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A psychocultural study of problem eating in white, middle or upper class girls and women Dunne, Deborrah Anne 1997

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A PSYCHOCULTURAL STUDY OF PROBLEM EATING IN WHITE, MIDDLE OR UPPER CLASS GIRLS AND WOMEN by Deborrah Anne Dunne B.A., A l f r e d U n i v e r s i t y , 1980 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n : Madison, 1982 Ph.D., U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto, 1989  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of C o u n s e l l i n g  Psychology  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1997 (c)  Deborrah Anne Dunne  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment  of the requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or by his or  her  representatives.  It is understood  that copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  CT(L>~y\S.g-Uv/^ •  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6 (2/88)  ^ C V  ^ c t^e>l o  1  11  ABSTRACT  T h i s t h e s i s i s framed by a contemporary debate between f e m i n i s t t h e o r i s t s and c l i n i c i a n s concerning i n t h e e t i o l o g y of problem e a t i n g . mistake t o p a t h o l o g i z e  disordered  norm i n contemporary s o c i e t y .  Feminists  the r o l e of c u l t u r e argue t h a t i t i s a  e a t i n g s i n c e i t i s arguably t h e  From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e ,  problem  e a t i n g l i e s along a continuum and c o n s t i t u t e s a response both t o the c u r r e n t era o f gender upheaval, and t o tremendous s o c i a l pressure  on g i r l s and women ( h e r e a f t e r : women) t o c u l t i v a t e  s l e n d e r bodies. objectionable  C l i n i c i a n s counter t h a t i t i s h i g h l y  t o g l o s s over t h e r e a l i t y o f extremely  e a t i n g i n t h e name o f a p o l i t i c a l problem.  disordered  agenda t o u n i v e r s a l i z e t h e  Moreover, they argue t h a t w h i l e c u l t u r a l messages  appear t o shape symptoms, our e f f o r t s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e l y d i r e c t e d toward understanding core p s y c h o l o g i c a l biological) The  (and/or f a m i l i a l , o r  difficulties.  e f f o r t w i t h i n t h e t h e s i s t o r e s o l v e t h i s debate begins  w i t h a review o f e m p i r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e which has researched whether women with problem e a t i n g a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y feminine, o r r e j e c t t h e i r f e m i n i n i t y (or b o t h ) .  T h i s review y i e l d s t h e  assessment t h a t white, middle o r upper c l a s s women w i t h more severe e a t i n g problems a r e deeply c o n f l i c t e d about t h e i r gendered personality.  In p a r t i c u l a r , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t these women  seek t o address t h e "gender double-bind" a c c o r d i n g must be what i s devalued ( i . e . ,  feminine),  t o which women  and only be what  Ill i s valued The  ( i . e . , masculine) w i t h i n acceptable  limits.  p s y c h o c u l t u r a l model o f t h e gendered nature o f problem  e a t i n g which i s developed on t h e b a s i s o f t h i s m a t e r i a l shows how  women s e i z e upon s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l  i n p u t concerning  management i n t h e i r attempt t o answer t h e double b i n d . autobiographical  female body An  i n q u i r y on t h e p a r t o f t h e author h e l p s t o  c o n f i r m t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h i s approach, but a l s o r e v e a l s t h e deeper p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s o f a " l a c k o f developed s e l f , " and  " l a c k o f womaninity."  These s t r u c t u r e s g i v e r i s e t o i n t e n s e  heeds f o r guidance concerning women.  And t h e confluence  how t o develop as persons and as  o f these needs with t h e concern t o  address t h e gender double b i n d i s shown i n t h e model t o generate more severe problem e a t i n g along t h e continuum.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract  i i  L i s t of Figures  v #  Acknowledgements  vi  Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION  1  Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW  28  Chapter 3: METHODOLOGY  83  Chapter 4: AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL EXERCISE 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 4.2 B r i e f Case H i s t o r y 4.3 B r i e f H i s t o r y o f H e a l i n g / P r e s e n t S t a t u s 4.4 E x p l o r a t o r y E x e r c i s e (a) O v e r a l l P r o f i l e a t 15/Age o f Onset (b) O v e r a l l P r o f i l e i n Late Stages o f Healing 4.5 O v e r a l l Summary and Assessment Chapter 5: MODEL CONSTRUCTION, ASSESSMENT AND CONCLUDING REMARKS  102 102 104 108 116 117 137 152 171  I  5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 5.2 Model C o n s t r u c t i o n 5.3 Assessment and Concluding Remarks (a) L i m i t a t i o n s (b) Research I m p l i c a t i o n s (c) I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Therapy  171 178 212 213 215 217  Endnotes  225  References  231  Appendix A: Commensurability Assessment i n " I : Gender P r o f i l e " .  f o r Results  Appendix  f o r Results  Appendix  B: Commensurability Assessment i n " I I : Gender Stance"  240  C: Commensurability Assessment f o r R e s u l t s i n " I I I : Gender P r o f i l e , Gender Stance, and C o n f l i c t "  246  253  V LIST OF FIGURES  F i g u r e 1: GENDER PROFILE: P r e l i m i n a r y R e s u l t s . . . .  46  F i g u r e 2: GENDER PROFILE: P o s t - A n a l y s i s  48  F i g u r e 3: GENDER STANCE: P r e l i m i n a r y R e s u l t s  .....52  F i g u r e 4: GENDER STANCE: P o s t - A n a l y s i s  57  F i g u r e 5: GENDER PROFILE, GENDER STANCE, AND CONFLICT: Preliminary Results  67  F i g u r e 6: GENDER PROFILE, GENDER STANCE, AND CONFLICT: Post-Analysis  72  F i g u r e 7: HYPOTHETICAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN OVERALL GENDER PROFILE AND LEVELS OF SEVERITY OF PROBLEM EATING.  80  F i g u r e 8: Stage One o f Model Development  179  F i g u r e 9: Stage Two o f Model Development  181  F i g u r e 10: Stage Three o f Model Development  184  F i g u r e 11: Stage Four o f Model Development  189  F i g u r e 12: Stage F i v e o f Model Development  193  F i g u r e 13: P s y c h o c u l t u r a l Model o f t h e Gendered Nature of More Severe Problem E a t i n g  206  Vl  Acknowledgments I would l i k e t o express my g r a t i t u d e toward a number of people f o r h e l p i n g t o make t h i s t h e s i s p o s s i b l e . F i r s t of a l l , I would l i k e t o thank a number of t h e r a p i s t s , f r i e n d s , and t e a c h e r s who have been so much a p a r t of my h e a l i n g over the y e a r s : C a r o l y n Schwartz, S t u a r t and S a l l y Campbell, Tom Peterson, John Gilmour, Penel Thronson, T e r r y Winant, L o i s Pineau, and Nena Hardie. Next, I would l i k e t o thank my s u p e r v i s o r , J u d i t h Daniluk, and my committee members, John A l l a n and Gwen Chapman. I am g r a t e f u l f o r t h e i r c l o s e and engaged r e a d i n g of my work, and f o r t h e i r i n v a l u a b l e feedback and i n p u t . I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l t o J u d i t h f o r her f a i t h i n my a b i l i t y t o manage a r i s k y undertaking, and f o r the way i n which she encouraged and supported me throughout the process. Thanks are a l s o due t o K a r i n S t e i c h e l e , Dale Brooks, and J e f f Claman who s t e a d i e d , nurtured, and cheered me over many months of w r i t i n g . Most of a l l , though, I want t o thank my husband, Michael Z e i t l i n , and my son, I s a i a h Benjamin D u n n e - Z e i t l i n , f o r t h e i r love and t h e i r p a t i e n c e ; t h e i r i n s p i r a t i o n ; t h e i r constant, u n f l a g g i n g support; and, perhaps most of a l l , f o r t h e i r h e a l i n g . T h i s t h e s i s i s d e d i c a t e d t o them with a l l my h e a r t .  1 INTRODUCTION  Research w i t h i n t h e f i e l d o f e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s o f t e n takes as i t s shared s t a r t i n g p o i n t t h e s t r i k i n g y e t commonplace e p i d e m i o l o g i c a l f a c t t h a t g i r l s and women a r e overwhelmingly  more  l i k e l y t o manifest e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s than boys o r men ( B a i l e y & Hamilton, 1992; Bloom, G i t t e r , G u t w i l l , Kogel, & Zaphiropoulos, 1994,  passim; Bordo, 1993; Boskind-Lodahl,  1976; C. Brown, 1993;  Brown & J a s p e r , 1993, passim; Bruch, 1973; F a l l o n , Katzman, & Wooley, 1994, passim; M o r i , Chaiken, 1981;  & P l i n e r , 1987; Chernin,  Dittmar & Bates, 1987; G a r f i n k e l & Garner,  B i b e r , 1989; Nagel & Jones, 1992; Nasser, Paxton  1982; Hesse-  1988; Orbach, 1986;  & S c u l t h o r p e , 1991; S t r i e g e l - M o o r e , S i l b e r s t e i n , & Rodin,  1986,-: Szekely, 1988, 1989; Szymanski & C h r i s l e r , 1991; 1991;  Wurman, 1988-89).  White,  Of course, i n response t o t h i s  i n f o r m a t i o n a number o f q u e s t i o n s have been r a i s e d c o n c e r n i n g p o s s i b l e connections between femaleness  and e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s .  As  one would a n t i c i p a t e , f e m i n i s t s have not focused on t h e b i o l o g i c a l femaleness on t h e i r gendered  o f women with e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s , b u t r a t h e r  femininity.  In f a c t , reams o f both  feminist  arguments and e m p i r i c a l data have been o f f e r e d i n support o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s such as a n o r e x i a nervosa and b u l i m i a must be i n t e r p r e t e d as s o c i o c u l t u r a l and not j u s t b i o l o g i c a l , nor even j u s t p s y c h o l o g i c a l phenomena (Bloom e t a l . , 1994;  Bordo, 1993; Boskind-Lodahl, 1976; Boskind-White  & White,  1986;  L. S. Brown, 1985; Brown & J a s p e r , 1993; Chernin, 1981;  2 F a l l o n e t a l . p a s s i m , 1994; G a r f i n k e l & Garner, & Jones,  1982; Hesse-Biber,  1989;  M a r t i n , 1989; Nagel  1992; Nasser,  1988; Orbach,  1978,  1986; Osvold & Sodowsky, 1993; P o l i y y & Herman, 1987;  Rodin, S i l b e r s t e i n , & S t r i e g e l - M o o r e , 1984; Rothblum, 1992; Schwartz, Thompson, & Johnson, 1982; P e r l i c k & S i l v e r s t e i n , 1994; Smead, 1983; S t e i n e r - A d a i r , 1986; S t r i e g e l - M o o r e e t a l . , 1986; Szekely, 1988, 1989; Thornton,  Leo, & A l b e r g , 1991; Wertheim,  Paxton, Maude, Szmukler, Gibbons, & H i l l e r ,  1992; White, 1991;  Wurman, 1989). To b u i l d t h e i r argument, f e m i n i s t s have examined h i s t o r i c a l and a r c h i v a l evidence t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e image o f t h e i d e a l (white, middle o r upper c l a s s ) woman's body v a r i e s w i t h c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l changes (Bordo,  social,  1993; Boskind-  White & White, 1986; Brown & Jasper, 1993; G a r f i n k e l & Garner, 1982:  S e i d , 1994).  F o r example, Brown and J a s p e r (1993) note  w i t h Banner (1983) t h a t a f t e r t h e American C i v i l War, "a more 'voluptuous' i d e a l r e p r e s e n t e d t h e postwar i n c r e a s e i n t h e importance  of f e r t i l i t y "  (Brown & J a s p e r , p. 22). In c o n t r a s t ,  they note w i t h L u r i e (1981) t h a t t h e " f l a p p e r e r a , w i t h i t s f l a t chested, s t r a i g h t - b o d i e d , and shorter-hemline look, c e l e b r a t e d women's emerging s o c i a l m o b i l i t y and independence" (Brown & J a s p e r , p. 23). Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , these s t u d i e s a l l culminate i n the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t i n contemporary North American s o c i e t y , g i r l s and women experience r e l e n t l e s s p r e s s u r e t o f o r c e our bodies t o match an extremely c o n s t r i c t e d and a r t i f i c i a l c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e i d e a l female body.  3 T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s o f t e n supported  by e x t e n s i v e f e m i n i s t  a n a l y s i s o f contemporary c u l t u r a l d i r e c t i v e s t a r g e t e d a t g i r l s and women r e g a r d i n g gender-appropriate  t r a i t s and behaviours.  Among other t h i n g s , these d i r e c t i v e s t e l l us t h a t we must be t h i n t o be a c c e p t a b l e , t o hate and f e a r f a t , and t o make what might be c a l l e d "female body management" t h e c e n t r e o f our l i v e s 1993;  Hesse-Biber,  1978,  (Bordo,  Brown & Jasper, 1993; L. S. Brown, 1985; C. Brown, 1993;  Buchanan, 1993; Chernin,  1993;  1  1981; C i l i s k a , 1993; G u t w i l l , 1994;  1989; K i l b o u r n e , 1994; L e n s k y j i , 1993; Maclnnis,  M a r t i n , 1989; Mori e t a l . , 1987; Nasser, 1988; Orbach, 1986; Osvold  & Sodowsky, 1993; P e r l i c k & S i l v e r s t e i n , 1994;  Rodin e t a l . , 1984; Rothblum, 1992, 1994; S e i d , 1994; S h i s s l a k & Crago, 1994; S t e i n e r - A d a i r , 198.6; S t r i e g e l - M o o r e e t a l . , 1986; Tolman & Debold, 1994; White, 1991; Wolf, 1994; Wooley, Wooley, & Dyrenf o r t h , 1979). F e m i n i s t s have a l s o noted t h a t t h e c u r r e n t epidemic o f problem e a t i n g i s o c c u r r i n g a t a time o f g r e a t upheaval f o r women v i s - a - v i s changes i n gender r o l e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s , t i e s , l i m i t a t i o n s , and b a c k l a s h .  opportuni-  The b a s i c i n s i g h t here i s t h a t  (mostly white, middle and upper c l a s s ) women i n contemporary North American s o c i e t y a r e caught i n a c o n f l i c t between maintaining t r a d i t i o n a l nurturing r o l e s associated with f e m i n i n i t y , and t a k i n g up new o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r achievement i n spheres o u t s i d e o f t h e f a m i l y (Bordo, 1993; Brown & J a s p e r , 1993; Chernin, 1986;  1981, 1985; G u t w i l l , 1994; M a r t i n , 1989; Orbach, 1978,  P e r l i c k & S i l v e r s t e i n , 1994; S h i s s l a k & Crago, 1994;  4 S i l v e r s t e i n , Carpman, P e r l i c k , & Perdue, 1990; S t e i n e r - A d a i r , 1986,  1994; S t r i e g e l - M o o r e e t a l . ,  Thornton  et a l . ,  1986; Szekely & DeFazio, 1993;  1991; White, 1991; Wooley, 1987; Wurman, 1989).  At t h e h e a r t o f t h i s c o n f l i c t i s a double b i n d i n which women are, on t h e one hand, expected  t o m a n i f e s t feminine t r a i t s and  r o l e s which a r e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y devalued w i t h i n p a t r i a r c h y and, on the o t h e r hand, t r a i n e d t o esteem and y e t not manifest i n s i g n i f i c a n t ways masculine  t r a i t s and r o l e s which a r e h i g h l y  v a l u e d (Enders-Dragaesser,  1988; H e r i o t , 1983).  I n s o f a r as a  (white, middle o r upper c l a s s ) woman has i n t e r n a l i z e d and acted i n accordance  with s o c i e t a l v a l u e s and c o n s t r a i n t s , then, she i s  trapped i n a p a r t i c u l a r mode o f e x i s t e n c e which i s deemed i n s i g n i f i c a n t , while drawn t o another v a l u e d e x i s t e n c e which i s p u l l e d from h e r reach. Women have o f t e n used t h e i r bodies as a v e h i c l e f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h i s paradox a t t h e h e a r t o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f gender i n a number o f h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d s (Bordo,  1993; Boskind-  White & White, 1986; Nasser,  1988; P e r l i c k & S i l v e r s t e i n , 1994;  White, 1991; Wurman, 1989).  As r e s e a r c h e r s have noted, t h i s has  meant outbreaks "neurasthenia,"  o f "the d i s e a s e o f young women," " c h l o r o s i s , " " h y s t e r i a , " and e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s over a span o f  some 2400 hundred years maladies  ( P e r l i c k & S i l v e r s t e i n , 1994).  For these  have not o n l y shared t h e symptoms o f " d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g ,  depressed mood, a n x i e t y , headache, b r e a t h i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  sexual  i n d i f f e r e n c e , and amenorrhea," but a l s o a common e t i o l o g y i n t h e s i t u a t i o n o f (white, middle o r upper c l a s s ) women who " s t r i v e t o  5 achieve i n areas t r a d i t i o n a l l y dominated by men and who come t o f e e l l i m i t e d by being female, p a r t i c u l a r l y  i f t h e i r mothers were  unable t o achieve i n these areas"  & S i l v e r s t e i n , 1994,  pp.  (Perlick  79-80). Focusing on t h e c u r r e n t epidemic we may note t h a t problem  e a t i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d both a mode o f e x p r e s s i n g and a mode o f attempting  t o r e s o l v e gender c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and c o n f l i c t s  centered around t h e double b i n d .  With r e s p e c t t o t h e l a t t e r ,  f e m i n i s t s have asked why and how t h e r e l e n t l e s s t h i n n e s s has come t o be t h e s o l u t i o n o f c h o i c e .  pursuit of We can f i r s t  note t h a t s t r i v i n g t o be s l e n d e r i s a way o f a l i g n i n g o n e s e l f with s o c i e t y ' s d e v a l u a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l feminine t r a i t s and roles.  E s p e c i a l l y f o r women who a s s o c i a t e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  ( r e p r o d u c t i v e and n u r t u r i n g ) r o l e o f t h e i r mother i n t h e f a m i l y with being  trapped,  ...the c h i l d l i k e body was a l s o insurance a g a i n s t being d e f i n e d through r e p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y , a g a i n s t being burdened by t h e r e a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f having  children.  I t s i m m a t e r i a l i t y promised t h e freedom t o ascend t o h e i g h t s never b e f o r e reached by women.  (Brown & J a s p e r , 1993, p.  26) Of course, t h e marketing o f t h e s l e n d e r , l i b e r a t e d - f r o m - t h e burdens-of-reproduction appealing t o just t h i s  woman has been v e r y s u c c e s s f u l i n anxiety.  In a r e l a t e d p o i n t , Chernin  (1981) argues t h a t t h e d e s i r e o f  women t o be ever s m a l l e r i s our way o f e x p r e s s i n g d i s c o m f o r t  with  6 being female i n present-day s o c i e t y .  However, t h e i d e a l i z e d  image o f a s l i m , s m a l l , and even b o y i s h female body which women can use as a model f o r t h e i r own e f f o r t s t o be s m a l l e r does not emerge from a vacuum.  Rather, Chernin notes, t h i s image  h i s t o r i c a l l y emerges i n response t o (mostly white, middle o r upper c l a s s ) women's advances f e m i n i s t s have argued  i n society.  Indeed, as many  ( c f . , f o r example, L. S. Brown, 1985;  F a l u d i , 1991; K i l b o u r n e , 1994; Wolf, 1994), t h e requirement o f t h i n n e s s as an e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e o f t h e d e s i r a b l e female body i s a s p e c i e s o f b a c k l a s h phenomena meant t o h i n d e r women from " t a k i n g up space" i n t h e s o c i a l sphere: young women's minds — ever b e f o r e —  "The b a c k l a s h does t o  so much more f r e e , p o t e n t i a l l y , than any  what c o r s e t s and g i r d l e s and gates on u n i v e r s i t i e s  no l o n g e r can" (Wolf, 1994, p. 110). Thus what i s marketed  and consumed as a means t o l i b e r a t i o n  and transcendence a c t u a l l y f u n c t i o n s as a way o f d i s t r a c t i n g ( e s p e c i a l l y white, middle o r upper c l a s s ) women from our f u l l realization.  Indeed, under t h e sheep's g u i s e o f o f f e r i n g a path  t o acceptance w i t h i n t h e male sphere, t h e wolf exacts a c e r t a i n p r i c e from women i n t h e form o f demanding t h a t we l i t e r a l l y  don't  take up space, and t h a t we s a c r i f i c e time, money, and energy i n c r a f t i n g bodies which meet t h i s requirement.  2  The c r u e l  irony  here i s t h a t many women have i n t e r n a l i z e d t h e O r w e l l i a n message t h a t enslavement  i s freedom and t h a t punishment i s s e l f - c a r e .  And we can be c e r t a i n t h a t t h i s e x e r c i s e i n bad f a i t h w i l l be sustained since the m u l t i b i l l i o n - d o l l a r i n d u s t r i e s r e l a t e d t o  7 d i e t i n g , e x e r c i s e , f a s h i o n , cosmetic surgery, and marketing themselves a l l have a huge stake i n c u l t i v a t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g the i d e o l o g y o f female body management (Bordo, 1991;  1993; F a l u d i ,  K i l b o u r n e , 1994; Rothblum, 1994). In sum, then, from a s o c i o c u l t u r a l s t a n d p o i n t , two major  s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s have put women a t i n c r e a s e d r i s k f o r e a t i n g disorders:  (1) emphasis on t h i n n e s s as an e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e o f  female a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , and (2) c o n f l i c t between t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s ( S h i s s l a k & Crago, 1994). begun t o see how these p r e s s u r e s a r e connected  We have a l s o i n t h e domain o f  female body management s i n c e t h e r e l e n t l e s s p u r s u i t o f t h i n n e s s i s marketed and consumed as a means f o r women t o r e s o l v e gender c o n f l i c t generated  by t h e double  bind.  Because f e m i n i s t s have s u c c e s s f u l l y argued t h e i r case, t h e r e i s widespread agreement among r e s e a r c h e r s and c l i n i c i a n s i n the f i e l d that s o c i o c u l t u r a l factors play a r o l e i n generating eating disorders.  Nonetheless,  a rift  i s r e v e a l e d when we t r y t o p i n  down t h e p r e c i s e meaning and i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s assessment.  On  the one hand, f e m i n i s t s such as Susan Bordo (1993) argue t h a t contemporary North American c u l t u r e p l a y s a "preeminent r o l e i n p r o v i d i n g t h e necessary ground f o r t h e h i s t o r i c a l f l o u r i s h i n g o f [ e a t i n g ] d i s o r d e r s " (p. 52). A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s p o s i t i o n , t h e c u l t u r a l aspect o f e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s i s not j u s t a r b i t r a r y and c i r c u m s t a n t i a l , but r a t h e r e s s e n t i a l and i n t e g r a l t o t h e i r formation and our understanding  o f them.  Moreover, t h e  contemporary emphasis on t h i n n e s s i s n o t simply t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f  8 a contemporary a e s t h e t i c p r e f e r e n c e . meetings of the New  D e s c r i b i n g the  1983  York Center f o r the Study of Anorexia  and  B u l i m i a , Bordo laments t h a t : [ i ] n no p l a c e was  the meaning of the i d e a l of  slenderness  explored, e i t h e r i n the context of the a n o r e c t i c ' s experience  or as a c u l t u r a l formation t h a t expresses  ideals,  a n x i e t i e s , and s o c i a l changes...much deeper than the merely aesthetic...Why t h i n n e s s should have become such a dominant c u l t u r a l i d e a l i n the t w e n t i e t h century  remained  unaddressed; the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  was  viewed as o u t s i d e the domain of c l i n i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , (p. 46) In c o n t r a s t , more p u r e l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d workers i n the mental h e a l t h f i e l d argue t h a t behaviours  a s s o c i a t e d with  d i s o r d e r s such as anorexia and b u l i m i a are symptomatic of u n d e r l y i n g pathology ways.  which c o u l d have been manifested  That i s , i n s o f a r as they r e c o g n i z e  i n other  i t s importance a t  all,  these r e s e a r c h e r s and c l i n i c i a n s take the s o c i o c u l t u r a l element t o p l a y o n l y a " c o n t r i b u t o r y " or " f a c i l i t a t i n g "  (and  certainly  non-necessary) r o l e i n the g e n e r a t i o n of d i s o r d e r s (Bordo, p. 49).  Thus the " c l i n i c i a n s , " as I w i l l r e f e r t o them,  1993,  3  conclude t h a t our a c t u a l focus i s p r o p e r l y and e x c l u s i v e l y psychological. In the context of t h i s f o c u s , the medical  model f o r most  c l i n i c a l and e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h mandates a search f o r a common u n d e r l y i n g pathology  and/or a s p e c i f i c , shared  pathogenic  9 situation  (whether b i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l or f a m i l i a l ) t o  account f o r the appearance of a g i v e n d i s o r d e r i n c e r t a i n populations.  On t h i s model, i t i s a l s o of primary importance t o  be a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h between "normal" and 1993;  L. S. Brown, 1985;  A d a i r , 1986;  Szekely,  C. Brown, 1993;  1988,  1989,  "ill"  persons (Bordo,  Smead, 1983;  Steiner-  Ussher, 1989).  H i g h l i g h t s of the f e m i n i s t response t o these f e a t u r e s of medical model i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g .  As some w r i t e r s have  argued, the major e t i o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s of anorexia i n t r a p s y c h i c , f a m i l i a l , and o r g a n i c ) f o r the present disorder  nervosa  1989;  (viz.,  are not adequate t o account  h i s t o r i c a l i n c r e a s e i n the i n c i d e n c e of  (Hesse-Biber,  the  Schwartz e t a l . 1982).  without an a l t e r a t i o n i n the psychodynamic, f a m i l i a l ,  the  That i s , or  b i o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s t h a t are deemed t o cause e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s , must t u r n our a t t e n t i o n elsewhere t o account f o r the epidemic.  we  current  What i s needed, they c l a i m , i s a s e r i o u s examination  of s o c i o c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s . Others argue t h a t examination of the p o l i t i c a l context  cultural-historical-  r e v e a l s a continuum of problem e a t i n g on which  the e a t i n g behaviour of most North American women can be (Bloom e t a l . , 1994; 1989;  Bordo, 1993;  P o l i v y & Herman, 1987;  Striegel-Moore  C. Brown, 1993;  Rodin e t a l . , 1984;  Hesse-Biber, Smead,  e t a l . , 1986). From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e ,  continuum not o n l y  located  1983;  the  ( r i g h t f u l l y ) b l u r s the d i s t i n c t i o n between  pathology and normalcy, but a l s o e l i m i n a t e s the  justification for  s e a r c h i n g w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l s (or t h e i r b i o l o g y or f a m i l y systems)  10 f o r a common e t i o l o g y .  Instead,  which p l a y powerful, u b i q u i t o u s behaviour r e g a r d i n g  c u l t u r a l a r t i f a c t s and f a c t o r s r o l e s i n shaping women's  e a t i n g , d i e t i n g , e x e r c i s i n g , and so on should  be compiled and analyzed. In response, t h e c l i n i c i a n s would counter t h a t c r i t e r i a a r e needed t o d i s t i n g u i s h normal from p a t h o l o g i c a l behaviour so t h a t a population  i n need o f h e l p can be b e t t e r understood and t r e a t e d  more e f f e c t i v e l y .  I t i s not u s e f u l i n t h i s context t o  demonstrate t h a t most o f the e n t i r e female p o p u l a t i o n s o c i e t y engages i n d y s f u n c t i o n a l behaviour. objectionable  Indeed, i t i s h i g h l y  t o g l o s s over t h e r e a l i t y o f d i s o r d e r e d  e a t i n g , purging,  of a  patterns of  and/or e x e r c i s e i n t h e name o f a p o l i t i c a l  agenda t o u n i v e r s a l i z e t h e problems (Bordo, 1993; Swartz, 1985). Instead,  populations  of anorexic  and b u l i m i c g i r l s and women need  t o be i d e n t i f i e d , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  (and/or f a m i l i a l o r organic)  problems a t t h e e t i o l o g i c a l core o f each d i s o r d e r must be discovered. Of course, from one p e r s p e c t i v e perceived  problem e a t i n g can be  up and down t h e l i n e as p a t h o l o g i c a l and indeed some  f e m i n i s t s have argued t h a t "normal" e a t i n g f o r women i n contemporary North American s o c i e t y i s i n f a c t p a t h o l o g i c a l ( P o l i v y & Herman, 1987). one  From another ( f e m i n i s t )  perspective,  can argue t h a t women's e a t i n g behaviour i s normal ( i n t h e  sense o f adhering t o norms) and indeed normative ( i n t h e sense o f being r e q u i r e d ) 1984).  f o r a l l women i n t h i s s o c i e t y (Rodin e t a l . ,  The p o i n t from e i t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e  i s t h a t pathology i s  11 not l o c a t e d w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l  women b u t i n the c u l t u r a l mandates  which teach us t o l o a t h e , m i s t r u s t , and indeed wage war on our bodies and our d e s i r e s . *  In t h i s context,  i t seems strange t o  examine t h e case o f a r e l a t i v e few who a r e l o c a t e d a t t h e extreme end  o f the continuum, t a g them as " s i c k , " and ask on an  individual  b a s i s how they came t o be t h a t way.  Rather,  argue, i t makes more sense t o look a t t h e p a i n f u l  daily  of t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f women who chase a f t e r t h i n n e s s  feminists struggles somewhere  along t h e r e s t o f t h e continuum, and ask from a c u l t u r a l , h i s t o r i c a l , and p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e how they came to be t h a t way. At t h i s  juncture,  i t may seem obvious t h a t I am b i a s e d i n  favour o f t h e f e m i n i s t s i d e o f t h e above-described debate.  In a  sense t h i s i s q u i t e t r u e as I am i n f u l l agreement w i t h t h e f e m i n i s t argument as I have sketched i t here. i n t e n d simply  t o pass over t h e p o s i t i o n  share some o f t h e i r concerns.  However, I do not  of the c l i n i c i a n s since I  Indeed, I am perplexed  to find  myself i n t h e middle o f t h e debate i n an important r e s p e c t .  To  be more s p e c i f i c , I agree t h a t a l l problem e a t i n g should be conceptualized more f r u i t f u l  as l y i n g on a continuum and t h a t i t i s a c c o r d i n g l y (and s o c i a l l y p r o g r e s s i v e )  t o note s i m i l a r i t i e s  between modes o f problem e a t i n g and t h e i r shared  social-cultural-  h i s t o r i c a l - p o l i t i c a l context  t h e behaviour o f  than t o p a t h o l o g i z e  women on t h e extreme end o f t h e continuum and examine i t i n an isolated,  a h i s t o r i c a l fashion.  Yet I a l s o agree t h a t i t would be  a mistake t o operate as though e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s such as anorexia  12 and b u l i m i a do not r e q u i r e f u r t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l  exploration.  While t h e emotions, c o g n i t i o n s , and behaviour o f (white,  middle  or upper c l a s s ) women w i t h e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s a r e arguably not d i f f e r e n t i n k i n d from those o f other  (white, middle o r upper  c l a s s ) women on t h e continuum (Bordo, 1993; P o l i v y & Herman, 1987;  Rodin e t a l . , 1984; Smead, 1983), I b e l i e v e t h e i r extreme  nature r e q u i r e s i n v e s t i g a t i o n and s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n .  I also  b e l i e v e t h a t p r e c i s e l y because t h e concept o f a continuum the present  fits  case, f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n o f extreme cases would  p o t e n t i a l l y provide  useful information  about other s p e c i e s o f  problem e a t i n g . The i s rooted  b e l i e f that eating disorders require special attention i n my own p e r s o n a l  history.  A t t h e age o f 15, I l o s t  over 25 per cent o f my body weight, became amenorrheic, and was determined not t o m a i n t a i n a minimally and h e i g h t . I was t h i n .  normal weight f o r my age  I had an i n t e n s e f e a r o f g a i n i n g weight, even though Indeed, s i n c e I thought I was f a t , I d i d not have a  r e a l i s t i c sense o f e i t h e r t h e shape o r s i z e o f my body. Moreover, s i n c e much o f my s e l f - e s t e e m  was l i n k e d t o being as  t h i n as p o s s i b l e , I was depressed about being planned t o l o s e more weight.  "so f a t " and  In s h o r t , I would have met a l l t h e  d i a g n o s t i c c r i t e r i a f o r t h e r e s t r i c t i n g type o f anorexia current Diagnostic (DSM-IV, 1994). opportunity  and S t a t i s t i c a l Manual o f Mental  i n the  Disorders  Over t h e past twenty years I have had ample  t o r e f l e c t on my experience o f anorexia,  i t s causal  h i s t o r y i n my own case, and t h e path o f my h e a l i n g t o f u l l  13 recovery. was  I know from ray own h i s t o r y t h a t becoming a f e m i n i s t  a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n l a t e r stages o f my f u l l  recovery.  5  However, I a l s o know t h a t r a i s i n g my f e m i n i s t consciousness would never have been s u f f i c i e n t t o i n i t i a t e my h e a l i n g o r t o b r i n g about f u l l recovery.  I a l s o r e g u i r e d in-depth  Having s a i d t h i s , though, i t should  psychotherapy.  be noted t h a t t h e  f e m i n i s t has i n a sense been s e t up here as a "straw woman" f o r the purposes o f t h e c l i n i c i a n ' s argument. r e a d i l y recognize  For feminists i n f a c t  t h a t other f a c t o r s ( i n d i v i d u a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l ,  f a m i l i a l , and perhaps even b i o l o g i c a l ) a r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e production  o f d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g i n any g i v e n case.  F o r example,  Bordo (1993) c l e a r l y s t a t e s t h a t c u l t u r e works "not o n l y through i d e o l o g y and images b u t through t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y , the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y , [and] perception"  the t r a i n i n g of  (p. 5 0 ) .  To take a more e l a b o r a t e  example, Hesse-Biber (1989) i n f a c t  contends t h a t e a t i n g problems l i e on a continuum and t h a t a n a l y s i s o f t h e i r s o c i o c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g i s necessary i n order t o understand them f u l l y .  Nonetheless, she d i s c o v e r e d  i n h e r own  r e s e a r c h t h a t e s p e c i a l l y women c o l l e g e students manifested a host of b e h a v i o u r a l  symptoms, but not t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h anorexia the EDI.  pathology  and b u l i m i a as measured on subscales o f  In s u b c l i n i c a l cases o f women who were weight-  preoccupied, o n l y a heightened (but n o t abnormal) sense o f p e r f e c t i o n i s m was present.  T h i s l e d Hesse-Biber t o h y p o t h e s i z e  t h a t t h e r e i s a separate range o f s u b c l i n i c a l e a t i n g  difficulties  14 present  among c o l l e g e women, and t o develop an e x t e n s i v e  argument  to the e f f e c t that t h i s class of d i f f i c u l t i e s i s c u l t u r a l l y induced.  F o r t h e purposes o f t h e present  argument, t h e f l i p  side  of t h i s outcome i s t h a t Hesse-Biber's (1989) work i r o n i c a l l y lends support t o t h e c l i n i c i a n ' s p o i n t t h a t something e l s e must account f o r the m a n i f e s t a t i o n cases.  o f symptomatology i n c l i n i c a l  In accordance with t h e c l i n i c i a n ' s p e r s p e c t i v e ,  t h a t what's m i s s i n g  I believe  f a l l s under t h e heading o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l and  not s o c i o c u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s . I f t h i s holds and i f , moreover, f e m i n i s t c u l t u r a l cannot y i e l d t h e o r i e s which provide  analysis  an adequate foundation  therapy, one might conclude t h a t f e m i n i s t s should  continue doing  c u l t u r a l a n a l y s i s , and c l i n i c i a n s , t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l work each on separate t r a c k s . t h i s suggestion  for  —  Yet t h e r e a r e a t l e a s t t h r e e ways t h a t  limits possibilities.  c l i n i c i a n s do not r e c o g n i z e  First,  i n s o f a r as  and i n t e g r a t e f e m i n i s t analyses o f  the s o c i o c u l t u r a l nature of problem e a t i n g , t h e i r t h e o r i e s and p r a c t i c e s r e s t on an incomplete and i n a c c u r a t e of problem e a t i n g .  conceptualization  Second, c l i n i c i a n s and f e m i n i s t s a l i k e would  l a c k a c l e a r sense o f how c u l t u r a l - p o l i t i c a l messages t a r g e t e d a t g i r l s and women come t o be c a u s a l l y e f f i c a c i o u s w i t h i n t h e psychology o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . opportunity  F i n a l l y , c l i n i c i a n s miss an  t o e x p l o r e how g a i n i n g f e m i n i s t i n s i g h t can be a key,  i n t e g r a l component o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l i n g f o r women w i t h problem e a t i n g . With r e s p e c t t o t h e second o f these p o i n t s i t may appear a l l  15 too obvious t h a t g i r l s and women soak up c u l t u r a l d i r e c t i v e s simply  because they a r e t h e r e .  " t h e r e " but u b i q u i t o u s  In f a c t , they a r e not o n l y  t o t h e tune o f over 1500 advertisements  t h a t t h e average U. S. c i t i z e n i s exposed t o d a i l y 1994;  Bordo, 1993).  (Kilbourne,  However, concerns have been r a i s e d about  t h i s way o f understanding t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c u l t u r e and psychology.  Szekely  (1988, 1989) argues t h a t i t does n o t h e l p  the f e m i n i s t cause t o p o r t r a y women as p a s s i v e , r e c i p i e n t s of culture.  sponge-like  And we might a l s o note on b e h a l f o f t h e  c l i n i c i a n s t h a t such an understanding f a i l s t o account f o r why o n l y some g i r l s and women end up s t r u g g l i n g w i t h e a t i n g disorders.  That i s , one can argue t h a t i f a l l o f us a r e exposed  t o t h e same c u l t u r a l messages, how do we account f o r t h e f a c t t h a t women a r e l o c a t e d a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s along the continuum? In answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n ,  and r e t u r n i n g t o t h e suggestion  t h a t f e m i n i s t s and c l i n i c i a n s go t h e i r separate ways, I want t o c l a i m t h a t what we u l t i m a t e l y r e q u i r e i s a p s y c h o p o l i t i c a l account which shows how p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p o l i t i c a l  (cultural,  s o c i a l , and h i s t o r i c a l ) f a c t o r s a r e interwoven i n t h e e t i o l o g y o f problem e a t i n g . constructed  Such an account c o u l d i n f a c t be e s p e c i a l l y  t o address t h e concerns and t o i n t e g r a t e t h e i n s i g h t s  of both f e m i n i s t s and c l i n i c i a n s .  C l a s s i c a l models o f  p s y c h o p o l i t i c a l accounts a r e o f f e r e d i n t h e f e m i n i s t  object  r e l a t i o n s t h e o r i e s o f Nancy Chodorow, J e s s i c a Benjamin, and Jane Flax.  F o r example, Nancy Chodorow (1978, 1980) argues t h a t , as  shaped w i t h i n p a t r i a r c h a l c u l t u r e , t h e very s t r u c t u r e o f  16 c h i l d r e a r i n g reproduces s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y - g e n d e r e d modes o f r e l a t i n g on t h e p a r t o f females and males i n s o c i e t y .  More  e x p l i c i t l y i n t h e case o f e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s we can r e f e r t o t h e f e m i n i s t c u l t u r a l - a n a l y t i c work o f Kim Chernin  (1981; 1985) and  Susie Orbach (1978; 1986) which "has always s t r e s s e d t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f c u l t u r e with f a m i l y , economic, and h i s t o r i c a l developments and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f gender" (Bordo, 1993, pp. 32-33). As we began t o note e a r l i e r , f o r Chernin pressure  t o be t h i n i s a k i n d o f backlash  women which i s rooted  (1981; 1985) t h e  phenomenon a g a i n s t  i n a c u l t u r a l f e a r o f female power.  In The  Hungry S e l f (1985) she f u r t h e r i n t e r p r e t s e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s as symptoms o f a female i d e n t i t y c r i s i s which i s r e l a t e d t o a s t r u g g l e i n which daughters f e a r s u r p a s s i n g t h e i r mothers. Dominated by c u l t u r a l s a n c t i o n s and images, and by g u i l t and s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y r e g a r d i n g t h e prospect  of transcending the  l i v e s o f t h e i r mothers, women succumb t o problem e a t i n g and thus r e t r e a t from r e a l i z i n g t h e i r f u l l p o t e n t i a l . Within h e r more c l a s s i c a l l y o b j e c t - r e l a t i o n a l approach, Orbach (1986) i n t e r p r e t s t h e a n o r e x i c expression  female body as an  o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n , c o n f l i c t , and p r o t e s t r a t h e r than  retreat.  As Bordo (1993) notes,  she argues t h a t t h e c o n f l i c t  contained  w i t h i n t h e t h i n i d e a l i s generated by a c u l t u r e t h a t  " d i s d a i n s and suppresses female hunger [and] makes women ashamed of t h e i r a p p e t i t e s and needs" (p. 176), while a t t h e same time r e q u i r i n g women t o be n u r t u r a n t  providers f o r others.  17 T r a g i c a l l y , as primary t r a n s m i t t e r s o f c u l t u r e , mothers p l a y a key r o l e i n t r a i n i n g t h e i r daughters t o experience i n s e c u r i t y regarding t h e i r bodies.  According  shame and  t o Orbach, t h i s  p r a c t i c e grows out o f mothers' commitment t o r a i s i n g " a p p r o p r i a t e " daughters who can be s u c c e s s f u l w i t h i n  their  culture. F e m i n i s t o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s approaches have t h e v i r t u e o f expanding beyond i n t r a p s y c h i c and family-systems approaches t o e a t i n g problems by making e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e surrounding c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l context.  Conversely,  they do n o t leave us  with o n l y a s o c i o l o g i c a l understanding o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f c u l t u r e i n shaping i n d i v i d u a l psychology.  As Susan G u t w i l l  (1994) and h e r c o l l e a g u e s a t t h e Women's Therapy Centre I n s t i t u t e note: F e m i n i s t o b j e c t - r e l a t i o n a l and i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e t h e o r i s t s have been most u s e f u l i n e x p l o r i n g t h e r o l e o f t h e unconscious i n t h e i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l prescriptions.  These t h e o r i s t s . . . have made seminal  c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n t u r n i n g a t t e n t i o n away from an e x c l u s i v e focus on o e d i p a l p a t t e r n i n g and toward t h e e f f e c t s o f s o c i e t y on t h e m o t h e r / c h i l d  dyad.  T h e i r work r e f u s e s t o  m a r g i n a l i z e women's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l growth o r t o view her o u t s i d e o f h e r s o c i a l context,  (p. 16)  Nonetheless, a host o f other o b j e c t i o n s have been r a i s e d i n response t o these s o r t s o f t h e o r i e s . noted e a r l i e r , Szekely  F i r s t , t o expand on a p o i n t  (1988; 1989) argues t h a t o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s ,  18 Jungian, and s e l f - p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s continue t o d e p i c t women as "merely responding p a s s i v e l y t o s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n f l u e n c e s " (1988, p. 179),  where t h e " s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r  o f our  e x i s t e n c e means l i t t l e more than t h e psychodynamics o f f a m i l y relations"  (p. 180).  P a r t l y because o f t h i s , these t h e o r i e s  cannot account f o r t h e f a c t t h a t some women have been a b l e t o r e s i s t t h e " g l o b a l " f o r c e s which a r e deemed t o cause e a t i n g disorders.  6  Szekely  a l s o takes e x c e p t i o n  t o the essentialism of  these t h e o r i e s i n t h e i r p o s t u l a t i o n o f an i n n a t e feminine nature or a n a t u r a l S e l f which i s meant t o determine t h e course o f (female) l i v e s .  She argues t h a t these phenomena a r e not  b i o l o g i c a l l y given and t h a t we r e q u i r e an account o f t h e i r  social  and h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g throughout women's l i v e s . A f i n a l o b j e c t i o n a r i s e s from t h e women a t t h e Women's Therapy Centre I n s t i t u t e .  They a r e concerned t h a t even f e m i n i s t  o b j e c t r e l a t i o n a l and i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e t h e o r i e s imply t h a t mothers are "too much r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r the pathologies  of men and women" ( G u t w i l l , 1994, p. 16).  and v u l n e r a b i l i t i e s  Instead,  they see a  need " t o t h e o r i z e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l l y about how t h e symbols o f commodification and o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e female body and a p p e t i t e a r e i n t e r n a l i z e d by women d i r e c t l y from t h e i r c u l t u r e " (p. 17). need.  In f a c t , t h e women a t t h e I n s t i t u t e have answered t h i s  Very b r i e f l y , a t t h e h e a r t o f t h e i r theory  i s the object  r e l a t i o n a l concept t h a t people need t o a t t a c h themselves t o t r a n s i t i o n a l phenomena throughout t h e i r l i v e s .  They argue t h a t  symbols o f consumer c u l t u r e take on p s y c h o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e as  19 t r a n s i t i o n a l phenomena t o the extent  t h a t i t makes sense t o  invoke the concept of a " c u l t u r e mother," " c u l t u r e parent," or " c u l t u r e home" (p. 18).  That i s , the  "symbol i s i n a p a r e n t a l  r o l e t o the s u b j e c t , " where, as they a l s o emphasize, t h i s r o l e i s used " f o r the advantage of the symbol makers" (p. Despite  the e x c i t i n g and  23).  i n n o v a t i v e nature of t h i s work, I  do not p l a n t o develop e i t h e r a t r a d i t i o n a l or n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o b j e c t r e l a t i o n a l model of problem e a t i n g . development of any  In f a c t ,  the  f u l l - f l e d g e d p s y c h o p o l i t i c a l model of problem  e a t i n g i s w e l l beyond the scope of t h i s p r o j e c t . c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the eventual c e n t r a l task of t h i s t h e s i s .  However,  c o n s t r u c t i o n of such a model i s the In p a r t i c u l a r , I propose t o  sketch  a model of c e r t a i n aspects of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c u l t u r e and  psychology i n the p r o d u c t i o n  of problem e a t i n g .  Returning  f u l l c i r c l e t o our e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n , I a l s o propose t o demonstrate how  the debate between f e m i n i s t s and  clinicians  be r e s o l v e d i n a manner t h a t e n r i c h e s both r e s e a r c h  may  and p r a c t i c e .  In order t o accomplish t h i s l a t t e r g o a l I w i l l need t o address the i s s u e s r a i s e d by f e m i n i s t s and c l i n i c i a n s above.  considered  In order t o i n t e g r a t e t h i s t a s k with t h a t of developing  model, I w i l l formulate f e m i n i s t and  c l i n i c a l concerns as  c o n d i t i o n s of adequacy f o r a p s y c h o c u l t u r a l problem e a t i n g .  According  a  theory  or model of  t o the l i s t t h a t f o l l o w s , then, I  propose t h a t an adequate p s y c h o c u l t u r a l model of problem e a t i n g : (i) i n t e r p r e t s the r o l e of contemporary c u l t u r a l messages r e l a t e d t o female body management as i n t r i n s i c and e s s e n t i a l t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n of problem e a t i n g  20 (ii) accounts f o r how c u l t u r a l messages r e l a t e d t o female body management come t o be c a u s a l l y e f f i c a c i o u s w i t h i n t h e psychology of i n d i v i d u a l g i r l s and women ( i i i ) i n t e g r a t e s t h e c u r r e n t h i s t o r i c a l context o f gender upheaval and c o n f l i c t f o r g i r l s and women ( i v ) r e c o g n i z e s t h a t problem e a t i n g o f a l l v a r i e t i e s along a continuum  lies  (v) (on the other hand) e x p l a i n s why some g i r l s and women end up s t r u g g l i n g with more extreme s p e c i e s o f problem eating (vi)  can c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e r a p e u t i c p r a c t i c e .  I w i l l attempt t o develop a model which meets these c r i t e r i a of s a t i s f a c t i o n by e x p l o r i n g t h e i n t e r f a c e between t h e c u l t u r e and psychology o f problem e a t i n g a t t h e l o c u s o f gender f o r white, middle o r upper c l a s s g i r l s and women.  Following  Spence  and Helmreich (1978), by 'gender' I mean t o r e f e r t o " c l u s t e r s of... a t t r i b u t e s s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y considered and  t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e males  females and thus t o define, the p s y c h o l o g i c a l core o f  masculine and feminine  p e r s o n a l i t i e s " (p. 3 ) . Bakan (1966,  r e f e r r e d t o i n Spence and Helmreich, 1978) u s e f u l l y groups a t t r i b u t e s a s s o c i a t e d with m a s c u l i n i t y under t h e heading o f agency, and a t t r i b u t e s a s s o c i a t e d with f e m i n i n i t y under t h e heading o f communion.  P e r s o n a l i t y f e a t u r e s r e f l e c t i n g agency a r e  r e l a t e d t o assertiveness, decisiveness, instrumental s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , independence, ambition, And  activity,  and competitiveness.  f e a t u r e s r e f l e c t i n g communion i n c l u d e s e l f l e s s n e s s , concern  with o t h e r s , e m o t i o n a l i t y , s e n s i t i v i t y , e x p r e s s i v e n e s s , gentleness, aggression  and s e n s i t i v i t y t o o t h e r s ' needs.  warmth,  T r a i t s such as  and dominance a r e a l s o a s s o c i a t e d with  (negative)  21 m a s c u l i n i t y , w h i l e p a s s i v i t y and dependence are a s s o c i a t e d with (negative) f e m i n i n i t y .  C u l t u r a l norms a s s o c i a t e d with  and m a s c u l i n i t y are intended t o d e f i n e proper  femininity  attitudes,  behaviours, v a l u e s , and r o l e s f o r members of the r e s p e c t i v e sexes. I choose gender as the focus of my reasons.  First,  study f o r a number of  i t r e p r e s e n t s common t u r f f o r f e m i n i s t s and  c l i n i c i a n s : those i n the former camp would have us note t h a t the content of gender and of norms r e l a t e d t o gender are ( a t l e a s t i n p a r t ) c u l t u r a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d (Basow, 1992;  Richmond-Abbott,  1992), while those i n the l a t t e r camp would h i g h l i g h t the  fact  t h a t gender i s a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e of p e r s o n a l i t y which "serves as an o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e through which many experiences p e r c e p t i o n s of s e l f and o t h e r s are f i l t e r e d "  (Spence,  and 1985,  p.  64) . The other s i d e of the c o i n here i s t h a t proponents  from each  s i d e of the debate are f o r c e d t o move a b i t c l o s e r t o the l o c u s of concern of t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , f o c u s i n g on gender r e p r e s e n t s a s t e p "out" from i n t r a p s y c h i c and f a m i l y systems approaches because a person's gendered p e r s o n a l i t y i s not i n t e r p r e t e d u n l e s s r e f e r e n c e i s made t o the surrounding  fully  social-  c u l t u r a l - p o l i t i c a l - h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t which h e l p s t o p r o v i d e i t s content.  And t h i s focus r e p r e s e n t s a s t e p " i n " from  cultural  a n a l y s i s because the e f f i c a c y of c u l t u r a l messages needs t o be understood  with r e f e r e n c e t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l mechanisms r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r g e n e r a t i n g behaviour.  22 A second reason why the c h o i c e o f gender i s advantageous i s based on t h e f e m i n i s t h y p o t h e s i s noted above t h a t  cultural  messages p e r t a i n i n g t o female body management a r e ( i n p a r t ) s p e c i f i c a l l y t a r g e t e d a t t h e need on t h e p a r t o f g i r l s and women t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t r e l a t e d t o t h e gender double b i n d .  I will  have much more t o say about t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i n Chapter F i v e . F o r now my p o i n t i s simply provides gender —  t h a t as a f e a t u r e o f p e r s o n a l i t y , gender  a medium f o r r e c e i v i n g c u l t u r a l messages r e l a t e d t o i n c l u d i n g those which convey t h e gender double-bind t o  g i r l s and women. T h i s understanding o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between input regarding  cultural  gender and the gendered p e r s o n a l i t y o f g i r l s and  women w i l l u l t i m a t e l y be u s e f u l i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a p s y c h o c u l t u r a l model o f problem e a t i n g .  But we w i l l a l s o need t o  understand more c l e a r l y t h e p r e c i s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between problem e a t i n g and gender.  The t h i r d and f i n a l m o t i v a t i o n  on gender p r e c i s e l y r e l a t e s t o t h i s t a s k . e m p i r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e has been developing  f o r focusing  F o r a body o f over t h e past twenty  years on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between gender and d i s o r d e r e d In a n u t s h e l l , r e s e a r c h e r s  have sought t o determine whether a  p a r t i c u l a r gender p r o f i l e i s r e l a t e d t o d i s o r d e r e d (including eating disorders). r e s u l t s provides  eating.  eating  Since an examination o f t h e i r  a natural s t a r t i n g point f o r exploring the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between gender and problem e a t i n g , a review o f t h i s l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be o f f e r e d i n Chapter Two. Before t u r n i n g t o t h i s review, though, I would l i k e t o o f f e r  23 some p r e f a t o r y remarks r e g a r d i n g t h e nature o f t h i s study and t h e manner i n which i t i s w r i t t e n . e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s has focused  Most r e s e a r c h  on white g i r l s  Moore, 1994, r e f e r r i n g t o Dolan, 1991).  i n the f i e l d of  and women ( S t r i e g e l -  The normative  e p i d e m i o l o g i c a l p o r t r a i t a l s o makes r e f e r e n c e t o t h e middle o r upper c l a s s s t a t u s o f women with e a t i n g problems (Thompson, 1994).  However, r e c e n t f i n d i n g s show t h a t  African-American,  L a t i n a , Asian-American, and N a t i v e American women a r e n o t immune t o these s t r u g g l e s (Thompson). gap  7  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n r e v e a l s a wide  i n our understanding o f problem e a t i n g because r e l a t i v e l y  little  i s known about i t s r e l a t i o n t o m i n o r i t y women and i n v i t e s  us t o c o n s i d e r t h e nature o f work t h a t has a l r e a d y been done.  As  noted above, f e m i n i s t s have g r e a t l y e n r i c h e d and expanded t h e f i e l d by arguing element.  t h a t e a t i n g problems have a s o c i o c u l t u r a l  However, one might expect t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s working from  a s o c i o c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e would examine t h e (white) r a c e , (middle o r upper) c l a s s s t a t u s , and gender o f women w i t h problems.  Nonetheless, even f e m i n i s t s have focused  eating  on gender t o  the n e g l e c t o f v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o race and c l a s s (as w e l l as sexual o r i e n t a t i o n , e t h n i c i t y , r e l i g i o u s background, h i s t o r i e s o f sexual abuse, and poverty;  Thompson, 1994).  In a more g e n e r a l context,  f e m i n i s t t h e o r i s t s have argued  t h a t t h i s k i n d o f s e l e c t i v e focus on t h e p a r t o f (predominantly white and middle c l a s s ) r e s e a r c h e r s  and t h e o r i s t s i s r o o t e d  s u b t l e racism and c l a s s i s m which u n c o n s c i o u s l y and m i d d l e - c l a s s  in a  takes whiteness  s t a t u s t o be g i v e n , normal, and standard  — and  24 thus not i n need of f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n 1989,  and Spelman, 1988).  ( c f . , f o r example, Fuss,  This blind-sighted neglect i s  problematic  i n a number o f ways.  F i r s t , and i r o n i c a l l y , we l a c k  information  about t h e p o t e n t i a l c a u s a l r o l e o f v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d  t o t h e white race and middle o r upper c l a s s s t a t u s o f women i n the e t i o l o g y o f t h e i r problem e a t i n g .  Second, i f t h e " e s s e n t i a l  woman" i s t a c i t l y assumed t o be white and middle c l a s s , then u n i v e r s a l c l a i m s a r e made about "women" i n t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e which o f t e n make r e f e r e n c e meet t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n .  T h i s allows  o n l y t o women who  f o r t h e burdensome and  damaging i n f e r e n c e t h a t women t o whom these c l a i m s do n o t apply are not women.  Moreover, questions  as t o whether o r n o t these  c l a i m s a r e d e s c r i p t i v e o f women i n other races and socioeconomic groups do not even enter t h e consciousness o f those i n t h e hegemonic group. One standard  c o u l d counter t h a t i n t h e case o f e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s , t h e p r o f i l e o f women with e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s  straightforwardly  d i c t a t e s t h a t o n l y white, middle o r upper c l a s s women be s t u d i e d . However, t h i s l i n e o f argument misses t h e p o i n t .  Again, because  race and c l a s s a r e not problematized i n t h e r e s e a r c h ,  claims are  made about "women" as opposed t o "white, middle o r upper c l a s s women." and  As a r e s u l t , women o f c o l o u r , women i n v a r i o u s  ethnic  r e l i g i o u s groups, l e s b i a n s , poor women, and d i s a b l e d women  w i t h e a t i n g problems a r e confronted empirical observations  w i t h t h e o r e t i c a l c l a i m s and  about "women w i t h e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s " which  do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y d e s c r i b e o r account f o r t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s and  25 experiences. may  The reasons why t h e c l a i m s don't n e c e s s a r i l y apply  have e v e r y t h i n g t o do with t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s o c i a l l o c a t i o n  of these women d i f f e r s from those  i n t h e hegemonic group, and t h e  p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e nature o f e a t i n g problems i s c o n d i t i o n e d by such f a c t o r s as r a c e , c l a s s , sexual o r i e n t a t i o n , and so on.  But  because t h e s o c i a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e overwhelming m a j o r i t y of r e s e a r c h s u b j e c t s i s both e s s e n t i a l i z e d and rendered  invisible,  m i n o r i t y women with e a t i n g problems a r e d e p r i v e d of an understanding  o f t h e i r experiences,  and even o f a way t o name  them. In l i g h t o f t h e above d i s c u s s i o n , i t i s d i f f i c u l t b u t a l s o imperative t o note t h a t my work here i s c o n s c i o u s l y r e s t r i c t e d t o the study o f gender i n r e l a t i o n t o problem e a t i n g .  This  narrowing o f scope imposes s i g n i f i c a n t l i m i t a t i o n s on my study, and would be h i g h l y o b j e c t i o n a b l e i f i t were t o repeat t h e mistakes o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s . committed t o adopting  In f a c t , though, I am  a more p o l i t i c a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e approach  which b l o c k s both t h e assumption t h a t use o f t h e term 'women' secures r e f e r e n c e t o a l l women, and t h e r e l a t e d i n f e r e n c e t h a t women whose experiences  a r e not d e s c r i b e d i n c l a i m s and  o b s e r v a t i o n s u s i n g t h i s term a r e not women. To accomplish  t h i s I have e x p l i c i t l y " l o c a t e d " t h e g i r l s and  women who a r e t h e focus o f t h i s study  inits title.  In a d d i t i o n ,  as i n t h e case o f t h i s I n t r o d u c t i o n , I w i l l a t times make e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e (white) race and (middle o r upper) c l a s s s t a t u s o f t h e g i r l s and women r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e m a t e r i a l  26 t h a t I d e s c r i b e and analyze  i n the text of t h i s t h e s i s .  awkwardness I w i l l do t h i s o n l y s p o r a d i c a l l y . these d e s c r i p t o r s a r e omitted, u n l e s s otherwise  To a v o i d  However, when  t h e reader should understand t h a t ,  s p e c i f i e d , by 'woman' o r 'women' I mean t o r e f e r  to white women with middle o r upper c l a s s backgrounds. F o r s i m i l a r s t y l i s t i c reasons,  I w i l l a l s o most o f t e n o n l y make  e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e t o women, even though on most o c c a s i o n s to  I mean  r e f e r t o both g i r l s and women. I would a l s o l i k e t o note here t h a t t h e phrase  'disordered  e a t i n g ' i s used almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n t h e L i t e r a t u r e Review t o reproduce t h e manner i n which c l a i m s and o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d by the r e s e a r c h e r s whose work I d e s c r i b e t h e r e .  Most  r e s e a r c h e r s use the phrase ' d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g ' t o r e f e r t o a l l s p e c i e s o f problematic  d i e t i n g and e a t i n g behaviour —  the manner i n which food can be r e f u s e d v i a a b s t i n e n c e , the use o f l a x a t i v e s o r emetics, —  along a continuum.  including purging,  compulsive e x e r c i s i n g , and so on  T h i s i s a l s o meant t o encompass f u l l - b l o w n  c l i n i c a l eating disorders.  F o r t h e most p a r t , I am n o t t r o u b l e d  by t h e use o f t h i s phrase s i n c e I take i t t o connote e a t i n g which l a c k s order, not i n t h e sense o f b e i n g c h a o t i c , but r a t h e r i n t h e sense o f being out o f sync with t h e human order o f e a t i n g r e l a t e d to hunger, d e s i r e , and r i t u a l . G u t w i l l , Kogel and Zaphiropoulos p e r s o n a l pathology  However, f o r Bloom, G i t t e r , (1994), " [ d ] i s o r d e r connotes  and m e d i c a l i z e s t h e e t i o l o g y o f e a t i n g and  body image problems" ( x i ) . A c c o r d i n g l y , as t h e t i t l e o f t h e i r book i n d i c a t e s , they i n t r o d u c e t h e term ' e a t i n g problems' t o  27 supplant  the conventional  perspective,  'eating disorders.'  In l i g h t o f t h i s  I have adopted t h e phrases 'problem e a t i n g ' and  ' e a t i n g problems' along with ' d i s o r d e r e d species of d i e t i n g , bingeing, on along a continuum.  purging,  eating' to refer to a l l  r e s t r i c t i v e e a t i n g , and so  F o r reasons t h a t w i l l become c l e a r e r as we  proceed, I w i l l a l s o a t times use t h e phrase ' e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s ' or ' e a t i n g d i s o r d e r symptomatology' t o r e f e r t o more severe modes of problem e a t i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h anorexia  nervosa o r b u l i m i a a t  the f a r end o f t h i s continuum. F i n a l l y , I wish t o note t h a t throughout t h e t h e s i s , f i r s t person p l u r a l pronouns such as 'we,' 'us,' make r e f e r e n c e collective.  and 'our' most o f t e n  t o t h e reader and author conceived  as a k i n d o f  I do t h i s because I take t h e a c t s o f w r i t i n g and  r e a d i n g t o be e s s e n t i a l l y c o l l a b o r a t i v e .  A t times I a l s o make a  p o i n t o f employing these pronouns so as t o i n c l u d e myself as a r e f e r e n t o f t h e phrase 'white, middle c l a s s women.'  Although  t h i s p r a c t i c e may seem awkward a t times, I adopt i t here f o r t h e reason t h a t I f i n d i t impossible  t o speak i n a v o i c e which  regards these women as "other."  Of course, t h e q u e s t i o n  t o whom —  i f anyone —  w i l l reserve  t h e term 'women' a c t u a l l y r e f e r s .  remains But I  further discussion of t h e o r e t i c a l issues r e l a t e d t o  e s s e n t i a l i s m f o r another  occasion.  28 LITERATURE REVIEW  Early psychoanalytic as t h e e x p r e s s i o n 1976).  t h e o r i e s i n t e r p r e t e d anorexia  o f a f e a r o f o r a l impregnation  nervosa  (Boskind-Lodahl,  Along s i m i l a r (but by no means i d e n t i c a l ) l i n e s ,  Hilde  Bruch (1973) argued t h a t h e r c l i e n t s were r e t r e a t i n g from t h e i r imminent adolescent  (and a d u l t ) f e m i n i n i t y .  s i n c e been c o n s i d e r e d  Bruch's work has  t h e l o c u s c l a s s i c u s o f t h e psychodynamic  understanding o f a n o r e x i a .  In c o n t r a s t with Bruch's p o s i t i o n ,  Boskind-Lodahl (1976) observed i n h e r c l i e n t s a k i n d o f hyperfemininity feminine roles.  and a s t r i v i n g a f t e r t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f a  i d e a l , i n c l u d i n g the f u l f i l l m e n t of t r a d i t i o n a l Thus she hypothesized  bulimarexia  female  t h a t women s u f f e r i n g from  (roughly, binge-eating/purging-type  anorexia  nervosa)  pursue r a t h e r than r e j e c t t h e i r f e m i n i n i t y . These two p o s i t i o n s have a r t i c u l a t e d a b a s i c framework f o r research  i n t o t h e q u e s t i o n whether o r not g i r l s and women with  e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y feminine femininity.  or r e j e c t  their  However, i n t h e twenty years s i n c e Boskind-Lodahl's  (1976) a r t i c l e f i r s t appeared, t h i s framework has expanded i n t h r e e major r e s p e c t s .  F i r s t , researchers  and t h e o r i s t s w i t h i n  the debate have been concerned t o examine v a r i o u s aspects o f disordered eating i n addition to eating disorders. empirical researchers  began t o a t t e n d t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  m a s c u l i n i t y and e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s . simple  Second,  They i n i t i a l l y  reason t h a t most s t a n d a r d i z e d  d i d so f o r t h e  sex-role orientation  29 measures i n c l u d e m a s c u l i n i t y s c o r e s (Timko e t a l . , 1987). However, t h e p r a c t i c e has continued f o r more s u b s t a n t i v e , t h e o r y based reasons.  F i n a l l y , t h e framework has expanded as hypotheses  have become more complex.  F o r example, Orbach (1978; 1986)  proposed t h a t e a t i n g problems such as a n o r e x i a nervosa  8  reflect  both an adherence t o t h i n n e s s as an e x p r e s s i o n o f ' u l t r a f e m i n i n i t y , ' and a r e j e c t i n g indictment o f t h i s f e m i n i n i t y . In t h e context o f expanding t h e i n i t i a l ways, r e s e a r c h e r s have generated hypotheses.  framework i n these  and t e s t e d a r i c h v a r i e t y o f  P a r t l y because o f t h i s v a r i e t y , and p a r t l y on  account o f t h e sheer volume o f r e s u l t s , a consensus  concerning  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between gender and d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g has not been reached.  In f a c t , numerous r e s e a r c h e r s i n t r o d u c e t h e i r  s t u d i e s with a c a t a l o g u i n g o f i n c o n s i s t e n t and o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y f i n d i n g s i n t h e contemporary l i t e r a t u r e  (Paxton &  S c u l t h o r p e , 1991; P e t t i n a t i , Franks, Wade, & Kogan, 1987; S i l v e r s t e i n , Carpman, P e r l i c k , & Perdue, 1990; S t r i e g e l - M o o r e , S i l b e r s t e i n , & Rodin, 1986; Szymanski & C h r i s l e r , 1991; Thornton, Leo,  & A l b e r g , 1991; Timko, S t r i e g e l - M o o r e , S i l b e r s t e i n , & Rodin,  1987).  I w i l l s i m i l a r l y note a d i v e r s i t y o f f i n d i n g s below.  However i t w i l l be u s e f u l f i r s t  t o develop an o r g a n i z i n g  p r i n c i p l e a c c o r d i n g t o which t h e i r r a t h e r l a r g e number may be s o r t e d and recorded. For reasons d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter One, i t can be assumed t h a t the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f women r e f e r r e d t o i n these s t u d i e s a r e white and middle o r upper c l a s s .  Indeed, o n l y one study  (Thomas &  30 James, 1988) e x p l i c i t l y l o c a t e s i t s s u b j e c t s i n terms o f t h e i r r a c e and c l a s s .  Keeping  t h i s i n mind, I c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h i s body  of r e s e a r c h as y i e l d i n g t h r e e b a s i c s o r t s o f r e s u l t s : I. White, middle o r upper c l a s s women w i t h d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g manifest a p a r t i c u l a r gender p r o f i l e (feminine, masculine, androgynous) II. White, middle o r upper c l a s s women w i t h d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g bear a p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r e j e c t i n g o r embracing) t o f e m i n i n i t y and/or m a s c u l i n i t y — whether or n o t they m a n i f e s t t h e p r o f i l e i n q u e s t i o n I I I . Given t h e i r gender p r o f i l e , and t h e i r own and/or o t h e r s ' ( r e j e c t i n g o r embracing) stance w i t h r e s p e c t t o f e m i n i n i t y and/or m a s c u l i n i t y ; white, middle o r upper c l a s s women w i t h d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g experience a gap between t h e i r p e r c e i v e d and i d e a l gendered s e l v e s . I propose t o l a b e l c o r r e s p o n d i n g c a t e g o r i e s o f f i n d i n g s as f o l l o w s : " I : Gender P r o f i l e , " " I I : Gender Stance," and " I I I : Gender P r o f i l e , Gender Stance, and C o n f l i c t . "  9  From another p e r s p e c t i v e we can note t h a t f i n d i n g s under headings  I and I I ought t o h e l p address t h e h i s t o r i c a l  noted above.  questions  Again i n t h e case o f white, middle o r upper c l a s s  women: ( i ) a r e women w i t h d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g hyperfeminine?, and ( i i ) do women with d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g r e j e c t f e m i n i n i t y o r embrace it  (or both)?  Moreover, under heading  I I I , data w i l l be gathered  which should h e l p address t h e more r e c e n t l y - f o r m u l a t e d q u e s t i o n : (iii)  i s disordered eating the expression of i n t e r n a l  r e g a r d i n g gender i d e n t i t y and r o l e s ?  conflict  Indeed, one o f my g o a l s f o r  t h i s Review i s t o o r g a n i z e and d i s t i l l r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s so t h a t these q u e s t i o n s may be answered.  31 I: Gender P r o f i l e Beginning with "Gender P r o f i l e , " r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s may be recorded i n p r o p o s i t i o n a l form as f o l l o w s : (1) D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h f i g u r e r e l a t e s t o a c t u a l body mass and not masculine o r feminine s e x - t y p i n g p e r se (van S t r i e n , 1989). (2) The h i g h e s t (yet n o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ) degree o f c o g n i t i v e r e s t r a i n t o f e a t i n g i s found i n women w i t h a h i g h degree o f both m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y ( i . e . , " a d d i t i v e " o r "balanced" androgyny) (van S t r i e n ) . (3) Larger d i s c r e p a n c i e s between r e a l and i d e a l body s i z e a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e s s m a s c u l i n i t y (van S t r i e n ) . (4) S o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e t r a i t f e m i n i n i t y p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e s t o c o g n i t i v e concern about d i e t i n g (and not o b e s i t y p e r se)(Hawkins, T u r e l l , & Jackson, 1983). (5) S o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e t r a i t m a s c u l i n i t y i s n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with appearance (Hawkins, T u r e l l , & J a c k s o n ) . (6) S o c i a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e feminine t r a i t s a r e a s s o c i a t e d with d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with p h y s i c a l appearance (Hawkins, T u r e l l , & Jackson). (7) Increases i n f e m i n i n i t y a r e p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o i n c r e a s e s i n body weight (Thomas Se James, 1988). (8) Increases i n f e m i n i n i t y a r e not r e l a t e d t o d i e t i n g or happiness w i t h one's body (Thomas Se James).  tendencies  (9) Increases i n m a s c u l i n i t y a r e p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o happiness w i t h one's body (Thomas St James). (10) Increases i n m a s c u l i n i t y a r e n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o body weight and r e s t r i c t i v e d i e t i n g t e n d e n c i e s (Thomas Si James). (11) High-degree compulsive e a t e r s do not show a h i g h e r degree o f m a s c u l i n i t y o r f e m i n i n i t y (Dunn St Ondercin, 1981). (12) E a t i n g d i s o r d e r e d women t h i n k o f themselves as n e g a t i v e l y feminine and as p o s s e s s i n g s o c i a l l y n e g a t i v e t r a i t s (Dunn & Ondercin). (13) There i s no c o r r e l a t i o n between s e l f - d e s c r i b e d feminine p o s i t i v e s c o r e s and d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g (Paxton St S c u l t h o r p e , 1991). (14) S e x - r o l e t y p i n g i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a n o r e x i a i n t h e order o f  32 most t o l e a s t as f o l l o w s : feminine, blended androgynous, masculine, and balanced androgynous ( H e i l b r u n Se Mulqueen, 1987). (15) Sex-role t y p i n g i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h b u l i m i a as f o l l o w s : feminine, balanced androgynous, blended androgynous, and masculine ( H e i l b r u n & Mulqueen). (16) Being masculine o r feminine gender-typed i n i t s e l f i s n o t a r i s k f a c t o r f o r e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s (Thornton, Leo, & A l b e r g , 1991). (17) Being more masculine i s i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o b u l i m i c behaviour (Brown, Cross, & Nelson, 1990). (18) Women c l a s s i f i e d as feminine were more b u l i m i c than s u b j e c t s (Szymanski & C h r i s l e r , 1991).  other  (19) Women c l a s s i f i e d as feminine had t h e h i g h e s t (though n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ) scores on d r i v e f o r t h i n n e s s , i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s , and i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i s t r u s t (Szymanski & Chrisler). (20) F e m i n i n i t y i t s e l f i s u n r e l a t e d t o e a t i n g - d i s o r d e r e d symptomatology (Timko, S t r i e g e l - M o o r e , S i l b e r s t e i n , & Rodin, 1987) . (21) S e l f - p e r c e p t i o n o f more feminine t r a i t s i s a s s o c i a t e d p l a c i n g g r e a t e r importance on appearance (Timko e t a l . ) .  with  (22) Importance o f appearance, as a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f e m i n i n i t y (see #21) i s a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r o f e a t i n g d i s o r d e r e d symptomatology (Timko e t a l . ) . (23) S e l f - p e r c e p t i o n o f m a s c u l i n i t y i s n o t r e l a t e d t o s e l f p e r c e p t i o n o f ( a t t r a c t i v e ) appearance o r importance o f appearance (Timko e t a l . ) . (24) B u l i m i c s are n o t hyperfeminine b u t r a t h e r f a l l i n t o t h e " u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d " ( i . e . , low on both m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y ) category o f gender-typing (Lewis & Johnson, 1985). (25) Anorexics d i s p l a y a lower l e v e l o f masculine (not feminine) q u a l i t i e s ( S i t n i c k & Katz, 1984). (26) Amount o f m a s c u l i n i t y i s i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o body d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n ( S t r i e g e l - M o o r e , S i l b e r s t e i n , & Rodin, 1986). (27) Amount o f m a s c u l i n i t y i s i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o e a t i n g pathology ( S t r i e g e l - M o o r e e t a l . ) . (28) F e m i n i n i t y i s n o t r e l a t e d t o body image o r e a t i n g pathology (Striegel-Moore e t a l . ) .  33 (29) B u l i m a r e x i c s a r e (and s t r i v e t o be) hyperfeminine (BoskindLodahl, 1976). I I : Gender Stance In t h e case o f "Gender Stance," f i n d i n g s may be s i m i l a r l y recorded as f o l l o w s : (30) There a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between a n o r e x i c s , b u l i m i c s , o r c o n t r o l s i n terms o f t h e i r r e j e c t i o n o f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l feminine r o l e s (Srikameswaran, L e i c h n e r , & Harper, 1984). (31) Women's heightened concern about food i n t a k e and body weight are i n p a r t r e f l e c t i o n s o f a d e s i r e t o be p e r c e i v e d as p o s s e s s i n g and e x h i b i t i n g feminine s e x - r o l e a t t r i b u t e s and behaviours r e l a t e d t o t h e p r a c t i c e o f " e a t i n g l i g h t l y " (Mori, Chaiken, & P l i n e r , 1987; Chaiken and P l i n e r , 1987). (32) High-degree compulsive e a t e r s showed a h i g h e r masculine i d e a l (Dunn & Ondercin, 1981). (33) High-degree compulsive e a t e r s d i d not m a n i f e s t a h i g h e r feminine s e l f - i d e a l (Dunn & O n d e r c i n ) . (34) There i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s i g n i f i c a n c e between a n o r e x i a and "feminism" ( i . e . , r e j e c t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l f e m i n i n i t y ) ( B a i l e y & Hamilton, 1992). (35) Women w i t h d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g don't e x h i b i t more l i b e r a t e d views o f women's r o l e s (Paxton & S c u l t h o r p e , 1991) (36) Being f e m i n i s t i n a t t i t u d e i s i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o b u l i m i c behaviour (Brown, C r o s s , & Nelson, 1990). (37) Importance o f f e m i n i n i t y and importance o f m a s c u l i n i t y a r e each r e l a t e d t o importance o f appearance (Timko, S t r i e g e l - M o o r e , S i l b e r s t e i n , & Rodin, 1987). (38) Importance o f s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e masculine t r a i t s i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g (Timko e t a l . ) . (39) Having a superwoman i d e a l ( i . e . , t a k i n g on many r o l e s as c e n t r a l t o one's sense o f s e l f ) i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h symptoms o f d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g (Timko e t a l . ) . (40) Having a superwoman i d e a l i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p l a c i n g more importance on having a f i t , s l i m and a t t r a c t i v e appearance (Timko et a l . ) . (41) Having a superwoman i d e a l i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a s c r i b i n g h i g h  34 importance  t o masculine t r a i t s  (Timko e t a l . ) .  (42) Women w i t h e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s d e s c r i b e d t h e i r i d e a l s e l f as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more feminine than non-patient students ( P e t t i n a t i , Franks, Wade, & Kogan, 1987). (43) Engaging i n d i e t i n g and b i n g e i n g w i t h t h e g o a l o f being t h i n and noncurvaceous i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h an emphasis on p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s ( S i l v e r s t e i n & Perdue, 1988). (44) Engaging i n purging o r becoming underweight with t h e g o a l o f being t h i n and noncurvaceous i s c o r r e l a t e d with an emphasis on i n t e l l i g e n c e o r p r o f e s s i o n a l success ( S i l v e r s t e i n & Perdue). (45) B u l i m a r e x i c s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s l i b e r a t e d than c o n t r o l s (Rost, Neuhaus, & F l o r i n , 1982). (46) When t h i n n e s s and d i e t i n g become a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e image of an autonomous, independent Superwoman (as opposed t o an image of a woman f o r whom connectedness t o s e l f and o t h e r s i s c e n t r a l i n h e r l i f e ) g i r l s a r e more a t r i s k f o r d e v e l o p i n g e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s ( S t e i n e r - A d a i r , 1986). (47) Given t h a t being concerned with one's appearance and a d e s i r e t o be b e a u t i f u l i s p a r t o f t h e female sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e , and g i v e n t h a t being s l e n d e r i s c e n t r a l t o t h e contemporary Western concept o f beauty, women a r e d i r e c t e d toward t h e p u r s u i t of t h i n n e s s v i a t h e i r own concern t o be feminine (Boskind-White & White, 1986; Chernin, 1981, 1985; M a r t i n , 1989; Nagel & Jones, 1992; Nasser, 1988; Orbach, 1978, 1986; Rodin, S i l b e r s t e i n , & S t r i e g e l - M o o r e , 1984; S t r i e g e l - M o o r e , S i l b e r s t e i n , & Rodin, 1986). (48) In t h e f a c e o f puberty, adolescence and a n x i e t y - p r o v o k i n g a n t i c i p a t i o n s o f female adulthood, t h e a n o r e x i c g i r l renounces a d u l t f e m i n i n i t y and r e v e r t s t o a pre-pubescent s t a t e (Bruch, 1973) . (49) The a n o r e x i c 'dreams o f doing w e l l i n areas c o n s i d e r e d more r e s p e c t f u l and worthwhile because they a r e masculine' (Bruch, 1978, p. 55). Ill:  Gender P r o f i l e , Gender Stance, and C o n f l i c t F i n a l l y , we can r e c o r d t h e f i n d i n g s f o r I I I :  (50) A h i g h e r l e v e l o f education i n combination w i t h d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h body image i s even more r e l e v a n t than t h e androgyny f a c t o r i n terms o f p r e d i c t i n g c o g n i t i v e r e s t r a i n t (van S t r i e n , 1989). (51) Whether o r not they a r e feminine o r m a s c u l i n e - o r i e n t e d ,  35 b i n g e r s are more l i k e l y than non-bingers t o r e p o r t t h a t t h e i r p a r e n t s b e l i e v e t h a t a woman's p l a c e i s i n the home, t h a t t h e i r mothers are unhappy w i t h t h e i r own c a r e e r s , t h a t t h e i r f a t h e r s thought t h e i r mothers were n o t i n t e l l i g e n t , and t h a t t h e i r f a t h e r s t r e a t e d a male as the most i n t e l l i g e n t s i b l i n g i n t h e f a m i l y ( S i l v e r s t e i n , Perdue, Wolf, & P i z z o l o , 1988). (52) Parents' values ( i n terms o f the above-noted parameters) d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between purgers and nonpurgers i n the case o f f e m i n i n e - o r i e n t e d women ( S i l v e r s t e i n e t a l . ) . (53) M a s c u l i n e - o r i e n t e d women were much more l i k e l y t o engage i n purging i f t h e i r f a t h e r ' s values were l e s s l i b e r a t e d ( S i l v e r s t e i n et a l . ) . (54) High-degree compulsive e a t e r s showed a g r e a t e r d i s c r e p a n c y between masculine s e l f concept and s e l f i d e a l (Dunn & Ondercin, 1981) . (55) There i s a g r e a t e r d i s c r e p a n c y between s e l f and i d e a l masculine t r a i t s due t o low l e v e l o f s e l f - p e r c e i v e d masculine t r a i t s (and t h e r e f o r e not due t o g r e a t e r presence o f p o s i t i v e masculine t r a i t s i n t h e i r i d e a l female) — e s p e c i a l l y f o r b u l i m i c symptomatology (Paxton & S c u l t h o r p e , 1991). (56) Women w i t h e a t i n g d i s o r d e r symptomatology experience c o n f l i c t r e g a r d i n g t h e i r s e l f - a s c r i b e d negative feminine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which they attempt t o r e s o l v e by s t r i v i n g a f t e r i d e a l f e m i n i n i t y (Paxton & S c u l t h o r p e ) . (57) Women w i t h n o n t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e a s p i r a t i o n s who a l s o i n d i c a t e c o n f l i c t r e g a r d i n g t h e i r femaleness are more l i k e l y t o r e p o r t purging o r frequent b i n g e i n g ( S i l v e r s t e i n , Carpman, P e r l i c k , & Perdue, 1990). (58) Women who are e i t h e r e s p e c i a l l y masculine o r feminine i n gender-type and a s p i r e t o a superwoman i d e a l are p a r t i c u l a r l y a t r i s k f o r e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s (Thornton, Leo, & A l b e r g , 1991). (59) Non-superwomen as w e l l as androgynous o r u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d superwomen are a t low r i s k f o r e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s (Thornton, Leo, & Alberg). (60) B u l i m a r e x i c s show a wider gap between t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and behaviour r e g a r d i n g women's r o l e s (Rost, Neuhaus, & F l o r i n , 1982) . (61) Women w i t h d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g experience c o n f u s i o n and s t r e s s concerning t h e i r sex r o l e s and gender t r a i t s because they a r e caught between s o c i e t a l messages which urge them a c t i v e l y t o engage i n s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y male p u r s u i t s and t o e x h i b i t masculine a t t r i b u t e s , b u t a l s o n o t t o r e l i n q u i s h more t r a d i t i o n a l feminine-  36 gendered t r a i t s and r o l e s (Boskind-White & White, 1986; Chernin, 1981, 1985; Orbach, 1978, 1986); S t e i n e r - A d a i r , 1986; S t r i e g e l Moore, S i l b e r s t e i n , & Rodin, 1986; Thornton, Leo & A l b e r g , 1991). (62) Anorexia ( i n c l u d i n g the b i n g e - e a t i n g / p u r g i n g subtype) r e f l e c t s an adherence t o t h i n n e s s as an e x p r e s s i o n of ' u l t r a f e m i n i n i t y ' and a l s o a r e j e c t i n g indictment of t h a t f e m i n i n i t y (Orbach, 1978, 1986). (63) Being r e l a t i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d and d e f i n i n g o n e s e l f i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s as g i r l s do, and then renouncing t h i s i s favour of a male developmental i d e a l c h a r a c t e r i z e d by autonomous detachment t o o t h e r s i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h both the superwoman i d e a l and e a t i n g d i s o r d e r symptomatology ( S t e i n e r - A d a i r , 1986). Having o r g a n i z e d the r e s u l t s i n t h i s f a s h i o n , i t may though we can begin t o t a c k l e q u e s t i o n s  seem as  ( i ) - ( i i i ) r a i s e d above  concerning the gender p r o f i l e of white, middle o r upper c l a s s women with d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g .  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the sheer volume of  i n f o r m a t i o n s t i l l makes i t onerous t o make c r o s s - s t u d y comparisons and d i s c e r n p a t t e r n s of r e s u l t s , i f they  exist.  Moreover, the r e s u l t s seem r i d d l e d w i t h c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . example, (13) and  For  (18) are a t odds w i t h one another r e g a r d i n g the  c o n n e c t i o n between f e m i n i n i t y and d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g , and  (33)  and  (42) c l a s h over the q u e s t i o n whether or not f e m i n i n i t y i s v a l u e d . On the o t h e r hand, though, c a u t i o n must be e x e r c i s e d even b e f o r e we can make these s o r t s of judgments. c o n t r a d i c t i o n among r e s u l t s i s o n l y apparent  For agreement or u n t i l i t can  be  e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the s t u d i e s r e f e r r e d t o are s e m a n t i c a l l y and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y commensurate.  That i s , i t i s necessary  to  determine whether r e s e a r c h e r s are working with concepts t h a t have the same r e f e r e n t s , and whether the measures t h a t they implement y i e l d data which can be compared. To a i d t h i s p r o c e s s , I w i l l b r i e f l y d i s c u s s f e a t u r e s of the  above-reviewed  s t u d i e s t h a t p o t e n t i a l l y render t h e i r  incommensurable.  results  These f e a t u r e s concern t h e manner i n which  d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g and gender a r e construed and measured i n each study.  Next, I w i l l o f f e r a more f i n e - g r a i n e d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f  the r e s u l t s recorded above.  In t h e ensuing d i s c u s s i o n I w i l l  attempt t o f u r t h e r d i s t i l l and summarize r e s u l t s , f l a g g i n g them as necessary w i t h s p e c i f i c concerns about incommensurability t h a t might be r a i s e d .  A f t e r having done t h i s f o r each subcategory o f  f i n d i n g s , I w i l l o f f e r a f i n a l summary from which answers t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e gender p r o f i l e o f women w i t h d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g may be gleaned. Beginning, then, w i t h p o t e n t i a l areas o f incommensurability, it  i s important t o note t h a t v a r i o u s s o r t s o f d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g  and a number o f d i f f e r e n t aspects o f gender a r e examined i n t h i s body o f l i t e r a t u r e .  In t h e former case, some r e s e a r c h e r s  s p e c i f i c a l l y focus on e i t h e r a n o r e x i a nervosa o r b u l i m i a .  Others  c l a i m t o study " d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g , " which can o f course r e f e r t o a n y t h i n g along a continuum t h a t ranges from d i e t i n g o r o c c a s i o n a l b i n g e i n g through t o a n o r e x i a nervosa o r b u l i m i a .  In t h e case o f  gender, r e s e a r c h e r s v a r i o u s l y s e t out t o study "sex  roles,"  "gender i d e n t i t y , " "sex r o l e i d e n t i t y , " "sex r o l e t r a i t s , " "sex r o l e t y p i n g , " "sex r o l e a t t r i b u t e s , " "sex r o l e behaviours," " m a s c u l i n i t y , " " f e m i n i n i t y , " "androgyny," " m a s c u l i n e - o r i e n t e d women," " f e m i n i n e - o r i e n t e d women," and so on. T h i s s o r t o f o b s e r v a t i o n i s o f course p r e c i s e l y what motivates t h e o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f concepts, and we can g a i n  38 c l a r i t y about the r e f e r e n t s of terms r e l a t e d t o d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g and gender by n o t i n g how t h e i r meaning i s o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i n the measures employed. i n mind:  However, i t i s important t o keep two p o i n t s  (1) some of the c l a i m s about gender and e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s  are c u l l e d from t h e o r e t i c a l or c l i n i c a l l y - b a s e d work as opposed t o e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h , and (2) a number of d i f f e r e n t measures are employed i n the e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s themselves. As f o r the former p o i n t , o b s e r v a t i o n s or hypotheses o f f e r e d by Boskind-Lodahl (1976), Boskind-White & White (1986), Bruch (1973; 1978), Chernin (1981; 1985); Orbach (1978, 1986); Rodin, S i l b e r s t e i n , & S t r i e g e l - M o o r e (1984); and S t r i e g e l - M o o r e , S i l b e r s t e i n , & Rodin (1986) and recorded above a l l grow ( a t l e a s t i n p a r t ) out of c l i n i c a l and/or t h e o r e t i c a l work.  10  As f o r the  l a t t e r p o i n t , i n the case of d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g most r e s e a r c h e r s employ the E a t i n g D i s o r d e r s Inventory (EDI; Garner, Olmstead, & P o l i v y , 1983) i n whole o r v i a s u b s c a l e s , or the E a t i n g A t t i t u d e s T e s t (EAT; Garner & G a r f i n k e l , 1979; Garner, Olmstead, Bohr, & G a r f i n k e l , 1982) t o measure e a t i n g d i s o r d e r  symptomatology.  11  However, other measures used i n the above-noted s t u d i e s i n c l u d e the R e s t r a i n t S c a l e (Herman and P o l i v y , 1975), the Negative S e l f Image S c a l e (NSI; Nash, unpublished s c a l e ) , the Dutch E a t i n g Behavior Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (DEBQ; Van S t r i e n , F r i j t e r s , Bergers, and Defares, 1986), the Compulsive E a t i n g S c a l e (CES; Dunn & Ondercin, 1981); and the BULIT (Smith & Thelen, 1984).  12  In the case of gender, most of the s t u d i e s reviewed here r e l y on the P e r s o n a l A t t r i b u t e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PAQ; Spence &  39 Helmreich, 1978) o r the Bern Sex Roles 1978)  Inventory  (BSRI; Bern, 1974,  t o construct a trait-gender p r o f i l e of t h e i r subjects.  However, other measures i n c l u d e t h e Sex Role Ideology K a l i n & T i l b y , 1978), t h e Groninger Androgyny S c a l e Graaf,  Scale  13  (SRI;  (GRAS; De  1984); t h e Dutch S e l f - P a r t n e r S c a l e ( P r e v e n t i e - P r o j e c t ,  1976); the A t t i t u d e s Toward Women S c a l e (ATW: Spence & Helmreich, 1978); t h e Personal D e s c r i p t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  (PDQ: A n t i l l ,  Cunningham, R u s s e l l , & Thompson, 1981); the A d j e c t i v e Check L i s t (ACL;  Gough & H e i l b r u n , 1980), t h e Sex Roles Concerns Measure  ( S i l v e r s t e i n & Perdue, 1988); and the S e l f - R o l e s Inventory Linville,  1985).  (SRI:  14  Given t h e number and v a r i e t y o f measures employed, t h e process  o f d i s c e r n i n g p r e c i s e l y what r e s e a r c h e r s a r e s t u d y i n g and  whether they a r e s t u d y i n g the same phenomenon i s more d i f f i c u l t . Of course, these problems can be compounded i f r e s e a r c h e r s ' understanding  o f what they are s t u d y i n g does n o t c o i n c i d e with  what a g i v e n measure i s intended t o q u a n t i f y . and Ondercin (1981) mistakenly and  F o r example, Dunn  assume t h a t 'compulsive e a t i n g '  ' b u l i m i a ' have t h e same r e f e r e n t and thus i n c o r r e c t l y employ  the Compulsive E a t i n g S c a l e t o i d e n t i f y the syndrome o f b u l i m i a i n t h e i r s u b j e c t s (Lewis & Johnson, 1985). Another problem i s t h a t the v a r i o u s t e s t s noted above a r e p o t e n t i a l l y grounded i n d i f f e r e n t u n d e r l y i n g c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of gender (Spence, 1985;  Timko e t a l . , 1987).  F o r example, t h e  MMPI (mentioned, but n o t used i n these s t u d i e s ) draws on a c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f gender a c c o r d i n g t o which m a s c u l i n i t y and  40 femininity are b i p o l a r opposites  and preclude  one another.  Thus,  i f a person has one s e t o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , she i s thought t o be r e l a t i v e l y d e f i c i e n t i n t h e other  (Spence, 1985).  An example o f  b i p o l a r i t y i n t h e r e s e a r c h reviewed here can be found i n Brown e t al.  (1990) where women who a r e not masculine gendered a r e deemed  t o have a t r a d i t i o n a l feminine Other measures —  sex r o l e i d e n t i t y .  i n c l u d i n g t h e PAQ and BSRI —  a r e based on  a d u a l i s t i c c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o which m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y a r e o r t h o g o n a l l y r e l a t e d and can c o e x i s t i n every individual.  While t h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n has widely been  considered  an improvement, some r e s e a r c h e r s have found t h a t t h e a c t u a l content it  of gender has been i n c o m p l e t e l y  i s i n need o f expansion.  o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d and t h a t  F o r example, Timko e t a l . (1987)  demonstrated t h a t concern f o r appearance i s an important element of f e m i n i n i t y and t h a t i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important t o assess  for  i t i n t h e context o f e x p l o r i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between gender and d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g . Sculthorpe, negative  Other r e s e a r c h e r s  ( f o r example, Paxton &  1991) have found i t necessary t o assess s u b j e c t s f o r  as w e l l as standard  p o s i t i v e attributes associated  with  m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y i n order t o o f f e r a more complete p r o f i l e o f women with d i s o r d e r e d  eating.  Ongoing development o f t h e concept o f gender has o f course enriched research i n the f i e l d of eating disorders. here with r e s p e c t t o t h i s and a l l t h e above  The p o i n t  observations  r e g a r d i n g t h e semantics and measurement o f gender and d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g i s t h a t n e i t h e r t h e meaning o f terms nor t h e means o f  measuring t h e i r r e f e r e n t s a r e n e c e s s a r i l y i d e n t i c a l o r even s i m i l a r across s t u d i e s .  F o r t h i s reason, c a u t i o n must be  e x e r c i s e d i n making c r o s s - s t u d y comparisons o f r e s u l t s . One  f i n a l p o t e n t i a l problem o f note concerns  the p r o s e - s t y l e  r e p o r t i n g o f r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s , o r o f comparisons a c r o s s s t u d i e s . For even i f a g i v e n r e s e a r c h e r i s v e r y c l e a r about a l l t h e v a r i a b l e s noted above, s/he can s t i l l be tempted t o formulate r e s u l t s a t a h i g h e r l e v e l o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n than t h e a c t u a l data warrant.  In t h e case o f gender, one might draw g e n e r a l  c o n c l u s i o n s about t h e gender p r o f i l e o f a group o f s u b j e c t s based on c o m p i l a t i o n s o f data about sex r o l e behaviour, p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , and a t t i t u d e s about gender. not n e c e s s a r i l y l e g i t i m a t e .  Spence and Helmreich  gender However, t h i s i s (1978) noted  t h a t p s y c h o l o g i s t s tend t o lump g e n d e r - r e l a t e d phenomena under the heading  of sex-roles.  Yet, as they argued, i n f e r e n c e s cannot  be made about an i n d i v i d u a l ' s gendered p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s on t h e b a s i s o f o b s e r v a t i o n s o r measurements o f t h e i r sex r o l e —  and c o n v e r s e l y .  Sex r o l e behaviour  behaviour  can simply be p l a y e d out  i n terms o f s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s about what a person should do, and may have no b e a r i n g on a c t u a l p e r s o n a l i t y . Of course, t h i s problem can occur i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n as w e l l .  F o r example, r e s e a r c h e r s examine a v a r i e t y o f modes o f  d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g a l o n g a continuum.  As a r e s u l t , they o f t e n  have no c h o i c e but t o summarize s e t s o f f i n d i n g s by vaguely a l l u d i n g t o t h e impact i s a mistake  o f gender on " d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g . "  But i t  t o i n f e r t h a t any p a r t i c u l a r mode o f d i s o r d e r e d  42 e a t i n g i s represented  i n the summarized f i n d i n g .  Having f l a g g e d some p o t e n t i a l t r o u b l e spots r e g a r d i n g incommensurability  the  of r e s u l t s , a more f i n e - g r a i n e d r e o r g a n i z a t i o n  of the r e s u l t s l i s t e d under headings (I) - ( I I I ) i s r e q u i r e d . Bracketing  f o r the time being the concerns r a i s e d above, I want  t o suggest t h a t r e s u l t s be grouped under subheadings from which preliminary observations  of any  emerging p a t t e r n s of r e s u l t s can  be d i s c e r n e d from a b i r d ' s - e y e p e r s p e c t i v e . e a r l i e r , these p r e l i m i n a r y o b s e r v a t i o n s  As a n t i c i p a t e d  w i l l then be f u r t h e r  d i s t i l l e d and q u a l i f i e d with r e f e r e n c e t o the concerns t h a t have j u s t been f l a g g e d . F i r s t r e c a l l t h a t r e s u l t s under " I : Gender P r o f i l e " how  captured  white, middle or upper c l a s s women d e s c r i b e d themselves with  r e s p e c t t o t h e i r gender.  Given the content  of the a c t u a l  f i n d i n g s , I propose t h a t gender p r o f i l e can be f u r t h e r a r t i c u l a t e d i n terms of i t s r e l a t i o n t o : (a) body (dis)satisfaction,  (b) d i e t i n g or " c o g n i t i v e r e s t r a i n t " ,  concern f o r appearance, and  (d) d i s o r d e r e d  I a : Gender P r o f i l e and Body  (Dissatisfaction  (3) Larger d i s c r e p a n c i e s between r e a l and a s s o c i a t e d with l e s s m a s c u l i n i t y .  eating.  (c)  1 5  i d e a l body s i z e  are  (5) S o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e t r a i t m a s c u l i n i t y i s n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with appearance. (6) S o c i a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e feminine t r a i t s are a s s o c i a t e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with p h y s i c a l appearance.  with  (9) Increases i n m a s c u l i n i t y are p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o happiness with one's body. (26) Amount of m a s c u l i n i t y i s i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o body dissatisfaction.  43 (28)  Femininity  i s n o t r e l a t e d t o body image o r e a t i n g pathology.  Ib: Gender P r o f i l e and D i e t i n g (4) S o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e t r a i t f e m i n i n i t y p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e s t o c o g n i t i v e concern about d i e t i n g (and n o t o b e s i t y per s e ) . (8) Increases i n f e m i n i n i t y are not r e l a t e d t o d i e t i n g t e n d e n c i e s or happiness with one's body. (10) Increases i n m a s c u l i n i t y a r e n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o body weight and r e s t r i c t i v e d i e t i n g t e n d e n c i e s . I c : Gender P r o f i l e and Concern f o r Appearance (21) S e l f - p e r c e p t i o n o f more feminine t r a i t s i s a s s o c i a t e d p l a c i n g g r e a t e r importance on appearance. Id: Gender P r o f i l e and Disordered  with  Eating  (12) E a t i n g d i s o r d e r e d women t h i n k o f themselves as n e g a t i v e l y feminine and as p o s s e s s i n g s o c i a l l y negative t r a i t s . (14) Sex-role t y p i n g i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h anorexia i n t h e order o f most t o l e a s t as f o l l o w s : feminine, blended androgynous, masculine, and balanced androgynous. (15) Sex-role t y p i n g i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h b u l i m i a as f o l l o w s : feminine, balanced androgynous, blended androgynous, and masculine. (17) Being more masculine i s i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o b u l i m i c behaviour. (18) Women c l a s s i f i e d as feminine were more b u l i m i c than subjects.  other  (19) Women c l a s s i f i e d as feminine had the h i g h e s t (though not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ) scores on d r i v e f o r t h i n n e s s , i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s and i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i s t r u s t . (22) Importance o f appearance, as a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f e m i n i n i t y (see #21) i s a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r o f e a t i n g d i s o r d e r e d symptomatology. (25) A n o r e x i c s d i s p l a y a lower l e v e l o f masculine (not feminine) q u a l i t i e s than c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s . (27) Amount o f m a s c u l i n i t y pathology. (29) B u l i m a r e x i c s  i s inversely related t o eating  a r e (and s t r i v e t o be) hyperfeminine.  44 l e : Contrary  or N u l l  Findings  (1) D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h f i g u r e r e l a t e s t o a c t u a l body mass and not masculine o r feminine s e x - t y p i n g p e r s e . (2) The h i g h e s t (yet n o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ) degree o f c o g n i t i v e r e s t r a i n t o f e a t i n g i s found i n women with a h i g h degree o f both m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y ( i . e . , " a d d i t i v e androgyny"). (8) Increases i n f e m i n i n i t y are not r e l a t e d t o d i e t i n g or happiness with one's body.  tendencies  (11) High-degree compulsive e a t e r s d i d not show a h i g h e r of m a s c u l i n i t y o r f e m i n i n i t y .  degree  (13) There i s no c o r r e l a t i o n between s e l f feminine p o s i t i v e scores and d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g . (16) Being masculine o r feminine gender-typed i n i t s e l f r i s k factor f o r eating disorders. (20) F e m i n i n i t y i t s e l f symptomatology.  i s not a  i s unrelated t o eating-disordered  (23) S e l f - p e r c e p t i o n o f m a s c u l i n i t y i s not r e l a t e d t o s e l f p e r c e p t i o n o f ( a t t r a c t i v e ) appearance o r importance o f appearance. (24) B u l i m i c s are not hyperfeminine but r a t h e r f a l l i n t o the " u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d " ( i . e . , low on both m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y ) category o f gender-typing. (28) F e m i n i n i t y  i s not r e l a t e d t o body image o r e a t i n g pathology.  While r e s u l t s a r e b e s t a r t i c u l a t e d i n p r e l i m i n a r y f a s h i o n i n t h i s way, I w i l l summarize them a c c o r d i n g t o t h e nature o f t h e profile  ( v i z . , masculine o r feminine) r e f e r r e d t o i n each  p r o p o s i t i o n so t h a t r e s u l t s can be more e a s i l y compared the t h r e e main c a t e g o r i e s .  1 6  across  Within t h i s framework, i t can be  noted t h a t i n c r e a s i n g m a s c u l i n i t y y i e l d s a b e t t e r outlook i n terms o f i n c r e a s i n g body s a t i s f a c t i o n  (3, 5, 9, 26), d e c r e a s i n g  concerns about d i e t i n g (10), and lowering t h e r i s k f o r d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g (17, 25, 27).  I n c r e a s i n g negative  femininity increases  45 body d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  (6) a n d r i s k r  for eating disorders  (12).  I n c r e a s i n g p o s i t i v e f e m i n i n i t y y i e l d s i n c r e a s e d concerns about dieting  (4) and appearance (21).  There i s a l s o s t r o n g evidence  of a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o s i t i v e f e m i n i n i t y disordered eating — a l s o anorexia  b u l i m i a i n p a r t i c u l a r (15, 17,  (14, 19)  and 18,  and e a t i n g d i s o r d e r symptomatology  F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s c o n t r a r y evidence:  concern f o r appearance (23), and having  28).  (24).  not be r e l a t e d t o body d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  28) or d i e t i n g ( 8 ) , m a s c u l i n i t y may  p r o f i l e may  (22).  be r e l a t e d  t o d i e t i n g (2), and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d gender, t o b u l i m i a Moreover, f e m i n i n i t y may  but  balanced or " a d d i t i v e "  androgyny as opposed t o m a s c u l i n i t y or f e m i n i n i t y may  (1, 8,  29),  not be r e l a t e d t o  a masculine or  be u n r e l a t e d t o d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g (11, 13,  feminine 16,  20,  A v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s summary i s o f f e r e d below i n  Figure  1.  Speaking b r o a d l y ,  and  i n terms of p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s o n l y ,  m a s c u l i n i t y seems t o be an a s s e t , and  femininity, a l i a b i l i t y in  terms of lowering the r i s k of d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g (or some aspect of i t ) . evidence.  However, we  have a l s o noted a p p a r e n t l y  Of course these o b s e r v a t i o n s  the r e s u l t s i n q u e s t i o n commensurate —  abundant c o n t r a r y  cannot be endorsed u n t i l  are deemed a t l e a s t  roughly  i n p a r t i c u l a r , with r e s p e c t t o the manner i n  which gender (on the dimensions of m a s c u l i n i t y and and d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g are c o n c e p t u a l i z e d  femininity)  and measured.  A  d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of commensurability f o r the f i n d i n g s i n " I : Gender P r o f i l e " i s recorded  i n Appendix A.  For  our  46  GENDER PROFILE: P r e l i m i n a r y R e s u l t s  Decreasing masculinity:  Increasing negative femininity:  Increasing positive femininity:  -decreases body satisfaction  - i n c r e a s e s body dissatisfaction  - i n c r e a s e s concern about d i e t i n g  - i n c r e a s e s concern about d i e t i n g  - i n c r e a s e s the r i s k for eating disorders  - i n c r e a s e s concern about appearance  - i n c r e a s e s the r i s k for eating disorder symptomato1ogy  - i n c r e a s e s the risk for eating disorder symptomato1ogy  N u l l or C o n t r a r y Evidence*  0  Masculinity: - i s unrelated concern f o r appearance  Femininity: to  - i s unrelated to disordered eating  - i s unrelated to disordered eating * In a d d i t i o n , balanced androgyny as opposed t o m a s c u l i n i t y or f e m i n i n i t y may be r e l a t e d t o d i e t i n g , and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d gender may be r e l a t e d t o b u l i m i a . Figure  1  47 purposes here, I would simply In t h i s category,  l i k e t o summarize i t s outcome.  r e s u l t s which support r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between t r a i t m a s c u l i n i t y o r f e m i n i n i t y and d i s o r d e r e d  eating  (and r e l a t e d phenomena such as body d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n ) a r e a t l e a s t roughly  commensurate.  Moreover, o f t h e o r i g i n a l t e n n u l l o r  c o n t r a r y f i n d i n g s i n subcategory l e , o n l y f o u r r e p r e s e n t c h a l l e n g e s t o t h e hypothesis  direct  t h a t m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y a r e  r e l a t e d t o d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g (and r e l a t e d phenomena).  Since  these c h a l l e n g e s a r e g r e a t l y outweighed by p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s , i t does seem s a f e t o r e c o r d t h a t , o v e r a l l , t r a i t m a s c u l i n i t y  lowers  the r i s k f o r d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g while t r a i t f e m i n i n i t y i n c r e a s e s it.  But we can more s p e c i f i c a l l y r e c o r d t h a t i n t h e case o f  white, middle o r upper c l a s s women, t h e f o l l o w i n g hypotheses appear t o h o l d :  ( p o s i t i v e ) feminine  t r a i t s are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d  t o d i e t i n g , concern f o r appearance, and both b u l i m i c and anorexic symptomatology; negative  feminine  t r a i t s are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o  body d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and i n c r e a s e d r i s k f o r e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s ; and t r a i t m a s c u l i n i t y i s i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o d i e t i n g , body d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , and both b u l i m i c and a n o r e x i c F i g u r e 2, below, a l s o p r o v i d e s Turning  symptomatology.  17  a summary o f these f i n d i n g s .  now t o " I I : Gender Stance," we can r e c a l l  that  r e s u l t s l i n k e d d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g and white, middle o r upper c l a s s women's r e l a t i o n a l stance toward f e m i n i n i t y , m a s c u l i n i t y , and/or t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e s .  Given t h e content  o f t h e r e s u l t s recorded  e a r l i e r , I propose t h a t gender stance can be separated  into five  c a t e g o r i e s as f o l l o w s : (a) v a l u i n g (or a t l e a s t emulating)  48  GENDER PROFILE: P o s t - A n a l y s i s  Decreasing t r a i t masculinity:  Increasing negative t r a i t femininity:  Increasing positive trait femininity:  -decreases body satisfaction  - i n c r e a s e s body dissatisfaction  - i n c r e a s e s concern about d i e t i n g  - i n c r e a s e s concern about d i e t i n g  - i n c r e a s e s the r i s k f o r eating disorders  - i n c r e a s e s concern about appearance  -decreases the r i s k f o r eating disorder symptomatology  Figure  2  - i n c r e a s e s the r i s k f o r eating disorder symptomato1ogy  49 femininity,  (b) not v a l u i n g  (and  i n fact possibly  femininity,  (c) v a l u i n g m a s c u l i n i t y ,  rejecting)  (d) n u l l r e s u l t : no  i n d i c a t i o n o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i s o r d e r e d  e a t i n g and  v a l u i n g o r r e j e c t i n g f e m i n i n i t y , and (e) v a l u i n g superwomanhood. Ha:  Valuing  (and/or a s p i r i n g toward1  (31) Women's heightened are i n p a r t r e f l e c t i o n s and e x h i b i t i n g feminine r e l a t e d t o the p r a c t i c e  Femininity  concern about food i n t a k e and body weight o f a d e s i r e t o be p e r c e i v e d as p o s s e s s i n g s e x - r o l e a t t r i b u t e s and behaviours of "eating l i g h t l y . "  (37) Importance o f f e m i n i n i t y and importance o f m a s c u l i n i t y a r e each r e l a t e d t o importance o f appearance. (42) Women w i t h e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s d e s c r i b e d t h e i r i d e a l s e l f as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more feminine than non-patient s t u d e n t s . (43) Engaging i n d i e t i n g and b i n g e i n g with t h e g o a l o f being t h i n and noncurvaceous i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h an emphasis on p h y s i c a l attractiveness. (45)  B u l i m a r e x i c s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s l i b e r a t e d than c o n t r o l s .  (47) Given t h a t being concerned w i t h one's appearance and a d e s i r e t o be b e a u t i f u l i s p a r t o f t h e female sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e , and g i v e n t h a t being s l e n d e r i s c e n t r a l t o t h e contemporary Western concept o f beauty, women a r e d i r e c t e d toward t h e p u r s u i t of t h i n n e s s v i a t h e i r own concern t o be feminine. l i b : Not V a l u i n g  (and  possibly rejecting)  Femininity  (44) Engaging i n p u r g i n g o r becoming underweight w i t h t h e goal o f being t h i n and noncurvaceous i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h an emphasis on i n t e l l i g e n c e o r p r o f e s s i o n a l success. (46) When t h i n n e s s and d i e t i n g become a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e image of an autonomous, independent Superwoman (as opposed t o an image of a woman f o r whom connectedness t o s e l f and o t h e r s i s c e n t r a l i n h e r l i f e ) g i r l s are more a t r i s k f o r d e v e l o p i n g e a t i n g disorders. (48) In t h e f a c e o f puberty, adolescence and a n x i e t y - p r o v o k i n g a n t i c i p a t i o n s o f female adulthood, t h e a n o r e x i c g i r l renounces a d u l t f e m i n i n i t y and r e v e r t s t o a pre-pubescent s t a t e .  l i e : V a l u i n g (and/or a s p i r i n g toward) M a s c u l i n i t y (32) High-degree compulsive e a t e r s showed a h i g h e r masculine ideal. (37) Importance o f f e m i n i n i t y and importance o f m a s c u l i n i t y a r e each r e l a t e d t o importance o f appearance. (38) Importance o f s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e masculine t r a i t s i s p o s i t i v e l y related t o disordered eating. (39) Having a superwoman i d e a l ( i . e . , t a k i n g on many r o l e s as c e n t r a l t o one's sense o f s e l f ) i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h symptoms o f disordered eating. (41) Having a superwoman i d e a l i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a s c r i b i n g h i g h importance t o masculine t r a i t s . (44) Engaging i n p u r g i n g o r becoming underweight w i t h t h e g o a l o f being t h i n and noncurvaceous i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h an emphasis on i n t e l l i g e n c e or p r o f e s s i o n a l success. (46) When t h i n n e s s and d i e t i n g become a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e image of an autonomous, independent Superwoman (as opposed t o an image of a woman f o r whom connectedness t o s e l f and o t h e r s i s c e n t r a l i n h e r l i f e ) g i r l s a r e more a t r i s k f o r d e v e l o p i n g e a t i n g disorders. (49) The a n o r e x i c a l s o 'dreams o f doing w e l l i n areas c o n s i d e r e d more r e s p e c t f u l and worthwhile because they a r e m a s c u l i n e . ' l i d : N u l l or Contrary Results (30) There a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between a n o r e x i c s , b u l i m i c s , o r c o n t r o l s i n terms o f t h e i r r e j e c t i o n o f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l feminine r o l e s . (33) High-degree compulsive e a t e r s d i d not m a n i f e s t a h i g h e r feminine s e l f - i d e a l . (34) There i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s i g n i f i c a n c e between a n o r e x i a and "feminism" ( i . e . , r e j e c t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l f e m i n i n i t y ) . (35) Women w i t h d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g don't e x h i b i t more l i b e r a t e d views o f women's r o l e s . (36) Being f e m i n i s t i n a t t i t u d e i s i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o b u l i m i c behaviour. (45) B u l i m a r e x i c s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s l i b e r a t e d than c o n t r o l s .  51 l i e : V a l u i n g Superwomanhood (39) Having a superwoman i d e a l ( i . e . , t a k i n g on many r o l e s as c e n t r a l t o one's sense o f s e l f ) i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h symptoms o f disordered eating. (40) Having a superwoman i d e a l i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p l a c i n g more importance on having a f i t , s l i m and a t t r a c t i v e appearance. (41) Having a superwoman i d e a l i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a s c r i b i n g high importance t o masculine t r a i t s . (46) When t h i n n e s s and d i e t i n g become a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e image of an autonomous, independent Superwoman (as opposed t o an image of a woman f o r whom connectedness t o s e l f and others i s c e n t r a l i n her l i f e ) g i r l s a r e more a t r i s k f o r d e v e l o p i n g e a t i n g disorders. In l i g h t o f these f i n d i n g s , t h e r e seems t o be s t r o n g evidence f o r a r e l a t i o n s h i p between v a l u i n g f e m i n i n i t y and disordered eating  (31,  however, c h a l l e n g e d (33).  37, 42, 43, 45, 47).  These f i n d i n g s are,  by t h e n u l l r e s u l t s d e s c r i b e d  i n (30) and  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , i t a l s o seems t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l  both i s (44,  46, 48) and i s not (30,  women w i t h d i s o r d e r e d  eating.  34, 35, 36, 45) r e j e c t e d by  F i n a l l y , there are s u b s t a n t i a l  grounds f o r t h e c l a i m t h a t d i s o r d e r e d valuing masculinity  (32,  femininity  eating i s related to  37, 38, 39, 41, 46 and 49), as w e l l as  v a l u i n g superwomanhood (39, 40, 41, 46). As  i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 3, then, we have a range o f f i n d i n g s  which i n d i c a t e t h a t f e m i n i n i t y i s valued, valued  r e j e c t e d , and n e i t h e r  nor r e j e c t e d ; and t h a t both m a s c u l i n i t y and superwomanhood  are valued  by women w i t h d i s o r d e r e d  eating.  To g a i n a c l e a r e r  understanding o f what t h i s r a t h e r unwieldy summary means, and t o determine whether i t stands, i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t s must be c l o s e l y scrutinized.  In p a r t i c u l a r , we must take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n  both  52  GENDER STANCE: P r e l i m i n a r y R e s u l t s  Valuing femininity is related to disordered eating  Rejecting femininity is related to disordered eating  Valuing masculinity is related to disordered eating  Null or Contrary Results Valuing femininity i s not related to disordered eating  Femininity i s not r~ r e j e c t e d |by women with disordered eating  Figure 3  Valuing superwomanhood [Ts" related to disordered eating  the concern t h a t r e s u l t s w i t h i n each subcategory need t o be commensurate, and t h e e x i s t e n c e  of n u l l or contrary  results.  The  d e t a i l s o f an a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s i n l i g h t o f these concerns are p r o v i d e d i n Appendix B. as f o l l o w s .  And the r e s u l t s o f t h a t a n a l y s i s a r e  In t h e case o f I l a , v a l u i n g t r a i t f e m i n i n i t y and  t r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e s both appear t o be a s s o c i a t e d disordered  e a t i n g i n a v a r i e t y o f modes r a n g i n g from  l i g h t l y " to bulimia women.  with "eating  and anorexia f o r white, middle o r upper c l a s s  T h i s o v e r a l l f i n d i n g was m i n i m a l l y c h a l l e n g e d by (33)  regarding  t h e l i n k between d i s o r d e r e d  f e m i n i n i t y , and by (30)  regarding  e a t i n g and v a l u i n g  the l i n k t o valuing  Turning t o l i b , i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, s t r o n g f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t h e r e j e c t i o n o f feminine t r a i t s  roles.  positive (or mixtures o f  t r a i t s and r o l e s ) w i t h s e r i o u s l y p r o b l e m a t i c e a t i n g  behaviour,  w h i l e s t r o n g n u l l r e s u l t s e x c l u s i v e l y attended t o women's a t t i t u d e s toward female r o l e s .  I t i s a l s o noteworthy t h a t most  of t h e n u l l f i n d i n g s s t u d i e d b u l i m i c  symptomatology.  Overall,  i t appears t h a t feminine t r a i t s a r e r e j e c t e d by women w i t h severe problem e a t i n g a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h anorexia and/or b u l i m i a ,  t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s a r e not r e j e c t e d — i n t h e case o f women s t r u g g l i n g w i t h  while  and perhaps e s p e c i a l l y not bulimia.  As f o r l i e and t h e case o f v a l u i n g m a s c u l i n i t y ,  i t w i l l be  u s e f u l t o say a few words about how I have r e l a t e d and c o n f i g u r e d these r e s u l t s .  Under s e c t i o n I l a on v a l u i n g f e m i n i n i t y ,  less  severe d i e t i n g and b i n g e i n g were l i n k e d w i t h emphasizing s t e r e o t y p i c a l feminine concerns about a t t r a c t i v e n e s s  i n (43).  54 S i l v e r s t e i n and Perdue (1988) c o n t r a s t t h i s s o r t of o r i e n t a t i o n with a more m a s c u l i n e - v a l u i n g stance captured i n (44).  For t h i s  l a t t e r p r o p o s i t i o n l i n k s purging and becoming underweight with emphasizing  s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y masculine concerns about i n t e l l i g e n c e  and success.  V a l u i n g s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y masculine autonomy and  independence was  a l s o l i n k e d with the p u r s u i t of t h i n n e s s by  S t e i n e r - A d a i r [1986, (46)] and by Bruch i n [1978, ( 4 9 ) ] . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , Bruch  (1973; 1978); Chernin  (1981; 1985),  Orbach (1978; 1986), S i l v e r s t e i n and Perdue (1988), and S t e i n e r A d a i r (1986) a l l observe a k i n d of b i p o l a r i t y a t the l e v e l of v a l u a t i o n a l stance.  In p a r t i c u l a r , i t seems t h a t v a l u i n g  masculine t r a i t s e n t a i l s t h a t f e m i n i n i t y i s shunned f o r women with disordered eating —  o r , a l t e r n a t i v e l y put, t h a t v a l u i n g and  perhaps even being more masculine being feminine.  i s a way  of not v a l u i n g and  not  For t h i s reason I tend t o read (44), (46), and  (49) as mutually r e i n f o r c i n g on a conceptual  level.  I a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t (37) can be r e a d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h (44), (46) and  (49).  In (37), importance  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h importance  of m a s c u l i n i t y i s  of appearance.  I t may  very w e l l be  t h a t concern f o r appearance here has more t o do w i t h  striving  a f t e r a s o r t of t h i n , s t r e a m l i n e d body a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u c c e s s f u l , independent,  i n t e l l i g e n t men  (and perhaps a l s o the  r e j e c t i o n of a t r a d i t i o n a l l y feminine, curvaceous sheer p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s . and  1 8  One  body) than w i t h  f i n a l point i s that  (39) can be read t o g e t h e r i n such a way  as t o y i e l d  (41) the  i n f e r e n c e t h a t v a l u i n g m a s c u l i n i t y i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h symptoms of  55 disordered  eating —  which i s s t a t e d o u t r i g h t i n (38).  At l a t e r p o i n t s throughout the t h e s i s , I w i l l have much more t o say about t h e manner i n which I have i n t e r p r e t e d these r e s u l t s , and most p a r t i c u l a r l y the p o i n t about v a l u i n g m a s c u l i n i t y and r e j e c t i n g f e m i n i n i t y i n b i p o l a r f a s h i o n . p o i n t however, I would simply  At t h i s  l i k e t o r e p o r t t h a t a n a l y s i s with  r e s p e c t t o commensurability y i e l d s the o v e r a l l outcome i n l i e t h a t white, middle o r upper c l a s s women with d i s o r d e r e d ranging  from compulsive e a t i n g t o a n o r e x i c  symptomatology appear t o value t r a i t  eating  and b u l i m i c  masculinity.  F i n a l l y , and b r i e f l y , we t u r n t o t h e case o f v a l u i n g superwomanhood i n l i e . Here, (40) and (41) may be understood as providing information  about the content o f the superwoman  ideal,  w h i l e (39) and (46) express d i r e c t connections between having t h i s i d e a l , and d i s o r d e r e d  eating.  that there i s considerable  o v e r l a p between v a l u i n g  and v a l u i n g t r a i t m a s c u l i n i t y  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note  [(41), ( 4 6 ) ] .  superwomanhood  Indeed, i n  combination w i t h the r e j e c t i o n of f e m i n i n i t y , v a l u i n g masculine t r a i t s i s a c e n t r a l feature of Steiner-Adair's  [1986; (46)]  concept o f what I w i l l r e f e r t o as " r e n u n c i a t o r y " But  i n (39), superwomanhood i s a l s o construed  t a k i n g on both masculine and feminine r o l e s . r e f e r t o t h i s as " m u l t i - r o l e superwomanhood."  superwomanhood.  i n the sense of I will  hereafter  In my a n a l y s i s o f  the two c e n t r a l f i n d i n g s i n t h i s subcategory [ v i z . ,  (39) and  ( 4 6 ) ] , I took i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the f a c t t h a t d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of superwomanhood are o p e r a t i n g .  However,  given  56 the c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s , and g i v e n  their  commensurability on t h e dimension o f d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g , I hypothesized  t h a t each study has worked with an important  dimension o f superwomanhood and t h a t r e n u n c i a t o r y  and m u l t i - r o l e  superwomanhood each appear t o be a s s o c i a t e d with e a t i n g d i s o r d e r symptomatology. Having taken a c l o s e r look a t t h e f i n d i n g s f o r "Gender Stance," and having  s o r t e d through concerns about  commensurability, i t seems f a i r t o summarize by s a y i n g t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g appear t o be r e l a t e d t o d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g f o r white, middle o r upper c l a s s women: v a l u i n g feminine r o l e s ; r e j e c t i n g feminine  traits,  t r a i t s and/or  v a l u i n g masculine t r a i t s , and  v a l u i n g superwomanhood i n t h e r e n u n c i a t o r y  sense o f v a l u i n g  m a s c u l i n i t y while r e j e c t i n g f e m i n i n i t y , and/or t h e m u l t i - r o l e sense o f pursuing  both masculine and feminine  roles.  In  c o n t r a s t , women with d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g do not seem t o r e j e c t t r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e s .  F i g u r e 5 (below) p r o v i d e s  a visual  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s summary. R e s u l t s i n t h i s category i n "Gender P r o f i l e . "  do not cohere as smoothly as those  Indeed, even a f t e r t h i s process o f  d i s t i l l i n g t h e i n i t i a l s e t , they s t i l l and unwieldy.  seem somewhat d i s j o i n t e d  In p a r t i c u l a r , I t h i n k they can mistakenly  convey  t h a t women with d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g r e j e c t t r a i t f e m i n i n i t y , o r value m a s c u l i n i t y , o r value m u l t i - r o l e superwomanhood, and so on. T h i s i s problematic  s i n c e i t f a i l s t o take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n  ways i n which t h e f i n d i n g s cohere and can be co-present  within  57  r  u I I O o C •P 10 U 10 E 0 tfl TJ ai a c o 3 H (1) C T T J O -H C U C U P 3 3 01 TJ~'p o a >, c a o S o (0 0) D O 0) 10 -H U TJ " > U Ul £ U < 4-1  O c I a p H H 10 3 > E  I o c p <a U (0 E CO TJ <U E O o D>TJ 3 c p •p IP U a o TJ Q<0 i Olr-I -P U lE > 10 3 O VI £ 9) T J to  I B > u o u p TJ a) •H V T J O O P c p b CP-H (0 O -H C H C rH H 3 ffl - H (0 H 3 O b T J 0) C r H Ul C 10 10 U1 O T J ia U > E  v >  >, ty o ^  I I to O H a > 4 J TJ Ul  i-l  o tJiD 3 C G U P Oii-l -H _tU 10 E P P TJ E o <o to u o O <U til O -P 1  I o •p b to a> e d>TJ  I  O  <» B C ti P o £ u -H -H o a s .to+JO'H+JtoBa' «*l C 3 B'H S O 3 10 A 0) T J (0 r-l U  sI X TJ  TJ  *3 ®  j j tu  >, tt)  w  » tfl to 10  -1  P  TJ  D> Q . - H  C  <P  ~ o K3 • c £ cc •» yP — c o ® Ic <u o -H £5 tu 0) M  B to JJ a - p to ft U « 0'HioO)(00(03 (0 P- 3 T J g ) O i < u C o i 3  s o I TJ u o o D <P 4 J •P u tu CJ> CP O (0 E TJ cr c c -H O u C-^-H B P o .. U C t l H a >• to o> O -H 10 10 -H 3 e >. o 4 J TJ tt) ^ TJ -Q Ul i - l  E O TJ O P C TJ 10 • ,-, in p tu tji > i to I c l _ T 3 tu tt) T J 0 > C C r H - H I C -CH 4tfl»' J ( P P C -f -H 4 J s 3 f l E <0 to o H tT>-P £ -H to -P c ia CP ft 10 tu uH > <P 4 J 01 - H 10 (0 41 - H 3 U T J 0) U = H J O  58 any g i v e n g i r l o r woman.  In f a c t , though, a number o f  o b s e r v a t i o n s can be made about r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e s u b c a t e g o r i e s under "Gender Stance." understanding  In order t o deepen our  of the c o l l e c t i o n o f f i n d i n g s under I I and the ways  i n which they cohere,  i t w i l l be u s e f u l t o r e c o r d  these  observations. F i r s t , given t h a t there i s a kind of b i p o l a r i t y operating a t the l e v e l o f v a l u i n g t r a i t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  (see above, p. 54), i t  may be t h a t shunning f e m i n i n i t y and v a l u i n g m a s c u l i n i t y are l i n k e d i n some cases.  Again, t h i s p a i r i n g of v a l u a t i o n a l stances  seems t o be o p e r a t i n g i n the case o f S t e i n e r - A d a i r ' s (1986) superwomen i n l i e .  Thus i t may be t h a t a t l e a s t some r e s u l t s i n  e i t h e r l i b (concerning the r e j e c t i o n o f feminine t r a i t s ) o r l i e (concerning t h e v a l u i n g o f m a s c u l i n i t y ) a r e t a p p i n g i n t o a c o n f i g u r a t i o n i n which t h i s p a i r i n g , and/or a commitment t o pursuing  ( r e n u n c i a t o r y ) superwomanhood, i s a t work.  Second, r e s u l t s i n I l a r e g a r d i n g t h e v a l u i n g o f female r o l e s seem compatible  with those i n l i d which support t h e hypothesis  t h a t female r o l e s are not r e j e c t e d by white, middle o r upper c l a s s women with e a t i n g d i s o r d e r symptomatology.  In f a c t ,  combining these s e t s o f r e s u l t s seems t o y i e l d s t r o n g evidence t o the e f f e c t t h a t female r o l e s a r e not r e j e c t e d , but r a t h e r embraced.  Moreover, both s e t s o f r e s u l t s are compatible  with  r e s u l t s r e g a r d i n g the v a l u i n g o f m u l t i - r o l e superwomanhood. Still  f u r t h e r , these t h r e e s e t s o f r e s u l t s  ( v a l u i n g female  r o l e s , not r e j e c t i n g female r o l e s , and v a l u i n g m u l t i - r o l e  59 superwomanhood) a r e compatible w i t h those i n l i b r e g a r d i n g t h e r e j e c t i o n o f feminine t r a i t s s i n c e f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o r o l e s need not have a b e a r i n g on those r e l a t e d t o t r a i t s , (see  above, p. 41).  Indeed,  and c o n v e r s e l y  f o r t h e same reason, a l l t h r e e s e t s  can be c o n s i d e r e d compatible with r e s u l t s i n l i e ( r e g a r d i n g the v a l u i n g o f masculine t r a i t s ) , r e n u n c i a t o r y superwomanhood).  and l i e ( r e g a r d i n g t h e v a l u i n g o f Having made these o b s e r v a t i o n s , we  can begin t o see t h a t a number o f v a l u a t i o n a l stances a r e mutually compatible, and t h a t f o r t h i s reason they may be o p e r a t i n g i n c l u s t e r s w i t h i n any g i v e n g i r l o r woman w i t h eating.  problem  Thus, f o r example, i t can be t h e case t h a t a white,  middle o r upper c l a s s woman who v a l u e s masculine but n o t feminine p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t i t i s important t o be a w i f e and mother, as w e l l as a " c a r e e r woman." The o n l y g l a r i n g i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y a r i s e s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h r e s u l t s i n I l a r e g a r d i n g t h e v a l u i n g o f feminine t r a i t s , and those i n l i b r e g a r d i n g t h e i r r e j e c t i o n .  In f a c t , d e s p i t e the  mutual c o m p a t i b i l i t i e s t h a t we have observed, t h i s antinomy apparently s p l i t s groups.  f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o v a l u a t i o n a l stance i n t o two  In one grouping, we can note t h e c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f  v a l u i n g feminine t r a i t s , v a l u i n g t r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e s , not r e j e c t i n g female r o l e s , v a l u i n g m u l t i - r o l e superwomanhood, and v a l u i n g masculine t r a i t s .  And i n a second grouping, we can  c l u s t e r v a l u i n g t r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e s , not r e j e c t i n g r o l e s , v a l u i n g m u l t i - r o l e superwomanhood, v a l u i n g  female  masculine  t r a i t s , v a l u i n g r e n u n c i a t o r y superwomanhood, and r e j e c t i n g  60 feminine t r a i t s . Rather than s e t t l e with t h i s understanding of r e l a t i o n s h i p s among f i n d i n g s i n I I , however, we consider valuing  the  do w e l l  to  whether the c o n f l i c t between r e s u l t s i n I l a r e l a t e d t o f e m i n i n i t y and  i n f a c t genuine. t o show t h a t the argument has  those i n l i b r e l a t e d t o i t s r e j e c t i o n i s  For t h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e arguments can be mounted i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y may  o n l y be apparent.  first  us r e c a l l t h a t r e s u l t s i n l i b were o b t a i n e d v i a  q u a l i t a t i v e or c l i n i c a l interviews,  w h i l e r e s u l t s i n I l a were  generated on the b a s i s of q u a n t i t a t i v e s t u d i e s . these two  The  s e t s of s t u d i e s may  For t h i s reason,  have accessed d i s t i n c t phenomena.  T h i s i s p o s s i b l e s i n c e Bruch (1973), f o r example, does not s p e c i f i c a l l y speak of the r e j e c t i o n of feminine t r a i t s ,  but  r a t h e r of a r e t r e a t from adolescence.  be  conjectured  Indeed, i t might  t h a t r e s u l t s under l i b r e f l e c t a deeper aspect of  white, middle or upper c l a s s women's o r i e n t a t i o n toward f e m i n i n i t y than t h a t captured i n the q u a n t i t a t i v e Ila.  f i n d i n g s under  I f t h i s i s the case, then t h a t which i s v a l u e d i n the  f i n d i n g s under I l a may f i n d i n g s under l i b , and  not be t h a t which i s r e j e c t e d i n the the antinomy between these s e t s  of  f i n d i n g s i s merely s e m a n t i c a l l y - b a s e d . The  second argument r e g a r d i n g  i n I l a and research  the c o m p a t i b i l i t y of  l i b a l s o draws from the o b s e r v a t i o n  that  quantitative  d e t e c t e d a p o s i t i v e v a l u a t i o n of f e m i n i n i t y ,  q u a l i t a t i v e and rejection.  findings  while  clinically-based findings reflected i t s  However, r a t h e r than c o n j e c t u r e t h a t  distinct  61 phenomena a r e i n v o l v e d , t h e h y p o t h e s i s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n here i s t h a t w h i l e a q u a n t i t a t i v e assessment may d e t e c t t h a t a g i v e n woman v a l u e s and  f e m i n i n i t y , a q u a l i t a t i v e i n t e r v i e w c o u l d d i g deeper  r e v e a l t h a t the very same woman a l s o r e j e c t s (or a t l e a s t  c a l l s i n t o question  t h e value o f ) f e m i n i n i t y .  I f such a s c e n a r i o  i s p o s s i b l e we w i l l have d i s c o v e r e d  an a d d i t i o n a l sense i n which  v a l u i n g f e m i n i n i t y can be construed  as compatible with i t s  rejection. Of course, i t i s n o t l o g i c a l l y p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e same woman both values  and r e j e c t s her f e m i n i n i t y .  However, given t h e  f e m i n i s t argument from t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n t h a t d i s o r d e r e d r e f l e c t s c o n f l i c t r e l a t e d t o s o c i e t y ' s double-binding  eating  messages  about gender, t h i s s c e n a r i o i s c e r t a i n l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y p o s s i b l e and  even l i k e l y .  researchers and  Indeed, i t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s c o n f l i c t  such as S t e i n e r - A d a i r  that  [1986; (46)] and S i l v e r s t e i n  Perdue [1988; (44)] take themselves t o be a c c e s s i n g .  More  s p e c i f i c a l l y , they themselves suggest t h a t t h e i r r e s u l t s r e f l e c t the i n n e r t u r m o i l o f g i r l s and women who have i n t e r n a l i z e d norms r e l a t e d t o manifesting  and v a l u i n g f e m i n i n i t y , as w e l l as  s o c i e t a l messages t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t t o be t r u l y valued,  one must  not be feminine (and maybe not even a woman) a t a l l . I f these r e s e a r c h e r s  a r e c o r r e c t , then we have l o c a t e d a  s i t u a t i o n i n which i n t h e context  o f a q u a n t i t a t i v e study, a  g i v e n woman with problem e a t i n g might very w e l l a f f i r m t h a t she values  f e m i n i n i t y , b u t i n a c l i n i c a l o r q u a l i t a t i v e study might  a l s o be prepared t o express c o n f l i c t and h o s t i l i t y  regarding  62  femininity.  As a n t i c i p a t e d above, we have t h e r e f o r e d e s c r i b e d  another s c e n a r i o i n which f e m i n i n i t y can be both v a l u e d and r e j e c t e d by women w i t h problem e a t i n g . The t h i r d and f i n a l argument has us c o n s i d e r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e r e a r e two d i s t i n c t camps o f women w i t h problem t h i s dimension o f v a l u a t i o n a l stance.  e a t i n g on  Simply put, i t i s p o s s i b l e  t h a t some women w i t h problem e a t i n g v a l u e f e m i n i n i t y , w h i l e others r e j e c t i t ,  and t h a t t h i s i s why d i s p a r a t e r e s u l t s were  o b t a i n e d under " v a l u i n g f e m i n i n i t y " and " r e j e c t i n g  femininity."  To support t h i s s u g g e s t i o n , I would l i k e t o r e t u r n t o t h e f i n d i n g t h a t l e s s severe d i e t i n g and b i n g e i n g i s l i n k e d w i t h  emphasizing  s t e r e o t y p i c a l feminine concerns about a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , w h i l e purging and becoming underweight  i s connected w i t h  emphasizing  s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y masculine concerns about i n t e l l i g e n c e and success ( S i l v e r s t e i n and Perdue, 1988).  In both cases t h e r e i s a  s t r i v i n g a f t e r a slender i d e a l .  However, i n t h e former  case  women s t r i v e t o meet contemporary standards o f a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , and i n t h e l a t t e r case women f e e l compelled t o renounce t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l y feminine, curvaceous bodies f o r new s t r e a m l i n e d , angular, pseudo-masculine  bodies which exude c o n f i d e n c e , success,  and even i n t e l l i g e n c e . Given t h e s o r t o f b i p o l a r i t y a t t h e l e v e l o f v a l u e t h a t i s o p e r a t i n g i n t h e l a t t e r c o n t e x t , i t may be t h a t women who s t r i v e a f t e r m a s c u l i n i t y i n t h i s way a l s o r e j e c t f e m i n i n i t y .  I f so,  then we would expect t h a t those with m i l d e r forms o f problem e a t i n g m a n i f e s t a p o s i t i v e v a l u a t i o n a l stance toward  such  63  features  o f f e m i n i n i t y as concerns about a t t r a c t i v e n e s s ,  while  those w i t h more severe forms o f problem e a t i n g show a n e g a t i v e o r rejecting valuational  stance.  In f a c t , t h i s i s e x a c t l y what we f i n d .  A l l but one o f the  r e s u l t s i n I l a c o n c e r n i n g the manner i n which t r a i t f e m i n i n i t y i s v a l u e d are l i n k e d t o l e s s severe modes o f problem e a t i n g and r e l a t e d behaviour ( v i z . , " e a t i n g  l i g h t l y , " emphasis on  appearance, d i e t i n g , and b i n g e i n g ) . r e s u l t s i n l i b regarding to eating disorder  19  In c o n t r a s t ,  a l l the  the r e j e c t i o n of femininity are r e l a t e d  symptomatology.  On the b a s i s o f these  o b s e r v a t i o n s , i t seems t h a t v a l u i n g t r a i t f e m i n i n i t y i s more c o n s i s t e n t l y r e l a t e d t o m i l d e r modes o f problem e a t i n g on the continuum, w h i l e r e j e c t i n g t r a i t f e m i n i n i t y i s r e l a t e d t o e a t i n g disorder  symptomatology.  I f t h i s h o l d s , then i t becomes c l e a r  from y e t another p e r s p e c t i v e  t h a t f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o v a l u i n g and  r e j e c t i n g f e m i n i n i t y do not n e c e s s a r i l y In summary, the t h r e e s c e n a r i o s  conflict.  described  i n these arguments  each capture a d i s t i n c t sense i n which v a l u i n g and r e j e c t i n g f e m i n i n i t y a r e compatible, thus s u p p o r t i n g the c l a i m t h a t the c o n f l i c t between r e s u l t s i n I l a and l i b may o n l y be apparent. t h i s assessment stands, i t seems t h a t c o n t r a r y preliminary  t o our e a r l i e r  assessment, a l l modes o f v a l u a t i o n a l stance under I I  are compatible and t h a t v a r i o u s possible.  If  c l u s t e r i n g s o f stances a r e  In the c o n t e x t o f t h e t h i r d argument, we have a l s o  noted t h a t v a l u i n g t r a i t f e m i n i n i t y seems t o be r e l a t e d t o m i l d e r modes o f problem e a t i n g , w h i l e r e j e c t i n g t r a i t f e m i n i n i t y i s  64 r e l a t e d t o e a t i n g d i s o r d e r symptomatology.  Interestingly,  this  o b s e r v a t i o n seems t o have y i e l d e d i n s i g h t i n t o a t l e a s t one dimension o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between white, middle o r upper c l a s s women and gender which can h e l p account f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n modes o f problem e a t i n g along a continuum. to  I w i l l have much more  say about t h i s i n subsequent c h a p t e r s o f t h i s t h e s i s .  At t h i s  p o i n t , though, we must t u r n t o an examination o f t h e r e s u l t s i n III. F i n d i n g s gathered under " I I I : Gender P r o f i l e , Gender Stance, and C o n f l i c t " a l l capture o r c o n j e c t u r e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a gap between what white, middle o r upper c l a s s women a r e l i k e , and what they t h i n k they should be l i k e i n terms o f having a p a r t i c u l a r gender p r o f i l e . parts: f i r s t ,  A c c o r d i n g l y , each subheading has two  a p a r t i a l gender p r o f i l e o f t h e white, middle o r  upper c l a s s women i n each category i s i d e n t i f i e d ; second, white, middle o r upper c l a s s women's own (and/or o t h e r s ' ) stance toward that p r o f i l e i s i d e n t i f i e d .  Given t h e r e s u l t s c o l l e c t e d here,  t h r e e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s can be d i s c e r n e d : (a) Low-level masculine p r o f i l e / P e r c e i v e d d e f i c i t o f m a s c u l i n i t y , (b) Feminine profile/(Conjectured) c o n f l i c t r e l a t e d t o the devaluation of feminine t r a i t s and/or r o l e s by s e l f and/or o t h e r s , (c) Masculine or  feminine p r o f i l e / P e r c e i v e d d e f i c i t i n t h e " o p p o s i t e "  direction. I l i a : Low-level masculine p r o f i l e / P e r c e i v e d d e f i c i t o f masculinity (50) A h i g h e r l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n i n combination w i t h d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h body image i s even more r e l e v a n t than t h e androgyny f a c t o r i n terms o f p r e d i c t i n g c o g n i t i v e r e s t r a i n t .  65 (54) High-degree compulsive e a t e r s showed a g r e a t e r d i s c r e p a n c y between masculine s e l f concept and s e l f i d e a l . (55) There i s a g r e a t e r d i s c r e p a n c y between s e l f and i d e a l masculine t r a i t s due t o low l e v e l o f s e l f - p e r c e i v e d masculine t r a i t s (and t h e r e f o r e not due t o g r e a t e r presence o f p o s i t i v e masculine t r a i t s i n t h e i r i d e a l female) — e s p e c i a l l y f o r b u l i m i c symptomatology. I l l b : Feminine p r o f i l e / ( C o n i e c t u r e d ) c o n f l i c t r e l a t e d t o t h e d e v a l u a t i o n o f feminine t r a i t s and/or r o l e s by s e l f and/or others (51) Whether o r n o t they a r e feminine o r m a s c u l i n e - o r i e n t e d , b i n g e r s a r e more l i k e l y than non-bingers t o r e p o r t t h a t t h e i r parents b e l i e v e t h a t a woman's p l a c e i s i n t h e home, t h a t t h e i r mothers a r e unhappy w i t h t h e i r own c a r e e r s , t h a t t h e i r f a t h e r s thought t h e i r mothers were n o t i n t e l l i g e n t , and t h a t t h e i r f a t h e r s t r e a t e d a male as t h e most i n t e l l i g e n t s i b l i n g i n t h e family. (56) Women w i t h e a t i n g d i s o r d e r symptomatology experience c o n f l i c t r e g a r d i n g t h e i r s e l f - a s c r i b e d n e g a t i v e feminine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which they attempt t o r e s o l v e by s t r i v i n g a f t e r ideal femininity. (60) B u l i m a r e x i c s show a wider gap between t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and behaviour r e g a r d i n g women's r o l e s . (61) Women w i t h d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g experience c o n f u s i o n and s t r e s s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r sex r o l e s and gender t r a i t s because they a r e caught between s o c i e t a l messages which urge them a c t i v e l y t o engage i n s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y male p u r s u i t s , b u t a l s o not t o r e l i n q u i s h more t r a d i t i o n a l feminine-gendered t r a i t s and r o l e s . (62) Anorexia ( i n c l u d i n g the b i n g e - e a t i n g / p u r g i n g subtype) r e f l e c t s an adherence t o t h i n n e s s as an e x p r e s s i o n o f ' u l t r a f e m i n i n i t y ' and a l s o a r e j e c t i n g i n d i c t m e n t o f t h a t f e m i n i n i t y . (63) Being r e l a t i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d and d e f i n i n g o n e s e l f i n connection w i t h o t h e r s as g i r l s do, and renouncing t h i s i n favour of a male developmental i d e a l c h a r a c t e r i z e d by autonomy and detachment from o t h e r s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h both t h e superwoman i d e a l and e a t i n g d i s o r d e r symptomatology. I I I c : Masculine o r feminine p r o f i l e / P e r c e i v e d d e f i c i t i n t h e "opposite" d i r e c t i o n (52) P a r e n t s ' t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s [ i n terms o f t h e parameters noted above i n (51), pp. 47-48] d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between purgers and nonpurgers i n t h e case o f f e m i n i n e - o r i e n t e d women.  66 (53) M a s c u l i n e - o r i e n t e d women were much more l i k e l y t o engage i n purging i f t h e i r f a t h e r s ' v a l u e s [see (51)] were l e s s l i b e r a t e d . (57) Women w i t h n o n t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e a s p i r a t i o n s who a l s o i n d i c a t e c o n f l i c t r e g a r d i n g t h e i r femaleness are more l i k e l y t o r e p o r t purging o r frequent b i n g e i n g . (58) Women who are e i t h e r e s p e c i a l l y masculine o r feminine i n gender-type and a s p i r e t o a superwoman i d e a l are p a r t i c u l a r l y a t r i s k for eating disorders. (59) Non-superwomen as w e l l as androgynous o r u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d superwomen are a t low r i s k f o r e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s . Fortunately,  r e s u l t s can f o r the most p a r t be read and  summarized d i r e c t l y from the above subheadings because t h e r e a r e no n u l l f i n d i n g s .  T h i s means t h a t i f r e s u l t s w i t h i n  are commensurate, r e s e a r c h e r s  w i l l have p r o v i d e d  e f f e c t t h a t women w i t h d i s o r d e r e d  categories  evidence t o t h e  e a t i n g experience a gap and/or  c o n f l i c t between: having a l o w - l e v e l masculine p r o f i l e , b u t wanting t o be more masculine ( I l i a ) ; having a feminine p r o f i l e and  f e e l i n g c o n f l i c t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the d e v a l u a t i o n  p r o f i l e by s e l f and/or others  of that  ( I l l b ) ; and/or having a masculine  or feminine p r o f i l e , b u t f e e l i n g d e f i c i e n t i n f e m i n i n i t y o r masculinity, represented  respectively (IIIc).  This information  i s also  i n F i g u r e 5 (below).  Once again, t o f l e s h - o u t the meaning o f t h i s summary and t o determine whether c r o s s - s t u d y  comparisons are l e g i t i m a t e i n t h e  f i r s t p l a c e , i t i s necessary t o review the r e s u l t s more c l o s e l y . Regarding the f i r s t subcategory o f r e s u l t s , (54)  and (55) a r e  s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y , b u t I would l i k e t o e x p l a i n t h a t (50)  is listed  here because van S t r i e n (1989) notes t h a t women w i t h more education  can be i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o take on n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l  67  GENDER PROFILE, GENDER STANCE, AND CONFLICT: P r e l i m i n a r y  Having a l o w - l e v e l masculine p r o f i l e i n combination with a s p i r i n g toward m a s c u l i n i t y is related to problem e a t i n g  Having a feminine p r o f i l e and feeling conflicted in r e l a t i o n to the devaluation of feminine t r a i t s and/or r o l e s by s e l f or others i s r e l a t e d t o problem eating  Figure 5  Results  Having a masculine or feminine p r o f i l e but perceiving a d e f i c i t i n the "opposite" direction i s r e l a t e d t o problem eating  68 women's o r men's r o l e s . she  Yet, i n a p o i n t t h a t should be f a m i l i a r ,  c o n j e c t u r e s t h a t i f they don't have t h e " a p p r o p r i a t e "  streamlined  angular masculine body c o n n o t i n g t h e c a p a c i t y  t o be  i n c o n t r o l and s u c c e s s f u l l y compete i n such endeavours, they may be  inclined to diet.  perceiving oneself,  In my view, t h i s i s an i n s t a n c e o f and i n p a r t i c u l a r one's body, as  i n s u f f i c i e n t l y masculine. A d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of a l l t h e r e s u l t s i n I I I r e g a r d i n g concerns about commensurability i s a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e i n Appendix C. respect  In terms o f an o v e r a l l summary o f r e s u l t s , with  t o I l i a , c l o s e examination y i e l d e d t h e c o n c l u s i o n  valuing masculinity masculinity  i n conjunction  that  w i t h low s e l f - d e s c r i b e d  i s r e l a t e d t o d i e t i n g , compulsive e a t i n g ,  and b u l i m i c  symptomatology f o r white, middle o r upper c l a s s women. I l l b c o u l d be c r u d e l y  i n t e r p r e t e d as a combination o f t h e  s o r t o f r e s u l t s found i n I r e l a t e d t o s e l f - d e s c r i b e d and  those i n l i b on r e j e c t i n g f e m i n i n i t y .  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s not q u i t e a p p r o p r i a t e  femininity  However, t h i s  s i n c e i n t h i s category o f  r e s u l t s , women do not r e j e c t f e m i n i n i t y i n a t r a i t o r r o l e sense outright.  Rather, i n each f i n d i n g we can d i s c e r n grounds f o r  deep c o n f l i c t experienced by women who a r e i n some sense(s) feminine-gendered, but who have i n some way(s) absorbed o r a t l e a s t been c o n f r o n t e d w i t h n e g a t i v e , undermining messages about f e m i n i n i t y and/or t r a d i t i o n a l women's r o l e s . The  s e l e c t i o n of results categorized  some e x p l a n a t i o n .  under I l l b  requires  In t h e case o f (51), S i l v e r s t e i n , Perdue e t  69 al.  (1988) assessed  f o r masculine  v s . feminine o r i e n t a t i o n on t h e  b a s i s o f o n l y one q u e s t i o n r e l a t e d t o s u b j e c t s ' concerns about academic achievement v s . household s k i l l s . r e g a r d l e s s o f o r i e n t a t i o n , women binge  They found  that  i f t h e i r parents have more  t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s , and i f t h e mother i s unhappy i n her c a r e e r choice.  In l i g h t o f e a r l i e r r e s u l t s i n l i d t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t  b u l i m i c women do not r e j e c t t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s , I c o n j e c t u r e t h a t r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r answer t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r s ' q u e s t i o n ,  these  woman a t l e a s t m i n i m a l l y adhere t o t r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e s and t h a t t h i s may c r e a t e i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t g i v e n t h e apparent d e v a l u a t i o n o f women and t h e i r r o l e s w i t h i n t h e i r  families.  C o n t i n u i n g with t h i s t a s k , (56) i s l o c a t e d i n I l l b because women who d e s c r i b e themselves as p o s s e s s i n g negative traits  feminine  (and who, I suspect, a r e not l i k e l y i n a p o s i t i o n t o  d e c o n s t r u c t t h e meaning o f those t r a i t s o r t h e i r presence) seem t o f e e l inadequate Sculthorpe  regarding t h e i r f e m i n i n i t y .  (1991) c o n j e c t u r e t h a t t h i s may motivate  s t r i v e a f t e r t h e s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e feminine body.  Paxton and women t o  i d e a l of a slender  The nature o f t h e gap i n (60) i s as one might  behaviour  expect:  i s more t r a d i t i o n a l l y feminine than a t t i t u d e s on t h e  p a r t o f t h e b u l i m a r e x i c women s t u d i e d .  And i n t h e case o f (61),  (62), and (63), g i r l s and/or women with d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g a l l e x p l i c i t l y emerge as being t o r n between being feminine-gendered and having t o renounce t h i s i n t h e f a c e o f a s o c i e t a l  rejection  of f e m i n i n i t y and s u p e r v a l u a t i o n o f m a s c u l i n i t y . In t h e a n a l y s i s o f these r e s u l t s , i t was noted t h a t (a) a l l  70 of t h e s t u d i e s noted here focus a t l e a s t i n p a r t on b u l i m i c behaviour o r symptoms; (b) i n each case being  feminine i n t h e  sense o f t r a i t and/or r o l e comes up a g a i n s t a d e v a l u a t i o n o f feminine-gendered t r a i t s and r o l e s ; and (c) t h e r e a r e no c o n t r a r y f i n d i n g s i n t h i s subcategory.  In l i g h t o f these o b s e r v a t i o n s ,  t h i n k i t i s f a i r t o say t h a t d i s o r d e r e d  eating  I  (and perhaps  b u l i m i c symptomatology i n p a r t i c u l a r ) appears t o be a s s o c i a t e d with white, middle o r upper c l a s s women who d e s c r i b e  themselves  as feminine ( i n t h e sense o f t r a i t o r r o l e p r o f i l e ) , but who a l s o face t h e d e v a l u a t i o n Turning and  o f ( r o l e and t r a i t ) f e m i n i n i t y .  f i n a l l y t o I I I c , I wish t o e x p l a i n t h a t  (58) a r e c l u s t e r e d together  (53), (57)  because they d e s c r i b e a s i t u a t i o n  i n which what a woman i s i n terms o f h e r gender p r o f i l e seems t o come up a g a i n s t what she ( o r a s i g n i f i c a n t other person) t h i n k s t h a t o r i e n t a t i o n ought t o be (namely, i t s " o p p o s i t e " ) .  (Fifty-  e i g h t ) f i t s n e a t l y here s i n c e having a ( m u l t i - r o l e ) superwoman i d e a l e n t a i l s t h a t both masculine and feminine o r i e n t a t i o n s a r e d e s i r e d and, g i v e n t h a t o n l y one p r o f i l e a p p l i e s , t h e r e would be a d e f i c i t i n the "opposite"  direction.  On t h e other hand, I must  note t h a t (57) i s i n c l u d e d here on somewhat tenuous grounds s i n c e I have presupposed t h a t t h e element o f c o n f l i c t  regarding  femaleness bears some r e l a t i o n t o c o n f l i c t r e g a r d i n g  femininity.  In c o n t r a s t w i t h t h i s c l u s t e r i n g o f r e s u l t s , (52) and (59) capture s i t u a t i o n s i n which s e l f - d e s c r i b e d gender p r o f i l e j i b e s or a t l e a s t does not apparently Since l a c k o f an " i s / o u g h t "  c o n f l i c t w i t h what i s d e s i r e d .  f r i c t i o n seems t o lower t h e r i s k f o r  71 d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g , I construe  these r e s u l t s as s u p p o r t i v e o f  those i n t h e f i r s t group. Summarizing t h e a n a l y s i s o f these f i n d i n g s , we can note t h a t as i n IIIB, b u l i m i a was c o n s i s t e n t l y b u t not e x c l u s i v e l y a focus of these s t u d i e s , and t h a t a v a r i e t y o f gender c o n f i g u r a t i o n s were examined.  However, i n t h e l a t t e r case,  o r i e n t a t i o n toward  r o l e s ( t r a d i t i o n a l , n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o r superwoman-type) played a p a r t i n each f i n d i n g and no p a r t i c u l a r t r a i t gender o r i e n t a t i o n emerged as r e l e v a n t .  Hence i t might be f a i r t o conclude t h a t  r e g a r d l e s s o f her t r a i t - g e n d e r p r o f i l e , i n s o f a r as a white, middle o r upper c l a s s woman's sense o f who she i s c o n t r a s t s  with  who she t h i n k s she ought t o be i n t h e sense o f r o l e - p r o f i l e , she appears t o be a t r i s k f o r d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g (and perhaps b u l i m i a in  particular). In summary, i n t h e case o f " I I I : Gender P r o f i l e , Gender  Stance, and C o n f l i c t , " i t seems t h a t f o r white, middle o r upper c l a s s women, v a l u i n g m a s c u l i n i t y i n c o n j u n c t i o n with low s e l f d e s c r i b e d m a s c u l i n i t y i s r e l a t e d t o d i e t i n g , compulsive e a t i n g , and b u l i m i c symptomatology ( I l i a ) ; d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g (and perhaps e s p e c i a l l y b u l i m i c symptomatology) i s a s s o c i a t e d with women who experience  c o n f l i c t r e l a t e d t o t h e d e v a l u a t i o n o f feminine  and/or r o l e s by s e l f and/or others  traits  ( I l l b ) ; and women who a r e  masculine o r feminine-gendered but who p e r c e i v e a d e f i c i t i n t h e " o p p o s i t e " d i r e c t i o n i n t h e sense o f r o l e p r o f i l e  manifest  d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g (and perhaps b u l i m i c symptomatology i n particular).  A v i s u a l summary o f t h i s i s o f f e r e d i n F i g u r e 6.  72  GENDER PROFILE, GENDER STANCE, AND CONFLICT: P o s t - A n a l y s i s  Having a l o w - l e v e l masculine p r o f i l e i n combination with a s p i r i n g toward m a s c u l i n i t y is related to problem e a t i n g  Having a feminine p r o f i l e and feeling conflicted i n r e l a t i o n to the devaluation of feminine t r a i t s and/or r o l e s by s e l f o r others i s r e l a t e d t o problem eating  Figure  6  Having a masculine or feminine p r o f i l e but perceiving a d e f i c i t i n the "opposite" direction i s r e l a t e d t o problem eating  73 At t h i s p o i n t t h e summarized f i n d i n g s from a l l t h r e e s e c t i o n s o f t h i s review r e g a r d i n g white, middle o r upper c l a s s women can be gathered and recorded  as f o l l o w s :  I: Trait femininity i s d i r e c t l y related to dieting, concern f o r appearance, and both b u l i m i c and anorexic symptomatology; negative feminine t r a i t s a r e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o body d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and i n c r e a s e d r i s k f o r e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s ; and t r a i t m a s c u l i n i t y i s i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o d i e t i n g , body d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , and both b u l i m i c and a n o r e x i c symptomatology. II: V a l u i n g feminine t r a i t s and/or r o l e s ; r e j e c t i n g feminine t r a i t s ; v a l u i n g masculine t r a i t s ; and v a l u i n g superwomanhood i n both t h e sense o f v a l u i n g m a s c u l i n i t y while r e j e c t i n g f e m i n i n i t y , and t h e sense o f pursuing both masculine and feminine r o l e s a r e a l l r e l a t e d t o d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g . In c o n t r a s t , women with d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g do not seem t o r e j e c t t r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e s . I l l : V a l u i n g m a s c u l i n i t y i n c o n j u n c t i o n with low s e l f d e s c r i b e d m a s c u l i n i t y i s r e l a t e d t o d i e t i n g , compulsive e a t i n g , and b u l i m i c symptomatology; d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g (and perhaps e s p e c i a l l y b u l i m i c symptomatology) i s a s s o c i a t e d with women who appear t o experience c o n f l i c t r e l a t e d t o t h e d e v a l u a t i o n o f feminine t r a i t s and/or r o l e s by s e l f o r o t h e r s ; and women who a r e masculine o r feminine-gendered b u t who p e r c e i v e a d e f i c i t i n t h e " o p p o s i t e " d i r e c t i o n i n t h e sense o f r o l e p r o f i l e manifest d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g (and perhaps b u l i m i c symptomatology i n p a r t i c u l a r ) . While t h i s c o l l e c t i o n i s c e r t a i n l y more manageable than t h e initial  s e t o f s i x t y - t h r e e p r o p o s i t i o n s , i t w i l l be u s e f u l t o  pare i t down even f u r t h e r .  In a f i r s t  attempt t o do t h i s we  might be tempted t o l i s t o n l y those summarized f i n d i n g s which can be used t o c o n s t r u c t p r o f i l e s o f women with e a t i n g problems  —  t h a t i s , o n l y those which d e s c r i b e p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g and gender.  We c o u l d a l s o o f f e r l e s s d e t a i l e d  summaries by dropping r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e s p e c i f i c mode o f d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g (or r e l a t e d concerns o r behaviour) i n v o l v e d . Having made these m o d i f i c a t i o n s , we c o u l d more simply  record that  74 i n t h e case o f white, middle o r upper c l a s s women, t h e f o l l o w i n g are a s s o c i a t e d with problem e a t i n g : I  self-described femininity low-level self-described masculinity  II  v a l u i n g feminine t r a i t s and/or r o l e s r e j e c t i n g feminine t r a i t s valuing t r a i t masculinity v a l u i n g superwomanhood  III  low-level masculinity paired with valuing masculinity femininity paired with i t s devaluation m a s c u l i n i t y o r f e m i n i n i t y p a i r e d w i t h s t r i v i n g toward i t s "opposite" Having o f f e r e d t h i s summary, I would l i k e t o r e c a l l t h a t I  undertook t h i s review i n t h e hope o f g a t h e r i n g  m a t e r i a l which  c o u l d be used i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a p s y c h o c u l t u r a l model o f e a t i n g problems.  In t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n ,  model would need both t o i n c o r p o r a t e  I had argued t h a t such a  f e m i n i s t i n s i g h t s about t h e  s o c i o c u l t u r a l nature o f problem e a t i n g , and t o capture i t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l complexity —  e s p e c i a l l y i n more extreme  The m a t e r i a l reviewed here has y i e l d e d i n f o r m a t i o n  cases.  about  c o r r e l a t i o n s between aspects o f gender and modes o f d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g , b u t as y e t i t i s u n c l e a r whether and how a model c o u l d be constructed  from i t .  Among other t h i n g s , I am u n c e r t a i n about t h e f a l l o u t o f t h e preceding  analysis.  F o r on t h e one hand, we have evidence t o t h e  e f f e c t t h a t t h e r e might be something about t h e content o f gender ( f o r example, h y p e r f e m i n i n i t y  or low-level masculinity or  a s p i r i n g toward m u l t i r o l e superwomanhood) which makes a g i r l o r woman a t r i s k f o r problem e a t i n g . t h a t gender c o n f l i c t  But on t h e other hand i t seems  ( f o r example, f e m i n i n i t y p a i r e d w i t h i t s  75 devaluation,  or low-level masculinity paired with s t r i v i n g a f t e r  masculinity)  might be r e l e v a n t .  models might be c o n s t r u c t e d  And i t seems t h a t very d i f f e r e n t  depending on which c l u s t e r o f r e s u l t s  we choose t o emphasize. I t might h e l p t o r e c a l l t h a t a more s p e c i f i c case o f t h i s t e n s i o n helped spawn t h e r e s e a r c h t h a t has been reviewed here, and  t h a t d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s i n I I o f f e r e d some suggestions  as t o how i t might be r e s o l v e d .  Here I r e f e r t o t h e apparent  c o n f l i c t between t h e view t h a t g i r l s and women w i t h problem e a t i n g a r e hyperfeminine, and t h e view t h a t these g i r l s and women reject their femininity.  One o f t h e s u g g e s t i o n s f o r r e s o l u t i o n  of t h i s t e n s i o n o f f e r e d above (see pp. 63 and f f . ) was t h a t  girls  and women i n t h e former category have m i l d e r e a t i n g problems, w h i l e those i n t h e l a t t e r category have more severe problems. T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was i n f a c t supported v i a a c l o s e r examination o f the r e s u l t s .  And t h i s o f course provokes t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t  something s i m i l a r a p p l i e s i n t h e more g e n e r a l might be t h a t s i m p l e r  case.  That i s , i t  and more i s o l a t e d aspects o f gender p r o f i l e  are a s s o c i a t e d with more m i l d forms o f problem e a t i n g , w h i l e those r e l a t e d t o c o n f l i c t a r e r e l a t e d t o more severe modes. To t e s t t h i s hypothesis,  t h e remaining two c a t e g o r i e s o f  f i n d i n g s must be more c l o s e l y examined.  Under " I : Gender  P r o f i l e " s e l f - d e s c r i b e d f e m i n i n i t y was r e l a t e d t o d i e t i n g , concern f o r appearance, and body d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , as w e l l as severe e a t i n g problems. hypothesis i n question  This observation  seems t o n u l l i f y t h e  because s e l f - d e s c r i b e d f e m i n i n i t y i s  76 present even i n those f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o more severe problems, and  thus t h e r e i s no way  in this variable.  t o make a d i s t i n c t i o n based on  I would suggest, however, t h a t t h i s judgement  i s p r e c i s e l y what needs t o be c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n . be t h a t a d i s t i n c t i o n i s o p e r a t i n g described  changes  For  it  may  between cases i n which s e l f -  femininity s i m p l i c i t e r i s operating,  self-described femininity i s operating  and  cases i n which  i n conjunction  w i t h other  g e n d e r - r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s t h a t are present but hidden from  the  researcher. In the former case and currently constructed others,  as we  includes  have noted, f e m i n i n i t y  t r a i t s such as wanting t o p l e a s e  as w e l l as r o l e s such as being a p h y s i c a l l y and  d e s i r a b l e woman.  Given t h a t s o c i e t y a l s o c u r r e n t l y  the p u r s u i t of s l e n d e r n e s s as a way  to f u l f i l l  r o l e s , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t d i e t i n g and appearance are a s s o c i a t e d o t h e r hand and  i n the  as  with femininity  sexually  prescribes  such t r a i t s  and  concern f o r  (simpliciterV.  On  the  l a t t e r case, though, o t h e r aspects of  gender such as r e j e c t i n g one's f e m i n i n i t y or a s p i r i n g toward a more masculine p r o f i l e may  a l s o be o p e r a t i n g  described  i t may  femininity.  And  i n tandem w i t h s e l f -  be t h a t i n these more complex  cases, c o n f l i c t a r i s e s and more severe modes of problem  eating  are generated i n response. T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s i n f a c t supported by f i n d i n g s i n I l l b I I I c because they can be p e r c e i v e d  as expanding those i n I.  and In  the case of I l l b , s e l f - d e s c r i b e d f e m i n i n i t y i s c o n j o i n e d with i t s devaluation  by s e l f or o t h e r s ;  and  i n the case of I I I c ,  77 f e m i n i n i t y i s conjoined with a s t r i v i n g a f t e r i t s "opposite." Both o f these more complex cases a r e a s s o c i a t e d with more severe problem e a t i n g .  A s i m i l a r p o i n t holds f o r I l i a which expands t h e  f i n d i n g i n l i e that v a l u i n g m a s c u l i n i t y i s associated with d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g by c o n j o i n i n g i t w i t h s e l f - d e s c r i b e d l o w - l e v e l masculinity. Once we begin n o t i n g t h e manner i n which more simple genderr e l a t e d f e a t u r e s o f women can be j o i n e d w i t h o t h e r s t o produce more severe modes o f d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g , other p o s s i b i l i t i e s emerge.  F o r one t h i n g , s e l f - d e s c r i b e d gender p r o f i l e s a r e not  n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e d t o t h e manner i n which they are v a l u e d o r shunned.  As a r e s u l t , we can note t h a t s e l f - d e s c r i b e d  femininity  may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v a l u i n g feminine t r a i t s and/or r o l e s , r e j e c t i n g feminine t r a i t s , b e i n g c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e d e v a l u a t i o n of  feminine t r a i t s , v a l u i n g m a s c u l i n i t y , o r a s p i r i n g toward  superwomanhood.  Beginning w i t h t h e f i r s t s e t , i t i s f a i r l y  obvious how t h e p a i r i n g o f s e l f - d e s c r i b e d f e m i n i n i t y and v a l u i n g feminine t r a i t s and/or r o l e s can be mutually s u p p o r t i v e i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f more m i l d v a r i e t i e s o f d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g . both comprise  F o r they  phenomena such as concern f o r appearance and t h e  desire t o please others.  However, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e cases we've  a l r e a d y noted i n I l l b and I I I c , we can c o n j e c t u r e t h a t when p a i r e d w i t h aspects o f gender such as t h e r e j e c t i o n o f feminine t r a i t s o r a s p i r i n g toward superwomanhood, being s e l f - d e s c r i b e d feminine can be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n n e r c o n f l i c t . account  And t h i s may  ( i n p a r t ) f o r why some white, middle o r upper c l a s s women  78 who a r e s e l f - d e s c r i b e d feminine s t r u g g l e w i t h more severe modes of problem e a t i n g . From here, t h e p o s s i b l e (and a c t u a l ) s c e n a r i o s o n l y become more complicated.  We have a l r e a d y observed how v a l u i n g  m a s c u l i n i t y and shunning f e m i n i n i t y can be j o i n e d i n t h e case o f a s p i r i n g toward ( r e n u n c i a t o r y ) d e s c r i b e d by S t e i n e r - A d a i r .  superwomanhood i n t h e manner  But t o i l l u s t r a t e with a more  complex case, i t seems l i k e l y t h a t s e l f - d e s c r i b e d feminine and l o w - l e v e l masculine women who shun f e m i n i n i t y w h i l e embracing m a s c u l i n i t y and who a r e faced w i t h f a m i l i a l d e v a l u a t i o n o f f e m i n i n i t y on an ongoing b a s i s would be more c o n f l i c t e d than women w i t h more simple gender p r o f i l e s . s i m i l a r l y spun.  Other s c e n a r i o s can be  The p o i n t here i s t h a t t h e r e a r e i n t u i t i v e and  e m p i r i c a l grounds f o r supposing t h a t any number o f gender p r o f i l e composites a r e extant,  and t h a t a range o f modes o f problem  e a t i n g from m i l d t o severe may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them a t l e a s t i n p a r t as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e i r complexity. Of course, i f white, middle o r upper c l a s s women's behaviour, v a l u e s , and concerns r e l a t e d t o female body management l i e on a continuum i n t h e manner d i s c u s s e d we would expect j u s t t h i s outcome.  i n the Introduction,  Accordingly,  r a t h e r than  compile a s i n g l e p r o f i l e o f "the e a t i n g - d i s o r d e r e d  woman," i t  makes sense t o propose t h a t a v a r i e t y o f gender p r o f i l e s f i t along a continuum o f m i l d t o severe problem e a t i n g . the problem t h a t i n c i t e d t h e preceding  Returning t o  d i s c u s s i o n , i t a l s o makes  sense t o propose t h a t gender content and gender c o n f l i c t a r e both  79 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h problem e a t i n g .  I t ' s j u s t on a f i n a l  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and summary o f t h e r e s u l t s reviewed here, described  femininity simpliciter  self-  (or i n combination w i t h v a l u i n g  feminine t r a i t s and/or r o l e s ) appears t o be r e l a t e d t o more m i l d modes o f d i s o r d e r e d bingeing,  e a t i n g such as d i e t i n g and o c c a s i o n a l  as w e l l as r e l a t e d phenomena such as body  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and concern f o r appearance.  At t h e same time,  however, more complex c o n f l i c t - i n d u c i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s  lying  "underneath" s e l f - d e s c r i b e d a s p e c t s o f gender p r o f i l e s appear t o be r e l a t e d t o more severe modes o f problem e a t i n g , i n c l u d i n g eating disorders.  As we've noted, i n combination with  simpler  aspects o f gender p r o f i l e , t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s emerged as p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t : t h e r e j e c t i o n o f feminine t r a i t s ,  valuing  t r a i t m a s c u l i n i t y , v a l u i n g superwomanhood, having low l e v e l s o f m a s c u l i n i t y w h i l e v a l u i n g m a s c u l i n i t y , being s e l f - d e s c r i b e d feminine o r masculine but a s p i r i n g toward the o p p o s i t e and/or being devaluation  profile,  feminine but f e e l i n g c o n f l i c t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e o f feminine t r a i t s and r o l e s by s e l f and/or  T h i s summary i s represented  others.  i n v i s u a l form below i n F i g u r e 7.  As  i n d i c a t e d a t the extreme r i g h t , and i n keeping with t h e preceding d i s c u s s i o n , I a l s o i n c l u d e a number o f c o n j e c t u r e d  possibilities  i n v o l v i n g combinations o f gender p r o f i l e s and/or stances which would be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h more severe modes o f problem e a t i n g . I would l i k e t o draw two i m p l i c a t i o n s from t h i s summary o f r e s u l t s .  final  The f i r s t concerns a s e t o f questions  posed  f o r our c o n s i d e r a t i o n a t the o u t s e t o f t h i s Review: ( i ) a r e women  01  c  w •a c a  c a  •o 01 ,u  a  3 JJ  0 u a  i W •J H fa  g  u c c 0 u  u  01 TS  c  •—i i u TS 3 O TS C 01 (0 <0 CT> > c  •a TS ai c a a  IT  (J j j  io 0  c  c u c  1  ^  >•  JJ  r-*  -r-4  c  C  0 (D —i a  i B  « c XI E o  to o c a -w  u w  r—1 <U  - U  1 0  —.  fl)  u  a  (0  3 <0 U U 10 > (D TS 3 a <o c o  J J  H  w  U iu  -3 a o  • H  0  >•  u < \ DC  J J  0 ~i  3  c  ^4  CO  §  ~i  0*-u  C  fa o  c  CJ  .-I  0  O CP—I O  S. c (0  E  C 0 B) T! 3 <U L, u 10 OJ Tl Or C 0 3 (J j J Ul  1  IT C  JJ  3 — •3 0 C -3 0) -i —< O — >• 0 •-c - 3 I T U £ u  >, O C O C J J 10 10 H 10 3 O E 0) C E — — O  U JJ CO •a —  io u 3 C -< > C U  hk4 > o I •x  t> 3 01 E c a 0) 0) 0) C 0) 3 C O U H a b u  c 0 0  w  TJ  c  10  c w >.  0 >u JJ £} (fl 4J 0 - U  io C r.  wI  af  0 JJ - 1 JJ —i 0 0 4J 0) U  a c u 3 —l u 0 —l c 0  u (0 - u \  iu > E T3 -< 0 OJ u 0) C 01 01 c c  c  « (0  10 4->  oi -a £ c c o> c —i (0 c 0> C —  10 c •-i C  0) > 4J  01 —I fl) u  C •u E hI U > 10  0  o a  0 -u U iu 01 0)  JJ  0 ~*  in *> 0 0 a oi a u o  a-o s  -O  V  0 u >• a cr  o  <u  0  O  JJ  in io  0) E TS O 0 -U E a E 01 >r  c  oa H  CO  I I C E TS 1 C —i 14-1 - H 0) H E > 0) 0) Q) W IrM r - (  r.  iu  x  T3 0) 01 r; •W JJ  > 10  c  H CO  01  * U <rM  E «J JJ  fa o trl  :  oi — u c  E lu 01 TS C c <" C 0 0 (0 U - H 10 JJ 0 CT (0 D>-i C -4 c - u •rH tj)  C  X  o a>  —I  "H  « C J E -w a 3 tn o  J J  -> e . Q TS £ 0) fl> E C U 10 i u « a <u  E 01 fl) 01 0) CO IU rVl IU  3 U C5< 3 o a c o •-i --< w  OB •»•« J J  •U  e  01 01  >> J J  0 JJ c 10 - i at V c TS -H jj 1 c >  c -4 -* c  0>.u  H  1-1  {Jijj  T J - < JJ — i  >  c  .D  I  -i  — - 3 C JJ u >. o -< -> 0 J J W Ui 3 ii-rt E  •rH  ~l  0)  I JJ  3 - i •a o c 01 r+ •**  •u  C -u  J J  u c  —I  3  01 - u  to (0 E  TJ u «3  3' a o  e  - I  0) 0) (X i u  >  J J  > u 01 01 m TS  lo u in o —  01 r^  0)  0 u  i  -u J J  -I  n 0 0 .c  10 E  o c JJ 10 E  Ul 0)  0 c 3  3 C E  CT C -<H  3  0 3  a a 3 > w  - H  X TS  >. o  0 3  101 C 01 a3 U  tr".  - CP OJ  c — c •u  (0 a u 01 C A - r 01 0) T> E a J J  c c  0 a - c to  *C .-i  u  0  0) TS iu C (0 •si c w "^*l ^^ jJ J JJ in Ifir U*I U | 3 —I 0) Q i - r io - i ei io " o —i > J J u wi  . 01 UlrC U 0) On O TJ C 01 C 4J ^ (0 10 01 01 rU E Tl 01 C  r-J a  c  -C 0 O — H M  —  J J  a cr o C 10  IU  TS OJ u  - H  *U  0 01 (0 CP*r* in c J J  >  0) -H (0 TS ja w C H E -> — 10 TJ u C  01  U JJ JJ w •«•» 0) c u  TS iu —i  -h o>-1 E  Q  <D CO i u (fl  v  o >•  T J • i TJ E  in a u o 0  c n  u; ic  81 with d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g hyperfeminine?;  ( i i ) do women w i t h  d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g r e j e c t f e m i n i n i t y o r embrace i t (or both)?; and ( i i i ) i s disordered eating the expression of i n t e r n a l r e g a r d i n g gender i d e n t i t y and r o l e s ?  conflict  In l i g h t o f t h e p r e c e d i n g  d i s c u s s i o n , our answer i n the case o f ( i ) must be t h a t i n t h e c o n t e x t o f contemporary North American c u l t u r e ,  self-described  f e m i n i n i t y and v a l u i n g f e m i n i n i t y appear t o be r i s k f a c t o r s f o r more m i l d modes o f d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g f o r white, middle o r upper c l a s s women.  However, v i s - a - v i s  (ii),  some white, middle o r  upper c l a s s women w i t h more severe problem e a t i n g seem t o be s e l f - d e s c r i b e d feminine  (and/or committed t o f u l f i l l i n g  t r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e s ) , w h i l e a t once shunning traits.  their  feminine  Indeed, and w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o ( i i i ) , white, middle o r  upper c l a s s women may be attempting t o r e s o l v e i n t e r n a l  conflict  and t u r m o i l r e l a t e d t o t h e i r gender p r o f i l e v i a t h e adoption o f more severe modes o f problem e a t i n g . The second  i m p l i c a t i o n concerns a q u e s t i o n r a i s e d  about how t o use t h e m a t e r i a l reviewed  earlier  i n t h e present c h a p t e r .  Given t h e manner i n which I have i n t e r p r e t e d t h e o v e r a l l s e t o f e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s , i t seems t h a t a t t h i s p o i n t we have a coherent s e t o f d a t a .  That i s , as noted above, t h e r e no l o n g e r  seems t o be j u s t cause f o r p i t t i n g r e s u l t s r e l a t i n g gender content and d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g a g a i n s t those r e l a t i n g gender c o n f l i c t and d i s o r d e r e d e a t i n g .  Rather,  i t seems t h a t c o n f l i c t  i s more l i k e l y a t work i n severe cases than aspects o f gender profile simpliciter.  T h i s outcome c e r t a i n l y h e l p s t o p r o v i d e  support f o r the f e m i n i s t p o s i t i o n o u t l i n e d i n t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n t h a t gender c o n f l i c t i s a key component i n the e t i o l o g y o f problem e a t i n g .  However, f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n r e g a r d i n g  p l a n t o work with t h i s m a t e r i a l , we t u r n t o Chapter Three.  how I  83 METHODOLOGY  Examination o f t h e e m p i r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on gender was intended  t o begin a process o f d e t e r m i n i n g how t o c o n s t r u c t a  p s y c h o c u l t u r a l model o f problem e a t i n g .  On my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  the r e s u l t s reviewed i n Chapter Two, a s p e c t s o f gender p r o f i l e such as s e l f - d e s c r i b e d f e m i n i n i t y o r v a l u i n g feminine t r a i t s and/or r o l e s appear t o be r e l a t e d t o more m i l d modes o f disordered  e a t i n g , w h i l e more complex c o n f l i c t - i n d u c i n g  c o n f i g u r a t i o n s appear t o be r e l a t e d t o more severe modes o f problem e a t i n g , i n c l u d i n g e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s .  This i s c e r t a i n l y a  good s t a r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e i t begins t o suggest how problem e a t i n g i s l o c a t e d along a continuum.  However, i t i s a l s o  important t o r e c a l l a c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n concerning  from t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n  whether o r not g e n d e r - r e l a t e d  conflict  comprises  enough o f t h e deeper p s y c h o l o g i c a l complexity o f problem e a t i n g . I posed t h i s q u e s t i o n  on b e h a l f o f those o p e r a t i n g  more p u r e l y c l i n i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t o determine t h e answer.  from a  and o f course we s t i l l have y e t  No doubt, t h e " c l i n i c i a n s , " as I  r e f e r r e d t o t h i s group, would be encouraged by t h e manner i n which p s y c h o l o g i c a l complexity seemed t o i n c r e a s e as we moved i n the L i t e r a t u r e Review from t h e e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s reviewed under the heading o f "Gender P r o f i l e " t o those under "Gender Stance," and  "Gender P r o f i l e , Gender Stance, and C o n f l i c t , " and by t h e  h y p o t h e s i s t h a t i n n e r c o n f l i c t i s most l i k e l y a t work i n t h e context  o f severe e a t i n g problems.  However, a t l e a s t some  84 c l i n i c i a n s are s t i l l  l i k e l y t o p r o t e s t t h a t any model we c o u l d  c o n s t r u c t a t t h i s p o i n t would l a c k p s y c h o l o g i c a l depth and complexity s u f f i c i e n t t o account f o r t h e g e n e r a t i o n disorder  of eating  symptomatology.  R e c a l l i n g an e a r l i e r argument from t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n , t h e c l i n i c i a n s c o u l d indeed have us c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e v a s t  majority  of white, middle o r upper c l a s s women a r e presumably exposed t o c u l t u r a l d i r e c t i v e s regarding messages r e g a r d i n g  gender, i n c l u d i n g  gender t r a i t s and r o l e s .  double-binding  A good number o f  these women no doubt a l s o experience s t r e s s and c o n f l i c t r e l a t e d to t h i s input.  So how, t h e q u e s t i o n  i s r a i s e d , can we account  f o r t h e f a c t t h a t o n l y a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l percentage o f women end up s t r u g g l i n g w i t h c l i n i c a l e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s ?  2 0  Something e l s e ,  they would conclude, must be a t work i n these cases which i s n o t captured  by t h e s o c i o c u l t u r a l t h e o r i e s .  Of course, t h e q u e s t i o n whether t h e r e i s more t h a t we need t o i n c l u d e i n a p s y c h o c u l t u r a l model cannot be s e t t l e d on t h e b a s i s of .the l a r g e l y c o r r e l a t i o n a l data reviewed i n t h e p r e v i o u s chapter.  Moreover, even i f we were s u p p l i e d w i t h a d d i t i o n a l  evidence t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t g e n d e r - r e l a t e d r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e , an e q u a l l y vexing concerning  c o n f l i c t i s the  question  would a r i s e  how i t s p e c i f i c a l l y f u n c t i o n s i n a c a u s a l  capacity.  On t h e other hand, though, my l i m i t e d g o a l f o r t h e present i s t o c o n s t r u c t a model which suggests how  thesis  gender-related  c o n f l i c t might c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e e t i o l o g y o f problem e a t i n g . Given t h a t we l a c k a s o l i d e m p i r i c a l b a s i s upon which t o q u e s t i o n  85 the r e l e v a n c e  and  s u f f i c i e n c y of the s o r t of  gender-related  c o n f l i c t o u t l i n e d a t the c l o s e of Chapter Two, sense simply  t o generate a model based on the r e s e a r c h we  a l r e a d y reviewed.  assessed i n the context  of  However, I am generating  future  the manner i n which I i n t e n d t o proceed.  not e n t i r e l y sanguine about the prospect  of  a model s o l e l y on the b a s i s of the e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s gender c o n f l i c t .  of anorexia,  Indeed, based upon my  own  experience  I share w i t h the c l i n i c i a n s a sense t h a t the s o r t o f  c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of o v e r a l l gender p r o f i l e we  have d i s c u s s e d  s u f f i c i e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l complexity t o account f o r the of problem e a t i n g i n g i r l s and women. b e l i e v e t h a t the e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h the b r i e f e s t r e f l e c t i o n on my  gender c o n f l i c t .  However, my  are v a l i d , they are  T h i s i s not t o say t h a t I  i s off-target.  experience e l i c i t s a  In f a c t , even strong  hunch i s t h a t w h i l e the  and  findings  incomplete.  source of t h i s hunch i s r o o t e d  experience of anorexia;  r e s u l t s have accessed.  i n memories of my  something makes me  more t o the gendered nature of my  question  lack  generation  resonance w i t h f i n d i n g s r e l a t i n g t o both gender content  The  be  projects.  T h i s i s roughly  regarding  have  Concrete, t e s t a b l e hypotheses c o u l d then  e x t r a c t e d from the model and research  i t might make  The  own  think that there  p e r s o n a l i t y than the  same hunch provokes the  was  empirical  further  whether e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h a t experience might provide  more s o l i d e m p i r i c a l b a s i s f o r q u e s t i o n i n g current findings.  the s u f f i c i e n c y of  Even more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , such an endeavour  a  86 might supply m a t e r i a l t o h e l p c o n s t r u c t a r i c h e r and more adequate p s y c h o c u l t u r a l  model.  In f a c t , t h i s i s p r e c i s e l y the p e r s p e c t i v e c a r r y out the remainder of the t h e s i s . the thread of my  own  f i n d i n g s back t o my emerges.  misgiving own  from which I w i l l  That i s , I p l a n t o f o l l o w  about the adeguacy of  experience and  current  examine the m a t e r i a l  that  Then I w i l l use t h i s m a t e r i a l t o supplement the  f i n d i n g s analyzed  i n the L i t e r a t u r e Review t o c o n s t r u c t  a  p s y c h o c u l t u r a l model of the gendered nature of problem e a t i n g . The  t a s k of the present  p l a n t o i n v e s t i g a t e my out t h i s p l a n , and  chapter i s t o d e s c r i b e more f u l l y how experience.  In Chapter Four I w i l l  i n Chapter F i v e I w i l l take up the t a s k  I  carry of  model c o n s t r u c t i o n . I am more i n c l i n e d toward a q u a l i t a t i v e than a q u a n t i t a t i v e approach t o a c c e s s i n g my  experience of a n o r e x i a .  As I began t o  i n d i c a t e above, r e p e a t i n g the s o r t s of s t u d i e s reviewed i n the previous  chapter would l i k e l y h e l p c o n f i r m  r e s u l t s , but would not l i k e l y h e l p me missing.  the v a l i d i t y of  their  d i s c o v e r what might be  In c o n t r a s t , a q u a l i t a t i v e study i s w e l l - s u i t e d f o r the  more open-ended k i n d of e x p l o r a t i o n t h a t I propose t o undertake. For, as noted i n Borg and  Gall  (1989), q u a l i t a t i v e methods a l l o w  m a t e r i a l t h a t might l i e o u t s i d e or underneath the frame of preconceived notions emerge.  (and e s t a b l i s h e d r e s e a r c h  findings) to  T h i s i n t u r n a i d s i n the development of new  hypotheses —  ideas  i n c l u d i n g those t h a t a r i s e i n the context  grounded theory  approach.  and  of a  S i n c e , as I w i l l e x p l a i n below, t h i s  87 t h e s i s roughly c o n s t i t u t e s e a r l y phases of a grounded theory approach, and s i n c e q u a l i t a t i v e methods are " e s p e c i a l l y  effective  i n the development of grounded t h e o r y " (Borg & G a l l , 1989,  p.  407), t h i s seems l i k e the a p p r o p r i a t e route t o take. Not one t o throw the baby out w i t h the bath water, though, I still  p l a n t o u t i l i z e the summarized r e s u l t s i n F i g u r e 7 from  Chapter  Two  (p. 80) as a frame f o r my  autobiographical inquiry.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , I i n t e n d t o r e c o r d m a t e r i a l t h a t emerges when I r e f l e c t upon the q u e s t i o n whether and,  i f so, how  the  s u b c a t e g o r i e s of s e l f - d e s c r i b e d f e m i n i n i t y , l o w - l e v e l m a s c u l i n i t y , r e j e c t i n g f e m i n i n i t y and so on would have a p p l i e d t o me  a t the age of f i f t e e n  b a s i c reason why  (and a t l a t e r stages of h e a l i n g ) .  I p l a n t o use these s u b c a t e g o r i e s i s t h a t  m i s g i v i n g about l a c k of complexity arose i n response p r e l i m i n a r y r e f l e c t i o n upon them i n r e l a t i o n t o my myself  a t the time of the a n o r e x i a .  e x p l o r e i n more d e t a i l how  The my  to a  sense of  Thus i t seems l o g i c a l t o  f a r they apply i n my  case and whether  deeper r e f l e c t i o n upon them can r e v e a l more i n f o r m a t i o n . But use of t h i s frame i s i n a d d i t i o n meant t o serve as a check a g a i n s t b i a s .  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , s i n c e s e r i o u s  concerns  about b i a s and l a c k of o b j e c t i v i t y are s t a n d a r d l y r a i s e d about any q u a l i t a t i v e study —  never mind an a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l study  c a r r i e d out by the r e s e a r c h e r — a measure of o b j e c t i v i t y .  i t seems best t o t r y t o b u i l d i n  I have done t h i s by e n s u r i n g t h a t  w h i l e I w i l l p r o v i d e answers t o the q u e s t i o n s posed, the q u e s t i o n s themselves are r o o t e d elsewhere —  i n t h i s case, i n a  88 body of e m p i r i c a l  research.  A f i n a l reason why  I have decided  t o u t i l i z e the  r e s u l t s i s t h a t t h i s w i l l make i t p o s s i b l e f o r me  summarized  informally to  t e s t a methodological h y p o t h e s i s t h a t has been t a k i n g shape over the course of my  discussion.  Here I r e f e r t o the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t  a r i c h e r understanding and more v a l i d outcome f o r a t l e a s t some s t u d i e s i s achieved  by interweaving  q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e  approaches than by e x c l u s i v e l y pursuing T h i s h y p o t h e s i s has from my  the  former.  a l r e a d y emerged i n the present  study  a n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s reviewed i n Chapter Two.  i n " I I : Gender Stance" c r e a t e d the impression  t h a t we  Results  needed t o  determine whether h y p e r f e m i n i n i t y  or r e j e c t i n g f e m i n i n i t y  more r e l e v a n t t o problem e a t i n g .  In my  r e s u l t s I b r i e f l y conjectured  was  d i s c u s s i o n of those  t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between these  p e r s p e c t i v e s might be more a f u n c t i o n of the nature of the than a r e f l e c t i o n of the phenomenon i n q u e s t i o n .  As i t turned  out, q u a n t i t a t i v e s t u d i e s y i e l d e d f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g content ( i . e . , i n t h a t case, h y p e r f e m i n i n i t y ) ,  gender  w h i l e more  c l i n i c a l l y or q u a l i t a t i v e l y - b a s e d work y i e l d e d f i n d i n g s conflict  study  regarding  ( i . e . , i n t h a t case, c o n f l i c t r e l a t e d t o the r e j e c t i o n  femininity). L a t e r , I observed a more g e n e r a l  d i s t i n c t i o n across a l l  t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s between f i n d i n g s t h a t suggest t h a t gender content i s r e l e v a n t t o problem e a t i n g , and t h a t gender c o n f l i c t i s a t work.  And  f i n d i n g s t h a t suggest  I argued t h a t the two  of f i n d i n g s are u l t i m a t e l y compatible on the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t  sets  89 s t u d i e s which examined gender content were v a l i d l y t a p p i n g  into  genuine f e a t u r e s of the p e r s o n a l i t y of t h e i r s u b j e c t s , but were a t the same time m i s s i n g u n d e r l y i n g c o n f l i c t .  In c o n t r a s t , o t h e r  s t u d i e s tapped more d i r e c t l y i n t o gender c o n f l i c t . In the more g e n e r a l case the d i s t i n c t i o n between q u a n t i t a t i v e and c l i n i c a l or q u a l i t a t i v e work holds up.  That i s ,  o v e r a l l , the former accessed f e a t u r e s of gender content w h i l e the l a t t e r accessed gender c o n f l i c t .  And  this raises a  methodological q u e s t i o n whether q u a n t i t a t i v e s t u d i e s are v a l i d i n s o f a r as they tap i n t o a c t u a l f e a t u r e s of the phenomenon under study, but inadequate  i n a l a r g e r sense of f a i l i n g t o y i e l d a  complete or adequate understanding  of the phenomenon i n q u e s t i o n .  Of course, t h i s i s a f a m i l i a r s o r t of complaint l i m i t a t i o n s of q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h .  about the  And many r e s e a r c h e r s argue  t h a t i t i s b e s t t o combine q u a n t i t a t i v e and  qualitative  approaches p r e c i s e l y as t o a v o i d t h i s s o r t of outcome. example, Borg and G a l l  For  (1989) quote R e i c h a r d t and Cook (1979) t o  the e f f e c t t h a t "there i s no reason f o r a dichotomy between the method-types and t h e r e i s every reason  ( a t l e a s t i n l o g i c ) t o use  them t o g e t h e r t o s a t i s f y the demands of e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h i n the most e f f i c a c i o u s manner p o s s i b l e " (pp. 26-27; i n Borg & G a l l , p.  382). One  doesn't  o f t e n have a chance t o go beyond l o g i c  and  p r o v i d e e m p i r i c a l backing f o r t h i s o b j e c t i o n w i t h i n the context of a g i v e n r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t .  On the o t h e r hand, though, the  present study o f f e r s j u s t such an o p p o r t u n i t y .  For by u s i n g the  90 subcategories  of aspects  of o v e r a l l gender p r o f i l e c u l l e d from  the e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h t o frame my  q u a l i t a t i v e study, I w i l l  be  i n a p o s i t i o n t o determine whether t h e r e can be a s i t u a t i o n i n which q u a n t i t a t i v e f i n d i n g s are independently the same time assessed  at  as incomplete g i v e n the manner i n which  additional material a r i s e s . relevance  confirmed but  Of course,  c o n f i r m a t i o n of  the  of a d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l t h a t emerges i n a q u a l i t a t i v e  context would r e q u i r e f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h — q u a n t i t a t i v e work.  The  p o s s i b l y even f u r t h e r  p o i n t , however, i s t h a t  a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l study may  my  y i e l d i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t can a i d i n the  c o n s t r u c t i o n of a p s y c h o c u l t u r a l model of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between gender and problem e a t i n g . t h e s i s might be construed the methodological  I f i t does, then the  overall  as l e n d i n g a t l e a s t i n f o r m a l support  to  p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t our understanding of a g i v e n  phenomenon can be e n r i c h e d  i f we  a l l o w q u a n t i t a t i v e and  q u a l i t a t i v e approaches t o i n t e r a c t —  whether i n the s o r t of  piggy-back f a s h i o n d e s c r i b e d here, or i n some other mode. Having o u t l i n e d the reasons why subcategories f o r my  the  of r e s u l t s from the L i t e r a t u r e Review as a frame  autobiographical  o u t l i n i n g my  I have chosen t o use  i n q u i r y , I would l i k e t o  p l a n f o r Chapter Four.  My  continue  i n t e n t i o n i s t o engage i n  a two-phased e x e r c i s e which w i l l a l l o w me  (1) t o assess  the  extent t o which the e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s are supported by a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l , and was  (2) t o explore my  more t o the gendered dimension of my  e m p i r i c a l r e s u l t s have captured.  sense t h a t  experience  there  than the  In both phases of the  exercise  91 I w i l l ask myself whether and,  i f so, i n what ways I was  i n a t r a i t - g e n d e r e d sense, whether I was valued  masculine, whether I  f e m i n i n i t y , whether I a s p i r e d toward m u l t i - r o l e  superwomanhood, and  so on.  However, i n the f i r s t phase I w i l l  seek t o determine whether and how p r o f i l e a p p l i e d t o me  a t the age  phase I w i l l i n q u i r e i n t o my My  these aspects of f i f t e e n , and  of o v e r a l l gender i n the second  p r o f i l e i n l a t e stages of h e a l i n g .  t h i n k i n g v i s - a - v i s the second phase i s t h a t even i f the  e m p i r i c a l r e s u l t s are c o r r o b o r a t e d f i f t e e n , i t w i l l be i n t e r e s t i n g and whether these dimensions of my my  healing.  confirmed.  by my  sense of myself a t  important t o determine  p r o f i l e changed over the course of  I f they do, the r e s u l t s would i n a sense be  doubly  I f they don't, we might have cause t o q u e s t i o n  v a l i d i t y of the c o r r o b o r a t i o n a t t a i n e d i n the context first  feminine  of  the  the  phase. As we w i l l see, the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l e x e r c i s e w i l l  solid  support  f o r the e m p i r i c a l r e s u l t s c u l l e d from the  reviewed i n Chapter Two. emerge t h a t has  offer studies  However, a d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l w i l l  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and use  also of  the e m p i r i c a l r e s u l t s i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a p s y c h o c u l t u r a l model.  Before  t u r n i n g t o Chapter Four and the f i r s t phase of  e x e r c i s e , though, I would l i k e t o e n t e r t a i n two might a r i s e i n response t o my The  overall  the  concerns which  plan.  f i r s t concern r e l a t e s t o the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l s t a t u s of  the model I p l a n t o c o n s t r u c t out of t h i s m a t e r i a l .  More  simply  put, what w i l l I or anyone be a b l e t o c l a i m t o know a t the c l o s e  92 of  my study?  I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n depends  e n t i r e l y on t h e manner i n which I c o n c e p t u a l i z e my work h e r e .  At  the o u t s e t I can s t a t e t h a t w h i l e I do i n t e n d my study t o s a t i s f y more than my own c u r i o s i t y about t h e nature o f my e x p e r i e n c e , I have n o t proposed  any hypotheses  about t h e e t i o l o g y o f problem  e a t i n g which t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l e x e r c i s e i s intended t o c o n f i r m or  disconfirm.  Rather,  I hope t o be a b l e t o l a y o u t t h e f i r s t  few stages o f what might be l o o s e l y be c o n s t r u e d as a grounded t h e o r y approach t o understanding t h e gendered nature o f problem eating. To e x p l a i n my meaning here, I would f i r s t l i k e t o r e c o r d that: [t]he  grounded theory approach i s a q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h  method t h a t uses a s y s t e m a t i c s e t o f procedures t o develop an i n d u c t i v e l y d e r i v e d ground t h e o r y about a phenomenon. ( S t r a u s s & C o r b i n , 1990, p. 24) The p o i n t o f t h i s k i n d o f r e s e a r c h i s t o c o n s t r u c t a t h e o r y about a g i v e n phenomenon which emerges from i n t i m a t e encounters w i t h i t over many s t a g e s o f e m p i r i c a l i n q u i r y and r e f l e c t i o n . the sense i n which t h e approach i s i n d u c t i v e .  This i s  Among o t h e r  t h i n g s , t h i s methodology h e l p s t o ensure t h a t t h e r i g h t s o r t o f v a r i a b l e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d , and t h a t t h e r i g h t s o r t o f hypotheses can be developed  f o r further research.  The c o n t r a s t i s w i t h  r e s e a r c h which begins w i t h a h y p o t h e s i s about t h e nature o f a g i v e n phenomenon and seeks t o t e s t i t .  T h i s can be f r u i t f u l but,  as noted above, we can be l e f t w i t h o n l y a l i m i t e d and p a r t i a l  93 grasp of t h a t which we  seek t o understand.  I l o o s e l y c o n c e p t u a l i z e my  work here as the f i r s t few  of a grounded theory approach because I am not attempting a s p e c i f i c research hypothesis,  stages to t e s t  but r a t h e r t o work toward  i d e n t i f y i n g the r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s f o r a p r e l i m i n a r y model of r e l a t i o n between gender and problem e a t i n g .  The model w i l l  the  be  grounded not o n l y i n the fund of e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h reviewed i n Chapter Two,  but i n the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l e x e r c i s e mounted i n  response t o t h i s r e s e a r c h t h a t I have d e s c r i b e d . i n d i c a t e above, my  As I began t o  hope i s t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h c o u l d then be  mounted on the b a s i s of my  model which c o u l d u l t i m a t e l y c o n f i r m  or d i s c o n f i r m the r e l e v a n c e  of the v a r i a b l e s t h a t are  identified  within i t . In sum,  then, my  response t o the f i r s t concern r e g a r d i n g  e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l s t a t u s of my  model i s t h a t we w i l l  c l a i m t o know much of anything  the  not be able t o  a t a l l a t the c l o s e of my  study.  However, i f a l l goes w e l l i n the sense t h a t the model i s s u f f i c i e n t l y grounded i n the a c t u a l phenomenon of problem e a t i n g , then we  w i l l have a r r i v e d a t the r i g h t s o r t of q u e s t i o n s  further  research.  for  While a l l t h i s might be w e l l and good, however, a second concern about my the study i t s e l f .  p l a n r e l a t e s t o the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l nature of In f a c t , two  epistemological worries  subsets  can be r a i s e d .  the s t a t u s of the r e s e a r c h  of methodological The  and  f i r s t set relates to  i t s e l f , and the second s e t  the r e l i a b i l i t y of the memories evoked i n the context  concerns of  the  94 autobiographical  exercise.  Beginning with the former, we  can  note t h a t concerns about the q u a l i t a t i v e nature of the  exercise  s l a t e d f o r Chapter Four can be r a i s e d from a c r i t i c a l ,  positivist  perspective.  Given t h a t "the data c o l l e c t e d are u s u a l l y  s u b j e c t i v e and  [ t h a t ] the main measurement t o o l f o r c o l l e c t i n g  data i s the i n v e s t i g a t o r [ h e r s e l f ] " (Borg and G a l l , 1989; 380),  p.  t h e r e i s a l r e a d y g r e a t p o t e n t i a l f o r b i a s , l a c k of  o b j e c t i v i t y , and  l a c k of g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y i n any q u a l i t a t i v e  study. Moving c l o s e r t o the more s p e c i f i c nature of the study I have a n t i c i p a t e d here, Smith (1994) notes t h a t academic " [ p s y c h o l o g i s t s have t r o u b l e with biography" g i v e n "passion  f o r t r u t h , and  exemplified  their  a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d of t r u t h a t t h a t ,  i n experimentation,  p r o p o s i t i o n s " (p. 296).  q u a n t i f i c a t i o n , and  tested  No doubt, from t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e  an  a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l study c o n s t i t u t e s a worst case s c e n a r i o f o r b i o g r a p h i c a l r e s e a r c h g i v e n t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r but a l s o provides the data h e r s e l f .  not o n l y  T h i s bodes i l l  with  collects respect  t o the need t o minimize experimenter e f f e c t , or "the degree t o which the b i a s e s or the e x p e c t a t i o n s d i s t o r t i o n s of the d a t a " bodes i l l  —  and arguably  of the observers  (Borg & G a l l , 1989, f a t a l l y so —  p. 404).  have l e d t o I t also  f o r the prospect  of  a c h i e v i n g e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y or g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y t o the broader population.  For without the b e n e f i t o f random s e l e c t i o n and  l a r g e sample, t h e r e Is  no way  unique f e a t u r e s of the s u b j e c t  t o c a n c e l out the i n f l u e n c e of studied.  a  95 I t i s no doubt c o l d comfort t o t h e academic p s y c h o l o g i s t t h a t autobiography can be c o n s i d e r e d lies  (Smith,  a way o f t e l l i n g  agreeable  p. 288, drawing from P r i t c h e t t , 1977), o r t h a t i t  has been i n t e r p r e t e d as a "mix o f h i s t o r y and l i t e r a t u r e and an attempt t o i n t e g r a t e ' o b j e c t i v e f a c t and s u b j e c t i v e awareness'" (Smith,  1994, p. 300, drawing from B u t t e r f i e l d , 1974).  For from  the p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e p o s i t i v i s t , i n s o f a r as u n t r u t h and s u b j e c t i v i t y a r e i n t r o d u c e d , r e s e a r c h l o s e s i t s v a l i d i t y and t h e r e f o r e i t s worth. Of course, however, t h e r e i s another p e r s p e c t i v e from which to  assess t h e s t a t u s o f a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l i n q u i r y .  And here I  r e f e r t o t h e postmodern p e r s p e c t i v e a c c o r d i n g t o which " p o s i t i v e knowledge about anything misconstrual"  (Smith,  i n t h e human c o n d i t i o n i s a  1994, p. 288). F o r example, as Smith notes  (with Hexter, 1971), h i s t o r i a n s b r i n g t h e i r q u e s t i o n s , b e l i e f s , and l i f e experiences  values,  t o t h e i r r e s e a r c h i n t o something  "out t h e r e " t h a t has happened i n t h e p a s t .  And i n t h i s sense,  h i s t o r y i s always a u t o h i s t o r y " (1994, pp. 288-289).  Post-  p o s i t i v i s t p h i l o s o p h e r s o f s c i e n c e have a l s o been a r g u i n g f o r some time t h a t t h e analogue o f a u t o h i s t o r y holds i n t h e case o f all  f i e l d s of research —  including the physical sciences.  That  i s , again drawing from Smith, "the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l . . . e n t e r s i n t o any c r e a t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n " (p. 289). The p o i n t o f t h i s g e n e r a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l response t o t h e o b j e c t i o n s o f t h e p o s i t i v i s t i s t h a t t h e g o a l o f a c c e s s i n g "the r e a l i t y " o f any aspect o f human experience  i s illusory.  For  96 research  i s l i m i t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s p e r s p e c t i v a l and  always-already shaped and i n f l u e n c e d by the humans who mount i t . A more s p e c i f i c p o i n t t h a t I would l i k e t o draw i n connection with t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s t h a t by r e c o r d i n g the r e s u l t s o f an autobiographical  i n q u i r y , I am making e x p l i c i t t h e p e r s o n a l  source o f my c o n s t r u c t i o n s .  That i s , r a t h e r than l e a v i n g i t t o  the reader t o guess t h e o r i g i n o f the hypotheses which I w i l l u l t i m a t e l y propose, I am able t o be f r a n k and e x p l i c i t about t h e i r autobiographical  source.  I t h i n k t h i s i s a more honest and  i n t h i s sense more e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l l y sound approach than one which assumes o r pretends t h a t i t s hypotheses are nonautobiographical  and i n t h i s sense not " s i t u a t e d . "  I t can a l s o be noted t h a t p e r s o n a l  experience i s an  important source o f t h e o r e t i c a l s e n s i t i v i t y i n the context o f developing  grounded t h e o r y .  21  As Strauss  and C o r b i n  (1990)  explain: T h e o r e t i c a l s e n s i t i v i t y r e f e r s t o the a t t r i b u t e o f having i n s i g h t , the a b i l i t y t o g i v e meaning t o data, the c a p a c i t y t o understand, and c a p a b i l i t y t o separate t h e p e r t i n e n t from t h a t which i s n ' t . . . I t i s t h e o r e t i c a l s e n s i t i v i t y t h a t one  t o develop a theory which i s grounded,  dense, and w e l l i n t e g r a t e d . . . Another way t o put t h e present proposing t o render t r a n s p a r e n t  allows  conceptually  (p. 42)  p o i n t i s t o say t h a t I am t h e source of my own t h e o r e t i c a l  sensitivity. A f i n a l argument i n favour o f a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l  research i n  particular  i s t h a t i t i s not o n l y l i m i t e d by the f a c t t h a t i t i s  p e r s p e c t i v a l , but a l s o e n r i c h e d .  T h i s i s indeed  the p e r s p e c t i v e  of f e m i n i s t r e s e a r c h e r s who " g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r  personal  experiences  research"  (Reinharz,  t o be a v a l u a b l e a s s e t f o r f e m i n i s t  1992, p. 258). Indeed, as Reinharz observes:  Feminist researchers  f r e q u e n t l y s t a r t with an i s s u e t h a t  bothers them p e r s o n a l l y and then use e v e r y t h i n g they can g e t h o l d o f t o study i t .  In f e m i n i s t r e s e a r c h , t h e 'problem' i s  f r e q u e n t l y a blend o f an i n t e l l e c t u a l q u e s t i o n and a personal trouble...Researchers  who adopt t h i s view draw on a  new 'epistemology o f i n s i d e r n e s s ' t h a t sees l i f e and work as intertwined. personal  Because o f the widespread acceptance o f the  s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r f e m i n i s t r e s e a r c h , some people  have come t o almost expect a l i n k between the p e r s o n a l experience  o f the r e s e a r c h e r  and t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t i n  which she i s engaged. (1992; 259-260) Indeed, as Reinharz (1992) goes on t o e x p l a i n , some f e m i n i s t researchers experience  take t h i s one s t e p f u r t h e r by c l a i m i n g t h a t  personal  i s a source o f l e g i t i m a c y and i n t h i s sense a  necessary f e a t u r e o f adequate r e s e a r c h . I take t h i s t h e s i s t o be an i n s t a n c e o f r e s e a r c h i n t h e f e m i n i s t t r a d i t i o n o f t h e epistemology o f i n s i d e r n e s s , but i t a l s o v i t a l t o keep i n mind t h a t I do not i n t e n d t o c l a i m t h a t t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l e x e r c i s e has any e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y o r t h a t the model which I w i l l go on t o c o n s t r u c t y i e l d s c o n c l u s i o n s can be g e n e r a l i z e d beyond t h e present  sample o f one.  which  Rather, i n  98 keeping with t h e o v e r a l l grounded theory approach which I have l o o s e l y adopted here, I urge upon the reader an a t t i t u d e o f s k e p t i c i s m a c c o r d i n g t o which "[a]11 t h e o r e t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s , c a t e g o r i e s , hypotheses,  and q u e s t i o n s about t h e data, whether  they come d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y from t h e making o f comparisons, the l i t e r a t u r e , o r from experience should be regarded as provisional" —  u n t i l checked o u t a g a i n s t a c t u a l data ( S t r a u s s &  C o r b i n , 1990, p. 45). At t h i s p o i n t we need t o r e c a l l t h a t the second s e t o f methodological  and e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l concerns  p e r t a i n e d t o the r e l i a b i l i t y  o f the memories evoked i n t h e  c o n t e x t o f the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l e x e r c i s e . important t o cross-check  about my study  I t i s indeed  "very  [ n o n t e c h n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e such as  d i a r i e s , b i o g r a p h i e s , l e t t e r s , videotapes and so on] a g a i n s t o t h e r sources o f data i f p o s s i b l e , such as i n t e r v i e w and o b s e r v a t i o n " ( S t r a u s s & C o r b i n , 1990, p. 55). For otherwise one can end up w i t h u n r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n .  From a naive p e r s p e c t i v e  t h i s should not apply i n t h e case o f a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l from t h e r e s e a r c h e r s i n c e she i s the v e r y source o f t h e information i n question.  On the o t h e r hand, f o r the v e r y same  reason, one needs t o be wary about t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f unconscious b i a s and i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e skewing o f memories i n favour o f particular  hypotheses.  Perhaps the weakest f e a t u r e o f the present study i s t h a t I can o f f e r no s u p p o r t i n g evidence f o r t h e r e c o l l e c t i o n s I o f f e r i n the context o f the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l e x e r c i s e .  A scan o f p e r s o n a l  99 diaries yielded l i t t l e  i n the way  of d i r e c t support,  and  On the other hand, though, I would  i n t e r v i e w s were not p o s s i b l e .  l i k e t o o f f e r a number of remarks intended  to mitigate  concerns  about the impact of t h i s weakness on the o v e r a l l study. F i r s t of a l l ,  as f o r concerns about b i a s , I t h i n k i t ' s  important t o keep i n mind t h a t my  motivation  i s to explore  experience r a t h e r than t e s t a p a r t i c u l a r h y p o t h e s i s about r e l a t i o n s h i p between gender and problem e a t i n g . speaking, t h i s seems t o me which t o evoke my  own  We  the  Relatively  t o be a more trustworthy  memories.  my  context  in I  can a l s o r e c a l l here t h a t  p l a n t o use the summarized f i n d i n g s from the e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s a frame f o r the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l of my  motivation  and  As noted above, p a r t  f o r doing so i s t o provide  p o s s i b l e b i a s g i v e n t h a t I am questions  exercise.  as  a check  against  not the source of both the  the answers i n t h a t e x e r c i s e .  Second, I would l i k e t o s t a t e t h a t , r a t h e r than f i n d a t o prove t h a t my  memories are r e l i a b l e , I am more i n c l i n e d  way to  embrace the f a c t t h a t a l l memories are n o n v e r i d i c a l i n the sense t h a t they are meaningful c o n s t r u c t i o n s on t h a t b a s i s . i n f l u e n c e d my  r e c a l l , i n c l u d i n g my  The  experiences of therapy,  women, my  reading  understanding of anorexia  my  and  decades of r e f l e c t i o n on a l l of  r i c h h i s t o r y of t h i s r e f l e c t i o n and  deepening of my  my  t r a i n i n g t o become a t h e r a p i s t ,  of other e a t i n g - d i s o r d e r e d  t a l k i n g with o t h e r s , and two above.  proceed  Indeed, I have no doubt t h a t many f a c t o r s have  development as a f e m i n i s t , my observation  of the p a s t , and  the  the consequent  i s in fact  consciously  100 interwoven with my  r e c o l l e c t i o n s i n the form of i n t e r p r e t i v e  remarks, e s p e c i a l l y i n the second phase of the In keeping with t h i s p o i n t , and about the v i r t u e s of a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l  exercise.  i n l i g h t of my research,  discussion  I take i t t h a t  p a r t of the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l worry about r e l i a b i l i t y i s met  by  the  f a c t t h a t I have rendered ( c o n s c i o u s l y - a c c e s s i b l e ) shaping factors v i s i b l e .  Given t h i s , the reader has a b e t t e r chance of  d e t e c t i n g p o s s i b l e areas of problematic Moreover, I do not p l a n simply  i n f l u e n c e or b i a s .  t o r e p o r t the r e s u l t s of the  phased e x e r c i s e i n summary f a s h i o n , and  t o r e l y on the  t r u s t t h a t I have a r r i v e d a t them i n good f a i t h . recorded searching  two-  reader's  Rather, I have  the process of c o n f r o n t i n g each dimension of gender, f o r a sense o f myself i n a g i v e n p e r i o d , and  on the m a t e r i a l t h a t emerges.  My  hope i s t h a t the y i e l d s of  e x e r c i s e w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t l y r i c h as t o persuade the t h a t , r e g a r d l e s s of the extent l a t e r experience, my  reflecting the  reader  t o which they are c o n d i t i o n e d  memories are nonetheless t a p p i n g  by  into  genuine m a t e r i a l . A f i n a l p o i n t r e l a t e s back t o my which I have c o n c e p t u a l i z e d the f i r s t few  d i s c u s s i o n of the manner i n  this thesis.  steps of a grounded theory  Roughly construed approach t o  understanding the r e l a t i o n s h i p between gender and my  problem e a t i n g ,  primary concern i n r e l a t i o n t o the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l  i s simply  as  exercise  t o get m a t e r i a l out on the t a b l e f o r model  construction.  Again, my  r e c o l l e c t i o n s w i l l not be construed  p r o v i d i n g evidence t o support or d i s c o n f i r m concrete  as  hypotheses  101 about t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p .  Rather, my  epistemological  orientation  with r e s p e c t t o the v a l u e of t h i s m a t e r i a l i s pragmatic. is,  I agree w i t h Smith (1994) t h a t " s t o r i e s and  That  ideas t h a t  one  c r e a t e s should be u s e f u l f o r s o l v i n g f u r t h e r problems i n one's professional l i f e "  (p. 302).  Taking t h i s one  might say t h a t i n s o f a r as s t o r i e s and c a p a c i t y , they have v a l u e . autobiographical  i t s value.  one  ideas are u s e f u l i n t h i s  Accordingly,  m a t e r i a l t h a t I provide  works, then I f o r one  step further,  my  perspective  on  the  i s t h a t i n s o f a r as i t  w i l l have no f u r t h e r m o t i v a t i o n  to  That i s , i n s o f a r as the r e c o l l e c t i o n s t h a t I  question provide  c o n t r i b u t e t o a model whose core hypotheses are u l t i m a t e l y v a l i d a t e d i n the context  of f u t u r e r e s e a r c h  —  and/or i n the  sense t h a t they c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e r a p e u t i c p r a c t i c e — don't r e q u i r e f u r t h e r assessment of t h e i r worth.  Of  then  we  course,  f i n a l assessment of the pragmatic value of the m a t e r i a l i n question  cannot be o f f e r e d i n t h i s t h e s i s .  p r e c i s e l y what one grounded theory  But t h a t i s of course  would expect of work a t the e a r l y stages of a  approach.  Having a t l e a s t attempted t o address e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l  and  methodological concerns t h a t might be r a i s e d i n response t o work here, I propose t o t u r n t o Chapter Four and i n q u i r y i n t o aspects of my f i f t e e n and  the two-phased  o v e r a l l gender p r o f i l e a t the age  i n l a t e stages of  healing.  my  of  102 AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL EXERCISE  INTRODUCTION: The main t a s k t h a t I have s e t f o r myself here i s t o e x p l o r e my hunch t h a t t h e r e i s more t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between gender and problem  e a t i n g than has been brought t o l i g h t by e x t a n t  empirical research.  As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Three, I a l s o wish  i n f o r m a l l y t o t e s t a methodological h y p o t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g the v a l u e of r e s e a r c h which i n t e g r a t e s q u a n t i t a t i v e and methods.  qualitative  In both c a s e s , I w i l l need t o assess the e x t e n t t o  which q u a l i t a t i v e e x p l o r a t i o n of my experience v a l i d a t e s e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s but i n s u b s t a n t i v e ways a l s o t r a n s c e n d s enriches i t .  and  I p l a n t o do so i n the c o n t e x t of a q u a l i t a t i v e ,  a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l study of my  experience of a n o r e x i a .  In more  d e t a i l , I w i l l f i r s t o f f e r a b r i e f case h i s t o r y and a h i s t o r y of my process of h e a l i n g .  Then I w i l l engage i n a two-phased  e x e r c i s e i n which I w i l l gather f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o my p r o f i l e a t f i f t e e n , and f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o my  gender  gender p r o f i l e i n  l a t e r stages of h e a l i n g . As f o r the s p e c i f i c manner i n which I p l a n t o generate  this  m a t e r i a l , f o r the case h i s t o r y , I w i l l attempt t o r e c o n s t r u c t i n f o r m a t i o n about my  l i f e t h a t a c l i n i c i a n would have gleaned  from me a t the time I was  s t r u g g l i n g with anorexia.  s p e c i f i c a l l y , I w i l l reproduce what I imagine my might have l e a r n e d about me  i n the f i r s t  More  first  therapist  few s e s s i o n s w i t h her  almost one year a f t e r the onset of a n o r e x i a .  I w i l l do t h i s i n a  103 purely autobiographical I t a l k e d about and how  f a s h i o n , based on my  I imagine she might have c o n f i g u r e d  the format of an i n t a k e i n t e r v i e w write-up. somewhat more e x t e n s i v e own  r e c o l l e c t i o n of what  In c o n t r a s t ,  v o i c e because I wanted t o convey my  experience  span twenty-two years of h e a l i n g and w i l l present  the  h i s t o r y of h e a l i n g w i l l be w r i t t e n i n  understanding of t h i s process from the i n s i d e .  my  i t in  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o my  and  The  history will  i n c l u d e a d i s c u s s i o n of  body, e a t i n g , and  exercise.  As f o r the two-phased e x e r c i s e , I w i l l simply  proceed  by  t a k i n g on the r o l e of a s u b j e c t i n a s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w . a n t i c i p a t e d i n the p r e v i o u s  chapter,  summarized r e s u l t s t h a t were recorded L i t e r a t u r e Review w i l l p r o v i d e "interview."  my  the s u b c a t e g o r i e s  As  of  i n F i g u r e 7 from the  the frame and  s t r u c t u r e f o r the  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , I w i l l s e t out each subcategory  under the broader headings of " I : Gender P r o f i l e , " " I I : Gender Stance," and  "III:Gender P r o f i l e , Gender Stance, and  Conflict,"  including self-described t r a i t femininity, self-described t r a i t m a s c u l i n i t y , v a l u i n g feminine t r a i t s m a s c u l i n i t y , and  so on.  t o a p a r t i c u l a r aspect  and  roles, valuing  Each subcategory of course corresponds of o v e r a l l gender p r o f i l e .  In the case of  the f o u r aspects j u s t mentioned, I w i l l f u r t h e r s t r u c t u r e d i s c u s s i o n by making r e f e r e n c e  my  t o a number of d e s c r i p t o r s  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t e r e o t y p i c a l f e m i n i n i t y and m a s c u l i n i t y used i n the Personal 1978), and Use  A t t r i b u t e s Questionnaire  Bern Sex  (PAQ;  Spence & Helmreich,  Roles Inventory (BSRI; Bern, 1974,  1978).  22  of these d e s c r i p t o r s w i l l make i t e a s i e r and more l e g i t i m a t e  104 to compare the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l with f i n d i n g s from the e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h t h a t adopted these responses  (or s i m i l a r ) measures than  t o more open-ended q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g whether I  feminine, masculine,  and so  was  on.  G e t t i n g back t o the i n t e r v i e w p r o c e s s , I w i l l s e t out each aspect of o v e r a l l p r o f i l e and/or s p e c i f i c d e s c r i p t o r i n t u r n , and r e f l e c t on whether, t o what e x t e n t , and i n what way(s) each a p p l i e d t o me healing.  a t the age of f i f t e e n , and a t l a t e r stages of  And then I w i l l r e c o r d my  response.  As a n t i c i p a t e d i n  the p r e v i o u s chapter, a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s i n the e x e r c i s e I w i l l a l s o e l a b o r a t e my  r e c o l l e c t i o n s by interweaving  interpretive  remarks. F o l l o w i n g the two-phased e x e r c i s e , I w i l l assess the extent to which the e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s reviewed  i n Chapter  supported by m a t e r i a l t h a t I have gathered. t h a t my  Two  are  D e s p i t e the  fact  r e c o l l e c t i o n s v a l i d a t e t h i s research, i t w i l l i n f a c t  be  necessary t o o f f e r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between gender and problem e a t i n g i n my T h i s w i l l a i d i n a d d r e s s i n g the methodological above.  case.  hypothesis  noted  But most i m p o r t a n t l y i t w i l l complete our p r e p a r a t i o n f o r  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a p s y c h o c u l t u r a l model of the gendered nature of  problem e a t i n g i n Chapter F i v e .  BRIEF CASE HISTORY: Demographic/Descriptive:  Deborrah i s a 16 year o l d Caucasian  a d o l e s c e n t of Anglo-European e t h n i c i t y from a m i d d l e - c l a s s background.  She appears anxious and somewhat depressed,  and i s  105 very t h i n and r e s t l e s s .  She  i s c l e a n but does not seem t o take  i n t e r e s t i n her appearance, wearing baggy c l o t h e s and no make-up or jewelry. student,  She  i s i n the j u n i o r year of h i g h s c h o o l and  though she shows no p r i d e i n t h i s .  t h e a t r e i n connection well—liked.  She  with her s c h o o l , has  i s cooperative  and  She  i s involved i n  some f r i e n d s , and i s  i n f a c t seems eager t o  p l e a s e , r e l a t i n g t o o t h e r s more l i k e a compliant stereotypical  a top  a d u l t than a  adolescent.  P r e s e n t i n g Problem: Deborrah says she has come f o r h e l p because her mother i s no longer able t o l i s t e n t o her.  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  her mother i s not w i l l i n g t o l i s t e n t o Deborrah's d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of what she has eaten each day, needs h e l p from someone e l s e . being  f a t s i n c e she was  t o a S p r i n g day she was  Deborrah has been w o r r i e d  about  j u s t b r i n g i n g a p i e c e of f r u i t  to  But she t r a c e s her s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d  almost one  eating  year ago when she simply decided  f a t and t h a t she needed t o eat l e s s and  For almost a year she has s u r v i v e d on one approximately 400  she  about t e n years o l d and t r i e d f o r a time  t o r e s t r i c t her e a t i n g by s c h o o l f o r lunch.  and t h i n k s t h a t  c a l o r i e s , with nothing  perhaps a c a r r o t f o r lunch. p r o t e i n source and vegetables  Her  e x e r c i s e more.  meal a day  of  for breakfast  and  supper c o n s i s t s of 4 oz. of some  or s a l a d with d i e t d r e s s i n g .  takes i n no f a t or carbohydrates.  that  She  d r i n k s water, having  She read  t h a t even d r i n k i n g d i e t soda you can end up t a k i n g i n "a l o t " of extra c a l o r i e s .  She  has  an e l a b o r a t e e x e r c i s e r o u t i n e which  she  p r a c t i c e s i n her room and she r i d e s her b i c y c l e d a i l y , o f t e n over  106 great distances.  She says t h a t she has always had an u g l y body  w i t h odd-shaped h i p s and a b i g round b e l l y — the o t h e r g i r l s a t s c h o o l .  v e r y much u n l i k e  Her mother t r i e d t o get her t o wear  g i r d l e s t o h i d e her stomach ever s i n c e she was  a child.  Now,  the  thought of g a i n i n g a s m a l l amount of weight t e r r i f i e s her, even though she weighs o n l y 95 pounds ( a t a h e i g h t of 5' 4"). Deborrah's parents t a l k e d w i t h her about the p r o s p e c t of e n t e r i n g therapy and o f f e r e d t o s e t t h i s up f o r her.  I t took  Deborrah q u i t e a few months b e f o r e d e c i d i n g t o seek h e l p because she d i d n ' t want t o t h i n k of h e r s e l f as " s i c k . "  She makes no  r e f e r e n c e t o an e a t i n g problem, except t o say t h a t she knows t h a t o t h e r people t h i n k she has l o s t too much weight, "going too f a r " because she hasn't menstruated (approximately 6-7  months).  and t h a t she i s  f o r some time  While acknowledging t h a t she  has  l o s t a " l i t t l e " weight (35 pounds), she adds t h a t she does not t h i n k i t ' s too much.  On the o t h e r hand, though, she admits  f e e l i n g q u i t e depressed  to  and l o n e l y , and c o n f l i c t e d about  s o c i a l i z i n g with others.  She sometimes t h i n k s of s u i c i d e ,  e s p e c i a l l y at night.  she has t e r r i f y i n g dreams t h a t a woman  And  with a k n i f e i s t r y i n g to k i l l Family and Personal H i s t o r y : f o u r c h i l d r e n who apart).  her. Deborrah i s the second o l d e s t of  are v e r y c l o s e i n age  (approximately one  year  She has an o l d e r b r o t h e r , a younger b r o t h e r , and a  s i s t e r who  i s the youngest  child.  Her parents are married,  though t h e i r marriage has been d i f f i c u l t .  They have been i n  i n d i v i d u a l and group therapy f o r a number of y e a r s .  As a young  107 c h i l d , Deborrah was  v e r y c l o s e w i t h her f a t h e r , while her mother  favoured the f i r s t - b o r n son.  She s t i l l  i s i n f a c t proud of both her p a r e n t s . "different" —  i d o l i z e s her f a t h e r and She d e s c r i b e s them as  more l i b e r a l than other p a r e n t s .  However,  Deborrah a l s o seems h u r t because her f a t h e r "hasn't been around" f o r a number of y e a r s , and doesn't Deborrah was Ph.D.  approximately  seem t o be coming back.  11 years o l d her f a t h e r entered a  program i n C l i n i c a l Psychology  and f i n i s h e d w i t h i n t h r e e  y e a r s , t a k i n g o n l y one year o f f from f u l l - t i m e work. r e s u l t , he has been extremely busy).  children.  As a  Her mother i s c u r r e n t l y i n  u n i v e r s i t y , p l a n n i n g t o complete her B.A., i n S o c i a l Work.  (When  and then begin an  M.A.  N e i t h e r parent seems t o spend much time w i t h the  There i s i n t e n s e s i b l i n g c o n f l i c t w i t h her o l d e r  b r o t h e r , and d i s a p p r o v a l of her younger b r o t h e r who as the "problem c h i l d " i n the f a m i l y . most of her time w i t h  has been c a s t  The younger s i s t e r spends  friends.  Deborrah r e p o r t s t h a t she has always had t r o u b l e l e a v i n g home f o r s l e e p o v e r s o r , even as a c h i l d , going t o f r i e n d s ' houses to play.  She spends most of her time a t home doing  schoolwork,  r i d i n g her b i c y c l e , cooking f o r the f a m i l y , c o l l e c t i n g e x e r c i s i n g , and l i s t e n i n g t o Beethoven.  recipes,  She has c o n t a c t with  f r i e n d s , but mostly i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the t h e a t r e and music p r o d u c t i o n s put on by her s c h o o l .  She  i s a l s o v i c e - p r e s i d e n t of  her c l a s s but hates going t o the meetings.  She used t o take  b a l l e t l e s s o n s and p l a y s the c e l l o i n the s c h o o l o r c h e s t r a . a l s o s i n g s i n the chorus.  She  But she doesn't take much p l e a s u r e i n  108 these s o r t s o f a c t i v i t i e s s i n c e she i s always t e r r i b l y about doing w e l l .  In f a c t her l i f e  anxious  i s pervaded w i t h a n x i e t y  about doing w e l l , e s p e c i a l l y i n s c h o o l .  Her f a t h e r t o l d her as a  c h i l d t h a t i t i s a mistake t o t r y t o be p e r f e c t , and she t r i e s hard not t o c a r e so much.  But "not c a r i n g so much" seems  a r t i f i c i a l and she f i n d s i t e a s i e r t o keep pushing P r e l i m i n a r y D i a g n o s i s : Deborrah a n o r e x i a nervosa, r e s t r i c t i n g  herself.  appears t o be s t r u g g l i n g w i t h  type.  She i s burdened w i t h  tremendous a n x i e t y , i n c l u d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h s e p a r a t i o n and a r e l e n t l e s s d r i v e toward  perfection.  I t appears t h a t she attempts  to manage her a n x i e t y by c o n t r o l l i n g her e a t i n g and her body and by s t a y i n g on the s t r a i g h t and narrow path o f keeping up with her schoolwork  and e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s .  However, she i s a l s o  depressed s i n c e her accomplishments and her involvement a c t i v i t i e s b r i n g her no r e l i e f and l i t t l e p l e a s u r e .  i n these  Her  d e p r e s s i o n may a l s o be r e l a t e d t o t h e l o s s o f a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h her f a t h e r , e s p e c i a l l y g i v e n t h e remoteness and even h o s t i l i t y t h a t she encounters i n her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h her mother. BRIEF HISTORY OF HEALING/PRESENT STATUS: I entered therapy w i t h a female p s y c h o d y n a m i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t a t the age o f 16, almost one year a f t e r the onset o f my a n o r e x i a .  The focus o f t h a t therapy was not my  e a t i n g d i s o r d e r (indeed, we h a r d l y ever t a l k e d about i t , and my problems weren't framed as such), but r a t h e r my r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h my f a t h e r .  I expressed a g r e a t d e a l o f anger about t h e way he  109 had  ( i n my  p e r c e p t i o n ) abandoned me.  v a l i d a t e both the f a c t t h a t I was t h a t I f e l t toward my  My t h e r a p i s t was  able to  angry, and the s p e c i f i c anger  father.  I t h i n k t h a t the f a c t t h a t she  room f o r me t o f e e l a t a l l was  the most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n  t h i s therapy.  But we  a l s o t a l k e d about and  ways t o t r y t o r e - b u i l d my  implemented s p e c i f i c  r e l a t i o n s h i p with my  what had been l o s t i n r e c e n t y e a r s .  f a t h e r and  high school.  therapy to  p e r i o d s a l s o resumed.  last  I was  in  university. no longer depressed  by the time I s t a r t e d u n i v e r s i t y  a s m a l l L i b e r a l A r t s u n i v e r s i t y i n Western New  York S t a t e .  f a c t , I was  a b l e t o l i v e q u i t e f a r from home (an e i g h t hour  d r i v e ) , and  I was  though, I was  u s u a l l y extremely  still  happy.  underweight f o r the f i r s t two  years.  1500  experienced  (which seemed l i k e a l o t ) .  hunger, but was  s o c i a l i z i n g t h a t i t was t h e r e was  still  so absorbed i n my  first  fact  intake to  s t u d i e s and i n from i t .  a sense of p l e a s u r e and something l i k e moral " f a t " former s e l f .  I  enjoyed  b i c y c l e and a l s o began jogging a t some p o i n t i n my  year.  I  I also  f a i r l y easy t o d i s t r a c t myself  v i r t u e i n being t h i n and not my r i d i n g my  was  eating.  compulsively counted c a l o r i e s and r e s t r i c t e d my c a l o r i e s each day  I  about the  t h a t I seemed t o be l o s i n g a b s o l u t e c o n t r o l over my still  In  On the o t h e r hand,  concerned about not e a t i n g too much, and anxious  And  year  f o r a t o t a l of 18 months, t e r m i n a t i n g i n order t o go away  I was at  My menstrual  regain  I began e a t i n g again w i t h i n  a few months and gained a f a i r b i t of weight d u r i n g my of  had  I b e l i e v e t h a t I s t a r t e d t o grow i n h e i g h t when I gained q u i t e a b i t o f weight a t t h e age o f twenty i n my t h i r d year.  In  the middle o f t h a t year I j o i n e d my b o y f r i e n d a t an enormous Midwestern u n i v e r s i t y , and turned t o food f o r comfort g i v e n t h e s t r e s s , a n x i e t y , and l o n e l i n e s s t h a t I experienced i n t h a t transition. feminism.  T h i s was a l s o t h e year t h a t I began t o l e a r n about I had heard a b i t about i t t h e p r e v i o u s year, but  turned down an i n v i t a t i o n t o j o i n a study group.  I had been  happy f o c u s i n g on my courses i n philosophy, r e l i g i o n , and history.  But more i m p o r t a n t l y , I a l s o experienced q u i t e a b i t o f  a n x i e t y r e g a r d i n g feminism.  I had always been more comfortable  i n t h e company o f men and o f t e n found myself f e e l i n g c o m p e t i t i v e with, and threatened by, o t h e r women.  Feminism seemed t o have  something t o do w i t h r e a l l y c a r i n g about o t h e r women, and I was confused about what t h i s c o u l d mean and concerned would be r e q u i r e d t o do. exposed t o feminism  about what I  However, a t U. W.- Madison, I was  (and Marxism) on a more i n t e l l e c t u a l  plane,  and I t h i n k I experienced t h i s as much l e s s t h r e a t e n i n g and anxiety-provoking.  As a r e s u l t , I began t o develop a c r i t i c a l  p e r s p e c t i v e on many f e a t u r e s o f North America's c a p i t a l i s t , p a t r i a r c h a l , r a c i s t , and homophobic s o c i e t y . own  i s s u e s , I a l s o began t o understand  With r e s p e c t t o my  and q u e s t i o n t h e  o p p r e s s i v e v a l u e s t h a t I had i n t e r n a l i z e d r e l a t e d t o e a t i n g and my body. Upon r e t u r n i n g t o my own u n i v e r s i t y t h e f o l l o w i n g f a l l ,  some  people noted t h a t I had gained weight and I experienced shame and  Ill q u i t e a b i t o f d i s c o m f o r t i n response. p a t t e r n o f s t u d y i n g and keeping busy.  So I f e l l  My knees were wearing out  from running so I began t o swim r e g u l a r l y . slimmed down a g a i n . at  U.W.- Madison.  my understanding  I graduated  i n t o my e a r l i e r  And I e v e n t u a l l y  e a r l y and r e j o i n e d my b o y f r i e n d  F o r t h e twenty months t h a t I remained t h e r e , o f feminism  and my commitment t o changing t h e  s i t u a t i o n o f women deepened.  Although  the feminist p o l i t i c a l  c i r c l e t h e r e was q u i t e r a d i c a l , my e a r l i e r sense o f estrangement and a n x i e t y r e g a r d i n g o t h e r women g r a d u a l l y l e s s e n e d over I a t t r i b u t e t h i s change t o t h r e e f a c t o r s .  time.  F i r s t , I was having a  g r e a t d e a l o f c o n t a c t w i t h a l l s o r t s o f women, and my l i f e was much l e s s m a l e - o r i e n t e d than i t had ever been b e f o r e . had a wonderful  Second, I  M.A. s u p e r v i s o r i n the Philosophy Department who  r e s p e c t e d women ( i n c l u d i n g me!) and showed a c l e a r d e s i r e t o support and mentor me, not o n l y because I was h e r student, but a l s o and maybe even e s p e c i a l l y because I was a woman.  Third, I  worked a t a food co-op which was owned and managed by a group o f l e s b i a n women.  Working with these women I l e a r n e d t h a t women can  a c t u a l l y l o v e o t h e r women. of  That i s , I found myself  women who were n o t anxious  c o m p e t i t i o n with o t h e r women.  i n t h e midst  about, threatened by, o r i n Rather,  they r e s p e c t e d ,  deeply  v a l u e d , and l o v e d each o t h e r . I r e c a l l t h a t d u r i n g t h i s time, I had v e r y l i t t l e money f o r food.  However, I was a l s o q u i t e hungry because by t h i s time I  r e a l l y enjoyed around.  swimming i n a d d i t i o n t o walking o r c y c l i n g t o g e t  I remember e a t i n g a g r e a t d e a l o f peanut b u t t e r each  day,  f e e l i n g bad about t h a t , and then t r y i n g hard not t o eat much  else.  But then I would be hungry again t h e next day and e a t t o o  much peanut b u t t e r and so on i n a k i n d o f c y c l e . pattern.  I t g o t t o be a  I gained weight and a c t u a l l y f e l t q u i t e "chunky" by t h e  time I was ready t o l e a v e Madison and go t o Toronto f o r another round o f graduate s c h o o l . In  Toronto, I became c l o s e f r i e n d s with a woman, r e a l l y f o r  the f i r s t time i n my l i f e . e v e n t u a l l y became f a i r l y  A t t h i s p o i n t , I was 23 years o l d .  s l e n d e r again, s t i l l  I  compulsively  c o u n t i n g c a l o r i e s , r e s t r i c t i n g my e a t i n g , and e x e r c i s i n g l a s t , however, with g r e a t enjoyment and enthusiasm).  (the  I would say  t h a t a t t h i s time and r e a l l y f o r t h e next t e n y e a r s , I was busy and a c t i v e enough t o eat w e l l and t o remain f a i r l y my feminism  slim.  and e v e r y t h i n g t h a t I had l e a r n e d , I s t i l l  being on t h e s l e n d e r s i d e .  And I s t i l l  Despite  valued  f e l t l a r g e r and somewhat  misshapen, e s p e c i a l l y i n c o n t r a s t w i t h other women i n t h e aerobics classes a t the university.  I c o u l d n ' t do a n y t h i n g about  the shape o f my body, b u t a t l e a s t I c o u l d keep i t as f i t as p o s s i b l e , without going overboard  again.  I b e l i e v e t h a t i n l a r g e measure I was d e a l i n g w i t h a g r e a t d e a l o f a n x i e t y i n my l i f e by managing my body i n these ways. A f t e r about t h r e e years i n Toronto I s t a r t e d therapy a g a i n , t h i s time w i t h a more J u n g i a n - o r i e n t e d t h e r a p i s t .  Our focus was my  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h my mother as w e l l as my own f e m i n i n i t y , which were both n e g a t i v e and c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h o s t i l i t y and r e j e c t i o n . T h i s was r e v o l u t i o n a r y f o r me s i n c e my f i r s t course o f therapy  113 had focused on my r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h my f a t h e r ; i t had n o t even o c c u r r e d t o me (nor, perhaps, t o my f i r s t t h e r a p i s t ) t o look a t my r e l a t i o n s h i p with my mother.  As a r e s u l t , i n t h i s therapy  (which l a s t e d about two years) a g r e a t source o f p a i n and a n x i e t y w i t h i n my own p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y became c l e a r t o me.  I l e a r n e d how  my mother's n e g a t i v e s o r t o f m a s c u l i n i t y and l a c k o f connectedness  w i t h h e r female s i d e c r e a t e d w i t h i n me an  a g g r e s s i v e , c r i t i c a l , n e g a t i v e Animus who had r u n me ragged my whole l i f e .  I a l s o began t o l e a r n how t o tame t h i s Animus and t o  v a l u e and even l o v e my female s e l f .  In my r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h i s  t h e r a p i s t , I a l s o began t o open myself t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  that  o t h e r women might welcome me as a woman i n t o t h e i r l i v e s .  I t was  time t o see t h a t I c o u l d a l s o i n c l u d e myself w i t h i n t h e c i r c l e o f these powerful, b e a u t i f u l , and somewhat mysterious creatures.  female  And i t was t h i s t h e r a p i s t who i n v i t e d me i n t o  this  world, much i n t h e way t h a t I imagine some mothers do w i t h t h e i r daughters. Over t h e next seven y e a r s , I began t o understand and i n t e g r a t e more o f what my l a s t course o f therapy had taught me and I became more a b l e t o a c t on i t .  I was f i n a l l y a b l e t o  choose and marry a (male) p a r t n e r who l o v e s me f o r who I am.  I  a l s o changed c a r e e r s , and b i t by b i t have l e a r n e d t o be i n touch w i t h my own needs and t o make d e c i s i o n s based on those needs. But I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e most r a d i c a l f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the l a s t and most r e c e n t phase o f h e a l i n g over t h e p a s t f i v e years was  t h e b i r t h o f my c h i l d .  F o r one t h i n g , d e s p i t e a h o r r i f i c  114 case o f hyperernesis gravidarum , 23  I was t h r i l l e d t o be pregnant  and enjoyed t h e many changes i n my body.  Indeed, I was  completely i n awe o f my body and i t s a b i l i t y t o grow a baby and then push i t out i n t o t h e world.  I j u s t c o u l d n ' t g e t over how  amazing and f u l f i l l i n g t h i s was and I f e l t very, very w i t h my own femaleness  and with other women.  connected  Carrying a c h i l d  and g i v i n g b i r t h was l i k e a r i t u a l which made c o n c r e t e what my t h e r a p i s t had taught me about b e i n g a woman.  And I experienced  i n a deep and p r i m i t i v e way t h e sense o f b e l o n g i n g w i t h i n t h e circle. E q u a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y I found t h a t I l o v e d b e i n g a mother. I had always planned t o have c h i l d r e n and I had always enjoyed being w i t h c h i l d r e n , but I had a l s o always f e a r e d t h a t t h e a c t u a l experience o f c h i l d r e a r i n g was going t o be onerous: t e d i o u s , exhausting, o p p r e s s i v e .  I suppose t h a t t h i s was my p e r c e p t i o n o f  my own mother's experience.  But t o my d e l i g h t I found t h a t I  l o v e d being w i t h my son and t h a t f o r me, w h i l e c h i l d r e a r i n g i s d i f f i c u l t and c h a l l e n g i n g , i t i s a l s o w o n d e r f u l l y rewarding and fulfilling.  So o f course I experienced tremendous r e l i e f and  joy. Moreover, my son was a g r e a t model o f how one can r e l a t e t o food and e a t i n g i n a simple and n a t u r a l way. taught me t h a t i f you're hungry, you e a t .  B a s i c a l l y , he  And t h a t ' s a l l .  One  day when my son was probably about a year o l d , I r e a l i z e d t h a t i t had been q u i t e some time s i n c e I had l a s t t a l l i e d up my c a l o r i e s for  t h e day —  I wasn't even sure how many weeks o r months i t had  115 been s i n c e I had done t h a t . when I was hungry.  I a l s o n o t i c e d t h a t I was e a t i n g  And t h a t was a l l .  And t h a t I was e x e r c i s i n g  when i t f e l t good, and not compulsively.  In s h o r t , I was  r e l e a s e d from concerns about food, e a t i n g , and e x e r c i s e t h a t had pervaded my l i f e f o r eighteen  years.  Four y e a r s l a t e r , I f i n d t h a t my r e l a t i o n s h i p t o food, e a t i n g , and e x e r c i s e i s very simple and n a t u r a l . counted c a l o r i e s o r r e s t r i c t e d my e a t i n g .  I have not  I have grown t o accept  the shape and s i z e o f my body and even t o f e e l p r o t e c t i v e o f and l o v i n g toward i t . A t some p o i n t , I was f o r t u n a t e t o d i s c o v e r t h a t t h e shape o f my h i p s i s something I share w i t h m i l l i o n s o f other women and t h a t i t i s known as "the v i o l i n d e f o r m i t y "  among  those who deem themselves f i t t o a p p r a i s e  This  bit  of information  women's b o d i e s .  f i l l e d me with rage as I have never seen an  image o f a woman w i t h h i p s l i k e mine —  not i n advertisements o r  f i l m s o r a t t h e beach o r even i n t h e l o c k e r room.  But w h i l e I  was angry, I a l s o f e l t l i b e r a t e d by t h i s knowledge.  Now I knew  t h a t t h e r e were m i l l i o n s o f women l i k e me, and I c o u l d f e e l a g r e a t s o l i d a r i t y w i t h them.  I a l s o understood w i t h much g r e a t e r  depth t h e s i t u a t i o n o f g i r l s and women o f c o l o u r , l e s b i a n s , o l d e r women, and poor women who s i m i l a r l y do n o t meet images o f themselves i n t h e i r surround and who as a r e s u l t can i n t e r n a l i z e great s e l f - h a t r e d .  Fortunately  f o r me, my oppression  was l i m i t e d  t o t h e shape o f my body; I had been t r a i n e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t was something t h a t I c o u l d and should a l t e r .  this  But now I saw t h a t  the crime d i d not l i e w i t h my body o r my i n a b i l i t y t o reshape i t ,  116 but r a t h e r w i t h a l l t h e i n d u s t r i e s which have g r e a t l y p r o f i t e d from t e a c h i n g women l i k e me t h a t i t i s our r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o use t h e i r products and s e r v i c e s because we w i l l otherwise never be adequate women. To be honest, I can say t h a t i f I had a c h o i c e , an hourglass stomach. and it.  I would p i c k  shape over v i o l i n h i p s , and I would p i c k a f l a t t e r  But I have a l s o decided  t h a t Nature gave me t h i s body  t h a t I have been a b l e t o do q u i t e wonderful t h i n g s because o f So I t r u s t Her judgment.  A t t h i s p o i n t , I am f r i e n d s w i t h  my body, and I want t o do w e l l by i t . I e a t f a r more c h o c o l a t e n o u r i s h my body w e l l . pleasure  So, d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t  than i s h e a l t h y ,  I still  I otherwise manage t o  e x e r c i s e b u t f o r t h e sheer  o f i t , and on a much s m a l l e r s c a l e than I used t o .  I haven't done a s i t u p i n y e a r s .  And  A l l o f t h i s enhances r a t h e r  than d e p l e t e s my energy, and c e r t a i n l y reduces my s t r e s s .  And I  can say t h a t I am a happy woman. EXPLORATORY  EXERCISE  I p l a n t o draw from and e l a b o r a t e  t h e h i s t o r y t h a t I have  j u s t r e l a t e d i n order t o engage t h e summary o f f i n d i n g s i n the L i t e r a t u r e Review r e g a r d i n g problem e a t i n g .  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between gender and  Specifically, I will  (with o n l y minor  a l t e r a t i o n s ) be working w i t h t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n as i t i s d e p i c t e d  o f t h i s summary  i n F i g u r e 7 i n Chapter Two (see p. 80).  In t h e  f i r s t phase o f t h i s e x e r c i s e , I w i l l use t h i s frame t o a r t i c u l a t e my o v e r a l l gender p r o f i l e a t t h e age o f onset o f my  anorexia  ( f i f t e e n ) , and i n t h e second phase I w i l l d e s c r i b e my o v e r a l l  117 p r o f i l e i n l a t e r stages o f h e a l i n g w i t h i n r e c e n t  years.  O v e r a l l P r o f i l e a t 15/ Age o f Onset: 1. S e l f - d e s c r i b e d t r a i t f e m i n i n i t y : certainly s t i l l  Throughout my c h i l d h o o d and  a t t h e age o f f i f t e e n , I would have d e s c r i b e d  myself as q u i n t e s s e n t i a l l y s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y feminine. was very concerned w i t h t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f o t h e r s ,  That i s , I  understanding,  s e n s i t i v e , e x p r e s s i v e , attuned t o o t h e r s ' needs, emotional, and warm. 103),  Drawing from items on t h e BSRI and t h e PAQ (see above, p. I can add t h a t I l i k e d c h i l d r e n , had a s t r o n g  enjoyed a r t and music, and t h a t I was c o n s i d e r a t e ,  conscience, grateful,  t a c t f u l , h e l p f u l , k i n d , neat i n h a b i t s , a f f e c t i o n a t e , (outwardly) c h e e r f u l , compassionate, y i e l d i n g t o t h e p o i n t o f  submissiveness,  eager t o soothe h u r t f e e l i n g s (and smooth over d i f f e r e n c e s ) , home-oriented, on t h e q u i e t s i d e , adverse t o u s i n g harsh (in  p u b l i c ) , and n e e d f u l o f o t h e r s ' a p p r o v a l .  language  I a l s o had  f e e l i n g s t h a t were e a s i l y h u r t , a low mechanical a p t i t u d e , and a s t r o n g need f o r s e c u r i t y . With r e s p e c t t o t h e needs f o r approval  and s e c u r i t y , I would  l i k e t o e x p l a i n f u r t h e r t h a t I depended almost e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e r e a c t i o n s o f others  ( o r my a n t i c i p a t i o n o f how o t h e r s might  r e a c t ) i n o r d e r t o g e t a sense o f what I should do and who I needed t o be.  In r e l a t e d f a s h i o n , I l a c k e d t h e substance even t o  be a b l e t o d i s c e r n what I wanted o r needed on my own terms, much l e s s t o a c t u a l l y express my needs and d e s i r e s , and s t i l l  less to  put t h e s l i g h t e s t pressure on anyone t o a c t u a l l y meet them.  In  f a c t , i t was much e a s i e r t o t r a i n my a t t e n t i o n on t h e needs o f  118 others.  And so w h i l e I became e x q u i s i t e l y s k i l l e d a t p e r c e i v i n g  the needs, d e s i r e s , emotions, judgments, p e r c e p t i o n s , anxieties of others,  and  I would go completely blank i f c a l l e d  t o a r t i c u l a t e my own —  especially  upon  i n the case o f needs, d e s i r e s ,  and emotions. In c o n t r a s t , some t r a i t s measured on the PAQ and BSRI would not p a r t i c u l a r l y have a p p l i e d .  That i s , I would not say t h a t I  was c h i l d l i k e ( i n f a c t , q u i t e the c o n t r a r y ) ,  flatterable,  g u l l i b l e , shy, s o f t spoken, c r e a t i v e , r e l i g i o u s , o r apt t o c r y easily.  And w h i l e I r e c a l l e x p e r i e n c i n g  i n t e n s e a n x i e t y about  math and s c i e n c e , I wouldn't say t h a t I d i s l i k e d them o u t r i g h t . Perhaps most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , though, i t i s u s e f u l t o r e c a l l from Chapter Two the dimension of concern about appearance t h a t Timko, Striegel-Moore, component  S i l v e r s t e i n , and Rodin (1987) i n t r o d u c e d  of gendered f e m i n i n i t y (see above, p. 40).  as a  I would  l i k e t o h i g h l i g h t here t h a t t h i s f e a t u r e d i d not apply t o me. noted i n the Case H i s t o r y I was c l e a n and groomed w e l l but  I wore baggy c l o t h i n g and d i d n ' t take i n t e r e s t  attractive.  meant guaranteed r e j e c t i o n .  i n appearing  being f a t  But even i f I l i v e d alone on a  d e s e r t i s l e where no one would ever see me,  I would have pursued  I t was f o r me a r e f l e c t i o n o f a way o f being, a way  t h a t I was t r y i n g t o l i v e — others.  enough,  I was concerned t o be s l e n d e r i n p a r t because t h i s  was a k i n d o f minimal requirement f o r acceptance —  thinness.  As  not a way t o e n t e r t a i n t h e gaze o f  24  2. S e l f - d e s c r i b e d t r a i t m a s c u l i n i t y : R e f e r r i n g once again t o  119 a t t r i b u t e s measured by the BSRI and the PAQ, f i f t e e n I was  ambitious,  a t the age  a n a l y t i c a l , competitive  t h i s t o m y s e l f ) , somewhat outgoing,  a c t i v e , and  of  (though I kept intellectual.  I  a l s o had some l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s and took some p l e a s u r e i n s t u d y i n g c e r t a i n areas i n math and s c i e n c e . was  On the o t h e r hand, I  not a g g r e s s i v e , a s s e r t i v e , a b l e t o defend my  own  beliefs,  dominant, f o r c e f u l , independent, i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , a b l e t o make d e c i s i o n s e a s i l y , s e l f - r e l i a n t , s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , a b l e t o a c t as a l e a d e r , w o r l d l y , w i l l i n g t o take a stand, w i l l i n g t o take good a t s p o r t s , i n d i f f e r e n t t o o t h e r s ' a p p r o v a l ,  risks,  tough-skinned,  adventurous, outspoken, i n t e r e s t e d i n sex, s e l f - c o n f i d e n t , or forward.  I a l s o d i d not have a s t r o n g p e r s o n a l i t y or h i g h  mechanical a p t i t u d e , I d i d n ' t stand up w e l l under p r e s s u r e , I d i d n ' t f e e l s u p e r i o r t o o t h e r s , I was i n f l u e n c e d by o t h e r s , and  i n some ways e a s i l y  I gave up f a i r l y e a s i l y i n non-academic  areas. 3. ( P o s i t i v e ) V a l u a t i o n a l stance toward feminine t r a i t s r o l e s : Throughout my d e s c r i b e d myself noted above. and so on.  c h i l d h o o d and adolescence,  I would have  as v a l u i n g almost a l l of the feminine  I thought i t was Besides, I was  and  traits  good t o be t h o u g h t f u l , k i n d , warm,  rewarded by my  family, teachers,  f r i e n d s , and even s t r a n g e r s f o r being feminine  i n these ways.  Those t r a i t s t h a t I d i d not v a l u e can a l l be drawn from the of t r a i t s t h a t d i d not apply t o me being c h i l d - l i k e ) . t h a t my  list  ( i . e , shyness, g u l l i b i l i t y ,  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , these are p r e c i s e l y the  parents would not have found a p p e a l i n g .  Given  my  traits  o r i e n t a t i o n toward o t h e r s , and my i n t e n s e need f o r a p p r o v a l , i t i s no s u r p r i s e t h a t I d i d not value o r develop these t r a i t s .  The  o n l y e x c e p t i o n r e l a t e s t o c r e a t i v i t y , which I would most c e r t a i n l y have v a l u e d .  However, I a l s o know t h a t I was f a r too  a n x i o u s l y p e r f e c t i o n i s t i c and concerned with doing e v e r y t h i n g the " r i g h t " way t o have been a b l e t o " l e t go" and c r e a t e anything a t all. In the case of female r o l e s , I am c e r t a i n t h a t a t the age of f i f t e e n I would have r e p o r t e d t h a t I planned t o marry a t some p o i n t and have c h i l d r e n .  I was w e l l t r a i n e d by my mother i n a l l  t h i n g s domestic (cooking, c l e a n i n g , shopping, laundry, c h i l d c a r e , keeping c o n t a c t with r e l a t i v e s , p l a n n i n g and p r e p a r i n g f o r g a t h e r i n g s , gardening,  and so on) and would have r e p o r t e d t h a t I  would take up these t a s k s as w e l l , on the model of my mother. However, a l s o on the model of my mother, I planned t o a t t e n d u n i v e r s i t y and have some s o r t of c a r e e r .  In s h o r t , I would have  a n t i c i p a t e d the superwoman t r a c k f o r my f u t u r e t h a t I watched my mother c u l t i v a t e over the y e a r s . 4. V a l u i n g / A s p i r i n g toward m a s c u l i n i t y : A t f i f t e e n , I shunned such t r a i t s as a sense o f s u p e r i o r i t y over o t h e r s , aggressiveness, completely  f o r c e f u l n e s s , and dominance.  a t odds w i t h the feminine  These were  gentleness  t h a t I valued.  However, I would a l s o have r e p o r t e d t h a t the remaining t r a i t s are o f g r e a t v a l u e .  masculine  Indeed I r e c a l l esteeming o t h e r s  who  were a s s e r t i v e , a t h l e t i c , s e l f - r e l i a n t , independent, w i l l i n g t o take r i s k s , and so on.  Boys seem t o come by these t r a i t s more  i2i e a s i l y so I e s p e c i a l l y admired g i r l s  ( r e a l and  in fiction)  who  somehow managed t o be s o . . . s o l i d . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , I b e l i e v e t h a t as a younger c h i l d , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h i n my  f a m i l y , I a c t u a l l y e x h i b i t e d a number of  masculine t r a i t s such as confidence, assertiveness.  I was  leadership,  and  a l s o a b l e t o draw on t h i s experience t o  take on l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s i n c e r t a i n c o n t e x t s k i n d of outgoing p e r s o n a l i t y . r e l a t i o n s h i p I had w i t h my  and  to c u l t i v a t e a  I r e l a t e a l l of t h i s t o the  However, a t some  p o i n t , I seem t o have r e t r e a t e d t o a more p u r e l y  For one  t h i n g , by the age  of f i f t e e n I  q u i t e depressed and t h a t i n i t s e l f c o u l d account f o r the  change.  On the other hand, though, I t h i n k t h a t a t some l e v e l I  b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was  not wholly a p p r o p r i a t e  t r a i t s as I approached adolescence and It  i s l i k e l y t h a t t h i s b e l i e f was  f a m i l i a l messages t h a t I was was  feminine-  I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o be c e r t a i n about the  reasons f o r t h i s s h i f t . was  close  f a t h e r a t the time, and w i t h the ways  i n which I must have i d e n t i f i e d w i t h him.  gendered p r o f i l e .  and  t o m a i n t a i n these  adulthood. related to s o c i e t a l  r e c e i v i n g about gender.  First,  c e r t a i n l y g e t t i n g the message from s o c i e t y t h a t i t was  going t o be enough t o be a " n i c e g i r l " my should  toughen-up.  However, I suspect  whole l i f e ,  t h a t I was  and I  not  and t h a t I  also learning  v i c a r i o u s l y and through a number of sources t h a t g i r l s and women oughtn't be too c o n f i d e n t , too a s s e r t i v e , too s e l f - r e l i a n t ,  and  so on.  of  For example, i t i s c l e a r t o me  now  t h a t the heroine  any g i v e n s t o r y or f i l m i s always smart, "together,"  and  a s s e r t i v e , b u t she i s a l s o always warm and c a r i n g and m i n d f u l o f s t e p p i n g on male t o e s . needs t o be taught  The " b i t c h " i s her f o i l  a l e s s o n about o v e r s t e p p i n g  gender o r t h e domain o f men.  —  a woman who  t h e bounds o f h e r  And w h i l e I would n o t have been  able t o a r t i c u l a t e t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n a t t h e age o f f i f t e e n , I t h i n k i t ' s reasonable The  t o assume t h a t I g o t t h e p o i n t .  second a s s o c i a t i o n I have w i t h t h i s b e l i e f concerns a  f a m i l i a r and severe rebuke from my mother t h a t I "had b e t t e r not get t o o b i g f o r my b r i t c h e s . "  I n my p e r c e p t i o n , t h i s meant t h a t  more masculine t r a i t s l i k e a s s e r t i v e n e s s and having a s t r o n g p e r s o n a l i t y were not welcome f e a t u r e s o f my p e r s o n a l i t y a t home. I a l s o r e c a l l my mother's b i t i n g , v i t r i o l i c who were "too f u l l  o f themselves" —  remarks about women  which I surmise made  r e f e r e n c e t o s e l f - c o n f i d e n t women with h i g h s e l f - e s t e e m . a l s o important  It is  t o r e c a l l from the Case H i s t o r y t h a t by t h i s time,  my f a t h e r had i n l a r g e p a r t withdrawn from my l i f e .  As a r e s u l t  I would have been d e p r i v e d o f a model f o r these masculine t r a i t s , and  l a c k i n g support  f o r t h e i r m a n i f e s t a t i o n i n me.  In sum, i t seems t h a t my r e l a t i o n s h i p t o masculine t r a i t s would have been ambivalent and r e l a t e d t o i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t . the one hand, I g r e a t l y valued and esteemed t h e i r  On  manifestation  i n o t h e r s , and I was aware t h a t I needed t o be more independent, d e c i s i v e , and a s s e r t i v e . permission  On t h e other hand, I l a c k e d a sense o f  and i n f a c t experienced  i n these and r e l a t e d r e s p e c t s — as a woman.  p r e s s u r e not t o be masculine  a t l e a s t n o t as an adolescent o r  I t i s t e l l i n g i n t h i s context t h a t I never  123 r e l i n q u i s h e d those masculine t r a i t s a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h school and  achievement which had g i v e n me a sense o f accomplishment and v a l u e as a younger c h i l d .  Thus I remained ambitious,  c o m p e t i t i v e , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y - o r i e n t e d , somewhat outgoing, and so on.  But, once again, my o r i e n t a t i o n toward  r e l a t e d masculine t r a i t s was fraught conflict.  interpersonally-  w i t h ambivalence and  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , as Bruch (1973) would say,  i n t h i s way  a n o r e x i a might have been a r e t r e a t from adolescence which allowed me t o m a i n t a i n a s a f e and f a m i l i a r mode o f e x i s t e n c e .  In s h o r t ,  I was perhaps attempting t o h o l d onto t h a t which I had p e r m i s s i o n t o be as a c h i l d r a t h e r than face ambivalence and c o n f l i c t r e l a t e d t o moving on i n my development i n t o adolescence. 5. R e j e c t i o n  of femininity:  Some p r e l i m i n a r y  remarks must be made b e f o r e I can d e s c r i b e  the ways i n which I r e j e c t e d f e m i n i n i t y a t t h e age o f f i f t e e n . In t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f r e s u l t s i n t h e L i t e r a t u r e Review r e l a t e d t o I I : Gender Stance, I argued t h a t r e j e c t i n g f e m i n i n i t y and v a l u i n g f e m i n i n i t y a r e compatible on t h e b a s i s o f t h r e e d i s t i n c t arguments.  Based on t h i s d i s c u s s i o n ,  I w i l l review and e l a b o r a t e  three d i f f e r e n t interpretations of 'rejecting femininity.' one  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n [which I w i l l h e r e a f t e r  r e f e r t o as ( i ) ] ,  g i r l s o r women c o u l d o s t e n s i b l y value feminine t r a i t s g e n t l e n e s s and s e n s i t i v i t y , but a t a deeper l e v e l s e r i o u s doubts about t h e i r u l t i m a t e  worth.  On  like  entertain  I t seems l i k e l y  that  these doubts a r e r e l a t e d t o s o c i e t y ' s d o u b l e - b i n d i n g messages about gender.  As t h e reader may r e c a l l , these messages  contain  124 the requirement  t h a t g i r l s and women m a n i f e s t t r a i t s  and r o l e s  which a r e a s s o c i a t e d with f e m i n i n i t y b u t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y devalued. They a l s o c o n t a i n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t r a i t s  and r o l e s  associated with masculinity are h i g h l y valuable but only u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y a c c e p t a b l e f o r boys and men t o m a n i f e s t .  From a  f e m i n i s t p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e paradox a t t h e c e n t r e o f t h e double b i n d i s t h a t t o be what s o c i e t y w i l l v a l u e a woman f o r i s not t h e same as being what s o c i e t y v a l u e s .  I f a woman steps out o f  bounds and becomes more l i k e a man, t h e r e i s o f t e n a p r i c e t o pay i n terms o f some k i n d o f rebuke o r r e t r i b u t i o n .  On t h e other  hand, i f a woman s t a y s w i t h i n bounds and becomes a s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y feminine woman she may pay t h e p r i c e o f having low s e l f - e s t e e m o r b e i n g plagued w i t h d e p r e s s i o n .  In t h i s  c o n t e x t , i t i s no wonder t h a t a t l e a s t some women end up caught between being feminine and q u e s t i o n i n g t h e worth o f t h e i r femininity. On a second  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e j e c t i n g f e m i n i n i t y  [(ii)],  g i r l s and women adopt a b i p o l a r stance w i t h r e s p e c t t o m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y i n such a way as t o embrace t h e former and disavow t h e l a t t e r . attempt  T h i s stance can be understood  as an  t o r e s o l v e t h e paradox posed by t h e double b i n d by  embracing t h e s o c i e t a l message.  That i s , g i r l s and women with a  b i p o l a r o r i e n t a t i o n toward gender absorb t h e v a l u e s o f s o c i e t y , shunning what i t shuns and a s p i r i n g toward what i t esteems. C o n f l i c t i s i n a sense r e s o l v e d s i n c e these g i r l s and women no longer i d e n t i f y themselves  with t h a t which i s devalued.  As noted  125 i n Chapter Two, S i l v e r s t e i n and Perdue (1988) observed t h a t women who emphasize s t e r e o t y p i c a l masculine concerns about and success seem t o p l a y t h i s out i n t h e i r b o d i e s . renounce  intelligence Thus they  t h e i r feminine curvaceous bodies f o r s t r e a m l i n e d and  angular masculine ones, hoping t o appear c o n f i d e n t and successful. As we have p r e v i o u s l y noted, b i p o l a r i t y a l s o appears t o be o p e r a t i n g i n t h e c o n t e x t o f d i s c u s s i n g S t e i n e r - A d a i r ' s work on what I have termed  " r e n u n c i a t o r y superwomanhood."  As noted i n  Chapter Two, [see p. 49, ( 4 6 ) ] , g i r l s assessed by S t e i n e r - A d a i r g i v e up t h e i r feminine ways o f r e l a t i n g t o o t h e r s v i a connectedness gendered  and interdependence i n exchange f o r masculine-  autonomy and independence.  She b e l i e v e s t h a t  c r e a t e s tremendous i n n e r c o n f l i c t because  this  i t runs up a g a i n s t ways  of b e i n g t h a t have been c e n t r a l i n t h e l i v e s o f these g i r l s and women.  Nonetheless, as i n d i c a t e d above, I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r o u t e  taken by t h e r e n u n c i a t o r y superwoman can be read as an attempt t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s i n c e i t p r o v i d e s d i s t a n c e from t h a t which i s devalued and a l l o w s one t o i d e n t i f y w i t h what i s esteemed. On a t h i r d and f i n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  [(iii)],  rejecting  f e m i n i n i t y r e f l e c t s a d i s t i n c t and s e p a r a t e aspect o f a g i r l ' s o r woman's o r i e n t a t i o n toward f e m i n i n i t y than her v a l u a t i o n a l stance toward feminine t r a i t s . f i n d i n g o f Bruch  Relating this to a clinically-based  [see p. 49, ( 4 8 ) ] , I argued t h a t t h i s may be  r e l a t e d t o a r e t r e a t from female adolescence.  I a l s o noted t h a t  t h i s i s compatible w i t h v a l u i n g feminine t r a i t s .  For while a  126 g i v e n g i r l or woman might f o r example v a l u e i n t e r p e r s o n a l warmth, she c o u l d s t i l l  r e j e c t one or more aspects of being or becoming a  female a d o l e s c e n t . may  r e l a t e t o my  T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e j e c t i n g f e m i n i n i t y  c o n j e c t u r e t h a t I had r e t r e a t e d from c u l t i v a t i n g  c e r t a i n masculine  t r a i t s beyond the developmental  c h i l d h o o d (see above, pp. 122-123). remain where I was,  stage of  I seemed t o have chosen t o  m a n i f e s t i n g o n l y c h i l d - s i z e and  p e r c e p t i o n ) a c c e p t a b l e s o r t s of masculine  traits.  ( i n my This raises  the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t something s i m i l a r i s o p e r a t i n g i n r e l a t i o n to  rejecting femininity.  feminine t r a i t s  That i s , i t may  be t h a t whereas  (and p o s s i b l y a l s o r o l e s ) a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  c h i l d h o o d are a c c e p t a b l e t o the a n o r e x i c , c u l t i v a t i n g feminine t r a i t s and r o l e s w i t h i n the developmental adolescence  i s not.  other  stage of  I f so, then i n e x p l o r i n g t h i s i s s u e with  any  g i v e n a n o r e x i c , i t would be f r u i t f u l t o key the q u e s t i o n whether f e m i n i n i t y i s v a l u e d t o d i s t i n c t developmental Having completed t h i s review,  I would l i k e t o invoke  t h r e e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t o h e l p s t r u c t u r e my nature of my fifteen.  own  these  d i s c u s s i o n of the  r e j e c t i n g stance toward f e m i n i n i t y a t the age  Regarding  ( i ) , as noted above, throughout  and c o n t i n u i n g i n t o adolescence, gendered and v a l u e d most of my r e l a t i o n t o the f i r s t femininity —  periods.  I was  extremely  feminine t r a i t s .  "double-bind"  my  of  childhood  feminineHowever, i n  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e j e c t i n g  or perhaps more a c c u r a t e l y , c a l l i n g i n t o q u e s t i o n  i t s v a l u e , I can say t h a t I was r e g a r d i n g t h i s aspect of my  not without a n x i e t y or doubt  personality.  Moreover, I am  certain  127 t h a t I was  aware of the double-bind, e s p e c i a l l y as r e l a t e d t o  women's r o l e s .  Beginning with the f i r s t p o i n t , I want t o  e l a b o r a t e something I s a i d e a r l i e r r e g a r d i n g my  self-described  f e m i n i n i t y and the experience of "going blank" when c a l l e d upon t o a r t i c u l a t e my on.  own  needs, d e s i r e s , emotions, judgments, and  I r e c a l l being s e i z e d w i t h a n x i e t y i n p a r t because I  unable t o answer, but a l s o — out t h i s t h r e a d —  was  and I f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o tease  because I f e l t t h a t I should be someone who  s u b s t a n t i a l enough t o answer.  (I must a l s o have thought) my  doubt evoke d i s a p p r o b a t i o n .  is  S u r e l y (I must have thought) my  i n t e r l o c u t o r had by v i r t u e of h i s or her query shared judgment and  so  this  i n e p t i t u d e would no  But a t the same time, a t some l e v e l  I would a l s o have been anxious t h a t having the a b i l i t y t o r e p l y i n the manner r e q u i r e d would have v i o l a t e d a l l the p r e c e p t s a c c o r d i n g t o which I i n t e r a c t e d with o t h e r s .  Having  surmised  t h i s much I can v i v i d l y remember s a y i n g t h i n g s l i k e "You or "I r e a l l y don't know" or "I don't c a r e , r e a l l y . " i n a g r e a t w h i l e someone —  always a man  —  decide"  Every once  would not l e t me  get  away w i t h t h i s : "What do you mean you don't know what you want, how  c o u l d you not know?"  And,  not having an answer t o these  q u e s t i o n s , but a l s o having t o l d the t r u t h , I c o u l d o n l y squirm with d i s c o m f o r t and hope t h a t he would l e t i t go.  The  other's  f r u s t r a t i o n and c l e a r d i s a p p r o v a l of my manner a t f i r s t p u z z l e d me  s i n c e I thought  I'd done my  job.  But over time these s o r t s of  responses made me q u e s t i o n the v a l u e of being so n i c e . Two  o t h e r immediate a s s o c i a t i o n s I have w i t h t h i s theme of  128 double-bind-related  c o n f l i c t r e g a r d i n g my  own  f e m i n i n i t y concern  more s p e c i f i c memories.  When I was  t h a t my  up a t a f r i e n d ' s house.  mother p i c k e d me  i n grade s c h o o l , I r e c a l l  I found i t r e a l l y t i r i n g t o be with o t h e r people, t h a t the reason people.  I was  so t i r e d i s t h a t I was  I thought t h i s was  and t h a t ' s probably why  I t o l d her t h a t and she  replied  too n i c e t o other  a strange t h i n g f o r a mother t o  I remember i t .  s l e e p o v e r p a r t y and d u r i n g a " t e l l one  say,  A few years l a t e r a t a t h i n g you  l i k e and  one  t h i n g you don't l i k e about each f r i e n d " s o r t of game, I r e c a l l being on the h o t s e a t . i n every way  except t h a t I was  t h a t i f t h i s was so bad.  Each f r i e n d t o l d me too n i c e .  t h a t I was  just  I remember t h i n k i n g  the c r i t i c i s m t h a t I had t o l i v e with, i t wasn't  I mean, you were supposed t o be n i c e , so how  o f f e n s e c o u l d t h i s be?  than I d i d .  happier than me. represented  t o me.  bad  But the i d e a gnawed away a t me.  above, I admired other g i r l s who confidence  had more substance  But I a l s o i n a sense f e a r e d them and what they I f e l t a k i n d of p r e s s u r e , a sense t h a t I  a t odds with who  I was  t h i s p o i n t o u t r i g h t r e j e c t my  And  I could I saw  feminine  And  thus w h i l e I d i d n ' t a t  t r a i t s , the ground  being l a i d f o r doubt about t h e i r worth i n o t h e r s ' eyes —  beginning  i t as  and what had so f a r made me  f e e l w e l l - l i k e d by o t h e r s , and s a f e .  own,  As noted  They seemed more a l i v e and c e r t a i n l y much  c u l t i v a t e t h a t k i n d of s u b s t a n t i a l i t y i n myself.  hence my  an  and  should be more l i k e them, but I c o u l d n ' t imagine how  completely  right  was and  g i v e n the very nature of the f e m i n i n i t y t h a t I  to c a l l i n t o question.  was  129 A f i n a l a s s o c i a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e double-bind concerns the case o f r o l e s .  I r e c a l l w r i t i n g an essay on the  s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f women a t some p o i n t i n h i g h s c h o o l .  T h i s must  have i n f l u e n c e d me, e s p e c i a l l y as I watched my mother's c a r e e r evolve from f u l l - t i m e mother and housewife; t o p a r t - t i m e nurse and f u l l - t i m e mother and housewife; and then f u l l - t i m e student, mother, and housewife.  F o r a t t h e age o f f i f t e e n , I am c e r t a i n  t h a t I would have s t a t e d t h a t I would n o t v a l u e " o n l y " being a t r a d i t i o n a l w i f e and mother.  These were r o l e s t h a t I would have  a n t i c i p a t e d , b u t o n l y i n combination w i t h a c a r e e r .  Otherwise,  as I b e l i e v e I would have s t a t e d , a woman i s t r a p p e d .  I'm  c e r t a i n t h a t t h i s statement was r e l a t e d t o my awareness o f my mother's d e p r e s s i o n ( I t h i n k she was depressed f o r much o f my childhood).  I t i s l i k e l y t h a t on some l e v e l I a s s o c i a t e d  this  w i t h h e r r o l e s o f mother and housewife, e s p e c i a l l y g i v e n t h e f a c t t h a t she was much h a p p i e r once she began t o a t t e n d u n i v e r s i t y . Once a g a i n , though, I d i d not renounce t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s , b u t r a t h e r planned t o supplement and t h e development  them w i t h post-secondary e d u c a t i o n  of a career.  Turning t o t h e second i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e j e c t i n g [(ii)],  femininity  i t might be s u r p r i s i n g t h a t I can s t r o n g l y r e l a t e t o t h e  dimension o f r e j e c t i n g f e m i n i n i t y r e l a t e d t o b i p o l a r i t y . is,  That  I b e l i e v e t h a t a t f i f t e e n , I was p r e c i s e l y engaged i n a  b i p o l a r s t r i v i n g a f t e r m a s c u l i n i t y w h i l e r e j e c t i n g key aspects o f femininity.  Given my t e r r i f i c a n x i e t y about  cultivating  m a s c u l i n i t y , my extremely feminine-gendered p e r s o n a l i t y , my  130 nascent doubts about the worth of my  f e m i n i n i t y , my  understanding  of the manner i n which m a s c u l i n i t y i s esteemed, and my  other-  o r i e n t e d and p e r f e c t i o n i s t i c sense t h a t I must become what o t h e r s v a l u e d , i t s t r i k e s me  t h a t I must indeed have been b e s i d e  However, I don't r e c a l l being c o n s c i o u s l y c o n f l i c t e d —  myself.  as  e v i n c e d by the minimal a s s o c i a t i o n s I have w i t h the theme of the double  bind.  On the o t h e r hand, though, i t makes sense t o me t h a t the manner i n which I attempted t o r e s o l v e i n n e r c o n f l i c t r e l a t e d t o the double b i n d was For, g i v e n my  v i a the unconscious  embrace of b i p o l a r i t y .  e a r l i e r c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h my  d i f f i c u l t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h my  my  mother, I t h i n k t h a t i n s o f a r as  the b i p o l a r r o u t e t o r e d u c i n g c o n f l i c t was t o me,  f a t h e r and  I would have s e i z e d on i t .  i n some sense o f f e r e d  Again, S i l v e r s t e i n and Perdue  (1988) note t h a t such an o f f e r i s a v a i l a b l e t o g i r l s and women, and a t l e a s t some of us r e a d i l y s e i z e i t .  On t h e i r t h i n k i n g , the  curvaceous  feminine body i s r e j e c t e d i n favour o f a s t r e a m l i n e d ,  masculine,  i n t e l l i g e n c e - a n d - s u c c e s s - e x u d i n g body.  In t h i s way  are a b l e t o c u l t i v a t e m a s c u l i n i t y i n a non-threatening f a s h i o n , and a t the same r e j e c t devalued c u l t u r a l l y a c c e p t a b l e "feminine" F i n a l l y , i n terms of ( i i i ) , i d e a t h a t I was  f e m i n i n i t y i n favour o f slenderness. I can c e r t a i n l y r e l a t e t o the  r e s i s t i n g the c u l t i v a t i o n of f e m i n i n i t y w i t h i n  the developmental  stage of adolescence.  even a t y p i c a l a d o l e s c e n t .  F i r s t of a l l ,  I wasn't  I d i d n ' t l i s t e n t o contemporary  music, or smoke, or go t o p a r t i e s and rock c o n c e r t s , o r  we  131 experiment with drugs.  With r e s p e c t t o f e m i n i n i t y i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  I was becoming aware t h a t i t wasn't going t o be enough t o achieve a c a d e m i c a l l y anymore —  i n f a c t , I would probably have t o abandon  t h i s t o some extent i n order t o be c o n s i d e r e d feminine. r e s i s t e d change.  But I  Moreover, I was aware t h a t success and  accomplishment were going t o be measured i n terms o f t h e q u e s t i o n whether o r not I had a b o y f r i e n d .  But I a l s o v e r y much r e s i s t e d  the i d e a t h a t I was no longer supposed t o r e g a r d boys as " j u s t f r i e n d s , " but r a t h e r as p o t e n t i a l b o y f r i e n d s . Despite my s t r o n g r e s i s t a n c e t o f u l f i l l i n g requirements  social  f o r female a d o l e s c e n t s , though, I was s t i l l  and c o n f l i c t e d .  confused  When I was younger I had crushes on boys but I  t h i n k t h a t a t f i f t e e n I was t o o anxious much i n the way of f e e l i n g f o r them.  t o a l l o w myself  t o have  I also anticipated later  sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p s with a g r e a t sense o f uneasiness and d i s c o m f o r t , p r e f e r r i n g t o t h i n k o f my s e x u a l i t y as something t h a t would develop  i n the d i s t a n t f u t u r e .  As a r e s u l t , I found i t  very d i f f i c u l t t o r e l a t e t o the jokes, s e c r e t s , c o n s p i r a c i e s , adventures,  and l o n g i n g s o f my female f r i e n d s .  They were  a p p a r e n t l y consumed with the p r o j e c t s o f f i n d i n g , d e a l i n g with, o r l e a v i n g t h e i r b o y f r i e n d s .  keeping,  And while I was happy  t o be i n v o l v e d i n a s u p p o r t i v e r o l e from the s i d e l i n e s , f o r my p a r t t h e i r experiences  seemed worlds away.  t o e n t e r t h a t world —  I went on a couple o f dates and was  i n v i t e d t o a couple o f proms — uncomfortable.  I was j u s t  Even when I attempted  miserably  132 I t h i n k i t i s important t o n o t i c e t h a t I a s s o c i a t e t h i s mode of r e j e c t i n g f e m i n i n i t y p r i m a r i l y w i t h r o l e s r a t h e r than t r a i t s , where the r o l e s are l i n k e d t o a s p e c i f i c developmental p e r i o d . With r e s p e c t t o development and  as noted e a r l i e r , a t the age  f i f t e e n I would have s t a t e d t h a t I f u l l y intended have c h i l d r e n , and heterosexual child.  so on —  women.  And  which I c l u n g , and  c e r t a i n l y comfortable remaining a  e i t h e r i n the f u t u r e or the past  a t the time I was  v e r y busy a v o i d i n g  r e l a t e d t o t y p i c a l female adolescence.  future  from such s t e r e o t y p i c a l t r a i t s as warmth or s e n s i t i v i t y But upon r e f l e c t i o n I can say t h a t  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t y p i c a l female adolescent me.  For me,  roles  sexual  As f o r t r a i t s , I d i d not renounce or d i s t a n c e  o t h e r s ' needs.  to  These r o l e s most  prominently i n c l u d i n g those of g i r l f r i e n d and partner.  man,  a l l r o l e s associated with adult,  I was  But a l l of t h a t was  t o marry a  of  myself to  traits  r o l e s d i d not appeal t o  these would have i n c l u d e d " g i g g l y v a p i d i t y , " g r e a t  concern w i t h appearance ( c l o t h i n g , makeup, h a i r , f i n g e r n a i l s , and so on), a c a s u a l a t t i t u d e toward s c h o o l , and d i s t a n c i n g from a d u l t s  ( t e a c h e r s , parents) i n the context  angry stance.  Rather, I was  oneself  of a d e r i s i v e or  mature i n the mode of a pseudo-  a d u l t , completely unconcerned w i t h my  appearance beyond the  b a s i c s of c l e a n l i n e s s , a s e r i o u s student, and very much o r i e n t e d toward a d u l t s and g e t t i n g approval 6. V a l u i n g r e n u n c i a t o r y Any  from them.  superwomanhood:  remarks I c o u l d make here would o v e r l a p completely w i t h  those r e l a t e d t o the b i p o l a r r e j e c t i o n of f e m i n i n i t y , and  so I  133 w i l l simply  t u r n t o t h e next category r e l a t e d t o superwomanhood.  7. V a l u i n g m u l t i - r o l e superwomanhood: As i n d i c a t e d above, I b e l i e v e t h a t adopting a b i p o l a r stance which values m a s c u l i n i t y and r e j e c t s f e m i n i n i t y ( e i t h e r i n t h e general  sense o f t r a i t s and r o l e s , o r w i t h i n t h e context  p a r t i c u l a r developmental period)  can be construed  of a  as a way o f  attempting t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t r e l a t e d t o t h e double b i n d .  I  a l s o construe v a l u i n g and adopting m u l t i - r o l e superwomanhood as a response t o t h e double b i n d .  However, i n s t e a d o f s p l i t t i n g o f f  and d i s s o c i a t i n g o n e s e l f from t h a t which i s devalued by s o c i e t y , on t h i s path one embraces and pursues both t h a t which i s degraded and t h a t which i s v a l u e d .  I t h i n k t h i s o p t i o n i s more l i k e l y t o  be pursued than b i p o l a r i t y when a g i v e n g i r l o r woman s t r o n g l y i d e n t i f i e s h e r s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o t r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e s , and thus can embrace them without undue c o n f l i c t .  I f she a l s o  pursues masculine r o l e s , she has adopted m u l t i - r o l e superwomanhood. I n s o f a r as t h e above a p p l i e s t o t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n o f a d u l t r o l e s , t h i s was p r e c i s e l y my o r i e n t a t i o n .  As I have a l r e a d y  mentioned a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s above, by t h e age o f f i f t e e n I was committed t o t a k i n g on ( i n t h e f u t u r e ) t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s o f a heterosexual  woman i n t h e f u t u r e  ( i n c l u d i n g marriage t o a man,  and b e a r i n g and r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n ) , as w e l l as t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l l y masculine path o f pursuing and  some s o r t o f c a r e e r .  post-secondary  education  In keeping w i t h my h y p o t h e s i s as t o why  g i r l s o r women choose t h i s o p t i o n , I t h i n k t h a t I i d e n t i f i e d w i t h  134 my  mother i n such a way  that I couldn't  her f o o t s t e p s r e g a r d i n g a l s o had  i n my  traditional roles.  But  i n my  case, I  mother an a c t u a l p o s i t i v e r o l e model f o r  superwomanhood. depressed and  imagine not f o l l o w i n g i n  For I watched her t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  from a  r e s e n t f u l housewife t o an e n e r g e t i c and  when she began u n i v e r s i t y (maintaining, r o l e s and d u t i e s ) .  happy woman  of course, a l l her  other  F i n a l l y , s i n c e the superwoman path seemed t o  be esteemed by the world a t l a r g e , I had  even more reason t o  pursue i t . On the other hand, though, t h e r e  i s another dimension t o  p u r s u i t of m u l t i - r o l e superwomanhood t h a t I need t o For a t l e a s t i n my  own  case t h e r e was  a n t i c i p a t i n g a d u l t r o l e s and  Accordingly,  while there  describe.  a d i f f e r e n c e between  living stereotypical  r o l e s : I embraced the former and  the  avoided the  adolescent  latter.  i s a sense i n which I might have  appeared t o be a k i n d of proto-superwoman even i n adolescence, t h i s doesn't mean t h a t I was  an adolescent  superwoman.  That i s ,  I pursued a number of d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o music> dance, t h e a t r e , academics, ecology, student government, v a r i o u s competitions,  and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s .  i s t h a t p a r t of t h i s was  r e l a t e d t o the f a c t t h a t I was  a r e l e n t l e s s perfectionism according would do many t h i n g s and  But the f i r s t t h i n g t o note  took i t t h a t any  by  t o which a p e r f e c t person  e x c e l a t a l l of them.  Along w i t h the  p e r f e c t i o n i s m came a s t r o n g sense of a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . myself t o be someone who  driven  I took  had t o do a l l these t h i n g s w e l l , and  f a i l u r e would r e f l e c t my  worth as a person.  I  135 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , though, being d r i v e n by a sense of what I should do r a t h e r than by d e s i r e y i e l d e d l i t t l e p l e a s u r e . failure  So whereas  ( i . e . , l a c k of t o t a l success) would devastate  achievement i t s e l f l e f t me c o l d .  Indeed, my  me,  l i f e was  pervaded  by  a g r e a t sense of emptiness w i t h j u s t a raw k i n d of s t r i v i n g t o keep me  going.  My p o i n t here i s t h a t busying myself w i t h a range of a c t i v i t i e s d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y render me superwoman, i n p a r t because I was relentless perfectionism.  an a d o l e s c e n t  o p e r a t i n g on the b a s i s of a  A second  reason why  the  frenetic  engagement i n a range of a c t i v i t i e s d i d not make me  an a d o l e s c e n t  superwoman i s t h a t I d i d n ' t embody many c e n t r a l aspects of t y p i c a l a d o l e s c e n t feminine and masculine t r a i t s and Rather,  roles.  I delayed c u l t i v a t i o n of both i n t e r p e r s o n a l masculine  s k i l l s and the development of my (hetero)sexuality. well-roundedness  adolescent  female  Indeed, i f anything, my dogged p u r s u i t of  served as a smokescreen which d i s t r a c t e d o t h e r s  as w e l l as myself from the f a c t t h a t I remained a c h i l d i n the comfortable r o l e s of a c a d e m i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d y e t a l s o  seemingly  outgoing student, and a d u l t - p l e a s i n g , feminine-gendered, seemingly mature g i r l .  In t h i s way  my  d i f f i c u l t developmental  c h a l l e n g e s c o u l d go u n n o t i c e d .  and  r e s i s t a n c e t o f a r more  8. Combinations of gender p r o f i l e s and/or s t a n c e s : The most important f e a t u r e of the summarized r e s u l t s i n the l a s t two columns of F i g u r e 7 i s t h a t they begin t o make e x p l i c i t the ways i n which p r e v i o u s l y - d e s c r i b e d aspects of gender can  be  136 combined.  My  remarks here w i l l be b r i e f , g i v e n t h a t  the  components of each combination have f o r the most p a r t been  already  discussed. The  the gap  b a s i c p r i n c i p l e t h a t operates here i s t h a t the  larger  between what a person i s and what she wants or t h i n k s  needs t o be,  the more s t r e s s and c o n f l i c t she  experience —  a t l e a s t on some l e v e l .  no doubt t h a t the f a c t t h a t I was,  In my  is likely own  she  to  case, t h e r e i s  so t o speak, hypomasculine  and  hyperfeminine made i t f a r more d i f f i c u l t t o manage s o c i e t y ' s supervaluation  of m a s c u l i n i t y and d e v a l u a t i o n  the r e s u l t a n t sense of pressure accordingly. own  Indeed, I have d e s c r i b e d  awareness about what was  I was  t o a d j u s t my  the d i s p a r i t y between  Thus my  devaluation  of f e m i n i n i t y ; and  Chapter Two.  one's own  ( i n my  p e r c e i v i n g a d e f i c i t i n terms of my  or  case) being  others' feminine  and  experience resonates  p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f f e r e d i n F i g u r e 7 from  There i s thus no doubt t h a t the presence of  combinations of a n t a g o n i s t i c gender f e a t u r e s i n c r e a s e d and  combining  a b i l i t y t o m a n i f e s t more  In s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , my  w i t h a l l the c o n j e c t u r e d  and what  summarized i n r e l a t i o n t o combining  ( h y p e r ) f e m i n i n i t y and  masculine t r a i t s .  my  experience resonates  l o w - l e v e l m a s c u l i n i t y w i t h a s p i r i n g toward m a s c u l i n i t y ; self-described  and  personality  r e q u i r e d o r expected of me  capable of accomplishing.  w i t h a l l of the f o r m u l a t i o n s  of f e m i n i n i t y ,  s t r e s s i n my  conflict  case.  I t seems t h a t my  o v e r a l l gender p r o f i l e a t the age  of  f i f t e e n would have i n c l u d e d every element accessed by the  studies  137 analyzed  i n the L i t e r a t u r e Review.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , I b e l i e v e  t h a t on the l e v e l of t r a i t p r o f i l e , I would have been assessed having an extremely feminine and at  the age  of f i f t e e n .  valued  l o w - l e v e l masculine p e r s o n a l i t y  Regarding gender stance,  have emerged t h a t I valued  as  feminine t r a i t s and  I t h i n k i t would  roles, that I  masculine t r a i t s ; t h a t I e i t h e r doubted or r e j e c t e d  aspects of my  f e m i n i n i t y ; t h a t I valued  superwomanhood; and,  i n the context  f e m i n i n i t y , t h a t I valued  multi-role  of the b i p o l a r r e j e c t i o n of  renunciatory  superwomanhood.  r e s p e c t t o combinations of p r o f i l e s and  stances,  With  I also believe  t h a t c o n f l i c t would have been s a l i e n t i n r e l a t i o n t o gaps between who  I was  and who  I thought I should  be.  However, I would  t o t u r n t o the second phase of the e x e r c i s e before  like  offering a  f u l l assessment of these f i n d i n g s . O v e r a l l P r o f i l e i n Late Stages of We  now  Healing:  t u r n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a c e t s of gender  problem e a t i n g i n r e c e n t stages of my  healing.  Once again,  w i l l invoke the frame s e t up i n F i g u r e 7 i n Chapter Two, w i l l n a t u r a l l y be making r e f e r e n c e i n the f i r s t phase of t h i s la.  I  exercise.  s e n s i t i v i t y , concern f o r the w e l l - b e i n g so on are s t i l l  Moreover, w i t h the exception  as  of o t h e r s , warmth,  p a r t of my  personality.  of c r e a t i v i t y and  concern f o r  appearance, t r a i t s t h a t d i d not apply e a r l i e r s t i l l Regarding these exceptions,  I  t o the m a t e r i a l t h a t emerged  S e l f - d e s c r i b e d t r a i t f e m i n i n i t y : Such core t r a i t s  h e l p f u l n e s s , and  and  and  I am more c r e a t i v e —  do not  apply.  or perhaps I  138 should say, l e s s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s and more e x c i t e d about e x p l o r i n g my  c r e a t i v i t y than b e f o r e .  And  i n the p a s t few years have  l e a r n e d t o take a b i t more c a r e about my contexts —  appearance i n c e r t a i n  even t o take some p l e a s u r e i n t r y i n g t o look n i c e .  On the o t h e r hand, though, t h e r e has a l s o been dramatic change i n the d i r e c t i o n of being l e s s s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y  feminine.  And here I r e f e r t o the f a c t t h a t I am much more " p u l l e d i n " l e s s extended  toward o t h e r s —  than I was  before.  aspects of t h i s change which I w i l l attempt t h i n g , when I was  —  There are many  to describe.  For  one  f i f t e e n and f o r many, many years a f t e r I had  t r o u b l e being u t t e r l y attuned t o o t h e r s .  I simply jumped i n t o  another person's psyche and expressed what was not a b l e t o do t h i s any l o n g e r .  no  there.  But I am  I f I want t o d i s c e r n someone's  f e e l i n g s , thoughts, d e s i r e s , judgments, and so on, I have t o go through the medium of my own  experience.  On the same theme, I do  not depend on the ( a c t u a l or a n t i c i p a t e d ) r e a c t i o n s of o t h e r s t o determine  what I should do or who  I need t o be.  For the most  p a r t I do what I need or want t o do and I am who have no t r o u b l e g e t t i n g i n touch w i t h what I'm p e r c e i v i n g , t h i n k i n g , and so on.  I am.  And  I  feeling,  I t can take some time t o  separate what I need f o r myself  from what o t h e r s need (sometimes  i f someone needs something, I'm  still  i n c l i n e d t o make i t my  t h a t t h e i r s be f u l f i l l e d , but I can u s u a l l y i d e n t i f y my without too much d i f f i c u l t y ) .  own  need needs  F i n a l l y , I don't f o r c e myself  be outwardly c h e e r f u l when my mood doesn't match.  Rather  to  than  mold myself t o what w i l l be p l e a s i n g t o o t h e r s , I f e e l what I  139 need t o  feel.  2a. S e l f - d e s c r i b e d t r a i t m a s c u l i n i t y :  I have a much  stronger  p e r s o n a l i t y i n r e c e n t years than I d i d as a young woman.  I  r e t a i n e d the s c h o o l - r e l a t e d f e a t u r e s t h a t I manifested a t the of f i f t e e n , but have a l s o c u l t i v a t e d much more  age  assertiveness,  independence, s e l f - r e l i a n c e , w i l l i n g n e s s t o take r i s k s ( i n c l u d i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l ones), s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e ,  and  so on.  Interestingly  enough, I a s s o c i a t e these changes w i t h those made i n the category i n r e l a t i o n t o being more " p u l l e d i n " and myself.  previous  centered i n  In f a c t i t seems t h a t change w i t h i n t h i s category i s  very much the o t h e r s i d e of the c o i n of what t r a n s p i r e d i n the case of s e l f - d e s c r i b e d f e m i n i n i t y .  For as I have become somewhat  l e s s s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y feminine, I have a l s o become somewhat more s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y masculine. 3a.  ( P o s i t i v e ) V a l u a t i o n a l stance toward feminine t r a i t s  r o l e s : Over the course of my  h i s t o r y of h e a l i n g ,  and  I have c o n t i n u e d  t o v a l u e most s t e r e o t y p i c a l feminine t r a i t s .  Nonetheless, i t i s  c l e a r t o me  adolescence  now  o r i e n t a t i o n was from myself. i n p u t and  t h a t throughout c h i l d h o o d  my  f a r too d r a s t i c a l l y skewed toward o t h e r s and  For example, i t i s one  f l e x i b l e , but  accordance w i t h o t h e r s ' submissiveness.  and  t h i n g t o be open t o  others'  i t i s q u i t e another t o shape o n e s e l f i n p u t and  I a l s o regard my  t o y i e l d t o the p o i n t past  away  in  of  i n a b i l i t y t o know what I  needed o r even what I was  f e e l i n g as downright f r i g h t e n i n g —  can h a r d l y b e l i e v e i t was  real.  I  Indeed, I look back on myself a t  t h a t time w i t h a mixture of compassion and  astonishment.  In  any  140 case, my p o i n t here i s t h a t while I b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s good t o be a f f e c t i o n a t e , attuned t o o t h e r s , compassionate,  and so on, I do  not v a l u e t h e way i n which I manifested these and o t h e r t r a i t s as an a d o l e s c e n t and as a young woman. B r i e f l y expanding  t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , though, I would  first  l i k e t o note t h a t d i f f e r e n t s o r t s o f feminism p l a y e d a key r o l e i n b r i n g i n g about t h i s s h i f t .  As my l i b e r a l f e m i n i s t  consciousness was r a i s e d , I came t o develop a c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e nature and use o f feminine t r a i t s w i t h i n patriarchal societies.  I became angry and r e s e n t f u l a t t h e way  i n which s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y feminine g i r l s and women can be e x p l o i t e d g i v e n our o t h e r - o r i e n t e d n e s s and c a r i n g n a t u r e .  I saw  how t h i s worked i n my own l i f e and i n t h e l i v e s o f c o u n t l e s s women f r i e n d s and s t u d e n t s .  On t h e o t h e r hand, though, I was not  i n c l i n e d t o r e j e c t feminine t r a i t s i n themselves;  being  feminine  was a p a r t o f my p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t I c o u l d not simply l e a v e behind.  Moreover, d e s p i t e t h e e s s e n t i a l i s m and other problems  t h a t go along with i t , I must say t h a t I d e r i v e d g r e a t comfort, support, and i n s p i r a t i o n from c u l t u r a l feminism.  Indeed, t h i s  brand o f feminism s t r u c k a t t h e h e a r t o f t h e double b i n d , t e a c h i n g me t o r e v a l u e s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y feminine ways o f r e l a t i n g to  o t h e r s , and t o p e r c e i v e t h a t masculine ways o f r e l a t i n g t o  o n e s e l f , other people, and t h e e a r t h can l e a d t o d e s t r u c t i o n . F u r t h e r support f o r t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e came from t h e t h e r a p i s t w i t h whom I worked i n Toronto i n my e a r l y t w e n t i e s .  As I b r i e f l y  i n d i c a t e d i n t h e " H i s t o r y o f H e a l i n g , " t h i s woman welcomed me  141 i n t o womanhood.  Here I can r e l a t e d t h a t she d i d t h i s i n p a r t by  s h a r i n g h e r own c u l t u r a l f e m i n i s t v a l u e s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h h e r Jungian o r i e n t a t i o n .  In response t o both s t r a n d s o f feminism,  and t o my experience w i t h t h i s t h e r a p i s t , I became more c r i t i c a l l y - m i n d e d and s e l e c t i v e about t h e c o n t e x t s i n which I extended my feminine " g i v i n g " mode o f r e l a t i n g t o o t h e r s .  I also  c u l t i v a t e d m a s c u l i n i t y on my own terms, and began t o e x p l o r e o t h e r ways o f being empowered as a woman. I can note a s i m i l a r l y remarkable  s h i f t r e l a t e d t o my  v a l u a t i o n a l stance toward t r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e s .  From my  p r e s e n t vantage p o i n t I r e c o g n i z e t h a t I had e a r l i e r manifested a k i n d o f automatic response t o t h e s e r o l e s as i n e v i t a b l e and given.  However, I now f e e l t h a t I can determine how I r e g a r d  them, and whether and how I c a r r y them out.  I am p l e a s e d t o say  t h a t I g r e a t l y v a l u e and enjoy t h e r o l e s o f w i f e and mother as I have c u l t i v a t e d them i n my l i f e . have developed a c r i t i c a l  I am a l s o p l e a s e d t o say t h a t I  f e m i n i s t consciousness about t h e nature  of t r a d i t i o n a l l y female domestic d u l l , r e p e t i t i v e , unrewarding,  l a b o u r as f o r t h e most p a r t  b o r i n g , devalued,  advantageous t o men, and o p p r e s s i v e t o women. chores themselves  unpaid,  Of course t h e  a r e necessary, and g i v e n t h e e x t e n t t o which I  i d e n t i f y w i t h my mother, I have never been capable o f simply renouncing them. choices.  But, a g a i n , feminism has taught me t h a t I have  And so I have been a b l e t o d i v i d e up domestic  and t o adopt a f a r more c a s u a l a t t i t u d e toward  labour,  things l i k e  c l e a n i n g and p r e p a r i n g meals than I would e a r l i e r have  142 anticipated. 4a. V a l u i n g / A s p i r i n g toward m a s c u l i n i t y :  As noted i n ( 2 ) , I have  i n some ways become more masculine over t h e y e a r s .  But as I a l s o  mentioned above i n (3a), I have c u l t i v a t e d a more c r i t i c a l toward t h e manner i n which both feminine operate w i t h i n p a t r i a r c h y .  Thus while  stance  and masculine t r a i t s  I continue  t o value  t r a d i t i o n a l l y - d e f i n e d masculine f e a t u r e s which empower people i n t h e i r own l i v e s , I don't value t h e manner i n which some t r a i t s are used t o dominate o r e x p l o i t o t h e r s . But more r e l e v a n t t o my h i s t o r y o f h e a l i n g , I can note t h a t I no longer experience  ambivalence o r c o n f l i c t r e g a r d i n g t h e  c u l t i v a t i o n o f masculine t r a i t s by a d u l t women.  On t h e c o n t r a r y ,  I t h i n k i t i s v i t a l f o r t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l , p h y s i c a l , and economic w e l l - b e i n g o f g i r l s and women t h a t we a l l do so.  In t h i s  context,  I t h i n k i t i s c r i m i n a l f o r t h e mainstream media t o  continue  f e e d i n g us images o f s t r o n g women who become nasty and  exploitative i n t h e i r manifestation of masculinity.  However, I  am no longer i n h i b i t e d by t h i s i d e o l o g i c a l i n p u t ~  or, f o r that  matter, by my mother's c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s toward a s s e r t i v e women d e s c r i b e d i n t h e f i r s t phase o f t h i s e x e r c i s e .  Thus, with  regard  t o t h e p o i n t I made about r e t r e a t i n g from adolescence and adulthood on t h e dimension o f m a s c u l i n i t y , I have been a b l e t o be more a s s e r t i v e and tough-skinned i n t h e context encounters.  That i s , t h e manner i n which I am masculine i s not  r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e context life  of interpersonal  o f academia, b u t r a t h e r pervades my  i n a much more balanced f a s h i o n .  143 5a. R e j e c t i o n of f e m i n i n i t y : ( i ) D o u b l e - b i n d - r e l a t e d : The f i r s t aspect of r e j e c t i n g f e m i n i n i t y d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r concerned  nascent doubts about the  worth of feminine t r a i t s and q u i t e c o n s c i o u s awareness o f the devalued s t a t u s of t r a d i t i o n a l women's r o l e s . of  t h i s w i t h double b i n d messages about the d e v a l u a t i o n of  f e m i n i n i t y and s u p e r v a l u a t i o n of m a s c u l i n i t y . the s t a t u s of t h i s dimension of  I associated a l l  In r e f l e c t i n g  on  of my gender p r o f i l e over the course  my h e a l i n g , I can say t h a t t h e r e has been a tremendous s h i f t . I b e l i e v e t h a t I was  i n t e n s e l y anxious when I f i r s t began t o  e n t e r t a i n doubts about my v e r y feminine nature because I took s o c i e t a l and more p e r s o n a l messages t o h e a r t as n e g a t i v e c r i t i c a l messages about how of  my  and who  I was.  stance toward m a s c u l i n i t y , I was  myself.  In t h i s case, g i v e n my  which I was  and  J u s t as i n the case  very much a t odds w i t h  p e r f e c t i o n i s m and the manner i n  attuned t o s o c i e t y ' s d e v a l u a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l  feminine t r a i t s , I knew t h a t I would need t o be d i f f e r e n t not so n i c e ) i n order t o be r e s p e c t e d .  (i.e.,  However, I had always  thought t h a t I must be "so n i c e " and I c o u l d n ' t see how  I could  change.  being  Moreover, my  accommodating behaviour was  still  r e i n f o r c e d by the p o s i t i v e responses t h a t I r e c e i v e d from o t h e r s . Nonetheless, helped me  as I noted i n ( 3 ) , above, becoming a f e m i n i s t  r e a l i z e t h a t the f a u l t wasn't w i t h the t r a i t s and  themselves,  nor w i t h me  as someone who  the problem l a y i n the way patriarchy.  embodied them.  Rather,  i n which they f u n c t i o n e d w i t h i n  Thus a t some p o i n t I came t o understand  roles  that I  144 d i d n ' t have t o take anybody's word t h a t what I was l i k e o r what I d i d was worth a g r e a t d e a l o r was w o r t h l e s s .  I d i d n ' t have t o  t h i n k I was t h e problem and t h a t I would have t o change i n accordance with e x t e r n a l standards.  Rather, I c o u l d e v a l u a t e my  gender f e a t u r e s f o r myself v i s - a - v i s my own judgments about how they worked i n my l i f e , developing.  and t h e s e t o f v a l u e s t h a t I was  In s h o r t , and again as noted i n (3a), I was a b l e t o  r e v a l u e f e m i n i n i t y and m a s c u l i n i t y on my own terms.  In t h i s way,  I began t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t r e l a t e d t o t h e gender double b i n d . ( i i ) B i p o l a r mode: Regarding t h e second i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e j e c t i n g f e m i n i n i t y , I c o n j e c t u r e d e a r l i e r t h a t I was deeply c o n f l i c t e d r e g a r d i n g double b i n d messages about f e m i n i n i t y and masculinity.  Yet I had few resources t o d e a l w i t h t h i s  and t h e i n t e n s e a n x i e t y t h a t i t aroused i n me. t o my h y p o t h e s i s ,  conflict  Thus, a c c o r d i n g  I r e l o c a t e d my problems w i t h i n my body and  attempted t o r e s o l v e them v i a a b i p o l a r r e j e c t i o n o f f e m i n i n i t y and a s u p e r v a l u a t i o n o f m a s c u l i n i t y .  In concrete terms what t h i s  meant was t h a t I renounced my feminine, devalued  rounded, c u l t u r a l l y -  body, and c u l t i v a t e d a c u l t u r a l l y - v a l u e d s l i m ,  masculine, " i n t e l l i g e n t " body. i n t e r e s t i n g l y , and as noted i n t h e Case H i s t o r y , f o r many, many years I remained more o r l e s s committed t o m a i n t a i n i n g a body t h a t was r e l a t i v e l y s l e n d e r and not f r e e l y feminine and curvaceous.  In f a c t i t has o n l y been s i n c e t h e b i r t h o f my f i v e  year o l d son t h a t I have completely  g i v e n up c o u n t i n g  t r y i n g t o tone and c o n t r o l my body, and so on.  calories,  And so, f i n a l l y ,  145 the c o n f l i c t t h a t I seemed t o be p l a y i n g out w i t h my body seems to  be over.  As d i s c u s s e d above, I r e l a t e t h i s change i n p a r t t o  the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f feminism  i n t o my l i f e .  Over time, I gained  a c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e p o l i t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t i n which I'd l e a r n e d , on t h e one hand, t o r e j e c t a s p e c t s o f who I was; and on t h e other hand, t o admire what I wasn't and d i d n ' t have u n q u a l i f i e d p e r m i s s i o n t o be.  As noted above, therapy i n my  e a r l y twenties a l s o helped r e i n f o r c e t h i s r e v a l u a t i o n o f v a l u e s toward embracing a s p e c t s o f my f e m i n i n i t y .  Moreover, i n therapy  I have a l s o developed many more r e s o u r c e s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h i n n e r c o n f l i c t so t h a t I no longer need t o p l a y i t out i n my body. However, I t h i n k t h e most powerful experience t h a t has helped me come t o deeply a p p r e c i a t e and v a l u e being female and having a female body i s t h a t o f c r e a t i n g and g i v i n g b i r t h t o my c h i l d . For i n doing t h i s I have come t o t r u s t t h a t my body i s j u s t t h e way i t needs t o be. Before l e a v i n g t h i s s e c t i o n , I t h i n k i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t t h e b i p o l a r mode o f r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s e t up by t h e double b i n d was a l s o p l a y e d o u t on another plane o f my l i f e and over most o f t h e course o f my h e a l i n g .  Although c o n f l i c t on t h i s  plane was n o t l i t e r a l l y p l a y e d out i n my body, i t was s t i l l p r e d i c a t e d on a k i n d o f mind-body s p l i t , conscious.  and was a l s o n o t wholly  I t concerns my r e l a t i o n s h i p t o p h i l o s o p h y , which was  the f o c a l p o i n t f o r my s t u d i e s over many y e a r s , and my f i r s t career. I f i r s t encountered  p h i l o s o p h y as an undergraduate,  studying  146 mostly w i t h i n the C o n t i n e n t a l t r a d i t i o n  (Phenomenology,  E x i s t e n t i a l i s m , the Philosophy o f A r t , and so on). an undergraduate, compelled  But a l s o as  and w i t h i n a d i f f e r e n t department, I was a l s o  t o study w i t h i n the Anglo-American t r a d i t i o n ( L o g i c ,  A n a l y t i c Philosophy o f Mind, A n a l y t i c Philosophy o f Language, and so on).  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , these t r a d i t i o n s a r e o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d  on t h e dimension  o f gender, w i t h C o n t i n e n t a l p h i l o s o p h y  'feminine,' and A n a l y t i c p h i l o s o p h y l a b e l l e d Furthermore,  labelled  'masculine.'  those w i t h i n the C o n t i n e n t a l t r a d i t i o n a r e l i k e l y t o  c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e i r brand o f p h i l o s o p h y as r i c h , concerned  with  meaning, and grounded i n human experience; while those o u t s i d e o f i t w i l l aver t h a t i t i s i m p r e c i s e , messy, r e c o n d i t e , and w i l l f u l l y abstruse.  On the o t h e r hand, those w i t h i n t h e A n a l y t i c  t r a d i t i o n w i l l laud the p r e c i s i o n , r a t i o n a l i t y and commitment t o c l a r i t y o f Anglo-American p h i l o s o p h y , w h i l e o u t s i d e r s w i l l c h a r a c t e r i z e i t as d r y , a b s t r a c t , a p o l i t i c a l , and i r r e l e v a n t t o humanity.  25  W i t h i n the predominantly  a n a l y t i c department I f e l t  much caught between these two t r a d i t i o n s .  very  E v e n t u a l l y , though, my  p a s s i o n f o r C o n t i n e n t a l p h i l o s o p h y was s e v e r e l y undermined s i n c e a n a l y t i c a l t h i n k i n g was presented as powerful and f a r s u p e r i o r t o t h a t i n the phenomenological  tradition.  Indeed, f o r about a year  I t r i e d t o i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e p h i l o s o p h e r s i n the former —  tradition  w r i t i n g and t a l k i n g and t e a c h i n g as they d i d as much as  possible —  w h i l e d i s t a n c i n g myself from those i n the l a t t e r .  In  the p r e s e n t context I would r e f e r t o t h i s as a b i p o l a r phase o f  147 r e j e c t i n g "feminine" philosophy  (sensuous, body-and-experience-oriented)  and t r y i n g hard t o f i t i n t o the world of "masculine"  (pure, c l e a r and head-oriented) p h i l o s o p h y .  Fortunately,  this  phase d i d not l a s t too long s i n c e I d i s c o v e r e d the v i a b i l i t y of a superwoman t r a c k w i t h i n p h i l o s o p h y . happened i n (6a).  For now  I w i l l e x p l a i n how  I would simply  meant t h a t I t r i e d t o do i t a l l ,  l i k e t o note t h a t t h i s  t a k i n g courses  t r a d i t i o n s and t e a c h i n g f e m i n i s t p h i l o s o p h y .  i n both  I even planned t o  w r i t e a t h e s i s which c o u l d b r i d g e Anglo-American and sensibilities. c o u l d h o l d my  this  Continental  However, a f t e r having proven t o myself t h a t I own  among the men-folk and,  f o r t h a t matter, the  women-folk, I r e a l i z e d t h a t I no longer needed t o remain on track.  Indeed, I t h i n k I had completed the p s y c h o l o g i c a l work  t h a t I needed t o do i n the context of doing philosophy, t h i s reason f i t s who  I am and what I want t o  for  do. In my  earlier discussion  of t h i s aspect of r e j e c t i n g f e m i n i n i t y , I d e s c r i b e d my r e g a r d i n g the developmental demand t h a t I c u l t i v a t e  anxiety  specifically  adolescent modes of f e m i n i n i t y i n r e l a t i n g t o boys and  other  I b e l i e v e t h a t I r e s i s t e d t h i s demand so f i e r c e l y t h a t I  even prevented intended. i n my  and  i t became p o s s i b l e t o pursue a c a r e e r t h a t b e t t e r  ( i i i ) R e j e c t i n g female adolescence:  girls.  this  my  own  body from d e v e l o p i n g  as nature  had  For I would have needed t o e f f a c e any t r a c e o f change  body which c o u l d have a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n of boys.  beyond t h i s , I avoided having r e l a t i o n s h i p s and remained on p e r i p h e r y of my  adolescent  social milieu.  But the  148 R e f l e c t i n g upon my h i s t o r y o f h e a l i n g ,  I b e l i e v e i t i s most  a c c u r a t e t o say t h a t I more o r l e s s skipped t h i s stage o f development.  In f a c t , once I was able t o g i v e up the e a r l y  phases o f acute anorexia and r e s t r i c t e d e a t i n g , I l e a p t i n t o more a d u l t - s t y l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men on t h e model o f s e r i o u s , committed, m a r r i a g e - l i k e  relationships.  t a k i n g on the t r a d i t i o n a l , h e t e r o s e x u a l ,  Indeed, I had no t r o u b l e female a d u l t r o l e s t h a t  I had always a n t i c i p a t e d f o r myself: becoming t h e p a r t n e r o f a d u l t males i n sexual  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , e v e n t u a l l y marrying and  becoming a mother, m a i n t a i n i n g  a household, and so on.  But I  never d i d go through adolescence i n the sense o f more c a s u a l experimenting with r e l a t i o n s h i p s , s o r t i n g out thoughts and f e e l i n g s w i t h female f r i e n d s , r e b e l l i n g a g a i n s t manifesting  " g i g g l y v a p i d i t y , " and so on.  6a. V a l u i n g  renunciatory  authority,  superwomanhood: As i n t h e f i r s t  phase,  material r e l a t e d t o the b i p o l a r r e j e c t i o n of f e m i n i n i t y completely o v e r l a p s  t h i s category, and so I w i l l not d u p l i c a t e i t  here. 7a. V a l u i n g m u l t i - r o l e superwomanhood: As i n d i c a t e d i n my  earlier  d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s c a t e g o r y , I t h i n k o f m u l t i - r o l e superwomanhood as a response t o c o n f l i c t r e g a r d i n g gender.  d o u b l e - b i n d i n g messages about  Moreover, I construe i t as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e b i p o l a r  mode o f a l i g n i n g o n e s e l f with what i s c u l t u r a l l y v a l u e d and distancing oneself  from what i s devalued.  Rather, i n t h e case o f  superwomanhood, women attempt t o be and do what i s r e q u i r e d and v a l u e d o f us ( i . e . , adopting t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s ) w h i l e a l s o  taking  149 on what i s v a l u e d by the broader s o c i e t y ( i . e . , s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y male r o l e s ) .  non-traditional,  And we do t h i s , I h y p o t h e s i z e , o n l y  i f we have a p o s i t i v e r o l e model t o f o l l o w . As I d e s c r i b e d above, I b e l i e v e t h a t I attempted  to resolve  c o n f l i c t and a n x i e t y r e l a t e d t o the double b i n d by r e j e c t i n g feminine body and s t r i v i n g a f t e r a t r i m , controlled,  (and i n these senses)  my  "intelligent,"  "masculine" body.  But i n the  case of female r o l e s , I had a ready a l t e r n a t i v e s i n c e my  mother  had b l a z e d a superwoman t r a i l which I c o u l d a l s o adopt.  And  so,  a f t e r adolescence, I f o l l o w e d her.  Of course, as I d i s c o v e r e d ,  superwomanhood i s no p i e c e of cake.  And over the years I have  had t o s t r u g g l e with a l l the messages I have i n t e r n a l i z e d t o the e f f e c t t h a t "women's work" i s not worth much.  On the o t h e r hand,  though, becoming a f e m i n i s t has made i t p o s s i b l e f o r me  to carve  out a scaled-down v e r s i o n of superwomanhood t h a t does not r a n k l e as much.  F i r s t , as noted above i n the s e c t i o n on v a l u i n g  feminine t r a i t s and r o l e s , I take no r o l e and no v a l u e as simply i n e v i t a b l e and g i v e n .  In t h i s c o n t e x t I've been a b l e t o r e v a l u e  and reshape these r o l e s on my own  terms, d i s c o v e r i n g t h a t  (even  t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the ups and downs of p a r e n t i n g ) I l o v e t a k i n g c a r e of my  c h i l d , I l o v e being a w i f e i n the mode of  p a r t n e r (as opposed t o s e r v a n t ) , t h a t I o f t e n enjoy t h i n g s l i k e cooking and gardening, and t h a t I can d i v i d e up o t h e r chores w i t h my husband.  domestic  T h i s has e l i m i n a t e d the sense of being  trapped, and the c o n f l i c t about f e e l i n g t h a t I have no c h o i c e but t o engage i n t a s k s t h a t "don't count f o r a n y t h i n g , " or t o  150 supplement t h i s w i t h n o n t r a d i t i o n a l labour t h a t does  "count."  Another aspect of m u l t i - r o l e a d u l t superwomanhood i s r e l a t e d t o the theme of my  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o philosophy i n t r o d u c e d i n 5a.  As I noted t h e r e , the b i p o l a r o p t i o n of i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h p h i l o s o p h y and d i s t a n c i n g myself relatively short-lived.  analytic  from C o n t i n e n t a l p h i l o s o p h y  was  A f t e r t h i s phase I t r i e d t o take on the  analogue of superwoman i n the f i e l d of p h i l o s o p h y .  J u s t as i n  the case of t a k i n g t h i s r o u t e r e g a r d i n g female r o l e s , t h i s became p o s s i b l e because I was  a b l e t o i d e n t i f y w i t h a female r o l e model.  As I mentioned i n the Case H i s t o r y , my M.A. and supported me  as a female student.  supervisor respected  Moreover, she was  the  o r i g i n a l superwoman of p h i l o s o p h y , comfortably c r o s s i n g the i n t e l l e c t u a l boundary between the two main t r a d i t i o n s , demonstrating  the v i a b i l i t y of b r i d g e work.  A f t e r my  and brief  " b i p o l a r " phase, I attempted t o emulate T e r r y , and I c o n t i n u e d t o do so over the l e n g t h of my t h i s way, another  s t u d i e s and my  teaching career.  In  I t h i n k I s t r i v e d a f t e r the superwoman o p t i o n on plane.  A f i n a l dimension  of t h i s category r e l a t e s t o the s o r t of  a d o l e s c e n t proto-superwomanhood t h a t I would have appeared t o have manifested a t the age of f i f t e e n .  I say "appeared" s i n c e ,  as d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , I b e l i e v e t h a t b e i n g engaged i n a number of a c t i v i t i e s was  a c t u a l l y a f u n c t i o n of my  p e r f e c t i o n i s m and  the  need t o d i s t r a c t o t h e r s from the f a c t t h a t i f anything I wasn't managing t o take on any r o l e s a t a l l — developmentally-appropriate  r o l e s f o r my  a t l e a s t not age.  any  In terms of the  151 h i s t o r y of my  healing, at a c e r t a i n point —  b a s i c a l l y a t the  end  of h i g h school —  I d i d n ' t need t o put up a smokescreen because  t h e r e was  nothing  to hide.  anymore.  As f o r my  I wasn't supposed t o be an  perfectionism,  I had  adolescent  l e a r n e d i n the  first  phase of therapy t h a t I d i d n ' t have t o do t h i n g s t h a t I d i d n ' t want t o do. time.  But t h i s needed t o soak i n over a long p e r i o d  In subsequent y e a r s the major change t h a t o c c u r r e d  of was  t h a t I no longer allowed myself t o be dominated by what might a l t e r n a t i v e l y be c a l l e d my h y p e r c r i t i c a l superego.  negative  animus, top dog,  T h i s allowed me  or  t o make c h o i c e s out  d e s i r e r a t h e r than some e x t e r n a l sense of what I should what a " p e r f e c t " person would  do  of  or  do.  8a. Combinations of gender p r o f i l e s and/or s t a n c e s :  As  discussed  i n the f i r s t phase of t h i s e x e r c i s e , antinomies between, f o r example, s e l f - d e s c r i b e d f e m i n i n i t y and doubts about the v a l u e t h a t f e m i n i n i t y , and  l o w - l e v e l m a s c u l i n i t y and  m a s c u l i n i t y c e r t a i n l y helped shaped my fifteen.  And  i n c r e a s e d my  valuing  o v e r a l l gender p r o f i l e a t  the t e n s i o n s between these poles most c e r t a i n l y c o n f l i c t and  anxiety.  In l i g h t of the  d i s c u s s i o n , I have no doubt t h a t i n the course of my c o n f l i c t s and dissipated.  of  a n x i e t i e s t h a t had As  dominated me  j u s t noted, t h i s i s due  preceding healing,  the  have i n l a r g e p a r t  i n p a r t t o the f a c t t h a t  developmental demands d i m i n i s h e d  as I moved out of adolescence.  However, becoming a f e m i n i s t and  engaging i n therapy t h a t  r e i n f o r c e d my reducing  feminism have a l s o emerged as c e n t r a l f a c t o r s i n  conflict.  For, as I have noted a t s e v e r a l p o i n t s , I  152 have come t o be a b l e t o q u e s t i o n the v a l u a t i o n a l frameworks which taught me t o disparage what I was what I was  (i.e.,  feminine) and esteem  not wholly encouraged or p e r m i t t e d t o be  masculine).  ( i . e . , more  The r e s u l t a n t freedom from the double b i n d made i t  p o s s i b l e f o r me t o r e j e c t the n o t i o n t h a t t h e r e was  something  t h a t I had t o be, and opened up v a r i o u s o p t i o n s concerning what e l s e my  l i f e c o u l d be  OVERALL SUMMARY AND  like.  ASSESSMENT;  I b e l i e v e i t i s overwhelmingly the case t h a t the e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s are c o r r o b o r a t e d by the m a t e r i a l t h a t has emerged i n the c o n t e x t of both phases of t h i s e x e r c i s e .  F o l l o w i n g the  first  phase, I noted t h a t a t f i f t e e n i t seems l i k e l y t h a t I would have been assessed as extremely I v a l u e d feminine t r a i t s traits,  feminine and  l o w - l e v e l masculine,  and r o l e s , t h a t I v a l u e d  masculine  t h a t I e i t h e r doubted or r e j e c t e d aspects of  my  f e m i n i n i t y , and t h a t I v a l u e d m u l t i - r o l e superwomanhood. r e s p e c t t o combinations  that  With  of p r o f i l e s and stances, I a l s o b e l i e v e  t h a t c o n f l i c t would have been s a l i e n t i n r e l a t i o n t o gaps between who  I was  and who  I thought  I should be.  F o l l o w i n g t h i s second  phase r e g a r d i n g l a t e stages of h e a l i n g , i t seems even more c l e a r t h a t the e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h l i t upon key elements of my  gendered  personality. Once again, I have been a b l e t o a s s o c i a t e t o every element of gender accessed by the s t u d i e s analyzed i n the L i t e r a t u r e Review.  Moreover, I have recorded growth and change i n each  category, and I have l i n k e d these changes with my  healing.  The  153 b a s i c u n d e r l y i n g change s i n c e the acute phase of a n o r e x i a i s t h a t I have balanced p e r s o n a l experiences and i n p u t from o t h e r (mostly therapy and feminism) a g a i n s t p r e v a i l i n g and d o u b l e - b i n d i n g messages about gender.  sources  oppressive  As a r e s u l t I have f e l t  f r e e t o be l e s s s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y feminine and more masculine, develop my  own  s e t of v a l u e s r e g a r d i n g feminine and  to  masculine  t r a i t s and r o l e s , t o c o n s c i o u s l y work out c o n f l i c t r e l a t e d t o the double b i n d as opposed t o s o m a t i z i n g i t i n my body or e l e v a t i n g i t t o the plane of i n t e l l e c t , t o r e s p e c t and embrace my body, t o carve out my  own  way  developmentally-appropriate  female  of b e i n g a superwoman, t o take  up  r o l e s i n the context of adulthood  l e a s t i n s o f a r as they apply t o h e t e r o s e x u a l women who  (at  choose t o  marry and have c h i l d r e n ) , and t o c o l l a p s e the gap between what I am  l i k e and what I t h i n k I should be  like.  E m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h e r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the L i t e r a t u r e Review would thus be warranted  i n t a k i n g the m a t e r i a l t h a t emerged from  t h i s exercise to v a l i d a t e t h e i r findings. v a l i d a t e s my  T h i s of course a l s o  sense t h a t the e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s were t a p p i n g  c e n t r a l f e a t u r e s of my  experience.  into  But as I would l i k e t o argue,  i t does not f o l l o w a u t o m a t i c a l l y t h a t we do w e l l t o c o n s t r u c t a p s y c h o c u l t u r a l model of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between gender and problem e a t i n g on the b a s i s o f the summarized e m p i r i c a l r e s u l t s . Indeed, two main concerns  can be noted.  F i r s t , and  speaking  g e n e r a l l y , I t h i n k t h a t i n doing t h i s , we c o u l d a l l too  easily  o v e r l o o k both the i n t e r n a l complexity of the gender f e a t u r e s , and the r i c h r e l a t i o n s among them.  For we might be tempted t o carve  154 a model out o f t e l e s c o p e d , i s o l a t e d p r o p o s i t i o n s such as " a n o r e x i c s are hyperfeminine," o r " a n o r e x i c s a s p i r e a f t e r masculinity," or "anorexics r e j e c t t h e i r f e m i n i n i t y . " course, as we have seen, i t i s t r u e t h a t I was a s p i r e d a f t e r m a s c u l i n i t y , and so on. t h a t t h e r e are f o u r reasons why own  case i n t h i s way.  Of  hyperfeminine,  However, I want t o argue  i t i s misleading to describe  my  F i r s t , the use o f t e l e s c o p e d p r o p o s i t i o n s  f a i l s t o take account of the more d e t a i l e d d i s t i n c t i o n s w i t h i n g i v e n a s p e c t s o f gender p r o f i l e . of r e j e c t i n g f e m i n i n i t y .  The most obvious case i s t h a t  Given t h a t I was  able to elaborate  t h r e e d i s t i n c t dimensions of t h i s a s p e c t of my p r o f i l e , i t would be almost meaningless simply t o speak o f " r e j e c t i n g i n a g e n e r a l sense. roles.  femininity"  Another example r e l a t e s t o v a l u i n g feminine  For w h i l e I d i d not r e j e c t t r a d i t i o n a l a d u l t r o l e s , I  most f i e r c e l y r e s i s t e d s t e r e o t y p i c a l a d o l e s c e n t r o l e s . basically dimension.  ( u n c o n s c i o u s l y ) d e c i d e d t o remain a c h i l d on  Indeed, I this  Hence i t seems we do w e l l t o key v a l u a t i o n a l stance  t o the s p e c i f i c developmental p e r i o d s o f c h i l d h o o d , adolescence, or adulthood, r a t h e r than speak o f a g e n e r a l case o f " v a l u i n g female r o l e s . " A second, r e l a t e d way  i n which the i n t e r n a l complexity of  gender f e a t u r e s might be overlooked concerns the meaning o f any g i v e n dimension.  For example, we can r e c a l l t h a t Timko e t a l .  (1987) o f f e r e d evidence i n support of the i d e a t h a t feminine women are concerned w i t h t h e i r p h y s i c a l appearance. own  case, i t would have been a mistake t o i n t e r p r e t  But i n my  155 hyperfemininity i n r e l a t i o n to t h i s feature.  In f a c t , i t i s  arguable t h a t absence of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t r a i t —  particularly in  c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h needing not t o be a t t r a c t i v e t o boys — r i s k f a c t o r f o r a n o r e x i a i n my  case.  To take a second  was  a  example,  i t wasn't the case t h a t I simply embraced m u l t i - r o l e superwomanhood by a n t i c i p a t i n g t a k i n g on a number of d i f f e r e n t r o l e s as an a d u l t .  T h i s embrace must be understood  i n the  c o n t e x t of an attempt t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t r e l a t e d t o the bind.  double  I t i s a l s o important t o r e c a l l t h a t what might have showed  up as a d o l e s c e n t proto-superwomanhood was  a c t u a l l y the r e f l e c t i o n  of a d e t e r m i n a t i o n not t o take on masculine and feminine r o l e s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h i s stage of development. A t h i r d reason why  I would r e s i s t the use of  isolated  p r o p o s i t i o n s i s t h a t i t i s c l e a r from the above e x e r c i s e t h a t none of the more simple elements have worked i n i s o l a t i o n .  of my gender p r o f i l e seems t o  For example, i t wasn't s e l f - d e s c r i b e d  f e m i n i n i t y or l o w - l e v e l m a s c u l i n i t y s i m p l i c i t e r t h a t operated i n my case, but r a t h e r these elements  i n conjunction with r e j e c t i n g  f e m i n i n i t y , and a s p i r i n g toward m a s c u l i n i t y ( r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .  This  o b s e r v a t i o n supports the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t more severe modes of problem  e a t i n g may  be r e l a t e d t o more complex gender p r o f i l e s .  I t a l s o of course supports the approach whose work was  of those r e s e a r c h e r s  reviewed under heading I I I : Gender P r o f i l e , Gender  Stance, and C o n f l i c t . "  For these s t u d i e s examined  combinations  of g e n d e r - r e l a t e d phenomena and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o i n n e r c o n f l i c t as opposed t o i s o l a t e d f e a t u r e s .  156 However, and here I t u r n t o my combinations  f o u r t h and f i n a l p o i n t , even  of extant c a t e g o r i e s may  not adequately capture the  complexity and c o n f l i c t r e l a t e d t o gender i n my  case.  For  example, i t would be m i s l e a d i n g t o say t h a t l o w - l e v e l m a s c u l i n i t y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a s p i r i n g toward m a s c u l i n i t y was with problem e a t i n g .  To be s u r e , t h i s was  correlated  a prominent f e a t u r e of  my o v e r a l l p r o f i l e , but I a l s o a s s o c i a t e d i t w i t h a profound sense of l a c k of p e r m i s s i o n t o c u l t i v a t e masculine personality.  The f e l t  f e a t u r e s i n my  l a c k of p e r m i s s i o n came from my  parents,  and a l s o from the surrounding c u l t u r e ' s d o u b l e - b i n d i n g messages t o the e f f e c t t h a t I must esteem but not wholly m a n i f e s t masculinity.  In l i g h t of my  s t r u g g l e w i t h p e r f e c t i o n i s m , I would  have experienced t h i s b i n d as p a r t i c u l a r l y t i g h t . person would be or become what was  A perfect  v a l u e d , and so I would have  f e l t enormous p r e s s u r e t o be anything and e v e r y t h i n g t h a t valued —  i n c l u d i n g being more masculine.  p e r m i s s i o n t o be what was  valued i n t h i s  But again, I had  balance my  sense t h a t t h i s was  my  P a r t of me was  able  f a t e with a promise t o  myself t h a t I would do other t h i n g s w i t h my superwoman mode.  is its  t h a t t o be v a l u e d a t a l l , we must be what  i s i n the broad scheme of t h i n g s devalued. to  no  sense.  The o t h e r s i d e of the double b i n d f o r females p a r a d o x i c a l requirement  was  l i f e in a typical  But g i v e n the m a t e r i a l t h a t emerged c o n c e r n i n g  the r e j e c t i o n of f e m i n i n i t y a s s o c i a t e d with adolescence, i t seems I was me  not prepared t o be or become what was  v a l u e d or r e q u i r e d of  as a female a t t h a t stage of my development.  Nor was  I able  157 t o pursue superwomanhood i n the context of a d d r e s s i n g the double b i n d on the dimension of t r a i t s .  In sum,  then,  phenomenal i n t e r n a l pressure t o be what was masculine),  and what was  t o c u l t i v a t e what was  m a s c u l i n i t y ) , and no i n t e r n a l p e r m i s s i o n  experienced  valued  r e q u i r e d but not valued  had no e x t e r n a l p e r m i s s i o n  devalued  I  (namely,  (feminine); yet valued  (again,  t o c u l t i v a t e what  was  y e t r e q u i r e d ( a t the time, adolescent f e m i n i n i t y ) .  Unable t o move i n any d i r e c t i o n , I had remain p r e c i s e l y where I was,  developmentally  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o observe how f e a t u r e of my  l i t t l e c h o i c e but  a simple  to  speaking. reference to  one  gender p r o f i l e s p i r a l e d i n t o other f e a t u r e s both  w i t h i n and o u t s i d e the frame o u t l i n e d i n the L i t e r a t u r e Review. A d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e s t h a t emerged were the l a c k of p e r m i s s i o n c u l t i v a t e m a s c u l i n i t y , my these two  p e r f e c t i o n i s m , and the way  to  i n which  elements g r e a t l y deepened the c o n f l i c t s e t w i t h i n me  r e l a t i o n t o double-binding femininity.  messages about m a s c u l i n i t y  In l i g h t of these o b s e r v a t i o n s , we may  expand our frame of r e f e r e n c e beyond t h a t s e t up by  in  and  need both t o the  summarized f i n d i n g s , and t o ensure t h a t the model t h a t  we  e v e n t u a l l y c o n s t r u c t captures the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among a l l aspects of gender t h a t we have i d e n t i f i e d . The  second main concern t h a t I want t o r a i s e about  c o n s t r u c t i n g a model on the b a s i s of the summarized e m p i r i c a l r e s u l t s should be f a m i l i a r .  For I wish t o q u e s t i o n from a more  phenomenological p e r s p e c t i v e whether a model t h a t c o u l d a l l t h i s would be complete.  T h i s may  seem odd g i v e n the  capture fact  158 t h a t the e m p i r i c a l r e s u l t s were s t r o n g l y c o r r o b o r a t e d and  also  e n r i c h e d by the m a t e r i a l t h a t emerged i n the gender p r o f i l e exercise.  On the o t h e r hand, though, I am not c e r t a i n t h a t even  a complex interweaving of the elements d i s c u s s e d above would be s u f f i c i e n t t o generate the i n t e n s e , r e l e n t l e s s a n x i e t y , anguish, and f r a g i l i t y t h a t I experienced when I was when I p i c t u r e someone who  anorexic.  i s hyperfeminine,  That i s ,  hypomasculine,  v a l u e s feminine t r a i t s and r o l e s , a s p i r e s toward superwomanhood, and so on, I o n l y a p i c t u r e p a r t of who  I was  at f i f t e e n .  To  be  sure, i t h e l p s a g r e a t d e a l t o have added the elements of p e r f e c t i o n i s m and the sensed l a c k of p e r m i s s i o n t o c u l t i v a t e masculinity.  While these were o u t s i d e the frame of the e m p i r i c a l  r e s e a r c h , they are v i t a l components of the o v e r a l l  picture  because they c l e a r l y "turned up the heat" t h a t I experienced i n r e l a t i o n t o the double b i n d . Even w i t h the a d d i t i o n of these elements,  though, the  s c e n a r i o developed here s t i l l doesn't conjure enough angst t o resonate w i t h my the a n o r e x i a .  i n n e r sense of what I was  l i k e a t the time of  But as I s t a t e d i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n , I t h i n k i t i s  more l i k e l y t h a t we need t o access deeper f e a t u r e s of the psychology  involved.  Of course, i t might be t h a t what's m i s s i n g  l i e s o u t s i d e the p r o v i n c e of a p s y c h o c u l t u r a l model of the gendered nature of a n o r e x i a . the case. of my  In f a c t , I don't b e l i e v e t h i s i s  But t o show t h i s , I w i l l need t o e x p l o r e two f e a t u r e s  experience of c a r r y i n g out the gender p r o f i l e e x e r c i s e  itself.  159 The  first  raeta-level  o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t I wish t o make r e l a t e s  t o the s e c t i o n on r e j e c t i n g f e m i n i n i t y .  Quite simply,  with a sense t h a t t h e r e i s more t o t a l k about. s p e c i f i c a l l y , I'm  l e f t with a p u z z l e as t o why  stand up t o the double b i n d , and why necessary  f o r me  I am  left  But more I wasn't a b l e t o  t h i s somehow made i t  t o s h i f t the r e s u l t a n t c o n f l i c t over t o my  body.  For i t seems t h a t most women i n Western s o c i e t i e s would l i k e l y exposed t o some v e r s i o n of the double b i n d . a f f e c t me  So, why  so d r a s t i c a l l y t h a t I need t o s t a r v e myself  response?  I am e q u a l l y p u z z l e d as t o why  femininity.  In the e x e r c i s e , I was  did i t in  I r e j e c t e d adolescent  a b l e t o a s s o c i a t e t o f e a r and  a n x i e t y about becoming i n v o l v e d with boys as b o y f r i e n d s and just friends.  But again, I'm  not  wondering about the source of t h i s  a n x i e t y , e s p e c i a l l y g i v e n t h a t t h i s was t o do, and g i v e n t h a t I was  be  something I was  q u i t e anxious  about my  supposed  f a i l u r e to  c a r r y i t out. Beginning with the p u z z l e about f a i l i n g t o stand up t o the double b i n d on the dimension o f t r a i t s ,  I t h i n k i t ' s important  r e c a l l t h a t I was  i n a sense transcend  a b l e t o c h a l l e n g e and  double b i n d messages r e g a r d i n g t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s . a n t i c i p a t i n g superwomanhood I was  For i n  embracing devalued  female r o l e s  and t r a n s c e n d i n g s a n c t i o n s a g a i n s t t a k i n g on male r o l e s . have noted,  i s why  As I  the d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t i n the case of r o l e s I had  model o f a superwoman i n my mother. I pursued t h i s path and why,  to  a  I have c o n j e c t u r e d t h a t t h i s i t seems, I d i d n ' t choose the  a l t e r n a t i v e b i p o l a r route of r e j e c t i n g devalued  female r o l e s  160 while c u l t i v a t i n g male ones.  Of course, the i n f e r e n c e we  are  bound t o draw i n t h i s context i s t h a t I must have l a c k e d both a model f o r the embrace of feminine t r a i t s , and f o r t r a n s c e n d i n g l i m i t s on the c u l t i v a t i o n of m a s c u l i n i t y . In f a c t , t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n accords w i t h my particular,  In  i t accords with my p e r c e p t i o n t h a t my mother d i d not  r e s t easy w i t h her own —  experience.  f e m i n i n i t y , and —  as I have a l r e a d y noted  t h a t she d i s p l a y e d o v e r t h o s t i l i t y toward the c u l t i v a t i o n  m a s c u l i n i t y i n women.  In f a c t , I t h i n k t h a t the combination  t h e s e f e a t u r e s bred tremendous resentment i n my mother which o n l y a l l e v i a t e d by her p u r s u i t of superwomanhood i n middle Given h i s r e l a t i v e absence, t h e r e was r e c e i v e encouragement from my  more c l e a r l y why  I was  of was  age.  a l s o l i t t l e chance t o  f a t h e r f o r embracing my  or f o r c u l t i v a t i n g m a s c u l i n i t y .  of  femininity  I f t h i s h o l d s , then I can  see  unable t o r e s i s t double b i n d doubts about  the worth of f e m i n i n i t y and the s u p e r v a l i i a t i o n of o n l y conditionally-accessible masculinity.  In s h o r t , I l a c k e d both a  model and a sense of p e r m i s s i o n t o do so. However, a p u z z l e remains as t o why femininity.  I rejected adolescent  In l i g h t of the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n , i t makes sense  t o e n t e r t a i n the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t these two  f a c t o r s of l a c k i n g a  model and l a c k i n g p e r m i s s i o n operated here as w e l l . v e i n , my  f i r s t thought  i s t h a t t h i s was  s i n c e I was  surrounded  pressure —  and c e r t a i n l y  peers t o develop.  In t h i s  c l e a r l y not the case  by o t h e r a d o l e s c e n t s and s i n c e I f e l t not a l a c k of p e r m i s s i o n —  Nonetheless,  from  my  upon r e f l e c t i o n , I can i n f a c t  161 speak t o both p o s s i b i l i t i e s —  e s p e c i a l l y when I t h i n k about  adolescence not as an end i n i t s e l f , but as a way o f e n t e r i n g i n t o womanhood. My f i r s t a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e concept o f e n t e r i n g womanhood i s t h a t w h i l e I had a r o l e model i n my mother f o r doing a l l k i n d s of t h i n g s t h a t a d u l t and  so on,  (super)women do: cook, c l e a n , shop, work,  I don't t h i n k t h a t she was a b l e t o o f f e r me a c l u e  about how t o be a young woman.  My sense i s t h a t t h i s had a l o t  t o do w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t she a s s o c i a t e d e n t r y i n t o womanhood p r i m a r i l y with t h e development o f s e x u a l i t y and, l i k e any good (even ex-) C a t h o l i c , she was not i n t h e l e a s t c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h this.  Indeed, she even had t r o u b l e t a l k i n g about i t . F o r  example, when I was a very young c h i l d I asked my mother what 'sex' meant. had  Her f a c e turned  r e d and she h a l t i n g l y s a i d t h a t i t  something t o do w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n c e between boys and g i r l s .  I remember t r y i n g t o imagine why t h a t would make someone so uncomfortable.  That was more o r l e s s t h e extent  o f our  d i s c u s s i o n o f s e x u a l i t y d u r i n g my growing-up y e a r s .  The o n l y  other memory o f have i s t h a t she expressed concern t h a t I should use b i r t h c o n t r o l when I s t a r t e d l i v i n g with my f i r s t  boyfriend.  I t h i n k i t i s a l s o not so f a r from t h e t r u t h t o say t h a t i n keeping with t h e p r e v a i l i n g c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l context, mother s e x u a l i z e d many aspects o f female development.  my  F o r one  t h i n g , I remember f e e l i n g t h a t t h e r e was something almost d i r t y about t h e word 'woman' and f o r years I was embarrassed t o speak it.  Another example i s t h a t I was t h e l a s t one o f my f r i e n d s t o  162 get a b r a s s i e r e because my mother never brought i t up and I had t o go t o her w i t h g r e a t embarrassment t o ask f o r one. f e e l i n g I have now wearing a b r a .  i s t h a t t h e r e was  The  something s e x u a l about  S i m i l a r l y w i t h t h i n g s l i k e shaving l e g s , wearing  nylons, wearing makeup — and she never showed me.  we never t a l k e d about these t h i n g s , I t a l l seemed t o be r e l a t e d t o  something mysterious and a n x i e t y - p r o v o k i n g f o r her. f l i p - c h a r t number about menstruation w i t h me,  She d i d the  exuding a k i n d o f  c o n t r i v e d e a s i n e s s and comfort w i t h the whole t o p i c .  I knew she  was t r y i n g t o be brave, but o f course I ended up f e e l i n g more d i s t r e s s e d because o f the cover-up ("This must be so heavy Mom  that  has t o pretend i t ' s a l l n a t u r a l and O.K."). P i e c i n g t h i n g s t o g e t h e r now,  I b e l i e v e t h a t I would have  c o n s c i o u s l y and u n c o n s c i o u s l y absorbed a l l of t h i s ,  and  undoubtedly much, much more r e g a r d i n g my mother's a n x i e t y about s e x u a l i t y , s e p a r a t i o n , and my development.  I also believe that I  would have experienced a l l of t h i s not j u s t as a l a c k o f support but as an o v e r t l a c k o f p e r m i s s i o n t o mature.  For i f s e x u a l i t y  was d i r t y and a n x i e t y - p r o v o k i n g f o r her, and i f most a s p e c t s o f female development  were s e x u a l i z e d , i t would be hard t o see  how  she c o u l d have f r e e l y g i v e n p e r m i s s i o n f o r me t o develop. Moreover,  on a deeper l e v e l , I b e l i e v e t h a t what I absorbed  from my mother —  o r a t l e a s t what I i n f e r r e d from the manner i n  which both she and my development  —  f i r s t place.  2 6  f a t h e r d i s t a n c e d themselves from  was t h a t i t wasn't O.K.  my  t o be a young woman i n the  As a r e s u l t , becoming an a d o l e s c e n t meant moving  163 i n t o a f o r e i g n and p r o f o u n d l y  anxiety-provoking  p l a c e with no  i n v i t a t i o n , no one t o guide me, and no one t o r e a s s u r e me t h a t she  ( o r he) was s t i l l with me.  be u t t e r l y alone.  I a l s o knew t h a t a t b e s t I would  Because even beyond t h i s , and based on f e a r s  t h a t o n l y l a t e r emerged i n therapy, unconsciously  i t appears t h a t I was  c e r t a i n t h a t my e n t r y i n t o womanhood would be met  with r e j e c t i o n , h o s t i l i t y , and s i l e n c e on t h e p a r t o f my mother. Indeed, I was t e r r i f i e d t h a t any attempt t o mature would not j u s t have i n c u r r e d my mother's a n x i e t y , but a l s o her wrath.  And t h i s  e x p e c t a t i o n was u n f o r t u n a t e l y p r o j e c t e d onto a l l women. Given a l l t h i s , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t I would have unconsciously  decided t h a t I must not grow up.  Accordingly, i t  i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t I h i t a w a l l o f i n n e r r e s i s t a n c e when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h peer p r e s s u r e t o j o i n t h e other g i r l s i n c u l t i v a t i n g adolescent  femininity.  As i t turned out, i t seems I  d i d n ' t even f e e l s a f e enough t o a l l o w my female body t o develop. Indeed, I b e l i e v e t h a t my i n t e n s e commitment t o c o n t r o l l e d s e l f s t a r v a t i o n was p r e c i s e l y a measure o f my f e a r and sensed l a c k o f safety.  2 7  These a r e my a s s o c i a t i o n s with how I f e l t a t t h e time r e g a r d i n g t h i s dimension o f my l i f e .  What a l l o f t h i s means t o  me now i s t h a t w h i l e I knew how t o be a g i r l - c h i l d among g i r l s ; and w h i l e I knew how t o be a g i r l among boys as f r i e n d s ; and w h i l e I even had an i d e a how t o be a woman i n t h e r o l e s o f w i f e , mother and housewife, I d i d n o t know how t o be — g r e a t l y f e a r e d being —  a woman among women.  and i n f a c t  I had no sense o f  164 a c t u a l l y o r even p o t e n t i a l l y b e l o n g i n g t o a community o f women. Hooking t h i s up w i t h t h e e a r l i e r theme about s e x u a l i t y ,  without  being welcomed i n t o womanhood I had no sense o f s a f e t y t o develop r e l a t i o n s h i p s with guys.  I r o n i c a l l y , i n my case t h i s d i d not  have t o do w i t h a f e a r o f young men, o r even o f t h e i r of me, but i n f a c t a f e a r o f women.  rejection  F i n a l l y , t h e r e was c e r t a i n l y  no i n k l i n g of a p o s s i b i l i t y o f e x p l o r i n g what e l s e might go along with being a woman beyond t h e r o l e s o f w i f e , mother, and housewife. I f i n d c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h i s aspect o f my experience regarding the r e j e c t i o n of adolescent femininity i n the "History of H e a l i n g " t h a t I o f f e r e d i n t h e beginning o f t h i s c h a p t e r .  One  of t h e main themes o f t h a t h i s t o r y i s t h e way i n which I o n l y g r a d u a l l y entered i n t o womanhood, d e v e l o p i n g a sense o f s a f e t y and even b e l o n g i n g among women over time.  T h i s happened i n a  number o f c o n t e x t s and over a number o f years v i a t h e r a i s i n g o f my f e m i n i s t c o n s c i o u s n e s s , my experience w i t h v a r i o u s communities of women, t h e e x p l i c i t i n v i t a t i o n and welcoming i n t o womanhood o f f e r e d by a g i f t e d t h e r a p i s t , t h e development o f f r i e n d s h i p s , and t h e d i s c o v e r y o f a shared sense o f womanhood with o t h e r women i n pregnancy, g i v i n g b i r t h , b r e a s t f e e d i n g , and c h i l d c a r e .  When I  review t h a t h i s t o r y , I see t h a t t h i s i s what changed and, by i n f e r e n c e , t h a t t h i s i s what was m i s s i n g e a r l i e r i n t h e c o n t e x t of my r e l a t i o n s h i p t o d e v e l o p i n g i n t o womanhood.  And what I wish  t o suggest here i s t h a t what was m i s s i n g was not f e m i n i n i t y — had an overabundance o f t h a t —  but what might be c a l l e d  I  165 "womaninity': a sense o f welcome and belonging and  w i t h i n womanhood  among women. F a c t o r i n g t h i s l a c k o f womaninity i n t o my experience a t t h e  age  o f f i f t e e n g r e a t l y deepens my understanding o f my  fearful,  c o n f l i c t u a l and u l t i m a t e l y r e j e c t i n g stance toward female adolescence and womanhood.  I t h i n k i t a l s o adds a c r u c i a l  dimension o f c o n f l i c t t o t h e other two aspects o f r e j e c t i n g f e m i n i n i t y t h a t I have d i s c u s s e d .  Any doubts about the worth o f  f e m i n i n i t y t h a t I would have absorbed from the double b i n d would not have been met w i t h a s t r o n g sense o f confidence self.  i n my female  In f a c t , t h e r e would have been no sense o f reassurance o r  r e s i s t a n c e from w i t h i n .  I b e l i e v e t h a t the b i p o l a r mode o f  o u t r i g h t r e j e c t i o n o f f e m i n i n i t y was a l s o a symptom o f my l a c k o f womaninity and j u s t t h i s i n a b i l i t y t o r e s i s t negative about women and f e m i n i n i t y .  messages  I t was much s a f e r , more f a m i l i a r ,  and more worthwhile t o a l i g n myself w i t h the s u p e r v a l u a t i o n o f t h i n g s masculine. Turning  t o the second f e a t u r e o f my experience o f c a r r y i n g  out t h e gender p r o f i l e e x e r c i s e , I can r e p o r t t h a t throughout the process o f r e c o r d i n g my answers, I was able t o make two r e l a t e d observations.  F i r s t , I found myself r e s i s t i n g t h e use o f the  pronoun ' I ' i n the context  o f d e s c r i b i n g myself a t f i f t e e n , and  second, I n o t i c e d t h a t I seem t o have regarded myself as e n t i r e l y malleable say,  and p l a s t i c .  Regarding the former, even though I c o u l d  f o r example, t h a t I was o r i e n t e d toward o t h e r s and t h a t I  was very s e n s i t i v e , t h e ' I ' always stood on t h e page t o o s o l i d  166 and  t o o complete t o d e p i c t what I was.  The words a r e a c c u r a t e ,  but t h e r e i s no h i n t o f t h e extreme f r a g i l i t y and w i s p i n e s s o f the s o r t o f person-fragment t h a t I was.  No doubt t h i s showed up  i n my body and I f i n d i t amazing t h a t my unconscious found a way t o express t h i s so l i t e r a l l y . r a d i c a l l y and profoundly u t t e r l y unsubstantial  But t h e words do not capture how  I was l i v i n g o u t s i d e o f myself —  I was.  My dreams r e f l e c t e d t h i s .  how In one  dream t h a t r e c u r r e d many times I would be on an e l e v a t o r t h a t had no w a l l s and raced up toward t h e sky. c o n s t r u c t i o n zone.  There was nothing  c l i n g t o t h e bare concrete  floor,  I t was i n a k i n d o f t o h o l d onto so I would  terrified.  On a r e l a t e d theme I have t a l k e d about how I needed t o g e t a sense o f how others might r e a c t t o what I might say o r do before I d i d anything.  I f I d i d n ' t have anyone t o bounce o f f o f , my  d e f a u l t c h o i c e was t o do what a p e r f e c t person would do. helps t o d e s c r i b e how i n t e n s e l y I was attuned t o o t h e r s much I needed t h e i r i n p u t decisions.  and how  ( r e a l o r a n t i c i p a t e d ) t o h e l p me make  However, I need t o e x p l a i n f u r t h e r t h a t i t wasn't as  though t h e r e was somebody w i t h i n me doing t h e c o n s u l t i n g . more l i k e I was s t r e t c h e d out r e l a t i o n a l l y across changing chameleon-like as circumstances r e q u i r e d .  I t was  people, For t h i s  reason, i t was u t t e r l y exhausting t o be around people. context  This  In t h i s  I can r e c a l l having had many, many dreams i n which I was  i n v o l v e d i n some s o r t o f t h e a t r e p r o d u c t i o n .  I would be o f f s t a g e  a n t i c i p a t i n g an entrance and r e a l i z e i n a p a n i c t h a t I had no i d e a where I was supposed t o stand o r what I was supposed t o say.  167 Then I would race around t r y i n g t o get h o l d of a s c r i p t . t h e r e were never any s c r i p t s t o be found —  But  no one e l s e but  me  needed them any more. A l l of t h i s of course r e l a t e s t o the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t I regarded myself shape myself  as m a l l e a b l e and p l a s t i c , a b l e t o shape and r e -  as needed.  In the e x e r c i s e , I found myself w r i t i n g  t h i n g s l i k e "I l a c k e d the substance what I wanted or needed on my To paraphrase Gertrude there there." myself. cues.  doing t o my  body.  astonished.  S t e i n d e s c r i b i n g Oakland, "there was  I now  no  no r e f e r e n c e p o i n t i n s i d e  i d e n t i t y was  I am s t r u c k by how  s a y i n g something  a matter of r e a d i n g e x t e r n a l  t h i s showed up i n what I  was  see t h a t I c o u l d have u n c o n s c i o u s l y been  like:  Look, can you see my on almost n o t h i n g . nature.  terms," and I was  That i s , t h e r e was  S u r v i v a l and Again,  own  even t o be a b l e t o d i s c e r n  achievement? I shape my  A g a i n s t a l l odds, I l i v e  body as I w i l l  Can you see what a c r a f t s p e r s o n I am?  the i m p o s s i b l e .  By the way,  what I am doing t o my  Self?  against I can  craft  can you a l s o see t h a t t h i s i s I shape and reshape i t as  needed, o n l y showing t h a t t h e r e i s nothing t h a t e x i s t s independent of the shaping. Nothing  protests.  understand  Nothing  solid resists i t .  You w i l l have t o read my  what I am  body t o  doing.  My c o n s t r u a l of the m a t e r i a l t h a t I have e l a b o r a t e d here i s t h a t a t the age of f i f t e e n I had o n l y a minimally developed By  'self  self.  I mean t o r e f e r more or l e s s c o l l o q u i a l l y t o the seat  168 of i d e n t i t y , t h a t which i s experienced as one's unique p e r s o n a l i t y , and r e f e r e n t of the pronoun ' I . ' S i m i l a r t o the case of l a c k of womaninity, r e c o g n i t i o n of the concept of a l a c k of developed  s e l f makes a world of d i f f e r e n c e i n terms of being  a b l e t o account f o r the extremely h i g h l e v e l of a n x i e t y and of c o n f l i c t t h a t I experienced and t h a t I attempted w i t h the a n o r e x i a .  As I w i l l b r i e f l y attempt  though, l a c k of a developed i n t e n s i f y my  to resolve  to describe,  s e l f d i d not j u s t deepen and  a n x i e t y i n a p a r t i c u l a r area of my  pervasively.  sense  Indeed, t h i s l a c k was  e x p e r i e n c e , but  f o u n d a t i o n a l i n shaping  the  e n t i r e phenomenology of my gendered p e r s o n a l i t y . B a s i c a l l y , on my  understanding, the way  s e l f f i g u r e d i s t h a t t h e r e was  t h a t the l a c k of  nothing w i t h i n , n o t h i n g t o which I  c o u l d r e f e r i n order t o c o n t a i n and mediate any c o n f l i c t I experiencing.  There was  just c o n f l i c t  I p e r c e i v e d myself t o be; who s o c i e t a l i n p u t ; who  c o n f l i c t regarding I should be based  on  I thought my  t o be; who  f a t h e r needed, r e q u i r e d ,  anyone i n the immediate surround a t  any g i v e n time p e r c e i v e d , needed, r e q u i r e d , and/or forbade me be, and so on. reviewed  who  I thought my mother needed, r e q u i r e d , and/or  forbade me t o be; who and/or forbade me  I thought  was  More s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o gender, we  to  have  a t l e n g t h the many c o n f l i c t s with which I s t r u g g l e d .  These c o n f l i c t s were r e l a t e d t o d o u b l e - b i n d i n g messages about gender, an a n x i e t y - p r o v o k i n g and p a i n f u l sense of a gap between who  I was  and who  dimensions,  I thought  and a sensed  I should be on a number of  l a c k of p e r m i s s i o n t o mature w i t h  169 r e s p e c t t o both d e v e l o p i n g m a s c u l i n i t y and e n t e r i n g womanhood. The p o i n t here i s t h a t t h e r e was a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n f l i c t w i t h i n me, and nothing t o mediate i t but a s e l f t h a t was spread over a l l t h e people whose o p i n i o n s I c a r e d about — everyone.  thinly  that i s ,  I f t h e c o n f l i c t s were l i k e s c a t t e r e d e l e c t r i c  impulses, i t was as though nothing c o u l d channel and ground them. Or, t o take a more hackneyed metaphor, i t was l i k e l o a d i n g f a r too much weight onto a s t r u c t u r e w i t h a shaky, u n s u b s t a n t i a l , undeveloped  foundation.  My s t r o n g e s t a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h i s terms o f i t s o r i g i n  l a c k o f grounding i n  l i e s i n my r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h my f a t h e r and,  more s p e c i f i c a l l y , h i s abandonment o f me d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d .  As I  noted i n t h e Case H i s t o r y , I had enjoyed a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p with my f a t h e r as a young c h i l d .  During t h i s  developmental  p e r i o d I had begun t o shape a s e l f i n t h e c o n t e x t o f what I must have experienced as h i s a b i l i t y t o r e f l e c t who I was and t o v a l u e me.  When he b a s i c a l l y  sense o f s e l f —  stopped i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h me I t h i n k my  and perhaps even my sense o f p e r m i s s i o n t o  develop my s e l f — When I imagine  was thrown i n t o  chaos.  28  a person w i t h t h e s e t o f burdens t h a t I have  d e s c r i b e d , I experience a profound resonance was,  w i t h t h e person I  and t h e misery I endured a t t h e age o f f i f t e e n , and beyond.  For having added l a c k o f a developed  s e l f and l a c k o f womaninity,  I am b e t t e r a b l e t o account f o r t h e tremendous a n x i e t y and c o n f l i c t t h a t I experienced. f o u n d a t i o n a l elements,  Indeed, by f a c t o r i n g these  t h e p i c t u r e o f my gendered p e r s o n a l i t y  170 t h a t has emerged has from my p e r s p e c t i v e f i n a l l y reached adequate l e v e l of phenomenological  an  complexity.  Having e x p l o r e d t h e r e areas of my  experience both w i t h i n and  o u t s i d e of the frame of f i n d i n g s t h a t emerged from the L i t e r a t u r e Review, and having u l t i m a t e l y a r r i v e d a t a r i c h e r and more s a t i s f a c t o r y p i c t u r e of the gendered  nature of a n o r e x i a i n my  case, i t seems t h a t the main t a s k of t h i s chapter has been achieved.  That i s , I have e x p l o r e d my hunch t h a t w h i l e the  e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s would be borne out by the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l e x e r c i s e , we would need t o go beyond them t o c o n j u r e adequate p s y c h o l o g i c a l complexity.  As f o r the s u b s i d i a r y t a s k r e l a t e d t o  my methodological h y p o t h e s i s , i t seems t h a t i n the same v e i n  we  have gathered i n f o r m a l evidence t o the e f f e c t t h a t i t i s f r u i t f u l t o draw from both q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e approaches  i n the  c o n t e x t of a t l e a s t some r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s . One  f i n a l p o i n t i s t h a t i t would be worthwhile  to discuss  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n c l u d i n g some o v e r l a p , between the  concepts  of l a c k of womaninity and l a c k of a developed s e l f , and v a r i o u s c e n t r a l concepts i n the t h e o r i e s of Bruch, Chernin, Orbach, and Steiner-Adair.  T h i s endeavour c o u l d h e l p r e f i n e the r e a d e r ' s  grasp of the concepts t h a t I have i n t r o d u c e d , and would a l l o w me t o muster independent  support f o r t h e i r v a l i d i t y .  However, a  c a r e f u l and thorough mapping of these r e l a t i o n s h i p s would l e a d us away from the more urgent t a s k t h a t awaits, and so I choose t o s l a t e i t f o r another o c c a s i o n .  Thus I t u r n , w i t h a l a c r i t y , t o  the t a s k of model c o n s t r u c t i o n i n Chapter  Five.  171 MODEL CONSTRUCTION, ASSESSMENT, AND CONCLUDING REMARKS  INTRODUCTION: The  task o f the present  chapter i s t o c o n s t r u c t a model o f  the gendered nature o f anorexia gathered and analyzed  based on m a t e r i a l t h a t has been  over t h e p r e v i o u s  argued i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n ,  four chapters.  As I  the model needs t o be p s y c h o c u l t u r a l  i n nature, meaning t h a t i t must show how c u l t u r a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f o r c e s work t o g e t h e r  t o produce a g i v e n phenomenon.  I hope t o show i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case how s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l messages r e l a t e d both t o the gender double b i n d and t o female body management operate i n c o n j u n c t i o n  w i t h gendered f e a t u r e s o f  p e r s o n a l i t y and deeper p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the g e n e r a t i o n put,  o f problem e a t i n g .  Somewhat more s p e c i f i c a l l y  the core o f t h e model i s intended  t o d e p i c t how  s o c i a l / c u l t u r a l i n p u t , aspects o f o v e r a l l gender p r o f i l e , l a c k o f a developed s e l f , and l a c k o f womaninity j o i n t l y produce  intense  a n x i e t y and c o n f l i c t , t h e need f o r r e s o l u t i o n o f c o n f l i c t , and the a c t u a l r e s o l u t i o n o f c o n f l i c t i n t h e form o f problem e a t i n g . I would l i k e t o begin by b r i e f l y d i s c u s s i n g f o u r points.  preliminary  F i r s t , throughout the process o f model c o n s t r u c t i o n , and  a l s o i n response t o t h e f i n a l r e s u l t , i t i s v i t a l t o keep i n mind t h a t t h e model i s based on f i n d i n g s from e m p i r i c a l t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s , and a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l  research,  material.  In a l l  t h r e e cases, m a t e r i a l arguably and a t b e s t o n l y a p p l i e s t o white, middle o r upper c l a s s g i r l s and women.  But e s p e c i a l l y g i v e n t h e  172 i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e v a s t l y more c o n s t r i c t e d  autobiographical  m a t e r i a l , we must bear i n mind t h e methodological premise o f t h i s t h e s i s t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e model — t o other white, middle o r upper c l a s s g i r l s and women — t o be assumed.  So w h i l e I w i l l speak i n g e n e r a l  even  i s not  terms o f "the  g i r l o r woman a t r i s k f o r problem e a t i n g , " o r "the g i r l o r woman w i t h problem e a t i n g , " a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e model t o g i r l s o r women other than myself can o n l y be determined i n t h e context o f future  research.  A second p o i n t o f note i s t h a t even though t h e model i s , i n p a r t , based on a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l of anorexia  m a t e r i a l r e l a t e d t o my experience  nervosa, I w i l l o f f e r o n l y a more g e n e r a l model o f  the e t i o l o g y o f more severe problem e a t i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o gender, s h o r t o f the case o f f u l l - b l o w n e a t i n g d i s o r d e r s . reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t t h e e t i o l o g y o f anorexia far  The b a s i c and b u l i m i a i s  more complex than I am prepared t o e x p l a i n here.  the foundation  However,  f o r a model which c o u l d capture t h e e t i o l o g y of  these d i s o r d e r s i n r e l a t i o n t o gender w i l l be l a i d down i n t h e present The  project. t h i r d p r e l i m i n a r y p o i n t i s t h a t i t w i l l o f t e n appear  throughout my d i s c u s s i o n t h a t I mean t o speak as though t h e g i r l or woman a t r i s k f o r problem e a t i n g i s c o n s c i o u s l y aware o f a n x i e t y o r c o n f l i c t , o r o f her need f o r r e s o l u t i o n o f c o n f l i c t , or o f h e r " d e c i s i o n " t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t i n c e r t a i n ways.  Rather  than q u a l i f y these remarks w i t h phrases t o i n d i c a t e t h a t I mean t o imply "awareness a t some l e v e l , " o r " l i k e l y unconscious  173 awareness," I would p r e f e r t o s t a t e a t t h e o u t s e t t h a t I am i n no p o s i t i o n t o determine t h e extent  t o which t h e g i r l o r woman a t  r i s k f o r problem e a t i n g i s c o n s c i o u s l y o r u n c o n s c i o u s l y her a n x i e t y ,  aware o f  and so on. My h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t much o f what I  w i l l go on t o d e s c r i b e  i s wholly unconscious.  But s i n c e  this  matter cannot be s e t t l e d here, I would o n l y ask t h a t t h e reader keep i n mind t h a t I do not i n t e n d t o convey t h a t t h e awareness, c o n f l i c t , anxiety,  and so on t h a t I r e f e r t o below a r e c o n s c i o u s .  F i n a l l y , I w i l l n o t be o f f e r i n g a r i g o r o u s  operational  d e f i n i t i o n o f problem e a t i n g i n terms o f i t s b e h a v i o u r a l manifestations.  T h i s would a c t u a l l y be i m p o s s i b l e  given that the  same p r a c t i c e s (eg., d i e t i n g , o r jogging d a i l y ) can be undertaken along t h e e n t i r e continuum o f problem e a t i n g .  Instead,  I take  t h a t t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s o f m i l d v s . severe problem e a t i n g l i e i n t h e i r e t i o l o g y , and t h i s i s what I w i l l attempt t o capture i n t h e model t h a t I p l a n t o c o n s t r u c t . A f i r s t attempt a t model c o n s t r u c t i o n might have us draw from a c o n v e n t i o n a l  s o c i o c u l t u r a l understanding o f t h e e t i o l o g y  of problem e a t i n g .  S o c i o c u l t u r a l t h e o r i s t s r e j e c t the notion  t h a t g i r l s o r women w i t h problem e a t i n g merely somatize t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems i n accordance w i t h the l o g i c o f an i n n e r , i n d i v i d u a l pathology which operates o u t s i d e o f a s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l context.  The b a s i c premise o f t h i s s o r t o f account i s  t h a t " c u l t u r a l contents become swept up as symptoms, e s p e c i a l l y when they o v e r l a p some o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g motives i n a individual"  predisposed  (Schwartz, Thompson & Johnson, 1982, p. 28).  More  174 s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e case o f problem  e a t i n g , P o l i v y and  Herman (1987) take i t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s with a number o f " p e r s o n a l i t y d e f e c t s . . . d e v e l o p some s o r t o f mental d i s o r d e r under s t r e s s [and then] s o c i e t y ' s eating/weight pathology simply channels the pathology i n t o an e a t i n g d i s o r d e r . . . " (p. 640). In t h i s way, such accounts take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i n p u t , attempting t o i n d i c a t e how i t i n t e r a c t s w i t h u n d e r l y i n g pathology t o produce  disorders.  While such accounts a r e t i d y and i n some ways c o m p e l l i n g , they a r e nonetheless p r o b l e m a t i c f o r two r e l a t e d reasons.  First,  from a f e m i n i s t p e r s p e c t i v e i t i s a mistake t o begin w i t h t h e premise t h a t pathology i n t h e case o f problem w i t h i n t h e g i r l o r woman i n q u e s t i o n .  eating i s located  Quoting S z e k e l y  (1988):  Once a phenomenon has...been c o n s t r u c t e d as a d i s e a s e , t h e s o c i o c u l t u r a l can o n l y be viewed  as a f a c t o r t h a t  undermines t h e weak p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l  further (p. 176).  To be s u r e , P o l i v y and Herman (1987) a r e , among o t h e r s , q u i t e c l e a r about t h e p r o b l e m a t i c and even p a t h o l o g i c a l nature o f t h e s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l input i t s e l f .  They a r e a l s o aware t h a t g i r l s and  women a r e urged, exhorted, c a j o l e d , and arguably r e q u i r e d t o manage our b o d i e s .  But, as f e m i n i s t s have been a r g u i n g i n t h i s  and o t h e r cases, i t u n f o r t u n a t e l y s t i l l  seems hard t o r e s i s t  l o c a t i n g t h e core o f pathology w i t h i n women ( C h e s l e r , 1989; E h r e n r e i c h & E n g l i s h , 1979; P e n f o l d & Walker, 1983). The second f e m i n i s t o b j e c t i o n t h a t we need t o c o n s i d e r i s t h a t on these s o r t s o f accounts, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l f o r c e s a r e  175 not c o n s i d e r e d  t o be the b a s i s f o r e a t i n g problems on par  deeper p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems.  Rather, they are o n l y  with  perceived  as " c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s " which i n f l u e n c e these p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems —  or attempts a t t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n —  in a certain  direction.  That i s , i n n e r pathology or p e r s o n a l i t y d e f e c t s  are  taken t o c o n s t i t u t e the b a s i c engine of problem e a t i n g w h i l e s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l i n p u t merely f u e l s i t —  or, b e t t e r s t i l l ,  the b a s i c s t u f f of pathology w a i t s l i k e wet molded i n t o any  that  sand or c l a y t o  shape depending on the nature o f  be  social-cultural  input.  s Szekely  (1988; 1989)  can e a s i l y take o u r s e l v e s grasp the " u n d e r l y i n g  makes the p o i n t t h a t on such models t o understand problem e a t i n g once  pathology" of the i n d i v i d u a l .  f o r the s p e c i f i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n we  To  account  exercise  so on are p r e c i s e l y what have been made a v a i l a b l e  t o her w i t h i n the dominant c u l t u r e .  As I noted i n the  I n t r o d u c t i o n , though, f e m i n i s t s are concerned t o argue t h a t "add  c u l t u r e and  s t i r " s o r t of approach misses the p o i n t  c u l t u r a l contents are necessary and eating.  we  of pathology i n e a t i n g behaviour,  need o n l y observe t h a t d i e t i n g s t r a t e g i e s , e x t e n s i v e  r o u t i n e s , and  we  this  that  e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s of problem  That i s , f e m i n i s t s want us t o see t h a t w h i l e i t i s  important t o r e c o g n i z e  t h a t p r a c t i c e s r e l a t e d t o female body  management are c u l t u r a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d ,  i t i s a l s o c r u c i a l to  map  meaningful connections between the i n n e r psychology of the woman with problem e a t i n g and  external s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l input.  s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s v i t a l t o i d e n t i f y and  More  e x p l a i n ways i n which  176 s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l i n p u t i s keyed i n t o and even ( i n a sense) designed t o address t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs o f g i r l s and women w i t h problem e a t i n g . The work o f Slade and Dewey (1986) can be construed p a r t way toward meeting t h e o b j e c t i o n s d i s c u s s e d f u n c t i o n a l - a n a l y t i c model o f anorexia  above.  as going In h i s  nervosa, Slade (1982)  acknowledged t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s engage i n c o n v e n t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s i n response t o f a m i l i a r p s y c h o s o c i a l  dieting  s t i m u l i about t h e  importance o f being t h i n , t h e value o f e x e r c i s e , and so on. a l s o suggested t h a t we need t o r e c o g n i z e psychological  He  the existence of  " s e t t i n g c o n d i t i o n s " t o account f o r t h e f a c t t h a t  some g i r l s and women go on t o engage i n more extreme modes o f s e l f and b o d i l y c o n t r o l .  Thus h i s p e r s p e c t i v e  i s sociocultural.  However, he does not wave h i s hands a t some amorphous "pathology" or " p e r s o n a l i t y d e f e c t " a t t h e c e n t r e o f e a t i n g  disorders.  Rather, he and Dewey (1986) q u i t e c o n c r e t e l y h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t such c o n d i t i o n s as " d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and l o s s o f c o n t r o l " and "perfectionism" conjunction  a r e a t work i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n  with s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l input.  o f anorexia  — in  Regarding t h e second  o b j e c t i o n , we can observe t h a t Slade and Dewey f u r t h e r wish t o suggest t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e t t i n g c o n d i t i o n s combine t o generate a s p e c i f i c need f o r c o n t r o l which i s answered by s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l i n p u t about d i e t i n g , e x e r c i s i n g , and so on. compelling  This input i s  because i t s p e c i f i c a l l y o f f e r s ways f o r women t o  achieve a sense o f c o n t r o l i n t h e i r  lives.  I would argue t h a t t h i s r e p r e s e n t s  an improvement over  177 conventional  s o c i o c u l t u r a l accounts s i n c e Slade and Dewey have  managed t o show how t h e r e can be a meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p between symptom and c u l t u r e — control. need —  i n t h i s case, on t h e parameter o f  However, I would a l s o argue t h a t t h e r e i s room •— and t o take t h i s one s t e p f u r t h e r .  While c u l t u r a l i n p u t i s  a p p r o p r i a t e l y keyed i n t o t h e i n n e r psychology o f t h e g i r l o r woman w i t h problem e a t i n g , t h e problem w i t h t h i s s o r t o f c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i s t h a t i t seems t h a t any s o c i o c u l t u r a l l y provided  mode o f c o n t r o l might do j u s t as w e l l .  such a model r e c o g n i z e s , existence  That i s , w h i l e  and p o s s i b l y even deems e s s e n t i a l , t h e  o f a meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p between p s y c h o l o g i c a l  problems and c u l t u r a l i n p u t , t h e p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o messages p e r t a i n i n g t o female body management can s t i l l be regarded as n o n - e s s e n t i a l  and non-necessary.  women needn't s e i z e t h i s mode o f c o n t r o l —  That i s , g i r l s and others  c o u l d be  substituted. I b e l i e v e t h a t what i s r e q u i r e d t o render t h i s  social-  c u l t u r a l i n p u t necessary and t h e r e f o r e e s s e n t i a l t o t h e e t i o l o g y of problem e a t i n g i s t o construe t h e i n n e r psychology and needs of g i r l s and women w i t h e a t i n g problems i t s e l f i n p s y c h o c u l t u r a l terms.  In answer t o t h i s requirement, I take i t t h a t t h e a c t u a l  needs a t t h e core o f t h e psychology o f problem e a t i n g i n g i r l s and women a r e p s y c h o c u l t u r a l  i n nature and o r i g i n , t h a t  social-  c u l t u r a l i n p u t r e l a t e d t o female body management p r e c i s e l y keys i n t o these s p e c i f i c needs, and t h a t t h i s hand-in-glove f i t accounts f o r t h e g e n e r a t i o n  o f problem e a t i n g —  a t l e a s t on t h e  178 dimension o f gender.  And I hope t o be a b l e t o show how t h i s  works i n t h e model t h a t I b u i l d below. MODEL CONSTRUCTION: I would l i k e t o launch t h e f i r s t stage o f model c o n s t r u c t i o n by r e c a l l i n g from t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n t h e f e m i n i s t h y p o t h e s i s  that  c o n f l i c t r e l a t e d t o t h e gender double b i n d , and messages conveying t h e n e c e s s i t y o f female body management a r e key elements i n t h e e t i o l o g y o f problem e a t i n g . a l s o o f f e r e d t h e hypothesis  t h a t t h e gendered p e r s o n a l i t y o f any  g i v e n i n d i v i d u a l i s t h e l o c u s f o r absorbing messages about gender.  In t h a t chapter, I  social-cultural  These o f course i n c l u d e  double-binding  messages about gender t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t g i r l s and women must be what i s not valued  (that i s , feminine),  (that i s , masculine). and  and not be what i s valued  I f t h i s i s so, then g i v e n t h e p a r a d o x i c a l  l i m i t i n g nature o f these messages, i t seems obvious t h a t ,  c e t e r i s p a r i b u s , any g i v e n g i r l o r woman would express some degree o f t e n s i o n o r c o n f l i c t i n response.  This state of a f f a i r s  i s d e p i c t e d below i n F i g u r e 8. In t h e next s t e p , I would l i k e t o r e c a l l t h a t e m p i r i c a l researchers  observed t h a t h y p e r f e m i n i n i t y  and hypomasculinity a r e  both f e a t u r e s o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f (white, middle o r upper c l a s s ) g i r l s and women with e a t i n g problems.  T h i s was o f course  supported by t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l e x e r c i s e i n Chapter Four. For t h e purposes o f t h e model, i t i s important t o r e c o g n i z e double-binding  that  messages which devalue f e m i n i n i t y and supervalue  m a s c u l i n i t y i n t e r f a c e , a t some l e v e l , with t h e h y p e r f e m i n i n i t y  179  Stage One of Model Development  SOCIAL-CTJLTURAL INPUT  GENDERED PERSONALITY AND RELATED FEATURES OF THE INNER PSYCHOLOGY OF GIRLS AND WOMEN  messages r e l a t e d t o the double b i n d t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t females must be what i s devalued (feminine) and value what they must not be beyond a c c e p t a b l e l i m i t s (masculine)  gender t e n s i o n and c o n f l i c t  Figure 8  180 and h y p o m a s c u l i n i t y o f t h e g i r l o r woman a t r i s k f o r e a t i n g problems ( o r 'GWRPE,' as I w i l l a t times r e f e r t o her below). The outcome o f t h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n i s t h a t t h e GWRPE becomes a c u t e l y aware o f t h e f a c t t h a t she i s extremely particularly  feminine and n o t  masculine.  Given t h e content o f t h i s i n p u t , t h e g i r l o r woman a t r i s k for In  problem e a t i n g experiences i n t e n s i f i e d c o n f l i c t and a n x i e t y . p a r t i c u l a r , g i v e n t h e way i n which h y p e r f e m i n i n i t y i s  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o t h e r - o r i e n t e d n e s s , t h e g i r l o r woman a t r i s k f o r problem e a t i n g becomes a c u t e l y aware o f t h e v a l u e s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e double b i n d , and f e e l s tremendous p r e s s u r e t o absorb them.  In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e p e r f e c t i o n i s m t h a t i s o f t e n  i d e n t i f i e d i n g i r l s and women w i t h problem e a t i n g , t h e r e would a l s o be tremendous p r e s s u r e from w i t h i n t o a c t u a l l y be what i s v a l u e d and n o t be what i s devalued. But a l l o f t h i s o f course runs r i g h t up a g a i n s t t h e h y p o m a s c u l i n i t y and h y p e r f e m i n i n i t y t h a t she r e c o g n i z e s i n h e r s e l f — attempt  a t l e a s t a t some l e v e l .  I  t o o u t l i n e t h i s s e t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s below i n F i g u r e 9.  Awareness o f a gap between what one i s and what one t h i n k s one should be i n terms o f gender p r o f i l e was o f course  correlated  w i t h more severe modes o f problem e a t i n g i n r e s e a r c h reviewed i n Chapter Two under t h e heading o f " I I I : Gender P r o f i l e , Gender Stance, and C o n f l i c t . "  I would l i k e t o c o n j e c t u r e t h a t i n  response t o t h e a n x i e t y t h a t she e x p e r i e n c e s , t h e g i r l o r woman at  r i s k f o r problem e a t i n g seeks a r e s o l u t i o n t o t h e paradox  presented t o her v i a t h e double b i n d , e s p e c i a l l y v i s - a - v i s t h e  181  Stage Two o f Model Development  GENDERED PERSONALITY AND RELATED FEATURES OF THE INNER PSYCHOLOGY OF THE GWRPE  messages r e l a t e d t o — the double b i n d t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t females must be what i s devalued (feminine) and v a l u e what they must not be beyond a c c e p t a b l e l i m i t s (masculine)  hyperfemininity hypoma s c u 1 i n i t y perfectionism  i  awareness o f extreme f e m i n i n i t y and l o w - l e v e l masculinity i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e t o be more masculine and l e s s feminine i n t e n s i f i e d c o n f l i c t and anxiety  Figure 9  182 nature o f her gendered p e r s o n a l i t y .  However, t o e x p l a i n t h e  s p e c i f i c path taken by g i r l s and women with more severe problem e a t i n g , I need t o r e t u r n t o my d i s c u s s i o n w i t h i n t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l e x e r c i s e o f t h e second i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f rejecting femininity.  In t h a t context  I suggested t h a t  'adopting  a b i p o l a r stance can be understood as an attempt t o r e s o l v e t h e paradox posed by t h e double b i n d by embracing t h e s o c i e t a l message' (see above, p. 124).  And so on t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,  g i r l s and women a t r i s k f o r severe problem e a t i n g r e j e c t f e m i n i n i t y and embrace m a s c u l i n i t y . Two  a d d i t i o n a l p o i n t s must be r e c o g n i z e d ,  t h i s mode o f r e s o l u t i o n can be i n c o r p o r a t e d First,  however, b e f o r e  i n t o t h e model.  as noted i n F i g u r e 9, t h e GWRPE experiences  what i s valued,  and n o t be what i s devalued —  pressure  t o be  n o t j u s t t o adopt  a v a l u a t i o n a l stance toward what i s v a l u e d o r devalued.  But she  w i l l need guidance i n t h e form o f s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s as t o how t o implement t h e embrace o f m a s c u l i n i t y and t h e r e j e c t i o n o f femininity.  Second, as t h e reader may have noted, t o implement  t h i s would be t o put i n t o p r a c t i c e o n l y h a l f o f t h e mandate s e t out i n t h e double b i n d . s t i l l be feminine acceptable  What's m i s s i n g a r e t h e requirements t o  and t o manifest  masculinity only  within  limits.  P u t t i n g a l l o f t h i s together,  i n response t o t h e need f o r  r e s o l u t i o n o f c o n f l i c t and a n x i e t y engendered by t h e double b i n d , the g i r l o r woman a t r i s k f o r problem e a t i n g must f i n d a way t o value m a s c u l i n i t y , r e j e c t f e m i n i n i t y , be feminine,  and be  183 masculine w i t h i n a c c e p t a b l e l i m i t s .  And a t t h i s j u n c t u r e I would  l i k e t o o f f e r t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e GWRPE t u r n s t o s o c i a l c u l t u r a l i n p u t conveying t h e worth and n e c e s s i t y o f female body management f o r "guidance" r e g a r d i n g how t o meet a l l f o u r requirements.  T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s r e c o r d e d below i n F i g u r e 10,  but I would l i k e t o e l a b o r a t e i t i n some d e t a i l . Beginning w i t h v a l u i n g m a s c u l i n i t y and r e j e c t i n g  femininity,  we have a c t u a l l y a l r e a d y encountered t h e i d e a t h a t female body management r e p r e s e n t s an attempt t o implement  a b i p o l a r stance.  Indeed, i n Chapter Two we noted t h a t among o t h e r s , and Perdue  Silverstein  (1988) observed t h a t g i r l s and women renounce  their  feminine curvaceous b o d i e s i n favour o f c u l t i v a t i n g s t r e a m l i n e d , angular pseudo-masculine bodies (see above, p. 62). What appears t o be happening i n t h i s c o n t e x t i s a s h i f t from gender as t h e s i t e o f c o n f l i c t , t o body as t h e s i t e o f both c o n f l i c t and i t s resolution.  I would  l i k e t o b r i e f l y note here t h a t t h i s i s  l i k e l y f a c i l i t a t e d by Western p a t r i a r c h a l c u l t u r e ' s  historical  and d u a l i s t i c manner o f a s s o c i a t i n g femaleness, body, u n c o n t r o l l a b l e Nature, and unknowable matter on t h e One hand; and maleness, mind, reason, and s c i e n c e on t h e o t h e r ( c f . , f o r example, Bordo, 1993; LLoyd, 1984).  That i s , i n t h e c o n t e x t o f  t h i s s o r t o f metaphysics, we do n o t r e a d i l y q u e s t i o n t h e assumption t h a t s u b s t a n t i v e problems f a c e d by women a r e problems w i t h our b o d i e s .  Our bodies a r e a c c o r d i n g l y c o n s i d e r e d t h e s i t e  f o r change and improvement. But f o r t h e purpose o f t h e p r e s e n t p o i n t about  contemporary  184  Stage Three o f Model Development  GENDERED PERSONALITY AND RELATED FEATURES OF THE INNER PSYCHOLOGY OF THE GWRPE  hyperfemininity hypoma s c u l i n i t y perfectionism  messages r e l a t e d t o — the double b i n d t o the e f f e c t t h a t females must be what i s devalued (feminine) and value what they must not be beyond acceptable l i m i t s (masculine)  i  awareness of extreme f e m i n i n i t y and l o w - l e v e l masculinity i n t e r n a l pressure t o be more masculine and l e s s feminine  4,  intensified conflict anxiety  and  need f o r r e s o l u t i o n o f c o n f l i c t and a n x i e t y i n the form of g u i d e l i n e s r e g a r d i n g how t o f u l f i l l the requirements of the double bind to: (a) embrace m a s c u l i n i t y (b) r e j e c t f e m i n i n i t y (c) ( s t i l l ) be feminine (d) be masculine w i t h i n acceptable l i m i t s  messages u r g i n g g i r l s and women t o manage t h e i r bodies  Figure  10  185 s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l i n p u t , I would l i k e t o note t h a t contemporary messages d i r e c t l y and unabashedly  i n s t r u c t g i r l s and women t o  d i s p l a c e our problems onto our bodies — by managing our b o d i e s .  and a l s o t o manage them  In t h e case o f answering  the bipolar  requirement t o be more masculine and t o r e j e c t f e m i n i n i t y , we a r e i n f a c t bombarded w i t h messages t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t women needn't be burdened w i t h t h e drudgery o f s t e r e o t y p i c a l female e x i s t e n c e . Rather, we a r e urged t o l i b e r a t e o u r s e l v e s by f i g h t i n g hard not t o look l i k e our mothers, c a s t i n g o f f t h e curves t h a t s i g n a l our imprisonment,  " d e f y i n g " our age, g e t t i n g i n t o t h a t f i t n e s s c l a s s  i n t h e h o s p i t a l hours a f t e r d e l i v e r i n g our c h i l d r e n , and so on. A l l that i s required i s a r e l e n t l e s s pursuit of slenderness. Moreover, we a r e assured t h a t by c u l t i v a t i n g a compact, t i g h t and c o n t r o l l e d musculature,  we can a l s o a c h i e v e an a c c e p t a b l e measure  of masculine s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , c o n f i d e n c e , a s s e r t i v e n e s s , and control  (Bordo,  1993).  In sum, then, s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l i n p u t p e r t a i n i n g t o female body management i s p r e c i s e l y keyed t o t h e need f o r g i r l s and women a t r i s k f o r problem  eating t o manifest t h e i r r e j e c t i o n of  f e m i n i n i t y and s u p e r v a l u a t i o n o f m a s c u l i n i t y .  As f o r t h e other  h a l f o f t h e whole p a r a d o x i c a l equation s e t out i n t h e double b i n d , i t i s a l s o c r u c i a l f o r t h e GWRPE t o l e a r n how she may be masculine w i t h i n a c c e p t a b l e l i m i t s and how ( s t i l l ) t o manifest femininity.  Beginning w i t h t h e former, I t h i n k t h e requirement  not t o t r a n s c e n d c e r t a i n l i m i t s r e g a r d i n g t h e e x t e n t t o which a g i r l o r woman may be masculine i s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l y met —  and i s  186 judged and experienced as having been met  —  v i a the  of s t r i v i n g a f t e r m a s c u l i n i t y w i t h i n the body.  containment  That i s , w h i l e  g i r l s and women commonly r e c e i v e n e g a t i v e s a n c t i o n s f o r b e i n g too "pushy" or " a g g r e s s i v e " i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l encounters, t h e r e seems t o be g r e a t cause f o r c e l e b r a t i o n i n s o f a r as a woman has achieved v i r t u a l l y meaningless "independence,  11  and i n e f f e c t u a l measures of "power,"  and " c o n t r o l " i n the form of a few v i s i b l y  toned  muscles i n her body. F i n a l l y , g i r l s and women heed t o know how (degraded)  femininity.  t o manifest  Presumably, the b e s t s o r t of  guidance  here would h e l p ease the f r u s t r a t i o n and h u m i l i a t i o n of having t o embody t h a t which i s devalued.  In a remarkable  and s t u p e f y i n g  semantic s l e i g h t of tongue, t h i s i s i n f a c t accomplished w i t h i n the s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l messages themselves.  For these messages  r e q u i r i n g women t o c u l t i v a t e s l e n d e r , s t r e a m l i n e d , and masculine  arguably  (or i n some cases barely-pubescent) s o r t s of bodies  simply deem such bodies "womanly" and " f e m i n i n e . " a t once i n s t r u c t i n g women t o r i d themselves  That i s , w h i l e  of t r a d i t i o n a l  feminine c u r v e s , these messages a l s o i d e n t i f y a "new," "liberated," yet s t i l l  "feminine" body.  l a t t e r s o r t of body does not o f f e n d .  We  are assured t h a t  In f a c t , we are t r a i n e d t o  t h i n k of i t as a l l u r i n g , sexy, and a t t r a c t i v e . those who  pursue  In t h i s  way,  " l i b e r a t e d " f e m i n i n i t y are a b l e t o r e p l a c e  awareness of r e j e c t i o n and d e g r a d a t i o n w i t h a sense of accomplishment.  They are feminine i n the mode of not b e i n g  feminine, and t h i s i s v a l u e d .  this  187 But I t h i n k t h e r e i s even more t o t h e manner i n which g i r l s and women a r e taught t h a t we can be a c c e p t a b l y feminine.  I will  not be a b l e t o develop my argument i n much d e t a i l here, b u t my t h i n k i n g i s t h a t t h e u l t i m a t e c u l t u r a l l y - c o n s t r u c t e d contemporary expression of f e m i n i n i t y i t s e l f i s p r e c i s e l y the manifestation of a b i p o l a r r e n u n c i a t i o n o f a l l e g i a n c e t o women on t h e one hand, and a f f i l i a t i o n with and d e v o t i o n t o men on t h e o t h e r . support t h i s i d e a , I would f i r s t  To  l i k e t o make t h e o b s e r v a t i o n  t h a t women who do not s t r i v e a f t e r t h i n n e s s — o r who a r e n o t p e r c e i v e d as making t h i s e f f o r t —  are penalized.  What's  s t r i k i n g about t h i s i s t h e r e i s no "to each her own" s o r t of response t o g i r l s and women who a r e n o t s l e n d e r . h y p o t h e s i s , t h i s i s because t h e i r  On my  ( r e a l o r apparent) l a c k o f  i n t e r e s t i n m a n i f e s t i n g t h e i r d e v o t i o n t o meeting t h e needs o f men  i s experienced  as an a f f r o n t .  In t h i s v e i n , Beth Maclnnis  (1993) observes  that "[n]either  f a t women nor l e s b i a n women a r e seen as a c t i v e l y t r y i n g t o please men, The  and a r e s u b j e c t e d t o r i d i c u l e , s c o r n , and contempt" (p. 7 6 ) . analogue i n t h e case o f women o f c o l o u r i s t h e requirement  not o n l y t o meet white beauty standards, s t r i v i n g t o do so.  but t o manifest  one's  In t h i s context, Kim Buchanan (1993) quotes  b e l l hooks (1992) t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t " [ o ] n our jobs, when we express  o u r s e l v e s from a d e c o l o n i z e d s t a n d p o i n t , we r i s k  seen as u n f r i e n d l y o r dangerous" (Buchanan, p. 44).  being  Of course,  the o t h e r s i d e o f t h e c o i n here i s t h a t "black f o l k s who...selfc o n s c i o u s l y l a b o r t o be as much l i k e t h e i r white peers as  188 p o s s i b l e , w i l l r e c e i v e g r e a t e r rewards i n white supremacist s o c i e t y " (hooks quoted i n Buchanan, p. The slender  44).  p o i n t here i s t h a t i t i s n ' t even n e c e s s a r i l y  being  (or having toned muscles, o r , f o r t h a t matter,  white and having long blonde h a i r , blue eyes, and  being  so on)  that i s  of g r e a t e s t importance, but r a t h e r the g e s t u r e of showing t h a t one  has worked hard t o make one's body the way  t o look — own  even and  pleasure,  t h a t men  like i t  perhaps e s p e c i a l l y t o the p o i n t t h a t one's  needs, and  d e s i r e s are s a c r i f i c e d .  mark of a c c e p t a b i l i t y (or, b e t t e r s t i l l ,  2 9  Thus the  the turn-on) i s the  message exuded by the c o l o n i z e d body t o the e f f e c t t h a t "I what you how  (men)  want me  t o be, what you have r e q u i r e d of me;  I have worked so hard and how  t h i s f o r you?"  And  on my  see  I have s a c r i f i c e d myself t o  do  argument, t h i s i s a t l e a s t an  a d d i t i o n a l l a y e r , i f not the core l e s s o n concerning acceptably  am  how  to  be  feminine i n contemporary Western c u l t u r e .  In sum,  the messages and d i r e c t i v e s p e r t a i n i n g t o female  body management t h a t I have been d i s c u s s i n g are because they o f f e r a w e l l - c i r c u m s c r i b e d c o n f l i c t can be d i s p l a c e d and  context  addressed.  compelling i n t o which  As a r e s u l t they  are  r e a d i l y absorbed by the g i r l or woman a t r i s k f o r e a t i n g problems.  And,  as i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 11, t h i s r e s u l t s i n a  commitment t o pursuing  slenderness.  But  i n l i g h t of our  d i s c u s s i o n , i t i s important t o h i g h l i g h t two c o n f l i c t i n question  points.  i s p s y c h o c u l t u r a l l y as opposed t o  p s y c h i c a l l y generated v i a the i n t e r f a c e of  earlier  First, intra-  social-cultural  the  189  Stage Four of Model Development  GENDERED PERSONALITY AND RELATED FEATURES OF THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE GWRPE  messages r e l a t e d t o — the double b i n d t o the e f f e c t t h a t females must be what i s devalued (feminine) and value what they must not be beyond a c c e p t a b l e l i m i t s (masculine)  hyperfemininity hypomasculinity perfectionism  I  awareness o f extreme f e m i n i n i t y and l o w - l e v e l masculinity i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e t o be more masculine and l e s s feminine i n t e n s i f i e d c o n f l i c t and anxiety  4/ need f o r r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t and a n x i e t y i n the form of g u i d e l i n e s r e g a r d i n g how t o f u l f i l l the requirements of the double bind t o : (a) embrace m a s c u l i n i t y (b) r e j e c t f e m i n i n i t y (c) ( s t i l l ) be feminine (d) be masculine w i t h i n acceptable l i m i t s  messages u r g i n g g i r l s and women t o manage t h e i r bodies  commitment t o p u r s u i n g s l e n d e r n e s s and the toned body  Figure  11  190 messages and t h e gendered p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e GWRPE.  And second,  messages u r g i n g women t o c u l t i v a t e s l e n d e r and toned bodies p l a y a r o l e i n producing  t h e commitment t o r e s t r i c t e d e a t i n g n o t  because they comprise g e n e r i c c o n f l i c t - r e d u c i n g s o r t s o f d i r e c t i v e s , b u t r a t h e r because they a r e p r e c i s e l y keyed i n t o t h e c u l t u r a l l y - i n s t i l l e d needs t h a t helped the f i r s t  t o generate c o n f l i c t i n  place.  Nonetheless, s t e p p i n g back from t h e model as sketched above, a q u e s t i o n a r i s e s concerning more severe e a t i n g problems.  my g o a l o f m o d e l l i n g  the e t i o l o g y of  F o r a l l we have t o t h i s p o i n t i s a  commitment on t h e p a r t o f t h e g i r l o r woman a t r i s k f o r problem e a t i n g t o pursue s l e n d e r n e s s .  In response t o t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n I  would l i k e t o r e f e r back t o t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e a n a l y s i s o f e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h o f f e r e d i n Chapter Two.  S p e c i f i c a l l y , I would  l i k e t o note t h a t t h e commitment t o pursue s l e n d e r n e s s 11 i s not t o be confused with t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n  of self-described  femininity or of valuing femininity simpliciter  f  mode o f attempting  i n Figure  b u t r a t h e r as a  t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t v i a a b i p o l a r embrace o f  m a s c u l i n i t y and r e n u n c i a t i o n o f f e m i n i n i t y .  As a r e s u l t , t h e  commitment t o these behaviours i s f a r more i n t e n s e than i t would be i n t h e s i m p l e r  case.  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e would o f course be e a s i e r t o d i s c e r n i f I had  s u p p l i e d a sketch o f t h e s i m p l e r case, and t h e r e f o r e had t h e  opportunity  t o i n d i c a t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n l e v e l o f commitment t o  r e s t r i c t e d e a t i n g and/or e x e r c i s e . b u i l t i n t o t h e model t o conjure  But even so, more needs t o be  t h e deep l e v e l o f commitment t o  191 these behaviours and t h e i r i n t e n s e m a n i f e s t a t i o n  i n the case of  more severe problem e a t i n g along the continuum.  As a f i r s t  toward d e v e l o p i n g the o b s e r v a t i o n  step  these a d d i t i o n a l elements, I need t o r e f e r t o  j u s t made r e g a r d i n g the d i f f e r e n c e between  s t r i v i n g t o be feminine,  and s t r i v i n g t o meet the reguirements of  the double b i n d v i a the b i p o l a r embrace of m a s c u l i n i t y r e n u n c i a t i o n of f e m i n i n i t y .  and  In response t o t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n , i t  seems n a t u r a l t o r a i s e the q u e s t i o n why  some g i r l s and women take  the b i p o l a r r o u t e . The of my  f e m i n i s t response t o t h i s q u e s t i o n  own  response —  b i p o l a r stance  for  and t h e r e f o r e p a r t  i s t h a t i t i s r a t i o n a l t o manifest  toward m a s c u l i n i t y and  s l e n d e r , t a u t , toned, and t i g h t body. concerning  —  a  f e m i n i n i t y by c u l t i v a t i n g a In my  e a r l i e r discussion  the c o l o n i z e d body, I noted t h a t women are rewarded  manifesting  a commitment t o f u l f i l l i n g  and punished f o r m a n i f e s t i n g any woman who  the d e s i r e s o f  f a i l u r e or r e s i s t a n c e .  has d i e t e d knows, one  men,  Indeed, as  r e c e i v e s many s o c i a l and  m a t e r i a l rewards f o r l o s i n g weight and becoming more f i t . one  t h i n g , i f a g i r l or woman was  even  For  f a t and becomes t h i n , she  will  no longer have t o d e a l with the s c o r n , d e r i s i o n , and o s t r a c i z a t i o n t h a t she r e l a t e d t o being  l i k e l y encountered i n her  f a t (Maclnnis,  r e c e i v e compliments about how  1993).  "former l i f e "  But beyond t h i s , she  g r e a t or "how  much b e t t e r "  l o o k s ; she might r e c e i v e more a t t e n t i o n from h e t e r o s e x u a l she  may  she men;  i s more l i k e l y t o marry and u l t i m a t e l y r e c e i v e the m a t e r i a l  b e n e f i t s of h e t e r o s e x u a l  marriage ( i n s o f a r as they are  192 a v a i l a b l e ) ; and she i s more l i k e l y t o o b t a i n , keep, and/or be promoted i n a j o b (Szekely, 1988; M a c l n n i s , 1993; Wooley, Wooley, and D y r e n f o r t h , 1979). Of course, one can do a l l o f t h i s under t h e heading o f s t r i v i n g t o be more feminine, and indeed i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c e r n t h e b e h a v i o u r a l d i f f e r e n c e between s l e n d e r n e s s achieved under t h i s heading, and s l e n d e r n e s s achieved under b i p o l a r i t y .  I  would suggest, however, t h a t i n t h e former case, women d i e t t o achieve a c e r t a i n look and convey they a r e doing t h i s f o r themselves.  In t h e l a t t e r case, women a l s o d i e t t o achieve a  c e r t a i n look, but i n a d d i t i o n wish t o convey t h a t t h e i r d e n i a l and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e i s f o r t h e sake o f men. I suspect, f o r why even t h i n women — —  self-  T h i s accounts,  even v e r y hungry t h i n women  "eat l i g h t l y " i n t h e company o f men.  30  To do otherwise i s t o  f a i l t o convey t h e d e v o t i o n t o f u l f i l l i n g t h e needs o f men over and above one's own present needs and d e s i r e s .  —  I t might  a l s o account f o r why some women e v e n t u a l l y break t h e i r  diets.  For t h i s s o r t o f " f a i l u r e " may be a measure o f h e a l t h y r e s i s t a n c e t o engaging  i n s e l f - d e n i a l f o r the sake o f o t h e r s .  In any case, on t h e f a r r i g h t o f F i g u r e 12, I wish t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e commitment t o p u r s u i n g s l e n d e r n e s s y i e l d s a c t u a l behaviour.  T h i s can take t h e form o f d i e t i n g  strategies,  c a r d i o v a s c u l a r e x e r c i s e , "work-outs," d i e t p i l l s , and so on.  An  a d d i t i o n a l outcome can be weight l o s s , i n c r e a s e d muscle tone and fitness —  o r not.  Given t h e manner i n which t h i s commitment i s  generated out o f a b i p o l a r mode o f attempting t o r e s o l v e gender  193 Stage F i v e o f Model Development  GENDERED PERSONALITY AND RELATED FEATURES OP THE INNER PSYCHOLOGY OF THE GWRPE  SOCIAL-CULTURAL INPUT  r messages r e l a t e d  to the double bind to the e f f e c t t h a t females must be what i s devalued (feminine), and value what they must not be beyond acceptable l i m i t s (masculine)  EATING BEHAVIOUR  T — ^  hyperfeminity hypomasculinity perfectionism  J,  awareness of extreme f e m i n i n i t y and low-level masculinity i n t e r n a l pressure to be more masculine and l e s s feminine i n t e nis^if s i f iiee d c o n f l i c t and anxiety  messages urging and i n s t r u c t i n g g i r l s and women to manage t h e i r bodies  need ffoi or r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t and anxiety i n the form of g u i d e l i n e s regarding how t o f u l f i l l the requirements of the double bind (as i n Sketch 4) commitment t o pursuing slenderness and the toned body  messages which r e i n f o r c e the p u r s u i t of slenderness and the toned body, and/or punish f a i l u r e or r e s i s t a n c e t o do ' so  problematic d i e t i n g , exercise, and other modes o r pursuing slenderness weight l o s s , increased muscle tone, and f i t n e s s (or not) ongoing problematic p u r s u i t of slenderness  F i g u r e 12  194 c o n f l i c t , I would suggest t h a t a t t h i s p o i n t , t h e g i r l o r woman a t r i s k f o r problem e a t i n g can be deemed a b o n i f i e d g i r l o r woman with problem e a t i n g But  (or GWPE).  i t i s a l s o important t o capture t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e  a d d i t i o n a l r e i n f o r c i n g s o r t o f s o c i a l - c u l t u r e i n p u t t h a t we have been d i s c u s s i n g .  Here I have h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a d d i t i o n a l  messages and i n t e r p e r s o n a l experiences w i l l e i t h e r c e l e b r a t e t h e "success"  o f t h e GWPE o r punish her f o r " f a i l u r e , " and t h a t  feedback w i l l fashion.  i n c i t e h e r t o pursue slenderness  this  i n an ongoing  Indeed, t h e ongoing nature o f t h e p u r s u i t i s v i r t u a l l y  guaranteed g i v e n t h e f a c t t h a t most women a r e overwhelmingly l i k e l y t o g a i n back l o s t weight (Maclnnis, renders h e r v u l n e r a b l e  1993).  T h i s o f course  t o c r i t i c a l s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l input  that  u l t i m a t e l y provokes a re-commitment t o t h e p u r s u i t o f t h i n n e s s which i n t u r n l i t e r a l l y and f i g u r a t i v e l y puts h e r back on t h e treadmill.  I have attempted t o capture t h e p e r n i c i o u s  cyclical  nature o f t h i s p a t t e r n i n F i g u r e 12. In a d d i t i o n t o t h e f e m i n i s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t women a r e e x h i b i t i n g r a t i o n a l i t y , I would a l s o l i k e t o suggest t h a t deeper p s y c h o l o g i c a l elements must be invoked t o account f o r more severe problem e a t i n g v i a t h e " c h o i c e " o f b i p o l a r i t y .  In p a r t i c u l a r , I  t h i n k i t i s necessary a t t h i s j u n c t u r e t o i n t r o d u c e t h e deeper p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s of a l a c k o f developed s e l f and l a c k o f womaninity i n t o t h e model. that the existence  B a s i c a l l y , what I have i n mind i s  o f these s t r u c t u r e s h e l p s e x p l a i n why some  g i r l s and women a r e unable t o r e s i s t s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l messages  195 which promote b i p o l a r i t y -- o r b e t t e r s t i l l ,  why some g i r l s and  women absorb these messages so r e a d i l y , deeply, and c o n c r e t e l y . Somewhat more s p e c i f i c a l l y , I take i t t h a t l a c k o f developed s e l f and  l a c k o f womaninity operate i n both g e n e r a l  and s p e c i f i c ways  t o f o s t e r t h e outcome o f b i p o l a r i t y and ( t h e r e f o r e ) more severe problem e a t i n g . Beginning on t h e more g e n e r a l  l e v e l , and r e l y i n g h e a v i l y on  the phenomenology and a n a l y s i s o f my own experience, I want t o suggest t h a t l a c k o f a developed s e l f makes i t t h e case t h a t t h e r e i s no s u b s t a n t i a l person w i t h i n t h e g i r l o r woman w i t h e a t i n g problems who can q u e s t i o n ,  c r i t i c i z e o r a t l e a s t i n some  sense temper t h e r e c e i v i n g o f s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l i n p u t r e l a t e d t o the double b i n d  (and,  f o r t h a t matter, female body management).  In f a c t , g i v e n t h a t t h e r e c e p t o r and women should all  f o r a l l messages about how g i r l s  be i s a l a c k o r gap,  j u s t "go i n , " unmediated.  I want t o suggest t h a t they  As a r e s u l t , they a r e i n t e r p r e t e d  too l i t e r a l l y and absorbed t o o r e a d i l y .  And w h i l e they a r e  supposed t o become f e a t u r e s o f t h e GWRPE's gendered p e r s o n a l i t y , they i n a sense become more s u b s t a n t i a l than she i s .  Moreover,  l a c k o f a developed s e l f means t h a t t h e r e i s not much o f a person w i t h i n t o mediate c o n f l i c t t h a t a r i s e s i n response t o t h e i n t e r n a l i z e d , p a r a d o x i c a l , double-binding S t i l l r e f e r r i n g t o a more g e n e r a l  messages.  level of functioning, I  a l s o take i t t h a t l a c k o f womaninity engenders i n t h e g i r l o r woman a t r i s k f o r problem e a t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s p o s i t i o n toward t h e d e v a l u a t i o n  favourable  and r e n u n c i a t i o n o f  196 femininity.  Messages t o t h i s e f f e c t a r e o f course  within s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l input regarding importance o f managing women's b o d i e s .  contained  both gender and t h e Again r e l y i n g on what I  take myself t o know about my own case, I want t o suggest t h a t t h e r e j e c t i o n o f f e m i n i n i t y a t t h e core o f t h i s i n p u t makes sense t o the GWRPE because she i s a l r e a d y a l i e n a t e d from t h e world o f women —  already  how "feminine"  sure t h a t she c o u l d never belong t h e r e no matter  she s t r o v e t o become.  In t h i s context,  toward m a s c u l i n i t y o f f e r s an a t t r a c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e .  aspiring  3 1  In sum, then, I take i t t h a t l a c k o f a developed s e l f and l a c k o f womaninity f u n c t i o n t o produce more severe problem e a t i n g i n a g e n e r a l way by s e t t i n g up f o r : unmediated a b s o r p t i o n o f s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l input; greater i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t r e l a t e d t o the double b i n d ; a more i n t e n s i f i e d need f o r r e s o l u t i o n o f t h i s c o n f l i c t ; and a r e a d i e r grasp t o s e i z e t h e o p t i o n o f r e j e c t i n g f e m i n i n i t y and embracing m a s c u l i n i t y as a mode o f r e s o l u t i o n f o r this conflict.  But, as I a n t i c i p a t e d above, I a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t  p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s p l a y a more s p e c i f i c r o l e i n g e n e r a t i n g more severe problem e a t i n g .  As i n t h e case o f gendered  p e r s o n a l i t y , t h e b a s i c i d e a here i s t h a t c e r t a i n needs a r e generated w i t h i n t h e g i r l o r woman a t r i s k f o r problem e a t i n g which a r e answered by messages p e r t a i n i n g t o female body management.  But i n r e l a t i o n t o l a c k o f developed s e l f and l a c k  of womaninity, t h i s s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l i n p u t does not address t h e need f o r guidance r e g a r d i n g  how t o f u l f i l l  t h e requirements o f  the double b i n d , but r a t h e r t h e need f o r guidance r e g a r d i n g how  197 t o develop a s e l f , and how t o be a woman. The metaphysical f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n and consumption o f t h i s c u l t u r a l a d v i c e t o g i r l s and women i s , I t h i n k , a l r e a d y l a i d i n t h e form o f t h e c o n f l a t i o n o f woman and body noted above (p. 183).  That i s , we a r e a l r e a d y prepared t o  r e c e i v e i n p u t which reduces who we a r e as persons and as women t o t h e s o r t o f bodies we have —  and which, on t h e other hand,  holds boys and men up as paradigms o f persons. time v i a our s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t o t h e language patriarchal culture.  T h i s occurs over  and metaphysics o f  J u s t t o take one s m a l l and well-known  example, t h e p e r v a s i v e use o f t h e pronoun 'he' t o r e f e r t o persons i n g e n e r a l h e l p s t o d i s a p p e a r t h e personhood o f g i r l s and women.  In f a c t , as t h i s example shows, t h e i n v i s i b i l i t y o f  messages about t h e f u l l personhood and womanhood o f women p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h i s process o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n . On t h e o t h e r hand, contemporary c u l t u r e a l s o p r o v i d e s an e n d l e s s stream o f messages which f e a t u r e women and thus render us visible.  But s i n c e t h e c o n f l a t i o n o f women and our bodies  still  h o l d s , a d v i c e about how t o develop o u r s e l v e s as women and persons a c c o r d i n g l y concerns how we can improve our b o d i e s .  More  s p e c i f i c a l l y , and once again, we a r e i n s t r u c t e d t o render our bodies as u n s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y female and p l e a s i n g t o men as p o s s i b l e v i a t h e r e l e n t l e s s p u r s u i t o f s l e n d e r n e s s and tone. Although I w i l l o n l y b r i e f l y i n d i c a t e t h e nature o f t h e i r work here, c u l t u r a l a n a l y s t s such as Bordo (1993) and K i l b o u r n e (1994) p r o v i d e r i c h evidence t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e p r i n t media,  198 t e l e v i s i o n , f i l m s and,  most o f a l l ,  t h e marketing i n d u s t r y a r e  concerned t o t e l l women t o "be a l l you can be," you  and/or t o "be who  r e a l l y a r e , " and/or t o "be t h e r e a l sexy d e s i r a b l e woman who  i s h i d i n g under a l l t h a t d i s g u s t i n g f a t . "  Again, my h y p o t h e s i s  i s t h a t t h i s speaks t o t h e genuine need on t h e p a r t o f some g i r l s and women t o develop our s e l v e s and l e a r n how t o be women. But beyond t h i s , these media a r e concerned t o teach women t h a t we can reach these g o a l s by l o s i n g weight, and t h a t t h i s i s e a s i l y accomplished by j o i n i n g such and such f i t n e s s c l u b , o r by t r y i n g t o emulate t h e look o f a l l those o r d i n a r y women i n Hollywood, o r by t r e a t i n g o u r s e l v e s  occasionally —  and s i n f u l l y —  t o such and  such " l u s c i o u s " d i e t food o r d r i n k , and so on and e n d l e s s l y on. Two  obvious but nonetheless s t r i k i n g p o i n t s o f note here a r e  (1) t h a t t h e c u l t u r a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s f o r g i r l s and women r e g a r d i n g how  t o be p r o p e r l y feminine,  acceptable  how t o be masculine w i t h i n  l i m i t s , how t o develop one's s e l f , and how t o be a  r e a l woman a r e i d e n t i c a l , and (2) t h a t these p r e s c r i p t i o n s promote and even glamorize a t r a g i c a l l y i n a u t h e n t i c e x i s t e n c e m i l l i o n s o f women. expression  for  Indeed i t i s t r a g i c a l l y i r o n i c t h a t t h e  o f f e m i n i n i t y reduces t o i t s r e n u n c i a t i o n , t h e p u r s u i t  of m a s c u l i n i t y reduces t o t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f a t i g h t abdomen, t h e p r o j e c t o f developing needs o f others  o n e s e l f reduces t o t h a t o f meeting t h e  (and men i n p a r t i c u l a r ) , and t h e p r o j e c t o f  d i s c o v e r i n g how t o be a woman reduces t o i t s abandonment. In t h i s context,  I t h i n k i t i s v i t a l t o note t h a t women a l s o  t r a g i c a l l y absorb t h e l e s s o n t h a t we must r e l a t e t o o u r s e l v e s and  t o each o t h e r as bodies r a t h e r than persons.  I n t h i s v e i n , we  are taught t h a t o t h e r women ( i . e . , t h e i r bodies)  chiefly  r e p r e s e n t t h r e a t s t o our w e l l - b e i n g g i v e n t h a t women w i t h " b e t t e r " bodies have a b e t t e r chance o f o b t a i n i n g t h e most p r e c i o u s commodity o f a l l : male a t t e n t i o n , male a p p r o v a l , and t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r heterosexual partnership.  Thus we a r e d i r e c t e d  away from c u l t i v a t i n g a sehse o f b e l o n g i n g , welcome, and l o v e among women. As I have t r i e d t o argue, many g i r l s and women a r e d e s p e r a t e l y i n need o f what I have c a l l e d womaninity, as w e l l as guidance  i n d e v e l o p i n g o t h e r aspects o f being a woman and being a  person.  But, again, we o n l y r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n which f o s t e r s  i n a u t h e n t i c i t y by l e a d i n g us f u r t h e r away from meeting our needs. I wish t o hypothesize t h a t a t some l e v e l , g i r l s and women a t r i s k f o r problem e a t i n g know a l l t h i s .  A t some l e v e l they know t h a t  l o s i n g weight and e x e r c i s i n g c o m p u l s i v e l y have n o t h i n g t o do w i t h becoming who they r e a l l y are, o r coming t o f e e l more whole and s a t i s f i e d as women and as persons.  In keeping w i t h t h i s  h y p o t h e s i s , and f o r t h e purpose o f e l a b o r a t i n g t h e model, I take i t t h a t c o n s c i o u s o r unconscious  awareness o f t h e i n a u t h e n t i c i t y  of t h e path o f female body management o n l y deepens t h e a n x i e t y and c o n f l i c t experienced by t h e g i r l o r woman a t r i s k .  But h e r  commitment t o managing her body i s o n l y i n t e n s i f i e d i n t h e f a c e of her l a c k o f developed s e l f , h e r l a c k o f womaninity, and t h e dearth of c u l t u r a l  alternatives.  Given t h e a d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l t h a t has emerged i n t h e  200 preceding  d i s c u s s i o n , I am p o i s e d t o o f f e r a f i n a l sketch o f t h e  p s y c h o c u l t u r a l model.  However, t o do t h i s I must determine t h e  l o c a t i o n o f deeper p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n t h e model. And  t h i s w i l l r e q u i r e an e x p l a n a t i o n  o f how l a c k o f a developed  s e l f and l a c k o f womaninity are, on my t h i n k i n g , r e l a t e d t o c e r t a i n dimensions o f the gendered p e r s o n a l i t y o f the g i r l o r woman a t r i s k f o r problem e a t i n g . I b e l i e v e t h a t l a c k of a developed s e l f i s i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d both t o h y p e r f e m i n i n i t y  and l o w - l e v e l m a s c u l i n i t y .  But  i n order t o e x p l a i n what I mean by t h i s , I need t o say a word about how I c o n c e i v e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two f e a t u r e s of gender when they a r e co-present i n g i r l s and women w i t h problem e a t i n g .  In Chapter Two I b r i e f l y mentioned t h a t t h e i d e a  t h a t m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y a r e r e l a t e d i n b i p o l a r f a s h i o n has  l a r g e l y been r e j e c t e d i n favour  orthogonally  3 2  o f the i d e a t h a t they a r e  r e l a t e d (see above, pp. 39-40).  On the b i p o l a r  model, t h e presence o f f e m i n i n i t y i s taken t o i n d i c a t e t h e absence o f m a s c u l i n i t y —  and c o n v e r s e l y .  Thus f o r example we  might assume t h a t i f a person i s warm, s e n s i t i v e and t h o u g h t f u l , then she i s not a s s e r t i v e , tough-skinned and adventurous.  On t h e  orthogonal model, these a r e a l l compatible w i t h i n t h e same person. Measures such as t h e Personal  A t t r i b u t e s Questionnaire  (PAQ;  Spence & Helmreich, 1978) and t h e Bern Sex Role Inventory (BSRI; Bern, 1974, 1978) i n c o r p o r a t e  a s c a l e which c o n c e p t u a l i z e s  masculine and feminine t r a i t s i n b i p o l a r f a s h i o n .  some  I want t o  201 suggest t h a t use of t h i s s o r t of s c a l e seems p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate  i n the case of women with problem e a t i n g who  h i g h l y feminine and minimally perspective  masculine.  i t seems as though being  appear  For from a c e r t a i n  so feminine b a s i c a l l y  amounts t o the same t h i n g as the absence of m a s c u l i n i t y — being  so feminine i s a t l e a s t i n p a r t a way  masculine.  T h i s c e r t a i n l y accords w i t h my  seems, f o r example, t h a t being once a measure of my  step f u r t h e r .  own  being  experience.  It  so o r i e n t e d toward o t h e r s was  i n a b i l i t y t o be a s s e r t i v e and  Having c o n s i d e r e d s e l f a t the age  of not  that  the nature of my  own  at  self-reliant.  l a c k of developed  of f i f t e e n , I would l i k e t o take t h i s thought S p e c i f i c a l l y , I would l i k e t o c o n s i d e r  one  for a  moment whether l a c k of a developed s e l f might more or l e s s amount t o the same t h i n g as b i p o l a r l y - c o n f i g u r e d h y p e r f e m i n i n i t y low-level masculinity.  At the very l e a s t i t seems one  t h a t a person c e r t a i n l y needs a s o l i d sense of s e l f t o (genuinely)  and  could be  s e l f - r e l i a n t , s e l f - c o n f i d e n t , a s s e r t i v e , and  or t h a t , l a c k i n g t h i s , one caring, thoughtful,  and  might become o r i e n t e d toward  so on,  i n the extreme.  say  so  on;  others,  Along t h i s  latter  l i n e of t h i n k i n g i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t s e l f l e s s n e s s i s considered  a q u i n t e s s e n t i a l l y feminine t r a i t .  Having s a i d t h i s  much, however, I must s t a t e t h a t I a c t u a l l y don't b e l i e v e t h a t l a c k of a developed s e l f can simply  be cashed out i n t o the  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o w - l e v e l m a s c u l i n i t y and h y p e r f e m i n i n i t y . though one  traits Even  needs a s e l f t o be s e l f - c o n f i d e n t , i t doesn't f o l l o w  from t h i s t h a t being  s e l f - c o n f i d e n t and  having a s e l f are  the  202 same t h i n g .  Nor  i s i t the case t h a t such s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y  feminine t r a i t s as gentleness l a c k of a developed The  and warmth make d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e  self.  a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t I would l i k e t o o f f e r i s  t h a t readings  of h y p e r f e m i n i n i t y  and  low-level masculinity  i n t o gender f e a t u r e s t h a t c o u l d belong (or not) t h a t i n the case of the a n o r e x i c , underlying is,  tap  t o anyone, but  they a l s o tap i n t o the  s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e of a l a c k of developed s e l f .  i n the case of the a n o r e x i c ,  That  r e s u l t s which seem t o p e r t a i n  e x c l u s i v e l y t o gender a l s o r e v e a l much about the s t a t u s of self.  To continue t h i s h y p o t h e s i s ,  the  I b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s i s the  case because t h i s s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e of the psychology of anorexic  to  the  shapes and c o n d i t i o n s aspects of gender i n such a way  t o render them extreme.  In my  own  case I was  unable f u l l y  to  account f o r the i n t e n s i t y and  depth of my  m a s c u l i n i t y when a n a l y s i s was  r e s t r i c t e d t o d e s c r i p t i o n s of  gender f e a t u r e s proper.  I t was  f e m i n i n i t y and  as  l a c k of  o n l y w i t h the d i s c o v e r y of a l a c k  of developed s e l f t h a t the nature of these f e a t u r e s i n my  case,  as w e l l as the i n t e n s i t y of the c o n f l i c t t h a t I experienced i n r e l a t i o n t o v a r i o u s aspects of my adequately be  gender p r o f i l e ,  could  captured.  From the p e r s p e c t i v e  of my  h i s t o r y of h e a l i n g I can a l s o  add  t h a t w h i l e t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t t h e r e were s u b s t a n t i a l changes i n my  gender p r o f i l e , these changes seem a l s o t o have r e f l e c t e d  growth and h e a l i n g t h a t was development.  t a k i n g p l a c e a t the l e v e l of my  self-  Returning t o the p o i n t about necessary c o n d i t i o n s ,  203 I can't  see how I c o u l d have become more s e l f - r e l i a n t ,  c o n f i d e n t and so on without developing f i r s t place.  self-  more o f a s e l f i n the  But moving from t h i s l o g i c a l p o i n t t o t h e  phenomenology o f anorexia,  i t i s a l s o c l e a r t o me t h a t i t wasn't  o n l y t h a t I came t o c u l t i v a t e a number o f masculine gender t r a i t s , nor t h a t I came t o l e s s e n t h e i n t e n s i t y with which I manifested feminine t r a i t s .  Rather, I was becoming more  s u b s t a n t i a l i n the p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p i n g  my own i d e n t i t y over t h e  years. I suspect  t h a t t h e second deep s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e o f my  psychology a t the age o f f i f t e e n i s c h i e f l y r e l a t e d t o t h e r e j e c t i o n o f f e m i n i n i t y w i t h i n my gendered p e r s o n a l i t y .  In f a c t ,  d i s c o v e r y o f a l a c k o f womaninity emerged w i t h i n the autobiographical  e x e r c i s e s p e c i f i c a l l y i n response t o t h e theme  of r e j e c t i n g f e m i n i n i t y .  Discovery  o f t h i s l a c k helped me make  sense o f the depth and i n t e n s i t y o f t h e c o n f l i c t t h a t I experienced about moving i n t o adolescence, as w e l l as t h e doubts and  a n x i e t i e s I was e x p e r i e n c i n g  and my i n c r e a s i n g l y female body.  about t h e worth o f my f e m i n i n i t y But j u s t as i n the case o f  l a c k o f a developed s e l f , I would argue t h a t l a c k o f womaninity i s not r e d u c i b l e t o doubts about the worth o f f e m i n i n i t y , about adolescence and s e x u a l i t y , and so on.  anxiety  Rather, my  h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t these f e a t u r e s o f my gendered p e r s o n a l i t y were tapping  i n t o t h e s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e o f a l a c k o f womaninity.  T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s again rooted  i n t h e phenomenology o f my  experience, and i n p a r t i c u l a r my sense t h a t c o n f l i c t t h a t I  204 experienced i n r e l a t i o n t o double-binding  messages about devalued  but r e q u i r e d f e m i n i n i t y , and supervalued but r e s t r i c t e d m a s c u l i n i t y was profoundly  shaped and c o n d i t i o n e d  by l a c k o f a  sense o f welcome, s a f e t y , and acceptance i n t o womanhood. is,  That  i t makes sense t o me t h a t t h e messages I was g e t t i n g about  the ways I needed t o be feminine r a n up a g a i n s t an even deeper and more d i s t u r b i n g source o f c o n