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Cross-cultural reentry stress: analysis of a group intervention using the critical incident technique Mathews, Margot 1994

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Cross-Cultural Reentry  CROSS-CULTURAL REENTRY STRESS: ANALYSIS OF A GROUP INTERVENTION USING THE CRITICAL INCIDENT TECHNIQUE  By Margot Mathews B.A,, University of British Columbia, B.C., 1990 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES <Bepartment of Counselling Psychology)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  Sept.  1994  Q O M a r g o t L . M a t h e w s , 1994  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment  of the requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by  his or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  copying  or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  (Signature)  Department of  C.6i^M^6eUMfi  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-e (2/88)  6 ^ ^ 30 1^^-  et>VC^+t^L0e7.  11  Abstract The cross-cultural adaptation process has been a focus of theoretical and practical interest in the field of crosscultural counselling. Recently, interest has proceeded from the initial adaptation phase (culture shock) experienced by sojourners when leaving home to a focus on the reentry adaptation phase (reentry shock), experienced by sojourners who have returned home after extended stays abroad. Increasing numbers of Canadian sojourners are currently travelling in a wide variety of contexts and for a wide variety of purposes. Interest in reentry adaptation is fueled by a corresponding, accelerated demand for knowledge of factors influencing reentry adjustment and for interventions effective in reducing its' attendant stress. To date, cross-cultural reentry research has been informed primarily by methodologies (quantitative and anecdotal) that give an overview of the phenomenon but do not yield indepth, systematic accounts of the lived experience of returnees, resulting in a dearth of information on interventions effective in assisting returnees with their readjustment. The purpose of this study was to (1) accumulate in-depth information about the reentry adjustment process from returnees whose experience had been amplified by a group-based reentry program, (2) analyze these data systematically, in order to identify factors, directly or indirectly related to the reentry program which appear to be facilitating and/or hindering to the reentry adjustment  11 1  process, and (3) develop a framework of interventions which can be used by counsellors and others in the cross-cultural field to assist returnees in their readjustment process. A qualitative methodology was used in which two groups of returnees were interviewed during the period of late 1992 to mid 1994 after participating in 2-day, professional reentry workshops. Participant interviews were analyzed using The Critical Incident Technique in order to identify factors which influence reentry adjustment. The 19 interviewees were Canadian repatriates who had recently returned from business-related stays of 1 to 4 years' duration in Asia. A total of 245 critical incidents were derived from the 19 interviews. Out of these incidents, a scheme of 12 categories of factors, facilitative of reentry was developed. In order to ensure trustworthiness and soundness of categories, the category scheme was subjected to several tests of reliability and validity. Also identified were 2 emergent themes, separate and unrelated to the program, which related to occurrences of a hindering nature to reentry adjustment. Finally, antecedent factors related to the 245 facilitative critical incidents were identified. These latter findings resulted in the development of a framework of cross-cultural reentry interventions. Implications for theory development and future research; and applications for counselling in the area of cross-cultural reentry are explored.  IV  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page  ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  iv-v vi vii  CHAPTER I.  INTRODUCTION  1  Purpose of the Study Justification for the Study  2 3  11-111  CHAPTER 2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE  11  Definitions Assumptions  11 12  Related Literature  13  Historical Account of Cross-cultural Adjustment _ Scope of Cross-Cultural Adaptation Research Factors Governing Cross-Cultural Adjustment Factors Related to Reentry Adjustment Distinguishing Features of Reentry Adjustment Theories of Reentry Adjustment Stage Theory of Reentry Adjustment Coping Modes in Reentry Identity Theory of Adjustment Rationale for Group Desian Cross-Cultural Reentry Programs CHAPTER 3.  DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY  13 14 15 15 17 20 20 22 22 23 25 27  Introduction  27  Research Desian Program Rationale Data Collection and Procedures Methodological Desian Weaknesses Methodological Desian Strenaths Poptilatidn  28 28 31 32 33 34  Participant Selection Recruitment Background of Participants  36 37 38  Critical Incident Methodology Critical Incident Design The Critical Incident Interview Extraction and Analysis of the Incidents Process of Forming Categories Validation Procedures  38 38 41 43 44 45  Limitations  46  Summary  47  CHAPTER 4.  RESULTS  48  Description of Facilitative Categories  48  Reliability and Validity of the Categories Reliability of Categorizing Incidents Relative Frequency of Incidents Per Category Validity of Categorizing Incidents Participant Recommendations as a Test of Validity Expert Commentary  65 66 69 74 79 81  Description of Hindering Categories  82  Secondary Analysis of the Data Content-Oriented Sources Process-Oriented Sources  86 87 89  CHAPTER 5.  91  DISCUSSION  Conclusion  102  References Appendices  103 112  VI  LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1  Categories of Facilitating Incidents/ Emergent Themes of Hindering Incidents  49A  Table 2  Reliability of Category Schemes  68  Table 3  Distribution of Categories (percentage frequencies)  69A  Table 4  Relative Freq. of Incidents Per Category 71  Table 5  Stability of Categories Across Groups and Time  77  Stability of Categories (percentage contributions)  77A  Framework of Interventions  90A  Table 6 Table 7  Vll  Acknowledgments  Dr. Marvin J. Westwood acted as my Advisor not only in this project but throughout my studies. He has been an invaluable source of support and inspiration to me and it is through his help that this project has come to fruition. I am grateful to him for his generosity, guidance and friendship. I would like to thank the other members of my committee. Dr. Ishu Ishiyama and Dr. Jamie Wallen, who offered encouragement and advice. Other people have made contributions to my research along the way. I extend special thanks to  Allan Greenwood, Frank Haiyan Wang, Rod  McCormick, Joe Weiler and APMCP affiliates. This study is dedicated to: Jill Moreton and Carol Ann Carlson, who give me friendship. To my family, who give me love, with special recognition to my mother, Lorraine Sutcliffe and to Ed Shanahan, who has been like a father to me, and To my children Douglas and Marissa, who give me joy.  Margot Mathews  Cross-Cultural Reentry  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION  Cross-cultural reentry is "the transition into one's home culture after having lived or worked abroad" (Adler, 1976). On the surface, this transition seems like a simple process. After all, regardless of the nature of their foreign undertaking, repatriates are coming home to what is anticipated to be a familiar and reinforcing environment. However, a review of empirical and anecdotal reports of the cross-cultural experience indicates that reentry adjustment is not as simple as one might think (Brislin and Van Buren, 1974; Austin, 1986). Rather, it is often a complex process involving changes in representations of one's own identity and one's perceptions of others (Gullahorn and Gullahorn, 1963). When poorly managed, the repercussions of reentry stress can be problem-oriented and result in low functioning and poor life satisfaction for returnees. Conversely, when managed well, reentry stress can result in successful integration of the overseas experience in a way that results in high functioning and high life satisfaction (Adler, 1976;  Cross-Cultural Reentry  2 Wilson, 1993). Given increasing mobility of people and globalization of economies, the ability of professionals to help returnees integrate their experience is of increasing interest and value. Accordingly, the findings of this study should be valuable to professionals who assist in the process of cross-cultural reentry adaptation as well as theorists who seek to deepen or expand our understanding of the phenomenon of reentry stress and the process of reentry adaptation.  Purpose Of The Study  The purpose of this study is primarily to identify factors and interventions related to the resolution of cross-cultural reentry stress. The data relied upon is based on interventions reported by repatriates to be salient and effective in their experience of reentry adaptation. Identifying key interventions helps to inform the theory of cross-cultural reentry and the design of programs to assist repatriates experiencing the attendant stress of returning home. A secondary goal of this study is to identify, based on direct reports of the lived experience of  Cross-Cultural Reentry  repatriates, previously unidentified components for consideration in cross-cultural reentry training.  Justification for the Study  A Need for Applied Research and In-depth Understanding Sojourners typically return home after experiencing such diverse undertakings as performing missionary work, studying abroad, serving in a war, acting as peace-keepers, representing government interests, facilitating economic development and engaging in international business. The utilitarian benefits of cross-cultural reentry programs to assist people coming home from such diverse pursuits is recognized by both cross-cultural counsellors and researchers. However, the benefits of these cultural reentry programs are not fully appreciated by the educational institutions, government bureaucracies and corporate management spheres where strategic decisions regarding their usage are made. A well documented case in point is the lack of comprehensive reentry programs offered Vietnam war veterans in the U.S.A. (Faulkner and McGraw, 1977). My experience of working in the field has made me aware of the critical need to provide  Cross-Cultural Reentry  convincing arguments in favor of reentry programs. Thus, a benefit in identifying effective interventions for the resolution of reentry stress is to make reentry programs more attractive to those in a position to institute them. Current reentry programs are developed on the basis of the available but, unfortunately rather limited information on cross-cultural reentry. This information has been derived primarily from quantitative and anecdotal research; very little useful information emanates from qualitative research. Bachner (1993) identifies the methodological weaknesses of cross-cultural research; he observes that, to date, there exists a "relatively small and incommensurate number of studies which investigate ... behavioral change, are longitudinally-focused or attend to theory development". Further, he discusses the apparent "reluctance to use less conventional but highly promising depth approaches that investigate the process of adaptation in a systematic way". Verification of interventions based of theoretical and/or ad hoc reports needs to be done systematically so that effective interventions, as reported directly by repatriates, can be described and prescribed.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  Accordingly, a qualitative methodology, where data is collected in an in-depth and systematic way, seems to be appropriate and is the one chosen for this investigation. Cross-cultural researchers have provided considerable research on culture shock (Austin, 1986), which is the phenomenon experienced when sojourners are confronted for a length of time with a culture distinctly different than their own. Clinical interventions have been developed in response to culture shock and some of these have been similarly, if not latterly, applied to returning sojourners. In fact, reentry shock is often referred to as "reverse culture shock". However, reentry shock is not simply reverse culture shock. It is a phenomenon that we understand to be thus far established as a transition experience like culture shock, but which also has some unique and potentially powerful elements which require interventions specifically tailored to it. As compared to culture shock research, reentry research is a new area of cross-cultural counselling study, with many questions still left to be answered. Cross-cultural reentry is a unique transition experience that can have growth-oriented results for  Cross-Cultural Reentry  individuals when it is managed effectively. The problem being addressed in this study is the identification of clinical or psychologically-based interventions which are reported to be effective in resolving crosscultural reentry stress. Programs can thus be augmented to better meet the needs of this ever-expanding population of returnees involved in the world of global business and international relations. The results of this study will help identify the array of factors indicated in the literature as being implicated in reentry adjustment. This study is also designed to inform the theory of reentry adjustment. In his book "The Emigrants", Johan Bojer poignantly summarizes the typical experience of returnees when he states,  "If you came back, you wanted to leave again; if you went away, you longed to come back. Wherever you were, you could hear the call of the homeland, like the note of a herdsman's horn far away in the hills. You had one home out there, and one over here, and yet you were an alien in both places. Your true abiding-place was the vision of  Cross-Cultural Reentry  7 something -V&TY far off, and your soul was like the waves, always restless, forever in motion." (Austin, 1983, p.iix)  Several years ago, having returned home from a work and study sojourn in Europe, I was astonished at the range and depth of the readjustment challenges I encountered. Most people who plan an extended stay in a foreign country can anticipate and consequently are somewhat prepared for the "culture shock" that accompanies confrontation with different cultural values and customs. What they often do not anticipate upon their return is their confrontation with what were once cultural values and customs of intimate familiarity. Indeed, previously cited research affirms Bojer's historical tenet that the task of readapting to one's culture of origin after living overseas is often the most difficult hurdle in the cycle of international life (Austin, 1986). It is not uncommon for sojourners, having lived overseas for work, education, pleasure or ministerial reasons to report that the readjustment involved in coming home is most stressful (Adler, 1981). Yet, cross-cultural trainers have been largely unsuccessful  Cross-Cultural Reentry  in convincing organizations who provide predeparture training to also plan workshops to prepare these same people to return home successfully when their tour of overseas duty has ended (Austin, 1986). Compounding this problem is the result suggested by many intercultural specialists, that those who are most successful in adjusting to the foreign culture are the very ones who can expect to have the hardest time in readjusting to their own culture upon returning home (Brislin, 1974). As Edwin Herr (1990) attests in his article "Employment Counseling in a Global Economy", increasing numbers of people are being required to live abroad for employment and educational reasons. My interest in collaboration with my thesis supervisor. Dr. Marvin Westwood of Counselling Psychology at U.B.C., is to incorporate factors said to underlie the success/failure of cross-cultural transitions by implementing and assessing a group intervention program designed to facilitate a positive outcome for repatriates. The nature of this research involves the assessment of a concentrated group cross-cultural reentry program for Canadian repatriates who may have been exposed to various forms of reentry shock. The  Cross-Cultural Reentry  development of the program utilized an eclectic approach which involved cognitive, affective and behavioral domains. An attempt has been made to synthesize various theoretical approaches to adjustment. As a form of cross-cultural training, the program seeks to help participants increase awareness of and develop coping strategies for the social/psychological and professional aspects of reentry. Assessment of the program is participant-oriented and follows a qualitative research design. Research data is collected from participants through semistructured interviews and the data is then analyzed for participant reactions to events, both directly and indirectly related to the program. The reentry program instituted in this study may have broad applicability as it addresses the psychological and professional aspects of reentry experience which is common to many, if not all repatriate groups. The project extends the work of Mr. Allan Greenwood, a graduate of the M.A. Counselling Psychology program at U.B.C., and other researchers in the field of cross-cultural counselling by applying  Cross-Cultural Reentry  10 theory-based personal, social and career interventions to a professional repatriate population.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  11 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE  This chapter presents related definitions and assumptions of the study; and a review of the relevant literature and research that is related to crosscultural reentry. Definitions "Culture shock" is the emotional disruption often experienced by persons when they pay an extended visit to a society that is different than their own. It manifests as confusion, uncertainty and anxiety and may last a considerable length of time depending on the individual and the disparateness of the new culture from the familiar one. "Reentry shock" is the stress associated with returning home after living in another country- It is experienced as disorientation and is often worse than the original culture shock because it involves a changed sense of self which is no longer validated in the environment (Ishiyama and Westwood, 1991). The constructs of "culture shock" and "reenty shock" represent two of the most fundamental milestones in the  Cross-Cultural Reentry  12 development of the intercultural field (Austin, 1985, p. xix). The terms returnee, repatriate and sojourner are used interchangeably throughout the document. The "home culture" is defined as the culture that the traveller originated in and which has provided the initial cultural assimilation. The "host culture" is defined as the culture that the traveller has entered for a period of a minimum of 1 year, which demands some form of cultural assimilation. Traveller, returnee, repatriate and sojourner are considered synonymous. "Career" is defined as, "the course of life in working to produce ends" (Cochran, 1991). This broad definition is chosen because it encompasses the range of experience associated with transition, crosscultural or otherwise. The term "career" is used as opposed to the term "profession" because of it's breadth of definition.  Assumptions A main assumption of this research is "the good effects premise" that successful management of the reentry adjustment process will result in greater maturity, enhanced interpersonal skills and a reluctance on the part of the individual, to perpetuate  Cross-Cultural Reentry  13 stereotypes and distortion of other cultures (Bachner, 1993). Further, that successful resolution of the adaptation process can promote self-actualization (Maslow, 1971), self-efficacy (Bandura, 1982), development (Mosher and Sprinthall, 1971), clarified values (Simon, Howe, and Kirschenbaum, 1972), effectiveness (Carkhuff, 1969; Gordon, 1970), an increased behavioral repertoire (Alberti and Emmons, 1973; Wolpe 1973) and an I Thou relationship (Buber, 1970). Such personal benefits are recognized and utilized by home communities when returnees are eventually chosen to perform leadership roles, as is often the case (Bachner, 1993). For the purposes of this study, it is further assumed that cultural distance between the home culture in Canada and Asian countries is roughly the same, and that adjustment hurdles faced by the group of returnees involved in this study are similar to those reported by other groups. Related Literature Historical Account of Cross-cultural Adjustment It was not until some 40 years ago in the 1950s that the term "culture shock" was coined (Austin, 1986)  Cross-Cultural Reentry  14 and became something that sounded almost "scientific". Previous to that date, travellers referred to the emotional upheaval that typically accompanies a sojourn to a foreign land as "homesickness". In an article published in 1963, Lundstedt (1963) refers to the need for precise, in-depth information to reduce psychological stress in individuals crossing cultural borders. However, it wasn't until the 1970's, that the term "reentry shock" made it's way into the vocabulary of psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists and others interested in cross-cultural phenomena.  Scope of Cross-cultural Adaptation Research Since the 1950's, researchers have studied disparate groups of returnees including government employees (Adler, 1981) and executives (Cagney,1975), students (Brislin and Van Buren, 1974; Westwood, Lawrence, and Paul, 1986), Peace Corp volunteers (Adler, 1976) military personnel (Borus, 1973) and missionaries (Austin, 1982). From this growing body of research, factors in cross-cultural adaptation have been identified.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  15 Factors Governing Cross-Cultural Adjustment The nature of cross-cultural adjustment is said to be governed by several factors. Socially and psychologically these factors include cultural distance (Sue and Sue, 1990), the nature of the visit and individual characteristics such as personality traits, communication styles and previous travel experience (Cajoleas, 1959). With respect to the factor of career, Nancy Adler (1981) suggests that a significant factor in the adjustment of corporate and government employees is the recognition and utility of skills enhanced by the sojourn experience. On the basis of these studies, recommendations for training employees and others at each stage of the relocation process (selection, pre-departure, on-site adjustment, and repatriation) have been made (Fontaine, 1983). Yet, to date, there is relatively little applied research and programs to assist international sojourners with reentry (Marten, 1986).  Factors Related To Reentry Adjustment Research has identified personal and professional factors thought to influence reentry shock. Some factors influence the degree of reentry stress as  Cross-Cultural Reentry  16 experienced by returnees but are not subject to intervention at post-return. These include sojourner age, cultural distance, duration of sojourn, degree of involvement in the foreign country, previous sojourn experience, etc. There are other factors however, that are amenable to post-return interventions and these are the focus of this study. They include social, psychological and behavioral correlates of reentry stress such as perceived gains and losses related to the repatriates sojourn experience, personal identity issues, social support systems, coping strategies, career development issues and employability. On the basis of these factors, some reentry programs have been developed by professionals in the field, but they have seldom been evaluated. The principal objective of this study was that repatriates who have undergone a comprehensive reentry program would be interviewed in order to identify those interventions that are helpful, those that are marginal in their effectiveness and also, to propose effective interventions not previously identified.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  17 Distinquishina Features of Reentry Adjustment Cross-cultural reentry represents a transition experience not unlike other transitions people experience in life such as moving to another country, getting married, getting divorced, being released from prison or long-term care, etc. The underlying commonality of all these experiences is that the individuals are faced with a fundamental change in their living experience. In these contexts, people are required to learn new sets of behaviors and ways of being in order to be successful in the new environment or the new role. Cross-cultural reentry is similar to other transition experiences. Yet, it is a phenomenon with distinguishing features which underscore the desirability of understanding it as a separate and distinct experience, that might warrant different interventions for its' successful resolution. For instance, people returning home after extended stays abroad, often have a common although false expectation that the reentry experience will be blissful and, relative to the culture shock typically experienced in the foreign country, problem-free. Observing this feature of cross-cultural transition, one author  Cross-Cultural Reentry  18 (Paige, 1984) thus refers to culture shock as "the expected confrontation with the unfamiliar" and reentry shock as "the unexpected confrontation with the familiar". Helping returnees to "get real" i.e. to align their reentry expectations to fit with the reality of their homecoming experience may be one of a number of effective interventions for the resolution of reentry stress. An extremely important distinguishing feature of the reentry experience is the effect that the severance of shared socialization processes resulting from the sojourner's time away from home, has on the repatriates' traditional social support systems of family, friends and colleagues (Jansson, 1986). The returnee has developed a frame of reference through day to day living in a uniquely different, foreign culture which typically is incomprehensible to those people the sojourner left behind. Likewise, those in the home culture share a frame of reference that has become altered and alien to the returnee. Without help through this reentry transition period, returnees can come to feel misunderstood and alienated from those closest to them, with problematic results. The ability to intervene effectively can have far-reaching beneficial  Cross-Cultural Reentry  19 effects for the individual and those he or she interacts with, both personally and professionally. Another important feature of the sojourn experience that is relevant to the reentry adjustment process is that it frequently "produces changes in the very core of the individual's value and belief system" (Martin, 1986). These changes typically become acutely apparent upon return to the home country when the individual is under the most stress and therefore most vulnerable. The literature on reentry would describe the returnee at this transition time as having two distinct yet conflicting ideological systems which if left unresolved, could potentially lead to intense confusion and compromised functioning. We need to know from repatriates themselves what interventions help to resolve the cognitive dissonance and inconsistency resulting from the crossing over of cultural boundaries (Festinger, 1957; Gullahorn and Gullahorn, 1963). As a result of these and other distinguishing features of cross-cultural reentry, prominent authors in the cross-cultural counselling field such as Adler, Brislin, Martin and others suggest that the reentry phenomenon has the potential of significant psychological and behavioral repercussions with  Cross-Cultural Reentry  20 possibilities for either psychological difficulty on the down side or personal and professional growth on the up side, depending on how the transition is managed. It is the purpose of this study to identify interventions reported by repatriates as leading to good transition management.  Theories of Reentry Adjustment  A common feature of theories of reentry adjustment is that they typically emphasize a transition between periods of loneliness and discomfort alternating with periods of effective coping. In addition, all seem to operate on the underlying assumption that those sojourners unprepared for the transition, can expect "chronic migrational shock". Current theories thus support the view that preparation for all phases of cross-cultural adaptation is fundamental to a successful sojourn experience.  Stage Theory of Reentrv Adjustment Researchers (Freedman, 1980; Rhinesmith, 1975) have developed "stage models" to conceptualize the entry and reentry processes. Rhinesmith's "Ten Stages  Cross-Cultural Reentry  21 of Adjustment" resembles an emotional roller coaster ride of peaks and valleys, where excitement and interest are succeeded by depression, disorientation or frustration. The intensity of the ups and downs depends upon the individual, as does the length of time an individual experiences each stage. Freedman's "W-curve Hypothesis Model" resembles Rhinesmith's conceptualization but with the important difference that levels of comfort, satisfaction and effectiveness in the final readaptation and synthesis stage are higher than they were at the beginning of the process before the individual left home. This difference is important because it reflects the potential for "good effects" of the sojourn experience as a whole. As yet, there is little empirical evidence to support specific stage models of adjustment (Ishiyama, Westwood, and Farrokh, 1990). However, their validity need not be rejected on the whole. Presenting these models provides sojourners with a conceptual guide upon which they can compare their own experience and normalizes the natural emotional peaks and valleys encountered when crossing cultures.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  22 Coping Modes in Reentry Adler (1975) has suggested four basic coping modes of reentry which sojourners may experience or move through. On the pessimistic end of the spectrum of coping, the rebellious and alienated modes reflect low external validation, low to moderate use of crossculturally acquired skills and a general dissatisfaction with the home country situation. On the optimistic end, the resocialized and proactive modes reflect high external validation, low to high awareness of change and low to high usage of cross-culturally acquired skills. Helping repatriates to identify these modes in their own experience and to move from pessimistic modes to optimistic modes is one of the goals of the workshop design.  Identity Theory of Adjustment C.H. Cooley (1924) characterized the phenomenon of adjustment as the "looking glass self" in which our self image is formed as a consequence of how we think others perceive us. Disruption in "the looking glass self" may be brought on in an environment where shared meanings of behaviors are disrupted. Such may be the case of people who return home after extended stays  Cross-Cultural Reentry  23 abroad. This "disruption of shared meanings" or what is referred to in the workshop design as "adjustment difficulties" can range from psychological, social, cultural, language, national, and political to educational and professional domains. Reentry is the process that occurs when an individual attempts to return to the social system of which he/she was once a part. It can be slow, painful and under certain circumstances terrifying (Austin, 1986). The task set before the repatriate is to assimilate the sum total of experience into a cohesive whole, without disenfranchising important parts of the self. Rationale for Group Design The decision to involve participants in a program incorporating a group design as opposed to an individual counselling framework is supported by group theory. Trotzer (1989) and others suggest that particularly in initial stages, group facilitators can establish a sense of inclusion and safety for participants involved. Within a group climate of trust and inclusion, personal defensiveness is reduced. This dynamic, unique to groups may be particularly important  Cross-Cultural Reentry  24 to repatriates given that defensiveness is a common reaction to an environment that at times, may feel hostile. Also, feelings of alienation are commonly reported by returnees as part of their readjustment experience. It is fair to conclude then, that a sense of inclusion in a group through contact between returnees with common experiences, is vitally important to those returnees who may otherwise experience reentry with inordinate feelings of alienation. The group dynamic allows for the utilization of the powerful affective stimuli that occurs in groups, to catalyze reentry adaptation. Hearing other people's stories and relating to the affect behind them, can have a cathartic effect. Similarly , a sense of being heard by others can have the effect of normalizing the experience and putting it in a more balanced perspective. Identifying common gains and losses related to the sojourn has a further normalizing effect because participants come to see their experience as part of a predictable process of readaptation. Anxiety is thus reduced and members can better focus on the actual work of reentry adaptation. Further, some of the more negative aspects of returning home, when effectively introduced by the  Cross-Cultural Reentry  25 facilitator, can be explored in a group context. Individuals are able to see their experience in a more relative and humorous light and the emotional burden surrounding negative events can be thus, discharged. The group environment also allows for more comprehensive problem-solving and resourcing with respect to career interests (Amundson, Westwood, Borgen and Pollard, 1989). Of further consideration to organizations, is the cost effectiveness of a group format, Crpsg-Cultyr^l Reentry Programs Given the magnitude of features distinguishing cross-cultural reentry and of factors common in crosscultural adaptation theory, it makes intuitive sense that reentry programs reflect a multi-modal approach including attention to cognitive, affective and behavioral domains of experience. However, a review of available programs on reentry adaptation reveal that such in not the case. In A "Reentry and Research and Training" paper, Sussman (1986) says that "most rare are those articles which, on the basis of solid empirical evidence, propose a training model for preparing sojourners for their overseas experience" and  Cross-Cultural Reentry  26 further that "we find a paucity of research and training materials focusing on the issue of reentry". Foust (1981) itemizes available reentry program materials and a review of these reaffirms that existing materials tend to focus on one or other of the domains but rarely all three. Brislin, Landis and Brandt (1983) identify six basic approaches to cross-cultural training but do not present these in the form of a detailed reentry program. With the exception of a program presented by Westwood, Lawrence and Paul (1986), few if any models appear to present programs of a comprehensive nature. The program implemented in this study is based of the multi-modal approach developed for the Canadian Bureau for International Education (CBIE) by Greenwood and Westwood (1992) and has been further enhanced by the addition of a career component based on Norm Amundson's work presented in "Setting New Career Pathways" (1993).  Cross-Cultural Reentry  27 CHAPTER 3 DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY  Introduction The purpose of this study was to contribute to the field of counselling psychology and the study of transitions firstly by, examining the factors that facilitated and/or hindered adjustment for 2 matched populations of Canadian repatriates, and secondly by, identifying interventions which were effective in reducing the stress attendant to reentry adjustment. As an overview, this objective was accomplished by analyzing data gleaned from interviewing returnees whose reentry experience had been highlighted by 2-day, reentry workshops. The Flanagan Critical Incident Technique (C.I.), a technique consistent with the qualitative methodology, and the overall aim of this study, was used to collect and analyze the data. Because the goal was to determine in an in-depth and systematic way, the factors and interventions associated with positive readaptation, the C.I. methodology was chosen as it has both adaptive and comprehensive qualities. This chapter thus.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  28 describes the method of investigation used and summarizes the steps taken to generate the findings. Research Design The research design follows a qualitative methodology. It consisted of semi-structured interviews following a group intervention. In order to claim generalizability of results to professional repatriate groups, two groups of returnees were interviewed. In the first case, participants were interviewed immediately following the workshop whereas, in the second case, a matched group of cohorts were interviewed following a time-delay of approximately seven months. This time delay was chosen partly for reasons of convenience. However, longitudinal studies of reentry research cite follow-up data collection procedures based on 3 month (Westwood, Lawrence and Paul, 1986) and 12 month post-return, time-delays (Dunbar, 1992).  Program Rationale Distinguishing features of reentry stress previously identified include personal, social and professional factors. The rationale for a group  Cross-Cultural Reentry  29 intervention is that it has a greater potential than an individual intervention would, for addressing all three characteristics. To elaborate, personal aspects of reentry such as a sense of isolation, values change and unrealistic expectations can be addressed through the reframing of experience and the normalization of symptoms, facilitated in a group context. Social aspects of reentry such as role confusion and identity issues can be addressed through the relationship enhancement and bonding between participants available to individuals in a group environment. Professional aspects such as career indecision, preparedness and development can be addressed through shared problemsolving, brain storming on job-search strategies, identification of transferable skills and through prosocial networks for the workplace. It is noted that career planning was not identified in a review of existing reentry programs but is considered in the literature by some, as being essential to the entire adaptation process (Lowenthal and Snedden, 1986). Various learning modes can also be employed effectively in a group context. These include participants adopting the roles of observer, participant, experiencer and/or teacher. There are also personal growth potentialities  Cross-Cultural Reentry  30 available in a group intervention. These include increased patience, objectivity, improved language skills and an enhanced global perspective. Although the group format is seen to facilitate all these aspects, generally, the premise for the format is that what individuals learn in the workshop is "reaffirming" of what they already know about themselves, their social needs and their career paths. The group design was developed to reflect challenges repatriates experience in the three domains of cognition, affect and behavior. The treatment modalities therefore include (1) an information component regarding the theory of adjustment and what we know about reentry stress from the research, (2) an affective component where personal awareness is enhanced through exercises, through the verbalization of one's experience and through listening to the experience of others and, (3) a behavioral component where career-related skills are identified, demonstrated and rehearsed. The workshop objective as related to the participants at the outset, was to assist individuals returning from Asia in their readaptation to the home culture by:  Cross-Cultural Reentry  31 (1) increasing understanding of the typical readjustment process experienced by individuals who have lived in a culture different from their own for a significant period of time,  (2) facilitating discussion of personal and professional reentry adjustment experiences,  (3) providing information and skills for increasing personal effectiveness in managing the reentry experience, and  (4) suggesting ways to translate aspects of the overseas experience into expanding one's own career options or life goals. A detailed design is presented in Appendix 1.  Data Collection and Procedures Data was collected via semi-structured interviews conducted as mentioned above, either at the end of the workshop or approximately seven months following the workshop. Participants were interviewed and audiotaped for approximately 40 minutes by 3 interviewers.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  32 Interviewers had been trained in Counselling Psychology and although they were experienced, the potential problem of individual interviewer styles evoking different participant responses existed. This problem was weighed against problems of using a sole interviewer; which include potential loss of data due to time constraints following the workshop and inconvenience to participants due to their limited time in Vancouver. The fact that all the data collected was eventually utilized and accounted for in the study, deemphasizes this potential design problem.  Methodological Design Weaknesses (1) Because the populations represent a highly selected group of college-educated professionals they may be atypically stable and psychologically resilient and therefore, less representative of the average make-up of sojourners. This characteristic poses a limitation of the generalizability of results. (2) Population sizes are small and self-selected in that they represent only those (associates of the APMCP program) who volunteered for the workshop. (3) There is an absence of a control group or pilot study.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  33 (4) Groups are not perfectly matched for age, sex and socioeconomic status. (5) There is uneven enthusiasm, interest and commitment among reporters and a variation in the number and in the extent of specificity of the incidents reported. (6) The subjective nature of the data, although not unexpected proves cumbersome to data analysis and interpretation.  Methodological Design Strenaths (1) Because of the substantive and specific nature of the data collected using this design, the experience of repatriates can be understood more fully and programs can be designed more effectively. (2) The critical incidents elicited provide a broad picture of what was occurring in the experience of returnees. (3) The design is founded on a holistic perspective of the sojourner experience whereas some methodologies focus on single, isolated aspects of the experience. (4) Specific activities were able to be designed to permit flexibility in individual responses, needs and perceptions.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  34 (5) The perspective of 2 groups of returnees was elicited and a comparison between the two sets of data enabled levels of reliability and stability of results to be established. (6) Data was collected during a period of time when recall of the lived experience of reentry was possible. This method is more reliable than methodologies involving ex-post facto data collection procedures. (7) Participants were provided an opportunity to process their experience by venting frustrations and sharing excitements, etc.  Population All subjects were graduates of the Asia Pacific Management Cooperative Diploma Program (APMCP) offered annually through Capilano College in North Vancouver, B.C. The APMCP is a a post-graduate program combining training with a practical work-term assignment overseas. Associates of the APMCP have completed (a) academic training at the college (comprised of one years' study of commerce), (b) a field work term of one to four years in an Asian country, from which they have returned home to Canada, and (c) a professionally conducted comprehensive cross-cultural reentry program.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  35 These three requirements were completed by both groups of participants i.e., the 1992 and 1993 classes of APMCP associates. Associates are provided an experience comparable to those received from other initiatives in public and private sectors for Canadians interested in international business careers. Overseas assignment of 1 to 4 years, is a normal part of careers in international business. Thus, results from this study have implications for other working groups of sojourners. The research design is such that a degree of generalizability to other professional repatriate groups is defensible. The populations are heterogeneous with respect to current employment status. They include those that are employed, underemployed and unemployed. The career aspect of the workshop focuses on professional development on the whole and thus is applicable to all participants, regardless of employment status. The groups are relatively homogeneous with respect to previous sojourn experience (with the exception of one participant), cultural distance between home and host cultures, socioeconomic and educational status. All participants are adults who were abroad in  Cross-Cultural Reentry  36 professional capacities, such as establishing trade and consulting in marketing and management. Participant Selection As noted, there are diverse purposes for which people live abroad and thus diverse populations upon which to base cross-cultural reentry studies. The population chosen for this study was involved in a business context in Asia. The populations were chosen because they are representative of business sojourners (as opposed to international students who are more typically studied) and because the researcher had a previously established relationship with the organization with which the returnees were affiliated, allowing for ready access. The group under investigation is similar to others described in the literature on reentry in that individuals typically undergo culture shock and reentry stress and strive to build genuine friendships abroad. As a business group, the APMCP participants stand apart in that they typically have better financial and logistical resources than those of missionaries, international students and federally employed citizens (Austin, 1986).  Cross-Cultural Reentry  37 The two groups are roughly matched populations in that they are of a similar age, experience, duration and quality of sojourn. The 1992 class comprise a group of 12 Canadian adults, 5 women and 7 men who are between the ages of 25 and 40. The 1993 class, interviewed after a 7 month time-delay, is comprised of 8 associates; 5 women and 3 men also between the ages of 25 and 40. All 12 of the participants in Group 1 were interviewed and 7 out of 8 participants in Group 2 were interviewed. The eighth participant did not respond to any of three phone calls over a period of 2 months so it was presumed that this participant was not willing to be interviewed, for whatever reason.  Recruitment Participants first learned of the study through the APMCP. An introduction to the study was presented to the participants of both groups prior to the workshop and participants were given full understanding of the voluntary nature of the interviews. The fact that 19 of 20 participants agreed to be interviewed despite other demands on their time, may be evidence of the general need of returnees to have opportunities to  Cross-Cultural Reentry  38 discuss and process their experiences. The returning times of group 1 and 2 were within one year and within 19 months of the interviews, respectively.  Background of Participants The participants in this study consisted of Canadian repatriates who were raised in and presently reside in Canada. Diverse geographical representation within the country was obtained amongst participants. All participants had worked abroad for a minimum of one year and a maximum of four years.  Critical Incident Methodology Critical Incident Desiom Analysis of data follows The Critical Incident technique developed by John Flanagan (1954) in which interview content is categorized according to critical incidents reported by participants. The technique was initially developed in World War II, in order to identify effective pilot performance. Since then, it has been used in various social science research areas (Woolsey, 1986). The technique has been described in the research literature as a reliable and valid  Cross-Cultural Reentry  39 methodology, especially for exploratory, qualitative research that focuses on content domains. It is congruent with the fundamental concerns of this study, which are (1) to contribute to a well-grounded explanation of the factors and influences involved in cross-cultural reentry adaptation and, (2) to derive some generalizable elements to help us understand the individuals and the aftermath of the sojourn, itself. The frame of reference for the data is, (1) the impact of workshop components on participants, (2) why these components are important to readjustment, and (3) the implications for counselling repatriate populations specifically, and people in transition, in general. Interview content is broadly categorized according to exercises or experiences recollected by participants. Within these categories, information is added under the headings of: "antecedents" (what immediately led up to the incident), "action taken" (what happened that was helpful or hindering) and, "outcome" (what effect does this have on the participant). The Critical Incident design required that the researcher collect reports of incidents that facilitated and hindered readjustment for each person  Cross-Cultural Reentry  40 who was interviewed. Interviews were conducted to yield data that were at first discrete but gradually began to coalesce and yield categories containing particular properties and concepts. Eventually, as Glaser and Struass (1967) anticipated, the categories became "saturated" (or sufficient to encompass the accumulated data) and a high redundancy rate appeared in the analysis. The incidents had been collected and recorded according to a set criteria which ensured that they were both plausible and complete. Because different participants often independently reported similar events, it was possible to organize the events into categories by grouping the similar events (incidents) together. At the point of saturation, core categories were selected. The logic of this procedure of categorization ensures a high degree of objectivity, for qualitative methodology. Although the population size related to availability of subjects, it is noted that previous sociological studies suggest that sufficient, saturated, core categories will emerge by the time approximately 20 respondents are interviewed (Bertaux, lyoj.;  Dei. cauA. ctiiu. Dei. uctUA—wxcimt:,  x:»oj.j.  iiiueeu,  analysis of data reveal several distinct elements of  Cross-Cultural Reentry  41 the reentry program as repetitively surfacing throughout the 19 interviews.  The Critical Incident Interview Procedure The critical incident interviews were conducted immediately following the reentry workshop for the first group of cohorts and approximately 7 months later for the second group.  Orientation Participants were first oriented to the study by being informed by the researcher of the purpose of the study. This was done during a gathering on the evenings prior to the workshops. In addition to explaining the purpose and confidential nature of the study, the participant's option to withdraw at any time was also explained in a prepared statement.  Interview Questions The interview questions addressed needs of personal adjustment and of professional development. Identifying characteristics of reentry shock that interviewers were  Cross-cultural Reentry  42 aware of include; feelings of alienation, role confusion and career indecision among participants. Recommendations with respect to the workshop were also requested from participants. Interview Questions are as follows:  1. What aspects of the program did you find facilitating and/or hindering to your personal adjustment? 2. What aspects of the program did you find facilitating and/or hindering to your professional development? 3. Do you have any recommendations with respect to the program?  The Interview Interviews took approximately 40 minutes to complete and were tape recorded with an audio recorder. Interviews took place in various locations depending on the convenience of the interviewees including; home, office and in one instance, over the telephone (this interviewee lives in Alberta). The interview questions were repeated, if and when necessary. It was acceptable for the participant to ask  Cross-Cultural Reentry  43 questions for clarification during the interview. The interviewers also were free to ask questions to obtain further clarification concerning responses made by the participants. Clarification questions frequently asked by the researcher during the interview were questions such as, "what activity was helpful, what exactly was helpful?". After the participant recalled an event that was helpful, the researcher repeated the process by asking him or her to think about other events that facilitated readjustment. This process was continued until the participant could not think of any new events. The participant was also asked to think of events that hindered readjustment. This question we asked to obtain additional information that could add to the validity of the study. However, very few participants were able to recall events or incidents that hindered readjustment. Extraction And Analysis Of The Incidents Before the incidents could be analyzed they had to be extracted. All 19 of the interviews were recorded and assigned a code number. The interviews were then transcribed in full. The incidents were derived, entered in a data base and subjected to examination by  Cross-Cultural Reentry  44 the researcher. In this examination the following criteria was applied: (a) was there a source for the event?, (b) can what happened be stated with reasonable completeness? and, (c) was there an outcome bearing on the aim?  By ensuring that this criteria was followed,  it was possible to also determine the antecedents and the outcomes surrounding the critical incidents.  Process Of Forming Categories After incidents had been extracted and entered in the database, each of the incidents were divided into the three component parts; source, action taken, and outcome. The researcher had to exercise judgment in recording the events because participants tend to speak in varying degrees of clarity. It was therefore necessary to occasionally paraphrase an event to fully convey the intent of the speaker's message. In such cases, the researcher went back to the original transcript to confirm that what was recorded in the data base was accurate. Whenever possible the words of the participant were left unchanged. The next step in the process was to divide incidents into groups that seemed similar. The focus of the categorizations of the critical incidents or the  Cross-Cultural Reentry  45 sort was on the second component part, "action taken". It was found that some of the events tended to be ambiguous and were therefore considered borderline. As a result, it was necessary to use prototype categories, that emerged as guideposts for the sorting. Ambiguous or borderline events were placed to the side in order that they be used to challenge the first scheme of categories developed. The categorization was then subjected to another person's review and as a result, refined and revised. The ambiguous events were utilized in the second round of categorization in which they were then introduced to the categories to challenge them. This resulted in further refinement of the categories. This process of challenge and consultation continued until stability of the category scheme was achieved. In the end, 12 categories and 2 themes emerged which accommodated all of the incidents.  Validation Procedures The question of validity Of the categories concerns the extent to which the categories are sound and well founded. Several methods were then used to determine the reliability and validity of the  Cross-Cultural Reentry  46 categories. Details of the results of these measures are described in the results chapter.  Limitations Subjects for this project are Canadian repatriates between the ages of 20 and 40 years who conducted business for a minimum of 1 year in Asian countries including Japan, China, Thailand and Indonesia. Their experience is analogous to adults returning home after travelling in professional capacities for extended periods of time to parts of the world distinctly different from their own. However, this study does not extend to the experience of children or of adults of retirement age who have lived abroad; nor does it extend to people returning home after travelling for leisure. A further limitation of the study, is that because enrollment in the workshop was based on volunteerism, the resulting population under investigation represented only approximately one third of the associates from each class. It could be that associates that chose not to participate in the program for whatever reason, have contributions over and above those contributed by program participants.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  47 Summary In accordance with the Critical Incident Technique originally developed by Flanagan (1954) and used in numerous studies since, this study was designed to elicit events that facilitated and hindered crosscultural reentry adjustment for two groups of Canadian repatriates.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  48 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS  A total of 245 critical incidents, reported to be facilitative of reentry adjustment were derived from interviews with nineteen Canadian repatriates (9 men and 10 women) whose awareness of reentry adaptation had been heightened by 2-day, cross-cultural reentry workshops. Also derived from the interviews were a small number of critical incidents reported to be hindering to the reentry adjustment process. In a primary analysis of the data, a total of 12 facilitative categories were developed from the 245 facilitative critical incidents. These categories are important to understanding the reentry adaptation process as experienced by these populations of returnees because they succinctly characterize the factors or constructs which underlie the reentry process. In this chapter, facilitative categories are described and methods used to establish their reliability and validity are reported. In addition, 2 emergent themes related to  critical incidents that  were of a hindering nature to reentry adaptation are reported. Hindering themes, although reported  Cross-Cultural Reentry  49 tentatively here, are important elements of the returnees' experience because they function as inhibitors to the readaptation process. A list of "Categories Of Facilitating Incidents" and "Emergent Themes Of Hindering Incidents" is found in Table 1. In a secondary analysis of the data, 6 sources of reentry adjustment, the antecedents to the 245 facilitative incidents, were derived. Sources can be construed as the catalysts of reentry adjustment in the sense that they provide the fuel from which the factors are manifested in the lived experience of the returnee. Further, these sources of therapeutic change give the practitioner concrete information about the relative weight or effectiveness of the interventions.  In the  final section of this chapter, these sources are described and analyzed. A resulting framework of interventions is presented in Table 8.  Description of Facilitative Categories This section presents each of the 12 facilitative categories by providing a brief description of the categories. Examples of the facilitative critical incidents contained in the categories is given in order  49A TABLE 1 CATEGORIES OF FACnTTATTNG INCIDENTS  1. Integrating The Experience 2. Setting Goals 3. Understanding The Experience Of Others 4. Reframing Past Experiences 5. Being Aware Of Identity Amongst Peers 6. Verbalizing One's Experience 7. Becoming More Aware Of Self 8. Understanding The Grieving Process 9. Revising Expectations 10. Role Of Facilitator 11. Confronting Personal Issues 12. Understanding The Adjustment Process (Personal And Theoretical)  EMERGENT THEMES OF HINDERING INCIDENTS  1. Interim Domestic Changes 2. Economic Constraints  Cross-Cultural Reentry  50 to provide the reader with a sense of the range of incidents contained in the categories and the distinctiveness of the categories within this scheme. All categories refer to occurrences for program participants that were reported to be facilitative of cross-cultural readjustment. 1. INTEGRATION OF EXPERIENCE - Integrating The Meaningful Changes In Self Having Occurred As A Result Of The Sojourn Experience, With One's Presentation Of Self In The Home Culture (23 incidents) This category includes incidents that reflect the integration of meaningful experiences attained abroad with life in the home culture. Incidents contained in this category may underscore changes in values that took place during the time the participant was immersed in a culture with a different value system than that of their own culture. Examples of incidents in this category come from both personal and professional aspects of life. In a personal example, one participant says, "The workshop helped me to reflect on what for me was a unique experience abroad, to consider how my experiences abroad fit into who I am now, what I am doing right now  Cross-Cultural Reentry  51 and what I want for my life in the future". Another participant who was away for four years, talked about the importance of having been a devoted student of Taoism and Tai Chi and the struggle to integrate that part of her life, now that she is back. She says, "My whole life revolved around Tai Chi and my relationship with my Tai Chi teacher. I am not going to get that experience here. To be able to start training on my own is going to be the beginning of integrating what I experienced in Japan. I feel like I am sitting in the middle of both worlds and it is painful". In talking about professional life one participant said, "Working in Japan taught me about the value of reaching consensus amongst colleagues on certain issues. I find I incorporate that concept in how I run my office here in Vancouver. Everybody in the office now speaks a little Japanese". Thus, the ability to integrate the personal impact of novel experiences from a different world, with the realities presented in the home culture is typified as an important element in the readjustment process.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  52 2. SETTING GOALS - Being Able To Think Strategically And Set Goals On Personal and Professional Levels (15 incidents) This category includes incidents referring to the setting of goals on either a personal or professional level. A personal example comes from the participant who says, "I learnt about the importance to my own sense of self of maintaining connections with people, especially those that I was involved with abroad, at all times. I have a plan to keep in contact with people I got to know in Asia for personal and professional reasons". Another example is offered by a participant who said, "The role playing aspect of the workshop helped me prepare mentally to think about job interviews, the result being that I am now able to make some concrete career plans for the immediate future and the long term future." This ability to think strategically and plan ahead based on the experience gained abroad was thus, reported as helpful to the resolution of reentry stress for program participants.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  53 3. UNDERSTANDING THE EXPERIENCE OF OTHERS - Hearing The Stories Of Fellow Returnees, Having An Appreciation For And Understanding Of Sojourn Experiences Of Others (25 incidents) This category includes incidents which reflect an appreciation of the experiences conununicated by others in the group. Hearing others talk about their experiences appears to reaffirm for participants their own experience. The impact of hearing other peoples' stories is reflected in the comment of a participant who says, "Listening to other people talk validates a lot of the feelings I have. My experience then, is no longer unique. It isn't a personal problem I am having. It is a problem everybody that goes over and comes back, has. You are no longer alone in your feelings". Another says, "Being able to listen to some of the other people's experiences was good because I may have been feeling the same things but not noticing it, until I heard others speak of it". Hearing the experience of others is reported as being helpful even when the experiences differ. For example, a woman of Asian descent, born and raised in Canada stated, "It was good to hear the other side of the story because it made me realize that other people  Cross-Cultural Reentry  54 had problems too, even though those problems were different than mine (the problems that Caucasian women had in Asia). Because I look Asian, I had a different experience. For instance, people could not understand why I couldn't speak Japanese. For others, it was a matter of not being accepted based on looks". This category speaks to the importance of the normalization of challenging or unusual experiences having occurred abroad, which are facilitated in a group context. 4. REFRAMING - Enhancing The Meaning Of Sojourn Experiences Through The Refraining Of Those Experiences Or Through A Cheinge In Perspective (17 incidents) This category refers to perspectives on life abroad that have changed as a result of the workshop and other events occurring in the lives of repatriates in the home culture. A participant said, "The workshop reaffirms your experience abroad so you begin to see the whole thing in a more validating light. At the time, you are just trying to cope with new circumstances. When you get back you begin to see the difficulties as actually, successes in that you made the best of them. " Another commented that, "The job search stuff was helpful. I realized that the skills I  Cross-Cultural Reentry  55 learnt abroad actually do have value in this market. Somehow, that helps me handle the inevitable job rejections I am facing now, while looking for a job". Another expresses a reframing of post-return work experience when she says, "I was feeling uneasy that somehow I was really veering off my intended path but then I began to see this time as a retrenchment, and a building up of the skills I need to go overseas again". These returnees indicate that they are aided by being able to contextualize their experiences as being ones that will ultimately benefit them in their lives now that they are home. 5. BEING AWARE OF ENHANCED IDENTITY AND A SENSE OF INCLUSION AMONGST PEERS - Being Aware Of One's Role And Identity In A Group Of Peers And One's Sense Of Connectedness And Inclusion With Them And Within The Larger Social Setting (21 incidents) This category refers to occurrences where the awareness of one's identity, role and/or inclusion in a group is facilitative of reentry adjustment. Participants speak of engagement in the workshop group primarily but also of their roles as part of broader social settings involving family, friends and  Cross-Cultural Reentry  56 colleagues. One participant exemplifies this category in his statement, "To have a part in a group of others with similar experiences made me feel less alone and less isolated". Another participant says, "To have what I had to say recognized and accepted by others in the group made me feel connected to people". Another participant states, "You realize that your relationship with your friends and colleagues and even your family, has changed. It was good to feel that 1 was an integral part of a group of people". Yet another says, "You just can't read a book on this. The group context is very conducive to your own reflective experience and to your own sense of who you are". Clearly, awareness of one's role in both the immediate group of reenty participants as well as in society generally is an integral part of the readjustment process. 6. VERBALIZING ONE'S EXPERIENCE - Sharing And Stating Experiences, Translating Images And Memories Of The Foreign Culture Into Words That Carry Meaning In lulords Of One's Mother Tongue (9 incidents) This category captures comments of participants involving the articulation of their experiences, thoughts and feelings about having been away and coming  Cross-Cultural Reentry  57 home. An example of this category is captured in the statement, "We have anecdotes and stories to share. In doing this you realize that the experiences that took place over there and the mentality they create are not linear. They are not of the same substance as experiences taking place here. You need to come up with a language with which to organize what has gone on. The essence of something is in what you can say about it. Otherwise, you are just carrying a sense of what the experience is without being able to articulate it". Another says of the verbalization of the meaning of the foreign undertaking, "Sharing experiences helped to make them real. In the workshop, I could say that I did a certain thing or that I felt a certain way. I had the freedom and the time to articulate what actually happened. Usually, when I talk to friends or family about this, they draw a blank - they can't relate and I feel stuck." The very fact of verbalizing the experience helps to make the experience more objectively valid and capable of analysis and understanding, not only for others but more particularly for the speaker.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  58 7. BECOMING MORE AWARE OF SELF - Expanding And Deepening The Level Of Awareness Of Personal And Professional Aspects Of Self (51 incidents) This category refers to participant insights into themselves which resulted from their experience of various aspects of the workshop. This category can be distinguished from category 5, "Awareness of Identity Amongst Peers" in that even though the source of the awareness may have been peers, the essence of the awareness lies in the individual and not in his or her relationship with peers. An example of this type is, "I realized how profoundly the isolation I experienced in Manila and the duration of it, affected me. I knew it would be an uphill battle but that for me, it was a commitment and coimnitting to something and following through with it, I realize is important to me.  As it  turned out, there were only a couple of other people there that I felt I really knew. I wasn't able to have a good concept of what I could do in Manila nor was I able to do any mental or professional preparation for my return home. I realize that I am a people-person; that having people close to me is very important to how I feel about myself and to my well-being in general". Another commented, "I realized that I wasn't as engaged  Cross-Cultural Reentry  59 in the workshop as were the others. This was feedback for me on where I am at, at this point in my life. I am somewhat distant from people right now, but not unhappily so". Still another said, "I understand now why I felt so comfortable in Japan. It is because I have similar values about family, among other things. I am very much a family-oriented person." At the point of reentry, many of the insights gained abroad in a distinctly different culture help to deepen one's understanding of one's self, one's native culture and how a home culture acts to place individual identities, values and expectations on it's members. One's awareness of self within one's own culture becomes less of a given and more amenable to understanding and manipulation to potentially great personal advantage. 8. UNDERSTANDING THE GRIEVING PROCESS  - Understanding  That Severance From Important People, Places And Things Is A Loss Needing To Be Grieved As Part Of A Healing Process (4 incidents) This category refers to incidents where participants are aware of grief and loss as part of a grieving process. An example of this category is offered by a woman who worked in Japan for four years.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  60 She says, "The major realization for me was understanding the grief I was feeling, the grief of leaving a life I worked really hard for 4 years, to create". Another says, "Reentering is a mourning period in itself. It involves a loss of past experiences and connections and things that were familiar to you. You are severing connections and the severance results in a loss, on a lot of issues". Being able to understand one's feelings of sadness in leaving the host culture, as part of an attachment and loss process or grieving process was thus reported to be beneficial to reentry adaptation. 9. REVISING EXPECTATIONS - Revising Personal And Professional Expectations In Face Of Current Experience (9 incidents) The category involves the realignment of expectations due to the crossing over of cultures. Several participants referred to their sense of uniqueness abroad, having occupied high status positions in the foreign culture. This is contrasted by a sense of ordinariness and an occupation of lower status positions, now that they are home. Participants also make reference to the need to accommodate  Cross-Cultural Reentry  61 differences in the level of stimulation and opportunity offered variously between the cultures. Further, that participant expectations with regard to personal relationships sometimes need to undergo revision. In reference to revising expectations, one participant simply says, "You expect that home will be stimulating to you as Asia was, but you need to revise that expectation. Things are much slower-paced here and it helps to understand that". Another says, "I recall that when I was in Asia, I was part of a world scene. When you are back here you suddenly realize that you are part of a job and a company that is limited. You have to adjust yourself accordingly". Another refers to the unexpected confrontation with the home culture and the consequent necessity of revising expectations when she says, "I was expecting a release from difficulties in no longer having to cope with a foreign culture but I have had to revise that now that I am back, because of the difficulties I am facing here. For instance, people have gone on with their lives and for some reason, I wasn't expecting that. I need to give it time". Adjusting to the realities presented in the home culture versus the idealized view, appears to have beneficial effects.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  62 10. ROLE OF FACILITATOR - The Role Of A Professional Counsellor/Facilitator In Normalizing The Experience Of Reentry Adjustment For Individuals And In Providing A Group Dynamic Based On Safety, Trust And Cohesion (15 incidents) This category includes reference to facilitators of the workshop as being instrumental to the change process beyond the curriculum of the program. A facilitator in this context, is one who plays a leadership role; not to direct so much as to "facilitate" the group members is their search for their own personal insights. This category includes direct references to the role of a facilitator as being the change agent. In other instances, the source may have been a facilitator but the essence of the incident critical to change was of another category. An example of this category is found in the statement, "He (the facilitator) walked around and gave us some individual time, some affirmation and acceptance for where we are at and also some direction on resources in certain areas. He made some suggestions". Another participant says, "The format (generated by the facilitator of the workshop) allowed a lot more personal meaning to come  Cross-Cultural Reentry  63 out than you can communicate or get at the dinner table". Still another says, "Being given some words by yourself and Marv, to put to my experience was very helpful. It helped me to organize experiences and make distinctions between them". The crucial importance of a highly skilled group leader is evident in this category.  11. CONFRONTING PERSONAL ISSUES -  Recognizing Personal  Traits Which Impact And/Or Impede The Participants' Objectives For Growthful Reentry (7 incidents) Incidents that are indicative of participants recognizing and coming to terms with personal concerns and issues, are captured in this category. For instance, one participant comments that, "I had to face the knowledge that I am a shy person and that this sometimes is a problem for me because it limits me". Another says, "I had to admit to myself that maybe I was afraid of failure and that this is why I stayed (in Asia) as long as I did". Yet another said, "I was confronted with my own need to accomplish things. I see that there may be other things I miss out on as a result". As is the case in life in general, the  Cross-Cultural Reentry  64 receptiveness of an individual to personal information is a key to maturation and personal growth.  12. UNDERSTANDING THE ADJUSTMENT PROCESS - Gaining A Conceptual Understanding Of The Cross-Cultural Adjustment Process From Predeparture To Post-Return And Making Links Between This And Personal Experiences (39 incidents) This category includes statements that indicate an understanding of the adjustment process. Sometimes this understanding would take the form of appreciation for where the participant was in their own adjustment and at other times, it would reflect an appreciation of the cross-cultural readjustment process in general. The following instance exemplifies both the personal and the conceptual readjustment process. The participant says, "What I found helpful were the definitions and categorizations of the process that people come through in readjusting. It was good to see that my emotional cycle was very normal; to become aware that this is a normal process to go through". Another commented, "You realize that your stresses are real and valid. You can label them "reentry stress" and know that you are working through a process of adjustment". Yet another  Cross-Cultural Reentry  65 said, " It validates your difficulties here in that they are part of a process of readjustment". Finally, a participant says, "Previously, every problem I had I attributed to reentry. Now that I understand the process of adjustment better, I can differentiate between every day problems or just a bad day versus problems resulting from reentry adjustment". The ability to depersonalize the experience and gain objectivity into what is going on appears to have a calming effect on returnees and allows them a clearer vantage point from which to view lifes' challenges. The realization that the reentry process involves certain stresses and strains that are experienced to varying degrees by all returnees helps lead to an appreciation that these experiences are "normal" in this context and can be approached as such rather than as signs of inherent weaknesses that are either pathological or otherwise, immune of conventional counselling approaches.  Reliability and Validity of the Categories A question of considerable importance to the value of this study has to do with the reliability and  Cross-Cultural Reentry  66 validity of the categories. Are the categories reliable to the extent that additional critical incidents easily fall into them? Do most participants consistently report the same incidents and consequently contribute similarly to all categories? Other questions concern the validity of the categories. Are the categories stable across groups and across time?  Are there other categories beyond those  in this category scheme? What would practitioners of cross-cultural counselling say about the usefulness of the categories? It is necessary to ensure that the category scheme meets a high level of scrutiny if it is to illuminate theory and be used in practice. The categories need to be reasonably distinct and exclusive from each other. While one can not attain one hundred percent certainty as to the reliability and validity of categories, the practitioner needs assurance that the incidents gathered and the categories formed are basically complete and practical.  Reli^ility Of c^tegprizipg Incidents An important way of determining the reliability of a category scheme is to determine it's  Cross-cultural Reentry  67 comprehensiveness. A test used to check for comprehensiveness in the study involved the procedure of withholding 25 incidents (approximately 10%) until the rest had been categorized. After the categories had been formed, the withheld incidents were then brought back and classified. In this study, all withheld incidents were easily placed within the categories. Another way to determine reliability is to discover the degree of agreement between independent judges using the category scheme. The extent to which independent judges consistently place critical incidents into categories reflects the reliability of the scheme. The relevant statistic for such a test is percentage agreement. Flanagan (1954) suggested that a category scheme should attain a score exceeding 75% agreement. In this study, a sample of 24 incidents (10%) were drawn from the pool of 245. This size allowed for 2 incidents from each of the 12 categories to be represented in the sample. To further ensure that the categories were representative, incidents were chosen from each of the 19 participants. The two independent judges who participated in this procedure have received their M.A. degrees in Counselling Psychology and have used the critical  Cross-Cultural Reentry  68 incident methodology in their own research. The researcher gave the judges a brief description of the categories and an example chosen from the pool of critical incidents, independent of the sample. The judges then received the 24 incidents typed separately on individual pages and a list of the 12 categories. They were asked to determine the most appropriate category for each incident and write the number that corresponded to the category on the each of the critical incident pages. Both judges took approximately 30 minutes to place the incidents. Table 2 represents the percentage of agreement between the researcher's and the judges placement of incidents in the category scheme.  TABLE 2 : RELIABILITY OF CATEGORY SCHEMES  Judges  Percentage Agreement  Rater #1  96%  Rater #2  92%  Average Inter-rater reliability  94%  To make best use of the results of the placements, the researcher conducted interviews with the judges to  Cross-Cultural Reentry  69 ascertain if the reasons for misplacing incidents warranted changes in the category scheme. An examination of the incorrectly placed incidents revealed that the judges had focused on a trigger word without focusing of the whole incident. This error can be attributed to haste and as such does not warrant changes to the scheme. The high percentage agreement attained by the independent judges means that other people are able to reliably place events within appropriate categories. Relative Frequency Of Incidents Per Category Another method for determining reliability of the categories is to examine the frequency with which participants reported incidents. A distribution of incidents per category is found in Table 3, Distribution Of Categories (percentage frequencies). Categories which contain significantly greater or fewer incidents than the average number of incidents per category, can be analyzed for the representativeness of factors critical to reentry adjustment.  Categories  falling within a reasonable range of the average, suggest representativeness of facilitating factors for this population.  69A TABLE 3  DISTRIBUTION O F CATEGORIES 50  40--  35 P E R C E N T A G E F R E Q U E N C I E S  30  25--  Integrating Set Goals Exp. Other Reframing  ID/Peers Verbalizing Aware/Self Grief Proc. Revising &i  Combined  Role/Fac Pers.lssue Adj. Proc.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  70 To determine the relative frequencies of incidents falling into a category, the number of incidents per category was divided by the total number of incidents. This percentage frequency was then compared with the average number of incidents contributed to the categories to arrive at relative frequency figures. The reader can refer to Table 4 to observe the relative frequencies of incidents per category. As an example, 23 of the 245 incidents were captured in the category "Integrating The Experience". This represents approximately 9% of the total contributions. This figure can then be compared to the average number of participant contributions to any category, which is approximately 8%. The latter figure was derived by taking the total number of participants (19) and dividing by the total number of incidents (245). The relative frequency of contributions to this first category was 9% The "Integrating the Experience" category then, represents a category with close to the average number of contributions and as such can be said to represent a cluster of factors typically facilitative of reentry adjustment for professional sojourners.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  71 TABLE 4: RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF INCIDENTS PER CATEGORY  Categories  # of C.I-  fl  Integrating the experience  23  9%  Setting goals  15  6%  experience of others  25  10%  Refraining past experiences  17  7%  amongst peers  21  9%  Verbalizing one's experience  19  8%  Becoming aware of self  51  21%  Understanding the grieving process  4  2%  Revising expectations  9  4%  15  6%  7  3%  39  16%  Understanding the  Being aware of identity  Role of facilitator Confronting personal issues Understanding the adjustment process  # of C.I. = number of critical incidents per category fl = frequency of incidents per category  Cross-Cultural Reentry  72 The following categories share similar percentage frequencies. These categories are: - Integrating The Experience - Setting Goals - Understanding The Experience Of Others - Reframing Past Experiences - Being Aware Of Identity Amongst Peers - Verbalizing One's Experience - Role Of Facilitator Categories that received significantly below average contributions were: - Understanding The Grieving Process - Revising Expectations - Confronting Personal Issues An examination of the critical incidents falling into these categories reveals that although the contributions are not as significant in terms of numbers, they are none the less distinct from other incidents. The critical incidents can not be recategorized into any of the remaining categories. Evidence therefore, suggests that these categories are sound even though their contributions are few.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  73 In analyzing the categories themselves, a commonality amongst them is that they represent change of an individual nature. A possible explanation for their under-representation is that the group dynamic is less conducive in facilitating change of an individual nature. Perhaps these particular readjustment challenges are more effectively dealt with through individual cross-cultural counselling. Categories of highest frequencies include: - Becoming More Aware of Self - Understanding The Adjustment Process The latter category, "Understanding The Adjustment Process" represents the main objective of the workshop so it makes sense that this category would contain more than the average number of contributions. With respect to the former category. Becoming Aware Of Self, the high representation indicates that there may be more than one category included here or that this is a particularly fertile category. An examination of the reported circumstances surrounding the incidents contained in this category reveals that "Becoming More Aware Of Self" has a personal component and a  Cross-Cultural Reentry  professional component.  Future work in this area might  reveal mutually exclusive categories split along this line. Taking into account the aforementioned tests of reliability, we can therefore say that the category scheme has attained a level of reliability and that others can use it in a consistent way.  Validity Of Categorizing Incidents The categories developed in this study meet certain tests of reliability. A question remaining concerns the validity or trustworthiness of the categories. To what extent are the categories of utility to practitioners in the field of cross-cultural counselling? In an attempt to establish the validity of the category scheme, several procedures were followed. The first concerns the appropriateness of the categories across groups. In determining the stability of categories, the reentry workshop was delivered twice. The first group of program participants were interviewed immediately following the workshop. A year later, the program was delivered a second time to a  74  Cross-Cultural Reentry  75 second group of returnees, roughly a matched population. Interviews of participants in this second group were delayed until approximately 7 months time had elapsed.  This methodology allows us to ascertain  if critical incidents from both groups will fall into the same category scheme. If incidents from both groups can be consistently placed in the same category scheme, then a level of confidence in the validity of the scheme is established. The researcher was also interested to know if attrition and/or change in the contributions to the categories would occur. Table 5, Stability Of Categories Across Groups and Time, represents a breakdown of critical incident contributions between the 2 groups. Figures were derived using the same procedures as for those in Table 4. To derive the percentage contributions to each category for each group, the number of contributions to a category by each group was divided by the number of total contributions of critical incidents by that group. For example, 10 out of 137 critical incidents contributed by Group 1 and 5 out of 108 critical incidents contributed by Group 2 were placed in the category, "Setting Goals". This represents 7% and 5% of total contributions made by each of the 2 groups.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  76 respectively. A comparison of contributions by the 2 groups to each category can thus be made. As before, the average contribution per category by participants is 8%. This category therefore contains a similar percentage of contribution from the 2 groups. Table 6, Stability Of Categories, shows the data in graph form.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  77 TABLE 5: STABILITY OF CATEGORIES ACROSS GROUPS AND TIME  Categories  {#of CI)  gpl/fl  gp2/f2  Integrating the experience  (13)  9%  (10)  9%  Setting goals  (10)  7%  (5)  5%  Understanding the experience of others  (15) 11%  (10)  9 Q.  Refraining past experiences  (6)  4%  (11) 10%  Being aware of identity amongst peers  (14) 10%  Verbalizing one's experience (12) Becoming aware of self  9%  (24) 18%  (7)  7%  (7)  7%  (27) 25%  Understanding the grieving process  (2)  2%  (2)  2%  Revising expectations  (6)  5%  (3)  3%  Role of facilitator  (6)  5%  (9)  8%  Confronting personal issues  (5)  4%  (2)  2%  Understanding the adjustment process  (24) 17%  (15) 14%  # of C.I. = number of critical incidents per category gpl/fl =frequency of incidents per category for group 1 gp2/f2 =frequency of incidents per category for group 2  77A TABLE 6  STABILITY O F CATEGORIES 50  45  40--  35 P E R C E N T A G E  30  C O N  T R I B U T I O N S  Integrating Set Goals Exp. Other Reframing  ID/Peers Verbalizing Aware/Self Grief Proc. Revising •  Group1(E.I.)  •  Group2(LI.)  Role/Fac. Pers.Issue Adj. Proc.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  78 As indicated in Table 5, contributions to each category were made by both groups and no further categories were generated by Group 2. These results give assurance that this category scheme is stable across groups of similar make-up. Concerning the stability of the categories across time, the relative frequency of contributions between the groups are comparable in several of the categories. These categories include: - Integrating The Experience - Setting Goals - Understanding The Experience Of Others - Being Aware Of Identity Amongst Peers - Verbalizing One's Experience - Understanding The Grieving Process - Revising Expectations - Confronting Personal Issues - Understanding The Adjustment Process Thus, it appears that these categories remain stable between groups and for at least 7 months following reentry workshops. A difference in the frequencies of contributions to categories is apparent in the category of "Reframing  Cross-Cultural Reentry  79 Past Experiences", where the relative frequency changed. A possible explanation is that the reframing of experiences as a facilitative factor of reentry is part of a process of readjustment that a period of time to manifest. Another difference between groups can be found in the category. Becoming Aware of Self, where the relative frequency changed from 18% in the first group to 25% in the delayed group. Similarly, the category of Role of facilitator changed from 5% in the first group to 8% in the second group. Again, appreciation of these types of incidents as being critical to effective readjustment may increase with time and as such, are part of a whole process of cross-cultural adjustment. These results, taken together indicate stability of categories across groups and time.  Participant Recommendations as a Test of Validity Another test for validity used in this study was to ask participants to make recommendations for improving the effectiveness of reentry programs. Asking for recommendations was important because content analysis could allude to factors of reentry  Cross-Cultural Reentry  80 stress not covered by the workshop and/or not captured in the categories. Recommendations made can be summarized as those referring to "The Structure or Timing of the Workshop Within the Overall Adjustment/Readjustment Process" and also to "The Context of the Support Provided".  With  reference to the first point, one participant says, "Certain parts of the workshop would have been helpful to have had before coming back. It would have been helpful to have started thinking about how values may have changed, to have listed transferable skills and to have started thinking about family and the issues raised by meeting family. It would have made my adjustment a bit easier and less confusing to have had some of the components of the workshop earlier." This example underscores that idea that reentry adjustment is just one part of a whole process of adjustment and that reentry interventions need to be embedded within a cohesive, overall structure of support. Recommendations with respect to "Context", suggest that a group intervention may be augmented by individual counselling. One participant comments, "If we could be in contact with the facilitators, we could  Cross-Cultural Reentry  81 have an opportunity to talk further about what is going on in our lives and also we could then have an opportunity to say that we took up this idea generated in the workshop or that we did these things as an outcome of the workshop". Taken together, the recommendations do not warrant further categorizations. They do suggest however, that consideration be given to a comprehensive support system that allows for both group and individual forms of intervention.  Expert Commentary A final test for validity used in this study was expert commentary. This analysis puts research into the context of the field by asking an expert to comment on the category scheme and it's usefulness. In this way, experts are able to provide collaborative evidence and content validity for the categories.  In this study,  the researcher asked an expert of research and practise in the field of cross-cultural reentry to review and comment on the usefulness of the categories. The following comments were offered: - that the categories appeal to common sense  Cross-Cultural Reentry  82 - that they have inherent logic - that they hang together - that they are discrete - that there were no glaring omissions - that the work is helpful in defining boundaries of reentry adjustment and giving shape to the "12 sided beast of reentry stress". Taken together, these comments and the other validity measures establish trustworthiness for the category scheme.  Description of Hindering Categories Participants were asked to report occurrences, directly or indirectly related to the program which they found to be hindering to reentry adjustment. This is an important question not only for methodological reasons but because hindering incidents occurring in the lives of returnees have the potential of impeding or arresting the reentry adjustment process. For example, returnees frustrated in their attempts to assimilate as a result of "hindering" events, often consider leaving home again, before resolution of the foreign experience has occurred. Research in this area  Cross-Cultural Reentry  83 suggests that a pattern such as this can lead to a sense of rootlessness and to marginalized functioning (Useem & Downie, 1976). The same checks on reliability and validity that were applied to facilitating factors were not applied to hindering factors because the few that were reported were of a nature external to the workshop. However, to make the best use of data collected, incidents reported were organized into 2 emergent themes and are presented here, anecdotally. All participants were asked to describe hindering events. A virtual unanimous response to this question is typified by the participant who responds, "It is difficult to say what was hindering because the program was not hindering you; the program was helping you." Interviewers would then clarify by rephrasing the question to elicit reports of events that were simply not helpful to the participant. In response, a participant says, "There wasn't anything I found not useful or not interesting." Often though, participants would then go on to talk about obstacles unrelated to the program that were never the less, problematic for them.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  84 1. INTERIM DOMESTIC CHANGES For instance, the first participant cited above goes on to address one of the two themes developed from the hindering reports. The participant says, "I have been back for a few months and I have had a lot of things to deal with. It is an issue that is separate from making a cultural readjustment. My father was ill when I was away and he passed away after I came back. It is a big...big thing to deal with. It has probably delayed my readjustment". Along the same lines, another participant says, "I was surprised that my family had gone on with their lives. It sounds silly but I was shocked in a way, that they went ahead and did things without me!" The idea here is that the returnee feels like precious time is forever lost. Because these hindering incidents relate to events taking place in the sojourners absence, a tentative label for this theme is "Interim Domestic Changes".  2. ECONOMIC CONSTRAINTS The other theme brought out by the hindering incidents question could be labelled "Economic Constraints". This theme includes hindering incidents related to the lack of availability of Canadian jobs  Cross-Cultural Reentry  85 requiring international experience. A participant says, "My trip to Asia is an investment that I am now having to pay off in the form of a student loan. This is difficult because I can only find contract work. I have to believe that the Asian experience is useful in terms of work and that it will pay off eventually". The hindering themes are useful in that they provide a counterbalance to the category scheme of facilitating incidents. That these hindering themes are reported, gives the researcher confidence in the critical incident methodology and the resulting category scheme. Further, the researcher believes that there is therapeutic opportunity in themes relating to hindrances to the adjustment process. A suggestion as a result of this study is therefore, that hindering themes or categories be the subject of further scientific exploration. Reticence on the part of participants to talk about hindering incidents may have been due to the fact that interviewers were also regarded as facilitators. Perhaps participants had comments they were reluctant to discuss out of fear of being seen as critical of the facilitators' role. A future study might address this problem by employing independent interviewers.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  86 In summary, interviews with 19 returnees whose experience had been highlighted by a cross-cultural reentry program, resulted in the development of 12 categories from 245 facilitative critical incidents reported. In addition, 2 hindering emergent themes were established from the interviews.  Secondary Analysis Of The Data Findings of this study have resulted in the development of a category scheme of factors which facilitate reentry adjustment. Further, the categories have met several tests of reliability and validity. Still, the practitioner may wonder how to employ this knowledge in working with returnees. During the interview process, antecedents or sources of critical incidents related to reentry adjustment were also reported by participants. These sources can be categorized as either content or process-oriented. A framework of reentry adjustment interventions, based on these sources of adjustment is presented (Table 8). The practitioner can more confidently design reentry programs, focusing on both of these aspects. Out of the  Cross-Cultural Reentry  87 245 critical incidents reported,  115 were content-  oriented and 130 were process- oriented,  Content-Oriented Sources fll5 incidents! EXERCISES (26 incidents) This category includes introductory exercises, small group exercises regarding the frustrating aspects of reentry and a gains and losses exercise. Descriptions are given in Appendix 1.  ADJUSTMENT CURVE (12 incidents) This category includes the presentation of the Rhinsmith Adjustment Curve. Most of these incidents were reported by the first group who, after the presentation of the Curve were instructed to draw their own adjustment curves. The second group didn't have adequate time to do this, which may account for the overall low representation. It is noted that an understanding of this conceptual model as it relates to the lived experience of the returnees is of importance, as the actual model was not replicated in any of the curves individually drawn. The Adjustment Curve can be found in Appendix 2,  Cross-Cultural Reentry  88 CAREER WHEEL (47 incidents) This category includes the Career Wheel (Appendix 3) comprised of sectors which help participants quantify their career preparedness. The sectors include Educational Background, Perceptions of Significant Others, Interests, Values, Skills and Competencies, Personal Style, Labor Market Options, Work and Leisure Experience and Career Goals.  UNSPECIFIED ACTIVITIES (30 incidents) This category includes instances when participants could not recollect the exact activity that facilitated the change or when more than one source was reported. As expected, the number of unspecified activities was greater for the group whose interviews were delayed. This category represents only 4% of the sources reported by the first group, compared with 22% of the sources reported by the delayed group.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  89 Process-Oriented Sources fl30 incidents^ PEERS (58 incidents) The focus of this category is on the group dynamic as being instrumental to therapeutic change. It includes the participation of group members and the inter-relationships among group members. Most of the critical incident outcomes in this category related to one's awareness of identity amongst peers and one's understanding of the experience of others.  SELF (39 incidents) In this category, the catalyst to change lies within the individual. It is the ability of the individual to discover internal resources that led to the readjustment. Participants accomplished this for example, by taking the opportunity to verbalize experiences and to confront personal issues.  FACILITATOR (33 incidents) The source of change in this category lies in the expertise of the group facilitator in presenting materials, in pacing the workshop and in managing the group dynamic. An important element here is the  Cross-Cultural Reentry  90 provision for safety needs of group members by the creation of an environment of inclusion and trust. An analysis of the antecedents or sources informs both applied research and the practitioner of crosscultural readaptation of what it is about the incidents that acts as a catalyst to change or to the readjustment process. Further, analysis of the sources provides information about content and process that can be used in the design of effective reentry programs. Taken together, the sources form a framework of interventions for the reentry adjustment stage of the sojourn adjustment process. The reader is referred to Table 7 for a visual presentation of interventions.  90A TABLE 7  FRAMEWORK O F INTERVENTIONS CONTENT PROCESS  Unspecified Activities (11.0%)  _S5JSH  Peers (24.0%)  Career Wheel (19.0%) /  Adjustment Cuive (5.0%) ^ y p P ^  /  ^^^^k  ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ |  ^^^W  Exercises (1 .0%)  ^^^-...^^ /  ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^  Faciiitator(14.0%)  ^  Self (16.0%)  Cross-Cultural Reentry  91 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION  Many people are skeptical of the notion of reentry shock; that sojourners returning home are likely to experience adjustment difficulties similar to, or more severe than the original culture shock. This skepticism is understandable in that repatriates expect to be returning to a familiar environment; one that will reunite him or her with loved ones. In actuality, individuals are confronted with changes having occurred in themselves, at home and in the world. Further, it is at this time that sojourners are challenged to synthesize the events and occurrences of the sojourn experience, as a whole. In view of these dynamics, it is the authors' contention that the reentry stage represents the most complex and comprehensive array of adjustment challenges that sojourners encounter. This contention is discordant with the tradition of the reentry stage receiving least recognition by researchers in the cross-cultural field and institutions sending people abroad.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  92 Findings of this study support the view of the pivotal nature of this stage, to the success of the sojourn experience and to the repatriates" ability to enjoy sustained proficiency in the home culture. The returnees interviewed showed themselves to be involved in a complex process of cognitive reorganization surrounding the meaning and impact of the sojourn experience, of integrating experiences that occurred abroad with their perceptions of themselves in the home culture and of setting goals for the future. A key implication of this study is therefore, that the challenges of cross-cultural reentry be given due recognition as being critical to the overall benefit and success of the sojourn experience and as such, deserving of more attention and resources than are typically provided. The findings of this study further reveal that individuals need ways and means to reflect on the quality of the experience that has happened to them. This is evidenced by the breadth and consistency of the critical incidents reported by the two groups of returnees and the interventions that gave rise to these incidents. Although individuals are engaged in a reflective process on their own, professional  Cross-Cultural Reentry  93 assistance in a group format provides a quality of environment that is uniquely useful to the resolution of acculturative stress. Using a comprehensive workshop design, a skilled professional can normalize the effects of acculturative stress through the presentation of models depicting cross-cultural adjustment, through the facilitation of shared experience and through the enhancement and transfer of work-related skills. The vitality of this support to readaptation is underscored by the fact that psychological effects brought on by this stage are significant. As identified in previous research, psychological effects distinctive to the reentry stage include isolation, weakened self-identity and career indecision (Martin, 1986; Werkman, 1986). The resolution of these correlates of acculturative stress can be ultimately self-enhancing for individuals, or limiting and disorienting depending on how the experience is managed, i.e.: organized, integrated and reflected upon. The success or failure with which these challenges are resolved is predicated on the support systems available to returnees. Many returnees report an unanticipated absence of the traditional supports of family, friends and colleagues resulting from the  Cross-Cultural Reentry  94 separation, lending greater significance to the interventions identified in the study. A recommendation is therefore, that group interventions for returnees be further developed, analyzed and implemented. Assumptions underlying this study are that returnees experiencing acculturative stress benefit from professional assistance and that the more sojourners are able to anticipate stress, the better prepared they are to cope with it. Results of this study should inform all aspects of the sojourn process in that being able to anticipate what is to come puts people in a more favorable position to prepare and achieve maximum use of their experiences while they are occurring. For example, business sojourners aware in advance of skills they can acquire abroad that are transferable to the home market, are better prepared for professional reentry. Interventions identified should be integrated therefore, as part of a comprehensive package of programs including; predeparture and mid-term programs, as well as reentry programs designed to match the various stages of the adaptation process. Further study could involve determining optimal timing for these interventions.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  95 Professional assistance need not be limited to a group format, however. For participants, the group format facilitated the resolution of certain challenges while highlighting the existence of others. It could be that factors facilitative of reentry of a more personal nature, such as "confronting personal issues" and aspects of "self-awareness" are appropriately addressed in individual follow-up counselling with an informed counsellor. Indeed, several participants alluded to the potential benefits of individual follow-up counselling work as part of their recommendations. It is noted that needs for confidentiality surrounding concerns of a personal or sensitive nature are far less of an issue in the individual counselling format. A further implication of this study is therefore, that some of the factors identified be attended to in individual counselling sessions. In retrospect, the methodology chosen for this study underscores the value of individual counselling in that the interviews provide an analogue for the individual counselling format. Because of the semistructured nature of the interviews, participants were given latitude in exploring their concerns within the one-to-one context. A review of the interview  Cross-Cultural Reentry  96 transcriptions reveals that many, if not all of the participants discussed tangents of a personal and idiosyncratic nature. Although this proved cumbersome to the transcription and analysis phases of the research, the need to discuss personal issues is consistent with career counselling theory, that optimum career work involves resolution of personal issues. This methodological adjunct underscores that a model of reentry intervention include an individual counselling component within the group format. The findings of this study reveal a well-grounded explanation of the factors influencing reentry adaptation and some generalizable elements that will help us better understand the individuals and the aftermath of the sojourn. Findings include 12 categories or clusters of incidents that are facilitative of reentry adaptation and 2 emergent themes of incidents that are hindering to readaptation, for two populations of Canadian repatriates. Further, the category scheme was found to appeal to common sense and to meet reliability and validity tests. Even though the methodology employed in this study may not have been used until now in cross-cultural reentry research, some of the basic constructs of the scheme ought to be  Cross-Cultural Reentry  97 represented in cross-cultural literature. In fact, many of the categories were found to be consistent with current related literature, cross-cultural theory and models of cross-cultural adaptation and therefore, act to reinforce what we already know. In reviewing the categories, there were three over-arching themes that are tangentially acknowledged by previous research. These themes form a composite of the categories established and emanate from either the relative weight of the data or from the amplified, emotional expressiveness with which incidents were imparted. They include:  1. INTEGRATING THE EXPERIENCE This theme encompasses the "Integrating The Experience" category and others, such as "Understanding The Experience Of Others", "Reframing", "Awareness Of Identity Amongst Peers", "Verbalizing Ones' Experience" and "Self-Awareness". It underlies the basic condition of returnees, that they are preoccupied with making their past experience somehow "fit" with their present context. Their challenge lies in fitting their new selves into the old, but reformed social and economic framework and in integrating their new-found experience  Cross-Cultural Reentry  98 of cultural relativity. Support for this construct is found in Wilson's (1993) cross-national study of reentry, that "deciding on an identity is a challenge for many returnees". Jansson (1986) further affirms this theme when she identifies "the loosening of social bonds" that repatriates encounter as a result of the sojourn. She goes on to make the point that part of what needs to be integrated by some returnees is "the deviant identity" that has resulted because of deviation from societal norms and a portion of history that is not mutually shared. Martin's (1986) findings are also related in her assertion that "the deeper the adaptation in the host culture, the more problematic the reentry" or, the more preoccupied returnees are with the task of integrating their experiences. Further along these lines, Janet Metzger (1993), through a rhetorical analysis of the stories of returnees, says that, "the dynamic power of the word and of oral thought is a powerful component of adjustment". Integrating the experience by being given a forum in which to talk about it is thus, understood as being particularly important for those travelers who become deeply entrenched in the foreign culture. Personal growth, with respect to integrating the enlarged  Cross-Cultural Reentry  99 identity resulting from the extended stay abroad is the challenge to repatriates exemplified in this theme.  2- UNDERSTANDING THE PROCESS Included in this over-arching theme are the categories of "Setting Goals", "Understanding The Grieving Process" and "The Role Of Facilitator",  in  addition to "Understanding The Process". An understanding of the theoretical adjustment process allowed returnees to gain psychological distance from their experience so they could bring more energy to their current milieu. This theme is supported by theoretical approaches identified in the literature review; specifically. Stage Theories of Reentry Adjustment and Coping Modes in Reentry Adjustment. Conceptualizing the process of emotional ups and downs, identifying the necessary gains and losses of the sojourn and understanding part of the experience as being a grieving process helped participants gain a valuable objective perspective. This new perspective in turn, allowed returnees to think more clearly and constructively about their present situation and their plans for the future. Particularly helpful to participants was the exercise involving drawing  Cross-Cultural Reentry  100 individual emotional adjustment curves even though stage theories were not emulated in the drawings. Continuing research on reentry theory may further illuminate the reentry process as experienced by returnees. Fortunately, most participants in the workshops seemed proactive in their adjustment process and able to grow as they struggled with being between two homes, two cultures. The role of the facilitator is a factor that was not found to be cited in the research reviewed, although this role was reported to be of considerable importance to participants. A recommendation is therefore, that future studies be conducted to determine what specific  facilitator behaviors were  important to the facilitation of reentry adjustment.  3.INTERIM CHANGES For those repatriates that reported hindering incidents, the extent of changes in the home culture exacerbated their struggle to readjust. Wilson (1993) and others identify "coping with changes" as being a challenge common among returnees. Future research should identify interim changes in the home culture that repatriates commonly contend with, as a way of  Cross-cultural Reentry  101 furthering knowledge in the field of cross-cultural readaptation.  With respect to methodological issues, future research might employ the Critical Incident Technique with different groups of repatriates. Returned rotary students are an example that comes to mind. Further, interview questions might be revised and expanded. Examples of alternate questions are "How did the workshop effect your readjustment home, if at all?" and "What else, outside the workshop has been useful?" The interview questions regarding hindering incidents could be similarly revised to elicit more responses of this nature. A result for the researcher, of working in an indepth way with returnees was that a profile of the sojourner personality emerged. For instance, collectively, the returnees tended to display an element of personal defensiveness, a denial of emotional reactivity and a preference for a cognitive orientation. Future research might examine the effects of extended sojourn experiences on the repatriate persona so that guidelines, particularly for the individual work could be identified.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  102 Conclusion This study, has attempted to provide a frame of reference for the experience, concerns and challenges of repatriates, based on intended use; that counsellors working with returnees can have an appreciation of the dynamics underlying reentry stress and that practitioners may have further information upon which to develop reentry programs. This information is important because with increased trade on a global scale and international political connections, intercultural reentry becomes increasingly critical to individuals, to their communities and to the global community. As research on the reentry stage of the overall cross-cultural adaptation process expands, factors and interventions implicated in the "good effects" resulting from successful readaptation will be further revealed. Continued study related to intercultural reentry (a combination of theory, research and practise) should lead to more insights about how sojourners integrate their experience into the continuum of their lives and the role of practitioners in enhancing this important process.  Cross-cultural Reentry  103 REFERENCES  Adler, N. J. (1976). Growthful re-entry theory. Unpublished mimeograph. Graduate School of Management, University of California, Los Angeles. Adler, N.J. (1981). Re-entry: Managing cross-cultural transitions. Group & Organizational Studies. 6 (3), 341-356. Adler, P. (1975). The transition experience: an alternative view of culture shock. Journal of Humanistic Psychology^ 15, 13-23. Alberti, R., & Emmons, M. (1982). Your perfect right. San Luis Obispo, CA: Impact. Amundson, N. & Poehnell, G. (1993). Setting new career pathways. Unpublished manuscript. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Amundson, N. et. al. (1989). Employment groups: The Counselling connection. Lugus Publishing, Ottawa. Austin, C.N. (1982). Psychological well-being of the missionary. Strategy^ Abilene Christian University,  J^ly-Septemt)er, i-4. Austin, C.N. (1983). Cross-cultural reentry: An annotated bibliography. Abilene: Abilene Christian University Press.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  104  Austin, C. N.(1986). Cross-cultural reentry: A book of readings. Abilene: Abilene Christian University Press. Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy: Mechanism on human agency, Affieriggin Psychologist/ 21,  122-147.  Banner, H. (1978). Culture shock - The unexpected homecoming. Peace Corps Times, September -October, 1978, n.p. Bachner, D.J. (1993). Methodological issues in researching the effects of U.S.-German Educational youth Exchange: A case study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 17, p. 41-71. Bertaux, D. (Ed.). 1981, Biography and society: The life history approach in the social sciences. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Bertaux, D., & Bertaux-Wiame, I. (1981). Life stories in the bakers trade. In D. Bertaux, (Ed.), Biography and society: The life history approach in the social sciences, p. 169-190. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Borus, J.F- (1973). Re-entry: I. Adjustment issues facing the Vietnam returnee. Archives of General Pgychigitry, 23., 501-506.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  105 Brislin, R.W. (1974). The establishment of reentry/transition seminars for overseas sojourners. Paper presented for the First National Conference of Re-entry/Transition at Racine, Wisconsin. Brislin, R.W., & Van Buren, H. (1974). Can they go home again? International Educational and Cultural Exchange, 2., 19-24. Brislin, R.W,, Landis, D, & Brandt, M.E. (1983). Conceptualizations of intercultural behavior and training. In D, Landis & R.W. Brislin (Eds.), Handbook of intercultural training. 1,  1-35. New  York: Pergamon Press. Cagney, W.F. (1975). Executive reentry: The problems of repatriation. Personnel Journal^ 54 (9), 487-488. Cajoleas, L. (1959). The American educated foreign student returns home. Teachers College Record. 60, 191-197. Carhuff, R. (1969). Helping and human relations. New York: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston. Cochran, L. (1991). Life-shaping decisions. Peter Lang Publishing, Inc., New York. Cooley, C.H. (1924). Human nature and social order. New York: Scribner.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  106 Dunbar, E, (1992). Adjustment and satisfaction of expatriate U.S. personnel. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 1^, p 1-16. Faulkner, R.R. & McGraw, D. B. (1977). Uneasy homecoming: Stages in the reentry transition of Vietnam veterans. Urban Life, ^ (3),  P. 303-328.  Festigner, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Flanagan, J. (1954). The critical incident technique. Psychological Bulletin, 51, 327-358. Fontaine, C M . (1983). International relocation: A comprehensive psychosocial approach. EAP Digest, March/April, 27-31. Foust, S. (1981). Dynamics of cross-cultural adjustment: from the pre-arrival to reentry. In G. Althen, (Ed.), Learning across cultures. 7-29. Washington, D.C.: National Association for Roreign Student Affairs. Freedman, A. (1980). A strategy for managing "cultural" transitions: Re-entry from training. In C. N. Austin (Ed.), Cross-cultural reentry: a book of readings. Abilene. Abilene Christian University Press.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  107  Greenwood, A. & Westwood, M. (1992). Returning home: a group program to assist persons returning home after living/studying/working abroad. Canadian Bureau for International Education, Ottawa. Gordon, T. (1970). Parent effectiveness training. New York: Wyden. Glaser, B- & Strauss, A (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Aldine. Gullahorn, J.T. & Gullahorn, J.E. (1963). An extension of the U-curve hypothesis. Journal of Social Issues, 1£ (3), 33-47. Harvey, D.F. (1969). Cross-cultural stress and adaptation in global organizations (Doctoral dissertation. Case Western Reserve University, 1969). Dissertation Abstracts International,. 1970, 31, 2958B-2959B- (University Microfilms No. 70-04, 931) Herr, E. L. (1990). Employment counseling in a global economy. Journal of Employment Counseling, 27., 147-161.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  108 Ishiyama, PH.D.., Westwood, M.J., & Farrokh, K.(1990). Testing the U-curve model of adjustment: An exploratory study of international students' selfconcent and academic self-satisfaction. Unpublished report. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Ishiyama, I. & Westwood, M. (1991). Enhancing clientvalidating communication: helping discouraged clients in cross-cultural adjustment. UnpublishedUniversity of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Jansson, D.P. (1986). Return to society: problematic features of the reentry process. From Austin, C.N. (Ed.) (1986) Cross-cultural reentry: a book of readings. Abiline: Abilene Christian University Press. Lowenthal, N.P., & Sneddin, N.L. (1986). Managing the overseas assignment process. The Bridge^ Spring|. 1443. Lundstedt, S. (1963). An introduction to some evolving problems in cross-cultural research. Journal of Social Issues. 1^ (3), 1-9, 1963.  Cross-Cultural Reentry  Marten, J.N. (1986). Communications in the intercultural reentry: student sojourners' perception of change in reentry relationships. In J.N. Martin fEd.),, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10, 2, New York: Pergamon Press. Maslow, A. (1971). The farther reaches of human nature. New York: Viking. Metzger, J.G. (1993). Narration and narratives: the "acculturation/call"story as a blend of oral and literate world view. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. 12, 125-141. Mosher, R. & Sprinthall, N. (1971). Deliberate psychological education. Counseling Psychologist, 2 (4), 3-82. Paige, R. M. (1984). Cross-cultural orientation: New conceptualizations and applications. University Press of America. Rhinesmith, S.H. (1975). Bringing home the world. Yarmouth, Intercultural Press. Simon, S., Howe, L., St Kirschenbaum, H. (1972). Values Clarification. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.  109  Cross-Cultural Reentry  Sue, D.W., & Sue, D.(1990). Counseling the culturally different: Theory and practise^ 2nd Edition, Toronto: Wiley Interscience. Sussman, N.M. (1986). Reentry research and training: Methods and implications. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10, 235-254. Trotzer, J.P. (1989). The Counsellor and the group; Integrating theory, training, and practise, 2nd Edition, Muncie, Accelerated Development Inc. Useem, R. H. & Downie, R.D. (1976). Third culture kids. From Austin, C.N. (Ed.) (1986) Cross-cultural reentry: a book of readings. Abiline: Abilene Christian Unverversity Press. Werkman, S. L. (1986). Coming home: adjustment of Americans to thg United States ^fter living ^brggd. Austin, C.N. (Ed.) (1986) Cross-cultural reentry: a book of readings. Abiline: Abilene Christian University Press. Westwood, M.J., Lawrence, W.S., & Paul, D. (1986). Preparing for re-entry: A program for the sojourning student. International Journal for the Advancement Qf CQ^nsglling, 9., 221-230.  110  Cross-Cultural Reentry  Wilson, A.A. (1993). A cross-national perspective on reentry of high school exchange students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 12, 465-492. Woolsey, L.K. (1986). The critical incident technique: An innovative qualitative method of research. Canadian Journal of Counselling, 20, 242-254. Wolpe, J. (1973). Behavior therapy. Elmsford, N.Y.: Pergamon Press.  111  112 Appendix 1 Reentry Workshop for Canadians Returning From Asia Facilitators: Marvin J. Westwood, Ph.D. Margot Mathews, MA (Cand.) Saturday Session 9:00 a.m. Introductions Dyads rondomly assigned. Members are asked to interview their partner briefly using the following: a. your name, something about it, meaning origin, etc. b. goal for attending the workshop on reentry c. a unique experience encountered in Asia which others probably don't know about. 9:30 a.m. Leaders Summarize Goals on Flip Chart 9:40 a.m. Program Goals and Norms Presented -increase awareness of personal and professional aspects of reentry -develop coping strategies for personal and professional aspects of reentry 10:00 a.m. Reentry Lecture Using W-Curve Hypothesis Model -members are asked to identify where they might put themselves in reference to curve or draw their own curve. Personal satisfaction might be drawn differently than professional satisfaction 10:30 a.m. BREAK 10:45 a.m. Triads: Members are asked to complete on individual cards their responses to the following:* 1. Primary gains and losses resulting from time abroad 2. What are you most glad about being away from your host country * Large Group Discussion & Summary With Leaders (identifying commonalities, differences and percieved gains) Triads: 3. What is the most frustrating aspect of being home 4. What is the most satisfying aspect of being home * 11:45 a.m. Orient Group for Afternoon NOON BREAK  113  Saturday schedule continued 1:30 p.m. Lecturette on Adjustment Challenges (cultural, social, political professional and linguistic) Discussion: Which adjustment challenges do you identify with? Are there others you have experienced that are not on the list? Lecturette on Coping Modes of Reentry Where would you place yourself? Has this changed from when you first arrived home? 2:15 p.m. Specific Coping Strategies For Reentry 1. Identification of Attributes and Skills Handout #1: Personal Characteristics Handout Handout #2: Transferable Skills List 2. Identification of ways in which these skills are validated/undervalidated in life in Canada Handout #3: "What skills, knowledge and or experience have I acquired overseas which I did not have or know before?" 3. Translating Transferable Skills Into Employer Language Activity Triads: What personal characteristics and transferable skills do you now possess as a result of your experience abroad? 3:15 p.m. BREAK 3:45 p.m. Triads: Roleplay Using Transferable Skills in Mock Interview with potential Employer or Collegue 4:15 p.m. Debrief 5:00 p.m. Summary of work to date and where we are going Overview of Centric Model  114 Sunday  CAREER DEVELOPMENT  note: participants will be at various stages of career development (career is defined as "the course of life in working to produce ends") and employment including satisfactory employment, underemployment and unemployment. 8:30 a.m.  Presentation of Centric Model  9:00 a.m.  Ways to enhance your career options -know thyself and know the market  9:15 a.m.  Assessment of individual career goals Handout "My Unique Wheel" -Individual Style Survey Review & Analysis -work experience -education -interests -values -skills and competencies -personal style (cautious, dominant, influencing, harmonious) -labour market options  10:30 a.m. BREAK 11:00 a.m. Debriefing "My Unique Wheel" Large Group Discussion of Career Goals Where do I go from here? What are my goals and what are my deadlines? Contracting 12:00 p.m. Closure: Review of initial goals. Were they met? Group Go Around: What are you able to walk away with from the workshop? 1:00 p.m. Interviews References: "At The Controls" by Norm Amundson VPL Booklist - Job Search List "Future Is Yours" by Norm Amundson "Transitions" by William Bridges "Career & ReCareering" by Ronald Krannich  115  Appendix 2  STAGES OF ADJUSTMENT  I  1.. 2. 3. 4. 5.  ^  ORIENTATION PROGRAM  ^  ADJUSTMENT STAGE  initial anxiety initial elation initial culture shock superficial adjustnieiii depression-frustration  '' Oisintcgratiai  6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  acceptance of host culture return anxiety return elation re-entry shock reintegration  This roller coaster ndc is a natural pattern, ot valley and peaks, where excitement and interest are succeeded by depression, disorientation or frustration. The intensity of the ups anddowns depends upon the individual, as does the length of time an individual experiences each sugc. It is imponant to realize that this process is both natural and ner-'ssarj' for the sojourner's optimum adjustment to fh(» t r n n c i t i n n f r n m r n l f i i r p tn r i i l t i i r p  116  Appendix 3  THE WHEEL: SELF-ASSESSMENT FOR THE LABOUR MARKET  


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