the same stressful event was delayed beyond the 9 0 minutes and following the second drawing. As well, one group of children was prepared for the stressful event through teaching and support while the other group was not. 16 The results of the study showed that the emotional indicators in the children's drawings increased only in the group that was stressed and unprepared. Yates, Beutler and Brago (19 85) examined a group of figure drawings done by 18 girls who were incest victims ranging in age from 3.5 years to 17 years and 17 girls of a similar age and socioeconomic background who were disturbed but not incest victims . In the results of their study the groups produced two significant differences on the dimensions of impulse control and quality of repressive defenses. In addition the incest victims were more variable in their tendency to exaggerate sexual features of figures when drawing and as well, earned less variable ratings in maturity and adequacy of sublimation. The Rosebush Visualization Technique The rosebush visualization was a Gestalt exercise of guided imagery first described by Stevens (19 71). Oaklander (1978) enhanced the visualization by prompting the children with many suggestions and possibilities for what their rosebush may look like and then asked them, when they were ready, to draw their rosebush. 17 The choice to use the rosebush as a visualization tool with children becomes significant when one understands the symbolism the rose has held for mankind throughout the centuries. Seward (1954) felt it impossible to imagine anything more enduring than the rose for "not only do its roots extend at least to the beginning of recorded time, but its petals embrace the deepest positive values ever held by man" (p. 1). It seems that the rose has come to symbolize man's happiest dreams and its annual appearance following a barren winter has associated the rose to the ideas of motherhood and mother nature, birth and rebirth. Jung (19 64) sees the rose's circular shape as suggesting the sun, wholeness and perfection and its relation to nature's fertility suggesting again the theme of birth or rebirth in beauty. For Jung this mandala quality or design of the rose being a circle with a center is the principal symbol of the completion or end of the integrative process and the fulfillment of man's being. As well as its associations with love, beauty, life, joy, creation and eternity the rose has also been a symbol of sorrow; fading quickly it has been identified with death. Surrounded by thorns the rose has also been identified with pain and with the 18 ambivalence involved in mortal love and most mortal values. The rose has, therefore, entrenched itself through the centuries and across cultures as a powerful archetypal symbol and consequently has the potential to play a valuable role in the assessment process with abused children. The rosebush visualization as described by Oaklander (1978) was further developed by Allan and Crandall (1986) into the Rosebush Visualization Technique (RVT) and administered individually to 20 ten year old children, 10 of whom were coping and 10 non-coping. Following the visualization the children were then asked to draw a picture of their rosebush. The twenty drawings were then sorted into two piles (coping and non-coping) by three independent raters, all of whom were trained in projective assessments. A significance difference was found to exist between the two groups (p<.05) and when the children's stories were added to their drawings, the raters discrimination improved to the .01 level of significance. When the backgrounds of the children used in the study were revealed, the differences in the drawings were as follows. Sexually abused children tended to include protective fences around their rosebushes. 19 Physically abused children emphasized the thorns of their rosebushes. Emotionally abused children drew rosebushes which appeared impoverished, abandoned and alone. In contrast, the children identified as belonging to the coping group drew colourful, alive rosebushes with many flowers and added details such as birds, park benches and people to the picture. Following the work of Allan and Crandall, Bowden (1991) administered the Rosebush Visualization Technique (RVT) to 42 children, male and female, aged 8 years to 13 years inclusive who had a known history of sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse or no abuse. She then gave the 20 pictures, from the Allan and Crandall study, to the 42 children and asked them to sort the pictures into Q Sort piles of "most like me" and "least like me". Her results did not, however, support her original hypothesis that "the children would sort the drawings of rosebushes demonstrating a preference for the drawings that represented the group to which they belonged" (p. 42). She chose then to divide the subjects into two groups (Traumatized Group and Non-traumatized Group). Her results then demonstrated that firstly, the children had not sorted the pictures randomly and secondly, that the pictures 20 had differentiated the Traumatized Group from the Non-traumatized Group of children. In a subjective analysis Bowden "noted that the Non-traumatized Group had shown a preference for drawings that were colourful and aesthetically pleasing with a balanced design" (p. 47) . As well, the pictures chosen contained positive life qualities such as sunshine, flowers and leaves. In contrast the pictures chosen by the Traumatized Group contained single, lonely figures and, as well, often included dark backgrounds. Summary As discussed previously the numbers of reported cases of child abuse and neglect are increasing dramatically. Yet, the experts believe, these numbers remain vastly underscored. There is, therefore, an urgent need to find a way to effectively intervene, as early as possible, in suspected cases of child abuse, to detect a child's abuse and break the cycle of violation before further and possible irreparable damage is done. Despite the criticism from outside circles, children's drawings have remained in use in the assessment of child abuse and to counteract this criticism all research into this area is timely and, 21 without question, of great value. In response to this need and based on the results of the study done by Bowden (1991) the following hypotheses are proposed. Hypothesis 1. It is hypothesized that each child, in sorting the set of Rosebush drawings, will show no preference for the drawing(s) which represent the group to which he or she belongs. 2. It is hypothesized that the Rosebush drawings will be not be differentially selected by both groups of children. CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The following chapter presents the research methodology. It begins with a description of the subjects involved in the research followed by definitions of the terms used and acknowledged delimitations of the study. It then describes the Q-Sort instrument and the procedure used for data collection. Subjects The sample for this study included 20 children all between the ages of 8 and 13 inclusive. The children were selected for the study based on their history of abuse or non-abuse. Ten children belonged to the abused group and 10 children to the non-abused group. Of the 10 children with a confirmed history of abuse, 9 were male and 1 was female. The mean age of this group was 10.1 years. Of the 10 children with no known history of abuse, 5 were male and 5 were female. The mean age of this group was 11.0 years. The children of the abused group had all been assessed by mental health professionals within the past year as having experienced one or more types of abuse, sexual, physical or emotional including neglect. All 23 10 children were receiving treatment in a community-based agency at the time that this data was being collected. Of the 10 children, 5 were receiving treatment as inpatients in a children's residential treatment center and 5 were receiving treatment as outpatients from a community mental health agency. The children from the non-abused group were well known to the researcher and were selected from the general population of children who lived at home in an intact family group, who attended local schools, were meeting academic requirements and had good relationships with teachers and peers. Both the teachers and parents of this group of children reported no known history of abuse. Definitions The Inter-Ministry Child Abuse Handbook (19 88) provides the following definition of terms relevant to this research. Abuse: Refers to any physical, sexual or emotional abuse and neglect. Physical Abuse: Any physical force or action which results in or may potentially result in a non-accidental injury to a child and which exceeds that which could be considered reasonable discipline. Sexual Abuse: Any sexual exploitation of a child whether consensual or not. It includes touching of a sexual nature and sexual intercourse and may include any behavior of a sexual nature toward a child. Emotional Abuse: Acts or omissions of those responsible for the care of a child which are likely to produce long term and serious emotional disorder. This might include effects such as non-organic failure to thrive, developmental retardation, serious anxiety, depression or withdrawal, or serious behavioral disturbance. Neglect: The failure of those responsible for the care of the child to meet the physical, emotional or medical needs of a child to an extent that the child's health, development or safety is endangered. Non-abuse: No known history of physical, sexual or emotional abuse or neglect. Rosebush Visualization Technique (RVT): An activity where children, following a relaxation exercise, are asked to visualize themselves as a rosebush (Allan & Crandall, 1986). 25 Delimitations Several delimitations appear in this study and they include the following. The results will be limited to children with average intelligence between the ages of 8 and 12 inclusive. As well, the researcher will be trained in both guided imagery and projective techniques and, therefore, the results of this study cannot be generalized to include results obtained from those untrained in either area. Instrument For the purpose of this study the instruments to be used include a modification of the Rosebush Picture Q Sort used in the Bowden (1991) study and the Rosebush Visualization Technique (Allan & Crandall 1986). The Rosebush Picture Q Sort consists of 24 drawings of children's rosebushes (Appendix D). Six of the drawings were done by children with a history of sexual abuse, another six were done by children with a history of physical abuse, six other drawings were done by children with a history of emotional abuse and/or neglect and the last six drawings were done by children who had no known history of abuse. In summary, 18 of the rosebush drawings were done by children with a history of one form of abuse or another and 6 drawings 26 were done by children with no known history of abuse. The 24 drawings were done by both male and female children with average intelligence, between the ages of 8 and 13 inclusively. The Rosebush Visualization Technique consists of two parts. The first part consists of a short relaxation exercise including deep breathing and muscle relaxation. The second part consists of leading the children through a guided visualization where they imagine themselves as a rosebush. Following the visualization the children were then asked to select from the 24 rosebush drawings the rosebushes which seemed most like their own and those least like their own. The children's selection was then rank ordered according to preference and non-preference, by the researcher, into a Q Sort. Procedure Each child was seen individually by the researcher for approximately one hour and the procedure was carried out in four stages. 1. Each child was guided through a relaxation exercise which included deep breathing and body relaxation. Each child was then led through the Rosebush Visualization Technique (Appendix A) The 24 rosebush drawings were then spread out on a large surface in random order. Each child was then asked to look at all 24 pictures for a minute or so and then asked to put the 24 drawings into two piles - the first pile containing the pictures seen as being similar to his/her imagined rosebush and the second pile containing the pictures seen as not being similar to his/her imagined rosebush. Each child was then asked to rank order each pile of drawings and as this was done the researcher placed them on the floor to form the Q Sort in the following manner (see Figure 1). Each child was asked to choose the one drawing he/she felt was most like how they had imagined themselves as a rosebush. This drawing was then placed under number 10. They were then asked to choose the next two drawings which were most like themselves and these were placed under number 9. The next 2 chosen drawings were placed under number 8, the next 3 choices were 28 FIGURE 1 ROSEBUSH Q-SORT USED WITH ABUSED AND NON-ABUSED CHILDREN Like Me Not Like Me 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 + + + + + + + + + + . + + + + + + + +. + + I I I I I II I I I " I I I II I I II I + + + + + + + + + + . + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + . + + + + + + + + I I I I I I I I - I I I II I I I + + + + + + + + . + + + + + + + + + + +——+ . + + + + I I I I • I I I I + + + + . + + + + + + . + + I I - I I + + . + + 29 placed under number 7 and the last four in that pile under number 6. The same procedure was repeated for the second pile. The child was first asked to choose the drawing which was least like his or her imagined rosebush and this drawing was placed under number 1. The next two choices were placed under number 2, the following 2 choices under number 3, the next 3 choices under number 4 and the final 4 choices under number 5. 4. Finally a reliability check was done by asking each child to check his or her choices and to make any change s/he wished so that in the end the sort of each child was as close as possible to his/her visualized rosebush. Data Analysis A profile was done of each child's Q Sort and the profile or sorting pattern of all the children was then intercorrelated and factored into groups. This was followed by a One-Way Analysis of Variance. 30 CHAPTER IV RESULTS OF ANALYSES In the following chapter the empirical results of the Rosebush Q-Sort analyses are reported. O-Sort Analyses A Q-Sort Analysis of the data was carried out first to determine what discernable patterns or groupings emerged and whether these patterns or groupings were unique to the two groups of children. The result of the Q-Sort Analysis was that the 20 children were factored into 5 clusters. It was, however, difficult to interpret the clusters because the relationship between them was not clearly differentiating abused from non-abused children as was expected. To illustrate, Group 1 included 2 non-abused children (one male and one female) and 3 abused (two male and one female), Group 2 included 4 abused children (all male), Group 3 included 3 non-abused children (two male and one female) and 1 abused (male), Group 4 included only 1 abused child (male) and Group 5 included 5 non-abused children (two male and three female) and 1 abused child (male) (Table 1). The Z-scores of each group are presented in Table 2 and further indicate the children's apparent difficulty 31 Table l SELECTION MATRIX AND FACTOR LOADING OF ABUSED AND NON-ABUSED CHILDREN GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3 A. 2.8533 N.A. 1.7992 A. 1.3725 A. 1.0840 A. 2 .8533 A. 1.8914 A. 1.0071 A. 0.9050 N.A. N.A. N.A. -4.2809 -2.5031 -1.3725 A. 0.7623 GROUP 4 GROUP 5 A. 5.9896 N.A. 1.7143 N.A. 1.5628 N.A. 1.3725 N.A. 1.0840 A. 0.9050 N.A. 0.6448 •ABUSED N.A. NON-ABUSED 32 Table 2 Z Scores (1.0 or greater than 1.0) (-1.0 or greater than -1.0) MOST LIKE LEAST LIKE PICTURE # 23 10 15 21 9 16 13 8 GROUP 1 PICTURE IDENTIFICATION N.A. A. A. A. N.A. A. A. N.A. Z SCORE 1.9653 1.4518 1.3288 1.2219 1.2098 -1.3709 -1.6028 -2.0358 GROUP 2 PICTURE # PICTURE IDENTIFICATION Z SCORE MOST LIKE LEAST LIKE MOST LIKE LEAST LIKE 24 10 15 23 21 12 17 PICTURE # 19 20 22 11 8 13 17 16 A. A. A. N.A. A. A. A. GROUP 3 PICTURE IDENTIFICATION A. A. N.A. A. N.A. A. A. A. 1.8310 1.3062 1.2982 1.2672 -1.6381 -1.7435 -2.0632 Z SCORE 1.5102 1.4303 1.3142 1.1458 -1.3685 -1.4572 -1.4578 -2.0971 PICTURE # GROUP 4 PICTURE IDENTIFICATION Z SCORE MOST LIKE LEAST LIKE MOST LIKE LEAST LIKE 18 9 5 12 7 24 3 8 4 16 PICTURE # 23 1 10 19 17 13 8 16 2 A. N.A. A. A. N.A. A. A. N.A. A. A. GROUP 5 PICTURE IDENTIFICATION N.A. A. A. A. A. A. N.A. A. A. 1.9335 1.5038 1.5038 1.0742 1.0742 -1.0740 -1.0740 -1.5038 -1.5038 -1.9335 Z SCORE 1.8427 1.4746 1.2662 1.0828 -1.2369 -1.3616 -1.4434 -1.6383 -1.7182 34 and/or ambivalence in discriminating between the two sets of pictures. Group 1 (3 non-abused children and 2 abused) chose 2 non-abused pictures and 3 abused as "most like me" and 2 abused pictures and 1 non-abused picture as "least like me". Group 2 (4 abused children) reflected the greatest ambivalence in their choice of 3 abused pictures and 1 non-abused picture as "most like me" together with 3 abused pictures as "least like me". Group 3 (3 non-abused children and 1 abused child) chose 3 abused pictures and 1 non-abused picture as "most like me" and 3 abused pictures and 1 non-abused picture as "least like me". Group 4 (1 abused child) chose 3 abused pictures and 2 non-abused pictures as "most like me" and 4 abused pictures and 1 non-abused picture as "least like me". Group 5 (5 non-abused children and 1 abused child) chose 3 abused pictures and 1 non-abused picture as "most like me" and 4 abused pictures and 1 non-abused picture as "least 1ike me". A catagorization of the 2 0 children into a definitive abused or non-abused group through the Q-Sort Analysis was, therefore, not substantiated. As well, as indicated by the Z-scores, the children did 35 not clearly discriminate between the two sets of pictures. Analysis of Variance Because the expectations of the Q-Sort Analysis of the data were not met, a One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was done. The ANOVA was chosen firstly because of its usefulness with small numbers of subjects and secondly to determine if the children had sorted the pictures randomly and if they had not sorted randomly how had they sorted them. The ANOVA was done by determining the Q-Sort of each of the five clusters or groupings according to the original four categories of abuse: physical, sexual, emotional and non-abuse (Table 3). Results of the Analysis of Variance The results of the One-Way Analysis of Variance of each of the five groups are presented in the following table (Table 4). The results show first that the null hypothesis of no difference between picture groups is tenable and secondly that the probability of a Type I error (alpha) is much greater than .05. TABLE 3 36 Q-Sort of Each Group (10 = Most Like) (1 = Least Like) GROUP 1 Sexual 8 7 5 4 3 2 Sexual 8 7 6 3 2 2 Sexual 9 6 6 6 5 2 Sexual 9 8 7 7 6 2 Physi 9 9 7 6 5 2 Physi 9 9 7 5 4 1 Physi 8 8 7 5 2 1 Physi 10 6 6 5 4 1 cal cal cal cal GROUP GROUP GROUP Emotional 7 6 6 6 5 4 2 Emotional 10 6 6 5 4 3 3 Emotional 10 7 6 5 4 4 4 Emotional 7 5 4 4 3 3 Normal 10 8 5 4 3 1 Normal 8 7 6 5 5 4 Normal 9 7 5 4 3 3 Normal 9 8 6 5 5 2 37 Sexual 8 6 5 5 4 3 Physi 9 7 6 5 3 2 GR cal OUP 5 Emoti 9 8 7 6 5 1 .onal Normal 10 7 6 4 4 2 38 TABLE 4 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE GROUP 1 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE DF SS FACTOR 3 7.67 ERROR 20 122.33 TOTAL 23 130.00 LEVEL N MEAN ssx 6 4.833 phy 6 6.333 emot 6 5.667 norm 6 5.167 .POOLED STDEV = 2.473 MS 2.56 6.12 F 0.42 P 0.742 INDIVIDUAL 95 PCT CI'S FOR MEAN BASED ON POOLED STDEV STDEV - - - • + + + - - -2 . 3 1 7 ( ' ) 2 . 6 5 8 ( * ) 1 .033 ( * ) 3 . 3 1 2 ( * ) • + - - - + - + 3 . 2 4 . 8 6 . 4 8 . 0 GROUP 2 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE . SOURCE DF SS FACTOR 3 5 . 6 7 ERROR 20 1 2 4 . 3 3 TOTAL 23 1 3 0 . 0 0 LEVEL C1 C2 C3 C4 N 6 6 6 6 MEAN 4.667 5.833 5.667 5.833 MS 1.89 6.22 F 0.30 P 0.822 POOLED STDEV = 2.493 INDIVIDUAL 95 PCT CI'S FOR MEAN BASEO ON POOLED STDEV STDEV + + + + --2.658 ( * ) 3. 125 ( * ) 2.422 ( •---• ) 1.472 ( * ) 3.0 4.5 6.0 7.5 39 GROUP 3 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE DF SS FACTOR 3 3.00 ERROR 20 127.00 TOTAL 23 130.00 LEVEL N MEAN C1 6 5.667 C2 6 5.167 C3 6 6.000 C4 6 5.167 POOLED STDEV = 2.520 MS 1.00 6.35 F 0.16 P 0.924 INDIVIDUAL 95 PCT C I 'S FOR MEAN BASED ON POOLED STDEV STDEV + + • 2.251 ( * ) 3.061 ( - - * ) 2.280 ( * ) 2.401 ( ' ; ) + + + 4.5 6.0 7.5 GROUP 4 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE FACTOR ERROR TOTAL LEVEL C1 C2 C3 C4 DF 3 20 23 N 6 6 6 6 SS 15.00 115.00 130.00 MEAN 6.500 5.333 4.333 5.833 POOLED STDEV = MS 5.00 5.75 F 0.87 P 0.473 2.398 INDIVIDUAL 95 PCT CI'S FOR MEAN BASED ON POOLED STDEV STDEV + ---. + + 2.429 ( • ) 2.944 ( • ) 1.506 ( • ) 2.483 { • ) - -- + + + 4.0 6.0 8.0 40 GROUP 5 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE FACTOR ERROR TOTAL LEVEL CI C2 C3 C4 POOLED OF 3 20 23 N 6 6 6 6 STDEV = SS 2.33 127.67 130.00 MEAN 5.167 5.333 6.000 5.500 2.527 MS 0.78 6.38 F 0.12 P 0.946 INDIVIDUAL 95 PCT CI'S FOR MEAN BASED ON POOLED STDEV STDEV + •- + + 1.722 ( * ) 2.582 ( * ) 2.828 ( * ) 2.811 ( * ) .. — + . + ... .+ 4.5 6.0 7.5 41 Summary In summary, the Q Sort Analysis of the data did categorize the subjects into five groups but these groups were not categorized on the basis of abuse or non-abuse. Secondly the Z-scores suggest that the children experienced significant ambivalence in discriminating between the two sets of pictures. Thirdly the One-Way Analysis of Variance done on each of the five groups showed that the subjects randomly sorted the 24 pictures rather than sorting them according to the predetermined four categories of abuse. 42 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION The purpose of this study was to evaluate, using the Q Sort Methodology, the effectiveness of the Rosebush Visualization Technique in the assessment of abused children. A total of twenty children were used in the study, 10 of whom had a confirmed history of abuse and 10 with no known history of abuse. The tool used in this research consisted of 24 drawings; six drawings done by children with a history of sexual abuse, six with a history of physical abuse, six with a history of emotional abuse or neglect and six with no history of abuse. These drawings were later grouped into two categories; abused (18 drawings) and non-abused (6 drawings). Following is a discussion of the hypothesis proposed in conjunction with the results of the statistical analyses done. This will be followed by the implications for clinical practice and for further research in this area. Q-Sort Analysis The hypothesis for the purpose of this investigation stated that each child, in sorting the set of Rosebush drawings, will show no preference for 43 the drawings which represent the group to which he or she belongs. The Q-Sort Analysis done supported this hypothesis. The 20 children were factored into 5 groups but, with the exception of Group II, the groups did not show significant homogeneity nor did they show clear characteristics on the basis of abuse or non-abuse. Thus there was no relationship between group membership and type of drawing selected. The hypothesis, therefore, was supported as the children did not show a preference for the drawings which represented the group to which they belonged. Another factor to emerge as a result of the analysis concerned the children's choice of drawings. The presumption that children with a history of abuse or non-abuse would choose pictures drawn by children of similar history was not supported. Rather the Z-scores indicated that the children experienced significant ambivalence in their selection of the drawings -choosing a combination of drawings from both the abused and non-abused group. 44 Analysis of Variance As the Q Sort Analysis had not divided the children into groups on the basis of abuse and non-abuse a One-Way ANOVA was done to determine if the drawings had been sorted randomly by the children and if not how had they been sorted. To begin, the Q Sort of each of the five groups was determined. This was followed by a One-Way ANOVA. The results of the ANOVA showed that the children did sort the drawings randomly rather than selecting those drawings which represented the group to which he or she belonged. Thus, once again, the hypothesis of this research was supported. Summary of Results The hypothesis of this research stated that each child in sorting a set of rosebush drawings would show no preference for the drawings which represented the group to which he or she belonged and that the drawings would not be differentially selected by either group of children. The hypothesis was supported first by the Q Sort which did factor the children into five groups but not, as was expected, on the basis of membership in either the abused group or non-abused group. As well, the Z-scores indicated that the children did not show a clear preference in choosing the drawings which were done by children with a similar history as their own. The results of the second analysis, the One-Way ANOVA, showed that the children selected the pictures randomly rather than selecting them again on the basis of membership in either the abused or non-abused group. Discussion In the initial design of this research, four groups of pictures were chosen to study based on the fact that they had been done by children with histories of either physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and/or neglect or no history of abuse. In selecting the children with confirmed histories of abuse for the study, every effort was made to have clear differentiating types of abuse histories. It became apparent, however, that it was impossible to obtain a sample population where the abuse histories were clearly differentiated one from another. Rather, it was found that the children's abusive experience included at least two if not more types of abuse. All of the abused children, for example, had, to some degree, histories of emotional abuse and/or neglect and in some cases there was some suspicion that the children with histories of sexual abuse had also been 46 subjected to some form of physical abuse. This was because, in some cases, force had been used as part of the sexual abuse. As a result, it was decided to create two groups; an abused group (10 subjects) and a non-abused group (10 subjects). The 24 pictures remained the same but when identified as belonging to one of two groups - abused or non-abused rather than one of the original four groups, it left the pictures strongly weighted in favour of abuse (18) to non-abuse (6). This error I believe, made it difficult for the children to determine an accurate Q Sort according to their own experience and the results were, therefore, contaminated and inconclusive. Another point of discussion relates to the results of the Z-scores. As mentioned the Z-scores indicated that the children involved in this study did not clearly identify with the drawings which had been done by children with a similar history to their own. Although the reasons for this are speculative it may relate to the fact that all of the children in the study, with confirmed histories of abuse, had had some therapeutic interventions and therefore some psychological reintegration had most probably taken place thereby creating the ambivalence in the results. 47 Subjective Analysis In a subjective analysis of the Q Sort done by-specific groups or clusters of children certain characteristics did emerge which were common to the pictures chosen. In Group 5, for example, a group which included 5 non-abused children and 1 abused child the pictures chosen as "most like me" had recurrent themes of support, togetherness, groundedness and growth as evidenced by the inclusion of flowers, straight trunks, a root system and a second protective symbol such as, in one picture, another tree and in another a watchful owl. In the same group the pictures chosen as "least like me" had commonalities which included isolation, weak support and a lack of both growth and groundedness as evidenced by an absence of flowers, stems, roots and a perceived need to self protect as evidenced by the inclusion of swords and weapons. Group 2 was composed of 4 abused children and the pictures chosen as "most like me" included themes of isolation, vulnerability and self protection as evidenced by the use of fences, the emphasis on thorns, and the lack of stabilizing roots. Pictures chosen as "least like me" included, for example, the themes of nurturance and growth as evidenced by the watering of the bright, colourful, blooming rosebush. Response of the Children to the Task With three exceptions the children reported that they enjoyed doing the exercise and especially enjoyed the visualization component which they described as "very relaxing". The children described the sorting stage as easy at the beginning where they were choosing the pictures which were either the "very most like me" or the" very most not like me". As they moved closer to the middle of the sort or to "the grey area" they reported that the choice did become difficult. While some degree of difficulty would be expected at this stage the extent of the difficulty may also have been facilitated by the fact that there was an imbalance in the number of abuse drawings versus non-abuse drawings. Another response observed by the researcher concerned three of the children who were known to have been particularly traumatized by their abuse experience. When these three children were making their selection according to the criteria of "most like me" they appeared to be somewhat overwhelmed by the affect generated by certain pictures. One boy, for example, with an extensive history of physical and 49 emotional abuse chose as his first three "most like me" pictures #10, #11 and #16. He then stopped, removed the first two and replaced them with #23 being "most like me" and #22 being the next "most like me". One may speculate whether or not these two replacement pictures may have been a projection of wishfullness emerging through his pain rather than a symbolic representation of his abuse. Implications for Using the RVT in Clinical Practice Projective art techniques have, for years, been used by therapists in their work with traumatized children and valued as a tool for enhancing our understanding of the child's inner world. Due to a lack of empirical support, however, projective techniques waged a prolonged struggle for creditability. This study attempted to lend support to the validity of projective art techniques specifically the Rosebush Visualization Technique but in the statistical analysis was unable to do so. As discussed it would be more accurate to report the results of this study as inconclusive due to the fact that the numbers of abused pictures exceeded the numbers of non-abused pictures. Based on the observations of the children during the exercise, their comments about enjoying the 50 activity and the qualitative analysis of the children's choice of pictures it is the researcher's contention that the RVT does have a valuable role to play as a tool in the assessment of abused and non-abused children in clinical practice. Summary and Implications for Further Research In this study the hypothesis that children in sorting a set of rosebush drawings will show no preference for the drawings which represent the group to which he/she belongs and that the rosebush drawings will not be differentially selected by both groups of children was supported by both the Q-Sort Analysis and the One-Way Analysis of Variance. A concern was identified regarding the drawings related to the weightedness of abuse drawings (18) to non-abuse drawings (6) and the effect this may have had on the results. Following are recommendations for further research in the development of the Rosebush Visualization Technique as an assessment tool in work with abused children. Firstly the pictures need to be equally weighted for both the abuse and non-abuse groups. Secondly the study needs to be replicated to determine the generalizability of the findings. Thirdly the use 51 of a larger sample population is recommended to provide larger numbers for a more comprehensive ANOVA to be carried out. Finally it is recommended that pictures from different developmental levels be included to (a) more accurately reflect the differences in ages of the children and (b) to increase the differentiation between the abused and non-abused groups. 52 References Allan, J. & Crandall, J. (1986). The rosebush: A visualization strategy for possible identification of child abuse. Elementary School Guidance and Counselling. 21, 44-51. Bowden, S. (1991). Rosebush Q-Sort. Unpublished M.A. thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of master of arts. University of British Columbia: Vancouver. Buck, J. (1948). The H-T-P test. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 4, 151-159. Burgess, A., McCausland, M. & Wolbert, W. (1981). Children's drawings as indicators of sexual trauma. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 2, 50-58. Carter, M.A., Allan, J.A.B., & Boldt, W.B. (1992). Projective assessment of child sexual abuse. British Journal of Projective Psychology, 37, 50-60. Cohen, F., & Phelps, R. (1985). Incest markers in children's artwork. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 12, 265-283. Coutrois, C.A. (1988). Healing the incest wound. Adult survivors in therapy. New York: W.W.. Norton & Company. Di Leo, J. (1983). Interpreting children's drawings. New York: Brunner/Mazel. Dumont, F., & Karen-Fine, E. (1989). School psychology in Canada: A selective review of recent research trends. Professional School Psychology, 4, 209-217. Gittleman Klein, R. (1986). Questioning the Clinical usefulness of projective psychological tests for children. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. 7, 378-382. Goodenough, F.L. (1923). Measurement of intelligence by drawings. New York: World Book. 53 Hackbarth, S.G., Murphy, H.D. & McQuary, J.P. (1991). Identifying sexually abused children by using Kinetic Family Drawings. Elementary School Guidance and Counselling, 25. 255-266. Hammer, E.F. (1980). The clinical application of projective drawings. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. Harris, D.B. (1963). Children's drawings as measures of intellectual maturity. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World. Hibbard, R.A., Roghmann, K. & Hoekelman, R. (1987). Genitalia in children's drawings: An association with sexual abuse. Pediatrics, 79, 129-137. Howe, J., Burgess, A. & McCormack, A. (1987). Adolescent runaways and their drawings. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 14, 35-40. Inter-Ministry Child Abuse Handbook. (1985). Victoria: Queen's Printer. Johnson, D. (1987). The role of the creative art therapies in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological trauma. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 14, 7-13. Jung, C.G. (1964). Man and his symbols. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday. Kellog, R. (1970). Analyzing children's art. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield. Martin Manning, T. (1987). Aggression depicted in abused children's drawings. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 14, 15-24. Miller, T.W., Veltkamp, L.J. & Janson, D. (1987). Projective measures in the evaluation of sexually abused children. Child Psychiatry and Human Development. 18, 47-57. Ministry of Social Services and Housing Annual Report (1988-89). Victoria: Queen's Printer. Oaklander, V. (1978) . Windows to our children. Moab, UT: Real People Press. Piotrowski, C. & Keller, J.W. (1984). Psychodiagnostic testing in APA approved clinical psychological programs. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 15, 450-456. Rabin, A.I. (Ed.). (1986). Projective techniques for adolescents and children. New York: Springer Publishing. Reischly, J. & Shapiro, R. (1989). Assessment in special and remedial education. School Psychology Review. 18. 369-384. Report of the Special Advisor to the Minister of National Health and Welfare on Child Sexual Abuse in Canada. (1989). Health and Welfare Canada. Canadian Government Publishing Centre. Riordan, R.J. & Verdel, A.C. (1991). Evidence of sexual abuse in children's art products. The School Counselor. 39. 116-121. Seward, B. (1954). The symbolic rose. Dallas: Spring Publications. Sexual Offences Against Children. (1984). report of the committee on Sexual Offenses Against Children and Youths appointed by the Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada. The Minister of National Health and Welfare. Canada: Canadian Government Publishing Center. Sgroi, S.M. (1982). Handbook of clinical intervention in child sexual abuse. Toronto: Lexington Books. Sidun, N. & Rosenthal, R. (1987). Graphic indicators of sexual abuse in Draw-A-Person tests of psychiatrically ill hospitalized adolescents. The Arts in Psychotherapy. 14, 25-33. Stevens, J. (1971). Awareness: Exploring. experimenting, experiencing. Moab, UT: Real People Press. 55 Sturner, R.A., Rothbaum, F., Visentainer, M. & Wolfer, J. (1980). The effects of stress on children's Human Figure Drawing. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 324-331. Terman, L., & Merrill, M. (1960). Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale. Boston: Houghton-Mefflin. Wechsler, D. (1949). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. Yates, A., Beutler, L.E. & Crago, M. (1985). Drawings by child victims of incest. Child Abuse and Neglect, 9, 183-189. 56 Appendix A The Rosebush: A Guided Fantasy I would like you to close your eyes. Just be aware of your body. Forget about what's going on around you...just think about what's going on inside you. Think about your breathing...feel the air move in through your nose and mouth, down into your chest... imagine that your breathing is like gentle waves lapping on the shore....As each wave rolls in, the more relaxed you feel. Think about your right arm. Feel it getting heavier and heavier...Feel the heaviness go all the way down the arm, down to your fingertips...think about your left arm....Feel it getting heavier and heavier...Feel the heaviness go all the way down the arm, down to your fingertips...Think about your right leg...Feel it getting heavier and heavier...Feel the heaviness go down, down into your foot...Think about your left leg...Feel it getting heavier and heavier...Feel the heaviness go down, down into your foot...feel your body relaxing and feeling heavy... Be aware of your thoughts and images in your mind...look at them... now put them into a glass jar and watch them...examine them. As more thoughts and 57 images come into your mind, put them into your jar too...Find out what you can learn about them...Now take the jar and pour out the thoughts and images; watch as they spill out and disappear...the jar is empty... Now I'd like you to imagine that you are a rosebush. Become a rosebush and find out what it's like to be a rosebush...what kind of rosebush are you?...Are you very small?... are you large?...Are you wide?... you tall?...Do you have flowers?... If so, what kind?...What are your stems and branches like?...Do you have thorns?...What are your roots like...or maybe you don't have any...If you do, are they long and straight?...Are they twisted?...Are they deep?...Look around you...are you in a yard?...in a park?...in the desert?...in the city?...in the country?... in the middle of the ocean?...Are you in a pot or growing in the ground...or through cement...or even inside somewhere?...Look around you... what do you see?...Other flowers?...Are you alone?...Are there any trees?...Animals?...People?...Birds?...Do you look like a rosebush or something else?...Is there anything around you like a fence?...Does someone take care of you?...what's the weather like for you right now? 58 What is your life like?...How do you feel?...What do you experience and what happens to you as the seasons change?...Be aware of yourself as a rosebush...look carefully. Find out how you feel about your life and what happens to you. In a few minutes I'll ask you to open your eyes and I want you to look at a series of drawings. 59 APPENDIX B Instructions for Administration of Rosebush Q-Sort I would like you to look at all 24 pictures for a minute or so and then put the 24 drawings into two piles. In the first pile put the pictures most like your imagined rosebush and in the second pile put the pictures least like your imagined rosebush. From the pile most like you choose the picture which, of all of them, is most like your imagined rosebush and hand it to me. Choose the next two drawings which are most like your imagined rosebush. Again, choose the next two drawings most like your imagined rosebush and hand them to me. Choose the next three drawings... and choose the next four. From the pile which is least like your imagined rosebush choose the one which, of all of them, the least like you and hand it to me. Choose the next two pictures which are least like you... again, choose the next two... choose the next three and hand them to me and finally choose the next four pictures. In front of you are all the pictures and the order in which you chose them. Have another look at your choices and make any changes you wish so that it is as close as possible to your imagined rosebush. 60 APPENDIX C Initial Contact to Parents of Children Attending a Community Based Treatment Agency Dear Parent/Guardian: Recently a University of British Columbia graduate student, Sarah Robertson (xxx-xxxx), who is studying under the supervision of Dr. John Allan (822-5259) from the department of Counselling Psychology, contacted us for permission to do research involving some of the children attending . We support this research project which has been designed to assist in the early detection of child abuse. For this project the children will be asked firstly to imagine themselves as a rosebush, secondly to draw their imagined rosebush and thirdly to choose from a set of rosebush drawings the ones that look most like their imagined rosebush. The purpose of this letter is to request your permission to give her your name(s) so that she may contact you regarding her research. Should the research project be acceptable to you following your discussion with her, a second consent form will be forwarded to you. Please be assured that denying consent will not, in any way, jeopardize the treatment that your child will receive from Please check the appropriate box below. I do consent for contact and my telephone number is I do not consent for contact 61 APPENDIX D Consent Form for Parents of Children Attending a Community Based Treatment Agency TITLE OF THESIS: Rosebush Q-Sort. INVESTIGATORS: Sarah Robertson B.Sc.N., M.A. thesis, department of Counselling Psychology, University of British Columbia (xxx-xxxx). Dr. John Allan, Ph.D., Associate Professor, department of Counselling Psychology, University of British Columbia (822-5259) . PURPOSE OF THE THESIS: The purpose of this thesis is to determine whether children who have been assessed by a mental health professional as having experienced sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse and/or neglect or no abuse will select pictures drawn by children who have a similar experience. PROCEDURE: Each child will be seen individually and asked to choose from 24 rosebush drawings done by other children, the drawings most closely resembling their self-image as a rosebush and the drawings least resembling their self-image as a rosebush. Approximately 50 minutes of the child's time will be involved. The privacy of the children will be strictly maintained. Each child will be assigned a number code and all data concerning the child will be filed under that number. The content of the pictures will not be discussed with the children. I understand that the study involves my disclosure of my child's history of abuse to the agency therapist. The researcher will only be aware of my child's first name, age and the facts of his or her abuse experience. In order to maintain strict confidentiality no other identifying information will be available to the researcher. Following the completion of this study all files concerning the children and their families will be shredded. When reporting the results of this study no data identifying the children or their families will be used. The privacy and confidentiality of all participants will be strictly upheld. 62 The investigator will be available on a weekly basis to explain the procedures and to answer any questions that parents or health professionals may have regarding the project. The subject has the right to withdraw from the project at any time and such a withdrawal will not, in any way, jeopardize other treatments offered by . I consent/do not consent for to participate in this study. I acknowledge receipt of this consent form. Parents Signature. 63 APPENDIX E Initial Contact to Parents of Control Group Dear Parent/Guardian: Recently a University of British Columbia graduate student, Sarah Robertson (xxx-xxxx), who is studying under the supervision of Dr. John Allan (822-5259) from the department of Counselling Psychology, contacted us for permission to do research involving some of the children attending . We support this research project which has been designed to assist in the early detection of child abuse. For this project the children will be asked firstly to imagine themselves as a rosebush, secondly to draw their imagined rosebush and thirdly to choose from a set of rosebush drawings the ones that look most like their imagined rosebush. The purpose of this letter is to request your permission to give her your name(s) so that she may contact you regarding her research. Should the research project be acceptable to you following your discussion with her, a second consent form will be forwarded to you. Please be assured that denying consent will not, in any way, jeopardize the treatment that your child will receive from . Please check the appropriate box below. I do consent for contact I do not consent and my telephone number for contact is 64 APPENDIX F Consent Form for Parents of Control Group TITLE OF THESIS: Rosebush Q-Sort. INVESTIGATORS: Sarah Robertson B.Sc.N., M.A. thesis, department of Counselling Psychology, University of British Columbia (xxx-xxxx). Dr. John Allan, Ph.D., Associate Professor, department of Counselling Psychology, University of British Columbia (822-5259). PURPOSE OF THE THESIS: The purpose of this thesis is to determine whether children who have been assessed by a mental health professional as having experienced sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse and/or neglect or no abuse will select pictures drawn by children who have a similar experience. PRODECURE: Each child will be seen individually and asked to choose from 24 rosebush drawings done by other children, the drawings most closely resembling his/her self-image as a rosebush and the drawings least resembling his/her self-image as a rosebush. Approximately 50 minutes of the child's time will be involved. The privacy of the children will be strictly maintained. Each child will be assigned a number code and all data concerning the child will be filed under that number. The content of the pictures will not be discussed with the children. I understand that the study involves my disclosure of my child's history of abuse to the agency therapist. The researcher will only be aware of my child's first name, age and the facts of his or her abuse experience. In order to maintain strict confidentiality no other identifying information will be available to the researcher. Following the completion of this study all files concerning the children and their families will be shredded. When reporting the results of this study no data identifying the children or their families will be used. The privacy and confidentiality of all participants will be strictly upheld. 65 The investigator will be available on a weekly basis to explain the procedures and to answer any questions that parents or health professionals may have regarding the project. The subject has the right to withdraw from the project at any time and such a withdrawal will not, in any way, jeopardize other treatments offered by . I consent/do not consent for to participate in this study. I acknowledge receipt of this consent form. Parents Signature APPENDIX G Rosebush Pictures Used in Q-Sort 66 Picture 1 (Abused) i ! Picture 2 (Abused) 67 P i c t u r e 3 (Abused) P i c t u r e 4 (Abused) 68 P i c t u r e 5 (Abused) " " " • ^ - . • ^ . v ™ ^ ™ - - y ^ • • • • : P i c t u r e 6 (Abused) 111 69 P i c t u r e 7 (Non-Abused) P i c t u r e 8 (Non-Abused) 70 P i c t u r e 9 (Non-Abused) jilt to II P i c t u r e 10 (Abused) P i c t u r e 11 (Abused) 7 1 •J '3 £ 3 C3 ZP :£S3:: "S3 'ft?.---——t~ limits N^ . P i c t u r e 12 (Abused) i i f i l l l 72 P i c t u r e 13 (Abused) %... -*...:' P i c t u r e 14 (Non-Abused) 73 P i c t u r e 15 (Abused) ^ a * - ^^^t^topagaooxS*''''^^ P i c t u r e 16 (Abused) 74 P i c t u r e 17 (Abused) P i c t u r e 18 (Abused) J l i l i i l : 75 P i c t u r e 19 (Abused) f I l l • / r --\ %, .:,.:.y,A...*:.-.-.-...-..,.,..,,.. w.;; A: P i c t u r e 20 (Abused) * » * . ttlil Ills* IBf ;i;;i§iitill v •••''•''•"'" **-:}>:::::-&:-:& 76 P i c t u r e 21 (Abused) iilllllllilillllHUjIIUHIIHIIH111111 '* * * * * * * * P i c t u r e 22 HHI (Non-Abused) | l f '..-..... 77 P i c t u r e 23 (Non-Abused) P i c t u r e 24 (Abused) 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0054046/manifest

Comment

Related Items