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Relationship between a structured group intervention and the increase in self-efficacy in job-seekers… Bailey, Bruce K. 1994

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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A STRUCTURED GROUP INTERVENTION AND THE INCREASE IN SELF-EFFICACY IN JOB-SEEKERS FACING JOB TRANSITION By BRUCE K. BAILEY B.A., University of Alberta, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Counselling Psychology) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1994 @ Bruce K. Bailey, 1994 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date 27 ///</• DE-6 (2/88) ii Abstract Job seekers often experience unique challenges in their quest for employment. Often they experience feelings of helplessness and a sense of lost direction. Particularly if they have faced unanticipated job loss. As we approach the twenty first century much of the structural unemployment that has plagued the global community will likely continue. Effective interventions will be needed to assist job seekers in this period of transition to a new post- industrial economy. In assisting those facing transition it is expected that supporting the job seeker to increase levels of self-efficacy and self esteem will allow them to make a more effective transition from unemployment to employment. Associated with this job transition is stress, which often accompanies job loss. It was anticipated that structured group counselling would be an efficient and productive method to assist in the acquisition of these constructs. The results of this study suggest that this particular group employment counselling intervention does facilitate the acquisition of self-efficacy and self-esteem. Although it is tentative and at the early stage of investigation, this intervention appears to assist those individuals experiencing some forms of stress related to job loss. TABLE OF CONTENTS page ABSTRACT ii Table of Contents iii LIST OF TABLES vi LIST OF FIGURES vii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS vii Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Introduction 1 Need for study 4 Statement of The Problem 5 Research Questions 7 Definition of Terms 7 Methodology 8 Sample 8 Treatment Data 8 Assumptions and Limitations 9 Chapter 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Introduction 11 Economic Restructuring & Globalization 11 Post Modern - Post Industrial 17 Job Loss & Transition 18 Stage Theories 18 iv Functional Approach 20 Vitamin Model 22 Dynamics of Unemployment 25 Historical Approaches 29 Emerging Perspectives 31 Groups 32 Psychological Constructs 37 Summary 42 Chapter 3 Methodology 44 Description of sample 44 Instrumentation 45 Pretest Posttest Design 48 With-in Subject design 49 Chapter 4 Results and Discussion 52 Introduction 52 Research Questions 53 Question 1 54 Question 2 56 Question 3 57 Chapter 5 Discusion 60 Summary of study 60 Discussion of Results 61 Structured group and self-efficacy 63 V Structured group and self-esteem 65 Group intervention and stress 67 Implications for future research 69 Qualitative Data 70 Concluding comment 73 References 74 Appendix A 83 Appendix B 85 Appendix C 87 Appendix D 103 vi List of Tables Table Page A means and Standard deviations 49 B Z scores 49 C Demographics of sample 51 1 All scores 52 2 self-efficacy subscale 53 3 self-esteem subscale 54 4 stress subscale 56 List of Figures Figure 1 Tornow Figure 2 Tornow vii Page 14 15 viii Acknowledgement s I would like to extend my thanks to the members of my committee, who assisted me in this pursue, but especially Dr. Marv Westwood, for his very helpful and encouraging actions. I would also like to thank my parents, June and Ken Bailey, for all of their support during the pursuit of this project. Finally, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my wife Donna, for sharing with me "our" great adventure. 1 I do not underestimate the emotional difficulty of accepting uncertainty, both because of the uncomfortable feelings it engenders and the manner in which this tends to promote delays in action. However, there can be little doubt that people who access uncertainty, and yet are not paralysed in action, will be more successful in the long run. (R.M.Hogarth in Judgement and Choice) CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The practice of career counselling is facing unique challenges with the emerging globalization and restructuring of the economy. Job seekers are encountering a succession of obstacles, in an ever evolving labour market that is less recognisable in terms of the types of jobs being created, and the skills necessary to compete for employment. The social, psychological, and economic implications are staggering considering their impact on the work force. It has been suggested (Beck,1992) that society may be facing as big a shift, in economic terms, as occurred during the industrial revolution. This has been described variously as the information age, (Beck, 1992) post-modern, 2 (Giddens, 1991) or the post-modern, post-industrial society, (PI) (Peavy,l993). Associated with the emergence of the post-industrial (PI) economy are influences such as the shrinkage of middle management, a shift from manufacturing to information technology, and the emergence of contrasting job categories (McDaniels, 1989). The previous economy, based on a manufacturing and resource infrastructure, tended to generate standard jobs. Standard jobs were characterised by stability, benefits and long term attachment to the labour market. Conversely, the PI worker can anticipate several job changes (Swain & Swain, 1988) and move from one job to the next. These jobs can be described as non standard and are associated with a lack of security and with a focus on short term or contract work. Coupled with the ever increasing demographic influences, (Foot,1982) and the challenge to workers facing the transition to non standard jobs, the future can be intimidating and at times over powering. It is equally important, with the emerging post industrial society, to consider the certain impact that the PI will have on counselling practise. Counsellors, in the job of assisting clients to cope with this phenomenon must equip themselves with the competence to meet this challenge. The nature of work is being altered and the task of both the counsellor and the client is to construct new and 3 adaptive approaches as they interact and manoeuvre in the post-industrial society. Instrumental in the process of change, will be the necessity for clients to perceive their world differently and implement a new paradigm (Lucas, 1985). The process of adaptation to effective models of transition will be the duty of the counsellor, in confronting the challenge clients encounter, in their transition to a non standard employment paradigm. It is not sufficient to teach clients rational decision making models or job search skills (Amundson,1993; Gelatt,1989; Heppner,1989). Although these approaches have great utility, to rely exclusively on them would be unwise. One approach to the challenge facing counsellors, in the adjustment of their clients, is to provide a suitable environment (Taylor & Betz,1983) for the development of agentic behaviours. Group counselling may play a part in the creation of a suitable process by providing the structure and acting as the catalyst for clients to develop agentic behaviours. These new behaviours would allow for increased competition and empower the client in their job search. Much of the current literature suggests that group intervention can be an effective vehicle to assist the job seeker (Borgen, Pollard, Amundson & Westwood, 1987; Butcher, 1982,). Butcher (1982) cautions that not enough care has been devoted to examining the effectiveness of group 4 interventions. Amundson and Borgen (1988) support this notion and suggest further strategies for coping with unemployment using job search support groups. I propose to examine the role that structured group intervention can accomplish and the effect it may have on increasing self efficacy of job seekers. Introduction to the problem. I am interested in the relationship between group counselling and the constructs of self-efficacy, self-esteem and stress related to job loss. This investigation will focus on the effect that a group intervention may have on those experiencing job loss. In addition, it will be necessary to consider the context of job loss within the emerging global economy and the impact of the post-industrial society. Consideration should be given to methods and interventions that will assist the job seeker in the transition from unanticipated job loss to developing new career goals and accompanying behaviours, within the context of the new economy. Need for the Study The impact of job loss will continue as a major social problem through out the "1990s" ( Kanter,1989). It has been suggested by some economists that the resolution of structural unemployment is not imminent and that it will proceed unabated into the twenty first century. 5 Predicting a future of anticipated unemployment, coupled with the fact that those facing unemployment in Canada, are dependant primarily on unemployment insurance premiums to assist them in their period of unemployment, it is not difficult to foresee that there is a growing need to address the issue of labour market adjustment. The current expenditures of the unemployment insurance fund exceeded twenty one billion dollars (Statistics Canada, 1993) and the pressure on government to reduce their expenditures is growing. Reducing the length of time spent on unemployment insurance (Success in the works, 1989) and stabilising workers for a longer term in the labour market, is a priority facing government. However, it is not just a matter of saving money and reducing budgetary deficits that is of concern. The loss of human potential and a slide into non competitiveness within a global economy, due to inadequate transition strategies, is equally compelling ( Dean & Dowling, 1992) . Statement of the Problem With ever increasing importance it is necessary to assist individuals who find themselves without the internal or external resources to cope successfully with job loss. It matters not their position or experience in the labour market. 6 In today's economy, a variety of workers, extending through a range of occupational categories, are experiencing job loss. Their success, or lack of success, may relate to their level of self efficacy. Self-efficacy being the ability to understand the behavioral target that needs to be acquired and believing that one can perform the required behaviour. A corollary to self efficacy, is level of stress and its impact as measured by reaction to job loss. An increase in stress results in a decrease in self efficacy (Eden & Aviram, 1993). As previously discussed the use of group counselling to assist the job seeker has not been well defined or well developed regarding the role that a structured learning group may have on the efficacy of the unemployed. Amundson and Borgen (1988, 1990) have had some success in identifying the factors that are beneficial as a consequence of participating in a group. These factors are divided into two broad categories: 1. task (development of job search skills) 2. process or maintenance (needs) Emerging from these components are a variety of activities that enable the participant to acquire skills (task) and enhance self-efficacy and self esteem (maintenance), and receive support throughout the distinct stages of the group. What remains to be identified are the mechanisms that promote the development of these two factors. 7 The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between self-efficacy and group career counselling. Specifically, the effect that a structured group counselling intervention may have on a person's self-efficacy, is the major focus of this investigation with self-esteem and stress as a secondary focus. Research questions 1. Is there a difference in pre and post test results of the Houser test of financial independence self efficacy scale (FISE), on the self efficacy of job seekers after receiving a structured group intervention. 2. Is there a decrease in the stress related to job loss, as a result of receiving a structured group intervention, as measured by the FISE and the Career Transition Survey- Respondent (CTS-R). 3. Is there an increase in self esteem, as a result of receiving a structured group intervention, as measured by the FISE and CTS-R. Definition of Terms The three study variables the I wish to examine are self efficacy, self esteem, and stress. Self efficacy connotes ones ability to set a behaviourial target as well as believe that one can achieve that target. Betz and Hackett (1987) utilize the following illustration " Skill with out confidence leads to 8 behaviourial avoidance where as confidence with out skill leads to ineffective behaviour". Self esteem is defined as the perceptions of one's self worth, a sense of worthiness, an awareness of one's ability to contribute of one's talents and abilities. Stress is defined as "the nonspecific response of the body to any demand placed on it." ( Selye, 1974, p.14). Those exhibiting stress would include characteristics in all three of the following categories, emotional, physiological, or psychological. Methodology The research conducted for this investigation, focused on the three study variables of self efficacy, self esteem, and stress. The stress variable was related to the stress associated with unanticipated job loss. This study uses two quantitative self report instruments, the CTS-R and the F.I.S.E. to measure these constructs. Both instruments explore the belief that the respondents hold of themselves and their current abilities to job search. Sample 1. The population consisted of unemployed job seekers currently in their first month of unemployment insurance. 2. Sampling consisted of 48 unemployed U.I. recipients (pre-test group) who were in the first month of their claim. The post-test group consisted of 46 unemployed U.I. recipients. The sample were volunteer U.I. recipients who 9 had attended a group presentation on the objectives of the group procedure. After self identifying a need the recipients were pre screened prior to their attendance, to ensure their interest and understanding of the expectations of the group. Upon indicating their understanding of the group process and identifying the group as appropriate to their needs, the recipients were accepted into the group. Treatment of the Data Statistical procedures used to treat this data, were applicable, and utilised the following procedure. Tests of significance (t-tests). A pre-post, with-in group design was used to compare increases of self-efficacy and the attendant constructs of self-esteem and stress. Assumptions and Limitations Assumptions 1. The participants in the study participated voluntarily. 2. Sufficient time was allowed for the completion of the instruments for both the pre test group and the post-test group. 3. All participants in the study were in the first term of their unemployment insurance claim and were currently in career loss and transition phase to secure employment. Limitations 1. Although the FISE has good reliability and validity the CTS-R had a small sample in the development of reliability and validity. Although caution should be exercised. 10 However the developer of this instrument suggests that because of small sample size reduced reliability occurred in her study, and a larger sample may relieve this problem. Several sub scales proved more reliable and are the self-esteem and stress sub scales which were used in this investigation. 2. sample size and the literature seems to be sparse in terms of many studies using group to increase self efficacy. 11 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Introduction The purpose of this literature review is to provide a theoretical framework regarding job loss, its impact on the individual and methods to assist in facilitating acquisition of self efficacy in promoting career transition. In addition, to review the relationship between self efficacy and related constructs of self esteem and stress reactions associated with job loss. In addition, an examination of the experience of job loss is explored and its effect on individual job transition. An examination of the role that self efficacy plays in job search and the impact that group process has on influencing the acquisition of efficacious behaviour. To appreciate the context that job seekers find themselves in today it is first necessary to understand the circumstances that they face. Those circumstances include demographic influences, plant closing, business migration, financial failures, and corporate restructuring resulting in unanticipated job loss (Stoffman,1990). Economic Restructuring and Globalization Herr (1990) suggests that the function of employment counselling is becoming increasingly broader and more complex. He points out that " for many nations, employment counselling has become a major sociopolitical instrument in 12 the national development plans designed to respond to the priorities and to the educational, employment and career issues experienced" (P.147). Several investigators (Beck, 1992; Feather, 1992; Herr, 1990; Pedersen, Goldberg & Papalia, 1991; Wegman, Chapman & Johnson, 1989 ) point to the effects of the restructuring of the current labour market which began during the 1980's. Technological change and demographics continue to be the driving force behind the emerging global economy. Herr (1990) observes that the needs of the job seeker are becoming more demanding and thus the impact on employment counselling is changing, in response to the verity of globalization. National boundaries are becoming less important and the free flow of workers and information is accelerating. Evidence of such a development (Herr, Amundson & Borgen, 1990) is the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement. Restructuring from a manufacturing based economy to an information based economy is also a component of the emerging labour market. The factory worker is being replaced with the knowledge worker (Beck 1992) and is transforming business, worker, and government paradigms in the process. Beck (1992) suggests three economic circles, each representing a historically distinct but progressive economic development, as the bases for the new economy. The 13 new economy will be established on the T circle or the technology economy. Part of the impact of such a transformation is the emergence of disparate classes of individuals and by extension, different categories of jobs (Peavy, 1993). Examples of two such categories, are standard and non standard employment. Many of the new jobs that are being created are contract positions and are associated with less security and benefits. Workers move from one contract position to the next with an emphasis on transferable and marketable skills. Individuals are rewarded for the "portfolio" of skill sets offered and not for traits, such as loyalty, previously rewarded in the manufacturing based economy. These jobs have been described as non standard jobs. Conversely, jobs that are full time, have benefits attached to them, and enjoy relative stability are referred to as standard jobs. In part, it is the movement to the non standard paradigm that is responsible for the confusion and associated stress of the current labour market. Beck suggests that until the marker's of the information economy are recognised, such as the creation of new forms of employment, confusion will continue. Co-existing with this state of confusion will be disorientation and lost opportunity, both for the worker, and businesses, who fail to recognize this change. Critical with in this environment is the changing relationship 14 between worker and employer. Previous assumptions contained with in the employment contract (Tornow,1988) have shifted. This supports the notion that the labour market is transforming and in the process altering both the employment and psychological contract. Both forms of these contracts have been significant in that they have defined the relationship between worker and employer. In figure 1, Tornow (1988) illustrates the impact of the changing employment contract. In figure 2, he highlights the relationship between the employment and psychological contracts and the ensuing impact on the individual, (see Figure 1 and 2 ). Clearly, changing the contract is going to change the relationship that business can provide and workers can anticipate,in the future. 15 FIGURE 1. THE CHANGING EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT MOVING FROM... 1.Stability and Predictability 2. Growth in population 3. Permanence 4. Permanent Work Force 5. Full-Time Employees 6. Standard Work Patterns 7. All-or-No-employment Retirement 8. Employee Retention 9."Build" Employees TO. . . Change and Uncertainty Pop.Downs i z ing Temporariness Flexible Work . Part-Time Emp. Flexible Work Gradual Targeted Turnover "Buy " Employees 10. Valuing Loyalty and Tenure 11. Paternalism 12. Commitment to Company 13. Company-Defined Benefits 14. Job Security 15. Advancement 16. Linear Career Growth 17. One-Time Learning Adapted from Tornow, Walter "Contract Redesign", October 1988, Personnel Administrator, Vol.34, PP. 97-Valuing Performance and skills Self-Reliance & Responsibility Commitment to Self Company-Defined Contributions Employee Development & Achievement Plateauing Multiple Careers Life-Long Learning 101 16 FIGURE 2. CHANGING EMPLOYMENT AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONS AND INDIVIDUALS *Key Factors Impacting On Psychological Employment/Psychological Contracts 1. Environmental Trends . global competition . inexpensive overseas production . high cost or raw materials . deregulation . rapid technological growth . shift from manufacturing to service economy and . dissolution of jobs and creation of new jobs 2.Changing Demographics . dual career families . increase in women, baby boomers and minorities, handicapped seniors . single parents into workforce . diversified families 3. Career Crisis Events Resulting In: plateauing midlife crisis job loss burnout discrimination lateral, downward, exit moves *any combination of environmental changing demographics, and/or crisis events, can cause changes in the two contracts. Violations of Contract Result In . Trauma . Lack of trust . Feelings of betrayal, outrage, shock, resentment, anger and grieving by employees . Lack of commitment to organization Downsizing, Based on Tornow,Walter "Contract Redesign", October 1988, Personnel Administrator Vol. 34. pp. 97 101. 17 Wegman, Chapman, and Johnson (1989) claim that "every major technological advance changes both the nature and the mix of available jobs" (p.20). Kanter (1989) suggests that as a result of downsizing and corporate restructuring the very nature of the hiring process has been altered. By extension the means workers must now utilize to compete for available employment has changed. Post Modern - Post Industrial Society Peavy (1993) advises that the manner in which work is created is becoming more complex and pluralistic. The transformation to post-industrial society means that more and more work tasks will be defined in terms of information gathering, problem solving, creation of new ideas and products, and the ability to respond flexibly to new situations and interact in new and adaptive ways, (page 129). He offers the observation, that the lives of individuals are being transformed and reconstituted in a process of societal restructuring. The de-emphasis of previously held roles and traditions which earlier supplied structure and meaning, are being replaced with an altered set of influences. The post industrial society depends increasingly on the influence of mediated experiences to define self and life roles. In defining this process the individual fosters personal meaning and direction for the self. It is this process that will be the cortege for the individual in the Post 18 industrial society. How one selects or constructs employment will depend on these processes. Peavy (1993) suggests that the self is, "progressively becoming a reflexively organised project" (p.124). Approaches to Job Loss and Transition Having considered the impact of a changing environment it becomes necessary to consider the psychological effects that globalization may have on the job seeker. This discussion will concentrate on psychological and emotional reaction to unanticipated job loss. Job loss can be defined as the loss of employment or the means of economic self reliance by the sudden loss of ones job through involuntary lay off. This can be attributed to down sizing, economic contraction, structural reorganizing of industry, the emergence of a new economic order and the relocation of commerce off shore. Much of the research literature of the past fifty years, in explaining job loss, has focused on the various stages an individual experiences from the onset of the loss, through the passage of unemployment and eventually to the acquisition of employment. The role of the counsellor was to assist the client to move through these stages providing support and matching skills to labour market demand. Stage Theories Feather (1990) points out that stage theories evolved from the work originally done in the 1930s (Eisenberg & 19 Lazarsfeld, 1938; Beales & Lambert, 1934). This research suggests that people move through various stages in their reactions to unemployment. Eisenberg and Lazarsfeld (193 8) purposed the following six stages: 1. reaction to dismissal (fear, hatred, revenge) 2. apathy (numbness) 3. adjustment (hope, resumption of activity) 4. Hope diminishes 5. hopelessness 6. sober acquiescence/ apathy (alternating between hope and hopelessness). Another approach to stage theory is that proposed by Hill (1977) who equates the stages of job loss to the reaction to death, the stages consist of denial, anger, grief, depression, and a gradual movement toward acceptance and recovery from the loss. The intensity of reaction to the job loss depends upon how closely the individual identified with the job. Stage theories have been criticised as being overly simplistic and not fully recognising or accounting for the contribution of individual differences. Stage theories do not account well for the different individual reactions to unemployment. Stage theory tends to suggest all people react in the same way to unemployment. They do not provide a fully satisfactory explanation concerning the underlying mechanics or processes that drive 20 an individual reaction to unemployment. In addition, without identifying individual reaction to job loss stage theory provides little discussion or explanation for the varying length of time individuals remain in each stage, or before they pass on to the next phase. Feather (1990) poses some interesting questions about the use of stage theories that includes issues such as: 1. Why do some people cope better then others 2. What causes the variability in reaction to unemployment 3. do all unemployed eventually recover 4. What role does past experience play. Reactions to Job Loss I have selected three theories to examine in detail representing different approaches and considerations as explanation for the varying and powerful reactions to job loss. The first, Jahoda's (1982) Functional approach places emphasis on the individual. The second, Warr's (1987) Vitamin model stresses the environmental factors affecting possible reactions to job loss. Third, The Dynamics of Unemployment, (Borgen & Amundson, 1987) incorporates factors of both the individual and the environment within the context of stage theory. Jahoda's Functional Approach Jahoda (1982) argues that employment has two 21 components; 1. manifest 2. latent Manifest provides the individual with a wage. Loss of this wage affects other aspects of an individuals life such as, standard of living, family relationships, and psychological well-being. The latent function includes categories of experiences such as time structure, collective purpose, social interaction, status, identity. She suggests that these categories of experience are not limited to employment but that employment subsumes all of these components and provides for the psychological needs that are necessary for well being. The loss of such experience affect psychological well being: "To the extent that these categories of experience have become a psychological requirement in modern life, the unemployed will suffer from their absence" (p.11). Jahoda (1982) points out in support of her argument for these categories of experience, that in societies that do not have a heavy reliance on work, they substitute work with religious and community practices to meet the "needs" of employment. The Functional Approach emphasises's the needs of the individual both latent and manifest, and suggests that in a complex interdependent society, these needs are met through employment. With unemployment these needs are not met and 22 some degree of deprivation occurs. Deprivation based on either latent, manifest or a combination of both sets of needs is exhibited in the individual by various forms of psychological maladjustment. Critics of the functional approach argue that it is first necessary to determine how each category of experience affects psychological well being. What relationship and influence do each category of experience have in relation to each other? Is being deprived in one category sufficient to affect psychological well being? Other questions of a similar vein arise in the context of needs. Although a further discussion of these issues is outside the scope of this investigation these are obvious research interests for the future. Warr's Vitamin Model Warr (1987) proposes that the environment plays a role in the mental health of the unemployed. He postulates the concept of psychological good and psychological bad jobs. "Good jobs" would provide more money, variety, goals, and interpersonal contact. " Bad jobs" would provide less. Warr extends this concept into "good" and "bad" unemployment. Psychological well being is dependant upon the presence or absence of these factors. Warr has developed a list of environmental factors that influence mental health. 1. opportunity for control 2. opportunity for skill use 23 3. externally generated goals 4. Variety 5. environmental clarity 6. availability of money 7. physical security 8. opportunity for interpersonal contact 9. valued social position Warr postulates, environmental factors affect the unemployed in a similar manner that vitamins affect physical health. That is, up to a certain point, vitamins can be helpful to your health and that lack of certain vitamins can cause ill health. Using this metaphor, Warr argues that the nine environmental factors operate in a similar fashion. They can in "good unemployment" be positive or if certain factors are absent they can cause deprivation. Warr suggests that two categories of environmental influence will affect mental health and psychological well being. He refers to them as C E (Constant Effect) and A D (additional decrement). Warr outlines his views as follows: The model of environmental influences upon mental health which is being developed here thus parallels the operation of chemical vitamins in two ways. In all cases, low levels of an environmental feature are considered harmful, but increases beyond a certain level confer no further benefit. And environmental features, like 24 vitamins, are viewed as being of two kinds in their effect at very high levels. Some are harmful (as vitamins A and B, yielding an additional decrement) and others have no additional impact (as vitamins C and E, yielding a constant effect). The generic account, identifying nine principal categories and specifying a non-linear impact upon mental health, will be referred to as the "vitamin model", and when necessary separate mention will be made of the "vitamin AD model" and the "vitamin CE " model, (p.10-11) The A D class includes the environmental features of 1. externally generated goals 2. variety 3. environmental clarity 4. control 5. skill use 6. interpersonal contact The C E class would include: 1. money 2. physical security 3. valued position Obviously high levels of C E would not adversely affect mental health but high levels of A D would have a negative effect on psychological well being. 25 Warr suggests seven applications to his Vitamin model that allows for comparison between individuals, groups and situations. He also describes his models as being "situation - centred" as opposed to person centred. He caution's that it is easier to affect a situation rather than a person. Dynamics of Unemployment Finally, I would like to address what Borgen and Amundson (1987) describe as the Dynamics of Unemployment. They appear to incorporate several features of Jahoda (1982) and Warr (1987) into a stage theory. Although Borgen and Amundson do not overtly describe their model as including these features their theoretical orientation seems to suggest many features of both functional theory and Vitamin theory. Borgen and Amundson (1987) suggest that the unemployed undergo a staged reaction to job loss and equate it to an "emotional roller coaster". Two constructs are important to their theoretical base. First, they examined the human needs a job fulfils and suggest that job loss is equated with emotional loss. Secondly, they relate the emotional loss to the grieving cycle. These stages include denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. They incorporate three additional elements in their model and include: 1. the importance of work in defining identity 2. emotional reaction related to victimization 26 3. locus of control and learned helplessness The emotional roller coaster follows the unemployed and their subsequent emotional reactions through the cycle of the components of job loss. Their model also incorporates a feature of job search and the emotional reaction to that process which they describe as job burnout. They have identified several patterns of reaction to job loss with the following pattern being of most interest to my investigation. The process is as follows: A. Initial emotional reaction, includes differing emotions such as anger, relief or shock B. reflection on job loss producing worry and anxiety C. Acceptance of job loss. This rate of acceptance will vary depending on such factors as type of employment, position of wage earner in family, age, and gender. D. Acceptance- re-energized and ready to look for work, (hopeful) E. Various reactions to unemployment and set backs to job search. This process includes reactions to stress and coping. F. re-assessment of self. G. levelling H. further negative feelings and lowering of self esteem. This model differs somewhat from others based on the 27 grieving cycle in two ways. First, the initial reaction to job loss is dependant on individual factors such as, length of time attached to the labour force, being a secondary or primary wage earner, and the difference between full time and seasonal workers. These factors account for the range and level of severity of response to job loss. Second, after the individual passes through the initial stage the person tends to be at the height of their motivation. This can best be understood in terms of their progression as a reaction to stress, through the stages of the roller coaster. Specifically the stress of job search. As the individual experiences the "roller coaster" of job search the passage is marked by the individuals ability to cope with, or not cope, with stress. Each time the job seeker experiences rejection a coping mechanism is employed to assist with the accompanying reaction to stress. This coping mechanism can be either positive or negative and will either support the individual to continue or insulate them from reality and impose isolation and apathy. This model allows for different emotional reactions and helps explain some earlier criticism of stage theory such as the failure to place sufficient emphasis on the individual and the range of reactions to the experience of unemployment. In conclusion I would like to compare some common themes that correspond consistently throughout out the 28 models I have presented. The emphasis on individual needs, as suggested by Borgen and Amundson (1987), and the attention that Jahoda (1982) places on Manifest and Latent needs, emerge as important components in understanding the emotional reaction to job loss. In addition Warr (1987), Jahoda (1982), and Borgen and Amundson (1987), acknowledge that a "new unemployed" is emerging and that their reactions to unemployment are related to psychological stress and institutional attachment to their employment. Although Jahoda's sense of the new unemployed refers to the observed generational differences, the combination of satisfying both institutional needs and deeply human needs suggests that their reaction to unemployment is a distinct experience. Both Warr, and Borgen and Amundson, have a perceptive understanding of the influence that rapid change will have on the unemployed. Amundson and Borgen (1990) acknowledge in related research the influence of the new economy. It would appear from these models that explanations for reactions to job loss be viewed as if on a continuum; on the one end the emphasis is placed on environmental factors and on the other end the emphasis is placed on the reaction of the individuals' needs. In this context it is suggested that Warr be placed at one end emphasizing primarily environmental factors (which he describes as situational 29 centred) and Jahoda at the other end where the individual is explained by categories of behaviour (Latent and manifest). I would suggest that Borgen and Amundson incorporate both individual and environmental factors (reactions as they relate to the job loss cycle) and are in the middle of the continuum. What is helpful, stemming from these models, is the understanding of individual needs, societal influences, and the roles the unemployed embrace in the various stages of reaction to their unique unemployment situations. Having examined the psychological and emotional constructs to unanticipated job loss it is necessary to examine the various approaches to assist the individual to cope with job loss. A brief review of the historical perspective to the treatment of job loss and unemployment is reviewed. Historical Approaches Established career assessment has focused on rational decision making, (Janis & Mann, 1977) staged career development theory, (Super, 1957) and Holland's (1959) topological approach. These approaches were designed to help clients match skills to labour market demand and assist clients to choose from a set of alternative options. It was expected that individuals would follow a staged progression through out their work life meeting various developmental focal points (Levinson, 1978; Super, 1992). Although these approaches have been recognised as 30 significant benchmarks in career research none was designed specifically to be used in the context of the group. Although it should be noted that some of these techniques have been adapted for use in a group, (Amundson, Borgen, Westwood, Bailey, Kovacs,& Poehnell, 1992), such as Holland's (1972) self directed search (SDS), these theories and practises have been used primarily in individual counselling. In addition, these approaches were designed and tested during a time when the labour market was structured under a entirely different set of assumptions and functioned differently. These approaches were constructed generally from one cohort of job seekers. That cohort was primarily male, middle class and white. The composition of the labour force (as cited in Ross 1991) has changed significantly with new immigration patterns and many more female participants. Although Janis and Mann (1977) have developed a model for effective decision making, which has proven practical in the past, not all decisions may rely on the process of rationality but rather context (Amundson, 1993) or uncertainty (Gelatt, 1989). What is emerging, as our society evolves and changes,is the influence of the function between process and behaviourial factors. Both of these influences seemingly have a large role to play and are worthy of investigation. Using group intervention may have the most utility in 31 capturing the range of variables and considerations that characterize adjustment to changed circumstances. With a major restructuring of the current labour market under way, effective interventions need to be developed to assist job seekers to adjust to their changing environment. Under represented in the literature is an examination of the effect that self efficacy plays in a job-seeker's ability to acquire work (Eden & Aviram, 1993). Structured learning groups may provide the mechanism to facilitate that process. Emerging Perspectives Savickas (1992) advises that career assessment and adjustment practises are embracing new models which incorporate the elements of trait theory in combination with a phenomenological perspective. By combining these approaches the counsellor has the advantages of trait theory (Holland, 1973) and the subjective experience of the client (Goldman, 1992) . Hackett, Lent, and Greenhaus (1991) go much further and suggest that career models need to include consideration of gender as a social construct. Gottfredson (1981) has observed that both the traditional and the developmental approach have failed to address the determining role that process and content issues play. Gottfredson makes the observation that such variables as socioeconomic status, race and gender need to be considered in career assessment. This constitutes an expansion of how careers and career 32 theory have been examined in the past. Equally important is the distinction that process issues play in career selection and exploration. Parallel to this question is the influence and potential effect that process and content issues may have on this pattern, when considering the potential role that motivation may have on client behaviours. As has been observed in the literature, little time has been spent exploring the role of content and process issues and the influence these factors may have within the context of a group intervention. It is important to assess if job seekers are able through structured group counselling, to increase their confidence in seeking employment and in their ability to acquire a job. Bandura (1977) suggests that the construct of efficacy best measures the dual components of process and content. Groups Johnson and Johnson (1991) suggest that groups can be different things to different people. They also point out that groups exist in a variety of forms ranging from the family, to business groups, through to educational and therapy groups. With this diversity in mind, Johnson and Johnson have provided the following definition of a group: A group may be defined as two or more individuals who 1.interact with each other. 2.are interdependent. 33 3.define themselves and are defined by others as belonging to a group. 4. share norms concerning matters of common interest and participate in a system of interlocking roles. 5. influence each other. 6. find the group rewarding. 7.pursue common goals. (p.14) As part of the theoretical underpinnings to a model of group employment counselling, Borgen, Pollard, Amundson, and Westwood (1987) suggest a structured learning group as an appropriate format to assist job seekers. Using Trotzers' (1977) grid, Borgen, et al.(1987) suggest the following definition of a structured learning group; A learning group includes both an educative element and an emphasis on support and personal development. Learning occurs at three levels; knowledge, skills, and awareness.(p.183) Borgen, et al.(1987) postulated that the positive effect of groups can best be understood within the context of client needs. Toffler (1980) suggests these needs include community, meaning and structure. Borgen, et al.(1987) suggest a model that consists of five core elements that are interactive and adaptable. Included are, group processes, member needs and roles, group goals and activities, leader approaches and skills, and 34 group design. Equally central are the stages of group process which are symbiotic to the core components. These stages include; planning, initial, transition, working, termination and post group (Westwood, 1989). Houser et al.(1992) have suggested that the use of a group has been successful in changing the self efficacy of women on social assistance and have measured this change by developing a self efficacy scale of financial independence. This scale was based on similar scales developed to measure self efficacy. Job seekers and those in career transition may experience many of the same self efficacy and self esteem issues that have been identified by Houser et al.(1992) and Borgen et al. (1987) . To date little has been reported in terms of generalizing the self efficacy literature to the job seeker who is unemployed. The literature is not explicit as to the elements or components that actually increase self efficacy and what mechanisms in group employment counselling contribute to the increase of self efficacy of the job seeker. Although it has been suggested that the structured group is an effective vehicle for increasing self efficacy in a variety of populations, it has not been determined the relationship self efficacy and a structured group intervention may have on the job seeker. 35 Structured groups Toffler (1980) believes people have three fundamental human needs, namely; the need for community, meaning and structure. Borgen et al.(1987) suggests, these elements can be found in a structured group intervention. In fact the structured group might be defined as having these three elements. A group can supply a sense of community by creating a sense of belonging. Meaning is created by being valued by other group members and the daily schedule of attendance in the group supplies the structure. Butcher (1982) points out that structure alone is not enough to create a structured group. A second essential component is the group process. Group process Process involves real life approximations in which members can test reality, share feelings and receive feedback and support from their peers, and create a climate of cooperation. Butcher (1982) supports this view but expands the definition by suggesting that "group counselling, on the other hand, encourages a dynamic interaction between members with the objective of exploring internal experiences and feelings " (p.202). An essential ingredient of group process includes the clients ability to focus on self and to evaluate the various components of self in relation to job search or career decision making (Amundson, 1987) . The process of self 36 exploration is conducted in the group and with support. Schmidt and Callan (1992) identify many process issues including low self esteem, being externally controlled, inability to identify interests and abilities, as well as client indecision about career paths and lack of clarity regarding potential career paths. Homan (1986) on the other hand postulates that process may include these essential activities but that the critical process issue is the quest for authentic existence. In a similar context, Bruner (1988) suggested that it is the material of our lives as illustrated in a life narrative, that is essential in the process. The examination of themes that emerge from a life narrative is the process. Clearly group interventions are effective when the structure that facilitate's process is in place. The question arises as to the relationship between the process of the group member and the gestalt of the group. Lewin (1951) expressed the view that a group is not simply a collection of individuals operating independently but form a new entity when joined together as a group. Groups have a basic form and construct themselves over time. Part of the development of the dynamics of a group (Borgen et al.,1987) is the relationship between the task issues and the maintenance issues. As groups develop in this fashion they have the potential to be either effective or ineffective. A contributing factor to the success of a group rests 37 with the motivation of the members. An essential component to any examination of vocational group interventions is motivation. Psychological Constructs Self Efficacy With the emerging globalization of the North American economy it has been suggested (Holmes & Werbel, 1992) that it is necessary to examine the motivational factors that underlie job search. Motivation is one consideration in the issue of job loss but equally important are the effects of unanticipated job loss, and the potential reduction of self esteem and increase in stress, during the process of job search. The construct of self efficacy helps provide an appropriate frame to consider the factors underlining motivation. Bandura (1977) argues that a key factor in determining the accomplishment of behaviour targets is self efficacy. This is the ability to be able to know what to do and feel as if one can actually do it. Bandura (1986) has defined self-efficacy as one's view about how successful one is in achieving a target behaviour. He carefully separates outcome expectancies and efficacy expectations. It is therefore important to distinguish between a persons ability to know the expected behaviours required and that person's perception as to their ability to perform those behaviours. 38 In support of Bandura's position, Houser, 0'Andrea and Daniels (1992) suggest that outcome expectations are different from self efficacy outcomes, and report that they may be defined as "a person's awareness of the required behaviour to perform a particular task or behaviours" (p.118). Essentially how one understands what is necessary to perform a task is significantly different from the perceptions of one's ability to actually accomplish that task. Bandura has outlined in his theory of self efficacy a potentially effective system of developing self efficacy in job seekers. Bandura (1977, 1986) based on his theory of social learning, proposes four kinds of information which contributes to enhanced self efficacy. They are; vicarious learning, emotional arousal, performance accomplishment and verbal persuasion. Bandura (1978) weighs the effect of self efficacy on goal attainment and suggests that it evolves primarily through self-referent processes. These four sources of information appear to be generalizable (Sherer et al., 1982) to a career context and are appropriate to a group intervention. For example, vicarious learning can occur by watching the group leader model an information interview. In this way the client not only watches the original modelling of the information interview but has the opportunity to learn vicariously, through others, in the group. Emotional arousal can be realized by assisting the 39 client to normalize their reaction to unemployment. Performance accomplishment can be useful in helping clients identify previously successful behaviours in obtaining employment. Verbal persuasion utilises various cognitive and behavioral techniques to encourage clients to attempt a particular task via structured learning. Houser et al. (1992) have demonstrated this theoretical system can be generalized to a group intervention. Houser et al. (1992) have used a short term 6 hour (l day) intervention to increase self efficacy with positive results. Others (Mcaufiffe & Fredrickson, 1990) raise concern and point to such issues as length of intervention being essential to behaviourial outcomes. Mcaufiffe and Fredrickson modify their support for short term interventions by questioning if clients engage in independent exploration and achieve closure after receiving an intervention of less than twenty hours. More importantly is the problem of generating a large number of occupational choices without sufficient process. This may lead clients to become confused and unclear as how to effectively operationalize their career choice. Betz and Hackett (1987) introduce the concept of agency in career development. Although supportive of Bandura's primary theoretical explanation of efficacy, they make a clear link between self-efficacy and career decision making. 40 Betz and Hackett note that little attention has been paid to the role self-efficacy may have in influencing the process of career decision making. Betz and Hackett make the case that, "skill without confidence leads to behaviourial avoidance where as confidence without skill leads to ineffective behaviour" (p.300). It becomes clear that in an examination of self efficacy, it is necessary to examine both behavioral competence and self perceptions. A group model supplies the conditions as well as a format for the dual considerations of behavioral competence and self efficacy within a structured group experience. Betz and Hackett have operationalized the concept of agency in career development by combining MacDonal's (cited in Betz & Hackett, 1987) behaviormetic assessment model and Goldfried and D'Zurellas's (cited in Betz & Hackett, 1987) behaviormetic analytic model and created the assessment of Agenetic Competence model. Scoring of prototype agenetic responses is compared to actual subject responses to determine the level of agency. What is appealing about this method is that it purports to measure along a dimension of level and strength. Level refers to the difficulty of the task and strength refers to one's perceived ability to complete the task. Self Esteem Self esteem, the second variable of interest to the researcher in this study, embodies the notion of an 41 individual's perception of self as related to the discernment of one's self worth, a sense of worthiness, an awareness of their ability to contribute of their talents and abilities. Self esteem is described by several observers (Amundson & Borgen, 1990; Heppner, 1989; Mallinckrodt, & Fretz, 1988) as playing an important part in the motivation and success of job seekers. A lowering or loss of self-esteem can lead to severe reactions such as suicide (Hammermesh & Soss, 1974) . Increases in alcohol abuse and depression are also factors associated with loss of self-esteem (Perfetti & Bingham 1983). Many job seekers experience the loss of self-esteem and react by employing inappropriate coping mechanisms such as learned helplessness (Borgen, & Amundson, 1987; Mallinckrodt & Fretz, 1988) . Learson (1992) points out that self esteem has been described using a variety of terms and include; loss of self worth, loss of self-respect, loss of confidence, and loss of personal identity. Many of these terms are acknowledged by those experiencing job loss. Much of the self-esteem literature has concentrated on the effect of job loss and it's impact on the managerial ranks (Hartley, 1980). Recently, Price and VanRyn (1993) have expanded the interest of the effect job loss has on self concept and found that many workers are at risk in terms of their self-esteem. As more categories of workers 42 are affected and with more and more emphasis being placed on out placement activities, corporate restructuring and a general movement toward non standard employment patterns, self-esteem places an ever increasing role in the successful transitions of unemployed workers. Summary The review of the literature revealed several major themes related to job loss and job transition. These included a labour market conversion of global impact that has influenced workers in several ways. First, workers who had not previously experienced unanticipated job loss have been thrust into the breach and forced to cope with unprecedented change. Second, the kinds of jobs and the skill sets required in the new economy have changed and as a result left workers obstructed and confused. The challenge for counsellors is to assist their clients to deal with this new reality. The movement to the post-modern, post-industrial era may prove to be as significant a change as previous major economic advancements of the past. As a consequence, a new set of counselling assumptions and innovative approaches to assist those experiencing labour market transitions may be necessary. In addition, the literature suggests that group intervention and self efficacy within the context of career mediation has not had as thorough and detailed an examination as might be productive. The role that 43 self-efficacy may play in the context of career exploration may hold promise for those in career transition. The link between self efficacy and behaviour outcomes also plays an important role when considering job seekers. As change drives more workers into different labour market functions, variables such as gender, race, age, and the changing demographics may also emerge as constructs for consideration. 44 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY Overview The purpose of this chapter is to provide a description of the research design used to study the three research variables that constitute this investigation. They are self efficacy, stress and self esteem. The research design is a pre-test, post-test, with-in subject design. Description of sample 1. The population consisted of unemployed job seekers currently in their first month of unemployment insurance. 2. The sample consisted of a total of 48 subjects. This intervention was provided to a group of 12 individuals at any one time and lasted two weeks. This intervention was delivered once a month over a eighteen month period. This sample represents subjects from four different groups, from that eighteen month period, and accounts for a total sample size of 48 subjects. This sample also represents individuals who received the intervention at different times of the year. The intervention was delivered by different group leaders. This sample was chosen in this manner to avoid the issues that may confound the results. This investigation was a pre-test, post-test with in group design. The 48 subjects were administered the pre-test (the FISE-CTS-R questionnaire) and are represented as group 1 in the data tables. This group went on to receive the group 45 intervention. After receiving the intervention this group was administered the post-test. Of the original 48 subjects, 45 chose to complete the post-test. The post-test group is designated as group 2 in the data tables. The sample consisted of individuals who were U.I. recipients and had volunteered for this study, had attended a group presentation on the objectives of the group procedure as part of the service provided to individuals in receipt of U.I. After self identifying a need, the recipients were pre screened prior to their attendance, to ensure their interest and understanding of the expectations of the group and to ensure demographic and program homogeneity. Upon indicating their understanding of the group approach and identifying the group as appropriate to their needs, the recipients were accepted into the group. Measurement and Instrumentation The data was obtained for this study by administering both instruments to respondents having self referred to the treatment program, after first being part of a larger group of unemployment Insurance recipients, in the first four to six weeks of their claim. The instruments were administered at the beginning of the group. After administration of the instruments to this group ( pre-test group 1) they proceeded to treatment. The instruments were administered a second time (post-test) at the end of treatment two weeks later, which became group 2. 46 Instrumentation I chose the Financial Independence Self Efficacy Scale (FISE) (Houser, D'Andrea,& Daniels, 1992) to operationalize the construct of self efficacy and self-esteem. This instrument measures self efficacy in the context of career transition. As well, it measures self-esteem a feature of my investigation. This scale was constructed from similar scales ( Innes & Thomas, 1989; Sherer et al., 1982) of self efficacy which originated from the theory of self efficacy advanced by Bandura (1977), and generalized to financial independence and career efficacy. It is also appropriate for a group intervention. In a discussion surrounding the validity and reliability of the importance of generalizability of self-efficacy particularly with in the domain of career decision making, Luzzo (1993) found support for the generalizability of the construct of self efficacy to career decision making. The FISE was originally developed and operationalized for a career group intervention and has established reliability and validity. Bandura, Adams, Hardy, and Howells (1980) suggest that the most effective procedure to measure self efficacy is to concentrate on specific behaviours and events. The F.I.S.E. scale incorporates this recommendation by the use of a 15 item Likert type scale. In addition to these recommendations, Bandura et al. (1980) offer support for a test of generalizability of self efficacy theory. Of 47 principal interest in this study is the definition that Bandura (1986) supplied in defining self efficacy, as one's judgement or evaluation about how well one performs a particular task. It is therefore important to distinguish between a persons ability to know the expected behaviours required and their perception as to their ability to perform those behaviours. The developers of the scale report internal consistency for pretest and post-test scores and alpha coefficients of .90 and .91. In particular, Sherer et al. (1982) provide a detailed discussion and examination of the construction and validation of The Self-Efficacy Scale, from which the F.I.S.E. was derived. In particular, they have provided "results that provide preliminary evidence of reliability and validity of its two factors" (p.669). In addition, Sherer et al.(1992) provide results that support the link between their scale and other related scales of similar personality constructs (see Internal-External Control Scale as cited in Sherer et al., 1992), which lend support for construct and criterion validity. Using the F.I.S.E., Houser et al. (1992) found evidence of significance using a .05 level of significance on 13 out of 15 items. The two items that were found not to have significance were; getting along with co-workers and getting along with a supervisor. Both of these items are not central to my study. 48 The CTS-R is also a Likert scale and was chosen to operationalise the constructs of self-esteem and stress related to job transition. Learson (1992) during her development of the instrument reports that the CTS-R on the sub scales of stress and self-esteem have limited positive correlation. She reports that the CTS-R was developed and tested to measure the constructs of self-esteem, locus of control, job security and stress. The sample size for this study was small and therefore reliability was suspect. However there were indications that the CTS-R had higher levels of reliability on the sub scales used and suggests that with a larger sample, the potential for higher levels of reliability would increase. This study utilised only the sub scale for the CTS-R which measured the constructs of stress and self-esteem which did show a significant relationship. Pretest Post-test Design The experimental paradigm is similar to that advocated by Bandura et al. (1980) which suggests the following: An untreated control group was not included because it is the relationship between efficacy judgment and performance on specific tasks that is of central interest in this study. Accounting for intragroup variability and variation in performance by individuals across different tasks imposes far more stringent explanatory and predictive requirements than does 49 simply demonstrating that treatment enhances efficacy and performance relative to a control group. In effect, I am interested in determining if the group intervention used is effective in increasing self efficacy and self esteem within the individual. It is first important to determine the effectiveness of the intervention before one can generalize to the wider population. Utilising the Bonferroni procedure, I am able to compare the individual before and after relative to himself or herself and measure any increase in self efficacy and self esteem, and any decrease in stress, between the pre and post measures at an p=.003. With-in Subject Design Important in this design is the need to have the groups that are being compared be homogeneous and randomly equivalent. As Schafer (1992) points out: when groups are randomly equivalent on the pretest, anything other than a chance difference on the post-test is because of differential growth, (p.3) Therefore, a within-subject pretest post-test design allows for each subject to act as their own control group (Heppner, Kivlighan, & Wampold, 1992) and if the appropriate statistical control is applied (Bonferroni procedure). In order to demonstrate that the groups were homogeneous and randomly equivalent, which is essential in this design, a statistical test was used to demonstrate these features. Table A illustrates the means and standard deviations for all groups compared to each variable. This allows for comparison of the three treatment groups and supports the random equivalence of the groups. All scores are converted to Z scores in Table B for a further comparison and demonstration of the homogeneity and equivalence of the groups. Table A Variable * FIJO LIJO RBJ IJ CT BJF FIT OPE DMT SI INI CHAG STRE AMB AIS Mean 4.27 4.31 3.81 4.31 4.32 4.11 3.66 4.38 3.87 3.94 3.80 3.69 3.33 3.06 2.98 Std dev .84 .82 .82 .74 .74 .73 .85 .72 .73 .96 1.10 1.08 1.18 1.18 1.34 Min 2 2 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 Max 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 n 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 * for a definition of the variables please see chapter 4 # en # CD fD # 0> fD m rr PJ rr C m to H I fD to o o o to o t o I OJ o o o o to o H I OJ OJ o OJ o t o I o to -o H i fD 3 fD <x> OJ o o o o I lj> o o I in en o o o o o o o N N I S I N N N N I S J C S l N N N I N l C K l C s l > > c o r i H t n d O | i i i j ) O H | f l M i i i H S ^ M 2 H S t l H L | ^ C | t ] d H H M O O O < H H-OJ I VD I OJ O J O J O J O J O J O J O J O J O J O J O J O J O J O J fD O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O 3 fD PJ 13 I HI-'HI-'I-'I-'HI-'I-'I-'HI-'I-'I-'H I I O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O CO rr a a fD <! I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I H H H t O t O O J t O O J H t O O J H O J t O t O i f i - j > j j ) ' > L n o u i t o i x > o o h - ' < i i f i o o ^ j - 0 0 1 < 1 0 0 I » > I ' > ~ 0 ^ 0 I ^ U 3 ^ 0 0 O I - 1 I - 1 H -2 I H H H H H H H H H U l C T l ^ t O O H U I O O U l t O l X I k O i ^ O O O O 0 * O M ^ O U 1 0 1 N 1 I O H W ^ W - J 3 OJ 52 CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Introduction This chapter presents the results and discussion of the three research questions. The results of each research question will be presented and will be followed immediately by a discussion of those results. Results and Discussion Psychosocial functioning can be enhanced by altering perceived self efficacy (Bandura, 1977). Maddux, Sherer, and Rogers (1982) demonstrate the independence of outcome expectancy, and self-efficacy expectancy, but raises the important question that aversive consequences may play a part in the degree that self-efficacy impacts on behaviour. Maddux et al. (1982) suggest in their study that " The greater the risk of aversive consequence, the greater the salience of self-efficacy expectancy " (p.211). As outlined by Bandura et al. (1980), the most effective and productive approach to measuring self-efficacy and outcome expectancy is to examine the relationship between specific tasks and efficacy judgement and performance. This is accomplished by comparing individuals across different tasks (Bandura et al.1980). In effect, comparing individuals across a variety of tasks imposes a much stronger accounting of the variations in performance and yields a more compelling demonstration of an increase in 53 self-efficacy. I have presented the results of the data by comparing each research question to the associated task. I shall present all of the research questions and all of the data as a whole and then present each question followed by a breakdown of the data and an accompanying discussion of the results. Research questions and discussion 1. Is there a difference in pre and post test results of the FISE scales of self-efficacy on the self-efficacy of job seekers after receiving a structured group intervention. 2. Is there a decrease in the job related stress, in the pre-test and post-test results, as a measure of reaction to a period of unemployment, as a result of receiving a structured group intervention, as measured by the FISE and CTS-R. 3. Is there an increase in self esteem, in the pre and post test results of the FISE and CTS-R scales, as a result of receiving a structured group intervention, as measured by the FISE and CTS-R. Table 1 Total Scores 54 FIJO 1 LIJO 2 RBJ IJ CT BJF FIT OPE DM I SI INT 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 CHAG12 STRE13 AMB AIS 14 15 pre X 3.81 3.89 3.45 4.02 4.16 3.93 3.18 4.08 3.58 3.52 3.31 3.12 2.75 2.45 3.10 post X 4.75 4.75 4.17 4.62 4.48 4.28 4.15 4.68 4.17 4.37 4.31 4.28 3.95 3.71 2.84 t -6.69 -6.02 -4.73 -4.34 -2.14 -2.40 -6.64 -4.50 -4.31 -4.80 -4.97 -6.15 -5.74 -6.11 .93 P < .003 * P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 P=.035 P=.019 P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 P=.354 Statistical significance was evaluated at .05/16 = .003 after Bonferroni adjustment of Alpha. Presentation of the data as outlined in Table 1 allows for a comparison between specific agentic job finding behaviours and the effect that the two week treatment had on the specific constructs of self-efficacy, self esteem and stress related to job search. Three sub scales have been formulated to illustrate the specifics of each of these constructs. For ease of presentation and discussion I shall present the sub scales and the concomitant discussion. Results of Research Question 1. Is there a difference in the pre and post test results of the FISE of self-efficacy and the self-efficacy of job seekers after receiving a structured group intervention. 55 Table 2 Self-Efficacy Sub Scale FIJO LIJO RBJ INT CHAG (1) (2) (3) (11) (12) pre X 3.81 3.89 3.45 3.31 3.12 post X 4.75 4.75 4.17 4.31 4.28 t -6.69 -6.02 -4.73 -4.97 -6.15 P < .003 * P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 Efficacy was measured by the following five questions. FIJO: I can find information about job opportunities. LIJO: 1 can learn new information about a particular job/career. RBJ: I can remove potential barriers to getting a job. INT: I take initiatives that shape my overall career plans. CHAG: I am adapting to the changing demands of the job market and potential employers which will help me land the j ob I want. An examination of the data demonstrates significance (after the Bonferroni adjustment) at the .003 level of significance. The changed in levels of self-efficacy are shown in Table 2 and prove to be significant on all five measures. All five questions measuring self-efficacy demonstrate an incremental increase in both self-efficacy and outcome expectancy. The first two questions measure the self-efficacy 56 expectancy by exploring the subjects' view of their ability to perform a specific behaviour i.e., perform the task of locating new information and the task of learning new information, about potential jobs. The final three questions address the issues of outcome expectancy and deal with the subject's belief about the likelihood of their behaviour leading to a specific outcome such as taking initiatives and adaptation to a changing environment. Research Question 2 results. Is there a difference in pre and post-test results of the FISE and the CTS-R scales of self-esteem, as a result of receiving a structured group intervention, as measured by the FISE and CTS-R. Table 3 Self-Esteem Sub Scale pre _ post _ t P < .003 * X X FIT (7) 3.18 4.15 -6.64 P=.000 OPE (8) 4.08 4.68 -4.50 P=.000 DMI (9) 3.58 4.17 -4.31 P=.000 SI (10) 3.52 4.37 -4.80 P=.000 57 Self esteem was measured by the following four questions. FIT: I believe that I can find a job/career that fits my needs, abilities and interests. OPE: I believe I have something to offer to prospective employers which will come through in my interview with them. DMI: I believe the decision makers in my job market will recognize my talents, intrinsic self worth, and career experience as being potentially valuable to them. SI: I feel positive about my current self image, in spite of my recent job loss, and know I can present myself positively to potential employers. The changes in levels of self-esteem are shown in Table 3 and proved to be significant on all four measures for self-esteem. Demonstrated in Table 3 are the subjects levels of self-esteem related to their perceived ability to feel positive about themselves. Also demonstrated are the perceptions of their ability to successful market their talents and locate the appropriate fit between talents and interests. Research Question 3 results. Is there a decrease in the job related stress as a measure of reaction to a period of unemployment, as a result of receiving a structured group intervention, as measured by the FISE and CTS-R. 58 Table 4 U (4) STRE (13) AMB (14) AIS (15) CT (5) BJF (6) Stress pre X 4.02 2.75 2.45 3.10 4.16 3.93 Sub-Scale post X 4.62 3.95 3.71 2.84 4.48 4.28 t -4.34 -5.74 -6.11 .93 -2.14 -2.40 P < .003 * P=.000 P=.000 P=.000 P=.354 P=.035 P=.019 Stress related to job loss was measured by the following six questions. IJ (4): I can interview for a job STRE (13): I am handling the stresses of this transition time without undue effects on my job campaign. AMB (14): I tolerate the ambiguities of my search without any noticeable or disturbing changes in my physical, mental, and spiritual well being. AIS (15): I worry and am anxious over how this job search will turn out and often wonder if I will ever land a new job. CT(5): I can complete a training program if necessary to obtain a job. BJF (6): I can balance a job/career and family demands. 59 The changes in levels of stress are shown in table 4. The first three questions relate to the subjects internal level of stress and are significant. The last three questions, which focus on more externally controlled stressors, are not significant. Rotter (1966) has devised an internal-external locus of control model. This model categorises individuals who view outside events as controlling them as externally controlled. Those who view themselves as controlling events are viewed as internally controlled. The stressors associated with external and internal control seem to fall within the interpretation of the model when the results of this study are examined. A further discussion of the implications will take place in the concluding chapter. As illustrated in Table 7 the placement rate of those participants in receipt of the intervention is presented. Table 7 Placement Follow up months after intervention 3m 6m 9m percentage found work 39% 69% 77% 60 Chapter V Discussion Overview The purpose of this chapter is to summarize the context of the study and its major findings. Recommendations for future research are considered and discussed. Summary of the study This study investigated the relationship between structured group employment counselling and elevated levels of self-efficacy in individuals encountering a job transition. The study focused first on the question of how effective the group intervention was in increasing the level of self-efficacy in the participants. In addition I was interested in examining the related constructs of self-esteem and stress associated with job loss, and any increase in levels of self-esteem and any decreases in the levels of stress associated with job transition. Demographic information regarding gender, economic status, and age of the job seeker, are included in Table 5. However they had many things in common, two in particular, which I believe contributed to their homogeneity. First, all participants were in the first 10 weeks of their unemployment insurance claim and second, they were all from the same area of Vancouver which contributed to their homogenous socioeconomic composition. 61 Discussion of the Results The findings of this study contributes to the literature in the domain concerned with the use of structured group counselling. This procedure assisted in the increase of self-efficacy in those experiencing job loss and transition. The related constructs of self-esteem and stress are also contributions to the understanding of unanticipated job loss and has implications for the understanding of the means by which job seekers experience job transition. Past research indicates that groups ( Pedersen, Goldberg & Papalia, 1991) are an appropriate method for enhancing career transition and continuation. What is of interest is the link this study has established between a structured group and efficacious outcome expectations. As well, there appears to be a relationship between outcome expectations and expectance outcomes that are related to participation in a group. First, a group approach appears to be an effective method to increase self-efficacy. It is important to identify long term change but equally important is to determine if first the intervention is viable and then determine its effects on future behaviours such as adherence to training programs and self directed job searches. Second, it allows for sufficient intervention time (two weeks) and supports the contention by McAuliffe and 62 Fredrickson (1990) that length of intervention is an important variable in assisting career transitions. When sufficient time to generate vocational alternatives take place and sufficient time to process those alternatives occurs, the potential for a vigorous exploration of vocational options is present. McAuliffe and Fredrickson have suggested that to little time may result in early decisional closure and result in poor vocational choice and result in an extended career transition. Sufficient time to process the myriad of considerations that a client needs to consider allows for a full exploration of options so that an appropriate "fit" occurs between their skills and the requirements of the job. The better the process the better the decision. Self-esteem is integral to this process. The higher an individuals self-esteem the better chance of maintaining a vigilant adherence to this process. Third, it is essential that career counselling recognize the importance of stress and it's relationship to career transitions. Borgen and Amundson (1987) have documented the effects of unanticipated unemployment. They suggest that the unemployed may develop unproductive coping strategies during their slide into unemployment. The influence of stress in this reaction and the need to assist clients to develop effective coping strategies is supported by the results of this study. 63 Structured group and increases in self-efficacy All measures associated with the self-efficacy sub scale proved to be significant in this study (see Table 2 self-efficacy subscale). Bandura and his colleagues (Bandura et al. 1980) emphasis the need to compare specific tasks to efficacy judgements as well as performance on those specific tasks. It is important to distinguish between perceptions of one's ability to successfully accomplish a specific task or behaviour (self-efficacy expectancy) and ones awareness or belief that specific behaviour will lead to a specific outcome ( outcome expectancy). In an examination of the questions on the self-efficacy subscale the specific tasks associated with outcome expectancy and efficacy expectations are both significant (P=000). Before a detailed discussion of these results and the implications, it is important to situate these results in the context of current changes and societal influences. What is meaningful is to review these results with in the context of the " new economy" or what has been referred to as the post industrial (PI) age. In earlier discussions it was noted that the job contract ( Tornow, 1988) is changing. Also changing is the manner in which new types of jobs (Peavy, 1993) are being created. Therefore, it is important to identify the appropriate behaviours that are suitable in assisting in career transition. In the PI economy the ability to locate information about job 64 opportunities and to learn about those opportunities will be an essential skill. Within the context of the PI economy the related job seeking behaviours presumably will be different. Emphasis on non standard jobs and the likelihood of experiencing several job losses in one's working career appear to be real possibilities. What becomes vital is the ability to learn new skills associated with accessing information. It was true in the manufacturing economy that the emphasis was placed on ones ability to be able to construct or produce product. Equally true, in the PI economy, will be the ability to identify transferable skills and possess the facility to manage information. Therefore it is essential that in setting behaviourial targets for current job seekers facing existing transitions that appropriate targets be set in relation to the PI economy. In interpreting the results of this study within the PI context, it is first necessary to determine appropriate skill sets and target behaviours which will form part of the measure of self-efficacy. In reviewing the context of the first two questions on the self-efficacy subscale, it is evident that both questions address the need of effectively managing information. There is significance between the pre-test and the post-test levels of self-efficacy suggesting that those receiving this treatment experienced an increase in their belief to met a behaviour target which in this case was the task of managing new information. In 65 addition, the last three questions measure the belief that there is a likelihood that this behaviour will lead to a specific outcome. In this case the belief that it will lead to a specific outcome demonstrated by the ability to manoeuvre in the labour market as represented by the specific outcomes of removing barriers, taking initiatives and being adaptive to circumstances. Again there was significance on this measure between the pre and post-test outcomes, suggesting that those receiving this treatment experienced elevated levels attached to outcome expectancy. Bandura et al. (1980), argue that in comparing the specific target behaviour to increases in the level and strength of efficacy provides a potentially more rigorous explanation for future behaviour. The results of the study offer evidence for this interpretation and support the notion that for those that participated in the structured group, they experienced increases in efficacious job search skills. Particularly as it relates to the new economy. The conclusion appears to be that this structured group intervention increases the self-efficacy of the participants exposed to it. Structured group and increases in self-esteem. Although the examination of self esteem is a secondary interest in this study there is apparent value to the role this construct plays in the benefits to those facing unanticipated job loss. It appears that the experience does 66 increase self esteem levels of those participating in a structured employment group. The four questions on the self esteem subscale were significant on the pre-post test results. It is interesting to note, in the interpretation of these results, that the measure of success in a group quite often depends on the motivation of it's members (Borgen et al., 1987). By extension those members who experience higher levels of self-esteem are going to be more motivated to continue their job search. Equally important is the need for the job seeker to bolster self-esteem levels, particularly when ample evidence exists, that suggests that loss of self esteem is prevalent in those suffering unanticipated job loss (Borgen & Amundson, 1987). In examining the relationship associated with self-esteem, it is apparent, that it will be necessary to consider the influence of the PI economy. What is encouraging about these results is the link between levels of self-esteem and the emerging labour market. It is promising to note that group members experiences elevated levels of self-esteem in direct relation to variables in the labour market such as being able to offer skills to employers. This was evident, even within the context of the job interview often a source of lower levels of self-esteem. What is also encouraging is this group intervention appears to assist in maintaining and increasing self-esteem within the realm of transferable skills as is 67 evident in question three (DMI). A feature of the PI economy will be the heavy reliance on, and the importance of, finding the appropriate fit between employer requirements and employee skill sets. The SI variable deals specifically with this issue and the results suggest that the group intervention has been successful in increasing self-esteem in this domain. Finally, the results seem to suggest that the group members have benefited by improving their levels of self-esteem in specific areas associated with the labour market, but also cumulatively, as a source of motivation for their job search. Group intervention and stress. It is well documented that the stress associated with unanticipated job loss has many negative implications (Feather, 1990). Borgen and Amundson have documented the behaviour of those experiencing job loss and have classified it into two phases, job loss and job search. In the first phase a variety of reactions to job loss occur depending on the individual and their circumstances. The second phase is described as an emotional roller coaster, however, I believe it is best characterised as a reaction to stress. In reviewing the questions associated with stress and job loss some interesting results have occurred. It would appear as if the stress related to job loss maybe described within the context of Rotter's (1966) internal-external locus of control model. Although this study did not include 68 this construct within the parameters of investigation, I would like to take the opportunity to explain the results within this theoretical framework. Questions IJ, STRE, AMB, all focus on the stress that the individual is experiencing during the two week period that the are in receipt of the intervention. All three measures are significant and would indicate that the intervention assisted the participant to deal effectively with their level of stress associated with the transition period. The tasks or activities associated with these measures tend to be controlled by the client and are the focus of the intervention and might be viewed as being internally controlled. The measures that were not significant tended to be events or tasks that could be interpreted as being externally controlled such as completing a training program. What is of interest with this result is that this intervention does not purport to prepare the client for these specific tasks and one would expect to see this result. However, that would not preclude an investigator from developing an intervention specific to these tasks. Based on the results of this study and its design there would be some hope of success if the intervention was specifically designed to assist an individual to acquire efficacious behaviour targets for the completion of a training program. Although this discussion in tentative in terms of providing a possible explanation of the effects of stress and its influence on those 69 experiencing job loss, the results of this study suggest that further investigation of the relationship between stress and its effect on transition associated with locus of control is necessary. In conclusion, the intervention seems to reduce stress associated with the specific activity related to transitional stress but fails to be significant for stress associated with non specific tasks. Implications for Future Research The results in this study suggest that structured group intervention is a potentially effective method to increase levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem, in job seekers experiencing transition. Clients who receive this intervention seem to be able to cope more effectively with the stress associated with the transition period. However it needs to be pointed out that this study was designed to test the potency that group intervention may have on this sample of job seekers and was not designed to test the generalizability to another sample. It was first necessary to determine if the treatment was effective before testing for generalizability. It should be noted that Bandura et al. (1980) suggest that to compare one subject's outcome expectancies and self-efficacy expectancies to a different subject is not as meaningful as comparing the individual with their own increase or decrease in these measures. The next step that maybe worthy of examination, having 70 demonstrated that the treatment appears to be effective in increasing esteem and efficacy, would be to test for the generalizability of the treatment. Factors such as gender, age, timing of job loss, and the potential influence of the PI economy seem to be likely areas of investigation. Qualitative Data Although it is necessary to determine the empirical strength of any group intervention, I also believe that it is essential to understand the process and the potential effect it may have on those participating. I have included qualitative data that I have collected to give the reader an appreciation of the effect that this group experience has had on those who have participated. I would hope that the reader develops a clearer understanding of the benefits associated with this intervention and the process issues that participants have experienced. I requested that the participants record in their own voice, their reactions and perceptions to the process of self assessment. I have not edited or altered their record so as not to diminish the impact of their powerful accounts. I have included several prevalent themes that have emerged in my current investigation. I have included this qualitative date as a means of highlighting and augmenting this investigation but also as a means of stimulating future investigation. Although there are an array of process issues that clients experienced during the two week 71 intervention, I have highlighted four general themes that emerged from the groups involved in this career planning process. The self reports found in appendix C are a small representation of the total sample and are the accounts of five individuals. The data was collected by asking the subjects to record in their own narrative an account of their reaction to the self assessment component of the intervention. In an attempt to assist then to structure their reaction, the following process questions were provided. This was only an option and individuals were free to organize their thoughts and feeling in any manner they felt appropriate. Process questions. 1. In what way did previous and current life patterns emerge as a result of your self assessment. 2. What process did you follow in the course of decision making during your self assessment 3. How was your self-efficacy, self-esteem and stress change as a result of your self assessment. 4. How have you been influence by significant others. 5. As a result of what you have learned about the new economy how do you expect to be influence by it and what is your expectation of how you will fit your skills to the new economy. 72 The following themes emerged from the data collected. l.Lost opportunity. This theme was very common and many individuals felt they had lost many opportunities in past jobs because they had not been clear on the role that their values played in the job or career they held. They had accepted jobs for the wrong reasons or jobs that conflicted with their values. Part of this theme manifested itself in the question of wondering if was too late to regain what they had lost. Statements such as the following reflected the hurt that they had experience " I have never taken the time to examine why I did something, I didn't realize how important my values are in my job, I didn't stop and look at them, I just went from one job to the next never realising what was the problem" "I'm not sure exactly where my values took the plunge. All I know is where to go from here" 2. Many clients observed that the time to assess their needs was in high school. " Why didn't I have the chance to do this in high school my life may have been so different". "We need a system that allows for this self exploration and assessing of your self in high school why did I have to wait so long ". 3. A very strong theme that emerged was the level of stress associated with staying in their previous jobs, and the impact of that stress, which eventually made them ill. "I can't stay, the job was making me sick. I am scared to be 73 out of work but I am terrified of going back to my previous kind of work". 4. Finally, a constant theme that emerged from these clients was a sense that they had been frozen with fear and confusion. That the intervention gave them strength and provided them with the means to become unfrozen. "I was stuck in one spot, running but not getting anywhere". Ashly age 34. " Like a new born bird, I have broken out of my shell, but the remnants remain in the nest to remind me of the past." For a detailed account of the narratives of the participant please see appendix C. Concluding Comment Implications of this research are worthy for possible future inquiry. As has been noted, the likelihood of future economic restructuring can only increase as we draw closer to the twenty first century. The potential for major shifts in the economic structure and the effect on the labour market, will have an staggering impact on the human resources of our society. 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I am a researcher and graduate student at the University of British Columbia and I am working on a research project entitled: Group Employment Counselling and Career Transition. I am the principal investigator of this project and I may be contacted at the phone number 822-5259 should you have any questions. The faculty advisor is Dr. M. Westwood and should you have any questions he may be contacted at 822-6457. Thank you for your willingness to participate in this project. Your participation is appreciated. I would like to assure you that, as a participant in this project you have several very definite rights: * First your participation in this study is entirely voluntary. * You are free to refuse to answer any questions at any time. * You are free to withdraw from the study at any time. page 1 of 2 84 Excerpts of this study may be made part of the final research report, but under no circumstances will your name or identifying characteristics be included in this report. I would be grateful if you would sign this form to show that I have read you its contents. Signature of Respondent Dated Please send me a report of the results of this project Please check one No Yes address where you would like report sent This study will be kept strictly confidential and the contents will be available only to the reviewing faculty members of my Masters thesis committee. I will retain a copy of this form and I will give you a copy for your records. Please acknowledge you have received your copy by signing below. Signature Page 2 of 2 85 APPENDIX B FISE and CTS-R Questionnaire (adapted) FISE and CTS-R Questionnaire Directions: Please rate on the scale provided how you feel about each statement listed below. Please place the number of the response that applies to your situation. 1. cannot do 2. cannot do 3. can do 4. can do 5. can do 1. I can find information about job opportunities 2. I can learn new information about a particular job/career 3. I can remove potential barriers to getting a job 4. I can interview for a job 5. I can complete a training program if necessary to obtain a job 6. I can balance a job/career and family demands 7. I can find a job/career that fits my needs, abilities and interests 8. I believe I have something to offer to prospective employers which will come through in my interview with them. 9. I believe that decision makers in my job market will recognize my talents, intrinsic self worth, and career experience as being potentially valuable to them. 10. I feel positive about my current self image, in spite of my recent job loss, and know I can present myself positively to potential employers. 86 11. I take initiatives that shape my overall career plans. 12. I am adapting to the changing demands of the job market and potential employers which will help me land the job I want. 13. I am handling the stresses of this transition time without undue effects on my job campaign. 14. I tolerate the ambiguities of my search without any noticeable or disturbing changes in my physical, mental, and spiritual well-being. 15. I worry and am anxious over how this job search will turn out and often wonder If I will ever land a new job. 87 Appendix C Every morning in Africa, a gazelle wakes up. It knows it must run faster than the fastest lion or it will be killed. Every morning a lion wakes up. It knows it must outrun the slowest gazelle or it will starve to death. It doesn't matter whether you are a lion or a gazelle: when the sun come's up, you had better be running. William A. Subers, author The recession is an opportunity for me to focus on how to restructure my activities for competitive advantage in the labour market. My analysis of week one will address six areas from the perspective of embracing change so that the components of my unique "wheel " are integrated into my pursuit of a rich full life. 1. Life patterns then/now: As a way of introducing how my life experiences have shaped me, I will touch on my experience of growing up in a big family in a small company town in northern Ontario. Decisions fuelled by the development of industry effected areas of wilderness. My home town displaced a small 88 settlement of Aboriginal Peoples who were told in 1944 that the federal government was taking over the area to provide a town site for staff and families of the nuclear laboratory. I grew up within this highly educated professional environment. My brothers were fortunate to have mentors to guide them intellectually. Although these were the days before student loans, this was the exuberant 1950's when the economy was booming and industry was the new theosophy for the boys. Times have changed. In my "before life", I married young and found my identity in the private institution of domesticity, in home, marriage and children there was always a secret with to be self indulgent and experience self awareness through education. Without neglecting my main function in providing a safe haven for children and husband, I changed jobs. Unfortunately this marriage did not provide a safe haven for me to experience growth. A metaphor for my quest for change took shape in my returning to university full time in 1990 to complete my degree in Communications. Within the context of the changing family system: children leaving home, changing jobs, unemployment, death of parents, divorce, establishing a new support system, and roles being redefined, I am facing new choices. Certain discourses describe a woman of my age. When women talk we share concern about our bodies, money, power and history. We talk about how the whole body is constantly surveyed. We talk 89 about how we don't have money and power, and we talk about our pasts which have a similar ring but are not written in history.In terms of my particular age group, my youth coincided with the beginning of the woman's movement. So we have a political history too. These are the themes that make up what I think brought about my personal growth and change in life patterns. 2. Internal/external In my before life, the external environment substituted for my weak differentiation of self. Conditioning influenced my decision making. I was more concerned about what others expected of me and set my goals accordingly. 3. Decision making Education allowed me to peel away the layers of myth to examine themes as they relate to my personal experiences. I see my life now as an opportunity to try out the option I had rejected, to find out what E.. would be like if she were not a wife and mother. This meant giving up the passive overly harmonious position and making my own choices and being accountable for them. 4. Self-efficacy Nathaniel Branden defines the experience of self-efficacy as having control over one's life"that we associate with psychological well-being, the sense of being at the vital centre of one's existence-as contrasted with being a passive spectator and a victim of events". 90 Within the context of my life experiences, moving across Canada and the changing family system, I have developed a certainty that I will weather the change. 1 Each time I was uprooted I became stronger in my conviction that since I weathered the last disruption so too would I survive this one. Looking at my lifeline it is clear each new experience became a challenge to meet new people and try something different. When I moved to Vancouver during the recession of 1984, I went swimming at the YWCA every day to exhaust myself and lesson the stress or being unemployed. After time I was persuaded to take a leadership training course to teach as a volunteer and consequently have established a strong support system through the Y. I also discovered that I have an ability to motivate people. After I graduated in 1991, I was again unemployed and it was on the basis of my volunteer work that I was chosen to take part in the Constitution Conferences as an "ordinary Canadian" The combination of volunteer work and networking led to a contract position with B.C. Hydro. This was my first insight into the joys of doing contract work and the idea of doing contract work for a living was reinforce after hearing S's and G's lifelines. I am fortunate to be unemployed at this time to pursue this dream. 5. Influence of Significant others In my before life, my centre was my family. I was not 91 confident in the efficacy of myself. Further, the struggle to make change was not supported within the family environment because my behaviours indicated a need to be taken care of rather coming from a posit8ion of empowerment. My daughter commented on the Significant Other Assessment that I have changed over time to become more independent, more assertive, more relaxed and have a general sense of humour about life that is refreshing and felt my people skills would provide strength to issues pertaining to the community. 6. Analysis of myself in terms of the new economy The goal to do consulting work in communications would ideally include being a spokesperson to the public. Relationships with individuals within the workplace and the community are top on my list. Social and work relationships are quite simply duplicated of the relationship to our families and an extension to teamwork. Significant demographic, cultural and technological factors are changing the types of work we do. Concerns bout diminishing resources and the environment are changing communication with the public. Principles of public involvement, public values, ethical business practices and education and training for our workforce in customer service areas are issue I would like to tackle as a consultant. My values include change, challenge, people, variety and 92 integrity. Apparently I am a combination of ENFJ and ENTJ with a good balance in the Individual Style Survey with strengths in outgoing and analytical skills, all of which indicate to me that I could enjoy success in my own business dealing with strategic planning and communications. THE WHEEL May, 1993 Who am I to reinvent the wheel? This is possibly one of the most overused statements used during the past 50 years. Though while the rest of the world was living by the "I'm OK-Your're 0K"boxed in theories, N. E. Amundson did in fact reinvent the wheel. He took the concept of the day and discovered that it was applicable to one important fraction of our career lives. This fraction being our values. There is so much more than mere external ideals that bombard us on a daily basis. It would be nice to be able to sum-up everything in regard to "The Wheel" versus my life in ten words or less, but this will have to do. As the saying goes,"the only place to start is at the beginning". I'm not sure exactly where my values took the plunge. All I know is where to go from here. In the past, I felt as 93 though I wasn't worthy of success. It was the other guy who could go to school and get the breaks. I was never an "A" student. My boredom I mistook for stupidity. The only times I got good grades was when I was allowed to express creatively. I had consequently convince myself I was destined to be one of the many unskilled masses struggling to survive until I died. This continued until the ripe old age of 19. This was when my point of readiness first started to appear. The psychological 2 x 4 that some people get hit over the head with was a reality for me. It was then that I started to realize that I was better than what I was allowing myself. Though this is a wonderful notion, the question still unanswered was "what now?" My values were becoming stronger and therefore my self esteem, however I had begun a vicious cycle of low self-efficacy. In the work place I was the puppy that would lick the employer's shoes in the hopes of at least keeping my job. I would never stand up for myself and allowed people to treat me in the worst way. This was even more prominent in my dealing with male employers. Though I wanted to yell at them to quite their "harmless fooling around' I would merely try to avoid them. This led me to hating my job and receiving mixed signals in relationships. So many time I was called the dumb blonde, and believed it. 94 It seems the only person whom I believed when they told me I wasn't such an awful person was my father. He showed me unconditional love and a great personal freedom. I know that I would not be where I am today were it not for him. Though he showed me guidance he still could not prepare me for what happened 2-1/2 months ago. It still amazes me how something so negative externally could be so positive internally. Although I may not have the years of career experience as the others do, I know I have securely taken my first step. I now know myself in terms of skills and competencies, intelligence, and long to take care of me...is me. Not a job and not an employer. I know I can do this, with rule over my own career and time. One of my long-tern goals is to do consultation and contract work. It's not just for the other guy. ANALYSIS OF WEEK ONE When I took the time to really examine my lifeline, and with S's assistance, I was amazed to discover significant and repetitive life patterns that were destructive, and unfulfilling. My decision making was too narrow and dependant on what I believed my duties and responsibilities 95 were. I would also say that I had a misguided idea that was dominated by the idea of a successful life rather that the new idea of an effective one. I have always believed that the direction I have been taking may not be the right one, but have been terribly frustrated by my seemingly inability to change it. Now however with the investigation of my lifeline, this insight into myself and the "tools" that I have been learning I feel much more positive about breaking these patterns. In terms of internal/external I feel that both of these are without a doubt for me severely exaggerated by a lack of self. Already after the first week I am feeling more in control of my "self and in dealing with the pressures of my environment [society] or believing that I can. Again for me when I think of decision making, right away I think of how narrow minded I have been.Traditional, responsible, dutiful, narrow thinker. Now I feel a change in my thought process. More like I've got a much better and wider view of the field and consequently more confident in what my head and heart were and will be telling me. The concept of "self-efficacy" in relation to self-esteem is one of the most interesting topics of this course. My lack of a sense of purpose and control have certainly reduced the level of my self-esteem. With lower self-esteem 96 I have let myself get trapped in destructive, reoccurring life patterns. "Confidence in the functioning of my mind" can not occur in a situation lie this. Learning about how this happens and armed with this knowledge I am better equipped to step out and break the cycle. Breaking the cycle and working on ways to improve self-esteem will make it considerable more difficult to get beaten down in the future as you have taken steps to regain that control and are working towards being happier about who you are. A better sense of self and more effective communication should allow you to better effectively deal and understand the intentions and influences of significant others. If you know who you are you can pick and choose how you will respond both internally and externally and decide if you want to be influence or not. I think that in terms of the New Economy that with more research I will be able to find an area that will interest, challenge and provide personal satisfaction, along with stable economic growth. Some retraining my be required but I am starting to think that I have more possibilities open to me than I thought. SELF ANALYSIS My lifeline doesn't show any signs of a clear path-what it does show is that I am social, enjoy talking, being active 97 (social and sports activities) and I enjoy travel. Looking back over my life/ lifeline I see that I have become more self confident, assertive, and make important decisions for myself. My "career" have been a result of going to work for Woodward's as a sales clerk and being propelled (promoted) along over the years. I have always enjoyed the new challenges and learning experience that were parts (positions) I really enjoyed, like the Advertising and some part of Buying-but sometimes when I went into a new position I thought to myself-"You should be careful what you wish for, it my come to pass. I had set myself on a path from Sales Clerk to Buyer. I have no regret about these years because it was an incredible learning experience that gave me business and social benefits. I grew up with the company. I now have the support of my family what are encouraging me to explore new avenues and make the right career move. This comes as a result of them seeing the time and energy that I expended in my old job. I was constantly absent or late for family related gatherings. I have come to the conclusion that I must have quality of 98 life as well as enjoy my new career choice. I am very comfortable and happy with who I am, how I interact with family and friends since I have come to the realization that I must do what I think is right and be comfortable with that. The one thing I have come to terms with is the fact that I am focused on replacing my old income when looking at options and this is hindering my ability to see where my path lies. The areas I can find interest in the new economy are: 1. Household Appliances (I love kitchen gadgets and stores) 2. Sporting and Athletic Goods (I have a wonderful time cycling, walking, etc. anything that allows me to enjoy the beauty of our surroundings-I do like the fair weather best though) 3. Ice Cream and Frozen Desserts (I have a sweet tooth I enjoy making and eating desserts). 99 I am finding that all the years of not being an emotional female in an all male environment is making it difficult to let go now. I think that the process we are going through will help me to face the fact that I have to soul search before making a new choice. One unfortunate reality of the frustration is now it affects my mood. The good thing is that I know this is a side effect and I can see it coming-give myself a talking to and make the connection that will keep me working on the search. THOUGHTS ON WEEK ONE RAMBLING oxygen-deprivation; a matter of life and death for my soul; can't just survive any more; fear -lack of energy, lack of worth; the mule has been hit over the head with a two by four-how have I missed the patterns, the signals; I've got it,now what do I do with it;I've made amazing sacrifices that I now wish I hadn't-an urgent need to change the direction of my life so that there will be some genuine worth come out of these sacrifices; will it take less energy to get things "right" that to service chaos over and over again; discovered my creativity or rather what my creativity is-a different way of seeing; I do like much of what I have done-i.e. the tasks and the work itself-trouble has been the organizations I have chosen; I have a real need for self-direction or self-employment-a need to let the writer out or 100 I will disintegrate into a million pieces; the week was full of truths I've heard before-heard with my ears and maybe with my mind but not with my soul; the incredible power I have given others to determine who I am, what I do, what I think, how happy I am or have a right to be; I get into the most difficulty when I disengage my soul, my heart, my "voice" and only use my head-over thinking is deadly for me; my desperate need for peace,for serenity, for a purpose, a goal, a direction, a "diet"for life; my inactivity and procrastination has come partly from lack of belief in myself, my worth or in what I've been doing; I need to fix the significant others part of my life-eliminate the "toxic" people or mollify their influence, fill the holes in my relationships and continue to cherish the people that I live and find nurturing; communication is not a context but a means of commenting with someone else's core-whether the context is business or personal; be honest for its own sake, to reveal myself, not to manipulate, not to see someone nod, not to use the truth to bludgeon someone else's feelings or ego,- believe in myself; lighten up-see the blessings, the gifts, the strengths, not just the negatives-recognize mistakes as just that and no more-get out of my own way-put all my energy into propelling myself toward my goals, not in holding myself back-take off the parking brake-(maybe that's why I cut my hair- the beginning of the lightening-up process-start with my head) 101 THE FACTS Much of what I learned from the various exercises affirmed things I had know or felt before. The most revealing exercise, however, was the lifeline. It was like an epiphany-the patterns were so clear. I have so often gotten in my own way,doubted myself and then had that doubt be self-fulfilled, but when I believed in myself and my goal I had incredible strength and got what I wanted-I knew what I wanted and didn't even anticipate failure. My personal style showed a good blend of people and task, and showed that I need to work a little more on the cautious side of my style-again no surprises-except that I was pleasantly surprised that others saw me much as I saw myself. As a "type", I am an ENFP. When I read the description I had a physical chill run down my spine, as if someone had been spying on me all my life and was now writing about me. The Holland model showed a strong ASE(artistic, social, enterprising). I scored identically in the artistic and social areas. Again no surprises, but good for building my self-esteem- that my instincts about myself are valid. The fantasies exercise showed my passion for creativity, independence and a more ethical world. The values exercise reinforce that. NEW DIRECTIONS I have reaffirmed that marketing is an area that I like, am 102 good at and that meets many of my needs. What I need to do is establish a company of my own-be self-employed and to be highly selective in the clients I chose in terms of their ethics and their business style, or if I go back to working full time for one employer, I need to be in a position that has a high level of autonomy and be with an organization where my style and my ideas real impact on what they do and how they do it. I also need to take my writing seriously and stop researching how to get published and just start doing it. This will be a second tier to my career planning, with the long -term objective of making it a major part of my life's work. Work on my self-esteem is critical. I now am beginning to see a direction and I am beginning to believe in it, but I know that success will depend on a stronger belief, a real commitment FEELINGS Like a new born bird. I have just broken out of my shell, but the remnants remain in the nest to remind me of the past. I have the wings to free myself, but they are not ready yet. I still need nourishment and protection from predators, and eventually a push from the nest to make me fly. Unlike the baby bird, though, I now know that I must be both fledgling and adult-I must nourish and protect and push myself in order to fly free. 103 APPENDIX D Overview of the activities for week one and week two of Accessing the Labour Market 104 ACCESSING THE LABOUR MARKET HANDOUT 1-2 OVERVIEW OF WEEK 1 DAY ONE Orientation Introduction 1 1 1 1 Norms & Expectations 1 Giving/ Receiving Feedback DAY TWO How to Cope with Unempl. 1 1 1 Assumptions 1 Communicat'n Skills 1 1 DAY THREE Interest Inventory 1 1 Interpretation oflSS 1 1 Lifeline Exercise 1 1 DAY FOUR Accomplish-ments DAY FIVE Interpretation Signif. Others 1 Card Sort Exercise LUNCH Job Loss Cycle 1 1 The Wheel 1 1 ISS 1 1 Communicat'n Skills 1 1 1 1 1 The UGLI Orange 1 1 Lifeline l(cont'd) 1 Values Auction 1 1 Personal Values 1 Significant Others 1 1 1 1 1 1 Translating to Employer Language 1 1 Art of Putting It All Together 1 1 1 1 Clear Vision 1 1 0 5 ACCESSING THE LABOUR MARKET HANDOUT 1-3 OVERVIEW OF WEEK 2 DAY SIX Welcome Back Exercise 1 Paradigm Shift 1 1 1 Manoeuvering in the Market 1 ' 1 DAY SEVEN Sourcing Information 1 1 1 1 Focusing 1 1 1 Research 1 DAY EIGHT Research Findings 1 You Be the Judge DAY NINE Employment Interviews Introduction 1 Modelled 1 Role Play Preparation 1 1 1 1 DAY TEN Action Plan Evaluation 1 LUNCH Decision Making 1 1 1 1 i i The Resume 1 1 1 Research Assignment Informational Interviews Employer Interviews Role Plays Network Connection 1 1 Termination Exercise i 1 1 


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